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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering =:.~co;.... =-~. ~---ol __ ., __ ---: :::---::

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Chemical Engineering at th e UNIVERSITY of ROCHESTER Facu l ty nnd Research Areas s. 11 .c m : s. l'h.D.1981.Mio N,...,1<&,.,..odfi_,;.,,.r,. .. ,..,. p,._.,,_.,,_~,.,./M,..;.;, E.11 C HIMOWI Tl.. Ph.D.111.!2.Coone:HR OS. l'h D.m, s w ;..,.. ~ M.i.....i.,r,_..,,..,.p-,,,,,, ., ,_Appi,: IH Y, Ph (l. 1 ..... C.i,r,,,o \ S.,..,.,. ) p,.,..,,v,....,;,,,.c..,ro1.11 .. ,r,...r,, H.H.H EI ST. Ph.D .!9 7ll.l\ml" N.,1:l(. l'h D.1''7l.Wuhi,_1S...""' ) 1.,_ .., ,,.,..,.., .. _1,1..,r,..,i;,.B..,-..;_,.,,,, 11 .SAI.TS nC:H G.Ph.D 1~. s.,,.,.,,,.,,._,_,coo,,,,_..M.,_ ,,_ ,s,,.,,,,i_,, S.V.SOT IH C JIOS. Ph.0.]~Hou...., ~=-~~~~i,..,,;o. .,.c .. ,,.,.,;o,,of J.H D.WU .Ph.D.11187.M.l.1'. Bio,J,,,.;..,11:q;_,,,.,,_,...,._.,.,.,._s,,_ro1,. .... .,, /od.,trio/M;."'"""""

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THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE I ------'_ .. _____ .,_ ......, ... ,., ~ .-..

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University of M.W.O.,,;<,J F.A. G,J,lMa,; J.H.Qt,l;,on$~;~:'"""""j ,. f].f.~Et South Carolina E~lht-dittcOi:>nS"'Cr>e,ricalEngnte>ing Aesea@ IOpicslrc,IJd,om,ll)llase. ~mal. ~n:rt""I p1>eoomena oolilflprocesa1c:r.pol)-mtrizal.,,.,;x,r1>1. ~~=..:=,.;,~=:::--~~ c_.. 1o .~;..,.SHt1,....er.-YColJimiaotw :~~-a-idolf PAGE 135 F ac ul ty J A.B;,,.nbe"'T(PhJl,P,.inwnU.) G.llO.lny(PhD,Pittob,;rghU.) C.G (lqr,,o(Phl),f'TinQ S.j)&rot.ionl.,_, .. Biothom i ea l Roo;on EnfinHTing Polymo,Ro a ction E:nfin .. rinJ Pi:,lymo,RhooloeyandProo, u inJ ~:7,7,':;,Ch o ra,t,,ri'"t,on Phy oi.,W,ondDomi,olt~-"I a.."7~]ri~"' PAGE 136 Allen J. Barduhn (emerilu s) Jolm C. Hcydweiller Cynt hia S.Hirtzel George C. Martin Philip A !Uee (chllinua,1 ) Ashoh S. Swwuii KlausSchrocler Ju mes A Schwt,n S.Alex ander Stem Lawrence L. Tavlorid es Ch i'IUm O,Gf"'1 <.,922.Syu,:u .. ._.._.-,.A"~ Syracuse University PAGE 137 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE WRITE TO DEPARTMENT OF Ct1EMICALENGINEEA I NG UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE KNOXVILLE,TN37996-2200 GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M AJOR RE S EAR C H AR E AS BIOPR0CE$$ENG I NEERING Centerto Environmental Biotec h nology BioprocessResearchFecilityatOR N L PROCESS CONTROL Measurement and Control EnglneerlngCen1er POLYMER PROCESSING Cente PAGE 139 Chemical Engineering at Texas -"c:_ _..,,,_.,~ --T-_,_ .::::::, -et=,.~ o.,,;,.,v.,,, C-1$utlo<>o-Ellnle-""""' -o;i-..., ------------~, -........ --~ --$to-~ ----r.,. =,A.U,:,,0 -=-=.:.,r.-. ..,,_ _,_ -=:-:-ia.~ =::. PAGE 140 The University of Toledo G aduatestudytowar-ct.Po~.. .... ,d L.Jon H, J,., f'tl,[)., UnlY or> rtr o, ~n.Proi.uor:Pr<>dP-Ei,g~ Sto,onE.U.Bl o no, Ph 0 .,UnlYoll,o t M ~n9>0.-...-ioP,o1tt...-,o; .. 01<>tlonK1 oe1.:s.Sun_, .. ec11c,.,p""".....,. Con, -M T O PAGE 141 88 YEARS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT fi T UFTS UN IVERSITY ~~ ; I M.S.andPh.D.Programsln I "1 E ,.,.._,og ............. __ MA.02\ 5 ~ -(n:11,-3-l PAGE 142 1 ; ,....., r S. uOs---"o""'-'""'""""-<>l""' """'"""'" "''"''"''II"'"''~"""' ;'.....-'....., fiN .. l.l"~"io/1>,,1;,..._, A-""""""""'"p_.-.,.8""',;:ol~ -~I.R,nl,..._D_'-'-yo/ .... yl,_ B,.;--"--s-C-..(tkcu,a...,....,s,0.rl.Oodi_,..._"""""""'"--'D<>" ''"'L.O-r.Ph.D .. u,,.,,,,.,o1uc1o-. .,,.,Tr .. crinclw ogB..-.do<.iAl"fl l ~-.B,x"''"""'""'""" .... ~JK.,.._,..,._u,.......,.o/0.,..,B..,.-~-..._ ..... ,T,_.0, __ l_... .. U.li~~ ... PU>,.U.,v<,uydll l ,,.,.. "'""~loctt..1o<1."""-T_,,.,._ ., .. 1 ~s,,..,.,.,..,,,_ i:ne,1y -poo..:1LPU> .. Uni...,.._yofCbl,,,.,..Btttel PAGE 143 Use Virginia Tech as your catalyst to a good education. At Virginia Tec::h 'e Chemical Engineering Department yo u will l ea rn about; SURFACE SCIENCE modp """'f')' ..,..i,,...,.;;,;1;, ., ... ,"' ................ .,..., .... ,,,,a;,, .,...,.., HAZAROOUS W UTf: ~::.-=..-I= Forlunherin!orma t ion.contact t he ~pa,l,,,.,,lolCMl'lllcalEngln-'ng, R a ndolpt,HaM,V.!aToch, SUAFACfACTIVITT ... o1-,ooow,i,,,r1,,:,. lot....,._lmi-CI.ESY S TE M S ::.t"'-:..~.:=~11,I r,,pd.fr,qut,t,l~l-op<.....,._ phttt(Jot ..... .,;, ..... -),ln m k""'""""'""'"""' WF"""'pnu"''""-. Blocbbu r g,VA24M1 (703)1161e31 PAGE 144 n.111po,-._, ______ ,__ __ --~.-... ... ~-..... -.. ==----.. -.-"" ___ .......... ____ .... --------..... ..... --------., __ _, .. --~~,::::---~ __ ... _,.,v_,_, ,_......, ... ,-c_..,~,.__,, __ ,.D,....._ ---"'p.... ..... D __ -J ..... tU-IMIU.----"'l>b\ __ .._,,,_ ,_, -~"""'-"'"==~~;,"':!:-""'g~(t_ PAGE 145 GH A IJ UATESTU fJYI N CHEMICAL ENG I N EERI N G M ASTE R 'S AN O I X>CTO IU L PROGR A M S f 8 -al:=r~,..~ ~::;;..~--F or ln forffl/Jlion Con t /IN G-C SC ~ PAGE 146 T o pics ____ ~ : :~ ::.: ;dc: :~: ::.::::: : lng Pn .. o Equ lll l n PAGE 147 -.=...-=--. == "i:::!..":;::... __ ..._ ===-~==-Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering =====--...= """==--=-=~ -==-~~ ,:::. : ::;:: ... -... ~':a~-=_ .. ,,,._,;--. ____ .. o-._ ===~ -=--=== PAGE 148 WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE PAGE 149 YALE Department of Chemical Engineering JOIN THE RA N K S o f Josiah Willard Gibbs, Yale 1863 Ph.D. E n g and other distinguished Yale alumnilae Douglas D F r ey Ph.D. B erkeley ~~ 'l ~ O r 7 h a! :; tem Csaba G H orvath Ph.D. Frank.furl James A O'Brien PH.D.Pennsylvania Lisa D P feffe r le Ph D Pennsyl v ania Theodore W Randolph Ph.D.Berke/ey D anie l E. R osner PhD.Princeton R obert S Webe r Ph.D.Stanford t?;~ ~ !1~ Station NewHaven,Ct06520 {?QJ\43z.2?22 Adsorption Aggregation, Clustering Biochemical Separations Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Chromatography Combustion Enzyme Technology Fine Particle Technology Heterogeneous Kinetics lnterfaciaf Phenomena Molecular Beams Multiphase Transport Phenomena S1a1istical Thermodynamics Supercritical Exlraction PAGE 150 ""'"""" 0 wumoo ~~r: PAGE 151 Br ow n {~ Grad u ate St ud y U ni vers it y .,,ij,.1 in C h e mi c al En g in eer in g _w,.i. .... ,,,-~ .. _,,~.. _.,, .. ,. --..._ .. ,, ...._._ ,_D._..,._ "'" C-"' .. -.,,....._ __ ,,_,....., ,,.w ......... .. ---.. ,H ...... r.I ,., ... w"" Pr .. r,..._. J. ,~1o. """"~'"'"' s~~::~:u THE CITY COLLEGE of'Jbe C i ty Un in :! ,-gityo f Ncw York ~~ ~---::-=-~ ::.-c;:_... .,.,,,.. -... -.:--_,_ ... ..,.._,.,.,_ PAGE 152 CLEVELAND ST AT E UNIVERSITY G radu a t e S tudi es i n C h e mi c al E n g in ee rin g M. Sc a nd D. E n g. rro g ram s C,,.~olo.-ot-Dodp M,to ,._I, __, ., .. ... _, .. M ,.,.._.~ol-i. , ,& -lo .I.Sh,.>(Md'c>"'-"' C OLUMBIA UNIVERSITY N E W YOR K N EW YORK 10027 Grodu e P, og,1 ms;.,Chem >C1l f ng;neer;ng. Appl iedChem;s 1ry o nd8 ;oe,,g;neenng FACU lTVA NORESE A RCHARE ... S PAGE 153 111A 1'tcll SC IIOOJ. OY f.NC I N E El\ll ;c1: Dl.,.1,.,,.,.,,,..,,,.,,,_, .. "d",_,,,,,,.,., Biotech n o l ogy and B i ochemical Engineeri n g DQCT'ORJIL ANO MASTERS PROGRAMS WITH oPPOl1U,.Fl,.,. ~ 1A M>oAL .. .N Ceu.CUI.T M L~ILK L ><>IOII d ';:UI.R TOO.DISIG l'IIV>"'WCICAL> 111"M;MY f AI .S Al11~. uc.,-oau, <;ex. ~Roco,mn[)l>l1U.ATIO'.', "'"""'""''''oE,.,_u, -.-..,.FOO.l'n!F.lCALTIA,_AS1)C0.--noL r .. ... ,.,...,..__, lXemkIE n glM<,;ogProg"'" Th>)"-"XhoolufEg Mfflng.V.<1,no,.,,hCollog<.llnovcr,t PAGE 154 HOWARD UNIVERSITY C lwmi ea l E ng in ee ri ng M S D egree M.E. A LUKO ,P h.O,. UC (S.Otoe..t.a.)Di'no""",,.Rold-,pS,->...,.,.a ........ mri::o J,N.CANNON,Ph.D Colopori,Mnlol,""""""""al) ~C.CHAWLA, f'h D .. w a,oo Sto1 o Auond W -,,_Co,orol._K'_CS, !tM.K"-TZ.I Emo .... ,)P O.D .. c- E""""""""'"'E""'~ M.G.RAO. Ph.D.,Wo,hing1on1s.mi.1 Pr<1m o n1olCh o m ""'I En gJ"" o iog Howud uo, .. , u y W "' oc ,oo so PAGE 155 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M .S. and l't,.D. PROGRAMS ~ru~rurn O!lm~w~rn~mrw Graduate S tu dy In Chem i cal Engineering Mas t er of Eng i neering M aster o f Eng i neering Science Doctor of Eng i n e ering FACULTI: CI H Cttl!H /""-0.-S,, .. ,._/ .1.11 -11 ("'1.D.l.....-s-i.w../ .T C lfO (l>l,,O,.ll"-$1-i.-J Y Ll /f'ILO. M, .. ~$!a,.V,wj 1 WAlUll l"".D .. -S!,_U.,. J C.l. UWl fl'l,.D .. u,,;. o,_,.,,,, 11 .I H AV,A /"".D.,U,,,.,o/Houl.,,,/ RESEARCH AREAS ; .__ ____ .,_ _ ,,_ __ -----. .. ____ -----. .,...,. ....... .,. ... ,_ ........... .. ..._..._ ----- PAGE 156 LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY l'lot,..,..,,_.,_.c._.~,..,,r.__ ... .. ,.,; 1',,,>;,,..,,;,, 4,,.. ... 1 ... 1.-.,. ..... .... I,,;,,_, ..... .. ..... _. .... .,_,,..,. __ l'N..-,_,_,,_.,_._..,_ .. _, .. ..i..,,,;,.o ,-, ... ,..,.,.,._ ., .. ... ,... ....... _,.. ;. ,,,,.,,... ... 11 .. "" .. ,,, .. ~c. ,,.;, -~-,.. c,._ .. 1,. ..i ,,.,_,_ "- "" __ ,.,. .... i:r ..... ,___ . "" ,._,. .,11 .. ,r.. .. ,., .. ,. ---;. r .. ..,,. Manhattan College Design Oriented Maste r 's Degree Program in Chemical Engineering ThiswelleS1abh,hedgr&dua1eprogr1memphasiz e srheapplkotionolbMic princ1plesto1he.olvHonolprocesseng i neeringprobl e ms. Financial a;d i s a vail ab le. including indusrrial fellow,h,p, in a one-year program involv,ng partic1p<11k><> of the following compan ie s Ai r Pro d Y<1S a na Cn 1 mlc o l s, Inc AKZOCh t ml< o l s lnc Con,Ol l dll l dEdlsonCo .ll '' Co/4,i> i..,.,u;. u ,..,;,t,,1, u,.c1 ..... ..,..;.11<.,,,-1h W,ttli,;,o<,fl,'.,l'<>;kCd r ,~ ..... -..... -.. ... ~.,. '"""""' ... .......... ..... PAGE 157 =--~=.. ~.::..= ,,_ ...... ,_ =-McMASTER UNIVERSITY Grodu ~ t e Study in Po l yme r R e ocr i o n Engi,,.,.., i ng C omputer P,oce,sControl a rid Muc h Mor el J ~~.;1' C::..::.O::::~~--=~i=._o::.=--,_ ~.::.=--=:-=::....'"'":.-::::~=-=,,,.:. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY 0.p,ll rt rne nl of Ch e mil,Y a nd Ch e micI En9in M ring PA gci1;~~~~7:t~E-:1E"~~-:~t:~; COSTOf' T U ITI O N : full-, ........ .,.g,odo ... 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Mel bourn e Australia Depanmilnt of Chilrrncal Enginllan ng, including th,s, AustraN,s,n Pulp and Paper lnstitu/e RESEARCH DEGREES : Ph.D ., M Eng.Sc. l'l,C UL1 y 1JI;f~l[i~~~ I G.A.HOLDER D.F.A.KOCH J f MATHEWS W. E OLBAICH O.E.POTUR P. H T UHLH~AR A W WALMSL EY rOR rw,rt1E11 '"""' """' A~D AP"'-"'"""' ..... ... .. .... s, .. c -.o,., .. --1o,,, .. ., _,.. c1o,, ... v,.,.,,.~ ., ":.", 1.,,.,, Montana State University .,.,,,, ..... s .. ,.orr. ..... s.andPh.D."'-"'8 ....... lngnm>lfl ,..,,.,,uo ... ..,,,,hoo>l"ff.C&l..._,,, ,.,, .. .... $doru:o.ln1<..i..,,.,11nuy,.,.,.reh"""' ~-::.: ,~ ,: '.,;::~,:'::. u::,. .;Y ,~=~:,:i ~ ,.r::.;,~~:.~!."::' 1!,':,:-:. ... =: (BACAii.). UPAI PAGE 159 UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA 0 '"'""" ., ... .,.. OfFERIMlGRAOUATESTUOYFORM S.ORPH.OWITHRESEARCHIN a., ....... -lnd F .,_,,.,,,......,.,. Ro Compuling eo.,,,,.,., .--o..;g. ~ For Appli< tion o nd lnform lion: Chairman of Chemical Engin ee ring 236AveryHall,UniversityofNebrasko Lirn:oln,Neb asko68588 0126 PAGE 160 THE UN I VERS IT Y OF NE W SOUTH WALES COM E-; TO BOSTON N ~ ._ -;'-;:;: :::~.:.!'.':...S.:-~~ ~- =~~ Gr,; 1 J,.01C S11 dies i n Clicmicol Eugine ~ ri n g NORT H EASTERN UNIVERSITY PAGE 161 OREGON ST A TE UNIVERSITY C h e micIEngin H ring M S. dPh.D Progrm irf~~wfg~~~f&~Ei~~!i~E~fi i ?Jiifi~ ,,., _,_ _ c, ...,,. ., En o-., n ., ., .. ., .. _,.,, .. ,.:.~";;; '!, ,,., Princeton Univ ersity M.S.E AND Ph.D PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING = Jay 8, Benzige, Jo""" L. Cecct,; Pal>IO G Oeo.nee olekl. W d iam B Russel Cha;,man. Dudley A _,., oa, .... ,.,,. ,. .,,,. ,, .... ~; ~ ;::::. ..... ... PAGE 162 dPhDO.g rtt Pro1, o mo APhOlt.leO"'l C> W PhO(W IU .. ... Sd>( M rT) O,H.PhOj..-J 1. 11.a.. PloO~ ::.= ~=Colofol ; .s:.::.~ ;o;::l ~--== ~ : :.,:,;:':~"';'U< :'!,::-'J ~-=.:. ;; '::;jc:'.!:. "\,.,o ~l -~===~-=-"":_ o...._c.c.,_. -o,C-E~ =~-IOI.UN I VERS IT Y OF RHODE I SLAND G~ADUATE STUDY I N CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M .S.1 ndPh.D.Oeg, CUkKt:,,A K&AS 0~ l;I. T J:111 :;;T ~_-: ~~===Sb-:..~ A'lY TO ChWffl,n,G,od .. toC-'"ill" ~-.. .. ,-~.,1 .. ,-i., u.i......,,o1u, ~ .... ~ llGJIII PAGE 163 : =c:::..c.ui,.o, Them>ody,w,.--. Tr"""f"l"l'htAl l HGIH l( llNG OOIIYNf>PfSfMllllflfAfSD PAGE 164 ~Pf19'1"'CoorHri n g I.Aadlng ro M S and Ph.D dt19rHS Facult y Research Areas S W.Campbell IA fl.Garcia Rubio T-Aolld.lll62(1 J.A.Uc.....,llyn C.A.$mlth U N I V ER SI T Y O F SO UTHERN C ALIFORNIA __ ...,,,__ __ ::...."'C"::-----

PAGE 165

CHEMICAL ENG lNEERING at Stanford University C II E JII CA I f Y G I N EEUl W ; A 'I' UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK ...._...,....., ... 1,1$__ ___ ., __ .. .. _""'l ,_,...,_......,_.,..,.,..,__,_.,..__..,.,.,__,vr.,,"' _,,_..,.,...,,.,._,.,., __ .,,..,\lf...,_,.......,..,,.,.., ... ......,._,,,.,,__,..,._ .......... -"""l .... "''"'"' ,.,, ___ ,_ ,,,,,. .... ___ ,..,.~-..,io .. ....................... ,_~, ...... "'"'"''--" ..... ..,,.,,,. ..... ...,.,., ...... ~,...,,,....,., .... ...,,,.,,""""'''""""'Y__ .._._""'""'"'"""~'"' ................ ,.,.cc,o<.,,,..,,.,..,IUNI',.,.,..,.., -~ .... 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MC,,.E .,...,,. 1-..11wlyyNn10bc PAGE 172 ANNOU:--JC N G ,crie, f,nm K u11cr"or1h,, T he Buncrnorth Reprint Serie~ in Chemic.ii Enginccrin~ Advanced Procell ~~tcrol ,~ 1 ,,#,.;,, !I '-'II. ~:if.,'0 ll11uc111 n nh l'11hli,her, MO \l n ";lc \ >el\uc ~woch,m \I \ (12):, 1 11 4 .\.!< -Ml>l xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 REPORT xmlns http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitssReport.xsd INGEST IEID EQD32P6M8_WDWN5G INGEST_TIME 2011-08-24T15:08:27Z PACKAGE AA00000383_00104 AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT UF PROJECT UFDC FILES Citation ## Material Information Title: Chemical engineering education Alternate Title: CEE Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ. Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division Place of Publication: Storrs, Conn Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education Publication Date: Frequency: Quarterly[1962-] Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961] quarterly regular Language: English Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm. ## Subjects Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh ) Genre: periodical ( marcgt ) serial ( sobekcm ) ## Notes Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts Additional Physical Form: Also issued online. Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)- Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967. General Note: Title from cover. General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968- ## Record Information Source Institution: University of Florida Rights Management: All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location. Resource Identifier: 01151209 ( OCLC ) 70013732 ( LCCN ) 0009-2479 ( ISSN ) Classification: TP165 .C18 ( lcc ) 660/.2/071 ( ddc ) ## UFDC Membership Aggregations: Chemical Engineering Documents Downloads ## This item has the following downloads: Full Text chemical engineering education VOLUME XXIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1989 z | GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE 0 z | COURSES ... SCellular Blonglnering ........................................ LAUFFENSURGER U Partleulate Procese .............................................. RANDOLPH 2 Hazardous Chemical Spills.................... KUMAR BENNETT GUDIVAKA Fluid iMsanlcs of Suspenon ....................................... DAVIS Applied Linear Algebra ..................................................... WANG A Mulfidsllpllary Course In BioangInering ....................................... BIENKOWSKI, SAYLER, STRANDBERO, REED i PROGRAMS ... Blochemical and Blomedlcol Engnering .......................... SAN MolNTIRE fa Hmrdous Waste o nagement ............ KUMMLER McMICKING POWITZ 0 RESEARCH ... Crosadisclplinary Research: Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project ............... a KISAAUTA *VAN WIE DAVIS BARNES FUNG CHUN DOGAN and... Good Copflad Cop: Conrarles In Thaching .................... FELDER a Smrentr of My Success In Graduate Study ....................RAO The Essence of Entropy ............................ KYLE Do You Quali for International? CHEMICAL ENGINEERS ...The World is Yours! ...iEl Mundo es Tuyo! ...Le Monde est a Vous! ...Die Welt ist Dein! 9*@m; 0' Return Home with an Exciting Career Ahead of You! Procter & Gamble has several entry-level product and process development openings for BS, MS, or PhD Chemical Engineers in Asia, Europe. Mexico and South America. To readily qualify, you must be bilingual (including English) and possess appropriate Citizenship, Immigration Visa, or Work Permit from one or more of the following countries: Austnia Belgiun, Brazil Chile, Columbia Denmanrk gypt Frmance Germaqy, Hollan Ireland Itay, Japan, Lebanon, Mexico, Netherlands, Peru, Poracgal Puerto Rico, SaudiArabia Spain, UnitedKingdom and Venezuela. Procter & Gamble total sales are over 20 billion dollars world-wide. Major product categories include beauty care, beverage, detergent, fabric care, food, health care, household care, paper, and pharmaceutical consumer products. Our technically-based corporation spent over 600 million dollars in research and product development last year. We offer a stimulating environment for personal and professional growth, highly competitive salaries, and excellent benefits package including pension, health care and paid relocation. If interested, send your resume, including country qualifications and language fluencies, to: F. O. Schulz, Jr. International ChE Openings The Procter & Gamble Company Ivorydale Technical Center (CEE) Spring Grove Ave. and June St. Cincinnati, OH 45217 PROCTER & GAMBLE An Equal Opportuni(y Employer Editor's Note to Seniors... This is the 21st graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors inter- ested in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses, research at various universities, and departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write CEE. Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE University of Florida Fall 1988 Arkun, Charos, Reeves Model Predictive Control Briedis Technical Communications for Grad Students Deshpande Multivariable Control Methods Glandt Topics in Random Media Ng, Gonzalez, Hu Biochemical Engineering Goosen Research Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules Teja, Schaeffer Research Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties Duda Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education Fall 1987 Amundson American University Graduate Work DeCoursey Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction Takoudis Microelectronics Processing McCready, Leighton Transport Phenomena Seider, Ungar Nonlinear Systems Skaates Polymerization Reactor Engineering Edie, Dunham Research Advanced Engineering Fibers Allen, Petit Research Unit Operations in Microgravity Bartusiak, Price Process Modeling and Control Bartholomew Advanced Combustion Engineering Fall 1986 Bird Hougen's Principles Amundson Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers Duda Graduate Studies: The Middle Way Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering: A Research Program Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Materials Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous Materials and Powders Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education Fall 1985 Bailey, Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals Belfort Separation and Recovery Processes Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series Soong Polymer Processing Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes Shah, Hayhurst Molecular Sieve Technology Bailie, Kono, Henry FluidizatLon Kauffman Is Grad School Worth It? Felder The Generic Quiz Fall 1984 Lauffenburger, et al. Applied Mathematics Marnell Graduate Plant Design Scamehorn Colloid and Surface Science Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars Zygourakis Linear Algebra Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis Converse, et al. Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass Fair Separations Research Edie Graduate Residency at Clemson McConica Semiconductor Processing Duda Misconceptions Concerning Grad School Fall 1983 Davis Numerical Methods and Modeling Sawin, Reif Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication Shaeiwitz Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer Takoudis Chemical Reactor Design Valle-Riestra Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries Woods Surface Phenomena Middleman Research on Cleaning Up in San Diego Serageldin Research on Combustion Wankat, Oreovicz Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job Hunting Bird Book Writing and ChE Education Thomson, Simmons Grad Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry Fall 1982 Hightower Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts Mesler Nucleate Boiling Weiland, Taylor Mass Transfer Dullien Fundamentals of Petroleum Production Seapan Air Pollution for Engineers Skaates Catalysis Baird, Wilkes Polymer Education and Research Fenn Research is Engineering Fall 1981 Abbott Classical Thermodynamics Butt, Kung Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering Chen, et al. Parametric Pumping Gubbins, Street Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer Simulation Guin, et al. Coal Liquefaction and Desulfurization Thomson Oil Shale Char Reactions Bartholomew Kinetics and Catalysis Hassler Chemical Engineering Analysis Miller Underground Processing Wankat Separation Processes Wolf Heterogeneous Catalysis FALL 1989 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO J.L. DUDA The 1989 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec- turer is J. L. DUDA of Pennsylvania State University. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and en- courage outstanding achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial support for this annual award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of$1,000 and
an engraved certificate. These were presented to Dr.
Duda at a banquet during the ASEE annual meeting at
Dr. Duda's lecture was entitled "A Random Walk
Through Porous Media," and it will be published in a
forthcoming issue of CEE.
The award is made on an annual basis, with nomina-
tions being received through February 1, 1990. Your
nominations for the 1990 lectureship are invited.

CORCORAN AWARD TO
ROBERT L. KABEL

ROBERT L. KABEL (Pennsylvania State Univer-
sity) was the recipient of the fourth annual Corcoran
Award, presented in recognition of the most outstanding
paper published in Chemical Engineering Education in
1988. His paper, "Instruction in Scaleup," appeared in the
summer 1988 issue of CEE.

AWARD WINNERS

A number of chemical engineering professors have
been recognized for their outstanding achievements.
MANFRED MORARI (California Institute of Technol-
ogy) received the prestigious Curtis W. McGraw Re-
search Award in recognition of his groundbreaking tech-
niques for robust process control and for his innovative
research on the effects of process design on the operabil-
ity of chemical processes. He was cited for the

practicability of his solutions and the high quality of his
research contributions, which have significantly fur-
thered engineering science, education, and industrial
practice.
The William Elgin Wickenden Award, which is given
to encourage excellence in scholarly writing and honors
the author of the best paper published in Engineering Ed-
ucation during the preceding publication year, was pre-
sented to RICHARD M. FELDER (North Carolina
State University).
ALAN M. LANE (University of Alabama) was the
recipient of the Outstanding Zone Campus Representa-
tive Award for Zone II, in recognition of his outstanding
contributions as a Zone Campus Representative from
that zone.
Selected as one of only nine honorees from the entire
membership of ASEE, LEWIS G. MAYFIELD
(National Science Foundation) became a Fellow of ASEE.
DONALD J. KERWIN (University of Virginia) was
singled out as an outstanding teacher of engineering stu-
dents in the Southeastern area and was presented the
AT&T Foundation Award to recognize that excellence.
Three chemical engineers were presented with the
Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award: C. STEWART
SLATER (Manhattan College), BRUCE M. MCEN-
ROE (University of Kansas), and ALAN M. LANE
(University of Alabama).
The Martin Award recognizing the best paper pre-
sented at the annual ASEE meeting was presented to
NAM SUN WANG (University of Maryland).

NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS

The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 1989-
90 are: Chairman, WILLIAM BECKWITH (Clemson
University); Past Chairman, JAMES E. STICE
(University of Texas at Austin); Vice Chairman,
THOMAS R. HANLEY (Florida A&M/Florida State
University); Secretary-Treasurer, WALLACE B.
WHITING (West Virginia University); Directors,
WILLIAM L. CONGER (Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute) and GLENN L. SCHRADER (Iowa State Univer-
sity).

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

A&

IV

Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

EDITOR: Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857
ASSOCIATE EDITOR: T. J. Anderson
CONSULTING EDITOR: Mack Tyner
MANAGING EDITOR: Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861

PUBLICATIONS BOARD

*CHAIRMAN
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

PAST CHAIRMEN
Klaus D. Timmerhaus

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

*MEMBERS.
South
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

Central
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

West
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology

Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley

Northeast
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Northwest
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
Library Representative
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York

FALL 1989

Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XXIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1989

PROGRAMS

200 Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering,
Ka-Yiu San, Larry V. Mclntire

222 Hazardous Waste Management, Ralph H. Kummler,
James H. McMicking, Robert W. Powitz

COURSES

201 A Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering,
Paul R. Bienkowski, Gary S. Sayler, Gerald W.
Strandberg, Gregory D. Reed

20 Cellular Bioengineering, Douglas A. Lauffenburger

214 Particulate Processes, Alan D. Randolph

216 Hazardous Chemical Spills,
Ashok Kumar, Gary F. Bennett, Venkata V. Gudivaka

228 Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions, Robert H. Davis

236 Applied Linear Algebra, Tse-Wei Wang

RESEARCH

242 Initiating Crossdisciplinary Research: The Neuron-Based
Chemical Sensor Project, William S. Kisaalita, Bernard J.
Van Wie, Rodney S. Skeen, William C. Davis, Charles D.
Barnes, Simon J. Fung, Kukjin Chun, Numan S. Dogan

RANDOM THOUGHTS

207 Good Cop/Bad Cop: Embracing Contraries in Teaching,
Richard M. Felder

FEATURES

250 The Essence of Entropy, B. G. Kyle

256 Secrets of My Success in Graduate Study, Ming Rao

197 Editorial
198 Division Activities
20 Letter to the Editor
221 Book Review

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009 2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs. FL 32028. Copyright
0 1989 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

A Program on ...

BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING

KA-YIU SAN, LARRY V. McINTIRE
Rice University
Houston, TX 77251-1892

W E HAVE WITNESSED a gradual change in the
chemical engineering profession in the last dec-
ade. Chemical engineers have branched out and have
found new and exciting career opportunities in a
number of emerging areas, such as bioengineering,
advanced materials processing, and electronic and
photonic materials. However, nearly all of these
newly emerging, high-technology areas require not
only training in the fundamentals of chemical en-
gineering, but also demand a good basic knowledge of
the science in the area concerned. This is particularly
true in the field of bioengineering, where much of the
science was not even known ten years ago. It is our
belief that if chemical engineers are to play an active
and important role at the frontier of this exciting area,
they must be trained to be proficient in engineering
fundamentals as well as in biochemistry, cell biology,
and molecular biology. Here at Rice University we
are working toward this goal by forming three com-
prehensive research and education programs in a
Biosciences/Bioengineering Institute. The Institute
will be located in a new 110,000 ft2 building designed
for crossdisciplinary laboratory investigations involv-
ing biochemical and biomedical engineers and life sci-
entists (see Figure 1).

FIGURE 1. Architectural model of the new Biosciences/
Bioengineering Institute at Rice.

... nearly all of these newly emerging, high-technology
areas require not only training in the fundamentals of
chemical engineering, but also demand a good basic
knowledge of the science in the area concerned.

Rice University has been at the forefront of
biomedical engineering research for more than twenty
years. The Biomedical Engineering Laboratory was
first established in 1964 to provide engineering design
and development support for Dr. DeBakey's Baylor-
Rice total artificial heart. Dr. David Hellums, the cur-
rent A. J. Hartsook Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing, was a founding member. Since then the effort has
greatly expanded, but the research has remained cen-
tered on problems related to the cardiovascular sys-
tem. Beginning in 1979, the chemical engineering de-
partment decided to enlarge its efforts in bioengineer-
ing to include biochemical engineering. New faculty
with different, yet complementary, interests were re-
cruited to enlarge the scope of our existing biomedical
research activities. Currently, our program has six
faculty members and is expected to increase to a total
of nine over the next five to ten years. Over the past
four years, we have averaged four graduating PhDs
in biochemical and biomedical engineering, which is
approximately half of our total department PhD
graduates (40 for the four-year period). Six of the re-
cent graduates currently hold Assistant Professor po-
sitions in chemical engineering departments around
the country. Approximately half of our total chemical
engineering department graduate students are work-
ing on bioengineering thesis topics.
The philosophy of our program is to create an envi-
ronment which will provide basic training in engineer-
ing principles and life sciences, and to prepare our
students to meet new challenges in the process as-
pects of biotechnology. Three engineering options are
currently offered: one is a five year undergraduate
program, leading to a degree of Master of Engineering
with emphasis in bioengineering; the second program
leads to a PhD degree in chemical engineering; the

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

third is a joint program with the Baylor College of
Medicine which leads to a MD/MS or MD/PhD degree.
The professional Master of Engineering Degree in
biochemical engineering (non-thesis) is designed to
provide chemical engineering students with funda-
mental training in biochemistry, microbiology, and
molecular biology. Students enrolled in this program
not only have to fulfill core requirements in chemical
engineering, but also have to fulfill certain require-
ments offered in the Department of Biochemistry and
Cell Biology, including extensive laboratory work.
The five-year structure appears to be necessary to
give sufficient breadth. However, students can obtain
a four year Bachelors Degree if they are interested in
going directly into graduate research or into a medical
school option. Approximately one-third of our current
chemical engineering seniors are enrolled in the
biochemical engineering option.
The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in chemical en-
gineering under the Biochemical and Biomedical En-
gineering program follows a philosophy similar to that
of the Masters degree. Students enrolled in this pro-
gram, apart from fulfilling the basic PhD require-
ments set forward by the Department of Chemical
Engineering, are also required to take a sequence of
advanced courses from the life science departments,
either on campus or from the two medical schools lo-
cated in the Texas Medical Center, which is adjacent
to the Rice campus. Typical examples would include
cell biology, molecular biology, and immunology.
The MD/MS or MD/PhD joint programs are de-
signed to provide educational experiences of high
quality leading to research careers in medicine. These
programs offer a unique combination of professional
medical training with rigorous study in science or en-

Ka-Yiu San is an assistant professor at
Rice University. He received his BS degree
in chemical engineering from Rice Univer-
sity and his MS and PhD degrees from Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology.

Larry V. Mclntire is the E.D. Butcher
Professor of Chemical and Biomedical En-
gineering at Rice University. He is also di-
rector of the John W. Cox Laboratory for
Biomedical Engineering of the Bio-
sciences/Bioengineering Institute of Rice.
He received his BChE and MS degrees in
chemical engineering from Cornell Univer-
sity and his PhD degree from Princeton
University.

FIGURE 2
Organizational Structure
Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute

S Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute I

T T T
Laboratory for Laboratory for Laboratory for
Basic Biomedical Biochemical and
Medical Science Engineering Genetic Engineerin

Director: G.J. Schroepfer
Engineering Faculty
None

Director L.V. Mclntire
Assoc. Dir. J.L. Moake
Engineering Faculty
Chemical Enaineerina
J.D. Helums
L.V. Mclntire
M.W. Glacken
K.Y. San
J.V. Shanks
Electrical Enoineerina
J.W. Clark
H.M. Bourland

Director: F.B. Rudolph
Engineering Faculty
Chemical Enaineerina
M.W. Glacken
K.Y.San
J.V. Shanks

gineering discipline, and they emphasize an interdis-
ciplinary approach to current problems in biomedi-
cine. Successful completion of a program results in
the MD from Baylor College of Medicine and the MS
or PhD from Rice.

ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

During the last two years, Rice University has un-
dertaken a series of steps toward the implementation
of a new plan of enhancement. This enhancement pro-
gram was initiated by our president, Dr. George
Rupp, in 1986, with the full support of the Board of
Trustees and the faculty to "move forward to become,
even more than it is today, the university its founders
envisaged to become an institution 'of the first
rank'." At the research level, President Rupp has de-
cided to focus resources on three cross-disciplinary
areas in science and engineering, to move them to
national recognition.
One of the three areas, which has a direct positive
impact on our existing biochemical and biomedical en-
gineering program, is the formation of a new institute:
the Biosciences/Bioengineering Institute. This Insti-
tute will pool expertise from a number of engineering
departments (primarily from the chemical engineering
department) with the Biochemistry and Cell Biology
department to solve problems that are multi-discipli-
nary in nature.
The main goals of the Biosciences/Bioengineering
Institute are identified as: 1) to foster and strengthen
collaboration among various groups at Rice which are
involved in biological sciences and engineering; 2) to
provide joint facilities and promote sharing of exper-

FALL 1989

tise; and 3) to serve as an interface for expanded in-
teraction and collaboration between Rice University,
the Texas Medical Center, NASA Johnson Space
Center, private industries, and other research organi-
zations.
The organizational structure of the newly formed
Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute is shown in
Figure 2. The Institute consists of three major
laboratories, each of which pursues a distinct course
of research. Faculty from the department of chemical
engineering, depending on their research interests,
will play an active role in two of these laboratories.
The Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering,
led by Larry McIntire, concentrates on research re-
lated to diseases of the cardiovascular system. Cur-
rently, the laboratory consists of six faculty members
from the department of chemical engineering and a
number of adjunct professors from Baylor College of
Medicine and the University of Texas Health Sciences
Center at Houston (see Table 1). Close working re-

TABLE 1
Structure of
Rice Biomedical Engineering Laboratory
Staff
Larry V. Mclntire, PhD Director
Joel L. Moake, MD Associate Director
Marcella Estrella Senior Research Technician
Nancy Turner Research Technician
Thomas W. Chow, PhD Senior Research Associate
Mattias U. Nollert, PhD Research Associate
Colin B. McKay, PhD Research Scientist
Faculty
J.D. Hellums A.J. Hartsook Professor, Chemical Engineering
L.V. Mclntire E.D.Butcher Professor and Chairman, ChE
M.W. Glacken Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
K.Y. San Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.V. Shanks Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.W. Clark Professor, Electrical Engineering
H.M. Bourland Lecturer, Electrical Engineering
Adjunct Faculty from the Texas Medical Center
C.P. Alfrey, MD,PhD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
S.G. Eskin, PhD Associate Professor, Division of Surgery, Baylor
College of Medicine
E.R. Hall, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Univer-
sity of Texas Medical School
E.C. Lynch, MD Associate Chairman, Division of Medicine, Baylor
College of Medicine
D.A. Sears, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
R.T. Solis, MD Associate Clinical Professor. Department of Medicine
Pulmonary Division, Methodist Hospital
M.M. Udden, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
K.K. Wu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Hematology and
Oncology, University of Texas Medical School
F.M. Yatsu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Neurology,
University of Texas Medical School

lationships have already been established between the
Cox Laboratory and several of those at the Texas
Medical Center. Both Professors McIntire and Hel-
lums are Adjunct Professors in the Department of
Medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine and the
University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Hous-
ton. A brief list of current research projects can be
found in Table 2.
The Laboratory for Biochemical and Genetic En-
gineering, headed by biochemistry professor Fred
Rudolph, will focus on areas such as genetics, im-
munology, protein engineering, molecular biology,
microbiology, medicine, and agriculture. The mem-
bership of this laboratory will include faculty from
various departments, including biochemistry and cell
biology, chemical engineering, and chemistry (Figure
2).
The Laboratory of Basic Medical Sciences, with
director George Schroepfer, has a major continuing
research effort on understanding cholesterol
metabolism.
As noted above, a significant part of the enhance-
ment effort includes a new $24 million building which is being constructed to house the Biosciences/Bioen- TABLE 2 Bioengineering Research at Rice Principal Investigators Biomedical Projects J.D. Hellums, effects of physical forces on vascular cells L.V. Mclntire vascular wall strain effects on cell metabolism mass transfer in the microcirculation video microscopy analysis of blood cell-vessel wall interactions J.L. Moake, control of tissue plasminogen activator production J.D. Hellums, by endothelial cells L.V. Mclntire shear-induced von Willebrand factor aggregation of platelets Snew therapeutic strategies for Sickle Cell Anemia L.V. Mclntire biochemical control of tumor metastasis C. Armeniades biomechanics of eye tissue and control of healing J.W. Clark cell modeling studies Bioreactor Projects M.W. Glacken metabolic control of mammalian cell culture reactors kinetics of antigen shedding from colon cancer cells adhesive interaction of mammalian ce!ls K.Y. San construction/characterization of new plasmid vectors dynamics of bioreactors in transient environments development of artificial intelligence-based control algorithms microgravity bioprocessing J.V. Shanks plant cell tissue culture reactors Suse of high field NMR for in vivo cell metabolism studies CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION gineering Institute. More than 22,000 square feet have been allocated to accommodate the chemical en- gineering aspects of bioengineering. This building is expected to be completed and fully operational by the winter of 1990. CONCLUDING REMARKS In summary, these are exciting times at Rice Uni- versity. The implementation of the new enhancement program is another big step toward the goal and com- mitment of Rice University in striving for excellence in its undergraduate and graduate education. In par- ticular, the formation of the Biosciences/Bioengineer- ing Institute significantly enhances our biochemical and biomedical engineering program. It creates a unique environment which fosters close interactions between life scientists and engineers. The Institute will also serve as an effective administrative body in pro- viding all the necessary logistical support to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration. More importantly, the potential barriers which often arise from distant phys- ical locations of various departments across the cam- pus will be removed by housing life scientists and en- gineers under the same roof. As such, it will not only create an atmosphere which promotes interaction be- tween the students and faculty from different disci- plines, but will also provide opportunities for the en- gineering students to work, side by side, with life sci- entists from other research groups. We therefore firmly believe that our program provides a unique and challenging educational environment. Students graduating from the bioengineering program will be well-equipped with fundamental training and will have had the necessary exposure in both engineering and life sciences for further professional development. [ letters STATE OF THE UNIVERSITY 1988-1989 To The Editor: The following is excerpted from a larger document, "Faculty Perceptions of the State of the University, 1988- 1989," which was prepared for the Faculty Senate at the University of Cincinnati. I chaired the committee which produced this report. A university becomes too large when it can no longer provide members of the university community with the services or ambience they expect, without amassing such complicated bureaucracies that they actually end up pre- venting the very goals they are attempting to achieve. Steven Muller, President of Johns Hopkins has said, "The major research university of today is a radically different institution than its predecessors of three or four decades ago. The most obvious difference is size. There have now evolved in the United States between 50 and 100 major research universities that are megasize-numbering their students in tens of thousands, their faculty and adminis- trative cadres in thousands, their buildings and their acreage in hundreds." Most educators agree that "multiuniversity" is an apt description of the university of today. Twenty years ago Columbia University had three vice presidents and a budget of$136 million; now it has 12 and a budget of
$619 million. The problem in managing such vast institu- tions has led to what A. Bartlett Giamatti, former Presi- dent of Yale, called "the corporatization of the American university," and then wrote, "One of the great inventions of 20th century America, the private corporation, has be- gun to displace, as a formal structure and as a style of management, the older ecclesiastical and academic structures and styles in which universities grew up." He suggests that the "collegial" style of shared decision-mak- ing has given way to the hierarchical style of big busi- ness. While big institutions need capable administrators, "too many people see themselves as managers first, aca- demics second. They talk about strategy, not vision. Numbers replace rhetoric. An institution that once saw it- self as connected to history now prides itself as 'at the cutting edge'. The greatest subtle, unintended effect of these trends has been to split off the managers from the faculty." If universities are becoming corporate at a time when contemporary corporations are de-layering and decentralizing, then there ought to be a symbolic lesson learned from recent corporate history. American corpo- rate executives often have acted as a privileged class, asking sacrifices of middle management, professionals and other workers, that upper management will not make. While the rhetoric of corporate culture stresses the need to work together, the top executives stress efficiency and impose work rules and cost cutting measures. They vote themselves raises, golden parachutes and bonuses, while workers at all levels are laid off. During the re- cession years of 1981 to 1983, the compensation of chief executives nearly doubled while national unemployment passed the 11% mark. In symbolic contrast to these American management practices, Japanese executives in Continued on page 235. FALL 1989 C 1E A MULTIDISCIPLINARY COURSE IN BIOENGINEERING PAUL R. BIENKOWSKI, GARY S. SAYLER, GERALD W. STRANDBERG, GREGORY D. REED The University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 THIS COURSE WAS first taught solely through the chemical engineering department (1985 thru 1987) under the quarter system and was called Microbiolog- ical Process Engineering. During semester transition the course was expanded to fifteen weeks, and a six- week laboratory was added. The course was then crosslisted in the departments of civil engineering (as an environmental course) and microbiology, and it was given a truly crossdisciplinary nature with the addi- tion of faculty from those departments. It is presently a graduate course which is taught during the fall semester every year, and it attracts first year graduate students and some seniors from chemical en- gineering, environmental engineering, and engineer- ing science and mechanics, in addition to life science graduate students from microbiology, ecology, and the Masters program in biotechnology. The course is now part of the required curriculum for the Masters program in biotechnology. Figure 1 shows where the course (575) fits into the ChE/ENVR/MICRO 675 Microbial Systems Analysis t ST1 ENVR 552 Biological Treatment Theory t ChE 577 Modeling and Design of Bioreactors and Bioreactor Systems 1" MICRO 670 Advanced Topics in Environmental Microbiology ChE/ENVR/MICRO 575 Applied Microbiology and Bioengineering FIGURE 1. Core Courses in Bioengineering applied bioengineering curriculum at Tennessee. It serves as a prerequisite for courses in environmental engineering, chemical engineering, and microbiology which are offered during the spring semester. ENVR 552 is directed specifically at applications for waste- water treatment; ChE 577 addresses the development of specific models for pure cultures and their applica- tions for producing high value biotechnology products; Paul R. Bienkowski is an associate pro- fessor of chemical engineering at the Univer- sity of Tennessee, and is a member of the Center for Environmental Biotechnology. He received his PhD in 1975 from the school of chemical engineering at Purdue University. Gary S. Sayler is a professor of microbi- ology and ecology, directs the UTK/ORNL Center for Environmental Biotechnology, and is director of research for the Waste Manage- ment Institute Center of Excellence at the Uni- versity of Tennessee. He received his PhD in 1974 from the department of bacteriology and biochemistry at the University of Idaho. Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 ! Gerald W. Strandberg is a staff scientist in the Chemical Technology Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and is an ad- junct associate professor in the department of Microbiology at the University of Tennessee. He received his PhD in bacteriology in 1966 from the University of Wisconsin. Gregory D. Reed is professor and head of the department of civil engineering at the University of Tennessee. He received his PhD in environmental engineering from the Univer- sity of Arkansas and has an active research and -. publication record. He has been active in sev- eral professional societies and is currently the Chair of the Environmental Engineering Divi- sion of the American Society of Civil Engineers. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION ChE 494 Special Problems The primary objective of this course is to introduce the engineering students to bioengineering and to allow them to communicate effectively with students in the life sciences. In subsequent semesters the engineering students can develop strong backgrounds in microbiology, biochemistry, etc., by taking courses in the life sciences and by working on crossdisciplinary research projects . Micro 670 is directed at understanding the microbial degradation and effects of toxic waste materials such as PCB's, PAH's, and TCE's. These courses all have direct applications in all three disciplines. What is re- quired is a common starting point, and 575 meets that need. Chemical engineering seniors who take this course may elect to do an undergraduate thesis at the Center for Environmental Biotechnology during the spring semester. ChE 494 is used to give academic credit to these students for their research experience. Usually one or two students can be accommodated on center research projects each spring and/or summer. ChE COURSE OBJECTIVES The undergraduate curriculum in chemical en- gineering is very demanding and does not allow much room for alternate course selection by the student. Many new engineering graduate students with re- search interests in bioengineering do not have suffi- cient background and require additional course work before they can begin their research projects. These students could rapidly advance their knowledge base in this area by working with graduate students from the life sciences (in environments like Tennessee's Center for Environmental Biotechnology) if only they could communicate effectively with the life science students, i.e., speak the language of a microbiologist. For example, there are different meanings for CSTR and chemostate, and the different way kinetic data is interpreted (the engineer's dynamic approach vs. the static approach of the life scientist). The primary ob- jective of this course is to introduce the engineering students to bioengineering and to allow them to com- municate effectively with students in the life sciences. In subsequent semesters the engineering students can develop strong backgrounds in microbiology, biochem- istry, etc., by taking courses in the life sciences and by working on crossdisciplinary research projects or doing a ChE 494 senior research project in this area. ChE 575 provides the base from which to start the educational experience, it provides the basic back- ground to start graduate research, and it feeds into more advanced biotechnology courses in several dis- ciplines. Most engineering students have no experience in a microbiology laboratory and do not have the time or the background to take a microbiology lab. ChE 575 had a mandatory six-week laboratory which is specif- ically designed to give engineering students hands-on experience with the basic day-to-day laboratory prob- lems faced by a microbiologist, such as sterilization, culture purity, analytic methods, etc. It is much easier to communicate with students and faculty in the life sciences, and to interact in crossdisciplinary research projects, if the engineering students are familiar with the problems faced by their counterparts in the life sciences. The third objective was to improve com- munications and to gain new insight by interacting and exchanging ideas. COURSE STRUCTURE Table 1 gives a detailed outline of the material cov- ered in this course. Basic biochemistry and microbiol- TABLE 1 Course Outline Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Time (hrs) 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 3.0 3.0" 3.0 3.0* 1.5 1.5 3.0 3.0* 3.0 3.0' 3.0 3.0* 3.0 3.0' 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.0 Topic Introduction/Overview of Biotechnology Biochemistry Microbiology Physiology Microbiology Physiology Stoichiometry (mass and energy balances) Enzyme Kinetics Lab #1: Basic Microbiology Techniques Enzyme Kinetics / Lab #1 Lab #2: Cell Growth Growth Kinetics / Lab #2 Reactor Analysis Continuous Culture Lab #3: Enzyme Kinetics Continuous Culture / Lab #3 Lab #3: Enzyme Kinetics Cell/Enzyme Immobilization / Lab #3 Lab #4: Enzyme Immobilization Metabolic Pathways / Lab #4 Lab #5: Continuous Culture Metabolic Pathways/Modeling / Lab #5 Sanitary / Virology Mid Term Examination Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA Biosensors Commercial Processes Biodegradation / Deterioration Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Treatment Final Examination *Split period .5 hours of lab, 1.5 hours of lecure FALL 1989 ogy are covered, then reaction kinetics followed by lectures on important specialized topics in bioen- gineering such as immobilization, biosensors, and re- combinate DNA. The course concludes with discus- sions on specific applications which lead into ChE 575, ENVR 552 and MICRO 670. The text book is Ele- ments of Bioenvironmental Engineering, by A. L. Gaudy and E. Gaudy. This book was selected because it gives good coverage of the desired material and is very readable from both an engineering and a life sci- ence standpoint (one of the authors is an engineer and the other is a microbiologist). The coverage of biochemistry and microbiology is such that an en- gineering student can read and understand the mate- rial with essentially no background, while the mathematics describing enzyme and growth kinetics and continuous reactors is kept on a level which can TABLE 2 Description of Laboratory Experiments Laboratory #1: Basic Microbiology Techniques Students are provided with cultures of E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes. Both live and stained (gram, methylene blue) organisms will be examined microscopically. The students will also do plate counts and sugar utilization tests. Objective Teach basic laboratory protocols to the engineering students. Laboratory #2: Growth and Substrate Utilization Growth and substrate utilization of B. subtilis will be examined in batch culture. Growth will be determined by optical density, dry weight, and plate count measurements. Substrate (glucose) utiliza- tion is monitored by dinitrosalycylic acid (DNS) assay for reducing sugars. The cells will be saved for use in Laboratory #3. Objectives Determine typical batch growth and substrate utilization curves and teach measurement methods. Laboratory #3: Enzyme Kinetics Examine the kinetics of glucose isomerase in B. subtilis and S. phaeochromogenes using whole cells. Objectives Determine the Michalis parameters Km and Vmax, the effects of temperature and pH, and substrate specificity. Laboratory #4: Immobilization/Kinetics of Immobilized Enzymes Immobilize glucose isomerase (whole cells of B. subtilis) using cal- cium alginate, and perform kinetic studies. Objectives Teach a method for immobilization of cells/enzymes and determine the effects immobilization has on enzyme kinetics. Laboratory #5: Continuous Culture (demonstration) A continuous culture fermentation system will be set up and oper- ated by the TA. The students will measure optical density, cell dry weight, and glucose isomerase activity. Objective Determine I., Imax, the yield constant, and washout. be handled by the life science students. Two faculty are present at all lectures, one from engineering and the other from the life sciences. One of the faculty will lecture and the other will be present to stimulate dis- cussion and insure that both engineering and life sci- ence viewpoints are taken into consideration when dis- cussing the various topics. Engineers and life scien- tists frequently look at the same problem from vastly different viewpoints, and combining these approaches frequently gives a better insight into the problem. LABORATORY Table 2 gives a brief description of the five exper- iments which comprise the laboratory. Gerald Strandberg is in charge of the laboratory and is sup- ported by a teaching assistant from the Masters pro- gram in biotechnology. The course has the use of the biotechnology laboratory in the Walters Life Science building which is dedicated to the Masters program in biotechnology (experiments do not have to be termi- nated at the end of a laboratory period). The lab is conducted for six weeks, with four and one-half hours of instruction in the laboratory each week. Extra lab time is available to the students by making arrange- ments with the teaching assistant. Each lab group is composed of one engineering student and one life sci- ence student. Because most of the engineering stu- dents do not have experience in a microbiology labora- tory, pairing them with other life science students is a most effective way for the engineering student to learn basic laboratory techniques on a one-on-one basis. At the same time the engineering student can assist his/her lab partner in designing experiments and in analysis and interpretation of the experimental data (modeling data and using models for data in- terpretation). CONCLUDING REMARKS This course is very effective in serving as a focal point for bringing people together from different back- grounds and in effectively and rapidly introducing en- gineering students to the biotechnology area. The microbiology laboratory is a unique addition to a chemical engineering course which allows both first year graduate students and seniors a hands-on experi- ence. The course is an effective vehicle for preparing chemical engineering graduate students for research projects in the biotechnology area. It not only gives them the background to communicate with life science students in collaborating on joint research, but also prepares them for more advanced course work in this area. [ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Random Thoughts... GOOD COP/BAD COP Embracing Contraries in Teaching RICHARD M. FIELDER North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 I've come to suspect that whenever any ability is difficult to learn and rarely performed well, it's probably because contraries are called for patting the head and rubbing the belly. Thus, good writing is hard because it means trying to be creative and critical; good teaching is hard because it means trying to be ally and adversary of students; good evaluation is hard because it means trying to be subjective and objective; good intelligence is rare because it means trying to be intuitive and logical. So says Peter Elbow in Embracing Contraries [1], perhaps the best book I've ever read on teaching. The theme of the book should resonate in the minds of all engineering professors. Most of us are often frustrated, feeling ourselves pulled in opposite directions. We want to be good teachers and good researchers, but don't see how we can do both given the finite number of hours in a day. We want to provide good educational experiences for our graduate students, which means letting them do some floundering and learning by experience, but we also need to produce results quickly for our funding agencies, which requires giving detailed directions. We want to be good department citizens, helping carry our share of the inevitable burden of committees, recruiting, etc., but we also need to maximize the time we spend on the things that get us tenure, promotions, and raises. It feels as though we have to be both particles and waves simultaneously, and we don't know how: we can either be excellent particles and lousy waves, or vice versa, or do a mediocre job of both. Among the dilemmas inherent in our profession is that of trying to be supportive of our students while maintaining rigorous academic standards. I can't improve on what Elbow has to say on the subject, so I'll let him do most of the talking. The two conflicting mentalities needed for good teaching stem from the two conflicting obligations inherent in the job: we have an obligation to students but we also have an obligation to knowledge and society. Our loyalty to students asks us to be their allies and hosts as we instruct and share: to invite all students to enter in and join us as members of a learning community-even if they have difficulty. Our commitment to students asks us to assume they are all smart and capable of learning, to see things through their eyes, to help bring out their best rather than their worst when Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 it comes to tests and grades. By taking this inviting stance we will help more of them learn. But our commitment to knowledge and society asks us to be guardians or bouncers: we must discriminate, evaluate, test, grade, certify. We are invited to stay true to the inherent standards of what we teach, whether or not that stance fits the particular students before us. We have a responsibility to society-that is, to our discipline, our college or university, and to other learning communities of which we are members-to see that the students we certify really understand or can do what we teach, to see that the grades and credits and degrees we give really have the meaning or currency they are supposed to have. Unfortunately, we can't play both roles si- multaneously. Elbow's solution is to alternate between them. Start a course by spelling out requirements and grading criteria; think about handing out a representative final exam at the beginning of the course, with examples of strong and weak solutions. Then, [Having done that] I can more easily go on to...turn around and schizophrenically start being a complete ally of students. I have been wholehearted and enthusiastic in making tough standards, but now I can say, "Those are the specific criteria I will use in grading; that's what you are up against, that's really me. But now we have most of the semester for me to help you attain those standards, do well on those tests and papers. They are high standards but I suspect all of you can attain them if you work hard. I will function as your ally. I'll be a kind of lawyer for the de- fense, helping you bring out your best in your battles with the other me, the prosecuting-attorney me when he emerges at the end. And if you really think you are too poorly prepared to do well in one semester, I can help you decide whether to trust that negative judgment and decide now whether to drop the course or stay and learn what you can." Elbow suggests a number of ways to provide the recommended support. One would be effective in small classes or larger classes with student graders: One of the best ways to function as ally or coach is to role- play the enemy in a supportive setting. For example, one can give practice tests where the grade doesn't count, or give feedback on papers which the student can revise before they count for credit. This gets us out of the typically counterproductive situation where much of our commentary on papers and exams is really justification for the grade-or is seen that way. Our attempt to help is experienced by students as a slap on the wrist by an adversary for what they have done wrong. No wonder students so often fail to heed or learn from our Continued on page 241. FALL 1989 A Course in ... CELLULAR BIOENGINEERING DOUGLASA.LAUFFENBURGER University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393 A COMMONLY-ASKED question in these days of modern biotechnology is, "What is the distinction between biochemical engineering and biomedical en- gineering as they are traditionally understood?" Cer- tainly, in applications this distinction still seems clear-biochemical engineering relates to the biopro- cessing industry, while biomedical engineering relates to the health care industry. At the level of fundamen- tals, though, there is a blurring of such a demarcation. Both areas heavily involve investigation of topics in eukaryotic cell biology such as cell behavioral phenom- ena (e.g., growth, adhesion, differentiation, protein synthesis, and secretion), monoclonal antibodies, re- ceptors, and gene manipulation. The major difference is that for the bioprocessing industry these topics are of interest as far as they underlie understanding of bioreactor and bioseparation performance, while for the health care industry they are of interest for their relevance to physiological function. It should be further noted that the purpose of much of the bio- process industry is, in fact, to provide products for use in the health care industry, completing the circle. In making sense of the application of chemical en- gineering to the modern life sciences, one needs to define particular engineering subdisciplines on the basis of the particular life science disciplines to which the engineering science principles are applied. Using this view, traditional biochemical engineering has been primarily based on biochemistry and microbiol- ogy, while traditional biomedical engineering has been largely based on physiology. With the advent of the modern life science disciplines of molecular biology and cell biology, it will probably be useful to define a With the advent of the modern life science disciplines of molecular biology and cell biology, it will probably be useful to define a new subdiscipline with a name something like "Molecular/Cellular Bioengineering" . C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 Douglas A. Lauffenburger is currently Professor and Chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering, and a member of the Graduate Group in Cell Biology, at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the recipient of an NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award, an NIH Research Career Development Award, the AIChE Alan P. Colburn Award, and a Guggenheim Fellowship. His major research focus has been in the area of receptor- mediated cell phenomena. new engineering subdiscipline with a name something like "Molecular/Cellular Bioengineering," which is en- gineering applied to molecular cell biology. Chemical engineering will be the predominant engineering dis- cipline involved, because of the fundamentally chemi- cal nature of molecules and cells. It may be of interest to briefly consider the histori- cal context of this current situation. Cell biology es- sentially began in the 1940s with the invention of the electron microscope, which permitted intracellular structure of eukaryotic (e.g., animal) cells to be studied. Molecular biology, of course, began in the early 1950s with the discovery of the molecular nature of the genetic code. A marriage between these two, mainly in the area of animal cell biology (because of their more complex structure/function relationships), evolved in the 1970s as particular molecules involved in the cell structures responsible for cell function came to be isolated, identified, and manipulated in a reliable manner. This marriage has led to the emergence of modern cell biology, often called "molecular cell biol- ogy," in which cells-again primarily animal cells- can be studied in rigorous fashion from a molecular perspective. In the past ten years this field has achieved a position at the forefront of the life sciences in general and of biotechnology in particular. Probably every university in the country has at least one course based on textbooks like Molecular Cell Biology, by Darnell, et al., or Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts, et al., in its life science departments. All of this is a preface to explain why we have begun to offer a course in chemical engineering at Penn entitled "Cellular Bioengineering." In this CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION course, we deal with how chemical engineering princi- ples can be gainfully applied to modern molecular cell biology. We focus on fundamental molecular and cellu- lar phenomena rather than on particular applications; thus, this course is helpful to students interested in either the bioprocess industry or the health care in- dustry, or both. Basing the material on research done primarily during the past decade, we present quan- titative analyses of cell physiological phenomena in terms of the underlying principles of chemical reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, thermodynamics, and mechanics. These sorts of analyses should, in my opin- ion, prove to be very helpful in the coming years as knowledge of molecular bases of cellular processes needs to be synthesized into understanding the larger context of cell function. There is a special emphasis on mammalian blood and tissue cell behavior mediated by the interaction between chemical ligands and cell receptors, which are glycoproteins typically located in the cell mem- brane responsible for stimulation and regulation of most important cell functions (including growth, adhe- sion, migration, and secretion). The reason for this is that to date there has been little treatment of this aspect of cell function by biochemical engineers rela- tive to its prominence in molecular cell biology. One can crudely view cell function as an interplay among three key aspects. First, the genetic aspect repre- sents what functions a cell is capable of. Only a small portion of this potential is expressed at any given point in time. Second, the enzymatic aspect repre- sents what functions a cell is actually carrying out at a given point in time. Which functions are being car- ried out depends on what genes are being expressed as well as the levels of gene expression and enzyme activity. So, the missing link is what governs gene expression and enzyme activity. Although all of this is oversimplification for purposes of clarity, to a large extent gene expression and enzyme activity are regu- lated by intracellular signals generated by ligand/re- ceptor binding interactions. Receptors basically pos- sess two central properties: they are capable of selec- tive binding to specific chemical ligands and they are capable of transducing this binding event into intracel- lular biochemical signals. These signals then lead to regulation of gene expression and enzyme activity. Most chemical engineering departments, including our own, currently offer biochemical engineering courses that treat enzyme reactions and gene expression from chemical reaction engineering and transport phenom- ena perspectives, so it is this third aspect of cell reg- ulation and resulting cell function that requires addi- tional attention. In this course we focus on fundamental molecular and cellular phenomena rather than on particular applications ... thus (the course) is helpful to students interested in either the bioprocess industry or the health care industry, or both. The outline currently used is as follows: I. Receptor/LigandBinding andSignal Transduction A. Monovalent binding and apparent cooperativity effects B. Multivalent binding and crosslinking C. Transport limitations D. Probabilistic considerations E. Signal transduction and second messengers II. Intracellular Protein Trafficking A. Endocytosis B. Intracellular sorting C. Protein synthesis and secretion III. Cell Proliferation A. Cell cycle kinetics B. Growth factor regulation C. Cell density effects IV. Cell Adhesion A. Thermodynamic models B. Mechanical models C. Dynamical models V. Cell Migration A. Cell population behavior B. Individual cell behavior C. Mechanistic models There is no required text for this course, but the previously mentioned molecular cell biology texts are referred to often for background reading. More spe- cific readings in the research literature, frequently in- cluding recent comprehensive review articles as well as original research papers, are regularly assigned. Problem sets are also distributed weekly, allowing the student to work out examples of mathematical models and analyses of the various phenomena considered in class. Most importantly, there is a term project in which the student is asked to develop his or her own original mathematical model for a phenomenon of per- sonal interest, and to apply an analysis of this model to relevant experimental data in the literature. In order to provide a better picture of the course contents I will now go on to present a brief overview of the various topics covered, based on the key litera- ture read and discussed in class. To begin with, a broad foundation of background reading in Darnell, et al., or Alberts, et al., is assigned, including chapters 1, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 15 in the former, or chapters 1, 4, 6, 7, and 10 in the latter. Most of this material is dealt with in detail later, but some of the early chapters are FALL 1989 necessary for the student to put particular phenomena into overall context. The first section of the course looks at fundamen- tals of receptor/ligand binding and signal transduction processes. Good background, especially on common experimental techniques and typical pitfalls, is pro- vided by chapters three through six in a book by Lim- burd entitled Cell Surface Receptors: A Short Course on Theory and Methods. The relevant portions of the basic texts are chapters 15 and 16 in Darnell, et al., and chapter 13 in Alberts, et al. Simple monovalent receptor and ligand binding equilibrium and kinetic properties are a good place to start, for much of the mathematical analysis is reminiscent of enzyme kine- tics, quite familiar to many chemical engineering stu- dents. The well-known equilibrium Scatchard plot is introduced, a plot of the ratio of bound ligand to free ligand versus bound ligand, with consequent simple determination of binding equilibrium constant and re- ceptor number from the slope and ordinate-intercept. Complications inherent in correct interpretation of this plot are immediately presented, as described nicely by Limburd's book and in some papers by Klotz [1] which include improper consideration of nonspe- cific ligand binding, neglect of ligand depletion, and lack of data at sufficiently high ligand concentration. Modern numerical parameter estimation methods can sometimes be gainfully applied, as described by Mun- son and Rodbard [2], Munson [3-4] and DeLeon, et al. [5]. The latter paper helpfully discusses limitations of these methods, using computer simulation compari- sons. Of course, more fundamental complications fre- quently arise from the presence of other effects, in- cluding multiple receptor or ligand subpopulations (es- pecially with radioactively or fluorescently labeled ligand), multivalency (allowing possible cooperativity effects), and additional receptor processes such as aggregation, internalization, and covalent modifica- tion, which may all result upon ligand binding. These various phenomena generally result in apparent changes in binding affinity with ligand concentration, often referred to as cooperativity. Examples and cor- responding analyses of these can be found in the re- search literature. As examples, the following papers are useful references: receptor subpopulations, Smith [6]; covalent modification, deWit and Bulgakov [7]; aggregation in ternary complexes, Gex-Fabry and De- Lisi [8]; and affinity conversion, Lipkin, et al. [9]. Cell surface aggregation effects, especially when multiva- lent receptors and ligands are involved, can lead to a variety of complications, and also appear to be central to many signal transduction processes. Good example references in this area from a vast literature can in- clude DeLisi and Chabay [10], Perelson and DeLisi [11], and Dembo and Goldstein [12]. In all of these analyses, reaction rates of receptor/ ligand binding and dissociation are central. It is not surprising to chemical engineers that often these rates can be transport-limited. In these sorts of situations involving a finite number of discrete receptor sites spatially distributed on the cell surface, transport limitations can lead to unanticipated effects. The sem- inal paper in this area is by Berg and Purcell [13] which demonstrates the nonlinear dependence of over- all binding and dissociation rate constants on the re- ceptor surface density. Improved mathematical treat- ments have followed, such as DeLisi and Wiegel [14], Brunn [15], and Shoup and Szabo [16], permitting generalization to more complicated situations. The key result, however, is that the rate constants for binding or dissociation per receptor can not be calcu- lated simply by dividing the rates on a per cell basis by the receptor density when ligand diffusion is rate- limiting. Transport limitations can also lead to false indications of cooperative binding phenomena. A very interesting example of this is given by Wiley [17]. Al- though ligand diffusion in free solution to the cell sur- face is often not rate-limiting for receptor/ligand bind- ing, receptor diffusion within the cell membrane is generally rate-limiting for receptor aggregation. Good treatments of this include Goldstein, et al. [18] and Keizer, et al. [19]. An interesting consideration not typically relevant to chemical engineering problems is that of probabilis- tic effects. That is, most chemical reaction models as- sume deterministic behavior due to statistical averag- ing over very large numbers of molecules. Since re- ceptor densities are usually in the range of 103 to 106 per cell, since behavioral responses can depend on amplification of exceedingly small signals, and since experimental observations are often made on the basis of small numbers of cells or even individual cells, sig- nal noise can be quite significant and is sometimes the key to proper understanding of the behavior. Mathe- matical discussions of this aspect can be found in Berg and Purcell [13], and in DeLisi, et al. [20] and Lauffen- burger and DeLisi [21]. Stimulating cell biological examples in which it is relevant include inheritance of behavior-regulating proteins [22], cytoskeletal assem- bly [23], and cell migration [24,25]. An extremely helpful source of fundamental mathematical concepts here is the book by Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Methods. There is not much analysis available on signal transduction events following receptor/ligand binding. The most heavily studied system is that of the so-called CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION "G-proteins" and cyclic AMP generation as an intracel- lular second messenger. Useful examples detailing mathematical models and analysis of quantitative ex- perimental data include Higashijima, et al. [26] and Rapp, et al. [27]. The second section of the course deals with reac- tion and transport processes involving cell receptors and other proteins beyond cell surface events. These "trafficking" processes include internalization of re- ceptors and receptor/ligand complexes, sorting of these molecules in intracellular organelles-with con- sequent recycling of some to the cell surface and de- gradation of others intracellularly, and synthesis and secretion of proteins through intracellular routes. In addition to the Darnell, et al., and Alberts, et al., background, good review articles exist: Steinman, et al. [28] and Wiley [29] are among the best. The latter, in fact, provides a good mathematical modeling treat- ment along with biological basics. Trafficking process- es can have a dramatic influence on both receptor/ ligand binding dynamics and on signal transduction and behavioral responses. Biological examples of these consequences can be found in Wiley and Cun- ningham [30], Zigmond, et al. [31], and Myers, et al. [32], with more general mathematical analyses in Gex- Fabry and DeLisi [33] and Beck and Goren [34]. A major implication is that at temperatures allowing trafficking processes, receptor/ligand binding dynam- ics cannot be interpreted simply using Scatchard plot methods. Although the biochemical mechanisms are only now emerging, possibly helpful models and anal- yses of the crucial intracellular sorting step have been presented [35, 36]. Finally, it is becoming clear that the trafficking mechanisms involved in protein synthe- sis and secretion in eukaryotic cells are likely to be quite similar to those involved in endocytic protein uptake. There is no mathematical analysis of this pro- cess available to date, but a suggestive recent review of experimental observations is given by Burgess and Kelly [37]. With this understanding of fundamental receptor/ ligand processes, one can move on to analysis of re- sulting cell behavioral phenomena. In this course, we focus on three: proliferation, adhesion, and migration, although there are others presently not as well studied, such as secretion and differentiation. These three phenomena comprise the next three sections of the course. In the area of cell proliferation, the background in Darnell, et al., is pages 147-154, 192-200, 517-524, and 1035-1046, and in Alberts, et al., is Chapter 11. An excellent reference text is Baserga, The Biology of Cell Reproduction. The focus of our presentation is the regulation of cell proliferation by receptor- mediated growth factor signals, with a good recent review provided by Deuel [38]. To begin this section, however, context is provided by some discussion of more general models for cell cycle kinetics such as Takahashi [39], Fried [40], and Aroesty, et al. [41]. A good reference for this sort of model is by Swan, Some Current Mathematical Topics in Cancer Research, and a useful review can be found in Bertuzzi, et al. [42]. Useful background information on nutrient ef- fects on mammalian cell proliferation kinetics can be found in McKeehan and McKeehan [43], and some re- cent quantitative work is also available on this subject [44, 45]. A fairly rigorous analysis, distinguishing ef- fects on the cycling rate of proliferating cells from those on the fraction of cells proliferating, can be found in Cowan and Morris [46]. It seems that it is more likely that the latter quantity is typically growth rate-controlling, as the cycling rate of proliferating cells is fairly constant. Effects of growth factor bind- ing and trafficking on overall proliferation rate is a crucial topic, one of great current activity. A superb starting point is the work by Knauer, et al. [47], who were able to demonstrate a linear dependence of cell proliferation rate on the steady-state number of growth factor/receptor complexes for human fibro- blasts responding to epidermal growth factor. Further effects of trafficking on the degree of proliferative re- sponsiveness have been analyzed by Lauffenburger, et al. [48], indicating that there may be an important relationship. Although there is little additional work along these lines available to date, it is a major prem- ise of this course that understanding of cell prolifera- tion phenomena, probably including most empirically observed effects like serum requirements, attachment requirements, contact inhibition, and inoculum cell density requirements, will require quantitative analysis of receptor-mediated behavior. One example of this is the interpretation of cell inoculum density requirements in terms of possible autocrine (self-re- leased) growth factors [49], and more can be expected to come along in the near future. A couple of notewor- thy papers not directly concerned with growth factor regulation, but providing related important models of eukaryotic cell proliferation, are Alt and Tyson [50] and Cherry and Papoutsakis [51]. The first paper deals with probabilistic aspects of a critical cell cycle regulatory species in yeast growth, which in many ways is a good model system for intracellular control mechanisms of mammalian cell growth. The second paper shows how simple geometric considerations can influence net cell population growth on surfaces when proliferation is "contact-inhibited." FALL 1989 In the area of cell adhesion, appropriate back- ground reading on receptor aspects are reviews by Yamada [52] and by Buck and Horwitz [53]. A seminal paper laying out the biophysical fundamentals is that by Bell [54]. There are two central underlying issues for engineering analysis. One is how to model a recep- tor/ligand bond, especially in regard to the effects of mechanical stress on its kinetic and equilibrium prop- erties. Another is how the variety of forces present act on cell mechanical properties to yield a contact area, within which the two surfaces are in sufficiently close contact to permit receptor/ligand bonds to form. Most analytical efforts are based in some manner on Bell's concepts and can be divided into two major categories: equilibrium models and dynamic models. In the first category there are additionally two chief types, mechanical and thermodynamic. A large number of papers based on equilibrium thermo- dynamic models have been published; good represen- tatives are Bell [55], Bell, et al. [56], and Torney, et al. [57]. The mechanical models are principally by Evans [58]. Both of these types of models attempt to predict the strength of equilibrium adhesion, with the primary goal of determining influence of various sys- tem parameters on the force required to detach a cell adhered to a surface or another cell. (It should be mentioned that there is a vast literature on cell adhe- sion based on surface energy ideas, a recent example being by van Oss [59]. However, these do not easily incorporate specific biochemical receptor/ligand ef- fects and so are largely neglected in this course). There has been much less work to date on dynamical models, exceptions being Hammer and Lauffenburger [60] and Dembo, et al. [61]. The former deals with kinetics of a cell encountering a potentially-adhesive surface in the presence of fluid shear flow, and at- tempts to predict the conditions under which adhesion will occur. The latter focuses on the dynamic behavior of a cell maintained near such a surface, with the chief result being prediction of a steady-state cell rolling velocity in fluid shear flow. As mentioned earlier, an important aspect of cell adhesion is the cell mechanical properties; a helpful reference on this topic is by Dong, et al. [62]. Good background reading on the topic of cell migra- tion can be found in books by Lackie (Cell Movement and Cell Behavior), Trinkaus (Cells into Organs: The Forces that Shape the Embryo), and Wilkinson (Chemotaxis and Inflammation). Three major as- pects are treated in this course. The first topic is the development of mathematical models for cell popula- tion migration behavior, including chemotaxis. There is a substantial literature in this area, with the follow- ing being the most significant papers: Patlack [63], Keller and Segel [64], Alt [65], Lauffenburger [66], and Othmer, et al. [67]. These provide cell flux expres- sions analogous to diffusion/convection equations for molecular transport, and relate cell population trans- port parameters (the random motility coefficient and chemotaxis coefficient) to fundamental individual cell parameters (speed, persistence time, directional bias). These expressions can be used to analyze cell migra- tion experimental assays for determination of the val- ues of the population parameters, as in Tranquillo, et al. [68] and Buettner, et al. [69]. The second topic is analysis of individual cell paths for quantification of the fundamental parameters. The central papers in this area are Nossal and Zigmond [70], Dunn [71], Dunn and Brown [72] and Othmer, et al. [73]. The last topic is an especially timely and difficult issue-the biochemical/biophysical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Useful biological reviews are Bretscher [74] and Singer and Kupfer [75] on membrane and cytoplasmic processes, and Devreotes and Zigmond [76] on chemosensory processes. Important basic in- formation on cell-generated forces can be found in Harris [77]. Concerning mathematical models of these phenomena, there are a number of efforts toward analysis of the rate of pseudopodal extension, which is the first step in locomotion. Among these are Oster and Perelson [78], and Zhu and Skalak [79]. The former emphasizes hydrostatic and osmotic forces in generating membrane protrusion and cytoplasmic flow, while the latter focuses on cytoskeletal assem- bly. Insufficient information exists to definitively dis- tinguish between these two hypotheses, although cir- cumstantial data demonstrating influence of extracel- lular osmotic levels on membrane protrusions favor the former at this point. Oster [80] provides an ex- tremely useful discussion of the various forces in- volved, including membrane mechanics, but without mathematical analysis. An insightful model relating overall cell locomotion rate to receptor distribution along the cell membrane is by Dembo, et al. [81]. This model does not, however, attempt to predict move- ment speed from cell-generated forces, a most daunt- ing but important goal. An extremely crude prelimi- nary attempt at doing just this is offered by Lauffen- burger [82]. Finally, Tranquillo, et al. [83] provides a model not for the rate of locomotion, but for the direc- tion, based on a simple model of receptor-mediated signal transduction including probabilistic effects. This model successfully predicts cell paths in the pre- sence and absence of chemical attractant concentra- tion gradients. If time permits, which it probably will not, one can CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION go on to discuss papers which incorporate these sorts of models for fundamental cell behavioral phenomena into analyses of physiological phenomena. There is a vast literature on models of the immune response (see, for example, Perelson [ed.], Theoretical Immunol- ogy). Other interesting and important processes which have received less extensive analysis to date include angiogenesis [84] and wound healing [85]. This article has been an attempt to provide a sup- erficial overview of topics that can be profitably treated from the perspective of chemical engineering applied to modern molecular cell biology, along with some key references to guide the treatment. There is no question that this field will both grow and change tremendously over the next few years, but I hope that this article will be of some help to anyone wishing to study in this area. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to a number of students who have been of substantial help in teaching this course: Helen Buettner, Paul DiMilla, Daniel Hammer, Jennifer Linderman, Bob Tranquillo, Cynthia Starbuck, and Flaura Winston. Their partici- pation and special insights have made this an excep- tionally stimulating course. REFERENCES 1. Klotz, Science, 217, 1247 (1982) and Quart. Rev. Biophys., 18, 227 (1985) 2. Munson and Rodbard, Analyt. Biochem., 107, 220 (1980) 3. Munson, J. Receptor Res., 3, 249 (1983) 4. Munson, Meth. 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Eng., 106, 19 (1984) 78. Oster and Perelson, J. Math. Biol., 21, 383 (1985); J. Cell Sci. Suppl., 8, 35 (1987) 79. Zhu and Skalak, Biophys. J., 54, 1115 (1988) 80. Oster, Cell Motility Cytoskel., 10, 164 (1988) 81. Dembo, et al., Cell Motility, 1, 205 (1981) 82. Lauffenburger, Chem. Eng. Sci., in press (1989) 83. Tranquillo, et al., J. Cell Biol., 106, 303 (1988) 84. Balding and McElwain, J. Theor. Biol., 114, 53 (1985) 85. Murray, et al., Phys. Leters, 171, 59 (1988) 0 FALL 1989 A course in . PARTICULATE PROCESSES ALAN D. RANDOLPH University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 A USEFUL WORKING definition for particles [1] is, "that state of subdivision of matter whose shape depends on the process by which it was formed and on the intermolecular cohesive forces present." This def- inition applies equally well for liquid droplets (spheri- cal, maintained by surface tension) or crystalline sol- ids having a geometric shape (e.g., cube, platelet, etc.) consistent with the crystalline structure and affected by the local molecular environment producing the crystal. This article describes a special topics graduate course (ChE-514) on particulate processes given fre- quently by the author at the University of Arizona. The text for the course is Theory of Particulate Pro- cesses: Anaylsis and Techniques of Continuous Crys- tallization [2]. The subtitle has been said to be more accurate in describing the book than the title, al- though the second edition attempts to correct this im- pression. The text was motivated by the necessity of collecting and organizing all the information on the Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) problem, which is cov- ered extensively in the course Particulate Processes. Thus, the course and text are nearly inseparable. ChE-514 is a "required" course for the writer's stu- dents who are engaged in process crystallization re- search. The course is given whenever the combination of graduate students needing to take it (ADR's) plus other graduate students desiring additional chemical engineering credit to fill out their graduate study pro- Alan D. Randolph is a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Ari- zona, where he has been since 1968. He re- ceived his BChE at the University of Colorado (1956) and his PhD from Iowa State University (1962). He has an active research program in process crystallization and has consulted for numerous companies in this area. TABLE 1 Course Topics for Particulate Processes * Introduction and Motivation: The Importance of PSD/CSD * Particle Distributions * The Population Balance * Modeling Continuous and Batch Crystallizers * Crystallization Kinetics * Crystal Size Responses for Continuous and Batch Crystallizers * Reaction Engineering of CSD * CSD Dynamics and Control gram, exceeds the minimum class enrollment for a graduate offering. The course unashamedly concen- trates on process crystallization (and CSD) as the example par excellence to illustrate the predictive population balance theory of particulate processes for- mally developed in the text. The writer attempts to maintain a reasonable balance of non-crystallization topics considering the background of those enrolled. COURSE OUTLINE Table 1 shows the subject outline of Particulate Processes. It is identical to the text with the exception of Chapter 10 (in the course, the last periods are used for student reviews of the current literature of par- ticulates). The ground rules are that crystallization students cannot choose a crystallization article to re- view, while others may. The main point is that the articles must emphasize the distributed nature of par- ticulate systems. Proposed titles are thus pre- screened. Five minutes of perusing the article to be reviewed can immediately determine if the course has been a success. One graduate student suggested that scarce semester-end time could be saved if written, rather than oral, critiques were handed in as a term project. This is an excellent idea except, of course, that it shifts a major work load from the student to the in- Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION In addition to emphasizing the distributed nature of particulates, the course emphasizes predictive rather than descriptive modeling of the particle distribution using population balance mechanics. An illustration of CSD prediction and manipulation will be presented for the useful double draw-off (DDO) configuration. structor. In addition to emphasizing the distributed nature of particulates, the course emphasizes predic- tive rather than descriptive modeling of the particle distribution using population balance mechanics. An illustration of CSD prediction and manipulation will be presented for the useful double draw-off (DDO) configuration. Current unit operation texts [3] now present the CSD from a Mixed Suspension, Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer in a predic- tive context, but stop short of CSD manipulation (which would require crystallization kinetics). The first two chapters (and course topics) describe the general nature and elementary statistics of distrib- uted particulates (e.g., means, variance, cumulative MSMPR CRYSTALLIZER log FEED n \ o -Go PRODUCT o CONFIGURATION 0 L- POPULA TION DENSITY PLOT DDO CRYSTALLIZER FINES Q FEED 00 QiFEE OVERFLOW Qu. G MIXED UNDERFL Qu Qu OW CONFIGURATION 1I 1 -G -RG -RGrr I - 0 LF POPULATION DENS/TYPLOT FIGURE 1. MSMPR and DDO configurations and CSD (after E. T. White and A. D. Randolph (1988)). vs. density, etc.). The distributions are presented in density form. (Students often have trouble with the units of population density, (length)-). Much attention is given to the gamma distribution (the natural distri- bution of crystallization processes), but other useful empirical distributions, e.g., Rosin-Rammler and Gaudin-Melloy, that are routinely used in the minerals industry [4] are presented in the course. Chapter 3 develops and formalizes the multi-vari- ate population balance which is used predictively throughout the remainder of the course. At this point, the useful moment transformation is introduced. The leading moments of the population density function mj = Lf (L)dL for j= 0,1,2,3 form a closed set of non-linear algebraic equations which, in principle, completely describe the idealized MSMPR crystallizer, given the nucleation/growth rate kinetics of a particular system. Roughly speak- ing, the MSMPR concept is to crystallization as the CSTR is to reaction engineering with the advantage that theform of the equations is kinetics-independent. Thus, for a specific case the kinetics can be brought in as auxiliary equations to complete the solution. Chapter 4 develops the MSMPR concept in detail. This chapter, together with Chapters 7 (CSD manipu- lation) and 8 (CSD dynamics), form the core of presen- tations for the industrial short course. Chapter 5 pre- sents crystallization mechanisms and kinetics from an elementary level. The writer often suffers from acute Felder's Impostor Syndrome [5] when discussing crys- tal nucleation and growth mechanisms. This subject could better be covered by someone in material sci- ences well-versed in crystallography. For example, when discussing crystal growth mechanisms by spiral dislocations, the writer finds that even the most imag- inative students are barely convinced that the crystal dislocation is self-perpetuating. Crystal nucleation/ growth kinetics can often be described for high yield systems with simple power-law empiricisms of the form B= k Gi M where i and j are two parameters respectively describ- Continued on page 227. FALL 1989 A course in ... HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL SPILLS Use of the CAMEO Air Dispersion Model to Predict Evacuation Distances ASHOK KUMAR, GARY F. BENNETT, VENKATA V. GUDIVAKA The University of Toledo Toledo, OH 43606 THE UNIVERSITY OF Toledo offers several air pol- lution courses taught by the senior authors to en- gineering undergraduate and graduate students. In the undergraduate courses, "Introduction to Air Pol- lution Engineering" and "Air Pollution Control," the students are exposed to the concept of air dispersion modeling. The training in dispersion modeling con- tinues in two senior/graduate courses: 1) "Dispersion Modeling" and 2) "Hazardous Chemical Spills." This paper provides an overview of the CAMEO model [1] and its uses in the classroom as a training tool in the "Hazardous Chemical Spills" course. The model can be obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Hazardous Materials Response Branch, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, BIN C15700, Seattle, Washington 98115. Chemical accidents are an unfortunate reality of industrial society. With billions of pounds of toxic chemicals being produced, stored, shipped, and used daily, it is axiomatic that leaks, spills, and accidents will occur. The consequences of these chemical spills can range from a simple nuisance to virtual destruc- tion of a body of water or to thousands of deaths and injuries. In the early days of spill technology and response (the 1970s), the major concern in dealing with chemi- cal spills was for pollution of the aquatic environment. Indeed, spill response and cleanup efforts were ini- tially directed only at oil spills, but soon chemical spills and the destruction they caused in the aquatic envi- ronment surpassed concern for the impact of oil on the ecology. Two early examples of chemical spills are the destruction of Shawnee Lake in Ohio [2] by a gallon of strychnine-treated corn mixed with endrin, and the intentional discharge of hexachlorocyclopentadiene into the sewers of Louisville, Kentucky. These spills severely impacted major bodies of water [3]. Sub- sequently, Louisville suffered a more serious incident when hexane that was discharged into the sewer sys- tem, vaporized and exploded, causing thousands of dollars of damage. As serious as the environmental impact of chemi- cals on water resources is, it is those spills (or inci- dents) that result in emissions of toxic (volatile) chem- icals into the air that pose the greatest danger to both first responders and nearby residents. Clearly the most dramatic and devastating chemical incident that has ever occurred was the release of 30 to 35 tons of methyl isocyanate at Bhopal, India, on December 3, 1984. This toxic chemical release killed an estimated 2,500 people and injured over 200,000 more [4]. Fortunately, extremely toxic chemicals such as methyl isocyanate are produced in limited amounts at Gary F. Bennett received his BSc from Queen's University and his MS and PhD de- grees from Michigan, all in chemical engineer- ing. He has taught at The University of Toledo since 1963 and started a course there in haz- ardous chemical spills ten years ago. He is consultant to the Toledo fire division on chemical spills, has written several spill prevention and control plans for industry, and is author of the Hazardous Spills Handbook, published by McGraw Hill. Venkata Gudivaka is a graduate assis- tant at The University of Toledo. He joined the Department of Civil Engineering program in the fall of 1987. He graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering degree from the University of Bombay, India, in 1987, and as part of this pro- gram he worked with Union Carbide Corpration in Bombay during the summer of 1986. He is presently working in the field of dense gas modeling and model evaluation for his MS thesis. Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 Ashok Kumar is a professor of civil engi- neering at The University of Toledo where he teaches courses on air pollution and conducts research in the area of air pollution modeling and monitoring. He received his BS from Ali- garh University in India, his MS from the Uni- versity of Ottawa, and his Doctoral Degree from the University of Waterloo. A registered pro- fessional engineer, he is a consultant to industrial organizations. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION An explanation of the CAMEO system, one of the commercially available air dispersion model programs, is given to the students. The level of discussion conducted in the classroom depends on the course. The students are told that CAMEO has features for calculating downwind chemical concentration from release. very few locations in the world. But other toxic gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and hydrochloric acid are widely used and have been released all too frequently. Moreover, billions of pounds of these chemicals are produced every year, and their storage and use are ubiquitous. Notable spills involving these compounds include: Ammonia Houston, Texas: Tanker accident; 1.9 tons of ammonia released with a 30 m high cloud formed with danger persisting for two and one-half hours [5]. Chlorine Mississauga, Toronto, Canada: Railroad derailment; 27 tons of chlorine released in a fire; 300,000 people evac- uated over an area of 129 km2 [6]. Silicone Tetrachlorida A storage tank released 1100 m3 (284,000 gal) of SiCI4 over five days; HCI vapor was formed when the SiCl4 contacted moisture in the air; 160 people were hospitalized, 16,000 were evacuated, and the toxic cloud ex- tended 8 to 16 km from the tank [7]. Nitric Acid A puncture in a rail tank car released 55 m3 (14,000 gal) of 99% solution of nitric acid; the resulting vapor cloud of toxic nitrogen dioxide forced the evacuation of 5,000 people [9]. Pesticides Fires at facilities storing pesticides and/or haz- ardous waste have sent toxic gases wafting across the land- scape to threaten anyone in their way. Fumes from a 1974 pesticide fire in Alliance, Ohio, caused fire personnel and resi- dents to exhibit symptoms that included nausea, burning eyes and throats, and dizziness [8]. Transportation Accidents Transportation accidents such as the ones involving chlorine in Canada [6] and white phos- phorus at Miamisburg, Ohio [10], in 1987 with a resulting fire have threatened nearby residents. In Miamisburg, a railroad car of white phosphorus burned and released a toxic cloud of com- bustion products that caused a mass evacuation of nearby residents. In all cases of releases of volatile toxic chemicals, whether or not a fire is involved, air dispersion model- ing is of great assistance to the first responder. In- deed, dispersion modeling is essential in predicting areas that should be evacuated. Without such model- ing, the evacuation area could not be calculated at all; it could only be "guess-timated." Consequently, with- out the calculation tools given by air dispersion model- ing, the On-Scene Commander either under- or over- estimates the evacuation zone. Under-estimating the evacuation zone leaves people in danger; over-estimat- ing needlessly moves people and constitutes a hazard of a different kind, especially to the sick and elderly who are negatively impacted by the move and con- comitant disruption. STUDENT MODELING PROGRAM Environmental engineering students at the Uni- versity of Toledo solve air dispersion problems by using computer models based on known theoretical concepts. The computer models are chosen from pro- grams available in the public domain and include mod- eling programs used by regulatory bodies in both the United States and Canada. One model chosen for this course is the CAMEO model which has been developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The model performs a variety of calculations for a chemical spill, and in the classroom the CAMEO Air Model can be used for several purposes: 1) to develop an intuitive feeling for the importance of different variables re- lated to the toxic releases and to test "what-if' type questions, 2) to compute the maximum ground level chemical concentration resulting from a spill, 3) to map hazard zones for evacuation purposes, and 4) to perform sensitivity analysis using varying chemical and toxicological inputs, source data, and meteorolog- ical information. Additionally, all the features included in the model are useful in various contingency planning and re- sponse activities where it is necessary to compute the downwind concentrations as a function of distance re- sulting from a hypothesized release of a toxic volatile material. THE CAMEO SYSTEM An explanation of the CAMEO system, one of the commercially available air dispersion model programs, is given to the students. The level of discussion con- ducted in the classroom, however, depends on the course. The students are told that CAMEO has the following features for calculating downwind chemical concentration from release: 1. A basic Gaussian algorithm is used with either a con- tinuous or instantaneous release configuration. 2. The atmospheric data can be inputted directly by the user or obtained from a remote meteorological station. 3. A chemical library is available; this library contains the toxicological, chemical, and thermodynamic pa- rameters necessary to derive various source strength estimates and relate the pollutant distribution patterns to human health effects. FALL 1989 4. The source strength estimates can be entered directly in English or metric units; however, the program can cal- culate the effective source strength from an exposed pool of spilled chemical, given the chemical identity and the surface area of the pool. 5. The system has the ability to store a map using digitiza- tion. 6. A variety of graphic or tabular options can be displayed on the screen or sent to the printer; the system also has the ability to clip screen images to a file that can be over- laid on maps that are available in other parts of the sys- tem. Since the CAMEO system uses the well-known Gaussian dispersion model, a brief discussion points out the limitations of the model as follows: 1) typical errors can be as high as a factor of two, and 2) greater errors can result from spills during low wind speed and very stable atmospheric conditions than at high wind speed. It should be noted that the CAMEO model does not take into account terrain effects and the impact of building wakes. Also, heavy gas effects are not in- cluded. Moreover, the model results apply only to the selected chemicals; fire by-products or other chemical transformations can be entered into the system by the user as separate chemicals. HOW TO USE THE CAMEO MODEL The students are instructed to use the CAMEO program installed on an Apple Macintosh computer. They are told about the menu options in the CAMEO program and are informed that the best way to run the program is to use the following order for menu options: 1) select a chemical from the chemical option, 2) set the atmospheric options (either by the meteorological station or user input), 3) set the source strength of the spill, and 4) run the model by selecting the continuous or puff option from the option menu. EXAMPLES OF CLASSROOM EXERCISES Six problems have been selected to illustrate class- room use of CAMEO. These six problems, when used in a course, enable a student to become familiar with some of the many uses of the CAMEO Air Model. The problems selected utilize most of the facilities offered by the demonstration program model. The student is advised to try to solve the problems using the CAMEO program and to compare his results with those given by the instructors. The student is advised to try solving different problems given in air pollution textbooks with this model in order to gain familiarity with its applications. The problems are based on "real-world" spill situ- ations found in the literature. Problems 1 and 2 are modified from reference 11; problem 3 is from refer- ence 12; problem 4 is from reference 13; problem 5 is from reference 14; and problem 6 is from reference 15. Problem 1 Ammonia was released at a rate of 6050 g/sec for 30 min. The ambient wind speed at the time of release was 2 mi/hr (3.2 km/hr), and the wind was blowing from 350'. The atmospheric stability was "unstable" (A), and the ambient temperature was 28'C. Assume an inversion height of 1500 ft (457 m). Use the CAMEO Air Model for a continuous source and determine the downwind IDLH* and TLV-TWA* distances and travel times to reach those distances. Locate the source at the chemical facility near South Chicago Street on Map E13 or F13 and plot the IDLH and TLV-TWA hazard zones (see Figures 1 and 2). *IDLH defines the concentration of a chemical "Immediately Dangerous to the Life and Health" if someone is exposed. TLV is the "Threshold Limit Value" concentration which is the accepted safe concentration for 8-hr/day exposure of workers over their working life. TWAis the "Time Weighted Average" of the concentration TABLE 1 Input Data for Six Chemical Spills Problem 1J Problem # Promblem Problem #A Problem #5 Problem I 1. Name of Chemical Selected 2. Atmospheric Stability Class 3. Inversion Height (ft) 4. Wind Speed (mi/hr) 5. Wind Direction 6. Ambient Air Temperature("C) 7. Average Ground Roughness 8. Source Strength 9. Puddle Area (ft2) 10. Exit Velocity (ft/sec) Ammonia Solution (> 44% Ammonia) A 1500 2 350 28 City Center 6050 g/s Hydrogen Nitric Acid Sulphide Fuming D E 600 500 5 4.7 350 315 28 20 Very Smooth Thick Grass (4 in. high) 72,000 g 66,000 g/s Chlorine Methyl Isocyanate D F 600 650 10 9 90 310 20 17.5 Lawn City Center 11,340 g/s 7,400 g/s CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Toluene D 600 3 280 10 Homogeneous Forest 1,000 1 Problem 2 A pipeline of a gas processing facility ruptured and released 72,000 g of H1S. The ambient wind speed was 5 mi/hr (8 km/hr), and the wind was from 350'. The atmospheric stability was neutral (D), and the ambient air temperature was 28'C. Assume an inver- sion height of 600 ft (183 m). Assume an instantaneous release and determine the down- wind IDLH and TLV-TWA distances and travel times. Locate the source at the chemical facility of South Chicago Street on Map E13 or F13, and plot the IDLH ands TLV-TWA vapor hazard zones (see Figures 1 and 2). Problem 3 During the night, at about 2 a.m., 20 tons (20 x 106 g) of fuming nitric acid were spilled on flat ground. At 2:05 a.m. the temperature was 20'C, and the wind was from the northwest (315') at 4.7 mi/hr (7.5 km/hr). Assume an atmospheric stability of (E) and an inversion height of 500 ft (152 m). Assume a continuous source (66,000 g/sec). Compute the downwind IDLH and TLV distances and travel times. Plot these contours on the map and make rec- ommendations about the extent of the evacuation zone. Problem 4 A continuous release of chlorine at a rate of 11,340 g/sec oc- curs at a chemical plant. The atmospheric conditions at the time are neutral (D). The ambient wind speed is 10 mi/hr (16 km/hr) and the wind is blowing from the west. The ambient air temperature is 20'C. Assume a mixing height of 600 ft (183 m). Assuming a continuous release, determine the TLV and IDLH travel times and distances; plot the TLV and IDLH hazard zones. Problem 5 In a disaster at a pesticide plant in India, 40 tons (40 x 106 g) of methyl isocyanate were released in 90 minutes (7400 g/sec) at 12:30 a.m. when the ambient temperature was 17.5'C. The ambient wind speed was 9 mi/hr (14 km/hr) and the wind was from 310'. The mixing height at that time was about 650 ft (198 m). The conditions were said to be very stable, and a stability class of (F) may be assumed. Compute the TLV and IDLH travel times and distances, and determine the area for evacuation if the plant had been located at the chemical facility of South Chicago Street on map F13 (Figure 2). HINT: MIC does not exist in the chemical library. It has to be added to the library first. Enter "create library" and add MIC and the data for it as given below: Molecular Formula Molecular Weight Boiling Point IDLH Value TLV-TWA Value C2H3NO 57.06 39'C 20 ppm 0.02 ppm Problem 6 100,000 gal of toluene were spilled as a result of a pipeline rupture in Ohio. The time was 10 p.m. and the ambient tempera- ture was 10'C. The wind speed was 3 mi/hr (4.8 km/hr) and the TABLE 2 Solutions for Six Chemical Spills Using CAMEO Model Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. #1 #2 #3 #4 # #6 TLV-TWA Distance (km) TLV-TWA Travel Time (min) IDLH Distance (km) IDLH Travel Time (min) 1.2 2.3 22.0 17.4 0.2 0.7 3.7 5.3 140.4 23.5 509.9 1.1 1046.0 87.5 2110.8 13.6 8.9 3.0 3.6 0.2 66.4 11.2 14.9 2.1 The students are asked to change the values of variables in order to understand the importance of the role played by the input data. The graphical display of results is of immeasurable value in accidents situations. Three possible plots are included in this paper. conditions were neutral (D Stability). The mixing height was 600 ft (183 m). Use the puddle model to determine the TLV and IDLH distances and travel times. Assume a puddle area of 1000 ft2 (93 m2) and an exit velocity of 1 ft/sec (0.3 m/sec). RESULTS Table 1 shows the input required for each problem. The input for each variable is obtained from the state- ment of the problem given above. The name of the chemical, atmospheric stability, inversion height, wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature, and source strength are required for the first five problems. In the sixth problem, values for puddle area and exit velocity are also needed for the computation of the source strength term. If the puddle area is known, it can be used in place of the mass of the chem- ical spilled, but this assumption might give different results. Since, in an accidental spill, it is relatively easier to estimate puddle area than mass spilled, the area covered by the spilled chemical has been used in this problem. Moreover, the average ground rough- ness around the spill site must be specified for each problem; the model gives five options. Table 2 shows the solutions obtained for each of the six illustrative problems. IDLH distances and TLV distances are given in this table along with the arrival times of plume at those distances. The dis- tances give the student an understanding of the poten- tial area of the evacuation zone, and the arrival time helps him/her to appreciate the importance of time available for control measures and evacuation schedules. The TLV distances are higher than IDLH distances because TLV concentration is smaller than IDLH concentration. For Problem 5, the TLV dis- tance is more than 140 times the IDLH distance. In such cases, it may be appropriate to use one-tenth of the IDLH concentration to compute the hazard zone. The students are asked to change the values of variables in order to understand the importance of the role played by the input data. The graphical display of results is of immeasurable value in accident situa- tions. Three possible plots are included in this paper. Figure 1 is the TLV plot that is obtained from Prob- lem 1, while Figure 2 is the IDLH plot obtained from Problem 2. A plot of IDLH distances for varying in- FALL 1989 puts of wind speed for Problem 1 is shown in Figure 3. CONCLUSION The CAMEO system is a useful tool for teaching basic concepts related to dispersion modeling of chem- ical spills. The students are able to conduct computer experiments to enhance their understanding of the ef- fects of accidents involving hazardous chemicals. With E'"eng Fiild increasing public concern of chemical releases and the recent passage by Congress of spill planning regula- tions (Title III of SARA), inclusion of chemical spill modeling in the chemical engineering curriculum be- comes very important. Modeling of spills at fixed base facilities (in advance of a spill) to produce predictions of danger zones is becoming common, and chemical engineering students should be familiar with the mod- eling methods and public concern of possible dangers of chemical spills. REFERENCES C- ---- Fi :i~~ -C FIGURE 1. TWA contour for ammonia solution (>44% ammonia) on Map E13. ~^ T FIGURE 2. IDLH contour for hydrogen sulphide (instan- taneous release). 020 018- 0 12- 010- o. 014- 008 0 2 4 6 8 10 WIND SPEED (mi/hr) FIGURE 3. Variation of IDLH distances with wind speed. 1. Kummerlowe, D.L., "Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations," The International Fire Chief, January (1987) 2. Nye, W.B., "The Hazardous Materials Spill Experience in Shawnee Lake, Ohio: A Case History," Proc. 1972 Nat. Conf. on Control of Hazardous Materials Spills, Houston, TX, p 217-219, March (1972) 3. Wilson, J.A., C.P. Baldwin, and T. J. McBridge, "Case History: Contamination of Louisville, Kentucky, Mor- ris Forman Treatment Plant (by) Hexachlorocyclopen- tadiene," Proc. 1978 Nat. Conf. on Control of Hazardous Materials Spills, Miami, Fl., p 170-177; April (1978) 4. Marshall, V.C., Major Chemical Hazards, Ellis Hor- wood Ltd., Chichester, England, p 369-379 (1987) 5. Raj, P.K., "Ammonia" in G.F. Bennett, F.S. Feates, and I. Wilder, Eds., Hazardous Materials Spills Hand- book, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p 10-34 to 10-57 (1982) 6. Hilbert, G.D., J.H. Berkley, Jr., and F. Quinn, "Mississauga: Lessons Learned in Large-Scale Evacu- ations," Proc. 1982 Nat.Conf. on Control of Hazardous Materials Spills, Milwaukee, WI, p 56-63, April (1982) 7. Hoyle, W.C., "Silicone Tetrachloride Incident," G.F. Bennett, et al., op. cit., p 11-11 to 11-17 8. Diefenbach, R.C., "Pesticide Fires," G.F. Bennett, et al., op. cit., p 11-2 to 11-10 9. McVeigh, T., "Case History of a Major Nitric Acid Spill," Envir. Prog., 4, p 212-216 (1985) 10. Scoville, W.H., S.D. Springer, and J. Crawford, "Response and Cleanup Efforts Associated with the White Phosphorus Releases," Miamisburg, Ohio; Haz. Mat., 21, p 47-64, January (1989) 11. Kumar, A., and S.T. Thomas, "A Hybrid Model for Computing Ground-Level Concentration Near a Coastal Plant," Proc. of AMS and APCA Joint Conference, Port- land OR, October (1984) 12. Nitric Acid: Environmental and Technical Informa- tion for Problem Spills, Environmental Protection Ser- vice, Ottawa, Ontario, April (1985) 13. "Calculating the Area Affected by Chlorine Releases," Chlorine Institute Pamphlet #74, Edition 1, Revision 1, Chlorine Institute, New York, NY, June (1982) 14. Singh, M.P., and S. Ghosh, "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: Model Simulation of the Dispersion Scenario," J. Haz. Mat., 17, p 1-22, December (1987) 15. Campanella, Vincent, "Life Returning to Normal After Leak," news story in Tiffin Advertiser-Tribune, February 24 (1988) 16. Sax, N.I., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materi- als" 6th Edition,Van Nostrand, New York, NY (1984) 0 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION book reviews BIOSEPARATIONS: Downstream Processing for Biotechnology by Paul A Better, E. L. Cussler, Wei-Shou Hu John Wiley & Sons, New York, 368 pages,$39.95 (1988)

Reviewed by
Murray Moo-Young
University of Waterloo

In the broad field of biotechnology, any new book
with the words "bioseparations" and "downstream pro-
cessing" in its title will attract much attention since these
are the current trendy, fashionable areas of biotechnol-
ogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this is probably the first
book devoted entirely to this area, which is partly due to
the difficulty in handling it for a multidisciplinary audi-
ence indigenous to biotechnology. Whereas Volume II of
the multi-volume work, Comprehensive Biotechnology
(Pergamon Press) is a major reference, this book is a
primer on the subject matter. As such, it is a good teach-
ing text and is well worth its list price of $39.95. The authors, comprising a group of experts with both industrial and academic experience, have developed an effective pedagogical strategy in which typical bioseparations are viewed as an idealized four-step pro- cess according to a so-called RIPP organization: Removal of insolubles, Isolation of product, Eurification and Polishing. The book helps to bridge the gap between the usually separate, parallel evolving cultures of the life sci- ences and engineering in this area by providing material for "scientists with no background in engineering" and "engineers with no background in biology." Inevitably, this ambitious approach to satisfy such a wide audience results in sections (e.g., filtration, drying) which are rather rudimentary for chemical engineering graduates (which is the usual level at which biotechnology is taught in chemical engineering departments), while the same sections are too advanced for the life science undergrad- uates. Regardless, the authors are to be commended for providing in one place "an introduction to the separation and purification of biochemicals." After an overview introductory chapter, the book is divided into four parts which cover a total of twelve chapters, and ends with two appendices. It is of interest to note the section titles and number of pages allocated to these topics: Overview (11), Filtration and Ultrafiltration (35), Centrifugation (21), Cell Disruption (21), Extraction (47), Adsorption (37), Elution Chromatography (39), Precipitation (17), Ultrafiltration and Electrophoresis (35), Crystallization (35), Drying (29), Auxiliary Operations (12), Characteristics of Biological Materials (5), and Limits of the Continuum Approximations (5). Possibly, a disproportionate amount of space is given to the classical methods of liquid extraction (which is primarily for relatively small molecules in "new" biotechnology terms) at the expense of other aspects (e.g., isoelectric focusing) and recent innovations. For example, it could be argued that there are a number of other topics or subtopics that should have been covered in a book of this type. Among these are the following: supercritical fluid extraction (its use is increas- ing); relevant process control and CAD/CAM; multi-unit integration strategies; bioreactor/downstream processing interfacing optimization, bioseparations in microgravity environments (prospects of biomanufacturing on a fu- ture space platform are of practical interest); develop- ment of new polymeric and composite materials for membrane separations and chromatography column packing; effect of surfactants on membrane separation performance; equipment innovations such as the use of Taylor vortices to reduce polarization effects in mem- brane separations; the implications of solid-state fermen- tations to downstream processing economics; materials of construction of the various bioseparation devices. Pre- sumably, the authors could excuse these omissions on the basis of their philosophy that "mixing, like life, is incomplete..."! The subject matter is given quantitative testament as a series of unit operations (typical of chemical engineer- ing) in terms of mass and energy balance and kinetics of the processes involved. Fundamental concepts are pre- sented clearly. Where correlations derivable from first principles are not possible, the authors draw attention to the traditional usefulness of dimensional analysis for complex flow systems, e.g., the analysis and design of cell disruption devices (Chapter 4). Each chapter contains several illustrative examples and at the end, practice problems with answers (which should please students and practitioners alike) are given. Curiously, some of the problem statements are given in mixed S.I. and British units (e.g., kg, ft) and probably reflects the immediate real-world industry situations addressed. Line diagrams, some with three-dimensional cut-away views, are used to depict clearly the mechanical features and physical func- tions of various equipment. As a teaching tool, this tech- nique is more effective than photographs. As suggested by the authors, the book appears to be suitable as a one-semester course for senior undergradu- ate chemical engineering students and first-year science graduates (including those from chemistry, microbiol- ogy, food science). The book should also be useful in in- dustry where calculations in downstream processing are required in research, development, design, and plant op- erations. The book is sufficiently robust to withstand many hours of use. It has a good subject index, but unfor- tunately no author index. More discriminating students (and others) would have welcomed some references to the research literature, especially in view of the advances being made in this area. However, this is a minor criti- cism. Despite the omissions mentioned earlier, the book has something in it for almost everyone interested in bioseparations, a term synonymously now used with downstream processing in biotechnology. 0 FALL 1989 A program on ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT RALPH H. KUMMLER, JAMES H. McMICKING, ROBERT W. POWITZ Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202 THE NEED FOR environmental professionals is es- calating. The 1987 Bureau of Health Professionals report, "Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force," [1] identified 50,000 environmental profes- sionals in the U.S. and projected that by 1992 there will be a need for 100,000. Paul Busch, immediate past president of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers [2], estimates that 22,500 environmental engineers will be needed from 1990 to 1995 "just to meet the problem of hazardous waste clean up." Each year, less than 10% of the hazardous waste engineers Ralph H. Kummler received his BS from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his PhD from John Hopkins. He is Professor and Chairman of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering at Wayne State University. Before Joining WSU he was a research engineer at the General Electric Space Sciences Laboratory. His research interests include air, water, and multimedia environmental engineering James H. McMicking received his BS and MS from Wayne State University and his PhD from the Ohio State University. He is Associate Professor and Associate Chairman of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering at Wayne State University. Robert W. Powitz received his BS from the University of Georgia and his MPH and PhD from the University of Minnesota. He is currently Director of Environmental Health and Safety and an Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering at Wayne State University. that are needed are graduating from our universities [3]. Summit VI, a top level interaction between indus- try and AIChE (as reported by Mathis [4]), identified the environment and ecology as the number-one growth area for chemical engineers and suggested curriculum changes and more intense training to meet the growing need. Some educational programs have begun to emerge, but not in chemical engineering [5, 6]. The chemical and manufacturing industries are working vigorously to maximize recycle and to minimize waste. Major corporations are establishing their own landfill standards, with their own cradle-to- grave accounting systems and certification of both professionals and facilities. Consulting companies which perform the same services for small industries are thriving. A new breed of professional, a "chemical control engineer," is emerging. This individual must be tech- nically educated and trained in regulations, but with the focus on management rather than on science or design, and he or she must have such skills as: Risk assessment capability Computer experience Ability to maintain community involvement Material use control procedures Chemical management systems Land use planning Knowledge of health issues Transportation awareness Liability awareness The boards of major corporations must be in- formed about these issues on a regular basis. Career path professionals in hazardous waste management will therefore have high rank and pay [7]. Chemical engineers are uniquely qualified to train for this opportunity. A solid background in mathemat- ics, chemistry, and physics, with economics, process control, separations, and a thorough training in logical Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION thinking and organization, is characteristic of the chemical engineering BS degree. Waste minimization in the chemical industry involves optimization of unit operations, the classic tool of the chemical engineer. However, within the confines of an ABET-accred- ited chemical engineering degree, it is not easy to pro- vide the additional education necessary to allow the BS chemical engineer to become a "Chemical Control Engineer." Thus, at Wayne State University we have created a new concept in graduate education, called the "Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Man- agement," which is designed to provide auxiliary edu- cation not only to chemical engineers, but also to all conventional science and engineering majors who have the prerequisite mathematics and chemistry back- ground. This program is a major departure for the chemical engineering faculty. As discussed below, the courses attract a substantial number of non-chemical en- gineers and as a result constitute the largest service teaching that we have ever undertaken. The chemical TABLE 1 Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate Program Participants Industrial Advisory Committee Faculty Course James Carlson Director, Hazardous Waste Management Chrysler Corporation Del Rector Deputy Director, Michigan Department of of Natural Resources Myron Black Director, Environmental Affairs Dondee Cement James Dragun, PhD President, Dragun Associates, Inc. J. Chu, PhD (deceed, April 1989) Asst. Director, Hazardous Waste Manage- ment, General Motors Research Center Rick Powals Vice President, Petrochem, Inc. Ralph Kummler, PhD Director: Chairman of Chemical and Metallurgical Engneeing James Dragun, PhD President Dragun Assodates, Inc. Tim Lang, PhD Chief Manufacturing Chemist Environmental Operatons GM Tech Center Carol Miller, PhD Assodate Prof., Civil Engineering Jeffrey Howard, PhD Assistant Professor, Geology Joe Oravec, BS Academic Serv. Officer, Chemistry Robert Powitz, PhD Director, Environmental Health and Safety James McMicking, PhD Associate Prot Chemical Ergeeing Daniel Crowl, PhD Professor, Chemical Engineering Khalil Atasi, PhD Head, Appled Tech. & Evaluaton Debroit Water and Sewerage Dept A. L. Reeves, PhD Prof., Ocapat. & Environ. Health Devon Schwalm, MS CHE 726,727 Hazardous Materials Coordnator Environmental Health & Safety The program's courses are available as electives to both undergraduate and graduate students in our regular university degree programs, and they have attracted many new students into full-time and part-time programs. engineering profession is uniquely qualified to lead this new effort, but expansion of the traditional tools of chemical engineering will be necessary. In order to determine the content of the Graduate Certificate program, an interdisciplinary team con- sisting of faculty and an industrial advisory committee was assembled. A brief description of their back- grounds is given in Table 1. The goal of the certificate program is to prepare admissible students to take and pass certification examinations. At the present time, WSU administers the Hazardous Materials Manager Certification Examination (CHMM) developed by the Institute of Hazardous Materials Management, and the Certified Hazardous Waste Specialist Examination developed by the National Environmental Health Association. The examinations are dynamic in nature and hence the courses must also be dynamic, to reflect the con- tinual changes in technology, law, policy, and regula- tions. Thus, both the course outlines and topics vary S from time to time. A poll of various governmental agencies and industry has shown enthusiastic support for this program. The student response to the certifi- cate program has also surpassed all expectations; nearly half of the student body has requested that the program be expanded into a full Master's program in Hazardous Waste Management. The faculty developed and approved the curriculum for the MS degree, and authorization to begin awarding degrees in January of 1990 was granted by the Wayne State University Board of Governors. The program's courses are available as electives to both undergraduate and graduate students in our reg- ular university degree programs, and they have at- tracted many new students into full-time and part- time programs. Professionals already working in the field may require one or two courses prior to attempt- ing the certification examinations; even certified man- agers require continuing education to retain gov- ernmental or industrial acceptance. Thus, the courses have wide applicability. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM The need for training in hazardous waste control technology, laws, policy, and regulations clearly im- plies more than the minimum coursework in any single FALL 1989 traditional discipline. Hence, WSU chose to recognize a group of credits as a "Certificate Program," where "certificate" simply refers to university-level recogni- tion and is totally separate from the externally-ad- ministered examinations. Our program consists of a minimum of thirteen credits, distributed as follows: REQUIRED * CHE 551. Introduction to Industrial Waste Management (2 cr: no credit toward a graduate engineering degree) The first required course in the sequence is an overview of the program, including topics on solid waste management, site selec- tion, thermal processing, biological waste disposal, hazardous chemical spill clean-up, and hazardous chemical transportation. * CHE 554. Law and Administration Issues in Industrial Waste Man- agement (2 cr: no credit toward a graduate engineering degree) The second required course covers management guidelines, Su- perfund issues, the Solid Waste Disposal Act, identification con- cepts, standards, reports, permits, and rules. * CHE 556. Transportation and Emergency Spill Response (3 cr) This course covers marine, rail and tank truck transport method- ology, planning and regulations, and emergency spill response, with field experience. * CHE 751. Public Issues of Hazardous Waste, (2 cr) This course is devoted to current issues in hazardous waste man- agement and is presented by nationally recognized leaders in industry. Students will also be required to take an additional four credits from among the following courses. * GEL 515. Soils and Soil Pollution (3 cr) The properties and classification of soils are covered. Knowledge of soil properties is used to understand the removal of pollutants from soils and groundwater. * CHE 553. Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste (2 cr) This course covers thermal processing technology, including combustion fundamentals, incineration equipment, waste heat boilers, air pollution control equipment, and facilities design. * CHE/CE 558. Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous Waste (2 cr) This course covers industrial landfills, biological processes, land disposal techniques, ocean disposal techniques, and the disposal ofashes. * CHE/CE 559. Biological Waste Disposal (2 cr) This course, taught in conjunction with Civil Engineering, con- siders environmental requirements, activated sludge, anaerobic systems, stabilization ponds, dewatering experiments, and acti- vated carbon systems. * CE 619. Ground Water (4 cr) Aquifers, aquitards, saturated and unsaturated flow, sources of contamination, artificial recharge, development of basins, and efficient utilization are discussed. * CHE 657. Safety in the Chemical Process Industry (3 cr) This course covers the fundamental and practical experience necessary for safe operation of a chemical process plant, includ- ing case studies conducted under an industrial supervisor. * OEH 832. Principles of Toxicology (4 cr) Qualified students (those with a biological background) gain ex- posure to toxicity ofindustrial chemicals, absorption of gases and dust, laboratory studies oftoxicity, inhalation data, and experi- mentation methodology. * CHE 726. Waste Management Internship (1-3 cr) Students earn credit by working in WSU's Environmental Health and Safety hazardous waste program, or other environmental control programs in local industry. * CHE 727. Hazardous Waste Laboratory (2 cr) This is a structured laboratory experience in waste characteriza- tion, analysis, disposal techniques, and waste minimization. A "B" average in these 13 credits is required for recognition by the university. Individual courses may B-.- h FIGURE 1. Academic degree of participants FIGURE 2. Academic goals of participants CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION be taken as elective credit toward undergraduate or graduate degrees as well as by non-matriculated stu- dents. An industrial/governmental advisory committee has been recruited, with representation from the basic chemical and automotive industries, hazardous waste operators, consultants, and regulatory agencies. This committee evaluates the program at yearly intervals and suggests revisions in course content for compati- bility with current regulations and state-of-the-art technologies. CURRENT STATUS The Graduate Certificate program was initiated in the fall of 1986 with the offering of "Introduction to Industrial Waste Management." There was no formal survey of the students at that time; however, records indicate that the class was composed mainly of under- graduate chemical engineering students. Since the course was given during the day and was not heavily publicized, this was expected. In winter 1987, "Law and Administration in Industrial Waste Manage- ment," "Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous Waste," "Public Issues of Hazardous Waste," "Waste Management Internship," and "Hazardous Waste Laboratory" were added to the curriculum. Beginning with that semester, classes were offered in the even- ing and were publicized to attract graduate and post- degree students. "Transportation and Emergency Spill Response," "Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste," and "Biological Waste Disposal" were added in subsequent semesters. FIGURE 3. Job classification of participants FIGURE 3. Job classification of participants In the fall of 1988 there were approximately ninety new students in the program, including students in both the regular graduate and undergraduate pro- grams and those enrolled in the Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate program. An off- campus program began in winter 1989 with fifty stu- dents. From a modest beginning of 8-10 students per year prior to the introduction of the Graduate Certifi- cate Program, the class has now grown to 140 stu- dents per year. STUDENT PROFILE For future use in planning, a survey was taken of the winter and fall, 1987, and fall 1988 classes to deter- mine the background and the goals of the students in this program. The total number of students surveyed was 223. Figure 1 shows the baccalaureate degrees of the students in the categories of civil engineering, chemical engineering, geology, chemistry, biology, and other (health management, other engineering, law, business, and liberal arts). Figure 2 shows the goals of the participants in three basic categories: Graduate Certificate conferred by the University, Certification and Examination by an external agency, and Selected Courses. It should be noted that several participants selected more than one category. Figure 3 indicates the general areas in which the participants are classified relative to their work or study situation: Hazardous Waste Generators, Hazardous Waste Haulers and Disposers, Environ- mental Regulators, Students, and Consultants. i F I go l o..... I I i 1 FIGURE 4. Academic goals of 1988 participants FALL 1989 TABLE 2 Curiculum: Master of Science In Hazardous Waste Management Prerequisite/Corequisite: Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Management REQUIRED COURSES: Credit Introduction to Industrial Waste Management 2 (S/U) (no graduate credit) Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste 2 Law and Administration in Industrial Waste Management 2 (S/U) (no graduate credit) Transportation and Emergency Spill Response 3 Land Disposal 2 Biological Treatment of Hazardous Waste 2 Public Issues of Hazardous Waste 2 Hydrogeology 4 Waste Minimization 2 Safety in the Chemical Process Industry 3 Waste Management Internship or- Hazardous Waste Laboratory or - Air Sampling and Analysis Principles of Industrial Toxicology Design of Chemical Process Experiments I or - Probability Models and Data Analysis Minimum Required (excess credit may be applied to electives) 2 (minimum) 2 3 4 3 -4- 29 (33 including noncredit requirements) ELECT VES: Unit Operation: Unit Processes in Environmental Engg. Industrial Waste: Control, regulations, and treatment Safety in the Laboratory Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CHE 899) or- Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CE 899) or- Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CM 899) or - Master's Thesis Research and Direction (OEH 899) Environmental Microbiology Biochemistry Soils and Soil Pollution Sanitary Chemistry Anal/Inst Chemistry Environmental Law Transnational Environmental Problems Environmental Pollution Radiation Safety: Principles and Practice Chemistry of Industrial Processes Epidemiology Applied Epidemiology Chemical Engineering Graduate Seminar Total Electives (Including overage from required selection) TOTAL CREDITS MASTERS PROGRAM Student demand for more information led the fac- ulty and the industrial advisory committee to develop a curriculum for a Master of Science in Hazardous Waste Management. Approximately 37% of the enter- ing class of '88 expressed interest in the full MS pro- gram, as illustrated in Figure 4. The Graduate Certificate is a prerequisite to ad- mission in the Masters program, and all credits are directly applicable toward the Masters. The approved curriculum is listed in Table 2. A full discussion of all the MS courses is beyond the scope of this paper, but graduates will have solid backgrounds in biological and thermal processing, land disposal, hydrogeology, toxicology, laboratory techniques, waste minimiza- tion, and chemical process safety. CONCLUSIONS It has become evident that industry must learn to design and operate plants to prevent spills and episodes, and to manage their chemical wastes prop- erly. However, it is equally true that they must learn to cope with emergencies and to be able to deal with the public and regulatory agencies before, during, and after such problems. A graduate certificate program such as the one offered by WSU provides a new avenue of education in this field. The uniqueness of this program lies in the fact that it is area-specific, flexible, and subject to frequent content review. Some changes have already been made, and others are currently under study by the faculty involved in the program, such as the devel- opment of the full Masters Degree. REFERENCES 1. Levine Associates, "Evaluating the Environmental Health Workforce," U.S. Department of Health and Hu- man Services Report on HRSA contract 240-286-00076, January (1988) 2. Busch, P.L., and W. C. Anderson, "Education of Haz- ardous Waste Engineering Professionals," 116th An- nual Meeting of the American Public Health Ass'n., Boston, MA, November (1987) 3. Busch, P.L., "A Hazardous Waste Crisis: Too Few Peo- ple," Waste Age, September (1988) 4. Mathis, J.F., "Building an Industry/AIChE Partnership, AIChExtra, a supplement to Chem. Eng. Prog., April (1989) 5. The Environmental Manager's Compliance Advisor, V. 232,6, June 6 (1988) 6. Portnoy, K., "Education: Hazmat Management Goes to School," Hazmat World, 54, August (1988) 7. Kachman, N.C., "The Environmental Professional-An Established Career Path," lecture to the 13th Annual Michigan Air Pollution Control Ass'n., May (1989) 0 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 4 1 10 8 8 8 3 or 5 3 3 3 3 2-3 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 5 34 (38 including noncredit courses) PARTICULATE PROCESSES Continued from page 215. ing the relative sensitivity of secondary nucleation to growth rate G (used as a surrogate variable for super- saturation) and slurry density MT. contain only crystals less than some cut size LF. Class- ification is usually done passively by settling within the vessel. Figure 2 shows the dramatic average par- ticle size increase that this simple configuration can achieve vis-a-vis the MSMPR configuration. Simple power-law nucleation kinetics of the form CSD SIMULATION ND MANIPULATION G CSD SIMULATION AND MANIPULATION N T re 1 shows the configuration and theoretical were used for these calculations. As the slurry density on density plot for both the MSMPR and Dou- also increases in DDO operation this configuration is -Off (DDO) crystallizers [6]. The DDO config- only fully useful for weak feeds giving a low natural merely removes and then com lines two sepa- slurry density. Per-pass yield is also increased. Thus, ry streams, one mixed and one classified to the DDO configuration is also used to increase yield rry streams, one mixed and one classified to in systems with slow growth kinetics. in systems with slow growth kinetics. Bench-scale studies are currently being done to evaluate the DDO crystallizer as a method of making (c) j=2 --- = 1 larger calcium sulfite and sulfate (gypsum) particles S.. i3 in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) processes. Larger particles would greatly reduce downstream costs in such FGD processes. S6In ChE-514, students have access to a computer 4 program (Program Crystal Ball [7]) which solves -- 2 simultaneous population and mass balances for the CSD using arbitrary crystallization kinetics. Students use this program to design a crystallizer producing a desired crystal size and yield. (b)j=1 ouU= In summary, the course explores the PSD of par- i = 3 7 ticulate processes, while emphasizing the distributed .nature of these processes. It attempts to show predic- tion as well as description of the PSD with the ulti- /R2 mate aim of manipulation. However, these goals are /' only achieved in the study of CSD from well-defined 4 crystallization processes. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 18 x, DIMENSIONLESS CUT SIZE, Lr/Go'r FIGURE 2. Mass Mean Size Improvement, DDO/MSMPR Crystallizers (after E. T. White and A. D. Randolph (1988)). REFERENCES 1. Irani, R.R., and C.F. Callis, Particle Size: Measure- ment, Interpretation, and Application, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1963) 2. Randolph, A.D., and M.A. Larson, Theory of Particu- late Processes: Analysis and Techniques of Continuous Crystallization, second edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (1988) 3. McCabe, W.L., J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Opera- tions of Chemical Engineering, fourth edition, McGraw- Hill, New York (1985) 4. Kelly, E.G., and D.J. Spottiswood, Introduction to Min- eral Processing, Wiley, New York (1982) 5. Felder, R.M., "Impostors Everywhere," Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 168 (1988) 6. White, E.T., and A.D. Randolph, "Optimum Fines Size for Classification in Double Draw-Off Crystallizers, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 276 (1989) 7. Sharnez, Riswan, "Dynamic Simulation and Control of Crystal-Size Distribution in a Continuous Crystallizer," MS Thesis, University of Arizona (1987) 0 Figu populati ble Drav uration I rate slur 0 -1- r') I-J cLU N LiU cn r) U) LL 0 0 !< a:. FALL 1989 A course in ... FLUID MECHANICS OF SUSPENSIONS ROBERT H. DAVIS University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0424 2a, particle diameter or length, pm (1pm =10-4cm = 10 4 A) 10-1 1 10 SUSPENSIONS CONSISTING of small particles, drop- lets, or cells dispersed in a liquid or gas are found in a wide variety of natural and industrial processes. We are all familiar with many examples of aerosol suspensions, for which the continuous phase is air (such as smoke, smog, mist, fog, clouds, and various sprays and dusts). We are also familiar with many examples of hydrosol suspensions, for which the con- tinuous phase is water. These include coal slurries, drilling muds, blood, unstrained fruit juice, silt and clay in estuaries, and submerged cultures of microbial, plant, animal, or insect cells. Further important examples of suspensions are paints, ointments, immis- cible bimetallic melts, and oil-water emulsions. A chart showing typical sizes for several types of suspended particles is given in Figure 1. In general, suspended particles are smaller than approximately 100 pm (1 mm = 10-m) in size, since larger particles rapidly settle out of suspension due to gravity. The Reynolds number for flow around suspended particles is typically small compared to unity, and so inertia effects may be neglected relative to viscous forces. Particles smaller than approximately one micron in size are called colloidal particles. They settle out of suspension only very slowly due to gravity. Moreover, because of their large surface area to volume ratio, these particles are subject to Brownian motion and attractive and repulsive interparticle forces. The behavior of suspensions of colloidal and fine particles represents a fascinating and challenging area Robert H. Davis is an associate pro- fessor in chemical engineering at the Uni- versity of Colorado. After receiving his doc- toral degree from Stanford University in 1983, he was a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge. His research interests lie in the area of fluid mechanics of suspensions, in- cluding microbial suspensions. r. smog smoke dust mist,i fog s ;,, ----sprays colloidal silica st silt clay sand paint pigment carbon black pulverized coal flexible long-chain macromolecule (M.W. =106) coiled extended viruses bacteria m. f. p. of air molecule t red blood cells S blood capillaries wavelength of light ultraviolet visible infrared U, fall speed of rigid sphere (s. g. = 2) in water, pm/s 0.5x10 4 0.5x10-2 05 0.5102 0 5xl04 pUa/p, Reynolds number of flow due to falling sphere in water 2 5x10-13 2.5x10-10 2.5x10-7 2.5x10-4 025 D, diffusivity of rigid sphere in water, pm2/s 0.5x102 0.5x101 0.5 0.5X10-1 0.5x10-2 aU/D, Peclet number of sedimenting sphere in:water 0.5x10-8 0.5x10-4 0.5 0.5x104 0.5xi08 FIGURE 1. Orders of magnitude for typical colloids and fine particles (after Batchelor, 1976a). for research. There are many active groups studying the fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspen- sions. This research effort needs to be supported by graduate courses which provide students with a fun- damental background and the necessary skills for further study of suspenisons. In this paper, I sum- marize such a course that was introduced at the Uni- versity of Colorado during this past year. COURSE PHILOSOPHY AND STRUCTURE The course philosophy is based on two goals: To provide the students with a fundamental background that encompasses various aspects of the fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. To provide the students with an understanding and appreci- Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts, as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of lectures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions, and the second part consists of seminars on research frontiers and applications involving suspensions. ation of the state-of-the-art research which is being under- taken in this area. Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts, as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of lec- tures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions, and the second part consists of seminars on research frontiers and applications involving suspensions. These seminars are presented by students who are taking the course, other, more advanced students, guest speakers, and myself. It is assumed that the students have previously taken a graduate level course in fluid mechanics and an undergraduate course in physical chemistry, and that they have a working knowledge of differential, integral, and vector cal- culus. FUNDAMENTALS After an introductory lecture, one lecture period (75 minutes) is spent on a whirlwind review of con- tinuum mechanics for fluids, culminating with the Navier-Stokes equations. The next three lectures focus on general features of the creeping flow or Stokes equations, which result when the Reynolds number is sufficiently small so that the inertia terms (both the local and convective acceleration) may be neglected. One important feature of these equations is their linearity, which allows us to draw many signif- icant conclusions without having to solve the equa- tions. For example, it is easily shown from the rever- sibility property of linear equations that a nonBrown- ian particle with fore-and-aft symmetry will not ex- perience a lift force when placed at an arbitrary loca- tion in a tube with laminar flow. In contrast, such a particle will experience a lift force and migrate across streamlines when the particle Reynolds number is not small compared to unity. Other features of creeping flow that are covered include general solutions based on harmonic functions and corresponding particular solutions, the fundamental solution for the velocity and pressure fields generated by a point force, the reciprocal theorem, and the boundary integral rep- resentation of the Stokes equations. The latter is par- ticularly convenient for numerical solutions of mul- tiphase flow and moving boundary problems, because the velocity field is given in terms of integrals over the boundaries of the domain. The sixth lecture describes the details of creeping TABLE 1 Course Outline Introduction SGeneral Features of Suspensions Applications Involving Suspensions Part 1: Fundamentals Review of the Equations of Motion Creeping Flow Equations and General Considerations Motion of a Single Rigid Sphere in a Fluid Motion of a Single Spherical Drop in a Fluid Motion of Two Interacting Spheres in a Fluid Brownian Motion and Diffusion of Suspended Particles Interparticle Attractive and Repulsive Forces Dimensional Analysis and Order-of-Magnitude Estimates Part 2: Applications and Research Frontiers Sedimentation and Centrifugation Coagulation and Flocculation Particle Capture and Adhesion Microfiltration Suspension Rheology Drop and Bubble Deformation, Breakup, and Coalescence Marangoni Migration of Drops Dynamic Simulations of Suspensions Fluidization Particle Size Measurement Particle Size Classification flow past a rigid sphere. The quantity of primary in- terest, the drag force, is easily found by using the boundary integral equations and the principles of linearity. The complete velocity field in the fluid sur- rounding the particle is found either from evaluating the integrals that appear in the boundary integral equations, or by using the boundary conditions to evaluate the constants that appear in the general sol- ution to the corresponding differential equations. The following two lectures extend these concepts to the flow internal and external to a viscous drop in creep- ing motion. Fundamental concepts such as interfacial tension and normal and tangential stress balances are also covered. Lectures nine and ten describe the interaction of two spherical particles in creeping flow, such as is important for theoretical descriptions of sedimenta- tion, coagulation, and suspension rheology. As a con- sequence of the linearity of the Stokes equations, this interaction may be decomposed into a superposition of motion along the line-of-centers and motion normal to the line-of-centers. The two-sphere resistance and mo- bility functions are described, where the resistance functions yield the force and torque on each sphere when their translational and rotational velocities are FALL 1989 known, and the mobility functions yield the transla- tional and rotational velocities when the force and tor- que applied to each sphere are specified. Asymptotic solutions for these functions are presented using the method of reflections when the spheres are far apart, and using lubrication theory when the spheres are nearly touching. Shortly after the invention of the optical micro- scope, scientists observed that very small particles such as bacteria maintained a constant state of random motion when dispersed in water. This phenomenon occurs due to the thermal motion of the molecules comprising the surrounding fluid and is called Brown- ian motion, after Robert Brown, a Scottish botanist who published his observations in the early 1800s. The classical thermodynamic analysis to yield the Stokes- Einstein diffusivity of Brownian particles is presented in one lecture, and then is supplemented by a second lecture covering the more rigorous derivation based on the Langevin equation for particle motion. Further aspects which are considered include the relative dif- fusion of two interacting spheres and the spreading of a sedimenting interface due to Brownian diffusion. The next three lectures are devoted to the inter- particle attractive and repulsive forces which arise in colloidal suspensions. It is the relative magnitude of the attractive and repulsive forces which determines whether a suspension is stable (the particles do not aggregate) or unstable (the particles aggregate to- gether in clumps). The attractive forces considered are London-van der Waals dispersion forces, which arise from induced-dipole interactions between the molecules in the two interacting particles. We start with an analysis of induced-dipole interactions be- tween two isolated molecules, and then follow the pair-wise additivity theory of Hamaker (1937) and others to develop expressions for van der Waals at- tractive forces between macroscopic bodies. Since this approach does not correctly account for screening due to intervening molecules, and retardation due to phase shifts, the more complete continuum theory of Lifshitz and others (see Russel et al., 1989) is also discussed. The repulsive forces which are considered are primarily electrostatic due to charges on the particle surfaces, although Born repulsion and steric and charge stabilization due to adsorbed polymers are also briefly described. When the charged particles are present in a solvent containing ions, a double-layer with an excess of counter ions will form around each particle, thereby reducing the repulsive force between two particles of like charge. The potential field in the ionic solution is described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The analytical and numerical solutions to this equation and its boundary conditions are pre- sented for a variety of cases. The solutions lead to expressions for the electrostatic repulsive force be- tween charged objects. Finally, these are combined with the expressions for London-van der Waals at- traction to yield the DLVO theory for the net force potential as a function of the separation distance be- tween two particles. The final lecture of Part 1 of the course is a review which is accomplished by collecting the expressions which have been derived for the various forces acting on colloidal and fine particles in suspensions. These include gravity, viscous, inertial, Brownian, van der Waals, and double-layer forces. Order-of-magnitude estimates for these forces as functions of particle size and separation are made. By comparing the relative magnitudes of the forces, it is easy to see which forces typically dominate for different size ranges and parti- cle separation distances. This analysis leads naturally to the identification of key dimensionless groups, such as the Reynolds number (ratio of inertia to viscous forces) and the Peclet number (ratio of convection to diffusion). RESEARCH FRONTIERS AND APPLICATIONS I start off the second part of the course by giving one overview lecture which briefly describes selected FIGURE 2. Wave formation at the interface between sus- pension and clarified fluid during sedimentation in an inclined channel (from Davis and Acrivos, 1985). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION practical applications and current research activities involving suspensions. The ones chosen for this past year are listed in Table 1. Most of these were then elaborated on in a seminar-style format by myself, a student, or a guest speaker. Brief summaries are given in the following paragraphs. Sedimentation and centrifugation are commonly used to separate particles from fluid; they also form the basis for indirect measurements of particle size. A few areas of current research interest include hin- dered settling and hydrodynamic diffusion due to par- ticle interactions, enhanced sedimentation in inclined channels, lateral segregation and instabilities in sedimentation of bidisperse (two particle sizes or types) suspensions, and analysis of flow patterns in centrifuges. One of our seminars this past year cov- ered recent advances in sedimentation in inclined channels (Figure 2), and another described the spreading of the interface at the top of a sedimenting suspension due to the collective action of hydro- dynamic diffusion, size polydispersity, and hindered settling. In order for particles in a suspension to coagulate, aggregate, or flocculate, the particles must first be | I-cc-H- ^ ^^^^ ^ FIGURE 3. Aggregates of yeast cells with loosely- branched fractal structure. brought close together by Brownian motion, differen- tial sedimentation, or stirring. They then must experi- ence an attractive force which is sufficiently strong to overcome any repulsive force and the fluid-mechanic lubrication resistance to relative motion. Considerable recent research on Brownian-induced, shear-induced, and gravity-induced flocculation has extended the early collision models of Smoluchowski (1917) to in- clude the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and in- terparticle attractive and repulsive interactions. One of our seminars described a model for predicting the rate of doublet formation in a polydisperse suspension due to the combined action of gravity sedimentation and attractive van der Waals forces. Further current research on flocculation involves the experimental and theoretical elucidation of the loosely-branched fractal structure of aggregates of colloidal particles or micro- bial cells (Figure 3). Two different types of filtration to remove small particles from gas or liquid streams are common. Par- ticle capture and adhesion are the underlying process- es in deep-bed filtration by stationary collectors such as granular beds and fibrous mats. The basic concept is that a gas or liquid stream is passed through the filter, and the suspended particles collide with the col- lecting elements due to their inertia or Brownian mo- tion and adhere to them as a result of attractive forces. Current fundamental research on particle cap- ture and adhesion was reviewed in one of the seminars and includes determining fluid flow patterns and par- ticle trajectories in deep-bed filters, predicting the conditions for which the colliding particles will adhere as opposed to bounce, and examining the influence of particle inertia, Brownian motion, interparticle at- tractive and repulsive forces, and hydrodynamic in- teractions on capture rates. The second type of filtration considered is cross- flow microfiltration, in which a suspension under pres- sure is passed through a narrow tube or channel hav- ing microporous membrane walls (Figure 4). The sol- vent and small molecules pass through the walls as permeate, whereas the particles are retained on the membrane surface. If these particles are allowed to accumulate in a stagnant cake or fouling layer adja- cent to the membrane, then the permeate flux rate is Microporous Permeate Membrane t t t t t t t t t t t t t Suspension --:4 ". .'. ; '.' .' '* ".'. Retentate Feed -F Concentrated ) U 4 S m t I c 1 Tf t I w I Cake Layer FIGURE 4. Schematic of crossflow microfiltration. FALL 1989 reduced. In order to understand and overcome this phenomenon, current research is directed at describ- ing how the shear stress exerted at the membrane wall by the tangential flow of suspension through the filter tube or channel is able to limit the buildup of a fouling layer. Suspension rheology refers to the flow behavior of suspensions. Suspensions often exhibit nonNewtonian theological behavior, in large part due to interparticle attractive and repulsive forces and Brownian motion. In addition to studies of nonNewtonian behavior, con- siderable theoretical and experimental research is cur- rently directed at extending Einstein's relationship for the effective viscosity of a sheared suspension. Another active research area involves shear-induced Suspension rheology refers to the flow behavior of suspensions. Suspensions often exhibit nonNewtonian theological behavior, in large part due to interparticle attraction and repulsive forces and Brownian motion. hydrodynamic diffusion, for which particles migrate across bulk streamlines due to hydrodynamic interac- tions with other particles. The key role that this phenomenon plays in crossflow microfiltration was de- scribed in one of the seminars. Drop and bubble deformation, breakup, and coalescence play key roles in a variety of important processes, such as raindrop growth, liquid-liquid ex- traction, mixing, dissolved oxygen transfer in fermen- tors, and materials processing of bimetallic melts with a liquid-phase miscibility gap. Accordingly, research in this area is very active. Boundary integral methods are used to study the deformation and burst of single drops, as well as the motion and deformation of two interacting drops. Lubrication forces, van der Waals interactions, and interfacial phenomenon have been shown to significantly affect film drainage and film rupture between two colliding drops or bubbles. One of our seminars this past year reviewed techniques such as bispherical coordinate transformations, mul- tipole expansions, and lubrication theory coupled with boundary integral methods for describing the hydro- dynamic interaction between two spherical drops in creeping flow. Two other seminars dealt with popula- tion dynamics models and holographic techniques for predicting and measuring, respectively, shifts in drop size distributions due to collisions and coalescence. When a drop (or bubble) is placed in an otherwise quiescent liquid on which a temperature gradient is imposed, it will migrate (in addition to its motion due to gravity or other external forces) toward the region of higher temperature. This phenomenon is referred to as thermal Marangoni migration or thermocapillary migration and occurs because the interfacial tension decreases with increasing temperature. The interfa- cial tension difference between the hot and cold sides of the drop sets up a circulatory motion so that the drop, in effect, "swims" up the temperature gradient. This migration was first analyzed by Young et al. (1959) under conditions of small Reynolds and Peclet numbers. Current research was reviewed in one of our seminars and includes extending the analysis to higher Peclet numbers, considering the interaction of two drops or bubbles in a temperature gradient, and analyzing the analogous phenomenon of solutal Maran- goni migration of a drop or bubble in a concentration gradient of a surfactant. Recently, Brady and Bossis (1988) and co-workers have developed a method to dynamically simulate the behavior of many particles suspended in a fluid. The method incorporates hydrodynamic interactions be- tween particles, at least in an approximate sense, as well as other forces applied to particles, such as grav- ity, Brownian forces, and attractive and repulsive in- terparticle forces. This method, known as Stokesian dynamics, follows the position and velocity of each of the suspended particles as functions of time, for sus- pension flows such as sedimentation and simple shear. Although excessive computational requirements gen- erally limit the simulations to a monolayer of sus- pended particles, they are able to predict macroscopic information, such as effective viscosities or average hindered settling velocities, as well as microscopic in- formation, such as the local arrangement or micro- structure of the particles as it evolves with time (in- cluding addressing questions such as whether or not the particles tend to cluster). Another application area for research involving suspensions is that of fluidized beds, which are com- mon in the chemical process industry. Solid particles at rest in a vertical column form a packed bed through which fluid may be forced. If the rate at which fluid is forced through the bed exceeds a critical value (i.e., that for which the drag force exceeds the gravity force on the particles), then the particles are lifted and sepa- rated from one another. The bed is then said to be fluidized. If the fluid velocity is increased further, the fluidized bed will become unstable. Bubbles of fluid that are relatively free of particles will form near the base of the bed and rise through it. As a result, partial by-passing of the particles by the fluid occurs. In addi- tion to studies of these instabilities and bubble forma- tion, current research on fluidized beds includes studies of particle attrition and of hindered settling of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION particles relative to the fluid. For a variety of reasons, it is important to know the size distribution of particles in suspension. This is particularly true for the design of solid-liquid separa- tion equipment, particle size classifiers, and catalytic reactors. The many methods available for sizing parti- cles include electrical conductivity, gravitational and centrifugal sedimentation with light extinction, hydro- dynamic chromatography, photomicroscopy, optical blockage or shadowing, light scattering, aerosol iner- tia, diffraction, field-flow fractionation, gas adsorp- tion, elutriation, and holography. Seminars presented by students this past year included light scattering and holographic techniques for measuring particle size distributions. The final application area considered in Part 2 of the course involves particle classification, where class- ification involves the separation of particles according to size, shape, or density. A variety of commercial devices are available for particle classification. These include screens, elutriators, continuous centrifuges, and cyclones. A single pass through one of these de- vices will divide a feed stream into a coarse fraction and a fine fraction. One of our seminars focused on elutriators, which require the particles to settle against an upward flowing liquid stream. Classifica- tion occurs due to differences in the sedimentation ve- locities of the particles. Fundamental analyses to pre- dict the compositions of the product streams are pos- sible for relatively simple geometries, such as a rec- tangular channel inclined from the vertical. READING MATERIAL As is often true of advanced speciality courses, there is no single textbook which covers all of the material presented. A new text which covers most of the fundamental material and some of the application areas is Colloidal Dispersions, by Russel, Saville, and Schowalter (1989). Another new text, which focuses on mathematical treatments of fundamental fluid mechanics of noncolloidal suspensions, is An Introduc- tion to Microhydrodynamics, by Kim, Karrila, and Jeffrey (1989). I thank Bill Russel and Sang Kim for providing me with advance copies of the relevant chapters of these texts. These and other useful books are listed in the reference section. Also provided is an extensive, but by no means exhaustive, list of techni- cal and review articles on suspensions. Since the lectures cover considerable complex ma- terial, I wrote them out in advance in order to provide copies to the students. Similarly, copies of the over- heads or text for each seminar are provided to the class. This minimizes the requirement for notetaking and allows the students to participate more fully in the class discussion. ASSIGNMENTS AND GRADING Several homework assignments are given in order to provide the students with a deeper understanding of the fundamental material on suspensions presented in the lectures, and to give them practice with the necessary analytical tools. An in-class midterm exami- nation is given at the end of Part 1 of the course, covering the fundamentals of fluid mechanical and col- loidal aspects of suspensions. During Part 2 of the course, each student prepares a written paper review- ing the state-of-the-art of a particular research subject that falls under the general theme of the course. These papers are of 10-15 pages in length and are prepared in a journal-style format. Each must review at least two journal references from the past decade. The stu- dents also present their review papers to the class in a seminar-style format. The course is graded with equal weighting on the homework, the midterm, and the review paper. In addition, regular attendance and participation in crit- ical discussions are expected. Since speciality courses are usually small in size (we had eleven students in this course last fall), there is plenty of opportunity for all to participate. An effective way to promote this is to take the class on a mini-retreat early in the term. We went to the Mountain Research Station of the Uni- versity of Colorado one Saturday last fall, where I delivered three of the lectures interspersed with lunch and volleyball games. CONCLUDING REMARKS Suspensions represent a fruitful area for funda- mental research with a wide variety of important ap- plications. This course provides graduate students with the fundamental background that is needed to pursue this research. It also provides them with a broad understanding and appreciation of the current applications and research frontiers in this area. REFERENCES BOOKS Barth, H.G., ed., Modern Methods of Particle Size Analysis, Wiley (1984) Batchelor, G.K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cam- bridge University Press (1967) Happel, J., and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydro- dynamics, Prentice-Hall (1965); republished by Martinus Nijhoff(1986) Hiemenz, P.C., Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker (1986) FALL 1989 Hirtzel, C.S., and R. Rajagopalan, Colloidal Phenomena: Advanced Topics, Noyes Publications (1985) Kim, S., S.J. Karrila, and D.J. Jeffrey, An Introduction to Microhydrodynamics, Butterworths (1989) Landau, L.D., and F.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed., Pergamon Press (1987) Mahanty, J., and B.W. Ninham, Dispersion Forces, Aca- demic Press (1976) Probstein, R.F., Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Butter- worths (1989) Russell, W.B., D.A. Saville, and W.R. Schowalter, Col- loidal Dispersions, Cambridge University Press (1989) JOURNAL ARTICLES Acrivos, A., and E. Herbolzheimer, "Enhanced Sedimenta- tion in Settling Tanks with Inclined Walls," J. Fluid Mech., 92,435 (1979) Adler, P.M., "Heterocoagulation in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 83, 106 (1981) Amberg, G., and H.P. Greenspan, "Boundary Layers in a Sectioned Centrifuge," J. Fluid Mech., 181, 77 (1987) Anderson, J.L. "Droplet Interactions in Thermocapillary Motion," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 11, 813 (1985) Barnocky, G., and R.H. Davis, "Elastohydrodynamic Collision and Rebound of Spheres: Experimental Verifi- cation," Phys. Fluids, 31, 1324 (1988) Batchelor, G.K., "Developments in Microhydrodynamics," in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ed W.T. Koiter, North Holland, 33 (1976a) Batchelor, G.K., "Brownian Diffusion with Hydrodynamic Interaction," J. Fluid Mech., 74, 1 (1976b) Batchelor, G.K., "Sedimentation in a Dilute Polydisperse System of Interacting Spheres: Part 1. General Theory," J. Fluid Mech., 119, 379 (1982) Batchelor, G.K., "A New Theory of the Instability of a Uni- form Fluidized Bed," J. Fluid Mech., 193, 75 (1988) Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, "The Determination of the Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Particles to Order c2," J. Fluid Mech., 56,401(1972) Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, "The Hydrodynamic In- teraction of Two Small Freely-Moving Spheres in a Lin- ear Flow Field," J. Fluid Mech., 56, 375 (1972) Bentley, B.J., and L.G. Leal, "An Experimental Investiga- tion of Drop Deformation and Breakup in Steady, Two- Dimensional Linear Flows," J. Fluid Mech., 167, 241 (1986) Brady, J.F., and G. Bossis, "Stokesian Dynamics," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 20, 111 (1988) Chen, J.-D., "A Model of Coalescence Between Two Equal- Sized Spherical Drops or Bubbles," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 107, 209 (1985) Chi, B.K., and L.G. Leal, "A Theoretical Study of the Motion of a Viscous Drop Toward a Fluid Interface at Low Reynolds Number," J. Fluid Mech., 201, 123 (1989) Davis, K.E., and W.B. Russel, "An Asymptotic Description of Transient Settling and Ultrafiltration of Colloidal Dis- persions," Phys. Fluid A., 1, 82 (1989) Davis, R.H., "The Rate of Coagulation of a Dilute Polydis- perse System of Sedimenting Spheres," J. Fluid Mech., 145, 179 (1984) Davis, R.H., and A. Acrivos, "Sedimentation of Noncol- loidal Particles at Low Reynolds Numbers, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 17,91(1985) Davis, R.H., and M.A. Hassen, "Spreading of the Interface at the Top of a Slightly Polydisperse Suspension," J. Fluid Mech., 196, 107 (1988) Davis, R.H., J.A. Schonberg, and J.M. Rallison, "The Lu- brication Force Between Two Viscous Drops," Phys. Flu- idsA, 1, 77 (1989) Davis, R.H., X. Zhang, and J.P. Agarwala, "Particle Classification for Dilute Suspensions Using an Inclined Settler," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 785 (1989) Feke, D.L., and W.R. Schowalter, "The Influence of Brown- ian Diffusion on Binary Flow-Induced Collision Rates in Colloidal Dispersions," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 106, 203 (1985) Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 1. Axisymmetric Motions," Phys. Fluids, 31, 2445 (1988) Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 2. Asymmetric Motions," Phys. Fluids A, 1, 61 (1989) Gal, E., G. Tardos, and R. Pfeffer, "A Study of Inertial Ef- fects in Granular Bed Filtration," AIChE J., 31, 1093 (1985) Geller, A.S., S.H. Lee, and L.G. Leal, "The Creeping Motion of a Spherical Particle Normal to a Deformable Interface," J. Fluid Mech., 169, 27 (1986) Goldman, A.J., R.G. Cox, and H. Brenner, "The Slow Mo- tion of Two Identical Arbitrarily Oriented Spheres Through a Viscous Fluid," Chem. Eng. Sci., 21, 1151 (1966) Haber, S., and G. Hetsroni, "Sedimentation in a Dilute Dis- persion of Small Drops of Various Sizes," J. Colloid Inter- face Sci., 79, 56 (1981) Haber, S., G. Hetsroni, and A. Solan, "On the Low Reynolds Number Motion of Two Droplets," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1,57(1973) Hahn, P.-S., J.-D. Chen, and J.C. Slattery, "Effects of Lon- don-van der Waals Forces on the Thinning and Rupture of a Dimpled Liquid Film as a Small Drop or Bubble Ap- proaches a Fluid-Fluid Interface," AIChE J., 31, 2026 (1985) Hamaker, H.C., "London-van der Waals Attraction Be- tween Spherical Particles," Physica, 4, 1058 (1937) Ivanov, I.B., D.S. Dimitrov, P. Somasundaran, and R.K. Jain, "Thinning of Films With Deformable Interfaces: Diffusion-Controlled Surfactant Transfer," Chem. Eng. Sci., 40, 137 (1985) Jeffrey, D.J., and Y. Onishi, "Calculations of the Resistance and Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Rigid Spheres in Low-Reynolds-Number Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 139, 261 (1984) Johnson, R.E., and S.S. Sadhal, "Fluid Mechanics of Com- pound Multiphase Drops and Bubbles," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 17, 289 (1985) Jones, A.F., and S.D.R. Wilson, "The Film Drainage Prob- lem in Droplet Coalescence," J. Fluid Mech., 87, 263 (1978) Leighton, D.T., and A. Acrivos, "The Shear Induced Migra- tion of Particles in Concentrated Suspension," J. Fluid Mech., 181, 415 (1987) Melik, D.H., and H.S. Fogler, "Effect of Gravity on Brown- ian Flocculation," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 101, 84 (1984) Rallison, J.M., "The Deformation of Small Viscous Drops and Bubbles in Shear Flows," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16, 45(1984) Rallison, J.M., and A. Acrivos, "A Numerical Study of the Deformation and Burst of a Viscous Drop in an Exten- sional Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 89, 191 (1978) Romero, C.A., and R.H. Davis, "Global Model of Crossflow Microfiltration Based on Hydrodynamic Particle Diffu- CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION sion," J. Memb. Sci., 39, 157 (1988) Russel, W.B., "Brownian Motion of Small Particles Sus- pended in Liquids," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 13, 425 (1981) Schowalter, W.R., "Stability and Coagulation of Colloids in Shear Fields," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16, 245 (1984) Shankar, N., and R.S. Subramanian, "The Stokes Motion of a Gas Bubble Due to Interfacial Tension Gradients at Low to Moderate Marangoni Numbers," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 123, 512 (1988) Smoluchowski, M. von, "Versuch Einer Mathematischen Theorie der Kongulationskinetik Kolloider Losungen," Z. Phys. Chem., 92, 129 (1917) Spielman, L.A., "Viscous Interactions in Brownian Coagu- lation," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 33, 562 (1970) Tien, C., and A.C. Payatakes, "Advances in Deep Bed Fil- tration,"AIChE J., 25, 735 (1979) van de Ven, T.G.M., and S.G. Mason, "The Microrheology of Spheres in Shear Flow: IV. Pairs of Interacting Spheres in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 57, 505 (1976) van de Ven, T.G.M., and S.G. Mason, "The Microrheology of Spheres in Shear Flow: V. Primary and Secondary Doublets of Spheres in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 57, 517 (1976) Weitz, D.A., and J.S. Huang, "Self-Similar Structures and the Kinetics of Aggregation of Gold Colloids," in Kinetics of Aggregation and Gelation, ed by P. Family and D.P. Landau, Elsevier Science, p. 19 (1984) Young, N.O., J.S. Goldstein, and M.J. Block, "The Motion of Bubbles in a Vertical Temperature Gradient," J. Fluid Mech., 6, 350 (1959) Zeichner, G.R., and W.R. Schowalter, "Use of Trajectory Analysis to Study Stability of Colloidal Dispersions in Flow Fields," AIChE J., 23, 243 (1977) 0 LETTER TO THE EDITOR Continued from page 203. times of economic crisis cut their own compensation first. (In the last two years, Japanese manufacturers cut their executive salaries to absorb the external shocks of the ap- preciating yen.) Many American corporations now are seeking to lessen the damage of management versus labor battles by giving more workers a chance to advise on corporate methods and strategy in the workplace. In the meantime, in the universities, there has been a proliferation of man- agers, the very well-paid academic and non-academic administrators who don't teach. So the universities, al- ways about a decade behind the rest of the country, are just now discovering how privileged the management class has become and finding ways of distancing the managers and functionaries from the professors. We see administrative layer upon layer burgeoning, with pro- portionately less support available to serve those of the academic "production" side. This hierarchy in a univer- sity bureaucracy creates alienating conditions deterring communication between the classroom and the labora- tory on the one hand and the deans, vice presidents and the president on the other. A perception of privilege undermines a sense of community on many campuses. University administra- tors in major universities around the country, for exam- ple, drive university cars, with reserved parking places. They may also have free memberships in social clubs. A clear message of power and privilege, symbolically and actually, is communicated to all. The atmosphere and class distinctions become demoralizing. Privileges are perceived not as nurturing qualities of commitment to the life of the mind, nor qualities promoting loyalty to the in- stitution. Much of a university's energy today is invested in perpetuating the non-academic instruments of control and maintaining the structure of a self-perpetuating bu- reaucracy. The heart and reputation of a university, and the af- fection and esteem in which it is held, do not reside solely in the dollars awarded its research professors by extra- mural agencies. Rather, the perceived greatness of its commitment to the education and nurturing of its stu- dents and the respect accorded faculty and their creative works, determine the long-term well-being of the univer- sity. Every student graduating from the institution, and all its faculty members, promote the university in terms cynical or laudatory, depending on his or her experi- ences. Thus the faculty and administrators ought to en- hance their institution's well-being by promoting the self- esteem of the students and faculty. Students and faculty are inexorably linked. This means fostering collegiality, reducing the sense of an impersonal and disinterested bureaucracy. It means finding out, perhaps by exit inter- views with graduates, what is actually happening within the university (rather than doing surveys on quality of life). The same ought to be done with departing faculty members. Paying attention to practical problems such as the availability and cost of parking, courtesy, maintaining clean classrooms, and promptness of response to in- quiries are ways university administrations can show re- spect for the needs of students and faculty. It also means the president and vice presidents and deans should meet with faculty members and students at the working aca- demic level, the basic teaching units of the university. Wanting to do those things and more would be a unifying influence. This requires, ultimately, the recognition that all administrators are temporary caretakers for the new generations of students always coming and going and respecting the teachers who transmit their learning and pursue new knowledge. The history and continuity of a university resides in the quality of work and loyalty of its students and faculty and the non-academic workers who serve in making the central purposes of the university easier to accomplish. Daniel Hershey Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Cincinnati and former Assistant to the President under Warren Bennis FALL 1989 A course on ... APPLIED LINEAR ALGEBRA TSE-WEI WANG The University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 N BOTH INDUSTRY and academics, as the emphasis on multivariable control designs develop, it be- comes indispensable that the concept of linear algebra and its geometric and physical interpretations be mas- tered as background knowledge. As graduate courses introducing recent developments in the theory and de- sign of multivariable process controls emerge in the graduate curriculum, a concomitant background course in applied linear algebra becomes imperative in understanding the new complexity of multivariable control. Three years ago, the chemical engineering de- partment introduced a new course, cross-listed in both the electrical and computer engineering and the mechanical engineering departments, entitled "Appli- cation of Numeric Linear Algebra in Systems and Control Engineering." All chemical engineering graduate students in the system modeling and process control areas and all electrical engineering students taking the graduate linear systems theory course are required to take this course. A prerequisite is senior or graduate standing with a prior introductory under- graduate course to vectors and matrices. The students usually come into the course knowing only how to do matrix addition, subtraction, and mul- tiplication-finding the determinant and inverse of up to 3x3 matrices. Some of them know a little about basis vectors and have some notions about linear inde- pendence of vectors. In all three departments, the stu- dents can use this course to satisfy one of their math course requirements. All other graduate students are strongly encouraged to take this course. The goal of the course is to introduce engineering students, especially those majoring in the systems and control area, to the concepts and the physical as well as the geometric interpretations of some key linear The goal of the course is to introduce engineering students, especially those majoring in the systems and control area, to the concepts and the physical as well as the geometric interpretations of some key linear algebra topics and their associated numerical considerations. Tse-Wei Wang is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at the University of Tennessee. She received a PhD in biophysics from M.I.T. in 1977, concentrating in the study of human platelet physiology. She obtained a MS is chemical engineering from the University of Tennessee in 1986 and joined the faculty there soon afterwards. Her areas of interest are biotechnology and process control of chemical and biochemical processes. algebra topics and their associated numerical consid- eration. Examples from system modeling and control areas are used extensively in order to lend a sense of reality to the rather abstract mathematical concepts. In this article, we describe the course teaching philosophy, the computer projects assignments, and the student feedback. We have received such favor- able comments and support from the faculty and stu- dents that we plan to offer it annually in the fall semester. It will also serve as a corequisite for the 500-level course on linear systems theory offered by the electrical and computer engineering department. In a previous article [1] published in the fall, 1984, issue of Chemical Engineering Education, entitled "Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers," K. Zy- gourakis (Rice University) describes the linear algebra course as the first semester of a two-semester sequence applied math course. Our course at the Uni- versity of Tennessee differs from that in that we em- phasize the geometric and physical interpretations of the various theorems and decompositions in order to develop, in the students, the ability to answer for themselves questions such as, how do I go about com- puting the controllable or observable subspace of a dynamic system; how do I use the concept of rank and linear independence to analyze a set of input and out- put data of a given process; how do I use the concept of orthogonality in analyzing a system matrix; how can I tell if a particular algorithm for system analysis is prone to numerical instability; what is the role of positive-definite matrices in an optimization problem; what does it mean for two physical system matrices to be connected by a similarity transformation; what is the danger of a pole-zero cancellation of a transfer function? O Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION We hope that students will be able to start de- veloping an intuitive understanding of the relationship and interactions among the several system variables by analyzing the matrices that connect between them, thereby guiding them in choosing the most appropri- ate design and analysis methods. We do not emphasize the writing of computer codes to implement the vari- ous numerical algorithms because we recognize that reliable numerical software exists (such as MATLAB [2, 3] that is mainly based on stable routines contained in such packages as LINPACK [4] and EISPACK [5] for various computer models). Rather, we use the software to solve some physical problems or to imple- ment a certain algorithm in order to study the numer- ical aspects of it. We are trying to impart to the stu- dents the intuitive ability to examine a system and by using fundamental linear algebra concepts, to extract physical information from it. For instance, in consider- ing the placement of temperature sensors along a dis- tillation column, how does one decide where to place them in order to extract the most useful information about the behavior of the column from their measure- ments? Or, in mechanical engineering, where should the accelerometers be placed along a beam in order to detect the first N modes of vibration due to a set of inputs? It can be shown [6] that the choice is the sites where the gain matrix between the control inputs, e.g., reflux ratio, and bottom heat duty, and the sys- tem outputs, e.g., the temperature measurements, that yields the smallest condition number and that has the largest sensitivity in the gains, or a compromise of the two, because this arrangement implies a more balanced distribution of energy involved in each of the control input variables. As the description of a system changes from single variable to multivariable, very often the single-vari- able concepts, such as size and interaction, do not carry straight forward into the multivariable case. In the latter, the concept of directionality as exhibited by the various variables and their interactions with each other necessitates the use of a set of coordinate systems to describe the dynamics. The motto "happi- ness is finding things are linear" extends into the realm of linear algebra in that "happiness is finding that coordinates are perpendicular"; therefore, the various decompositions (such as QR, SVD, Househol- der) emerge so that a system can be transformed into a new representation with mutually orthogonal basis vectors. True, all these theories and algorithms involved are normally covered in upper-level mathematical courses offered by a math department. One asks, legitimately, why is the engineering department As the description of a system changes from single variable to multivariable, very often the single-variable concepts, such as size and interaction, do not carry straight forward into the multivariable case. bothering to cover the same materials? Why not just send the graduate students over to the math depart- ment? The answer is that unless the math department maintains a constant liaison with the various engineer- ing departments in order to monitor their need in higher level mathematics, the courses they offer will usually not serve the needs of the engineering stu- dents who want to use the mathematics as tools in solving practical problems. Take linear algebra as an example. At the Univer- sity of Tennessee, three undergraduate courses (semester) exist in the theory and numerical aspects of linear algebra; at least four graduate courses exist that deal with the theory and algorithms of various topics of linear algebra, such as solving the least square problem and the various decompositions. En- gineering students who take them come away know- ing how to perform a certain decomposition or how to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and have learned the numerical aspects of the various al- gorithms. But they have not acquired the intuition relating knowledge of the mathematics to selection of the methods for analysis, design, and control of phys- ical systems. Study of the properties of linear vector spaces should be linked to the notion that the state space of a dynamical system constitutes a linear vector space and that the controllable and/or observable space constitutes a subspace of the original state space. Then all the manipulations, such as change of basis, orthogonalization, QR, and SVD, can be viewed as a way to view the system states in a more facilitat- ing coordinate frame orthogonall), and the system matrices or transformation matrices can be viewed with respect to these new coordinate frames. As a result, the properties associated with these special matrices, such as unitarity, orthonormality, and trian- gularity, can be used to view the transformation as represented by these matrices in a more intuitive and simplified manner. An area where a variety of physi- cal problems can be used to illustrate the math princi- ples is that of using SVD and pseudoinverse in solving least-square problems. In the long run, we hope that the experience gained in teaching both the engineer- ing and mathematical version of the materials can lead to a single course meeting the goals of both groups. The textbook used is Linear Algebra and Its Ap- plications [7], by Gilbert Strang. Table 1 lists the FALL 1989 TABLE 1 Course Materials Course Textbook Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., (1988) Additional Course References 1. Stewart, G.W., Introduction to Matrix Computations, Academic Press (1973) 2. Golub, G., and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations, Johns Hopkins Press (1983) textbook along with the supplemental reference books, and Table 2 shows the topics covered in the course. From time to time, details of some topics are also presented from references listed [8] and [9]. Strang presents the materials as a systematic development of observations on a set of linear algebraic equations (later on, on a set of linear ordinary differential equa- tions). His presentation elicits enthusiasm from the readers until the mystery of observations is solved, seemingly intuitively. Then, voild, he formally states the deductions in theorems. He leads one from the beginning to the end of the development of a concept in such a manner that one cannot help following him in order to see the interpretation of the observations! Most students in the class also appreciate Strang's style of presentation. Over half of the class time is devoted to the first three chapters, involving analysis of solving the prob- lem of Ax = b, the over- and under-determined, and the inconsistent cases. After the mechanism of Gaussian eliminations with pivoting is presented, the concept of the four fundamental subspaces is introduced. Geo- metric visualization of the orthogonal complementary subspaces, e.g., the row and null spaces, is stressed. The roles of the four subspaces with respect to linear transformations are, in turn, explained and visualized in detail. The decomposition of any vector into its or- thogonal components is emphasized. In geometric vis- ualization, a three-dimensional space is always used because of its familiarity. Then, the visualization of the vectors b and x, as in Ax= b, in the recipient and domain space, respectively, of the linear transforma- tion represented by the matrix A, is made. Figures 1 and 2 (from Strang) are used very often to depict the actions of A and the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse, A+, with respect to the four subspaces. The role of each of the four fundamental subspaces with respect to the under- or over-determined and inconsistent cases is analyzed in detail. At this point, an example is given concerning the underdetermined case. The problem is presented of a physical process with more inputs than outputs, and they are related at steady state, by A, as in y = Au. The dimension of A is there- fore rectangular, mxn, with m constraints. Therefore, from linear algebra theory, many solutions exist. One can pose an optimization problem where one wants to find the solution, Xop, from the set of all possible solutions, such that some function of Xop is minimized (or maximized). A physical example where an inconsistent case of Ax = b may arise is offered at this point. Cases involv- ing multiple measurement data points are the most common. A specific example, mentioned earlier, is one of temperature sensor measurements along the many trays of a distillation column. Usually, two control in- puts are considered. Yet there may be five or more TABLE 2 Topical Outline, Applied Linear Algebra Course Matrices and Gaussian Elimination Introduction The geometry of linear equations An example of Gaussian elimination Matrix notation and matrix multiplication Triangular factors and row exchanges Inverses and transposes Vector Spaces and Linear Equations Vector spaces and subspaces Solution of m equations in n unknowns Linear independence, basis, and dimension The four fundamental subspaces Linear transformations Orthogonality SPerpendicular vectors and orthogonal subspaces Inner products and projections onto lines Orthogonal bases, orthogonal matrices, and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization The fast Fourier transform Determinants The properties of the determinant Formulas for the determinant Applications of determinants Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors The diagonal form of a matrix Difference equations and the powers Ak Differential equations and exponential eAt Complex matrices: Symmetric vs. hermitian and orthogonal vs. unitary Similarity transformations Positive Definite Matrices Minima, maxima, and saddle points Tests for positive definiteness Semidefinite and indefinite matrices: Ax = XMx Minimum principles and the Rayleigh quotient The finite element method Computations with Matrices The norm and condition number of a matrix Householder transformation Hessenberg form Gaussian elimination with pivoting Linear Programming Linear inequalities SThe simplex method The theory of duality CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION FIGURE 1. The action of a matrix A (from Strong, 1988) temperature measurements along the tower. The ma- trix that relates the inputs and outputs would be of dimension 5x2. Because of noise or biases, the temper- ature measurements would usually be inconsistent when compared to that calculated from the physical and thermodynamic data of the components and pro- cess involved. The solution to Ax = b in this case rep- resents the input necessary to give a set of measure- ments "closest" to the desired outputs as measured by the sensors. These presentations on the four funda- mental subspaces pave the way for introduction of the singular value decomposition (SVD), the pseudoin- verse, and application of SVD in solving the least- square problems. SVD has proven to have many appli- cations in system analysis and plays a major role in the implementation of many stable numerical al- gorithms. See Klema and Laub [10], for example, for more detailed discussion concerning the numerical as- pect of SVD. Let A= UIV' be the SVD of A. We present the notion that transformation of a vector x by A can be viewed as series of transformations: first a rotation by V', a unitary matrix, followed by a decoupled trans- formation represented by the diagonal 1, followed by another rotation by the unitary U. The notion that the columns of the matrices U and V in serving as the orthonormal basis vectors of the appropriate sub- spaces is presented. The concept of singular values of a matrix is pre- sented as follows (this geometric representation is borrowed from that of Moore [11]). If an r-dimensional sphere of unit radius resides in the row space of ma- trix A, with the r orthogonal unit vectors given by the first r columns of the matrix V as the coordinate axes (r denotes the rank of A), then the transformation process maps it into an r-dimensional ellipsoid in the column space of A. The nonzero singular values of A represent the magnitudes of the axes of the ellipsoid FIGURE 2. The action of the Moore-Penrose pseudoin- verse of A (from Strang, 1988) (the largest singular value gives the length of the major axis, etc.). The mutually orthogonal axes of the ellipsoid point in the directions given by the first r columns of the matrix U. In this way, the singular values can be viewed as scaling factors for the unit radii of a sphere in the row space when mapped into an ellipsoid in the coulmn space of A. Again, the stu- dents are asked to picture the various manipulations in 3-D space. Finally, the concept of the pseudo-in- verse of A is presented. The roles of U' and V in accomplishing projection and change of basis are care- fully presented, using Figure 2 as an aid. At this point, a computer assignment is made for finding the completely controllable, completely ob- servable, and completely controllable and observable subspaces of a linear dynamic system, described by the equation x(t)=Ax + Bu, where x represents the state vector and u represents the input vector. The idea is that from the controllability and observability grammians of the system, (positive definite solutions, P and M, to the Lyaponov equations, below) AP + PA' = -BB' A'M + MA = -C'C one can project the original state space down to the controllable or observable subspace spanned by the columns of P or M, respectively, by doing an equiva- lence transformation, using a set of orthogonal basis vectors that span the appropriate subspace, for the transformation. The rank of each of the subspaces is the rank of P or M respectively. Stable routines exist for solving equations of the above type. The matrices P and M can also be solved in a stable manner by assuming a QR decomposition of A, and in conjunction with back substitutions, the elements of P and M can be determined in a straightforward manner. FALL 1989 This exercise also illustrates that often a good al- gorithm can be ruined by bad numerics. Let me ex- plain. The controllability or observability of a system can also be analyzed by examining the rank and the span of the associated controllability or observability matrix U and V as calculated by U = [BI ABI A2BI ... I A"n-)B] V = [C| CAI CA21 ... I CA(n- )] respectively. In order to calculate U and V, repeated multiplications by A up to (n-1) times are necessary. If n is large and A is poorly conditioned, then it can lead to numerical instability such that rank determina- tion of the resultant U and V may be obscured by their near singularity; the singularity may have been an artifact of the numerics and not necessarily a rep- resentation of any physical defect. For the completely controllable and observable system, one finds the in- tersection of the two respective subspaces by project- ing, for example, the controllable subspace down to the observable subspace. A good illustration of apply- ing numerical linear algebra to system concept here is that if one only desires to test the controllability (ob- servability) of a system, one can normally get accurate results by applying a random state feedback (ob- server) through gain K (F), to form A + BK (A + FC) in the state propagation equation, where K (F) is ran- domly chosen. Then one computes the eigenvalues of A and A+BK (A+FC) and pair off nearest eigen- values between the two matrices. The system is com- pletely controllable (completely observable) if, and only if, the two matrices A and A + BK (A + FC) have no common eigenvalues with probability 1. About two thirds of the course is spent in covering the first three chapters and the appendix on pseudoin- verse, which we consider to be the heart of the mat- ter. Each notion is presented geometrically and intui- tively as much as the subject matter allows. Sometimes it takes quite a few lectures to get an idea across. But each decomposition and manipulation is accompanied by an explanation of why one wants to do that decom- position and manipulation and what does it get you? As many physical examples are offered as possible. In this respect, Strang's presentation of the material does lend a much more intuitive appeal than some of the other textbooks. SECOND HALF OF COURSE The second portion of the course starts with a re- view of the properties of determinants. This is fol- lowed by the next four chapters on eigenvalues and eigenvectors, positive definite matrices, computations with matrices, and linear programming. The book is followed fairly closely except for the chapter on com- putations with matrices. For this subject matter, Strang is supplemented by materials from Stewart [8] and Golub and Van Loan [9], which both deal with the numerical aspect of matrix computations. The Gaus- sian elimination with pivoting is presented first, and is followed by the Householder's transformation and upper Hessenberg matrices and their significance in speeding up the computation efficiency. The condition number and the Raleigh's quotient of a matrix are discussed with respect to stability and perturbation. At this point, physical examples are offered to il- lustrate the danger of dealing with a matrix with a high condition number. The students are asked to vis- ualize a system with states residing in an ellipsoid with two long major axes and a very short third minor axis. Suppose one wants to find the control input re- quired to produce some desired states. Such system matrix with high condition number would yield a very large control input upon inversion of the matrix. Therefore, the students are asked to ponder if it would not have been more appropriate to lop off one dimen- sion (the one spanned by the short axis) and project the original system down to a subspace with dimen- sion of one less. A computer project is assigned to consider a 2x2 case where the gain matrix of a system is derived experimentally where the measurements are rather noisy. The students are asked to calculate inputs necessary in order to yield certain output vector val- ues. The condition number of the gain matrix given is rather high due to the fact that the real gain matrix is singular, because only one of the two outputs is independent. But, due to noise, the experimentally derived gain matrix is not singular, but rather is near singular. The students are to compare the sensitivity of the calculated results using the original full matrix with slightly varying entries to reflect the noisy na- ture of the data. Further, they are asked to offer a plausible explanation for the high sensitivity of the calculated results to the slight perturbations in the system matrix entries and to offer a solution for avoid- ing this problem. The students are asked how to com- pute, using SVD, the reduced order models to elimi- nate modes which have little effect on system re- sponse. They find this exercise enlightening. The presentation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is straightforward. The intuitive approach has not been used much except where the notions from the first part of the course apply. A note has to be said CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION about the Jordan canonical form of a matrix A. In every linear algebra textbook there is a section de- voted to the explanation and calculation of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix A. Some emphasize it more than others. However, when dealing with large sys- tems (as in many practical problems) where computers are employed for matrix manipulations, an approach employing the calculation of the Jordan decomposi- tion, i.e., X-1 AX = diag(J1,.. ., Jt), where each J is a Jordan block, is not numerically stable. This comes about because at several steps of calculating the de- composition, rank decisions must be made, and the final computed block structure depends heavily on these blocks, thus on these rank decisions. In practical applications, Golub and Van Loan suggest using the more stable Schur decomposition in eigenvector prob- lems. Therefore, the Jordan canonical approach is not covered in detail in this course. The course has now been taught twice at our uni- versity, and the students have received it with en- thusiasm. Many of them have taken courses in linear algebra in the mathematics department prior to taking this course. They comment that the approach taken here is very different and that their intuitive under- standing of the key theorems has increased. They further state that this course has helped them to bet- ter understand papers involving matrix manipulations. CONCLUSION A new applied linear algebra course, cross-listed in three engineering departments, has been created. The emphasis is on intuitive understanding and geometric visualization and interpretation of the key theorems of linear algebra. The students should learn the why's of doing certain matrix decompositions and manipulations and should be able to visualize the al- gorithms in 3-D space. Numerous physical examples from systems area are offered, tying together the mathematical manipulations and their physical signifi- cance. Computer projects are assigned from time to time to illustrate the utility of the various algorithms in solving practical problems. The course has also been made a co-requisite for the linear systems theory course offered by the electrical engineering depart- ment, so as to take the pain of teaching simultaneously both the applied linear algebra and linear systems theory out of that course. The students who have taken the course appreciate its approach, and I have found that every time I have taught it, I find more points that I am able to interpret intuitively that I was not able to before. The Chinese have an old prov- erb that says that new things are learned from review- ing old things. It has proven to be the case with this course. REFERENCES 1. Zygourakis, K., "Linear Algebra for Chemical Engi- neers," Chem. Eng. Ed., 18, 176 (1984) 2. Pro-MATLAB, The MathWorks, Inc., South Natick, MA 3. Kantor, J.C., "Matrix Oriented Computation Using Matlab," CACHE News, 28, 27 (1989) 4. LINPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathe- matics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA 5. EISPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA 6. Moore, C.F., "A Reliable Distillation Column Analysis Procedure for Use During Initial Column Design," pa- per presented at the November meeting of AIChE (1985) 7. Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (1988) 8. Stewart, G.W., Introduction to Matrix Computations, Academic Press (1973) 9. Golub, G., and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations, Johns Hopkins Press (1983) 10. Klema, V.C., and A.J. Laub, "The Singular Value De- composition: Its Computation and Some Applications," IEEE Trans. on Auto. Cont., AC-25, 164 (1980) 11. Moore, B., internal report ELE-1633-F, System Control Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Univer- sity of Toronto, September (1978) 0 RANDOM THOUGHTS Continued from page 207 commentary. But when we comment on practice tests or revisable papers we are not saying, "Here's why you got this grade." We are saying, "Here's how you can get a better grade." Alternating between the roles of student advocate and guardian of standards-good cop and bad cop- enables teachers to serve comfortably in both capacities. It's easier to set high standards if you know you're going to be helping the students attain them, and it's easier to enforce the standards once you've made them quite clear and given the students every opportunity to meet them. In addition, the approach may also provide a significant fringe benefit: In the end, I do not think I am just talking about how to serve students and serve knowledge or society. I am also talking about developing opposite and complementary sides of our character or personality: the supportive and nurturant side and the tough, demanding side. I submit that we all have instincts and needs of both sorts. The gentlest, softest, and most flexible among us really need a chance to stick up for our latent high standards, and the most hawk-eyed, critical-minded bouncers at the bar of civilization among us really need a chance to use our nurturant and supportive muscles instead of always being adversary. There's much more. Get the book. REFERENCES 1. Peter Elbow, Embracing Contraries: Explorations in Learning and Teaching, New York, Oxford University Press (1986) FALL 1989 INITIATING CROSSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH The Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project WILLIAM S. KISAALITA', BERNARD J. VAN WIE', RODNEY S. SKEEN', WILLIAM C. DAVIS2, CHARLES D. BARNES3, SIMON J. FUNG3, KUKJIN CHUN4, NUMAN S. DOGAN4 Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-2752 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING is essential to the pro- cess of bringing new areas like biotechnology, electronic, and other advanced materials to commer- cial success. The success of this process depends on significant cooperation between chemical engineering and other disciplines. Although there is a large volume of literature on the subject of interdisciplinary and/or crossdisciplinary research [1-3], most of it concerns large projects (as defined in Table 1) and little has been written from a chemical engineering perspective. The rationale behind the levels of funding used in Table 1 is called for. Usually in the initial stages of a project,$30,000 to $70,000 for a single year is only sufficient to generate pilot data and perhaps to pro- vide incentive for the formation of a cross- or an inter- disciplinary team. A yearly budget of$70,000 to
$150,000 for a period of three to five years provides enough for more than one graduate student to focus on specific aspects relating to the expertise of each co-investigator. Amounts above$150,000 can support
large groups with more personnel per discipline in-
volved as well as supporting inter-university research
activities where extensive travel may be necessary.
The purpose of this paper is to address the problems

TABLE 1
Project Size Based on Yearly Budget

Project Size
Small
Medium
Large

Yearly Budget (US $) Between$30,000 and $70,000 Between$70,000 and $150,000 Greater than$150,000

of initiating and conducting a small university level
crossdisciplinary project with a yearly budget at
$30,000-$70,000. As an example, specific reference is
made to a Washington State University (WSU) pro-
ject on neuron-based chemical sensors which involved
chemical and electrical engineers as well as neuro-
scientists and an immunologist. The experience gained
by this group in putting together a research team from
various disciplines could be of value to chemical en-
gineering professionals, particularly for young faculty
and graduate students who are considering multi-dis-
ciplinary projects.

DISCIPLINE AND CROSSDISCIPLINARITY
What is a discipline? Generally the term 'discipline'
refers to a specialized field of knowledge. Swanson [4]
has pointed out that disciplines in a university envi-
ronment develop when both faculty and administra-
tion come to recognize reasonably distinct areas of in-
quiry. It is important to realize that each discipline is
usually composed of a set of narrower specializations
and that the comprehensiveness of the discipline has
at least three properties [5]: 1) a conceptual model
shared by individual members that forms the heart of
the discipline-an example is the paradigm of trans-
port phenomena, presented in the 1960 textbook by
Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot, which suggests that the
proper study of chemical engineering is the molecular
phenomena that are fundamental to the understanding
of the performance of chemical equipment; 2) a set of
phenomena common to the various specializations
(e.g., chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and others);
and 3) breadth of the discipline, achieved through
overlapping of multiple narrow specializations of dif-
ferent individuals as opposed to being embodied in
one scholar. Through this overlap comes cohesiveness,
and a common discipline language, or jargon, develops
to an extent less possible between disciplines [4].
It should be mentioned that currently there is no
agreement among practitioners of multi-disciplinary
research on a unifying terminology. However, there
is a need for such a consensus. The interchangeable

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

'Chemical Engineeiing Department 2Department of Veterinary
Microbiology and Pathology 3Department of Veterinary and Com-
parative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology 'Electrical and
Computer Engineering Department

use of the terms interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary,
crossdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and others, when
describing research across disciplines, is widespread.
Recently, Castri [6] suggested a set of precise defini-
tions for the above terms which is based on the level
of cooperation among researchers. These definitions,
reproduced in Figure 1 (with minor changes), have
minimized the confusion. Multidisciplinary research
involves several disciplines, usually at the same
hierarchical level, without any demand for coopera-
tion. In most cases interaction occurs only during the
final stages of the project through editorial integration
of the findings. Crossdisciplinary work is characteris-
tic of projects that are problem-focused, where one
discipline interacts with others for what those disci-
plines can offer toward achieving a solution. The pro-
ject described in this paper fits into this category.
Interdisciplinary research, on the other hand, tends
William S. Kisaalita completed his PhD in chemical engineering
in 1986 at the University of British Columbia. After a year of postdoc-
toral work at the University of Waterloo, he joined the Chemical Engi-
neering Department at Washington State University as a postdoctoral
research associate. His research interests include biosensors, bio-
chemical reaction engineering, and downstream processing.
Bernard J. Van Wie received his PhD at the University of Okla-
homa in 1982 and did an additional year of postdoctoral work in the area
of thermodynamics. Since then he has been an Assistant (now Associ-
ate) Professor of Chemical Engineering at Washington State Univer-
sity, where he has established a multidisciplinary effort for the devel-
opment, monitoring, and control of bioreactors and bioseparation pro-
cesses.
Rodney S. Skeen received his BS and MS in chemical en-
gineering from Washington State University in 1986 and 1987 respec-
tively. He is currently a PhD student working on the development of
neuron-based chemical sensors for long-term continuous monitoring.
In the past he has been involved in developing piezoelectric sensors.
William C. Davis received his BA in biology from Chico State
College in 1955, an MA in biology from Stanford University, and his
PhD in medical microbiology from Stanford University School of
Medicine in 1966. He is currently engaged in analysis of the mecha-
nisms governing the immune response to AIDS related viruses in goats
and the development of subunit vaccines to protozoan parasites and
infectious agents.
Charles D. Barnes received his BS in biology and physics from
Montana State University in 1958, his MS in physiology and biophysics
from the University of Washington in 1961, and his PhD in physiology
from the University of Iowa in 1962. He is currently undertaking a de-
tailed study to delineate the descending modulatory role played by the
locus coeruleus of the cat, rat, and mouse on spinal and autonomic
motor systems.
Simon J. Fung received a BSc in zoology from the University of
Hong Kong in 1974 and his PhD in physiology from Texas Tech Uni-
versity Health Sciences Center in 1980. His research focuses on the
use of electrophysiological approaches in explaining brain stem control
of the spinal cord function.
Kukjln Chun received his PhD in electrical and computer engi-
neering from the University of Michigan in 1986. He joined the depart-
ment of electrical and computer engineering at Washington State Uni-
versity thereafter and is currently an Assistant Professor at the Inter-
University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University,
Korea. His primary research interests are semiconductor integrated
sensors and microelectronics fabrication.
Numan S. Dogan received his PhD in electrical engineering from
the University of Michigan in 1986 and is currently an Assistant Proces-
sor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Washington State Uni-
versity. His research interests include microelectronic fabrication, com-
puter modeling of integrated circuits and devices, and microwave cir-
cuits and devices.

Recently, Castri suggested a set of
precise definitions for the terms [interdisciplinary,
multidisciplinary, crossdisciplinary, transdisciplinary,
and others] which is based on the level of cooperation
among researchers. These definitions (with minor
changes) have minimized the confusion.

to be characterized by the dominance of a common
view. This type of cooperation may involve more than
one hierarchical level and usually results in new con-
cepts. One example that fits into this category is the
work of Barry Richmond, a neurobiologist with the
National Institute of Mental Health, and Lance Opti-
can, a biomedical engineer with the National Eye In-
stitute. This interdisciplinary team has come up with
a complex mathematical theory (the multiplex filter
hypothesis) that challenges scientific orthodoxy by
proposing that visual nerves transmit information by
multiplexed, encoded signals [7]. This work has the
potential of replacing the current way of thinking
about the brain. Finally, transdisciplinary efforts in-
volve multilevel interactions that lead to an entire
common purpose system. A typical example is the de-
velopment and deployment of military aircraft [8]. A

TERM
Multidisciplinary

MODEL

Iy --- | I

Crossdisciplhnarity

Interdisciplinarity:

Tronsdisciplinarity:

HIERARCHICAL
LEVELS
Technological
Scientific

Scientific

Technological

Scientific

Policy making

Planning

Technological

Scientific

FIGURE 1. Models of increasing cooperation and coordi-
nation of research management. (Used by permission
from the International Science Policy Foundation.)

FALL 1989

project of this magnitude involves all the levels from
scientific to policy-making and demands extensive
cross-interactions.
In the next section a specific example of an ongoing
crossdisciplinary effort between the authors is pre-
sented, from which general principles will be ex-
tracted on how to initiate and conduct such research.

NEURON-BASED SENSOR RESEARCH PROJECT
The project rationale is presented below. A de-
tailed description of findings are reported elsewhere
[9].

Justification

The major problems in reliably determining in
vitro or in vivo concentrations of antibodies or anti-
gens, and for that matter any hormone, protein, ion,

FIGURE 2. Typical morphological appearance of an N- 18
neuron, differentiated with 2% serum and aminopterin
treatment.

toxin, drug, or hazardous substance, are the lack of
fast, reusable, and accurate sensing devices. To date,
many solutions have been tried [10-18], yet most are
still unsatisfactory. In this project, a new approach to
sensing is being investigated in which the long term
goals are to develop biochips which will be used to
monitor electrical activity of neurons and later, excit-
able synthetic membranes on exposure to analytes.
The proposed sensing devices will allow one to take
advantage of the specificity, sensitivity, and speed of
response characteristic of neurons.
Neurons are the primary nervous system compo-
nents for processing and transmitting information. An
example of a differentiated neuroblastoma (a tumor-
ous nerve cell), cultured in our laboratory, is shown

I
I II STORAGE
SOSCILLOSCO
E]

PREAMPLIFIER

i aro 1
PULSE
GENERATOR
VIDEO
RECORDER
DATA ACQUISITION
AND ANALYSIS

PE

INVERTED
MICROSCOPE LENS

FIGURE 3. Schematic of experimental equipment.

in Figure 2. Some of the processes (axons) receive,
while others send, information. Nerve cell membranes
contain receptors for neurotransmitters and other
chemical species. Receptor/neurotransmitter binding
events may lead to the activation of second messenger
compounds within the cell, or to the opening or closing
(gating) of specific ion channels (e.g., Na, K+ or
Ca2+). The opening of the channels results in ion pas-
sage that changes the electrical state of the neuron
which in many cases affects neuron electrical proper-
ties like action potential (AP) characteristics. For
electrically active cells, the channels are voltage sensi-
tive and can be caused to open or close by changing
the transmembrane potential through applied current
pulses [19].
To achieve a solution to the problem outlined above
within a reasonable economic timeframe, we assem-
bled a crossdisciplinary team of engineers and
biologists. The engineers brought a systems approach
to the project, with a clear view of how the final prod-
uct should be implemented. The biologists brought es-
sential basic information on the general methodology
used to study neurons. To demonstrate proof of con-
cept, neurons from a fresh water snail, Limnea stag-
nalis, were used with alcohols as model analytes
(methods and results reported are limited to the initial
studies).

Methods and Interpretation of Results

A schematic of the experimental set up is shown in
Figure 3. The visceral and right parietal ganglia (a
mass of tissue containing nerve cells) were removed
from the snail, Limnea stagnalis, using the methods
of Byerly and Hagiwara [20]. The ganglia were trans-
ferred to a continuous flow recording chamber and
exposed to varying concentrations of ethanol (0.2-1.0

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

f .

The methods described above emphasize the need in this project of crossing disciplines. For example,
dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intracellular recording are operations neurobiologists perform
routinely. On the other hand, for decades engineers have been designing and working with devices
capable of processing digital information such as that produced by neuronal firing events.

E
0

200 ms

FIGURE 4. Effects of ethanol on the firing frequency in
Limnea neurons (stimulating current was 0.8 nA).

M) in saline solutions. Random cells were impaled
with glass micro-electrodes and stimulated to produce
APs by passage of current through a bridge circuit
from the preamplifier. Signals were monitored using
the storage oscilloscope and stored for later analysis
on the video recorder. Cells selected for analysis were
limited to those which regularly induced spike dis-
charges of amplitudes greater than 50 mV. Repetitive
firing rate was based on the interspike intervals of the
first four APs, for cells induced by passage of a 1.0 S
current pulse with a 0.25 Hz repetition rate.
Responses of different neurons were compared by
normalizing firing frequency values to the baseline (no
alcohol) response at a given current level and plotting
the results as a function of concentration. Some cells
showed excitatory effects with increasing concentra-
tion, as show in Figure 4. The higher the ethanol con-

Ethanol Concentration (M)
FIGURE 5. Normalized firing frequency (FF/FFO) at 0.7
nA. Outer lines for each group of cells represent 95%
confidence limits on the mean values.

centration, the higher the firing frequency. In Figure
5, plots of normalized firing frequency versus ethanol
concentration with 95% confidence interval bands on
the mean values, shows three distinct categories.
Group 1 with a strong excitatory response, Group 2
with a weaker response, and Group 3 with no re-
sponse. Linear correlation between analyte concentra-
tion and a property of a neuron demonstrates in a
preliminary way the feasibility of the sensor concept.
More basic and applied work is currently being con-
ducted to demonstrate an expanded scope of applica-
tions and to explain the mechanism involved in the
sensing process.
The methods described above emphasize the need
in this project of crossing disciplines. For example,
dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intra-
cellular recording are operations neurobiologists per-
form routinely. On the other hand, for decades en-
gineers have been designing and working with devices
capable of processing digital information such as that
produced by neuronal firing events.

PROJECT FUNDING
Typically an investigator with a problem looks for
new methods or solutions from another discipline, or
may alternatively have a novel solution in need of a
problem. For the neuron biosensor project, one of us

FALL 1989

(BVW) recognized that advances in biosensing
technology would require the systematic study of
biological chemical sensing. The results obtained from
such studies would provide the insights needed to de-
sign highly sophisticated detection and signal trans-
mission devices that mimic those present in living sys-
tems (e.g., the olfactory system). To verify the con-
cept, suitable techniques for studying neuron behavior
were needed. Faculty members who traditionally
study neurons were needed for a crossdisciplinary
team. A group was identified with expertise in spinal
cord neurophysiology, having laboratory facilities
with intracellular recording equipment similar to that
shown in Figure 3. A proposal was put together for
preliminary studies with the main intent of obtaining
pilot data to demonstrate the concept.
Crossdisciplinary ideas such as the one in this
paper depart dramatically from the current knowl-
edge base and contain substantial uncertainties con-
cerning appropriate methods and outcome. Most sys-
tems for selecting university research projects for

funding tend to favor proposals with logical and sys-
tematic extensions of current knowledge. Such pro-
posals are less risky, tend to have easily predictable
outcomes, and are relatively easy to defend. There-
fore, the new and innovative crossdisciplinary pro-
jects may have difficulty surviving the conventional
peer review process. At this point one has to identify
a funding source that can entertain exploratory re-
search projects. Table 2 contains a non-exhaustive list
of such programs known to the authors. Some of the
programs are specifically designed for this purpose.
The neuron-based chemical sensor project was
first funded as a NSF Expedited Award for Novel
Research at a $30,000 level for 1986/87. Additional funds of$94,000 were obtained from the Washington
Technology Center (WTC) for the 1987-1989 biennium
as well as a $12,400 grant from the WSU College of Engineering. WTC funds are provided on a matching basis to encourage faculty of universities in the State of Washington to obtain extramural resources in re- search areas of critical importance to the State. Based TABLE 2 Possible Sources of Support for Risky Proposals Sponsoring Agency National Science Foundation National Science Foundation National Science Foundation Engineering Foundation National Institute of Health State Biotechnology and/or Technology Centers Not For-Profit and For-Profit Corporations Local University Grant and and Research Offices Program Expedited Awards for Novel Research Research Initiation Awards Presidential Young Investigator Awards Engineering Research Initiation Grants Biotech. Research Training Not applicable University Explora- tory Research (P & G Co.) Not applicable Contact Engineering Director NSF Washington, DC 20550 Engineering Director NSF Washington, DC 20550 Engineering Director NSF Washington, DC 20550 Dr. R.E. Emmert, Exec Dir. AIChE, United Eng. Cent. 345 East 47th St. New York, NY 10017 Dr. H. Landsdell Federal Building Room 916 Bethesda, MD 20892 Not applicable Procter and Gamble Co. Miami Valley PO Box 398707 Cincinnati, OH 45238 Not applicable Comments * for exploratory research of high but unproven potential for future advances * non-renewable funding up to$30,000
* does not require external review
* to be re-evaluated after 1988/89
* designed to encourage faculty to begin their careers and to make an academic
career more attractive
* funding up to $60,000 for 24 months * multiple investigator proposals not eligible * provides cooperative research support for the most outstanding and promising young science and engineering faculty * nominations originate from department chairs * minimum of$25,000 and up to $37,000 in matching funds, which comes to a maximum possible total of$100,000/year, for five years
* for initiating research for new full time engineering faculty without research
support
* support limited to $20,000 * crossdisciplinary projects encouraged * This program has recently been initiated in response to the enormous growth of the biotechnology industry that has resulted in critical shortages of experts in areas such as biochemical separations and engineering. * support up to$31,500
* Several states have set up centers to support local efforts in biotechnology.
However, the nature of the centers varies greatly. Each has a different focus
and source of support and set of programs. Some are designed to support
business and create new companies. A survey of 40 state-supported biotech-
nology centers in 28 states was conducted by the Biotechnology Information
Program of the North Carolina Biotechnology Center in the fall of 1987.
focuses on proposals that depart dramatically from current knowledge base
that entail substantial uncertainty
support up to $150,000 for three years not renewable after the three-year period Most universities have monies that are available internally for limited support. The graduate or grants office puts out announcements for such competitions. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION on successful completion of the first phase, a proposal has been submitted to WTC for funding for the next biennium (1989-91). Two additional proposals have also been submitted to NSF: one to the Biotechnology Program to support the present group's effort and another to the Emerging Technology Program for an inter-university program with the University of Washington to support a broader based microsensor effort. If these proposals are funded, our project will advance from a small to a medium sized program as defined in Table 1. PROPOSAL WRITING Once the funding sources) is/are identified, it is important that contact is made with the program di- rector(s) to obtain their input on the suitability of the proposal. The next task is writing the proposal-the following procedure worked well for us. First, a tenta- tive table of contents was generated by the ChE group, clearly identifying the parts of the proposal to be written by each participating discipline. Then the participants were asked to write those sections consis- tent with their expertise. These were circulated one to two weeks before a meeting was held to merge the sections, and after the meeting, the chemical en- gineering group had the responsibility of preparing a first draft. We have found that this approach solves two key problems associated with proposal writing in a crossdisciplinary environment. First, any misun- derstandings regarding approach, paradigms, or jar- gon are resolved at the outset. Second, consistent ter- minology and style of writing are adopted since the integration of the proposal components is entrusted to one individual. After preparation of the first draft, the usual procedures for proposal preparation are fol- lowed. These include distribution to each participant to check for logical progression of ideas, appropriate- ness of experimental design to the problem solution, and clarity of experimental protocols and general edit- ing, followed by a meeting to incorporate the new changes prior to preparation of the final copy. OBSTACLES TO GETTING THE WORK DONE Although the literature is replete with do's and don't regarding the management of crossdisciplinary projects [21 & 22], there is a paucity of practical sug- gestions to obviate some of the frequently listed obsta- cles. In attempting to address this problem, we have limited our discussion to those aspects with which we have had experience. Language or Jargon During the proposal writing stages, it is important to remember that credibility must be maintained any misunderstandings regarding approach, paradigms, or jargon are resolved at the outset. [Then] consistent terminology and style of writing are adopted since the integration of the proposal components is entrusted to one individual. among reviewers who are aware of the specific disci- plines united in the proposal. Therefore, well-known terms and concepts must be used. Because of this, the integration of different language and jargon becomes a problem and it usually surfaces at this point. Some researchers have asserted that jargon should be elimi- nated [23], but this cannot happen quickly since it takes time to learn another 'discipline language'. How- ever, efforts have to be made to minimize confusion. For newly formed groups frequent discussions, query- ing of co-workers, and exchange of relevant papers serve as short term solutions. On a long term basis, participating in a relevant course offered by the co- workers in the other disciplines makes a big differ- ence. For example, three of us (BVW, WSK and RSS) attended a course, "Advanced Neurophysiology," of- fered by CDB. Another useful effort, especially for students and postdoctoral associates, is to spend time in the laboratories of the other investigators, under their supervision. For example, WSK does 50% of his experimental work in the laboratory of WCD. The focus of this effort is to develop monoclonal antibodies to differentiated neuroblastoma membrance antigens and to determine the extent of crossreactivity among several cell lines. Skepticism In the early stages of a small crossdisciplinary pro- ject, there is usually some doubt about the future suc- cess of the project. This skepticism has been explained by Bella and Williamson [24] to reflect an understand- ing of the magnitude of the research problem and the potential inappropriateness of the existing methods. Such an attitude of healthy skepticism is essential. Overconfidence usually reflects a shallow understand- ing of the important questions. It should be pointed out, however, that extreme skepticism can be disrup- tive. Openness to the Evolving Nature of Crosdisciplinary Work It is unlikely that a principle investigator deliber- ately identifies the intellectual and social components of a research program organizational pattern in ad- vance. The project organization more often evolves into a stable pattern by trial and error. In our case FALL 1989 the project began with one chemical engineering fac- ulty member (BVW) and two neurophysiologists (CDB and SJF). After a year of initial experimenta- tion, it was determined that if the neurons were to be successfully used as the primary transducers in biosensors, emphasis needed to include fabrication of microdevices that would contain the neuron and the electrical connections. Therefore, electrical engineers (KC and NSD) with expertise in micromachining and integrated circuits technology were invited to join the team. Furthermore, since sensor development efforts are now directed toward biological molecules of economic significance, such as monoclonal antibodies and antigens, an immunologist (WCD) has joined our team. This demonstrates the evolving nature of cross- disciplinary work and the importance of openness to the need of other expertise, which, if ignored, may result in the demise of the project. Other Issues Based on our experience, frequent team meetings (on top of the standard weekly or bi-weekly meetings between students, postdocs, and their direct super- visors) can be time-consuming. Hence, meetings should be pegged to specific project milestones, as op- posed to fixed intervals, in order to avoid unproduc- tive discussions. However, some flexibility should be maintained for emergency meetings as needed. In this regard, availability of modern computers attached to high-speed data networks, such as those donated to numerous universities by AT&T through their Uni- versity Equipment Donation Program, can temper the inconvenience of emergency meetings. For example, when data are being collected or analyzed, questions that arise which require discussion can be dealt with instantly by all investigators across campus via infor- mation sharing workstations. Also, financial management (especially for work done in more than one laboratory) can lead to time delays. Most universities have straightforward ac- counting procedures to handle this type of problem. In cases where this is not true, a procedure for billing the project account should be put in place im- mediately. This will save valuable time. For example, our group needed to immunize rabbits to generate polyspecific serum for testing neuron responses when subjected to antibodies. However, the chemical en- gineers, in whose hands the budget account resided, lacked clearance to handle live animals, and obtaining this clearance would have taken at least one month. To circumvent this problem, rabbits were purchased through the laboratory of WCD and work was per- formed under his supervision. The chemical engineer- ing group was later billed for those expenses. Another obstacle that is often mentioned is conflict of paradigms or concepts. This is potentially the case between scientists (whose focus is mainly on under- standing the principle mechanism underlying impor- tant processes) and engineers (whose emphasis is mainly on applying existing fundamental knowledge to solving practical problems). Under such cir- cumstances, the best solution might be maintaining good communication links through reviewing progress toward the team's long-term objectives. DISCUSSION In this paper we have attempted to describe our experience in initiating and conducting a small biotechnological crossdisciplinary project in a univer- sity environment. It is wise to put in perspective the relationship between small university crossdiscipli- nary projects and the American competitiveness in the global marketplace. The history of science and technology teaches us that most significant develop- ments have occurred as a result of approaches that involved crossing disciplines. In fact, chemical en- gineering as a discipline is one of these developments. Hence, adaptation of technical information from two disciplines, resulting in a major development, is not new. Reasons for the greater current interest in the subject are better expressed by the NSF in their pro- gram announcement for Centers for Crossdisciplinary Research in Engineering, otherwise called Engineer- ing Research Centers (ERC), as follows: The need for ERC's arose from the fact that despite America's preeminence in science, our competitive position in the international marketplace has been in- creasingly eroded. Besides the various economic and managerial factors, part of this competitiveness prob- lem can be attributed to the gradual loss of U.S. indus- trial prowess in turning research discoveries into high-quality, competitive products. Many practition- ers and leaders have come to the realization that while American academic engineering has made great strides in basing modern engineering on advanced scientific knowledge and the latest laboratory and computational tools, it has not placed sufficient em- phasis on the design of manufacturing processes and products to keep pace with increasingly sophisticated consumer demands around the world. In addition, crossdisciplinary research focused on technological advancements from an engineering systems perspec- tive is needed to better prepare engineering graduates with the diversity and quality of education needed by U.S. industry. The National Research Council study on "Chemical CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Engineering Frontiers: Needs and Opportunities," chaired by N. R. Amundson of the University of Houston, identified four major areas of opportunity. One of these is the development of new high technol- ogy industries that are driven by scientific break- throughs, including 1) biotechnology, 2) electronic, photonic, and recording materials and devices, and 3) advanced materials. When one focuses on biotechnol- ogy, it is not clear whether we at the university are doing enough to "win the war." For example, of the eighteen Engineering Research Centers currently supported by NSF, only one (at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) addresses a biotechnological aspect (Process Engineering). It appears the process of creating research groups has to begin with small crossdisciplinary projects similar to the one described in this paper, and then grow through the medium and large size levels to finally attain a level where the participants can successfully compete for an ERC grant. The key ingredients to the formation of small projects are the availability of faculty who are willing to cross disciplines and the availability of funds for novel (yet risky) proposals. We believe that a larger pool of funds targeting such studies, which would not be funded through conventional means, may be one step, among many, that could ensure that America maintains the lead it currently enjoys in areas such as biotechnology. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study has been made possible by grants from the National Science Foundation (ECE-8609910), the Washington Technology Center (WTC-231535), and the Washington State University Colleges of En- gineering and Veterinary Medicine. REFERENCES 1. Lewis, C., "Interdisciplinary Engineering Research: A Case Study," Eng. Ed., 78, 19 (1987) 2. NRC, The Engineering Research Centers: Leaders in Change, Cross-Disciplinary Engineering Research Committee, Washington, DC, National Academy Press (1986) 3. Rossini, F.A., A.L. Porter, P. Kelly, and D.E. Chubin, "Interdisciplinary Integration Within Technology As- sessment," Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utiliza- tion, 2,503 (1981) 4. Swanson, E.R., "Working With Other Disciplines." In M.G. Russell, R.J. Sauer, and J.M. Barnes, eds., "Enabling Interdisciplinary Research: Perspectives from Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics, Ag. Ex. Station, University of Minnesota, 19 (1982) 5. Campbell, D.T., "Ethnocentrism of Disciplines and the Fish-Scale Model of Omniscience." In M. Sherif and C.W. Sherif, eds., Interdisciplinary Relationships in the Social Sciences, Aldine Publishing Co., New York, 328 (1969) 6. Castri, F. di, "Planning International Interdisci- plinary Research," Sci. and Pub. Policy, 5, 254 (1978) 7. Vaughan, C., "A New View of Vision," Sci. News, 134, 58(1988) 8. Ballard, J.S., The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: Development and Deployment of Fixed-Wing Gunships 1962-1972, Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force, Washington, DC (1982) 9. Skeen, R.S., "Feasibility of Neuron-Based Chemical Sensors," MSc Thesis, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (1987) 10. Freeman, T.M., and R.W. Seitz, "Chemiluminescence Fiber Optic Probe for Hydrogen Peroxide Based on the Luminol Reaction," Anal. Chem., 50, 1242 (1978) 11. Aizawa, M., A. Morioka, and S. Suzuki, "An Enzyme Immunosensor for the Electrochemical Determination of the Tumor Antigen a-fetoprotein," Anal. Chim. Acta, 115, 61(1980) 12. Danielsson, B., I. Lundstrom, K. Mosbach, and L. Stiblert, "On a New Enzyme Transducer Combination: The Enzyme Transistor," Anal. Lett., 12, 1189 (1979) 13. Caras, S., and J. Janata, "Field Effect Transistor Sen- sitive to Penicillin," Anal. Chem., 52, 1935 (1980) 14. Suzuki, S., and I Karube, "Microbial Electrode Sensors for Cephalosporins and Glucose," in K. Venkatsubra- manian, ed., Immobilized Microbial Cells, ACS Sym- posium Series 106, Washington, DC, 221 (1979) 15. Karube, I., T. Matsunaga, and S. Suzuki, "Microbioassay of Nystatin With a Yeast Electrode," Anal. Chim. Acta, 109, 39 (1979) 16. Simpson, D.L., and R.K. Kobos, "Microbiological Assay of Tetracycline with a Potentiometric CO2 Gas Sensor," Anal. Lett., 15, 1345 (1982) 17. Liang, B.S., X. Li, and H. Y. Wang, "Cellular Electrode for Antitumor Drug Screening," Biotech. Prog., 2, 187 (1986) 18. Rechnitz, G.A., R.K. Kobos, S.J. Riechel, and C.R. Gebauer, "A Bio-Selective Membrane Electrode Pre- pared With Living Bacterial Cells," Anal Chim. Acta, 94,357 (1977) 19. Kernell, D., "High-Frequency Repetitive Firing of Cat Lumbosacral Motoneurones Stimulated by Long-Last- ing Injected Currents," Acta Phsiol. Scand., 65, 74 (1965) 20. Byerly, L, and S. Hagiwara, "Calcium Currents in In- ternally Perfused Nerve Cell Bodies of Limnea stag- nalis, "J. ofPhysiol., 322, 503 (1982) 21. Baers, W.S., "Interdisciplinary Policy Research in In- dependent Research Centers," IEEE Tran. Eng. Man- age., 23, 76 (1976) 22. Epton, S.R., R.L. Payne, and A.W. Pearson, eds., Managing Interdisciplinary Research, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK (1983) 23. Cassell, E.J., "How Does Interdisciplinary Work Get Done?" in H.T. Engelhardt and D. Callaham, eds., The Foundations of Ethics and Relationships to Science, The Hastings Center, Hastings on Hudson, NY, 355 (1977) 24. Bella, D.A., and K.J. Williamson, "Conflict in Inter- disciplinary Research," J. Environ. Syst., 6, 105 (1976/77) 0 FALL 1989 THE ESSENCE OF ENTROPY B. G. KYLE Kansas State University Manhattan, KS 66506 W HO AMONG US, the initiated, has never paused in the midst of a second-law problem to ask, "Is there really such a thing as entropy?" As an un- abashed admission of such waverings of faith, this essay attempts to answer the question. It is an exami- nation of paradoxes and putative interpretations of entropy in search of its essence. THE QUANTUM-STATISTICAL VIEW Quantization of energy is the salient feature that distinguishes quantum mechanics from classical mechanics. Because a large number of quantum states are available to a single molecule and an enormous number of molecules are present, the number of quan- tum states accessible to a system of thermodynamic interest is an astronomically large number. In addition to this, the quantum state of the system is continually changing as a result of the motion and collisions of the molecules. It now becomes obvious that to calculate the thermodynamic properties of such a system, some type of statistical averaging process must be used. Fortunately, the extremely large size of the statistical population insures the success of such an averaging procedure and permits certain convenient simplifica- tions in the attendant mathematics. The average value of any thermodynamic prop- erty, X, is calculated in the following manner X= Pii (1) where Pi is the probability that the system is in the ith quantum state, and Xi is the value of the property when the system occupies the ith quantum state. In "Is there really such a thing as entropy?" As an unabashed admission of such waverings of faith, this essay attempts to answer the question. It is an examination of paradoxes and putative interpretations of entropy in search of its essence. Benjamin G. Kyle is professor of chemi- cal engineering at Kansas State University, where he has enjoyed over thirty years of teaching. He holds a BS from the Georgia Institute of Technology and a PhD from the University of Florida. He has not outgrown an early fascination with thermodynamics and is interested in practically all aspects of the sub- ject. He is the author of a thermodynamics textbook (Prentice-Hall). assigning probabilities to quantum states the follow- ing rules are followed: 1) Quantum states of equal energy have equal probabilities. 2) The statistical weight of a quantum state de- pends upon the energy of that state and is pro- portional to exp(-E/kT). The probability of finding the system in the ith quan- tum state with energy Ei is S exp(- Ei/kT) S exp(-Ei/kT) (2) The summation in the denominator is taken over all quantum states and is a normalizing factor needed to make the sum of the probabilities of all states equal to unity. This sum will be denoted by Z and is referred to as the partition function. Z= eexp(-Ei/kT) (3) The partition function provides the bridge between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, for it can be shown that the thermodynamic properties are re- lated in a fairly simple manner to the partition func- tion. The function A' is defined by A'= kT In Z and it can be shown that this function has the proper- ties of the Helmholtz Free Energy. The statistical entropy can be calculated from Eq. 4 via the thermodynamic relation Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION S=- aA- aT In terms of the partition function this becomes S=k ln Z+kTf aInZ I aT ) V (5) which after some manipulation can be written in terms of probabilities S=-kk Pi In Pi (6) In an isolated system the internal energy is in- variant and all quantum states have the same energy level. Thus, our probability rules require that all quantum states be equally probable and i= where fi is the total number of quantum states acces- sible to the system. When this probability is substi- tuted into Eq. 6, the statistical entropy of an isolated system becomes S= k In (7) For a spontaneous change occurring in an isolated system we write "2 S2 S= k n S1 (8) and note that the required condition S2 > Si dictates 12g > fil. This means that the more-stable state is characterized by a larger number of accessible quan- tum states or a greater number of microscopic config- urations (each a quantum state contributing to the number fl) constituting the macroscopic, or ther- modynamic, state. ENTROPY AS DISORDER Thermodynamics requires the existence of a func- tion we call entropy and provides the means of cal- culating its changes as well as the framework within which it can be advantageously employed. While this is sufficient for any application of thermodynamics, we are nevertheless uncomfortable with abstractions and prefer to attach physical significance to the quan- tities we deal with. Yet, when the physical represen- tation is strained and leads to ambiguous or erroneous interpretation, the effort is counterproductive. This can often be the case with entropy, especially when it is identified with disorder. From a molecular viewpoint, the association of This concept comes into being only when we move further into the mental realm and begin to translate the physical into the mathematical description. Rudolf Carnap seems to have had this in mind when he stated that the statistical concept of entropy is a logical instead of a physical concept. positive entropy changes with an increase in disorder seems quite reasonable for phase changes and mixing. For other processes the association is less obvious and for at least one process (the adiabatic crystallization of a subcooled liquid) it fails completely. Unfortu- nately, order and disorder are not precise objective terms, but carry considerable subjective bias. For example, on consulting a thesaurus one finds many synonyms for order, including regularity, symmetry, harmony, and uniformity. Conceivably, the absence of gradients or differences in potential could be thought to characterize an ordered state. Thus, one who held this view would never realize that these are the conditions of an equilibrium state when told that equilibrium, or a state of maximum entropy, is iden- tified by a maximum of disorder. In interpreting Eq. 8 it must be remembered that the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to equilibrium states. The accepted microscopic model of an equilibrium state en- tails complete randomness with regard to molecular motion-chaos or maximum disorder. It therefore seems inappropriate to regard 12 > iR as represent- ing an increase in disorder when each state represents maximum disorder. All we can say is that fi measures the complexity of our microscopic description of a sys- tem, and an increase in f1 can be visualized as a spreading of the system over accessible quantum states. The system moves in the direction of more possibilities. This is not a physically satisfying representation; it is not based on the virtual observables of our micro- scopic model (e.g., positions and velocities). Its signifi- cance is found on a level removed from these in terms of something which can exist only in the mind-the number of quantum states. This concept comes into being only when we move further into the mental realm and begin to translate the physical into the mathematical description. Rudolf Carnap [1] seems to have had this in mind when he stated that the statis- tical concept of entropy is a logical instead of a physi- cal concept. THE GIBBS MIXING PARADOX In 1875 Willard Gibbs published his landmark paper "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Sub- FALL 1989 stances." In this paper he determined the properties of an ideal gas mixture and found the entropy change on mixing to be AS=-R Yi In (9) He had firmly established the validity of this expres- sion but Gibbs was not comfortable with the result, and his deliberations over this result have come to be known as the Gibbs Mixing Paradox. According to Eq. 9, the entropy change on mixing equimolar quantities of two gases is AS= R In 2 a result that is seen to be independent of the nature of the gases. Gibbs was concerned about the "degree of dissimilarity" between the two gases which could be visualized being made as close to zero as possible. As long as there is some dissimilarity, the entropy of mixing is R In 2, but when the "degree of dissimilar- ity" becomes zero (mixing the same gas), the entropy change is zero. Thus, the entropy of mixing depends not on the "degree of dissimilarity," but only on whether any dissimilarity exists. It is this "either-or" situation which constitutes the Gibbs Mixing Paradox. As we have seen, the paradox arises out of classical thermodynamics and does not require a statistical or molecular kinetic context. Several attempts have been made to resolve the paradox with the help of either statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, or informa- tion theory. All have been evaluated by Denbigh and Denbigh [2] and were found wanting. The usual mixing process is carried out with no recovery of work, and because the heat of mixing is zero, there is no exchange of heat with the surround- ings. In fact, there is no external change to indicate that the process has occurred. An ordinary mixing of the same gas could not be distinguished experimen- tally from the mixing of different gases, although an entropy change occurs in the latter case and not the former. Thus, while Eq. 9 was determined in an indi- rect, but rigorous, thermodynamic manner, we have seen that the entropy of mixing exhibits curious be- havior, and further, we have no means of experimen- tal verification. Insight into the curious behavior of entropy can be found by considering distinguishable spatial configura- tions. This can be illustrated with the lattice model of solutions [3]. Here one interprets fl and 'f2 in Eq. 8 as the number of spatial arrangements or lattice con- figurations before and after mixing. Before mixing there is but one configuration, and fli is unity. After mixing the number of configurations is (NA + NB)! 2 NA NB With these values of Q1 and f2 Eq. 8 can be reduced to Eq. 9. Although the lattice model is more appropri- ate to liquids, we note that Eq. 9 also gives the en- tropy of mixing in an ideal liquid solution, and thus we may expect that the entropy of mixing gases arises from similar configurational considerations. There are more distinguishable spatial arrangements available, hence a larger number of quantum states available, to a mixture than to a pure gas. The only factor deter- mining the entropy of mixing is the distinguishability of the particles of portion A from the particles of por- tion B. A reason for this will be proposed later. THE GIBBS INDISTINGUISHABILITY PARADOX Eq. 5 may be used to calculate the entropy of an ideal gas once the partition function has been formu- lated. The only type of energy possessed by a monatomic ideal gas is kinetic energy and because the energy levels, Eis, are extremely close together, E can be closely approximated as a continuum, and the summation in Eq. 3 can be replaced by an integral. Omitting the particulars of the calculation, the parti- tion function can be obtained straightforwardly and is 2k m3N/2 Z=V 2 mT -h2 (10) The entropy may be obtained by the substitution of Eq. 10 into Eq. 5 S= kN In V+ 31In (2kmT+ 31 2 h2 2 (11) Entropy is an extensive property, but, unfortu- nately, not according to Eq. 11. For the simple oper- ation of combining two 1/2-mol quantities of the same gas, this equation yields AS=Nk In 2=R In 2 We have already seen that this is the entropy of mix- ing different gases, but we know that there is no en- tropy change on mixing the same gas. This problem is sometimes identified as the Gibbs paradox although it is really a special case of the mixing paradox [4]. The problem was resolved by Gibbs in 1902 by the ad hoc correction of dividing the partition function of Eq. 10 by N!-the number of permutations involving N distinguishable entities. This results in the follow- ing expression for the entropy CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION S= kNn, +- In(2 +5 S= I N 2 n h2 2j (12) Eq. 12 satisfies the condition that the entropy be an extensive property. It has become known as the Sac- kur-Tetrode equation and has been verified experi- mentally. Today, in the quantum age of physics, it is custom- ary to specify whether or not the constituent particles of a system are distinguishable. However, in the class- ical age of Gibbs' day, the particles of an ideal monatomic gas were assumed independent with their motion described by classical mechanics. While there was certainly an impossible computational difficulty in providing the exact description prescribed by the equations of classical mechanics, there was no doubt that in principle, particles could be traced and thus retained their identity. While still holding to the prin- ciple of the distinguishability of particles, Gibbs jus- tified the adventitious insertion of N! into Eq. 10 by saying that the interchange of like particles should be of no statistical consequence. It is interesting to note that the ad hoc adjustment is unnecessary in the case of the internal energy. Com- bination of Eqs. 4 and 5 shows that the internal energy is U= kT2(a 1n Z) V T (13) Regardless of whether the partition function of Eq. 10 is divided by N!, the result is the same and correctly shows that U is linear in N. Thus, of the two basic thermodynamic properties, only the entropy requires an adjustment of classical thought by introducing the concept of indistinguishable particles. Again, it appears that in order to deal successfully with entropy it is necessary to go a step beyond a description of the system in terms of virtual observa- bles. Instead of a model involving physical quantities, we have included factors such as distinguishability which arise from our mathematical treatment and exist only in the mind of the model maker. The focus has been shifted from the system to our representa- tion of the system-again, a move from the physical to the logical realm. ENTROPY, INFORMATION, AND SUBJECTIVITY A major tenet of the philosophical underpinning of science is the concept of objective observation-an ob- server independent of the observed object. An un- questioning acceptance of this concept had prevailed until recent developments in modern physics suggested that it may not be applicable at the sub- atomic level. Specifically, Bohr's concept of com- plementarity and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle recognize that the behavior of a system cannot be properly described until the presence of observing in- struments is accounted for. This implies that the ob- server is part of the system and has encouraged in some quarters the advancement of a subjective philosophic view [5]. The concept of objective observation has been chal- lenged only in the sub-atomic realm; it is still firmly entrenched outside this realm, and is unquestioned when dealing with systems of thermodynamic in- terest. Nevertheless, there exists a tendency to take a subjective viewpoint in regard to entropy when in- terpreted microscopically from the perspective of in- formation. Recently, Denbigh and Denbigh [2] have convincingly shown that no formal relation exists be- tween thermodynamic entropy, a physical quantity, and a term labeled entropy that arises from informa- tion theory and is a logical quantity [6]. However, because the entropy-information association consider- ably predates information theory [7], it will probably remain well-ingrained despite the Denbighs' efforts. The putative view interprets the condition fi2 > 1 corresponding to an increase in entropy as an ob- server's loss of information about the microscopic state of the system. Accordingly, one reasons that there are more possibilities in state 2 and therefore the increase in f1 implies more uncertainty or a loss of information. This view presents two difficulties. First, because f is not a virtual observable quantity, it is doubtful that an observer could have access to this type of information. The information associated with f concerns not the system, but our description of the system, Second, it is unreasonable to believe that AS, a thermodynamic property change which de- pends on objectively determined macrostates, could also depend on microscopic information gained or lost by an observer. In an effort to blunt the last criticism, Jaynes [8] has suggested the following carefully worded defini- tion of information. The entropy of a thermodynamic system is a measure of the degree of ignorance of a person whose sole knowledge about its microstate consists of the values of the macroscopic quantities Xi which define its thermodynamic state. This is a completely "objective" quantity, in the sense that it is a function only of the Xi, and does not depend on anybody's per- sonality. There is then no reason why it cannot be measured in the laboratory. Here, one wonders what type of knowledge of the FALL 1989 While entropy seems the most subjective property, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomfortably redolent of human intent. The requirement of subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that the system is being constrained, or manipulated. Many of its variables lack easy physical correspondence . microstate is lacking. Virtual observables such as position and velocity would be subject to continual fluctuation, and hence an instantaneous determination of these would be of no practical value. The identifica- tion of quantum states and the knowledge of their cor- responding probabilities would be of obvious value, but these, as we have also shown with l, are not virtual observables but rather are mental constructs which allow us to model the system. It would appear then that this unpossessed knowledge of the micro- state is either unusable or is an artifact of the micro- scopic model we have constructed to represent the macrostate of the system. We surmise that Jaynes is speaking of useful microscopic knowledge, but must note that there is a double dose of subjectivity here. First, we have introduced quantities such as fl which are mental constructs that relate to our description of the system rather than to the system itself. Second, we now say that the macroscopic behavior of the sys- tem, as reflected in the value of the entropy, is depen- dent on the extent of our knowledge of these model parameters. Let us test Jaynes' interpretation through the use of Eq. 8 that relates the statistical entropy change to fg/-1. It would seem that a definite informational value could be assigned to the knowledge of fl regard- less of its numerical value. We are not asking which microstate the system is presently in, which would have informational value dependent on the numerical value of l, but rather how many microstates are pos- sible. We are dealing with a model parameter, l, and therefore the knowledge embodied in its determina- tion should be constant and independent of the mac- rostate of the system. If this is so, then there is no change in knowledge of microstates between any two macrostates and the informational entropy change is always zero. We reach the same conclusion by noting that the number of position coordinates and velocity components is always 6N regardless of the macroscopic state of the system-a constant amount of microscopic knowledge. Thus, the concept of entropy as a measure of microscopic information is inconsistent as well as extremely subjective. THE ESSENCE OF ENTROPY The interpretation of entropy in terms of informa- tion leads to an extreme subjective position and must be rejected. On the other hand, it must be confessed that entropy is more subjective, or less objective, than other properties of matter. This is because the exis- tence of a human mind must be assumed before an entropy change for a macroscopic system can be evaluated or, as we have already seen, a microscopic interpretation can be appreciated. In the case of the evaluation of an entropy change, it is first necessary to devise a reversible path and then perform the calcu- lation from the definition dQrev AS= T This is not an act of rote calculation but is rather a process of mental creation. While entropy seems the most subjective prop- erty, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomfort- ably redolent of human intent. The requirement of subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that the system is being constrained, or manipulated. Many of its variables lack easy physical correspon- dence and only seldom is a thermodynamic variable evaluated except as a means of calculating some more "practical" quantity. In fact, it has been suggested that its various applications can be integrated into a coherent whole only by recognizing thermodynamics to be "a means of extending our experimentally gained knowledge of a system or as a framework for viewing and correlating the behavior of the system" [9]. Clearly, the emphasis is on utility. Having arisen from efforts to exploit rather than to observe nature, the laws of thermodynamics cannot be completely cleansed of their earthy taint and are often embarras- sing to the scientist for their lack of intellectual purity. Uneasiness with this anthropomorphic quality of ther- modynamics has been confessed by P. W. Bridgman, one of its foremost thinkers [10]: It must be admitted, I think, that the laws of ther- modynamics have a different feel from most of the other laws of the physicist. There is something more palpably verbal about them-they smell more of their human origin. The guiding motif is strange to most of physics: namely, a capitalizing of the universal failure of human beings to construct perpetual motion machines of either the first or the second kind. Why should we expect nature to be interested either posi- tively or negatively in the purposes of human beings, particularly purposes of such an unblushingly eco- nomic tinge? CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Modern science begins with experience, which is by nature local and transitory, and by ratiocination arrives at laws that are considered universal and time- less. These laws usually connect quantities which are not directly related to our sensory experience, even to the extent of being only mental constructs that are often contrary to common sense. (Recall Newton's un- easiness over the need for a gravitational force which acts at a distance.) Thus, the formulations of science are considered to be in the realm of the pure intellect. In recognizing this, Sir Arthur Eddington has refer- red to the enterprise of science as "mind-stuff' and has expanded this theme most eloquently [11]: We have found that where science has progressed the farthest, the mind has but regained from nature that which the mind put into nature. We have found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origin. At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. And Lo! it is our own. Paraphrasing Eddington with the incorporation of Bridgman's thought, we could say that in the case of thermodynamics, that which the mind has regained from nature reflects the economic, or human, quality of the input. Entropy's human scent can be traced to its deriva- tion. Essential to both the conventional Carnot-cycle proof and the mathematically more elegant Caratheodory proof [12] is the concept of a reversible process. Seldom is this even an approximation of real- ity. It is a concept understandable only to economic man desiring to reap the most from his attempted taming of nature and can not be considered scientifi- cally objective. Yet, only in this context can an unam- biguous interpretation of entropy be found: the total entropy change measures the lost work when a pro- cess falls short of this human-scented, value-laden standard. Something on which we have placed value has been lost. This carries over into the microscopic view where the valued commodity is either order or information. The mixing paradox exposes the incongruity of the value-laden macroscopic view and a naive microscopic view of entropy. The microscopic description of an ideal gas in purely physical terms leads to Eq. 11 anc to the conclusion that the process of mixing the same gas is no different from the mixing of different gases. It is the economic or utilitarian aspect of the situation, the work of separation, that discriminates between the processes and forces the inclusion of N! into the microscopic description. The reversal of the mixing process requires separational work when the gases are different. However, we have neither the need nor the ability to exactly reverse the mixing of portions of the same gas and therefore need expend no separa- tional work. Because the minimum work of separation is TAS for ideal gas mixtures, there must therefore be no entropy change on mixing the same gas. The microscopic description is brought into conformance with the macroscopic situation by requiring indistin- guishability of particles. Thus, a utilitarian considera- tion, human in origin, requires the insertion of a logi- cal (or human-scented) term into the microscopic model. In failing to examine nature in a disinterested or completely objective manner, we have obtained a quantity, the entropy, which is not completely objec- tive and which can be understood only by an appeal to the human mind. We can only conclude that entropy is neither completely subjective nor completely objec- tive. Its existence can be publicly agreed upon and its consistent use has great utility, but its existence does not seem to be independent of the human mind. It may not be an intrinsic property of matter, but rather an objectively defined quantity which, for our conveni- ence, we may treat as a property. Born of the un- natural union of wish and reality, entropy is objective enough to be useful in dealing with the physical world, but subjective enough that a purely physical interpre- tation lies beyond our grasp. REFERENCES 1. Schilpp, P.A., ed., The Philosophy of RudolfCarnap, The Open Court Publishing Co., LaSalle, IL, p 37 (1963) 2. Denbigh, K.G., and J.S. Denbigh, Entropy in Relation to Incomplete Knowledge, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1985) 3. Hildebrand, J.H., and R.L. Scott, The Solubility of Non- electrolytes, Third Ed., Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York (1950) 4. Schridinger, E., Statistical Thermodynamics, Cam- bridge University Press, Cambridge, p 58 (1960) 5. See, for example, Capra, F., The Tao of Physics, Bantam Books, Inc., New York (1975), or Wigner, E.P., Symme- tries and Reflections, Indiana University Press, Bloom- ington (1967) 6. This is also the conclusion of Carnap, reference 1 7. Brush, S., The Kind of Motion We Call Heat, North Hol- land Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1976) 8. Jaynes, E.T., The Maximum Entropy Formalism, eds. R.D. Levine and M. Tribus, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge (1979) 9. Kyle, B.G., Chemical and Process Thermodynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p 2 (1984) 10. Bridgman, P.W., The Nature of Thermodynamics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1941) 11. Eddington, A.S., The Nature of the Physical World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1928) 12. Zemansky, M.W., Am. J. Phys., 34, 914 (1966) 0 FALL 1989 SECRETS OF MY SUCCESS IN GRADUATE STUDY MING RAO* Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick/Piscataway, NJ 08855-0909 N THE FALL of 1985 I began my graduate study in chemical engineering at The University of Illinois at Chicago, where I subsequently received a MS de- gree in computer science in 1987. Then, following my dissertation advisor, I joined the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Enginering at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. As a foreign student, I have met with many difficulties in my study. Naturally, I had language problems and, at the beginning, I did not even know how to "LOG IN" to computers! However, I approached my graduate studies in my own way. This report chronicles my journey through graduate education and provides, through my own personal observations and experi- ences, what I hope is a useful itinerary for other graduate students. COURSE WORK Many graduate students enter graduate school with no definite plans [1]. They usually spend one or more years on course study, then select a dissertation topic and begin research. Following a different ap- proach, I began my research the first day of graduate study, since I believed that "learning-by-doing" might be a much better way to gain creativity and experi- ence. Also, I wanted to relate course work directly to thesis research. My chosen course work is very close to my disser- tation research topic, "Intelligent Process Control." Intelligent process control denotes the application of Ming Rao received his BS in chemical en- gineering from Kunming Institute of Technol- ogy (China), his MS in computer science from the University of Illinois, Chicago, and will re- ceive his PhD degree in engineering from Rutgers University. He is presently working on intelligent control in Maintenance Control Center Project, sponsored by the FAA and will join the University of Alberta as an assistant professor of chemical engineering working on intelligent control. He has authored and coau- thored over forty technical papers. *Present address: University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 Copyright ChE Diision ASEE 1989 I feel that I benefit the most from research-oriented courses. At the beginning of such a course, the instructor.., introduces the basic principles and refers to the current development of the subject. artificial intelligence techniques to the control of chemical processes. Interdisciplinary in nature, it al- lows knowledge of, for example, computer science and electrical engineering to be extensively applied to chemical processes. So far, I have completed 25 regu- lar graduate courses which are distributed among three majors: eight courses on fundamentals of chem- ical engineering, eight on artificial intelligence and software engineering, and nine on control engineering and system science. I have studied aggressively and worked hard in course work, since I knew that these courses would directly benefit my thesis research. I took them not only to satisfy credit requirements, but also to fulfill the perceived needs of my research. In fact, several research publications resulted directly from the course work since I was able to immediately see prac- tical applications in novel areas and, also, I maintained an excellent academic record. I feel that I benefit the most from research- oriented courses. At the beginning of such a course, the instructor (usually an expert on the subject he teaches) introduces the basic principles and refers to the current development of the subject. Meanwhile, the key literature and references are distributed to students. To fulfill the course requirements, every student has to read the literature carefully, do home- work assignments, take quizzes or examinations, present a key paper orally, and finish a research pro- ject which is followed by a final report. Needless to say, such a course is usually very demanding and time- consuming; however, it gives us practical experience in research and brings us to the frontier of the related subject quickly. There is another significant benefit that comes from a research-oriented course. From it we can learn how to do research: through search and review of published literature, research topic selec- tion, oral presentation, conducting the project, and technical writing. Each of these steps is exactly a prin- cipal element in the research process, isn't it? CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION I believe universities provide the best environ- ment for learning. Facing choices from among many useful courses offered, we are unable to take all of the courses we need. However, auditing will help us to partially solve this problem. I usually audit one course each semester. Although I do not do the work of this course in detail, I still learn the basic principles, defi- nitions, and terminologies. I am also interested in attending and participating in various research seminars. I often attend two or three seminars each week, in different departments and universities. The speakers at the seminars are usually famous scholars or young experts in specialized fields. They can provide us with the newest developments and the most advanced tech- niques. We also have the opportunity to extend our knowledge, to acquire new motivation, to exchange ideas, and to develop oral communication skills [1]. THESIS RESEARCH TOPIC I believe that the most important element in pur- suit of a PhD degree is thesis research. The main pur- pose of thesis research is to learn how to do research work and how to solve problems independently [2]. Notably, research topic selection plays a key role in thesis research. Three aspects should be taken into account in topic selection: 1) personal research in- terest and academic background, 2) adviser's sugges- tions, and 3) available research facilities. I feel that research interest is the most crucial fac- tor. In a survey on doctoral dissertation experience, it has been found that personal interest is rated as the most important factor influencing research topic choice [3]. If you love the job you are doing, you will be happy and won't care about how difficult it is. On the other hand, as we know, no one can succeed at the work to which he does not bring great confidence and enthusiasm. The choice of research topic also needs to fit our academic background to a certain extent. Graduate training is the continuation of undergraduate study. Undergraduate study provides us with a broad and basic academic background, while graduate education trains us to do independent research. Our past experi- ence and knowledge will pave the way for us to go toward the final goal. Unfortunately, many graduate students do not ap- proach this aspect seriously. They simply ask their adviser: "What topic is available for me?" Rather, I believe that the fundamental question is: What is the purpose of a PhD dissertation? As stated in many graduate program brochures, it should reflect origi- nal, independent research, and is supposed to contrib- ute new knowledge to the field in some way [2]. Here, originality means "nothing similar to prior work." In- dependent research requires that we work on our own at each step of the project, including topic selection. If we tell the adviser first what we want to do, this will show that we are approaching our subject with maturity and motivation, and it will help the adviser understand our interests and potential. At this mo- ment, the adviser can encourage and guide us and suggest appropriate avenues of research [4]. An im- portant factor is that we are stimulated to gain creativity by such a training process. When we do not have enough experience, our ideas are often imper- I believe that the most important element in pursuit of a PhD degree is thesis research. [Its] main purpose ... is to learn how to do research work and how to solve problems independently. Notably, the research topic selection plays a key role in thesis research. fect, i.e., wrong in some aspects, even unrealistic. But one should not forget that new ideas sometimes seem crazy at first [5, 6]. SELF-LEARNING AND INDEPENDENT RESEARCH In recent years, much attention has been focused on the need to train creative engineers for industry and society. Though there are many different defini- tions of creativity, everyone agrees that "creativity (whatever it is) involves the ability to put things (words, concepts, methods, devices) together in novel ways" [5]. I believe that creativity may also include 1) self- learning capability and 2) independent research cap- ability. Learning is a process that never ends. Earn- ing a PhD is by no means the end of learning; it is a new beginning [7]. In our professional career, it is normal for us to meet with new problems, some of which are not di- rectly related to our past knowledge and experience. The self-learning capability enables us to learn and obtain what we need in solving these problems. It also provides a free hand for us to carry out independent research. The main objective of dissertation research is to help us gain a generally valuable experience, particu- larly by teaching us the skills of independent research [3]. Independent research capability consists of two subsets: the capability to analyze problems and the capability to solve problems. The former can help us FALL 1989 identify and formulate problems, while the latter may provide us the means to find the solution to the prob- lems. In my experience, the secret of learning how to do independent research can be summarized as "plan big, start small." "Plan big" means that we should estab- lish a big, even fantastic research goal. All of the re- search efforts we make are for society's future needs, not for the past. "Plan big" addresses our research into the important investigations of science and technology. "Start small" suggests that, at the start, we should initiate a small project in order to obtain the necessary experience. Meanwhile, early succes- ses, even small ones, can strengthen our confidence and stimulate our struggle toward the final objective. As I complete my graduate study, I find that I have gained sound training in both academic study and independent research capability. This professional training went through four stages. These stages have a chronological progress, but the main distinctions separating them are not based on time divisions, but on the demonstration of independent research capabil- ity. Stage 1: Implementation Much of my work before graduate school was based on the detailed implementation of certain re- search efforts. I finished undergraduate study, and was able to implement published theoretical al- gorithms under my supervisor's advice. These in- cluded carrying out experiments, repairing in- strumentation, setting up equipment, and writing computer programs based on available algorithms. My adviser assigned the project and gave me details about related techniques; then I worked on it. I became truly involved in research and gained hands-on experi- ence. Stage 2: Programming An obvious benefit at this level is that I began doing independent research. My adviser suggested re- search directions and provided some important techni- cal details. I sought a possible solution for realization of these ideas. I initiated small research topics, ob- tained the needed information by self-instruction, car- ried out research, and wrote technical papers for pub- lication. I had learned how to translate an original idea into a prototype capable of practical application. Typical examples are: implementation of CAD pack- ages [8], development of prototype expert systems [9, 10], proof or discovery of new algorithms and criteria [9, 11], and others. Stage 3: Problem-Solving This stage is the key to graduate research [2]. At this stage my goal was no longer only to deal with a detailed research project or to get new design criteria. With encouragement from the adviser, I applied my knowledge to the formulation of general methodology for problem-solving, defined research directions and long-term topics, helped the adviser prepare research proposals, and made the important discovery. Several significant research efforts were gener- ated at this stage, such as an integrated intelligent system architecture for developing high-performance intelligent systems [12], adaptive feedback testing system for enhancing expert system reliability [9], and graphic simulation as a new knowledge represen- tation technique [13]. These projects focused on de- veloping problem-solving methodology and universal configuration. Beyond the significant theoretical re- sults and practical applications, the most important factor is the demonstration of creativity. Stage 4: Administration The experience gained at this stage is very impor- tant for developing management and leadership skills. It is usually obtained from post-doctoral training or independent work as a university faculty member. I was appointed as a supervisor for developing an Intelligent Control Laboratory, an NSF-sponsored project. I began to supervise junior graduate students and learned how to cooperate with other professors. We are now working together in order to solve the tough problems in biochemical process control and to establish university/industry cooperation research. We are planning to develop a new interdisciplinary graduate program to train chemical engineers in the most advanced techniques and to build a comprehen- sive research center for intelligent control. I have begun to extend our research into other engineering fields, and I have also become involved more in technical management and leadership, such as helping prepare "Decision Systems Engineering," a new interdisciplinary graduate program to design a PhD curriculum, consulting for business and industrial companies, and working as session chairman in inter- national conferences. ADVISER'S FUNCTION The PhD adviser plays a key role in dissertation research. The faculty adviser guides our study of the fundamentals, explains why we do research, how to do research, and instills in us feelings of confidence. Professor Amundson summarized all of these aspects CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION and pointed out, "The relationship between PhD ad- viser and graduate student is a unique kind of relation- ship that obtains nowhere else ." [4]. Without question, my adviser, Dr. Jiang, As- sociate Professor of Chemical and Biochemical En- gineering and Director of Intelligent Control Labora- tory, deserves much credit for my success. I feel for- tunate to be able to work in Dr. Jiang's research team. He has given me the opportunity to learn, and has trained me as a professional scholar. Throughout my training process, I have greatly benefitted from his advice, suggestions, patient observations, help, strong encouragement, and support. Chronologically, Dr. Jiang has trained me through three different stages. The first stage: Infancy When I started dissertation research, I lacked the necessary depth of knowledge and experience. I used to show uncertainty or no confidence in research. Dr. Jiang always tried to find the positive elements and proofs of success in my progress, such as getting an "A" in a course, understanding a new algorithm, and so on. He always gave me encouragement. This stage can be called the infancy of my "plan big." The second stage: Cold War Period As my professional career progressed, especially in the transition from the programming stage to the problem-solving stage, I thought I had achieved a lit- tle success in both academic background and disserta- tion research. I was satisfied with certain detailed technique results and implementations. However, I limited myself from going more deeply into scientific research and prevented myself from seeking problem- solving methodology. Seeing this happen, Dr. Jiang changed his attitude. He criticized my work se- verely-even my success. It was a difficult time for me, like a "cold war" in my graduate study. However, I was awakened from my ignorance, began more seri- ous study and thinking, and improved the quality of my research. The third stage: Maturity After I gained more experience in independent re- search, Dr. Jiang let me become more involved in ad- ministrative activities in order to develop my leader- ship skills. Through my training in administrative capability, I feel that I have become more mature. In less than four years of graduate study. I took 25 courses, audited 8 courses, published over 40 research papers in reputable journals and conference proceed- ings, attended 18 scientific and technical conferences, and was chosen as session chairman at international conferences. Also, I was awarded a Doctoral Excel- lence Fellowship by the Rutgers Graduate School, re- ceived a MS degree in computer science, and will soon complete a PhD in engineering. In addition, I have travelled in 47 American states and 5 foreign countries and have visited most of the research-oriented univer- sities in the USA and Canada to obtain information and knowledge from my colleagues. I now have enough confidence and experience to believe that when I complete my doctorate, I can be successful either in academia or industry [4]. CONCLUSIONS Briefly the main tenets of my view of graduate study are: The main objective of graduate study is to learn how to do independent research and how to foster creativity. Creativity includes self-learning and independent research capabilities, which can help one to analyze problems and then to formulate solutions for them. How to begin independent research? "Plan big, start small." The dissertation adviser plays a very important role in our professional training process. Personal interest is a key to selecting research topics. Course work is more fruitful when it is directly related to dissertation research rather than simply fulfilling curriculum requirements. My future plans are to improve my communication skills, to expand both my academic background and research, to learn more, to do more, and to succeed in my professional career. I feel that I have a contribu- tion to make to science, technology, and humanity. It is my goal to make that contribution. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am indebeted to Tsung-Shann Jiang, Shaw Wang, Paul Griminger, Marie Tamas, Louis Sabin, Francene Sabin, Henrik Pedersen, and Jiachen Zhuang for their encouragement and help. The Graduate School of Rutgers University provided a Doctoral Excellence Fellowship to support my disser- tation research. REFERENCES 1. Reid, R.C., "The Graduate Experience," Phillips Petroleum Co. Lecture Series in Chemical Engineering School at Oklahoma State University (1984) 2. Duda, J.L., "Common Misconceptions Concerning FALL 1989 Graduate School," Chem. Eng. Ed., 18, 156 (1984) 3. Connoly, T., and A.L. Porter, "The Doctoral Disserta- tion-How Relevant?" Eng. Ed., p 162, November (1980) 4. Amundson, N.R., "American University Graduate Work," Chem. Eng. Ed., 21, 160 (1987) 5. Felder, R.M., "Creativity in Engineering Education," Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 120 (1988) 6. Maslow, A.H., The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, Viking Press, New York (1971) 7. Van Ness, H.C., "Chemical Engineering Education: Will We Ever Get It Right?" Chem. Eng. Prog., p 18, January (1989) 8. Sang. Z.T., M. Rao, and T. W. Weber, "A Microcom- puter-Based Simulation Laboratory for Process Con- trol," Proc. SCS Multiconference, Modeling and Simu- lation on Microcomputers, p. 213, San Diego, CA (1986) 9. Rao, M., T.S. Jiang, and J.P. Tsai, "IDSCA: An Intelligent Direction Selector for the Controller's Action in Multiloop Control Systems," Internat. J. of Intell. Sys., 3, p 361 (1988) 10. Rao, M., J.P. Tasi, and T.S. Jiang, "Intelligent Deci- sionmaker for Optimal Control," App. Artif. Intell. 2, p 289(1988) 11. Rao, M., and T.S. Jiang, "Simple Criterion to Test Non- Minimum-Phase Systems," Internat. J. of Control, 47, p 653 (1988) 12. Rao, M., T.S. Jiang, and J.P. Tsai, "Combining Symbolic and Numerical Processing for Real-Time Intelligent Control," Eng. Applications of Al (1989) 13. Rao, M., X. Zheng, and T.S. Jiang, "Graphic Simula- tion: Beyond Numerical Computation and Symbolic Reasoning," Proc. IEEE Internat. Conf on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Beijing, China, p 523, August (1988) book reviews MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS FOR NONIDEAL FLUIDS by L. L. Lee Butterworths, 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham, MA 02180;$52.95 (1988)

Reviewed by
Keith E. Gubbins
Cornell University

This is a graduate level book aimed at presenting
modern statistical mechanical methods to engineers and
applied scientists. Until the early 1970's these rigorous
methods were only applicable to gases, crystalline solids,
and simple liquids such as argon, and so are of limited
value to engineers. Over the last fifteen years or so they
have been extended to include nonspherical and polar
molecules, electrolytes, nonideal solutions, and most re-
cently, a wide variety of surface phenomena. There have
been rapid developments in perturbation and integral
equation theories, in computer simulation methods, and
in scattering experiments that provide information about
the molecular or atom-atom correlations functions. These
powerful methods are gradually replacing the more em-
pirical methods that engineers have traditionally used,
and so a book of this sort is welcome. The only other
books aimed at engineers of which I am aware are Reed
and Gubbins' Applied Statistical Mechanics (now out of
print and in some respects out of date) and Lucas'
Angewandte Statische Thermodynamik (so far only
available in the original German, although an English
translation is planned for late 1989 or early 1990).
The coverage of the book is good. The first three
chapters deal with introductory material-classical and
quantum mechanics, the ensembles, and ideal gases. The

remainder of the book covers more recent developments
in the theory of liquids (Chapters 4-12, 14), the molecular
dynamics simulation method (Chapter 13), and adsorp-
tion of solids (Chapter 15). There are useful appendices
dealing with intermolecular forces, and giving computer
programs for the solution of integral equations and
molecular dynamics calculations. The parts dealing with
liquids are thorough and well done. They cover the dis-
tribution functions and integral equations for fluids of
polar and nonspherical molecules and not just spherical
molecules as in many other books. There are quite de-
tailed accounts of the integral equation and perturbation
theory methods, including chapters on hard body fluids,
Lennard-Jones fluids, polar fluids, electrolytes, and site-
site model fluids.
As a teaching text the book has some drawbacks. The
introduction to the ensembles is quite brief and lacks illu-
minating examples, figures, or much in the way of physi-
cal interpretation, so most students experiencing this ma-
terial for the first time will find it hard going. There is a
similar problem with the treatment of the distribution
functions in Chapter 4. The chapter on molecular dy-
namics is well done, but for students it would be helpful
to have some simpler examples or programs, and some
discussion of the Monte Carlo method, which is easier to
program for a beginner. It would have been helpful to
have had more illustrative examples and well thought
out questions at the end of chapters. The layout of the
book is rather poor, with too much print on each page
and poorly reproduced figures, making it somewhat dif-
In conclusion, this is an up-to-date summary of a
rapidly developing field that is aimed at an engineering
audience. It will be especially useful to graduate students
and other researchers as an introduction to the subject,
but will need to be supplemented if it is used as a teaching
text. a

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FALL 1989

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROGRAMS AT

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For further information, contact the Director
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FACULTY
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M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
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RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development,
Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis,
Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental,
Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer,
Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing,
Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing.
An equoL' employment/cqual educational
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Chemical Engineering at

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FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS

K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis
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Phenomena in Porous Media
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Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics
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K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomenna,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics
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Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics
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J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
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S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory

S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics

R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control

For further Information contact
CHAIRMAN
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ

The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial
grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses
are offered in most of the research areas listed below.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:

MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science*:
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport

HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics, Polyelectrolyte Solutions

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

EDWARD J. FREEH, Research Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in the
Microcirculation, Biorheology

ROBERTO GUZMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1988
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods

GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical Modeling of Transport,
Bioreactors

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion
Aerosols, Microcontamination

Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It is
a growing modern city of 450,000 that
retains much of the old Southwestern
atmosphere.

For further information, write to

Dr. Jost 0. L. Wendt
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721

The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity
educational institution/equal opportunity
employer.

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena,
Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Computer
Aided Design

Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion

JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement, Chemical
Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phenomena

DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic
Processes

DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing
'Center for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several
technicians, and several postdocs and graduate students. Other research involves 2-1
electrophoesis, cell culture, electro cell fusion, and electro fluid dynamic modelling.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

University of Arkansas

Department of Chemical Engineering

FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics

Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics,
Enhanced Oil Recovery

Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics

James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization

Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards
Assessment, Dense Gas Dispersion

William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering

W. Roy Penney (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University)
Process Engineering, Process Development

Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion

Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes

Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation

Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design

Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas)
Microelectronics Materials and Processing,
Superconductors

J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control

FINANCIAL AID
Graduate students are supported by fellowships and
research or teaching assistantships.

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT
Dr. W. Roy Penney, Professor and Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701

LOCATION
The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is liter-
ally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor
recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic
city and serves as the center of trade, government, and
finance for the region. The city and University offer a
wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

FACILITIES
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional 20,000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Research Center. FALL 1989 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Graduate Studies Auburn University RESEARCH AREAS R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966) Advanced Polymer Science R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965) Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) Carbon Fibers and Composites J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Conversion L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) Computer-Aided Process Control A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976) Controlled Atmosphere Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) Electron Microscopy G. MAPLES (Oklahoma State University, 1967) Environmental Enneerin R. D. NEUMAN (Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1973) Enronmental Engineering T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) Heterogeneous Catalysis C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951) THE PROGRAM A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973) TE P A B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) The Department is one of the fast offers degrees at the M.S. and Pi both experimental and theoretic For Information and Application, Write interest, with modern research ec Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head types of studies. Generous finar Chemical Engineering qualified students. Auburn University, AL 36849-5127 Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution Interfacial Phenomena Process Design Process Simulation Pulp and Paper Engineering Reaction Engineering Separations Surface Science Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena st growing in the Southeast and h.D. levels. Research emphasizes al work in areas of national equipment available for most all ncial assistance is available to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION THE FACULTY 'r b'' i I ":~"b~ L~e DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical Engineer- ing or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering (part-time) in the following areas: FACULTY R. A. Heidemann, Head, (Washington U.) A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.) L. A. Behie (Western Ontario) J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary) F. Berruti (Waterloo) P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta) R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.) A. Chakma (UBC) M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY) A. A. Jeje (MIT) N. Kalogerakis (Toronto) A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary) R. G. Moore (Alberta) P. M. Sigmund (Texas) J. Stanislav (Prague) W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta) E. L. Tollefson (Toronto) M. A. Trebble (Calgary) FOR * Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria * Heat Transfer and Cryogenics * Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion * Multiphase Flow in Pipelines * Fluid Bed Reaction Systems * Environmental Engineering * Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation * Enhanced Oil Recovery * In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils * Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates * Computer Simulation of Separation Processes * Computer Control and Optimization ofBio/Engineer Processes * Biotechnology and Biorheology Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to qualified applicants. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE DR. A. K. MEHROTRA, CHAIRMAN GRADUATE STUDIES COMMITTEE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY, CALGARY, ALBERTA, CANADA T2N 1 N4 The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calga Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lai Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with t, Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCAT] DC THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY HE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY... RESEARCH INTERESTS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING PLEASE WRITE: ... offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro- grams involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within and outside the department. Students have the opportunity to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and moun- tains. FACULTY Alexis T. Bell (Chairman) Harvey W. Blanch Elton J. Cairns Arup K. Chakraborty Douglas S. Clark Morton M. Denn Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren David B. Graves Dennis W. Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N. Michaels John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Jeffrey A. Reimer David S. Soane Doros N. Theodorou Charles W. Tobias Michael C. Williams Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley. California 94720 FALL 1989 University of California, Davis Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty BELL, Richard L. University of Washington, Seattle Mass transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays, environmental transport, biochemical engineering. BOULTON, Roger University of Melbourne Chemical en- gineering aspects of fermentation and wine processing, fermentation kinetics, computer simulation and control of enol- ogical operations. HIGGINS, Brian G. University of Minnesota Wetting hy- drodynamics, fluid mechanics of thin films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett Films, Sol-Gel processes. JACKMAN, Alan P. University of Minnesota Biological ki- netics and reactor design, kinetics of ion exchange, environmental solute trans- port, heat and mass transport at air-water interface, hemodynamics and fluid ex- change. KATZ, David F. University of California, Berkeley Bio- logical fluid mechanics, biorheology, cell biology, image analysis. McCOY, Benjamin J. University of Minnesota Chemical re- action engineering adsorption, cataly- sis, multiphase reactors; separation proc- esses chromatography, ion exchange, supercritical fluid extraction. McDONALD, Karen University of Maryland, College Park - Distillation control, control of multivari- able, nonlinear processes, control of bio- chemical processes, adaptive control, parameter and state estimation. PALAZOGLU, Ahmet Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Proc- ess control, process design and synthesis. POWELL, Robert L. The Johns Hopkins University Rheol- ogy, fluid mechanics, properties of sus- pensions and physiological fluids. RYU, Dewey D.Y. Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Kinetics and reaction engineering of biochemical and enzyme systems, opti- mization of continuous bioreactor, bio- conversion of biologically active com- pounds, biochemical and genetic engi- neering, and renewable resources devel- opments. SMITH, J.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Transport rates and chemical kinetics for catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic and steady-state methods in slurry, trickle-bed, single pellet, and fixed-bed reactors. STROEVE, Pieter Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Transport with chemical reaction, bio- technology, rheology of heterogeneous media, thin film technology, interfacial phenomena, image analysis. WHITAKER, Stephen University of Delaware Drying porous media, transport processes in heteroge- neous reactors, multiphase transport phenomena in heterogeneous systems. Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just an hour away from the San Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor enthusiasts may enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Lake Tahoe Bowl (2 hours away). These recreational op- portunities combine with the friendly informal spirit of the Davis campus and town to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. The city of Davis is adjacent to the campus and within easy walking or cy- cling distance. Both furnished and unfur- nished one- and two-bedroom apart- ments are available. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on- campus. Course Areas Applied Kinetics & Reactor Design Applied Mathematics Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Environmental Transport Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Design & Control Process Dynamics Rheology Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems More Information The Graduate Group in Biomedical Engineering is now housed within the Department of Chemical Engineering. Further information and application ma- terials for either program (Chemical En- gineering or Biomedical Engineering) and financial aid may be obtained by writing: Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of California, Davis Davis, CA 95616 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT UCLA FACULTY 0 D. T. Allen Y. Cohen T. H. K. Frederking S. K. Friedlander R. F. Hicks E. L. Knuth V. Manousiouthakis H. G. Monbouquette PROGRAMS UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart- ment offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial needs. The depart- ment's national leadership is demonstrated by the newly established Engineering Re- search Center for Hazardous Substance Control. This center of advanced technol- ogy is complemented by existing programs in Environmental Transport Research and Biotechnology Research and Education. Fellowships are available for outstand- ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded science programs and to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art and sports on campus K. Nobe L. B. Robinson 0. I. Smith W. D. Van Vorst (Prof. Emeritus) V. L. Vilker A. R. Wazzan RESEARCH AREAS 0 Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Process Design and Process Control Polymer Processing and Rheology Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Particle Technology Environmental Engineering 0 CONTACT * Admissions Officer Chemical Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592 (213) 825-9063 FALL 1989 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA BARBARA * FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS - L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics. PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue) Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science. SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence. DAN G. CACUCI Ph.D. (Columbia) Computational Engineering, Radiation Transport, Reactor Physics, Uncertainty Analysis. HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer. OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena. SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford) Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis. JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface Forces. FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics; Superconducting Oxides. GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D.. (M.I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials. DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing. JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer. G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal Dispersions. PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems. A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Biomedical Engineering, Reactor Physics, Radiation Transport Analysis. ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy Conversion, Air Pollution. ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes. DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identfication. PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of Groningen, Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting Polymers; Polymer Processing. T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Mutiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics. W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Structure of Microemulsions. PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs. Financial aid, includ- ing fellowships, teaching assistant- ships, and research assistantships, is available. Some awards provide limited moving expenses. THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore cam- puses, UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest of Los Ange- les and 330 miles south of San Fran- cisco. The student enrollment is over 16,000. The metropolitan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor L. Gary Leal Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at the CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY "At the Leading Edge" FACULTY * RESEARCH INTERESTS Frances H. Arnold James E. Bailey John F. Brady George R. Gavalas Konstantinos P. Giapis Julia A. Kornfield Manfred Morari C. Dwight Prater (Visiting) John H. Seinfeld Fred H. Shair Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus) Aerosol Science Applied Mathematics Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering Bioseparation Catalysis Chemical Vapor Deposition Combustion Colloid Physics Computational Hydrodynamics Fluid Mechanics Materials Processing Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science Process Control and Synthesis Protein Engineering Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous Systems for further information, write: Professor John F.Brady Department of Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 FALL 1989 * 273 ,j A II ^s t? F^ ^ ^- --^^9 'Ko L''r EXERCISE YOUR MIND Join the chemical engineering team at CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY. Work out with top-ranked teachers and researchers and practice in one of the best research facilities in the country. Faculty and specializations: Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University Particle separations, mixing, acid gas recovery John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan Redox equilibria, thin car- bon films, modulated electroplating Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adap- tive inferential control, multi-variable control, coordination algorithms Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University Laser anemometry, mathematical modelling, data acquisition Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle processing Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University High-gravity separa- tions, sulfur removal processes Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering, current distributions, electrodeposition Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve University Elec- trochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis, electrochemistry related to elec- tronic materials J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University Surface phenomena, interfacial dynamics, light scattering Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Car- negie-Mellon University Surfactant systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil recovery Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, Univer- situ of Pittsburgh Electrochemical engin te'ring, reacto:-r design and iIrnulatirion. elxtdrojde proce?3-el: Train in: * Electrochemical engineering * Laser applications * Mixing and separations * Process control * Surface and colloids For more information contact: The Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University University Circle Cleveland, Ohio 44106 CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY CLEVELAND, OHIO 44106 The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI Q^b GRADUATE STUDY in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY * Amy Ciric Joel Fried Stevin Gehrke Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Robert Jenkins Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Glenn Lipscomb Neville Pinto Sotiris Pratsinis Stephen Thiel CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCESS SYNTHESIS Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations. Prediction of reaction by-products. POLYMERS Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AEROSOL ENGINEERING Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions, aerosol depositions AIR POLLUTION Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems. COAL RESEARCH Demonstration of new technology for coal com- bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION TWO-PHASE FLOW Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee Boiling. Stability and transport properties of Department of Chemical Engineering, #171 foami University of Cincinnati foam. Cincinnati, OH 45221 MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy- namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION E .i' " I\ SI 1' \< ).-. Graduate Study at Clemson University In Chemical Engineering Coming Up for Air No matter where you do your graduate work, your nose will be in your books and your mind on your research. But at Clemson University, there's something for you when you can stretch out for a break. Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing, sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend. Something that can really relax you. All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering Department, too. With active research and teaching in polymer processing, composite materials, process automation, thermodynamics, catalysis, and membrane applications what more do you need? The University Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 14,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga. The Faculty Charles H. Barron, Jr. James M. Haile Amod A. Ogale John N. Beard, Jr. Douglas E. Hirt Richard W. Rice Dan D. Edie Stephen S. Melsheimer Mark C. Thies Charles H. Gooding Joseph C. Mullins Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available. For Further Information For further information and a descriptive brochure, write: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Earle Hall Clemson University NIERST Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER RESEARCH Alternate Energy Sources Biotechnology and Bioengineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Coal Gasification and Combustion Enhanced Oil Recovery Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization Interfacial and Surface Phenomena Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics and Materials Processing DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975 ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983 JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974 R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967 HOWARD J. M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint Ph.D., University of London, 1963 DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984 FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO INTERESTS * Mass Transfer Membrane Transport and Separations Numerical and Analytical Modeling Process Control and Identification Semiconductor Processing Surface Chemistry and Surface Science Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Thin Film Science Transport Processes * FACULTY * WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968 RICHARD D. NOBLE, Research Professor Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976 W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor Ph.D. Tulane University, 1965 ROBERT L. SANI, Professor Director of Center for Low Gravity Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963 KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and Chairman Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951 RONALD E. WEST, Professor Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958 Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 FALL 1989 COLORADO SCHOOL 0 OF 1874 MINES 0LORA0 THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor- liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering. J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction. V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry. E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria, education methods research. R. M. BALDWIN, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis, oil shale processing, supercritical extraction. M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissociation modeling. A. L. BUNGE, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption. R. L. MILLER, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, particulate removal with venturi scrubbers, supercritical extraction. J. F. ELY, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids. For Applications and Further Information On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 Colorado State University Location: CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000 people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new Center for the Performing Arts. Faculty: LARRY BELFIORE, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin ERIC H. DUNLOP, Ph.D. University of Strathclyde JUD HARPER, Ph.D. Iowa State University NAZ KARIM, Ph.D. University of Manchester TERRY LENZ, Ph.D. Iowa State University JIM LINDEN, Ph.D. Iowa State University CAROL McCONICA, Ph.D. Stanford University VINCE MURPHY, Ph.D. University of Massachusetts KEN REARDON, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement Research Areas: Alternate Energy Sources Biotechnology Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Vapor Deposition Computer Simulation and Control Environmental Engineering Fermentation Food Engineering Hazardous Waste Treatment Polymeric Materials Porous Media Phenomena Rheology Semiconductor Processing Solar Cooling Systems For Applications and Further Information, write: Professor Vincent G. Murphy Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 FALL 1989 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers Faculty and Research Areas THOMAS F. ANDERSON ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN statistical thermodynamics, polymer science, polymer morphology phase equilibria, separations composite materials and properties JAMES P. BELL JAMES M. FENTON MONTGOMERY T. SHAW structure and electrochemical engineering, polymer processing, properties of polymers enrivonmental engineering rheology DOUGLAS J. COOPER G. MICHAEL HOWARD DONALD W. SUNDSTROM expert systems, process dynamics, environmental engineering, process control, energy technology biochemical engineering fluidization fluization HERBERT E. KLEI ROBERT A. WEISS ROBERT W. COUGHLIN biochemical engineering, polymer science catalysis, biotechnology, environmental engineering surface science MICHAEL B. CUTLIP chemical reaction engineering, computer applications We'll gladly supply the Answers! iTHE Graduate Admissions NIVERSITY OF Dept. of Chemical Engineering ~CoI Box U-139 T he University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06268 (203) 486-4019 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Cornell University World-class research in... Biochemical engineering applied mathematics computer simulation environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science 1 2 heat and mass transfer polymer science and engineering fluid dynamics rheology and biorheology process control molecular thermodynamics statistical mechanics computer-aided design A diverse intellectual climate Graduate students arrange indi- vidual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell depart- ments, including chemistry, biological sciences, physics, computer science, food science, materials science, mechanical engineering, and business administration. A scenic location Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the country. A stimulating university com- munity offers excellent recrea- tional and cultural opportunities in an attractive environment. A distinguished faculty Brad Anton Paulette Clancy Peter A, Clark Claude Cohen James R. Engstrom Robert K, Finn Keith E. Gubbins Daniel A. Hammer Peter Harriott Donald L. Koch Robert P. Merrill William L. Olbricht Athanassios Z, Panagiotopoulos Ferdinand Rodriguez George F. Scheele Michael L. Shuler Julian C, Smith (Emeritus) Paul H. Steen William B. Street Raymond G. Thorpe (Emeritus) Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus) Herbert F. Wlegandt (Emeritus) John A. Zollweg Graduate programs lead to the degrees of master of engineering, master of science, and doctor of philosophy. Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available. For further information write to: Professor William L. Olbricht Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, NY 14853-5201 FALL 1989 Chemical Engineerin at The Faculty Ricardo Aragon Giovanni Astarita Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Kenneth B. Bischoff Douglas J. Buttrey Costel D. Denson Prasad S. Dhurjati Henry C. Foley Bruce C. Gates Eric W. Kaler Michael T. Klein- Abraham M. Lenhoff Roy L. McCullough Arthur-B. Metzner Jon H. Olson Michael E. Paulaitis T. W. Fraser Russell Stanley I. Sandler Jerold M. Schultz Annette D. Shine Andrew L. Zydney lhe University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo- voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering. For more information and application materials, write: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 The University of Delaware- Modern Applications of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD FACULTY * TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design ARTHUR L FRICKE. Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing, Reaction Engineering GERASIMOS LYBERATOS. Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering FRANK MAY Computer-Aided Learning RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations For more information, please write: Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 or call (904) 392-0881 FALL 1989 GEORGIA TECH A Unit of the University System of Georgia Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Faculty A. S. Abhiraman Pradeep K. Agrawal Yaman Arkun Sue Ann Bidstrup Charles A. Eckert William R. Ernst Larry J. Forney Charles W. Gorton Jeffery S. Hsieh Paul A. Kohl Michael J. Matteson John D. Muzzy Robert M. Nerem Gary W. Poehlein Ronnie S. Roberts Ronald W. Rousseau Thanassios Sambanis Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork A. H. Peter Skelland Jude T. Sommerfeld D. William Tedder Amyn S. Teja Mark G. White Timothy M. Wick Jack Winnick Ajit Yoganathan Research Interests Adsorption Aerosols Biomedical engineering Biochemical engineering Catalysis Composite materials Crystallization Electrochemical engineering Environmental chemistry Extraction Fine particles Interfacial phenomena Microelectronics Physical properties Polymer science and engineering Polymerization Process control and dynamics Process synthesis Pulp and paper engineering Reactor analysis and design Separation processes Surface science and technology Thermodynamics Transport phenomena For more Information write: Ronald W. Rousseau School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION I I What do graduate students say about the University of Houston Department of Chemical Engineering? "Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty o your choice: semiconductor processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too, and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low. "Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program in superconductivity. The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays, nightclubs, professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away. "The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers" If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you. "It's great!" a) ,4 / --- it 1 V + - AM-- .~ ~~~~~~" P I I^^^p _,,/ ^NJ^^^tei "/ "5 'lre, f : .. ~/L '' I AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH: Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena Electronic Materials Thermodynamics Enhanced Oil Recovery FACULTY: Neal Amundson Vemuri Balakotaiah Elmond Claridge Abe Dukler Demetre Economou Ernest Henley John Killough Dan Luss For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407 The University is in conpliance with Title IX Richard Pollard William Prengle Raj Rajagopalan Jim Richardson Cynthia Stokes Frank Tiller Richard Willson Frank Worley r U I C The University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical Engineering MS and PhD Graduate Program FACULTY Joachim Floess Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985 Assistant Professor Richard D. Gonzalez Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965 Professor John H. Kiefer Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Irving F. Miller Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960 Professor and Head l Sohail Murad Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 RESEARCH AREAS Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies John Regalbuto Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor David Willcox Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985 Assistant Professor Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal liquefaction, porous media, membrane transport, pulmonary deposition and clearance, biorheology. Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, supercritical fluid extraction/retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization, bioseparations. Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics, combustion chemistry, environmental technology. Heterogeneous Catalysis: Surface chemistry, catalyst preparation and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals, clay chemistry, artificial intelligence applications, modelling and optimization. For more information: Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424 Chemical Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ^IJga^,^mj * A TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE The combination of distinguished faculty, out- standing facilities and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education. The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Richard C. Alkire Harry G. Drickamer Thomas J. Hanratty Jonathan J. L. Higdon Richard I. Masel Walter G. May Anthony J. McHugh William R. Schowalter Edmund G. Seebauer Mark A. Stadtherr Frank B. van Swol James W. Westwater K. Dane Wittrup Charles F. Zukoski IV Electrochemical and Plasma Processing High Pressure Studies, Structure and Properties of Solids Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematics Surface Science Studies of Catalysts and Semiconductor Growth Chemical Process Engineering Polymer Engineering and Science Mechanics of Colloids and Rheologically Complex Fluids Laser Studies in Semiconductor Growth Process Flowsheeting and Optimization Wetting and Capillary Condensation Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes Biotechnology Colloid and Interfacial Science For information and application forms write: Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 West California Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT Illinois Institute of Technology THE UNIVERSITY * Private, coeducational university * 3000 undergraduate students * 2400 graduate students * 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of Lake Michigan * Campus recognized as an architectural landmark THE CITY * One of the largest cities in the world * National and international center of business and industry * Enormous variety of cultural resources * Excellent recreational facilities * Industrial collaboration and job opportunities THE DEPARTMENT * One of the oldest in the nation * Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time graduate students * M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees * Financially attractive fellowships and assistant- ships available to outstanding students THE FACULTY * HAMIDARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D., IIT) Multi-phase flow and fluidization, flow in porous media, gas technology RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E.Sc., Columbia) Transport processes in chemical and biological systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids * ALl CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A & M) Chemical process control, distributed parameter systems, expert systems * DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., IIT) Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow, separations processes * M. HOSSEIN HARIRI (Ph.D., Manchester-UMIST) Bioseparation, flow in porous media and process design * HENRYR. LINDEN (Ph.D., IIT) Energy policy, planning, and forecasting * SATISHJ. PARULEKAR (Ph.D., Purdue) Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering * J. ROBERTSELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical energy storage * SEUMM. SENKAN (Sc.D., MIT) Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction engineering * DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State U) Polymer rheology and processing, and transport phenomena * DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley) Interfacial phenomena, separation processes, enhanced oil recovery APPLICATIONS Dr. H. Arastoopour Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology I.I.T. Center Chicago, IL 60616 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY is an independent, fully accredited graduate school offering an interdis- " ciplinary degree program designed for B.S. chemical engineering grad- uates. The Institute has an excellent record of preparing graduates for challenging and highly rewarding careers in the paper industry. The In- stitute is located next to the Georgia Institute of Technology and shares many educational resources with Georgia Tech. All U.S. citizens and permanent resi- dents accepted into the program are awarded full tuition scholarships, as well as stipends of$12,000 to
$14,000 per calendar year. Graduates select thesis research projects from a variety of topics, including: Process Engineering Simulation and Control Heat and Mass Transfer Separation Science Reaction Engineering Fluid Mechanics Materials Science Surface and Colloid Science Combustion Technology Chemical Kinetics For further information, please contact: Director of Admissions The Institute of Paper Science and Technology 575 14th St. N.W. Atlanta, GA 30318 (404) 853-9500 GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL & MATERIALS ENGINEERING Iw RESEARCH AREAS: ^\V --Kinetics & Catalysis --Blocatalysis & Biosensors --Bioseparatlons & Biochemical Engineering --Membrane Separations --Particle Morphological Analysis --Air Pollution Modeling --Materials Science --Surface Science & Laser Technology --Parallel & High Speed Computing a_,. For additional Information and application write to: I GRADUATE ADMISSIONS Chemical and Materials Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 319/335-1400 The Unverslty of Iowa does not discrimninate In it educational programs and activies on the bash of race. national origin, color, religion, sex. age, or handicap. The Unverslty also affirm Its commitment to providing equal opportunities and equal accem to Unversity focllles without reference to affectlonal or assoclatlonal preference. For additional Information on nondbcrmlnatlon policies, contact the Coordinator of Title IX and Section 604 In the Office of Affirmative Action. telephone 319/3350705,202 Jessup Hal, The Unlvernty of Iowa, Iowa City. lowa 52242. 5337/8-87 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY William H. Abraham Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport, process modeling Lawrence E. Burkhart Fluid mechanics, separation process, ceramic processing George Burnet Coal technology, separation processes, high temperature ceramics John M. Eggebrecht Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and fluid surfaces Charles E. Glatz Biochemical engineering, processing of biological materials Kurt R. Hebert Applied electrochemistry, corrosion James C. Hill Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport phenomena, aerosols Kenneth R. Jolls Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics Terry S. King Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications Maurice A. Larson Crystallization, process dynamics Peter J. Reilly Biochemical engineering, enzyme technology, carbohydrate chromatography Glenn L. Schrader Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics processing, sensors Richard C. Seagrave Biological transport phenomena, biothermo- dynamics, reactor analysis Dean L. Ulrichson Process modeling, simulation Thomas D. Wheelock Chemical reactor design, coal technology, fluidization Gordon R. Youngquist Crystallization, chemical reactor design, polymerization For additional information, please write: Graduate Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 S. r - -T~ .t -; r, -f '-: __U- - r . k1~. J JOHNS CHEMICAL Timothy A. Barbari Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin Membrane Science Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers Polymeric Thin Films Michael J. Betenbaugh Ph.D., University of Delaware Biochemical Kinetics Insect Cell Culture Recombinant DNA Technology Marc D. Donohue Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Equations of State Statistical Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Joseph L. Katz Ph.D., University of Chicago Nucleation Crystallization Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders Robert M. Kelly Ph.D., North Carolina State University Process Simulation Biochemical Engineering Separations Processes SHOPKINS ENGINEERING Mark A. McHugh Ph.D., University of Delaware High-Pressure Thermodynamics Polymer Solution Thermodynamics Supercritical Solvent Extraction Geoffrey A. Prentice Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Electrochemical Engineering Corrosion W. Mark Saltzman Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport in Biological Systems Polymeric Controlled Release Cell-Surface Interactions W. H. Schwarz Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University Rheology Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics Physical Acoustics of Fluids Turbulence For further information contact: The Johns Hopkins University Chemical Engineering Department Baltimore, MD 21218 (301) 338-7170 LII [U Full Text PAGE 1 = pi Pl chemical engin ee ring education GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE COURSES H,..,._, a,-.., ljllll.-----llUMAII ,,.,,_,,..,., ...... -. .. PR OGRAIIS . 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Tho J>rimaryob ,iffli..,ofthi, rounie;, w .. .,,..,..htongi....,;n, :=~~ff=:;~;:!.:!%%':~~.::.= !n ,ubo,q ...... .,..._.hee,,g;....,;,,,""""""''"" <1<,elopllron;ibo.olaroondoot~.INoJt,o, doingoCh F-494 .. mQr,_.,.,hJ'l'),ifflinthU,....,a, Cht;675,,....,..i,.the,,_,fromwhiooe>periencen ~laOOT>!O<)'onddo,.,.havhetimeor heboni. eperie,w.,e it h t llobowod.oy!o-dayb~!"'W lr....l by~ ...,h .. lltuo:lenuondfaeM e .....-.ondtcintenct; n .i >ripfawyr,,..&rcl, pn:,Jt,.ifheengi0ttri0nude o u .... !amiliwih the ,-.,., f> mun~"""ondtcgainr.e in>ig), 1byint PAGE 12 <110'.,...,......i, tnNI ,-1,oclalioodtopi<,o>II-,_ ::::::;:::~:.: ~:;":!.~"1;'!":,":..o!:! -~B_,..;..,."""""A'.,,,_,;._,"711.I. c;wdyor.df:.(; ... 1y.11IM1bool< ..... k,:i, .. fr>Od--"''ho""""'"matfflal1Mio ~--11o1 .. --...-.w,.,;. -.......,.i(-ollllt- .. ~11,e .... 11.~) ___ ., -'7ond~lo-lNIIIM ,;j,....;.,.-.,"""',,.. ........ t ... ltntandll>olll0te rialwhh_.Ot0f0t1 E-lm o n lt ,.__,,. .. -------c -===---_.,, ____ ..... __,, ., ______ -----..... -. ____ .,_., __ .. ---------"""-----------=:;_r:=~ ------... _,. __ ..,_.,. __ _ ., __ _,_ ., __ o=-:.:.:-=--:""'"-:"""' __ .,. --,------------.. -~---1-o-i _____ .,,...., __ _ .,,.,,.,.._ .. ___ ..... ----______ ... ___ bohandledbythoi;,.,.;.,,,,,,atodmt,,T'wol'Kully .,..,._.,\otllllofflfflNinomiltt<'livo,iylM,apo;llyill1""1ucinfr..,. .-n.11-lOtho--....:,,-.11,o .............,...........,.11.-....... _........,. ___ l>oll,_ .,..,........,...-....i ...... -... peri. ...... ,,,. ............ rt ... iv.'fflidoforin,,ori...-~fl"O(l ....... odentalo,rowarcl, proJoctoloti.e~-.n-..,iyri...,. -lllt~IO--lilo Ol-io~;,;,,t-"''_u...... _____ ,_ PAGE 13 Random Thought s ... GOOD COP/BAD COP Embracing Contraries in Teaching RICHARDM. FELDER N""h Caroli"" S,at< Un;..,,.,;,, /wl,igh,NC27G95 So..,.. p..., Elbo.,. I n ,.bro,, .. c-,,.,... II~ :="".c'!:.~~1;;-,:: ::7.,';.";:~"I;,,~ ,~.., ,; "lp,,:,r-.. Mootof .. .,..i,..,.,,,..,."'' r"1;..-...,.. 1 -p,;l1o......,i.,w, ..,,..,.; ,ho,b, ,.,_,1.,,tpartj0<1ilommu i ho..,,tin.,,p,,:,1"-; PAGE 14 A Co u rse in CELLULAR BIOENGINEERING IIOU(]l,ASA. 1 .AUl't"P, ); RUR(] ~K u.;..,., ,<1 ,.,.,,,-..., ., l'IINMi,..l' A IIIW-&IU A ::..-:-~t~:,.t;.~:':~~~ bot..----......i.... PIOfflllll:U..,.... i--,~c1.wy,;,,~--diotinctiooMil --~ri rcroi. ... .,i..~ ........ """''IY,--....--.tolloe- .... ........,,..A, ... lowlot ..... t.o.o,rt,.-w...m.."'-Boch.,....'-vtlyl,ovo(,ein...,..lptioool~in ......,.u.-...a.....,_ __ .,.._,._...,_ ,, ..... -" -. ... -... .. -ond .. k -atlll _ .,.ptli-1<1 ... __.....-prin<;pioo...,opptiocl, Ulill& ......... ~--.......... .... prin,arilJ,_..,_,,. .... Oll)'.w lll le...Ullon>lbiomodital~ .... lotnv-.i..,....,. .,, 1 ..... od,_olM --.....-----.,,. 111<1..a~.~..-ilp,,,l,ohlyl:,oUOffll l tooleftno w .., .. .......,,....__.,. ~--.. :~:::..:..~ .. -==-~==--..;:~,:;:=~ ,,,,_....IJ,pliodt<>molt<\,lorttlbloloQ.l,,.__. _..___,. ......... ..-.....___ ,ipliM ___ .. ""__..,_ wnac ... .,-., ... all(l.,,11,, 11...., ... .,_ .. _,.,.....,. ... l"' PAGE 15 =~.=~~=:~:: 1.-imarily,luru'ljermooynamitimulalionand "11"1atioo of """"impor<-:::t"~~~:\.':':.,':t,~=:7"J~: a,1oey""""'I! 1h....-k,-y...,Vo1 ,nydorin""""""'"""""" g,neexpre,,oioo from jp i ntM"'"'"n,1,Me,ato"'.1\-.qu,ntly;n clLldi"I( """'"' """~"'heti,i, ...,, ...... rdo!nttoorkoo1,~plt,ofmathtm>tiH bs>od0rttMkyli..,.. lor,,...a,londdis PAGE 16 =~:~;;;;;; ---Goool~....,...uy..,_ H....-t---Mdtn,nlpit.flllo.i,pn, ,_..,..,,....,_,......, ... io l,,ookll,-Lio,,. --o<1c.,,s .,.,,R,,..,._.,1s-,c..,,., .. n..: -,,"""""""""'-"""-"''"" t...:1<>ta""'"'"'""' ;u,,116inl-.1181 . nddror ~~.,._,:a,11>or...,no:11o11oe.-. -...... 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PAGE 17

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PAGE 18

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PAGE 19

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PAGE 20

A co ur se in PARTICULATE PROCESSES A l'SF,VUI.WORXIN<;'Olallintrt>c<""'OY>d-..:1 ~lo 14 )00~;,.1&1,-g;venh quen~y by \ho auity of ,1-.,_ 11,e,..,r,..,1,o_,..ioTill'1/l'a,t;nw,i,l'n,:;;,:,~ .. l~;:_...i,:.;::t:'.!~':":'::!'. _. .. .., in deotho.....-.doditionattim _... Thet<0,...l'aru