Citation
Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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chemical engineering education



VOLUME XXIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1989




z
| GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE


0
z

| COURSES ...
SCellular Blonglnering ........................................ LAUFFENSURGER
U Partleulate Procese .............................................. RANDOLPH
2 Hazardous Chemical Spills.................... KUMAR BENNETT GUDIVAKA
Fluid iMsanlcs of Suspenon ....................................... DAVIS
Applied Linear Algebra ..................................................... WANG
A Mulfidsllpllary Course In BioangInering .......................................
BIENKOWSKI, SAYLER, STRANDBERO, REED

i PROGRAMS ...
Blochemical and Blomedlcol Engnering .......................... SAN MolNTIRE
fa Hmrdous Waste o nagement ............ KUMMLER McMICKING POWITZ
0
RESEARCH ...
Crosadisclplinary Research: Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project ...............
a KISAAUTA *VAN WIE DAVIS BARNES FUNG CHUN DOGAN


and...
Good Copflad Cop: Conrarles In Thaching .................... FELDER
a Smrentr of My Success In Graduate Study ....................RAO
The Essence of Entropy ............................ KYLE







Do You Quali for International?


CHEMICAL ENGINEERS

...The World is Yours!

...iEl Mundo es Tuyo!

...Le Monde est a Vous!

...Die Welt ist Dein!


9*@m; 0'


Return Home with an Exciting
Career Ahead of You!
Procter & Gamble has several entry-level product
and process development openings for BS, MS, or
PhD Chemical Engineers in Asia, Europe. Mexico
and South America.
To readily qualify, you must be bilingual
(including English) and possess appropriate
Citizenship, Immigration Visa, or Work Permit
from one or more of the following countries:
Austnia Belgiun, Brazil Chile, Columbia
Denmanrk gypt Frmance Germaqy,
Hollan Ireland Itay, Japan, Lebanon,
Mexico, Netherlands, Peru, Poracgal
Puerto Rico, SaudiArabia Spain,
UnitedKingdom and Venezuela.


Procter & Gamble total sales are over 20 billion dollars
world-wide. Major product categories include beauty
care, beverage, detergent, fabric care, food, health care,
household care, paper, and pharmaceutical consumer
products. Our technically-based corporation spent over
600 million dollars in research and product development
last year.
We offer a stimulating environment for personal and
professional growth, highly competitive salaries, and
excellent benefits package including pension, health
care and paid relocation.
If interested, send your resume, including country
qualifications and language fluencies, to:
F. O. Schulz, Jr.
International ChE Openings
The Procter & Gamble Company
Ivorydale Technical Center (CEE)
Spring Grove Ave. and June St.
Cincinnati, OH 45217


PROCTER & GAMBLE
An Equal Opportuni(y Employer











Editor's Note to Seniors...

This is the 21st graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors inter-
ested in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses, research at various universities,
and departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of
graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of
the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida


Fall 1988
Arkun, Charos, Reeves Model Predictive Control
Briedis Technical Communications for Grad Students
Deshpande Multivariable Control Methods
Glandt Topics in Random Media
Ng, Gonzalez, Hu Biochemical Engineering
Goosen Research Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules
Teja, Schaeffer Research Thermodynamics and Fluid
Properties
Duda Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education



Fall 1987
Amundson American University Graduate Work
DeCoursey Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction
Takoudis Microelectronics Processing
McCready, Leighton Transport Phenomena
Seider, Ungar Nonlinear Systems
Skaates Polymerization Reactor Engineering
Edie, Dunham Research Advanced Engineering Fibers
Allen, Petit Research Unit Operations in Microgravity
Bartusiak, Price Process Modeling and Control
Bartholomew Advanced Combustion Engineering



Fall 1986
Bird Hougen's Principles
Amundson Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers
Duda Graduate Studies: The Middle Way
Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity
Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligence in Process
Engineering: A Research Program
Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence
in Process Engineering
Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial
Biotechnology
Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Materials
Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous
Materials and Powders
Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education



Fall 1985
Bailey, Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Belfort Separation and Recovery Processes
Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series
Soong Polymer Processing
Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering
Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes
Shah, Hayhurst Molecular Sieve Technology
Bailie, Kono, Henry FluidizatLon
Kauffman Is Grad School Worth It?
Felder The Generic Quiz


Fall 1984
Lauffenburger, et al. Applied Mathematics
Marnell Graduate Plant Design
Scamehorn Colloid and Surface Science
Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars
Zygourakis Linear Algebra
Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis
Converse, et al. Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Fair Separations Research
Edie Graduate Residency at Clemson
McConica Semiconductor Processing
Duda Misconceptions Concerning Grad School


Fall 1983
Davis Numerical Methods and Modeling
Sawin, Reif Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit
Fabrication
Shaeiwitz Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer
Takoudis Chemical Reactor Design
Valle-Riestra Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process
Industries
Woods Surface Phenomena
Middleman Research on Cleaning Up in San Diego
Serageldin Research on Combustion
Wankat, Oreovicz Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job
Hunting
Bird Book Writing and ChE Education
Thomson, Simmons Grad Education Wins in Interstate
Rivalry


Fall 1982
Hightower Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite
Catalysts
Mesler Nucleate Boiling
Weiland, Taylor Mass Transfer
Dullien Fundamentals of Petroleum Production
Seapan Air Pollution for Engineers
Skaates Catalysis
Baird, Wilkes Polymer Education and Research
Fenn Research is Engineering


Fall 1981
Abbott Classical Thermodynamics
Butt, Kung Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering
Chen, et al. Parametric Pumping
Gubbins, Street Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer
Simulation
Guin, et al. Coal Liquefaction and Desulfurization
Thomson Oil Shale Char Reactions
Bartholomew Kinetics and Catalysis
Hassler Chemical Engineering Analysis
Miller Underground Processing
Wankat Separation Processes
Wolf Heterogeneous Catalysis


FALL 1989















CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES


TWENTY-SEVENTH
ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO
J.L. DUDA

The 1989 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec-
turer is J. L. DUDA of Pennsylvania State University.
The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and en-
courage outstanding achievement in an important field
of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice.
The 3M Company provides the financial support for this
annual award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering
educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and
an engraved certificate. These were presented to Dr.
Duda at a banquet during the ASEE annual meeting at
the University of Nebraska.
Dr. Duda's lecture was entitled "A Random Walk
Through Porous Media," and it will be published in a
forthcoming issue of CEE.
The award is made on an annual basis, with nomina-
tions being received through February 1, 1990. Your
nominations for the 1990 lectureship are invited.


CORCORAN AWARD TO
ROBERT L. KABEL

ROBERT L. KABEL (Pennsylvania State Univer-
sity) was the recipient of the fourth annual Corcoran
Award, presented in recognition of the most outstanding
paper published in Chemical Engineering Education in
1988. His paper, "Instruction in Scaleup," appeared in the
summer 1988 issue of CEE.



AWARD WINNERS

A number of chemical engineering professors have
been recognized for their outstanding achievements.
MANFRED MORARI (California Institute of Technol-
ogy) received the prestigious Curtis W. McGraw Re-
search Award in recognition of his groundbreaking tech-
niques for robust process control and for his innovative
research on the effects of process design on the operabil-
ity of chemical processes. He was cited for the


practicability of his solutions and the high quality of his
research contributions, which have significantly fur-
thered engineering science, education, and industrial
practice.
The William Elgin Wickenden Award, which is given
to encourage excellence in scholarly writing and honors
the author of the best paper published in Engineering Ed-
ucation during the preceding publication year, was pre-
sented to RICHARD M. FELDER (North Carolina
State University).
ALAN M. LANE (University of Alabama) was the
recipient of the Outstanding Zone Campus Representa-
tive Award for Zone II, in recognition of his outstanding
contributions as a Zone Campus Representative from
that zone.
Selected as one of only nine honorees from the entire
membership of ASEE, LEWIS G. MAYFIELD
(National Science Foundation) became a Fellow of ASEE.
DONALD J. KERWIN (University of Virginia) was
singled out as an outstanding teacher of engineering stu-
dents in the Southeastern area and was presented the
AT&T Foundation Award to recognize that excellence.
Three chemical engineers were presented with the
Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award: C. STEWART
SLATER (Manhattan College), BRUCE M. MCEN-
ROE (University of Kansas), and ALAN M. LANE
(University of Alabama).
The Martin Award recognizing the best paper pre-
sented at the annual ASEE meeting was presented to
NAM SUN WANG (University of Maryland).



NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS

The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 1989-
90 are: Chairman, WILLIAM BECKWITH (Clemson
University); Past Chairman, JAMES E. STICE
(University of Texas at Austin); Vice Chairman,
THOMAS R. HANLEY (Florida A&M/Florida State
University); Secretary-Treasurer, WALLACE B.
WHITING (West Virginia University); Directors,
WILLIAM L. CONGER (Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute) and GLENN L. SCHRADER (Iowa State Univer-
sity).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


A&




IV











EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS:
Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

EDITOR: Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857
ASSOCIATE EDITOR: T. J. Anderson
CONSULTING EDITOR: Mack Tyner
MANAGING EDITOR: Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861

PUBLICATIONS BOARD

*CHAIRMAN
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

PAST CHAIRMEN
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

*MEMBERS.
South
Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

Central
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

West
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology

Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley

Northeast
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Raymond Baddour
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Northwest
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Canada
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
Library Representative
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


FALL 1989


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XXIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1989



PROGRAMS

200 Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering,
Ka-Yiu San, Larry V. Mclntire

222 Hazardous Waste Management, Ralph H. Kummler,
James H. McMicking, Robert W. Powitz

COURSES

201 A Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering,
Paul R. Bienkowski, Gary S. Sayler, Gerald W.
Strandberg, Gregory D. Reed

20 Cellular Bioengineering, Douglas A. Lauffenburger

214 Particulate Processes, Alan D. Randolph

216 Hazardous Chemical Spills,
Ashok Kumar, Gary F. Bennett, Venkata V. Gudivaka

228 Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions, Robert H. Davis

236 Applied Linear Algebra, Tse-Wei Wang


RESEARCH

242 Initiating Crossdisciplinary Research: The Neuron-Based
Chemical Sensor Project, William S. Kisaalita, Bernard J.
Van Wie, Rodney S. Skeen, William C. Davis, Charles D.
Barnes, Simon J. Fung, Kukjin Chun, Numan S. Dogan


RANDOM THOUGHTS

207 Good Cop/Bad Cop: Embracing Contraries in Teaching,
Richard M. Felder


FEATURES

250 The Essence of Entropy, B. G. Kyle

256 Secrets of My Success in Graduate Study, Ming Rao


197 Editorial
198 Division Activities
20 Letter to the Editor
221 Book Review




CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009 2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs. FL 32028. Copyright
0 1989 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.










A Program on ...


BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING


KA-YIU SAN, LARRY V. McINTIRE
Rice University
Houston, TX 77251-1892

W E HAVE WITNESSED a gradual change in the
chemical engineering profession in the last dec-
ade. Chemical engineers have branched out and have
found new and exciting career opportunities in a
number of emerging areas, such as bioengineering,
advanced materials processing, and electronic and
photonic materials. However, nearly all of these
newly emerging, high-technology areas require not
only training in the fundamentals of chemical en-
gineering, but also demand a good basic knowledge of
the science in the area concerned. This is particularly
true in the field of bioengineering, where much of the
science was not even known ten years ago. It is our
belief that if chemical engineers are to play an active
and important role at the frontier of this exciting area,
they must be trained to be proficient in engineering
fundamentals as well as in biochemistry, cell biology,
and molecular biology. Here at Rice University we
are working toward this goal by forming three com-
prehensive research and education programs in a
Biosciences/Bioengineering Institute. The Institute
will be located in a new 110,000 ft2 building designed
for crossdisciplinary laboratory investigations involv-
ing biochemical and biomedical engineers and life sci-
entists (see Figure 1).


FIGURE 1. Architectural model of the new Biosciences/
Bioengineering Institute at Rice.


... nearly all of these newly emerging, high-technology
areas require not only training in the fundamentals of
chemical engineering, but also demand a good basic
knowledge of the science in the area concerned.

ACADEMIC PROGRAM
Rice University has been at the forefront of
biomedical engineering research for more than twenty
years. The Biomedical Engineering Laboratory was
first established in 1964 to provide engineering design
and development support for Dr. DeBakey's Baylor-
Rice total artificial heart. Dr. David Hellums, the cur-
rent A. J. Hartsook Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing, was a founding member. Since then the effort has
greatly expanded, but the research has remained cen-
tered on problems related to the cardiovascular sys-
tem. Beginning in 1979, the chemical engineering de-
partment decided to enlarge its efforts in bioengineer-
ing to include biochemical engineering. New faculty
with different, yet complementary, interests were re-
cruited to enlarge the scope of our existing biomedical
research activities. Currently, our program has six
faculty members and is expected to increase to a total
of nine over the next five to ten years. Over the past
four years, we have averaged four graduating PhDs
in biochemical and biomedical engineering, which is
approximately half of our total department PhD
graduates (40 for the four-year period). Six of the re-
cent graduates currently hold Assistant Professor po-
sitions in chemical engineering departments around
the country. Approximately half of our total chemical
engineering department graduate students are work-
ing on bioengineering thesis topics.
The philosophy of our program is to create an envi-
ronment which will provide basic training in engineer-
ing principles and life sciences, and to prepare our
students to meet new challenges in the process as-
pects of biotechnology. Three engineering options are
currently offered: one is a five year undergraduate
program, leading to a degree of Master of Engineering
with emphasis in bioengineering; the second program
leads to a PhD degree in chemical engineering; the
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










third is a joint program with the Baylor College of
Medicine which leads to a MD/MS or MD/PhD degree.
The professional Master of Engineering Degree in
biochemical engineering (non-thesis) is designed to
provide chemical engineering students with funda-
mental training in biochemistry, microbiology, and
molecular biology. Students enrolled in this program
not only have to fulfill core requirements in chemical
engineering, but also have to fulfill certain require-
ments offered in the Department of Biochemistry and
Cell Biology, including extensive laboratory work.
The five-year structure appears to be necessary to
give sufficient breadth. However, students can obtain
a four year Bachelors Degree if they are interested in
going directly into graduate research or into a medical
school option. Approximately one-third of our current
chemical engineering seniors are enrolled in the
biochemical engineering option.
The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in chemical en-
gineering under the Biochemical and Biomedical En-
gineering program follows a philosophy similar to that
of the Masters degree. Students enrolled in this pro-
gram, apart from fulfilling the basic PhD require-
ments set forward by the Department of Chemical
Engineering, are also required to take a sequence of
advanced courses from the life science departments,
either on campus or from the two medical schools lo-
cated in the Texas Medical Center, which is adjacent
to the Rice campus. Typical examples would include
cell biology, molecular biology, and immunology.
The MD/MS or MD/PhD joint programs are de-
signed to provide educational experiences of high
quality leading to research careers in medicine. These
programs offer a unique combination of professional
medical training with rigorous study in science or en-






Ka-Yiu San is an assistant professor at
Rice University. He received his BS degree
in chemical engineering from Rice Univer-
sity and his MS and PhD degrees from Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology.


Larry V. Mclntire is the E.D. Butcher
Professor of Chemical and Biomedical En-
gineering at Rice University. He is also di-
rector of the John W. Cox Laboratory for
Biomedical Engineering of the Bio-
sciences/Bioengineering Institute of Rice.
He received his BChE and MS degrees in
chemical engineering from Cornell Univer-
sity and his PhD degree from Princeton
University.


FIGURE 2
Organizational Structure
Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute


S Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute I

T T T
Laboratory for Laboratory for Laboratory for
Basic Biomedical Biochemical and
Medical Science Engineering Genetic Engineerin


Director: G.J. Schroepfer
Engineering Faculty
None


Director L.V. Mclntire
Assoc. Dir. J.L. Moake
Engineering Faculty
Chemical Enaineerina
C.D. Armeniades
J.D. Helums
L.V. Mclntire
M.W. Glacken
K.Y. San
J.V. Shanks
Electrical Enoineerina
J.W. Clark
H.M. Bourland


Director: F.B. Rudolph
Engineering Faculty
Chemical Enaineerina
M.W. Glacken
K.Y.San
J.V. Shanks


gineering discipline, and they emphasize an interdis-
ciplinary approach to current problems in biomedi-
cine. Successful completion of a program results in
the MD from Baylor College of Medicine and the MS
or PhD from Rice.

ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

During the last two years, Rice University has un-
dertaken a series of steps toward the implementation
of a new plan of enhancement. This enhancement pro-
gram was initiated by our president, Dr. George
Rupp, in 1986, with the full support of the Board of
Trustees and the faculty to "move forward to become,
even more than it is today, the university its founders
envisaged to become an institution 'of the first
rank'." At the research level, President Rupp has de-
cided to focus resources on three cross-disciplinary
areas in science and engineering, to move them to
national recognition.
One of the three areas, which has a direct positive
impact on our existing biochemical and biomedical en-
gineering program, is the formation of a new institute:
the Biosciences/Bioengineering Institute. This Insti-
tute will pool expertise from a number of engineering
departments (primarily from the chemical engineering
department) with the Biochemistry and Cell Biology
department to solve problems that are multi-discipli-
nary in nature.
The main goals of the Biosciences/Bioengineering
Institute are identified as: 1) to foster and strengthen
collaboration among various groups at Rice which are
involved in biological sciences and engineering; 2) to
provide joint facilities and promote sharing of exper-


FALL 1989










tise; and 3) to serve as an interface for expanded in-
teraction and collaboration between Rice University,
the Texas Medical Center, NASA Johnson Space
Center, private industries, and other research organi-
zations.
The organizational structure of the newly formed
Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute is shown in
Figure 2. The Institute consists of three major
laboratories, each of which pursues a distinct course
of research. Faculty from the department of chemical
engineering, depending on their research interests,
will play an active role in two of these laboratories.
The Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering,
led by Larry McIntire, concentrates on research re-
lated to diseases of the cardiovascular system. Cur-
rently, the laboratory consists of six faculty members
from the department of chemical engineering and a
number of adjunct professors from Baylor College of
Medicine and the University of Texas Health Sciences
Center at Houston (see Table 1). Close working re-



TABLE 1
Structure of
Rice Biomedical Engineering Laboratory
Staff
Larry V. Mclntire, PhD Director
Joel L. Moake, MD Associate Director
Arnez J. Washington Administrative Secretary
Marcella Estrella Senior Research Technician
Nancy Turner Research Technician
Thomas W. Chow, PhD Senior Research Associate
Mattias U. Nollert, PhD Research Associate
Colin B. McKay, PhD Research Scientist
Faculty
C.D. Armeniades Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.D. Hellums A.J. Hartsook Professor, Chemical Engineering
L.V. Mclntire E.D.Butcher Professor and Chairman, ChE
M.W. Glacken Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
K.Y. San Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.V. Shanks Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.W. Clark Professor, Electrical Engineering
H.M. Bourland Lecturer, Electrical Engineering
Adjunct Faculty from the Texas Medical Center
C.P. Alfrey, MD,PhD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
S.G. Eskin, PhD Associate Professor, Division of Surgery, Baylor
College of Medicine
E.R. Hall, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Univer-
sity of Texas Medical School
E.C. Lynch, MD Associate Chairman, Division of Medicine, Baylor
College of Medicine
D.A. Sears, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
R.T. Solis, MD Associate Clinical Professor. Department of Medicine
Pulmonary Division, Methodist Hospital
M.M. Udden, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
K.K. Wu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Hematology and
Oncology, University of Texas Medical School
F.M. Yatsu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Neurology,
University of Texas Medical School


lationships have already been established between the
Cox Laboratory and several of those at the Texas
Medical Center. Both Professors McIntire and Hel-
lums are Adjunct Professors in the Department of
Medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine and the
University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Hous-
ton. A brief list of current research projects can be
found in Table 2.
The Laboratory for Biochemical and Genetic En-
gineering, headed by biochemistry professor Fred
Rudolph, will focus on areas such as genetics, im-
munology, protein engineering, molecular biology,
microbiology, medicine, and agriculture. The mem-
bership of this laboratory will include faculty from
various departments, including biochemistry and cell
biology, chemical engineering, and chemistry (Figure
2).
The Laboratory of Basic Medical Sciences, with
director George Schroepfer, has a major continuing
research effort on understanding cholesterol
metabolism.
As noted above, a significant part of the enhance-
ment effort includes a new $24 million building which
is being constructed to house the Biosciences/Bioen-



TABLE 2
Bioengineering Research at Rice


Principal
Investigators


Biomedical Projects


J.D. Hellums, effects of physical forces on vascular cells
L.V. Mclntire vascular wall strain effects on cell metabolism
mass transfer in the microcirculation
video microscopy analysis of blood cell-vessel wall
interactions
J.L. Moake, control of tissue plasminogen activator production
J.D. Hellums, by endothelial cells
L.V. Mclntire shear-induced von Willebrand factor aggregation of
platelets
Snew therapeutic strategies for Sickle Cell Anemia
L.V. Mclntire biochemical control of tumor metastasis
C. Armeniades biomechanics of eye tissue and control of healing
J.W. Clark cell modeling studies
Bioreactor Projects
M.W. Glacken metabolic control of mammalian cell culture reactors
kinetics of antigen shedding from colon cancer cells
adhesive interaction of mammalian ce!ls
K.Y. San construction/characterization of new plasmid vectors
dynamics of bioreactors in transient environments
development of artificial intelligence-based control
algorithms
microgravity bioprocessing
J.V. Shanks plant cell tissue culture reactors
Suse of high field NMR for in vivo cell metabolism studies


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









gineering Institute. More than 22,000 square feet
have been allocated to accommodate the chemical en-
gineering aspects of bioengineering. This building is
expected to be completed and fully operational by the
winter of 1990.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
In summary, these are exciting times at Rice Uni-
versity. The implementation of the new enhancement
program is another big step toward the goal and com-
mitment of Rice University in striving for excellence
in its undergraduate and graduate education. In par-
ticular, the formation of the Biosciences/Bioengineer-
ing Institute significantly enhances our biochemical
and biomedical engineering program. It creates a
unique environment which fosters close interactions
between life scientists and engineers. The Institute will
also serve as an effective administrative body in pro-


viding all the necessary logistical support to facilitate
interdisciplinary collaboration. More importantly, the
potential barriers which often arise from distant phys-
ical locations of various departments across the cam-
pus will be removed by housing life scientists and en-
gineers under the same roof. As such, it will not only
create an atmosphere which promotes interaction be-
tween the students and faculty from different disci-
plines, but will also provide opportunities for the en-
gineering students to work, side by side, with life sci-
entists from other research groups. We therefore
firmly believe that our program provides a unique and
challenging educational environment. Students
graduating from the bioengineering program will be
well-equipped with fundamental training and will have
had the necessary exposure in both engineering and
life sciences for further professional development. [


letters


STATE OF THE UNIVERSITY 1988-1989

To The Editor:

The following is excerpted from a larger document,
"Faculty Perceptions of the State of the University, 1988-
1989," which was prepared for the Faculty Senate at the
University of Cincinnati. I chaired the committee which
produced this report.

A university becomes too large when it can no longer
provide members of the university community with the
services or ambience they expect, without amassing such
complicated bureaucracies that they actually end up pre-
venting the very goals they are attempting to achieve.
Steven Muller, President of Johns Hopkins has said, "The
major research university of today is a radically different
institution than its predecessors of three or four decades
ago. The most obvious difference is size. There have now
evolved in the United States between 50 and 100 major
research universities that are megasize-numbering their
students in tens of thousands, their faculty and adminis-
trative cadres in thousands, their buildings and their
acreage in hundreds."
Most educators agree that "multiuniversity" is an apt
description of the university of today. Twenty years ago
Columbia University had three vice presidents and a
budget of $136 million; now it has 12 and a budget of
$619 million. The problem in managing such vast institu-
tions has led to what A. Bartlett Giamatti, former Presi-
dent of Yale, called "the corporatization of the American


university," and then wrote, "One of the great inventions
of 20th century America, the private corporation, has be-
gun to displace, as a formal structure and as a style of
management, the older ecclesiastical and academic
structures and styles in which universities grew up." He
suggests that the "collegial" style of shared decision-mak-
ing has given way to the hierarchical style of big busi-
ness. While big institutions need capable administrators,
"too many people see themselves as managers first, aca-
demics second. They talk about strategy, not vision.
Numbers replace rhetoric. An institution that once saw it-
self as connected to history now prides itself as 'at the
cutting edge'. The greatest subtle, unintended effect of
these trends has been to split off the managers from the
faculty."
If universities are becoming corporate at a time
when contemporary corporations are de-layering and
decentralizing, then there ought to be a symbolic lesson
learned from recent corporate history. American corpo-
rate executives often have acted as a privileged class,
asking sacrifices of middle management, professionals
and other workers, that upper management will not
make. While the rhetoric of corporate culture stresses the
need to work together, the top executives stress efficiency
and impose work rules and cost cutting measures. They
vote themselves raises, golden parachutes and bonuses,
while workers at all levels are laid off. During the re-
cession years of 1981 to 1983, the compensation of chief
executives nearly doubled while national unemployment
passed the 11% mark. In symbolic contrast to these
American management practices, Japanese executives in
Continued on page 235.


FALL 1989


C 1E













A MULTIDISCIPLINARY COURSE


IN BIOENGINEERING


PAUL R. BIENKOWSKI, GARY S. SAYLER,
GERALD W. STRANDBERG, GREGORY D. REED
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-2200

THIS COURSE WAS first taught solely through the
chemical engineering department (1985 thru 1987)
under the quarter system and was called Microbiolog-
ical Process Engineering. During semester transition
the course was expanded to fifteen weeks, and a six-
week laboratory was added. The course was then
crosslisted in the departments of civil engineering (as
an environmental course) and microbiology, and it was
given a truly crossdisciplinary nature with the addi-
tion of faculty from those departments. It is presently
a graduate course which is taught during the fall
semester every year, and it attracts first year
graduate students and some seniors from chemical en-
gineering, environmental engineering, and engineer-
ing science and mechanics, in addition to life science
graduate students from microbiology, ecology, and
the Masters program in biotechnology. The course is
now part of the required curriculum for the Masters
program in biotechnology.
Figure 1 shows where the course (575) fits into the


ChE/ENVR/MICRO 675
Microbial Systems
Analysis
t
ST1


ENVR 552
Biological
Treatment
Theory
t


ChE 577
Modeling and
Design of
Bioreactors and
Bioreactor Systems
1"


MICRO 670
Advanced Topics in
Environmental
Microbiology


ChE/ENVR/MICRO 575
Applied
Microbiology and
Bioengineering

FIGURE 1. Core Courses in Bioengineering

applied bioengineering curriculum at Tennessee. It
serves as a prerequisite for courses in environmental
engineering, chemical engineering, and microbiology
which are offered during the spring semester. ENVR
552 is directed specifically at applications for waste-
water treatment; ChE 577 addresses the development
of specific models for pure cultures and their applica-
tions for producing high value biotechnology products;


Paul R. Bienkowski is an associate pro-
fessor of chemical engineering at the Univer-
sity of Tennessee, and is a member of the
Center for Environmental Biotechnology. He
received his PhD in 1975 from the school of
chemical engineering at Purdue University.




Gary S. Sayler is a professor of microbi-
ology and ecology, directs the UTK/ORNL
Center for Environmental Biotechnology, and
is director of research for the Waste Manage-
ment Institute Center of Excellence at the Uni-
versity of Tennessee. He received his PhD in
1974 from the department of bacteriology and
biochemistry at the University of Idaho.


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


! Gerald W. Strandberg is a staff scientist
in the Chemical Technology Division at the
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and is an ad-
junct associate professor in the department of
Microbiology at the University of Tennessee.
He received his PhD in bacteriology in 1966
from the University of Wisconsin.


Gregory D. Reed is professor and head
of the department of civil engineering at the
University of Tennessee. He received his PhD
in environmental engineering from the Univer-
sity of Arkansas and has an active research and
-. publication record. He has been active in sev-
eral professional societies and is currently the
Chair of the Environmental Engineering Divi-
sion of the American Society of Civil
Engineers.



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


ChE 494
Special
Problems











The primary objective of this course is to introduce the engineering students to bioengineering
and to allow them to communicate effectively with students in the life sciences. In subsequent semesters the
engineering students can develop strong backgrounds in microbiology, biochemistry, etc., by taking
courses in the life sciences and by working on crossdisciplinary research projects .


Micro 670 is directed at understanding the microbial
degradation and effects of toxic waste materials such
as PCB's, PAH's, and TCE's. These courses all have
direct applications in all three disciplines. What is re-
quired is a common starting point, and 575 meets that
need. Chemical engineering seniors who take this
course may elect to do an undergraduate thesis at the
Center for Environmental Biotechnology during the
spring semester. ChE 494 is used to give academic
credit to these students for their research experience.
Usually one or two students can be accommodated on
center research projects each spring and/or summer.

ChE COURSE OBJECTIVES

The undergraduate curriculum in chemical en-
gineering is very demanding and does not allow much
room for alternate course selection by the student.
Many new engineering graduate students with re-
search interests in bioengineering do not have suffi-
cient background and require additional course work
before they can begin their research projects. These
students could rapidly advance their knowledge base
in this area by working with graduate students from
the life sciences (in environments like Tennessee's
Center for Environmental Biotechnology) if only they
could communicate effectively with the life science
students, i.e., speak the language of a microbiologist.
For example, there are different meanings for CSTR
and chemostate, and the different way kinetic data is
interpreted (the engineer's dynamic approach vs. the
static approach of the life scientist). The primary ob-
jective of this course is to introduce the engineering
students to bioengineering and to allow them to com-
municate effectively with students in the life sciences.
In subsequent semesters the engineering students can
develop strong backgrounds in microbiology, biochem-
istry, etc., by taking courses in the life sciences and
by working on crossdisciplinary research projects or
doing a ChE 494 senior research project in this area.
ChE 575 provides the base from which to start the
educational experience, it provides the basic back-
ground to start graduate research, and it feeds into
more advanced biotechnology courses in several dis-
ciplines.
Most engineering students have no experience in
a microbiology laboratory and do not have the time or
the background to take a microbiology lab. ChE 575


had a mandatory six-week laboratory which is specif-
ically designed to give engineering students hands-on
experience with the basic day-to-day laboratory prob-
lems faced by a microbiologist, such as sterilization,
culture purity, analytic methods, etc. It is much easier
to communicate with students and faculty in the life
sciences, and to interact in crossdisciplinary research
projects, if the engineering students are familiar with
the problems faced by their counterparts in the life
sciences. The third objective was to improve com-
munications and to gain new insight by interacting
and exchanging ideas.

COURSE STRUCTURE

Table 1 gives a detailed outline of the material cov-
ered in this course. Basic biochemistry and microbiol-

TABLE 1
Course Outline


Period
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30


Time (hrs)
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
3.0
3.0"
3.0
3.0*
1.5
1.5
3.0
3.0*
3.0
3.0'
3.0
3.0*
3.0
3.0'
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.0


Topic
Introduction/Overview of Biotechnology
Biochemistry
Microbiology Physiology
Microbiology Physiology
Stoichiometry (mass and energy balances)
Enzyme Kinetics
Lab #1: Basic Microbiology Techniques
Enzyme Kinetics / Lab #1
Lab #2: Cell Growth
Growth Kinetics / Lab #2
Reactor Analysis
Continuous Culture
Lab #3: Enzyme Kinetics
Continuous Culture / Lab #3
Lab #3: Enzyme Kinetics
Cell/Enzyme Immobilization / Lab #3
Lab #4: Enzyme Immobilization
Metabolic Pathways / Lab #4
Lab #5: Continuous Culture
Metabolic Pathways/Modeling / Lab #5
Sanitary / Virology
Mid Term Examination
Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA
Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA
Biosensors
Commercial Processes
Biodegradation / Deterioration
Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater Treatment
Final Examination


*Split period .5 hours of lab, 1.5 hours of lecure


FALL 1989










ogy are covered, then reaction kinetics followed by
lectures on important specialized topics in bioen-
gineering such as immobilization, biosensors, and re-
combinate DNA. The course concludes with discus-
sions on specific applications which lead into ChE 575,
ENVR 552 and MICRO 670. The text book is Ele-
ments of Bioenvironmental Engineering, by A. L.
Gaudy and E. Gaudy. This book was selected because
it gives good coverage of the desired material and is
very readable from both an engineering and a life sci-
ence standpoint (one of the authors is an engineer and
the other is a microbiologist). The coverage of
biochemistry and microbiology is such that an en-
gineering student can read and understand the mate-
rial with essentially no background, while the
mathematics describing enzyme and growth kinetics
and continuous reactors is kept on a level which can


TABLE 2
Description of Laboratory Experiments

Laboratory #1: Basic Microbiology Techniques
Students are provided with cultures of E. coli, Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes.
Both live and stained (gram, methylene blue) organisms will be
examined microscopically. The students will also do plate counts
and sugar utilization tests.
Objective Teach basic laboratory protocols to the engineering
students.

Laboratory #2: Growth and Substrate Utilization
Growth and substrate utilization of B. subtilis will be examined in
batch culture. Growth will be determined by optical density, dry
weight, and plate count measurements. Substrate (glucose) utiliza-
tion is monitored by dinitrosalycylic acid (DNS) assay for reducing
sugars. The cells will be saved for use in Laboratory #3.
Objectives Determine typical batch growth and substrate
utilization curves and teach measurement methods.

Laboratory #3: Enzyme Kinetics
Examine the kinetics of glucose isomerase in B. subtilis and S.
phaeochromogenes using whole cells.
Objectives Determine the Michalis parameters Km and Vmax, the
effects of temperature and pH, and substrate specificity.
Laboratory #4: Immobilization/Kinetics of Immobilized
Enzymes
Immobilize glucose isomerase (whole cells of B. subtilis) using cal-
cium alginate, and perform kinetic studies.
Objectives Teach a method for immobilization of cells/enzymes
and determine the effects immobilization has on enzyme kinetics.

Laboratory #5: Continuous Culture (demonstration)
A continuous culture fermentation system will be set up and oper-
ated by the TA. The students will measure optical density, cell dry
weight, and glucose isomerase activity.

Objective Determine I., Imax, the yield constant, and washout.


be handled by the life science students. Two faculty
are present at all lectures, one from engineering and
the other from the life sciences. One of the faculty will
lecture and the other will be present to stimulate dis-
cussion and insure that both engineering and life sci-
ence viewpoints are taken into consideration when dis-
cussing the various topics. Engineers and life scien-
tists frequently look at the same problem from vastly
different viewpoints, and combining these approaches
frequently gives a better insight into the problem.

LABORATORY
Table 2 gives a brief description of the five exper-
iments which comprise the laboratory. Gerald
Strandberg is in charge of the laboratory and is sup-
ported by a teaching assistant from the Masters pro-
gram in biotechnology. The course has the use of the
biotechnology laboratory in the Walters Life Science
building which is dedicated to the Masters program in
biotechnology (experiments do not have to be termi-
nated at the end of a laboratory period). The lab is
conducted for six weeks, with four and one-half hours
of instruction in the laboratory each week. Extra lab
time is available to the students by making arrange-
ments with the teaching assistant. Each lab group is
composed of one engineering student and one life sci-
ence student. Because most of the engineering stu-
dents do not have experience in a microbiology labora-
tory, pairing them with other life science students is
a most effective way for the engineering student to
learn basic laboratory techniques on a one-on-one
basis. At the same time the engineering student can
assist his/her lab partner in designing experiments
and in analysis and interpretation of the experimental
data (modeling data and using models for data in-
terpretation).

CONCLUDING REMARKS
This course is very effective in serving as a focal
point for bringing people together from different back-
grounds and in effectively and rapidly introducing en-
gineering students to the biotechnology area. The
microbiology laboratory is a unique addition to a
chemical engineering course which allows both first
year graduate students and seniors a hands-on experi-
ence. The course is an effective vehicle for preparing
chemical engineering graduate students for research
projects in the biotechnology area. It not only gives
them the background to communicate with life science
students in collaborating on joint research, but also
prepares them for more advanced course work in this
area. [


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Random Thoughts...




GOOD COP/BAD COP

Embracing Contraries in Teaching


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695

I've come to suspect that whenever any ability is difficult
to learn and rarely performed well, it's probably because
contraries are called for patting the head and rubbing the
belly. Thus, good writing is hard because it means trying to
be creative and critical; good teaching is hard because it
means trying to be ally and adversary of students; good
evaluation is hard because it means trying to be subjective
and objective; good intelligence is rare because it means
trying to be intuitive and logical.

So says Peter Elbow in Embracing Contraries [1],
perhaps the best book I've ever read on teaching. The
theme of the book should resonate in the minds of all
engineering professors. Most of us are often frustrated,
feeling ourselves pulled in opposite directions. We want
to be good teachers and good researchers, but don't see
how we can do both given the finite number of hours in a
day. We want to provide good educational experiences
for our graduate students, which means letting them do
some floundering and learning by experience, but we also
need to produce results quickly for our funding agencies,
which requires giving detailed directions. We want to be
good department citizens, helping carry our share of the
inevitable burden of committees, recruiting, etc., but we
also need to maximize the time we spend on the things
that get us tenure, promotions, and raises. It feels as
though we have to be both particles and waves
simultaneously, and we don't know how: we can either be
excellent particles and lousy waves, or vice versa, or do a
mediocre job of both.
Among the dilemmas inherent in our profession is
that of trying to be supportive of our students while
maintaining rigorous academic standards. I can't
improve on what Elbow has to say on the subject, so I'll
let him do most of the talking.

The two conflicting mentalities needed for good teaching
stem from the two conflicting obligations inherent in the
job: we have an obligation to students but we also have an
obligation to knowledge and society. Our loyalty to students
asks us to be their allies and hosts as we instruct and share:
to invite all students to enter in and join us as members of a
learning community-even if they have difficulty. Our
commitment to students asks us to assume they are all
smart and capable of learning, to see things through their
eyes, to help bring out their best rather than their worst when

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


it comes to tests and grades. By taking this inviting stance
we will help more of them learn.
But our commitment to knowledge and society asks us to
be guardians or bouncers: we must discriminate, evaluate,
test, grade, certify. We are invited to stay true to the
inherent standards of what we teach, whether or not that
stance fits the particular students before us. We have a
responsibility to society-that is, to our discipline, our
college or university, and to other learning communities of
which we are members-to see that the students we certify
really understand or can do what we teach, to see that the
grades and credits and degrees we give really have the
meaning or currency they are supposed to have.

Unfortunately, we can't play both roles si-
multaneously. Elbow's solution is to alternate between
them. Start a course by spelling out requirements and
grading criteria; think about handing out a representative
final exam at the beginning of the course, with examples
of strong and weak solutions. Then,

[Having done that] I can more easily go on to...turn
around and schizophrenically start being a complete ally
of students. I have been wholehearted and enthusiastic in
making tough standards, but now I can say, "Those are the
specific criteria I will use in grading; that's what you are
up against, that's really me. But now we have most of the
semester for me to help you attain those standards, do well
on those tests and papers. They are high standards but I
suspect all of you can attain them if you work hard. I will
function as your ally. I'll be a kind of lawyer for the de-
fense, helping you bring out your best in your battles with
the other me, the prosecuting-attorney me when he emerges
at the end. And if you really think you are too poorly
prepared to do well in one semester, I can help you decide
whether to trust that negative judgment and decide now
whether to drop the course or stay and learn what you can."

Elbow suggests a number of ways to provide the
recommended support. One would be effective in small
classes or larger classes with student graders:

One of the best ways to function as ally or coach is to role-
play the enemy in a supportive setting. For example, one
can give practice tests where the grade doesn't count, or
give feedback on papers which the student can revise before
they count for credit. This gets us out of the typically
counterproductive situation where much of our
commentary on papers and exams is really justification
for the grade-or is seen that way. Our attempt to help is
experienced by students as a slap on the wrist by an
adversary for what they have done wrong. No wonder
students so often fail to heed or learn from our
Continued on page 241.


FALL 1989










A Course in ...


CELLULAR BIOENGINEERING


DOUGLASA.LAUFFENBURGER
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393

A COMMONLY-ASKED question in these days of
modern biotechnology is, "What is the distinction
between biochemical engineering and biomedical en-
gineering as they are traditionally understood?" Cer-
tainly, in applications this distinction still seems
clear-biochemical engineering relates to the biopro-
cessing industry, while biomedical engineering relates
to the health care industry. At the level of fundamen-
tals, though, there is a blurring of such a demarcation.
Both areas heavily involve investigation of topics in
eukaryotic cell biology such as cell behavioral phenom-
ena (e.g., growth, adhesion, differentiation, protein
synthesis, and secretion), monoclonal antibodies, re-
ceptors, and gene manipulation. The major difference
is that for the bioprocessing industry these topics are
of interest as far as they underlie understanding of
bioreactor and bioseparation performance, while for
the health care industry they are of interest for their
relevance to physiological function. It should be
further noted that the purpose of much of the bio-
process industry is, in fact, to provide products for
use in the health care industry, completing the circle.
In making sense of the application of chemical en-
gineering to the modern life sciences, one needs to
define particular engineering subdisciplines on the
basis of the particular life science disciplines to which
the engineering science principles are applied. Using
this view, traditional biochemical engineering has
been primarily based on biochemistry and microbiol-
ogy, while traditional biomedical engineering has been
largely based on physiology. With the advent of the
modern life science disciplines of molecular biology
and cell biology, it will probably be useful to define a

With the advent of the modern life
science disciplines of molecular biology
and cell biology, it will probably be useful to define
a new subdiscipline with a name something
like "Molecular/Cellular Bioengineering" .

C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


Douglas A. Lauffenburger is currently
Professor and Chairman of the Department of
Chemical Engineering, and a member of the
Graduate Group in Cell Biology, at the
University of Pennsylvania. He is the recipient
of an NSF Presidential Young Investigator
Award, an NIH Research Career Development
Award, the AIChE Alan P. Colburn Award, and
a Guggenheim Fellowship. His major research
focus has been in the area of receptor-
mediated cell phenomena.



new engineering subdiscipline with a name something
like "Molecular/Cellular Bioengineering," which is en-
gineering applied to molecular cell biology. Chemical
engineering will be the predominant engineering dis-
cipline involved, because of the fundamentally chemi-
cal nature of molecules and cells.
It may be of interest to briefly consider the histori-
cal context of this current situation. Cell biology es-
sentially began in the 1940s with the invention of the
electron microscope, which permitted intracellular
structure of eukaryotic (e.g., animal) cells to be
studied. Molecular biology, of course, began in the
early 1950s with the discovery of the molecular nature
of the genetic code. A marriage between these two,
mainly in the area of animal cell biology (because of
their more complex structure/function relationships),
evolved in the 1970s as particular molecules involved
in the cell structures responsible for cell function came
to be isolated, identified, and manipulated in a reliable
manner. This marriage has led to the emergence of
modern cell biology, often called "molecular cell biol-
ogy," in which cells-again primarily animal cells-
can be studied in rigorous fashion from a molecular
perspective. In the past ten years this field has
achieved a position at the forefront of the life sciences
in general and of biotechnology in particular. Probably
every university in the country has at least one course
based on textbooks like Molecular Cell Biology, by
Darnell, et al., or Molecular Biology of the Cell by
Alberts, et al., in its life science departments.
All of this is a preface to explain why we have
begun to offer a course in chemical engineering at
Penn entitled "Cellular Bioengineering." In this


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









course, we deal with how chemical engineering princi-
ples can be gainfully applied to modern molecular cell
biology. We focus on fundamental molecular and cellu-
lar phenomena rather than on particular applications;
thus, this course is helpful to students interested in
either the bioprocess industry or the health care in-
dustry, or both. Basing the material on research done
primarily during the past decade, we present quan-
titative analyses of cell physiological phenomena in
terms of the underlying principles of chemical reaction
kinetics, transport phenomena, thermodynamics, and
mechanics. These sorts of analyses should, in my opin-
ion, prove to be very helpful in the coming years as
knowledge of molecular bases of cellular processes
needs to be synthesized into understanding the larger
context of cell function.
There is a special emphasis on mammalian blood
and tissue cell behavior mediated by the interaction
between chemical ligands and cell receptors, which
are glycoproteins typically located in the cell mem-
brane responsible for stimulation and regulation of
most important cell functions (including growth, adhe-
sion, migration, and secretion). The reason for this is
that to date there has been little treatment of this
aspect of cell function by biochemical engineers rela-
tive to its prominence in molecular cell biology. One
can crudely view cell function as an interplay among
three key aspects. First, the genetic aspect repre-
sents what functions a cell is capable of. Only a small
portion of this potential is expressed at any given
point in time. Second, the enzymatic aspect repre-
sents what functions a cell is actually carrying out at
a given point in time. Which functions are being car-
ried out depends on what genes are being expressed
as well as the levels of gene expression and enzyme
activity. So, the missing link is what governs gene
expression and enzyme activity. Although all of this
is oversimplification for purposes of clarity, to a large
extent gene expression and enzyme activity are regu-
lated by intracellular signals generated by ligand/re-
ceptor binding interactions. Receptors basically pos-
sess two central properties: they are capable of selec-
tive binding to specific chemical ligands and they are
capable of transducing this binding event into intracel-
lular biochemical signals. These signals then lead to
regulation of gene expression and enzyme activity.
Most chemical engineering departments, including our
own, currently offer biochemical engineering courses
that treat enzyme reactions and gene expression from
chemical reaction engineering and transport phenom-
ena perspectives, so it is this third aspect of cell reg-
ulation and resulting cell function that requires addi-
tional attention.


In this course we focus on fundamental
molecular and cellular phenomena rather than on
particular applications ... thus (the course) is helpful to
students interested in either the bioprocess industry
or the health care industry, or both.

The outline currently used is as follows:

I. Receptor/LigandBinding andSignal Transduction
A. Monovalent binding and apparent cooperativity effects
B. Multivalent binding and crosslinking
C. Transport limitations
D. Probabilistic considerations
E. Signal transduction and second messengers

II. Intracellular Protein Trafficking
A. Endocytosis
B. Intracellular sorting
C. Protein synthesis and secretion

III. Cell Proliferation
A. Cell cycle kinetics
B. Growth factor regulation
C. Cell density effects

IV. Cell Adhesion
A. Thermodynamic models
B. Mechanical models
C. Dynamical models

V. Cell Migration
A. Cell population behavior
B. Individual cell behavior
C. Mechanistic models

There is no required text for this course, but the
previously mentioned molecular cell biology texts are
referred to often for background reading. More spe-
cific readings in the research literature, frequently in-
cluding recent comprehensive review articles as well
as original research papers, are regularly assigned.
Problem sets are also distributed weekly, allowing the
student to work out examples of mathematical models
and analyses of the various phenomena considered in
class. Most importantly, there is a term project in
which the student is asked to develop his or her own
original mathematical model for a phenomenon of per-
sonal interest, and to apply an analysis of this model
to relevant experimental data in the literature.
In order to provide a better picture of the course
contents I will now go on to present a brief overview
of the various topics covered, based on the key litera-
ture read and discussed in class. To begin with, a
broad foundation of background reading in Darnell, et
al., or Alberts, et al., is assigned, including chapters
1, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 15 in the former, or chapters 1, 4,
6, 7, and 10 in the latter. Most of this material is dealt
with in detail later, but some of the early chapters are


FALL 1989









necessary for the student to put particular phenomena
into overall context.
The first section of the course looks at fundamen-
tals of receptor/ligand binding and signal transduction
processes. Good background, especially on common
experimental techniques and typical pitfalls, is pro-
vided by chapters three through six in a book by Lim-
burd entitled Cell Surface Receptors: A Short Course
on Theory and Methods. The relevant portions of the
basic texts are chapters 15 and 16 in Darnell, et al.,
and chapter 13 in Alberts, et al. Simple monovalent
receptor and ligand binding equilibrium and kinetic
properties are a good place to start, for much of the
mathematical analysis is reminiscent of enzyme kine-
tics, quite familiar to many chemical engineering stu-
dents. The well-known equilibrium Scatchard plot is
introduced, a plot of the ratio of bound ligand to free
ligand versus bound ligand, with consequent simple
determination of binding equilibrium constant and re-
ceptor number from the slope and ordinate-intercept.
Complications inherent in correct interpretation of
this plot are immediately presented, as described
nicely by Limburd's book and in some papers by Klotz
[1] which include improper consideration of nonspe-
cific ligand binding, neglect of ligand depletion, and
lack of data at sufficiently high ligand concentration.
Modern numerical parameter estimation methods can
sometimes be gainfully applied, as described by Mun-
son and Rodbard [2], Munson [3-4] and DeLeon, et al.
[5]. The latter paper helpfully discusses limitations of
these methods, using computer simulation compari-
sons. Of course, more fundamental complications fre-
quently arise from the presence of other effects, in-
cluding multiple receptor or ligand subpopulations (es-
pecially with radioactively or fluorescently labeled
ligand), multivalency (allowing possible cooperativity
effects), and additional receptor processes such as
aggregation, internalization, and covalent modifica-
tion, which may all result upon ligand binding. These
various phenomena generally result in apparent
changes in binding affinity with ligand concentration,
often referred to as cooperativity. Examples and cor-
responding analyses of these can be found in the re-
search literature. As examples, the following papers
are useful references: receptor subpopulations, Smith
[6]; covalent modification, deWit and Bulgakov [7];
aggregation in ternary complexes, Gex-Fabry and De-
Lisi [8]; and affinity conversion, Lipkin, et al. [9]. Cell
surface aggregation effects, especially when multiva-
lent receptors and ligands are involved, can lead to a
variety of complications, and also appear to be central
to many signal transduction processes. Good example
references in this area from a vast literature can in-


clude DeLisi and Chabay [10], Perelson and DeLisi
[11], and Dembo and Goldstein [12].
In all of these analyses, reaction rates of receptor/
ligand binding and dissociation are central. It is not
surprising to chemical engineers that often these rates
can be transport-limited. In these sorts of situations
involving a finite number of discrete receptor sites
spatially distributed on the cell surface, transport
limitations can lead to unanticipated effects. The sem-
inal paper in this area is by Berg and Purcell [13]
which demonstrates the nonlinear dependence of over-
all binding and dissociation rate constants on the re-
ceptor surface density. Improved mathematical treat-
ments have followed, such as DeLisi and Wiegel [14],
Brunn [15], and Shoup and Szabo [16], permitting
generalization to more complicated situations. The
key result, however, is that the rate constants for
binding or dissociation per receptor can not be calcu-
lated simply by dividing the rates on a per cell basis
by the receptor density when ligand diffusion is rate-
limiting. Transport limitations can also lead to false
indications of cooperative binding phenomena. A very
interesting example of this is given by Wiley [17]. Al-
though ligand diffusion in free solution to the cell sur-
face is often not rate-limiting for receptor/ligand bind-
ing, receptor diffusion within the cell membrane is
generally rate-limiting for receptor aggregation. Good
treatments of this include Goldstein, et al. [18] and
Keizer, et al. [19].
An interesting consideration not typically relevant
to chemical engineering problems is that of probabilis-
tic effects. That is, most chemical reaction models as-
sume deterministic behavior due to statistical averag-
ing over very large numbers of molecules. Since re-
ceptor densities are usually in the range of 103 to 106
per cell, since behavioral responses can depend on
amplification of exceedingly small signals, and since
experimental observations are often made on the basis
of small numbers of cells or even individual cells, sig-
nal noise can be quite significant and is sometimes the
key to proper understanding of the behavior. Mathe-
matical discussions of this aspect can be found in Berg
and Purcell [13], and in DeLisi, et al. [20] and Lauffen-
burger and DeLisi [21]. Stimulating cell biological
examples in which it is relevant include inheritance of
behavior-regulating proteins [22], cytoskeletal assem-
bly [23], and cell migration [24,25]. An extremely
helpful source of fundamental mathematical concepts
here is the book by Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic
Methods.
There is not much analysis available on signal
transduction events following receptor/ligand binding.
The most heavily studied system is that of the so-called


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









"G-proteins" and cyclic AMP generation as an intracel-
lular second messenger. Useful examples detailing
mathematical models and analysis of quantitative ex-
perimental data include Higashijima, et al. [26] and
Rapp, et al. [27].
The second section of the course deals with reac-
tion and transport processes involving cell receptors
and other proteins beyond cell surface events. These
"trafficking" processes include internalization of re-
ceptors and receptor/ligand complexes, sorting of
these molecules in intracellular organelles-with con-
sequent recycling of some to the cell surface and de-
gradation of others intracellularly, and synthesis and
secretion of proteins through intracellular routes. In
addition to the Darnell, et al., and Alberts, et al.,
background, good review articles exist: Steinman, et
al. [28] and Wiley [29] are among the best. The latter,
in fact, provides a good mathematical modeling treat-
ment along with biological basics. Trafficking process-
es can have a dramatic influence on both receptor/
ligand binding dynamics and on signal transduction
and behavioral responses. Biological examples of
these consequences can be found in Wiley and Cun-
ningham [30], Zigmond, et al. [31], and Myers, et al.
[32], with more general mathematical analyses in Gex-
Fabry and DeLisi [33] and Beck and Goren [34]. A
major implication is that at temperatures allowing
trafficking processes, receptor/ligand binding dynam-
ics cannot be interpreted simply using Scatchard plot
methods. Although the biochemical mechanisms are
only now emerging, possibly helpful models and anal-
yses of the crucial intracellular sorting step have been
presented [35, 36]. Finally, it is becoming clear that
the trafficking mechanisms involved in protein synthe-
sis and secretion in eukaryotic cells are likely to be
quite similar to those involved in endocytic protein
uptake. There is no mathematical analysis of this pro-
cess available to date, but a suggestive recent review
of experimental observations is given by Burgess and
Kelly [37].
With this understanding of fundamental receptor/
ligand processes, one can move on to analysis of re-
sulting cell behavioral phenomena. In this course, we
focus on three: proliferation, adhesion, and migration,
although there are others presently not as well
studied, such as secretion and differentiation. These
three phenomena comprise the next three sections of
the course.
In the area of cell proliferation, the background in
Darnell, et al., is pages 147-154, 192-200, 517-524, and
1035-1046, and in Alberts, et al., is Chapter 11. An
excellent reference text is Baserga, The Biology of
Cell Reproduction. The focus of our presentation is


the regulation of cell proliferation by receptor-
mediated growth factor signals, with a good recent
review provided by Deuel [38]. To begin this section,
however, context is provided by some discussion of
more general models for cell cycle kinetics such as
Takahashi [39], Fried [40], and Aroesty, et al. [41]. A
good reference for this sort of model is by Swan, Some
Current Mathematical Topics in Cancer Research,
and a useful review can be found in Bertuzzi, et al.
[42]. Useful background information on nutrient ef-
fects on mammalian cell proliferation kinetics can be
found in McKeehan and McKeehan [43], and some re-
cent quantitative work is also available on this subject
[44, 45]. A fairly rigorous analysis, distinguishing ef-
fects on the cycling rate of proliferating cells from
those on the fraction of cells proliferating, can be
found in Cowan and Morris [46]. It seems that it is
more likely that the latter quantity is typically growth
rate-controlling, as the cycling rate of proliferating
cells is fairly constant. Effects of growth factor bind-
ing and trafficking on overall proliferation rate is a
crucial topic, one of great current activity. A superb
starting point is the work by Knauer, et al. [47], who
were able to demonstrate a linear dependence of cell
proliferation rate on the steady-state number of
growth factor/receptor complexes for human fibro-
blasts responding to epidermal growth factor. Further
effects of trafficking on the degree of proliferative re-
sponsiveness have been analyzed by Lauffenburger,
et al. [48], indicating that there may be an important
relationship. Although there is little additional work
along these lines available to date, it is a major prem-
ise of this course that understanding of cell prolifera-
tion phenomena, probably including most empirically
observed effects like serum requirements, attachment
requirements, contact inhibition, and inoculum cell
density requirements, will require quantitative
analysis of receptor-mediated behavior. One example
of this is the interpretation of cell inoculum density
requirements in terms of possible autocrine (self-re-
leased) growth factors [49], and more can be expected
to come along in the near future. A couple of notewor-
thy papers not directly concerned with growth factor
regulation, but providing related important models of
eukaryotic cell proliferation, are Alt and Tyson [50]
and Cherry and Papoutsakis [51]. The first paper
deals with probabilistic aspects of a critical cell cycle
regulatory species in yeast growth, which in many
ways is a good model system for intracellular control
mechanisms of mammalian cell growth. The second
paper shows how simple geometric considerations can
influence net cell population growth on surfaces when
proliferation is "contact-inhibited."


FALL 1989










In the area of cell adhesion, appropriate back-
ground reading on receptor aspects are reviews by
Yamada [52] and by Buck and Horwitz [53]. A seminal
paper laying out the biophysical fundamentals is that
by Bell [54]. There are two central underlying issues
for engineering analysis. One is how to model a recep-
tor/ligand bond, especially in regard to the effects of
mechanical stress on its kinetic and equilibrium prop-
erties. Another is how the variety of forces present
act on cell mechanical properties to yield a contact
area, within which the two surfaces are in sufficiently
close contact to permit receptor/ligand bonds to form.
Most analytical efforts are based in some manner on
Bell's concepts and can be divided into two major
categories: equilibrium models and dynamic models.
In the first category there are additionally two chief
types, mechanical and thermodynamic. A large
number of papers based on equilibrium thermo-
dynamic models have been published; good represen-
tatives are Bell [55], Bell, et al. [56], and Torney, et
al. [57]. The mechanical models are principally by
Evans [58]. Both of these types of models attempt to
predict the strength of equilibrium adhesion, with the
primary goal of determining influence of various sys-
tem parameters on the force required to detach a cell
adhered to a surface or another cell. (It should be
mentioned that there is a vast literature on cell adhe-
sion based on surface energy ideas, a recent example
being by van Oss [59]. However, these do not easily
incorporate specific biochemical receptor/ligand ef-
fects and so are largely neglected in this course).
There has been much less work to date on dynamical
models, exceptions being Hammer and Lauffenburger
[60] and Dembo, et al. [61]. The former deals with
kinetics of a cell encountering a potentially-adhesive
surface in the presence of fluid shear flow, and at-
tempts to predict the conditions under which adhesion
will occur. The latter focuses on the dynamic behavior
of a cell maintained near such a surface, with the chief
result being prediction of a steady-state cell rolling
velocity in fluid shear flow. As mentioned earlier, an
important aspect of cell adhesion is the cell mechanical
properties; a helpful reference on this topic is by
Dong, et al. [62].
Good background reading on the topic of cell migra-
tion can be found in books by Lackie (Cell Movement
and Cell Behavior), Trinkaus (Cells into Organs: The
Forces that Shape the Embryo), and Wilkinson
(Chemotaxis and Inflammation). Three major as-
pects are treated in this course. The first topic is the
development of mathematical models for cell popula-
tion migration behavior, including chemotaxis. There
is a substantial literature in this area, with the follow-


ing being the most significant papers: Patlack [63],
Keller and Segel [64], Alt [65], Lauffenburger [66],
and Othmer, et al. [67]. These provide cell flux expres-
sions analogous to diffusion/convection equations for
molecular transport, and relate cell population trans-
port parameters (the random motility coefficient and
chemotaxis coefficient) to fundamental individual cell
parameters (speed, persistence time, directional bias).
These expressions can be used to analyze cell migra-
tion experimental assays for determination of the val-
ues of the population parameters, as in Tranquillo, et
al. [68] and Buettner, et al. [69]. The second topic is
analysis of individual cell paths for quantification of
the fundamental parameters. The central papers in
this area are Nossal and Zigmond [70], Dunn [71],
Dunn and Brown [72] and Othmer, et al. [73]. The last
topic is an especially timely and difficult issue-the
biochemical/biophysical mechanisms underlying cell
migration. Useful biological reviews are Bretscher
[74] and Singer and Kupfer [75] on membrane and
cytoplasmic processes, and Devreotes and Zigmond
[76] on chemosensory processes. Important basic in-
formation on cell-generated forces can be found in
Harris [77]. Concerning mathematical models of these
phenomena, there are a number of efforts toward
analysis of the rate of pseudopodal extension, which
is the first step in locomotion. Among these are Oster
and Perelson [78], and Zhu and Skalak [79]. The
former emphasizes hydrostatic and osmotic forces in
generating membrane protrusion and cytoplasmic
flow, while the latter focuses on cytoskeletal assem-
bly. Insufficient information exists to definitively dis-
tinguish between these two hypotheses, although cir-
cumstantial data demonstrating influence of extracel-
lular osmotic levels on membrane protrusions favor
the former at this point. Oster [80] provides an ex-
tremely useful discussion of the various forces in-
volved, including membrane mechanics, but without
mathematical analysis. An insightful model relating
overall cell locomotion rate to receptor distribution
along the cell membrane is by Dembo, et al. [81]. This
model does not, however, attempt to predict move-
ment speed from cell-generated forces, a most daunt-
ing but important goal. An extremely crude prelimi-
nary attempt at doing just this is offered by Lauffen-
burger [82]. Finally, Tranquillo, et al. [83] provides a
model not for the rate of locomotion, but for the direc-
tion, based on a simple model of receptor-mediated
signal transduction including probabilistic effects.
This model successfully predicts cell paths in the pre-
sence and absence of chemical attractant concentra-
tion gradients.
If time permits, which it probably will not, one can


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










go on to discuss papers which incorporate these sorts
of models for fundamental cell behavioral phenomena
into analyses of physiological phenomena. There is a
vast literature on models of the immune response (see,
for example, Perelson [ed.], Theoretical Immunol-
ogy). Other interesting and important processes which
have received less extensive analysis to date include
angiogenesis [84] and wound healing [85].
This article has been an attempt to provide a sup-
erficial overview of topics that can be profitably
treated from the perspective of chemical engineering
applied to modern molecular cell biology, along with
some key references to guide the treatment. There is
no question that this field will both grow and change
tremendously over the next few years, but I hope that
this article will be of some help to anyone wishing to
study in this area.
Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to a
number of students who have been of substantial help
in teaching this course: Helen Buettner, Paul DiMilla,
Daniel Hammer, Jennifer Linderman, Bob Tranquillo,
Cynthia Starbuck, and Flaura Winston. Their partici-
pation and special insights have made this an excep-
tionally stimulating course.

REFERENCES
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18, 227 (1985)
2. Munson and Rodbard, Analyt. Biochem., 107, 220 (1980)
3. Munson, J. Receptor Res., 3, 249 (1983)
4. Munson, Meth. Enzymol., 92, 543 (1983)
5. DeLeon, et al., Molec. Parmacol., 21, 5 (1982)
6. Smith, Science, 240,1169 (1986)
7. deWitt and Bulgakov, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 886, 76
(1986)
8. Gex-Fabry and DeLisi, Math. Biosci., 72, 245 (1984)
9. Lipkin, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 261, 1694 (1986)
10. DeLisi and Chabay, Cell Biophys., 1, 117 (1979)
11. Perelson and DeLisi, Math. Biosci., 48, 71 (1980)
12. Dembo and Goldstein, Cell, 22, 59 (1980)
13. Berg and Purcell, Biophys. J., 20, 195 (1977)
14. DeLisi and Wiegel, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 5569
(1981)
15. Brunn, J. Biomech. Eng., 103, 32 (1981)
16. Shoup and Szabo, Biophys. J., 40, 33 (1982)
17. Wiley, J. Cell Biol., 107, 801 (1988)
18. Goldstein, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 5695
(1981)
19. Keizer, et al., Biophys. J., 47, 79 (1985)
20. DeLisi, et al., Cell Biophys., 4, 211 (1982)
21. Lauffenburger and DeLisi, Intl. Rev. Cytol., 84, 269 (1983)
22. Spudick and Koshland, Nature, 262, 467 (1976)
23. Mitchison and Kirschner, Nature, 312, 232 (1984)
24. Tranquillo and Lauffenburger, Cell Biophys., 8, 1 (1986)
25. Tranquillo and Lauffenburger, J. Math. Biol., 25, 229
(1987)
26. Higashijima, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 262, 752, 757, 762
(1987)


27. Rapp, et al., Math. Biosci., 77, 35, 79 (1985)
28. Steinman, et al., J. Cell Biol., 96, 1 (1985)
29. Wiley, Curr. Topics. Memb. Transp., 24, 369 (1985)
30. Wiley and Cunningham, Cell, 25, 433 (1980)
31. Zigmond, et al., J. Cell Biol., 92, 34 (1982)
32. Myers, et al., J. Biol Chem, 262, 6494 (1987)
33. Gex-Fabry and DeLisi, Am. J. Physiol., 250, R1123 (1986)
34. Beck and Goren, J. Receptor Res., 3, 561 (1983)
35. Linderman and Lauffenburger, Biophys. J., 50, 295 (1986)
36. Linderman and Lauffenburger, J. Theor. Biol., 132, 203
(1988)
37. Burgess and Kelly, Annu. Rev. Cell Biol., 3, 243 (1987)
38. Deuel, Annu. Rev. Cell Biol., 3, 443 (1987)
39. Takahashi, J. Theor. Biol., 13, 202 (1966)
40. Fried, Math. Biosci., 8, 379 (1970)
41. Aroesty, et al., Math. Biosci., 17, 243 (1973)
42. Bertuzzi, et al., Math. Biosci., 53, 159 (1981)
43. McKeehan and McKeehan, J. Supramolec. Struct. Cell.
Biochem., 15, 83 (1981)
44. Miller, et al., Biotech. Bioeng., 33, 477, 487 (1989)
45. Glacken, et al., Biotech. Bioeng., 32, 491 (1988); 33, 440
(1989)
46. Cowan and Morris, Cell Tissue Kinetics, 20, 153 (1987)
47. Knauer, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 259, 5623 (1984)
48. Lauffenburger, et al., Ann. NYAcad. Sci., 506, 147 (1987)
49. Lauffenburger and Cozens, Biotech. Bioeng., 33, 1365
(1989)
50. Alt and Tyson, Math. Biosci., 84, 159 (1987)
51. Cherry and Papoutsakis, Biotech. Bioeng., 33, 300 (1989)
52. Yamada, Annu. Rev. Biochem., 52, 761 (1983)
53. Buck and Horwitz, Annu. Rev. Cell. Biol., 3, 179 (1987)
54. Bell, Science, 200, 618 (1978)
55. Bell, Cell Biophys., 1, 133 (1979)
56. Bell, et al., Biophys. J., 45, 1051(1984)
57. Torney, et al., Biophys. J., 49, 501(1986)
58. Evans, Biophys. J., 48, 175, 185 (1985)
59. van Oss, Cell Biophys., 14, 1 (1989)
60. Hammer and Lauffenburger, Biophys. J., 52, 475 (1987)
61. Dembo, et al., Proc. Roy. Soc. London B, 234, 55 (1988)
62. Dong, et al., J. Biomech. Eng., 110, 27 (1988)
63. Patlack, Bull. Math. Biophys., 15, 311 (1953)
64. Keller and Segel, J. Theor. Biol., 30, 25 (1971)
65. Alt, J. Math. Biol., 9, 147 (1980)
66. Lauffenburger, Agents and Actions Suppl., 3, 34 (1983)
67. Othmer, et al., J. Math. Biol., 26, 263 (1988)
68. Tranquillo, et al., Cell Motility Cytoskel., 11, 1 (1988)
69. Buettner, et al., AIChEJ., 35,459(1989)
70. Nossal and Zigmond, Biophys. J., 16, 1171 (1976)
71. Dunn, Agents and Actions Suppl., 3, 14 (1983)
72. Dunn and Brown, J. Cell Sci. Suppl., 8, 81 (1987)
73. Othmer, et al., J. Math. Biol., 26, 263 (1988)
74. Bretscher, Science, 224, 681 (1984)
75. Singer and Kupfer, Annu. Rev. Cell Biol., 2, 337 (1986)
76. Devreotes and Zigmond, Annu. Rev. Cell Biol., 4, 649
(1988)
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78. Oster and Perelson, J. Math. Biol., 21, 383 (1985); J. Cell
Sci. Suppl., 8, 35 (1987)
79. Zhu and Skalak, Biophys. J., 54, 1115 (1988)
80. Oster, Cell Motility Cytoskel., 10, 164 (1988)
81. Dembo, et al., Cell Motility, 1, 205 (1981)
82. Lauffenburger, Chem. Eng. Sci., in press (1989)
83. Tranquillo, et al., J. Cell Biol., 106, 303 (1988)
84. Balding and McElwain, J. Theor. Biol., 114, 53 (1985)
85. Murray, et al., Phys. Leters, 171, 59 (1988) 0


FALL 1989










A course in .


PARTICULATE PROCESSES


ALAN D. RANDOLPH
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721

A USEFUL WORKING definition for particles [1] is,
"that state of subdivision of matter whose shape
depends on the process by which it was formed and on
the intermolecular cohesive forces present." This def-
inition applies equally well for liquid droplets (spheri-
cal, maintained by surface tension) or crystalline sol-
ids having a geometric shape (e.g., cube, platelet, etc.)
consistent with the crystalline structure and affected
by the local molecular environment producing the
crystal.
This article describes a special topics graduate
course (ChE-514) on particulate processes given fre-
quently by the author at the University of Arizona.
The text for the course is Theory of Particulate Pro-
cesses: Anaylsis and Techniques of Continuous Crys-
tallization [2]. The subtitle has been said to be more
accurate in describing the book than the title, al-
though the second edition attempts to correct this im-
pression. The text was motivated by the necessity of
collecting and organizing all the information on the
Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) problem, which is cov-
ered extensively in the course Particulate Processes.
Thus, the course and text are nearly inseparable.
ChE-514 is a "required" course for the writer's stu-
dents who are engaged in process crystallization re-
search. The course is given whenever the combination
of graduate students needing to take it (ADR's) plus
other graduate students desiring additional chemical
engineering credit to fill out their graduate study pro-





Alan D. Randolph is a professor of
chemical engineering at the University of Ari-
zona, where he has been since 1968. He re-
ceived his BChE at the University of Colorado
(1956) and his PhD from Iowa State University
(1962). He has an active research program in
process crystallization and has consulted for
numerous companies in this area.


TABLE 1
Course Topics for Particulate Processes

* Introduction and Motivation: The Importance of PSD/CSD
* Particle Distributions
* The Population Balance
* Modeling Continuous and Batch Crystallizers
* Crystallization Kinetics
* Crystal Size Responses for Continuous and Batch Crystallizers
* Reaction Engineering of CSD
* CSD Dynamics and Control


gram, exceeds the minimum class enrollment for a
graduate offering. The course unashamedly concen-
trates on process crystallization (and CSD) as the
example par excellence to illustrate the predictive
population balance theory of particulate processes for-
mally developed in the text. The writer attempts to
maintain a reasonable balance of non-crystallization
topics considering the background of those enrolled.

COURSE OUTLINE
Table 1 shows the subject outline of Particulate
Processes. It is identical to the text with the exception
of Chapter 10 (in the course, the last periods are used
for student reviews of the current literature of par-
ticulates). The ground rules are that crystallization
students cannot choose a crystallization article to re-
view, while others may. The main point is that the
articles must emphasize the distributed nature of par-
ticulate systems. Proposed titles are thus pre-
screened. Five minutes of perusing the article to be
reviewed can immediately determine if the course has
been a success.
One graduate student suggested that scarce
semester-end time could be saved if written, rather
than oral, critiques were handed in as a term project.
This is an excellent idea except, of course, that it
shifts a major work load from the student to the in-


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










In addition to emphasizing the distributed nature of particulates, the course emphasizes predictive
rather than descriptive modeling of the particle distribution using population balance mechanics. An illustration
of CSD prediction and manipulation will be presented for the useful double draw-off (DDO) configuration.


structor. In addition to emphasizing the distributed
nature of particulates, the course emphasizes predic-
tive rather than descriptive modeling of the particle
distribution using population balance mechanics. An
illustration of CSD prediction and manipulation will
be presented for the useful double draw-off (DDO)
configuration. Current unit operation texts [3] now
present the CSD from a Mixed Suspension, Mixed
Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer in a predic-
tive context, but stop short of CSD manipulation
(which would require crystallization kinetics). The
first two chapters (and course topics) describe the
general nature and elementary statistics of distrib-
uted particulates (e.g., means, variance, cumulative


MSMPR CRYSTALLIZER
log
FEED




n \
o -Go
PRODUCT o


CONFIGURATION 0 L-
POPULA TION
DENSITY PLOT

DDO CRYSTALLIZER


FINES Q
FEED 00
QiFEE OVERFLOW

Qu.

G
MIXED
UNDERFL
Qu


Qu


OW


CONFIGURATION


1I 1
-G -RG


-RGrr


I -
0 LF

POPULATION
DENS/TYPLOT


FIGURE 1. MSMPR and DDO configurations and CSD
(after E. T. White and A. D. Randolph (1988)).


vs. density, etc.). The distributions are presented in
density form. (Students often have trouble with the
units of population density, (length)-). Much attention
is given to the gamma distribution (the natural distri-
bution of crystallization processes), but other useful
empirical distributions, e.g., Rosin-Rammler and
Gaudin-Melloy, that are routinely used in the minerals
industry [4] are presented in the course.
Chapter 3 develops and formalizes the multi-vari-
ate population balance which is used predictively
throughout the remainder of the course. At this point,
the useful moment transformation is introduced. The
leading moments of the population density function

mj = Lf (L)dL for j= 0,1,2,3


form a closed set of non-linear algebraic equations
which, in principle, completely describe the idealized
MSMPR crystallizer, given the nucleation/growth
rate kinetics of a particular system. Roughly speak-
ing, the MSMPR concept is to crystallization as the
CSTR is to reaction engineering with the advantage
that theform of the equations is kinetics-independent.
Thus, for a specific case the kinetics can be brought
in as auxiliary equations to complete the solution.
Chapter 4 develops the MSMPR concept in detail.
This chapter, together with Chapters 7 (CSD manipu-
lation) and 8 (CSD dynamics), form the core of presen-
tations for the industrial short course. Chapter 5 pre-
sents crystallization mechanisms and kinetics from an
elementary level. The writer often suffers from acute
Felder's Impostor Syndrome [5] when discussing crys-
tal nucleation and growth mechanisms. This subject
could better be covered by someone in material sci-
ences well-versed in crystallography. For example,
when discussing crystal growth mechanisms by spiral
dislocations, the writer finds that even the most imag-
inative students are barely convinced that the crystal
dislocation is self-perpetuating. Crystal nucleation/
growth kinetics can often be described for high yield
systems with simple power-law empiricisms of the
form

B= k Gi M

where i and j are two parameters respectively describ-
Continued on page 227.


FALL 1989










A course in ...



HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL SPILLS

Use of the CAMEO Air Dispersion Model to Predict Evacuation Distances


ASHOK KUMAR, GARY F. BENNETT,
VENKATA V. GUDIVAKA
The University of Toledo
Toledo, OH 43606

THE UNIVERSITY OF Toledo offers several air pol-
lution courses taught by the senior authors to en-
gineering undergraduate and graduate students. In
the undergraduate courses, "Introduction to Air Pol-
lution Engineering" and "Air Pollution Control," the
students are exposed to the concept of air dispersion
modeling. The training in dispersion modeling con-
tinues in two senior/graduate courses: 1) "Dispersion
Modeling" and 2) "Hazardous Chemical Spills."
This paper provides an overview of the CAMEO
model [1] and its uses in the classroom as a training
tool in the "Hazardous Chemical Spills" course. The
model can be obtained from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, Hazardous Materials
Response Branch, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, BIN
C15700, Seattle, Washington 98115.
Chemical accidents are an unfortunate reality of
industrial society. With billions of pounds of toxic
chemicals being produced, stored, shipped, and used
daily, it is axiomatic that leaks, spills, and accidents
will occur. The consequences of these chemical spills
can range from a simple nuisance to virtual destruc-
tion of a body of water or to thousands of deaths and
injuries.
In the early days of spill technology and response
(the 1970s), the major concern in dealing with chemi-
cal spills was for pollution of the aquatic environment.
Indeed, spill response and cleanup efforts were ini-


tially directed only at oil spills, but soon chemical spills
and the destruction they caused in the aquatic envi-
ronment surpassed concern for the impact of oil on the
ecology. Two early examples of chemical spills are the
destruction of Shawnee Lake in Ohio [2] by a gallon
of strychnine-treated corn mixed with endrin, and the
intentional discharge of hexachlorocyclopentadiene
into the sewers of Louisville, Kentucky. These spills
severely impacted major bodies of water [3]. Sub-
sequently, Louisville suffered a more serious incident
when hexane that was discharged into the sewer sys-
tem, vaporized and exploded, causing thousands of
dollars of damage.
As serious as the environmental impact of chemi-
cals on water resources is, it is those spills (or inci-
dents) that result in emissions of toxic (volatile) chem-
icals into the air that pose the greatest danger to both
first responders and nearby residents. Clearly the
most dramatic and devastating chemical incident that
has ever occurred was the release of 30 to 35 tons of
methyl isocyanate at Bhopal, India, on December 3,
1984. This toxic chemical release killed an estimated
2,500 people and injured over 200,000 more [4].
Fortunately, extremely toxic chemicals such as
methyl isocyanate are produced in limited amounts at


Gary F. Bennett received his BSc from
Queen's University and his MS and PhD de-
grees from Michigan, all in chemical engineer-
ing. He has taught at The University of Toledo
since 1963 and started a course there in haz-
ardous chemical spills ten years ago. He is
consultant to the Toledo fire division on
chemical spills, has written several spill
prevention and control plans for industry, and
is author of the Hazardous Spills Handbook,
published by McGraw Hill.


Venkata Gudivaka is a graduate assis-
tant at The University of Toledo. He joined the
Department of Civil Engineering program in
the fall of 1987. He graduated with a Bachelor
of Engineering degree from the University of
Bombay, India, in 1987, and as part of this pro-
gram he worked with Union Carbide Corpration
in Bombay during the summer of 1986. He is
presently working in the field of dense gas
modeling and model evaluation for his MS
thesis.


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


Ashok Kumar is a professor of civil engi-
neering at The University of Toledo where he
teaches courses on air pollution and conducts
research in the area of air pollution modeling
and monitoring. He received his BS from Ali-
garh University in India, his MS from the Uni-
versity of Ottawa, and his Doctoral Degree from
the University of Waterloo. A registered pro-
fessional engineer, he is a consultant to
industrial organizations.



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











An explanation of the CAMEO system, one of the commercially available air dispersion model programs, is given
to the students. The level of discussion conducted in the classroom depends on the course. The students
are told that CAMEO has features for calculating downwind chemical concentration from release.


very few locations in the world. But other toxic gases
such as ammonia, chlorine, and hydrochloric acid are
widely used and have been released all too frequently.
Moreover, billions of pounds of these chemicals are
produced every year, and their storage and use are
ubiquitous. Notable spills involving these compounds
include:

Ammonia Houston, Texas: Tanker accident; 1.9 tons of
ammonia released with a 30 m high cloud formed with danger
persisting for two and one-half hours [5].
Chlorine Mississauga, Toronto, Canada: Railroad derailment;
27 tons of chlorine released in a fire; 300,000 people evac-
uated over an area of 129 km2 [6].
Silicone Tetrachlorida A storage tank released 1100 m3
(284,000 gal) of SiCI4 over five days; HCI vapor was formed
when the SiCl4 contacted moisture in the air; 160 people were
hospitalized, 16,000 were evacuated, and the toxic cloud ex-
tended 8 to 16 km from the tank [7].
Nitric Acid A puncture in a rail tank car released 55 m3 (14,000
gal) of 99% solution of nitric acid; the resulting vapor cloud of
toxic nitrogen dioxide forced the evacuation of 5,000 people
[9].
Pesticides Fires at facilities storing pesticides and/or haz-
ardous waste have sent toxic gases wafting across the land-
scape to threaten anyone in their way. Fumes from a 1974
pesticide fire in Alliance, Ohio, caused fire personnel and resi-
dents to exhibit symptoms that included nausea, burning eyes
and throats, and dizziness [8].
Transportation Accidents Transportation accidents such as
the ones involving chlorine in Canada [6] and white phos-
phorus at Miamisburg, Ohio [10], in 1987 with a resulting fire
have threatened nearby residents. In Miamisburg, a railroad car
of white phosphorus burned and released a toxic cloud of com-
bustion products that caused a mass evacuation of nearby
residents.

In all cases of releases of volatile toxic chemicals,
whether or not a fire is involved, air dispersion model-
ing is of great assistance to the first responder. In-
deed, dispersion modeling is essential in predicting
areas that should be evacuated. Without such model-
ing, the evacuation area could not be calculated at all;
it could only be "guess-timated." Consequently, with-
out the calculation tools given by air dispersion model-
ing, the On-Scene Commander either under- or over-
estimates the evacuation zone. Under-estimating the
evacuation zone leaves people in danger; over-estimat-
ing needlessly moves people and constitutes a hazard
of a different kind, especially to the sick and elderly
who are negatively impacted by the move and con-
comitant disruption.


STUDENT MODELING PROGRAM

Environmental engineering students at the Uni-
versity of Toledo solve air dispersion problems by
using computer models based on known theoretical
concepts. The computer models are chosen from pro-
grams available in the public domain and include mod-
eling programs used by regulatory bodies in both the
United States and Canada.
One model chosen for this course is the CAMEO
model which has been developed by the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The model
performs a variety of calculations for a chemical spill,
and in the classroom the CAMEO Air Model can be
used for several purposes: 1) to develop an intuitive
feeling for the importance of different variables re-
lated to the toxic releases and to test "what-if' type
questions, 2) to compute the maximum ground level
chemical concentration resulting from a spill, 3) to
map hazard zones for evacuation purposes, and 4) to
perform sensitivity analysis using varying chemical
and toxicological inputs, source data, and meteorolog-
ical information.
Additionally, all the features included in the model
are useful in various contingency planning and re-
sponse activities where it is necessary to compute the
downwind concentrations as a function of distance re-
sulting from a hypothesized release of a toxic volatile
material.

THE CAMEO SYSTEM

An explanation of the CAMEO system, one of the
commercially available air dispersion model programs,
is given to the students. The level of discussion con-
ducted in the classroom, however, depends on the
course. The students are told that CAMEO has the
following features for calculating downwind chemical
concentration from release:

1. A basic Gaussian algorithm is used with either a con-
tinuous or instantaneous release configuration.

2. The atmospheric data can be inputted directly by the user
or obtained from a remote meteorological station.

3. A chemical library is available; this library contains
the toxicological, chemical, and thermodynamic pa-
rameters necessary to derive various source strength
estimates and relate the pollutant distribution patterns to
human health effects.


FALL 1989










4. The source strength estimates can be entered directly in
English or metric units; however, the program can cal-
culate the effective source strength from an exposed pool
of spilled chemical, given the chemical identity and the
surface area of the pool.

5. The system has the ability to store a map using digitiza-
tion.

6. A variety of graphic or tabular options can be displayed
on the screen or sent to the printer; the system also has
the ability to clip screen images to a file that can be over-
laid on maps that are available in other parts of the sys-
tem.

Since the CAMEO system uses the well-known
Gaussian dispersion model, a brief discussion points
out the limitations of the model as follows: 1) typical
errors can be as high as a factor of two, and 2) greater
errors can result from spills during low wind speed
and very stable atmospheric conditions than at high
wind speed.
It should be noted that the CAMEO model does
not take into account terrain effects and the impact of
building wakes. Also, heavy gas effects are not in-
cluded. Moreover, the model results apply only to the
selected chemicals; fire by-products or other chemical
transformations can be entered into the system by the
user as separate chemicals.

HOW TO USE THE CAMEO MODEL

The students are instructed to use the CAMEO
program installed on an Apple Macintosh computer.
They are told about the menu options in the CAMEO
program and are informed that the best way to run
the program is to use the following order for menu
options: 1) select a chemical from the chemical option,
2) set the atmospheric options (either by the
meteorological station or user input), 3) set the source


strength of the spill, and 4) run the model by selecting
the continuous or puff option from the option menu.

EXAMPLES OF CLASSROOM EXERCISES

Six problems have been selected to illustrate class-
room use of CAMEO. These six problems, when used
in a course, enable a student to become familiar with
some of the many uses of the CAMEO Air Model. The
problems selected utilize most of the facilities offered
by the demonstration program model.
The student is advised to try to solve the problems
using the CAMEO program and to compare his results
with those given by the instructors. The student is
advised to try solving different problems given in air
pollution textbooks with this model in order to gain
familiarity with its applications.
The problems are based on "real-world" spill situ-
ations found in the literature. Problems 1 and 2 are
modified from reference 11; problem 3 is from refer-
ence 12; problem 4 is from reference 13; problem 5 is
from reference 14; and problem 6 is from reference 15.


Problem 1
Ammonia was released at a rate of 6050 g/sec for 30 min. The
ambient wind speed at the time of release was 2 mi/hr (3.2 km/hr),
and the wind was blowing from 350'. The atmospheric stability was
"unstable" (A), and the ambient temperature was 28'C. Assume
an inversion height of 1500 ft (457 m). Use the CAMEO Air Model
for a continuous source and determine the downwind IDLH* and
TLV-TWA* distances and travel times to reach those distances.
Locate the source at the chemical facility near South Chicago
Street on Map E13 or F13 and plot the IDLH and TLV-TWA hazard
zones (see Figures 1 and 2).


*IDLH defines the concentration of a chemical "Immediately
Dangerous to the Life and Health" if someone is exposed. TLV is the
"Threshold Limit Value" concentration which is the accepted safe
concentration for 8-hr/day exposure of workers over their working
life. TWAis the "Time Weighted Average" of the concentration


TABLE 1
Input Data for Six Chemical Spills

Problem 1J Problem # Promblem Problem #A Problem #5 Problem I


1. Name of Chemical Selected

2. Atmospheric Stability Class
3. Inversion Height (ft)
4. Wind Speed (mi/hr)
5. Wind Direction
6. Ambient Air Temperature("C)
7. Average Ground Roughness

8. Source Strength
9. Puddle Area (ft2)
10. Exit Velocity (ft/sec)


Ammonia Solution
(> 44% Ammonia)
A
1500
2
350
28
City Center

6050 g/s


Hydrogen Nitric Acid
Sulphide Fuming
D E
600 500
5 4.7
350 315
28 20
Very Smooth Thick Grass
(4 in. high)
72,000 g 66,000 g/s


Chlorine Methyl
Isocyanate
D F
600 650
10 9
90 310
20 17.5
Lawn City Center

11,340 g/s 7,400 g/s


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Toluene

D
600
3
280
10
Homogeneous
Forest

1,000
1










Problem 2
A pipeline of a gas processing facility ruptured and released
72,000 g of H1S. The ambient wind speed was 5 mi/hr (8 km/hr),
and the wind was from 350'. The atmospheric stability was neutral
(D), and the ambient air temperature was 28'C. Assume an inver-
sion height of 600 ft (183 m).
Assume an instantaneous release and determine the down-
wind IDLH and TLV-TWA distances and travel times. Locate the
source at the chemical facility of South Chicago Street on Map
E13 or F13, and plot the IDLH ands TLV-TWA vapor hazard zones
(see Figures 1 and 2).

Problem 3
During the night, at about 2 a.m., 20 tons (20 x 106 g) of
fuming nitric acid were spilled on flat ground. At 2:05 a.m. the
temperature was 20'C, and the wind was from the northwest
(315') at 4.7 mi/hr (7.5 km/hr). Assume an atmospheric stability of
(E) and an inversion height of 500 ft (152 m). Assume a
continuous source (66,000 g/sec).
Compute the downwind IDLH and TLV distances and travel
times. Plot these contours on the map and make rec-
ommendations about the extent of the evacuation zone.


Problem 4
A continuous release of chlorine at a rate of 11,340 g/sec oc-
curs at a chemical plant. The atmospheric conditions at the time
are neutral (D). The ambient wind speed is 10 mi/hr (16 km/hr) and
the wind is blowing from the west. The ambient air temperature is
20'C. Assume a mixing height of 600 ft (183 m). Assuming a
continuous release, determine the TLV and IDLH travel times and
distances; plot the TLV and IDLH hazard zones.


Problem 5
In a disaster at a pesticide plant in India, 40 tons (40 x 106 g) of
methyl isocyanate were released in 90 minutes (7400 g/sec) at
12:30 a.m. when the ambient temperature was 17.5'C.
The ambient wind speed was 9 mi/hr (14 km/hr) and the wind
was from 310'. The mixing height at that time was about 650 ft
(198 m). The conditions were said to be very stable, and a stability
class of (F) may be assumed. Compute the TLV and IDLH travel
times and distances, and determine the area for evacuation if the
plant had been located at the chemical facility of South Chicago
Street on map F13 (Figure 2). HINT: MIC does not exist in the
chemical library. It has to be added to the library first. Enter "create
library" and add MIC and the data for it as given below:


Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
Boiling Point
IDLH Value
TLV-TWA Value


C2H3NO
57.06
39'C
20 ppm
0.02 ppm


Problem 6
100,000 gal of toluene were spilled as a result of a pipeline
rupture in Ohio. The time was 10 p.m. and the ambient tempera-
ture was 10'C. The wind speed was 3 mi/hr (4.8 km/hr) and the

TABLE 2
Solutions for Six Chemical Spills Using CAMEO Model

Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob.
#1 #2 #3 #4 # #6


TLV-TWA Distance (km)
TLV-TWA Travel Time (min)
IDLH Distance (km)
IDLH Travel Time (min)


1.2 2.3
22.0 17.4
0.2 0.7
3.7 5.3


140.4 23.5 509.9 1.1
1046.0 87.5 2110.8 13.6
8.9 3.0 3.6 0.2
66.4 11.2 14.9 2.1


The students are asked to change the
values of variables in order to understand the
importance of the role played by the input data. The
graphical display of results is of immeasurable
value in accidents situations. Three possible
plots are included in this paper.



conditions were neutral (D Stability). The mixing height was 600 ft
(183 m). Use the puddle model to determine the TLV and IDLH
distances and travel times. Assume a puddle area of 1000 ft2 (93
m2) and an exit velocity of 1 ft/sec (0.3 m/sec).


RESULTS

Table 1 shows the input required for each problem.
The input for each variable is obtained from the state-
ment of the problem given above. The name of the
chemical, atmospheric stability, inversion height,
wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature,
and source strength are required for the first five
problems. In the sixth problem, values for puddle area
and exit velocity are also needed for the computation
of the source strength term. If the puddle area is
known, it can be used in place of the mass of the chem-
ical spilled, but this assumption might give different
results. Since, in an accidental spill, it is relatively
easier to estimate puddle area than mass spilled, the
area covered by the spilled chemical has been used in
this problem. Moreover, the average ground rough-
ness around the spill site must be specified for each
problem; the model gives five options.
Table 2 shows the solutions obtained for each of
the six illustrative problems. IDLH distances and
TLV distances are given in this table along with the
arrival times of plume at those distances. The dis-
tances give the student an understanding of the poten-
tial area of the evacuation zone, and the arrival time
helps him/her to appreciate the importance of time
available for control measures and evacuation
schedules. The TLV distances are higher than IDLH
distances because TLV concentration is smaller than
IDLH concentration. For Problem 5, the TLV dis-
tance is more than 140 times the IDLH distance. In
such cases, it may be appropriate to use one-tenth of
the IDLH concentration to compute the hazard zone.
The students are asked to change the values of
variables in order to understand the importance of the
role played by the input data. The graphical display
of results is of immeasurable value in accident situa-
tions. Three possible plots are included in this paper.
Figure 1 is the TLV plot that is obtained from Prob-
lem 1, while Figure 2 is the IDLH plot obtained from
Problem 2. A plot of IDLH distances for varying in-


FALL 1989










puts of wind speed for Problem 1 is shown in Figure 3.

CONCLUSION

The CAMEO system is a useful tool for teaching
basic concepts related to dispersion modeling of chem-
ical spills. The students are able to conduct computer
experiments to enhance their understanding of the ef-
fects of accidents involving hazardous chemicals. With


E'"eng Fiild


increasing public concern of chemical releases and the
recent passage by Congress of spill planning regula-
tions (Title III of SARA), inclusion of chemical spill
modeling in the chemical engineering curriculum be-
comes very important. Modeling of spills at fixed base
facilities (in advance of a spill) to produce predictions
of danger zones is becoming common, and chemical
engineering students should be familiar with the mod-
eling methods and public concern of possible dangers
of chemical spills.


REFERENCES


C- ----


Fi :i~~


-C


FIGURE 1. TWA contour for ammonia solution (>44%
ammonia) on Map E13.


~^ T


FIGURE 2. IDLH contour for hydrogen sulphide (instan-
taneous release).

020

018-






0 12-

010-
o. 014-





008
0 2 4 6 8 10
WIND SPEED (mi/hr)

FIGURE 3. Variation of IDLH distances with wind speed.


1. Kummerlowe, D.L., "Computer-Aided Management of
Emergency Operations," The International Fire Chief,
January (1987)
2. Nye, W.B., "The Hazardous Materials Spill Experience
in Shawnee Lake, Ohio: A Case History," Proc. 1972
Nat. Conf. on Control of Hazardous Materials Spills,
Houston, TX, p 217-219, March (1972)
3. Wilson, J.A., C.P. Baldwin, and T. J. McBridge, "Case
History: Contamination of Louisville, Kentucky, Mor-
ris Forman Treatment Plant (by) Hexachlorocyclopen-
tadiene," Proc. 1978 Nat. Conf. on Control of Hazardous
Materials Spills, Miami, Fl., p 170-177; April (1978)
4. Marshall, V.C., Major Chemical Hazards, Ellis Hor-
wood Ltd., Chichester, England, p 369-379 (1987)
5. Raj, P.K., "Ammonia" in G.F. Bennett, F.S. Feates,
and I. Wilder, Eds., Hazardous Materials Spills Hand-
book, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p 10-34 to 10-57
(1982)
6. Hilbert, G.D., J.H. Berkley, Jr., and F. Quinn,
"Mississauga: Lessons Learned in Large-Scale Evacu-
ations," Proc. 1982 Nat.Conf. on Control of Hazardous
Materials Spills, Milwaukee, WI, p 56-63, April (1982)
7. Hoyle, W.C., "Silicone Tetrachloride Incident," G.F.
Bennett, et al., op. cit., p 11-11 to 11-17
8. Diefenbach, R.C., "Pesticide Fires," G.F. Bennett, et
al., op. cit., p 11-2 to 11-10
9. McVeigh, T., "Case History of a Major Nitric Acid
Spill," Envir. Prog., 4, p 212-216 (1985)
10. Scoville, W.H., S.D. Springer, and J. Crawford,
"Response and Cleanup Efforts Associated with the
White Phosphorus Releases," Miamisburg, Ohio;
Haz. Mat., 21, p 47-64, January (1989)
11. Kumar, A., and S.T. Thomas, "A Hybrid Model for
Computing Ground-Level Concentration Near a Coastal
Plant," Proc. of AMS and APCA Joint Conference, Port-
land OR, October (1984)
12. Nitric Acid: Environmental and Technical Informa-
tion for Problem Spills, Environmental Protection Ser-
vice, Ottawa, Ontario, April (1985)
13. "Calculating the Area Affected by Chlorine Releases,"
Chlorine Institute Pamphlet #74, Edition 1, Revision 1,
Chlorine Institute, New York, NY, June (1982)
14. Singh, M.P., and S. Ghosh, "Bhopal Gas Tragedy:
Model Simulation of the Dispersion Scenario," J. Haz.
Mat., 17, p 1-22, December (1987)
15. Campanella, Vincent, "Life Returning to Normal After
Leak," news story in Tiffin Advertiser-Tribune,
February 24 (1988)
16. Sax, N.I., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materi-
als" 6th Edition,Van Nostrand, New York, NY (1984) 0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










book reviews

BIOSEPARATIONS: Downstream Processing for
Biotechnology
by Paul A Better, E. L. Cussler, Wei-Shou Hu
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 368 pages, $39.95 (1988)

Reviewed by
Murray Moo-Young
University of Waterloo

In the broad field of biotechnology, any new book
with the words "bioseparations" and "downstream pro-
cessing" in its title will attract much attention since these
are the current trendy, fashionable areas of biotechnol-
ogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this is probably the first
book devoted entirely to this area, which is partly due to
the difficulty in handling it for a multidisciplinary audi-
ence indigenous to biotechnology. Whereas Volume II of
the multi-volume work, Comprehensive Biotechnology
(Pergamon Press) is a major reference, this book is a
primer on the subject matter. As such, it is a good teach-
ing text and is well worth its list price of $39.95.
The authors, comprising a group of experts with
both industrial and academic experience, have developed
an effective pedagogical strategy in which typical
bioseparations are viewed as an idealized four-step pro-
cess according to a so-called RIPP organization: Removal
of insolubles, Isolation of product, Eurification and
Polishing. The book helps to bridge the gap between the
usually separate, parallel evolving cultures of the life sci-
ences and engineering in this area by providing material
for "scientists with no background in engineering" and
"engineers with no background in biology." Inevitably,
this ambitious approach to satisfy such a wide audience
results in sections (e.g., filtration, drying) which are
rather rudimentary for chemical engineering graduates
(which is the usual level at which biotechnology is taught
in chemical engineering departments), while the same
sections are too advanced for the life science undergrad-
uates. Regardless, the authors are to be commended for
providing in one place "an introduction to the separation
and purification of biochemicals."
After an overview introductory chapter, the book is
divided into four parts which cover a total of twelve
chapters, and ends with two appendices. It is of interest
to note the section titles and number of pages allocated to
these topics: Overview (11), Filtration and Ultrafiltration
(35), Centrifugation (21), Cell Disruption (21), Extraction
(47), Adsorption (37), Elution Chromatography (39),
Precipitation (17), Ultrafiltration and Electrophoresis
(35), Crystallization (35), Drying (29), Auxiliary
Operations (12), Characteristics of Biological Materials
(5), and Limits of the Continuum Approximations (5).
Possibly, a disproportionate amount of space is given to
the classical methods of liquid extraction (which is
primarily for relatively small molecules in "new"


biotechnology terms) at the expense of other aspects (e.g.,
isoelectric focusing) and recent innovations.
For example, it could be argued that there are a
number of other topics or subtopics that should have
been covered in a book of this type. Among these are the
following: supercritical fluid extraction (its use is increas-
ing); relevant process control and CAD/CAM; multi-unit
integration strategies; bioreactor/downstream processing
interfacing optimization, bioseparations in microgravity
environments (prospects of biomanufacturing on a fu-
ture space platform are of practical interest); develop-
ment of new polymeric and composite materials for
membrane separations and chromatography column
packing; effect of surfactants on membrane separation
performance; equipment innovations such as the use of
Taylor vortices to reduce polarization effects in mem-
brane separations; the implications of solid-state fermen-
tations to downstream processing economics; materials
of construction of the various bioseparation devices. Pre-
sumably, the authors could excuse these omissions on the
basis of their philosophy that "mixing, like life, is
incomplete..."!
The subject matter is given quantitative testament as
a series of unit operations (typical of chemical engineer-
ing) in terms of mass and energy balance and kinetics of
the processes involved. Fundamental concepts are pre-
sented clearly. Where correlations derivable from first
principles are not possible, the authors draw attention to
the traditional usefulness of dimensional analysis for
complex flow systems, e.g., the analysis and design of cell
disruption devices (Chapter 4). Each chapter contains
several illustrative examples and at the end, practice
problems with answers (which should please students
and practitioners alike) are given. Curiously, some of the
problem statements are given in mixed S.I. and British
units (e.g., kg, ft) and probably reflects the immediate
real-world industry situations addressed. Line diagrams,
some with three-dimensional cut-away views, are used to
depict clearly the mechanical features and physical func-
tions of various equipment. As a teaching tool, this tech-
nique is more effective than photographs.
As suggested by the authors, the book appears to be
suitable as a one-semester course for senior undergradu-
ate chemical engineering students and first-year science
graduates (including those from chemistry, microbiol-
ogy, food science). The book should also be useful in in-
dustry where calculations in downstream processing are
required in research, development, design, and plant op-
erations. The book is sufficiently robust to withstand
many hours of use. It has a good subject index, but unfor-
tunately no author index. More discriminating students
(and others) would have welcomed some references to
the research literature, especially in view of the advances
being made in this area. However, this is a minor criti-
cism. Despite the omissions mentioned earlier, the book
has something in it for almost everyone interested in
bioseparations, a term synonymously now used with
downstream processing in biotechnology. 0


FALL 1989










A program on ...




HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT


RALPH H. KUMMLER, JAMES H. McMICKING,
ROBERT W. POWITZ
Wayne State University
Detroit, MI 48202

THE NEED FOR environmental professionals is es-
calating. The 1987 Bureau of Health Professionals
report, "Evaluating the Environmental Health Work
Force," [1] identified 50,000 environmental profes-
sionals in the U.S. and projected that by 1992 there
will be a need for 100,000. Paul Busch, immediate past
president of the American Academy of Environmental
Engineers [2], estimates that 22,500 environmental
engineers will be needed from 1990 to 1995 "just to
meet the problem of hazardous waste clean up." Each
year, less than 10% of the hazardous waste engineers


Ralph H. Kummler received his BS
from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and
his PhD from John Hopkins. He is
Professor and Chairman of Chemical and
Metallurgical Engineering at Wayne State
University. Before Joining WSU he was a
research engineer at the General Electric
Space Sciences Laboratory. His research
interests include air, water, and multimedia
environmental engineering





James H. McMicking received his BS
and MS from Wayne State University and
his PhD from the Ohio State University. He
is Associate Professor and Associate
Chairman of Chemical and Metallurgical
Engineering at Wayne State University.




Robert W. Powitz received his BS
from the University of Georgia and his MPH
and PhD from the University of Minnesota.
He is currently Director of Environmental
Health and Safety and an Adjunct
Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Wayne State University.


that are needed are graduating from our universities
[3]. Summit VI, a top level interaction between indus-
try and AIChE (as reported by Mathis [4]), identified
the environment and ecology as the number-one
growth area for chemical engineers and suggested
curriculum changes and more intense training to meet
the growing need. Some educational programs have
begun to emerge, but not in chemical engineering [5,
6].
The chemical and manufacturing industries are
working vigorously to maximize recycle and to
minimize waste. Major corporations are establishing
their own landfill standards, with their own cradle-to-
grave accounting systems and certification of both
professionals and facilities. Consulting companies
which perform the same services for small industries
are thriving.
A new breed of professional, a "chemical control
engineer," is emerging. This individual must be tech-
nically educated and trained in regulations, but with
the focus on management rather than on science or
design, and he or she must have such skills as:

Risk assessment capability
Computer experience
Ability to maintain community involvement
Material use control procedures
Chemical management systems
Land use planning
Knowledge of health issues
Transportation awareness
Liability awareness

The boards of major corporations must be in-
formed about these issues on a regular basis. Career
path professionals in hazardous waste management
will therefore have high rank and pay [7].
Chemical engineers are uniquely qualified to train
for this opportunity. A solid background in mathemat-
ics, chemistry, and physics, with economics, process
control, separations, and a thorough training in logical


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










thinking and organization, is characteristic of the
chemical engineering BS degree. Waste minimization
in the chemical industry involves optimization of unit
operations, the classic tool of the chemical engineer.
However, within the confines of an ABET-accred-
ited chemical engineering degree, it is not easy to pro-
vide the additional education necessary to allow the
BS chemical engineer to become a "Chemical Control
Engineer." Thus, at Wayne State University we have
created a new concept in graduate education, called
the "Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Man-
agement," which is designed to provide auxiliary edu-
cation not only to chemical engineers, but also to all
conventional science and engineering majors who have
the prerequisite mathematics and chemistry back-
ground.
This program is a major departure for the chemical
engineering faculty. As discussed below, the courses
attract a substantial number of non-chemical en-
gineers and as a result constitute the largest service
teaching that we have ever undertaken. The chemical

TABLE 1
Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate
Program Participants
Industrial Advisory Committee Faculty Course


James Carlson
Director, Hazardous Waste Management
Chrysler Corporation
Del Rector
Deputy Director, Michigan Department of
of Natural Resources
Myron Black
Director, Environmental Affairs
Dondee Cement

James Dragun, PhD
President, Dragun Associates, Inc.
J. Chu, PhD (deceed, April 1989)
Asst. Director, Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment, General Motors Research Center
Rick Powals
Vice President, Petrochem, Inc.


Ralph Kummler, PhD
Director: Chairman of Chemical
and Metallurgical Engneeing
James Dragun, PhD
President
Dragun Assodates, Inc.
Tim Lang, PhD
Chief Manufacturing Chemist
Environmental Operatons
GM Tech Center
Carol Miller, PhD
Assodate Prof., Civil Engineering
Jeffrey Howard, PhD
Assistant Professor, Geology

Joe Oravec, BS
Academic Serv. Officer, Chemistry

Robert Powitz, PhD
Director, Environmental Health
and Safety
James McMicking, PhD
Associate Prot Chemical Ergeeing
Daniel Crowl, PhD
Professor, Chemical Engineering
Khalil Atasi, PhD
Head, Appled Tech. & Evaluaton
Debroit Water and Sewerage Dept
A. L. Reeves, PhD
Prof., Ocapat. & Environ. Health


Devon Schwalm, MS CHE 726,727
Hazardous Materials Coordnator
Environmental Health & Safety


The program's courses are available as
electives to both undergraduate and graduate
students in our regular university degree programs,
and they have attracted many new students
into full-time and part-time programs.


engineering profession is uniquely qualified to lead
this new effort, but expansion of the traditional tools
of chemical engineering will be necessary.
In order to determine the content of the Graduate
Certificate program, an interdisciplinary team con-
sisting of faculty and an industrial advisory committee
was assembled. A brief description of their back-
grounds is given in Table 1.
The goal of the certificate program is to prepare
admissible students to take and pass certification
examinations. At the present time, WSU administers
the Hazardous Materials Manager Certification
Examination (CHMM) developed by the Institute of
Hazardous Materials Management, and the Certified
Hazardous Waste Specialist Examination developed
by the National Environmental Health Association.
The examinations are dynamic in nature and hence
the courses must also be dynamic, to reflect the con-
tinual changes in technology, law, policy, and regula-
tions. Thus, both the course outlines and topics vary
S from time to time. A poll of various governmental
agencies and industry has shown enthusiastic support
for this program. The student response to the certifi-
cate program has also surpassed all expectations;
nearly half of the student body has requested that the
program be expanded into a full Master's program in
Hazardous Waste Management. The faculty developed
and approved the curriculum for the MS degree, and
authorization to begin awarding degrees in January of
1990 was granted by the Wayne State University
Board of Governors.
The program's courses are available as electives to
both undergraduate and graduate students in our reg-
ular university degree programs, and they have at-
tracted many new students into full-time and part-
time programs. Professionals already working in the
field may require one or two courses prior to attempt-
ing the certification examinations; even certified man-
agers require continuing education to retain gov-
ernmental or industrial acceptance. Thus, the courses
have wide applicability.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM

The need for training in hazardous waste control
technology, laws, policy, and regulations clearly im-
plies more than the minimum coursework in any single


FALL 1989











traditional discipline. Hence, WSU chose to recognize
a group of credits as a "Certificate Program," where
"certificate" simply refers to university-level recogni-
tion and is totally separate from the externally-ad-
ministered examinations.
Our program consists of a minimum of thirteen
credits, distributed as follows:

REQUIRED

* CHE 551. Introduction to Industrial Waste Management (2 cr: no
credit toward a graduate engineering degree)
The first required course in the sequence is an overview of the
program, including topics on solid waste management, site selec-
tion, thermal processing, biological waste disposal, hazardous
chemical spill clean-up, and hazardous chemical transportation.

* CHE 554. Law and Administration Issues in Industrial Waste Man-
agement (2 cr: no credit toward a graduate engineering degree)
The second required course covers management guidelines, Su-
perfund issues, the Solid Waste Disposal Act, identification con-
cepts, standards, reports, permits, and rules.

* CHE 556. Transportation and Emergency Spill Response (3 cr)
This course covers marine, rail and tank truck transport method-
ology, planning and regulations, and emergency spill response,
with field experience.

* CHE 751. Public Issues of Hazardous Waste, (2 cr)
This course is devoted to current issues in hazardous waste man-
agement and is presented by nationally recognized leaders in
industry.

Students will also be required to take an additional
four credits from among the following courses.

* GEL 515. Soils and Soil Pollution (3 cr)
The properties and classification of soils are covered. Knowledge
of soil properties is used to understand the removal of pollutants
from soils and groundwater.


* CHE 553. Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste (2 cr)
This course covers thermal processing technology, including
combustion fundamentals, incineration equipment, waste heat
boilers, air pollution control equipment, and facilities design.

* CHE/CE 558. Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous Waste (2 cr)
This course covers industrial landfills, biological processes, land
disposal techniques, ocean disposal techniques, and the disposal
ofashes.

* CHE/CE 559. Biological Waste Disposal (2 cr)
This course, taught in conjunction with Civil Engineering, con-
siders environmental requirements, activated sludge, anaerobic
systems, stabilization ponds, dewatering experiments, and acti-
vated carbon systems.

* CE 619. Ground Water (4 cr)
Aquifers, aquitards, saturated and unsaturated flow, sources of
contamination, artificial recharge, development of basins, and
efficient utilization are discussed.

* CHE 657. Safety in the Chemical Process Industry (3 cr)
This course covers the fundamental and practical experience
necessary for safe operation of a chemical process plant, includ-
ing case studies conducted under an industrial supervisor.

* OEH 832. Principles of Toxicology (4 cr)
Qualified students (those with a biological background) gain ex-
posure to toxicity ofindustrial chemicals, absorption of gases and
dust, laboratory studies oftoxicity, inhalation data, and experi-
mentation methodology.

* CHE 726. Waste Management Internship (1-3 cr)
Students earn credit by working in WSU's Environmental Health
and Safety hazardous waste program, or other environmental
control programs in local industry.

* CHE 727. Hazardous Waste Laboratory (2 cr)
This is a structured laboratory experience in waste characteriza-
tion, analysis, disposal techniques, and waste minimization.

A "B" average in these 13 credits is required for
recognition by the university. Individual courses may


B-.- h


FIGURE 1. Academic degree of participants


FIGURE 2. Academic goals of participants


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









be taken as elective credit toward undergraduate or
graduate degrees as well as by non-matriculated stu-
dents.
An industrial/governmental advisory committee
has been recruited, with representation from the basic
chemical and automotive industries, hazardous waste
operators, consultants, and regulatory agencies. This
committee evaluates the program at yearly intervals
and suggests revisions in course content for compati-
bility with current regulations and state-of-the-art
technologies.

CURRENT STATUS
The Graduate Certificate program was initiated in
the fall of 1986 with the offering of "Introduction to
Industrial Waste Management." There was no formal
survey of the students at that time; however, records
indicate that the class was composed mainly of under-
graduate chemical engineering students. Since the
course was given during the day and was not heavily
publicized, this was expected. In winter 1987, "Law
and Administration in Industrial Waste Manage-
ment," "Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous
Waste," "Public Issues of Hazardous Waste," "Waste
Management Internship," and "Hazardous Waste
Laboratory" were added to the curriculum. Beginning
with that semester, classes were offered in the even-
ing and were publicized to attract graduate and post-
degree students. "Transportation and Emergency
Spill Response," "Thermal Processing of Hazardous
Waste," and "Biological Waste Disposal" were added
in subsequent semesters.










FIGURE 3. Job classification of participants










FIGURE 3. Job classification of participants


In the fall of 1988 there were approximately ninety
new students in the program, including students in
both the regular graduate and undergraduate pro-
grams and those enrolled in the Hazardous Waste
Management Graduate Certificate program. An off-
campus program began in winter 1989 with fifty stu-
dents. From a modest beginning of 8-10 students per
year prior to the introduction of the Graduate Certifi-
cate Program, the class has now grown to 140 stu-
dents per year.

STUDENT PROFILE
For future use in planning, a survey was taken of
the winter and fall, 1987, and fall 1988 classes to deter-
mine the background and the goals of the students in
this program. The total number of students surveyed
was 223. Figure 1 shows the baccalaureate degrees of
the students in the categories of civil engineering,
chemical engineering, geology, chemistry, biology,
and other (health management, other engineering,
law, business, and liberal arts).
Figure 2 shows the goals of the participants in
three basic categories: Graduate Certificate conferred
by the University, Certification and Examination by
an external agency, and Selected Courses. It should
be noted that several participants selected more than
one category.
Figure 3 indicates the general areas in which the
participants are classified relative to their work or
study situation: Hazardous Waste Generators,
Hazardous Waste Haulers and Disposers, Environ-
mental Regulators, Students, and Consultants.
















i
F I go l o.....
I I i 1





FIGURE 4. Academic goals of 1988 participants


FALL 1989










TABLE 2
Curiculum: Master of Science In Hazardous Waste Management
Prerequisite/Corequisite: Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Management


REQUIRED COURSES: Credit
Introduction to Industrial Waste Management 2 (S/U)
(no graduate credit)
Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste 2
Law and Administration in Industrial Waste Management 2 (S/U)
(no graduate credit)
Transportation and Emergency Spill Response 3
Land Disposal 2
Biological Treatment of Hazardous Waste 2
Public Issues of Hazardous Waste 2
Hydrogeology 4
Waste Minimization 2
Safety in the Chemical Process Industry 3


Waste Management Internship
or-
Hazardous Waste Laboratory
or -
Air Sampling and Analysis
Principles of Industrial Toxicology
Design of Chemical Process Experiments I
or -
Probability Models and Data Analysis

Minimum Required
(excess credit may be applied to electives)


2
(minimum)
2

3
4
3

-4-

29
(33 including
noncredit requirements)


ELECT VES:
Unit Operation: Unit Processes in Environmental Engg.


Industrial Waste: Control, regulations, and treatment
Safety in the Laboratory
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CHE 899)
or-
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CE 899)
or-
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CM 899)
or -
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (OEH 899)
Environmental Microbiology
Biochemistry
Soils and Soil Pollution
Sanitary Chemistry
Anal/Inst Chemistry
Environmental Law
Transnational Environmental Problems
Environmental Pollution
Radiation Safety: Principles and Practice
Chemistry of Industrial Processes
Epidemiology
Applied Epidemiology
Chemical Engineering Graduate Seminar

Total Electives
(Including overage from required selection)

TOTAL CREDITS


MASTERS PROGRAM

Student demand for more information led the fac-
ulty and the industrial advisory committee to develop
a curriculum for a Master of Science in Hazardous
Waste Management. Approximately 37% of the enter-
ing class of '88 expressed interest in the full MS pro-
gram, as illustrated in Figure 4.
The Graduate Certificate is a prerequisite to ad-
mission in the Masters program, and all credits are
directly applicable toward the Masters. The approved
curriculum is listed in Table 2. A full discussion of all
the MS courses is beyond the scope of this paper, but
graduates will have solid backgrounds in biological
and thermal processing, land disposal, hydrogeology,
toxicology, laboratory techniques, waste minimiza-
tion, and chemical process safety.


CONCLUSIONS

It has become evident that industry must learn to
design and operate plants to prevent spills and
episodes, and to manage their chemical wastes prop-
erly. However, it is equally true that they must learn
to cope with emergencies and to be able to deal with
the public and regulatory agencies before, during, and
after such problems.


A graduate certificate program such as the one
offered by WSU provides a new avenue of education
in this field. The uniqueness of this program lies in the
fact that it is area-specific, flexible, and subject to
frequent content review. Some changes have already
been made, and others are currently under study by
the faculty involved in the program, such as the devel-
opment of the full Masters Degree.

REFERENCES
1. Levine Associates, "Evaluating the Environmental
Health Workforce," U.S. Department of Health and Hu-
man Services Report on HRSA contract 240-286-00076,
January (1988)
2. Busch, P.L., and W. C. Anderson, "Education of Haz-
ardous Waste Engineering Professionals," 116th An-
nual Meeting of the American Public Health Ass'n.,
Boston, MA, November (1987)
3. Busch, P.L., "A Hazardous Waste Crisis: Too Few Peo-
ple," Waste Age, September (1988)
4. Mathis, J.F., "Building an Industry/AIChE Partnership,
AIChExtra, a supplement to Chem. Eng. Prog., April
(1989)
5. The Environmental Manager's Compliance Advisor, V.
232,6, June 6 (1988)
6. Portnoy, K., "Education: Hazmat Management Goes to
School," Hazmat World, 54, August (1988)
7. Kachman, N.C., "The Environmental Professional-An
Established Career Path," lecture to the 13th Annual
Michigan Air Pollution Control Ass'n., May (1989) 0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


4
1
10

8
8

8
3 or 5
3
3
3
3
2-3
3
3
2
3
2
3
1

5


34
(38 including
noncredit courses)










PARTICULATE PROCESSES
Continued from page 215.

ing the relative sensitivity of secondary nucleation to
growth rate G (used as a surrogate variable for super-
saturation) and slurry density MT.


contain only crystals less than some cut size LF. Class-
ification is usually done passively by settling within
the vessel. Figure 2 shows the dramatic average par-
ticle size increase that this simple configuration can
achieve vis-a-vis the MSMPR configuration. Simple
power-law nucleation kinetics of the form


CSD SIMULATION ND MANIPULATION G
CSD SIMULATION AND MANIPULATION N T


re 1 shows the configuration and theoretical were used for these calculations. As the slurry density
on density plot for both the MSMPR and Dou- also increases in DDO operation this configuration is
-Off (DDO) crystallizers [6]. The DDO config- only fully useful for weak feeds giving a low natural
merely removes and then com lines two sepa- slurry density. Per-pass yield is also increased. Thus,
ry streams, one mixed and one classified to the DDO configuration is also used to increase yield
rry streams, one mixed and one classified to in systems with slow growth kinetics.
in systems with slow growth kinetics.
Bench-scale studies are currently being done to
evaluate the DDO crystallizer as a method of making
(c) j=2 --- = 1 larger calcium sulfite and sulfate (gypsum) particles
S.. i3 in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) processes. Larger
particles would greatly reduce downstream costs in
such FGD processes.
S6In ChE-514, students have access to a computer
4 program (Program Crystal Ball [7]) which solves
-- 2 simultaneous population and mass balances for the
CSD using arbitrary crystallization kinetics. Students
use this program to design a crystallizer producing a
desired crystal size and yield.
(b)j=1 ouU= In summary, the course explores the PSD of par-
i = 3 7 ticulate processes, while emphasizing the distributed
.nature of these processes. It attempts to show predic-
tion as well as description of the PSD with the ulti-
/R2 mate aim of manipulation. However, these goals are
/' only achieved in the study of CSD from well-defined
4 crystallization processes.


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 18
x, DIMENSIONLESS CUT SIZE, Lr/Go'r

FIGURE 2. Mass Mean Size Improvement, DDO/MSMPR
Crystallizers (after E. T. White and A. D. Randolph
(1988)).


REFERENCES

1. Irani, R.R., and C.F. Callis, Particle Size: Measure-
ment, Interpretation, and Application, John Wiley &
Sons, New York (1963)
2. Randolph, A.D., and M.A. Larson, Theory of Particu-
late Processes: Analysis and Techniques of Continuous
Crystallization, second edition, Academic Press, San
Diego, CA (1988)
3. McCabe, W.L., J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Opera-
tions of Chemical Engineering, fourth edition, McGraw-
Hill, New York (1985)
4. Kelly, E.G., and D.J. Spottiswood, Introduction to Min-
eral Processing, Wiley, New York (1982)
5. Felder, R.M., "Impostors Everywhere," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 22, 168 (1988)
6. White, E.T., and A.D. Randolph, "Optimum Fines Size
for Classification in Double Draw-Off Crystallizers,
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 276 (1989)
7. Sharnez, Riswan, "Dynamic Simulation and Control of
Crystal-Size Distribution in a Continuous Crystallizer,"
MS Thesis, University of Arizona (1987) 0


Figu
populati
ble Drav
uration I
rate slur


0

-1-
r')



I-J

cLU
N


LiU

cn
r)
U)


LL
0
0
!<
a:.


FALL 1989










A course in ...




FLUID MECHANICS OF SUSPENSIONS


ROBERT H. DAVIS
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424


2a, particle diameter or length, pm (1pm =10-4cm = 10 4 A)
10-1 1 10


SUSPENSIONS CONSISTING of small particles, drop-
lets, or cells dispersed in a liquid or gas are found
in a wide variety of natural and industrial processes.
We are all familiar with many examples of aerosol
suspensions, for which the continuous phase is air
(such as smoke, smog, mist, fog, clouds, and various
sprays and dusts). We are also familiar with many
examples of hydrosol suspensions, for which the con-
tinuous phase is water. These include coal slurries,
drilling muds, blood, unstrained fruit juice, silt and
clay in estuaries, and submerged cultures of microbial,
plant, animal, or insect cells. Further important
examples of suspensions are paints, ointments, immis-
cible bimetallic melts, and oil-water emulsions.
A chart showing typical sizes for several types of
suspended particles is given in Figure 1. In general,
suspended particles are smaller than approximately
100 pm (1 mm = 10-m) in size, since larger particles
rapidly settle out of suspension due to gravity. The
Reynolds number for flow around suspended particles
is typically small compared to unity, and so inertia
effects may be neglected relative to viscous forces.
Particles smaller than approximately one micron in
size are called colloidal particles. They settle out of
suspension only very slowly due to gravity. Moreover,
because of their large surface area to volume ratio,
these particles are subject to Brownian motion and
attractive and repulsive interparticle forces.
The behavior of suspensions of colloidal and fine
particles represents a fascinating and challenging area


Robert H. Davis is an associate pro-
fessor in chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Colorado. After receiving his doc-
toral degree from Stanford University in
1983, he was a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow
in the Department of Applied Mathematics
and Theoretical Physics at the University of
Cambridge. His research interests lie in the
area of fluid mechanics of suspensions, in-
cluding microbial suspensions. r.


smog smoke dust
mist,i fog s
;,, ----sprays
colloidal silica st
silt
clay sand
paint pigment
carbon black pulverized coal


flexible long-chain macromolecule (M.W. =106)
coiled extended
viruses bacteria


m. f. p. of air
molecule


t red blood cells
S blood capillaries


wavelength of light
ultraviolet visible infrared
U, fall speed of rigid sphere (s. g. = 2) in water, pm/s
0.5x10 4 0.5x10-2 05 0.5102 0 5xl04
pUa/p, Reynolds number of flow due to falling sphere in water
2 5x10-13 2.5x10-10 2.5x10-7 2.5x10-4 025
D, diffusivity of rigid sphere in water, pm2/s
0.5x102 0.5x101 0.5 0.5X10-1 0.5x10-2
aU/D, Peclet number of sedimenting sphere in:water
0.5x10-8 0.5x10-4 0.5 0.5x104 0.5xi08

FIGURE 1. Orders of magnitude for typical colloids and
fine particles (after Batchelor, 1976a).

for research. There are many active groups studying
the fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspen-
sions. This research effort needs to be supported by
graduate courses which provide students with a fun-
damental background and the necessary skills for
further study of suspenisons. In this paper, I sum-
marize such a course that was introduced at the Uni-
versity of Colorado during this past year.

COURSE PHILOSOPHY AND STRUCTURE

The course philosophy is based on two goals:

To provide the students with a fundamental background
that encompasses various aspects of the fluid mechanics
and physical chemistry of suspensions.
To provide the students with an understanding and appreci-


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts, as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of
lectures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions, and the second part consists of
seminars on research frontiers and applications involving suspensions.


ation of the state-of-the-art research which is being under-
taken in this area.

Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts,
as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of lec-
tures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions,
and the second part consists of seminars on research
frontiers and applications involving suspensions.
These seminars are presented by students who are
taking the course, other, more advanced students,
guest speakers, and myself. It is assumed that the
students have previously taken a graduate level
course in fluid mechanics and an undergraduate course
in physical chemistry, and that they have a working
knowledge of differential, integral, and vector cal-
culus.


FUNDAMENTALS
After an introductory lecture, one lecture period
(75 minutes) is spent on a whirlwind review of con-
tinuum mechanics for fluids, culminating with the
Navier-Stokes equations. The next three lectures
focus on general features of the creeping flow or
Stokes equations, which result when the Reynolds
number is sufficiently small so that the inertia terms
(both the local and convective acceleration) may be
neglected. One important feature of these equations
is their linearity, which allows us to draw many signif-
icant conclusions without having to solve the equa-
tions. For example, it is easily shown from the rever-
sibility property of linear equations that a nonBrown-
ian particle with fore-and-aft symmetry will not ex-
perience a lift force when placed at an arbitrary loca-
tion in a tube with laminar flow. In contrast, such a
particle will experience a lift force and migrate across
streamlines when the particle Reynolds number is not
small compared to unity. Other features of creeping
flow that are covered include general solutions based
on harmonic functions and corresponding particular
solutions, the fundamental solution for the velocity
and pressure fields generated by a point force, the
reciprocal theorem, and the boundary integral rep-
resentation of the Stokes equations. The latter is par-
ticularly convenient for numerical solutions of mul-
tiphase flow and moving boundary problems, because
the velocity field is given in terms of integrals over
the boundaries of the domain.
The sixth lecture describes the details of creeping


TABLE 1
Course Outline
Introduction
SGeneral Features of Suspensions
Applications Involving Suspensions
Part 1: Fundamentals
Review of the Equations of Motion
Creeping Flow Equations and General Considerations
Motion of a Single Rigid Sphere in a Fluid
Motion of a Single Spherical Drop in a Fluid
Motion of Two Interacting Spheres in a Fluid
Brownian Motion and Diffusion of Suspended Particles
Interparticle Attractive and Repulsive Forces
Dimensional Analysis and Order-of-Magnitude Estimates
Part 2: Applications and Research Frontiers
Sedimentation and Centrifugation
Coagulation and Flocculation
Particle Capture and Adhesion
Microfiltration
Suspension Rheology
Drop and Bubble Deformation, Breakup, and Coalescence
Marangoni Migration of Drops
Dynamic Simulations of Suspensions
Fluidization
Particle Size Measurement
Particle Size Classification


flow past a rigid sphere. The quantity of primary in-
terest, the drag force, is easily found by using the
boundary integral equations and the principles of
linearity. The complete velocity field in the fluid sur-
rounding the particle is found either from evaluating
the integrals that appear in the boundary integral
equations, or by using the boundary conditions to
evaluate the constants that appear in the general sol-
ution to the corresponding differential equations. The
following two lectures extend these concepts to the
flow internal and external to a viscous drop in creep-
ing motion. Fundamental concepts such as interfacial
tension and normal and tangential stress balances are
also covered.
Lectures nine and ten describe the interaction of
two spherical particles in creeping flow, such as is
important for theoretical descriptions of sedimenta-
tion, coagulation, and suspension rheology. As a con-
sequence of the linearity of the Stokes equations, this
interaction may be decomposed into a superposition of
motion along the line-of-centers and motion normal to
the line-of-centers. The two-sphere resistance and mo-
bility functions are described, where the resistance
functions yield the force and torque on each sphere
when their translational and rotational velocities are


FALL 1989









known, and the mobility functions yield the transla-
tional and rotational velocities when the force and tor-
que applied to each sphere are specified. Asymptotic
solutions for these functions are presented using the
method of reflections when the spheres are far apart,
and using lubrication theory when the spheres are
nearly touching.
Shortly after the invention of the optical micro-
scope, scientists observed that very small particles
such as bacteria maintained a constant state of random
motion when dispersed in water. This phenomenon
occurs due to the thermal motion of the molecules
comprising the surrounding fluid and is called Brown-
ian motion, after Robert Brown, a Scottish botanist
who published his observations in the early 1800s. The
classical thermodynamic analysis to yield the Stokes-
Einstein diffusivity of Brownian particles is presented
in one lecture, and then is supplemented by a second
lecture covering the more rigorous derivation based
on the Langevin equation for particle motion. Further
aspects which are considered include the relative dif-
fusion of two interacting spheres and the spreading of
a sedimenting interface due to Brownian diffusion.
The next three lectures are devoted to the inter-
particle attractive and repulsive forces which arise in
colloidal suspensions. It is the relative magnitude of
the attractive and repulsive forces which determines
whether a suspension is stable (the particles do not
aggregate) or unstable (the particles aggregate to-
gether in clumps). The attractive forces considered
are London-van der Waals dispersion forces, which
arise from induced-dipole interactions between the
molecules in the two interacting particles. We start
with an analysis of induced-dipole interactions be-
tween two isolated molecules, and then follow the
pair-wise additivity theory of Hamaker (1937) and
others to develop expressions for van der Waals at-
tractive forces between macroscopic bodies. Since this
approach does not correctly account for screening due
to intervening molecules, and retardation due to phase
shifts, the more complete continuum theory of Lifshitz
and others (see Russel et al., 1989) is also discussed.
The repulsive forces which are considered are
primarily electrostatic due to charges on the particle
surfaces, although Born repulsion and steric and
charge stabilization due to adsorbed polymers are also
briefly described. When the charged particles are
present in a solvent containing ions, a double-layer
with an excess of counter ions will form around each
particle, thereby reducing the repulsive force between
two particles of like charge. The potential field in the
ionic solution is described by the Poisson-Boltzmann
equation. The analytical and numerical solutions to


this equation and its boundary conditions are pre-
sented for a variety of cases. The solutions lead to
expressions for the electrostatic repulsive force be-
tween charged objects. Finally, these are combined
with the expressions for London-van der Waals at-
traction to yield the DLVO theory for the net force
potential as a function of the separation distance be-
tween two particles.
The final lecture of Part 1 of the course is a review
which is accomplished by collecting the expressions
which have been derived for the various forces acting
on colloidal and fine particles in suspensions. These
include gravity, viscous, inertial, Brownian, van der
Waals, and double-layer forces. Order-of-magnitude
estimates for these forces as functions of particle size
and separation are made. By comparing the relative
magnitudes of the forces, it is easy to see which forces
typically dominate for different size ranges and parti-
cle separation distances. This analysis leads naturally
to the identification of key dimensionless groups, such
as the Reynolds number (ratio of inertia to viscous
forces) and the Peclet number (ratio of convection to
diffusion).

RESEARCH FRONTIERS AND APPLICATIONS
I start off the second part of the course by giving
one overview lecture which briefly describes selected


FIGURE 2. Wave formation at the interface between sus-
pension and clarified fluid during sedimentation in an
inclined channel (from Davis and Acrivos, 1985).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









practical applications and current research activities
involving suspensions. The ones chosen for this past
year are listed in Table 1. Most of these were then
elaborated on in a seminar-style format by myself, a
student, or a guest speaker. Brief summaries are
given in the following paragraphs.
Sedimentation and centrifugation are commonly
used to separate particles from fluid; they also form
the basis for indirect measurements of particle size. A
few areas of current research interest include hin-
dered settling and hydrodynamic diffusion due to par-
ticle interactions, enhanced sedimentation in inclined
channels, lateral segregation and instabilities in
sedimentation of bidisperse (two particle sizes or
types) suspensions, and analysis of flow patterns in
centrifuges. One of our seminars this past year cov-
ered recent advances in sedimentation in inclined
channels (Figure 2), and another described the
spreading of the interface at the top of a sedimenting
suspension due to the collective action of hydro-
dynamic diffusion, size polydispersity, and hindered
settling.
In order for particles in a suspension to coagulate,
aggregate, or flocculate, the particles must first be

| I-cc-H- ^ ^^^^ ^


FIGURE 3. Aggregates of yeast cells with loosely-
branched fractal structure.


brought close together by Brownian motion, differen-
tial sedimentation, or stirring. They then must experi-
ence an attractive force which is sufficiently strong to
overcome any repulsive force and the fluid-mechanic
lubrication resistance to relative motion. Considerable
recent research on Brownian-induced, shear-induced,
and gravity-induced flocculation has extended the
early collision models of Smoluchowski (1917) to in-
clude the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and in-
terparticle attractive and repulsive interactions. One
of our seminars described a model for predicting the
rate of doublet formation in a polydisperse suspension
due to the combined action of gravity sedimentation
and attractive van der Waals forces. Further current
research on flocculation involves the experimental and
theoretical elucidation of the loosely-branched fractal
structure of aggregates of colloidal particles or micro-
bial cells (Figure 3).
Two different types of filtration to remove small
particles from gas or liquid streams are common. Par-
ticle capture and adhesion are the underlying process-
es in deep-bed filtration by stationary collectors such
as granular beds and fibrous mats. The basic concept
is that a gas or liquid stream is passed through the
filter, and the suspended particles collide with the col-
lecting elements due to their inertia or Brownian mo-
tion and adhere to them as a result of attractive
forces. Current fundamental research on particle cap-
ture and adhesion was reviewed in one of the seminars
and includes determining fluid flow patterns and par-
ticle trajectories in deep-bed filters, predicting the
conditions for which the colliding particles will adhere
as opposed to bounce, and examining the influence of
particle inertia, Brownian motion, interparticle at-
tractive and repulsive forces, and hydrodynamic in-
teractions on capture rates.
The second type of filtration considered is cross-
flow microfiltration, in which a suspension under pres-
sure is passed through a narrow tube or channel hav-
ing microporous membrane walls (Figure 4). The sol-
vent and small molecules pass through the walls as
permeate, whereas the particles are retained on the
membrane surface. If these particles are allowed to
accumulate in a stagnant cake or fouling layer adja-
cent to the membrane, then the permeate flux rate is


Microporous Permeate
Membrane t t t t t t t t t t t t t
Suspension --:4 ". .'. ; '.' .' '* ".'. Retentate
Feed
-F Concentrated
) U 4 S m t I c 1 Tf t I w I Cake Layer
FIGURE 4. Schematic of crossflow microfiltration.


FALL 1989









reduced. In order to understand and overcome this
phenomenon, current research is directed at describ-
ing how the shear stress exerted at the membrane
wall by the tangential flow of suspension through the
filter tube or channel is able to limit the buildup of a
fouling layer.
Suspension rheology refers to the flow behavior of
suspensions. Suspensions often exhibit nonNewtonian
theological behavior, in large part due to interparticle
attractive and repulsive forces and Brownian motion.
In addition to studies of nonNewtonian behavior, con-
siderable theoretical and experimental research is cur-
rently directed at extending Einstein's relationship
for the effective viscosity of a sheared suspension.
Another active research area involves shear-induced

Suspension rheology refers to the flow
behavior of suspensions. Suspensions often
exhibit nonNewtonian theological behavior, in large
part due to interparticle attraction and repulsive
forces and Brownian motion.

hydrodynamic diffusion, for which particles migrate
across bulk streamlines due to hydrodynamic interac-
tions with other particles. The key role that this
phenomenon plays in crossflow microfiltration was de-
scribed in one of the seminars.
Drop and bubble deformation, breakup, and
coalescence play key roles in a variety of important
processes, such as raindrop growth, liquid-liquid ex-
traction, mixing, dissolved oxygen transfer in fermen-
tors, and materials processing of bimetallic melts with
a liquid-phase miscibility gap. Accordingly, research
in this area is very active. Boundary integral methods
are used to study the deformation and burst of single
drops, as well as the motion and deformation of two
interacting drops. Lubrication forces, van der Waals
interactions, and interfacial phenomenon have been
shown to significantly affect film drainage and film
rupture between two colliding drops or bubbles. One
of our seminars this past year reviewed techniques
such as bispherical coordinate transformations, mul-
tipole expansions, and lubrication theory coupled with
boundary integral methods for describing the hydro-
dynamic interaction between two spherical drops in
creeping flow. Two other seminars dealt with popula-
tion dynamics models and holographic techniques for
predicting and measuring, respectively, shifts in drop
size distributions due to collisions and coalescence.
When a drop (or bubble) is placed in an otherwise
quiescent liquid on which a temperature gradient is
imposed, it will migrate (in addition to its motion due
to gravity or other external forces) toward the region


of higher temperature. This phenomenon is referred
to as thermal Marangoni migration or thermocapillary
migration and occurs because the interfacial tension
decreases with increasing temperature. The interfa-
cial tension difference between the hot and cold sides
of the drop sets up a circulatory motion so that the
drop, in effect, "swims" up the temperature gradient.
This migration was first analyzed by Young et al.
(1959) under conditions of small Reynolds and Peclet
numbers. Current research was reviewed in one of
our seminars and includes extending the analysis to
higher Peclet numbers, considering the interaction of
two drops or bubbles in a temperature gradient, and
analyzing the analogous phenomenon of solutal Maran-
goni migration of a drop or bubble in a concentration
gradient of a surfactant.
Recently, Brady and Bossis (1988) and co-workers
have developed a method to dynamically simulate the
behavior of many particles suspended in a fluid. The
method incorporates hydrodynamic interactions be-
tween particles, at least in an approximate sense, as
well as other forces applied to particles, such as grav-
ity, Brownian forces, and attractive and repulsive in-
terparticle forces. This method, known as Stokesian
dynamics, follows the position and velocity of each of
the suspended particles as functions of time, for sus-
pension flows such as sedimentation and simple shear.
Although excessive computational requirements gen-
erally limit the simulations to a monolayer of sus-
pended particles, they are able to predict macroscopic
information, such as effective viscosities or average
hindered settling velocities, as well as microscopic in-
formation, such as the local arrangement or micro-
structure of the particles as it evolves with time (in-
cluding addressing questions such as whether or not
the particles tend to cluster).
Another application area for research involving
suspensions is that of fluidized beds, which are com-
mon in the chemical process industry. Solid particles
at rest in a vertical column form a packed bed through
which fluid may be forced. If the rate at which fluid
is forced through the bed exceeds a critical value (i.e.,
that for which the drag force exceeds the gravity force
on the particles), then the particles are lifted and sepa-
rated from one another. The bed is then said to be
fluidized. If the fluid velocity is increased further, the
fluidized bed will become unstable. Bubbles of fluid
that are relatively free of particles will form near the
base of the bed and rise through it. As a result, partial
by-passing of the particles by the fluid occurs. In addi-
tion to studies of these instabilities and bubble forma-
tion, current research on fluidized beds includes
studies of particle attrition and of hindered settling of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









particles relative to the fluid.
For a variety of reasons, it is important to know
the size distribution of particles in suspension. This is
particularly true for the design of solid-liquid separa-
tion equipment, particle size classifiers, and catalytic
reactors. The many methods available for sizing parti-
cles include electrical conductivity, gravitational and
centrifugal sedimentation with light extinction, hydro-
dynamic chromatography, photomicroscopy, optical
blockage or shadowing, light scattering, aerosol iner-
tia, diffraction, field-flow fractionation, gas adsorp-
tion, elutriation, and holography. Seminars presented
by students this past year included light scattering
and holographic techniques for measuring particle size
distributions.
The final application area considered in Part 2 of
the course involves particle classification, where class-
ification involves the separation of particles according
to size, shape, or density. A variety of commercial
devices are available for particle classification. These
include screens, elutriators, continuous centrifuges,
and cyclones. A single pass through one of these de-
vices will divide a feed stream into a coarse fraction
and a fine fraction. One of our seminars focused on
elutriators, which require the particles to settle
against an upward flowing liquid stream. Classifica-
tion occurs due to differences in the sedimentation ve-
locities of the particles. Fundamental analyses to pre-
dict the compositions of the product streams are pos-
sible for relatively simple geometries, such as a rec-
tangular channel inclined from the vertical.

READING MATERIAL
As is often true of advanced speciality courses,
there is no single textbook which covers all of the
material presented. A new text which covers most of
the fundamental material and some of the application
areas is Colloidal Dispersions, by Russel, Saville, and
Schowalter (1989). Another new text, which focuses
on mathematical treatments of fundamental fluid
mechanics of noncolloidal suspensions, is An Introduc-
tion to Microhydrodynamics, by Kim, Karrila, and
Jeffrey (1989). I thank Bill Russel and Sang Kim for
providing me with advance copies of the relevant
chapters of these texts. These and other useful books
are listed in the reference section. Also provided is an
extensive, but by no means exhaustive, list of techni-
cal and review articles on suspensions.
Since the lectures cover considerable complex ma-
terial, I wrote them out in advance in order to provide
copies to the students. Similarly, copies of the over-
heads or text for each seminar are provided to the
class. This minimizes the requirement for notetaking


and allows the students to participate more fully in
the class discussion.

ASSIGNMENTS AND GRADING
Several homework assignments are given in order
to provide the students with a deeper understanding
of the fundamental material on suspensions presented
in the lectures, and to give them practice with the
necessary analytical tools. An in-class midterm exami-
nation is given at the end of Part 1 of the course,
covering the fundamentals of fluid mechanical and col-
loidal aspects of suspensions. During Part 2 of the
course, each student prepares a written paper review-
ing the state-of-the-art of a particular research subject
that falls under the general theme of the course. These
papers are of 10-15 pages in length and are prepared
in a journal-style format. Each must review at least
two journal references from the past decade. The stu-
dents also present their review papers to the class in
a seminar-style format.
The course is graded with equal weighting on the
homework, the midterm, and the review paper. In
addition, regular attendance and participation in crit-
ical discussions are expected. Since speciality courses
are usually small in size (we had eleven students in
this course last fall), there is plenty of opportunity for
all to participate. An effective way to promote this is
to take the class on a mini-retreat early in the term.
We went to the Mountain Research Station of the Uni-
versity of Colorado one Saturday last fall, where I
delivered three of the lectures interspersed with lunch
and volleyball games.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Suspensions represent a fruitful area for funda-
mental research with a wide variety of important ap-
plications. This course provides graduate students
with the fundamental background that is needed to
pursue this research. It also provides them with a
broad understanding and appreciation of the current
applications and research frontiers in this area.

REFERENCES
BOOKS
Barth, H.G., ed., Modern Methods of Particle Size Analysis,
Wiley (1984)
Batchelor, G.K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cam-
bridge University Press (1967)
Happel, J., and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydro-
dynamics, Prentice-Hall (1965); republished by Martinus
Nijhoff(1986)
Hiemenz, P.C., Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry,
2nd ed., Marcel Dekker (1986)


FALL 1989











Hirtzel, C.S., and R. Rajagopalan, Colloidal Phenomena:
Advanced Topics, Noyes Publications (1985)
Kim, S., S.J. Karrila, and D.J. Jeffrey, An Introduction to
Microhydrodynamics, Butterworths (1989)
Landau, L.D., and F.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed.,
Pergamon Press (1987)
Mahanty, J., and B.W. Ninham, Dispersion Forces, Aca-
demic Press (1976)
Probstein, R.F., Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Butter-
worths (1989)
Russell, W.B., D.A. Saville, and W.R. Schowalter, Col-
loidal Dispersions, Cambridge University Press (1989)

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Acrivos, A., and E. Herbolzheimer, "Enhanced Sedimenta-
tion in Settling Tanks with Inclined Walls," J. Fluid
Mech., 92,435 (1979)
Adler, P.M., "Heterocoagulation in Shear Flow," J. Colloid
Interface Sci., 83, 106 (1981)
Amberg, G., and H.P. Greenspan, "Boundary Layers in a
Sectioned Centrifuge," J. Fluid Mech., 181, 77 (1987)
Anderson, J.L. "Droplet Interactions in Thermocapillary
Motion," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 11, 813 (1985)
Barnocky, G., and R.H. Davis, "Elastohydrodynamic
Collision and Rebound of Spheres: Experimental Verifi-
cation," Phys. Fluids, 31, 1324 (1988)
Batchelor, G.K., "Developments in Microhydrodynamics,"
in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ed W.T. Koiter,
North Holland, 33 (1976a)
Batchelor, G.K., "Brownian Diffusion with Hydrodynamic
Interaction," J. Fluid Mech., 74, 1 (1976b)
Batchelor, G.K., "Sedimentation in a Dilute Polydisperse
System of Interacting Spheres: Part 1. General Theory," J.
Fluid Mech., 119, 379 (1982)
Batchelor, G.K., "A New Theory of the Instability of a Uni-
form Fluidized Bed," J. Fluid Mech., 193, 75 (1988)
Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, "The Determination of the
Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Particles to Order c2," J.
Fluid Mech., 56,401(1972)
Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, "The Hydrodynamic In-
teraction of Two Small Freely-Moving Spheres in a Lin-
ear Flow Field," J. Fluid Mech., 56, 375 (1972)
Bentley, B.J., and L.G. Leal, "An Experimental Investiga-
tion of Drop Deformation and Breakup in Steady, Two-
Dimensional Linear Flows," J. Fluid Mech., 167, 241
(1986)
Brady, J.F., and G. Bossis, "Stokesian Dynamics," Ann.
Rev. Fluid Mech., 20, 111 (1988)
Chen, J.-D., "A Model of Coalescence Between Two Equal-
Sized Spherical Drops or Bubbles," J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 107, 209 (1985)
Chi, B.K., and L.G. Leal, "A Theoretical Study of the Motion
of a Viscous Drop Toward a Fluid Interface at Low
Reynolds Number," J. Fluid Mech., 201, 123 (1989)
Davis, K.E., and W.B. Russel, "An Asymptotic Description
of Transient Settling and Ultrafiltration of Colloidal Dis-
persions," Phys. Fluid A., 1, 82 (1989)
Davis, R.H., "The Rate of Coagulation of a Dilute Polydis-
perse System of Sedimenting Spheres," J. Fluid Mech.,
145, 179 (1984)
Davis, R.H., and A. Acrivos, "Sedimentation of Noncol-
loidal Particles at Low Reynolds Numbers, Ann. Rev.
Fluid Mech., 17,91(1985)
Davis, R.H., and M.A. Hassen, "Spreading of the Interface


at the Top of a Slightly Polydisperse Suspension," J. Fluid
Mech., 196, 107 (1988)
Davis, R.H., J.A. Schonberg, and J.M. Rallison, "The Lu-
brication Force Between Two Viscous Drops," Phys. Flu-
idsA, 1, 77 (1989)
Davis, R.H., X. Zhang, and J.P. Agarwala, "Particle
Classification for Dilute Suspensions Using an Inclined
Settler," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 785 (1989)
Feke, D.L., and W.R. Schowalter, "The Influence of Brown-
ian Diffusion on Binary Flow-Induced Collision Rates in
Colloidal Dispersions," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 106, 203
(1985)
Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions
for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 1.
Axisymmetric Motions," Phys. Fluids, 31, 2445 (1988)
Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions
for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 2.
Asymmetric Motions," Phys. Fluids A, 1, 61 (1989)
Gal, E., G. Tardos, and R. Pfeffer, "A Study of Inertial Ef-
fects in Granular Bed Filtration," AIChE J., 31, 1093 (1985)
Geller, A.S., S.H. Lee, and L.G. Leal, "The Creeping Motion
of a Spherical Particle Normal to a Deformable Interface,"
J. Fluid Mech., 169, 27 (1986)
Goldman, A.J., R.G. Cox, and H. Brenner, "The Slow Mo-
tion of Two Identical Arbitrarily Oriented Spheres
Through a Viscous Fluid," Chem. Eng. Sci., 21, 1151 (1966)
Haber, S., and G. Hetsroni, "Sedimentation in a Dilute Dis-
persion of Small Drops of Various Sizes," J. Colloid Inter-
face Sci., 79, 56 (1981)
Haber, S., G. Hetsroni, and A. Solan, "On the Low Reynolds
Number Motion of Two Droplets," Int. J. Multiphase Flow,
1,57(1973)
Hahn, P.-S., J.-D. Chen, and J.C. Slattery, "Effects of Lon-
don-van der Waals Forces on the Thinning and Rupture
of a Dimpled Liquid Film as a Small Drop or Bubble Ap-
proaches a Fluid-Fluid Interface," AIChE J., 31, 2026
(1985)
Hamaker, H.C., "London-van der Waals Attraction Be-
tween Spherical Particles," Physica, 4, 1058 (1937)
Ivanov, I.B., D.S. Dimitrov, P. Somasundaran, and R.K.
Jain, "Thinning of Films With Deformable Interfaces:
Diffusion-Controlled Surfactant Transfer," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 40, 137 (1985)
Jeffrey, D.J., and Y. Onishi, "Calculations of the Resistance
and Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Rigid Spheres in
Low-Reynolds-Number Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 139, 261
(1984)
Johnson, R.E., and S.S. Sadhal, "Fluid Mechanics of Com-
pound Multiphase Drops and Bubbles," Ann. Rev. Fluid
Mech., 17, 289 (1985)
Jones, A.F., and S.D.R. Wilson, "The Film Drainage Prob-
lem in Droplet Coalescence," J. Fluid Mech., 87, 263 (1978)
Leighton, D.T., and A. Acrivos, "The Shear Induced Migra-
tion of Particles in Concentrated Suspension," J. Fluid
Mech., 181, 415 (1987)
Melik, D.H., and H.S. Fogler, "Effect of Gravity on Brown-
ian Flocculation," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 101, 84 (1984)
Rallison, J.M., "The Deformation of Small Viscous Drops
and Bubbles in Shear Flows," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16,
45(1984)
Rallison, J.M., and A. Acrivos, "A Numerical Study of the
Deformation and Burst of a Viscous Drop in an Exten-
sional Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 89, 191 (1978)
Romero, C.A., and R.H. Davis, "Global Model of Crossflow
Microfiltration Based on Hydrodynamic Particle Diffu-


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sion," J. Memb. Sci., 39, 157 (1988)
Russel, W.B., "Brownian Motion of Small Particles Sus-
pended in Liquids," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 13, 425 (1981)
Schowalter, W.R., "Stability and Coagulation of Colloids in
Shear Fields," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16, 245 (1984)
Shankar, N., and R.S. Subramanian, "The Stokes Motion of
a Gas Bubble Due to Interfacial Tension Gradients at Low
to Moderate Marangoni Numbers," J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 123, 512 (1988)
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Theorie der Kongulationskinetik Kolloider Losungen,"
Z. Phys. Chem., 92, 129 (1917)
Spielman, L.A., "Viscous Interactions in Brownian Coagu-
lation," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 33, 562 (1970)
Tien, C., and A.C. Payatakes, "Advances in Deep Bed Fil-
tration,"AIChE J., 25, 735 (1979)
van de Ven, T.G.M., and S.G. Mason, "The Microrheology
of Spheres in Shear Flow: IV. Pairs of Interacting Spheres
in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 57, 505 (1976)
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of Spheres in Shear Flow: V. Primary and Secondary
Doublets of Spheres in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 57, 517 (1976)
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the Kinetics of Aggregation of Gold Colloids," in Kinetics
of Aggregation and Gelation, ed by P. Family and D.P.
Landau, Elsevier Science, p. 19 (1984)
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Bubbles in a Vertical Temperature Gradient," J. Fluid
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Flow Fields," AIChE J., 23, 243 (1977) 0



LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Continued from page 203.
times of economic crisis cut their own compensation first.
(In the last two years, Japanese manufacturers cut their
executive salaries to absorb the external shocks of the ap-
preciating yen.)
Many American corporations now are seeking to
lessen the damage of management versus labor battles
by giving more workers a chance to advise on corporate
methods and strategy in the workplace. In the meantime,
in the universities, there has been a proliferation of man-
agers, the very well-paid academic and non-academic
administrators who don't teach. So the universities, al-
ways about a decade behind the rest of the country, are
just now discovering how privileged the management
class has become and finding ways of distancing the
managers and functionaries from the professors. We see
administrative layer upon layer burgeoning, with pro-
portionately less support available to serve those of the
academic "production" side. This hierarchy in a univer-
sity bureaucracy creates alienating conditions deterring
communication between the classroom and the labora-
tory on the one hand and the deans, vice presidents and
the president on the other.
A perception of privilege undermines a sense of


community on many campuses. University administra-
tors in major universities around the country, for exam-
ple, drive university cars, with reserved parking places.
They may also have free memberships in social clubs. A
clear message of power and privilege, symbolically and
actually, is communicated to all. The atmosphere and
class distinctions become demoralizing. Privileges are
perceived not as nurturing qualities of commitment to the
life of the mind, nor qualities promoting loyalty to the in-
stitution. Much of a university's energy today is invested
in perpetuating the non-academic instruments of control
and maintaining the structure of a self-perpetuating bu-
reaucracy.
The heart and reputation of a university, and the af-
fection and esteem in which it is held, do not reside solely
in the dollars awarded its research professors by extra-
mural agencies. Rather, the perceived greatness of its
commitment to the education and nurturing of its stu-
dents and the respect accorded faculty and their creative
works, determine the long-term well-being of the univer-
sity. Every student graduating from the institution, and
all its faculty members, promote the university in terms
cynical or laudatory, depending on his or her experi-
ences. Thus the faculty and administrators ought to en-
hance their institution's well-being by promoting the self-
esteem of the students and faculty. Students and faculty
are inexorably linked. This means fostering collegiality,
reducing the sense of an impersonal and disinterested
bureaucracy. It means finding out, perhaps by exit inter-
views with graduates, what is actually happening within
the university (rather than doing surveys on quality of
life). The same ought to be done with departing faculty
members. Paying attention to practical problems such as
the availability and cost of parking, courtesy, maintaining
clean classrooms, and promptness of response to in-
quiries are ways university administrations can show re-
spect for the needs of students and faculty. It also means
the president and vice presidents and deans should meet
with faculty members and students at the working aca-
demic level, the basic teaching units of the university.
Wanting to do those things and more would be a unifying
influence. This requires, ultimately, the recognition that
all administrators are temporary caretakers for the new
generations of students always coming and going and
respecting the teachers who transmit their learning and
pursue new knowledge. The history and continuity of a
university resides in the quality of work and loyalty of its
students and faculty and the non-academic workers who
serve in making the central purposes of the university
easier to accomplish.

Daniel Hershey
Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Cincinnati
and former Assistant to the
President under Warren Bennis


FALL 1989










A course on ...



APPLIED LINEAR ALGEBRA


TSE-WEI WANG
The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-2200

N BOTH INDUSTRY and academics, as the emphasis
on multivariable control designs develop, it be-
comes indispensable that the concept of linear algebra
and its geometric and physical interpretations be mas-
tered as background knowledge. As graduate courses
introducing recent developments in the theory and de-
sign of multivariable process controls emerge in the
graduate curriculum, a concomitant background
course in applied linear algebra becomes imperative
in understanding the new complexity of multivariable
control. Three years ago, the chemical engineering de-
partment introduced a new course, cross-listed in both
the electrical and computer engineering and the
mechanical engineering departments, entitled "Appli-
cation of Numeric Linear Algebra in Systems and
Control Engineering." All chemical engineering
graduate students in the system modeling and process
control areas and all electrical engineering students
taking the graduate linear systems theory course are
required to take this course. A prerequisite is senior
or graduate standing with a prior introductory under-
graduate course to vectors and matrices.
The students usually come into the course knowing
only how to do matrix addition, subtraction, and mul-
tiplication-finding the determinant and inverse of up
to 3x3 matrices. Some of them know a little about
basis vectors and have some notions about linear inde-
pendence of vectors. In all three departments, the stu-
dents can use this course to satisfy one of their math
course requirements. All other graduate students are
strongly encouraged to take this course.
The goal of the course is to introduce engineering
students, especially those majoring in the systems and
control area, to the concepts and the physical as well
as the geometric interpretations of some key linear

The goal of the course is to introduce engineering
students, especially those majoring in the systems and
control area, to the concepts and the physical as well
as the geometric interpretations of some key
linear algebra topics and their associated
numerical considerations.


Tse-Wei Wang is an assistant professor
of chemical engineering at the University of
Tennessee. She received a PhD in biophysics
from M.I.T. in 1977, concentrating in the study
of human platelet physiology. She obtained a
MS is chemical engineering from the University
of Tennessee in 1986 and joined the faculty
there soon afterwards. Her areas of interest are
biotechnology and process control of chemical
and biochemical processes.

algebra topics and their associated numerical consid-
eration. Examples from system modeling and control
areas are used extensively in order to lend a sense of
reality to the rather abstract mathematical concepts.
In this article, we describe the course teaching
philosophy, the computer projects assignments, and
the student feedback. We have received such favor-
able comments and support from the faculty and stu-
dents that we plan to offer it annually in the fall
semester. It will also serve as a corequisite for the
500-level course on linear systems theory offered by
the electrical and computer engineering department.
In a previous article [1] published in the fall, 1984,
issue of Chemical Engineering Education, entitled
"Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers," K. Zy-
gourakis (Rice University) describes the linear
algebra course as the first semester of a two-semester
sequence applied math course. Our course at the Uni-
versity of Tennessee differs from that in that we em-
phasize the geometric and physical interpretations of
the various theorems and decompositions in order to
develop, in the students, the ability to answer for
themselves questions such as, how do I go about com-
puting the controllable or observable subspace of a
dynamic system; how do I use the concept of rank and
linear independence to analyze a set of input and out-
put data of a given process; how do I use the concept
of orthogonality in analyzing a system matrix; how
can I tell if a particular algorithm for system analysis
is prone to numerical instability; what is the role of
positive-definite matrices in an optimization problem;
what does it mean for two physical system matrices
to be connected by a similarity transformation; what
is the danger of a pole-zero cancellation of a transfer
function?
O Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









We hope that students will be able to start de-
veloping an intuitive understanding of the relationship
and interactions among the several system variables
by analyzing the matrices that connect between them,
thereby guiding them in choosing the most appropri-
ate design and analysis methods. We do not emphasize
the writing of computer codes to implement the vari-
ous numerical algorithms because we recognize that
reliable numerical software exists (such as MATLAB
[2, 3] that is mainly based on stable routines contained
in such packages as LINPACK [4] and EISPACK [5]
for various computer models). Rather, we use the
software to solve some physical problems or to imple-
ment a certain algorithm in order to study the numer-
ical aspects of it. We are trying to impart to the stu-
dents the intuitive ability to examine a system and by
using fundamental linear algebra concepts, to extract
physical information from it. For instance, in consider-
ing the placement of temperature sensors along a dis-
tillation column, how does one decide where to place
them in order to extract the most useful information
about the behavior of the column from their measure-
ments? Or, in mechanical engineering, where should
the accelerometers be placed along a beam in order to
detect the first N modes of vibration due to a set of
inputs? It can be shown [6] that the choice is the sites
where the gain matrix between the control inputs,
e.g., reflux ratio, and bottom heat duty, and the sys-
tem outputs, e.g., the temperature measurements,
that yields the smallest condition number and that has
the largest sensitivity in the gains, or a compromise
of the two, because this arrangement implies a more
balanced distribution of energy involved in each of the
control input variables.
As the description of a system changes from single
variable to multivariable, very often the single-vari-
able concepts, such as size and interaction, do not
carry straight forward into the multivariable case. In
the latter, the concept of directionality as exhibited
by the various variables and their interactions with
each other necessitates the use of a set of coordinate
systems to describe the dynamics. The motto "happi-
ness is finding things are linear" extends into the
realm of linear algebra in that "happiness is finding
that coordinates are perpendicular"; therefore, the
various decompositions (such as QR, SVD, Househol-
der) emerge so that a system can be transformed into
a new representation with mutually orthogonal basis
vectors.
True, all these theories and algorithms involved
are normally covered in upper-level mathematical
courses offered by a math department. One asks,
legitimately, why is the engineering department


As the description of a system changes from single
variable to multivariable, very often the single-variable
concepts, such as size and interaction, do not carry
straight forward into the multivariable case.


bothering to cover the same materials? Why not just
send the graduate students over to the math depart-
ment? The answer is that unless the math department
maintains a constant liaison with the various engineer-
ing departments in order to monitor their need in
higher level mathematics, the courses they offer will
usually not serve the needs of the engineering stu-
dents who want to use the mathematics as tools in
solving practical problems.
Take linear algebra as an example. At the Univer-
sity of Tennessee, three undergraduate courses
(semester) exist in the theory and numerical aspects
of linear algebra; at least four graduate courses exist
that deal with the theory and algorithms of various
topics of linear algebra, such as solving the least
square problem and the various decompositions. En-
gineering students who take them come away know-
ing how to perform a certain decomposition or how to
calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and have
learned the numerical aspects of the various al-
gorithms. But they have not acquired the intuition
relating knowledge of the mathematics to selection of
the methods for analysis, design, and control of phys-
ical systems. Study of the properties of linear vector
spaces should be linked to the notion that the state
space of a dynamical system constitutes a linear vector
space and that the controllable and/or observable
space constitutes a subspace of the original state
space. Then all the manipulations, such as change of
basis, orthogonalization, QR, and SVD, can be viewed
as a way to view the system states in a more facilitat-
ing coordinate frame orthogonall), and the system
matrices or transformation matrices can be viewed
with respect to these new coordinate frames. As a
result, the properties associated with these special
matrices, such as unitarity, orthonormality, and trian-
gularity, can be used to view the transformation as
represented by these matrices in a more intuitive and
simplified manner. An area where a variety of physi-
cal problems can be used to illustrate the math princi-
ples is that of using SVD and pseudoinverse in solving
least-square problems. In the long run, we hope that
the experience gained in teaching both the engineer-
ing and mathematical version of the materials can lead
to a single course meeting the goals of both groups.
The textbook used is Linear Algebra and Its Ap-
plications [7], by Gilbert Strang. Table 1 lists the


FALL 1989










TABLE 1
Course Materials

Course Textbook
Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, Inc., (1988)
Additional Course References
1. Stewart, G.W., Introduction to Matrix Computations, Academic
Press (1973)
2. Golub, G., and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations, Johns Hopkins
Press (1983)


textbook along with the supplemental reference books,
and Table 2 shows the topics covered in the course.
From time to time, details of some topics are also
presented from references listed [8] and [9]. Strang
presents the materials as a systematic development of
observations on a set of linear algebraic equations
(later on, on a set of linear ordinary differential equa-
tions). His presentation elicits enthusiasm from the
readers until the mystery of observations is solved,
seemingly intuitively. Then, voild, he formally states
the deductions in theorems. He leads one from the
beginning to the end of the development of a concept
in such a manner that one cannot help following him
in order to see the interpretation of the observations!
Most students in the class also appreciate Strang's
style of presentation.
Over half of the class time is devoted to the first
three chapters, involving analysis of solving the prob-
lem of Ax = b, the over- and under-determined, and the
inconsistent cases. After the mechanism of Gaussian
eliminations with pivoting is presented, the concept of
the four fundamental subspaces is introduced. Geo-
metric visualization of the orthogonal complementary
subspaces, e.g., the row and null spaces, is stressed.
The roles of the four subspaces with respect to linear
transformations are, in turn, explained and visualized
in detail. The decomposition of any vector into its or-
thogonal components is emphasized. In geometric vis-
ualization, a three-dimensional space is always used
because of its familiarity. Then, the visualization of
the vectors b and x, as in Ax= b, in the recipient and
domain space, respectively, of the linear transforma-
tion represented by the matrix A, is made. Figures 1
and 2 (from Strang) are used very often to depict the
actions of A and the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse,
A+, with respect to the four subspaces. The role of
each of the four fundamental subspaces with respect
to the under- or over-determined and inconsistent
cases is analyzed in detail. At this point, an example
is given concerning the underdetermined case. The
problem is presented of a physical process with more
inputs than outputs, and they are related at steady


state, by A, as in y = Au. The dimension of A is there-
fore rectangular, mxn, with m constraints. Therefore, from linear algebra theory,
many solutions exist. One can pose an optimization
problem where one wants to find the solution, Xop,
from the set of all possible solutions, such that some
function of Xop is minimized (or maximized).
A physical example where an inconsistent case of
Ax = b may arise is offered at this point. Cases involv-
ing multiple measurement data points are the most
common. A specific example, mentioned earlier, is one
of temperature sensor measurements along the many
trays of a distillation column. Usually, two control in-
puts are considered. Yet there may be five or more



TABLE 2
Topical Outline, Applied Linear Algebra Course

Matrices and Gaussian Elimination
Introduction
The geometry of linear equations
An example of Gaussian elimination
Matrix notation and matrix multiplication
Triangular factors and row exchanges
Inverses and transposes
Vector Spaces and Linear Equations
Vector spaces and subspaces
Solution of m equations in n unknowns
Linear independence, basis, and dimension
The four fundamental subspaces
Linear transformations
Orthogonality
SPerpendicular vectors and orthogonal subspaces
Inner products and projections onto lines
Orthogonal bases, orthogonal matrices, and Gram-Schmidt
orthogonalization
The fast Fourier transform
Determinants
The properties of the determinant
Formulas for the determinant
Applications of determinants
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
The diagonal form of a matrix
Difference equations and the powers Ak
Differential equations and exponential eAt
Complex matrices: Symmetric vs. hermitian and orthogonal
vs. unitary
Similarity transformations
Positive Definite Matrices
Minima, maxima, and saddle points
Tests for positive definiteness
Semidefinite and indefinite matrices: Ax = XMx
Minimum principles and the Rayleigh quotient
The finite element method
Computations with Matrices
The norm and condition number of a matrix
Householder transformation
Hessenberg form
Gaussian elimination with pivoting
Linear Programming
Linear inequalities
SThe simplex method
The theory of duality


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






















FIGURE 1. The action of a matrix A (from Strong, 1988)


temperature measurements along the tower. The ma-
trix that relates the inputs and outputs would be of
dimension 5x2. Because of noise or biases, the temper-
ature measurements would usually be inconsistent
when compared to that calculated from the physical
and thermodynamic data of the components and pro-
cess involved. The solution to Ax = b in this case rep-
resents the input necessary to give a set of measure-
ments "closest" to the desired outputs as measured by
the sensors. These presentations on the four funda-
mental subspaces pave the way for introduction of the
singular value decomposition (SVD), the pseudoin-
verse, and application of SVD in solving the least-
square problems. SVD has proven to have many appli-
cations in system analysis and plays a major role in
the implementation of many stable numerical al-
gorithms. See Klema and Laub [10], for example, for
more detailed discussion concerning the numerical as-
pect of SVD.
Let A= UIV' be the SVD of A. We present the
notion that transformation of a vector x by A can be
viewed as series of transformations: first a rotation by
V', a unitary matrix, followed by a decoupled trans-
formation represented by the diagonal 1, followed by
another rotation by the unitary U. The notion that the
columns of the matrices U and V in serving as the
orthonormal basis vectors of the appropriate sub-
spaces is presented.
The concept of singular values of a matrix is pre-
sented as follows (this geometric representation is
borrowed from that of Moore [11]). If an r-dimensional
sphere of unit radius resides in the row space of ma-
trix A, with the r orthogonal unit vectors given by the
first r columns of the matrix V as the coordinate axes
(r denotes the rank of A), then the transformation
process maps it into an r-dimensional ellipsoid in the
column space of A. The nonzero singular values of A
represent the magnitudes of the axes of the ellipsoid


FIGURE 2. The action of the Moore-Penrose pseudoin-
verse of A (from Strang, 1988)

(the largest singular value gives the length of the
major axis, etc.). The mutually orthogonal axes of the
ellipsoid point in the directions given by the first r
columns of the matrix U. In this way, the singular
values can be viewed as scaling factors for the unit
radii of a sphere in the row space when mapped into
an ellipsoid in the coulmn space of A. Again, the stu-
dents are asked to picture the various manipulations
in 3-D space. Finally, the concept of the pseudo-in-
verse of A is presented. The roles of U' and V in
accomplishing projection and change of basis are care-
fully presented, using Figure 2 as an aid.
At this point, a computer assignment is made for
finding the completely controllable, completely ob-
servable, and completely controllable and observable
subspaces of a linear dynamic system, described by
the equation x(t)=Ax + Bu, where x represents the
state vector and u represents the input vector. The
idea is that from the controllability and observability
grammians of the system, (positive definite solutions,
P and M, to the Lyaponov equations, below)

AP + PA' = -BB'
A'M + MA = -C'C

one can project the original state space down to the
controllable or observable subspace spanned by the
columns of P or M, respectively, by doing an equiva-
lence transformation, using a set of orthogonal basis
vectors that span the appropriate subspace, for the
transformation. The rank of each of the subspaces is
the rank of P or M respectively. Stable routines exist
for solving equations of the above type. The matrices
P and M can also be solved in a stable manner by
assuming a QR decomposition of A, and in conjunction
with back substitutions, the elements of P and M can
be determined in a straightforward manner.


FALL 1989








This exercise also illustrates that often a good al-
gorithm can be ruined by bad numerics. Let me ex-
plain. The controllability or observability of a system
can also be analyzed by examining the rank and the
span of the associated controllability or observability
matrix U and V as calculated by

U = [BI ABI A2BI ... I A"n-)B]
V = [C| CAI CA21 ... I CA(n- )]

respectively. In order to calculate U and V, repeated
multiplications by A up to (n-1) times are necessary.
If n is large and A is poorly conditioned, then it can
lead to numerical instability such that rank determina-
tion of the resultant U and V may be obscured by
their near singularity; the singularity may have been
an artifact of the numerics and not necessarily a rep-
resentation of any physical defect. For the completely
controllable and observable system, one finds the in-
tersection of the two respective subspaces by project-
ing, for example, the controllable subspace down to
the observable subspace. A good illustration of apply-
ing numerical linear algebra to system concept here is
that if one only desires to test the controllability (ob-
servability) of a system, one can normally get accurate
results by applying a random state feedback (ob-
server) through gain K (F), to form A + BK (A + FC)
in the state propagation equation, where K (F) is ran-
domly chosen. Then one computes the eigenvalues of
A and A+BK (A+FC) and pair off nearest eigen-
values between the two matrices. The system is com-
pletely controllable (completely observable) if, and
only if, the two matrices A and A + BK (A + FC) have
no common eigenvalues with probability 1.
About two thirds of the course is spent in covering
the first three chapters and the appendix on pseudoin-
verse, which we consider to be the heart of the mat-
ter. Each notion is presented geometrically and intui-
tively as much as the subject matter allows. Sometimes
it takes quite a few lectures to get an idea across. But
each decomposition and manipulation is accompanied
by an explanation of why one wants to do that decom-
position and manipulation and what does it get you?
As many physical examples are offered as possible. In
this respect, Strang's presentation of the material
does lend a much more intuitive appeal than some of
the other textbooks.

SECOND HALF OF COURSE
The second portion of the course starts with a re-
view of the properties of determinants. This is fol-
lowed by the next four chapters on eigenvalues and


eigenvectors, positive definite matrices, computations
with matrices, and linear programming. The book is
followed fairly closely except for the chapter on com-
putations with matrices. For this subject matter,
Strang is supplemented by materials from Stewart [8]
and Golub and Van Loan [9], which both deal with the
numerical aspect of matrix computations. The Gaus-
sian elimination with pivoting is presented first, and
is followed by the Householder's transformation and
upper Hessenberg matrices and their significance in
speeding up the computation efficiency. The condition
number and the Raleigh's quotient of a matrix are
discussed with respect to stability and perturbation.
At this point, physical examples are offered to il-
lustrate the danger of dealing with a matrix with a
high condition number. The students are asked to vis-
ualize a system with states residing in an ellipsoid
with two long major axes and a very short third minor
axis. Suppose one wants to find the control input re-
quired to produce some desired states. Such system
matrix with high condition number would yield a very
large control input upon inversion of the matrix.
Therefore, the students are asked to ponder if it would
not have been more appropriate to lop off one dimen-
sion (the one spanned by the short axis) and project
the original system down to a subspace with dimen-
sion of one less.
A computer project is assigned to consider a 2x2
case where the gain matrix of a system is derived
experimentally where the measurements are rather
noisy. The students are asked to calculate inputs
necessary in order to yield certain output vector val-
ues. The condition number of the gain matrix given is
rather high due to the fact that the real gain matrix
is singular, because only one of the two outputs is
independent. But, due to noise, the experimentally
derived gain matrix is not singular, but rather is near
singular. The students are to compare the sensitivity
of the calculated results using the original full matrix
with slightly varying entries to reflect the noisy na-
ture of the data. Further, they are asked to offer a
plausible explanation for the high sensitivity of the
calculated results to the slight perturbations in the
system matrix entries and to offer a solution for avoid-
ing this problem. The students are asked how to com-
pute, using SVD, the reduced order models to elimi-
nate modes which have little effect on system re-
sponse. They find this exercise enlightening.
The presentation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors
is straightforward. The intuitive approach has not
been used much except where the notions from the
first part of the course apply. A note has to be said


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









about the Jordan canonical form of a matrix A. In
every linear algebra textbook there is a section de-
voted to the explanation and calculation of the Jordan
canonical form of a matrix A. Some emphasize it more
than others. However, when dealing with large sys-
tems (as in many practical problems) where computers
are employed for matrix manipulations, an approach
employing the calculation of the Jordan decomposi-
tion, i.e., X-1 AX = diag(J1,.. ., Jt), where each J is
a Jordan block, is not numerically stable. This comes
about because at several steps of calculating the de-
composition, rank decisions must be made, and the
final computed block structure depends heavily on
these blocks, thus on these rank decisions. In practical
applications, Golub and Van Loan suggest using the
more stable Schur decomposition in eigenvector prob-
lems. Therefore, the Jordan canonical approach is not
covered in detail in this course.
The course has now been taught twice at our uni-
versity, and the students have received it with en-
thusiasm. Many of them have taken courses in linear
algebra in the mathematics department prior to taking
this course. They comment that the approach taken
here is very different and that their intuitive under-
standing of the key theorems has increased. They
further state that this course has helped them to bet-
ter understand papers involving matrix manipulations.


CONCLUSION

A new applied linear algebra course, cross-listed
in three engineering departments, has been created.
The emphasis is on intuitive understanding and
geometric visualization and interpretation of the key
theorems of linear algebra. The students should learn
the why's of doing certain matrix decompositions and
manipulations and should be able to visualize the al-
gorithms in 3-D space. Numerous physical examples
from systems area are offered, tying together the
mathematical manipulations and their physical signifi-
cance. Computer projects are assigned from time to
time to illustrate the utility of the various algorithms
in solving practical problems. The course has also been
made a co-requisite for the linear systems theory
course offered by the electrical engineering depart-
ment, so as to take the pain of teaching simultaneously
both the applied linear algebra and linear systems
theory out of that course. The students who have
taken the course appreciate its approach, and I have
found that every time I have taught it, I find more
points that I am able to interpret intuitively that I
was not able to before. The Chinese have an old prov-
erb that says that new things are learned from review-


ing old things. It has proven to be the case with this
course.
REFERENCES
1. Zygourakis, K., "Linear Algebra for Chemical Engi-
neers," Chem. Eng. Ed., 18, 176 (1984)
2. Pro-MATLAB, The MathWorks, Inc., South Natick, MA
3. Kantor, J.C., "Matrix Oriented Computation Using
Matlab," CACHE News, 28, 27 (1989)
4. LINPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathe-
matics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA
5. EISPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA
6. Moore, C.F., "A Reliable Distillation Column Analysis
Procedure for Use During Initial Column Design," pa-
per presented at the November meeting of AIChE (1985)
7. Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed.,
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (1988)
8. Stewart, G.W., Introduction to Matrix Computations,
Academic Press (1973)
9. Golub, G., and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations,
Johns Hopkins Press (1983)
10. Klema, V.C., and A.J. Laub, "The Singular Value De-
composition: Its Computation and Some Applications,"
IEEE Trans. on Auto. Cont., AC-25, 164 (1980)
11. Moore, B., internal report ELE-1633-F, System Control
Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Univer-
sity of Toronto, September (1978) 0

RANDOM THOUGHTS
Continued from page 207
commentary. But when we comment on practice tests or
revisable papers we are not saying, "Here's why you got
this grade." We are saying, "Here's how you can get a
better grade."

Alternating between the roles of student advocate
and guardian of standards-good cop and bad cop-
enables teachers to serve comfortably in both capacities.
It's easier to set high standards if you know you're going
to be helping the students attain them, and it's easier to
enforce the standards once you've made them quite clear
and given the students every opportunity to meet them.
In addition, the approach may also provide a significant
fringe benefit:

In the end, I do not think I am just talking about how to
serve students and serve knowledge or society. I am also
talking about developing opposite and complementary
sides of our character or personality: the supportive and
nurturant side and the tough, demanding side. I submit
that we all have instincts and needs of both sorts. The
gentlest, softest, and most flexible among us really need a
chance to stick up for our latent high standards, and the
most hawk-eyed, critical-minded bouncers at the bar of
civilization among us really need a chance to use our
nurturant and supportive muscles instead of always being
adversary.
There's much more. Get the book.

REFERENCES
1. Peter Elbow, Embracing Contraries: Explorations in
Learning and Teaching, New York, Oxford University Press
(1986)


FALL 1989













INITIATING CROSSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

The Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project


WILLIAM S. KISAALITA', BERNARD J. VAN
WIE', RODNEY S. SKEEN', WILLIAM C.
DAVIS2, CHARLES D. BARNES3, SIMON J.
FUNG3, KUKJIN CHUN4, NUMAN S. DOGAN4
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164-2752

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING is essential to the pro-
cess of bringing new areas like biotechnology,
electronic, and other advanced materials to commer-
cial success. The success of this process depends on
significant cooperation between chemical engineering
and other disciplines. Although there is a large volume
of literature on the subject of interdisciplinary and/or
crossdisciplinary research [1-3], most of it concerns
large projects (as defined in Table 1) and little has
been written from a chemical engineering perspective.
The rationale behind the levels of funding used in
Table 1 is called for. Usually in the initial stages of a
project, $30,000 to $70,000 for a single year is only
sufficient to generate pilot data and perhaps to pro-
vide incentive for the formation of a cross- or an inter-
disciplinary team. A yearly budget of $70,000 to
$150,000 for a period of three to five years provides
enough for more than one graduate student to focus
on specific aspects relating to the expertise of each
co-investigator. Amounts above $150,000 can support
large groups with more personnel per discipline in-
volved as well as supporting inter-university research
activities where extensive travel may be necessary.
The purpose of this paper is to address the problems

TABLE 1
Project Size Based on Yearly Budget


Project Size
Small
Medium
Large


Yearly Budget (US $)
Between $30,000 and $70,000
Between $70,000 and $150,000
Greater than $150,000


of initiating and conducting a small university level
crossdisciplinary project with a yearly budget at
$30,000-$70,000. As an example, specific reference is
made to a Washington State University (WSU) pro-
ject on neuron-based chemical sensors which involved
chemical and electrical engineers as well as neuro-
scientists and an immunologist. The experience gained
by this group in putting together a research team from
various disciplines could be of value to chemical en-
gineering professionals, particularly for young faculty
and graduate students who are considering multi-dis-
ciplinary projects.

DISCIPLINE AND CROSSDISCIPLINARITY
What is a discipline? Generally the term 'discipline'
refers to a specialized field of knowledge. Swanson [4]
has pointed out that disciplines in a university envi-
ronment develop when both faculty and administra-
tion come to recognize reasonably distinct areas of in-
quiry. It is important to realize that each discipline is
usually composed of a set of narrower specializations
and that the comprehensiveness of the discipline has
at least three properties [5]: 1) a conceptual model
shared by individual members that forms the heart of
the discipline-an example is the paradigm of trans-
port phenomena, presented in the 1960 textbook by
Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot, which suggests that the
proper study of chemical engineering is the molecular
phenomena that are fundamental to the understanding
of the performance of chemical equipment; 2) a set of
phenomena common to the various specializations
(e.g., chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and others);
and 3) breadth of the discipline, achieved through
overlapping of multiple narrow specializations of dif-
ferent individuals as opposed to being embodied in
one scholar. Through this overlap comes cohesiveness,
and a common discipline language, or jargon, develops
to an extent less possible between disciplines [4].
It should be mentioned that currently there is no
agreement among practitioners of multi-disciplinary
research on a unifying terminology. However, there
is a need for such a consensus. The interchangeable

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


'Chemical Engineeiing Department 2Department of Veterinary
Microbiology and Pathology 3Department of Veterinary and Com-
parative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology 'Electrical and
Computer Engineering Department










use of the terms interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary,
crossdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and others, when
describing research across disciplines, is widespread.
Recently, Castri [6] suggested a set of precise defini-
tions for the above terms which is based on the level
of cooperation among researchers. These definitions,
reproduced in Figure 1 (with minor changes), have
minimized the confusion. Multidisciplinary research
involves several disciplines, usually at the same
hierarchical level, without any demand for coopera-
tion. In most cases interaction occurs only during the
final stages of the project through editorial integration
of the findings. Crossdisciplinary work is characteris-
tic of projects that are problem-focused, where one
discipline interacts with others for what those disci-
plines can offer toward achieving a solution. The pro-
ject described in this paper fits into this category.
Interdisciplinary research, on the other hand, tends
William S. Kisaalita completed his PhD in chemical engineering
in 1986 at the University of British Columbia. After a year of postdoc-
toral work at the University of Waterloo, he joined the Chemical Engi-
neering Department at Washington State University as a postdoctoral
research associate. His research interests include biosensors, bio-
chemical reaction engineering, and downstream processing.
Bernard J. Van Wie received his PhD at the University of Okla-
homa in 1982 and did an additional year of postdoctoral work in the area
of thermodynamics. Since then he has been an Assistant (now Associ-
ate) Professor of Chemical Engineering at Washington State Univer-
sity, where he has established a multidisciplinary effort for the devel-
opment, monitoring, and control of bioreactors and bioseparation pro-
cesses.
Rodney S. Skeen received his BS and MS in chemical en-
gineering from Washington State University in 1986 and 1987 respec-
tively. He is currently a PhD student working on the development of
neuron-based chemical sensors for long-term continuous monitoring.
In the past he has been involved in developing piezoelectric sensors.
William C. Davis received his BA in biology from Chico State
College in 1955, an MA in biology from Stanford University, and his
PhD in medical microbiology from Stanford University School of
Medicine in 1966. He is currently engaged in analysis of the mecha-
nisms governing the immune response to AIDS related viruses in goats
and the development of subunit vaccines to protozoan parasites and
infectious agents.
Charles D. Barnes received his BS in biology and physics from
Montana State University in 1958, his MS in physiology and biophysics
from the University of Washington in 1961, and his PhD in physiology
from the University of Iowa in 1962. He is currently undertaking a de-
tailed study to delineate the descending modulatory role played by the
locus coeruleus of the cat, rat, and mouse on spinal and autonomic
motor systems.
Simon J. Fung received a BSc in zoology from the University of
Hong Kong in 1974 and his PhD in physiology from Texas Tech Uni-
versity Health Sciences Center in 1980. His research focuses on the
use of electrophysiological approaches in explaining brain stem control
of the spinal cord function.
Kukjln Chun received his PhD in electrical and computer engi-
neering from the University of Michigan in 1986. He joined the depart-
ment of electrical and computer engineering at Washington State Uni-
versity thereafter and is currently an Assistant Professor at the Inter-
University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University,
Korea. His primary research interests are semiconductor integrated
sensors and microelectronics fabrication.
Numan S. Dogan received his PhD in electrical engineering from
the University of Michigan in 1986 and is currently an Assistant Proces-
sor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Washington State Uni-
versity. His research interests include microelectronic fabrication, com-
puter modeling of integrated circuits and devices, and microwave cir-
cuits and devices.


Recently, Castri suggested a set of
precise definitions for the terms [interdisciplinary,
multidisciplinary, crossdisciplinary, transdisciplinary,
and others] which is based on the level of cooperation
among researchers. These definitions (with minor
changes) have minimized the confusion.


to be characterized by the dominance of a common
view. This type of cooperation may involve more than
one hierarchical level and usually results in new con-
cepts. One example that fits into this category is the
work of Barry Richmond, a neurobiologist with the
National Institute of Mental Health, and Lance Opti-
can, a biomedical engineer with the National Eye In-
stitute. This interdisciplinary team has come up with
a complex mathematical theory (the multiplex filter
hypothesis) that challenges scientific orthodoxy by
proposing that visual nerves transmit information by
multiplexed, encoded signals [7]. This work has the
potential of replacing the current way of thinking
about the brain. Finally, transdisciplinary efforts in-
volve multilevel interactions that lead to an entire
common purpose system. A typical example is the de-
velopment and deployment of military aircraft [8]. A


TERM
Multidisciplinary


MODEL


Iy --- | I


Crossdisciplhnarity





Interdisciplinarity:


Tronsdisciplinarity:


HIERARCHICAL
LEVELS
Technological
Scientific





Scientific




Technological

Scientific


Policy making

Planning

Technological


Scientific


FIGURE 1. Models of increasing cooperation and coordi-
nation of research management. (Used by permission
from the International Science Policy Foundation.)


FALL 1989










project of this magnitude involves all the levels from
scientific to policy-making and demands extensive
cross-interactions.
In the next section a specific example of an ongoing
crossdisciplinary effort between the authors is pre-
sented, from which general principles will be ex-
tracted on how to initiate and conduct such research.

NEURON-BASED SENSOR RESEARCH PROJECT
The project rationale is presented below. A de-
tailed description of findings are reported elsewhere
[9].

Justification

The major problems in reliably determining in
vitro or in vivo concentrations of antibodies or anti-
gens, and for that matter any hormone, protein, ion,


FIGURE 2. Typical morphological appearance of an N- 18
neuron, differentiated with 2% serum and aminopterin
treatment.

toxin, drug, or hazardous substance, are the lack of
fast, reusable, and accurate sensing devices. To date,
many solutions have been tried [10-18], yet most are
still unsatisfactory. In this project, a new approach to
sensing is being investigated in which the long term
goals are to develop biochips which will be used to
monitor electrical activity of neurons and later, excit-
able synthetic membranes on exposure to analytes.
The proposed sensing devices will allow one to take
advantage of the specificity, sensitivity, and speed of
response characteristic of neurons.
Neurons are the primary nervous system compo-
nents for processing and transmitting information. An
example of a differentiated neuroblastoma (a tumor-
ous nerve cell), cultured in our laboratory, is shown


I
I II STORAGE
SOSCILLOSCO
E]

PREAMPLIFIER


i aro 1
PULSE
GENERATOR
VIDEO
RECORDER
DATA ACQUISITION
AND ANALYSIS


PE


INVERTED
MICROSCOPE LENS

FIGURE 3. Schematic of experimental equipment.


in Figure 2. Some of the processes (axons) receive,
while others send, information. Nerve cell membranes
contain receptors for neurotransmitters and other
chemical species. Receptor/neurotransmitter binding
events may lead to the activation of second messenger
compounds within the cell, or to the opening or closing
(gating) of specific ion channels (e.g., Na, K+ or
Ca2+). The opening of the channels results in ion pas-
sage that changes the electrical state of the neuron
which in many cases affects neuron electrical proper-
ties like action potential (AP) characteristics. For
electrically active cells, the channels are voltage sensi-
tive and can be caused to open or close by changing
the transmembrane potential through applied current
pulses [19].
To achieve a solution to the problem outlined above
within a reasonable economic timeframe, we assem-
bled a crossdisciplinary team of engineers and
biologists. The engineers brought a systems approach
to the project, with a clear view of how the final prod-
uct should be implemented. The biologists brought es-
sential basic information on the general methodology
used to study neurons. To demonstrate proof of con-
cept, neurons from a fresh water snail, Limnea stag-
nalis, were used with alcohols as model analytes
(methods and results reported are limited to the initial
studies).

Methods and Interpretation of Results

A schematic of the experimental set up is shown in
Figure 3. The visceral and right parietal ganglia (a
mass of tissue containing nerve cells) were removed
from the snail, Limnea stagnalis, using the methods
of Byerly and Hagiwara [20]. The ganglia were trans-
ferred to a continuous flow recording chamber and
exposed to varying concentrations of ethanol (0.2-1.0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


f .










The methods described above emphasize the need in this project of crossing disciplines. For example,
dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intracellular recording are operations neurobiologists perform
routinely. On the other hand, for decades engineers have been designing and working with devices
capable of processing digital information such as that produced by neuronal firing events.


E
0


200 ms

FIGURE 4. Effects of ethanol on the firing frequency in
Limnea neurons (stimulating current was 0.8 nA).


M) in saline solutions. Random cells were impaled
with glass micro-electrodes and stimulated to produce
APs by passage of current through a bridge circuit
from the preamplifier. Signals were monitored using
the storage oscilloscope and stored for later analysis
on the video recorder. Cells selected for analysis were
limited to those which regularly induced spike dis-
charges of amplitudes greater than 50 mV. Repetitive
firing rate was based on the interspike intervals of the
first four APs, for cells induced by passage of a 1.0 S
current pulse with a 0.25 Hz repetition rate.
Responses of different neurons were compared by
normalizing firing frequency values to the baseline (no
alcohol) response at a given current level and plotting
the results as a function of concentration. Some cells
showed excitatory effects with increasing concentra-
tion, as show in Figure 4. The higher the ethanol con-


Ethanol Concentration (M)
FIGURE 5. Normalized firing frequency (FF/FFO) at 0.7
nA. Outer lines for each group of cells represent 95%
confidence limits on the mean values.

centration, the higher the firing frequency. In Figure
5, plots of normalized firing frequency versus ethanol
concentration with 95% confidence interval bands on
the mean values, shows three distinct categories.
Group 1 with a strong excitatory response, Group 2
with a weaker response, and Group 3 with no re-
sponse. Linear correlation between analyte concentra-
tion and a property of a neuron demonstrates in a
preliminary way the feasibility of the sensor concept.
More basic and applied work is currently being con-
ducted to demonstrate an expanded scope of applica-
tions and to explain the mechanism involved in the
sensing process.
The methods described above emphasize the need
in this project of crossing disciplines. For example,
dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intra-
cellular recording are operations neurobiologists per-
form routinely. On the other hand, for decades en-
gineers have been designing and working with devices
capable of processing digital information such as that
produced by neuronal firing events.

PROJECT FUNDING
Typically an investigator with a problem looks for
new methods or solutions from another discipline, or
may alternatively have a novel solution in need of a
problem. For the neuron biosensor project, one of us


FALL 1989











(BVW) recognized that advances in biosensing
technology would require the systematic study of
biological chemical sensing. The results obtained from
such studies would provide the insights needed to de-
sign highly sophisticated detection and signal trans-
mission devices that mimic those present in living sys-
tems (e.g., the olfactory system). To verify the con-
cept, suitable techniques for studying neuron behavior
were needed. Faculty members who traditionally
study neurons were needed for a crossdisciplinary
team. A group was identified with expertise in spinal
cord neurophysiology, having laboratory facilities
with intracellular recording equipment similar to that
shown in Figure 3. A proposal was put together for
preliminary studies with the main intent of obtaining
pilot data to demonstrate the concept.
Crossdisciplinary ideas such as the one in this
paper depart dramatically from the current knowl-
edge base and contain substantial uncertainties con-
cerning appropriate methods and outcome. Most sys-
tems for selecting university research projects for


funding tend to favor proposals with logical and sys-
tematic extensions of current knowledge. Such pro-
posals are less risky, tend to have easily predictable
outcomes, and are relatively easy to defend. There-
fore, the new and innovative crossdisciplinary pro-
jects may have difficulty surviving the conventional
peer review process. At this point one has to identify
a funding source that can entertain exploratory re-
search projects. Table 2 contains a non-exhaustive list
of such programs known to the authors. Some of the
programs are specifically designed for this purpose.
The neuron-based chemical sensor project was
first funded as a NSF Expedited Award for Novel
Research at a $30,000 level for 1986/87. Additional
funds of $94,000 were obtained from the Washington
Technology Center (WTC) for the 1987-1989 biennium
as well as a $12,400 grant from the WSU College of
Engineering. WTC funds are provided on a matching
basis to encourage faculty of universities in the State
of Washington to obtain extramural resources in re-
search areas of critical importance to the State. Based


TABLE 2
Possible Sources of Support for Risky Proposals


Sponsoring Agency

National Science Foundation



National Science Foundation



National Science Foundation




Engineering Foundation



National Institute of Health



State Biotechnology and/or
Technology Centers


Not For-Profit and For-Profit
Corporations


Local University Grant and
and Research Offices


Program

Expedited Awards for
Novel Research


Research Initiation
Awards


Presidential Young
Investigator Awards



Engineering Research
Initiation Grants


Biotech. Research
Training


Not applicable


University Explora-
tory Research
(P & G Co.)


Not applicable


Contact

Engineering Director
NSF
Washington, DC 20550

Engineering Director
NSF
Washington, DC 20550

Engineering Director
NSF
Washington, DC 20550


Dr. R.E. Emmert, Exec Dir.
AIChE, United Eng. Cent.
345 East 47th St.
New York, NY 10017
Dr. H. Landsdell
Federal Building
Room 916
Bethesda, MD 20892
Not applicable


Procter and Gamble Co.
Miami Valley
PO Box 398707
Cincinnati, OH 45238
Not applicable


Comments

* for exploratory research of high but unproven potential for future advances
* non-renewable funding up to $30,000
* does not require external review
* to be re-evaluated after 1988/89
* designed to encourage faculty to begin their careers and to make an academic
career more attractive
* funding up to $60,000 for 24 months
* multiple investigator proposals not eligible
* provides cooperative research support for the most outstanding and promising
young science and engineering faculty
* nominations originate from department chairs
* minimum of $25,000 and up to $37,000 in matching funds, which comes to a
maximum possible total of $100,000/year, for five years
* for initiating research for new full time engineering faculty without research
support
* support limited to $20,000
* crossdisciplinary projects encouraged
* This program has recently been initiated in response to the enormous growth of
the biotechnology industry that has resulted in critical shortages of experts in
areas such as biochemical separations and engineering.
* support up to $31,500
* Several states have set up centers to support local efforts in biotechnology.
However, the nature of the centers varies greatly. Each has a different focus
and source of support and set of programs. Some are designed to support
business and create new companies. A survey of 40 state-supported biotech-
nology centers in 28 states was conducted by the Biotechnology Information
Program of the North Carolina Biotechnology Center in the fall of 1987.
focuses on proposals that depart dramatically from current knowledge base
that entail substantial uncertainty
support up to $150,000 for three years
not renewable after the three-year period
Most universities have monies that are available internally for limited support.
The graduate or grants office puts out announcements for such competitions.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









on successful completion of the first phase, a proposal
has been submitted to WTC for funding for the next
biennium (1989-91). Two additional proposals have
also been submitted to NSF: one to the Biotechnology
Program to support the present group's effort and
another to the Emerging Technology Program for an
inter-university program with the University of
Washington to support a broader based microsensor
effort. If these proposals are funded, our project will
advance from a small to a medium sized program as
defined in Table 1.
PROPOSAL WRITING
Once the funding sources) is/are identified, it is
important that contact is made with the program di-
rector(s) to obtain their input on the suitability of the
proposal. The next task is writing the proposal-the
following procedure worked well for us. First, a tenta-
tive table of contents was generated by the ChE
group, clearly identifying the parts of the proposal to
be written by each participating discipline. Then the
participants were asked to write those sections consis-
tent with their expertise. These were circulated one
to two weeks before a meeting was held to merge the
sections, and after the meeting, the chemical en-
gineering group had the responsibility of preparing a
first draft. We have found that this approach solves
two key problems associated with proposal writing in
a crossdisciplinary environment. First, any misun-
derstandings regarding approach, paradigms, or jar-
gon are resolved at the outset. Second, consistent ter-
minology and style of writing are adopted since the
integration of the proposal components is entrusted to
one individual. After preparation of the first draft,
the usual procedures for proposal preparation are fol-
lowed. These include distribution to each participant
to check for logical progression of ideas, appropriate-
ness of experimental design to the problem solution,
and clarity of experimental protocols and general edit-
ing, followed by a meeting to incorporate the new
changes prior to preparation of the final copy.
OBSTACLES TO GETTING THE WORK DONE
Although the literature is replete with do's and
don't regarding the management of crossdisciplinary
projects [21 & 22], there is a paucity of practical sug-
gestions to obviate some of the frequently listed obsta-
cles. In attempting to address this problem, we have
limited our discussion to those aspects with which we
have had experience.
Language or Jargon
During the proposal writing stages, it is important
to remember that credibility must be maintained


any misunderstandings regarding approach,
paradigms, or jargon are resolved at the outset.
[Then] consistent terminology and style of writing are
adopted since the integration of the proposal
components is entrusted to one individual.

among reviewers who are aware of the specific disci-
plines united in the proposal. Therefore, well-known
terms and concepts must be used. Because of this, the
integration of different language and jargon becomes
a problem and it usually surfaces at this point. Some
researchers have asserted that jargon should be elimi-
nated [23], but this cannot happen quickly since it
takes time to learn another 'discipline language'. How-
ever, efforts have to be made to minimize confusion.
For newly formed groups frequent discussions, query-
ing of co-workers, and exchange of relevant papers
serve as short term solutions. On a long term basis,
participating in a relevant course offered by the co-
workers in the other disciplines makes a big differ-
ence. For example, three of us (BVW, WSK and RSS)
attended a course, "Advanced Neurophysiology," of-
fered by CDB. Another useful effort, especially for
students and postdoctoral associates, is to spend time
in the laboratories of the other investigators, under
their supervision. For example, WSK does 50% of his
experimental work in the laboratory of WCD. The
focus of this effort is to develop monoclonal antibodies
to differentiated neuroblastoma membrance antigens
and to determine the extent of crossreactivity among
several cell lines.

Skepticism
In the early stages of a small crossdisciplinary pro-
ject, there is usually some doubt about the future suc-
cess of the project. This skepticism has been explained
by Bella and Williamson [24] to reflect an understand-
ing of the magnitude of the research problem and the
potential inappropriateness of the existing methods.
Such an attitude of healthy skepticism is essential.
Overconfidence usually reflects a shallow understand-
ing of the important questions. It should be pointed
out, however, that extreme skepticism can be disrup-
tive.

Openness to the Evolving Nature of
Crosdisciplinary Work
It is unlikely that a principle investigator deliber-
ately identifies the intellectual and social components
of a research program organizational pattern in ad-
vance. The project organization more often evolves
into a stable pattern by trial and error. In our case


FALL 1989









the project began with one chemical engineering fac-
ulty member (BVW) and two neurophysiologists
(CDB and SJF). After a year of initial experimenta-
tion, it was determined that if the neurons were to be
successfully used as the primary transducers in
biosensors, emphasis needed to include fabrication of
microdevices that would contain the neuron and the
electrical connections. Therefore, electrical engineers
(KC and NSD) with expertise in micromachining and
integrated circuits technology were invited to join the
team. Furthermore, since sensor development efforts
are now directed toward biological molecules of
economic significance, such as monoclonal antibodies
and antigens, an immunologist (WCD) has joined our
team. This demonstrates the evolving nature of cross-
disciplinary work and the importance of openness to
the need of other expertise, which, if ignored, may
result in the demise of the project.

Other Issues

Based on our experience, frequent team meetings
(on top of the standard weekly or bi-weekly meetings
between students, postdocs, and their direct super-
visors) can be time-consuming. Hence, meetings
should be pegged to specific project milestones, as op-
posed to fixed intervals, in order to avoid unproduc-
tive discussions. However, some flexibility should be
maintained for emergency meetings as needed. In this
regard, availability of modern computers attached to
high-speed data networks, such as those donated to
numerous universities by AT&T through their Uni-
versity Equipment Donation Program, can temper the
inconvenience of emergency meetings. For example,
when data are being collected or analyzed, questions
that arise which require discussion can be dealt with
instantly by all investigators across campus via infor-
mation sharing workstations.
Also, financial management (especially for work
done in more than one laboratory) can lead to time
delays. Most universities have straightforward ac-
counting procedures to handle this type of problem.
In cases where this is not true, a procedure for billing
the project account should be put in place im-
mediately. This will save valuable time. For example,
our group needed to immunize rabbits to generate
polyspecific serum for testing neuron responses when
subjected to antibodies. However, the chemical en-
gineers, in whose hands the budget account resided,
lacked clearance to handle live animals, and obtaining
this clearance would have taken at least one month.
To circumvent this problem, rabbits were purchased
through the laboratory of WCD and work was per-


formed under his supervision. The chemical engineer-
ing group was later billed for those expenses.
Another obstacle that is often mentioned is conflict
of paradigms or concepts. This is potentially the case
between scientists (whose focus is mainly on under-
standing the principle mechanism underlying impor-
tant processes) and engineers (whose emphasis is
mainly on applying existing fundamental knowledge
to solving practical problems). Under such cir-
cumstances, the best solution might be maintaining
good communication links through reviewing progress
toward the team's long-term objectives.

DISCUSSION
In this paper we have attempted to describe our
experience in initiating and conducting a small
biotechnological crossdisciplinary project in a univer-
sity environment. It is wise to put in perspective the
relationship between small university crossdiscipli-
nary projects and the American competitiveness in
the global marketplace. The history of science and
technology teaches us that most significant develop-
ments have occurred as a result of approaches that
involved crossing disciplines. In fact, chemical en-
gineering as a discipline is one of these developments.
Hence, adaptation of technical information from two
disciplines, resulting in a major development, is not
new. Reasons for the greater current interest in the
subject are better expressed by the NSF in their pro-
gram announcement for Centers for Crossdisciplinary
Research in Engineering, otherwise called Engineer-
ing Research Centers (ERC), as follows:
The need for ERC's arose from the fact that despite
America's preeminence in science, our competitive
position in the international marketplace has been in-
creasingly eroded. Besides the various economic and
managerial factors, part of this competitiveness prob-
lem can be attributed to the gradual loss of U.S. indus-
trial prowess in turning research discoveries into
high-quality, competitive products. Many practition-
ers and leaders have come to the realization that while
American academic engineering has made great
strides in basing modern engineering on advanced
scientific knowledge and the latest laboratory and
computational tools, it has not placed sufficient em-
phasis on the design of manufacturing processes and
products to keep pace with increasingly sophisticated
consumer demands around the world. In addition,
crossdisciplinary research focused on technological
advancements from an engineering systems perspec-
tive is needed to better prepare engineering graduates
with the diversity and quality of education needed by
U.S. industry.

The National Research Council study on "Chemical


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Engineering Frontiers: Needs and Opportunities,"
chaired by N. R. Amundson of the University of
Houston, identified four major areas of opportunity.
One of these is the development of new high technol-
ogy industries that are driven by scientific break-
throughs, including 1) biotechnology, 2) electronic,
photonic, and recording materials and devices, and 3)
advanced materials. When one focuses on biotechnol-
ogy, it is not clear whether we at the university are
doing enough to "win the war." For example, of the
eighteen Engineering Research Centers currently
supported by NSF, only one (at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology) addresses a biotechnological
aspect (Process Engineering). It appears the process
of creating research groups has to begin with small
crossdisciplinary projects similar to the one described
in this paper, and then grow through the medium and
large size levels to finally attain a level where the
participants can successfully compete for an ERC
grant. The key ingredients to the formation of small
projects are the availability of faculty who are willing
to cross disciplines and the availability of funds for
novel (yet risky) proposals. We believe that a larger
pool of funds targeting such studies, which would not
be funded through conventional means, may be one
step, among many, that could ensure that America
maintains the lead it currently enjoys in areas such as
biotechnology.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This study has been made possible by grants from
the National Science Foundation (ECE-8609910), the
Washington Technology Center (WTC-231535), and
the Washington State University Colleges of En-
gineering and Veterinary Medicine.

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for Antitumor Drug Screening," Biotech. Prog., 2, 187
(1986)
18. Rechnitz, G.A., R.K. Kobos, S.J. Riechel, and C.R.
Gebauer, "A Bio-Selective Membrane Electrode Pre-
pared With Living Bacterial Cells," Anal Chim. Acta,
94,357 (1977)
19. Kernell, D., "High-Frequency Repetitive Firing of Cat
Lumbosacral Motoneurones Stimulated by Long-Last-
ing Injected Currents," Acta Phsiol. Scand., 65, 74 (1965)
20. Byerly, L, and S. Hagiwara, "Calcium Currents in In-
ternally Perfused Nerve Cell Bodies of Limnea stag-
nalis, "J. ofPhysiol., 322, 503 (1982)
21. Baers, W.S., "Interdisciplinary Policy Research in In-
dependent Research Centers," IEEE Tran. Eng. Man-
age., 23, 76 (1976)
22. Epton, S.R., R.L. Payne, and A.W. Pearson, eds.,
Managing Interdisciplinary Research, John Wiley and
Sons, Chichester, UK (1983)
23. Cassell, E.J., "How Does Interdisciplinary Work Get
Done?" in H.T. Engelhardt and D. Callaham, eds., The
Foundations of Ethics and Relationships to Science, The
Hastings Center, Hastings on Hudson, NY, 355 (1977)
24. Bella, D.A., and K.J. Williamson, "Conflict in Inter-
disciplinary Research," J. Environ. Syst., 6, 105
(1976/77) 0


FALL 1989













THE ESSENCE OF ENTROPY


B. G. KYLE
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506

W HO AMONG US, the initiated, has never paused in
the midst of a second-law problem to ask, "Is
there really such a thing as entropy?" As an un-
abashed admission of such waverings of faith, this
essay attempts to answer the question. It is an exami-
nation of paradoxes and putative interpretations of
entropy in search of its essence.

THE QUANTUM-STATISTICAL VIEW
Quantization of energy is the salient feature that
distinguishes quantum mechanics from classical
mechanics. Because a large number of quantum states
are available to a single molecule and an enormous
number of molecules are present, the number of quan-
tum states accessible to a system of thermodynamic
interest is an astronomically large number. In addition
to this, the quantum state of the system is continually
changing as a result of the motion and collisions of the
molecules. It now becomes obvious that to calculate
the thermodynamic properties of such a system, some
type of statistical averaging process must be used.
Fortunately, the extremely large size of the statistical
population insures the success of such an averaging
procedure and permits certain convenient simplifica-
tions in the attendant mathematics.
The average value of any thermodynamic prop-
erty, X, is calculated in the following manner

X= Pii (1)

where Pi is the probability that the system is in the
ith quantum state, and Xi is the value of the property
when the system occupies the ith quantum state. In

"Is there really such a thing as entropy?"
As an unabashed admission of such waverings of
faith, this essay attempts to answer the question. It is an
examination of paradoxes and putative interpretations
of entropy in search of its essence.


Benjamin G. Kyle is professor of chemi-
cal engineering at Kansas State University,
where he has enjoyed over thirty years of
teaching. He holds a BS from the Georgia
Institute of Technology and a PhD from the
University of Florida. He has not outgrown an
early fascination with thermodynamics and is
interested in practically all aspects of the sub-
ject. He is the author of a thermodynamics
textbook (Prentice-Hall).


assigning probabilities to quantum states the follow-
ing rules are followed:
1) Quantum states of equal energy have equal
probabilities.
2) The statistical weight of a quantum state de-
pends upon the energy of that state and is pro-
portional to exp(-E/kT).
The probability of finding the system in the ith quan-
tum state with energy Ei is

S exp(- Ei/kT)
S exp(-Ei/kT) (2)

The summation in the denominator is taken over all
quantum states and is a normalizing factor needed to
make the sum of the probabilities of all states equal
to unity. This sum will be denoted by Z and is referred
to as the partition function.

Z= eexp(-Ei/kT) (3)

The partition function provides the bridge between
statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, for it can
be shown that the thermodynamic properties are re-
lated in a fairly simple manner to the partition func-
tion. The function A' is defined by


A'= kT In Z


and it can be shown that this function has the proper-
ties of the Helmholtz Free Energy.
The statistical entropy can be calculated from Eq.
4 via the thermodynamic relation


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









S=- aA-
aT

In terms of the partition function this becomes

S=k ln Z+kTf aInZ
I aT )
V (5)
which after some manipulation can be written in terms
of probabilities

S=-kk Pi In Pi (6)

In an isolated system the internal energy is in-
variant and all quantum states have the same energy
level. Thus, our probability rules require that all
quantum states be equally probable and

i=

where fi is the total number of quantum states acces-
sible to the system. When this probability is substi-
tuted into Eq. 6, the statistical entropy of an isolated
system becomes
S= k In (7)
For a spontaneous change occurring in an isolated
system we write
"2
S2 S= k n
S1 (8)

and note that the required condition S2 > Si dictates
12g > fil. This means that the more-stable state is
characterized by a larger number of accessible quan-
tum states or a greater number of microscopic config-
urations (each a quantum state contributing to the
number fl) constituting the macroscopic, or ther-
modynamic, state.

ENTROPY AS DISORDER
Thermodynamics requires the existence of a func-
tion we call entropy and provides the means of cal-
culating its changes as well as the framework within
which it can be advantageously employed. While this
is sufficient for any application of thermodynamics,
we are nevertheless uncomfortable with abstractions
and prefer to attach physical significance to the quan-
tities we deal with. Yet, when the physical represen-
tation is strained and leads to ambiguous or erroneous
interpretation, the effort is counterproductive. This
can often be the case with entropy, especially when it
is identified with disorder.
From a molecular viewpoint, the association of


This concept comes into being only
when we move further into the mental realm and
begin to translate the physical into the mathematical
description. Rudolf Carnap seems to have had this in
mind when he stated that the statistical concept of
entropy is a logical instead of a physical concept.


positive entropy changes with an increase in disorder
seems quite reasonable for phase changes and mixing.
For other processes the association is less obvious and
for at least one process (the adiabatic crystallization
of a subcooled liquid) it fails completely. Unfortu-
nately, order and disorder are not precise objective
terms, but carry considerable subjective bias. For
example, on consulting a thesaurus one finds many
synonyms for order, including regularity, symmetry,
harmony, and uniformity. Conceivably, the absence
of gradients or differences in potential could be
thought to characterize an ordered state. Thus, one
who held this view would never realize that these are
the conditions of an equilibrium state when told that
equilibrium, or a state of maximum entropy, is iden-
tified by a maximum of disorder.
In interpreting Eq. 8 it must be remembered that
the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to equilibrium states. The
accepted microscopic model of an equilibrium state en-
tails complete randomness with regard to molecular
motion-chaos or maximum disorder. It therefore
seems inappropriate to regard 12 > iR as represent-
ing an increase in disorder when each state represents
maximum disorder. All we can say is that fi measures
the complexity of our microscopic description of a sys-
tem, and an increase in f1 can be visualized as a
spreading of the system over accessible quantum
states. The system moves in the direction of more
possibilities.
This is not a physically satisfying representation;
it is not based on the virtual observables of our micro-
scopic model (e.g., positions and velocities). Its signifi-
cance is found on a level removed from these in terms
of something which can exist only in the mind-the
number of quantum states. This concept comes into
being only when we move further into the mental
realm and begin to translate the physical into the
mathematical description. Rudolf Carnap [1] seems to
have had this in mind when he stated that the statis-
tical concept of entropy is a logical instead of a physi-
cal concept.

THE GIBBS MIXING PARADOX
In 1875 Willard Gibbs published his landmark
paper "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Sub-


FALL 1989









stances." In this paper he determined the properties
of an ideal gas mixture and found the entropy change
on mixing to be
AS=-R Yi In (9)

He had firmly established the validity of this expres-
sion but Gibbs was not comfortable with the result,
and his deliberations over this result have come to be
known as the Gibbs Mixing Paradox.
According to Eq. 9, the entropy change on mixing
equimolar quantities of two gases is

AS= R In 2

a result that is seen to be independent of the nature
of the gases. Gibbs was concerned about the "degree
of dissimilarity" between the two gases which could
be visualized being made as close to zero as possible.
As long as there is some dissimilarity, the entropy of
mixing is R In 2, but when the "degree of dissimilar-
ity" becomes zero (mixing the same gas), the entropy
change is zero. Thus, the entropy of mixing depends
not on the "degree of dissimilarity," but only on
whether any dissimilarity exists. It is this "either-or"
situation which constitutes the Gibbs Mixing Paradox.
As we have seen, the paradox arises out of classical
thermodynamics and does not require a statistical or
molecular kinetic context. Several attempts have been
made to resolve the paradox with the help of either
statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, or informa-
tion theory. All have been evaluated by Denbigh and
Denbigh [2] and were found wanting.
The usual mixing process is carried out with no
recovery of work, and because the heat of mixing is
zero, there is no exchange of heat with the surround-
ings. In fact, there is no external change to indicate
that the process has occurred. An ordinary mixing of
the same gas could not be distinguished experimen-
tally from the mixing of different gases, although an
entropy change occurs in the latter case and not the
former. Thus, while Eq. 9 was determined in an indi-
rect, but rigorous, thermodynamic manner, we have
seen that the entropy of mixing exhibits curious be-
havior, and further, we have no means of experimen-
tal verification.
Insight into the curious behavior of entropy can be
found by considering distinguishable spatial configura-
tions. This can be illustrated with the lattice model of
solutions [3]. Here one interprets fl and 'f2 in Eq. 8
as the number of spatial arrangements or lattice con-
figurations before and after mixing. Before mixing
there is but one configuration, and fli is unity. After
mixing the number of configurations is


(NA + NB)!
2 NA NB


With these values of Q1 and f2 Eq. 8 can be reduced
to Eq. 9. Although the lattice model is more appropri-
ate to liquids, we note that Eq. 9 also gives the en-
tropy of mixing in an ideal liquid solution, and thus
we may expect that the entropy of mixing gases arises
from similar configurational considerations. There are
more distinguishable spatial arrangements available,
hence a larger number of quantum states available, to
a mixture than to a pure gas. The only factor deter-
mining the entropy of mixing is the distinguishability
of the particles of portion A from the particles of por-
tion B. A reason for this will be proposed later.

THE GIBBS INDISTINGUISHABILITY PARADOX
Eq. 5 may be used to calculate the entropy of an
ideal gas once the partition function has been formu-
lated. The only type of energy possessed by a
monatomic ideal gas is kinetic energy and because the
energy levels, Eis, are extremely close together, E
can be closely approximated as a continuum, and the
summation in Eq. 3 can be replaced by an integral.
Omitting the particulars of the calculation, the parti-
tion function can be obtained straightforwardly and is
2k m3N/2
Z=V 2 mT
-h2 (10)
The entropy may be obtained by the substitution of
Eq. 10 into Eq. 5

S= kN In V+ 31In (2kmT+ 31
2 h2 2 (11)

Entropy is an extensive property, but, unfortu-
nately, not according to Eq. 11. For the simple oper-
ation of combining two 1/2-mol quantities of the same
gas, this equation yields

AS=Nk In 2=R In 2

We have already seen that this is the entropy of mix-
ing different gases, but we know that there is no en-
tropy change on mixing the same gas. This problem
is sometimes identified as the Gibbs paradox although
it is really a special case of the mixing paradox [4].
The problem was resolved by Gibbs in 1902 by the
ad hoc correction of dividing the partition function of
Eq. 10 by N!-the number of permutations involving
N distinguishable entities. This results in the follow-
ing expression for the entropy


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










S= kNn, +- In(2 +5
S= I N 2 n h2 2j (12)

Eq. 12 satisfies the condition that the entropy be an
extensive property. It has become known as the Sac-
kur-Tetrode equation and has been verified experi-
mentally.
Today, in the quantum age of physics, it is custom-
ary to specify whether or not the constituent particles
of a system are distinguishable. However, in the class-
ical age of Gibbs' day, the particles of an ideal
monatomic gas were assumed independent with their
motion described by classical mechanics. While there
was certainly an impossible computational difficulty
in providing the exact description prescribed by the
equations of classical mechanics, there was no doubt
that in principle, particles could be traced and thus
retained their identity. While still holding to the prin-
ciple of the distinguishability of particles, Gibbs jus-
tified the adventitious insertion of N! into Eq. 10 by
saying that the interchange of like particles should be
of no statistical consequence.
It is interesting to note that the ad hoc adjustment
is unnecessary in the case of the internal energy. Com-
bination of Eqs. 4 and 5 shows that the internal energy
is
U= kT2(a 1n Z)
V T (13)
Regardless of whether the partition function of Eq. 10
is divided by N!, the result is the same and correctly
shows that U is linear in N. Thus, of the two basic
thermodynamic properties, only the entropy requires
an adjustment of classical thought by introducing the
concept of indistinguishable particles.
Again, it appears that in order to deal successfully
with entropy it is necessary to go a step beyond a
description of the system in terms of virtual observa-
bles. Instead of a model involving physical quantities,
we have included factors such as distinguishability
which arise from our mathematical treatment and
exist only in the mind of the model maker. The focus
has been shifted from the system to our representa-
tion of the system-again, a move from the physical
to the logical realm.

ENTROPY, INFORMATION, AND SUBJECTIVITY
A major tenet of the philosophical underpinning of
science is the concept of objective observation-an ob-
server independent of the observed object. An un-
questioning acceptance of this concept had prevailed
until recent developments in modern physics
suggested that it may not be applicable at the sub-


atomic level. Specifically, Bohr's concept of com-
plementarity and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
recognize that the behavior of a system cannot be
properly described until the presence of observing in-
struments is accounted for. This implies that the ob-
server is part of the system and has encouraged in
some quarters the advancement of a subjective
philosophic view [5].
The concept of objective observation has been chal-
lenged only in the sub-atomic realm; it is still firmly
entrenched outside this realm, and is unquestioned
when dealing with systems of thermodynamic in-
terest. Nevertheless, there exists a tendency to take
a subjective viewpoint in regard to entropy when in-
terpreted microscopically from the perspective of in-
formation. Recently, Denbigh and Denbigh [2] have
convincingly shown that no formal relation exists be-
tween thermodynamic entropy, a physical quantity,
and a term labeled entropy that arises from informa-
tion theory and is a logical quantity [6]. However,
because the entropy-information association consider-
ably predates information theory [7], it will probably
remain well-ingrained despite the Denbighs' efforts.
The putative view interprets the condition fi2 > 1
corresponding to an increase in entropy as an ob-
server's loss of information about the microscopic
state of the system. Accordingly, one reasons that
there are more possibilities in state 2 and therefore
the increase in f1 implies more uncertainty or a loss
of information. This view presents two difficulties.
First, because f is not a virtual observable quantity,
it is doubtful that an observer could have access to
this type of information. The information associated
with f concerns not the system, but our description
of the system, Second, it is unreasonable to believe
that AS, a thermodynamic property change which de-
pends on objectively determined macrostates, could
also depend on microscopic information gained or lost
by an observer.
In an effort to blunt the last criticism, Jaynes [8]
has suggested the following carefully worded defini-
tion of information.

The entropy of a thermodynamic system is a
measure of the degree of ignorance of a person whose
sole knowledge about its microstate consists of the
values of the macroscopic quantities Xi which define
its thermodynamic state. This is a completely
"objective" quantity, in the sense that it is a function
only of the Xi, and does not depend on anybody's per-
sonality. There is then no reason why it cannot be
measured in the laboratory.


Here, one wonders what type of knowledge of the


FALL 1989










While entropy seems the most subjective property, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomfortably redolent
of human intent. The requirement of subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that the system is
being constrained, or manipulated. Many of its variables lack easy physical correspondence .


microstate is lacking. Virtual observables such as
position and velocity would be subject to continual
fluctuation, and hence an instantaneous determination
of these would be of no practical value. The identifica-
tion of quantum states and the knowledge of their cor-
responding probabilities would be of obvious value,
but these, as we have also shown with l, are not
virtual observables but rather are mental constructs
which allow us to model the system. It would appear
then that this unpossessed knowledge of the micro-
state is either unusable or is an artifact of the micro-
scopic model we have constructed to represent the
macrostate of the system. We surmise that Jaynes is
speaking of useful microscopic knowledge, but must
note that there is a double dose of subjectivity here.
First, we have introduced quantities such as fl which
are mental constructs that relate to our description of
the system rather than to the system itself. Second,
we now say that the macroscopic behavior of the sys-
tem, as reflected in the value of the entropy, is depen-
dent on the extent of our knowledge of these model
parameters.
Let us test Jaynes' interpretation through the use
of Eq. 8 that relates the statistical entropy change to
fg/-1. It would seem that a definite informational
value could be assigned to the knowledge of fl regard-
less of its numerical value. We are not asking which
microstate the system is presently in, which would
have informational value dependent on the numerical
value of l, but rather how many microstates are pos-
sible. We are dealing with a model parameter, l, and
therefore the knowledge embodied in its determina-
tion should be constant and independent of the mac-
rostate of the system. If this is so, then there is no
change in knowledge of microstates between any two
macrostates and the informational entropy change is
always zero. We reach the same conclusion by noting
that the number of position coordinates and velocity
components is always 6N regardless of the macroscopic
state of the system-a constant amount of microscopic
knowledge. Thus, the concept of entropy as a measure
of microscopic information is inconsistent as well as
extremely subjective.

THE ESSENCE OF ENTROPY
The interpretation of entropy in terms of informa-
tion leads to an extreme subjective position and must


be rejected. On the other hand, it must be confessed
that entropy is more subjective, or less objective, than
other properties of matter. This is because the exis-
tence of a human mind must be assumed before an
entropy change for a macroscopic system can be
evaluated or, as we have already seen, a microscopic
interpretation can be appreciated. In the case of the
evaluation of an entropy change, it is first necessary
to devise a reversible path and then perform the calcu-
lation from the definition
dQrev
AS= T

This is not an act of rote calculation but is rather a
process of mental creation.
While entropy seems the most subjective prop-
erty, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomfort-
ably redolent of human intent. The requirement of
subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that
the system is being constrained, or manipulated.
Many of its variables lack easy physical correspon-
dence and only seldom is a thermodynamic variable
evaluated except as a means of calculating some more
"practical" quantity. In fact, it has been suggested
that its various applications can be integrated into a
coherent whole only by recognizing thermodynamics
to be "a means of extending our experimentally gained
knowledge of a system or as a framework for viewing
and correlating the behavior of the system" [9].
Clearly, the emphasis is on utility. Having arisen from
efforts to exploit rather than to observe nature, the
laws of thermodynamics cannot be completely
cleansed of their earthy taint and are often embarras-
sing to the scientist for their lack of intellectual purity.
Uneasiness with this anthropomorphic quality of ther-
modynamics has been confessed by P. W. Bridgman,
one of its foremost thinkers [10]:

It must be admitted, I think, that the laws of ther-
modynamics have a different feel from most of the
other laws of the physicist. There is something more
palpably verbal about them-they smell more of their
human origin. The guiding motif is strange to most
of physics: namely, a capitalizing of the universal
failure of human beings to construct perpetual motion
machines of either the first or the second kind. Why
should we expect nature to be interested either posi-
tively or negatively in the purposes of human beings,
particularly purposes of such an unblushingly eco-
nomic tinge?


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Modern science begins with experience, which is
by nature local and transitory, and by ratiocination
arrives at laws that are considered universal and time-
less. These laws usually connect quantities which are
not directly related to our sensory experience, even
to the extent of being only mental constructs that are
often contrary to common sense. (Recall Newton's un-
easiness over the need for a gravitational force which
acts at a distance.) Thus, the formulations of science
are considered to be in the realm of the pure intellect.
In recognizing this, Sir Arthur Eddington has refer-
red to the enterprise of science as "mind-stuff' and
has expanded this theme most eloquently [11]:

We have found that where science has progressed
the farthest, the mind has but regained from nature
that which the mind put into nature. We have found a
strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We
have devised profound theories, one after another, to
account for its origin. At last, we have succeeded in
reconstructing the creature that made the footprint.
And Lo! it is our own.

Paraphrasing Eddington with the incorporation of
Bridgman's thought, we could say that in the case of
thermodynamics, that which the mind has regained
from nature reflects the economic, or human, quality
of the input.
Entropy's human scent can be traced to its deriva-
tion. Essential to both the conventional Carnot-cycle
proof and the mathematically more elegant
Caratheodory proof [12] is the concept of a reversible
process. Seldom is this even an approximation of real-
ity. It is a concept understandable only to economic
man desiring to reap the most from his attempted
taming of nature and can not be considered scientifi-
cally objective. Yet, only in this context can an unam-
biguous interpretation of entropy be found: the total
entropy change measures the lost work when a pro-
cess falls short of this human-scented, value-laden
standard. Something on which we have placed value
has been lost. This carries over into the microscopic
view where the valued commodity is either order or
information.
The mixing paradox exposes the incongruity of the
value-laden macroscopic view and a naive microscopic
view of entropy. The microscopic description of an
ideal gas in purely physical terms leads to Eq. 11 anc
to the conclusion that the process of mixing the same
gas is no different from the mixing of different gases.
It is the economic or utilitarian aspect of the situation,
the work of separation, that discriminates between
the processes and forces the inclusion of N! into the
microscopic description. The reversal of the mixing


process requires separational work when the gases
are different. However, we have neither the need nor
the ability to exactly reverse the mixing of portions
of the same gas and therefore need expend no separa-
tional work. Because the minimum work of separation
is TAS for ideal gas mixtures, there must therefore
be no entropy change on mixing the same gas. The
microscopic description is brought into conformance
with the macroscopic situation by requiring indistin-
guishability of particles. Thus, a utilitarian considera-
tion, human in origin, requires the insertion of a logi-
cal (or human-scented) term into the microscopic
model.
In failing to examine nature in a disinterested or
completely objective manner, we have obtained a
quantity, the entropy, which is not completely objec-
tive and which can be understood only by an appeal
to the human mind. We can only conclude that entropy
is neither completely subjective nor completely objec-
tive. Its existence can be publicly agreed upon and its
consistent use has great utility, but its existence does
not seem to be independent of the human mind. It
may not be an intrinsic property of matter, but rather
an objectively defined quantity which, for our conveni-
ence, we may treat as a property. Born of the un-
natural union of wish and reality, entropy is objective
enough to be useful in dealing with the physical world,
but subjective enough that a purely physical interpre-
tation lies beyond our grasp.

REFERENCES

1. Schilpp, P.A., ed., The Philosophy of RudolfCarnap, The
Open Court Publishing Co., LaSalle, IL, p 37 (1963)
2. Denbigh, K.G., and J.S. Denbigh, Entropy in Relation to
Incomplete Knowledge, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge (1985)
3. Hildebrand, J.H., and R.L. Scott, The Solubility of Non-
electrolytes, Third Ed., Reinhold Publishing Corp., New
York (1950)
4. Schridinger, E., Statistical Thermodynamics, Cam-
bridge University Press, Cambridge, p 58 (1960)
5. See, for example, Capra, F., The Tao of Physics, Bantam
Books, Inc., New York (1975), or Wigner, E.P., Symme-
tries and Reflections, Indiana University Press, Bloom-
ington (1967)
6. This is also the conclusion of Carnap, reference 1
7. Brush, S., The Kind of Motion We Call Heat, North Hol-
land Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1976)
8. Jaynes, E.T., The Maximum Entropy Formalism, eds.
R.D. Levine and M. Tribus, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge
(1979)
9. Kyle, B.G., Chemical and Process Thermodynamics,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p 2 (1984)
10. Bridgman, P.W., The Nature of Thermodynamics,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1941)
11. Eddington, A.S., The Nature of the Physical World,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1928)
12. Zemansky, M.W., Am. J. Phys., 34, 914 (1966) 0


FALL 1989












SECRETS OF MY SUCCESS IN GRADUATE STUDY


MING RAO*
Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey
New Brunswick/Piscataway, NJ 08855-0909

N THE FALL of 1985 I began my graduate study in
chemical engineering at The University of Illinois
at Chicago, where I subsequently received a MS de-
gree in computer science in 1987. Then, following my
dissertation advisor, I joined the Department of
Chemical and Biochemical Enginering at Rutgers,
The State University of New Jersey. As a foreign
student, I have met with many difficulties in my
study. Naturally, I had language problems and, at the
beginning, I did not even know how to "LOG IN" to
computers! However, I approached my graduate
studies in my own way. This report chronicles my
journey through graduate education and provides,
through my own personal observations and experi-
ences, what I hope is a useful itinerary for other
graduate students.

COURSE WORK
Many graduate students enter graduate school
with no definite plans [1]. They usually spend one or
more years on course study, then select a dissertation
topic and begin research. Following a different ap-
proach, I began my research the first day of graduate
study, since I believed that "learning-by-doing" might
be a much better way to gain creativity and experi-
ence. Also, I wanted to relate course work directly to
thesis research.
My chosen course work is very close to my disser-
tation research topic, "Intelligent Process Control."
Intelligent process control denotes the application of

Ming Rao received his BS in chemical en-
gineering from Kunming Institute of Technol-
ogy (China), his MS in computer science from
the University of Illinois, Chicago, and will re-
ceive his PhD degree in engineering from
Rutgers University. He is presently working on
intelligent control in Maintenance Control
Center Project, sponsored by the FAA and will
join the University of Alberta as an assistant
professor of chemical engineering working on
intelligent control. He has authored and coau-
thored over forty technical papers.
*Present address: University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta,
Canada T6G 2G6
Copyright ChE Diision ASEE 1989


I feel that I benefit the most from research-oriented
courses. At the beginning of such a course, the
instructor.., introduces the basic principles and
refers to the current development of the subject.

artificial intelligence techniques to the control of
chemical processes. Interdisciplinary in nature, it al-
lows knowledge of, for example, computer science and
electrical engineering to be extensively applied to
chemical processes. So far, I have completed 25 regu-
lar graduate courses which are distributed among
three majors: eight courses on fundamentals of chem-
ical engineering, eight on artificial intelligence and
software engineering, and nine on control engineering
and system science.
I have studied aggressively and worked hard in
course work, since I knew that these courses would
directly benefit my thesis research. I took them not
only to satisfy credit requirements, but also to fulfill
the perceived needs of my research. In fact, several
research publications resulted directly from the
course work since I was able to immediately see prac-
tical applications in novel areas and, also, I maintained
an excellent academic record.
I feel that I benefit the most from research-
oriented courses. At the beginning of such a course,
the instructor (usually an expert on the subject he
teaches) introduces the basic principles and refers to
the current development of the subject. Meanwhile,
the key literature and references are distributed to
students. To fulfill the course requirements, every
student has to read the literature carefully, do home-
work assignments, take quizzes or examinations,
present a key paper orally, and finish a research pro-
ject which is followed by a final report. Needless to
say, such a course is usually very demanding and time-
consuming; however, it gives us practical experience
in research and brings us to the frontier of the related
subject quickly. There is another significant benefit
that comes from a research-oriented course. From it
we can learn how to do research: through search and
review of published literature, research topic selec-
tion, oral presentation, conducting the project, and
technical writing. Each of these steps is exactly a prin-
cipal element in the research process, isn't it?


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









I believe universities provide the best environ-
ment for learning. Facing choices from among many
useful courses offered, we are unable to take all of the
courses we need. However, auditing will help us to
partially solve this problem. I usually audit one course
each semester. Although I do not do the work of this
course in detail, I still learn the basic principles, defi-
nitions, and terminologies.
I am also interested in attending and participating
in various research seminars. I often attend two or
three seminars each week, in different departments
and universities. The speakers at the seminars are
usually famous scholars or young experts in
specialized fields. They can provide us with the
newest developments and the most advanced tech-
niques. We also have the opportunity to extend our
knowledge, to acquire new motivation, to exchange
ideas, and to develop oral communication skills [1].

THESIS RESEARCH TOPIC
I believe that the most important element in pur-
suit of a PhD degree is thesis research. The main pur-
pose of thesis research is to learn how to do research
work and how to solve problems independently [2].
Notably, research topic selection plays a key role in
thesis research. Three aspects should be taken into
account in topic selection: 1) personal research in-
terest and academic background, 2) adviser's sugges-
tions, and 3) available research facilities.
I feel that research interest is the most crucial fac-
tor. In a survey on doctoral dissertation experience,
it has been found that personal interest is rated as the
most important factor influencing research topic
choice [3]. If you love the job you are doing, you will
be happy and won't care about how difficult it is. On
the other hand, as we know, no one can succeed at the
work to which he does not bring great confidence and
enthusiasm.
The choice of research topic also needs to fit our
academic background to a certain extent. Graduate
training is the continuation of undergraduate study.
Undergraduate study provides us with a broad and
basic academic background, while graduate education
trains us to do independent research. Our past experi-
ence and knowledge will pave the way for us to go
toward the final goal.
Unfortunately, many graduate students do not ap-
proach this aspect seriously. They simply ask their
adviser: "What topic is available for me?" Rather, I
believe that the fundamental question is: What is the
purpose of a PhD dissertation? As stated in many
graduate program brochures, it should reflect origi-


nal, independent research, and is supposed to contrib-
ute new knowledge to the field in some way [2]. Here,
originality means "nothing similar to prior work." In-
dependent research requires that we work on our own
at each step of the project, including topic selection.
If we tell the adviser first what we want to do, this
will show that we are approaching our subject with
maturity and motivation, and it will help the adviser
understand our interests and potential. At this mo-
ment, the adviser can encourage and guide us and
suggest appropriate avenues of research [4]. An im-
portant factor is that we are stimulated to gain
creativity by such a training process. When we do not
have enough experience, our ideas are often imper-


I believe that the most important element in pursuit
of a PhD degree is thesis research. [Its] main purpose
... is to learn how to do research work and how to solve
problems independently. Notably, the research topic
selection plays a key role in thesis research.


fect, i.e., wrong in some aspects, even unrealistic. But
one should not forget that new ideas sometimes seem
crazy at first [5, 6].

SELF-LEARNING AND INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
In recent years, much attention has been focused
on the need to train creative engineers for industry
and society. Though there are many different defini-
tions of creativity, everyone agrees that "creativity
(whatever it is) involves the ability to put things
(words, concepts, methods, devices) together in novel
ways" [5].
I believe that creativity may also include 1) self-
learning capability and 2) independent research cap-
ability. Learning is a process that never ends. Earn-
ing a PhD is by no means the end of learning; it is a
new beginning [7].
In our professional career, it is normal for us to
meet with new problems, some of which are not di-
rectly related to our past knowledge and experience.
The self-learning capability enables us to learn and
obtain what we need in solving these problems. It also
provides a free hand for us to carry out independent
research.
The main objective of dissertation research is to
help us gain a generally valuable experience, particu-
larly by teaching us the skills of independent research
[3]. Independent research capability consists of two
subsets: the capability to analyze problems and the
capability to solve problems. The former can help us


FALL 1989









identify and formulate problems, while the latter may
provide us the means to find the solution to the prob-
lems.
In my experience, the secret of learning how to do
independent research can be summarized as "plan big,
start small." "Plan big" means that we should estab-
lish a big, even fantastic research goal. All of the re-
search efforts we make are for society's future needs,
not for the past. "Plan big" addresses our research
into the important investigations of science and
technology. "Start small" suggests that, at the start,
we should initiate a small project in order to obtain
the necessary experience. Meanwhile, early succes-
ses, even small ones, can strengthen our confidence
and stimulate our struggle toward the final objective.
As I complete my graduate study, I find that I
have gained sound training in both academic study
and independent research capability. This professional
training went through four stages. These stages have
a chronological progress, but the main distinctions
separating them are not based on time divisions, but
on the demonstration of independent research capabil-
ity.

Stage 1: Implementation
Much of my work before graduate school was
based on the detailed implementation of certain re-
search efforts. I finished undergraduate study, and
was able to implement published theoretical al-
gorithms under my supervisor's advice. These in-
cluded carrying out experiments, repairing in-
strumentation, setting up equipment, and writing
computer programs based on available algorithms. My
adviser assigned the project and gave me details about
related techniques; then I worked on it. I became
truly involved in research and gained hands-on experi-
ence.

Stage 2: Programming
An obvious benefit at this level is that I began
doing independent research. My adviser suggested re-
search directions and provided some important techni-
cal details. I sought a possible solution for realization
of these ideas. I initiated small research topics, ob-
tained the needed information by self-instruction, car-
ried out research, and wrote technical papers for pub-
lication. I had learned how to translate an original
idea into a prototype capable of practical application.
Typical examples are: implementation of CAD pack-
ages [8], development of prototype expert systems [9,
10], proof or discovery of new algorithms and criteria
[9, 11], and others.


Stage 3: Problem-Solving
This stage is the key to graduate research [2]. At
this stage my goal was no longer only to deal with a
detailed research project or to get new design criteria.
With encouragement from the adviser, I applied my
knowledge to the formulation of general methodology
for problem-solving, defined research directions and
long-term topics, helped the adviser prepare research
proposals, and made the important discovery.
Several significant research efforts were gener-
ated at this stage, such as an integrated intelligent
system architecture for developing high-performance
intelligent systems [12], adaptive feedback testing
system for enhancing expert system reliability [9],
and graphic simulation as a new knowledge represen-
tation technique [13]. These projects focused on de-
veloping problem-solving methodology and universal
configuration. Beyond the significant theoretical re-
sults and practical applications, the most important
factor is the demonstration of creativity.
Stage 4: Administration
The experience gained at this stage is very impor-
tant for developing management and leadership skills.
It is usually obtained from post-doctoral training or
independent work as a university faculty member.
I was appointed as a supervisor for developing an
Intelligent Control Laboratory, an NSF-sponsored
project. I began to supervise junior graduate students
and learned how to cooperate with other professors.
We are now working together in order to solve the
tough problems in biochemical process control and to
establish university/industry cooperation research.
We are planning to develop a new interdisciplinary
graduate program to train chemical engineers in the
most advanced techniques and to build a comprehen-
sive research center for intelligent control.
I have begun to extend our research into other
engineering fields, and I have also become involved
more in technical management and leadership, such
as helping prepare "Decision Systems Engineering,"
a new interdisciplinary graduate program to design a
PhD curriculum, consulting for business and industrial
companies, and working as session chairman in inter-
national conferences.

ADVISER'S FUNCTION
The PhD adviser plays a key role in dissertation
research. The faculty adviser guides our study of the
fundamentals, explains why we do research, how to
do research, and instills in us feelings of confidence.
Professor Amundson summarized all of these aspects


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









and pointed out, "The relationship between PhD ad-
viser and graduate student is a unique kind of relation-
ship that obtains nowhere else ." [4].
Without question, my adviser, Dr. Jiang, As-
sociate Professor of Chemical and Biochemical En-
gineering and Director of Intelligent Control Labora-
tory, deserves much credit for my success. I feel for-
tunate to be able to work in Dr. Jiang's research team.
He has given me the opportunity to learn, and has
trained me as a professional scholar. Throughout my
training process, I have greatly benefitted from his
advice, suggestions, patient observations, help,
strong encouragement, and support. Chronologically,
Dr. Jiang has trained me through three different
stages.

The first stage: Infancy
When I started dissertation research, I lacked the
necessary depth of knowledge and experience. I used
to show uncertainty or no confidence in research. Dr.
Jiang always tried to find the positive elements and
proofs of success in my progress, such as getting an
"A" in a course, understanding a new algorithm, and
so on. He always gave me encouragement. This stage
can be called the infancy of my "plan big."

The second stage: Cold War Period
As my professional career progressed, especially
in the transition from the programming stage to the
problem-solving stage, I thought I had achieved a lit-
tle success in both academic background and disserta-
tion research. I was satisfied with certain detailed
technique results and implementations. However, I
limited myself from going more deeply into scientific
research and prevented myself from seeking problem-
solving methodology. Seeing this happen, Dr. Jiang
changed his attitude. He criticized my work se-
verely-even my success. It was a difficult time for
me, like a "cold war" in my graduate study. However,
I was awakened from my ignorance, began more seri-
ous study and thinking, and improved the quality of
my research.

The third stage: Maturity
After I gained more experience in independent re-
search, Dr. Jiang let me become more involved in ad-
ministrative activities in order to develop my leader-
ship skills. Through my training in administrative
capability, I feel that I have become more mature. In
less than four years of graduate study. I took 25
courses, audited 8 courses, published over 40 research
papers in reputable journals and conference proceed-


ings, attended 18 scientific and technical conferences,
and was chosen as session chairman at international
conferences. Also, I was awarded a Doctoral Excel-
lence Fellowship by the Rutgers Graduate School, re-
ceived a MS degree in computer science, and will soon
complete a PhD in engineering. In addition, I have
travelled in 47 American states and 5 foreign countries
and have visited most of the research-oriented univer-
sities in the USA and Canada to obtain information
and knowledge from my colleagues. I now have
enough confidence and experience to believe that
when I complete my doctorate, I can be successful
either in academia or industry [4].

CONCLUSIONS
Briefly the main tenets of my view of graduate
study are:

The main objective of graduate study is to learn how to do
independent research and how to foster creativity. Creativity
includes self-learning and independent research capabilities,
which can help one to analyze problems and then to
formulate solutions for them.
How to begin independent research? "Plan big, start small."
The dissertation adviser plays a very important role in our
professional training process.
Personal interest is a key to selecting research topics.
Course work is more fruitful when it is directly related to
dissertation research rather than simply fulfilling curriculum
requirements.


My future plans are to improve my communication
skills, to expand both my academic background and
research, to learn more, to do more, and to succeed
in my professional career. I feel that I have a contribu-
tion to make to science, technology, and humanity. It
is my goal to make that contribution.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I am indebeted to Tsung-Shann Jiang, Shaw
Wang, Paul Griminger, Marie Tamas, Louis Sabin,
Francene Sabin, Henrik Pedersen, and Jiachen
Zhuang for their encouragement and help. The
Graduate School of Rutgers University provided a
Doctoral Excellence Fellowship to support my disser-
tation research.

REFERENCES
1. Reid, R.C., "The Graduate Experience," Phillips
Petroleum Co. Lecture Series in Chemical Engineering
School at Oklahoma State University (1984)
2. Duda, J.L., "Common Misconceptions Concerning


FALL 1989










Graduate School," Chem. Eng. Ed., 18, 156 (1984)
3. Connoly, T., and A.L. Porter, "The Doctoral Disserta-
tion-How Relevant?" Eng. Ed., p 162, November (1980)
4. Amundson, N.R., "American University Graduate
Work," Chem. Eng. Ed., 21, 160 (1987)
5. Felder, R.M., "Creativity in Engineering Education,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 120 (1988)
6. Maslow, A.H., The Farther Reaches of Human Nature,
Viking Press, New York (1971)
7. Van Ness, H.C., "Chemical Engineering Education:
Will We Ever Get It Right?" Chem. Eng. Prog., p 18,
January (1989)
8. Sang. Z.T., M. Rao, and T. W. Weber, "A Microcom-
puter-Based Simulation Laboratory for Process Con-
trol," Proc. SCS Multiconference, Modeling and Simu-
lation on Microcomputers, p. 213, San Diego, CA (1986)
9. Rao, M., T.S. Jiang, and J.P. Tsai, "IDSCA: An


Intelligent Direction Selector for the Controller's Action
in Multiloop Control Systems," Internat. J. of Intell.
Sys., 3, p 361 (1988)
10. Rao, M., J.P. Tasi, and T.S. Jiang, "Intelligent Deci-
sionmaker for Optimal Control," App. Artif. Intell. 2, p
289(1988)
11. Rao, M., and T.S. Jiang, "Simple Criterion to Test Non-
Minimum-Phase Systems," Internat. J. of Control, 47, p
653 (1988)
12. Rao, M., T.S. Jiang, and J.P. Tsai, "Combining
Symbolic and Numerical Processing for Real-Time
Intelligent Control," Eng. Applications of Al (1989)
13. Rao, M., X. Zheng, and T.S. Jiang, "Graphic Simula-
tion: Beyond Numerical Computation and Symbolic
Reasoning," Proc. IEEE Internat. Conf on Systems,
Man, and Cybernetics, Beijing, China, p 523, August
(1988)


book reviews


MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS FOR
NONIDEAL FLUIDS
by L. L. Lee
Butterworths, 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham, MA 02180;
$52.95 (1988)

Reviewed by
Keith E. Gubbins
Cornell University

This is a graduate level book aimed at presenting
modern statistical mechanical methods to engineers and
applied scientists. Until the early 1970's these rigorous
methods were only applicable to gases, crystalline solids,
and simple liquids such as argon, and so are of limited
value to engineers. Over the last fifteen years or so they
have been extended to include nonspherical and polar
molecules, electrolytes, nonideal solutions, and most re-
cently, a wide variety of surface phenomena. There have
been rapid developments in perturbation and integral
equation theories, in computer simulation methods, and
in scattering experiments that provide information about
the molecular or atom-atom correlations functions. These
powerful methods are gradually replacing the more em-
pirical methods that engineers have traditionally used,
and so a book of this sort is welcome. The only other
books aimed at engineers of which I am aware are Reed
and Gubbins' Applied Statistical Mechanics (now out of
print and in some respects out of date) and Lucas'
Angewandte Statische Thermodynamik (so far only
available in the original German, although an English
translation is planned for late 1989 or early 1990).
The coverage of the book is good. The first three
chapters deal with introductory material-classical and
quantum mechanics, the ensembles, and ideal gases. The


remainder of the book covers more recent developments
in the theory of liquids (Chapters 4-12, 14), the molecular
dynamics simulation method (Chapter 13), and adsorp-
tion of solids (Chapter 15). There are useful appendices
dealing with intermolecular forces, and giving computer
programs for the solution of integral equations and
molecular dynamics calculations. The parts dealing with
liquids are thorough and well done. They cover the dis-
tribution functions and integral equations for fluids of
polar and nonspherical molecules and not just spherical
molecules as in many other books. There are quite de-
tailed accounts of the integral equation and perturbation
theory methods, including chapters on hard body fluids,
Lennard-Jones fluids, polar fluids, electrolytes, and site-
site model fluids.
As a teaching text the book has some drawbacks. The
introduction to the ensembles is quite brief and lacks illu-
minating examples, figures, or much in the way of physi-
cal interpretation, so most students experiencing this ma-
terial for the first time will find it hard going. There is a
similar problem with the treatment of the distribution
functions in Chapter 4. The chapter on molecular dy-
namics is well done, but for students it would be helpful
to have some simpler examples or programs, and some
discussion of the Monte Carlo method, which is easier to
program for a beginner. It would have been helpful to
have had more illustrative examples and well thought
out questions at the end of chapters. The layout of the
book is rather poor, with too much print on each page
and poorly reproduced figures, making it somewhat dif-
ficult to read.
In conclusion, this is an up-to-date summary of a
rapidly developing field that is aimed at an engineering
audience. It will be especially useful to graduate students
and other researchers as an introduction to the subject,
but will need to be supplemented if it is used as a teaching
text. a


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Ir THE UNIVERSITY OF lKRON 1
flkron,OH44325(I


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY

G. A. ATWOOD
J. M. BERTY
G. G. CHASE
H. M. CHEUNG
S. C. CHUANG
J.R. ELLIOTT
G. ESKAMANI* ____
L. G. FOCHT
H. L. GREENE
H. C. KILLORY
S. LEE
R. W. ROBERTS
M. S. WILLIS


RESEARCH INTERESTS

Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Processes
Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Waste Water Treatment
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Process Engineering
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena


*Adjunct Professor


Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,000. Industrially sponsored
fellowships available up to $16,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees.
Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
CHAIRMAN, GRADUATE COMMITTEE
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF AKRON
AKRON, OH 44325


FALL 1989









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROGRAMS AT

THE UNIVERSITY OF

ALABAMA

The University of Alabama, located in the
sunny South, offers excellent programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical
Engineering.
Our research emphasis areas are concentrated
in environmental studies, reaction kinetics
and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related
processes. The faculty has extensive indus-
trial experience, which gives a distinctive
engineering flavor to our programs.
For further information, contact the Director
of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL
35487-0203; (205-348-6450).

FACULTY
G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
I. A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State)


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development,
Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis,
Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental,
Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer,
Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing,
Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing.
An equoL' employment/cqual educational
opportunity institution.






Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics


K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomenna,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Upgrading
D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics

J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media

S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory

S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics

R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control


For further Information contact
CHAIRMAN
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
EDMONTON, CANADA T6G 2G6







THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ

The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial
grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses
are offered in most of the research areas listed below.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science*:
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport

HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics, Polyelectrolyte Solutions

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

EDWARD J. FREEH, Research Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in the
Microcirculation, Biorheology

ROBERTO GUZMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1988
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods

GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical Modeling of Transport,
Bioreactors

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion
Aerosols, Microcontamination




Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It is
a growing modern city of 450,000 that
retains much of the old Southwestern
atmosphere.



For further information, write to

Dr. Jost 0. L. Wendt
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721



The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity
educational institution/equal opportunity
employer.


ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena,
Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Computer
Aided Design

FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion

JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement, Chemical
Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phenomena

DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic
Processes

DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing
'Center for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several
technicians, and several postdocs and graduate students. Other research involves 2-1
electrophoesis, cell culture, electro cell fusion, and electro fluid dynamic modelling.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










University of Arkansas


Department of Chemical Engineering


Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics

Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics,
Enhanced Oil Recovery

Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics

James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization

Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards
Assessment, Dense Gas Dispersion

William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering

W. Roy Penney (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University)
Process Engineering, Process Development

Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion

Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes

Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation

Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design

Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas)
Microelectronics Materials and Processing,
Superconductors

J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control


FINANCIAL AID
Graduate students are supported by fellowships and
research or teaching assistantships.

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT
Dr. W. Roy Penney, Professor and Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701


LOCATION
The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is liter-
ally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor
recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic
city and serves as the center of trade, government, and
finance for the region. The city and University offer a
wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

FACILITIES
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional
20,000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Research
Center.


FALL 1989










CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


Graduate Studies


Auburn University


RESEARCH AREAS


R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966) Advanced Polymer Science
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965) Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) Carbon Fibers and Composites
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Conversion
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) Computer-Aided Process Control
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976) Controlled Atmosphere
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) Electron Microscopy
G. MAPLES (Oklahoma State University, 1967) Environmental Enneerin
R. D. NEUMAN (Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1973) Enronmental Engineering
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) Heterogeneous Catalysis
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951) THE PROGRAM
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973) TE P A
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) The Department is one of the fast
offers degrees at the M.S. and Pi
both experimental and theoretic
For Information and Application, Write interest, with modern research ec
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head types of studies. Generous finar
Chemical Engineering qualified students.
Auburn University, AL 36849-5127
Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


Interfacial Phenomena
Process Design
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Separations
Surface Science
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena

st growing in the Southeast and
h.D. levels. Research emphasizes
al work in areas of national
equipment available for most all
ncial assistance is available to


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


THE FACULTY






















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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical Engineer-
ing or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering (part-time) in the following areas:


FACULTY
R. A. Heidemann, Head, (Washington U.)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary) FOR


* Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria
* Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
* Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
* Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
* Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
* Environmental Engineering
* Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
* Enhanced Oil Recovery
* In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
* Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
* Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
* Computer Control and Optimization ofBio/Engineer
Processes
* Biotechnology and Biorheology

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE


DR. A. K. MEHROTRA, CHAIRMAN GRADUATE STUDIES COMMITTEE
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY, CALGARY, ALBERTA, CANADA T2N 1 N4


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calga
Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication
a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lai
Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with t,
Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCAT]


DC


THE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY






HE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,



BERKELEY...


RESEARCH INTERESTS


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-
tains.

FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Arup K. Chakraborty
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soane
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley. California 94720


FALL 1989
















University of California, Davis
Department of Chemical Engineering


Faculty
BELL, Richard L.
University of Washington, Seattle Mass
transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays,
environmental transport, biochemical
engineering.
BOULTON, Roger
University of Melbourne Chemical en-
gineering aspects of fermentation and
wine processing, fermentation kinetics,
computer simulation and control of enol-
ogical operations.
HIGGINS, Brian G.
University of Minnesota Wetting hy-
drodynamics, fluid mechanics of thin
films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett
Films, Sol-Gel processes.
JACKMAN, Alan P.
University of Minnesota Biological ki-
netics and reactor design, kinetics of ion
exchange, environmental solute trans-
port, heat and mass transport at air-water
interface, hemodynamics and fluid ex-
change.
KATZ, David F.
University of California, Berkeley Bio-
logical fluid mechanics, biorheology,
cell biology, image analysis.
McCOY, Benjamin J.
University of Minnesota Chemical re-
action engineering adsorption, cataly-
sis, multiphase reactors; separation proc-
esses chromatography, ion exchange,
supercritical fluid extraction.
McDONALD, Karen
University of Maryland, College Park -
Distillation control, control of multivari-
able, nonlinear processes, control of bio-
chemical processes, adaptive control,
parameter and state estimation.


PALAZOGLU, Ahmet
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Proc-
ess control, process design and synthesis.
POWELL, Robert L.
The Johns Hopkins University Rheol-
ogy, fluid mechanics, properties of sus-
pensions and physiological fluids.
RYU, Dewey D.Y.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Kinetics and reaction engineering of
biochemical and enzyme systems, opti-
mization of continuous bioreactor, bio-
conversion of biologically active com-
pounds, biochemical and genetic engi-
neering, and renewable resources devel-
opments.
SMITH, J.M.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport rates and chemical kinetics for
catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic
and steady-state methods in slurry,
trickle-bed, single pellet, and fixed-bed
reactors.
STROEVE, Pieter
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport with chemical reaction, bio-
technology, rheology of heterogeneous
media, thin film technology, interfacial
phenomena, image analysis.
WHITAKER, Stephen
University of Delaware Drying porous
media, transport processes in heteroge-
neous reactors, multiphase transport
phenomena in heterogeneous systems.

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from
Sacramento and just an hour away from
the San Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor
enthusiasts may enjoy water sports at
nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other
alpine activities in the Lake Tahoe Bowl
(2 hours away). These recreational op-


portunities combine with the friendly
informal spirit of the Davis campus and
town to make it a pleasant place in which
to live and study.
The city of Davis is adjacent to the
campus and within easy walking or cy-
cling distance. Both furnished and unfur-
nished one- and two-bedroom apart-
ments are available. Married student
housing, at reasonable cost, is located on-
campus.


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics & Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Environmental Transport
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Design & Control
Process Dynamics
Rheology
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase
Systems


More Information
The Graduate Group in Biomedical
Engineering is now housed within the
Department of Chemical Engineering.
Further information and application ma-
terials for either program (Chemical En-
gineering or Biomedical Engineering)
and financial aid may be obtained by
writing:
Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA



FACULTY 0


D. T. Allen
Y. Cohen
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette


PROGRAMS


UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment offers a program of teaching and
research linking fundamental engineering
science and industrial needs. The depart-
ment's national leadership is demonstrated
by the newly established Engineering Re-
search Center for Hazardous Substance
Control. This center of advanced technol-
ogy is complemented by existing programs
in Environmental Transport Research and
Biotechnology Research and Education.
Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a
waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly
regarded science programs and to a variety
of experiences in theatre, music, art and
sports on campus


K. Nobe
L. B. Robinson
0. I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


RESEARCH AREAS 0
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering





0 CONTACT *
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063


FALL 1989












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


* FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS -


L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics.
PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue) Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science.
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
DAN G. CACUCI Ph.D. (Columbia) Computational Engineering, Radiation Transport, Reactor Physics, Uncertainty
Analysis.
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat
Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford) Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
Forces.
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D.. (M.I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal
Dispersions.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Biomedical Engineering, Reactor Physics, Radiation Transport Analysis.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identfication.
PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of Groningen, Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting
Polymers; Polymer Processing.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Mutiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Structure of Microemulsions.


PROGRAMS
AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT

The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D.
degree programs. Financial aid, includ-
ing fellowships, teaching assistant-
ships, and research assistantships, is
available. Some awards provide limited
moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore cam-
puses, UCSB is located on the Pacific
Coast 100 miles northwest of Los Ange-
les and 330 miles south of San Fran-
cisco. The student enrollment is over
16,000. The metropolitan Santa Barbara
area has over 150,000 residents and is
famous for its mild, even climate



For additional information and
applications, write to:

Professor L. Gary Leal
Department of Chemical &
Nuclear Engineering
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


at the


CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY


* RESEARCH INTERESTS


Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F. Brady
George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P. Giapis
Julia A. Kornfield
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Fred H. Shair
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)


Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparation
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Computational Hydrodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems


for further information, write:

Professor John F.Brady
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


FALL 1989


* 273
















,j A


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L''r










EXERCISE YOUR MIND
Join the chemical engineering team at CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY. Work out with
top-ranked teachers and researchers and practice in one of the best research facilities in the country.


Faculty and specializations:
Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh
University Particle separations, mixing,
acid gas recovery
John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University
of Michigan Redox equilibria, thin car-
bon films, modulated electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962,
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adap-
tive inferential control, multi-variable
control, coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns
Hopkins University Laser anemometry,
mathematical modelling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton
University Colloidal phenomena,
ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing


Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa
State University High-gravity separa-
tions, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of
California (Berkeley) Electrochemical
engineering, current distributions,
electrodeposition
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case
Western Reserve University Elec-
trochemical sensors, electrochemical
synthesis, electrochemistry related to elec-
tronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa
State University Surface phenomena,
interfacial dynamics, light scattering
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Car-
negie-Mellon University Surfactant
systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil
recovery
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, Univer-
situ of Pittsburgh Electrochemical
engin te'ring, reacto:-r design and iIrnulatirion.
elxtdrojde proce?3-el:


Train in:
* Electrochemical engineering
* Laser applications
* Mixing and separations
* Process control
* Surface and colloids

For more information contact:
The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
University Circle
Cleveland, Ohio 44106



CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
CLEVELAND, OHIO 44106







The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI

Q^b


GRADUATE STUDY in

Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

FACULTY *


Amy Ciric
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang


Robert Jenkins
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Glenn Lipscomb
Neville Pinto
Sotiris Pratsinis
Stephen Thiel


CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
AEROSOL ENGINEERING
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
systems.
COAL RESEARCH
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
TWO-PHASE FLOW Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Boiling. Stability and transport properties of Department of Chemical Engineering, #171
foami University of Cincinnati
foam. Cincinnati, OH 45221
MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









































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I\


SI 1'



\< ).-.






Graduate Study at


Clemson University

In Chemical Engineering


Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking
in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to
South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
processing, composite materials, process
automation, thermodynamics, catalysis, and
membrane applications what more do you
need?

The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 14,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.
The Faculty
Charles H. Barron, Jr. James M. Haile Amod A. Ogale
John N. Beard, Jr. Douglas E. Hirt Richard W. Rice
Dan D. Edie Stephen S. Melsheimer Mark C. Thies
Charles H. Gooding Joseph C. Mullins

Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
Clemson University NIERST
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering












UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER


RESEARCH
Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Coal Gasification and Combustion
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena
Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics and
Materials Processing


DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean
for Academic Affairs
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975

ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983

JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974

R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967

HOWARD J. M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint
Ph.D., University of London, 1963

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984

FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO


INTERESTS *
Mass Transfer
Membrane Transport and Separations
Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Process Control and Identification
Semiconductor Processing
Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Thin Film Science
Transport Processes


* FACULTY *
WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968

RICHARD D. NOBLE, Research Professor
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976

W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
Ph.D. Tulane University, 1965

ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
Director of Center for Low Gravity
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963

KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and Chairman
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951

RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958

Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424


FALL 1989











COLORADO


SCHOOL 0


OF
1874

MINES 0LORA0

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH

A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School of
Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-
liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.

J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum
refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal
cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.

V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.

E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium
measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal
conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria,
education methods research.

R. M. BALDWIN, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines.
Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis, oil shale
processing, supercritical extraction.

M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass
transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion
of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with
chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas
hydrate dissociation modeling.

A. L. BUNGE, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane
transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion
exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place
remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.

R. L. MILLER, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy
oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil shale processing,
particulate removal with venturi scrubbers, supercritical
extraction.

J. F. ELY, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.


For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401













Colorado State University


Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.


Faculty:

LARRY BELFIORE, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin

ERIC H. DUNLOP, Ph.D.
University of Strathclyde

JUD HARPER, Ph.D.
Iowa State University

NAZ KARIM, Ph.D.
University of Manchester

TERRY LENZ, Ph.D.
Iowa State University

JIM LINDEN, Ph.D.
Iowa State University

CAROL McCONICA, Ph.D.
Stanford University

VINCE MURPHY, Ph.D.
University of Massachusetts

KEN REARDON, Ph.D.
California Institute of Technology


Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:

Teaching and Research Assistantships
paying a monthly stipend plus tuition
reimbursement


Research Areas:


Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
Environmental Engineering
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems

For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


FALL 1989





























Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers

Faculty and Research Areas
THOMAS F. ANDERSON ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
statistical thermodynamics, polymer science, polymer morphology
phase equilibria, separations composite materials and properties
JAMES P. BELL JAMES M. FENTON MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
structure and electrochemical engineering, polymer processing,
properties of polymers enrivonmental engineering rheology
DOUGLAS J. COOPER G. MICHAEL HOWARD DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
expert systems, process dynamics, environmental engineering,
process control, energy technology biochemical engineering
fluidization
fluization HERBERT E. KLEI ROBERT A. WEISS
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN biochemical engineering, polymer science
catalysis, biotechnology, environmental engineering
surface science
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
chemical reaction engineering,
computer applications



We'll gladly supply the Answers!
iTHE Graduate Admissions
NIVERSITY OF Dept. of Chemical Engineering
~CoI Box U-139
T he University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019








Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

at Cornell University


World-class research in...
Biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
1 2 heat and mass transfer
polymer science and engineering
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design


A diverse intellectual
climate
Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including chemistry,
biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business
administration.

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
country.
A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment.


A distinguished faculty
Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A, Clark
Claude Cohen
James R. Engstrom
Robert K, Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z, Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C, Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe (Emeritus)
Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus)
Herbert F. Wlegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.

For further information
write to:

Professor William L. Olbricht
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201


FALL 1989








Chemical Engineerin at

The Faculty
Ricardo Aragon
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein-
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur-B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Andrew L. Zydney lhe University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.

degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.


For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716


The University of
Delaware-








Modern Applications of

Chemical Engineering

at the




University of Florida


Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD




FACULTY *

TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology
RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design
ARTHUR L FRICKE. Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing, Reaction Engineering
GERASIMOS LYBERATOS. Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
FRANK MAY Computer-Aided Learning
RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations

For more information, please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
or call (904) 392-0881


FALL 1989











GEORGIA TECH
A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia


Graduate Studies
in Chemical
Engineering


Faculty
A. S. Abhiraman
Pradeep K. Agrawal
Yaman Arkun
Sue Ann Bidstrup
Charles A. Eckert
William R. Ernst
Larry J. Forney
Charles W. Gorton
Jeffery S. Hsieh
Paul A. Kohl
Michael J. Matteson
John D. Muzzy
Robert M. Nerem
Gary W. Poehlein
Ronnie S. Roberts
Ronald W. Rousseau
Thanassios Sambanis
Robert J. Samuels
F. Joseph Schork
A. H. Peter Skelland
Jude T. Sommerfeld
D. William Tedder
Amyn S. Teja
Mark G. White
Timothy M. Wick
Jack Winnick
Ajit Yoganathan


Research Interests
Adsorption
Aerosols
Biomedical engineering
Biochemical engineering
Catalysis
Composite materials
Crystallization
Electrochemical engineering
Environmental chemistry
Extraction
Fine particles
Interfacial phenomena


Microelectronics
Physical properties
Polymer science and engineering
Polymerization
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor analysis and design
Separation processes
Surface science and technology
Thermodynamics
Transport phenomena


For more Information write:
Ronald W. Rousseau
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I


I







What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty o your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs, professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


"It's great!"


a) ,4 /
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AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH:
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery


FACULTY:
Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Abe Dukler


Demetre Economou
Ernest Henley
John Killough
Dan Luss


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407
The University is in conpliance with Title IX


Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson


Cynthia Stokes
Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley


r










U I C The University of Illinois at Chicago

Department of Chemical Engineering


MS and PhD Graduate Program

FACULTY
Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor

Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965
Professor

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor

G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head l

Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 RESEARCH AREAS
Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies


John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor

Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor

David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase
fluid flow and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed
combustion, indirect coal liquefaction, porous media,
membrane transport, pulmonary deposition and clearance,
biorheology.

Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids,
statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, supercritical fluid
extraction/retrograde condensation, asphaltene
characterization, bioseparations.

Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid
reaction kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena,
energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics, combustion
chemistry, environmental technology.

Heterogeneous Catalysis: Surface chemistry, catalyst
preparation and characterization, structure sensitivity,
supported metals, clay chemistry, artificial intelligence
applications, modelling and optimization.


For more information:
Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424









Chemical Engineering at the


University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign




^IJga^,^mj *


A

TRADITION

OF

EXCELLENCE


The combination of distinguished faculty, out-
standing facilities and a diversity of research
interests results in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.

The chemical engineering department offers
graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees.


Richard C. Alkire
Harry G. Drickamer
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Richard I. Masel
Walter G. May
Anthony J. McHugh
William R. Schowalter
Edmund G. Seebauer
Mark A. Stadtherr
Frank B. van Swol
James W. Westwater
K. Dane Wittrup
Charles F. Zukoski IV


Electrochemical and Plasma Processing
High Pressure Studies, Structure and Properties of Solids
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematics
Surface Science Studies of Catalysts and Semiconductor Growth
Chemical Process Engineering
Polymer Engineering and Science
Mechanics of Colloids and Rheologically Complex Fluids
Laser Studies in Semiconductor Growth
Process Flowsheeting and Optimization
Wetting and Capillary Condensation
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interfacial Science


For information and application forms write:

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801









GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY


* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY

* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT

* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


THE FACULTY

* HAMIDARASTOOPOUR (Ph.D., IIT)
Multi-phase flow and fluidization, flow in porous media,
gas technology

RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

* ALl CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

* DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow,
separations processes

* M. HOSSEIN HARIRI (Ph.D., Manchester-UMIST)
Bioseparation, flow in porous media and process
design

* HENRYR. LINDEN (Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

* SATISHJ. PARULEKAR (Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction
engineering

* J. ROBERTSELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

* SEUMM. SENKAN (Sc.D., MIT)
Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction
engineering

* DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State U)
Polymer rheology and processing, and transport
phenomena

* DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


APPLICATIONS

Dr. H. Arastoopour
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

is an independent, fully accredited
graduate school offering an interdis-
" ciplinary degree program designed
for B.S. chemical engineering grad-
uates. The Institute has an excellent
record of preparing graduates for
challenging and highly rewarding
careers in the paper industry. The In-
stitute is located next to the Georgia
Institute of Technology and shares
many educational resources with
Georgia Tech.
All U.S. citizens and permanent resi-
dents accepted into the program are
awarded full tuition scholarships, as
well as stipends of $12,000 to
$14,000 per calendar year.

Graduates select thesis research
projects from a variety of topics,
including:

Process Engineering
Simulation and Control
Heat and Mass Transfer
Separation Science
Reaction Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Science
Surface and Colloid Science
Combustion Technology
Chemical Kinetics

For further information, please contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Science and Technology
575 14th St. N.W.
Atlanta, GA 30318
(404) 853-9500














GRADUATE PROGRAM
FOR
M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES
IN
CHEMICAL & MATERIALS
ENGINEERING


Iw RESEARCH AREAS:
^\V --Kinetics & Catalysis
--Blocatalysis & Biosensors
--Bioseparatlons & Biochemical Engineering
--Membrane Separations
--Particle Morphological Analysis
--Air Pollution Modeling
--Materials Science
--Surface Science & Laser Technology
--Parallel & High Speed Computing

a_,. For additional Information and application write to:
I GRADUATE ADMISSIONS
Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319/335-1400
The Unverslty of Iowa does not discrimninate In it educational programs and activies on the
bash of race. national origin, color, religion, sex. age, or handicap. The Unverslty also affirm Its
commitment to providing equal opportunities and equal accem to Unversity focllles without
reference to affectlonal or assoclatlonal preference. For additional Information on
nondbcrmlnatlon policies, contact the Coordinator of Title IX and Section 604 In the Office of
Affirmative Action. telephone 319/3350705,202 Jessup Hal, The Unlvernty of Iowa, Iowa City.
lowa 52242.
5337/8-87


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








IOWA STATE



UNIVERSITY


William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes, high
temperature ceramics
John M. Eggebrecht
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and
fluid surfaces
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology, carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing, sensors
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Process modeling, simulation
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
fluidization
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011


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JOHNS

CHEMICAL




Timothy A. Barbari
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Science
Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers
Polymeric Thin Films
Michael J. Betenbaugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Insect Cell Culture
Recombinant DNA Technology
Marc D. Donohue
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria

Joseph L. Katz
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders
Robert M. Kelly
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separations Processes


SHOPKINS

ENGINEERING




Mark A. McHugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction
Geoffrey A. Prentice
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
Corrosion
W. Mark Saltzman
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Polymeric Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions
W. H. Schwarz
Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics of Fluids
Turbulence


For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
Chemical Engineering Department
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7170


LII

[U




Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 u ::::> C w (!) z ii w w z (!) z w Cl:: 0 LL LL 0 z 0 in > 0 (!) z ii w w z (!) z w ....I < u w :c u chemical engineering education VOLUME XXIII NUMBER4 FALL 1989 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE COURSES Cellular Bioengineering Particulate Processes LAUFFENBURGER RANDOLPH Hazardous Chemical Spills..................... KUMAR BENNETT GUDIVAKA Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions ............................................ DAVIS Applied Linear Algebra .................................................... WANG A Multidisciplinary Course In Bioengineering ....................................... BIENKOWSKI, SAYLER, STRANDBERG, REED PROGRAMS Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering .......................... SAN MclNTIRE Hazardous Waste Management ............ KUMMLER McMICKING POWITZ RESEARCH Crossdlsclpllnary Research: Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project .................. KISAALITA VAN WIE DAVIS BARNES FUNG CHUN DOGAN and ... Good Cop/Bad Cop: Contraries In Teaching ...................... FELDER Secrets of My Success In Graduate Study .................. RAO The Essence of Entropy ............................ KYLE

PAGE 2

Do You Qualjfy far International? CHEMICAL ENGINEERS ... The World is Yours! ... iEl Mundo es Tuyo! .. Le Monde est a Vous! .. Die Welt ist Dein! ... ntfflWCO}b(I) Return Home with an Exciting career Ahead of You! Procter & Gamble has s eve ral ent ryl ev el produ c t and process development openings for BS MS o r PhD Chemical Engineers in As ia Europe M exico and South America. To readily qualify, you must be bilingual (including English) and possess appropriate Citizenship, Immigration Visa, or Work Permit from one or more of the following countries: Austn"a, Belgi.um Brazil Chile Columbia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany Holland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lebanon Mexico, Netherlands, Peru, Portugal Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, Spain United Kingdom and Venezuela Procter & Gamble total sales are over 20 billion dollars world-wide. Major product categories include beauty care, b everage, detergent, fabric care, food, health care, h o u sehold care, paper, and pharmaceutical consumer p ro du cts. O ur technically-based corporation spent over 600 million d olla r s in research and product developme n t l a st year. We o ff e r a s t imulating environment for personal and professional growth, highly competitive salaries, and exce ll e n t be n efits package includ in g pension, health care and paid re l ocation. I f int e r ested, send your resume, including country q ualifi cations and language fluencies, to: F. 0 S ch u lz, Jr. Inte rn ational C hE O penings Th e Pr octe r & Gamble Com pan y Iv o rydale Tec hni cal Ce n ter ( CEE ) Sprin g Grove Ave. and J u ne S t. Cinc inn ati, OH 45217 PROCTER & GAMBLE An E qu a l O p portunity E m ployer

PAGE 3

Editor's Note to Seniors ... This is the 21st graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors inter ested in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses, research at various universities, and departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write CEE Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE -----------------------------UniversityofFl o rida ___ _. Fall 1988 Arkun, Charos, Reeves Model Predictive Control Bried.is T ec hnical Communications for Grad Students Deshpande Multivariable Control M et hods Glandt Topics in Random Media Ng, Gonzalez, Hu Bi oc hemical Engineering Goosen Resear ch Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules Teja Schaeffer Res earch Therm odyna mi cs and Fluid Properties Duda Graduation: Th e B eginning of Your Education Fall 1987 Amundson American University Graduate Work DeCoursey Ma ss Transfer with Chemical R eac tion Takoudis Micr oe lectron ics Processing McCready, Leighton Transport Phenomena Seider, Ungar Nonlinear Systems Skaates Polymerization Reactor Engineering Edie, Dunham Re sea rch Advanced Engineering Fibers Allen, Petit R esea rch Unit Op e rations in Microgravity Bartusiak, Price Process M o deling and Control Bartholomew Advanced Combustion Engineering Fall 1986 Bird Hougen 's Principles Amundson R esea r ch Landmarks for Chemical Engineers Duda Graduate Studies : The Middle Way Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligen ce in Process Engineering: A R esearc h Program Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligen ce in Process Engineering Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology Babu Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Mat e rials Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous Materials and Powders Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education Fall 1985 Bailey, Ollis Bioch e mical Engineering Fundam e ntals Belfort Separation and R ecove ry Proc esses Graham, Jutan T eac hing Time Series Soong Polym er Processing Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Process es Shah, Hayhurst M o le c ular Sieve T ec hnol ogy Bailie, Kono, Henry Fluidizatwn Kauffman ls Grad School Worth It? Felder Th e Generic Quiz FALL 19 89 Fall 1984 LaufTenburger, et al Applied Mathematics Marnell Graduate Plant Design Scamehorn Colloid and Surf ace Science Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars Zygourakis Linear Algebra Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis Converse, et al. Bio Chemical Conversion of Biomass Fair Separations Research Edie Graduate Residency at Clemson McConica Semiconductor Processing Duda Misconceptions Concerning Grad School Fall 1983 D avis Numerical Methods and Modeling Sawin, R eif Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication Shaeiwitz Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer Takoudis Chemical Reactor Design Valle-Riestra Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries Woods Surface Phenomena Middleman Research on Cleaning Up in San Diego Serageldin Research on Combustion Wankat, Oreovicz Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job Hunting Bird Book Writing and ChE Education Thomson Simmons Grad Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry Fall 1982 Hightower Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts Mesler Nucleate Boiling Weiland, Taylor Mass Transfer Dullien Fundamentals of Petroleum Production Seapan Air Pollution for Engineers Skaates Catalysis Baird Wilkes Polymer Education and Research Fenn Research is Engineering Fall 1981 Abbott Classical Thermodynamics Butt, Kung Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering Chen, et al. Parametric Pumping Gubbins, Street Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer Simulation Guin, e t al. Coal Liquefaction and Desulfurization Thomson Oil Shale Char Reactions Bartholomew Kinetics and Catalysis Hassler Chemical Engineering Analy s is Miller Underground Processing W ankat Separation Processes Wolf Heterogeneous Catalysis 197

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO J.L. DUDA The 1989 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec turer is J. L. DUDA of Pennsylvania State University. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and en courage outstanding achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial support for this annual award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate These were presented to Dr. Duda at a banquet during the ASEE annual meeting at the University of Nebraska Dr. Duda's lecture was entitled "A Random Walk Through Porous Media," and it will be published in a forthcoming issue of CEE. The award is made on an annual basis, with nomina tions being received through February 1, 1990 Your nominations for the 1990 lectureship are invited CORCORAN AWARD TO ROBERT L. KABEL ROBERT L. KABEL (Pennsylvania State Univer sity) was the recipient of the fourth annual Corcoran Award, presented in recognition of the most outstanding paper published in Chemical Engineering Education in 1988 His paper, "Instruction in Scaleup," appeared in the summer 1988 issue of CEE. A WARD WINNERS A number of chemical engineering professors have been recognized for their outstanding achievements. MANFRED MORARI (California Institute of Technol ogy) received the prestigious Curtis W. McGraw Re search Award in recognition of his groundbreaking tech niques for robust process control and for his innovative research on the effects of process design on the operabil ity of chemical processes. He was cited for the 198 practicability of his solutions and the high quality of his research contributions which have significantly fur thered engineering science, education, and industrial practice. The William Elgin Wickenden Award, which is given to encourage excellence in scholarly writing and honors the author of the best paper published in Engineering Ed ucation during the preceding publication year, was pre sented to RICHARD M. FELDER (North Carolina State University). ALAN M. LANE (University of Alabama) was the recipient of the Outstanding Zone Campus Representa tive Award for Zone II, in recognition of his outstanding contributions as a Zone Campus Representative from that zone. Selected as one of only nine honorees from the entire membership of ASEE, LEWIS G. MAYFIELD (National Science Foundation) became a Fellow of ASEE. DONALD J. KERWIN (University of Virginia) was singled out as an outstanding teacher of engineering stu dents in the Southeastern area and was presented the AT&T Foundation Award to recognize that excellence. Three chemical engineers were presented with the Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award: C. STEWART SLATER (Manhattan College), BRUCE M. MCEN ROE (University of Kansas), and ALAN M. LANE (University of Alabama). The Martin Award recognizing the best paper pre sented at the annual ASEE meeting was presented to NAM SUN WANG (University of Maryland). NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 198990 are: Chairman, WILLIAM BECKWITH (Clemson University); Past Chairman, JAMES E. STICE (University of Texas at Austin); Vice Chairman, THOMAS R. HANLEY (Florida A&M/Florida State University); Secretary-Treasurer, WALLACE B. WHITING (West Virginia University); Directors, WILLIAM L. CONGER (Virginia Polytechnic Insti tute) and GLENN L. SCHRADER (Iowa State Univer sity). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS: Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 EDITOR: Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857 ASSOCIATE EDITOR : T. J. Anderson CONSULTING EDITOR: Mack Tyner MANAGING EDITOR : Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861 PUBLICATIONS BOARD CHAIRMAN Gary Poehlein Georgia Institute of Technology PAST CHAIRMEN, Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado Lee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University MEMBERS, South Richard M. Felder North Carolina State University Jack R. Hopper Lamar University Donald R. Paul University of Texas James Fair University of Texas Central J. S. Dranoff Northwestern University West Frederick H. Shair California Institute of Technology Alexis T. Bell University of California, Berkeley t:l2.t1.b.m1 Angelo J. Perna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Raymond Baddour Massachusetts Institute of Technology Northwest Charles Sleic:her University of Washington Canada Leslie W. Shemilt McMasler University Library Representative Thomas W. Weber Stale University of New York FALL 1989 Chemical Engineering VOLUME XXIII NUMBER 4 Education FALL 1989 2fX) .222 214 216 .228 236 PROGRAMS Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Ka-Yiu San, Larry V. McIntire Hazardous Waste Management, Ralph H. Kummler, James H. McMicking Robert W Powitz COURSES A Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering Paul R Bienkowski, Gary S. Sayler, Gerald W. Strandberg, Gregory D. Reed Cellular Bioengineering Douglas A. Lauffenburger Particulate Processes, Alan D. Randolph Hazardous Chemical Spills, Ashok Kumar, Gary F B e nnett, Venkata V. Gudivaka Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions, Robert H. Davis Applied Linear Algebra, Tse-Wei Wang RESEARCH 242 Initiating Crossdisciplinary Research: The Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project, William S. Kisaalita, Bernard J Van Wie, Rodney S. Skeen, William C. Davis, Charles D. Barnes Simon J. Fung, Kukjin Chun, Numan S. Dogan RANDOM THOUGHTS Good Cop/Bad Cop: Embracing Contraries in Teaching, Richard M. Felder FEATURES 250 The Essence of Entropy, B G. Kyle 256 Secrets of My Success in Graduate Study, Ming Rao 197 Editorial 198 Division Activities 2aJ Letter to the Editor 221 Book Review C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING ED UC ATION (ISSN ()()() 9 -1147 9) i s p1,blished quarterly by Chemical Engin e ering Di vi sion Ameri c an Society /
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A Program o n BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING KA-YIU SAN, LARRY V. McINTIRE Rice Univ e rsity H ouston, TX 77251-1892 W E HA VE WITNESSED a gradual change in the c h emical engineering profession in the last dec ade. Chemical engineers have branched out and have found new and exciting career opportunities in a n umber of emerging areas, such as bioengineering, advanced materials processing, and electronic and photon i c materials. However, nearly all of these new l y emerging, high technology areas require not only training in the fundamentals of chemical en gineering, but also demand a good basic knowledge of t h e science in the area concerned. This is particularly true in the field of bioengineering, where much of the s c ience was not even known ten years ago. It is our belief t h at if chemical engineers are to play an active and important role at the frontier of this exciting area, t h ey must be trained to be proficient in engineering fundamentals as well as in biochemistry cell biology, and molecular biology. Here at Rice University we are working toward this goal by forming three com prehe n s i ve research and education programs in a Bioscie n ces/Bioengineering Institute. The Institute wi ll be l ocated in a new 110 000 ft 2 building designed for crossdisciplinary laboratory investigations involv in g bi oc h emical and biomedical engineers and life sci e nti sts (see Figure 1). FIGURE 1 Architectural model of the new Biosciences / Bioengineering Inst i tute at R ic e 200 nearly all of these newly emerging high-technology areas r equire not only train i ng i n the fundamentals of chemical engineering but also demand a good basic knowledge of the science in the area concerned ACADEMIC PROGRAM Rice University has been at the forefront of biomedical engineering research for more t h an twenty years. The Biomedical Engineering Laboratory was first established in 1964 to provide engineering design and development support for Dr. DeBakey's Baylor Rice total artificial heart. Dr David Hellums, the cur rent A. J. Hartsook Professor of Chemical Engineer ing, was a founding member. Since then the effort h as greatly expanded, but the research has remained cen tered on problems re l ated to t h e cardiovascu l ar sys tem. Beginning in 1979, the chemical engineering de partment decided to enlarge its efforts in bioengineer ing to include biochemical engineering New faculty with different, yet complementary, interests were re cruited to enlarge the scope of our existing biomedical research activities. Currently, our program has six faculty members and is expected to increase to a total of nine over the next five to ten years. Over the past four years, we have averaged four graduating PhD s in biochemical and biomedical engineering, which is approximately half of our total department PhD graduates (40 for the four-year period). Six of the re cent graduates currently hold Assistant Professor po sitions in chemical engineering departments around the country. Approximately ha l f of o u r total chemica l engineering department graduate students are work ing on bioengineering thesis topics. T h e philosop h y of our program is to create a n e n v i ronment which will provide basic training in engineer ing principles and life sciences, and to prepare our students to meet new challenges in the process as pects of biotechnology. Three engineering options are currently offered: one is a five year undergraduate program, leading to a degree of Master of Engineering with emp h asis in bioengineering; the second program leads to a PhD degree in chemica l engineer in g; t h e 0 Copyright ChE Di vision ASEE 19 89 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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third is a joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine which leads to a MD / MS or MD/PhD degree. The professional Master of Engineering Degree in biochemical engineering (non-thesis) i s designed to provide chemical engineering st udents with funda mental training in biochemistry, microbiology, and molecul ar biology Students enrolled in this program not only have to fulfill core requirements in chemical engineering, but also have to fulfill certain require ments offered in the Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology including extensive laboratory work. The five-year structure appears to be necessary to give sufficient breadth. However students can obtain a four year Bachelors Degree if they are interested in going directly into graduate research or into a medical school option. Approximately one-third of our current chemical engineering se niors are enrolled in the biochemical engineering option. The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in chemical en gineering under the Biochemical and Biomedical En gineering program follows a philosophy similar to that of the Masters degree. Students enrolled in this pro gram, apart from fulfilling the basic PhD require ments set forward by the Department of Chemical Engineering, are also required to take a sequence of advanced courses from the life science departments, either on campus or from the two medical sc hools lo cated in the Texas Medical Center, which i s adjacent to the Rice campus. Typical examples would include cell biology molecular biology, and immunology. The MD/MS or MD/PhD joint programs are de signed to provide educational experiences of high quality leading to research careers in medicine. These programs offer a unique combination of professional medical training with rigorous study in science or enKa-Yiu San is an assistant professor at Rice University. He received his BS degree in chemical engineering from Rice Univer sity and his MS and PhD degrees from Cali fornia Institute of Technology Larry V. McIntire is the E.D Butcher Professor of Chemical and Biomedical En gineering at Rice University He is also di rector of the John W Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of the Bio sciences/Bioengineering Institute of Rice. He received his BChE and MS degrees in chemical engineering from Cornell Univer sity and his PhD degree from Princeton University FALL 1989 FIGURE 2 Organizational Structure Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute i Laboratory for Basic Medical Science Diredor: G.J Schroepfer Eng in eer ing Faculty None i Laboratory for Biomedical En ineerin Director: L.V McIntire Assoc. Dir. J.L. Moake Engineering Faculty Chemic.al Engineering C.D Armoniade s J.D. Heffums L.V. Mclntre M.W.Glaci
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tise; and 3) to serve as an interface for expanded in teraction and collaboration between Rice University, the Texas Medical Center, NASA Johnson Space Center, private industries, and other research organi zations. The organizational structure of the newly formed Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute is shown in Figure 2. The Institute consists of three major laboratories, each of which pursues a distinct course of research. Faculty from the department of chemical engineering, depending on their research interests, will play an active role in two of these laboratories. The Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, led by Larry McIntire, concentrates on research re lated to diseases of the cardiovascular system. Cur rently, the laboratory consists of six faculty members from the department of chemical engineering and a number of adjunct professors from Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston (see Table 1). Close working reStaff T AB LE 1 Structure of Rice Biomedical Engineering Laboratory Larry V Mel ntire, PhD Director Joel L. Moake MD Associate Director Arnez J Washington Administrative Secretary Marcella Estrella Senior Research Technician Nancy Turner Research Technician Thomas W. Chow, PhD Senior Research Associate Mattias U Noller!, PhD Research Associate Colin B McKay, PhD Research Scientist Faculty C.D. Armeniades Professor Chemical Engineering J D. Hellums A.J Hartsook Professor Chemical Engineering L.V McIntire ED.Butcher Professor and Chairman, ChE M W Glacken Assistant Professor Chemical Engineering K.Y San Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering J.V Shanks Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering J W Clark Professor, Electrical Engineering H M. Bourland Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Adjunct Faculty from the Texas Medical Center C P Alfrey MD.PhD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology Baylor College of Medicine S G Eskin, PhD Associate Professor, Division of Surgery Baylor College of Medicine E. R. Hall, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Univer sity of Texas Medical School E C. Lynch, MD Associate Chairman, Division of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine D.A. Sears, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Baylor College of Medicine R T Solis, MD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Medicine Pulmonary Division, Methodist Hospital M M Udden, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Baylor College of Medicine K.K. Wu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Texas Medical School F M Yatsu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School 202 lationships have already been established between the Cox Laboratory and several of those at the Texas Medical Center. Both Professors McIntire and Hel lums are Adjunct Profe ssors in the Department of Medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Hous ton. A brief list of current research projects can be found in Table 2. The Laboratory for Biochemical and Genetic En gineering, headed by biochemistry professor Fred Rudolph will focus on areas such as genetics, im munology, protein engineering, molecular biology, microbiology, medicine, and agriculture. The mem bership of this laboratory will include faculty from various departments, including biochemistry and cell biology chemical engineering, and chemistry (Figure 2). The Laboratory of Basic Medical Sciences, with director George Schroepfer, has a major continuing research effort on understanding cholesterol metabolism. As noted above, a significant part of the enhance ment effort includes a new $24 million building which is being constructed to house the Biosciences/BioenTABLE 2 Bioengineering Research at Rice Principal Investigators Biomedical Projects J D. Hellums L.V McIntire J.L Moake J D Hellums L V McIntire L V McIntire effects of physical forces on vascular cells vascular wall strain effects on cell metabolism mass transfer in the microcirculation video microscopy analysis of blood cell-vessel wall interactions control of tissue plasminogen activator production by endothelial cells shear-induced von Willebrand factor aggregation of platelets new therapeutic strategies for Sickle Cell Anemia biochemical control of tumor metastasis C Armeniades biomechanics of eye tissue and control of healing J.W Clark cell modeling studies Bioreactor Projects M.W. Glacken metabolic control of mammalian cell culture reactors kinetics of antigen shedding from colon cancer cells adhesive interaction of mammalian cells K.Y San construction/characterization of new plasmid vectors dynamics of bioreactors in tranc:ent environments development of artifical intelligence-based control algorithms microgravity bioprocessing J V Shanks plant cell tissue culture re3ctors use of high field NMR for in vivo cell metabolism studies CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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gineering Institute. More than 22,000 square feet have been allocated to accommodate the chemical en gineering aspects of bioengineering. This building is expected to be completed and fully operational by the winter of 1990. CONC L UDING REMARK S In summary, these are exciting times at Rice Uni versity. The implementation of the new enhancement program is another big step toward the goal and com mitment of Rice University in striving for excellence in it s undergraduate and graduate education. In par ticular the formation of the Biosciences/Bioengineer ing Institute significantly enhances our biochemical and biomedical engineering program. It creates a unique environment which fosters close interactions between life scientists and engineers. The Institute will also serve as an effective administrative body in prol nfll_I_e_t_te_r_ s _______ __ STA T E OF THE UNIVERSITY 1 988 -1 989 To The Editor: The following is excerpted from a larger document, "Faculty Perceptions of the State of the University, 19881989 which was prepared for th e Faculty Senate at the University of Cincinnati. I chaired the committee which produced this report A university becomes too large when it can no longer provide members of the university community with the services or ambience they expect without amassing such complicated bureaucracies that they actually end up pre venting the very goals they are attempting to achieve. Steven Muller President of Johns Hopkins has said, "The major research university of today is a radically different institution than its predecessors of three or four decades ago. The most obvious difference is size There have now evolved in the United States between 50 and 100 major research universities that are megasize-numbering their students in tens of thousands, their faculty and adminis trative cadres in thousands, their buildings and their acreage in hundreds Most educators agree that "multiuniversity" is an apt description of the university of today. Twenty years ago Columbia University had three vice presidents and a budget of $136 million; now it has 12 and a budget of $619 million. The problem in managing such vast institu tions has led to what A. Bartlett Giamatti, former Presi dent of Yale, called the corporatization of the American FALL 1989 viding all the necessary logistical support to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration. More importantly, the potential barriers which often arise from distant phys ical locations of various departments across the cam pus will be removed by housing life scientists and en gineers under the same roof. As such, it will not only create an atmosphere which promotes interaction be tween the students and faculty from different disci plines, but will also provide opportunities for the en gineering students to work, side by side, with life sci entists from other research groups. We therefore firmly believe that our program provides a uniq u e and challenging educational environment. Students graduating from the bioengineering program will be well-equipped with fundamental training and will have had the necessary exposure in both engineering and life sciences for further professional development. D university, and then wrote, "One of the great inventi o ns of 20th century America, the private corp or ati o n, h as b gun to displace, as a formal structure and as a s tyle of management, the older ecclesiastical and a c a d emic structures and styles in which universities grew up." He suggests that the "collegial" style of shared d ecisi o n-mak ing has given way to the hierarchical style of big b u si ness While big institutions need capable administrat o rs, "too many people see themselves as managers first, aca demics second. They talk about strategy, not vision. Numbers replace rhetoric. An institution that on ce saw it self as connected to history now prides itself as 'at the cutting edge' The greatest subtle, unintended e ffect of these trends has been to split off the managers from the faculty If universities are becoming corporate at a time when contemporary corporations are de-layering and decentralizing, then there ought to be a symbolic less o n learned from recent corporate history American corpo rate executives often have acted as a privileged class, asking sacrifices of middle management, professionals and other workers, that upper management will not make While the rhetoric of corporate culture stresses the need to work together, the top executives stress effici e ncy and impose work rules and cost cutting measures. They vote themselves raises golden parachutes and bon u s e s, while workers at all levels are laid off. During the re cession years of 1981 to 1983, the compensation of chief executives nearly doubled while national unemployment passed the 11 % mark In symbolic contrast to these American management practices, Japanese executives in Con t inue d o n pag e 23 5 203

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A MULTIDISCIPLINARY COURSE IN BIOENGINEERING PAUL R. BIENKOWSKI, GARY S. SAYLER, GERALD W. STRANDBERG, GREGORY D. REED The University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 3799622 00 T HIS COURSE WAS first taught solely through the chemical engineering department (1985 thru 1987) under the quarter system and was called Microbiolog ical Process Engineering. During semester transition the course was expanded to fifteen weeks, and a six week laboratory was added. The course was then crosslisted in the departments of civil engineering (as an environmental course) and microbiology, and it was given a truly crossdisciplinary nature with the addi tion of faculty from those departments. It is presently a graduate course which is taught during the fall se me ste r every year, and it attracts first year graduate students and some seniors from chemical en gineering, enviro nmental engineering, and engineer ing sc ience and mechanics, in addition to life science graduate st udent s from microbiology, ecology, and the Masters program in biotechnology. The course is now part of the required curriculum for the Masters program in biotechnology. Figure 1 shows where the course (575) fits into the Paul R. Bienkowski is an associate pro fessor of chemical engineering at the Univer sity of Tennessee, and is a member of the Center for Environmental Biotechnology He received h is PhD in 1975 from the school of chemical engineering at Purdue University Gary S. Sayler is a professor of m ic robi ology and ecology, directs the UTK/ORNL Center for Environmental Biotechnology and is director of research for the Waste Manage ment Institute Center of Excellence at the Uni versity of Tennessee. He received his PhD in 197 4 from the department of bacteriology and biochemistry at the Un iv ersity of Idaho ChE/ENVR/MICRO 675 Microbial Systems Analysis _______ i ______ i i i ENVR 552 ChE 577 MICRO 670 Biological Treatment Theory Modeling and Design of Bioreactors and Bioreactor Systems Advanced Topics in Environmental Microbiology ChE 494 Special Problems j _____ ---1...i _____ ---'-i ____ i i ChE/ENVR / MICRO 575 Applied Microbiology and Bioengineering FIGURE 1. Core Courses in Bioengineering applied bioengineering curriculum at Tennessee. It serves as a prerequisite for courses in environmental engineering, chemical engineering, and microbiology which are offered during the spring semester. ENVR 552 is directed specifically at applications for waste water treatment; ChE 577 addresses the development of specific models for pure cultures and their applica tions for producing high value biotechnology products; Gerald W Strandberg is a staff scientist in the Chemical Technology Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and is an ad junct associate professor in the department of Microbiology at the University of Tennessee He received his PhD in bacteriology in 1966 from the Un iversit y of Wisconsin Gregory D. Reed is professor and head of the department of civil engineering at the University of Tennessee He received his PhD in environmental engineering from the Univer sity of Arkansas and has an active research and publication record. He has been active in sev eral professional societies and is currently the Chair of the Environmental Engineering Divi sion of the American Society of Civil Engin eers <1' Copyri g ht C hE D i v ision AS EE 1 989 204 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The primary objective of this course is to introduce the engineering students to bioengineering and to allow them to communicate effectively with students in the life sciences. In subsequent semesters the engineering students can develop strong backgrounds in microbiology biochemistry etc. by taking courses in the life sciences and by working on crossdisciplinary research projects ... Micro 670 is directed at understanding the microbial degradation and effects of toxic waste materials such as PCB's, P AH 's, and TCE's. These courses all have direct applications in all three disciplines. What is re quired is a common starting point and 575 meets that need. Chemical engineering seniors who take this course may elect to do an undergraduate thesis at the Center for Environmental Biotechnology during the spring semester. ChE 494 is used to give academic credit to these students for their research experience. Usually one or two students can be accommodated on center research projects each s pring and / or summer. ChE COURSE OBJECTIVES The undergraduate curriculum in chemical en gineering is very demanding and does not allow much room for alternate course selection by the student. Many new engineering graduate students with re search interests in bioengineering do not have suffi cient background and require additional course work before they can begin their research projects. These students could rapidly advance their knowledge base in this area by working with graduate students from the life sciences (in environments like Tennessee's Center for Environmental Biotechnology) if only they could communicate effectively with the life science students, i.e., speak the language of a microbiologist. For example, there are different meanings for CSTR and chemostate, and the different way kinetic data is interpreted (the engineer's dynamic approach vs. the static approach of the life scientist). The primary ob jective of this course is to introduce the engineering students to bioengineering and to allow them to com municate effectively with students in the life sciences. In subsequent semesters the engineering students can develop strong backgrounds in microbiology, biochem istry, etc., by taking courses in the life sciences and by working on crossdisciplinary research projects or doing a ChE 494 senior research project in this area. ChE 575 provides the base from which to start the educational experience it provides the basic back ground to start graduate research, and it feeds into more advanced biotechnology courses in several dis ciplines. Most engineering students have no experience in a microbiology laboratory and do not have the time or the background to take a microbiology lab. ChE 575 FALL 1989 had a mandatory six-week laboratory which is specif ically designed to give engineering students hands-on experience with the basic day-to-day laboratory prob lems faced by a microbiologist, such as sterilization, culture purity, analytic methods, e tc. It is much easier to communicate with students and faculty in the life sciences, and to interact in crossdisciplinary research projects, if the engineering students are familiar with the problems faced by their counterparts in the life sciences. The third objective was to improve com munications and to gain new insight by interacting and exchanging ideas. COURSE STRUCTURE Table 1 gives a detailed outline of the material cov ered in this course. Basic biochemistry and microbiolPeriod 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 TABLE 1 Course Outline Time (hrs) Topic 1.5 Introduction/Overview of Biotechnology 1 5 Biochemistry 1 5 Microbiology Physiology 1 5 Microbiology Physiology 1.5 Stoichiometry (mass and energy balances) 1.5 Enzyme Kinetics 3.0 Lab #1: Basic Microbiology Techniques 3.o Enzyme Kinetics / Lab # 1 3 0 Lab #2 : Cell Growth 3.o Growth Kinetics/ Lab #2 1.5 Reactor Analysis 1 5 Continuous Culture 3 0 Lab #3 : Enzyme Kinetics 3 o Continuous Culture I Lab #3 3 0 Lab #3: Enzyme Kinetics 3 o Cell/Enzyme Immobilization/ Lab #3 3.0 Lab #4 : Enzyme Immobilization 3 o Metabolic Pathways/ Lab #4 3.0 Lab#5 : Continuous Culture 3.o Metabolic Pathways/Modeling I Lab #5 1.5 Sanitary I Virology 1.5 Mid Term Examination 1.5 Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA 1 5 Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA 1 5 Biosensors 1 5 Commercial Processes 1 5 Biodegradation / Deterioration 1 5 Wastewater Treatment 1 5 Wastewater Treatment 2 0 Final Examination 'Spilt period : 1 5 hours of lab 1 5 hours of lecture 205

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ogy are covered, then reaction kinetics followed by lectures on important specialized topics in bioen gineering s uch as immobilization, biosensors and re combinate DNA. The course concludes with discus sions on specific applications which lead into ChE 575, ENVR 552 and MICRO 670. The text book is Ele ments of Bioenvironmental Engineering, by A. L. Gaudy and E. Gaudy This book was selected because it gives good coverage of the desired material and is very readable from both an engineering and a life sci ence standpoint (one of the authors is an engineer and the other is a microbiologist). The coverage of biochemistry and microbiology i s such that an en gineering student can read and understand the mate rial with essentiall y no background while the mathemati c s describing enzyme and growth kinetics and continuous reactors is kept on a level which can TABLE 2 Description of Laboratory Experiments Laboratory #1: Basic Microbi ology Techniques Students are provided with cultures of E. coli Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes Both live and stained (gram, methylene blue) organisms will be examined microscopically The students will also do plate counts and sugar utilization tests. Objective Teach basic laboratory protocols to the engineering students. Laboratory #2: Growth and Substrate Utilization Growth and substrate utilization of B subtilis will be examined in batch culture. Growth will be determined by optical density, dry weight and plate count measurements. Substrate (glucose) utiliza tion is monitored by din~rosalycylic acid ( DNS) assay for reducing sugars. The cells will be saved for use in Laboratory #3 Objectives Determine typical batch growth and substrate utilization curves and teach measurement methods. Laboratory #3: Enzyme Kinetics Examine the kinetics of glucose isomerase in B subtilis and S. phaeochromogenes using whole cells ObJectlves Determine the Michalis parameters Km and Vmax, the effects ol temperature and pH, and substrate spectticity Laboratory #4: lmmob/1/zatlon/Klnetlcs of lmmob/1/zed Enzymes Immobilize glucose isomerase (whole cells ol B subtilis) using cal cium alginate, and perform kinetic studies Objectives Teach a method for immobilization of cells/enzymes and determine the effects immobilization has on enzyme kinetics Laboratory #5: Continuous Culture (demonstration) A continuous culture fermentation system will be set up and oper ated by the TA The students will measure optical density cell dry weight and glucose isomerase activity. Objective Determine max, the yield constant, and washout. 206 be handled by the life science students. Two faculty are present at all lectures, one from engineering and the other from the life sciences. One of the faculty will lecture and the other will be present to stimulate dis cussion and insure that both engineering and life sci ence viewpoints are taken into consideration when dis cussing the various topics. Engineers and life scien tists frequently look at the same problem from vastly different viewpoints, and combining these approaches frequently gives a better insight into the problem. LABORATORY Table 2 gives a brief description of the five exper iments which comprise the laboratory. Gerald Strandberg is in charge of the laboratory and is sup ported by a teaching assistant from the Masters pro gram in biotechnology. The course has the use of the biotechnology laboratory in the Walters Life Science building which is dedicated to the Masters program in biotechnology (experiments do not have to be termi nated at the end of a laboratory period). The lab is conducted for six weeks, with four and one-half hours of instruction in the laboratory each week. Extra lab time is available to the students by making arrange ments with the teaching assistant. Each lab group is composed of one engineering student and one life sci ence student. Because most of the engineering stu dents do not have experience in a microbiology labora tory, pairing them with other life science students is a most effective way for the engineering student to learn basic laboratory techniques on a one-on-one basis. At the same time the engineering student can assist his/her lab partner in designing experiments and in analysis and interpretation of the experimental data (modeling data and using models for data in terpretation). CONCLUDING REMARKS This course is very effective in serving as a focal point for bringing people together from different back grounds and in effectively and rapidly introducing en gineering students to the biotechnology area. The microbiology laboratory is a unique addition to a chemical engineering course which allows both first year graduate students and seniors a hands-on experi ence. The course is an effective vehicle for preparing chemical engineering graduate students for research projects in the biotechnology area. It not only gives them the background to communicate with life science students in collaborating on joint research, but also prepares them for more advanced course work in this area. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Random Thoughts ... GOOD CO P / BAD COP Embracing Contraries in T ea ching RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 I've come to suspect that whenever any ability is difficult to learn and rarely performed well, it s probably because contraries are called for patting the head and rubbing the belly. Thus, good writing is hard because it means trying to be creative and critical; good teaching is hard because it means trying to be ally and adversary of students; good evaluation is hard because it means trying to be subjective and objective; good intelligence is rare because it means trying to be intuitive and logical So says Peter Elbow in Embracing Contraries [1], perhaps the best book I've ever read on teaching. The theme of the book should resonate in the minds of all engineering professors Most of us are often frustrated, feeling ourselves pulled in opposite directions. We want to be good teachers and good researchers, but don't see how we can do both given the finite number of hours in a day. We want to provide good educational experiences for our graduate students, which means letting them do some floundering and learning by experience, but we also need to produce results quickly for our funding agencies, which requires giving detailed directions. We want to be good department citizens, helping carry our share of the inevitable burden of committees, recruiting, etc., but we also need to maximize the time we spend on the things that get us tenure promotions and raises. It feels as though we have to be both particles and waves simultaneously, and we don't know how: we can either be excellent particles and lousy waves, or vice versa, or do a mediocre job of both. Among the dilemmas inherent in our profession is that of trying to be supportive of our students while maintaining rigorous academic standards. I can't improve on what Elbow has to say on the subject, so I'll let him do most of the talking. The two conflicting mentalities needed for good teaching stem from the two con/Zicting obligations inherent in the job : we have an obligation to students but we also have an obligation to knowledge and society Our loyalty to students asks us to be their allies and hosts as we instruct and share: to invite all students to enter in and join us as members of a learning community-even if they have difficulty. Our commitment to students asks us to assume they are all smart and capable of learning, to see things through their eyes, to help bring out their best rather than their worst when :> Copyrig h t C h E D i vi sion AS E E 1989 FALL 1989 it comes to tests and grades. By taking this inviting stance we will help more of them learn. But our commitment to knowledge and society asks us to be guardians or bouncers : we must discriminate, evaluate, test grade, certify We are invited to stay true to the inherent standards of what we teach, whether or not that stance fits the particular students before us. We have a responsibility to society-that is, to our discipline, our college or university, and to other learning communities of which we are members-to see that the students we certify really understand or can do what we teach, to see that the grades and credits and degrees we give really have the meaning or currency they are supposed to have. Unfortunately, we can't play both roles si multaneously Elbow's solution is to alternate between them Start a course by spelling out requirements and grading criteria; think about handing out a representative final exam at the beginning of the course, with examples of strong and weak solutions Then, [Having done that] I can more easily go on to .. turn around and schizophrenically start being a complete ally of students I have been wholehearted and enthusiastic in making tough standards, but now I can say, "Those are the specific criteria I will use in grading; that s what you are up against, that's really me But now we have most of the semester for me to help you attain those standards, do well on those tests and papers. They are high standards but I suspect all of you can attain them if you work hard. I will function as your ally. I'll be a kind of lawyer for the de fense, helping you bring out your best in your battles with the other me, the prosecuting-attorney me when he emerges at the end. And if you really think you are too poorly prepared to do well in one semester, I can help you decide whether to trust that negative judgment and decide now whether to drop the course or stay and learn what you can." Elbow suggests a number of ways to provide the recommended support. One would be effective in small classes or larger classes with student graders: One of the best ways to function as ally or coach is to role play the enemy in a supportive setting. For example, one can give practice tests where the grade doesn't count, or give feedback on papers which the student can revise before they count for credit. This gets us out of the typically counterproductive situation where much of our commentary on papers and exams is really justification for the grade--0r is seen that way. Our attempt to help is experienced by students as a slap on the wrist by an adversary for what they have done wrong. No wonder students so often fail to heed or learn from our C ont inue d o n pag e 2 41 207

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A Course in .. CELLULAR BIOENGINEERING DOUGLASA.LAUFFENBURGER University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393 A COMMONLY-ASKED question in these days of modern biotechnology is, ''What is the distinction between biochemical engi neering and biomedical en gineering as they are traditionally understood?" Cer ta inl y, in applications this distinction still seems clear-biochemical engineering relates to the biopro cessing industry, while biomedical engineering relates to the health care industry. At the level of fundamen tals, though, there is a blurring of such a demarcation. Both areas heavily involve investigation of topics in e ukaryotic cell biology such as cell behavioral phenom ena (e.g., growth, adhesion, differentiation, protein synthesis, and secretion), monoclonal antibodies, re ceptors, and gene manipulation. The major difference is that for the bioprocessing industry these topics are of interest as far as they underlie understanding of bioreactor and bioseparation performance, while for the health care industry they are of interest for their relevance to physiological function. It should be further noted that the purpose of much of the bio process industry is, in fact, to provide products for use in the health care industry, completing the circle. In making sense of the application of chemical en gineering to the modern life sciences, one needs to define particular engineering subdisc iplin es on the basis of the particular life science disciplines to which the engineering science principles are applied. Using this view, traditional biochemical engineering has been primarily based on biochemistry and microbiol ogy, while traditional biomedical engineering has been largely based on physiology. With the advent of the modern life science disciplines of molecular biology and cell biology, it will probably be u se ful to define a With the advent of the modern life science disciplines of molecular biology and cell biology, it will probably be useful to define a new subdiscipline with a name something like Molecular/Cellular Bioengineering" .. I!:> Co pyrigh t C hE D ivision ASEE 19 8 9 208 Douglas A. Lauffenburger is currently Professor and Chairman of the D e p artment of Chemical Engineering, and a member of the Gradua _te Group in Cell Biology, at the University of Pennsylvania He is the r ecipie n t of an NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award, an NIH Research Career Development Aw a rd the AIChE Alan P Colburn Aw ard, and a Guggenheim Fellowship His major research focus has been in the area of receptor mediated ce ll ph enomena new engineering subdiscipline with a name something like "Molecular / Cellu lar Bioengineering," which is en gineering applied to molecular cell biology. Chemical engineering will be the predominant engineering dis cipline involved, because of the fundamentally chemi cal nature of molecules and cells. It may be of interest to briefly consider the histori cal context of this current situation. Cell biology es sentially began in the 1940s with the invention of the electron microscope, which permitted intracellular structure of eukaryotic (e.g., animal) cells to be studied. Molecular biology, of course, began in the early 1950s with the discovery of the molecular nature of the genetic code. A marriage between these two mainly in the area of animal cell biology (because of their mo:e complex structure/function relationships), evolved m the 1970s as particular molecules involved in the cell structures responsible for cell function came to be isolated, identified, and manipulated in a reliable manner. This marriage has led to the emergence of modern cell biology, often called "molecular cell biol ogy," in which cells-again primarily animal cells can be st udied in rigorous fashion from a molecular perspective. In the past ten years this field has achieved a position at the forefront of the life sciences in general and of biotechnology in particular. Probably every university in the country has at least one course based on textbooks like Molecular Cell Biology, by Darnell, et al or Molecular Biology of the Cell by Alberts, et al in its life science departments. All of this is a preface to explain why we have begun to offer a course in chemical engineering at Penn entitled "Cellular Bioengineering." In this CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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course, we deal with how chemical engineering princi ples can be gainfully applied to modern molecular cell biology We focus on fundamental molecular and cellu lar phenomena rather than on particular applications; thus, this course is helpful to students interested in either the bioprocess industry or the health care in dustry, or both. Basing the material on research done primarily during the past decade we present quan titative analyses of cell physiological phenomena in terms of the underlying principles of chemical reaction kinetics, transport phenomena, thermodynamics, and mechanics. These sorts of analyses shou ld, in my opin ion prove to be very helpful in the coming years as knowledge of molecular bases of cellular processes needs to be synthesized into understanding the larger context of cell function. There is a special emphasis on mammalian blood and tissue cell behavior mediated by the interaction between chemical ligands and cell receptors, which are glycoproteins typically located in the cell mem brane responsible for stimulation and regulation of most important cell funtions (including growth, adhe sion, migration, and secretion). The reason for this is that to date there has been little treatment of this aspect of cell function by biochemical engineers rela tive to its prominence in molecular cell biology. One can crudely view cell function as an interplay among three key aspects. First, the genetic aspect repre sents what functions a cell is capable of Only a small portion of this potential is expressed at any given point in time. Second the enzymatic aspect repre sents what functions a cell is actually carrying out at a given point in time. Which functions are being car ried out depends on what genes are being expressed as well as the levels of gene expression and enzyme activity. So, the missing link is what governs gene expression and enzyme activity. Although all of this is oversimplification for purposes of clarity, to a large extent gene express ion and enzyme activity are regu lated by intracellular signals generated by ligand / re ceptor binding interactions. Receptors basically pos sess two central properties: they are capable of selec tive binding to specific chemical ligands and they are capable of transducing this binding event into intracel lular biochemical signals These signals then lead to regulation of gene expression and enzyme activity. Most chemical engineering departments, including our own, currently offer biochemical engineering courses that treat enzyme reactions and gene expression from chemical reaction engineering and transport phenom ena perspectives, so it is this third aspect of cell reg ulation and resulting cell function that requires addi tional attention. FALL 1989 In this course ... we focus on fundamental molecular and cellular phenomena rather than on particular applications .. thus (the course) is helpful to students interested in either the bioprocess industry or the health care industry, or both. The outline currently used is as follows: I. Ileceptor!Ligand Binding and Signal Transduction A. Monovalent binding and apparent cooperativity effects B. Multivalent binding and cross linking C. Transport limitations D. Probabilistic considerations E. Signal transduction and second messengers II. Intracellula r Protein Trafficking A. Endocytosis B. Intracellular sorting C. Protein synthesis and secretion III. Cell Proliferation A Cell cycle kinetics B Growth factor regulation C Cell density effects IV. Cell Adhesion A. Thermodynamic models B Mechanical models C. Dynamical models V. Cell Migration A. Cell population behavior B. Individual cell bahavior C. Mechanistic models There is no required text for this course, but the previously mentioned molecular cell biology texts are referred to often for background reading. More spe cific readings in the research literature, frequently in cluding recent comprehensive review articles as well as original research papers, are regularly assigned. Problem sets are also distributed weekly, allowing the s tudent to work out examples of mathematical models and analyses of the various phenomena considered in class. Most importantly, there is a term project in which the student is asked to develop his or her own original mathematical model for a phenomenon of per sonal interest and to apply an analysis of this model to relevant experimental data in the literature. In order to provide a better picture of the course contents I will now go on to present a brief overview of the vario u s topics covered, based on the key litera ture read and discussed in class. To begin with, a broad foundation of background reading in Darnell et al., or Alberts, et al., is assigned, including chapters 1, 5, 6, 7 14, and 15 in the former or chapters 1 4, 6, 7, and 10 in the latter. Most of this material is dealt with in detail later, but some of the early chapters are 209

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necessary for the student to put particular phenomena into overall context. The first section of the course looks at fundamen tals of receptor/ligand binding and signal transduction processes. Good background, especially on common experimental techniques and typical pitfalls is pro vided by chapters three through six in a book by Lim burd entitled C e ll S u rfac e R e cepto r s: A Sho rt Co ur s e on Th e ory and M e thods. The relevant portions of the basic texts are chapters 15 and 16 in Darnell e t al. and chapter 13 in Alberts, e t al. Simple monovalent receptor and ligand binding equilibrium and kinetic properties are a good place to start, for much of the mathematical analysis is reminiscent of enzyme kine tics, quite familiar to many chemical engineering stu dents. The well-known equilibrium Scatchard plot is introduced, a plot of the ratio of bound ligand to free ligand versus bound ligand with consequent simple determination of binding equilibrium constant and re ceptor number from the slope and ordinate-intercept. Complications inherent in correct interpretation of this plot are immediately presented as described nicely by Limburd's book and in some papers by Klotz [1] which include improper consideration of nonspe cific ligand binding, neglect of ligand depletion, and lack of data at sufficiently high ligand concentration Modern numerical parameter estimation methods can sometimes be gainfully applied as described by Mun son and Rodbard [2], Munson [3-4) and DeLeon et al. [5]. The latter paper helpfully discusses limitations of these methods, using computer simulation compari sons. Of course more fundamental complications fre quently arise from the presence of other effects, in cluding multiple receptor or ligand subpopulations (es pecially with radioactively or fluorescently labeled ligand), multivalency (allowing possible cooperativity effects), and additional receptor processes such as aggregation, internalization, and covalent modifica tion, which may all result upon ligand binding. These various phenomena generally result in apparent changes in binding affinity with ligand concentration, often referred to as cooperativity. Examples and cor responding analyses of these can be found in the re search literature. As examples, the following papers are useful references: receptor subpopulations, Smith [6]; covalent modification, de Wit and Bulgakov [7]; aggregation in ternary complexes, Gex-Fabry and De Lisi [8]; and affinity conversion, Lipkin, et al. [9). Cell surface aggregation effects, especially when multiva lent receptors and ligands are involved, can lead to a variety of complications, and also appear to be central to many signal transduction processes. Good example references in this area from a vast literature can in210 elude DeLi s i and Chabay [10) Perelson and DeLisi [11), and Dembo and Goldstein [12). In all of these analyses, reaction rate s of receptor / ligand binding and dis s ociation are central. It is not surprising to chemical engineers that often these rates can be tran s port-limited. In these s ort s of situation s involving a finite number of discrete receptor sites spatially di s tributed on the cell s urface transport limitations can lead to unanticipated effect s The sem inal paper in thi s a rea i s by Berg and Purcell [13) which demonstrates the nonlinear dependence of over all binding and dissociation rate constants on the re ceptor surface density. Improved mathematical treat ments have followed, such as DeLisi and Wiegel [14), Brunn [15), and Shoup and Szabo [16) permitting generalization to more complicated situations. The key result, however, is that the rate constants for binding or dissociation p er rece ptor can not be calcu lated simply by dividing the rate s on a per ce ll basi s by the receptor density when ligand diffusion is rate limiting Transport limitation s can also lead to fal s e indications of cooperative binding phenomena. A very interesting example of this is given by Wiley [17). Al though ligand diffusion in free solution to the cell sur face is often not rate-limiting for receptor/ligand bind ing, receptor diffusion within the cell membrane is generally rate-limiting for receptor aggregation Good treatments of this include Goldstein e t a l [1 8 ) and Keizer e t al. [19) An interesting consideration not typically relevant to chemical engineering problems is that of probabilis tic effects. That is, most chemical reaction models as sume deterministic behavior due to statistical averag ing over very large numbers of molecules. Since re ceptor densities are usually in the range of 1( )3 to 10 6 per cell, since behavioral response s can depend on amplification of e x ceedingly s mall s ignal s and since experimental observations are often made on the basis of small numbers of cells or even individual cells, sig nal noise can be quite significant and is sometimes the key to proper understanding of the behavior. Mathe matical discussions of this aspect can be found in Berg and Purcell [13), and in DeLisi e t al. [20) and Lauffen burger and DeLisi [21). Stimulating cell biological examples in which it is relevant include inheritance of behavior-regulating proteins [22) cytoskeletal assem bly [23) and cell migration [24,25). An extremely helpful source of fundamental mathematical concepts here is the book by Gardiner, Handbook of Sto c hastic Methods There is not much analysis available on signal transduction events following receptor/ligand binding. The most heavily studied system is that of the so-called C HEMI C AL EN G INEERING EDU C ATION

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"G-proteins" and cyclic AMP generation as an intracel lular second messenger. Useful examples detailing mathematical models and analysis of quantitative ex perimental data include Higashijima, et al. [26] and Rapp, et al. [27]. The second section of the course deals with reac tion and transport processes involving cell receptors and other proteins beyond cell surface events. These "trafficking" processes include internalization of re ceptors and receptor/ligand complexes, sorting of these molecules in intracellular organelles-with con sequent recycling of some to the cell surface and de gradation of others intracellularly, and synthesis and secretion of proteins through intracellular routes. In addition to the Darnell, et al., and Alberts, et al., background, good review articles exist: Steinman, et al. [28] and Wiley [29] are among the best. The latter, in fact, provides a good mathematical modeling treat ment along with biological basics. Trafficking process es can have a dramatic influence on both receptor / ligand tlinding dynamics and on signal transduction and behavioral responses. Biological examples of these consequences can be found in Wiley and Cun ningham [30], Zigmond, et al. [31], and Myers, et al. [32], with more general mathematical analyses in Gex Fabry and DeLisi [33] and Beck and Goren [34]. A major implication is that at temperatures allowing trafficking processes, receptor/ligand binding dynam ics cannot be interpreted simply using Scatchard plot methods. Although the biochemical mechanisms are only now emerging, possibly helpful models and anal yses of the crucial intracellular sorting step have been presented [35, 36]. Finally, it is becoming clear that the trafficking mechanisms involved in protein synthe sis and secretion in eukaryotic cells are likely to be quite similar to those involved in endocytic protein uptake. There is no mathematical analysis of this pro cess available to date, but a suggestive recent review of experimental observations is given by Burgess and Kelly [37]. With this understanding of fundamental receptor / ligand processes, one can move on to analysis of re sulting cell behavioral phenomena. In this course, we focus on three: proliferation, adhesion, and migration, although there are others presently not as well studied, such as secretion and differentiation. These three phenomena comprise the next three sections of the course. In the area of cell proliferation, the background in Darnell, et al., is pages 147-154 192-200, 517-524, and 1035-1046, and in Alberts, et al., is Chapter 11. An excellent reference text is Baserga, The Biology of Cell Reproduction. The focus of our presentation is FALL 1989 the regulation of cell proliferation by receptor mediated growth factor sig nals, with a good recent review provided by Deuel [38]. To begin this section, however, context is provided by some discussion of more general models for cell cycle kinetics s u c h as Takahashi [39], Fried [40], and Aroesty, et al. [41]. A good reference for this sort of model is by Swan, Some Current Mathemat ical Topics in Cancer Research, and a useful review can be found in Bertuzzi, et al. [ 42]. Useful background information on nutrient ef fects on mammalian cell proliferation kinetics can be found in McKeehan and McKeehan [43], and some re cent quantitative work i s also available on this subject [44, 45]. A fair ly rigorous an a lysis, distinguishing ef fect s on the cycling r a te of proliferating cells from those on the fraction of cells proliferating, can be found in Cowan and Morri s [46]. It seems that it is more likely that the latter quantity is typically growth rate controlling, as the cycling rate of proliferating cells is fairly const a nt. Effects of growth factor bind ing and trafficking on overall proliferation rate is a crucial topic, one of great current activity. A superb starting point is the work by Knauer, et al. [ 47], who were able to demonstrate a linear dependence of cell prolifer a tion rate on the steady state number of growth factor/receptor complexe s for human fibro blasts responding to epidermal growth factor. Further effects of trafficking on the degree of proliferative re sponsiveness have been analyzed by Lauffenburger, et al. [ 48], indicating that there may be an important relationship. Although there is little additional work along these lines available to date it is a major prem ise of this course that understanding of cell prolifera tion phenomena probably including most empirically observed effects like serum requirements, attachment requirements, contact inhibition, and inoculum cell density requirements, will require quantitative analysis of receptor-mediated behavior. One example of this is the interpret a tion of cell inoculum density requirements in terms of possible autocrine (self-re leased) growth factors [49], and more can be expected to come along in the near future. A couple of notewor thy papers not directly concerned with growth factor regulation, but providing related important models of eukaryotic cell proliferation, are Alt and Tyson [50] and Cherry and Papoutsakis [51]. The first paper deals with probabilistic aspects of a critical cell cycle regulatory species in yeast growth, which in many ways is a good model system for intracellular control mechanisms of mammalian cell growth. The second paper shows how simple geometric considerations can influence net cell population growth on surfaces w h en proliferation is "contact-inhibited." 211

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In the area of cell adhesion, appropriate back ground reading on receptor aspects are reviews by Yamada [52] and by Buck and Horwitz [53]. A seminal paper laying out the biophysical fundamentals is that by Bell [54]. There are two central underlyin g issues for engineering analysis. One is how to model a recep tor/ligand bond, especially in regard to the effects of mechanical stress on its kinetic and equilibrium prop erties. Another is how the variety of forces present act on cell mechanical properties to yield a contact area, within which the two surfaces are in sufficiently close contact to permit receptor/ligand bonds to form. Most analytical efforts are based in so me manner on Bell 's concepts and can be divided into two major categories: equilibrium models and dynamic models. In the first category there are additionally two chief types, mechanical and thermodynamic. A large number of papers based on equilibrium thermo dynamic models have been published; good represen tatives are Bell [55], Bell, et al. [56], and Torney, et al. [57]. The mechanical models are principally by Evans [58]. Both of these types of models attempt to predict the strengt h of equilibrium adhesion, with the primary goal of determining influence of various sys tem parameters on the force required to detach a cell adhered to a surface or another cell. (It should be mentioned that there is a vast literature on cell adhe sion based on s urface energy ideas, a recent example being by van Oss [59]. Howev er, these do not easily incorporate specific biochemical receptor/ligand ef fects and so are largely neglected in this course). There ha s been much le ss work to date on dynamical models, exceptions being Hamm er and Lauffenburger [60] and Dembo et al. [61]. The former deals with kinetics of a cell encountering a potentially-adhesive surface in the pre se nce of fluid s hear flow, and at tempts to predict the conditions under which adhesion will occur. The latter focuses on the dynamic behavior of a cell maintained near such a surface, with the chief result being prediction of a steady-state cell rolling velocity in fluid shear flow. As mentioned earlier, an important aspect of cell adhesion is the cell mechanical properties; a helpful reference on this topic is by Dong, et al. [62]. Good background reading on the topic of cell migra tion can be found in books by Lackie (Cell Movement and Cell Behavior), Trinkaus (Cells into Organs: The Forc es that Shape the Embryo), and Wilkinson (Chemotaxis and I nflammation) Three major as pects are treated in this course. The first topic is the development of mathematical models for cell popula tion migration behavior, including chemotaxis. There is a substantial literature in this area, with the follow212 ing being the most significant papers: Patlack [63], Keller and Segel [64], Alt [65], Lauffenburger [66], and Othmer et al [67]. These provide cell flux expres sions analogou s to diffusion/convection equations for molecular transport, and relate cell population trans port parameters (the random motility coefficient and chemotaxis coefficient) to fundamental individual cell parameters (speed, persistence time, directional bias). These expressions can be u sed to analyze cell migra tion experimental assays for determination of the val ues of the population parameters, as in Tranquillo, et al. [68] and Buettner et al. [69]. The second topic i s analysis of individual cell path s for quantification of the fundamental parameters. The central papers in this area are Nossa! and Zigmond [70], Dunn [71], Dunn and Brown [72] and Othmer, et al. [73]. The last topic is an especially timely and difficult issue-the biochemical/biophysical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Useful biological reviews are Bretscher [74] and Singer and Kupfer [75] on membrane and cytoplasmic processes, and Devreotes and Zigmond [76] on chemosensory proce sses. Important basic in formation on cell-generated forces can be found in Harris [77]. Concerning mathematical models of these phenomena, there are a number of efforts toward analysis of the rate of pseudopodal extension, which is the first step in locomotion. Among these are Oster and Perelson [78], and Zhu and Skalak [79]. The former emphasizes hydrostatic and osmotic forces in generating membrane protrusion and cytoplasmic flow, while the latter focuses on cytoskeletal assem bly. Insufficient information exists to definitively dis tinguish between these two hypotheses, although cir cumstantial data demonstrating influence of extracel lular osmotic levels on membrane protrusions favor the former at this point. Oster [80] provides an ex tremely useful discussion of the various forces in volved, including membrane mechanics, but without mathematical analysis. An insightful model relating overall cell locomotion rate to receptor distribution along the cell membrane is by Dembo, e t al. [81]. This model does not, however, attempt to predict move ment speed from cell-generated forces a most daunt ing but important goal. An extremely crude prelimi nary attempt at doing just this is offered by Lauffen burger [82]. Finally, Tranquillo, e t al. [83] provides a model not for the rate of locomotion, but for the direc tion based on a simple model of receptor-mediated signal transduction including probabilistic effects. This model successfully predicts cell paths in the pre sence and absence of chemical attractant concentra tion gradients. If time permits, which it probably will not, one can CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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go on to discuss papers which incorporate these sorts of models for fundamental cell behavioral phenomena into analyses of physiological phenomena. There is a vast literature on models of the immune response (see, for example, Perelson [ed.], Theoretical Immunol ogy). Other interesting and important processes which have received less extensive analysis to date include angiogenesis [84] and wound healing [85]. This article has been an attempt to provide a sup erficial overview of topics that can be profitably treated from the perspective of chemical engineering applied to modern molecular cell biology, along with some key references to guide the treatment. There is no question that this field will both grow and change tremendously over the next few years, but I hope that this article will be of some help to anyone wishing to study in this area. Finally I would like to express my gratitude to a number of students who have been of substantial help in teaching this course: Helen Buettner Paul DiMilla, Daniel Hammer Jennifer Linderman, Bob Tranquillo, Cynthia Starbuck, and Flaura Winston. Their partici pation and special insights have made this an excep tionally stimulating course. REFERENCES 1. Klotz, Science, 217, 1247 (1982) and Quart. Rev Biophys., 18,227 (1985) 2. Munson and Rodbard, Analyt Biochem ., 107 220 (1980) 3 Munson, J. Receptor Res. 3,249 (1983) 4. Munson, Meth. Enzymol., 92, 543 (1983 ) 5 DeLeon, et al., Molec Parmacol 21, 5 (1982 ) 6 Smith, Science, 240, 1169 (1986) 7 de Witt and Bulgakov, Biochim Biophys Acta 886 76 (1986) 8 Gex-Fabry and DeLisi, Math. Biosci., 72, 245 ( 1984 ) 9. Lipkin, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 261, 1694 (1986) 10 DeLisi and Chabay, Cell Biophys., 1, 117 (1979) 11. Perelson and DeLisi, Math. Biosci., 48, 71 (1980) 12 Dembo and Goldstein, Cell, 22, 59 (1980) 13 Berg and Purcell, Biophys. J 20, 195 (1977) 14 DeLisi and Wiegel, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 5569 (1981) 15. Brunn, J. Biomech. Eng 103, 32 (1981) 16 Shoup and Szabo, Biophys. J., 40, 33 ( 1982 ) 17. Wiley, J. Cell Biol., 107 801 ( 1988 ) 18 Goldstein, et al., Proc. Natl Acad Sci USA 78 5695 ( 1981) 19. Keizer, et al., Biophys. J., 47, 79 (1985) 20. DeLisi, et al., Cell Biophys. 4, 211 (1982) 21. Lauffenburger and DeLisi, Intl. Rev. Cytol., 84, 269 (1983) 22. Spudick and Koshland, Nature, 262, 467 (1976) 23. Mitchison and Kirschner, Nature, 312, 232 (1984) 24. Tranquillo and LaufTenburger, Cell Biophys ., 8, 1 (1986) 25 Tranquillo and Lauffenburger, J. Math. Biol., 25, 229 (1987) 26 Higashijima, et al J. Biol. Chem 262, 752, 757, 762 (1987) FALL 1989 27 Rapp, et al., Math. Biosci., 77, 35, 79 (1985) 28. Steinman, et al., J. Cell Biol., 96, 1 (1985) 29 Wiley, Curr. Topics. Memb. Transp., 24, 369 (1985) 30. Wiley and Cunningham, Cell, 25,433 (1980) 31. Zigmond, et al., J. Cell Biol., 92, 34 (1982) 32. Myers, et al J. Biol Chem, 262 6494 (1987) 33. Gex-Fabry and DeLisi, Am. J. Physiol., 250, Rll23 (1986) 34. Beck and Goren, J Receptor Res ., 3, 561 (1983) 35 Linderman and Lauffenburger, Biophys. J., 50, 295 (1986) 36. Linderman and Lauffenburger, J. Theor. Biol., 132, 203 (1988) 37. Burgess and Kelly, Annu Rev Cell Biol., 3 243 (1987) 38. Deuel, Annu. Rev. Cell Biol., 3, 443 (1987) 39. Takahashi, J. Theor. Biol., 13, 202 (1966) 40. Fried, Math Biosci., 8, 379 (1970) 41. Aroesty, et al., Math. Biosci., 17, 243 (1973) 42. Bertuzzi, et al Math. Biosci., 53, 159 (1981) 43. McKeehan and McKeehan, J. Supramolec. Struct. Cell Biochem., 15, 83 (1981) 44. Miller et al., Biotech Bioeng., 33,477,487 (1989) 45. Glacken, et al., Biotech. Bioeng., 32, 491 (1988); 33, 440 (1989) 46. Cowan and Morris, Cell Tissue Kinetics, 20, 153 (1987) 4 7. Knauer, et al., J. Biol. Chem 25 9 5623 (1984) 48 Lauffenburger, et al., Ann NY Acad. Sci 50 6 147 (1987) 49. Lauffenburger and Cozens, Biotech. Bioeng 33, 1365 (1989) 50. Alt and Tyson Math. Biosci., 84, 159 (1987) 51. Cherry and Papoutsakis, Biotech. Bioeng 33, 300 (1989) 52. Yamada, Annu Rev Biochem., 52, 761 (1983) 53. Buck and Horwitz Annu Rev. Cell Biol., 3, 179 (1987) 54. Bell, Science, 200,618 (1978) 55. Bell, Cell Biophys., 1, 133 (1979) 56 Bell, et al., Biophys. J., 45, 1051 (1984) 57. Torney, et al., Biophys. J., 4 9 501 (1986) 58. Evans, Biophys. J., 48, 175, 185 (1985) 59 van Oss, Cell Biophys 14, 1 (1989) 60. Hammer and LaufTenburger, Biophys J., 52, 475 (1987) 61. Dembo, et al., Proc. Roy. Soc London B, 234, 55 (1988) 62. Dong, et al J. Biomech. Eng., 110, 27 (1988) 63. Patlack, Bull. Math. Biophys 15, 311 (1953) 64 Keller and Segel, J. Theor Biol 30, 25 (1971) 65. Alt, J. Math. Biol., 9, 147 (1980) 66 LaufTenburger, Agents and Actions Suppl. 3, 34 (1983) 67. Othmer, et al., J. Math Biol., 26, 263 (1988) 68. Tranquillo, et al., Cell Motility Cytoskel., 11 1 (1988) 69 Buettner, et al., AIChE J 35,459 (1989) 70 Nossa! and Zigmond, Biophys. J., 16 1171 (1976) 71. Dunn, Agents and Actions Suppl., 3, 14 (1983) 72. Dunn and Brown J. Cell Sci. Suppl., 8, 81 (1987) 73. Othmer, et al., J. Math. Biol., 26, 263 (1988) 74. Bretscher, Science, 224,681 (1984) 75. Singer and Kupfer, Annu. Rev. Cell Biol., 2, 337 (1986) 76 Devreotes and Zigmond Annu. Rev Cell Biol., 4, 649 ( 1988 ) 77. Harris, J. Biomech. Eng 106, 19 (1984) 78. Oster and Perelson, J. Math Biol., 21, 383 (1985); J Cell Sci. Suppl., 8, 35 (1987) 79. Zhu and Skalak, Biophys J., 54, 1115 (1988) 80. Oster, Cell Motility Cytoskel., 10, 164 (1988) 81. Dembo, et al., Cell Motility, 1, 205 (1981) 82 LaufTenburger, Chem Eng Sci in press (1989) 83 Tranquillo, et al. J. Cell Biol., 106, 303 (1988) 84 Balding and McElwain, J. Theor. Biol., 114, 53 (1985) 85 Murray, et al Phys. Leters, 171, 59 (1988) 0 213

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A course in .. PARTICULATE PROCESSES ALAN D. RANDOLPH University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 A USEFUL WORKING definition for particles (1) is, "that state of subdivision of matter whose shape depends on the process by which it was formed and on the intermolecular cohesive forces present." This def inition applies equally well for liquid droplets (spheri cal, maintained by surface tension) or crystalline sol ids having a geometric shape (e.g., cube, platelet, etc.) consistent with the crystalline structure and affected by the local molecular environment producing the crystal. This article describes a special topics graduate course (ChE-514) on particulate processes given fre quently by the author at the University of Arizona. The text for the course is Theory of Particulate Pro cesses: Anaylsis and Techniques of Continuous Crys tallization (2). The subtitle has been said to be more accurate in describing the book than the title, al though the second edition attempts to correct this im pression. The text was motivated by the necessity of collecting and organizing all the information on the Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) problem, which is cov ered extensively in the course Particulate Processes Thus, the course and text are nearly inseparable. ChE-514 is a "required" course for the writer's stu dents who are engaged in process crystallization re search. The course is given whenever the combination of graduate students needing to take it (ADR's) plus other graduate students desiring additional chemical engineering credit to fill out their graduate study proAlan D Randolph is a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Ari zona, where he has been since 1968 He re ceived his BChE at the University of Colorado (1956) and his PhD from Iowa State University (1962). He has an active research program in process crystallization and has consulted for numerous companies in this area TABLE 1 Course Topics for Particulate Processes Introduction and Motivation: The Importance of PSD/CSD Particle Distributions The Population Balance Modeling Continuous and Batch Crystallizers Crystallization Kinetics Crystal Size Responses for Continuous and Batch Crystallizers Reaction Engineering of CSD CSD Dynamics and Control gram, exceeds the minimum class enrollment for a graduate offering. The course unashamedly concen trates on process crystallization (and CSD) as the example par excellence to illustrate the predictive population balance theory of particulate processes for mally developed in the text. The writer attempts to maintain a reasonable balance of non-crystallization topics considering the background of those enrolled. COURSE OUTLINE Table 1 shows the subject outline of Particulate Processes. It is identical to the text with the exception of Chapter 10 (in the course, the last periods are used for student reviews of the current literature of par ticulates). The ground rules are that crystallization students cannot choose a crystallization article to re view, while others may. The main point is that the articles must emphasize the distributed nature of par ticulate systems. Proposed titles are thus pre screened. Five minutes of perusing the article to be reviewed can immediately determine if the course has been a success. One graduate student suggested that scarce semester-end time could be saved if written, rather than oral, critiques were handed in as a term project. This is an excellent idea except, of course, that it shifts a major work load from the student to the in--------., Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989 214 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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In addition to emphasizing the distributed nature of particulates, the course emphasizes predictive rather than descriptive modeling of the particle distribution using population balance mechanics. An illustration of CSD prediction and manipulation will be presented for the useful double draw-off (ODO) configuration. structor. In addition to emphasizing the distributed nature of particulates the course emphasizes predic tive rather than descriptive modeling of the particle distribution using population balance mechanic s An illustration of CSD prediction and manipulation will be presented for the useful double draw-off (DDO) configuration. Current unit operation texts [3] now present the CSD from a Mixed Su s pension Mixed Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer in a predic tive context but stop short of CSD manipulation (which would require crystallization kinetics). The first two chapters (and course topics) describe the general nature and elementary statistics of distrib uted particulates ( e .g., means, variance cumulative MSMPR CRYSTALLIZER FEED 11 PRODUCT CONFIGURATION log n POPULATION DENSITY PLOT ODO CRYSTALLIZER 0 FEED i~ G Oo+Ou R"=-Ou MIXED UNDERFLOW Ou CONFIGURATION log n 0 L FLPOPULATION DENSITY PLOT FIGURE 1. MSMPR and ODO configurations and CSD (after E. T. White and A. D. Randolph (1988)). FALL 1989 vs. density, etc.). The distributions are presented in density form. (Students often have trouble with the units of population density, (length) --4 ) Much attention is given to the gamma distribution (the natural distri bution of crystallization processes), but other useful empirical distributions, e .g., Rosin-Rammler and Gaudin-Melloy, that are routinely used in the minerals industry [ 4] are presented in the course. Chapter 3 develops and formalizes the multi-vari ate population balance which is used predictively throughout the remainder of the course. At this point, the useful moment transformation is introduced. The leading moments of the population density function [ mj r! n(L)tlL] fo, j O, 1,2 3 form a closed set of non-linear algebraic equations which, in principle, completely describe the idealized MSMPR crystallizer, given the nucleation/growth rate kinetics of a particular system. Roughly speak ing the MSMPR concept is to crystallization as the CSTR is to reaction engineering with the advantage that the fo rm of the equation s is kinetics independent. Thus, for a specific case the kinetics can be brought in as auxiliary equations to complete the solution. Chapter 4 develops the MSMPR concept in detail. This chapter, together with Chapters 7 (CSD manipu lation) and 8 (CSD dynamics), form the core of presen tations for the industrial short course. Chapter 5 pre sents crystallization mechanisms and kinetics from an elementary level. The writer often suffers from acute Felder s Impostor Syndrome [5] when discussing crys tal nucleation and growth mechanisms. This subject could better be covered by someone in material sci ences well-versed in crystallography. For example, when discussing crystal growth mechanisms by spiral dislocations, the writer finds that even the most imag inative students are barely convinced that the crystal dislocation is self-perpetuating. Crystal nucleation/ growth kinetics can often be described for high yield systems with simple power-law empiricisms of the form where i and j are two parameters respectively describ C o n t in ued o n pag e 227. 215

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A course in HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL SPILLS Use of the CAMEO Air Dispersion Model to Predict Evacuation Distances ASHOK KUMAR, GARY F. BENNETT, VENKATA V. GUDIVAKA Th e University of Tol edo Tol edo, OH 43606 T HE UNIVERSITY OF Toledo offers several air pol lution courses taught by the senior authors to en gineering undergraduate and graduate students. In the undergraduate courses, "Introduction to Air Pol lution Engineering and "Air Pollution Control," the students are exposed to the concept of air disper s ion modeling. The training in dispersion modeling con tinues in two senior / graduate courses: 1) "Dispersion Modeling and 2) "Hazardous Chemical Spills." This paper provides an overview of the CAMEO model [1] and its uses in the classroom as a training tool in the "Hazardous Chemical Spills" course. The model can be obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Hazardous Materials Response Branch 7600 Sand Point Way NE BIN C15700, Seattle, Wa s hington 98115. Chemical accidents are an unfortunate realit y of industrial society. With billions of pounds of toxic chemicals being produced, stored, shipped, and used daily, it is axiomatic that leaks, spills, and accidents will occur The consequences of these chemical spills can range from a simple nuisance to virtual destruc tion of a body of water or to thousands of deaths and injuries. In the early days of spill technology and respon se (the 1970s) the major concern in dealing with chemi cal spills was for pollution of the aquatic environment Indeed, spill response and cleanup efforts were iniVenkata Gudivaka is a graduate assis tant at The University of Toledo He joined the Department of Civil Engineering program in the fall of 1987 He graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering degree from the University of Bombay India in 1987 and as part of this pro gram he worked with Union Carbide Corprati~n in Bombay during the summer of 1986 He 1s presently working in the field of dense gas modeling and model evaluation for his MS thesis. tially directed only at oil spills, but soon chemical spills and the destruction they caused in the aquatic envi ronment surpassed concern for the impact of oil on the ecology. Two early examples of chemical spills are the destruction of Shawnee Lake in Ohio [2] by a gallon of strychnine-treated corn mixed with endrin, and the intentional discharge of hexachlorocyclopentadiene into the sewers of Louisville, Kentucky. These spills severely impacted major bodies of water [3]. Sub sequently, Louisville suffered a more serious incident when hexane that was discharged into the sewer sys tem, vaporized and exploded, causing thousands of dollars of damage. As serious as the environmental impact of chemi cals on water resources is, it is those spills (or inci dents) that result in emissions of toxic (volatile) chem icals into the air that pose the greatest danger to both first responders and nearby residents. Clearly the most dramatic and devastating chemical incident that has ever occurred was the release of 30 to 35 tons of methyl isocyanate at Bhopal India, on December 3, 1984. This toxic chemical release killed an estimated 2,500 people and injured over 200,000 more [4]. Fortunately, extremely toxic chemicals such as methyl isocyanate are produced in limited amounts at Gary F. Bennett received his BSc from Queen s University and his MS and PhD de grees from Michigan, all in chemical engineer ing He has taught at The University of Toledo since 1963 and started a course there 1n haz ardous chemical spills ten years ago He is consultant to the Toledo fire division on chemical spills has written several spill prevention and control plans for industry and is author of the Hazardous Spills Handbook, published by McGra w Hill. Ashok Kumar is a professor of civil engi neering at The University of Toledo where he teaches courses on air pollution and conducts research in the area of air pollution modeling and monitoring He received his BS from Ali garh University in India, his MS from the Uni versity of Ottawa and his Doctoral Degree from the University of Waterloo. A registered pro fessional engineer, he is a consultant to industrial organizations Co-,ryrigh.t C hE Division ASEE 1989 216 CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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An explanation of the CAMEO system, one of the commercially available air dispersion model programs, is given to the students. The level of discussion conducted in the class~oom ... depends on the course. The students are told that CAMEO has ... features for calculating downwind chemical concentration from release. very few locations in the world. But other toxic gases such as ammonia, chlorine, and hydrochloric acid are widely used and have been released all too frequently. Moreover, billions of pounds of these chemicals are produced every year, and their storage and use are ubiquitous. Notable spills involving these compounds include: Ammonia Houston, Texas : Tanker accident; 1 9 tons of ammonia released with a 30 m high cloud formed with danger persisting for two and one-half hours [5] Chlorine Mississauga, Toronto, Canada: Railroad derailment ; 27 tons of chlorine released in a fire ; 300 000 people evac uated over an area of 129 km2 [6] Silicone Tetrachlorida A storage tank released 1100 m 3 (284,000 gal) of SiCl4 over five days; HCI vapor was formed when the SiCl4 contacted moisture in the air; 160 people were hospitalized, 16,000 were evacuated and the toxic cloud ex tended 8 to 16 km from the tank [7] Nitric Acid A puncture in a rail tank car released 55 m 3 (14,000 gal) of 99% solution of nitric acid ; the resulting vapor cloud of toxic nitrogen dioxide forced the evacuation of 5,000 people [9]. Pesticides Fires at facilities storing pesticides and / or haz ardo us wast e have sent toxic gases wafting across the land scape to threaten anyone in their way Fumes from a 1974 pesticide fire in Alliance Ohio caused fire personn el and resi dents to exhibit symptoms that included nausea, burn ing eyes and throats, and dizziness [B]. Transportation Accidents Transportation accidents such as the ones involving chlor i ne in Canada [6] and white phos phorus at Miamisburg, Ohio [10], in 1987 w i th a resulting fire have threatened nearby residents In Miamisburg, a railroad car of white phosphorus burned and released a toxic cloud of com bustion products that caused a mass evacuation of nearby residents In all cases of releases of volatile toxic chemicals, whether or not a fire is involved, air dispersion model ing is of great assistance to the first responder. In deed, dispersion modeling i s essent ial in predicting areas that should be evacuated. Without such mod e ing, the evacuation area could not be calculated at all; it could only be "guess-timated." Consequently, with out the calculation tools given by air dispersion model ing, the On-Scene Commander either underor over estimates the evacuation zone. Under-estimating the evacuation zone leaves people in danger; over-estimat ing needlessly moves people and constitutes a hazard of a different kind, especially to the sick and elderly who are negatively impacted by the move and con comitant disruption. FALL 1989 STUDENT MODELING PROGRAM Environmental engineering stude nt s at the Uni versity of Toledo solve air dispersion problems by using computer models based on known theoretical concepts. The computer models are chosen from pro grams available in the public domain and include mod eling programs used by regulatory bodies in both the United States and Canada. One model chosen for this course i s the CAMEO model which ha s been developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Th e model performs a variety of calculations for a chemical spill, and in the classroom the CAMEO Air Model can be u se d for several purposes: 1) to develop an intuitive feeling for the importance of different variables re lated to the toxic releas es and to test "what-if' type questions, 2) to compute the maximum ground level chemical concentration resulting from a sp ill, 3) to map hazard zones for evacuation purposes, and 4) to perform sens itivity analysis using varying chemical and toxicological input s, so urce data, and meteorolog ical information. Additionally, all the features included in the model are useful in various contingency planning and re spo n se activities where it is necessary to compute the downwind concentrations as a function of distance re su lting from a hypothe sized relea se of a toxic volatile material. THE CAMEO SYSTEM An expla nation of the CAMEO syste m, one of the commercially available air dispersion model programs is given to the students. The level of discussion con ducted in the classroom, however depends on the course. The students are told that CAMEO has the following features for calculating downwind chemical concentration from release: 1. A basic Gaussian algorithm is us ed with either a con tinuous or instantaneous release configuration. 2. The atmospheric data can be inputted directly by the user or obtained from a remote meteorological station. 3 A chemica l library is available; this library contains the toxicological, chemical, and thermodynamic pa rameters necessary to derive various source strength estimates and relate the pollut.a.nt distribution patterns to human health effects. 217

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4. The source strength estimates can be entered directly in English or metric units; however, the program can cal culate the effective source strength from an exposed pool of spilled chemical, given the chemical identity and the surface area of the pool. 5. The system has the ability to store a map using digitiza tion. 6. A variety of graphic or tabular options can be displayed on the screen or sent to the printer; the system also has the ability to clip screen images to a file that can be over laid on maps that are available in other parts of the sys tem. Since the CAMEO system uses the well-known Gaussian dispersion model, a brief discussion points out the limitations of the model as follows : 1) typical errors can be as high as a factor of two, and 2) greater errors can result from spills during low wind speed and very stable atmospheric conditions than at high wind speed. It should be noted that the CAMEO model does not take into account terrain effects and the impact of building wakes. Also, heavy gas effects are not in cluded. Moreover, the model results apply only to the selected chemicals; fire by-products or other chemical transformations can be entered into the system by the user as separate chemicals. HOW TO USE THE CAM EO MOD E L The students are instructed to use the CAMEO program installed on an Apple Macintosh computer. They are told about the menu options in the CAMEO program and are informed that the best way to run the program is to use the following order for menu options: 1) select a chemical from the chemical option, 2) set the atmospheric options (e i ther by the meteorological station or user input), 3) set the source strength of the spill, and 4) run the model by selecting the continuous or puff option from the option menu. EX AMP LES OF CLASS ROOM EXERCISE S Six problems have been selected to illustrate class room use of CAMEO. These six problems, when used in a course, enable a student to become familiar with some of the many uses of the CAMEO Air Model. The problems selected utilize most of the facilities offer ed by the demonstration program model. The student is advised to try to solve the problems using the CAMEO program and to compare his results with those given by the instructors. The student is advised to try solving different problems given in air pollution textbooks with this model in order to gain familiarity with its applications. The problems are based on "real-world" spill situ ations found in the literature. Problems 1 and 2 are modified from reference 11; problem 3 is from refer ence 12; problem 4 is from reference 13; problem 5 is from reference 14; and problem 6 is from reference 15. Problem 1 Ammonia was released at a rate of 6050 g/sec for 30 min. The ambient wind speed at the time of release was 2 mi/hr (3.2 km/hr) and the wind was blowing from 350" The atmospheric stability was ..unstable .. (A), and the ambient temperature was 2sc Assume an inversion height of 1500 ft (457 m) Use the CAMEO Air Model for a continuous source and determine the downwind IDLH* and TLV-TWA* distances and travel times to reach those distances. Locate the source at the chemical fac i lity n ear South Chicago Street on Map E13 or F13 and plot the IDLH and TLV-TWA hazard zones (see Figures 1 and 2) *IDLH defines the concentration of a chemical .. Immediately Dangerous to the Life and Health if someone is exposed TLV is the "Threshold Limit Value .. concentration which is the accepted safe concentration for 8-hr/day exposure of workers over their working life. TWA is the "Time Weighted Average .. of the concentration T ABL E 1 Input D at a for S i x Ch em ical Spills .E.r2.hle.m ttl .E.r2.hle.m JtZ. .E.r2.hle.m jQ fu!21.e.m.lM .E.r2.hle.m J& .Er2!2.lm~ 1. Name of Chemical Selected Ammon i a Solution Hydrogen Nitric Acid Chlorine Methyl Toluene (> 44% Ammon i a) Sulphide Fuming Isocyanate 2. Atmospheric Stability Class A D E D F D 3. Inversion Height (ft) 1500 600 500 600 650 600 4. Wind Speed (mi/hr) 2 5 4.7 10 9 3 5. Wind Direction 350 350 315 90 310 280 6. Ambient Air Temperature(C) 28 28 20 20 17 5 10 7. Average Ground Roughness City Center Very Smooth Thick Grass Lawn City Center Homogeneous (4 in. high) Forest 8. Source Strength 6050 g / s 72,000 g 66,000 g / s 11 340 g/s 7,400 g/s 9. Puddle Area (ft 2 ) 1,000 10 Exit Velocity (fVsec) 218 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Problem 2 A pipeline of a gas processing facility ruptured and released 72 000 g of H 2 S The ambient wind speed was 5 mi/hr (8 km/hr) and the wind was from 350" The atmospheric stability was neutral (D), and the ambient air temperature was 28 C Assume an inver sion height of 600 ft (183 m) Assume an instantaneous release and determine the down wind IDLH and TLV TWA distances and travel times. Locate the source at the chemical facility of South Chicago Street on Map E13 or F13 and plot the IDLH ands TLV TWA vapor hazard zones (see Figures 1 and 2) Problem 3 During the n i ght, at about 2 a m ., 20 tons (20 x 10 6 g) of fuming nitric acid were spilled on flat ground At 2 : 05 a m. the temperature was 2o c and the wind was from the northwest (315 ) at 4 7 mi/hr (7.5 km/hr) Assume an atmospheric stability of (E) and an inversion height of 500 ft (152 m) Assume a continuous source (66,000 g/sec) Compute the downwind IDLH and TLV distances and travel times Plot these contours on the map and make rec ommendations about the extent of the evacuation zone Problem 4 A continuous release of chlorine at a rate of 11,340 g/sec oc curs at a chemical plant. The atmospheric conditions at the time are neutral (D). The ambient wind speed is 1 O mi / hr (16 km/hr) and the wind is blowing from the west. The ambient air temperature is 20 C. Assume a mixing height of 600 ft (183 m). Assuming a continuous release, determine the TLV and IDLH travel times and distances ; plot the TLV and IDLH hazard zones Problem 5 In a disaster at a pesticide plant in India, 40 tons (40 x 10 6 g) of methyl isocyanate were released in 90 minutes (7400 g/sec) at 12:30 a m when the ambient temperature was 17.5"C The ambient wind speed was 9 m i/ hr (14 km/hr) and the wind was from 31 o The mixing height at that time was about 650 ft (198 m) The conditions were said to be very stable and a stability class of (F) may be assumed Compute the TLV and IDLH travel times and distances, and determine the area for evacuation if the plant had been located at the chemical facility of South Chicago Street on map F13 (Figure 2) HINT : MIC does not exist in the chemical library It has to be added to the library first. Enter "create library" and add MIC and the data for it as given below : Molecular Formula Molecular Weight Boiling Point IDLH Value TLV-TWA Value C2H3NO 57 06 39 C 20 ppm 0 02 ppm Problem 6 100,000 gal of toluene were spilled as a result of a pipeline rupture in Ohio The time was 10 p.m. and the ambient tempera ture was 1oc The wind speed was 3 mi/hr (4.8 km/hr) and the TABLE 2 Solutions for Six Chemical Spills Using CAMEO Model Prob. Prob Prob. Prob Prob Prob. #1 #2 #3 #4 !& #6 TLV-TWA Distance (km) 1 2 2 3 140.4 23 5 509 9 1 1 TLV-TWA Travel Time (min) 22.0 17 4 1046 0 87 5 2110 8 13 6 I DLH Distance (km) 0 2 0 7 8.9 3 0 3.6 0 2 IDLH Travel Time (min) 3 7 5 3 66.4 11 2 14.9 2 1 FALL 1989 The students are asked to change the values of variables in order to understand the importance of the role played by the input data. The graphical display of results is of immeasurable value in accidents situations. Three possible plots are included in this paper. conditions were neutral (D Stability). The mixing height was 600 ft (183 m) Use the puddle model to determine the TLV and IDLH distances and travel times. Assume a puddle area of 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) and an exit velocity of 1 ft/sec (0.3 m/sec) RESULTS Table 1 shows the input required for each problem. The input for each variable is obtained from the state ment of the problem given above. The name of the chemical, atmospheric stability, inversion height, wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature, and source strength are required for the first five problems. In the sixth problem, values for puddle area and exit velocity are also needed for the computation of the source strength term. If the puddle area is known, it can be used in place of the mass of the chem ical spilled, but this assumption might give different results. Since, in an accidental spill, it is relatively easier to estimate puddle area than mass spilled, the area covered by the spilled chemical has been used in this problem. Moreover the average ground rough ness around the spill site must be specified for each problem; the model gives five options. Table 2 shows the solutions obtained for each of the six illustrative problems. IDLH distances and TL V distances are given in this table along with the arrival times of plume at those distances. The dis tances give the student an understanding of the poten tial area of the evacuation zone and the arrival time help s him/her to appreciate the importance of time available for control measures and evacuation sc hedules. The TLV distances are higher than IDLH distances because TL V concentration is smaller than IDLH concentration. For Problem 5, the TLV dis tance is more than 140 times the IDLH distance. In such cases, it may be appropriate to use one-tenth of the IDLH concentration to compute the hazard zone. The students are asked to change the values of variables in order to understand the importance of the role played by the input data. The graphical display of results is of immeasurable value in accident situa tions. Three possible plots are included in this paper. Figure 1 is the TL V plot that is obtained from Prob lem 1, while Figure 2 is the IDLH plot obtained from Problem 2. A plot of IDLH distances for varying in219

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puts of wind speed for Problem 1 is shown in Figure 3 CONCLUSION The CAMEO system is a useful tool for teaching basic concepts re l ated to dispersion modeling of chem ical spills The students are able to conduct computer experiments to enhance their understanding of the ef fects of accidents involving hazardous chemicals. With FIGURE 1. TWA contour for ammonia solution ( > 44 % ammonia) on Map E13. FIGURE 2. /OLH contour for hydrogen sulphide (instan taneous release). 0 .2 0 C.18 E c L
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{ld?'I book reviews BIOSEPARATIONS: Downstream Processing for Biotechnology by Paul A. Better, E. L. Gussler, Wei-Shou Hu John Wiley & Sons, New York, 368 pages, $39.95 (1988) Reviewed by Murray Moo-Young University of Waterloo In the broad field of biotechnology, any new book with the words "bioseparations" and "downstream pro cessing" in its title will attract much attention since these are the current trendy, fashionable areas of biotechnol ogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this is probably the first book devoted entirely to this area, which is partly due to the difficulty in handling it for a multidisciplinary audi ence indigenous to biotechnology. Whereas Volume II of the multi-volume work, Comprehensive Biotechnology (Pergamon Press) is a major reference, this book is a primer on the subject matter. As such, it is a good teach ing text and is well worth its list price of $39.95. The authors, comprising a group of experts with both industrial and academic experience, have developed an effective pedagogical strategy in which typical bioseparations are viewed as an idealized four-step pro cess according to a so-called RIPP organization: ,Removal of insolubles, Isolation of product, f.urification and J:olishing. The book helps to bridge the gap between the usually separate, parallel evolving cultures of the life sci ences and engineering in this area by providing material for "scientists with no background in engineering" and "engineers with no background in biology Inevitably, this ambitious approach to satisfy such a wide audience results in sections (e.g., filtration, drying) which are rather rudimentary for chemical engineering graduates (which is the usual level at which biotechnology is taught in chemical engineering departments), while the same sections are too advanced for the life science undergrad uates. Regardless, the authors are to be commended for providing in one place "an introduction to the separation and purification of biochemicals." After an overview introductory chapter, the book is divided into four parts which cover a total of twelve chapters, and ends with two appendices. It is of interest to note the section titles and number of pages allocated to these topics: Overview (11), Filtration and IBtrafiltration (35), Centrifugation (21), Cell Disruption (21), Extraction (47), Adsorption (37), Elution Chromatography (39), Precipitation (17), IBtrafiltration and Electrophoresis (35), Crystallization (35), Drying (29), Auxiliary Operations (12), Characteristics of Biological Materials (5), and Limits of the Continuum Approximations (5). Possibly, a disproportionate amount of space is given to the classical methods of liquid extraction (which is primarily for relatively small molecules in "new" FALL 1989 biotechnology terms) at the expense of other aspects (e.g., isoelectric focusing) and recent innovations For example, it could be argued that there are a number of other topics or subtopics that should have been covered in a book of this type. Among these are the following: supercritical fluid extraction (its use is increas ing); relevant process control and CAD/CAM; multi-unit integration strategies; bioreactor/downstream processing interfacing optimization, bioseparations in microgravity environments (prospects of biomanufacturing on a fu ture space platform are of practical interest); develop ment of new polymeric and composite materials for membrane separations and chromatography column packings; effect of surfactants on membrane separation performance; equipment innovations such as the use of Taylor vortices to reduce polarization effects in mem brane separations; the implications of solid-state fermen tations to downstream processing economics; materials of construction of the various bioseparation devices. Pre sumably, the authors could excuse these omissions on the basis of their philosophy that "mixing, like life, is incomplete .. The subject matter is given quantitative testament as a series of unit operations (typical of chemical engineer ing) in terms of mass and energy balance and kinetics of the processes involved. Fundamental concepts are pre sented clearly. Where correlations derivable from first principles are not possible, the authors draw attention to the traditional usefulness of dimensional analysis for complex flow systems, e.g., the analysis and design of cell disruption devices (Chapter 4). Each chapter contains several illustrative examples and at the end, practice problems with answers (which should please students and practitioners alike) are given. Curiously, some of the problem statements are given in mixed S.I. and British units (e.g., kg, ft) and probably reflects the immediate real-world industry situations addressed. Line diagrams, some with three-dimensional cut-away views, are used to depict clearly the mechanical features and physical func tions of various equipment. As a teaching tool, this tech nique is more effective than photographs. As suggested by the authors, the book appears to be suitable as a one-semester course for senior undergradu ate chemical engineering students and first-year science graduates (including those from chemistry, microbiol ogy, food science). The book should also be useful in in dustry where calculations in downstream processing are required in research, development, design, and plant op erations. The book is sufficiently robust to withstand many hours of use. It has a good subject index, but unfor tunately no author index. More discriminating students (and others) would have welcomed some references to the research literature, especially in view of the advances being made in this area. However, this is a minor criti cism. Despite the omissions mentioned earlier, the book has something in it for almost everyone interested in bioseparations, a term synonymously now used with downstream processing in biotechnology. 0 221

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A program on HAZARDOU S WASTE MANAGEMENT RALPH H. KUMMLER JAMES H. McMICKING, ROBERT W. POWITZ Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202 T HE NEED FOR environmental professionals is es calating. The 1987 Bureau of Health Professionals report, "Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force ," [1] identified 50,000 environmental profes sionals in the U.S. and projected that by 1992 there will be a need for 100,000. Paul Busch, immediate past president of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers [2], estimates that 22,500 environmental engineers will be needed from 1990 to 1995 "just to meet the problem of hazardous waste clean up." Each year, less than 10 % of the hazardous waste engineers Ralph H. Kummler received his BS from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and his PhD from John Hopkins He is Professor and Chairman of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering at Wayne State University. Before Joining WSU he was a research engineer at the General Electric Space Sciences Laboratory His research interests include air, water, and multimedia environmental engineering James H. Mc M lcking received his BS and MS from Wayne State University and his PhD from the Ohio State University He is Associate Professor and Associate Chairman of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering at Wayne State University Robert W. Po w ltz received his BS from the University of Georgia and his MPH and PhD from the University of Minnesota He is currently Director of Environmental Health and Safety and an Adjunct Professor of Chemical Engineering at Wayne State University that are needed are graduating from our universities [3]. Summit VI, a top level interaction between indus try and AIChE (as reported by Math i s [4]), identified the environment and ecology as the number one growth area for chemical engineers and suggested curriculum changes and more intense training to meet the growing need. Some educational programs have begun to emerge, but not in chemical engineering [5 6]. The chemical and manufacturing industries are working vigorously to maximize recycle and to minimize waste. Major corporations are establishing their own landfill standards, with their own cradle to grave accounting systems and certification of both professionals and facilities Consulting companies which perform the same services for small industries are thriving. A new breed of professional, a "chemical control engineer," is emerging. This individual must be tech nically educated and trained in regulations, but with the focus on management rather than on science or design, and he or she must have such skills as: Risk assessment capability Computer experience Ability to maintain community involvement Material use control procedures Chemical management systems Land use planning Knowledge of health issues Transportation awareness Liability awareness The boards of major corporations must be in formed about these issues on a regular basis. Career path professionals in hazardous waste management will therefore have high rank and pay [7]. Chemical engineers are uniquely qualified to train for this opportunity. A solid background in mathemat ics, chemistry, and physics, with economics, process control, separations, and a thorough training in logical 0 Copyri ght C hE Di visi o" ASEE 1989 222 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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thinking and organization, is characteristic of the chemical engineering BS degree Waste minimization in the chemical industry involves optimization of unit operations, the classic tool of the chemical engineer However, within the confines of an ABET-accred ited chemical engineering degree, it is not easy to pro vide the additional education necessary to allow the BS chemical engineer to become a "Chemical Control Engineer." Thus, at Wayne State University we have created a new concept in graduate education called the "Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Man agement," which is designed to provide auxiliary edu cation not only to chemical engineers, but also to all conventional science and engineering majors who have the prerequisite mathematics and chemistry back ground. This program is a major departure for the chemical engineering faculty. As discussed below, the courses attract a substantial number of non-chemical en gineers and as a result constitute the largest service teaching that we have ever undertaken. The chemical TABLE 1 Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate Program Participants Industrial Advisory Committee Faculty Course James Carlson Ralph Kummler PhD CHE 751,726 Director Hazardous Waste Management Director: O!airman of Chemical Chrysler Corpora6on and Metallurgical Engineering Del Rector James Dragun PhD GEL515 Dep',!!. Director, Michigan Department of President of atural Resources DragtXJ Assodates, Inc Myron Black Tim Lang, PhD CHE551 Director Environmental Affairs Chief Manufacturing Chemist 554 DniooCemoot Emirom,ental ~eraions GM Tech Cootl!f James Dragun, PhD Carol M;ller, PhD CHE558 President Dragun Associates, Inc Associate Prof ., Civil Engineering J Chu PhD (deceased, April 1989) Jeffrey Howard, PhD GEL515 Ass'/ /Jrector, Hazardous Waste Managemen/ Genera Motors Research Cooter Assistant Professor, Geology RickPowals Joe Oravec, BS CHE 554,556 Vice President, Petrochem, Inc. Academe Serv Officer Chemistry Robert Powitz, PhD CHE 551,557 Director, Environmental Health and Safety James McM;clcing, PhD CHE553, Associat Prof Ch&mi:at Engin&ring 751 Daniel Crowl, PhD CHE657 Professor Chemical Engineering Khalil Atasi PhD CHE559 Head AwKed Tech & Evalua6on Detroit a/er and Sewerage Dept A. L. Reeves, PhD OEH 832 632 Prof ., Oca.J,at & Envron Health Devon Schwalm, MS CHE 726,727 Hazardous Materials Coorcinator Envirorrnental Health & Safety FALL 1989 The program's courses are available as electives to both undergraduate and graduate students in our regular university degree programs, and they have attracted many new students into full-time and part-time programs. engineering profession is uniquely qualified to lead this new effort, but expansion of the traditional tools of chemical engineering will be necessary. In order to determine the content of the Graduate Certificate program, an interdisciplinary team con sisting of faculty and an industrial advisory committee was assembled. A brief description of their back grounds is given in Table 1. The goal of the certificate program is to prepare admissible students to take and pass certification examinations. At the present time, WSU administers the Hazardous Materials Manager Certification Examination (CHMM) developed by the Institute of Hazardous Materials Management, and the Certified Hazardous Waste Specialist Examination developed by the National Environmental Health Association. The examinations are dynamic in nature and hence the courses must also be dynamic, to reflect the con tinual changes in technology, law, policy, and regula tions. Thus, both the course outlines and topics vary from time to time. A poll of various governmental agencies and industry has shown enthusiastic support for this program. The student response to the certifi cate program has also surpassed all expectations; nearly half of the student body has requested that the program be expanded into a full Master's program in Hazardous Waste Management. The faculty developed and approved the curriculum for the MS degree, and authorization to begin awarding degrees in January of 1990 was granted by the Wayne State University Board of Governors. The program's courses are available as electives to both undergraduate and graduate students in our reg ular university degree programs and they have at tracted many new students into full-time and part time programs. Professionals already working in the field may require one or two courses prior to attempt ing the certification examinations; even certified man agers require continuing education to retain gov ernmental or industrial acceptance. Thus the courses have wide applicability. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM The need for training in hazardous waste control technology laws, policy, and regulations clearly im plies more than the minimum coursework in any single 223

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traditional discipline. Hence, WSU chose to recognize a group of credits as a "Certificate Program," where "certificate" simply refers to university-level recogni tion and is totally separate from the externally-ad ministered examinations Our program consists of a minimum of thirteen credits, distributed as follows: REQUIRED CHE 551. Intro d uction to Industrial Waste Management (2 er: no credit toward a graduate engineering degree) The first required course in the sequence is an overview of the program, including topics on solid waste management, site selec tion, thermal processing biological waste disposal, hazardous chemical spill clean up, and hazardous chemical transportation. CHE 554. Law and Administration Issues in Industrial Waste Management (2 er: no credit toward a graduate engineering degree) The second required course covers management guidelines, Su perfund issues, the Solid Waste Disposal Act, identification con cepts, standards, reports, pe r mits, and rules. CHE 556. Transportation and Emergency Spill Response (3 er) This course covers marine, rail and tank truck transport method ology, planning and regulations, and emergency spill response, with field experience CHE 751. Public Issues of Hazardous Waste, (2 er) This course is devoted to current issues in hazardous waste man agement and is presented by nationally recognized leaders in industry. Students will also be required to take an additional four credits from among the following courses. GEL 515. Soils and Soil Pollution (3 er) The properties and classification of soils are covered. Knowledge of soil properties is used to understand the removal of pollutant s from soils and groundwater. Numbt:r d Part;.::pc:nts 7CJ f 6'J -----------,-r 50 ri 4 CI i i ::;o L r'J I :::o t iv t' (I I ,--. I i i i I r--~ I I I i I .. I I i I CE CrE FIGURE 1 Academic degree of participants 224 CHE 553. Thermal Processing of Hazardo u s Waste (2 er) This course covers thermal processing technology, including combustion fundamentals, incineration equipment, waste heat boilers, air pollution control equipment, and facilities design. CHE/CE 558. Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous Waste (2 er) This course covers industrial landfills, biological processes, land disposal techniques, ocean disposal techniques, and the disposal of ashes CHE/CE 559. Biological Waste Disposal (2 er) This course, taught in conjunction with Civil Engineering, con siders environmental requirements, activated sludge, anaerobic systems, stabilization ponds, dewatering experiments, and acti vated carbon systems. CE 619. Ground Water (4 er) Aquifers, aquitards, saturated and unsaturated flow, sources of contamination, artificial recharge, development of basins, and efficient utilization are discussed. CHE 657. Safety in the Chemica l Process Industry (3 er) This course covers the fu.ndamentalt and practical experience necessary for safe operation of a chemical process plant, includ ing case studies conducted under an industrial supervisor OEH 832. Principles of Toxicology (4 er) Qualified students (those with a biological background) gain ex posure to toxicity of industrial chemicals, absorption of gases and dust, laboratory studies of toxicity, inhalation data, and experi mentation methodology. CHE 726 Waste Management Internship (1-3 er) Students earn credit by working in WSU's Environmental Health and Safety hazardous waste program, or other environmental control programs in local industry CHE 727. Hazardous Waste Laboratory (2 er) This is a structured laboratory experience in waste characteriza tion analysis, disposal techniques and waste minimization. A "B" average in these 13 credits is required for recognition by the university. Individual courses may 1 5D 1"' 1]') I I I I I 11~---, l I __,_LI .. U II I_. .. ---'-i ---' c, L __ I. __ Cc. 1 u1ses /,codemic Gos of PJrlici;:irrnts FIGURE 2 Academ i c goals of part i cipant s CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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be taken as elective credit toward undergraduate or graduate degrees as well as by non-matriculated stu dents. An industrial/governmental advisory committee has been recruited, with representation from the basic chemical and automotive industries, hazardous waste operators, consultants, and regulatory agencies. This committee evaluates the program at yearly intervals and suggests revisions in course content for compati bility with current regulations and state-of-the-art technologies. CURRENT STATUS The Graduate Certificate program was initiated in the fall of 1986 with the offering of Introduction to Industrial Waste Management." There was no formal survey of the students at that time; however records indicate that the class was composed mainly of under graduate chemical engineering students. Since the course was given during the day and was not heavily publicized, this was expected. In winter 1987, "Law and Administration in Industrial Waste Manage ment," "Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous Waste," "Public Issues of Hazardous Waste," "Waste Management Internship," and "Hazardous Waste Laboratory" were added to the curriculum. Beginning with that semester, classes were offered in the even ing and were publicized to attract graduate and post degree students. "Transportation and Emergency Spill Response," "Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste," and "Biological Waste Disposal" were added in subsequent semesters. ~lumt,er of Pa r ticipont.3 80 ~----------70 60 50 4 0 30 20 10 r--~ I I i i I Disp ~,tud J,Jb Clossi; i co'i:,n of Pvt; .i~ Jnt:; FIGURE 3. Job classification of participants FALL 1989 In the fall of 1988 there were approximately ninety new st udent s in the program including st udents in both the regular graduate and undergraduate pro grams and those enrolled in the Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate program An off campus program began in winter 1989 with fifty stu dents. From a modest beginning of 8-10 students per year prior to the introduction of the Graduate Certifi cate Program, the class has now grown to 140 stu dents per year. S TUDENT PROFILE For future use in planning, a s urvey was taken of the winter and fall, 1987, and fall 1988 classes to deter mine the background and the goals of the students in this program The total number of students surveyed was 223. Figure 1 shows the baccalaureate degrees of the students in the categories of civil engineering, chemical engineering, geology, chemistry, biology, and other (health management, other engineering, law, business, and liberal arts). Figure 2 shows the goals of the participants in three basic categories: Graduate Certificate conferred by the University, Certification and Examination by an external agency, and Selected Courses. It should be noted that several participants selected more than one category. Figure 3 indicates the general areas in which the participants are classified relative to their work or study situation: Hazardous Waste Generators, Hazardous Waste Haulers and Disposers Environ mental Regulators, Students, and Consultants. Nu:riber jf Porti,: ipon t_(i Ced Cou r s :s 1 -. 1 s i n fl' !! v i ,A::od,:-rnic Goals o f Po d ici 1 :c11ts 1988-'3C, FIGURE 4 Academ i c goals of 1 988 part i cipants 225

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TABLE 2 Cunicuum: Master al Science In Hazardous Waste Management Prerequisite/Corequisite: Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Management REQUIRED COURSES: Introduction to Industrial Waste Management credits 2 (SIU) (no graduate credit) Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste 2 Law and Administration in Industrial Waste Management 2 (SIU) Transportation and Emergency Spill Response Land Disposal Biological Treatment of Hazardous Waste Public Issues of Hazardous Waste Hydro geology Waste Minimization Safety in the Chemical Process Industry Waste Management Internship or Hazardous Waste Laboratory or Afr Sampling and Analysis Principles of Industrial Toxicology Design of Chemical Process Exp e riments I or Probability Models and Data Analysis Minimum Required (excess cr e dit may be applied to electives) ELECTIVES: (no graduate credit) 3 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 (minimum) 2 3 4 3 29 (33 including noncredit requirements) Urrit Operation: Urrit Processes in Environm e ntal Engg. 4 MASTERS PROGRAM Student demand for more information led the fac ulty and the indu st rial advisory committee to develop a curriculum for a Master of Science in Hazardous Waste Management. Approximately 37 % of the enter ing class of '88 expressed interest in the full MS pro gram, as illustrated in Figure 4. The Graduate Certificate is a prerequisite to ad mission in the Masters program, and all credits are directly applicab l e toward the Masters The approved curriculum is listed in Table 2. A full discussion of all the MS courses i s beyond the scope of this paper, but graduates will have so lid backgrounds in biological and thermal processing, land disposal, hydrogeology, toxicology, laborator y techniques, waste minimiza tion, and chemical process safety. CONCLUSIONS It has become evident that industry must learn to design and operate plants to prevent spills and episodes, and to manage their chemical wastes prop erly. However, it is equally true that they must learn to cope with emergencies and to be able to deal with the public and regulatory agencies before, during, and after s uch problems. 226 Industrial Waste : Control, regulations, and treatment Safety in the Laboratory Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CHE 899) or Master s Thesis Research and Direction (CE 899) or Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CM 899) or Master 's Thesis Research and Direction (OEH 899) Environmental Microbiology Biochemistry Soils and Soil Pollution Sanitary Chemistry Anal/Inst Chemistry Environmental Law Transnational Environmental Problems Environmental Pollution Radiation Safety: Principles and Practice Chemistry of Industrial Processes Epidemiology Applied Epidemiology Chemical Engineering Graduate Seminar Total Electiues (Including ouerage from required se lection) TOTAL CREDITS 4 1 10 8 8 8 3 or5 3 3 3 3 2-3 3 3 2 3 2 3 ____l_ 5 34 (38 including noncredit amrses) A graduate certificate program such as the one offered by WSU provides a new avenue of education in this field. The uniqueness of this program lies in the fact that it is area-specific, flexible, and subject to frequent content review Some changes have already been made, and others are currently under study by the faculty involved in the program, such as the devel opment of the full Masters Degree. REFERENCES 1. Levine Associates, "Evaluating the Environmental Health Workforce, U.S. D epartment of Health and Hu man Services Report on HRSA contract 240-286-00076, January (1988) 2 Busch P .L., and W. C. Anderson, "Ed ucation of Haz ardous Waste Engineering Professionals ," 116th An nual Meeting of the Am erican Public Health Ass'n. Boston, MA, November (1987) 3 Busch, P.L., A Hazardous Waste Crisis: Too Few Peo ple," Waste Age September (1988) 4 Mathis, J.F., "Building an Industry/AIChE Partnersh ip, AIChExtra, a supplement to Chem Eng. Prag. April (1989) 5 The Environmental Manager's Compliance Advisor, V. 232, 6, June 6 (1988) 6. Portnoy, K., Education: Hazmat Management Goes to School," Hazmat World, 54 August (1988) 7. Kachman, N C ., "The Environmental Professional-An Established Career Path," lecture to the 13th Annual Michigan Air Pollution Control Ass'n., May (1989) 0 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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PARTIC U LATE PRO C ES S E S C o nt inu e d fr om p age 215 ing the relative sensitivity of secondary nucleation to growth rate G (used as a surrogate variable for super saturation) and slurry density MT. CSD SIMULATION AND MANIPULA T ION Figure 1 shows the configuration and theoretical population density plot for both the MSMPR and Dou ble Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizers [6]. The DDO config uration merely removes and then combines two sepa rate slurry streams, one mixed and one classified to 12 (c) j=2 6 7 6 OPTit.lUU = 1 5 3 2 0 I") ..f 10 12 H 16 j_J '-.. I") ..f 20 j_J (b) j=1 OPTIIIUt.1 = 1 CJ) 13 w 6 N 7 6 CJ) 5 { z <( 3 w 2 2 CJ) CJ) <( 0 2 2 LL 0 30 0 (o) j=O 20 -i= 1 i=2 .... i = 3 0:::: 13 6 7 6 5 2 0 2 10 12 16 xF' DIMENS I ONLESS CUT SIZE, LrfG 0 T 1 FIGURE 2. Mass Mean Size Improvement 00O / MSMPR Crystallizers (alter E T White and A 0 Randolph (1988)). FALL 1989 contain only crystals less than some cut size L F Class ification i s u s ually done passively by sett ling within the vessel. Figure 2 shows the dramatic average par ticle s ize increase that this simple configuration can achieve vis-a-vis the MSMPR configuration. Simple power-law nucleation kinetic s of the form B 0 = k GiMi N T were u sed for these calculations. As the s lurry density also increases in DDO operation this configuration is only fully useful for weak feeds giving a low natural slurry density. Per-pass yield is also increased. Thus, the DDO configuration is also used to increase yield in systems with slow growth kinetics. Bench-scale studies are currently being done to evaluate the DDO crystallizer as a method of making larger calcium sulfite and s ulfat e (gyps um ) particles in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) processes. Larger particles would greatly reduce downstream costs in suc h FGD processes. In ChE-514, st udents have access to a computer program (Program Crystal Ball [7]) which solves simultaneous population and ma ss balances for the CSD using arbitrary crystallization kinetics. Students us e this program to design a crysta llizer producing a desired crystal size and yield. In s ummary the course explores the PSD of par ticulate processes, while emphasizing the distributed nature of these processes. It attempts to show predic tion as well as description of the PSD with the ulti mate aim of manipulation. Howev er, these goals are only achieved in the study of CSD from well-defined crystallization processes. REFE R ENCES 1. Irani R R., and C F Callis, Particle Size: Measure ment, Interpretation and Application, John Wiley & Sons, New York ( 1963 ) 2. Randolph, A.D and M.A Larson, Theory of Parti cu late Proc esses: Analysis and Techniques of Continuous Crystallization, second edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (1988) 3. McCabe, W.L., J .C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Opera tions of Chemical Engineering fourth edition, McGraw Hill, New York (1985) 4. Kelly, E G ., and D J Spottiswood, Introduction to Min eral Processing, Wiley, New York ( 1982) 5 Felder, R.M., "Impostors Everywhere," Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 168 (1988) 6 White, E T., and A.D Randolph, Optimum Fines Size for Classification in Double Draw-Off Crystallizers," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 276 (1989) 7 Sharnez, Riswan, "Dynamic Simulation and Control of Crystal-Size Distribution in a Continuous Crystallizer," MS Thesis, University of Arizona (1987) O 227

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A course in .. FLUID MECHANICS OF SUSPENSIONS ROBERT H. DAVIS University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0424 S USPEN SIONS CONSISTING of small particles, drop lets, or cells dispersed in a liquid or gas are found in a wide variety of natural and industrial processes. We are all familiar with many examp le s of aerosol suspensions, for which the continuous phase is air (such as smoke, smog, mist, fog, clouds, and various sprays and dusts). We are also familiar with many examples of hydrosol suspensions, for which the con tinuous phase is water. These include coal slurries, drilling muds, blood, unstrained fruit juice, silt and clay in estuaries, and s ubm erged cultures of microbial, plant, animal, or insect cells. Further important examples of suspensions are paints, ointments, immis cible bimetallic melts, and oil-water emulsions. A chart showing typical sizes for several types of suspended particles is given in Figure 1. In general, suspended particles are smaller than approximately 100 m (1 m = 1D-6m) in size, since larger particles rapidly settle out of suspension due to gravity. The Reynolds number for flow around suspended particles is typically small compared to unity, and so inertia effects may be neglected relative to viscous forces. Particles s maller than approximately one micron in size are called colloidal particles. They settle out of suspension only very slowly due to gravity. Moreover, because of their large surface area to volume ratio, these particles are subject to Brownian motion and attractive and repul s ive interparticle forces. The behavior of suspensions of colloidal and fine particles represents a fascinating and challenging area Robert H. Davis is an associate pro fessor in chemical engineering at the Uni versity of Colorado. After receiving his doc toral degree from Stanford University in 1983 he was a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge His research interests lie in the area of fluid mechanics of suspensions in cluding microbial suspensions 2a, particle diameter or length m (1m =10 4 cm = 10 4 A) 10 10 smog smoke i i dust mist, fog sprays colloidal silica clay s ilt sand carbon black paint pigment pulverized coa l flexible 1 6 ng chain macromol~cule (M.W. = 106) [ coiled i extended viruses bacteria m f p of air 1 molecule / ,,! red blood cells blood capillaries wavelen9th of light ultraviolet visible I inf,rared U fall speed of rigid sphefe (s g. = 2) in wate i, rrVs o ix10 4 o ~x10 2 o s o 5,x10 2 o sxio 4 pUa/ RJynolds number of fldw due to falling sphkre in water 2 9x10 1 0 2 ~x10 7 2 5 x10 4 0 2,5 i D, diffusivity of rigi6 sphere in water, ~2/s 0 5~10 1 0 5 0 5~10 l o sxjo 2 0 5x10 8 aU/D ,! Peclet number of s~imenting sphere in water o ~x10 0,5 o ~x104 o sx \ 0 8 FIGURE 1. Orders of magnitude for typical colloids and fine particles (a~er Batchelor, 1976a). for research. There are many active groups studying the fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspen sions. This research effort needs to be supported by graduate courses which provide students with a fun damental background and the necessary skills for further study of suspenisons. In this paper, I sum marize such a course that was introduced at the Uni versity of Colorado during this past year. COURSE PHILOSOPHY AND STRUCTURE The course philosophy is based on two goals: To provide the students with a fundamental background that encompasses various aspects of the fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. To provide the students with an understanding and appreciCopyright C hE Di visi o n ASEE 1 989 228 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts, as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of lectures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions, and the second part consists of seminars on research frontiers and applications involving suspensions ation of the state-of-the-art research which is being under taken in this area. Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts, as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of lec tures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions, and the second part consists of seminars on research frontiers and applications involving suspensions. These seminars are presented by st udent s who are taking the course, other, more advanced students, guest speakers, and myself. It is assumed that the students have previously taken a graduate level course in fluid mechanics and an undergraduate course in physical chemistry, and that they have a working knowledge of differential, integral, and vector cal culus. FUNDAMENTALS After an introductory lecture, one lecture period (75 minutes) is spe nt on a whirlwind review of con tinuum mechanic s for fluid s, culminating with th e Navier-Stoke s equatio n s. The next three lectur es focus on general features of the creeping flow or Stokes equations, which result when the Re y nold s number is s uffici ently small so that the inertia terms (bo th the local and convective acceleration) may be neglected. One important feature of these equations is their linearity, which allows us to draw many s ignif icant conclusions without having to solve the equa tions. For example, it is easily shown from th e rever sibility property of linear equations that a nonBrown ian particle with fore-and-aft symmetry will not ex perience a lift force when placed at an arbitrary loca tion in a tube with laminar flow In contrast, s uch a particle will experience a lift force and migrat e across streamlines when the particle Reynolds numb er i s not small compared to unity. Other features of creeping flow that are covered include general solutions based on harmonic function s and corresponding particular solutions, the fundamental solution for the velocity and pressure fields generated by a point force, the reciprocal theorem, and the boundary integral rep resentation of the Stokes equations. The latter i s par ticularly convenient for numerical solutions of mul tiphase flow and moving boundary problems, because the velocity field is given in terms of integrals over the boundaries of the domain. The sixth lecture describes the details of creeping FALL 1989 Introduction TABLE 1 Course Outline General Features of Suspensions Applications Involving Suspensions Part 1: Fundamentals Review of the Equations of Motion Creeping Flow Equations and General Considerations Motion of a Single Rigid Sphere in a Fluid Motion of a Single Spherical Drop in a Fluid Motion of Two Interacting Spheres in a Fluid Brownian Motion and Diffusion of Suspended Particles lnterparticle Attractive and Repulsive Forces Dimensional Analysis and Order-of Magnitude Estimates Part 2: Applications and Research Frontiers Sedimentation and Centrifugation Coagulation and Flocculation Particle Capture and Adhesion Microfiltration Suspension Rheology Drop and Bubble Deformation Breakup and Coalescence Marangoni Migration of Drops Dynamic Simulations of Suspensions Fluidization Particle Size Measurement Particle Size Classification flow past a rigid sphere. The quantity of primary in terest, the drag force, i s e a s ily found by using the boundar y integral equations and the principles of linearity. The complete velocity field in the fluid sur rounding the particle is found either from evaluating the integral s that appear in the boundary integral equations, or by using the boundary conditions to evaluate the constants that appear in the general sol ution to the corresponding differential equations. The following two lecture s extend these concepts to the flow internal and external to a viscous drop in creep ing motion Fundamental concepts such as interfacial ten s ion and normal and tangential s tress balances are also covered. Lectures nine and ten describe the interaction of two spherical particles in creeping flow, such as is important for theoretical descriptions of sedimenta tion, coagulation, and suspension rheology. As a con sequence of the linearity of the Stokes equations, this interaction may be decomposed into a superposition of motion along the line-of-centers and motion normal to the line-of-centers. The two-sphere resistance and mo bility functions are described, where the resistance functions yield the force and torque on each sphere when their translational and rotational velocities are 229

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known, and the mobility functions yield the transla tional and rotational velocities when the force and tor que applied to each sphere are specified. Asymptotic solutions for these functions are presented using the m et hod of reflections when the spheres are far apart, and using lubrication theory when the spheres are nearly touching. Shortly after the invention of the optical micro scope, scientists observed that very small particles s u c h as bacteria maintained a constant state ofrandom moti on when dispersed in water This phenomenon occurs due to the thermal motion of the molecules comprising the surrounding fluid and is called Brown ian motion after Robert Brown, a Scottish botanist who published his observations in the early 1800s The classical thermodynamic analysis to yield the Stokes Einstein diffusivity of Brownian particles is presented in one lectur e, and then is supplemented by a second l ecture covering the more rigorous derivation based on the Langevin equation for particle motion. Further aspect s which are considered include the relative dif fusion of two interacting spheres and the spreading of a sed imentin g in terface due to Brownian diffusion. The n ext three lectures are devoted to the inter particle attractive and repulsive forces which arise in colloidal s u spensions. It is the relative magnitude of the attractive and repulsive fo r ces which determines whether a suspension is stable (the particles do not aggregate) or unstable (the particles aggregate to gether in clumps). The attractive forces considered are London-van der Waals dispersion forces, which arise from induced-dipole interactions between the molecules in the two int eracting particles. We start with an analysis of induced-dipole interactions be tween two isolated molecu l es, and then follow the pair-wise additivity theory of Hamaker (1937) and others to develop expressions for van der Waals at tractive forces between macroscopic bodies. Since this approach does not correctly account for screening due to intervening molecules, and retardation due to phase shifts, the more complete continuum theory of Lifshitz and others (see Russel et al., 1989) is also discussed. The repul s iv e forces which are considered are primaril y electrostatic due to charges on the particle surfaces, although Born repulsion and steric and charge stabilization due to adsorbed polymers are also briefly described. When the c har ged particles are present in a solvent conta ining ions, a double-layer with an excess of counter ions will form around each particle, thereby reducing the repulsive force between two particles of like charge. The potential field in the ionic solution is described by the Poi sson-Bo ltzmann equation. The analytical and numerical solutions to 230 this equation and its boundary conditions are pre sented for a variety of cases. The solutions lead to expressions for the electrostatic repulsive force be tween charged objects. Finally, these are combined with the expressions for London-van der Waals at traction to yield the DLVO theory for the net force potentia l as a function of the separation distance be tween two particles. The final lecture of Part 1 of the course is a review which is accomplished by collecting the expressions which have been derived for the various forces acting on colloidal and fine particles in suspensions. These include gravity, viscous, inertial Brownian, van der Waals and double-layer forces. Order of-magnitude estimates for these forces as functions of particle size and separation are made. By comparing the relative magnitudes of the forces it is easy to see which forces typically dominate for different size ranges and parti cle separation distances. This analysis leads naturally to the identification of key dimensionless groups, such as the Reynolds number (ratio of inertia to viscous forces) and the Peclet number (ratio of convection to diffusion). RESEARCH FRONTIERS AND APPLICATIONS I start off the second part of the course by giving one overview lecture which briefly describes selected FIGURE 2 Wave formation at the interface between sus pension and clarified fluid during sedimentation in an inclined channel (from Davis and Acrivos, 1985). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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practical applications and current research activities involving suspensions. The ones c ho sen for this pa st year are listed in Table 1. Most of these were then elaborated on in a seminar-style format by myself, a student, or a guest speaker. Brief summar ies are given in the following paragraphs. Sedime ntati on and centrifugation are commonly u sed to separate particles from fluid; they also form the basis for indir ect m easurements of particle size. A few areas of current research interest include hin dered settling and hydrodynamic diffusion due to par ticle int eractions, en hanc ed sed im e ntation in inclined channels, lateral segregation and instabilities in sedimentation of bidisperse (two part icle sizes or types) suspensions, and analysis of flow patterns in centrifuges. One of our se min ars this past year cov ered recent advances in sedimentatio n in inclined channels (Figure 2), and another described the spreading of the int erface at the top of a sedimenting suspension due to the collective action of hydro dynamic diffusion, size polydispersity, and hindered settling. In order for particles in a suspension to coagulate, aggregate, or flocculate, the particles must first be FIGURE 3. Aggregates of yeast cells w i th lo osely branched fractal structure. FALL 1989 brought close together by Brownian motion, differen tial sedimentation, or stirring. They then must experi ence an attractive force which is sufficiently strong to overcome any repulsive force and the fluid-mechan ic lubrication resistance to relative motion Considerable recent research on Brownian-induced, shear-induced, and gravity-induced flocculation has extended the early collision models of Smoluchowski (1917) to in clude the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and in terparticle attractive and repulsive interactions. One of our seminars described a model for predicting the rate of doublet formation in a polydisperse suspension due to the combined action of gravity sedimentation and attractive van der Waals forces. Further current re searc h on flocculation involves the experimental and theoretical elucidation of the loosely-branched fractal structure of aggregates of colloidal particles or micro bial cells ( Figure 3). Two different types of filtration to remove small particles from gas or liquid streams are common. Par ticle capture and adhesion are the underlying process es in deep-bed filtration by stationary collectors such as granular beds and fibrou s mats. The basic concept i s that a gas or liquid strea m is passed through the filter, and the suspended particles collide with the col lecting elements due to their inertia or Brownian mo tion and adhere to them as a result of attractive forces. Current fundamental research on particle cap ture and adhesion was reviewed in one of the seminars and include s determining fluid flow patterns and par ticle trajecto rie s in deep-bed filter s, predicting the conditions for which the colliding particles will adhere as opposed to bounce and examining the influence of particle inertia Brownian motion, interparticle at tractive and repulsive forces, and hydrodynamic in teractions on capture rates. The second type of filtration considered is cross flow microfiltration in which a suspension under pres sure is passed through a narrow tube or channel hav ing microporous membrane walls ( Figure 4). The sol vent and small molecule s pass through the walls as permeate, whereas the particles are retained on the membrane surface If these particles are allowed to accumulate in a stagnant cake or fouling layer adja cent to the membrane, then the permeate flux rate is FIGURE 4 Schematic of crossflow microfiltration. 231

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reduced. In order to understand and overcome this phenomenon, current re s earch i s directed at de s crib ing how the shear stres s ex e rted at the membrane wall by the tangential flow of suspension through the filter tube or channel is able to limit the buildup of a foul in g layer. Suspension rheology refers to the flow behavior of suspensions. Suspen s ion s often exhibit nonN ewtonian rheological behavior, in large part due to interparticle attractive and repul s ive forces and Brownian motion. In addition to studies of nonNewtonian behavior, con siderable theoretical and experimental research i s cur rently directed at extending Einstein's relationship for the effective viscosity of a sheared suspen s ion. Another active research area involves shear-induced Suspension rheology refers to the flow behavior of suspensions. Suspensions often exhibit nonNewtonian rheological behavior, in large part due to interparticle attraction and repulsive forces and Brownian motion. hydrodynamic diffusion, for which particles migrate across bulk streamlines due to hydrodynamic interac tions with other particles. The key role that this phenomenon plays in crossflow microfiltration was de scribed in one of the seminars. Drop and bubble deformation breakup and coalescence play key roles in a variety of important processes, such as raindrop growth, liquid-liquid ex traction mixing, di s solved ox y g e n transfer in fermen tors, and materials proce s sing of bimetallic melt s with a liquid-phase miscibility gap. Accordingly, research in this area is very active. Boundary integral methods are used to study the deformation and burst of single drops, as we ll as the motion and deformation of two interacting drops. Lubrication forces van der Waals interactions, and interfacial phenomenon have been shown to significantly affect film drainage and film rupture between two colliding drops or bubble s One of our seminars thi s past year reviewed techniques such as bispherical coordinate transformations, mul tipole expansions, and lubrication theory coupled with boundary integral methods for describing the hydro dynamic interaction between two spherical drops in creeping flow. Two other seminars dealt with popula tion dynamics models and holographic techniques for predicting and mea s uring, respectively, shifts in drop size distributions due to collisions and coale s cence. When a drop (or bubble) is placed in an otherwise quiescent liquid on which a temperature gradient is imposed, it will migrate (in addition to its motion due to gravity or other external forces) toward the region 232 of higher temperature. This phenomenon is referred to as thermal Marangoni migration or thermocapillary migration and occurs because the interfacial tension decreases with increasing temperature. The interfa cial tension difference between the hot and cold sides of the drop sets up a circulatory motion so that the drop, in effect "swims" up the temperature gradient. This migration was first analyzed by Young e t al (1959) under conditions of small Reynolds and Peclet numbers. Current research was reviewed in one of our seminars and includes extending the analysis to higher Peclet numbers considering the interaction of two drops or bubbles in a temperature gradient, and analyzing the analogous phenomenon of solutal Maran goni migration of a drop or bubble in a concentration gradient of a surfactant. Recently, Brady and Bossis (1988) and co-workers have developed a method to dynamically simulate the behavior of many particles suspended in a fluid. The method incorporates hydrodynamic interactions be tween particles at least in an approximate sense as well as other forces applied to particles, such as grav ity, Brownian forces, and attractive and repulsive in terparticle forces. This method, known as Stok e s i a n dynamics, follows the position and velocity of each of the suspended particles as functions of time, for sus pension flows such as sedimentation and simple shear. Although excessive computational requirements gen erally limit the simulations to a monolayer of su s pended particles, they are able to predict macroscopic information, s uch as effective viscosities or average hindered settling velocitie s, as well as microscopic in formation, such as the local arrangement or micro structure of the particles as it evolves with time (in cluding addressing questions such as whether or not the particles tend to cluster). Another application area for research involving suspensions is that of fluidized beds, which are com mon in the chemical process industry. Solid particles at rest in a vertical column form a packed bed through which fluid may be forced If the rate at which fluid is forced through the bed exceeds a critical value ( i e ., that for which the drag force exceeds the gravity force on the particles) then the particles are lifted and sepa rated from one another. The bed is then said to be fluidized. If the fluid velocity is increased further, the fluidized bed will become unstable Bubbles of fluid that are relatively free of particles will form near the base of the bed and rise through it. As a result, partial by-passing of the particles by the fluid occurs. In addi tion to studies of these instabilities and bubble forma tion, current research on fluidized beds includes studies of particle attrition and of hindered settling of C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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particles relative to the fluid. For a variety of reasons, it is important to know the size distribution of particles in suspension. This is particularly true for the design of solid-liquid separa tion equipment, particle size classifiers, and catalytic reactors. The many methods available for sizing parti cles include electrical conductivity, gravitational and centrifugal sedimentation with light extinction, hydro dynamic chromatography, photomicroscopy, optical blockage or shadowing, light scattering, aerosol iner tia, diffraction, field-flow fractionation, gas adsorp tion, elutriation, and holography. Seminars presented by students this past year included light scattering and holographic techniques for measuring particle size distributions. The final application area considered in Part 2 of the course involves particle classification, where class ification involves the separation of particles according to size, s hape, or density. A variety of commercial devices are available for particle classification. These include screens, elutriators, continuous centrifuges, and cyclones. A sing le pass through one of these de vices will divide a feed stream into a coarse fraction and a fine fraction. One of our seminars focused on elutriators, which require the particles to settle against an upward flowing liquid stream Classifica tion occurs due to differences in the sedimentation ve locities of the particles Fundamental analyses to pre dict the compositions of the product strea ms are pos sib le for relatively s imple geometries, suc h as a rec tangular channel inclined from the vertical. READING MATERIAL As is often true of advanced s peciality courses, there is no single textbook which covers all of the material presented A new text which covers most of the fundamental material and some of the application areas is Colloidal Dispersions, by Russel, Saville, and Schowalter (1989) Another new text which focuses on mathematical treatments of fundamental fluid mechanics of noncolloidal suspensions, is An I ntroduc tion to Microhydrodynam ics, by Kim, Karrila, and Jeffrey (1989) I thank Bill Russel and Sang Kim for providing me with advance copies of the relevant chapters of these texts. These and other useful books are listed in the reference section. Also provided is an extensive, but by no means exhaustive, list of techni cal and review articles on suspensions. Since the lectures cover considerable complex ma terial, I wrote them out in advance in order to provide copies to the students. Similarly copies of the over heads or text for each seminar are provided to the class. This minimizes the requirement for notetaking FALL 1989 and allows the students to participate more fully in the class discussion. ASSIGNMENTS AND GRADING Several homework assignments are given in order to provide the students with a deeper understanding of the fundamental material on suspensions presented in the lectures, and to give them practice with the necessary analytical tools. An in-class midterm exami nation is given at the end of Part 1 of the course, covering the fundamentals of fluid mechanical and col loidal aspects of suspensions During Part 2 of the course, each student prepares a written paper review ing the state-of-the-art of a particular research subject that falls under the general theme of the course. These papers are of 10-15 pages in length and are prepared in a journal-style format. Each must review at least two journal references from the past decade. The stu dents also present their review papers to the clas s in a seminar-style format. The course is graded with equal weighting on the homework, the midterm, and the review paper. In addition regular attendance and participation in crit ical discussions are expected. Since speciality courses are usually small in s ize (we had eleven st udent s in this course last fall), there is plenty of opportunity for all to participate. An effective way to promote this is to take the class on a mini-retreat early in the term. We went to the Mountain Research Station of the Uni versity of Co lorado one Saturday last fall, where I delivered three of the lectures interspersed with lunch and volleyball games. CONCLUDING REMARKS S u spensions represent a fruitful area for funda mental research with a wide variety of important ap plications. This course provides graduate st udents with the fundamental background that is needed to pursue this research It also provides them with a broad understanding and appreciation of the current applications and research frontiers in this area REFERENCES BOOKS Barth, H.G., ed., Modern Methods of Particle Size Analysis, Wiley (1984) Batchelor, G K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynami cs, Cam bridge University Press (1967) Happel, J and H. Brenner Low Reynolds Number Hydro dynamics, Prentice-Hall (1965); republished by Martinus NijhofT (1986) Hiemenz, P.C., Principles of Colloid and Su r face Che mi stry, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekk er (1986) 233

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Hirtzel, C.S ., and R. Rajagopalan, Colloidal Phenomena: Advanced Topics, Noyes Publications (1985) Kim, S ., S.J Karrila, and D J. Jeffrey, An Introduction to Microhydrodynamics Butterworths (1989) Landau, L D., and F.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 2nd e d., Pergamon Press (1987) Mahanty, J. and B W Ninham Dispersion Forces, Aca demic Press (1976) Probstein R.F., Physico che mical Hydrodynamics Butter worths (1989) Russell, W.B., D.A. Saville, and W.R. Schowalter, Col loidal Dispersions, Cambridge University Press (1989) JOURNAL ARTICLES Acrivos, A., and E. Herbolzheimer, "Enhanced Sedimenta tion in Settling Tanks with Inclined Walls," J. Fluid Mech., 92, 435 (1979) Adler, P.M., "Heterocoagulation in Shear Flow," J Colloid Interface Sci., 83, 106 (1981) Amberg, G. and H.P. Greenspan "Boundary Layers in a Sectioned Centrifuge," J. Fluid Mech ., 181 77 (1987) Anderson, J L. "Droplet Interactions in Thermocapillary Motion, Int J. Multiphase Flow, 11, 813 (1985) Barnocky, G., and R.H. Davis, "Elastohydrodynamic Collision and Rebound of Spheres: Experimental Verifi cation, Phys. Fluids, 31 1324 (1988) Batchelor, G.K ., "Developments in Microhydrodynamics, in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ed W T Koiter, North Holland, 33 (1976a) Batchelor, G.K., Brownian Diffusion with Hydrodynamic Interaction," J. Fluid Mech ., 74, 1 (1976b) Batchelor, G.K. Sedimentation in a Dilute Polydisperse System of Interacting Spheres: Part 1. General Theory," J Fluid Mech ., 119, 379 (1982) Batchelor, G K., A New Theory of the Instability of a Uni form Fluidized Bed, J. Fluid Mech., 193, 75 (1988) Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, The Determination of the Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Particles to Order c 2 ," J Fluid Mech ., 56 ,4 01 (1972) Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, "The Hydrodynamic In teraction of Two Small Freely-Moving Spheres in a Lin ear Flow Field," J. Fluid Mech., 56, 375 (1972) Bentley, B.J., and L.G. Leal, An Experimental Investiga tion of Drop Deformation and Breakup in Steady, Two Dimensional Linear Flows," J. Fluid Mech., 167, 241 (1986) Brady, J.F., and G. Bossis, Stokesian Dynamics, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 20, 111 (1988) Chen, J -D ., "A Model of Coalescence Between Two Equal Sized Spherical Drops or Bubbles," J. Colloid Interfac e Sci., 107, 209 (1985) Chi, B.K., and L.G Leal, "A Theoretical Study of the Motion of a Viscous Drop Toward a Fluid Interface at Low Reynolds Number," J. Fluid Mech., 201, 123 (1989) Davis, K.E., and W.B. Russel, "An Asymptotic Description of Transient Settling and Ultrafiltration of Colloidal Dis persions, Phys. Fluid A., 1, 82 (1989) Davis, R.H., "The Rate of Coagulation of a Dilute Polydis perse System of Sedimenting Spheres," J. Fluid Mech ., 145, 179 (1984) Davis, R.H. and A. Acrivos, Sedimentation of Noncol loidal Particles at Low Reynolds Numbers, Ann Rev. Fluid Mech., 17, 91 (1985) Davis, R.H., and M.A. Hassen, "Spreading of the Interface 234 at the Top of a Slightly Polydisperse Suspension," J. Fluid Mech., 196 107 (1988) Davis, R H., J.A. Schonberg, and J.M. Rallison, "The Lu brication Force Betwe en Two Viscous Drops," Phys. Flu ids A 1 77 (1989) Davis, R.H., X. Zhang, and J.P. Agarwala, "Particle Classification for Dilute Suspensions Using an Inclined Settler," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 785 (1989) Feke, D.L., and W.R. Schowalter, The Influence of Brown ian Diffusion on Binary Flow-Induced Collision Rates in Colloidal Dispersions ," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 106, 203 (1985) Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 1. Axisymmetric Motions ," Phys. Fluids, 31 2445 (1988) Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 2. Asymmetric Motions," Phys. Fluids A, 1, 61 (1989) Gal, E. G. Tardos, and R. Pfeffer, "A Study of Inertial Ef fects in Granular Bed Filtration," AIChE J., 31, 1093 (1985) Geller, A.S., S.H. Lee, and L.G. Leal, "The Creeping Motion of a Spherical Particle Normal to a Deformable Interface," J. Fluid Mech. 169, 27 (1986) Goldman, A.J., R.G. Cox, and H. Brenner, "The Slow Mo tion of Two Identical Arbitrarily Oriented Spheres Through a Viscous Fluid," Chem. Eng. Sci., 21 1151 (1966) Haber, S., and G. Hetsroni, "Sedimentation in a Dilute Dis persion of Small Drops of Various Sizes," J. Colloid Inter face Sci., 79 56 (1981) Haber, S., G. Hetsroni, and A. Solan, "On the Low Reynolds Number Motion of Two Droplets, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1 57 (1973) Hahn, P.-S., J.-D. Chen, and J.C. Slattery, "Effects of Lon don-van der Waals Forces on the Thinning and Rupture of a Dimpled Liquid Film as a Small Drop or Bubble Ap proaches a Fluid-Fluid Interface," AIChE J., 31, 2026 (1985) Hamaker, H.C., "London-van der Waals Attraction Be tween Spherical Particles," Physica, 4, 1058 (1937) Ivanov, I.B., D .S. Dimitrov, P. Somasundaran, and R.K. Jain, "Thinning of Films With Deformable Interfaces: Diffusion-Controll ed Surfactant Transfer," Chem. Eng. Sci., 40 137 (1985) Jeffrey D.J. and Y. Onishi, "Calculations of the Resistance and Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Rigid Spheres in Low-Reynolds-Number Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 139, 261 (1984) Johnson, R.E., and S.S. Sadhal, "F luid Mechanics of Com pound Multiphase Drops and Bubbles," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech ., 17 289 (1985) Jones, A.F., and S.D.R. Wilson, "The Film Drainage Prob lem in Droplet Coalescence," J. Fluid Mech., 87, 263 (1978) Leighton, D.T., and A. Acrivos, "The Shear Induced Migra tion of Particles in Concentrated Suspension," J. Fluid Mech., 181,415 (1987) Melik, D.H. and H.S. Fogler, "Effect of Gravity on Brown ian Flocculation ," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 101, 84 (1984) Rallison, J.M., "The Deformation of Small Viscous Drops and Bubbles in Shear Flows," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16, 45(1984) Rallison, J.M. and A. Acrivos, "A Numerical Study of the Deformation and Burst of a Viscous Drop in an Exten sional Flow, J. Fluid Mech., 89 191 (1978) Romero, C.A., and R.H. Davis, "Global Model of Crossflow Microfiltration Based on Hydrodynamic Particle DiffuCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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sion," J. Memb. Sci., 39, 157 (1988) Russel, W.B., "Brownian Motion of Small Particles Sus pended in Liquids," Ann. Reu. Fluid Mech., 13, 425 (1981) Schowalter, W.R., "Stability and Coagulation of Colloids in Shear Fields," Ann. Reu. Fluid Mech., 16, 245 (1984) Shankar, N., and R.S. Subramanian, "The Stokes Motion of a Gas Bubble Due to Interfacial Tension Gradients at Low to Moderate Marangoni Numbers," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 123, 512 (1988) Smoluchowski, M. von, "Versuch Einer Mathematischen Theorie der Kongulationskinetik Kolloider Losungen, Z. Phys. Chem., 92, 129 (1917) Spielman, L.A., "Viscous Interactions in Brownian Coagu lation ," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 33, 562 (1970) Tien, C., and A.C Payatakes, "Advances in Deep Bed Fil tration," AIChE J., 25, 735 (1979) van de Ven, T.G.M., and S.G. Mason, "The Microrheology of Spheres in Shear Flow: IV. Pairs of Interacting Spheres in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface Sci 57, 505 (1976) van de Ven, T.G.M., and S.G. Mason, "The Microrheology of Spheres in Shear Flow: V. Primary and Secondary Doublets of Spheres in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 57,517 (1976) Weitz, D.A., and J.S Huang, "Self Similar Structures and the Kinetics of Aggregation of Gold Colloids, in Kinetics of Aggregation and Gelation, ed by P. Family and D.P. Landau, Elsevier Science, p. 19 (1984) Young, N.O., J.S. Goldstein, and M.J. Block, "The Motion of Bubbles in a Vertical Temperature Gradient," J. Fluid Mech., 6, 350 (1959) Zeichner, G R., and W.R. Schowalter, "Use of Trajectory Analysis to Study Stability of Colloidal Dispersions in Flow Fields," AIChE J 23,243 (1977) 0 LETTER TO THE EDITOR Continued from page 203. times of economic crisis cut their own compensation first (In the last two years, Japanese manufacturers cut their executive salaries to absorb the external shocks of the ap preciating yen.) Many American corporations now are seeking to lessen the damage of management versus labor battles by giving more workers a chance to advise on corporate methods and strategy in the workplace. In the meantime, in the universities, there has been a proliferation of man agers, the very well-paid academic and non-academic administrators who don t teach. So the universities, al ways about a decade behind the rest of the country, are just now discovering how privileged the management class has become and finding ways of distancing the managers and functionaries from the professors. We see administrative layer upon layer burgeoning, with pro portionately less support available to serve those of the academic "production" side. This hierarchy in a univer sity bureaucracy creates alienating conditions deterring communication between the classroom and the labora tory on the one hand and the deans, vice presidents and the president on the other. A perception of privilege undermines a sense of FALL 1989 community on many campuses. University administra tors in major universities around the country, for exam ple, drive university cars, with reserved parking places They may also have free memberships in social clubs. A clear message of power and privilege, symbolically and actually, is communicated to all. The atmosphere and class distinctions become demoralizing. Privileges are perceived not as nurturing qualities of commitment to the life of the mind, nor qualities promoting loyalty to the in stitution. Much of a university's energy today is invested in perpetuating the non-academic instruments of control and maintaining the structure of a self-perpetuating bu reaucracy The heart and reputation of a university, and the af fection and esteem in which it is held, do not reside solely in the dollars awarded its research professors by extra mural agencies. Rather, the perceived greatness of its commitment to the education and nurturing of its stu dents and the respect accorded faculty and their creative works, determine the long-term well-being of the univer sity Every student graduating from the institution, and all its faculty members, promote the university in terms cynical or laudatory, depending on his or her experi ences Thus the faculty and administrators ought to en hance their institution's well being by promoting the self esteem of the students and faculty. Students and faculty are inexorably linked. This means fostering collegiality, reducing the sense of an impersonal and disinterested bureaucracy. It means finding out, perhaps by exit inter views with graduates, what is actually happening within the university (rather than doing surveys on quality of life). The same ought to be done with departing faculty members Paying attention to practical problems such as the availability and cost of parking, courtesy, maintaining clean classrooms, and promptness of response to in quiries are ways university administrations can show re spect for the needs of students and faculty. It also means the president and vice presidents and deans should meet with faculty members and students at the working aca demic level, the basic teaching units of the university. Wanting to do therm things and more would be a unifying influence This requires, ultimately, the recognition that all administrators are temporary caretakers for the new generations of students always coming and going and respecting the teachers who transmit their learning and pursue new knowledge. The history and continuity of a university resides in the quality of work and loyalty of its students and faculty and the non-academic workers who serve in making the central purposes of the university easier to accomplish. Daniel Hershey Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Cincinnati and former Assistant to the President under Warren Bennis 235

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A course on .. APPLIED LINEAR ALGEBRA TSE-WEI WANG The University of Tennessee Kno xv ille, TN 37996-2200 I N BOTH INDUSTRY and academics, as the emphasis on multivariable control designs develop, it be comes indispensable that the concept of linear algebra and its geometric and physical interpretations be mas tered as background knowledge. As graduate courses introducing recent developments in the theory and de sign of multivariable process controls emerge in the graduate curriculum, a concomitant background course in applied linear algebra becomes imperative in understanding the new complexity of multivariable control. Three years ago, the chemical engineering de partment introduced a new course, cross-listed in both the electrical and computer engineering and the mechanical engineering departments, entitled "Appli cation of Numeric Linear Algebra in Systems and Control Engineering." All chemical engineering graduate students in the system modeling and process control areas and all electrical engineering students taking the graduate linear syste ms theory course are required to take this course. A prerequisite is senior or graduate standing with a prior introductory under graduate course to vectors and matrices. The students usually come into the course knowing only how to do matrix addition, subtraction, and mul tiplication-finding the determinant and inverse of up to 3x3 matrices. Some of them know a little about basis vectors and have some notions about linear inde pendence of vectors. In all three departments, the stu dents can use this course to satisfy one of their math course requirements. All other graduate students are strongly encouraged to take this course. The goal of the course is to introduce engineering students, especially those majoring in the systems and control area, to the concepts and the physical as well as the geometric interpretations of some key linear The goal of the course is to introduce engineering students, especially those majoring in the systems and control area, to the concepts and the physical as well as the geometric interpretations of some key linear algebra topics and their associated numerical considerations. 236 Tse-Wei Wang is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at the University of Tennessee She received a PhD in biophysics from M I.T. in 1977 concentrating in the study of human platelet physiology She obtained a MS is chemical engineering from the University of Tennessee in 1986 and joined the faculty there soon afterwards Her areas of interest are biotechnology and process control of chemical and biochemical processes algebra topics and their as soc ia ~e d numerical consid eration. Examples from sys tem modeling and control areas are used extensively in order to lend a sense of reality to the rather abstract mathematical concepts In this article we describe the course teaching philosophy, the computer projects assignments, and the student feedback. We have received such favor able comment s and support from the faculty and stu dents that we plan to offer it annually in the fall s emester. It will al so se rv e as a corequisite for the 500-level course on linear syste ms theory offered by the electrical and computer engineering department. In a previous article [1] published in the fall, 1984, issue of Chemical E n g ineering Educat i o n, entitled "Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers," K. Zy gourakis (Rice University) describes the linear algebra course as the first semester of a two-semester seq uenc e applied math course. Our course at the Uni versity of Tennessee differs from that in that we em phasize the g eometric and physical interpretations of the variou s theorems and decompositions in order to develop, in the students, the ability to answer for themselves questions such as, how do I go about com puting the controllable or observable s ubspace of a dynamic system; how do I use the concept of rank and linear independence to analyze a set of input and out put data of a given process; how do I u s e the concept of orthogonality in analyzing a sys tem matrix; how can I tell if a particular algorithm for system analysis is prone to numerical instability; what is the role of positive-definite matrices in an optimization problem; what does it mean for two physical system matrices to be connected by a similarity transformation; what is the danger of a pole-zero cancellation of a transfer function? Co pyright C hE D ivis i on ASEE 19 8 9 C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING E D UC ATION

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We hope that students will be able to start de veloping an intuitive understanding of the relationship and interactions among the several system variables by analyzing the matrices that connect between them, thereby guiding them in choosing the most appropri ate design and analysis methods. We do not emphasize the writing of computer codes to implement the vari ous numerical algorithms because we recognize that reliable numerical software exists (such as MATLAB [2, 3] that is mainly based on stable routines contained in such packages as LINP ACK [ 4] and EISP ACK [5] for various computer models). Rather, we use the software to solve some physical problems or to imple ment a certain algorithm in order to study the numer ical aspects of it. We are trying to impart to the stu dents the intuitive ability to examine a system and by using fundamental linear algebra concepts, to extract physical information from it. For instance, in consider ing the placement of temperature sensors along a dis tillation column, how does one decide where to place them in order to extract the most useful information about the behavior of the column from their measure ments? Or, in mechanical engineering, where should the accelerometers be placed along a beam in order to detect the first N modes of vibration due to a set of inputs? It can be shown [6] that the choice is the sites where the gain matrix between the control inputs, e.g., reflux ratio, and bottom heat duty, and the sys tem outputs, e.g ., the temperature measurements, that yields the smallest condition number and that has the largest sensitivity in the gains, or a compromise of the two, because this arrangement implies a more balanced distribution of energy involved in each of the control input variables. As the description of a system changes from single variable to multivariable, very often the single-vari able concepts, such as size and interaction, do not carry straight forward into the multivariable case. In the latter, the concept of directionality as exhibited by the various variables and their interactions with each other necessitates the use of a set of coordinate systems to describe the dynamics. The motto "happi ness is finding things are linear" extends into the realm of linear algebra in that "happiness is finding that coordinates are perpendicular"; therefore, the various decompositions (such as QR, SVD, Househol der) emerge so that a system can be transformed into a new representation with mutually orthogonal basis vectors. True, all these theories and algorithms involved are normally covered in upper-level mathematical courses offered by a math department. One asks, legitimately, why is the engineering department FALL 1989 As the description of a system changes from single variable to multivariable, very often the single-variable concepts, such as size and interaction, do not carry straight forward into the multivariable case. bothering to cover the same materials? Why not just send the graduate students over to the math depart ment? The answer is that unless the math department maintains a constant liaison with the various engineer ing departments in order to monitor their need in higher level mathematics, the courses they offer will usually not serve the needs of the engineering stu dents who want to use the mathematics as tools in solving practical problems. Take linear algebra as an example. At the Univer sity of Tennessee, three undergraduate courses (semester) exist in the theory and numerical aspects of linear algebra; at least four graduate courses exist that deal with the theory and algorithms of various topics of linear algebra, such as solving the least square problem and the various decompositions. En gineering students who take them come away know ing how to perform a certain decomposition or how to calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and have learned the numerical aspects of the various al gorithms. But they have not acquired the intuition relating knowledge of the mathematics to selection of the methods for analysis, design, and control of phys ical systems. Study of the properties of linear vector spaces should be linked to the notion that the state space of a dynamical system constitutes a linear vector space and that the controllable and / or observable space constitutes a subspace of the original state space. Then all the manipulations, such as change of basis, orthogonalization, QR, and SVD, can be viewed as a way to view the system states in a more facilitat ing coordinate frame (orthogonal), and the system matrices or transformation matrices can be viewed with respect to these new coordinate frames. As a result, the properties associated with these special matrices, such as unitarity, orthonormality, and trian gularity, can be used to view the transformation as represented by these matrices in a more intuitive and simplified manner. An area where a variety of physi cal problems can be used to illustrate the math princi ples is that of using SVD and pseudoinverse in solving least-square problems. In the long run, we hope that the experience gained in teaching both the engineer ing and mathematical version of the materials can lead to a single course meeting the goals of both groups. The textbook used is Linear Algebra and Its Ap plications [7], by Gilbert Strang. Table 1 lists the 237

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Course Textbook TABLE 1 Course Materials Strang, G ., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., (1988) Additions/ Course References 1. Stewart G.W Introduction to Matrix Computations, Academic Press (1973) 2 Golub, G., and C Van Loan, Matrix Computations, Johns Hopkins Press ( 1983) textbook along with the supplemental reference books, and Tabl e 2 shows the topics covered in the course. From time to time, details of some topics are also presented from references listed [8] and [9]. Strang presents the materials as a systematic development of observations on a set of linear algebraic equations (later on, on a set of linear ordinary differential equa tions). His presentation elicits enthusiasm from the readers until the mystery of observations is solved, see mingly intuitively. Then, voila, he formally states the deductions in theorems. He leads one from the beginning to the end of the development of a concept in such a manner that one cannot help following him in order to see the interpretation of the observations! Most students in the class also appreciate Strang's style of presentation. Over half of the class time is devoted to the first three chapters, involving analysis of solving the prob lem of Ax= b, the overand under-determined, and the inconsistent cases. After the mechanism of Gaussian eliminations with pivoting is presented, the concept of the four fundamental subspaces is introduced. Geo metric visualization of the orthogonal complementary subspaces, e.g., the row and null spaces, is stressed. The roles of the four subspaces wit h respect to linear transformations are, in turn, explained and visualized in detail. The decomposition of any vector into its or thogonal components is emphasized. In geometric vis ualization a three-dimensional space is always used because of its familiarity. Then, the visualization of the vectors b and x, as in Ax= b, in the recipient and domain space, respectively, of the linear transforma tion represented by the matrix A, is made. Figures 1 and 2 (from Strang) are used very often to depict the actions of A and the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse, A+, with respect to the four subspaces. The role of each of the four fundamental subspaces with respect to the underor over-determined and inconsistent cases is analyzed in detail. At this point, an example is given concerning the underdetermined case. The problem is presented of a physical process with more inputs than outputs, and they are related at steady 238 state, by A, as in y = Au. The dimension of A is there fore rectangular, mxn, with m < n, more variab le s than constraints. Therefore, from linear algebra theory, many solutions exist. One can pose an optimization problem where one wants to find the solution, x 0 p, from the set of all possible solutions, such that some function of x 0 P is minimized (or maximized). A physical example where an inconsistent case of Ax= b may arise is offered at this point. Cases involv ing multiple measurement data points are the most common. A specific example, mentioned earlier, is one of temperature sensor measurements along the many trays of a distillation column Usually, two control in puts are considered. Yet there may be five or more TABLE 2 Topical Outline, Applied Linear Algebra Course Matrices and Gaussian Elimination Introduction The geometry of linear equations An example of Gaussian elimination Matrix notation and matrix multiplication Triangular factors and row exchanges Inverses and transposes Vector Spaces and Linear Equations Vector spaces and subspaces Solution of m equations in n unknowns Linear independence, basis and dimension The four fundamental subspaces Linear transformations Orthogonality Perpendicular vectors and orthogonal subspaces Inner products and projections onto lines Orthogonal bases orthogonal matrices, and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization The fast Fourier transform Determinants The properties of the determinant Formulas for the determinant Applications of determinants Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors The diagonal form of a matrix Difference equations and the powers Ak Differential equations and exponential eA t Complex matrices : Symmetric vs. hermitian and orthogonal vs unitary Similarity transformations Positive Definite Matrices Minima maxima, and saddle points Tests for positive definiteness Semidefinite and indefinite matrices: Ax = AMx Minimum principles and the Rayleigh quotient The finite element method Computations with Matrices The norm and condition number of a matrix Householder transformation Hessenberg form Gaussian elimination with pivoting Linear Programming Linear inequalities The simplex method The theory of duality CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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R n X -A x A x r r FIGURE 1. The action of a matrix A (from Strang, 1988) temperature measurements along the tower. The ma trix that relates the inputs and outputs would be of dimension 5x2. Because of noise or biases, the temper ature measurements would usually be inconsistent when compared to that calculated from the physical and thermodynamic data of the components and pro cess involved. The solution to Ax= b in this case rep resents the input necessary to give a set of measure ments "closest" to the desired outputs as measured by the sensors. These presentations on the four funda mental subspaces pave the way for introduction of the singular value decomposition (SVD), the pseudoin verse, and application of SVD in solving the least square problems. SVD ha s proven to have many appli cations in system analysis and plays a major role in the implementation of many stable numerical al gorithms. See Klema and Laub [10], for example, for more detailed discussion concerning the numerical as pect of SVD. Let A= U!V' be the SVD of A. We present the notion that transformation of a vector x by A can be viewed as series of transformations: first a rotation by V', a unitary matrix, followed by a decoupled trans formation represented by the diagonal !, followed by another rotation by the unitary U. The notion that the columns of the matrices U and V in serv ing as the orthonormal basis vectors of the appropriate sub spaces is presented. The concept of singular values of a matrix is pre sented as follows (this geometric representation is borrowed from that of Moore [11]). If an r-dimensional sphere of unit radius resides in the row space of ma trix A, with the r orthogonal unit vectors given by the first r columns of the matrix V as the coordinate axes (r denotes the rank of A), then the transformation process maps it into an r-dimensional ellipsoid in the column space of A. The nonzero singular values of A represent the magnitudes of the axes of the ellipsoid FALL 1989 FIGURE 2. The action of the Moore-Penrose pseudoin verse of A (from Strang, 1988) (the largest singular value gives the length of the major axis, etc ). The mutually orthogonal axes of the ellipsoid point in the directions given by the first r columns of the matrix U. In this way, the singular values can be viewed as scaling factors for the unit radii of a sphere in the row space when mapped into an ellipsoid in the coulmn space of A. Again, the stu dents are asked to picture the various manipulations in 3-D space. Finally, the concept of the pseudo-in verse of A is presented. The roles of U' and V in accomplishing projection and change of basis are care fully presented, using Figure 2 as an aid. At this point, a computer assignment i s made for finding the completely controllable, completely ob servable and completely controllable and observable s ub spaces of a linear dynamic system, described by the equation x(t) =Ax+ Bu, where x represents the state vector and u represents the input vector. The idea is that from the controllability and observability grammians of the system, (pos itive definite solutions, P and M, to the Lyaponov equations, below) AP + PA' = -BB' A'M +MA= -C'C one can project the original state space down to the controllable or observable subspace spanned by the columns of P or M, respectively, by doing an equiva lence transformation, using a set of orthogonal basis vectors that span the appropriate subspace, for t h e transformation. The rank of each of the subspaces is the rank of P or M respectively. Stable routines exist for solving equations of the above type. The matrices P and M can also be solved in a stable manner by assuming a QR decomposition of A, and in conjunction with back substitutions, the elements of P and M can be determined in a straightforward manner. 239

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This exercise also illustrates that often a good al gorithm can be ruined by bad numerics. Let me ex pla i n. The controllability or observability of a system can also be analyzed by examining the rank and the span of the associated controllability or observability matrix U and V as calculated by U = [Bl ABI A 2 BI ... I A(n-l)B] V = [Cl CAI CA 2 1 I CA(n-l)] respectively. In order to calculate U and V, repeated mu l tiplications by A up to (n-1) times are necessary. If n is large and A is poorly conditioned, then it can lead to numerical instability such that rank determina tion of the resultant U and V may be obscured by their near singularity; the singularity may have been an artifact of the numerics and not necessarily a rep resentation of any physical defect. For the completely contro ll able and observable system, one finds the in tersection of the two respective subspaces by project ing, for example, the controllable subspace down to t h e observable subspace. A good illustration of apply ing numerical linear algebra to system concept here is that if one only desires to test the controllability (ob servability) of a system, one can normally get accurate res u lts by applying a random state feedback (ob server) through gain K (F), to form A+ BK (A+ FC) in t h e state propagation equation, where K (F) is ran do ml y chosen Then one computes the eigenvalues of A and A+ BK (A+ FC) and pair off nearest eigen va lu es between the two matrices. The system is com pletely controllable (completely observable) if, and on l y if, the two matrices A and A+ BK (A+ FC) have no common eigenvalues with probability 1. About two thirds of the course is spent in covering the first three chapters and the appendix on pseudoin ve r se which we consider to be the heart of the mat ter Each notion is presented geometrically and intui tive l y as much as the subject matter allows. Sometimes i t takes quite a few lectures to get an idea across. But eac h decompos i tion and manipulation is accompanied by an explanation of why one wants to do that decom pos i tion and manipulation and what does it get you? As many physical examples are offered as possible. !n this respect, Strang's presentation of the material d oes l en d a much more intuitive appeal than some of the o th er textbooks SECOND HALF OF COURSE Th e second portion of the course starts with a re view of t h e properties of determinants. This is fol l owed by the next four chapters on eigenvalues and 240 eigenvectors, positive definite matrices, computatio~s with matrices, and linear programming. The book is followed fairly closely except for the chapter on com putations with matrices For this subject matter, Strang is supplemented by materials from Stewart [8] and Golub and Van Loan [9], which both deal with the numerical aspect of matrix computations. The Gaus sian elimination with pivoting is presented first, and is followed by the Householder's transformation and upper Hessenberg matrices and their significance in speeding up the computation efficiency. The condition number and the Raleigh's quotient of a matrix are discussed with respect to stability and perturbation. At this point, physical examples are offered to il lustrate the danger of dealing with a matrix with a high condition number. The students are asked to vis ualize a system with states residing in an ellipsoid with two long major axes and a very short third minor axis. Suppose one wants to find the control input re quired to produce some desired states. Su_ch system matrix with high condition number would yield a very large control input upon inversion of the matrix. Therefore the students are asked to ponder if it would not have been more appropriate to lop off one dimension (the one spanned by the short axis) and project the original system down to a subspace with dimen sion of one less. A computer project is assigned to consider a 2x2 case where the gain matrix of a system is derived experimentally where the measurements are :ather noisy. The students are asked to calculate mputs necessary in order to yield certain output vector val ues. The condition number of the gain matrix given is rather high due to the fact that the real gain mat~x is singular, because only one of the two outputs is independent. But, due to noise, the experim~ntally derived gain matrix is not singular, but rather i~ ~~ar singular. The students are to compare the sensitivity of the calculated results using the original full matrix with slightly varying entries to ~eflect the noisy na ture of the data. Further, they are asked to offer a plausible explanation for the high sensitivity of the calculated results to the slight perturbations in the system matrix entries and to offer a solution for avoid ing this problem The students are asked how to c?~ pute, using SVD, the reduced order models to ehmI nate modes which have little effect on system re sponse. They find this exercise enlightening. The presentation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is straightforward. The intuitive approach has not been used much except where the notions from the first part of the course apply. A note has to be said CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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about the Jordan canonical form of a matrix A. In every linear algebra textbook there is a section de voted to the explanation and calculation of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix A. Some emphasize it more than others. However, when dealing with large sys tems (as in many practical problems) where computers are employed for matrix manipulations, an approach employing the calculation of the Jordan decomposi tion, i e. x1 AX = diag(J 1 .. J t ), where each J is a Jordan block, is not numerically stable. This comes about because at several steps of calculating the de composition, rank decisions must be made, and the final computed block structure depends heavily on these blocks, thus on these rank decisions. In practical applications, Golub and Van Loan suggest using the more stable Schur decomposition in eigenvector prob lems. Therefore, the Jordan canonical approach is not covered in detail in this course. The course has now been taught twice at our uni versity, and the students have received it with en thusiasm. Many of them have taken courses in linear algebra in the mathematics department prior to taking this course. They comment that the approach taken here is very different and that their intuitive under standing of the key theorems has increased. They further state that this course has helped them to bet ter understand papers involving matrix manipulations. CONCLUSION A new applied linear algebra course cross-listed in three engineering departments, has been created. The emphasis is on intuitive understanding and geometric visualization and interpretation of the key theorems of linear algebra. The students should learn the why's of doing certain matrix decompositions and manipulations and should be able to visualize the al gorithms in 3-D space Numerous physical examples from systems area are offered, tying together the mathematical manipulations and their physical signifi cance. Computer projects are assigned from time to time to illustrate the utility of the various algorithms in solving practical problems. The course has also been made a co-requisite for the linear systems theory course offered by the electrical engineering depart ment, so as to take the pain of teaching simultaneously both the applied linear algebra and linear systems theory out of that course. The students who have taken the course appreciate its approach, and I have found that every time I have taught it, I find more points that I am able to interpret intuitively that I was not able to before. The Chinese have an old prov erb that says that new things are learned from reviewFALL 1989 ing old things. It has proven to be the case with this course. REFERENCES 1. Zygourakis, K. "Linear Algebra for Chemical Engi neers," Chem. Eng. Ed., 18, 176 (1984) 2 Pro-MATLAB, The Math Works, Inc., South Natick, MA 3 Kantor, J.C., Matrix Oriented Computation Using Matlab," CACHE News, 28, 27 (1989) 4 LINPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathe matics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA 5 EISPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM ) Philadelphia, PA 6. Moore, C.F., A Reliable Distillation Column Analysis Procedure for Use During Initial Column Design, pa per presented at the November meeting of AIChE (1985) 7. Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (1988) 8. Stewart, G.W., Introduction to Matrix Computations, Academic Press (1973) 9. Golub G., and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations, Johns Hopkins Press (1983) 10. Klema, V.C., and A.J. Laub, "The Singular Value De composition: Its Computation and Some Applications," IEEE Trans. on Auto. Cont., AC-25, 164 (1980) 11. Moore, B., internal report ELE-1633-F, System Control Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Univer sity of Toronto, September (1978) 0 RANDOM THOUGHTS Continued from page 207 commen t ary. But when we comment on practice tests or revisable papers we are not saying, "Here's why you got this grade." We are saying, "Here's how you can get a better grade." Alternating between the roles of student advocate and guardian of standards-good cop and bad cop enables teachers to serve comfortably in both capacities. It's easier to set high standards if you know you're going to be helping the students attain them, and it's easier to enforce the standards once you've made them quite clear and given the students every opportunity to meet them. In addition, the approach may also provide a significant fringe benefit: In the end, I do not think I am just talking about how to serve students and serve knowledge or society. I am also talking about developing opposite and complementary sides of our character or personality: the supportive and nurturant side and the tough, demanding side. I submit that we all have instincts and needs of both sorts. The gentlest, softest, and most f7,exible among us really need a chance to stick up for our latent high standards, and the most hawk-eyed, critical-minded bouncers at the bar of civilization among us really need a chance to use our nurturant and supportive muscles instead of always being adversary. There's much more. Get the book. REFERENCES 1. Peter Elbow, Embracing Contraries: Explorations in Learning and Teaching, New York, Oxford University Press (1986 ) 241

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INITIATING CROSSDISCIPLINARY RESEARC H The Neuron-Based Chem i cal Sensor Pro j e ct WILLIAM S KISAALITA1, BERNARD J. VAN WIE1, RODNEY S. SKEEN1, WILLIAM C. DAVIS 2 CHARLES D. BARNES 3 SIMON J. FUNG 3 KUKJIN CHUN4, NUMAN S. DOGAN 4 Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-2752 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING is essential to the pro cess of bringing new areas like biotechnology, electronic, and other advanced materials to commer cial success. The success of this process depends on significant cooperation between chemical engineering and other disciplines Although there is a large volume of literature on the subject of interdisciplinary and/or crossdisciplinary research [1-3], most of it concerns large projects (as defined in Table 1) and little has been written from a chemical engineering perspective. The rationale behind the levels of funding used in Table 1 is called for. Usually in the initial stages of a project, $30,000 to $70,000 for a single year is only sufficient to generate pilot data and perhaps to pro vide incentive for the formation of a crossor an inter disciplinary team. A yearly budget of $70,000 to $150,000 for a period of t h ree to five years provides enough for more than one graduate student to focus on specific aspects relating to t h e expertise of each co-investigator Amounts above $150,000 can support large groups with more personnel per discipline in volved as well as supporting inter university research activities where extensive travel may be necessary. The purpose of this paper is to address the problems TABLE 1 Project Size Based on Yearly Budget Project Size Sma ll Med ium Large Yearly Budget (US $) B e tw ee n $30 000 and $70,000 B e t ween $7 0 000 and $150,000 G re at er than $15 0 000 'Chemical Enginee1 ;,;g Department Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology Department of Veterinary and Com parative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 242 of initiating and conducting a small university level crossdisciplinary project with a yearly budget at $30,000-$70,000. As an example, specific reference is made to a Washington State University (WSU) pro ject on neuron-based chemical sensors which involved chemical and electrical engineers as well as neuro scientists and an immunologist. The experience gained by this group in putting together a research team from various disciplines could be of value to chemical en gineering professionals, particularly for young faculty and graduate students who are considering multi-dis ciplinary projects. DISCIPLINE AND CROSSDISCIPLINARI TY What is a discipline? Generally the term 'discipline' refers to a specialized field of knowledge. Swanson [4] has pointed out that disciplines in a university envi ronment develop when both faculty and administra tion come to recognize reasonably distinct areas of in quiry. It is important to realize that each discipline is usually composed of a set of narrower specializations and that the comprehensiveness of the discipline has at least three properties [5]: 1) a conceptual model shared by individual members that forms the heart of the discipline-an example is the paradigm of trans port phenomena, presented in the 1960 textbook by Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot, which suggests that the proper study of chemical engineering is the molecular phenomena that are fundamental to the understanding of the performance of chemical equipment; 2) a set of phenomena common to the various specializations (e.g., chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and others); and 3) breadth of the discipline achieved through overlapping of multiple narrow specializations of dif ferent individuals as opposed to being embodied in one scholar. Through this overlap comes cohesiveness, and a common discipline language, or jargon, develops to an extent less possible between disciplines [ 4]. It should be mentioned that currently there is no agreement among practitioners of multi-disciplinary research on a unifying terminology. However, there is a need for such a consensus. The interchangeable :> Col'IJriflht ChE Division ASEE 19 89 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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use of the terms interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, cros s disciplinary, transdisciplinary, and others, when describing research across disciplines, is widespread. Recently, Castri [6] suggested a set of precise defini tions for the above terms which is based on the level of cooperation among researchers. These definitions, reproduced in Figure 1 (with minor changes), have minimized the confusion. Multidisciplinary research involves several disciplines, usually at the same hierarchical level, without any demand for coopera tion. In most cases interaction occurs only during the final stages of the project through editorial integration of the findings. Crossdisciplinary work is characteris tic of projects that are problem-focused, where one discipline interacts with others for what those disci plines can offer toward achieving a solution The pro ject described in this paper fits into this category. Interdisciplinary research on the other hand, tends William S. Kiseelite completed his PhD in chemical engineering in 1986 at the University of British Columbia. After a year of postdoc toral work at the University of Waterloo he joined the Chemical Engi neering Department at Washington State University as a postdoctoral research associate. His research interests include biosensors, bio chemical reaction engineering, and downstream processing Bernard J. Ven Wie received his PhD at the University of Okla homa in 1982 and did an additional year of postdoctoral work in the area of thermodynamics. Since then he has been an Assistant (now Associ ate) Professor of Chemical Engineering at Washington State Univer sity, where he has established a multidisciplinary effort for the devel opment monitoring, and control of bioreactors and bioseparation pro cesses. Rodney S. Skeen received his BS and MS in chemical en gineering from Washington State University in 1986 and 1987 respec tively He is currently a PhD student working on the development of neuron based chemical sensors for long-term continuous monitoring In the past he has been involved in developing piezoelectric sensors William C. Devis received his BA in biology from Chico State College in 1955, an MA in biology from Stanford University, and his PhD in medical microbiology from Stanford University School of Medicine in 1966. He is currently engaged in analysis of the mecha nisms governing the immune response to AIDS related viruses in goats and the development of subunit vaccines to protozoan parasites and infectious agents. Charles D. Bernes received his BS in biology and physics from Montana State University in 1958 his MS in physiology and biophysics from the University of Washington in 1961, and his PhD in physiology from the University of Iowa in 1962 He is currently undertaking a de tailed study to delineate the descending modulatory role played by the locus coeruleus of the cat, rat, and mouse on spinal and autonomic motor systems Simon J. Fung received a BSc in zoology from the University of Hong Kong in 1974 and his PhD in physiology from Texas Tech Uni versity Health Sciences Center in 1980 His research focuses on the use of electrophysiological approaches in explaining brain stem control of the spinal cord function Kukjln Chun received his PhD in electrical and computer engi neering from the University of Michigan in 1986. He joined the depart ment of electrical and computer engineering at Washington State Uni versity thereafter and is currently an Assistant Professor at the Inter University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Korea His primary research interests are semiconductor integrated sensors and microelectronics fabrication Numan S. Dogan received his PhD in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan in 1986 and is currendy an Assistant Proces sor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Washington State Uni versity His research interests include microelectronic fabrication com puter modeling of integrated circuits and devices, and microwave cir cuits and devices FALL 1989 Recently, Castri suggested a set of precise definitions for the terms [interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, crossdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and others] which is based on the level of cooperation among researchers. These definitions (with minor changes) have minimized the confusion. to be characterized by the dominance of a common view. This type of cooperation may involve more than one hierarchical level and usually results in new con cepts. One example that fits into this category is the work of Barry Richmond, a neurobiologist with the National Institute of Mental Health, and Lance Opti can, a biomedical engineer with the National Eye In stitute. This interdisciplinary team has come up with a complex mathematical theory (the multiplex filter hypothesis) that challenges scientific orthodoxy by proposing that visual nerves transmit information by multiplexed, encoded signals [7]. This work has the potential of replacing the current way of thinking about the brain. Finally transdisciplinary efforts in volve multilevel interactions that lead to an entire common purpose system. A typical example is the de velopment and deployment of military aircraft [8]. A TERM MODEL HIERARCHICAL LEVELS Mult i disc i pl i narity C=:J Technologico/ C=:J C=:J C=:J Scientific Crossd i sci p l inarity lnterd i sciplinarit~ Transdisciplinarity Scientific Technologicol Scientific Policy ma/ring Planning FIGURE 1. Models of increasing cooperation and coordi nation of research management. (Used by permission from the International Science Policy Foundation.) 243

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project of this magnitude involves all the l evels from scie n tific to po li cy-making and demands extensive cross-interactions In the next section a specific examp l e of an ongoing crossdisciplinary effort between the a u t h ors is pre sented, from which general princip l es wi ll be ex tracted on how to initiate and conduct such research NEURON-BASED SENSOR RESEARCH PROJECT The project rationale is presented below. A de tailed description of findings are reported e l sewhere [9]. Justification The major problems in reliably determining in vitro or in vivo concentrations of antibodies or anti gens, and for that matter any hormone, protein, ion, FIGURE 2 Typical morphological appearance of un N-18 neuron differentiated with 2% serum and am i nopterin treatment. toxin, drug, or hazardous substance, are the lack of fast, reusable, and accurate sensing devices. To date, many solutions have been tried (10 18], yet most are still unsatisfactory. In this project, a new approach to sensing is being investigated in which the long term goals are to develop biochips which will be used to monitor electrical activity of neurons and later, excit able synthetic membranes on exposure to analytes The proposed sensing devices will allow one to take advantage of the specificity, sensitivity, and speed of response characteristic of neurons Neurons are the primary nervous system compo nents for processing and transmitting information. An example of a differentiated neuroblastoma (a tumor ous nerve cell), cultured in our laboratory, is shown 244 u PULSE GENERATOR VIDEO R E CO RDER ~INVERTED M ICROSCOPE LENS STORAGE OSCI LLO SCO PE DATA AOUISITION AND ANALYSIS FIGURE 3. Schematic of experimental equipment in Figure 2. Some of the processes (axons) receive, while others send, information. Nerve cell membranes contain receptors for neurotransmitters and other chemical species. Receptor/neurotransmitter binding events may lead to the activation of second messenger compounds within the cell, or to the opening or closing (gating) of specific ion channels (e g., Na + K + or Ca 2 + ). The opening of the channels results in ion pas sage that changes the electrical state of the neuron which in many cases affects neuron electrical proper ties like action potential (AP) characteristics. For electrically active cells, the channels are voltage sensi tive and can be caused to open or close by changing the transmembrane potential through applied current pulses (19] To achieve a solution to the problem outlined above within a reasonable economic timeframe, we assem bled a crossdisciplinary team of engineers and biologists. The engineers brought a systems approach to the project, with a clear view of how the final prod uct should be implemented. The biologists brought es sentia l basic information on the general methodology used to st u dy neurons. To demonstrate proof of con cept, neurons from a fresh water snail, Limnea stag nalis, were used with alcohols as model analytes (methods and results reported are limited to the initial studies). Methods and I nterpretat i on o f R e sult s A schematic of the exprimental set up is shown in Figure 3. The visceral and right parietal ganglia (a mass of tissue containing nerve cells) were removed from the snail, Limn e a stagnalis, using the methods of Byerly and Hagiwara (20]. The ganglia were trans ferred to a continuous flow recording chamber and exposed to varying concentrations of ethanol (0.2-1.0 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The methods described above emphasize the need in this project of crossing disciplines. For example dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intracellular recording are operations neurobiologists perform routinely. On the other hand for decades engineers have been designing and working with devices capable of processing digital information such as that produced by neuronal firing events. I I I I I I I I I b C 200 ms FIGURE 4 Effects of ethanol on the firing frequency in Limnea neurons (stimulating current was 0.8 nAJ M) in sa li ne so lu tions. Random ce ll s were i mpa l ed w i th glass micro-e l ectrodes and stimulated to produce APs by passage of current t h rough a br i dge circuit from the preamplifier Signals were monitored u sing the storage oscilloscope and stored for later analysis on the video recorder. Cells selected for analysis were limited to those which regularly induced spike dis charges of amplitudes greater than 50 m V. Repetitive firing rate was based on the interspike intervals of the first fo u r APs, for ce ll s induced by passage of a 1.0 S c ur rent pulse with a 0.25 Hz repetition rate Responses of different neurons were compared by norma l iz i ng firing freq u ency va lu es to the baseline (no alcoho l ) response at a given current leve l and plotting t h e res ul ts as a funct i on of concentration. Some ce ll s s h owed exc i tatory effects wit h increasing concentra tion, as show i n Figure 4 T h e hig h er the ethanol conFALL 1 989 2 5 d G roup 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 3 n=3 0 5'r-r-.~~rrrm~~rrrm~~r,--rm~..,....,, 0 00 0 .25 0 50 0 .75 1.00 Ethanol C onc e ntra tion ( M ) FIGURE 5. Normalized firing frequency (FFIFFO) at 0.7 nA. Outer lines for each group of cells represent 95 % confidence limits on the mean values centration, the h i g h er the firing frequency. In Figure 5, plots of normalized firing frequency versus ethanol concentration with 95 % confidence interval bands on the mean values, shows three distinct categories Group 1 with a strong excitatory response, Group 2 with a weaker response, and Group 3 with no re sponse. Linear correlation between analyte concentra tion and a property of a neuron demonstrates in a preliminary way t h e feasibility of the sensor concept. More basic and appl i ed work is currently being con d u cted to demo n st r ate an expa n ded scope of app li ca tions a n d to exp l ai n the mec h anism involved i n the sensi n g process. The methods described above emphasize the need in this project of crossing disciplines. For example, dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intra cellular recording are operations neurobiologists per form routinely. On the other hand for decades en gineers have been designing and working with devices capable of process in g digital information such as that prod u ced by ne u ronal firing events PROJECT FUNDING Typically an investigator with a problem looks for new methods or so lu t i ons from another discip l i n e, or may alternative l y have a novel so l ution in need of a problem For the neuron biosensor project, one of us 245

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(BVW) recognized that advances in biosensing technology would require the systematic study of biological chemical sensing. The results obtained from such studies would provide the insights needed to de sign highly sophisticated detection and signal trans mission devices that mimic those present in living sys tems ( e .g. the olfactory system). To verify the con cept, suitable techniques for studying neuron behavior were needed. Faculty members who traditionally study neurons were needed for a crossdisciplinary team. A group was identified with expertise in spinal cord neurophysiology, having laboratory facilities with intracellular recording equipment similar to that shown in Figure 3. A proposal was put together for preliminary studies with the main intent of obtaining pilot data to demonstrate the concept. Crossdisciplinary ideas such as the one in this paper depart dramatically from the current knowl edge base and contain substantial uncertainties con cerning appropriate methods and outcome. Most sys tems for selecting university research project s for funding tend to favor proposals with logical and sys tematic extensions of current knowledge. Such pro posals are less risky, tend to have easily predictable outcomes, and are relatively easy to defend. There fore the new and innovative crossdisciplinary pro jects may have difficult y s urviving the conventional peer review process. At this point one has to identify a funding source that can entertain exploratory re search projects. Table 2 contains a non-exhaustive list of such programs known to the authors. Some of the programs are specifically designed for this purpose The neuron-based chemical sensor project was first funded a s a NSF Expedited Award for Novel Research at a $30 000 level for 1986 / 87. Additional funds of $94,000 were obtained from the Washington Technology Center (WTC) for the 1987-1989 biennium as well as a $12,400 grant from the WSU College of Engineering. WTC funds are provided on a matching basis to encourage faculty of universities in the State of Washington to obtain extramural resources in re search areas of critical importance to the State. Based TABLE 2 Possible Sources of Support for Risky Proposals Sponsoring Agency Program Contact Comments Nat i onal Sc i ence Foundation Expedited Awards for Engineering D i rector for exploratory research of high but unproven potential for future advances Novel Research NSF non-renewable funding up to $30 000 Wash i ngton DC 20550 does not require external rev i ew to be re-evaluated after 1988/89 Nat i onal Sc i ence Founda ti on Research In iti ation Eng i neering D i rector designed to encourage facu l ty to begin their careers and to make an academic Awards NSF career more attract i ve Wash i ngton DC 20550 fund i ng up to $60,000 for 24 months multiple invest i gator proposa l s not eligible Nat i onal Sc i ence Founda ti on Presidential Young Engineering D i rector provides cooperative research support for the most outstanding and promising young sc i ence and engineer i ng faculty Engineering Foundation National Institute of Health State B i otechnology and/or Technology Centers Not For-Profit and For-Prof i t Corporations Local University Grant and and Research Offices 246 Investigator Awards NSF Wash i ngton, DC 20550 nominations or i g i nate from department chairs minimum of $25,000 and up to $37,000 in matching funds, which comes to a maximum possible total of $100,000/year, for five years Engineering Research Dr R.E Emmert Exec Dir for initiating research for new full time engineering faculty without research Initiation Grants AIChE, Un i ted Eng Cent. support Biotech Research Tra i n i ng Not app li cable University Exp l ora tory Research (P & G Co ) Not applicable 345 East 47th St. support limited to $20,000 New York, NY 10017 crossdisciplinary projects encouraged Dr H L.andsdell Federal Building Room 916 Bethesda MD 20892 Not applicable Procter and Gamble Co Miami Valley PO Box 398707 Cincinnati OH 45238 Not applicable This program has recently been i nit i ated in response to the enormous growth of the biotechnology industry that has resulted i n critical shortages of experts in areas such as biochemical separations and engineering. support up to $31,500 Several states have set up centers to support local efforts i n biotechnology However, the nature of the centers varies greatly. Each has a different focus and source of support and set of programs Some are des i gned to support business and create new companies. A survey of 40 state-supported biotech nology centers in 28 states was conducted by the Biotechnology Information Program of the North Carolina B i otechnology Center in the fall of 1987 focuses on proposa l s that depart dramatically from current knowledge base that entail substant i al uncertainty support up to $150,000 for three years not renewable after the three year period Most universities have monies that are available i nternally for lim i ted support. The graduate or grants office puts out announcements for such competitions CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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on successful completion of the first phase, a proposal has been submitted to WTC for funding for the next biennium (1989-91). Two additional proposals have also been submitted to NSF: one to the Biotechnology Program to support the present group's effort and another to the Emerging Technology Program for an inter-university program with the University of Washington to support a broader based microsensor effort. If these proposals are funded, our project will advance from a small to a medium sized program as defined in Table 1. PROPOSAL WRITING Once the funding source(s) is / are identified, it is important that contact is made with the program di rector(s) to obtain their input on the suitability of the proposal. The next task is writing the proposal-the following procedure worked well for us First, a tenta tive table of contents was generated by the ChE group clearly identifying the parts of the proposal to be written by each participating discipline. Then the participants were asked to write those s ections consis tent with their expertise. These were circulated one to two weeks before a meeting was held to merge the sections, and after the meeting, the chemical en gineering group had the responsibility of preparing a first draft. We have found that this approach solves two key problems associated with proposal writing in a crossdisciplinary environment. First, any misun derstandings regarding approach paradigms, or jar gon are resolved at the outset. Second, consistent ter minology and style of writing are adopted since the integration of the proposal components is entrusted to one individual. After preparation of the first draft, the usual procedures for proposal preparation are fol lowed. These include distribution to each participant to check for logical progression of ideas, appropriate ness of experimental design to the problem solution, and clarity of experimental protocols and general edit ing, followed by a meeting to incorporate the new changes prior to preparation of the final copy. OBSTACLES TO GETTING THE WORK DONE Although the literature is replete with do's and don'ts regarding the management of crossdisciplinary projects [21 & 22], there is a paucity of practical sug gestions to obviate some of the frequently listed obsta cles. In attempting to address this problem, we have limited our discussion to those aspects with which we have had experience. Language or Jargon During the proposal writing stages, it is important to remember that credibility must be maintained FALL 1989 ... any misunderstandings regarding approach, paradigms, or jargon are resolved at the outset. [Then] consistent terminology and style of writing are adopted since the integration of the proposal components is entrusted to one individual. among reviewers who are aware of the specific disci plines united in the proposal. Therefore, well-known terms and concepts must be used. Because of this, the integration of different language and jargon becomes a problem and it usually surfaces at this point. Some researchers have asserted that jargon should be elimi nated [23], but this cannot happen quickly since it takes time to learn another discipline language'. How ever, efforts have to be made to minimize confusion. For newly formed groups frequent discussions, query ing of co-workers, and exchange of relevant papers serve as short term solutions. On a long term basis, participating in a relevant course offered by the co workers in the other disciplines makes a big differ ence. For example, three ofus (BVW, WSK and RSS) attended a course Advanced Neurophysiology," of fered by CDB. Another useful effort, especially for students and postdoctoral associates, is to spend time in the laboratories of the other investigators, under their supervision. For example, WSK does 50% of his experimental work in the laboratory of WCD. The focus of this effort is to develop monoclonal antibodies to differentiated neuroblastoma membrance antigens and to determine the extent of crossreactivity among several cell lines. Skepticism In the early stages of a small crossdisciplinary pro ject, there is usually some doubt about the future suc cess of the project. This skepticism has been explained by Bella and Williamson [24] to reflect an understand ing of the magnitude of the research problem and the potential inappropriateness of the existing methods. Such an attitude of healthy skepticism is essential. Overconfidence usually reflects a shallow understand ing of the important questions. It should be pointed out, however, that extreme skepticism can be disrup tive. Openness to the Evolving Nature of Crosdisciplinary Work It is unlikely that a principle investigator deliber ately identifies the intellectual and social components of a research program organizational pattern in ad vance. The project organization more often evolves into a stable pattern by trial and error. In our case 247

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the project began with one chemical engineering fac ulty member (BVW) and two neurophysiologists (CDB and SJF). After a year of initial experimenta tion, it was determined that if the neurons were to be successfully used as the primary transducers in biosensors, emphasis needed to include fabrication of microdevices that would contain the neuron and the electrical connections. Therefore, electrical engineers (KC and NSD) with expertise in micromachining and integrated circuits technology were invited to join the team. Furthermore, since sensor development efforts are now directed toward biological molecules of economic significance, such as monoclonal antibodies and antigens, an immunologist (WCD) has joined our team. This demonstrates the evolving nature of cross disciplinary work and the importance of openness to the need of other expertise, which, if ignored, may result in the demise of the project Other Issues Based on our experience, frequent team meetings (on top of the standard weekly or bi-weekly meetings between students, postdocs, and their direct super visors) can be time-consuming. Hence, meetings should be pegged to specific project milestones, as op posed to fixed intervals, in order to avoid unproduc tive discussions. However, some flexibility should be maintained for emergency meetings as needed. In this regard, availability of modern computers attached to high-speed data networks, such as those donated to numerous universities by AT&T through their Uni versity Equipment Donation Program, can temper the inconvenience of emergency meetings. For example, when data are being collected or analyzed, questions that arise which require discussion can be dealt with instantly by all investigators across campus via infor mation sharing workstations. Also, financial management (especially for work done in more than one laboratory) can lead to time delays. Most universities have straightforward ac counting procedures to handle this type of problem. In cases where this is not true, a procedure for billing the project account should be put in place im mediately. This will save valuable time. For example, our group needed to immunize rabbits to generate polyspecific serum for testing neuron responses when subjected to antibodies. However, the chemical en gineers, in whose hands the budget account resided lacked clearance to handle live animals, and obtaining this clearance would have taken at least one month. To circumvent this problem, rabbits were purchased through the laboratory of WCD and work was per248 formed under his supervision. The chemical engineer ing group was later billed for those expenses. Another obstacle that is often mentioned is conflict of paradigms or concepts. This is potentially the case between scientists (whose focus is mainly on under standing the principle mechanism underlying impor tant processes) and engineers (whose emphasis is mainly on applying existing fundamental knowledge to solving practical problems). Under such cir cumstances, the best solution might be maintaining good communication links through reviewing progress toward the team's long-term objectives. D IS CUS SI ON In this paper we have attempted to describe our experience in initiating and conducting a small biotechnological crossdisciplinary project in a univer sity environment. It is wise to put in perspective the relationship between small university crossdiscipli nary projects and the American competitiveness in the global marketplace. The history of science and technology teaches us that most significant develop ments have occurred as a result of approaches that involved crossing disciplines. In fact, chemical en gineering as a discipline is one of these developments. Hence, adaptation of technical information from two disciplines, resulting in a major development, is not new. Reasons for the greater current interest in the subject are better expressed by the NSF in their pro gram announcement for Centers for Crossdisciplinary Research in Engineering, otherwise called Engineer ing Research Centers (ERC), as follows: The need for ERC's arose from the fact that despite America's preeminence in science, our competitive position in the international marketplace has been in creasingly eroded. Besides the various economic and managerial factors, part of this competitiveness prob l e m can be attributed to the gradual loss of U.S. indus trial prowess in turning research discoveries into high-quality, competitive products Many practition ers and leaders have come to the realization that while American academic engineering has made great strides in basing modern engineering on advanced scientific knowledge and the latest laboratory and computational tools, it has not placed sufficient em phasis on the design of manufacturing processes and products to keep pace with increasingly sophisticated consumer demands around the world. In addition crossdisciplinary research focused on technological advancements from an engineering systems perspec tive is needed to better prepare engineering graduates with the diversity and quality of education needed by U S industry The National Research Council study on "Chemical C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Engineering Frontiers: Needs and Opportunities chaired by N. R. Amundson of the University of Houston, identified four major areas of opportunity. One of these is the development of new high technol ogy industries that are driven by scientific break throughs, including 1) biotechnology, 2) electronic, photonic, and recording materials and devices and 3) advanced materials. When one focuses on biotechnol ogy it is not clear whether we at the university are doing enough to "win the war. For example of the eighteen Engineering Research Centers currently supported by NSF, only one (at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) addresses a biotechnological aspect (Process Engineering). It appears the process of creating research groups has to begin with small crossdisciplinary projects similar to the one described in this paper, and then grow through the medium and large size levels to finall y attain a level where the participants can successfully compete for an ERC grant. The key ingredients to the formation of small projects are the availability of faculty who are willing to cross disciplines and the availability of funds for novel (yet risky) proposals. We believe that a larger pool of funds targeting such studies which would not be funded through conventional means may be one step among many that could ensure that America maintains the lead it currently enjoys in areas such as biotechnology. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study has been made possible by grants from the National Science Foundation (ECE-8609910), the Washington Technology Center (WTC-231535), and the Washington State University Colleges of En gineering and Veterinary Medicine. REFERENCE S 1. Lewis, C., "Interdisciplinary Engineering Research: A Case Study," Eng. Ed 78, 19 (1987) 2 NRC, The Engineering Research Centers: Leaders in Change Cross-Disciplinary Engineering Research Committee, Washington, DC, National Academy Press (1986) 3. Rossini, F.A A.L. Porter, P. Kelly, and D E Chubin, "Interdisciplinary Integration Within Technology As sessment," Knowledge: Creation Diffusion, Utiliza tion, 2,503 (1981) 4. Swanson, E.R., "Working With Other Disciplines." In M G. Russell, R.J. Sauer, and J.M Barnes, eds., "Enabling Inte r disciplinary Research: Perspectives from Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics, Ag Ex. Station, University of Minnesota, 19 (1982) 5 Campbell, D.T., "Ethnocentrism of Disciplines and the Fish-Scale Mo d el of Omniscience." In M. Sherif and FALL 1989 C.W. Sherif, eds Interdisciplinary Relationships in the Social Sciences, Aldine Publishing Co., New York, 328 (1969) 6. Castri, F di, "Planning International Interdisci plinary Research," Sci. and Pub. Policy, 5, 254 (1978) 7 Vaughan, C., "A New View of Vision," Sci News, 134, 58 (1988) 8 Ballard, J.S. The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: Deuelopment and Deployment of FixedWing Gunships 1962-1972, Office of Air Force History, U.S. Air Force, Washington DC (1982) 9. Skeen, R.S "Feasibility of Neuron-Based Chemical Sensors," MSc Thesis, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (1987) 10 Freeman, T.M., and R.W Seitz, Chemiluminescence Fiber Optic Probe for Hydrogen Peroxide Based on the Luminol Reaction," Anal. Chem 50, 1242 (1978) 11. Aizawa, M., A. Morioka, and S. Suzuki, An Enzyme Immunosensor for the Electrochemical Determination of the Tumor Antigen a.-fetoprotein ," Anal. Chim Acta 115, 61 (1980) 12 Danielsson, B I. Lundstrom K. Mosbach, and L Stiblert, "On a New Enzyme Transducer Combination: The Enzyme Transistor," Anal. Lett., 12, 1189 (1979) 13 Caras, S., and J. Janata, Field Effect Transistor Sen sitive to Penicillin," Anal. Chem. 52, 1935 (1980) 14 Suzuki S and I Karube, "Microbial Electrode Sensors for Cephalosporins and Glucose," in K. Venkatsubra manian, ed., Immobilized Microbial Cells, ACS Sym posium Series 106, Washington, DC, 221 (1979) 15. Karube, I., T. Matsunaga, and S. Suzuki, "Microbioassay of Nystatin With a Yeast Electrode," Anal. Chim. Acta, 109, 39 (1979) 16. Simpson, D L., and R K. Kobos "Microbiological Assay of Tetracycline with a Potentiometric CO 2 Gas Sensor, Anal. Lett., 15, 1345 ( 1982) 17. Liang, B.S., X. Li, and H. Y. Wang, "Cellular Electrode for Antitumor Drug Screening, Biotech. Prog ., 2 187 (1986) 18 Rechnitz, G.A. R.K. Kobos, S J. Riechel, and C.R. Gebauer, "A Bio-Selective Membrane Electrode Pre pared With Living Bacterial Cells," Anal Chim. Acta, 94, 357 (1977) 19 Kernell, D., "High-Frequency Repetitive Firing of Cat Lumbosacral Motoneurones Stimulated by Long-Last ing Injected Currents," Acta Phsiol. Scand., 65, 74 (1965) 20 Byerly, L, and S Hagiwara, "Calcium Currents in In ternally Perfused Nerve Cell Bodies of Limnea stag nalis, J. of Physiol., 322, 503 (1982) 21. Baers, W.S., "Interdisciplinary Policy Research in In dependent Research Centers," IEEE Tran. Eng. Man age., 23, 76 (1976) 22 Epton, S.R., R.L. Payne, and A.W. Pearson, eds Managing Interdisciplinary Research John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK (1983) 23. Cassell, E.J., "How Does Interdisciplinary Work Get Done?" in H.T. Engelhardt and D. Callaham, eds., The Foundations of Ethics and Relationships to Science, The Hastings Center, Hastings on Hudson, NY, 355 (1977) 24 Bella, D.A and K.J Williamson, "Conflict in Inter disciplinary Research ," J. Enuiron. Syst., 6, 105 (1976n7) o 249

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THE ESSENCE OF ENTROPY B. G. KYLE Kansas State University Manhattan, KS 66506 W HO AMONG us, the initiated, has never paused in the midst of a second-law problem to ask "Is there really such a thing as entropy?" As an un abashed admission of such waverings of faith, this essay attempts to answer the question. It is an exami nation of paradoxes and putative interpretations of entropy in search of its essence. THE QUANTUM-STATISTICAL VIEW Quantization of energy is the salient feature that distinguishes quantum mechanics from classical mechanics. Because a large number of quantum states are available to a single molecule and an enormous number of molecules are present, the number of quan tum states accessible to a system of thermodynamic interest is an astronomically large number. In addition to this, the quantum state of the system is continually changing as a result of the motion and collisions of the molecules. It now becomes obvious that to calculate the thermodynamic properties of such a system, some type of statistical averaging process must be used. Fortunately, the extremely large size of the statistical population insures the success of such an averaging procedure and permits certain convenient simplifica tions in the attendant mathematics. The average value of any thermodynamic prop erty, X, is calculated in the following manner X=L Pi Xi (1) where Pi is the probability that the system is in the i th quantum state, and Xi is the value of the property when the system occupies the i th quantum state. In "Is there really such a thing as entropy?" As an unabashed admission of such waverings of faith, this essay attempts to answer the question. It is an examination of paradoxes and putative interpretations of entropy in search of its essence. Benjamin G. Kyle is professor of chemi cal engineering at Kansas State University, where he has enjoyed over thirty years of teaching He holds a BS from the Georgia Institute of Technology and a PhD from the University of Florida He has not outgrown an early fascination with thermodynamics and is interested in practically all aspects of the sub ject. He is the author of a thermodynamics textbook (Prentice-Hall). assigning probabilities to quantum states the follow ing rules are followed: 1) Quantum states of equal energy have equal probabilities. 2) The statistical weight of a quantum state de pends upon the energy of that state and is pro portional to exp(-E/kT). The probability of finding the system in the i th quan tum state with energy Ei is exp(-E/kT) P. ==------'-1 L exp(E/kT) (2) The summation in the denominator is taken over all quantum states and is a normalizing factor needed to make the sum of the probabilities of all states equal to unity. This sum will be denoted by Zand is referred to as the partition function. Z= L exp(-E/k T) (3) The partition function provides the bridge between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, for it can be shown that the thermodynamic properties are re lated in a fairly simple manner to the partition func tion. The function A' is defined by A'= k T Zn Z (4) and it can be shown that this function has the proper ties of the Helmholtz Free Energy. The statistical entropy can be calculated from Eq. 4 via the thermodynamic relation Co pyright C hE Di wion ASEE 19 89 250 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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S= -( cJA) cJT V In terms of the partition function this becomes S=k Zn Z+kT(cJ ~; z) V (5) which after some manipulation can be written in terms of probabilities S= k"' P. Zn P "-' I I (6) In an isolated system the internal energy is in variant and all quantum states have the same energy level. Thus, our probability rules require that all quantum states be equally probable and p "'...!.. i n where O is the total number of quantum states acces sible to the system. When this probability is substi tuted into Eq. 6, the statistical entropy of an isolated system becomes S=kZnn (7) For a spontaneous change occurring in an isolated system we write (8) and note that the required condition S 2 > S 1 dictates 0 2 > 0 1 This means that the more-stable state is characterized by a larger number of accessible quan tum states or a greater number of microscopic config urations (each a quantum state contributing to the number 0) constituting the macroscopic, or ther modynamic, state. ENTROPY AS DISORDER Thermodynamics requires the existence of a func tion we call entropy and provides the means of cal culating its changes as well as the framework within which it can be advantageously employed. While this is sufficient for any application of thermodynamics, we are nevertheless uncomfortable with abstractions and prefer to attach physical significance to the quan tities we deal with. Yet, when the physical represen tation is strained and leads to ambiguous or erroneous interpretation, the effort is counterproductive. This can often be the case with entropy, especially when it is identified with disorder. From a molecular viewpoint, the association of FALL 1989 This concept comes into being only when we move further into the mental realm and begin to translate the physical into the mathematical description. Rudolf Carnap seems to have had this in mind when he stated that the statistical concept of entropy is a logical instead of a physical concept. positive entropy changes with an increase in disorder seems quite reasonable for phase changes and mixing. For other processes the association is less obvious and for at least one process (the adiabatic crystallization of a subcooled liquid) it fails completely. Unfortu nately order and disorder are not precise objective terms, but carry considerable subjective bias. For example, on consulting a thesaurus one finds many synonyms for order, including regularity, symmetry, harmony, and uniformity. Conceivably, the absence of gradients or differences in potential could be thought to characterize an ordered state. Thus, one who held this view would never realize that these are the conditions of an equilibrium state when told that equilibrium, or a state of maximum entropy is iden tified by a maximum of disorder. In interpreting Eq. 8 it must be remembered that the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to equilibrium states. The accepted microscopic model of an equilibrium state en tails complete randomness with regard to molecular motion-chaos or maximum disorder. It therefore seems inappropriate to regard 0 2 > 0 1 as represent ing an increase in disorder when each state represents maximum disorder. All we can say is that O measures the complexity of our microscopic description of a sys tem and an increase in O can be visualized as a spreading of the system over accessible quantum states. The system moves in the direction of more possibilities. This is not a physically satisfying representation; it is not based on the virtual observables of our micro scopic model (e.g., positions and velocities). Its signifi cance is found on a level removed from these in terms of something which can exist only in the mind-the number of quantum states. This concept comes into being only when we move further into the mental realm and begin to translate the physical into the mathematical description. Rudolf Carnap [1] seems to have had this in mind when he stated that the statis tical concept of entropy is a logical instead of a physi cal concept. THE GIBBS MIXING PARADOX In 1875 Willard Gibbs published his landmark paper "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Sub251

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stances." In this paper he determined the properties of an ideal gas mixture and found the entropy change on mixing to be ~S = R "" y. Zn y. L.. I I (9) He had firmly established the validity of this expres sion but Gibbs was not comfortable with the result, and his deliberations over this result have come to be known as the Gibbs Mixing Paradox. According to Eq 9, the entropy change on mixing equimolar quantities of two gases is ~S= R ln 2 a result that is seen to be independent of the nature of the gases. Gibbs was concerned about the "degree of dissimilarity" between the two gases which could be visualized being made as close to zero as possible. As long as there is some dissimilarity, the entropy of mixing is R ln 2, but when the "degree of dissimilar ity" becomes zero (mixing the same gas), the entropy change is zero. Thus, the entropy of mixing depends not on the "degree of dissimilarity," but only on whether any dissimilarity exists. It is this "either-or" situation which constitutes the Gibbs Mixing Paradox. As we have seen, the paradox arises out of classical thermodynamics and does not require a statistical or molecular kinetic context. Several attempts have been made to resolve the paradox with the help of either statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, or informa tion theory. All have been evaluated by Denbigh and Denbigh [2] and were found wanting. The usual mixing process is carried out with no recovery of work, and because the heat of mixing is zero, there is no exchange of heat with the surround ings. In fact, there is no external change to indicate that the process has occurred. An ordinary mixing of the same gas could not be distinguished experimen tally from the mixing of different gases, although an entropy change occurs in the latter case and not the former. Thus, while Eq. 9 was determined in an indi rect, but rigorus, thermodynamic manner, we have seen that the entropy of mixing exhibits curious be havior, and further, we have no means of experimen tal verification. Insight into the curious behavior of entropy can be found by considering distinguishable spatial configura tions. This can be illustrated with the lattice model of solutions [3]. Here one interprets 0 1 and 0 2 in Eq. 8 as the number of spatial arrangements or lattice con figurations before and after mixing. Before mixing there is but one configuration, and 0 1 is unity. After mixing the number of configurations is 252 With these values of 0 1 and~ Eq. 8 can be reduced to Eq. 9. Although the lattice model is more appropri ate to liquids, we note that Eq. 9 also gives the en tropy of mixing in an ideal liquid solution, and thus we may expect that the entropy of mixing gases arises from similar configurational considerations There are more distinguishable spatial arrangements available, hence a larger number of quantum states available, to a mixture than to a pure gas. The only factor deter mining the entropy of mixing is the distinguishability of the particles of portion A from the particles of por tion B. A reason for this will be proposed later. TH E G I BBS INDISTINGUISHABILITY PARADO X Eq. 5 may be used to calculate the entropy of an ideal gas once the partition function has been formu lated. The only type of energy possessed by a monatomic ideal gas is kinetic energy and because the energy levels, Eis, are extremely close together, E can be closely approximated as a continuum, and the summation in Eq. 3 can be replaced by an integral. Omitting the particulars of the calculation, the parti tion function can be obtained straightforwardly and is 3N/2 Z = vN( 2:2k mT) (10) The entropy may be obtained by the substitution of Eq. 10 into Eq. 5 S=kN(ln V+zn( 2 n::T)+) (11) Entropy is an extensive property, but, unfortu nately, not according to Eq. 11. For the simple oper ation of combining two -mol quantities of the same gas, this equation yields ~S= Nk 1n 2= R 1n 2 We have already seen that this is the entropy of mix ing different gases, but we know that there is no en tropy change on mixing the same gas. This problem is sometimes identified as the Gibbs paradox although it is really a special case of the mixing paradox [4]. The problem was resolved by Gibbs in 1902 by the ad hoc correction of dividing the partition function of Eq. 10 by N!-the number of permutations involving N distinguishable entities. This results in the follow ing expression for the entropy CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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S=kN(zn V +~ ln( 2 1tkmT)+.Q) N 2 h2 2 (12) Eq 12 satisfies the condition that the entropy be an extensive property It has become known as the Sac kur-Tetrode equation and has been verified experi mentally. Today, in the quantum age of physics, it is custom ary to specify whether or not the constituent particles of a system are distinguishable. However, in the class ical age of Gibbs' day, the particles of an ideal monatomic gas were assumed independent with their motion described by classical mechanics. While there was certainly an impossible computational difficulty in providing the exact description prescribed by the equations of classical mechanics, there was no doubt that in principle, particles could be traced and thus retained their identity. While still holding to the prin ciple of the distinguishability of particles, Gibbs jus tified the adventitious insertion of N! into Eq. 10 by saying that the interchange of like particles should be of no statistical consequence. It is interesting to note that the ad hoc adjustment is unnecessary in the case of the internal energy. Com bination of Eqs. 4 and 5 shows that the internal energy is (13) Regardless of whether the partition function of Eq. 10 is divided by N!, the result is the same and correctly shows that U is linear in N. Thus, of the two basic thermodynamic properties, only the entropy requires an adjustment of classical thought by introducing the concept of indistinguishable particles. Again, it appears that in order to deal successfully with entropy it is necessary to go a step beyond a description of the system in terms of virtual observa bles. Instead of a model involving physical quantities, we have included factors such as distinguishability which arise from our mathematical treatment and exist only in the mind of the model maker. The focus has been shifted from the system to our representa tion of the system-again, a move from the physical to the logical realm. ENTROPY INFORMATION AND SUBJECTIVITY A major tenet of the philosophical underpinning of science is the concept of objective observation-an ob server independent of the observed object. An un questioning acceptance of this concept had prevailed until recent developments in modern physics suggested that it may not be applicable at the subF ALL 1989 atomic level. Specifically, Bohr's concept of com plementarity and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle recognize that the behavior of a system cannot be properly described until the presence of observing in struments is accounted for. This implies that the ob server is part of the system and has encouraged in some quarters the advancement of a subjective philosophic view [5] The concept of objective observation has been chal lenged only in the sub-atomic realm; it is still firmly entrenched outside this realm, and is unquestioned when dealing with systems of thermodynamic in terest. Nevertheless, there exists a tendency to take a subjective viewpoint in regard to entropy when in terpreted microscopically from the perspective of in formation. Recently, Denbigh and Denbigh [2] have convincingly shown that no formal relation exists be tween thermodynamic entropy, a physical quantity, and a term labeled entropy that arises from informa tion theory and is a logical quantity [6] However, because the entropy-information association consider ably predates information theory [7], it will probably remain well-ingrained despite the Denbighs' efforts. The putative view interprets the condition { > fl 1 corresponding to an increase in entropy as an ob server's loss of information about the microscopic state of the system. Accordingly, one reasons that there are more possibilities in state 2 and therefore the increase in fl implies more uncertainty or a loss of information. This view presents two difficulties. First, because fl is not a virtual observable quantity, it is doubtful that an observer could have access to this type of information. The information associated with fl concerns not the system, but our description of the system, Second it is unreasonable to believe that LiS, a thermodynamic property change which de pends on objectively determined macrostates, could also depend on microscopic information gained or lost by an observer. In an effort to blunt the last criticism, Jaynes [8] has suggested the following carefully worded defini tion of information The entropy of a thermodynamic system is a measure of the degree of ignorance of a person whose sole knowledge about its microstate consists of the values of the macroscopic quantities Xi which define its thermodynamic state. This is a completely objective quantity in the sense that it is a function only of the Xi, and does not depend on anybody's per sonality. There is then no reason why it cannot be measured in the laboratory. Here, one wonders what type of knowledge of the 253

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While entropy seems the most subjective property, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomforta~ly redolent of human intent. The requirement of subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that the system 1s being constrained, or manipulated. Many of its variables lack easy physical correspondence ... microstate is lacking. Virtual observables such as position and velocity would be subject to continual fluctuation, and hence an instantaneous determination of these would be of no practical value. The identifica tion of quantum states and the knowledge of their cor responding probabilities would be of obvious value, but these, as we have also shown with n, are not virtual observables but rather are mental constructs which allow us to model the system. It would appear then that this unpossessed knowledge of the micro state is either unusable or is an artifact of the micro scopic model we have constructed to represent the macrostate of the system. We surmise that Jaynes is speaking of useful microscopic knowledge, but must note that there is a double dose of subjectivity here. First, we have introduced quantities such as n which are mental constructs that relate to our description of the system rather than to the system itself. Second, we now say that the macroscopic behavior of the sys tem, as reflected in the value of the entropy, is depen dent on the extent of our knowledge of these model parameters. Let us test Jaynes' interpretation through the use of Eq. 8 that relates the statistical entropy change to !1 2 /!1 1 It would seem that a definite informational value could be assigned to the knowledge of n regard less of its numerical value. We are not asking which microstate the system is presently in, which would have informational value dependent on the numerical value of n, but rather how many microstates are pos sible. We are dealing with a model parameter, n, and therefore the knowledge embodied in its determina tion should be constant and independent of the mac rostate of the system. If this is so, then there is no change in knowledge of microstates between any two macrostates and the informational entropy change is always zero. We reach the same conclusion by noting that the number of position coordinates and velocity components is always 6N regardless of the macroscopic state of the system-a constant amount of microscopic knowledge. Thus, the concept of entropy as a measure of microscopic information is inconsistent as well as extremely subjective. THE ESSENCE OF ENTROPY The interpretation of entropy in terms of informa tion leads to an extreme subjective position and must 254 be rejected. On the other hand, it must be confessed that entropy is more subjective, or less objective, than other properties of matter. This is because the exis tence of a human mind must be assumed before an entropy change for a macroscopic system can be evaluated or, as we have already seen, a microscopic interpretation can be appreciated. In the case of the evaluation of an entropy change, it is first necessary to devise a reversible path and then perform the calcu lation from the definition t>S= f d~ev This is not an act of rote calculation but is rather a process of mental creation. While entropy seems the most subjective prop erty, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomfort ably redolent of human intent. The requirement of subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that the system is being constrained, or manipulated. Many of its variables lack easy physical correspon dence and only se ldom is a thermodynamic variable evaluated except as a means of calculating some more "practical" quantity. In fact, it has been suggested that its various applications can be integrated into a coherent whole only by recognizing thermodynamics to be "a means of extending our experimentally gained knowledge of a system or as a framework for viewing and correlating the behavior of the system" [9]. Clearly, the emphasis is on utility. Having arisen from efforts to exploit rather than to observe nature, the laws of thermodynamics cannot be completely cleansed of their earthy taint and are often embarras sing to the scientist for their lack of intellectual purity. Uneasiness with this anthropomorphic quality of ther modynamics has been confessed by P. W. Bridgman, one of its foremost thinkers [10]: It must be admitted, I think, that the laws of ther modynamics have a different feel from most of the other laws of the physicist. There is something more palpably verbal about them-they smell more of their human origin. The guiding motif is strange to most of physics: namely, a capitalizing of the universal failure of human beings to construct perpetual motion machines of either the first or the second kind Why should we expect nature to be interested either posi tively or negatively in the purposes of human beings, particularly purposes of such an unblushingly eco nomic tinge? CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Modern science begins with experience, which is by nature local and transitory, and by ratiocination arrives at laws that are considered universal and time less. These laws usually connect quantities which are not directly related to our sensory experience, even to the extent of being only mental constructs that are often contrary to common sense. (Recall Newton's un easiness over the need for a gravitational force which acts at a distance.) Thus, the formulations of science are considered to be in the realm of the pure intellect. In recognizing this, Sir Arthur Eddington has refer red to the enterprise of science as "mind-stuff' and has expanded this theme most eloquently [11]: We have found that where science has progressed the farthest, the mind has but regained from nature that which the mind put into nature. We have found a strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We have devised profound theories, one after another, to account for its origin At last, we have succeeded in reconstructing the creature that made the footprint. And Lo! it is our own Paraphrasing Eddington with the incorporation of Bridgman's thought, we could say that in the case of thermodynamics, that which the mind has regained from nature reflects the economic, or human, quality of the input. Entropy's human scent can be traced to its deriva tion Essential to both the conventional Carnot-cycle proof and the mathematically more elegant Caratheodory proof [12] is the concept of a reversible process. Seldom is this even an approximation of real ity. It is a concept understandable only to economic man desiring to reap the most from his attempted taming of nature and can not be considered scientifi cally objective. Yet, only in this context can an unam biguous interpretation of entropy be found: the total entropy change measures the lost work when a pro cess falls short of this human-scented, value-laden standard Something on which we have placed value has been lost. This carries over into the microscopic view where the valued commodity is either order or information. The mixing paradox exposes the incongruity of the value-laden macroscopic view and a naive microscopic view of entropy. The microscopic description of an ideal gas in purely physical terms leads to Eq. 11 an o to the conclusion that the process of mixing the same gas is no different from the mixing of different gases. It is the economic or utilitarian aspect of the situation, the work of separation, that discriminates between the processes and forces the inclusion of N! into the microscopic description. The reversal of the mixing FALL 1989 process requires separational work when the gases are different. However, we have neither the need nor the ability to exactly reverse the mixing of portions of the same gas and therefore need expend no separa tional work. Because the minimum work of separation is TilS for ideal gas mixtures, there must therefore be no entropy change on mixing the same gas. The microscopic description is brought into conformance with the macroscopic situation by requiring indistin guishability of particles. Thus, a utilitarian considera tion, human in origin, requires the insertion of a logi cal (or human scented) term into the microscopic model. In failing to examine nature in a disinterested or completely objective manner we have obtained a quantity, the entropy, which is not completely objec tive and which can be understood only by an appeal to the human mind. We can only conclude that entropy is neither completely subjective nor completely objec tive. Its existence can be publicly agreed upon and its consistent use has great utility, but its existence does not seem to be independent of the human mind. It may not be an intrinsic property of matter, but rather an objectively defined quantity which, for our conveni ence, we may treat as a property. Born of the un natural union of wish and reality, entropy is objective enough to be useful in dealing with the physical world, but subjective enough that a purely physical interpre tation lies beyond our grasp. REFERENCE S 1. Schilpp, P A., ed The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, The Open Court Publishing Co., LaSalle, IL, p 37 (1963) 2 Denbigh, K.G., and J.S Denbigh, Entropy in Relation to Incomplete Knowledge, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1985) 3. Hildebrand, J.H., and R.L Scott, The Solubility of Non electrolytes, Third Ed., Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York (1950) 4. Schriidinger, E. Statistical Thermodynamics, Cam bridge University Press, Cambridge, p 58 (1960) 5 See, for example, Capra, F., The Tao of Physics, Bantam Books, Inc New York (1975), or Wigner, E.P Symme tries and Reflections, Indiana University Press, Bloom ington (1967) 6 This is also the conclusion of Carnap, reference 1 7. Brush, S The Kind of Motion We Call Heat, North Hol land Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1976) 8. Jaynes, E.T., The Maximum Entropy Formalism, eds. R.D. Levine and M. Tribus, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge (1979) 9. Kyle, B.G., Chemical and Process Thermodynamics, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p 2 (1984) 10 Bridgman, P.W., The Nature of Thermodynamics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1941) 11. Eddington, A.S., The Nature of the Physical World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1928) 12. Zemansky, M.W Am. J. Phys., 34, 914 (1966) 0 255

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SECRETS OF MY SUCCESS IN GRADUATE STUDY MING RAO* Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey New Brunswick/Piscataway, NJ 08855-0909 I N THE FALL of 1985 I began my graduate study in chemical engineering at The University of Illinois at Chicago, where I subsequently received a MS de gree in computer science in 1987. Then, following my dissertation advisor, I joined the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Enginering at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. As a foreign student, I have met with many difficulties in my study. Naturally, I had language problems and, at the beginning, I did not even know how to "LOG IN" to computers! However, I approached my graduate studies in my own way. This report chronicles my journey through graduate education and provides, through my own personal observations and experi ences, what I hope is a useful itinerary for other graduate students. COURSE WORK Many graduate students enter graduate school with no definite plans [1]. They usually spend one or more years on course study, then select a dissertation topic and begin research. Following a different ap proach, I began my research the first day of graduate study, since I believed that "learning-by-doing'' might be a much better way to gain creativity and experi ence. Also, I wanted to relate course work directly to thesis research. My chosen course work is very close to my disser tation research topic, "Intellige nt Process Control." Intelligent process control denotes the application of Ming Rao received his BS in chemical en gineering from Kunming Institute of Technol ogy (China), his MS in computer science from the University of Illinois, Chicago, and will re ceive his PhD degree in engineering from Rutgers University He is presently working on inte llig ent control in Maint enance Control Center Project sponsored by the FM and will join the University of Alberta as an assistant professor of chemical engineering working on intelligent control. He has authored and coau thored over forty technical papers. *Present address : University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G6 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 19 89 256 I feel that I benefit the most from research-or i ented courses At the beginning of such a course, the instructor ... introduces the basic principles and refers to the current development of the subject artificial intelligence techniques to the control of chemical processes. Interdisciplinary in nature, it al lows knowledge of, for example computer science and electrical engineering to be extensively applied to chemical processes. So far, I have completed 25 regu lar graduate courses which are distributed among three majors: eight courses on fundamentals of chem ical engineering, eight on artificial intelligence and software engineering, and nine on control engineering and system science. I have studied aggressively and worked hard in course work, since I knew that these courses would directly benefit my thesis research. I took them not only to satisfy credit requirements, but also to fulfill the perceived needs of my research. In fact, several research publications resulted directly from the course work since I was able to immediately see prac tical applications in novel areas and also, I maintained an excellent academic record. I feel that I benefit the most from research oriented courses. At the beginning of such a course, the instructor (usually an expert on the subject he teaches) introduces the basic principles and refers to the current development of the subject. Meanwhile, the key literature and references are distributed to students To fulfill the course requirements, every student has to read the literature carefully, do home work assignments, take quizzes or examinations present a key paper orally and finish a research pro ject which is followed by a final report. Needless to say, such a course is usually very demanding and time consuming; however, it gives us practical experience in research and brings us to the frontier of the related subject quickly. There is another significant benefit that comes from a research-oriented course. From it we can learn how to do research: through search and review of published literature, research topic selec tion, oral presentation, conducting the project, and technical writing. Each of these steps is exactly a prin cipal element in the research process, isn't it? C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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I believe universities provide the best environ ment for learning Facing choices from among many useful courses offered, we are unable to take all of the courses we need. However, auditing will help us to partially solve this problem. I usually audit one course each semester. Although I do not do the work of this course in detail, I still learn the basic principles, defi nitions, and terminologies. I am also interested in attending and participating in various research seminars. I often attend two or three se minar s each week, in different departments and universities. The speakers at the seminars are usually famous scholars or young experts in specialized fields. They can provide u s with the newest developments and the most advanced tech niques. We also have the opportunity to extend our knowledge, to acquire new motivation, to exchange ideas, and to develop oral communication skills [1] THESIS RESEARCH TOPIC I believe that the most important element in pur suit of a PhD degree is thesis research. The main pur pose of thesis research is to learn how to do research work and how to solve problems independently [2]. Notably, research topic selection plays a key role in thesis research. Three aspects should be taken into account in topic selection: 1) personal research in terest and academic background, 2) adviser's sugges tions, and 3) available research facilities. I feel that research interest is the most crucial fac tor. In a survey on doctoral dissertation experience, it has been found that personal interest is rated as the most important factor influencing research topic choice [3]. If you love the job you are doing, you will be happy and won't care about how difficult it is. On the other hand, as we know, no one can succeed at the work to which he does not bring great confidence and enthusiasm. The choice of research topic also needs to fit our academic background to a certain extent. Graduate training is the continuation of undergraduate study. Undergraduate study provides us with a broad and basic academic background, while graduate education trains us to do independent research. Our past experi ence and knowledge will pave the way for us to go toward the final goal. Unfortunately, many graduate students do not ap proach this aspect seriously They simply ask their adviser: 'What topic is available for me?" Rather, I believe that the fundamental question is: What is the purpose of a PhD dissertation? As stated in many graduate program brochures, it should reflect origiFALL 1989 nal, independent research, and i s supposed to contrib ute new knowledge to the field in some way [2]. Here, originality means "nothing similar to prior work." In dependent research require s that we work on our own at each step of the project, including topic selection. If we tell the adviser fir s t what we want to do, this will show that we are approaching our subject with maturity and motivation and it will help the adviser understand our interests and potential. At this mo ment, the adviser can encourage and guide us and suggest appropriate avenues of research [4]. An im portant factor is that we are stimulated to gain creativity by s uch a training process. When we do not have enough experience, our idea s are often imperI believe that the most important element in pursuit of a PhD degree is thesis research. [Its] main purpose .. is to learn how to do research work and how to solve problems independently. Notably, the research topic selection plays a key role in thesis research. feet, i.e ., wrong in some aspects, even unrealistic. But one should not forget that new ideas sometimes seem crazy at first [5, 6]. SELF-LEARNING AND INDEPENDENT RESEARCH In recent years, much attention has been focused on the need to train creative engineers for industry and society. Though there are many different defini tions of creativity, everyone agrees that "creativity (whatever it is) involves the ability to put things (words, concepts, methods, devices) together in novel ways" [5]. I believe that creativity may also include 1) self learning capability and 2) independent research cap ability. Learning is a process that never ends. Earn ing a PhD is by no means the end of learning; it is a new beginning [7]. In our professional career, it is normal for us to meet with new problems, some of which are not di rectly related to our past knowledge and experience. The self-learning capability enables us to learn and obtain what we need in solving these problems. It also provides a free hand for us to carry out independent research. The main objective of dissertation research is to help us gain a generally valuable experience, particu larly by teaching us the skills of independent research [3]. Independent research capability consists of two subsets: the capability to analyze problems and the capability to solve problems. The former can help us 257

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identify and formulate problems, while the latter may provide us the means to find the solution to the prob lems In my experience, the secret of learning how to do independent research can be summarized as "plan big, start small." "Plan big" means that we should estab lish a big, even fantastic research goal. All of the re search efforts we make are for society's future needs not for the pa s t. "Plan big" addresses our research into the important investigations of science and technology. "Start small" suggests that, at the start we should initiate a small project in order to obtain the necessary experience. Meanwhile, early succes ses, even small ones, can strengthen our confidence and stimulate our struggle toward the final objective. As I comp l ete my graduate study, I find that I have gained sound training in both academic study and independent research capability. This professional training went through four stages. These stages have a chronological progress but the main distinctions separating them are not based on time divisions, but on the demonstration of independent research capabil ity. Stage 1 : Implementat i on Much of my work before graduate school was based on the detailed implementation of certain re search efforts. I finished undergraduate study, and was able to impl e ment published theoretical al gorithms under my supervisor s advice. These in cluded carrying out experiments repairing in strumentation setting up equipment, and writing computer programs based on available algorithms. My adviser assigned the project and gave me detai l s about related techniques; then I worked on it I became truly involved in research and gained hands-on experi ence. St age 2: Progr amming An obvious benefit at this level is that I began doing independent research. My adviser suggested re search directions and provided some important techni cal details. I sought a possible solution for realization of these ideas. I initiated small research topics ob tained the needed information by self-instruction, car ried out research, and wrote technical papers for pub lication. I had learned how to translate an original idea into a prototype capable of practical application. Typical examples are: implementation of CAD pack ages [8], development of prototype expert systems [9 10], proof or discovery of new algorithms and criteria [9, 11], and others. 258 Stage 3 : Problem Sol vi n g This stage is the key to graduate research [2]. At this stage my goal was no longer only to deal with a detailed research project or to get new design criteria With encouragement from the adviser I applied my knowledge to the formulation of general methodology for problem-solving, defined research directions and long-term topics, helped the adviser prepare research proposals, and made the important discovery. Several significant research efforts were gener ated at this stage, such as an integrated intelligent system architecture for developing high-performance intelligent system s [12], adaptive feedback testing system for enhancing expert system reliability [9], and graphic simulation as a new knowledge represen tation technique [13]. These projects focused on de veloping problem-solving methodology and universal configuration. Beyond the significant theoretical re sults and practical applications, the most important factor is the demonstration of creativity. Stage 4: Administration The experience gained at this stage is very impor tant for developing management and leadership skill s. It is usually obtained from post-doctoral training or independent work as a university faculty member I was appointed as a supervisor for develping an Intelligent Control Laboratory an NSF -sponsored project. I began to s uper v ise junior graduate s tudent s and learned how to cooperate with other professors. We are now working together in order to s o lve the tough problems in biochemical process contro l and to establish university / industry cooperation research. We are planning to develop a new interdisciplinary graduate program to train chemical engineers in the most advanced techniques and to build a comprehen sive research center for intelligent control. I have begun to extend our research into other engineering fields, and I have also become involved more in technical management and leadership, such as helping prepare Decision Systems Engineering a new interdisciplinary graduate program to design a PhD curriculum, consulting for business and industrial companies, and working as session chairman in inter national conferences. ADVISER S FUN C TION The PhD adviser plays a key role in dissertation research. The faculty adviser guides our study of the fundamentals explains why we do research, how to do research, and instills in us feelings of confidence. Professor Amundson summarized all of these aspects CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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and pointed out, "The relationship between PhD ad viser and graduate student is a unique kind ofrelation ship that obtains nowhere else ... [ 4]. Without question, my adviser, Dr Jiang, As sociate Professor of Chemical and Biochemical En gineering and Director of Intelligent Control Labora tory, deserves much credit for my success. I feel for tunate to be able to work in Dr. Jiang's research team. He has given me the opportunity to learn, and has trained me as a professional scholar. Throughout my training process, I have greatly benefitted from his advice, suggestions, patient observations, help, strong encouragement, and support. Chronologically, Dr. Jiang has trained me through three different stages. The first stage: Infancy When I started dissertation research, I lacked the necessary depth of knowledge and experience. I used to show uncertainty or no confidence in research. Dr. Jiang always tried to find the positive elements and proofs of success in my progress, such as getting an "A" in a course, understanding a new algorithm, and so on. He always gave me encouragement. This stage can be called the infancy of my "plan big." The second stage: Cold War Period As my professional career progressed, especially in the transition from the programming stage to the problem-solving stage, I thought I had achieved a lit tle success in both academic background and disserta tion research. I was satisfied with certain detailed technique results and implementations. However, I limited myself from going more deeply into scientific research and prevented myself from seeking problem solving methodology. Seeing this happen Dr. Jiang changed his attitude. He criticized my work se verely-even my success. It was a difficult time for me, like a "cold war" in my graduate study. However, I was awakened from my ignorance, began more seri ous study and thinking, and improved the quality of my research. The third stage: Maturity After I gained more experience in independent re search, Dr. Jiang let me become more involved in ad ministrative activities in order to develop my leader ship skills. Through my training in administrative capability, I feel that I have become more mature. In less than four years of graduate study. I took 25 courses, audited 8 courses. published over 40 research papers in reputable journals and conference proceedFALL 1989 ings, attended 18 scientific and technical conferences, and was chosen as session chairman at international conferences. Also I was awarded a Doctoral Excel lence Fellowship by the Rutgers Graduate School, re ceived a MS degree in computer science, and will soon complete a PhD in engineering. In addition, I have travelled in 47 American states and 5 foreign countries and have visited most of the research-oriented univer sities in the USA and Canada to obtain information and knowledge from m y colleagues. I now have enough confidence and experience to believe that when I complete my doctorate, I can be successful either in academia or industry [ 4]. CONCLUSIONS Briefly the main tenets of my view of graduate study are: The main objective of graduate s tudy is to learn how to do independent research and how to foster creativity. Creativity includes self-learning and independent research capabilities, which can help one to analyze probl e ms and th e n to formulate solutions for them How to b eg in independent research? "Plan big start small." The dissertation adviser plays a very important role in our professional training process Personal interest is a key to selecting research topics Course work is more fruitful when it is directly related to dissertation research rather than simply fulfilling curriculum requirements. My future plans are to improve my communication skills, to expand both my academic background and research, to learn more, to do more, and to succeed in my professional career. I feel that I have a contribu tion to make to science, technology, and humanity. It is my goal to make that contribution. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am indebeted to Tsung-Shann Jiang, Shaw Wang, Paul Griminger, Marie Tamas, Louis Sabin, Francene Sabin, Henrik Pedersen, and Jiachen Zhuang for their encouragement and help. The Graduate School of Rutgers University provided a Doctoral Excellence Fellowship to support my disser tation research. REFERENCES 1. Reid, R.C "The Graduate Experience," Phillips Petroleum Co Lecture Series in Chemical Engineering School at Oklahoma State University (1984) 2. Duda, J.L., "Common Misconceptions Concerning 259

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Graduate School," Chem Eng. Ed., 18, 156 (1984) 3. Connoly, T and A L Porter, The Doctoral Disserta tion-How Relevant?" Eng Ed., p 162, November (1980) 4 Amundson, N R., "American University Graduate Work," Chem. Eng. Ed., 21, 160 (1987) 5 Felder, R.M., "Creativity in Engineering Education," Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 120 (1988) 6. Maslow, A.H., The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, Viking Press, New York ( 1971) 7. Van Ness, H C Chemical Engineering Education: Will We Ever Get It Right?" Chem. Eng. Prog., p 18, January (1989) 8. Sang. Z.T M. Rao, and T W. Weber, "A Microcom puter-Based Simulation Laboratory for Process Con trol, Proc. SCS Multiconference, Modeling and Simu lation on Microcomputers, p. 213 San Diego, CA (1986 ) 9. Rao, M., T.S. Jiang, and J.P Tsai, "IDSCA: An kldD. book reviews MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS FOR NONIDEAL FLUIDS byL. L. Lee Butterworths 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham, MA 02180 ; $52.95 (1988) Reviewed by Keith E. Gubbins Cornell University This is a graduate level book aimed at presenting modern statistical mechanical methods to engineers and applied scientists. Until the early 1970 s these rigorous methods were only applicable to gases, crystalline solids, and simple liquids such as argon, and so are of limited value to engineers Over the last fifteen years or so they have been extended to include nonspherical and polar molecules, electrolytes, nonideal solutions, and most re cently, a wide variety of surface phenomena. There have been rapid developments in perturbation and integral equation theories, in computer simulation methods, and in scattering experiments that provide information about the molecular or atom-atom correlations functions. These powerful methods are gradually replacing the more em pirical methods that engineers have traditionally used, and so a book of this sort is welcome. The only other books aimed at engineers of which I am aware are Reed and Gubbins' Applied Statistical Mechanics (now out of print and in some respects out of date) and Lucas' Angewandte Statische Thermodynamik (so far only available in the original German, although an English translation is planned for late 1989 or early 1990). The coverage of the book is good. The first three chapters deal with introductory material-classical and quantum mechanics, the ensembles, and ideal gases. The 260 Intelligent Direction Selector for the Controller's Action in Multiloop Control Systems, Internal. J. of Inlell Sys 3, p 361 (1988) 10 Rao, M., J.P. Tasi, and T.S Jiang, Intelligent Deci sionmaker for Optimal Control," App. Arlif lnlell. 2, p 289(1988) 11 Rao, M., and T.S. Jiang, "Simple Criterion to Test Non Minimum-Phase Systems," Internal J. of Control, 47, p 653 (1988) 12 Rao, M T S Jiang, and J P Tsai Combining Symbolic and Numerical Processing for Real-Time Intelligent Control, Eng. Applications of Al (1989) 13 Rao, M X. Zheng, and T S Jiang, "Graphic Simula tion: Beyond Numerical Computation and Symbolic Reasoning," Proc. IEEE Internal. Con{ on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Beijing, China, p 523, August (1988 ) 0 remainder of the book covers more recent developments in the theory ofliquids (Chapters 4-12, 14), the molecular dynamics simulation method (Chapter 13), and adsorp tion of solids (Chapter 15). There are useful appendices dealing with intermolecular forces, and giving computer programs for the solution of integral equations and molecular dynamics calculations The parts dealing with liquids are thorough and well done. They cover the dis tribution functions and integral equations for fluids of polar and nonspherical molecules and not just spherical molecules as in many other books. There are quite de tailed accounts of the integral equation and perturbation theory methods, including chapters on hard body fluids, Lennard-Jones fluids, polar fluids, electrolytes, and site site model fluids As a teaching text the book has some drawbacks. The introduction to the ensembles is quite brief and lacks illu minating examples, figures, or much in the way of physi cal interpretation so most students experiencing this ma terial for the first time will find it hard going. There is a similar problem with the treatment of the distribution functions in Chapter 4. The chapter on molecular dy namics is well done, but for students it would be helpful to have some simpler examples or programs, and some discussion of the Monte Carlo method, which is easier to program for a beginner It would have been helpful to have had more illustrative examples and well thought out questions at the end of chapters. The layout of the book is rather poor, with too much print on each page and poorly reproduced figures, making it somewhat dif ficult to read. In conclusion, this is an up-to-date summary of a rapidly developing field that is aimed at an engineering audience It will be especially useful to graduate students and other researchers as an introduction to the subject, but will need to be supplemented ifit is used as a teaching text. 0 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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THEUNWERSWYOfftKRON FACULTY flkron, OH 44325 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAM RESEARCH INTERESTS G. A. ATWOOD Digital Control. Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption J.M. BERTY Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Processes G. G. CHASE ___ ___ Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena H. M. CHEUNG Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques S. C. CHUANG Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion J.R. ELLIOTT Thermodynamics, Material Properties G. ESKAMANI* Waste Water Treatment L. G. FOCHT Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design H. L. GREENE Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing H. C. KILLORY Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics S. LEE Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Process Engineering R. W. ROBERTS Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design M. S. WILLIS Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena Aqjunct Professor Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,000. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $16,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees. FALL 1989 Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship applications is February l5th FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE: CHAIRMAN, GRADUATE COMMITTEE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF AKRON AKRON, OH 44325 261

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA RESEARCH INTERESTS The University of Alabama, located in the s unny South, offers exce ll ent program s lead ing to M.S. and Ph.D degree s in Chemical Engineerin g. Our research emphasis areas are concentrated in e nvironmental studies, reaction kinetics and cata l ysis, a ltern a te fuels, a nd related proces ses. The faculty ha s extensive indus trial ex perience, which g ive s a di s tincti ve engineering fl avo r to our programs. For further information, contact the Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0203; (205-348-6450). FACULTY G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State) D. W. Arnold, Ph .D. (Purdu e) W C. Clements, Jr Ph.D. (Vand e rbilt) W.J. Hatch er, Jr ., Ph D. (L o uisi a n a State) I A. J efcoat, Ph.D (Clem so n) A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (M assac hu se tt s ) M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida) L. Y. Sadler III Ph.D (Alabama) V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State) Biomass Co n ve r sion, M o d e lin g T ra n spo rt Proce sses, Th e rm o dyn a mic s, Coa l-W ate r Fu e l Development, Process Dynamics and Co nt ro l, Microcomputer H a rdwar e, Cata l ysis, C h e mi ca l R eac tor Design, R eact i o n Kin et i cs, Environmental, Synfuels, Alternate C h e mi ca l F eedstocks, Mass T ra n sfer, Energy Conversio n Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing, Separat i o n s, Co mput e r Applications, and Bioprocessing. An e4u.:i' c mploymcnr /c qu;1 l educc1tiona l llpportunity in st initi o n

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Chemical Engineering at UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A EDMONTON,CANADA tJOtJOOtJtJOtJtJ OOtJtJOOOOOOtJ FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D (Alberta) : Mass Transfer, Catalysis P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota) : Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications M. R. GRAY, Ph D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis Transport Phenomena in Porous Media D. T. LYNCH, Ph D (Alberta) : Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling, Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph D (British Columbia) : Transport Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics A. E. MATHER, Ph.D (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thermodynamics W. K. NADER, Dr Phil. (Vienna) : Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph D (Princeton) : Transport Phenomenna, Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING : Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil Upgrading D. QUON, Sc D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy Modelling and Economics D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS : Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermodynamics J. T. RYAN, Ph D (Missouri) : Energy Economics and Supply, Porous Media S. L. SHAH, Ph D (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive Control, Stability Theory S. E. WANKE, Ph D (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN: Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics R. K. WOOD, Ph D. (Northwestern) : Process Simulation, Identification and Modelling Distillation Column Control For further Information contact CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA EDMONTON, CANADA T6G 2G6

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON,AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S and Ph.D graduate programs Financial support is available through fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in most of !he research areas listed below. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: MILAN BIER Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science : Ph D. Fordh am University, 1950 Protein Separation, Electrophoresis Membrane Transport HERIBERTO CABEZAS Asst. Professor P h D ., University of Florida 1984 Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics Polyelectrolyte Solutions WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc Professor, Assoc. Dean Ph D ., Oregon State Univers ity, 1973 Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing EDWARD J. FREEH Research Professor P h D., Ohio State University, 1958 Process Control Computer Applications JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph.D., P urdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics F lu id Mechanics and Mass Transfer in the Microcircu l ation Biorheology ROBERTO GUZMAN, Asst. Professor Ph D North Carolina State Univers i ty 1988 Protein Separation, Affintty Methods GARY K PATTERSON, Professor and Head Ph.D., Un iversity of Missouri-Rolla, 1966 Rheology, Turbulent Mixing Turbulent Transport Numerical Modeling of Transport Bioreactors THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor Ph .D ., Ca liforn i a Institute of Technology 1977 Atmospher i c Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols Microcontamination Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunit ies. It is a growing modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere For further Information, write to Dr Jost 0. L. Wendt Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportun ity employer 264 ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph D ., Iowa State Un iversity, 1962 Simulat i on and Des i gn of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes Explosives Initiation Mechan1Sms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph D Un iversity of Washington, 1960 Mass Tran sf er Process Instrumentation Packed Column Distillation, Computer Aided Design FARHANG SHADMAN, Professor Ph.D University of California-Berkeley, 1972 React i on Eng i neering Kinet i cs Catalysis Coal Conversion JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor Ph D Johns Hopkins University 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution Nitrogen and Suttur Oxide Abatement Chemical Kinetics Thermodynamics lnterfacial Phenomena DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor D Sc Technion, 1962 Energy, Fermentation, M i xing 'Center for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors several technicians, and several postdocs and graduate students. O!her research involves 2-l electrophoesis, cell culture, electro cell fusion, and electro "uici dynamic modelling. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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University of Arkansas Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas) Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma) Water Resources Fluid Mechanics Thermodynamics Enhanced Oil Recovery Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D. U. of Missouri) Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics James L. Gaddy (Ph.D U. of Tennessee) Biochemical Engineering Process Optimization Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma) Irreversible Thermodynamics Fire and Explosion Hazards Assessment, Dense Gas Dispersion William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas) Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering W. Roy Penney (Ph.D ., Oklahoma State University) Process Engineering, Process Development Thomas 0. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas) Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion Charles Springer (Ph.D. U of Iowa) Mass Transfer Diffusional Processes Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan) Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma) Fluid Mechanics Biomass Conversion Process Design Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas) Microelectronics Materials and Processing, Superconductors J. Reed Welker (Ph D ., U. of Oklahoma) Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control FINANCIAL AID Graduate students are supported by fellowships and research or teaching assistantships. FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT Dr W. Roy Penney, Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering 3202 Bell Engineering Center University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 FALL 1989 LOCATION The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is liter ally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic city and serves as the center of trade government, and finance for the region. The city and University offer a wealth of cultural and intellectual events FACILITIES The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a $30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional 20 000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Research Center. 265

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Graduate Studies Auburn a! Engineering THE FACULTY R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966) R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965? C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976) Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) G. MAPLES (Oklahoma State University, 1967) R. D. NEUMAN (Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1973) T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951) A. R. TARRER (Purdue University 1973) B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) For Information and Application, Write Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head Chemical Engineering Auburn University, AL 36849-5127 Auburn University RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Polymer Science Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Carbon Fibers and Composites Coal Convers i on Computer-Aided Process Control Controlled Atmosphere Electron Microscopy Environmental Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis THE PROGRAM lnterfacial Phenomena Process Design Process Simulat i on Pulp and Paper Engineering React i on Eng in eering Separations Surface Science Thermodynam i cs Transport Phenomena The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to qualified students. Anburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educa tiona l Institution 266 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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RIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY W O R L D C A M P U S GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING in the beautiful Rocky Mountains of Utah Biomedical Engineering Chemical Propulsion al Combustion & Gasification Computer Simulation Electrochemistry Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics For additional information write to: G raduat e Coo rdinat o r D e p a rtm e nt o f C h e mi ca l Engin ee rin g, 35 0 C B Brigham Y o ung U niv e r s i ty Provo U t a h 8 4 6 0 2 T el: ( 8 01 ) 378-258 6 Kinetics & Catalysis Mathematical Modeling Materials Transport Phenomena Molecular Dynamics Process Design Process Control

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY FACULTY TM DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering (full time) and the M.Eng degree in Chemical Engineer ing or Petroleum Reservoir En g ineering (part-time) in the following areas: Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Heat Transfer and Cryogenics R. A. Heidemann, Head, (Washington U.) A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.) Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion Multiphase Flow in Pipelines L. A. Behie (Western Ontario) J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary) F. Berruti (Waterloo) P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta) R. M. Butler (Imperial College U K.) A. Chakma (UBC) M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY) A. A. Jeje (MIT) N. Kalogerakis (Toronto) A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary) R. G. Moore (Alberta) P. M. Sigmund (Texas) J. Stanislav (Prague) W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta) E. L. Tollefson (Toronto) M.A. Trebble (Calgary) Fluid Bed Reaction Systems Environmental Engineering Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation Enhanced Oil Recovery In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Computer Simulation of Separation Processes Computer Control and Optimization of Bio/Engineer Processes Biotechnology and Biorheology F e ll ows hip s an d R ese ar c h Ass i s tant s hip s ar e auailable t o qualif ie d ap pl ic ant s FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE DR. A. K. MEHROTRA, CHAIRMAN GRADUATE STUDIES COMMITTEE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY, CALGARY, ALBERTA CANADA T2N 1 N4 The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calga Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, La, Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with t Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture. 268 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATl

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HE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RESEARCH INTERESTS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING BERKELEY ... offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro grams involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within and outside the department. Students have the opportunity to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and moun tains. FACULTY Alexis T Bell (Chairman) Harvey W. Blanch Elton J. Cairns Arup K. Chakraborty Douglas S. Clark Morton M Denn Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren David B. Graves Dennis W. Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N Michaels John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Jeffrey A Reimer David S. Soane Doros N. Theodorou Charles W. Tobias Michael C. Williams PLEASE WRITE: Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720 FALL 1989 269

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Faculty BELL, Richard L. University of Washington, Seattle Mass transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays, environmental transport, biochemical engineering. BOULTON, Roger University of Melbourne Chemical en gineering aspects of fermentation and wine processing, fermentation kinetics, computer simulation and control of enol ogical operations. HIGGINS, Brian G. University of Minnesota Wetting hy drodynamics, fluid mechanics of thin films coating flows Langmuir-Blodgett Films, Sol-Gel processes. JACKMAN, Alan P. University of Minnesota Biological ki netics and reactor design, kinetics of ion exchange, environmental solute trans port heat and mass transport at air-water interfa c e, hemodynamics and fluid ex change. KATZ, David F. University of California, Berkeley Bio logical fluid mechanics, biorheology, cell biology, image analysis. McCOY, Benjamin J. University of Minnesota Chemical re action engineering-adsorption, cataly si s multiphase reactors ; separation proc esses chromatography, ion exchange, supercritical fluid extraction McDONALD, Karen Univer s ity of Maryland, College Park Di s tillation control control of multi vari able, nonlinear processes, control of bio chemical processes, adaptive control parameter and state estimation 270 opments. SMITH,J.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport rates and chemical kinetics for catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic and steady state methods in slurry, trickle-bed single pellet, and fixed-bed reactors. STROEVE, Pieter Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport with chemical reaction, bio technology, rheology of heterogeneous media, thin film technology, interfacial phenomena image analysis. WHITAKER, Stephen University of Delaware Drying porous media, transport processes in heteroge neous reactors, multiphase transport phenomena in heterogeneous systems Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just an hour away from the San Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor enthusiasts may enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Lake Tahoe Bowl (2 hours away). These recreational opportunities combine with the friendly informal spirit of the Davis campus and town to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. The city of Davis is adjacent to the campus and within easy walking or cy cling distance. Both furnished and unfur nished oneaDd two-bedroom apart ments are available. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus. Course Areas Applied Kinetics & Reactor De s ign Applied Mathematics Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Environmental Transport Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Design & Control Process Dynamics Rheology Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems More Information The Graduate Group in Biomedical Engineering is now housed within the Department of Chemical Engineering. Further information and application ma terials for either program (Chemical En gineering or Biomedical Engineering) and financial aid may be obtained by writing : Graduate Admission s Department of Chemi c al En g in e erin g Univer s ity o f California, Da v i s Davis, CA 95616 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT PROGRAMS UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart ment offers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial needs. The depart ment's national leadership is demonstrated by the newly established Engineering Re search Center for Hazardous Substance Control. This center of advanced technol ogy is complemented by existing programs in Environmental Transport Research and Biotechnology Research and Education. Fellowships are available for outstand ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded science programs and to a variety of experiences In theatre, music, art and sports on campus FALL 19 8 9 UCLA FACULTY D. T. Allen Y. Cohen T. H. K. Frederking S. K. Friedlander R. F. Hicks K. Nobe L. B. Robinson 0. I. Smith W. D. Van Vorst (Prof. Emeritus) E. L. Knuth V. Manousiouthakis H. G. Monbouquette V. L. Vilker A. R. Wazzan RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Process Design and Process Control Polymer Processing and Rheology Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Particle Technology Environmental Engineering CONTACT Admissions Officer Chemical Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles, CA 900241592 (213) 825-9063 271

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA FA CUL TY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS L GARY LEAL Ph.D (Stanford) (Chairman/ Fluid Mechanics ; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics. PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. ( P urdue) B iochemical Engineering, Fermentat ion Science. SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. ( W a t erloo) Tw oPh ase Flo w Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Flu i d Dynamics, Turbulence DAN G. CACUCI Ph .D. (Columbia) Computational Engineering, Rad iation Transport, Reactor P hysics, Uncertainty A nalysis. HENRI FENECH Ph D (M I.T.) Nuc l ear Systems Des ign and Safety, Nuc l ear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer. OWEN T HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor A nalysis, Transport Phenomena SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph D (Stanford) Adsorpt io n and H eterogeneous Catalys is. JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph .D (Camb r idge) Surface and ln tertacial Phenom ena Ad hesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface Forces FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Process ing of Composrre Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceram ic s ; Superconducting Oxides. GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D .. (M.I.T.) Rad i ation Damage, Mechanics of Mater i a ls. DUNCAN A MELLICHAMP Ph D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynam ic s, Real Time Comput in g. JOHN E MYERS Ph D. (Michigan) (Professor Emerrrus) Bo iling Heal Transfer G ROBERT ODETTE P h.D. (M.I.T ) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Effects in So li ds, Energy Re lated Mater ials Development DALE S PEARSON Ph .D. (North we stern) Rheolog ical and Optical Propert ies of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal D is persions. PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph D (U. C. Berkeley ) Theory of S urtactant Ag gregates, Col l o id Systems A EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D ( M .I. T .) Biomed ica l Eng inee r in g Reactor Phy sics, Radiation Transport An alys i s. ROBERT G RINKER Ph D (Caltech) Chem ical Reactor Des i gn Ca talysis, Energy Convers i on, A ir Poll ution ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D (U. C Berke l ey) Transport Phe nomena, Separ ation Pro cesses. DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D (Princeton) Pro cess Control, Compu ter Control Pro cess ldentttication PAUL SMITH P h.D. (State Un i versrry of Gron ingen, Netherla nds) High Pertormance Fibers; Process ing of Conduct i ng Po ly mer s; Polymer Processing T G THEOFANOUS Ph .D (Minnesota) Nu clear and Chemical Pla nt Safety, Multiphase Flow Thermalhydraulics W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D (U.C Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalys is; Electron ic Mater ials JOSEPH A. N ZASADZINSKI Ph D. (Minnesota) Surtace and lntertacial Phenomena Structure of Microemu lsions. PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT The Department offers M S and Ph.D degree programs Financial aid includ ing fellowships, t eac hing assistant ships and research assistantships is available Some awards provide limited moving expenses THE UNIVERSITY On e of the world 's f e w seashore cam puses UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest of Los Ang les and 330 miles south of San Fran cisc o Th e student enrollment is ov er 16 000 The metropolitan Santa B arbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild even climate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor L. Gary Leal Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California Santa Barbara CA 93106 272 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at the CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY "At the Leading Edge" FACULTY Frances H Arnold James E. Bailey John F Brady George R. Gavalas Konstantinos P. Giapis Julia A. Kornfield Manfred Morari RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Science Applied Mathematics Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering Bioseparation Catalysis C. Dwight Prater (Visiting) John H. Seinfeld Chemical Vapor Deposition Combustion Colloid Physics Fred H. Shair Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus) Computational HydrodynamiCs Fluid Mechanics FALL 1989 Materials Processing Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science Process Control and Synthesis Protein Engineering Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous Systems for further information, write: Professor John F.Brady Department of Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 273

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WHEN THE STAKES ARE HIGH -. _,,,,,,. DON'T DRAW THE SAME OLD FACE CARDS OUR STRONG SUITS BIOMED/BIOTECH Michael Domach (Biochemical Engineering) Paul Frattini (Microrheology and Biophysics) Rakesh Jain (Tumor Microcirculation) COLLOIDS, POLYMERS, SURFACES John Anderson (Membrane and Colloid Transpon Phenomena) Dennis Prieve (Colloid & Surface Science) Myung Jhon (Polymer Science) 4_t COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION Anhur Westerberg (Design Research) Ignacio Grossmann (Process Synthesis and Design) Lorenz Biegler (Process Simulations and Optimizations) Gary Powers (Process Synthesis and Design) Gregory McRae (Mathematical Modeling and Environmental Engineering) ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING Edmond Ko (Heterogenous Catalysis and Semiconductor Processing) Paul Sides (Electrochemical Engineering and Semiconductor Processing) William Hammack (Oxide glasses, Infrared Optical Materials) WILD CARD Herben Toor (Heat & Mass Transfer) Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pa 15213-3890 412-268-2235

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EXERCISE YOUR MIND I Join the chemical engineering team at CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY Work out with top-ranked teachers and researchers and practice in one of the best research facilities in the country. Faculty and specializations : R obert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University Particle separations mixing acid gas recovery John C. Angus Ph D 1960 University Nelson C. Gardner Ph D 1966 Iowa State University High gravity separa tions sulfur removal processes Train in: Electrochemical engineering Laser applications Mixing and separations Process control Surface and colloids of Michigan Redox equilibria thin car1 bon films modulated electroplating Uziel Landau Ph D 1975 University of California (Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering current distributions electrodeposition Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph D.1962 Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adap tive inferential control multi-variable control coordination algorithms Robert V. Edwards Ph D. 1968 Johns Hopkins University Laser anemometry mathematical modelling data acquisition Donald L. Feke Ph D 1981 Princeton University Colloidal phenomena ceramic dispersions fine-particle processing Chung-Chiun Liu Ph D 1968 Case Western Reserve University Elec trochemical sensors electrochemical synthesis electrochemistry related to elec tronic materials J. Adin Mann, Jr. Ph D 1962 Iowa State University Surfac e phenomena interfacial dynamics light scattering Syed Qutubuddin, Ph D 1983 Car negie Mellon University Surfactant systems metal extraction enhanced oil recovery Robert F. Savinell Ph D 1977 Univer sity of Pittsburgh Electrochemical engineering reactor design and simulation electrod e processes For more information contact: The Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University University Circle Cleveland Ohio 44106 ., ,,.. CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY CLEVELAND OHIO 44106

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The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUA T E STUDYin Chem i c al Engin e ering M S a n d Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY Amy Ciric Joel Fried Stevin Gehrke Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Robert Jenkins Yuen-Koh Kao Soon Jai Khang Glenn Lipscomb Neville Pinto Sotiris Pratsinis Stephen Thiel CHEMICAL REAC T ION ENGINE E RING AND HETEROGENEOUS CA T Al Y SIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactiva t in g catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCESS S Y NTH E S IS Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation o f coal gas ifier s activated carbon columns process unit operations. P rediction of reaction by-products. POLYMERS Viscoelast ic properties of concentrated polymer solutions. Thermodynam ics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AEROSOL ENGI N EERING A erosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions, aerosol depositions AIR POLLUTION M od eling and design of gas cleaning de vices and s ystems. COAL RESEARCH D emonstration of new technology for coal com bustion power plant. TWO-PHASE FLOW Bo iling. Stability and transport properties of f o am. M~MBRANE SEPARATIONS FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION Chairman, Graduate Stud i es Comm itt ee Department of Chemical Engineering, # 1 71 Un iversi ty of Cincinnat i C incin nati OH 45221 Membran e g as s eparation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy nam i c s i m u lat ion o f memb r an e sepa r ato r s me mbran e preparation and characterization. 276 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Jraduate StudY in CHEMICAb ENGINEERING CENTER FOR AfY,/ p.NCED llftATER!ALS PROCESSING NASA CENTER FOR THE oE.VELOPMENT Of coMMERCIAL cRYSf AL GROWTH IN SPACE INSllfUTE Of cou.O10 AND SURFACE SCIENCE For details, please write to: oean of me Graduate School c1ar1.<, I

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Graduate Study at Cle mson Universit y The University In Chemical Engineering Coming Up for Air No matter where you do your graduate work, your nose will be in your books and your mind on your research But at Clemson University, there s something for you when you can stretch out for a break. Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fish i ng, sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes Or hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains Or driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend. Something that can really relax you. All this and a top-notch Chemical Enginee r ing Department too With act i ve research and teach i ng in polymer processing composite materials, process automation, thermodynamics, catalysis and membrane applications what more do you need? Clemson the land grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges Present on-campus enrollment is about 14,000 students one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2 600 graduate students. The l ,400 acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina s Piedmont, and is m i dway between Charlotte, N C., and Atlanta, Ga. The Faculty Charles H. Barron, Jr John N Beard, Jr. Dan D. Edie Charles H. Gooding James M. Haile Douglas E. Hirt Stephen S. Melsheimer Joseph C. Mullins Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available. For Further Information For further information and a descriptive brochure, write: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Earle Hall Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29634 Amod A. Ogale Richard W. Rice Mark C. Thies CLEMSON UNIVERSITY College of Engineering

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO BOULDER RESE AR CH INTE R ESTS A ltern ate Energy Sources Biotechno log y and Bioengineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Coal Gasification and Combustion Enha n ced Oil Reco v ery Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization lnterfacial and Surface Phenome n a Low Grav i ty Fluid Mechanics and Materials Processing Mass Transfer Membrane Transport and Separat i ons Numerical and Analytical Modeling Process Control and Identification Semiconductor Processing Surface Chemistry and Surface Science Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Thin Film Science Transport Processes FA CULTY DAVID E. CLOUGH, Profe sso r Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Ph.D ., Unive r s it y of Colorado, 1975 ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor Ph D ., Stanford University, 1 983 JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor Ph D., Stanford University, 1 974 R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967 HOWARD J.M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint Ph.D University of London, 1963 DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor Ph D Purdue University, 1984 FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO FALL 1989 WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Profe ss or Ph D ., University of California, Berkele y, 1 968 RICHARD D NOBLE, Research Profes so r Ph D., University of California, Davi s, 1976 W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor Ph.D Tulane University 1965 ROBERT L. SANI, Profe sso r Dire c tor of Center for Low Gravity Ph.D University of Minnesota, 1963 KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and Chairman Ph D., University of Illinois, 1951 RONALD E. WEST, Profe ss or Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958 Chairman Graduate Adm i ss i ons Committee Department of Chemical Eng i neering Univers i ty of Colorado Boulder Co l orado 80309-0424 279

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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH A. J. KIDNAY Professor and Head ; D Sc Colorado Schoo l of Mines Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids vapor liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering. J. H GARY Professor Emeritus ; Ph D ., Florida Petroleum refinery processing operations heavy oil processing thermal cracking visbreaking and solvent extraction V F YESAVAGE, Professor ; Ph D ., Mich i gan Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations of state for highly non ideal systems flow calor i metry. E. D SLOAN, JR., Prolessor ; Ph D C l emso n. Phase equilibrium measurements of natural gas flu i ds and hydrates thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids adsorp ti on e quilibria education methods research. R. M. BALDWIN, Professor; Ph.D ., Co l orado School of Mines Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction catalysis oil shale processing, supercritical extraction. M. S. SELIM Professor ; Ph D. Iowa State Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions heat effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissociation modeling A. L BUNGE, Associate Professor ; Ph D. Berke l ey Membrane transport and separations mass transfer in porous media ion exchange and adsorption chromatography in place remediation of contaminated soils percutaneous absorption R. L. MILLER Research Assistant Professor ; Ph D., Colorado School of Mines Liquefaction co processing of coal and heavy oil low severity coal liquefaction oil shale processing, particulate removal with venturi scrubbers supercritical extraction J. F. ELY, Adjunct Professor; Ph D Indiana. Molecular thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids For Applications and Further Information On M S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401

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Colorado State University Faculty: LARRY BELFIORE, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin ERICH. DUNLOP, Ph.D. University of Strathclyde JUD HARPER, Ph D. Iowa State University NAZ KARIM, Ph.D. University of Manchester TERRY LENZ, Ph.D. Iowa State University JIM LINDEN, Ph.D. Iowa State University CAROL McCONICA, Ph.D. Stanford University VINCE MURPHY, Ph.D. University of Massachusetts KEN REARDON, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology FALL 1989 Location: CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000 peor,le located about 65 miles north of Denver. This s ite is adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new Center for the Performing Arts Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbUJ'!iCmcnt Research Areas: Alternate Energy Sources Biotechnology Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Vapor Deposition Computer Simulation and Control Environmental Engineering Fermentation Food Engineering Hazardous Waste Treatment Polymeric Materials Porous Media Phenomena Rheology Semiconductor Processing Solar Cooling Systems For Applications and Further Information, write: Professor Vincent G. Murphy Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 281

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers Faculty and Research Areas THOMASF.ANDERSON statist i cal thermodynamics phase equilibria separations JAMES P. BELL structure and properties of polymers DOUGLAS J. COOPER expert systems process control fluidization ROBERT W. COUGHLIN catalysis biotechnology surface science MICHAEL B. CUTLIP ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO polymer science composite materials JAMES M. FENTON electrochemical engineering enrivonmental engineering G. MICHAEL HOWARD process dynam i cs energy technology HERBERT E. KLEI biochemical engineering environmental engineering JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN polymer morphology and properties MONTGOMERY T. SHAW polymer processing rheology DONALD W. SUNDSTROM environmental engineering b i ochemica l engineering ROBERT A. WEISS polymer sc i ence chemical reaction engineering computer applications We'll gladly supply the Answers! .i THE UN I V ERSITY O F CONNECTICUT Graduate Admissions Dept. of Chemical Engineering Box U-139 The University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06268 (203) 486-4019

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering A diverse intellectual climate Graduate students arrange ind i vidual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell depart ments including chemistry biological sciences, physics, computer science, food science, materials science mechanical engineering, and business administration. A scenic location Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the country A stimulating university com munity offers excellent recrea tional and cultural opportunities in an attractive environment. FALL 1989 at Cornell University World-class research in biochemical engineering applied mathematic s computer s imulati o n environmental engineering kinetics and catalysi s surface science heat and mas s transfer polymer science and engineering fluid dynamics rheology and biorheology proces s control molecular thermodynamic s statistical mechanic s computer-aided design A distinguished faculty Graduate programs lead to the degrees of master of engineering master of s cience and doctor of philosophy Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available Brad Anton Paulette Clancy Peter A Clark Claude Cohen James R Engstrom Robert K Finn Keith E Gubbins Daniel A Hammer Peter Harriott Donald L. Koch Robert P Merrill William L Olbricht Athanassios Z. Panaglotopoulos Ferdinand Rodriguez George F Scheele Michael L. Shuler Julian C. Smith ( Emeritus) Paul H. Steen WIiiiam B. Streett Raymond G. Thorpe (Emeritus) Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus) Herbert F. Wlegandt (Emeritus) John A Zollweg For further information write to: Professor William L Oibricht Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca. NY 14853-5201 283

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1 neer 1n The Facultr. __ Ricardo Aragon Giovanni Astarita Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Kenneth B. Bischoff Douglas J. Buttrey Castel D Denson Prasad S. Dhurjati Henry C. Foley Bruce C. Gates Eric W Kaler Michael T. Kleinr Abraham M. Lenhoff Roy L. McCullough Arthur B Metzner Jon H. Olson Michael E. Paulaitis T W. Fraser Russell Stanley I. Sandler Jerold M Schultz Annette D Shine Ti Andrew L. Zydney h 1 d h e University of De aware offers M.ChE an P .D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering. -------For more information and application materials write: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 Tite University of Delaware _____

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Modern Applications of Chemical Engineering at the University of Florida FALL 1989 Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD FACULTY TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynam i cs IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design ARTHUR L FRICKE Po~mers Pulp & Paper Characterization GAR HOFLUND Catalysis Surface Sc i ence LEW JOHNS Applied Des i gn Process Control Energy Systems DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Des i gn, Process Control HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing Reaction Engineering GERASIMOS LYBERATOS Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering FRANK MAY, Computer-Aided Learning RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena Sem i conductor Processing MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering Semiconductor Processing CHANG-WON PARK, Fluid Mechanics Po~mer Processing DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences B i omedical Engineering SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochem i cal Engineering GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations For more information, please write: Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 or call (904) 392-0881 285

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GEORGIA TECH Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering A Unit of the Un iv er si t y Sy s tem of Georgia Faculty A. S. Abhiraman Pradeep K. Agrawal YamanArkun Sue Ann Bidstrup Charles A. Eckert William R. Ernst Larry J. Forney Charles W. Gorton Jeffery S. Hsieh Paul A. Kohl Michael J. Matteson John D. Muzzy Robert M. Nerem Gary W. Poehlein Ronnie S. Roberts Ronald W. Rousseau Thanassios Sambanis Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork A. H. Peter Skelland Jude T. Sommerfeld D. William Tedder Amyn S. Teja Mark G. White Timothy M. Wick Jack Winni ck Ajit Yoganathan 286 Research Interests Adsorption Aerosols Biomedical engineering Biochemical engineering Catalysis Composite materials Crystallization Electrochemical engineering Environmental chemistry Extraction Fine particles Interf acial phenomena Microelectronics Physical properties Polymer science and engineering Polymerization Process control and dynamics Process synthesis Pulp and paper engineering Reactor analysis and design Separation processes Surface science and technology Thermodynamics Transport phenomena For more Information write: Ronald W. Rousseau School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332 0100 C HEMI C AL EN G INEERING EDUCATION

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What do graduate students say about the University of Houston Department of Chemical Engineering? Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among the top ten schoo l s and you can work in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor processing biochemical eng in eering the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is y ours too and you re given eno u gh tim e t o make the right decision. You can see y our advisor almost any time xou want to because the student-to -t eacher ratio is low. Houston is the cen t er of the petrochemical industry which puts the real world of res e arch within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program in sur-erconductivity. The UH campus is really nic e and city life is j u st 15 minutes awa y for concerts pla y s nightclubs.i professional sports-everything Galveston beach is just 40 minutes awa y The taculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here but there is time for in tramural s p o rt s and Friday night ge t t ogethers. If yo u d like to be part of t his team l et us h ea r from you. -' c' { ~ ~N 4y ;; ;.. ) ,. ~ + + -+~ = J? ,i ,., .. .. a y ~ ::. ( J "It's great!" /2 --i 'i' ( ,.. I ,,. of. 7 / \ + I, IS I j AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH: Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena Electronic Materials Thermodynamics Enhanced Oil Recovery FACULTY: Neal Amundson Vemuri Balakotaiah Elmond Claridge AbeDukler Demetre Economou Ernest Henley John Killough Dan Luss Richard Pollard William Prengle Raj Rajagopalan Jim Richardson 'I Cynthia Stokes Frank Tiller Richard Willson Frank Worley For an application write : Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Houston TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407 The University is in co,rp/iance with Title IX

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U I C The University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical Engineering MS and PhD Graduate Program FACULTY Joachim Floess Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech 1985 Assistant Professor Richard D. Gonzalez Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965 Professor John H Kiefer Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Irving F Miller Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960 Professor and Head Sohail Murad Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies John Regalbuto Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor David Willcox Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985 Assistant Professor RESEARCH AREAS Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase fluid flow and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal liquefaction, porous media, membrane transport, pulmonary deposition and clearance, biorheology. Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids, statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, supercritical fluid extraction/retrograde condensation, asphaltene characterization, bioseparations. Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid reaction kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena, energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics; combustion chemistry, environmental technology. Heterogeneous Catalysis: Surface chemistry, catalyst preparation and characterization, structure sensitivity, supported metals, clay chemistry, artificial intelligence applications, modelling and optimization. For more information : Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424

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A TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE Chemical Engineering at the Unive r sity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The combination of distinguished faculty, out standing faci l ities and a diversity of research intere s ts results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education. The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading to the M .S. and Ph.D. degrees. Richard C. Alkire Harry G Drickamer Thoma s J Hanratty Jonathan J L. Higdon Richard I. Mase! Wa l ter G May Anthony J. McHugh William R Schowalter Edmund G. Seebauer Mark A. Stadtherr Frank B. van Swol James W Westwater K Dane Wittrup Charles F. Zukoski IV Electrochemical and Plasma Processing High Pressure Studies Structure and Properties of Solids Fluid Dynamics Convective Heat and Ma ss Transfer Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematic s Surface Science Studies of Catalysts and Semiconductor Growth Chemical Proce ss Engineering Polymer Engineering and Science Me c hanic s of Colloids and Rheologically Complex Fluids L ase r Studies in Semiconductor Growth Process Flowsheeting and Optimization Wetting and Capillary Condensation Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes Biotechnology Colloid and Interfacial Science For information and application forms write: Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 West California Street Urbana, Illinois 6180 I

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEER/NG AT Illinois Institute of Technology THE UNIVERSITY Private, coeducational university 3000 undergraduate students 2400 graduate students 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of Lake Michigan Campus recognized as an architectural landmark THE CITY One of the largest cities in the world National and international center of business and industry Enormous variety of cultural resources Excellent recreational facilities Industrial collaboration and job opportunities THE DEPARTMENT One of the oldest in the nation Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-t i me graduate students M Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees Financially attractive fellowships and assistant ships available to outstanding students THE FACULTY HAMID ARASTOOPOUR (Ph D. IIT) Multi-phase flow and fluidization flow in porous media gas technology RICHARD A. BEISS/NGER (D.E.Sc. Columbia) Transport processes in chemical and biological systems rheology of polymeric and biological fluids ALI CINAR (Ph D ., Texas A & M) Chemical process control distributed parameter systems expert systems DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph.D., IIT) Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow, separations processes M. HOSSEIN HARIRI (Ph D ., Manchester-UMIST) Bioseparation flow in porous media and process design HENRY R. LINDEN (Ph D Ill) Energy policy planning and forecasting SAT/SH J PARULEKAR (Ph D ., Purdue) Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering J ROBERT SELMAN (Ph D ., California-Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical energy storage SEUM M. SENKAN (Sc D ., MIT) Combustion, high temperature chemical reaction engineering DAVID C VENERUS (Ph D ., Pennsylvania State U) Polymer rheology and processing and transport phenomena DARSH T. WASAN (Ph D ., California-Berkeley) lnterfacial phenomena, separation processes enhanced oil recovery APPLICATIONS Dr H. Arastoopour Chairman Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering ltlinois Institute of Technology I I T. Center Chicago IL 60616 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 290 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY is an independent, fully accredited graduate school offering an interdis ciplinary degree program designed for B.S. chemical engineering grad uates. The Institute has an excellent record of preparing graduates for challenging and highly rewarding careers in the paper industry. The In stitute is located next to the Georgia Institute of Technology and shares many educational resources with Georgia Tech. All U.S. citizens and permanent resi dents accepted into the program are awarded full tuition scholarships, as well as stipends of $12,000 to $14,000 per calendar year. Graduates select thesis research projects from a variety of topics, including: Process Engineering Simulation and Control Heat and Mass Transfer Separation Science Reaction Engineering Fluid Mechanics Materials Science Surface and Colloid Science Combustion Technology Chemical Kinetics For further information, please contact: Director of Admissions The Institute of Paper Science and Technology 57514th St. N.W Atlanta, GA 30318 (404) 853-9500

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292 ,,,-r 1/ :,1 I ;" II l"""1 .r, 10\VCI GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL & MATERIALS ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS: --Kinetics & Catalysls .._ _____ __. --Blocatalysls & Blosensors --Bloseparatlons & Blochemlcal Engineering --Membrane Separations --Partlcle Morphologlcal Analysis --Air Pollution Modeling --Materlals Science --Surface Science & Laser Technology --Parallel & High Speed Computing =~r.'D( ~ l~ For addltlonal Information and appllcatlon write to: ~j~ J jJiIDl? GRADUATE ADMISSIONS "bv..o,?. Chemical and Materlals Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa City. Iowa 52242 319/335-1400 The University of Iowa doe1 not discriminate In ff1 edJcollonal progromi end oclMlles on the basis or roe nollonol origin, color rellglon, 1ex. age or handicap The University also offlrml ffl commffment lo providing equal opporlunltle1 end equal occea to University focllllle1 without reference lo offecllonal orossoclollonal preference For oddtllonal Wormollon on nondlscrlmlnollon pollcle1, conlocl the Coord!nolor of TIiie IX end Section !i04 In the Office of Afflrrnollve Acllon, telephone 319/335-0705, 202 J911up Hal, The Unlvenlly of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 62242 5337/8-!7 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY William H. Abraham Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport, process modeling Lawrence E. Burkhart Fluid mechanics, separation process, ceramic processing George Burnet Coal technology, separation processes, high temperature ceramics John M. Eggebrecht Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and fluid surfaces Charles E. Glatz Biochemical engineering, processing of biological materials Kurt R. Hebert Applied electrochemistry, corrosion James C. Hill Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport phenomena, aerosols Kenneth R. Jolls Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics Terry S. King Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications Maurice A. Larson Crystallization, process dynamics Peter J. Reilly Biochemical engineering, enzyme technology, carbohydrate chromatography Glenn L. Schrader Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics processing, sensors Richard C. Seagrave Biological transport phenomena, biothermo dynamics, reactor analysis Dean L. Ulrichson Process modeling, simulation Thomas D. Wheelock Chemical reactor design, coal technology, fluidization Gordon R. Youngquist Crystallization, chemical reactor design, polymerization For additional information, please write: Graduate Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 ~ \ -._ \ --, . ---\ \

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~,; :-~ ,. ., JOHNS CHEMICAL m u t,-;-~~!%w! .. ; '"'-lit. \\l_"l j. ~,~~!1 HOPKINS ENGINEERING Timothy A. Barbari Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin Membrane Science Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers Polymeric Thin Films MichaelJ.Betenbaugh Ph D University of Delaware Biochemical Kinetics Insect Cell Culture Rec o mbinant DNA Technology Marc D. Donohue 1F Ph D., University of California, Berkeley Equations of State Statistical Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Joseph L. Katz Ph.D., University of Chicago Nucleation Crystallization Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders Robert M Kelly Ph D No r th Ca r olina State University Pro c ess Simulation B i och emical Engineering Sepa r ations P rocesses Ma rk A Mc H ug h Ph.D., University of Delaware High-Pressure Thermodynamics Polymer Solution Thermodynamics Supercritical Solvent Extraction G e offre y A. Prentic e Ph.D ., University of California, B e rk e l e y Electrochemical Engineering Corrosion W. Mark Saltzman Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport in Biological Systems Polymeric Controlled Release Cell-Surface Interactions W H S chwarz Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University Rheology Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics Physical Acoustics of Fluids Turbulence For furth e r informati o n co nta c t : The Johns Hopkins University Chemical Engineering Department Baltimore, MD 21218 (301) 3387170 (i :,

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Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering GRADUATE PROGRAMS The M.S. degree with a thesis requirement is offered in both the chemical and petroleum engineering disciplines In addition an M.S degree with a major in petroleum manage ment is offered jointly with the School of Business. The Ph.D degree with emphasis in either chemical or petroleum engineering is characterized by moderate and flexible course requirements and a strong research emphasis. Typical completion times are 1618 months for an M S degree and 4 1 / 2 years for a Ph D. degree (from B S ). RESEARCH AREAS Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Kinetics and Reactor Modeling Controlled Drug Delivery Corrosion Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design Nucleate Boiling Numerical Model i ng of Pore Structure Plasma Modeling and Plasma Reactor Design Process Contro l Supercomputer Applications Supercritical Fluid Applications FINANCIAL AID Financial aid is available in the form of fellowships and research and teaching assistantships. RESEARCH FACILITIES Excellent facilities are available for research and instruction. Extensive equipment and shop facilities are available for research in such areas as enhanced oil recovery proc esses fluid phase equilibria nucleate boil ing catalytic kinetics and supercritical fluid applications. The Harris H1000 computer the VAX 8600 along with a network of Macintosh personal computers and IBM Apollo and Sun workstations support compu tational and graphical needs. FACULTY Kenneth A. Bishop (Ph.D Oklahoma) John C Davis (Ph.D Wyoming) Don W Green (Ph.D ., Oklahoma) Colin S. Howat (Ph D. Kansas) Carl E. Locke (Ph.D ., Texas) James 0. Maloney (Ph.D Penn State) Russell B Mesler (Ph.D Michigan) Floyd W. Preston (Ph.D Penn State) Harold F. Rosson (Ph.D Rice) Marylee Z Southard (Ph D .. Kansas) Randall V Sparer (Ph D .. Case Western Reserve) Bala Subramaniam (Ph D. Notre Dame) George W. Swift (Ph D. Kansas) Brian E. Thompson (Ph.D. MIT) Shapour Vossoughi (Ph D. Alberta, Canada) Stanley M Walas (Ph D Michigan ) G Paul Willhite (Ph D .. Northwestern) For further information. please write to: D e partmen t of Chemical and P e troleum Engineering 4066 Learned Hall The University of Kansas Lawrence KS 66045 2223 (913) 864 4965

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Durland Hall-Home of Chemical Engineering KANSAS ST A TE UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. programs chemical Engineering interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering *Food Science Environmental Engineering Financial Aid Available Up to $15,000 Per Year For More Information Write to Professor B.G Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, KS 66506 Areas of Study and Research Transport Phenomena Energy Engineering Coal and Biomass Conversion Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium Biochemical Engineering Process Dynamics and Control Chemical Reaction Engineering Materials Science Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis Process System Engineering and Artificial Intelligence Environmental Pollution Control Fluidization and Solid Mixing Hazardous Waste Treatment KANSAS STKI"E UNIVERSITY

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Our pair of PYl's-Mark Dav is (left) Virginia Tech (Ph D IN Kentucky) and Asit K Ray, Kentucky, both have been named National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigators (PYls). by all means CHECK US OUT! e're the UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. If you're evaluating M.S. and Ph.D. programs, consider these points: THE UNIVERSITY UK's 100+ year traditions of excellence and value in education are legendary Today, with 23,000 students on the main campus and another 33,000 in the award-winning state-wide community college system, the Univer sity of Kentucky excels in the arts, sciences, medicine business agriculture, engineering and, above all in RESEARCH having been named a research institution of the first class by the Carnegie Foundation. THE AREA UK s 680-acre campus is nestled within the heart of one of America's most picture perfect areas, Lexington, and its surrounding Kentucky Bluegrass region Worthy of note : students here frequently earn their degrees and "stay~ since Lexington is listed as one of the top 10 cities in the country to live, work raise a family and relax. THE DEPARTMENT Bright, well-rounded students state-of-the-art facilities, substantial funding, and a superb reputation within both academic and industrial circles combine to make UK s Chemical Engineering department one of the fine st in the nation Not coincidentally, of the 115 U.S. Ph.D -granting departments UK's is one of a select few which has both produc ed a PYI and has a PYI on its faculty (See photo above ) THE FACULTY UK 's Chemical Engineering faculty (listed herein) is a diverse group of distinguished individuals whose outside interests range from gourmet cooking (Indian and French) gardening and clogging to attending rock concerts, tennis and sailing On the job, they share an excitement for research, teaching, and discovery that's remarkably contagious Ph D Institution Ph.D Institution D Bhattacharyya Illinois Institute of Technology E.D Moorhead Ohio State G.F. Crewe West Virginia L K Peters Pittsburgh F J Derbyshire Imperial College A.K. Ray Clarkson C E Hamrin Jr. Northwestern J T. Schrodt Louisville G P. Huffman West Virginia T.T. Tsang Texas Austin R.I. Kermode Northwestern K.A. Ward Carnegie-Mellon THE PROGRAM Major world-class research programs in Aerosols Membranes, Environmental Studies, and I"" Coal Science in addition to mainstream chemical engineering areas. THE GOAL To attract graduate level students who appreciate the value of a superb education and the extensive I"" opportunities for significant research in their chosen fields To that end, fellowships and research assistantships are available for quality applicants; special funding has been earmarked for female candidates. UK UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY Chemical Engineering Department A partner in your, and America 's, future For detailed information contact: Dr Charles Hamrin, Chair Chemical Engineering Dept. University of Kentucky, Lexington KY 40506-0046

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Quebec, Canada Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering Research Areas --------------CATALYSIS (S. Kaliaguine) BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Chaplin, A. LeDuy, R. W. Lencki, J -R. Moreau, J. Thibault) ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (R. S. Ramalho, C. Roy) COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P. A Tanguy) TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P. -H. Roy) MODELUNG AND CONTROL (J. Thibault) RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING (A. Ait-Kadi, L. Chaplin, P. A. Tanguy) THERMODYNAMICS (R. S. Ramalho, S. Kaliaguine) CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine, A. LeDuy, C. Roy) FLUIDISATION AND SEPARATIONS BY MEMBRANES (B. Grandjean) Universite Laval is a French speaking University It pro vides the graduate student with the opportunity of learn ing French and becoming acquainted with Fren ch cul ture. Please write to : Le Responsable du Comite d'Admiss ion et de Supervision Departement de genie chimique Faculte des sciences et de genie Universit e Laval Sainte-Foy, Quebec Canada G l K 7P4 The Faculty ____ ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI Ph D Ecole Poly Montre'al Professeur adjoint LIONEL CHOPLIN Ph.D Ecole Poly Montreal Professeur ti tulaire BERNARD GRANDJEAN Ph.D. Ecole Poly Montreal Professeur adjoint SERGE KALIAGUINE D.Ing. I.G.C. Toulouse Professeur ti tulaire ANH LEDUY Ph D Western Ontario Professeur ti tulaire ROBERT W. J. LENCKI Ph.D McGill Professeur adjoint J. -CLAUDE METHOT D Sc Laval Professeur ti tulaire JEAN-R. MOREAU Ph.D. M.I.T Professeur ti tulaire RUBENS S. RAMALHO Ph.D Vanderbilt Professeur ti tulaire CHRISTIAN ROY Ph D Sherbrooke Professeur agrege PAUL-H. ROY Ph D Illinois Inst of Technology Professeur ti tulaire PHILLIPPE A. TANGUY Ph D Laval Professeur agrege' JULES THIBAULT Ph D. McMaster Professeur a~e 298 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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University Synergistic, interdisciplinary research in Polymer science & engineering Biochemical engineering Process modeling & control Multiphase processing leading to M.S. and Ph D. degrees in chemical engineering and polymer science & engineering Superb facilities One of the largest doctoral programs in the nation Easy access to cultural and recreational opportunities in the New York Philadelphia area Highly attractive financial aid packages which provide tuition and stipend, are available. Additional information and applications may be obtained by writing to : Dr. Janice A. Phillips Chairman, Graduate Affairs Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Lehigh University 111 Research Drive Bethlehem, PA 18015 We promise the challenge Philip A. Blythe (University of Manchester) fluid mechanics heat transfer, applied mathematics Hugo S. Caram (University of Minnesota) gas-solid and gas-liquid systems; optical techniques; reaction engineering Marvin Charles (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn) biochemical engineering; bioseparations John C. Chen (University of Michigan) two-phase vapor-liquid flow; fluidization; radiative heat transfer Mohamed S. El-Aasser (McGill University) polymer colloids and films; emulsion copolymerization; polymer synthesis & characterization Christos Georgakis (University of Minnesota) process modeling & control; chemical reaction engineering; expert systems James T. Hsu (Northwestern University) separation processes; adsorption & catalysis in zeolites Arthur E. Humphrey (Columbia University) biochemical processes; pharmaceuticals & enzyme manufacturing; plant cell culture Andrew J. Klein (North Carolina State University) emulsion polymerization; colloidal & surface effects in polymerization William L. Luyben (University of Delaware) process design & control; distillation Janice A. Phillips (University of Pennsylvania) biochemical engineering ; instrumentation/control of bioreactors; mammalian cell culture William E. Schiesser (Princeton University) numerical algorithms & software in chemical engineering Cesar A. Silebi (Lehigh University) separation of colloidal particles; electrophoresis; mass transfer Leslie H. Sperling (Duke University) mechanical & morphological properties of polymers; interpenetrating polymer networks Fred P Stein (University of Michigan) thermodynamic properties of mixtures Harvey G. Stenger, Jr. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) plasma etching; catalysis; air pollution control Israel E. Wachs (Stanford University) materials synthesis & characterization; surface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis

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(Qutsiana Stat~ Untv~rstt~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CITY Baton Rouge is the s tate capitol and home of the major state institu t ion for higher education LSU. Situated in the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South and Cajun Cultures The Por t of Ba ton Rouge is a main chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors provide excellent recreation al activities year round, additionall y the proximity of New Orleans prov i des for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras. THE DEPARTMENT M.S. a nd Ph.D. Programs Approximately 70 Graduate Students DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES IBM 4341 with mo r e than 50 color graphics terminals Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR, LC GC AA, XRD Vacuum to High Pre ssure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis, thermod ynami cs supe r critical processing Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories Laser Doppler Ve locimeter Facility Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities TO APPLY, CONTACT: DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE INSTRUCTION Department of Chemical Enginering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 FACULTY J .R. COLLIER (Ph.D., Case Institute) Polymers, Fluid Flow, CAD/CAM A 8. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU) Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design K.M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering G.L. GRIFFIN (Ph.D., Princeton) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces, Materials Processing F .R. GROVES (Ph. D., Wisconsin) Control, Modeling, Separation Processes D.P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas) Fluid-Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes A.E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida) Distillation, Control, Modeling M. HJORTS(ll (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics F .C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Purdue) Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing E. McLAUGHLIN CD.Sc., Univ. of London) Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties R.W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech) Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization G.L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ .) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces D.D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech) Environmental Chemodynamics, Transport Modeling R.G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, Separation Processes A M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington) Transport Phenomena, Combustion L: .J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., LSU) Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste D.M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware) Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes FINANCIAL AID Fellowships and assistantships with tuition paid ($850 per month, 1988-89) Up to Eight Dean's Fellowships at $ I 5,000 per year plus tuition and a travel grant Special industrial and alumni fellowships for outstanding students Some part-time teaching experience available for graduate students interested in an academic career

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Faculty and Research Interests DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD Ph.D. (U.C.Berkeley) Fluid Mechanics, Rheology B i ochemical Engineering WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc.D (M.I.T.) Heat Transfer, Press ing & Drying Operat i ons Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simulation & Modeling ALBERT CO Ph.D (Wisconsin) Polymer ic Fluid Dynamics Rheology Transport Phenomena, Numerical Me th ods JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph D (Ohio State) Proc ess Engineering, Pulp and Paper Technology Wood D e lignif ica tion JOHN C HASSLER Ph D. (Kansas State ) Process Control, Nume rical Me th ods, Instrumenta ti on and Real Time Computer App licati ons MARQUITA K HILL Ph.D (U.C. Davis) Environmental Science Waste Management Technology JOHN J HWALEK Ph.D (Illinois) Liquid Metal Natural Convect i on, Electronics Cooling Process Control Systems ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph.D (Princeton) Polymer Physics & Chemis try, S uper cr iti cal Flu ids, Thermal Ana l ys is & Pyrolys is, Pulp & Paper Scie nce DAVID J. KRASKE (Chairman) Ph.D. (Inst. Paper Chem ist ry ) Pulp Paper & Coating Technology, Additive Chemistry, Cellulose & Wood Chem i stry JAMES D. LISIUS Ph.D (Illinois) Electrochemical Eng ineeri ng Compos ite Ma terial s Coupled Mass Transfer KENNETH I. MUMME Ph.D ( Ma ine) Process Simulation and Control, System Ident ifi cat i on & Opt imizati on HEMANT PENDSE P h.D. (Syr acuse ) Colloidal Phenomena, Particu late & Mu lti phase Processes Porous Med i a Model in g EDWARD V THOMPSON Ph.D ., (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn) Thermal & Mechanical Propert i es of Polymers, Papermaking and Fiber Phys ics DOUGLAS L. WOERNER Ph D (Washington) Membrane Separations, Polymer So luti ons Collo i d & Emulsion Technology Programs and Financial Support Eighteen resear ch groups attack fundamental problems leading to M S. and Ph.D degrees. Industr i a l fellowships, un i vers ity fellowships, research assistantships and teaching ass i s tantships are ava il able Presidential fellow ships provide $4,000 per year in add iti on to the regular stipend and free tuiti on. The University The spacious campus is situated on 1 200 acres ov erlo ok i ng the Penobscot and St ill water R ivers Present enrollment of 12,000 off ers the diversity of a large school, while preserving close personal contact between peers and faculty The Un i vers ity's Ma i ne Center for the A rts, the Hauck Aud it or i um, and Pav ili on Theatre provide many cultura l opportun ite s in add iti on to those in the nearby c it y of Bangor. Less than an hour away from campus are the beaut iful Ma i ne Coast and Acadia National park, alpine and cross country ski resorts and northern wilderness areas o f Baxter State Park and Mount Katahdin. Enjoy life, wo rk hard and earn your graduate degree in one of the most beaut i ful spots in the wor l d Call Collect or Write James D. Lisius University of Maine, Department of Chemical Engineering Jenness Hall, Box B Orono, Maine 04469-0135 (207) 581-2292

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University of Maryland Faculty: Odd A Asbjornsen William Bentley Richard V. Calabrese Kyu Yong Choi Larry L. Gasner James W. Gentry Michael L Mavrovouniotis Thomas J McAvoy Thomas M Regan Theodore G. Smith Nam Sun Wang William A Weigand Evanghelos Zafiriou College Park Location: The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately 7 0 miles from the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House, Arlington Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay Degrees Offered: M S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistant ships at $12,320/yr., plus tuition Research Areas: Aerosol Science Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Neural Computation Polymer Processing Polymerization Reaction Engineering Process Control Separat i on Processes Systems Engineering Turbulence and Mixing For Applications and Further Information, Write: Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of Maryland College Park, Md. 207 42

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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS Amherst The Chemical Engineering Depa rtmen t at the Uni versi ty of Massachusetts offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and PhD. degrees in Chemical Engin eering. Acti ve research areas include polymer engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or the Polymer Science and Engineer ing D epartment. Financial aid, in the form of research assis tantships and teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of researc h are selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. For further details, please write to Prof. Ka M. Ng Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 or Prof. M. Muthukumar Graduate Program Director Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.A BURNS Biochemical engineering Chromatographic separations W. C. CONNER Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion M F. DOHERTY Separations, Thermodynamics Design J. M. DOUGLAS Process des ign and contro l, Reactor engineering V. HAENSEL Catalys is, K in etics M. P. HAROLD K inetics and Reactor Engineering R. L. LAURENCE' Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics M. F. MALONE Rheology, Po~mer processing, Design P.A. MONSON Statistical mechan i cs K. M. NG Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows J. M. OTTINO' Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering P R. WESTMORELAND Combustion, Plasma process in g H H WINTER' Po l ymer rheology and process ing, Heat transfer 8. E. YDSTIE Process control POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING J C W. CHIEN Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers Polymer degradation R. J. FARRIS Po~mer composites, Mechanical properties, Elastomers D. A. HOAGLAND' Hydrodynamic chromatography separations S. L. HSU Polymer spectroscopy Polymer structure analysis F. E. KARASZ Po l ymer trans i tions Polymer blends Conducting polymers R. W. LENZ' Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization W. J. MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers T. J. McCARTHY Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces M. MUTHUKUMAR Stat isti cal mechanics of polymer solut i ons gels, and melts R. S. PORTER Polymer rheology, Polymer processing R. S. STEIN Polymer crystalinity and morphology, Characterization D. A. TIRRELL Po~mer synthesis and membranes *Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering FALL 1989 303

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT FACULTY R.A. Brown Department H ead R.C. Armstrong R.F. Baddour J.M. Beer E D. Blankschtein H. Brenner R.E. Cohen C K Colton C.Cooney W.M. Deen L.B. Evans K.K. Gleason T.A Hatton J.B. Howard K.F. Jensen M. Kramer R.S. Langer E.W. Merrill C.M. Mohr A.F Sarofim C.N. Satterfield H.H. Sawin K.A. Smith G. Stephanopoulos G.N. Stephanopoulos M.F. Stephanopoulos J.W. Tester P.S Virk D.I.C Wang J Wei Photo by Cafoin Campbell RESEARCH AREAS Artificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Fluid Mechanics Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Microelectronic Materials Processing Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in Albany, New York the Dow Chemical Company in Midland Michigan Syntex in Boulder Colorado and the Chevron Research Company in Richmond California. For more i nformation contact: Chemical Engineering Headquarters 66 350 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA 02139 Phone : (617) 253 4561 ; FAX : (617) 253-9695

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Chemical Engineering at The University of Michigan 1 H. Scott Fogler, Chairman F l ow in p oro u s m e di a, mi croe l ec t ro ni cs p rocess in g 2. Stacy G. Bike Co ll o id s, tr a n s p o rt e l ec t ro kin e ti c ph e n o m e n a 3. Dale E. Briggs Coa l p rocesses 4. Brice Carnahan N um e ri ca l m e th o d s, p rocess s imul a ti o n 5. Rane L. Curl R a t e p rocesses, m a th e m a ti ca l m o d e lin g 6. Frank M. Donahue E l ectro c h e mi ca l e n g in ee r i n g 7 Erdogan Gulari Int e r fac i a l ph e n o m e n a, ca t a l ys i s, su r face scie n ce 8 Robert H. Kadlec Ecosys t e m s, p rocess d y n a mi cs 9. Costas Kravaris N o n-lin ea r pro cess co ntrol sys t e m id e ntifi ca ti o n 10 Jennifer J. Linderman E n g i n ee r i n g a pp roac h es t o ce ll bi o l ogy 11. Bernhard 0. Palsson Ce llul a r l;i i oeng in ee rin g 12. Tasos C. Papanastasiou F lu id m ec h a ni cs, rh eo l ogy, p o l y m ers 13 Phillip E. Savage R eac ti o n p a thw ays in co mpl ex sys t e m s 14. Johannes Schwank H e t e ro ge n eo u s ca t a l ys i s, s ur face sc i e n ce 15 Levi T. Thompson, Jr. Ca t a l ys i s, p rocess in g m a t e ri a l s in s p ace 16 Henry Y. Wang Bi o t ec hn o l ogy p rocesses, indu s tri a l b io l ogy 1 7. James 0. Wilkes N um e ri ca l m e th ods, p o l y m e r pr ocess in g 1 8. Gregory S. Y. Yeh C h a in co n fo rm a ti o n in p o l y m e r s 19 Robert M. Ziff Agg r ega ti o n p rocesses, s t a ti s ti ca l m ec h a ni cs For More Information, Contact: Prof B Ca rn a h a n G r a du a t e Pr og r a m A d v i so r D e p a rtm e nt o f C h e mi ca l E n g in ee rin g Th e Uni ve r s it y o f Mi c hi ga n Ann Arb o r MI 4 8 109 213 6 3 13 763114 8 2 4 5 8 9 1 2 13 1 6 1 7 3 6 10 1 4 1 8 Faculty 1989 7 11 t 1 5 19

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering offers Graduate Programs lead ing to M S and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. The faculty con duct fundamental and applied research in a variety of Chemical Engineer ing disciplines The Michigan Biotechnology Institute and the Center for Composite Materials and Structures provide a forum for interdisciplinary work in current high technology fields ASSISTANTSHIPS Teaching and research assistantships pay approximately $1000.00 per month to a student studying for the M S degree and approximately $1100.00 per month for a Ph.D. can didate plus all tuition and fees. FELLOWSHIPS Available appo i ntments pay up to $16,000 per year, plus all tuition and fees. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman Ph.D., 1960, Unive r sity of Washington Transport Phenomena, Diffusion in Polymer Solutions K. A. BERGLUND Ph.D., 1981, Iowa State University Condensation Processes from Solution, Food Engineering, Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Bioseparations D. M. BRIEDIS Ph.D., 1981, Iowa State University Biochemical Engineering, Ceramic Powder Processing C. M. COOPER, Professor Emeritus Sc.D., 1949, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of Trans port Processes L. T DRZAL Ph.D., 1974, Case Western Reserve University Surface and Int e rfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Composite Materials, Surface Characterization, Surface Modification of Polymers H. E. GRETHLEIN Ph.D., 1962, Princeton Univer si ty Biomass Conversion, 13io-Degration, Waste Treatment, Bio process Development, Distillation, Biochemical Engineering E.A.GRULKE Ph.D 1975, Ohio State University Mass Transport Phenomena, Polymer Devolatilization, Bio chemical Engineering, Food Engineering R.M WORDEN M.C. HAWLEY Ph.D., 1964, Michigan State University Kinetics, Catalysis, Reacions in Plasmas, Polymerization R e actions, Composite Processing, Biomass Conversion, Reac tion Engineering K. JAY ARA MAN Ph.D., 1975, Princeton University Polymer Rheolo gy, Melt Blending of Polymers, Two-Phase Flow in Polymer Processing, Applied Acoustics C. T. LIRA Ph.D., 1985, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria of Complex Systems, Supercritical Fluid Studies D.J.MILLER Ph D. 1982 University of Florida Kinetics and Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Carbon Gasification, Catalytic Conversion of Biomass-Derived Compounds CA.PETTY Ph D., 1970, University of Florida Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena, Solid Fluid and Liquid-Liquid Separations, Polymer Composite Processing B. W. WILKINSON, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., 1958, Ohio State University Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Reactor Radioisotope Applications Ph.D., 1986 University of Tennessee Biochemical Engineering, Immobilized Cell Technology, Bioreactor Dynamics and Control ------------FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE-----------Coordinator of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering, A202 Engineering Building Michigan State University East Lansing Michigan 48824-1226 MSU is an Affirmative Action I Equal Opportunity Institution

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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Chemical Engineering Materials Science Program Program I Polymer Science I I Polymer Processes Process Control Physical Metallurgy Synthesis, Design Mechanical Metallurgy I Fluid Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Thermodynamics of Solids Heat and Mass Transfer Transport Diffusion and Kinetics Statistical Mechanics Rheology I Reaction Engineering Electrochemical Corrosion Kinetics Processes Materials Failure I Heterogeneous Catalysis Surface Science Microelectronic Materials Catalyst Design Microelectronics Metal/Semiconductor New Catalyst Materials Preparation Processes Interfaces, Thin Films Surface Reaction Kinetics Polymer Films Magnetic Materials I Colloid and Interface Science Sols, Gels Surfactancy Suspension Processing Ceramics Capillary Hydrodynamics Porous Media Science lnterfacial Cohesion Adhesion and Surface Forces Sol-Gel Films Fracture Micromechanics Coating Flows Ceramic Microstructures I I Bioengineering Biochemical, Biomedical The Faculty R. Aris A.G. Fredrickson F.S Bates C J. Geankoplis R.W. Carr, Jr W W Gerberich J R Chelikowsky W S Hu E L. Gussler K.H. Keller J S. Dah l er C.W Macosko H.T. Davis J L Martins J.J Derby A.V. McCormick D F Evans M.L. Macartney A Franciosi W.E Ranz L.D Schmidt L.E Scriven D.A. Shores J M Sivertsen W.H Smyrl F. Srienc M Tirrell R.T. Tranquillo J.H Weaver H.S White Biomedical Dental Materials Artifical Organ Materials Materials For information and application forms, write: Graduate Admissions Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Minnesota 421 Washington Ave S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455

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Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado) Computer aided Process Design, Bioconversion 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice) Transport Properties, Kinetics, Catalysis M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida) Biochemical Studies, Biomass Utilization J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D. Missouri) Electrode Reactions, Corrosion A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D.,ETH-Zurich) Adsorption Freeze Drying Modeling, Optimization, Reactor Design J. M. D. MAC ELROY (Ph.D., University College Dublin) Transport Phenomena, Hetero geneous Catalysis, Drying, Statistical Mechan ics D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas) Thermody namics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium N. C. MOROSOFF (Ph.D., Brooklyn Tech) Plasma Polymerization, Membranes P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon) lnterfa cial Phenomena B. E. POLING (Ph.D., Illinois) Kinetics, Energy Storage Catalysis X B REED, JR (Ph.D., Minnesota) Fluid Mechanics, Drop Mechanics Coalescence Phenom ena Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla) Bio engineering R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Multistage Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Extraction, Process Control R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue) Rheology of Polymer Solutions, Chem ical Reaction Kinetics Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. 308 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Advanced studies at NJIT Chen,ical Engineering, Chen,istry and Environn,ental Science One out of four engineers in New Jersey is a graduate of New Jersey Institute of Technology NJIT offers : Master of Science degrees in Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science ; Master of Science with a concentration in Chemistry ; Doctor of Engineering Science degree in Chemical Engineering NJIT is the site of two national centers devoted to research in hazardous waste treatment: the Hazardous Substance Management Research Center sponsored by the National Science Foundation the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology the U.S. Army, and 30 major corporations; and the Northeast Hazardous Substance Research Center sponsored by the U S. Environmental Protection Agency NJIT is also affiliated with the Advanced Technology Center for Surface Engineered Materials sponsored by the State of New Jersey Chemical engineering, chemistry and environmental science research funding totals $2 2 million dollars annually Financial support in the form of grants and teaching and research assistantships is available to qualified full-time graduate students New Jersey Institute of Technology is a comprehensive technological university with approximately 7 700 students nearly one third of whom are enrolled in graduate studies in Newark College of Engineering, the College of Science and Liberal Arts, the School of Architecture and the School of Industrial Management. NJIT is located in the University Heights section of Newark New Jersey the hub of the thriving industrial northeast corridor, and just a 20 minute train ride from New York City. Faculty Research Areas Biogradation of hazardous wastes Mathematical modelling of microbial systems Molecular modellingof drug / receptor and enzyme / substrate interactions Biochemical and biomedical processes Multiphase mixing phenomena Control of air pollutants Gas phase reaction kinetics Air pollution analysis Treatment of solid wastes Computer modelling of chemical processes Solid state and superconducting materials Plastics processing Thermodynamic modelling Structural organic chemistry Transport phenomena Supercritical extraction Photochemical oxidation of hazardous wastes We invite you to explore advanced academic studies at NJIT For further program information contact: Department of Chemical Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Science (201) 596-3568 For admissions information contact: Graduate Division New Jersey Institute of Technology University Heights Newark New Jersey 07102 (201) 596-3460 NJIT do es not di sc riminate on the basi s of sex r ace co lor, h a ndi ca p n a ti o nal or ethnic origin or age i n th e a dmin is trat ion of stude nt program s

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The University of New Mexico RESEARCHAREAs Superconducting ceramics Microelectronics process technology Heterogeneous catalysis Laser-enhanced CVD Sol-gel and colloidal processing of ceramics Biomedical engineering Plasma science Surface science Aerosol physics Materials characterization FACULTY H Anderson AK Datye D. Kauffman T.T.Kodas RW Mead H.E Nuttall D. M. Smith E. S. Wilkins F. L. Williams (chairman) The University of New Mexico along with Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and local industry, make Albuquerque a major scientific and research center. The chemical engin e ering department houses the NSF-supported Center for Micro-Engineered Ceramics and participates in the SEMATECH Center of excellence in semiconductor research. The Chemical Engineering Department offers financial aid in the form of research assistantships paying $10-12 000 per year, plus tuition. Outstanding students may apply for UNM / National Laboratory fellowships that start at $15,000 / year and involve cooperative research at the national laboratories Albuquerque's southwestern climate and rugg e d mountainous terrain provide plenty of opportunities for outdoor recreation such as skiing, hiking and whit e water raftin g A Pla c e in Your Futur e For more information write to : Prof. Abhaya Datye Department of Chemical and N uclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 Ruben Carbonell ( Princeton) Rey Chern ( NCSU ) Peter S. Fedkiw (Ber k eley) Richard M. Felder ( Princ e ton ) James K. Ferrell ( NCSU ) Benny D. Freeman ( B e rk e l ey) Christine S. Grant ( G e orgia T ech) Carol K. Hall (Sto ny Brook ) Harold B. Hopfenberg ( MIT) Peter K. Kilpatrick ( Minnesota ) H. Henry Lamb ( D e law are) P.K.Lim ( Illinois ) David F. Ollis ( Stanford ) Michael R. Overcash ( Minnesota ) Steven W. Peretti (Ca ltech ) George W. Roberts, Head ( MIT ) C. John Setzer, Ass't Head ( Ohio Stat e) Edward P. Stahel ( Ohio St ate) Vivian T. Stannett (Broo klyn Poly) Hubert Winston (NCSU) FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS Multi-Phase Transport Phenomena; Bioseparations Structure-Property Relations of Polymers; Membrane Separations Electrochemical Engineering Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Specialty Chemicals; Process Simulation and Optimization Heat Transfer; Process Control; Coal Gasification Polymer Physical Chemistry Electrokinetic Separations; Surface Science ; Particle Technology Statistical Thermodynamics; Bioseparations; Semiconductor Interfaces Transport in Polymers; Controlled Membrane Separations Interfacial and Surfactant Science; Bioseparations Heterogeneous Catalysis; Surface Science Int erfacial Phenomena; Homogeneous Catalysis; Free Radical Chemistry Biochemical Engineering; Heterogeneous Photocatal ysis Improving Manufacturing Productivity by Waste Reduction; Environment Gen etic and Metabolic Engineering; Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Culture Het erogeneous Catalysis; Reaction Kinetics; Reactor Engineering: Gas Separations Plant and Process Economics and Management Chemical and Polyme r Reaction Engineering Pure and Applied Polymer Scienc e Chemical Process Control; Oil Fi e ld R ese rvoir D y nami cs Inquiries to: Prof. Carol K. Hall, Director of Graduate Studies, (919) 737-3571 FALL 1989 311

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Chen1ical Engineering at Northwestern University S. George Bankoff Two-phase heat transfer, fluid mechanics John B Butt Chemical reaction engineering Stephen H. Carr Solid state properties of polymers Buckley Crist, Jr. Polymer science Joshua S Dranoff Chemical reaction engineering, chromatographic separations Thomas K. Goldstick Biomedical engineering, oxygen transport in the human body Iftekhar Karimi Computer-aided design, scheduling of noncontinuous processes Harold H. Kung Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis Richard S. H. Mah Computer-aided process planning, design and analysis William M Miller Biochemical engineering E. Terry Papoutsakis Biochemical engineering Mark A. Petrich Electronic materials, applications of solid state NMR Gregory Ryskin Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquids Wolfgang M. H. Sachtler Heterogeneous catalysis John M Torkelson Polymer science M Grae Worster Fluid mechanics, convective heat and mass transfer 312 For information and application to the graduate program, write John M Torkelson Director of Graduate Admissions Departm ent of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60208 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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at Notre Dame The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master's degree are normally completed in twelve to fourteen months. The doctoral program requires about four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. These programs can usually be tailored to accommodate students whose undergraduate degrees are in areas of science or engineering other than chemical engineering. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships, which include a full tuition waiver, are available to students pursuing either program. For further information, write to: Dr. M. J. McCready FACULTY J. T. Banchero J. F. Brennecke J. J. Carberry H. -C. Chang J.C. Kantor J.P. Kohn D. T. Leighton, Jr. M. J. McCready R. A. Schmitz W. C. Strieder A. Varma F. H. Verhoff E. E. Wolf RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Ceramic Materials Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Surface Science Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas-liquid Flows Nonlinear Dynamics Phase Equilibria Process Dynamics and Control Statistical Mechanics Suspension Rheology Thermodynamics and Separations Transport Phenomena Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 ;;;;mt

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T H E OHIO UNIVERSITY Relevant Graduate Education Excellence in Research Close Relationships Between Graduate Students and Their Faculty Advisors GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W HY should you consider Ohio State for graduate study in chemical engineering? Some of the facts that may influence your decision are that we have a unique, high quality combination of research projects facilit ies, faculty and student body all situated in pleasant surroundings We can provide a stimulating, productive and worthwhile means for you to further your education Financial support is available ranging from $8 500 to $15,000 annually plus tuition We would be glad to provide you with complete in format ion reg ar ding our programs including potential thesis topics and degree requirements. Please write or call collect : Professor Jacques L. Zakin, Chairperson Department of Chemical Engineering, The Ohio State University 140 W. 19th Avenue, Colum bus, Ohio 43210 1180 (614) 292-6986. Robert S Brodkey, Wisconsin 1952 Turbulence, Mixing Image Analysis Reactor Design and Rheology Jeffery J. Chalmers, Cornell 1988 Biochemical Engineering, Protein Excre tion and Production and Immobilized Cell Reactor Design James F. Davis, Northwestern 1982 Artificial Intelligence Computer Aided Design and Process Control L.S. Fan, West Virginia 1975 Fluidization, Chemical & Biochemical Reac tio n Engineering, and Mathematical Modeling Morton H. Friedman, Michigan 1961, Biomedical Engineering, and Hemody namics Edwin R. Haering, Ohio State 1966 Reaction Engineering Catalysis and Adsorption Harry C. Hershey, Missouri-Rolla 1965 Thermodynamics and Drag Reduc tion Kent S. Knaebel, Delaware 1980 Mass Transfer S e parations Computer Aided Design and Power Conversion Cycles L. James Lee, Minnesota 1979 Polymer Processing Polymerization and Rheology Won-Kyoo Lee, Missouri Columbia 1972 Process Control Computer Con trol, and Computer Aided Design Umit Ozkan, Iowa State 1984 Heterogeneous Catalysis and Reaction Kinet ics Duane R. Skidmore, Fordham 1960 Coal Processing and Biochem ical Engineering Thomas L. Sweeney, Case 1962 Air Pollution Control Heat Transfer and Legal Aspects of Engineering Shang-Tian Yang, Purdue 1984 Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnol ogy, Fermentation Processes, and Kinetics Jacques L. Zak in, New York 1959 Drag Reduction, Rheology, and Emulsions The Ohio State University is an equal opportunity / affirmative action institution

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Ohio University Chemical Engineering Research Areas Coal Utilization Technologies Polymerization Reaction Engineering Fine Particle Technology Separation Processes Process Control and Simulation Corrosion Environmental Assessment For further information: Graduate Study Programs leading to both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are offered The department Is housed within the College of Engineering and Technology where programs are enhanced by an endowment In excess of$ l 2 million specifically designated for engineering research and graduate education. Interest on this endowment Is used to help support research efforts by providing matching equipment funds. competitive graduate fellowships and assoclateships, and seed money for new project areas Additional research support comes from a wide range of Internal and external sources. The department fosters a strong Industrial orientation, with most of the faculty members possessing significant Industrial experience. Coursework and research activities span a broad range of approaches and subjects from applied to theoretical Facilities The Stocker Engineering Center, opened In I 985, features state-of-the art research equipment and computer facilities. Computer equipment Includes several PC laboratories, workstations, a$! million CAD / CAM system, and access to the Ohio University mainframes and the Ohio supercomputer. Laboratories classrooms. and offices are mod e m and comfortable Financial Aid Financial support includes teaching and research assoclateshlps and fellowships ranging from $5,500 to S 12,000 for nine months In addition students are granted a full tuition scholarship (except for a$ 15 I general fee per quarter) Additional summer support also Is available. Ohio University Is an aflinnatlve action Institution Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering, I 72 Stocker Center, Ohio University. Athens Ohio 45701-2979 4049 89

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316 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Areas Of Research Interest: SURFACTANTS CORROSION THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING STATISTICAL MECHANICS SYNTHETIC FUELS REACTION ENGINEERING METALLURGY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY ULTRATHIN FILMS NOVEL SEPARATION PROCESSES POLYMER PROCESSING STIPENDS TO: $1250 / MO. For the application materials and further information write to Graduate Program Coordinator School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Oklahoma 100 East Boyd Norman, Oklahoma 73019 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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KLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY i t,. ... Where People Are Important _;~~ 1 ~ ... .... ... ,n~ I r ~ ... f r ._ ~: .. .,:/ JJ. I -. ~ -t 3 L '. ~ .. _.,. .,. ~ 8 R.C. Erbar Adsorption Aerosol Science Air Pollution Biochemical Processes Catalysis Design Equations of State M M Johnson Fluid Flow Gas Processing Ground Water Quality Hazardous Wastes Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics R L. Robinson Jr. Address inquiries to: Robert L. Robinson, Jr. Mass Transfer Modeling Phase Equilibria Process Simulation Separations Thermodynamics M S e apan J Wagner School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater OK 7407R

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University of Pennsylvania Chemical Engineering Stuart W. Churchill Combustion, thermoacoustic convection, rate processes Gregory C. Farrington Electrochemistry, solid state and polymer chemistry, catalysis William C. Forsman Polymer science and engineering, graphite intercalation Eduardo D. Glandt Classical and statistical thermodynamics, random media Raymond J. Go rte Heterogeneous catalysis, surface science, zeolites David J. Graves Biochemical and biomedical engineering, bioseparations Douglas A. Lauffenburger Biomedical/biochemical engineering, mathematical modeling Mitchell Litt Biorheology, transport systems, biomedical engineering Alan L. Myers Adsorption of gases and liquids, thermodynamics of electrolytes Daniel D. Perlmutter Chemical reactor design superconducting composites John A. Quinn Membrane transport, biochemical/ biomedical engineering Warren D. Seider Process analysis, simulation, design and control Lyle H. Ungar Crystal growth, artificial intelligence in process control T. Kyle Vanderlick Thin-film and interfacial phenomena John M Vohs Metal oxide surface chemistry Paul B Weisz Molecular selectivity in chemical and life processes Pennsylvania 's chemical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the department. The full resources of this Ivy league university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University. For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering 3 llA Towne Building University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6393

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FACULTY PAUL BARTON (Penn State) ALI BORHAN (Stanford) ALFRED CARLSON (Wisconsin) WAYNE CURTIS (Purdue) RONALD P. DANNER (Lehigh) THOMAS E. DAUBERT (Penn State) J. LARRY DUDA (Delaware) ALFRED J. ENGEL (Wisconsin) JOHN A. FRANGOS (Rice) FRIEDRICH G. HELFFERICH (Gottingen) ROBERT L. KABEL (Washington) RICHARD D. LaROCHE (Illinois) JOHN R. MCWHIRTER (Penn State) R. NAGARAJAN (SUNY Buffalo) JONATHAN PHILLIPS (Wisconsin) JOHN M. TARBELL (Delaware) JAMES S. ULTMAN (Delaware) M. ALBERT VANNICE (Stanford) JAMES S. VRENTAS (Delaware) For application forms and further information, write to Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering 158 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Individuals holding the 8 .5. in Chemi st ry or other related areas are encouraged to apply. FALL 1989 We've Made Our Choice! PENN STATE APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS API Technical Data Book Petroleum Refining AIChE-DIPPR Data Prediction Manual Equation of State Models Phase Equilibria in Mixtures Crit i cal Property Vapor Pressure Measurements Polymer Solution Thermodynamics BIOMEDICAL ENGINEER/NG Flow and Mix in g in Lung A i rways Cardiovascular Flu i d Dynamics Thermal Regulation of Newborn Infants Transport Phenomena on Arterial Wall Effect of Hydrodynamic Forces on Mammalian Cells Signal Transduction in Mammalian Cells BIOTECHNOLOGY Aff inity Based Purification Processes Protein-Separation Media Interaction and Modeling Growth of Recombinant Microorgan is ms Mutation Kinetics and Plasmid Stabil ity Molecular Biology of Shear Stress Act i vation of Cells Biochem i cal Ox i dation Technology CATALYSIS AND SURFACE PHENOMENA Metal-Support Interactions CO/Hydrogen Synthesis Reactions Sulfur Poisoning of Catalysts Carbon-Supported Metal Cluster Catalysts Noble Metal Reconstruct i on Characterization of Iron-Carbon Catalysts Thermodynamics and Kinet i cs of Adsorption M i crocalorimetric Studies Catalytic Etching of Metals POLYMERS AND COLLOIDS D iff usion in Polymers Rheology and Flow Behavior Micelles Vesic l es Microemu l sions Applications of Organ i zed Molecular Assemblies Polymer Microencapsulation Technology TRIBOLOGY Lubricant Rheology Tribology at Elevated Temperatures Ox id ation of Lubricants Vapor Deposited Lubricants Tribology and Lubrication of Ceramics OTHER AREAS Mixing and Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flows Analys i s of Free Convection Perturbation Approach to Moving Boundary Problems Laminar Flow in Complex Systems Multicomponent Ionic Transport Propagation Phenomena in Mult ic omponent Systems Application of Advanced Computer Architecture Scaleup of Chemical Processes Simultaneous Modular Process Design 319

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g University of TEPRC)c-R)~ MS in Chemical Engineering MS in Petroleum Engineering Dual MS in Chemical/Petroleum Engineering PhD in Chemical Engineering SCHOOLOF Pittsburgh RESEARCHARE.AS Catalysis Bioengineering Surface Chemistry Reactor Engineering lnterphase T ransport Particulate Systems Thermodynamics Supercritical Extractions Gas Hydrates Reservoir Mechanics Secondary Oil Recovery FACULTY Mohammed M. Ataai Eric J Beckman Donna G. Blackmond Alan J. Brainard Shiao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb, Jr. Robert M. Enick James G Goodwin, Jr. Gerald D. Holder George E. Klinzing Joseph H Magill George Marcelin Badie I. Morsi Albert J. Post Alan A. Reznik Alan J. Russell Jerome S Schultz John W Tierney I rving Wender FOR MORE INFORMATION Graduate Coordinator Chemical / Petroleum Engineering University of Pittsburgh School of Engineering Pittsburgh PA 15261 ENGINEERING

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RESEARCH AREAS Composite Materials Computer Aided Process Design Engineering Properties of Polymers Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Plasma and Thin Films Polymer Processing Polymer Morphology Polymer Synthesis and Modification Rheology Separation Sciences Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Programs lead to Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees. Fellowships and research assistantships are available. ,J .. < < ... "'.. .. ,. f<''') ... :., .. For further Information, please contact: Professor A.S. Myerson Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic University 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, NY 11201 Polytechnic University is the nation's second oldest technological university A private, coeducational university founded In 1854, it was known as Brooklyn Poly until 1973 when It merged with New York University s School of Engineering and Science to create Polytechnic Institute of New York. In 1985, its name was changed to Polytechnic University reflecting its position as one of the major technological universities In the New York metropolitan region

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emann R N Houze D. P Kessler J F Pekny N A. P p~a Ramkrishna G.V Reklaitis J H Seo enkatasubramanian N H L Wang P C Wankat J

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University of Queensland POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships Available Return Airfare Included STAFF P. R BELL (N S.W.) J. N. BELTRAMINI (Santa Fe) I. T. CAMERON (Impertal College) D. D. DO (Queensland) P. F. GREENFIELD (N.S.W.) M. JOHNS (Massey) P. L. LEE (Monash) J. D. LITSTER (Queensland) M. E. MACKAY (Illinois) D. A. MITCHELL (Queensland) R. B. NEWELL (Alberta) D. J. NICKLIN (Cambridge) S. REID (Griffith) V. RUDOLPH (Natal) B. R STANMORE (Manchester) E. T. WHITE (Impertal College) R J. WILES (Queensland) ADJUNCT STAFF D. BARNES (Birmingham) J M. BURGESS (Edinburgh) J E. HENDRY (Wisconsin) L. S. LEUNG (Cambrtdge) G. W. PACE (MI11 D. H. RANDERSON (N.S.W.) THE DEPARTMENT --~ I I -------RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Polymer Processing Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Environmental Systems Modeling Particle Mechanics Process Simulation Fermentation Systems Tissue Culture Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics Mineral Processing Adsorption Membrane Processes Hybridoma Technology Numerical Analysis Larg e Scale Chromatography The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an extensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M. Eng. Stud : es, M. Eng Science, M. Sci. Studies, M Agr. Studies, and Ph.D. degrees THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY The University is one of the largest in Australia, with more than 18,000 students. Brisbane, with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef. For further infonnation write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. 4067, AUSTRALIA

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Ph.D. and M.S. Programs in Chemical Engineering Advanced Study and Research Areas Advanced materials Air pollution control Biochemical engineering Bioseparations Fluid-particle systems Heat transfer High temperature kinetics Interfacial phenomena Microelectronics manufacturing Multiphase flow Polymer reaction engineering Process control and design Separation engineering Simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction Thermodynamics Transport Processes For full details write Dr. P.K. Lashmet, Executive Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 The Faculty Michael M. Abbott Ph.D., Rensselaer Elmar R. Altwicker Ph.D., Ohio State Georges Belfort Ph.D., California-Irvine B. Wayne Bequette Ph.D., Texas-Austin Henry R. Bungay III Ph.D., Syracuse Chan I. Chung Ph.D., Rutgers Steven M. Cramer Ph.D., Yale Arthur Fontijn D.Sc., Amsterdam William N. Gill Ph.D., Syracuse Richard T. Lahey, Jr. Ph.D., Stanford Peter K. Lashmet Ph.D., Delaware Howard Littman Ph.D. Yale Morris H. Morgan III Ph.D., Rensselaer Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D., Wisconsin E. Bruce Nauman Ph.D., Leeds Joel L. Plawsky D.Sc., M.I.T. Sanford S. Stemstein Ph.D., Rensselaer Hendrick C. Van Ness D.Eng., Yale Peter C. Wayner, Jr. Ph.D., Northwestern Robert H. Wentorf, Jr. Ph.D., Wisconsin

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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering APPLICATIONS AND INQUIRIES Chairman Graduate Committee D e partment of Chemical Engineering PO Box 1892 R i ce Univers i ty Houston TX 77251 FACULTY William W. Akers (Michigan 1950) THE UNIVERSITY Privately endowed coeducational school 2600 undergraduate students 1 300 graduate students Qu ie t and beaut i ful 300-acre t r eesha ded campu s 3 miles from downtown Hou s ton THE DEPARTMENT M ChE ., M.S ., and Ph.D. degrees Architec t ura ll y un i form and aesthetic campus THE CITY Large metropol i tan and cultural center Petrochem i cal capital of the world Industrial collaboration and job opportun i t i es World renowned research and treatment medical center Professional sports Close to recreational areas Approximately 65 graduate students (predominantly Ph D ) St i pends and tu i tion waivers for full-time students Special fellowships with higher st i pends for outstanding candidates RESEARCH INTERE S T S Constantine D. Armeniades (Case Western Reserve 1969) Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Sam H. Davis, Jr. (MIT, 1957) Derek C Dyson (London, 1966) Michael W Glacken (MIT, 1987) J David Hellums (Michigan 1961) Joe W. Hightower (Johns Hopkins 1963) Riki Kobayashi (Michigan 1951) Larry V McIntire (Princeton 1970) Clarence A Miller (Minnesota 1969) Mark A Robert (Swiss Fed Inst of Technology, 1980) Ka-Yiu San (Ca/Tech 1984) Jacqueline Shanks (Ca/Tech 1989) Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota 1981) Biomedical Engineering Equilibrium Thermodynamic Properties Fluid Mechanics lnterfac i al Phenomena Kinetics and Catalysis Polymer Science Process Control Reaction Engineering Rheology Transport Processes Transport Properties F A L L 19 8 9 3 2 5

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Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY of ROCHESTER JO/NUS Graduat.e Study and Research leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Fellowships to $14,000 Summer Research Program available for ent.ering students For further ilfonnation and appication, wrltl Profe&K>r John C. Friedly, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Universicy, of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627 Phone: (716) 275-4042 Faculty and Research Areas S. H. CHEN, Ph D. 1981, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Transport Phenomena Optical Materials E. H. CIDMOWITZ, Ph.D. 1982 Connecticut Computer-Aided Design Super-Critical Extraction, Control M. R. FEINBERG, Ph.D 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems, Applied Mathematics J. R. FERRON, Ph.D. 1958, Wiscons i n Molecular Transport Processes, Applied Math e matic s J.C. FRIEDLY, Ph D 1965 California ( Berk e ley ) Process Dynamics, Control, Heat Transfer R.H. HEIST, Ph.D. 1972, Purdue Nucleation, Solid State, Ultrafine Particles S. A. JENEKHE, Ph.D. 1985, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Electronic and Optical Materials, Chemical Sensors 326 J. JORNE, Ph.D 1972, California ( Berkeley) Electrochemical Engine e ring Microelectronic Processing, Theoretical Biology R.H. NOTTER, Ph.D. 1969 Washington ( Seattle ) M.D 1980, Rochester Biomedical Engineering, Lung Dis e ase and To x icology, Aero s ol s H.J. PALMER, Ph.D. 1971, Washington (Seattle ) Interfacial Ph e nomena, Mass Transfer, Bioengineering H. SALTSBURG, Ph.D. 1955 Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering S. V. SOTIRCHOS, Ph.D. 1982 Houston Reaction Engineering Combustion and Gasification of Coal, Gas-Solid Reactions J H. D. WU, Ph.D 1987, M.I.T Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation, Biocatalysis, and Industrial Microbiology C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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~(\~ RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AND CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS e THERMODYNAMICS e TRANSPORT PHENOMENA e KINETICS AND CATALYSIS e CONTROL THEORY e COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION e POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY e SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS e MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS e SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED BIOCATALYSIS e BIOMATERIALS e ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS e HYBRIDOMA PLANT AND INSECT CELL CULTURE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS e BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY e CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING EXPERT SYSTEMS / Al e MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE TREATMENT FOOD PROCESSING ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND REUSE GENETIC ENGINEERING STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS INCINERATION & RESOURCE RECOVERY MICROBIAL DETOXIFICATION PROTEIN ENGINEERING TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS SOURCE CONTROL AND RECYCLING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE FALL 1989 F or Application Forms and Further Information Write To: Director of Graduate Program Dept of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Rutgers The State University of New Jersey P.O Box 909 Piscataway, NJ 08855-0909 327

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University of Faculty M.W. Davis, Jr. F.A Gadala-M a ria J .H. Gibbons E.L. Hanzevack, Jr. F.P. Pike R.L. Smith, Jr. T.G. Stanford V.Van Brunt J W Van Z ee South Carolina Explore the new directions of Chemical Engineering Research topics include multiphase flow composite materials supercritical phenomena sol-gel processing, batch polymerization control, electrochemical systems, and extraction chemistry The Un i versity of South Carolina with an enrollment of 26 435 on its Columbia campus, is a comprehensive research university Columbia has an excellent climate and offers a variety of cultural and recreational activit ies. for further information contact: PROFESSOR J.H. GIBBONS Chairman, Chemical E ng ineering SWEARINGEN E NGINEERING CENT ER THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA COLUMBIA SOUTH CAROLINA 29208 ...... ... ..... ~::~~*=== ... ~~-= = ~--.. ;~:::::~ .... .. .. . ...... .

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STE V E N s INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Faculty J. A. Biesenberger (PhD, Princeton U.) G. B. Delancey (PhD, Pittsburgh U.) C. G. Gogos (PhD, Princeton U.) R. Griskey (PhD, Carnegie Inst. Tech.) D. M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill U.) S. Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens) D. H. Sebastian (PhD, Stevens) H. Silla (PhD, Stevens) K. K. Sirkar (PhD, Illinois U.) C. Tsenoglou (PhD, Northwestern U.) Research in Membrane Technology Separation Processes Biochemical Reaction Engineering Polymer Reaction Engineering Polymer Rheology and Processing Polymer Characterization Catalysis Physical Property Estimation Process Design and Development Beautiful campus on the Hudson River overlooking metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and culture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concentration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum and pharmaceutical companies Excellent facilities and instrumentation Close collaboration with other disciplines especially chemistry and biology One of the leaders in chemical engineering computing GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. For application, contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5234 For additional information, contact: Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5546 Financial Aid is Available to qualified students. Stevens Institute of Te c hnolog y does not dis c riminate against any person because of race c reed color national o rigin sex age marita l status, handicap liability for serv ice in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran.

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FACULTY Allen J. Barduhn (emeritus) John C. Heydweiller Cynthia S. Hirtz.el George C. Martin Philip A Rice (chairman) Ashok S. Sangani Klmts Schroder JamesA Schwarz S. Akxander Stern, Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien for information: Dr. George C. Martin Dept of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 320 Hinds Hall Syracuse University Syracuse, NY 13244 (315) 443-2559 o .: ,,h'~ \ ~. \ !:)~\\. .. ,. /'. ;(' \~. ..... '....... -. -~_/;::-"~ .; ~, ,,/ I \ ~\ / \ \ i,;)~t l I 0 /\ C / ) -=: :-::/ Kleine Welten (Small Worlds) VII, Wass i ly Kandinsky c 1922 Syracuse Un i versity Art Collect i on Syracuse University

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THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY AT KNOXVILLE AND OAK RIDGE P R. Bienkowski Bioprocessing, Thermodynamics D.C. Bogue Polymers, Rheology D.D. Bruns Process Control, Modeling C.H. Byers 1 Separations & Transport E S Clark Polymers H.D Cochran 1 Thermodynamics R.M. Counce Separations & Transport B.H. Davison 1 Bioprocessing T.L. Donaldson 1 Bioprocessing J F Fellers Polymers G.C. Frazier Bioprocessing, Kinetics MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING Center for Environmental Biotechnology Bioprocess Research Facility at ORNL PROCESS CONTROL Measurement and Control Engineering Center POLYMER PROCESSING Center for Materials Processing SEPARATIONS AND TRANSPORT M.G. Hansen Rheology Polymers and Composites H.W Hsu Bioprocessing Transport C.F. Moore Process Control J.J. Perona (Head) Separations & Transport C D. Scott 1 Bioprocessing Separations T.C. Scott 1 Bioprocessing, Separations C O Thomas Computer-aided Design, Economics T.W. Wang Process Control Bioprocessing J .S. Watson 1 Separations & Transport, Nuclear Fusion F.E Weber Computer-aided Design, Radiation Chemistry 1 Adjunct Faculty at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), 20 miles from the main campus at Knoxville WRITE TO: DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE KNOXVILLE, TN 37996-2200

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Chemical Engin ee ring at Texas Inquiri es s hould b e sen t t o : Gra du a t e Advise r D e partm e nt o f C hemical E n gi n ee rin g Th e U ni versity o f T exas A u s tin Te xas 787 1 2 ( 51 2) 471-699 1 Research Interests Aerosol Physics & Chemistry Aqueous Mass Transfer Barrier Packaging Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering Biomaterials Biosensors Catalysis Chemical Engineering Education Chemical Reaction Kinetics Chemical Vapor Deposition Colloid & Surface Science Combustion Crystal Structure & Properties Crystallization Distillation Electrochemis t ry Electronic and Optical Materials Enhanced Oil Recovery Expert Systems Fault Detection & Diagnosis Heat Transfer Laser Pro c essing Liqu i d Crystall in e Polymers Materials Science Membrane Science Microelectronics Processing Optimization Plasma Processing Polymer B l ends Polymer Process i ng Polymer Thermodynamics Process Dynamics & Control Process Modelling & Simulation Protein & Fermentation Engineering Reaction Injection Molding Separation Processes Stack Gas Desulfurization Statistical Thermodynamics Superconductivity Supercritical Fluid Science Thermodynamics Faculty Joel W Bar l ow Wisconsin James R. Bro ck Wisconsin Thomas F Edgar Princeton John G Ekerdt Berkeley James R Fair Texas George Georgiou Cornell Adam Heller Hebrew (Jerusalem) David M Himmelblau Washington Jeffrey A. Hu b bell Rice Keith P Johnston Illino i s William J Koros Texas Douglas R. Ll oyd Wate rl oo John J M cKetta Michig a n Donald R Paul W i sco ns i n Robert P Popovic h W as h i ng t o n llya Pr i gog i ne Brussels Howard F Rase Wiscons i n James B Rawlings Wisconsin Gary T. Rochelle Berkeley Isaac C Sanche z Delaw a re Robert S S c h ec hte r Minnesota Hugo Stein fi nk P o lytechn i c Un i ver si ty James E S ti ce Illino i s Inst. Technology Isaac Trachtenberg Louisiana State Eugene H W is sler Minnesota

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The University of Toledo Graduate study toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships available. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Gary F. Bennett, Ph.D University of Michi gan. Professor; Environmental Pollution Control Biochemical Engineering Kenneth J. De Witt, Ph.D ., Northwestern University. Professor ; Transport Phenomena Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Methods Ronald L. Fournier, Ph.D. University of Toledo. Associate Professor; Transport Phe nomena, Thermodynamics Mathematical Mod eling and Biotechnology Saleh Jabarin, Ph.D ., University of Mass achusetts; Physical Properties of Polymers Poly mer Orientation and Crystallization Millard L. Jones, Jr., Ph.D ., University of Michigan, Professor; Process Dynamics and Con trol, Mathematical Modeling and Heat Transfer James W. Lacksonen, Ph D ., Ohio State University Professor ; Chemical Reaction Kinetics Reactor Design, Pulp and Paper Engineering Steven E. LeBlanc, Ph.D., University of Michigan. Associate Professor; Dissolution Ki netics, Surface and Colloid Phenomena, Con trolled Release Technology Stephen L. Rosen, Chairman Ph.D ., Cor nell University Professor ; Polymeric Materials, Polymerization Kinetics, Rheology Sasidhar Varanasi, PhD State University of New York at Buffalo Associate Professor ; Colloidal and lnterfacial Phenomena, Enzyme Kinetics, Membrane Transport For Details Contact: Dr. L. E Laht i, Interim Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (419) 537 2639 EN 179 387 1 Regarded as one of the nation's most attractive campuses, The University of Toledo is located in a beautiful residential area of the city approximately seven miles from downtown. The University s main campus occupies more than 200 acres with 40 major build ings. A member of the state university system of Ohio since July 1967, The University of Toledo observed its 100th anniversary as one of the country's major universities in 1972.

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88 YEARS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering RESEARCH AREAS F~~f f ]li~~s j .,,,.... .... ,., .-. :'.:':' ~: :: :-: :: : : CRYSTALLIZATION MEMBRANE PROCESSES CHROMATOGRAPHY FACILITATED TRANSPORT OPTIMIZATION HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS ELECTROCATALYTIC PROCESSES THERMODYNAMICS STABILITY OF SUSPENSIONS COAL SLURRIES COMPOSITE MATERIALS POLYMER AND FIBER SCIENCE CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF HIGH TECH CERAMICS PLASMA POLYMERIZATION OF THIN FILMS BIOCHEMICAL :::: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND BIOMEDICAL ... ~~~:~::~'.~: ... I FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY MAMMALIAN CELL BIOREACTORS RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY BIOSEPARATIONS SOLID WASTE PROCESS ENGINEERING BIOLOGICAL WASTE DEGRADATION FACULTY GREGORY D BOTSARIS Ph D M.I T 1965 ELIANA R. DEBERNARDEZ-CLARK Ph D U.N.L. (Argentina) 1984 A small (4500 students) prestigious private University in Metropolitan Boston Graduate students have close and immediate access to faculty; to the Tufts Biotechnology Engineering Center and the Laboratory for Materials and Interfaces; to the country's foremost med i cal centers ; and of course to the cultural, social, recreational e x citement of Boston Cape Cod, and New England Fellowsh i ps and ass i stantsh i p~ with tuition paid are available to qual i fied students JERRY H. MELDON Ph D M.I.T 19 7 3 JAMES J. NOBLE Ph.D M.I T. 1968 DANIEL F. RYDER Ph.D Worc e ster Polytechnic 1984 MICHAEL STOUKIDES Ph D M.I. T 1982 MARTIN V. SUSSMAN Ph D Columb i a 1958 NAK-HO SUNG For information and app li cations, wr i te to : Graduate Committee Department of Chemic al Eng i neering Tufts Un i versity Medford, MA 02155 Phone (617) 381-3 4 45 Ph D M.I T 1972 RANDALL W. SWARTZ Ph.D Ren sse laer Polytechnic 1972 KENNETH A. VAN WORMER Sc D M.I. T. 1961 ADJUNCT FACULTY FROM INDUSTRY GEORGE AVGERINOS FRANCIS BROWN JOHN R. GHUBLIKIAN BING LOU WONG

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Be Part of a Great Tradition! Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at the University of Virginia The University of Virginia was established by Thomas Jefferson in 1819 as the fir s t public univ e r sity in the Uni t ed States and he dedicated the last years of his life to building the institution into the national trea s ure he envisaged at its in cep tion Today, the University's exceptional reputation in the arts, business, e ngine e ring, law, medicine, and th e scie n ces is te st im o ny t o t h e vision and energy of its found e r. Thomas Jefferson had a strong personal interest in science and th e m ec hani ca l ans. Thus it i s not surprising that engineering co urses were first offered at the University of Virginia in 1837 makin g the School of E ngin ee ring and Appli e d Sciences the oldest engineering school in the United States associated with a university The chemical engineering curriculum was established in 1908, the same year as the founding of the American In s titute of Chemical Engineers. Graduate students at the University of Virginia become part of the rich tradition of inquiry and excellence that for neariy two centuries has drawn scholars and researchers to the exceptionally beautiful physical environment of Mr Jefferson's University. They also become part of a research environment that is state-of the art in its scope, facilities and dir ectio n s. Moreover, the legacy of Mr. Jefferson's emphasis on strong interactions between students and faculty translate s into close working relationships between faculty and graduate students. The chemical engineering department provides a supportive environment aimed at enriching the experience of graduate students as they develop maturity and sophistication in their approach to re searc h. So, come and join us at the University of Virginia. Be part of a great tradition! Fac ult y an d R esea r c h I n te r ests Giorgio Carta, Ph D ., University of D e laware: Absorption Adsorption, Ion Exchange, Biological Separations Peter T. Cummings, Ph D. University of Melbourne: Mol ec ular Th e rmodynamics, Statistical Mechanics, Process Design, Non-Newtonian Fluids Ro se anne M. Ford, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania : Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Effects in Biological Systems Elmer L. Gaden, Jr. Ph.D. Columbia University: Biochemical Engineering Process Development and Design John L. Gainer, Ph.D., University of Delaware: Mass Transfer including Biomedical Applications, Biochemical Engineering John L. Hudson, Ph D., Northwestern University : Dynamics of Chemical Reactors, Electrochemical and Multiphase Reactors Donald J. Kirwan, Ph.D., University of Delaware : Biochemical Engin ee ring, Ma ss Transfer, Crystallization M. Douglas Le Van, Ph D., University of California, Berkeley: Adsorption, Fluid Mechanics, Process Design Lembit U Lilleleht Ph.D., University of Illinois: Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer, Multiphase Systems, Alternative Energy John P O Connell, Ph.D University of California, Berkeley: Statistical Thermodynamics with Applications to Physical and Biological Systems For admission and financial aid information, please contact: Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 Phone: (804) 924 7778

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Use Virginia Tech as your catalyst to a good education. At Virginia Tech's Chemical Engineering Department, you will learn about: SURFACE SCIENCE model catalyst systems, metal oxide surface chemistry, semiconductor interfaces, gas sensors, UHV surface analysis and high-pressure reaction studies. CATALYSIS homogeneous, heterogeneous, spec troscopy, novel immobilizations of homogeneous systems, zeolite synthesis. HAZARDOUS WASTE in-situ treatment, enhanced biologi cal treatment, waste minimization, microbubble flotation BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING affinity and immunoaffinity (mono clonal antibody) isolation of plasma proteins, transgenic expression and recovery of human plasma proteins in large animals, DNA amplification kinetics, in-situ biodegradation of toxic wastes. POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING rheology, processing, morphology, synthesis, surface science, biopoly mers, polymer suspensions For further information, contact the Department of Chemical Engineering, Randolph Hall, Virginia Tech, SURFACE ACTIVITY use of bubbles and other interfaces for separations, improved combus tion, water purification, trace ele ments concentration, detergency and bacteriocidal uses, understanding liv ing systems. FLUID-PARTICLE SYSTEMS novel application of vibrated beds in heat transfer, in microreactors with rapid, frequent shift in gas atmos phere (for unsteady state kinetic studies), in microreactors simulating large-scale gas-fluidized beds Blacksburg, VA 24061 (703) 961-6631

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The Department has a vigorous research program and excellent ph ys ical fac i lities. There are about 75 grad u ate students, of whom typica ll y 1 5-20 are foreign st u de n ts and t h e remainde r are from about 30 universi t ies in over 20 s t ates A ll fu ll ti me g r ad u a t e s tud ents are supported. The research environment is stimulating and supportive, and the r e is a fine esprit de corps among the graduate students and faculty Seattle is a beautiful city with outstanding cultural activities and unparalle l ed outdoo r activities throughout the year. We welcome your inquiry. For further information please write : Chairman Department of Chem i cal Eng i neering BF-10 University of Was h ing t on Seatt l e WA 98195 Regular Facult y J. Ray Bowen Ph D ., Ca li forn i a (Berkeley) (Dean Co llege of Engineering) John C. Berg Ph D ., California (Be rkele y) E James Davis Ph D ., Washington Bruce A Finla vson, Ph D ., Minnesota Rod R. Fisher Ph D ., Iowa S tate Wiliam J Heideger Ph D Princeton Bradley R Holt Ph D Wisconsin Barbara Krieger-Brockett Ph.D Wayne State 1 Lawrence Ricker Ph D ., California (Berkeley) James C. Se feris Ph D ., Delaware Charles A Sleicher Ph D. Michigan Eric M Stuve, Ph D ., Stanfo rd A djunct and Joint Facult y A cti v e in Department Research G Graham Allan Ph D Glasgow Albert L. Babb Ph .D. I llinois Allan S Hoffman Sc.D M.LT. Thomas A Horbett Ph .D., Washin g ton Budd y D. Ratner Ph D Brookl y n Pol ytec hnic Research Area s Aerosols Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Colloids and Microemulsions Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Heat Transfer lnterfacial Phenomena Mathematical Modeling Polymer Science and Engineering Process Control and Optimization Pu l p and Paper Chemistrv and Processes Reaction Engineering Surface Science

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEM/CAL ENGINEERING MASTER'S AND DOCTORAL PROGRAMS F acuity and Research Areas M. P. Dudukovic J. T. Gleaves B. Joseph J. L. Kardos B. Khomami Chemical Reaction Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science, Microstructured Material Process Control Process Optimization, Expert Systems Composite Materials and Polymer Engineering Rheology, Polymer and Composite Materials Processing J. M. McKelvey R. L. Motard P.A.Ramachandran B. D. Smith R. E. Sparks C. Thies M. Underwood Polymer Science and Engineering Computer Aided Process Engineering, Knowledge-Based Systems Chemical Reaction Engineering Thermodynamics Biomedical Engineering, Microencapsulation Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering, Microencapsulation Unit Operations, Process Safety, Polymer Processing For Information Contact Graduate Admissions Committee Washington University Department of Chemical Engineering Campus Box I I 98 One Brookings Drive St. Louis Missouri 63130-4899 Washington University encourages and gives full consideration to application for admission and financial aid without respect to sex, race, handicap color, creed or national origin

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Chemical Engineering Faculty Richard C. Bailie (Iowa State University) Eugene V. Cilento, Acting Chair (University of Cincinnati) Dady B. Dadyburjor (University of Delaware) Hisashi 0. Kono (Kyushu University) Edwin L. Kugler (Johns Hopkins University) Joseph A. Shaeiwitz (Carnegie-Mellon University) Alfred H. Stiller (University of Cincinnati) Richard Turton (Oregon State University) Wallace B. Whiting (University of California, Berk eley) Ray Y. K. Yang (Princeton University) John W. Zondlo (Carnegie-Mellon University) West VlrgIn1a Un1versIly Topics _________ Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Phase Equilibria Fluidization Biomedical Engineering Solution Chemistry Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Biological Separations M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write : Professor Richard Turton Graduate Admission Committee Department of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 6101 West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6101

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Faculty Research Interests R. Byron Bird Transport phenomena polymer fluid dynamics polymer kinetic theory Douglas C. Cameron Biochemical engineering Thomas W Chapman Electrochemistry multiphase reactors, hydrometallurgy biomass conversion Camden A. Coberly Hazardous waste management, process design composite materials processing Stuart L. C oop er Polymer structure-property relations biomaterials E. Johansen Crosby Spray and suspended particle processing Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering James A. Dumeslc Kinetics and catalysis, surface chemistry Charles G. Hill, Jr. (Chmn.) kinetics and catalysis, mem brane separation processes Sangtae Kim Fluid mechanics applied mathematics James A. Koutsky Polymer science adhesives composites Stanley H. Langer Kinetics, catalysis electro chemistry chromatography hydrometallurgy E. N. Lightfoot, Jr. Mass transfer and separations processes, biochemical engineering Patrick D. McMahon Thermodynamics, statistical physics Regina M. Murphy Biomedical engineering W. Harmon Ray Process dynamics and control, reaction engineering, polymerization Thatcher W. Root Surface chemistry catalysis Dale F. Rudd Process design and industrial development Glenn A. Sather Development of instructional program Warren E. Stewart Reactor modeling transport phenomena, applied mathematics Ross E. Swaney Process synthesis and optimi zation computer-aided design F or furthe r informa t i on abo u t g r ad u a t e s tu dy i n c h e m ic al enginee r ing, write : The Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wisconsin Madison 1415 Johnson Drive Madison Wisconsin 53706

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Qualified students seeking M.S. and/or Ph.D. degrees will receive attractive fellowships or assistantships to pursue exciting fundamental and applied research. Are a s o f R ese ar ch: Faculty: Advanced Ma t erials Carbon Filaments Inorganic Membranes Materials Processing in Space Metal Oxides Molecular Sieve Zeolites Superconductors Biochemica l E n g in eering Biopolymer Engineering Bioreactor Analysis Bio separations Cata l ysis and Reaction Engineering Adsorption and Transport in Porous Media Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalysis Zeolite Catalysis Th e Ce n t r a l N e w E ng lan d A r ea: WP! is situated on a 62-acre hilltop site in a residential area of Worcester, Massachusetts, New England's second largest city and a l ea ding cultural, educational and entertainment center. It is a one-hour drive from Boston and only two hours from the beaches of Cape Cod and the ski slopes and hiking trails of Vermont and New Hampshire. W M Clark, Ph.D ., Rice University D. DiBi asio, Ph.D ., Purdue University A.G. Dixon, Ph.D., Edinburgh University Y H. Ma, Sc.D., Massachusel/s Institute of Technology J.W Meader, S M ., Massachusells Institut e of Technology W.R. Moser, Ph.D Massachusells Institute of Technology J.E. Rollings, Ph.D ., Purdue University For Further Information: Contact: Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department 100 Institute Road Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, MA 01609-2280 WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE 342 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Department of Chemical Engineering JOIN THE RANKS of Josiah Willard Gibbs, Yale 1863 Ph.D. Eng., and other distinguished Yale alumni/ae. Douglas D. Frey Ph.D. Berkeley Gary L. Haller Ph.D. Northwestern Csaba G. Horvath Ph.D. Frankfurt James A. O'Brien PH.D. Pennsylvania Lisa D. Pfefferle Ph.D. Pennsylvania Theodore W. Randolph Ph.D. Berkeley Daniel E. Rosner Ph.D. Princeton Robert S. Weber Ph D. Stanford JOIN US! 2159 Yale Station New Haven, Ct 06520 (203) 432-2222 FALL 1989 Adsorption Aggregation, Clustering Biochemical Separations Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Chromatography Combustion Enzyme Technology Fine Particle Technology Heterogeneous Kinetics lnterfacial Phenomena Molecular Beams Multiphase Transport Phenomena Statistical Thermodynamics Supercritical Extraction 343

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LL BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering MS W E. KING JR., Chair (PhD, University of Pennsylvania) Modeling of biomedical systems J. CSERNICA (PhD, M.I.T ) Polymers, material science M E. HANYAK, JR (PhD, University of Pennsylvania) Computer-aided design, problem oriented languages F W KOKO, JR (PhD, Lehigh University) Optimization fluid mechanics, direct digital control J M POMMERSHEIM (PhD, University of P i ttsburgh) Catalyst deactivation, mathematical modeling cement hydration M J PRINCE (PhD, University of California at Berkeley) Biochemical engineering, interfacial phenomena D.S SCHUSTER (PhD, West Virg i nia Un iversity) Fluidization, particulate systems W .J SNYDER (PhD Pennsylvania State Univ ersity) Catalysis, polymerization inst rumentation Bucknell i s a small. private h i ghly selective university with strong programs i n eng i neer i ng business, and the l i beral arts. The College of Engineering i s located i n the new l y renovated Char l es A Dana Eng i neering Bu il d i ng and opera t es a state of-the-art computer aided engineering and des i gn laboratory equ i pped with 28 Apollo super microcomputer workstations ava i lable to all engineering students In add i tion, a DEC VAX 11/780 and PDP 11 /44 min i computers, and a Honeywe ll DPS 8 / C mainframe computer are available Graduate students have a unique opportunity to work very closely with a faculty research advisor Lewisburg, located in the center of Pennsylvania, provides the attraction of a rural setting wh ile conveniently located within 200 miles of New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D C ., and Pittsburgh 344 For further information, write or phone: Dr William E King, Jr. Chair Department of Chemical Engineering Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 717 -5 24 -1114 _______ __, UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Lake Huron University of Waterloo London Canada's largest Chemical Engineering Department offers regular and co-opera tive M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-doctoral programs in: Biochemical and Food Engineering Industrial Biotechnology Chemical Kinetics Catalysis, and Reactor Design Environmental and Pollution Control Extractive and Process Metallurgy Polymer Science and Engineering Mathematical Analysis, Statistics, and Control Transport Phenomena, Multiphase Flow Enhanced Oil Recovery Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling, Microwave Heating Financial Aid: Minimum $13,000 per annum (research option) Academic Staff: G. L. Rempel Ph D.(UBCJ Chair man; R R. Hudgins, Ph D. (Princeton), Associate Chair man (G r aduate); I. F. Macdonald, Ph D. (Wisconsin), Associate Chairman (Undergraduate); L. E. Bodnar, Ph D McMaster); C. M. Burns, Ph.D. (Polytech. Inst. Brooklyn) ; J J. Byerley, Ph D. (UBC); K. S Chang, Ph.D (Northwestern); I. Chatzis, Ph.D (Waterloo); P. L. Douglas, Ph D. (Waterloo); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (UBC); K. E. Enns, Ph D (Toronto); T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D (Illinois); G J Farquhar, Ph D (Wisconsin); J. D Ford, Ph.D. (Toronto) ; C. E. Gall, Ph.D (Minn.); D. A. Holden, Ph D (Toronto); R. Y. M. Huang, Ph D. (Toronto); R L. Legge, Ph.D. (Waterloo) ; M Moo-Young Ph.D. (London) ; G S. Mueller Ph D (Manchester); F T T. Ng, Ph D (UBC) ; K F O'Driscoll, Ph D (Princeton); D. C. T Pei Ph D (McGill); A. Penlidis Ph D (McMaster); M. D. Pritzker (V.P.I.) ; C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (Berkeley); A. Rudin, Ph .D (Northwestern); J. M. Scharer, Ph.D (Pennsylvania); P L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich) ; G R. Sullivan, Ph D. (Imperial College) ; J. R Wynnycky i Ph D. (Toronto) To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G 1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Brown University Faculty Jose ph M Ca l o P h.D. ( Prin c eton ) Bruce Caswell, Ph D. ( S t anford ) Richa rd A D o bbins Ph.D. ( P rin ceton / Stu r e K .F Karlss o n Ph.D. (Jo hn s H o pkins Jose ph D. Kestin, D Sc. ( Unive r si t y o f L o nd u n Joseph T.C Liu, Ph D. ( Califoni'ia I n s titut e o f Techn o l ogy ) E dw a rd A. M a s on Ph.D. ( Ma ss acl,u,ctts I nstitut e o f T ech n o l ogy ) T.F. M o r se Ph.D. ( o rthw cstc rn ) P e t e r D. Richards o n Ph.D D.Sc. Eng ( University o f L o nd on ) M e r win Sibulkin, A.E. ( California I n s titut e of T ech n ology ) E r ic M Su,,be r g, Sc [), ( M ass achu se tt s I nstitute of Technolog y ) FALL 19 8 9 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering C h e mi ca l kin e ti cs, co mbu s ti o n tw o ph ase fl o w s, fluidi ze d b e d s se p a r a ti o n p rocesses, num e ri ca l s imul a ti o n vo rt ex m e th o d s, tu r b u l e n ce, h ydrody n a mi c s t a b i lit y, coa l c h e mi s tr y, coa l gasif i ca t io n heat a nd mass t ra n sfe r aeroso l co nd e n sa ti o n t r a n s p o rt processes, i rr eve r sib l e t he rm ody n amics, me mb ra n es. pa rti c ulat e d e p o siti o n, ph ys i o l og i ca l flui d m ec h a ni cs, rh eo l ogy A p ro gr a m o f g r a du a t e s tud y in Chemic a l En g in ee rin g l e ad s cowar d th e M. Sc o r Ph D. D eg r ee T eac hin g a nd R esea r c h A ssista nt s hip s as w e ll as Indu s tri a l a nd Uni ve r s it y F e ll o w s hip s arc ava il a bl e. F o r f urth er in fo rm a ti o n w rit e : P rofesso r J. Ca l o, Coo r d i11 ato r C h e m ica l E n g in ee r i n g P rog r a m Divisio n of Eng in ee ri ng B row n U ni ve r s it y P rov id e n ce, Rh o d e I s l a nd 02 912 THE CITY COLLEGE of The City University of New York offers M.S and PhD Programa in Chemical Engineering FACULTY A. Acrivos R. Graff L. Isaacs C. Maldarelli R.Mauri K.McKeigue R. Pfeffer I. Rinard D Rumschitzki R. Shinnar C. Steiner G. Tardos C. Tsiligiannis H. Weinstein ~EARCH,6Rrn Fluid Mechanics Coal Liquefaction Materials Colloid & Interfacial Phenomena Composite Materials, Su s pensions, Porous Media Hydrodynamic Stability Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics Process Simulation Process Control Process Systems Engineering and Design Reaction Engineering Industrial Economics Polymer Science Air Pollution Fluidization Biomembranes Bioengineering Multiphase Reactors For applications for admission assistantsh ips and fellowships please write to: D. Rumschltzkl, Department of Chemical EnginHring City College of New York, Convent Ave at 140th St., New York, NY 10031 3 45

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346 CLEVELAND ST A TE UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.Sc. and D.Eng. Programs RESEARCH AREAS: Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactor Design Materials Processing and Engineering Mathematical Modeling, Simulation of Batch Processes Separation Processes Surface Phenomena and Mass Transfer Thermodynamics and Fluid Phase Equilibria Transport Phenomena, Flu i d Mechanics Tribology Zeolites: Synthesis, Sorption, Diffusion FACULTY: G. A. Coulman ( Case Reserve ) R. P. Elliott ( IIT) B Ghorashi (Ohi o State) E. S. Godleski (Oklahoma State) E E. Graham ( Northwestern ) D. T. Hayhurst (WPI) A. B. Ponter (UMIST) D B. Shah (Michigan State) 0. Talu (Arizona State) S. N. Tewari ( Purdue) G. Wotzak (Prin ceton ) Cleveland State University has 18,000 students enrolled in its academic programs. It is located in the center of the city o f Cleveland with many outsta ndin g cultural and recreational opportunities nearby FOR FU RTHER INFORMATION WRITE TO: D.B Shah Department of C h emical Engineering Cleveland State University Cleveland, Ohio 44115 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS H. Y. CHEH Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics, El e ctrochemical Engineering C. J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry C. C. GRYTE Polymer Science, Separation Processes E. F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena G. R. SCHOOFS Surface Science, Catalysis, Adsorption B. O 'SHAUGHNESSY Polymer Physics ALEX SERESSIOTIS Biochemical Engineering J. L. SPENCER Applied Mathematics, Chemical Reactor Engineering U. STIMMING Electrochemistry Financial Assistance is Available For Further Information Write Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Columbia University New York NY 10027 (212) 280 -4453 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THAYERSCHOOLOFENGINEERINGATDARTMOUTHCOLLEGE Doctoral and Masters Programs in Engineering with a concentration in Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Courses from Thayer School and the Dartmouth Medical School, Biochemistry Program and Biology Department DOCTORAL AND MASTERS PROGRAMS WITH OPPORTUNITIES IN: APPLICATIONS OF ANAEROBI C BA CTERIAL SYSTEMS THERMOPHILIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION ATTACI IED -FILM WASTEWATER TREATMENT MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE MEMBRANE AND l MMO13ILI ZE D CELL REACTOR DESIGN PHYSIOLOGICAL A D BIOCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO IMPR OVING PERFORMANCE ENZYMOLOGY FUND AMENT AL AND APPLIED STUDIES OF CELLULASES KINETIC MODELING BIOMASS CONVERSION PRETREATMENT AND HYDROLYSIS OF LIGNOCELLULOSE SOLVENT RECOVERY BY DISTILLATION PROCESS DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION RELATED R ESEARCH IN BIOM EDICAL ENGINEERING LASER SCAN ING FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY IMAGE ANALYSIS RELATED TO MICROSCOPY AND TISSUE CHARACT ERIZATION HIP AND KNEE PROSTHESES HYPERTHERMIA AND RADIATION CANC ER TREATMENT PHYSIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT AND CONrROL For further information: Director of Admissions, Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Program, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY D. R Coughanowr E. D. Grossmann Y. H. Lee S. P. Meyer R Mutharasan J. A Tallmadge J. R 1hygeson C. B. Weinberger M. A. Wheatley RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Reactor Engineering Microcomputer Applications Polymer Processing Process Control ana Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Semiconductor Processing Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Drying Processes CONSIDER FALL 1989 High faculty/student ratio Excellent facilities Outstanding location for cultural activities and Job opportunities Full time and part time options WRITE TO: Dr. J. R Thygeson Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 347

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348 H R 0 \ I ,/' N-C-C / H H OH 0:S:O Graduate Studies in the Department of Chemical Engineering Florida A&M University and Florida State University College of Engineering Tallahassee, Florida ~For More Information Please Write To: Chairman Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering FAMUIFSU College of Engineering Tallahassee, Florida 32316-2175 HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering MS Degree Faculty/Research Areas M. E. ALUKO, Ph.D., UC (Santa Barbara) J. N. CANNON, Ph.D., Colorado R. C. CHAWLA, Ph.D., Wayne State H. M. KATZ, (Emeritus) Ph.D., Cincinnati M. G. RAO, Ph.D., Washington (Seattle) Dynamics of Reacting Systems, Applied Mathematics, Process Control Fluid and Thermal Sciences (Experimental, Computational) Air and Water Pollution Control Reaction Kinet i cs, Hazardous Waste Incineration Environmental Engineering Process Synthesis and Design, Biochemical Separations For Information Write Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University Washington, DC 20059 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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0 Universityotldaho CHE MICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph .D. PROGRAMS FACULTY T. E CARLESON Mass Tr a ns f er Enhancement, Chemical Repro cessing of Nucl e ar Wastes, Bioseparation D C DROWN L L. EDWARDS M L. JACKSON R.A KORUS T J MORIN J. Y PARK Process Des i gn Computer Appl i cation Modeling Process Economics and Optim i zat i on with Emphas i s on Food Processing Computer Aided Process Des i gn Systems Analysis Pulp/Paper Engineering, Numerical Methods and Optimization Mass Transfer in Biological Systems, Particulate Control Technology Po l ymers, Biochem i cal Engineering Chemical R e ac t ion Eng i neering Transport Phe nomena, Thermophy s ics of Nonequilibrium Systems Chem i cal Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, Labora tory Reactor D e velopment, Thermal Plasma Systems J. J SCHELDORF H e at Transfer Thermodynamics M. VON BRAUN Hazardous Waste Site Analysis Compute r Mapping The department ha1 a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests. With Washington State University just 8 miles away, the two depar tments jointly schedule an expanded list of graduate courses for both MS and PhD candidates, giving the graduate student direct access to a combined graduate faculty of eighteen The northern Id aho region offers a year -rou nd complement of outdoor activities inc lud in g hiking whi t e water rafting, skiing, and camping. FOR FURTliER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho Moscow Idaho 83843 ~ill~illrn oo~~w~rn@~1rw Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Doctor of Engineering FACULTY: D. H. CHEN (Ph D., Oklahoma State Univ.) e J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D ., Louisiana State Univ.) T. C. HO (Ph.D., Kansas State Univ.) K. Y. LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State Univ.) e R. E. WALKER (Ph.D., Iowa State Univ.) C. L. YAWS (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) 0. R. SHAVER (Ph D Univ of Houston) FALL 1989 RESEARCH AREAS: Computer Simulation, Process Dynamics and Control Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Fluidization and Mass Transfer Transport Properties Mass Transfer Gas Liquid Reactions Rheology of Drilling Fluids Computer-Aided Design Thermodynamic Properties, Cost Engineering, Photovoltaics FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE: Graduate Adml11lon1 Chairman Department of Chemlcal Engineering Lamar University P 0. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 An equal opportunlty/efflnnallft ecllon unlv.,.,ty. 349

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LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY For information, write: Master of Science and Doctor of Engineering Programs The Department of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech University offers a well-balanced graduate program for either the Master's or Doctor of Engineering degree. Fourteen full-time students (nine doctoral candidates) and fourteen part-time students are pursuing research in Artificial Intelligence and Adaptive Control, Biotechnology, Chemical Hazard and Fire Safety, Energy Use Models, Lignite Utilization, Nuclear Energy, Ozonation, Process Simulation, and Two-Phase Heat Transfer with major concentrations in Energy, Environment, and Control Studies. FACULTY Brace H. Boyden, Arkansas Joseph B. Fernandes, UDCT, Bombay Houston K. Huckabay, LSU David H. Knoebel, Oklahoma State Ronald H. Thompson, Arkansas Dr Houston K. Huckabay, Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana Tech University Ruston Louisiana 71272 (318) 257 2483 Manhattan College Design -Oriented Master's Degree Program Chemical Engineering 1n This well established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of process engineering problems. Financial aid is available, including industrial fellowships in a one-year program involving participation of the following companies: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. AKZO Chemicals Inc. Consolidated Edison Co. Exxon Corporation Mobil Oil Corporation Pfizer, Inc. Manhattan College is located in Ri v erdale, an attracti v e area in the northwest section of New York City. For brochure and application form, write to CHAIRMAN, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MANHATTAN COLLEGE RIVERDALE, NY 10471 C H~MI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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M. H. I. Baird, Ph D (Camb r i dge) Mass Transfer, Solvent Extra ctio n J L. Brash, Ph D (Glasgow) Biomedical Engineering Polymers C. M Crowe, Ph D (Cambridge) Data Reconciliation, QJ # mization Simulation J. M. Dickson, Ph D (Virginia T ech) Membrane Transport Phenomena Reverse Osmosis A. E Hamielec, Ph.D (Toronto) Polymer Reaction Engineering D irector: McMaster Institute for Polymer Produ ctio n T echno/ogy A. N. Hrymak, Ph D (Carnegi eM ellon) Corrputer Aided Design Nume rical Methods I. A Feuerstein, Ph D (Massachusetts) Biomedical Eng ineering, Transport Phemrena McMASTER UNIVERSITY Graduate S t u d y in Po l y mer Reaction Engineering Computer Pr o cess C o n t ro l and Much More! J. F MacGregor, Ph D (Wisconsin) Computer Process Control, Polymer Reaction Engineering T E M arlin, Ph D (Massachusetts) Computer Process Control R H Pelton, Ph D (Bristol) Water Soluble Polymers, Colloid Polymer Systems L. W. Shemilt, Ph D (Toronto) Electrochemical Mass Transfer, Corrosion, Thermodynamics P A. Taylor, Ph D. (Wales) Computer Process Control M. Tsezos, Ph D. (McG ill) Wastewater Treatment, B i osorptive Recovery J. Vlachopo u los, D Sc (Washington University) Polymer Process ing, Rheology Numerical M eth ods ( P E. W oo d, Ph D (Ca ltech) T u rbulence Modeling, Mixing D R. Woods P h D. (Wisconsin) Surface Phenomena, Cost Estimation, Problem Solving J D W ri gh t, Ph D (Cambridge)/Part Time Computer Process Control Process D y namics andModeing M Ena and Ph P Programs Research Scholarsh i ps and T each in g Assi s tantships are available For further information please contact Professor A N Hrymak Department of Chem i cal Engineering McMaster Univers i ty Hamilton, Ontario Canada L BS 4L7 MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Dep a rt m ent o f Chemistry and Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: The department offers a broad range of trad iti onal and interdisciplinary programs l ea d ing to the M S. and Ph D degrees. Program areas include the traditional areas of chemistry and chemical engi n eering with particular emphasis in polymer and composite materials ; process design, control, and improvement; free radica l chemistry; bioorganic chemistry; and surface Raman spectroscopy. COST OF TUITION: Full-time in state graduate tuition is $695/quarter T ui ti on i s normally include d as par t of th e student's financial support. THE COMMUN I TY: MTU is located in Houghton on the beautiful Keweenaw Peninsula overlooking Lake Superio r The region surround in g MTU is a virtual wilderness of interconnected lakes, rivers, and forest lands Outdoor activities abound all year with superb fishing, boating, hiking, camping, and skiing available within minutes of campus. FIN A NCIAL AID: Financial support in the form of fe llo wships, research assis t an t s hip s, and graduate teac hing a ssis tantships is available. Start i ng stipe n ds are $6600 per academic year in addition to t uition FALL 1989 For mo r e information write : Gra duate Stud ie s Chairman D e partment of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering M i chigan T e chnological University Houghton Michigan 49931 Michig a n Technolo g ic a l Un i ve rsi t y i s a n equal o pp o r t u n it y ed uc a tio nal insti tut i on / equa l opportunity employer. 35 1

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Melbourne, Australia Department of Chemical Engineering, including the Australian Pulp and Paper Institute RESEARCH DEGREES: Ph.D., M .Eng.Sc. FA CULTY F. LAWSON (Chairman) J. R. G. ANDREWS D. J. BRENNAN H. T. CULLINAN G. A. HOLDER D. F. A. KOCH J. F. MATHEWS W. E. OLBRICH I. G. PRINCE 0. E. POTTER T. SRIDHAR C. TIU P. H T. UHLHERR M. R W. WALMSLEY RESEARCH AREAS Gas-Solid Fluidisation Brown Coal Hydroliquefaction, Gasification Oxygen Removal Fluidised Bed Drying Pulp and Paper Technology Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas Liquid, Gas Solid, Three Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis Catalyst Design Transport Phenomena Heat and Mass Transfer, Transport Properties Extractive Metallurgy and Mineral Processing Rheology Suspensions, Polymers, Foods Biochemical Engineering Continuous Culture Waste Treatment and Water Purification Process Economics FOR FURTHER INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Studies Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia Montana State University Montana State offers M.S. and Ph D. degree programs in chemical engineering with research programs in Separations, Biotechnology, Catalysis, and Materials Science. Interdisciplinary research oppor tunities exist with the University's Institute for Chemical and Biological Process Analysis (IPA) and the new Center for the Synthesis and Characterization of Advanced Materials (SACAM). Facully L. BERG (Ph D ., Purdue) Extractive Distillation W. G. CHARACKLIS, Adjunct, Director IPA (Ph.D., Johns Hopkins) Microbial Engineering, Industrial Water Quality M. C. DEIBERT (Sc.D., MIT) Surface Science, Catalysis, Materials Intermetallic Compounds R. W. LARSEN (Ph.D., Penn State) Biological Pro cesses and Separations J. F. MANDELL (Ph.D., MIT) Composites, Interfaces, Ceramics Polymers F. P. McCANDLESS (Ph D., MSU) Membranes, Extractive Crystallization R. L. NICKELSON (Ph.D., Minnesota) Process Control T. SAHIN (Ph.D., MSU) Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface Science Microelectronics Chemical Vapor Deposi tion W. P SCARRAH (Ph D ., MSU) Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Biomass Energy Conversion J. T. SEARS Head (Ph.D., Princeton) Catalysis, Adsorption of Bacteria on Metals D. L SHAFFER (Ph D., Penn State) Biomass Energy Conversion, Polymeric Materials, Reactor Engineering ln[onnanon Dr J. T. Sears, Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Montana State Unive rsi ty, Bozeman, MT 59717 352 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FALL 1989 UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR M.S. OR PH D. WITH RESEARCH IN Bio-mass Conversion Polymer Engineer i ng Reaction and Fermentation Kinetics Separation Processes Real-t im e Computing Surface Science Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Computer-aided Process Design and Process Synthesis Electrochemical and Corrosion Eng in eering n For Apptication and Information: Chairman of Chemical Engineering 236 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 0126 Graduate study ID chemical engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Major energy research center: i~~A,~ 0 ~\ Z~m c..'v ,<...l. 'vERs' Bioengineering Computer Aided Design Food Processing Oil Recovery Waste Management Chemical Safety Financial assistance is available. Sp ecial programs for students with B.S. degrees in other fields FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION : Dr. Ron Bhada H ead Department of Chemical Engineering P O Box 30001, Dept 3805 New M exixo State University Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-0001 New Mexico State U ni versity il an Eq11al Opport11nity Afji nnative Ac tion Employer 353

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THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AREAS Air and Water Pollut i on Control Battery Research and Development Catalys i s and Reactor Design Character i sation and Optimization in Minerals Processing Chemical Separations Computational Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Computer Aided Design and Process Synthesis for Energy Conservation Corrosion Electrochem i stry Extractive Metallurgy Flow Phenomena in Mass Transfer Equipment Fuel Technology Glass Technology THE DEPARTMENT This is the larges t Chemical Eng in eering Schoo l in Austra lia w ith 25 academic staff, over 400 undergraduates and about 80 postgraduates. The School is we ll supplied w ith equipment and is supported by research grants from Government and Industry. The five ma in departments of Chemical Eng i neer in g Industrial Chem is try Petroleum Engineering Fuel Technology and Poly mer Science offer course work and research work lead in g to M.Sc M E. and P h D degrees The breadth and depth of experience ava ila ble leads to the product i on of well rounded graduates with ex cellent Job potent ial. I nterna ti onal recognition is only one of the many benefits of a degree from UNSW. COME TO BOSTON High Temperature Materials Membrane Technology Particle Technology Petroleum Engineering Polymer Science and Engineering Particle Technology Process Control and Microprocessor Applications Pyrometallurgical Reactor Modelling Solvent Extraction Spontaneous Ignition Phenomena Supercr i t ic al Fluids Two Phase Flow Waste Processing THE UNIVERSITY The Un iversity is the lar ge st in Australia and is located between the centre o f Sydney and the beaches The cosmopolitan city and the wide range of out door activities make life very p leasant for students, and peop l e from America Europe, Afr ica and the East feel we lcome from the i r first arrival. For further information concerning specific r esearch areas, facilities and financial conditions write to : Professor A. G. Fan e School o f Chemical Eng in eer in g & Industrial Chem i stry Un iversi ty of New South Wa les PO Box 1, Kens in gton NSW 2033 Aus tralia N ortheastern University has turned out superior engineers who have fueled the economic expansion of New Night life restaurants, theatre 354 England. Located in the heart of Boston, NU provides easy access to Cultural, Professional, Educational & Recreational Resources of Greater Boston, Cape Cod & New E ngland Symphony H a ll, Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of Science H o me to America's l ead ing corporations & instituti o ns Close to world-renowned hospitals schools and affiliated research facilities. Home of the Red Sox, Celtics, Bruins P a triots, M ara thon Nearby ocean beaches, skiing, stale parks, Fanuel Hall M a rk etp l ace Major Areas of Research: Biotechnology Bio polymers Bioconversion Bioinstrum e ntation Catalysis Process Control Applied M at hematics Process Design Heat Transfer For information, write: R alp b A Bu o n opa ne. Ph.D. Chainnan Department or Chemical Engineering NortheaSlem University 342 SN CEE Boston, MA 02115 Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY -. 4 l ..:i II :111 ; I ,, ::1. : =~ :.::: :: ::1 N ,, =~ 1 11 11 -, I a11,1 1 1 I ... 0 I a !lf I '""' .,, ii I II I ---== r1 ; ._ 1 11 :: == .. i -, !. 1 L..!! ~., ~__, ,;;;!: ... ~-~ j~ .. I I"" ... i .... I "'' -:'.J ~Il l _, I "' \ ~... "~ C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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OREGON ST ATE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M S and P h.D. P r ogram s F A CULTY S.Kimura 0. Levenspiel KL. Levien RV. Mraz.ek G. L. Rorrer R Sproull J D.Way Reaction Engineering, High Temperature Materials Reactor Design, Fluidization Process Simulation and Control Thermdynamics, Applied Mathematics Biochemical Reaction Engineering Biomass Conversion Plant Design Membrane-Based Separation Processes Our current programs reflect not only traditional chemical engineering f ields but also ne w te c hnologies important to the Northwest's industries, such as electronic de vice manufacturing, forest products, food science and ocean products. Oregon State is located only a short drive from the Pacific Ocean, w h ite water rivers and hiking / skiing / clim b ing in the Cascade Mountains. For further information, write : Chemical Engineering Department Gleeson Hall, Room 103 Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2702 Princeton University M.S.E. AND Ph D PROGRAMS I N CHEMICAL ENGINEERING R ESEARCH AREA S Bioengi n ee r ing; Catalysis; Chemica l Reactor/Reaction Engineering; Plasma Processing ; Colloidal Phenomena; Computer Aided Des i gn; Nonlinear Dynamics; Polymer Science; Process Control; Flo w of Granular Media; Rheology ; Statistical Mechanics; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria FACULTY Jay B Benziger Joseph L. Cecchi Pablo G Debenedetti Christodoulos A. Floudas, John K. Gillham William W Graessley, Roy Jackson, Steven F Karel Yann i s G Kevrekid i s Morton D Kostin, Robert K Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld William 8 Russel, Chairman Dudley A Saville, Sankaran Sundaresan Write to : Direc to r of Graduate Studies Ch em i cal Engineering Pri n c e ton University Princ e t o n, New Jersey 08544 Inquiries can be addressed via Electronic Mail over BITNET to CHEGRAD@PUCC FALL 1989 355

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356 Qgeen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs J. Abbot PhD (McGill) D.W Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H.A. Becker S cD (MIT) D.H Bone PhD (L ondon ) S.H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R.H. Clark PhD ( Imperial College) R.K. Code PhD (C ornel l) A J. Daugulis PhD (Queen's) J Downie PhD (Toronto) M.F A Goosen PhD (Toronto) E W. Grandmaison PhD (Queen's) T J. Harris PhD ( McM aster) C.C. Hsu PhD (Texas) B.W. Wojciechowski PhD (Otta w a) Catalysis & React i on catalyst aging & decay catalytic oxidation & cracking gas adsorption on catalysis reaction network analysis Physical Processing dryforming techno log y drying of cereal grains turbulent mixing & flow Bioreact i on & Process ing bioreactor model in g and design extractive fermentation fermentation using genetically eng i neered organisms controlled release delivery systems microencapsulation technology Polymer Eng inee ring Ziegler Natta po l ymerization reactor ana l ysis, design and control Fuels and Energy Fischer T ropsch synthesis fluid i zed bed combustion fuel alcohol production gas flames & furnaces heat tra nsfer in steel reheating Process Control & Simulation batch reactor control mult i variable control systems non li near control systems on -li ne opt i mization statistical ident i fication of process dynamics WRITE: Dr James C. C. Hsu Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Canada K?L 3N6 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Biochemical Engineering Corrosion Crystallization Processes Energy Engineering CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Food Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer Metallurgy and Ceramics Mixing APPLICATIONS Multiphase Flow Phase Change Kinetics Separation Processes Surface Phenomena APPLY TO: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Applications for financial aid should be received not later than Feb 16 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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OF TECHNOLOGY Research Areas Faculty Kinetics and Catalysis C. F. Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State Process Control R. S. Artigue, D. E., Tulane Polymers W.W. Bowden, Ph.D., Purdue Thermodynamics J. A Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson Transport Phenomena S. C. Hite, Ph.D., Purdue Biotechnology S. Leipziger, Ph.D., I.I.T N. E. Moore, Ph D., Purdue For Information Write : Dr. Stuart Leipziger Dept. Graduate Advisor Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute IN 47803-3999 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Graduate Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING University of Saskatchewan DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERIN G FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N N Bakhshi F ischer Trop s ch React i on Stud i es Catalytic U p grad i ng o f B i o mas s De ri v e d O ils/ Plant O il s B i omass Py r o l ys is. He a vy O il Upg r ad i ng Stud i es W J. Decoursey Ab s o rpti o n w ith Chem i cal React i on, Mass Tra r sfer E N Esmail Liqu i d Coat i ng Flu i d Mechanics, Model i ng G. Hill Fer ment a ti on and B i oprocess i ng D.G Macdonald B i omass Pyro l ys i s, Fermentat i on D.-Y Peng T h ermodynam i cs of Hydrocarbons and Petro l eu m J. Postlethwaite Cor r os i on Eng i neer i ng F ALL 19 8 9 S. Rohani Process Control, Crystall i zation and M i xing Phenomena w it h Fast Chem i ca l React i ons Dynam i cs and Control of Crys t a l Size D i str i but i on, D i ffusion-React i on Mode li ng C A. Shook T rans port P he no m ena Sl u rry P i pe li nes FOR /NFORMA TION, WRITE M.N. Esmail, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada S?N 0W0 357

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For further information contact : Graduate Program Coordinator Chenical Engineering University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974.3997 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Faculty V. R. Bhethanabotla J.C. Busot S. W. Campbell L. H. Garcia-Rubio R. A. Gilbert W. E. Lee J. A. Llewellyn C. A. Smith A. K. Sunol Research Areas Applications of Artificial Intelligence Automatic Process Control Coal Liquefaction Computer Aided Process Engineering Computer Simulation Crystallization from Solution Electrolytic Solutions Food Science and Engineering Irreversible Thermodynamics Mathematic Modelling Membrane Transport Properties Molecular Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Physical Property Correlat i on Polymer Reaction Engineer i ng Process Identification Process Monitoring and Analysis Sensors and Instrumentation Statistical Mechanics Supercritical Extraction Surface Analysis Thermodynam ic Analysis of Living Syst e ms UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Please write for further information about the program financial suppo rt, and appli cation forms to: Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Southern California University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211 358 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY W. VICTOR CHANG (P h.D Ch.E ., Caltech, 1976) Physical properties of polymers and composnes; adhesion; f init e element analys i s JOE D. GODDARD ( Ph.D ., Ch E ., U C Berkeley 1962) Rheology, continu um mechanics and transport properties o f fluids and heterogeneous media FRANK J. LOCKHART (Ph.D .. Ch E ., Universny of Michigan, 1943) Distillation; a i r pollulion ; design of chemical plants ( Ernerftus/ RONALD G MINET (Ph D ChE, New York Universny, 1959) Compu ter aided chemical process and plant design, ca ta lysis. ceramic membranes ( Adjunct ) CORNELIUS J. PINGS (Ph D ., Ch E Caltech 1955) Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and liqui d state physics (Provost and Senior Vice President, Academic Affa irs/ M SAHIMI (Ph.D .. Ch E University of Minnesota 1984) Transport and mechanical properties of d isor dered syste ms; percolation theory and non equil i b rium growth processes; flow. diffus i on, d is persion and reaction in porous media RONALD SALOVEY (Ph. D Phys. Chem Harvard, 1958) Physical chemistry and i rradiation of polyme rs, ch aracterization of elastomers and filled syste ms; po ly mer crystallization KA THERINE S. SH/NG (P h.D., Ch E ., Cornell Universi t y, 1982) Thermodynamics and statistical mechan ic s ; s uper c ritical extraction THEODORE T TSOTSIS ( Ph .D ., Ch.E. University of Ill i no i s, Urbana 1978) Chemica l rea c tion engineering ; pro c ess dynamics and control /AN A WEBSTER ( D Sc., Ch.E., Massachusetts Ins t. Te ch 1984 ) Catalysis and reaction kinetics; transport phenom ena chemical reaction engineering, surtace s pec trosc opy, b i o che mical eng in eering (Adjunct) YANIS C. YORTSOS ( Ph.D., Ch E Ca ltec h 19 7 8) Mathemat ic al modeling of transport proces ses; flo w in poro us media and lhermal o il recovery me th ods. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at Stanford University Stanford offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering, wi th a number of financially attractive fell ows hips and assis tantsh ips available to outstanding students For further information and application forms, write to : Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305-5025 The closing date for applications is January 1, 1990 Faculty Michel Boudart (P h D ., 1950, Princeton ) Kinetics and Catalysis Curtis W. Frank (P h D. 1972, Illinois ) Polymer Physics Gerald G. Fuller (Ph.D., 1980, Cal Tech ) Fluid Dynamics of Polymeric and Co lloidal Liquids Alice P Gast (Ph D ., 1984 Princeton ) Physics o f Dispersed Systems Charles F. Goochce (P h D., 1984, U Maryland) Biochemical Engineering George M Homsy ( Ph D ., 1969, Illinois ) Fluid Mechanic s and Stability Robert J. Madi>: (Ph.D., 1964 U Ca l -Berke l ey) Surface Reactivity Franklin M. Orr, Jr. (Ph.D., 1976, Minnesota) Enhanced Oil Recovery and Reservoir Engineering Professor of Petroleum Engineering and (by courtesy) Chemical Eng i neering Channing R. Robertson ( Ph D ., 1969, Stanford) Bioengineering John Ross ( Ph D. 1951 MIT ) Chemical Instabilitie s Professor of Chemistry and ( by courtesy) Chemical Eng ineering Douglass J. Wilde (P h .D., 1960 U. Ca l Berkeley) Geometric Modelling and Optimizatio n Professor of Mechan ic al Engineering and (by courtesy) Chemical Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT P Ehrli ch R J Good R Gupta V H lavacek K. M Kiser D A Kofke C R F Lund UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO ST ATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK FACULTY T J Mountziaris E Ruckenste i n M E Ryan J A Tsamopou l os C J van O ss T. W. W ebe r R. T. Yang RESEARCH AREAS Adhesion Adsorption Applied Mathematics Biochemical & Biomedical Catalysis, Kinet i cs, & Reactor Design Coal Conversion D es ign and Economics Fluid Me c hanics Polym er Processing & Rheology Process Control Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface Phenomena Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are de signed to provide depth in chemical engineering fundamentals while preserving the flexibility needed t o develop special areas of interest The Depart ment also draws on the strengths of being part of a large and diverse university center This environ ment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research The new departmental fa cilities offer an exceptional opportunity for students to d r velop their research skills and capabilities. These features combined with year-round recreational activities afforded by the Western New York country side and numerous cultural activities cen t ered around the City of Buffalo, make SUNY/Buffalo an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studies. For Information and appllcatlons, write to: FALL 1989 Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 359

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TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and M .E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M .E. FACULTY R N FINCH, Chairman Ph.D., Un i v e rs i ty of Texas P E Phase Equilibria and Environmental Engineer i ng F. T. AL-SAADOON Ph.D Univers i ty of P i nsbu r gh P E Reservoir Engineering and Production F H. DOTTERWEICH Ph.D ., John Hopk i ns Univers i ty P E. Di s tribution and Transmi ss ion W. A. HEENAN D Ch E Unive r sity of Detroit P E Process Control and Thermodynamics C. V. MOONEY M E Oklahoma Univers i ty, P E Gas M eas urem e nt a nd Produ c tion R. A. NEVILL B S. Texas A&I Un i ve r s i ty, P.E Natural Gas Engineering P W. PRITCHETT Ph.D. Un i versity of Delaware P E Petrochemical Development and Granular Solids C. RAI P h .D Illinois Ins titu te of Tec h nology P E Res ervoi r Engineering and Ga si ficat io n Desulfuri z ation D. L. SCHRUBEN Ph.D ., Carnegie M ellon University P.E. Tran s port Phenomena and Pofym e rs R. W. SERTH Ph.D ., SUNY at Buffalo P .E. Rheology and Appfied Mathematics Texas A&I University is located in Tropical South Texas, 40 miles south of the Urban Center of Corpus Christi, and 30 miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE : W. A HEENAN Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering Texas A&I University Campus Box 193 Kingsville, Texas 78363 TII UNIVERSITY OF GRADUATE STUDIES IN (}I CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. (Thesis and Non-Thesis) and Ph.D. Programs --THE FACULTY MA. Abraham Reaction kinebcs, supercritical fluids T. Ariman Particulate science and technology multiphase separation processes R. L. Cerro Capillary hydrodynamics un i t operations computer aided des i gn K. D. Luks Thermocfjnamics ph ase equilitxia F.S.Manning Industrial pollut i on control surface p rocessin g of petroleum E. J. Middlebrooks Environmental engineering Y. T. Shah Reactor design coal liquefaction mass transfer K. L. Sublette Fermentation biocatalysis hazardous waste treatment R. E. Tharpson Oil and gas process i ng computer aided process design K D. Wisecarver Fluidizat i on, bioreactor modeling mass transfer and adsorption in porous solids FURTHER INFORMA T/ON If you would like additional information concern i ng specific research areas, facilities curriculum and financial assistance contact the director of graduate programs 36 0 The University of Tulsa, 600 South College Avenue, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (918) 631-2226 The University of Tulsa has an Equal Opportunity / Affirmative A c tion Program for students and employees C HEMI CA L ENG I NEER I NG EDUCATION

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ASPIRE TO NEW HEIGHTS T h e U n iversi t y of tah i s the oldest s tal e-ru n univ e r s it y we s t of the Missouri Ri ver. The Uni\'ersity i s wor ldr e nown e d for res ea r c h acli\'ili es in m e di c in e, scie nc e and e n g in ee rin g. T h e gradua t e C h e mi ca l Engineeri n g pro g ram o ff ers a numl, er of co llaborati\' e, int e rdi sc ip)ju ary researrh s porl s; a nd a \'ar i ety o f live mu s i c performan ces in public and pri\'at e es tah l ishmenls 1hroughoul lh e ci t y. Ge n era l a r eas o f r esearc h : biot ec hn o l ogy ca tal ysis combus ti on opportu n it i es. comp ut er-aide d de s ign fos s ilf ue l s co n, ersion The U ni\' e r si t y i s lo ca t e d in Sa lt Lak e C it y, th e o nl y m e trop o lil a n area in t h e co untry which is wi thi n 45 minut es of se\'e n maj o r s ki a r e a s a nd wi th i n a da y's driv e of fi ve national pa rk s. Entertainme n t in th e ci t y includ es: r esi dent ballet sy mphony and th ea t e r organiza l ions ; pr ofess i o nal h azardo u s waste mana ge m e nt min era l s processi n g m o l ec ul ar m o delin g n onI cw t on ian fluid m echa ni s ms polymer scie n ce For in for mati o n wril e: Dire c t or of Grad u at e St udi es Deparlm e nt of C h e mi ca l Engineering U ni\' ersi t y of U t a h Sa lt Lak e C it y, U tah 841 1 2 ~S~i#~E~ UJJ UNIVERSITY OF U TAH Offers Graduate Study Leading To The M.5. and Ph.D Degrees FACULTY K. A DEBELAK (Ph.D., University of Kentucky) T. D GIORGIO (Ph D., Rice University) T. M. GODBOLD (Ph.D., North Carolina State University) K A. OVERHOLSER (Ph.D., P.E. U. of Wisconsin Madison) R. J. ROSELLI (Ph D., University of California, Berkeley) J. A. ROTH (Ph.D., P.E., University of Louisville) K. 8. SCHNELLE, JR. (Ph D ., P.E., Carnegie-Mellon Univ.) R. D. TANNER (Ph.D., Case Western ReseNe University) FALL 19 89 VANDERBILT Further Information : ENGINEERING .... ....... DEPARTMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS Atmospheric Diffusion Analysis Biological Transport Processes Biomedical Applications Chemical Process Simulat ion Coal Conversion Technology Coal Surface and Pore Structure Studies Enzyme Kinetics and Fermentation Processes Physical and Chemical Processes in Wastewater Treatment Kenneth A Debelak, Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department Box 1700 Station B Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee 37235 361

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WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY Wcyne State University GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D. A. Crowl, PhD safety and loss prevention computer applications H G Donnelly, PhD thermodynamics process design E. Gulari PhD transport laser light scattering R H. Kummler, PhD environmental engineering kinetics C. B. Leffert, PhD energy conversion heat transfer C. W Manke, Jr., PhD polymer engineering R. Marriott PhD computer applications nuclear engineering J H. McMicking, PhD process dynamics mass transfer R Mickelson, PhD polymer science combustion processes S. Ng, PhD polymer science catalysis E. W. Rothe PhD molecular beams analysis of experiments S. Salley, PhD biosystems modelling kinetics S. K. Stynes, PhD multi-phase flows environmental engineering CONTACT: Dr Ralph H Kummler, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 WEST VIRGINIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY LEONARD C. NELSON COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING New Masters Programs in Control Systems and Environmental Engineering West Virginia Institute of Technology's Leonard C. Nelson College of Engineering is pleased to announce new programs leading to the Master of Engineering degree in Control Systems and Environmental Engineering These are unique interdisciplinary programs which include industrial internship periods. Both of the programs ar e ideally suited to prepare students for professional engineering practice. The Control Systems program is structured primarily for students with chemical, e lectrical, or m e chani ca l e n g in ee ring undergraduate degr e es, whil e th e Environmental Engin e ering program is d e sign e d primarily for ch e mical and c i vi l engineers. Either program should required 18 months to complete, which includ e s two summers of internship at a coop e r a ting company. We plan to provide a stipend of $15,000-$18 000 which will be supplied by the cooperating company. If you are a superior student with an interest in helping us while we help you write: 362 Dr E H. Crum Director of Graduate Program West Virginia Institute of Technology Montgomery, WV 25136 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING ED UC ATION

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UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING Chemical Engineering For m o re informaJion conJact: We offer exciting opportunities for resear ch in many energy related areas In recent years research has been conducted in the areas of kineti cs and catalysis, adso rption, combustion, extraction, water and air pollution, computer modeling, coal liqu efactio n, and in-situ coal gasification. Dr. Rob ert D Gunn, H e ad D e pt. of Chemical Engine ering University of Wyoming P.O Box 3295 Laramie, Wyoming 82071-3295 Pers o ns seeking admission, employme n t o r access t o programs o f the University of Wyoming .,hall be cons ider ed without regard to ra ce, colo r na.tional o ri gi n, sex, age, religion, politica l belief. handi c ap o r veteran status. The University of Wyoming is located in sunny and dry Laramie (pop. 25,000), 25 miles from Colorad o. Access to superb outdoor activities and to th e D enve r area is excellent. Graduates of any accredited chemical engineering program arc eligib l e for admission, and the department offers both an M.S. and a Ph.D. program. Finan cia l aid is available, and all recipients receive full fee waivers. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Depar tmen t of Chemical Eng i neering in v i tes applicat i ons for graduate study from candidates who w i sh t o proceed to the M Eng ., M.Eng (Pulp & Paper), M.A.Sc. or Ph D degree For the latter two degrees A ss i stantships or Fe ll ow ships are ava ila ble. NO TE : AREAS OF RESEARCH Air Pollution Biocl,emical Engineer i ng B iome d i cal Eng i neering Coal, Natural Gas and O i l Processing Electrochemical Engineering Ele c trok i netic and Fouling Phenomena Flui d Dynamics Fluidization H eat Transfer Kinetics Liqu i d Extraction Magnetic Effects Mass Transfer Modelling and Optimizat io n Particle D y namic s Process Dynam ics Pulp & Paper Rheology Rotary Kilns Separation Processes Spouted Beds Sulphur Thermodynamics Water Pollut i on Inquiri e s should be addressed to : FALL 1989 Graduate Adv i sor Department of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver B C Canada V6T 1 WS 8/0ENGINEERINGJCHE/lfCAL ENGINEERING AT CARNEGE MELLON BIOPHYSICS OF CELLULAR PROCESSES: particle (cell) motion and adhesion; metabolic models; rheological prop erties of cells ; dynamics of molecules in cytoplasmic struc ture of cells MICROCIRCULA TION: blood flow and transport in nor mal and tumor microcirculation; transcapillary exchange and interstitial transport in normal and tumor microcircula tion; in t eractio n of blood cells and cancer cells with vasculature; membrane transport and hindered diffusion; retinal capillary changes in diabetes PHYSIOLOGICAL MODELING: pharmacokinetics; pul monary and circulatory models of transport processes; heat transfer; con trol mechanisms; biosensory perception; matabolic networks and transformation ; modeling of the peripheral auditory system; animal models of diabetetes FOR GRADUATE APPUCATTONS AND INFORMATION, WRITE TO CA RNEGIE MELLO U IVERSITY Biomedical Engineering Program Gra du ate Admissions, DH 2313 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 363

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UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON Graduate Study in Chemical and Materials Engineering Research assis t antships (inc luding competitive stipe nd and tuition) are avai l able for students pursuing M S in Chemica l Engineering or M S or Ph.D in Material s Engineering in th e f ollowing research areas : PROCESS MODELING EXPERT SYSTEM PROCESS CONTROL COM BU S TION S EPARATION PROCESSES COMPOS ITE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS We specialize in offering each s tudent an individualized program of study and research with most projects involving pertinent interaction with indus tria l personnel. For further i nformation write ro : Dir ector of Graduate Studies Departm en t of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Dayton 300 College Park Avenue Dayton, Ohio 45469-0001 or call (5 13 ) 229-2627 -r D The l TJ 1i 1 pn,ity r!f TJa.1Jfo11 University of Lowell College of Engineering Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering 364 We offer professionally oriented engineering education at the M.S. Ph.D., and D E. levels. In addition we offer specialization in PAPER ENGINEERING COMPUTE R-AIDED PROCESS CONTROL ENGINEERING MATERIALS POLYMERIC MATERIALS BIOTECH 1 OLOGY ENERGY ENGINEERING Please call (508) 452 5000 or write for specifics to Dr. T. Vasilos (Chemical Engineering) ex 3024 Dr. Jose Martin (Nuclear Engineering) ex 2780 Graduate Coordinators One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854 ECOLE POL YTECHNIQUE AFFILIEE A L UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Research assistantships are available in the following areas : RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING SOLAR ENGERY, ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY CONSERVATION FLUIDISATION AND REACTION KINETICS PROCESS CONTROL, SIMULATION AND DESIGN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY FILTRATION AND MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROFITEZ DE CETTE OCCASION POUR PARFAIRE VOS CONNAISSANCES DU FRANCAIS! VIVE LA DIFFERENCE!* *So m e knowl edge of th e French l a ngu age i s required. For information, write to: Denis Rouleau Department du Genie Chimique Ecole Polytechnique C P. 6079, Station A Montreal H3C 3A7, CANADA PhD / MS in C h emical Engineering UNIVERSITY of NEW HAMPSHIRE Imagine an exciting education in a relaxed rural atmosphere Imagine New Hampshire. We' r e lo cated in the Seacoast region only an hour from the White Mountains to the north or from Boston to the south. Current research pro;ects at UNH : BIOENGINEERING COAL PROCESSING COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT AL ENGINEERING POLYMER ENGINEERING FLAME PROCESSING FLUIDIZATION SOLAR ENERGY SPACE APPLICATIONS For information contact Dr SST Fan, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824-3591 C HEMI CA L ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies PROGRAMS : Theis and non thes i s options available for MS degree ; substantial design component required for M Engr program A fu lltime student w i th BSChE can complete pro gram in 9-12 months. Students with degree in chemistry will require two calendar years to complete MS degree. RESEARCH PROJECTS: Most funded research projects are energy related with the full spectrum of basic to applied projects ava i lable. Students participate in project-related thesis problems as pro j ect participants ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER: A cooperative program of study / research with research projects related to low rank coal con version and utilization sponsored by U.S Department of Energy and private i ndustry is available to l i m i ted number of students. FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (701-777-4244) VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering The Department has offered the M.Ch.E. for more than thirty years to both full-time and part time em ployed students You may sele c t from over twenty graduate courses in Ch.E (f i ve offered each semester in a two-year cycle) plus more in other de partments. Thesis is available and encouraged, a concentration in process control is offered, and many environmental engineering courses are available. The Department occupies excellent buildings on a pleasant campus in the western suburbs of Philadelphia. Computer facilities on campus and in the department are excellent. The most active research projects recently have been in heat transfer, process control reverse osmo sis and surface phenomena. Other topics are avail able There is a full time faculty of eight. Graduate assistantships are available. For more inf orma ti on wr ite C Michael Kelly, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineer i ng Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085 Acknowledgement CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION acf(now[edges and thank the 154 chemica[ engineering departments which contri6uted to our support in 1989 through their 6u[f(su6scriptions 'We afso wish -to than{( the 130 departments which fiave announced their graduate programs in this issue.

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A N N 0 u N C I N G An Inno v ati ve n e w se r ies fr o m Butt e rw or th' s The Butterworth Reprint Series in Chemical Engineering Th e Butt e r wo rth R ep rint Se r ies in C h e mi cal Engi n eering provides a solution to the prob l em of l ocating imp o rt a nt o ft e n class i c, t itl es t h a t h ave been p l aced out of print by their original publishers. T h ese r easo n a bl y p ri ce d paperbo u nd republications are produced in their original formats. Butt e r wo rch s i s pl eased to offe r th i s se ri es as a part of our ongoing effort to pro,ide chemical engineer w ith th e mos t u se ful and a uth o ri tative info r mation arnilable. T h e first boo k s to be pub l ished in the R eprint Series are: Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis Ruth e rford Ari s, U niversit y of Minne s ot a Fi rs t Publi s h e d : 1 9 6 9 3 6 8 pp p a p er 04 0 9 9 022 1 -7 $28. 9 5 (es t .) Advanced Process Control W. H a rm o n R ay, U ni ve r si t y of W isco n s i n, l\.Iadison First published: 1981 384 pp. paper 0-409-9023 1 -4 $28.95 (est.) Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engineers Sta n ley \1. \Y alas C niYersi ty of 1'. ansas, La,nence First pu/,/ished: 1951 368 pp. paper l4 09-9t122b-./ $28.95 (est.) Butterworth Publishers 80 lont va l e Ave nu e Sto n e h am :\I A 02 1 80 (6 1 7) -138 8 4 6 4


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