Chemical engineering education ( Journal Site )

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
annual[ former 1960-1961]


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:

Full Text

chemical engineering education




SCellular Blonglnering ........................................ LAUFFENSURGER
U Partleulate Procese .............................................. RANDOLPH
2 Hazardous Chemical Spills.................... KUMAR BENNETT GUDIVAKA
Fluid iMsanlcs of Suspenon ....................................... DAVIS
Applied Linear Algebra ..................................................... WANG
A Mulfidsllpllary Course In BioangInering .......................................

Blochemical and Blomedlcol Engnering .......................... SAN MolNTIRE
fa Hmrdous Waste o nagement ............ KUMMLER McMICKING POWITZ
Crosadisclplinary Research: Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project ...............

Good Copflad Cop: Conrarles In Thaching .................... FELDER
a Smrentr of My Success In Graduate Study ....................RAO
The Essence of Entropy ............................ KYLE

Do You Quali for International?


...The World is Yours!

...iEl Mundo es Tuyo!

...Le Monde est a Vous!

...Die Welt ist Dein!

9*@m; 0'

Return Home with an Exciting
Career Ahead of You!
Procter & Gamble has several entry-level product
and process development openings for BS, MS, or
PhD Chemical Engineers in Asia, Europe. Mexico
and South America.
To readily qualify, you must be bilingual
(including English) and possess appropriate
Citizenship, Immigration Visa, or Work Permit
from one or more of the following countries:
Austnia Belgiun, Brazil Chile, Columbia
Denmanrk gypt Frmance Germaqy,
Hollan Ireland Itay, Japan, Lebanon,
Mexico, Netherlands, Peru, Poracgal
Puerto Rico, SaudiArabia Spain,
UnitedKingdom and Venezuela.

Procter & Gamble total sales are over 20 billion dollars
world-wide. Major product categories include beauty
care, beverage, detergent, fabric care, food, health care,
household care, paper, and pharmaceutical consumer
products. Our technically-based corporation spent over
600 million dollars in research and product development
last year.
We offer a stimulating environment for personal and
professional growth, highly competitive salaries, and
excellent benefits package including pension, health
care and paid relocation.
If interested, send your resume, including country
qualifications and language fluencies, to:
F. O. Schulz, Jr.
International ChE Openings
The Procter & Gamble Company
Ivorydale Technical Center (CEE)
Spring Grove Ave. and June St.
Cincinnati, OH 45217

An Equal Opportuni(y Employer

Editor's Note to Seniors...

This is the 21st graduate education issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors inter-
ested in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses, research at various universities,
and departmental announcements on graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of
graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of
the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous fall issue, please write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida

Fall 1988
Arkun, Charos, Reeves Model Predictive Control
Briedis Technical Communications for Grad Students
Deshpande Multivariable Control Methods
Glandt Topics in Random Media
Ng, Gonzalez, Hu Biochemical Engineering
Goosen Research Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules
Teja, Schaeffer Research Thermodynamics and Fluid
Duda Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education

Fall 1987
Amundson American University Graduate Work
DeCoursey Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction
Takoudis Microelectronics Processing
McCready, Leighton Transport Phenomena
Seider, Ungar Nonlinear Systems
Skaates Polymerization Reactor Engineering
Edie, Dunham Research Advanced Engineering Fibers
Allen, Petit Research Unit Operations in Microgravity
Bartusiak, Price Process Modeling and Control
Bartholomew Advanced Combustion Engineering

Fall 1986
Bird Hougen's Principles
Amundson Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers
Duda Graduate Studies: The Middle Way
Jorne Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity
Stephanopoulis Artificial Intelligence in Process
Engineering: A Research Program
Venkatasubramanian A Course in Artificial Intelligence
in Process Engineering
Moo-Young Biochemical Engineering and Industrial
Babu, Sukanek The Processing of Electronic Materials
Datye, Smith, Williams Characterization of Porous
Materials and Powders
Blackmond A Workshop in Graduate Education

Fall 1985
Bailey, Ollis Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Belfort Separation and Recovery Processes
Graham, Jutan Teaching Time Series
Soong Polymer Processing
Van Zee Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering
Radovic Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes
Shah, Hayhurst Molecular Sieve Technology
Bailie, Kono, Henry FluidizatLon
Kauffman Is Grad School Worth It?
Felder The Generic Quiz

Fall 1984
Lauffenburger, et al. Applied Mathematics
Marnell Graduate Plant Design
Scamehorn Colloid and Surface Science
Shah Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars
Zygourakis Linear Algebra
Bartholomew, Hecker Research on Catalysis
Converse, et al. Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Fair Separations Research
Edie Graduate Residency at Clemson
McConica Semiconductor Processing
Duda Misconceptions Concerning Grad School

Fall 1983
Davis Numerical Methods and Modeling
Sawin, Reif Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit
Shaeiwitz Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer
Takoudis Chemical Reactor Design
Valle-Riestra Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process
Woods Surface Phenomena
Middleman Research on Cleaning Up in San Diego
Serageldin Research on Combustion
Wankat, Oreovicz Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job
Bird Book Writing and ChE Education
Thomson, Simmons Grad Education Wins in Interstate

Fall 1982
Hightower Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite
Mesler Nucleate Boiling
Weiland, Taylor Mass Transfer
Dullien Fundamentals of Petroleum Production
Seapan Air Pollution for Engineers
Skaates Catalysis
Baird, Wilkes Polymer Education and Research
Fenn Research is Engineering

Fall 1981
Abbott Classical Thermodynamics
Butt, Kung Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering
Chen, et al. Parametric Pumping
Gubbins, Street Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer
Guin, et al. Coal Liquefaction and Desulfurization
Thomson Oil Shale Char Reactions
Bartholomew Kinetics and Catalysis
Hassler Chemical Engineering Analysis
Miller Underground Processing
Wankat Separation Processes
Wolf Heterogeneous Catalysis

FALL 1989



The 1989 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec-
turer is J. L. DUDA of Pennsylvania State University.
The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and en-
courage outstanding achievement in an important field
of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice.
The 3M Company provides the financial support for this
annual award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering
educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and
an engraved certificate. These were presented to Dr.
Duda at a banquet during the ASEE annual meeting at
the University of Nebraska.
Dr. Duda's lecture was entitled "A Random Walk
Through Porous Media," and it will be published in a
forthcoming issue of CEE.
The award is made on an annual basis, with nomina-
tions being received through February 1, 1990. Your
nominations for the 1990 lectureship are invited.


ROBERT L. KABEL (Pennsylvania State Univer-
sity) was the recipient of the fourth annual Corcoran
Award, presented in recognition of the most outstanding
paper published in Chemical Engineering Education in
1988. His paper, "Instruction in Scaleup," appeared in the
summer 1988 issue of CEE.


A number of chemical engineering professors have
been recognized for their outstanding achievements.
MANFRED MORARI (California Institute of Technol-
ogy) received the prestigious Curtis W. McGraw Re-
search Award in recognition of his groundbreaking tech-
niques for robust process control and for his innovative
research on the effects of process design on the operabil-
ity of chemical processes. He was cited for the

practicability of his solutions and the high quality of his
research contributions, which have significantly fur-
thered engineering science, education, and industrial
The William Elgin Wickenden Award, which is given
to encourage excellence in scholarly writing and honors
the author of the best paper published in Engineering Ed-
ucation during the preceding publication year, was pre-
sented to RICHARD M. FELDER (North Carolina
State University).
ALAN M. LANE (University of Alabama) was the
recipient of the Outstanding Zone Campus Representa-
tive Award for Zone II, in recognition of his outstanding
contributions as a Zone Campus Representative from
that zone.
Selected as one of only nine honorees from the entire
membership of ASEE, LEWIS G. MAYFIELD
(National Science Foundation) became a Fellow of ASEE.
DONALD J. KERWIN (University of Virginia) was
singled out as an outstanding teacher of engineering stu-
dents in the Southeastern area and was presented the
AT&T Foundation Award to recognize that excellence.
Three chemical engineers were presented with the
Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award: C. STEWART
SLATER (Manhattan College), BRUCE M. MCEN-
ROE (University of Kansas), and ALAN M. LANE
(University of Alabama).
The Martin Award recognizing the best paper pre-
sented at the annual ASEE meeting was presented to
NAM SUN WANG (University of Maryland).


The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 1989-
90 are: Chairman, WILLIAM BECKWITH (Clemson
University); Past Chairman, JAMES E. STICE
(University of Texas at Austin); Vice Chairman,
THOMAS R. HANLEY (Florida A&M/Florida State
University); Secretary-Treasurer, WALLACE B.
WHITING (West Virginia University); Directors,
WILLIAM L. CONGER (Virginia Polytechnic Insti-
tute) and GLENN L. SCHRADER (Iowa State Univer-




Chemical Engineering Education
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

EDITOR: Ray W. Fahien (904) 392-0857
MANAGING EDITOR: Carole Yocum (904) 392-0861


Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Richard M. Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology

Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley

Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Raymond Baddour
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
Library Representative
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York

FALL 1989

Chemical Engineering Education


200 Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering,
Ka-Yiu San, Larry V. Mclntire

222 Hazardous Waste Management, Ralph H. Kummler,
James H. McMicking, Robert W. Powitz


201 A Multidisciplinary Course in Bioengineering,
Paul R. Bienkowski, Gary S. Sayler, Gerald W.
Strandberg, Gregory D. Reed

20 Cellular Bioengineering, Douglas A. Lauffenburger

214 Particulate Processes, Alan D. Randolph

216 Hazardous Chemical Spills,
Ashok Kumar, Gary F. Bennett, Venkata V. Gudivaka

228 Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions, Robert H. Davis

236 Applied Linear Algebra, Tse-Wei Wang


242 Initiating Crossdisciplinary Research: The Neuron-Based
Chemical Sensor Project, William S. Kisaalita, Bernard J.
Van Wie, Rodney S. Skeen, William C. Davis, Charles D.
Barnes, Simon J. Fung, Kukjin Chun, Numan S. Dogan


207 Good Cop/Bad Cop: Embracing Contraries in Teaching,
Richard M. Felder


250 The Essence of Entropy, B. G. Kyle

256 Secrets of My Success in Graduate Study, Ming Rao

197 Editorial
198 Division Activities
20 Letter to the Editor
221 Book Review

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009 2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs. FL 32028. Copyright
0 1989 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

A Program on ...


Rice University
Houston, TX 77251-1892

W E HAVE WITNESSED a gradual change in the
chemical engineering profession in the last dec-
ade. Chemical engineers have branched out and have
found new and exciting career opportunities in a
number of emerging areas, such as bioengineering,
advanced materials processing, and electronic and
photonic materials. However, nearly all of these
newly emerging, high-technology areas require not
only training in the fundamentals of chemical en-
gineering, but also demand a good basic knowledge of
the science in the area concerned. This is particularly
true in the field of bioengineering, where much of the
science was not even known ten years ago. It is our
belief that if chemical engineers are to play an active
and important role at the frontier of this exciting area,
they must be trained to be proficient in engineering
fundamentals as well as in biochemistry, cell biology,
and molecular biology. Here at Rice University we
are working toward this goal by forming three com-
prehensive research and education programs in a
Biosciences/Bioengineering Institute. The Institute
will be located in a new 110,000 ft2 building designed
for crossdisciplinary laboratory investigations involv-
ing biochemical and biomedical engineers and life sci-
entists (see Figure 1).

FIGURE 1. Architectural model of the new Biosciences/
Bioengineering Institute at Rice.

... nearly all of these newly emerging, high-technology
areas require not only training in the fundamentals of
chemical engineering, but also demand a good basic
knowledge of the science in the area concerned.

Rice University has been at the forefront of
biomedical engineering research for more than twenty
years. The Biomedical Engineering Laboratory was
first established in 1964 to provide engineering design
and development support for Dr. DeBakey's Baylor-
Rice total artificial heart. Dr. David Hellums, the cur-
rent A. J. Hartsook Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing, was a founding member. Since then the effort has
greatly expanded, but the research has remained cen-
tered on problems related to the cardiovascular sys-
tem. Beginning in 1979, the chemical engineering de-
partment decided to enlarge its efforts in bioengineer-
ing to include biochemical engineering. New faculty
with different, yet complementary, interests were re-
cruited to enlarge the scope of our existing biomedical
research activities. Currently, our program has six
faculty members and is expected to increase to a total
of nine over the next five to ten years. Over the past
four years, we have averaged four graduating PhDs
in biochemical and biomedical engineering, which is
approximately half of our total department PhD
graduates (40 for the four-year period). Six of the re-
cent graduates currently hold Assistant Professor po-
sitions in chemical engineering departments around
the country. Approximately half of our total chemical
engineering department graduate students are work-
ing on bioengineering thesis topics.
The philosophy of our program is to create an envi-
ronment which will provide basic training in engineer-
ing principles and life sciences, and to prepare our
students to meet new challenges in the process as-
pects of biotechnology. Three engineering options are
currently offered: one is a five year undergraduate
program, leading to a degree of Master of Engineering
with emphasis in bioengineering; the second program
leads to a PhD degree in chemical engineering; the
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


third is a joint program with the Baylor College of
Medicine which leads to a MD/MS or MD/PhD degree.
The professional Master of Engineering Degree in
biochemical engineering (non-thesis) is designed to
provide chemical engineering students with funda-
mental training in biochemistry, microbiology, and
molecular biology. Students enrolled in this program
not only have to fulfill core requirements in chemical
engineering, but also have to fulfill certain require-
ments offered in the Department of Biochemistry and
Cell Biology, including extensive laboratory work.
The five-year structure appears to be necessary to
give sufficient breadth. However, students can obtain
a four year Bachelors Degree if they are interested in
going directly into graduate research or into a medical
school option. Approximately one-third of our current
chemical engineering seniors are enrolled in the
biochemical engineering option.
The Doctor of Philosophy Degree in chemical en-
gineering under the Biochemical and Biomedical En-
gineering program follows a philosophy similar to that
of the Masters degree. Students enrolled in this pro-
gram, apart from fulfilling the basic PhD require-
ments set forward by the Department of Chemical
Engineering, are also required to take a sequence of
advanced courses from the life science departments,
either on campus or from the two medical schools lo-
cated in the Texas Medical Center, which is adjacent
to the Rice campus. Typical examples would include
cell biology, molecular biology, and immunology.
The MD/MS or MD/PhD joint programs are de-
signed to provide educational experiences of high
quality leading to research careers in medicine. These
programs offer a unique combination of professional
medical training with rigorous study in science or en-

Ka-Yiu San is an assistant professor at
Rice University. He received his BS degree
in chemical engineering from Rice Univer-
sity and his MS and PhD degrees from Cali-
fornia Institute of Technology.

Larry V. Mclntire is the E.D. Butcher
Professor of Chemical and Biomedical En-
gineering at Rice University. He is also di-
rector of the John W. Cox Laboratory for
Biomedical Engineering of the Bio-
sciences/Bioengineering Institute of Rice.
He received his BChE and MS degrees in
chemical engineering from Cornell Univer-
sity and his PhD degree from Princeton

Organizational Structure
Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute

S Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute I

Laboratory for Laboratory for Laboratory for
Basic Biomedical Biochemical and
Medical Science Engineering Genetic Engineerin

Director: G.J. Schroepfer
Engineering Faculty

Director L.V. Mclntire
Assoc. Dir. J.L. Moake
Engineering Faculty
Chemical Enaineerina
C.D. Armeniades
J.D. Helums
L.V. Mclntire
M.W. Glacken
K.Y. San
J.V. Shanks
Electrical Enoineerina
J.W. Clark
H.M. Bourland

Director: F.B. Rudolph
Engineering Faculty
Chemical Enaineerina
M.W. Glacken
J.V. Shanks

gineering discipline, and they emphasize an interdis-
ciplinary approach to current problems in biomedi-
cine. Successful completion of a program results in
the MD from Baylor College of Medicine and the MS
or PhD from Rice.


During the last two years, Rice University has un-
dertaken a series of steps toward the implementation
of a new plan of enhancement. This enhancement pro-
gram was initiated by our president, Dr. George
Rupp, in 1986, with the full support of the Board of
Trustees and the faculty to "move forward to become,
even more than it is today, the university its founders
envisaged to become an institution 'of the first
rank'." At the research level, President Rupp has de-
cided to focus resources on three cross-disciplinary
areas in science and engineering, to move them to
national recognition.
One of the three areas, which has a direct positive
impact on our existing biochemical and biomedical en-
gineering program, is the formation of a new institute:
the Biosciences/Bioengineering Institute. This Insti-
tute will pool expertise from a number of engineering
departments (primarily from the chemical engineering
department) with the Biochemistry and Cell Biology
department to solve problems that are multi-discipli-
nary in nature.
The main goals of the Biosciences/Bioengineering
Institute are identified as: 1) to foster and strengthen
collaboration among various groups at Rice which are
involved in biological sciences and engineering; 2) to
provide joint facilities and promote sharing of exper-

FALL 1989

tise; and 3) to serve as an interface for expanded in-
teraction and collaboration between Rice University,
the Texas Medical Center, NASA Johnson Space
Center, private industries, and other research organi-
The organizational structure of the newly formed
Biosciences and Bioengineering Institute is shown in
Figure 2. The Institute consists of three major
laboratories, each of which pursues a distinct course
of research. Faculty from the department of chemical
engineering, depending on their research interests,
will play an active role in two of these laboratories.
The Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering,
led by Larry McIntire, concentrates on research re-
lated to diseases of the cardiovascular system. Cur-
rently, the laboratory consists of six faculty members
from the department of chemical engineering and a
number of adjunct professors from Baylor College of
Medicine and the University of Texas Health Sciences
Center at Houston (see Table 1). Close working re-

Structure of
Rice Biomedical Engineering Laboratory
Larry V. Mclntire, PhD Director
Joel L. Moake, MD Associate Director
Arnez J. Washington Administrative Secretary
Marcella Estrella Senior Research Technician
Nancy Turner Research Technician
Thomas W. Chow, PhD Senior Research Associate
Mattias U. Nollert, PhD Research Associate
Colin B. McKay, PhD Research Scientist
C.D. Armeniades Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.D. Hellums A.J. Hartsook Professor, Chemical Engineering
L.V. Mclntire E.D.Butcher Professor and Chairman, ChE
M.W. Glacken Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
K.Y. San Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.V. Shanks Assistant Professor, Chemical Engineering
J.W. Clark Professor, Electrical Engineering
H.M. Bourland Lecturer, Electrical Engineering
Adjunct Faculty from the Texas Medical Center
C.P. Alfrey, MD,PhD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
S.G. Eskin, PhD Associate Professor, Division of Surgery, Baylor
College of Medicine
E.R. Hall, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Univer-
sity of Texas Medical School
E.C. Lynch, MD Associate Chairman, Division of Medicine, Baylor
College of Medicine
D.A. Sears, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
R.T. Solis, MD Associate Clinical Professor. Department of Medicine
Pulmonary Division, Methodist Hospital
M.M. Udden, MD Professor of Medicine, Division of Hematology,
Baylor College of Medicine
K.K. Wu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Hematology and
Oncology, University of Texas Medical School
F.M. Yatsu, MD Professor and Chairman, Division of Neurology,
University of Texas Medical School

lationships have already been established between the
Cox Laboratory and several of those at the Texas
Medical Center. Both Professors McIntire and Hel-
lums are Adjunct Professors in the Department of
Medicine at the Baylor College of Medicine and the
University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Hous-
ton. A brief list of current research projects can be
found in Table 2.
The Laboratory for Biochemical and Genetic En-
gineering, headed by biochemistry professor Fred
Rudolph, will focus on areas such as genetics, im-
munology, protein engineering, molecular biology,
microbiology, medicine, and agriculture. The mem-
bership of this laboratory will include faculty from
various departments, including biochemistry and cell
biology, chemical engineering, and chemistry (Figure
The Laboratory of Basic Medical Sciences, with
director George Schroepfer, has a major continuing
research effort on understanding cholesterol
As noted above, a significant part of the enhance-
ment effort includes a new $24 million building which
is being constructed to house the Biosciences/Bioen-

Bioengineering Research at Rice


Biomedical Projects

J.D. Hellums, effects of physical forces on vascular cells
L.V. Mclntire vascular wall strain effects on cell metabolism
mass transfer in the microcirculation
video microscopy analysis of blood cell-vessel wall
J.L. Moake, control of tissue plasminogen activator production
J.D. Hellums, by endothelial cells
L.V. Mclntire shear-induced von Willebrand factor aggregation of
Snew therapeutic strategies for Sickle Cell Anemia
L.V. Mclntire biochemical control of tumor metastasis
C. Armeniades biomechanics of eye tissue and control of healing
J.W. Clark cell modeling studies
Bioreactor Projects
M.W. Glacken metabolic control of mammalian cell culture reactors
kinetics of antigen shedding from colon cancer cells
adhesive interaction of mammalian ce!ls
K.Y. San construction/characterization of new plasmid vectors
dynamics of bioreactors in transient environments
development of artificial intelligence-based control
microgravity bioprocessing
J.V. Shanks plant cell tissue culture reactors
Suse of high field NMR for in vivo cell metabolism studies


gineering Institute. More than 22,000 square feet
have been allocated to accommodate the chemical en-
gineering aspects of bioengineering. This building is
expected to be completed and fully operational by the
winter of 1990.

In summary, these are exciting times at Rice Uni-
versity. The implementation of the new enhancement
program is another big step toward the goal and com-
mitment of Rice University in striving for excellence
in its undergraduate and graduate education. In par-
ticular, the formation of the Biosciences/Bioengineer-
ing Institute significantly enhances our biochemical
and biomedical engineering program. It creates a
unique environment which fosters close interactions
between life scientists and engineers. The Institute will
also serve as an effective administrative body in pro-

viding all the necessary logistical support to facilitate
interdisciplinary collaboration. More importantly, the
potential barriers which often arise from distant phys-
ical locations of various departments across the cam-
pus will be removed by housing life scientists and en-
gineers under the same roof. As such, it will not only
create an atmosphere which promotes interaction be-
tween the students and faculty from different disci-
plines, but will also provide opportunities for the en-
gineering students to work, side by side, with life sci-
entists from other research groups. We therefore
firmly believe that our program provides a unique and
challenging educational environment. Students
graduating from the bioengineering program will be
well-equipped with fundamental training and will have
had the necessary exposure in both engineering and
life sciences for further professional development. [



To The Editor:

The following is excerpted from a larger document,
"Faculty Perceptions of the State of the University, 1988-
1989," which was prepared for the Faculty Senate at the
University of Cincinnati. I chaired the committee which
produced this report.

A university becomes too large when it can no longer
provide members of the university community with the
services or ambience they expect, without amassing such
complicated bureaucracies that they actually end up pre-
venting the very goals they are attempting to achieve.
Steven Muller, President of Johns Hopkins has said, "The
major research university of today is a radically different
institution than its predecessors of three or four decades
ago. The most obvious difference is size. There have now
evolved in the United States between 50 and 100 major
research universities that are megasize-numbering their
students in tens of thousands, their faculty and adminis-
trative cadres in thousands, their buildings and their
acreage in hundreds."
Most educators agree that "multiuniversity" is an apt
description of the university of today. Twenty years ago
Columbia University had three vice presidents and a
budget of $136 million; now it has 12 and a budget of
$619 million. The problem in managing such vast institu-
tions has led to what A. Bartlett Giamatti, former Presi-
dent of Yale, called "the corporatization of the American

university," and then wrote, "One of the great inventions
of 20th century America, the private corporation, has be-
gun to displace, as a formal structure and as a style of
management, the older ecclesiastical and academic
structures and styles in which universities grew up." He
suggests that the "collegial" style of shared decision-mak-
ing has given way to the hierarchical style of big busi-
ness. While big institutions need capable administrators,
"too many people see themselves as managers first, aca-
demics second. They talk about strategy, not vision.
Numbers replace rhetoric. An institution that once saw it-
self as connected to history now prides itself as 'at the
cutting edge'. The greatest subtle, unintended effect of
these trends has been to split off the managers from the
If universities are becoming corporate at a time
when contemporary corporations are de-layering and
decentralizing, then there ought to be a symbolic lesson
learned from recent corporate history. American corpo-
rate executives often have acted as a privileged class,
asking sacrifices of middle management, professionals
and other workers, that upper management will not
make. While the rhetoric of corporate culture stresses the
need to work together, the top executives stress efficiency
and impose work rules and cost cutting measures. They
vote themselves raises, golden parachutes and bonuses,
while workers at all levels are laid off. During the re-
cession years of 1981 to 1983, the compensation of chief
executives nearly doubled while national unemployment
passed the 11% mark. In symbolic contrast to these
American management practices, Japanese executives in
Continued on page 235.

FALL 1989

C 1E



The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-2200

THIS COURSE WAS first taught solely through the
chemical engineering department (1985 thru 1987)
under the quarter system and was called Microbiolog-
ical Process Engineering. During semester transition
the course was expanded to fifteen weeks, and a six-
week laboratory was added. The course was then
crosslisted in the departments of civil engineering (as
an environmental course) and microbiology, and it was
given a truly crossdisciplinary nature with the addi-
tion of faculty from those departments. It is presently
a graduate course which is taught during the fall
semester every year, and it attracts first year
graduate students and some seniors from chemical en-
gineering, environmental engineering, and engineer-
ing science and mechanics, in addition to life science
graduate students from microbiology, ecology, and
the Masters program in biotechnology. The course is
now part of the required curriculum for the Masters
program in biotechnology.
Figure 1 shows where the course (575) fits into the

Microbial Systems

ENVR 552

ChE 577
Modeling and
Design of
Bioreactors and
Bioreactor Systems

Advanced Topics in

Microbiology and

FIGURE 1. Core Courses in Bioengineering

applied bioengineering curriculum at Tennessee. It
serves as a prerequisite for courses in environmental
engineering, chemical engineering, and microbiology
which are offered during the spring semester. ENVR
552 is directed specifically at applications for waste-
water treatment; ChE 577 addresses the development
of specific models for pure cultures and their applica-
tions for producing high value biotechnology products;

Paul R. Bienkowski is an associate pro-
fessor of chemical engineering at the Univer-
sity of Tennessee, and is a member of the
Center for Environmental Biotechnology. He
received his PhD in 1975 from the school of
chemical engineering at Purdue University.

Gary S. Sayler is a professor of microbi-
ology and ecology, directs the UTK/ORNL
Center for Environmental Biotechnology, and
is director of research for the Waste Manage-
ment Institute Center of Excellence at the Uni-
versity of Tennessee. He received his PhD in
1974 from the department of bacteriology and
biochemistry at the University of Idaho.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989

! Gerald W. Strandberg is a staff scientist
in the Chemical Technology Division at the
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and is an ad-
junct associate professor in the department of
Microbiology at the University of Tennessee.
He received his PhD in bacteriology in 1966
from the University of Wisconsin.

Gregory D. Reed is professor and head
of the department of civil engineering at the
University of Tennessee. He received his PhD
in environmental engineering from the Univer-
sity of Arkansas and has an active research and
-. publication record. He has been active in sev-
eral professional societies and is currently the
Chair of the Environmental Engineering Divi-
sion of the American Society of Civil


ChE 494

The primary objective of this course is to introduce the engineering students to bioengineering
and to allow them to communicate effectively with students in the life sciences. In subsequent semesters the
engineering students can develop strong backgrounds in microbiology, biochemistry, etc., by taking
courses in the life sciences and by working on crossdisciplinary research projects .

Micro 670 is directed at understanding the microbial
degradation and effects of toxic waste materials such
as PCB's, PAH's, and TCE's. These courses all have
direct applications in all three disciplines. What is re-
quired is a common starting point, and 575 meets that
need. Chemical engineering seniors who take this
course may elect to do an undergraduate thesis at the
Center for Environmental Biotechnology during the
spring semester. ChE 494 is used to give academic
credit to these students for their research experience.
Usually one or two students can be accommodated on
center research projects each spring and/or summer.


The undergraduate curriculum in chemical en-
gineering is very demanding and does not allow much
room for alternate course selection by the student.
Many new engineering graduate students with re-
search interests in bioengineering do not have suffi-
cient background and require additional course work
before they can begin their research projects. These
students could rapidly advance their knowledge base
in this area by working with graduate students from
the life sciences (in environments like Tennessee's
Center for Environmental Biotechnology) if only they
could communicate effectively with the life science
students, i.e., speak the language of a microbiologist.
For example, there are different meanings for CSTR
and chemostate, and the different way kinetic data is
interpreted (the engineer's dynamic approach vs. the
static approach of the life scientist). The primary ob-
jective of this course is to introduce the engineering
students to bioengineering and to allow them to com-
municate effectively with students in the life sciences.
In subsequent semesters the engineering students can
develop strong backgrounds in microbiology, biochem-
istry, etc., by taking courses in the life sciences and
by working on crossdisciplinary research projects or
doing a ChE 494 senior research project in this area.
ChE 575 provides the base from which to start the
educational experience, it provides the basic back-
ground to start graduate research, and it feeds into
more advanced biotechnology courses in several dis-
Most engineering students have no experience in
a microbiology laboratory and do not have the time or
the background to take a microbiology lab. ChE 575

had a mandatory six-week laboratory which is specif-
ically designed to give engineering students hands-on
experience with the basic day-to-day laboratory prob-
lems faced by a microbiologist, such as sterilization,
culture purity, analytic methods, etc. It is much easier
to communicate with students and faculty in the life
sciences, and to interact in crossdisciplinary research
projects, if the engineering students are familiar with
the problems faced by their counterparts in the life
sciences. The third objective was to improve com-
munications and to gain new insight by interacting
and exchanging ideas.


Table 1 gives a detailed outline of the material cov-
ered in this course. Basic biochemistry and microbiol-

Course Outline


Time (hrs)

Introduction/Overview of Biotechnology
Microbiology Physiology
Microbiology Physiology
Stoichiometry (mass and energy balances)
Enzyme Kinetics
Lab #1: Basic Microbiology Techniques
Enzyme Kinetics / Lab #1
Lab #2: Cell Growth
Growth Kinetics / Lab #2
Reactor Analysis
Continuous Culture
Lab #3: Enzyme Kinetics
Continuous Culture / Lab #3
Lab #3: Enzyme Kinetics
Cell/Enzyme Immobilization / Lab #3
Lab #4: Enzyme Immobilization
Metabolic Pathways / Lab #4
Lab #5: Continuous Culture
Metabolic Pathways/Modeling / Lab #5
Sanitary / Virology
Mid Term Examination
Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA
Molecular Biology / Recombinant DNA
Commercial Processes
Biodegradation / Deterioration
Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater Treatment
Final Examination

*Split period .5 hours of lab, 1.5 hours of lecure

FALL 1989

ogy are covered, then reaction kinetics followed by
lectures on important specialized topics in bioen-
gineering such as immobilization, biosensors, and re-
combinate DNA. The course concludes with discus-
sions on specific applications which lead into ChE 575,
ENVR 552 and MICRO 670. The text book is Ele-
ments of Bioenvironmental Engineering, by A. L.
Gaudy and E. Gaudy. This book was selected because
it gives good coverage of the desired material and is
very readable from both an engineering and a life sci-
ence standpoint (one of the authors is an engineer and
the other is a microbiologist). The coverage of
biochemistry and microbiology is such that an en-
gineering student can read and understand the mate-
rial with essentially no background, while the
mathematics describing enzyme and growth kinetics
and continuous reactors is kept on a level which can

Description of Laboratory Experiments

Laboratory #1: Basic Microbiology Techniques
Students are provided with cultures of E. coli, Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces phaeochromogenes.
Both live and stained (gram, methylene blue) organisms will be
examined microscopically. The students will also do plate counts
and sugar utilization tests.
Objective Teach basic laboratory protocols to the engineering

Laboratory #2: Growth and Substrate Utilization
Growth and substrate utilization of B. subtilis will be examined in
batch culture. Growth will be determined by optical density, dry
weight, and plate count measurements. Substrate (glucose) utiliza-
tion is monitored by dinitrosalycylic acid (DNS) assay for reducing
sugars. The cells will be saved for use in Laboratory #3.
Objectives Determine typical batch growth and substrate
utilization curves and teach measurement methods.

Laboratory #3: Enzyme Kinetics
Examine the kinetics of glucose isomerase in B. subtilis and S.
phaeochromogenes using whole cells.
Objectives Determine the Michalis parameters Km and Vmax, the
effects of temperature and pH, and substrate specificity.
Laboratory #4: Immobilization/Kinetics of Immobilized
Immobilize glucose isomerase (whole cells of B. subtilis) using cal-
cium alginate, and perform kinetic studies.
Objectives Teach a method for immobilization of cells/enzymes
and determine the effects immobilization has on enzyme kinetics.

Laboratory #5: Continuous Culture (demonstration)
A continuous culture fermentation system will be set up and oper-
ated by the TA. The students will measure optical density, cell dry
weight, and glucose isomerase activity.

Objective Determine I., Imax, the yield constant, and washout.

be handled by the life science students. Two faculty
are present at all lectures, one from engineering and
the other from the life sciences. One of the faculty will
lecture and the other will be present to stimulate dis-
cussion and insure that both engineering and life sci-
ence viewpoints are taken into consideration when dis-
cussing the various topics. Engineers and life scien-
tists frequently look at the same problem from vastly
different viewpoints, and combining these approaches
frequently gives a better insight into the problem.

Table 2 gives a brief description of the five exper-
iments which comprise the laboratory. Gerald
Strandberg is in charge of the laboratory and is sup-
ported by a teaching assistant from the Masters pro-
gram in biotechnology. The course has the use of the
biotechnology laboratory in the Walters Life Science
building which is dedicated to the Masters program in
biotechnology (experiments do not have to be termi-
nated at the end of a laboratory period). The lab is
conducted for six weeks, with four and one-half hours
of instruction in the laboratory each week. Extra lab
time is available to the students by making arrange-
ments with the teaching assistant. Each lab group is
composed of one engineering student and one life sci-
ence student. Because most of the engineering stu-
dents do not have experience in a microbiology labora-
tory, pairing them with other life science students is
a most effective way for the engineering student to
learn basic laboratory techniques on a one-on-one
basis. At the same time the engineering student can
assist his/her lab partner in designing experiments
and in analysis and interpretation of the experimental
data (modeling data and using models for data in-

This course is very effective in serving as a focal
point for bringing people together from different back-
grounds and in effectively and rapidly introducing en-
gineering students to the biotechnology area. The
microbiology laboratory is a unique addition to a
chemical engineering course which allows both first
year graduate students and seniors a hands-on experi-
ence. The course is an effective vehicle for preparing
chemical engineering graduate students for research
projects in the biotechnology area. It not only gives
them the background to communicate with life science
students in collaborating on joint research, but also
prepares them for more advanced course work in this
area. [


Random Thoughts...


Embracing Contraries in Teaching

North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695

I've come to suspect that whenever any ability is difficult
to learn and rarely performed well, it's probably because
contraries are called for patting the head and rubbing the
belly. Thus, good writing is hard because it means trying to
be creative and critical; good teaching is hard because it
means trying to be ally and adversary of students; good
evaluation is hard because it means trying to be subjective
and objective; good intelligence is rare because it means
trying to be intuitive and logical.

So says Peter Elbow in Embracing Contraries [1],
perhaps the best book I've ever read on teaching. The
theme of the book should resonate in the minds of all
engineering professors. Most of us are often frustrated,
feeling ourselves pulled in opposite directions. We want
to be good teachers and good researchers, but don't see
how we can do both given the finite number of hours in a
day. We want to provide good educational experiences
for our graduate students, which means letting them do
some floundering and learning by experience, but we also
need to produce results quickly for our funding agencies,
which requires giving detailed directions. We want to be
good department citizens, helping carry our share of the
inevitable burden of committees, recruiting, etc., but we
also need to maximize the time we spend on the things
that get us tenure, promotions, and raises. It feels as
though we have to be both particles and waves
simultaneously, and we don't know how: we can either be
excellent particles and lousy waves, or vice versa, or do a
mediocre job of both.
Among the dilemmas inherent in our profession is
that of trying to be supportive of our students while
maintaining rigorous academic standards. I can't
improve on what Elbow has to say on the subject, so I'll
let him do most of the talking.

The two conflicting mentalities needed for good teaching
stem from the two conflicting obligations inherent in the
job: we have an obligation to students but we also have an
obligation to knowledge and society. Our loyalty to students
asks us to be their allies and hosts as we instruct and share:
to invite all students to enter in and join us as members of a
learning community-even if they have difficulty. Our
commitment to students asks us to assume they are all
smart and capable of learning, to see things through their
eyes, to help bring out their best rather than their worst when

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989

it comes to tests and grades. By taking this inviting stance
we will help more of them learn.
But our commitment to knowledge and society asks us to
be guardians or bouncers: we must discriminate, evaluate,
test, grade, certify. We are invited to stay true to the
inherent standards of what we teach, whether or not that
stance fits the particular students before us. We have a
responsibility to society-that is, to our discipline, our
college or university, and to other learning communities of
which we are members-to see that the students we certify
really understand or can do what we teach, to see that the
grades and credits and degrees we give really have the
meaning or currency they are supposed to have.

Unfortunately, we can't play both roles si-
multaneously. Elbow's solution is to alternate between
them. Start a course by spelling out requirements and
grading criteria; think about handing out a representative
final exam at the beginning of the course, with examples
of strong and weak solutions. Then,

[Having done that] I can more easily go on to...turn
around and schizophrenically start being a complete ally
of students. I have been wholehearted and enthusiastic in
making tough standards, but now I can say, "Those are the
specific criteria I will use in grading; that's what you are
up against, that's really me. But now we have most of the
semester for me to help you attain those standards, do well
on those tests and papers. They are high standards but I
suspect all of you can attain them if you work hard. I will
function as your ally. I'll be a kind of lawyer for the de-
fense, helping you bring out your best in your battles with
the other me, the prosecuting-attorney me when he emerges
at the end. And if you really think you are too poorly
prepared to do well in one semester, I can help you decide
whether to trust that negative judgment and decide now
whether to drop the course or stay and learn what you can."

Elbow suggests a number of ways to provide the
recommended support. One would be effective in small
classes or larger classes with student graders:

One of the best ways to function as ally or coach is to role-
play the enemy in a supportive setting. For example, one
can give practice tests where the grade doesn't count, or
give feedback on papers which the student can revise before
they count for credit. This gets us out of the typically
counterproductive situation where much of our
commentary on papers and exams is really justification
for the grade-or is seen that way. Our attempt to help is
experienced by students as a slap on the wrist by an
adversary for what they have done wrong. No wonder
students so often fail to heed or learn from our
Continued on page 241.

FALL 1989

A Course in ...


University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6393

A COMMONLY-ASKED question in these days of
modern biotechnology is, "What is the distinction
between biochemical engineering and biomedical en-
gineering as they are traditionally understood?" Cer-
tainly, in applications this distinction still seems
clear-biochemical engineering relates to the biopro-
cessing industry, while biomedical engineering relates
to the health care industry. At the level of fundamen-
tals, though, there is a blurring of such a demarcation.
Both areas heavily involve investigation of topics in
eukaryotic cell biology such as cell behavioral phenom-
ena (e.g., growth, adhesion, differentiation, protein
synthesis, and secretion), monoclonal antibodies, re-
ceptors, and gene manipulation. The major difference
is that for the bioprocessing industry these topics are
of interest as far as they underlie understanding of
bioreactor and bioseparation performance, while for
the health care industry they are of interest for their
relevance to physiological function. It should be
further noted that the purpose of much of the bio-
process industry is, in fact, to provide products for
use in the health care industry, completing the circle.
In making sense of the application of chemical en-
gineering to the modern life sciences, one needs to
define particular engineering subdisciplines on the
basis of the particular life science disciplines to which
the engineering science principles are applied. Using
this view, traditional biochemical engineering has
been primarily based on biochemistry and microbiol-
ogy, while traditional biomedical engineering has been
largely based on physiology. With the advent of the
modern life science disciplines of molecular biology
and cell biology, it will probably be useful to define a

With the advent of the modern life
science disciplines of molecular biology
and cell biology, it will probably be useful to define
a new subdiscipline with a name something
like "Molecular/Cellular Bioengineering" .

C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989

Douglas A. Lauffenburger is currently
Professor and Chairman of the Department of
Chemical Engineering, and a member of the
Graduate Group in Cell Biology, at the
University of Pennsylvania. He is the recipient
of an NSF Presidential Young Investigator
Award, an NIH Research Career Development
Award, the AIChE Alan P. Colburn Award, and
a Guggenheim Fellowship. His major research
focus has been in the area of receptor-
mediated cell phenomena.

new engineering subdiscipline with a name something
like "Molecular/Cellular Bioengineering," which is en-
gineering applied to molecular cell biology. Chemical
engineering will be the predominant engineering dis-
cipline involved, because of the fundamentally chemi-
cal nature of molecules and cells.
It may be of interest to briefly consider the histori-
cal context of this current situation. Cell biology es-
sentially began in the 1940s with the invention of the
electron microscope, which permitted intracellular
structure of eukaryotic (e.g., animal) cells to be
studied. Molecular biology, of course, began in the
early 1950s with the discovery of the molecular nature
of the genetic code. A marriage between these two,
mainly in the area of animal cell biology (because of
their more complex structure/function relationships),
evolved in the 1970s as particular molecules involved
in the cell structures responsible for cell function came
to be isolated, identified, and manipulated in a reliable
manner. This marriage has led to the emergence of
modern cell biology, often called "molecular cell biol-
ogy," in which cells-again primarily animal cells-
can be studied in rigorous fashion from a molecular
perspective. In the past ten years this field has
achieved a position at the forefront of the life sciences
in general and of biotechnology in particular. Probably
every university in the country has at least one course
based on textbooks like Molecular Cell Biology, by
Darnell, et al., or Molecular Biology of the Cell by
Alberts, et al., in its life science departments.
All of this is a preface to explain why we have
begun to offer a course in chemical engineering at
Penn entitled "Cellular Bioengineering." In this


course, we deal with how chemical engineering princi-
ples can be gainfully applied to modern molecular cell
biology. We focus on fundamental molecular and cellu-
lar phenomena rather than on particular applications;
thus, this course is helpful to students interested in
either the bioprocess industry or the health care in-
dustry, or both. Basing the material on research done
primarily during the past decade, we present quan-
titative analyses of cell physiological phenomena in
terms of the underlying principles of chemical reaction
kinetics, transport phenomena, thermodynamics, and
mechanics. These sorts of analyses should, in my opin-
ion, prove to be very helpful in the coming years as
knowledge of molecular bases of cellular processes
needs to be synthesized into understanding the larger
context of cell function.
There is a special emphasis on mammalian blood
and tissue cell behavior mediated by the interaction
between chemical ligands and cell receptors, which
are glycoproteins typically located in the cell mem-
brane responsible for stimulation and regulation of
most important cell functions (including growth, adhe-
sion, migration, and secretion). The reason for this is
that to date there has been little treatment of this
aspect of cell function by biochemical engineers rela-
tive to its prominence in molecular cell biology. One
can crudely view cell function as an interplay among
three key aspects. First, the genetic aspect repre-
sents what functions a cell is capable of. Only a small
portion of this potential is expressed at any given
point in time. Second, the enzymatic aspect repre-
sents what functions a cell is actually carrying out at
a given point in time. Which functions are being car-
ried out depends on what genes are being expressed
as well as the levels of gene expression and enzyme
activity. So, the missing link is what governs gene
expression and enzyme activity. Although all of this
is oversimplification for purposes of clarity, to a large
extent gene expression and enzyme activity are regu-
lated by intracellular signals generated by ligand/re-
ceptor binding interactions. Receptors basically pos-
sess two central properties: they are capable of selec-
tive binding to specific chemical ligands and they are
capable of transducing this binding event into intracel-
lular biochemical signals. These signals then lead to
regulation of gene expression and enzyme activity.
Most chemical engineering departments, including our
own, currently offer biochemical engineering courses
that treat enzyme reactions and gene expression from
chemical reaction engineering and transport phenom-
ena perspectives, so it is this third aspect of cell reg-
ulation and resulting cell function that requires addi-
tional attention.

In this course we focus on fundamental
molecular and cellular phenomena rather than on
particular applications ... thus (the course) is helpful to
students interested in either the bioprocess industry
or the health care industry, or both.

The outline currently used is as follows:

I. Receptor/LigandBinding andSignal Transduction
A. Monovalent binding and apparent cooperativity effects
B. Multivalent binding and crosslinking
C. Transport limitations
D. Probabilistic considerations
E. Signal transduction and second messengers

II. Intracellular Protein Trafficking
A. Endocytosis
B. Intracellular sorting
C. Protein synthesis and secretion

III. Cell Proliferation
A. Cell cycle kinetics
B. Growth factor regulation
C. Cell density effects

IV. Cell Adhesion
A. Thermodynamic models
B. Mechanical models
C. Dynamical models

V. Cell Migration
A. Cell population behavior
B. Individual cell behavior
C. Mechanistic models

There is no required text for this course, but the
previously mentioned molecular cell biology texts are
referred to often for background reading. More spe-
cific readings in the research literature, frequently in-
cluding recent comprehensive review articles as well
as original research papers, are regularly assigned.
Problem sets are also distributed weekly, allowing the
student to work out examples of mathematical models
and analyses of the various phenomena considered in
class. Most importantly, there is a term project in
which the student is asked to develop his or her own
original mathematical model for a phenomenon of per-
sonal interest, and to apply an analysis of this model
to relevant experimental data in the literature.
In order to provide a better picture of the course
contents I will now go on to present a brief overview
of the various topics covered, based on the key litera-
ture read and discussed in class. To begin with, a
broad foundation of background reading in Darnell, et
al., or Alberts, et al., is assigned, including chapters
1, 5, 6, 7, 14, and 15 in the former, or chapters 1, 4,
6, 7, and 10 in the latter. Most of this material is dealt
with in detail later, but some of the early chapters are

FALL 1989

necessary for the student to put particular phenomena
into overall context.
The first section of the course looks at fundamen-
tals of receptor/ligand binding and signal transduction
processes. Good background, especially on common
experimental techniques and typical pitfalls, is pro-
vided by chapters three through six in a book by Lim-
burd entitled Cell Surface Receptors: A Short Course
on Theory and Methods. The relevant portions of the
basic texts are chapters 15 and 16 in Darnell, et al.,
and chapter 13 in Alberts, et al. Simple monovalent
receptor and ligand binding equilibrium and kinetic
properties are a good place to start, for much of the
mathematical analysis is reminiscent of enzyme kine-
tics, quite familiar to many chemical engineering stu-
dents. The well-known equilibrium Scatchard plot is
introduced, a plot of the ratio of bound ligand to free
ligand versus bound ligand, with consequent simple
determination of binding equilibrium constant and re-
ceptor number from the slope and ordinate-intercept.
Complications inherent in correct interpretation of
this plot are immediately presented, as described
nicely by Limburd's book and in some papers by Klotz
[1] which include improper consideration of nonspe-
cific ligand binding, neglect of ligand depletion, and
lack of data at sufficiently high ligand concentration.
Modern numerical parameter estimation methods can
sometimes be gainfully applied, as described by Mun-
son and Rodbard [2], Munson [3-4] and DeLeon, et al.
[5]. The latter paper helpfully discusses limitations of
these methods, using computer simulation compari-
sons. Of course, more fundamental complications fre-
quently arise from the presence of other effects, in-
cluding multiple receptor or ligand subpopulations (es-
pecially with radioactively or fluorescently labeled
ligand), multivalency (allowing possible cooperativity
effects), and additional receptor processes such as
aggregation, internalization, and covalent modifica-
tion, which may all result upon ligand binding. These
various phenomena generally result in apparent
changes in binding affinity with ligand concentration,
often referred to as cooperativity. Examples and cor-
responding analyses of these can be found in the re-
search literature. As examples, the following papers
are useful references: receptor subpopulations, Smith
[6]; covalent modification, deWit and Bulgakov [7];
aggregation in ternary complexes, Gex-Fabry and De-
Lisi [8]; and affinity conversion, Lipkin, et al. [9]. Cell
surface aggregation effects, especially when multiva-
lent receptors and ligands are involved, can lead to a
variety of complications, and also appear to be central
to many signal transduction processes. Good example
references in this area from a vast literature can in-

clude DeLisi and Chabay [10], Perelson and DeLisi
[11], and Dembo and Goldstein [12].
In all of these analyses, reaction rates of receptor/
ligand binding and dissociation are central. It is not
surprising to chemical engineers that often these rates
can be transport-limited. In these sorts of situations
involving a finite number of discrete receptor sites
spatially distributed on the cell surface, transport
limitations can lead to unanticipated effects. The sem-
inal paper in this area is by Berg and Purcell [13]
which demonstrates the nonlinear dependence of over-
all binding and dissociation rate constants on the re-
ceptor surface density. Improved mathematical treat-
ments have followed, such as DeLisi and Wiegel [14],
Brunn [15], and Shoup and Szabo [16], permitting
generalization to more complicated situations. The
key result, however, is that the rate constants for
binding or dissociation per receptor can not be calcu-
lated simply by dividing the rates on a per cell basis
by the receptor density when ligand diffusion is rate-
limiting. Transport limitations can also lead to false
indications of cooperative binding phenomena. A very
interesting example of this is given by Wiley [17]. Al-
though ligand diffusion in free solution to the cell sur-
face is often not rate-limiting for receptor/ligand bind-
ing, receptor diffusion within the cell membrane is
generally rate-limiting for receptor aggregation. Good
treatments of this include Goldstein, et al. [18] and
Keizer, et al. [19].
An interesting consideration not typically relevant
to chemical engineering problems is that of probabilis-
tic effects. That is, most chemical reaction models as-
sume deterministic behavior due to statistical averag-
ing over very large numbers of molecules. Since re-
ceptor densities are usually in the range of 103 to 106
per cell, since behavioral responses can depend on
amplification of exceedingly small signals, and since
experimental observations are often made on the basis
of small numbers of cells or even individual cells, sig-
nal noise can be quite significant and is sometimes the
key to proper understanding of the behavior. Mathe-
matical discussions of this aspect can be found in Berg
and Purcell [13], and in DeLisi, et al. [20] and Lauffen-
burger and DeLisi [21]. Stimulating cell biological
examples in which it is relevant include inheritance of
behavior-regulating proteins [22], cytoskeletal assem-
bly [23], and cell migration [24,25]. An extremely
helpful source of fundamental mathematical concepts
here is the book by Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic
There is not much analysis available on signal
transduction events following receptor/ligand binding.
The most heavily studied system is that of the so-called


"G-proteins" and cyclic AMP generation as an intracel-
lular second messenger. Useful examples detailing
mathematical models and analysis of quantitative ex-
perimental data include Higashijima, et al. [26] and
Rapp, et al. [27].
The second section of the course deals with reac-
tion and transport processes involving cell receptors
and other proteins beyond cell surface events. These
"trafficking" processes include internalization of re-
ceptors and receptor/ligand complexes, sorting of
these molecules in intracellular organelles-with con-
sequent recycling of some to the cell surface and de-
gradation of others intracellularly, and synthesis and
secretion of proteins through intracellular routes. In
addition to the Darnell, et al., and Alberts, et al.,
background, good review articles exist: Steinman, et
al. [28] and Wiley [29] are among the best. The latter,
in fact, provides a good mathematical modeling treat-
ment along with biological basics. Trafficking process-
es can have a dramatic influence on both receptor/
ligand binding dynamics and on signal transduction
and behavioral responses. Biological examples of
these consequences can be found in Wiley and Cun-
ningham [30], Zigmond, et al. [31], and Myers, et al.
[32], with more general mathematical analyses in Gex-
Fabry and DeLisi [33] and Beck and Goren [34]. A
major implication is that at temperatures allowing
trafficking processes, receptor/ligand binding dynam-
ics cannot be interpreted simply using Scatchard plot
methods. Although the biochemical mechanisms are
only now emerging, possibly helpful models and anal-
yses of the crucial intracellular sorting step have been
presented [35, 36]. Finally, it is becoming clear that
the trafficking mechanisms involved in protein synthe-
sis and secretion in eukaryotic cells are likely to be
quite similar to those involved in endocytic protein
uptake. There is no mathematical analysis of this pro-
cess available to date, but a suggestive recent review
of experimental observations is given by Burgess and
Kelly [37].
With this understanding of fundamental receptor/
ligand processes, one can move on to analysis of re-
sulting cell behavioral phenomena. In this course, we
focus on three: proliferation, adhesion, and migration,
although there are others presently not as well
studied, such as secretion and differentiation. These
three phenomena comprise the next three sections of
the course.
In the area of cell proliferation, the background in
Darnell, et al., is pages 147-154, 192-200, 517-524, and
1035-1046, and in Alberts, et al., is Chapter 11. An
excellent reference text is Baserga, The Biology of
Cell Reproduction. The focus of our presentation is

the regulation of cell proliferation by receptor-
mediated growth factor signals, with a good recent
review provided by Deuel [38]. To begin this section,
however, context is provided by some discussion of
more general models for cell cycle kinetics such as
Takahashi [39], Fried [40], and Aroesty, et al. [41]. A
good reference for this sort of model is by Swan, Some
Current Mathematical Topics in Cancer Research,
and a useful review can be found in Bertuzzi, et al.
[42]. Useful background information on nutrient ef-
fects on mammalian cell proliferation kinetics can be
found in McKeehan and McKeehan [43], and some re-
cent quantitative work is also available on this subject
[44, 45]. A fairly rigorous analysis, distinguishing ef-
fects on the cycling rate of proliferating cells from
those on the fraction of cells proliferating, can be
found in Cowan and Morris [46]. It seems that it is
more likely that the latter quantity is typically growth
rate-controlling, as the cycling rate of proliferating
cells is fairly constant. Effects of growth factor bind-
ing and trafficking on overall proliferation rate is a
crucial topic, one of great current activity. A superb
starting point is the work by Knauer, et al. [47], who
were able to demonstrate a linear dependence of cell
proliferation rate on the steady-state number of
growth factor/receptor complexes for human fibro-
blasts responding to epidermal growth factor. Further
effects of trafficking on the degree of proliferative re-
sponsiveness have been analyzed by Lauffenburger,
et al. [48], indicating that there may be an important
relationship. Although there is little additional work
along these lines available to date, it is a major prem-
ise of this course that understanding of cell prolifera-
tion phenomena, probably including most empirically
observed effects like serum requirements, attachment
requirements, contact inhibition, and inoculum cell
density requirements, will require quantitative
analysis of receptor-mediated behavior. One example
of this is the interpretation of cell inoculum density
requirements in terms of possible autocrine (self-re-
leased) growth factors [49], and more can be expected
to come along in the near future. A couple of notewor-
thy papers not directly concerned with growth factor
regulation, but providing related important models of
eukaryotic cell proliferation, are Alt and Tyson [50]
and Cherry and Papoutsakis [51]. The first paper
deals with probabilistic aspects of a critical cell cycle
regulatory species in yeast growth, which in many
ways is a good model system for intracellular control
mechanisms of mammalian cell growth. The second
paper shows how simple geometric considerations can
influence net cell population growth on surfaces when
proliferation is "contact-inhibited."

FALL 1989

In the area of cell adhesion, appropriate back-
ground reading on receptor aspects are reviews by
Yamada [52] and by Buck and Horwitz [53]. A seminal
paper laying out the biophysical fundamentals is that
by Bell [54]. There are two central underlying issues
for engineering analysis. One is how to model a recep-
tor/ligand bond, especially in regard to the effects of
mechanical stress on its kinetic and equilibrium prop-
erties. Another is how the variety of forces present
act on cell mechanical properties to yield a contact
area, within which the two surfaces are in sufficiently
close contact to permit receptor/ligand bonds to form.
Most analytical efforts are based in some manner on
Bell's concepts and can be divided into two major
categories: equilibrium models and dynamic models.
In the first category there are additionally two chief
types, mechanical and thermodynamic. A large
number of papers based on equilibrium thermo-
dynamic models have been published; good represen-
tatives are Bell [55], Bell, et al. [56], and Torney, et
al. [57]. The mechanical models are principally by
Evans [58]. Both of these types of models attempt to
predict the strength of equilibrium adhesion, with the
primary goal of determining influence of various sys-
tem parameters on the force required to detach a cell
adhered to a surface or another cell. (It should be
mentioned that there is a vast literature on cell adhe-
sion based on surface energy ideas, a recent example
being by van Oss [59]. However, these do not easily
incorporate specific biochemical receptor/ligand ef-
fects and so are largely neglected in this course).
There has been much less work to date on dynamical
models, exceptions being Hammer and Lauffenburger
[60] and Dembo, et al. [61]. The former deals with
kinetics of a cell encountering a potentially-adhesive
surface in the presence of fluid shear flow, and at-
tempts to predict the conditions under which adhesion
will occur. The latter focuses on the dynamic behavior
of a cell maintained near such a surface, with the chief
result being prediction of a steady-state cell rolling
velocity in fluid shear flow. As mentioned earlier, an
important aspect of cell adhesion is the cell mechanical
properties; a helpful reference on this topic is by
Dong, et al. [62].
Good background reading on the topic of cell migra-
tion can be found in books by Lackie (Cell Movement
and Cell Behavior), Trinkaus (Cells into Organs: The
Forces that Shape the Embryo), and Wilkinson
(Chemotaxis and Inflammation). Three major as-
pects are treated in this course. The first topic is the
development of mathematical models for cell popula-
tion migration behavior, including chemotaxis. There
is a substantial literature in this area, with the follow-

ing being the most significant papers: Patlack [63],
Keller and Segel [64], Alt [65], Lauffenburger [66],
and Othmer, et al. [67]. These provide cell flux expres-
sions analogous to diffusion/convection equations for
molecular transport, and relate cell population trans-
port parameters (the random motility coefficient and
chemotaxis coefficient) to fundamental individual cell
parameters (speed, persistence time, directional bias).
These expressions can be used to analyze cell migra-
tion experimental assays for determination of the val-
ues of the population parameters, as in Tranquillo, et
al. [68] and Buettner, et al. [69]. The second topic is
analysis of individual cell paths for quantification of
the fundamental parameters. The central papers in
this area are Nossal and Zigmond [70], Dunn [71],
Dunn and Brown [72] and Othmer, et al. [73]. The last
topic is an especially timely and difficult issue-the
biochemical/biophysical mechanisms underlying cell
migration. Useful biological reviews are Bretscher
[74] and Singer and Kupfer [75] on membrane and
cytoplasmic processes, and Devreotes and Zigmond
[76] on chemosensory processes. Important basic in-
formation on cell-generated forces can be found in
Harris [77]. Concerning mathematical models of these
phenomena, there are a number of efforts toward
analysis of the rate of pseudopodal extension, which
is the first step in locomotion. Among these are Oster
and Perelson [78], and Zhu and Skalak [79]. The
former emphasizes hydrostatic and osmotic forces in
generating membrane protrusion and cytoplasmic
flow, while the latter focuses on cytoskeletal assem-
bly. Insufficient information exists to definitively dis-
tinguish between these two hypotheses, although cir-
cumstantial data demonstrating influence of extracel-
lular osmotic levels on membrane protrusions favor
the former at this point. Oster [80] provides an ex-
tremely useful discussion of the various forces in-
volved, including membrane mechanics, but without
mathematical analysis. An insightful model relating
overall cell locomotion rate to receptor distribution
along the cell membrane is by Dembo, et al. [81]. This
model does not, however, attempt to predict move-
ment speed from cell-generated forces, a most daunt-
ing but important goal. An extremely crude prelimi-
nary attempt at doing just this is offered by Lauffen-
burger [82]. Finally, Tranquillo, et al. [83] provides a
model not for the rate of locomotion, but for the direc-
tion, based on a simple model of receptor-mediated
signal transduction including probabilistic effects.
This model successfully predicts cell paths in the pre-
sence and absence of chemical attractant concentra-
tion gradients.
If time permits, which it probably will not, one can


go on to discuss papers which incorporate these sorts
of models for fundamental cell behavioral phenomena
into analyses of physiological phenomena. There is a
vast literature on models of the immune response (see,
for example, Perelson [ed.], Theoretical Immunol-
ogy). Other interesting and important processes which
have received less extensive analysis to date include
angiogenesis [84] and wound healing [85].
This article has been an attempt to provide a sup-
erficial overview of topics that can be profitably
treated from the perspective of chemical engineering
applied to modern molecular cell biology, along with
some key references to guide the treatment. There is
no question that this field will both grow and change
tremendously over the next few years, but I hope that
this article will be of some help to anyone wishing to
study in this area.
Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to a
number of students who have been of substantial help
in teaching this course: Helen Buettner, Paul DiMilla,
Daniel Hammer, Jennifer Linderman, Bob Tranquillo,
Cynthia Starbuck, and Flaura Winston. Their partici-
pation and special insights have made this an excep-
tionally stimulating course.

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FALL 1989

A course in .


University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721

A USEFUL WORKING definition for particles [1] is,
"that state of subdivision of matter whose shape
depends on the process by which it was formed and on
the intermolecular cohesive forces present." This def-
inition applies equally well for liquid droplets (spheri-
cal, maintained by surface tension) or crystalline sol-
ids having a geometric shape (e.g., cube, platelet, etc.)
consistent with the crystalline structure and affected
by the local molecular environment producing the
This article describes a special topics graduate
course (ChE-514) on particulate processes given fre-
quently by the author at the University of Arizona.
The text for the course is Theory of Particulate Pro-
cesses: Anaylsis and Techniques of Continuous Crys-
tallization [2]. The subtitle has been said to be more
accurate in describing the book than the title, al-
though the second edition attempts to correct this im-
pression. The text was motivated by the necessity of
collecting and organizing all the information on the
Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) problem, which is cov-
ered extensively in the course Particulate Processes.
Thus, the course and text are nearly inseparable.
ChE-514 is a "required" course for the writer's stu-
dents who are engaged in process crystallization re-
search. The course is given whenever the combination
of graduate students needing to take it (ADR's) plus
other graduate students desiring additional chemical
engineering credit to fill out their graduate study pro-

Alan D. Randolph is a professor of
chemical engineering at the University of Ari-
zona, where he has been since 1968. He re-
ceived his BChE at the University of Colorado
(1956) and his PhD from Iowa State University
(1962). He has an active research program in
process crystallization and has consulted for
numerous companies in this area.

Course Topics for Particulate Processes

* Introduction and Motivation: The Importance of PSD/CSD
* Particle Distributions
* The Population Balance
* Modeling Continuous and Batch Crystallizers
* Crystallization Kinetics
* Crystal Size Responses for Continuous and Batch Crystallizers
* Reaction Engineering of CSD
* CSD Dynamics and Control

gram, exceeds the minimum class enrollment for a
graduate offering. The course unashamedly concen-
trates on process crystallization (and CSD) as the
example par excellence to illustrate the predictive
population balance theory of particulate processes for-
mally developed in the text. The writer attempts to
maintain a reasonable balance of non-crystallization
topics considering the background of those enrolled.

Table 1 shows the subject outline of Particulate
Processes. It is identical to the text with the exception
of Chapter 10 (in the course, the last periods are used
for student reviews of the current literature of par-
ticulates). The ground rules are that crystallization
students cannot choose a crystallization article to re-
view, while others may. The main point is that the
articles must emphasize the distributed nature of par-
ticulate systems. Proposed titles are thus pre-
screened. Five minutes of perusing the article to be
reviewed can immediately determine if the course has
been a success.
One graduate student suggested that scarce
semester-end time could be saved if written, rather
than oral, critiques were handed in as a term project.
This is an excellent idea except, of course, that it
shifts a major work load from the student to the in-

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


In addition to emphasizing the distributed nature of particulates, the course emphasizes predictive
rather than descriptive modeling of the particle distribution using population balance mechanics. An illustration
of CSD prediction and manipulation will be presented for the useful double draw-off (DDO) configuration.

structor. In addition to emphasizing the distributed
nature of particulates, the course emphasizes predic-
tive rather than descriptive modeling of the particle
distribution using population balance mechanics. An
illustration of CSD prediction and manipulation will
be presented for the useful double draw-off (DDO)
configuration. Current unit operation texts [3] now
present the CSD from a Mixed Suspension, Mixed
Product Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer in a predic-
tive context, but stop short of CSD manipulation
(which would require crystallization kinetics). The
first two chapters (and course topics) describe the
general nature and elementary statistics of distrib-
uted particulates (e.g., means, variance, cumulative


n \
o -Go









1I 1
-G -RG


I -
0 LF


FIGURE 1. MSMPR and DDO configurations and CSD
(after E. T. White and A. D. Randolph (1988)).

vs. density, etc.). The distributions are presented in
density form. (Students often have trouble with the
units of population density, (length)-). Much attention
is given to the gamma distribution (the natural distri-
bution of crystallization processes), but other useful
empirical distributions, e.g., Rosin-Rammler and
Gaudin-Melloy, that are routinely used in the minerals
industry [4] are presented in the course.
Chapter 3 develops and formalizes the multi-vari-
ate population balance which is used predictively
throughout the remainder of the course. At this point,
the useful moment transformation is introduced. The
leading moments of the population density function

mj = Lf (L)dL for j= 0,1,2,3

form a closed set of non-linear algebraic equations
which, in principle, completely describe the idealized
MSMPR crystallizer, given the nucleation/growth
rate kinetics of a particular system. Roughly speak-
ing, the MSMPR concept is to crystallization as the
CSTR is to reaction engineering with the advantage
that theform of the equations is kinetics-independent.
Thus, for a specific case the kinetics can be brought
in as auxiliary equations to complete the solution.
Chapter 4 develops the MSMPR concept in detail.
This chapter, together with Chapters 7 (CSD manipu-
lation) and 8 (CSD dynamics), form the core of presen-
tations for the industrial short course. Chapter 5 pre-
sents crystallization mechanisms and kinetics from an
elementary level. The writer often suffers from acute
Felder's Impostor Syndrome [5] when discussing crys-
tal nucleation and growth mechanisms. This subject
could better be covered by someone in material sci-
ences well-versed in crystallography. For example,
when discussing crystal growth mechanisms by spiral
dislocations, the writer finds that even the most imag-
inative students are barely convinced that the crystal
dislocation is self-perpetuating. Crystal nucleation/
growth kinetics can often be described for high yield
systems with simple power-law empiricisms of the

B= k Gi M

where i and j are two parameters respectively describ-
Continued on page 227.

FALL 1989

A course in ...


Use of the CAMEO Air Dispersion Model to Predict Evacuation Distances

The University of Toledo
Toledo, OH 43606

THE UNIVERSITY OF Toledo offers several air pol-
lution courses taught by the senior authors to en-
gineering undergraduate and graduate students. In
the undergraduate courses, "Introduction to Air Pol-
lution Engineering" and "Air Pollution Control," the
students are exposed to the concept of air dispersion
modeling. The training in dispersion modeling con-
tinues in two senior/graduate courses: 1) "Dispersion
Modeling" and 2) "Hazardous Chemical Spills."
This paper provides an overview of the CAMEO
model [1] and its uses in the classroom as a training
tool in the "Hazardous Chemical Spills" course. The
model can be obtained from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, Hazardous Materials
Response Branch, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, BIN
C15700, Seattle, Washington 98115.
Chemical accidents are an unfortunate reality of
industrial society. With billions of pounds of toxic
chemicals being produced, stored, shipped, and used
daily, it is axiomatic that leaks, spills, and accidents
will occur. The consequences of these chemical spills
can range from a simple nuisance to virtual destruc-
tion of a body of water or to thousands of deaths and
In the early days of spill technology and response
(the 1970s), the major concern in dealing with chemi-
cal spills was for pollution of the aquatic environment.
Indeed, spill response and cleanup efforts were ini-

tially directed only at oil spills, but soon chemical spills
and the destruction they caused in the aquatic envi-
ronment surpassed concern for the impact of oil on the
ecology. Two early examples of chemical spills are the
destruction of Shawnee Lake in Ohio [2] by a gallon
of strychnine-treated corn mixed with endrin, and the
intentional discharge of hexachlorocyclopentadiene
into the sewers of Louisville, Kentucky. These spills
severely impacted major bodies of water [3]. Sub-
sequently, Louisville suffered a more serious incident
when hexane that was discharged into the sewer sys-
tem, vaporized and exploded, causing thousands of
dollars of damage.
As serious as the environmental impact of chemi-
cals on water resources is, it is those spills (or inci-
dents) that result in emissions of toxic (volatile) chem-
icals into the air that pose the greatest danger to both
first responders and nearby residents. Clearly the
most dramatic and devastating chemical incident that
has ever occurred was the release of 30 to 35 tons of
methyl isocyanate at Bhopal, India, on December 3,
1984. This toxic chemical release killed an estimated
2,500 people and injured over 200,000 more [4].
Fortunately, extremely toxic chemicals such as
methyl isocyanate are produced in limited amounts at

Gary F. Bennett received his BSc from
Queen's University and his MS and PhD de-
grees from Michigan, all in chemical engineer-
ing. He has taught at The University of Toledo
since 1963 and started a course there in haz-
ardous chemical spills ten years ago. He is
consultant to the Toledo fire division on
chemical spills, has written several spill
prevention and control plans for industry, and
is author of the Hazardous Spills Handbook,
published by McGraw Hill.

Venkata Gudivaka is a graduate assis-
tant at The University of Toledo. He joined the
Department of Civil Engineering program in
the fall of 1987. He graduated with a Bachelor
of Engineering degree from the University of
Bombay, India, in 1987, and as part of this pro-
gram he worked with Union Carbide Corpration
in Bombay during the summer of 1986. He is
presently working in the field of dense gas
modeling and model evaluation for his MS

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989

Ashok Kumar is a professor of civil engi-
neering at The University of Toledo where he
teaches courses on air pollution and conducts
research in the area of air pollution modeling
and monitoring. He received his BS from Ali-
garh University in India, his MS from the Uni-
versity of Ottawa, and his Doctoral Degree from
the University of Waterloo. A registered pro-
fessional engineer, he is a consultant to
industrial organizations.


An explanation of the CAMEO system, one of the commercially available air dispersion model programs, is given
to the students. The level of discussion conducted in the classroom depends on the course. The students
are told that CAMEO has features for calculating downwind chemical concentration from release.

very few locations in the world. But other toxic gases
such as ammonia, chlorine, and hydrochloric acid are
widely used and have been released all too frequently.
Moreover, billions of pounds of these chemicals are
produced every year, and their storage and use are
ubiquitous. Notable spills involving these compounds

Ammonia Houston, Texas: Tanker accident; 1.9 tons of
ammonia released with a 30 m high cloud formed with danger
persisting for two and one-half hours [5].
Chlorine Mississauga, Toronto, Canada: Railroad derailment;
27 tons of chlorine released in a fire; 300,000 people evac-
uated over an area of 129 km2 [6].
Silicone Tetrachlorida A storage tank released 1100 m3
(284,000 gal) of SiCI4 over five days; HCI vapor was formed
when the SiCl4 contacted moisture in the air; 160 people were
hospitalized, 16,000 were evacuated, and the toxic cloud ex-
tended 8 to 16 km from the tank [7].
Nitric Acid A puncture in a rail tank car released 55 m3 (14,000
gal) of 99% solution of nitric acid; the resulting vapor cloud of
toxic nitrogen dioxide forced the evacuation of 5,000 people
Pesticides Fires at facilities storing pesticides and/or haz-
ardous waste have sent toxic gases wafting across the land-
scape to threaten anyone in their way. Fumes from a 1974
pesticide fire in Alliance, Ohio, caused fire personnel and resi-
dents to exhibit symptoms that included nausea, burning eyes
and throats, and dizziness [8].
Transportation Accidents Transportation accidents such as
the ones involving chlorine in Canada [6] and white phos-
phorus at Miamisburg, Ohio [10], in 1987 with a resulting fire
have threatened nearby residents. In Miamisburg, a railroad car
of white phosphorus burned and released a toxic cloud of com-
bustion products that caused a mass evacuation of nearby

In all cases of releases of volatile toxic chemicals,
whether or not a fire is involved, air dispersion model-
ing is of great assistance to the first responder. In-
deed, dispersion modeling is essential in predicting
areas that should be evacuated. Without such model-
ing, the evacuation area could not be calculated at all;
it could only be "guess-timated." Consequently, with-
out the calculation tools given by air dispersion model-
ing, the On-Scene Commander either under- or over-
estimates the evacuation zone. Under-estimating the
evacuation zone leaves people in danger; over-estimat-
ing needlessly moves people and constitutes a hazard
of a different kind, especially to the sick and elderly
who are negatively impacted by the move and con-
comitant disruption.


Environmental engineering students at the Uni-
versity of Toledo solve air dispersion problems by
using computer models based on known theoretical
concepts. The computer models are chosen from pro-
grams available in the public domain and include mod-
eling programs used by regulatory bodies in both the
United States and Canada.
One model chosen for this course is the CAMEO
model which has been developed by the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The model
performs a variety of calculations for a chemical spill,
and in the classroom the CAMEO Air Model can be
used for several purposes: 1) to develop an intuitive
feeling for the importance of different variables re-
lated to the toxic releases and to test "what-if' type
questions, 2) to compute the maximum ground level
chemical concentration resulting from a spill, 3) to
map hazard zones for evacuation purposes, and 4) to
perform sensitivity analysis using varying chemical
and toxicological inputs, source data, and meteorolog-
ical information.
Additionally, all the features included in the model
are useful in various contingency planning and re-
sponse activities where it is necessary to compute the
downwind concentrations as a function of distance re-
sulting from a hypothesized release of a toxic volatile


An explanation of the CAMEO system, one of the
commercially available air dispersion model programs,
is given to the students. The level of discussion con-
ducted in the classroom, however, depends on the
course. The students are told that CAMEO has the
following features for calculating downwind chemical
concentration from release:

1. A basic Gaussian algorithm is used with either a con-
tinuous or instantaneous release configuration.

2. The atmospheric data can be inputted directly by the user
or obtained from a remote meteorological station.

3. A chemical library is available; this library contains
the toxicological, chemical, and thermodynamic pa-
rameters necessary to derive various source strength
estimates and relate the pollutant distribution patterns to
human health effects.

FALL 1989

4. The source strength estimates can be entered directly in
English or metric units; however, the program can cal-
culate the effective source strength from an exposed pool
of spilled chemical, given the chemical identity and the
surface area of the pool.

5. The system has the ability to store a map using digitiza-

6. A variety of graphic or tabular options can be displayed
on the screen or sent to the printer; the system also has
the ability to clip screen images to a file that can be over-
laid on maps that are available in other parts of the sys-

Since the CAMEO system uses the well-known
Gaussian dispersion model, a brief discussion points
out the limitations of the model as follows: 1) typical
errors can be as high as a factor of two, and 2) greater
errors can result from spills during low wind speed
and very stable atmospheric conditions than at high
wind speed.
It should be noted that the CAMEO model does
not take into account terrain effects and the impact of
building wakes. Also, heavy gas effects are not in-
cluded. Moreover, the model results apply only to the
selected chemicals; fire by-products or other chemical
transformations can be entered into the system by the
user as separate chemicals.


The students are instructed to use the CAMEO
program installed on an Apple Macintosh computer.
They are told about the menu options in the CAMEO
program and are informed that the best way to run
the program is to use the following order for menu
options: 1) select a chemical from the chemical option,
2) set the atmospheric options (either by the
meteorological station or user input), 3) set the source

strength of the spill, and 4) run the model by selecting
the continuous or puff option from the option menu.


Six problems have been selected to illustrate class-
room use of CAMEO. These six problems, when used
in a course, enable a student to become familiar with
some of the many uses of the CAMEO Air Model. The
problems selected utilize most of the facilities offered
by the demonstration program model.
The student is advised to try to solve the problems
using the CAMEO program and to compare his results
with those given by the instructors. The student is
advised to try solving different problems given in air
pollution textbooks with this model in order to gain
familiarity with its applications.
The problems are based on "real-world" spill situ-
ations found in the literature. Problems 1 and 2 are
modified from reference 11; problem 3 is from refer-
ence 12; problem 4 is from reference 13; problem 5 is
from reference 14; and problem 6 is from reference 15.

Problem 1
Ammonia was released at a rate of 6050 g/sec for 30 min. The
ambient wind speed at the time of release was 2 mi/hr (3.2 km/hr),
and the wind was blowing from 350'. The atmospheric stability was
"unstable" (A), and the ambient temperature was 28'C. Assume
an inversion height of 1500 ft (457 m). Use the CAMEO Air Model
for a continuous source and determine the downwind IDLH* and
TLV-TWA* distances and travel times to reach those distances.
Locate the source at the chemical facility near South Chicago
Street on Map E13 or F13 and plot the IDLH and TLV-TWA hazard
zones (see Figures 1 and 2).

*IDLH defines the concentration of a chemical "Immediately
Dangerous to the Life and Health" if someone is exposed. TLV is the
"Threshold Limit Value" concentration which is the accepted safe
concentration for 8-hr/day exposure of workers over their working
life. TWAis the "Time Weighted Average" of the concentration

Input Data for Six Chemical Spills

Problem 1J Problem # Promblem Problem #A Problem #5 Problem I

1. Name of Chemical Selected

2. Atmospheric Stability Class
3. Inversion Height (ft)
4. Wind Speed (mi/hr)
5. Wind Direction
6. Ambient Air Temperature("C)
7. Average Ground Roughness

8. Source Strength
9. Puddle Area (ft2)
10. Exit Velocity (ft/sec)

Ammonia Solution
(> 44% Ammonia)
City Center

6050 g/s

Hydrogen Nitric Acid
Sulphide Fuming
600 500
5 4.7
350 315
28 20
Very Smooth Thick Grass
(4 in. high)
72,000 g 66,000 g/s

Chlorine Methyl
600 650
10 9
90 310
20 17.5
Lawn City Center

11,340 g/s 7,400 g/s





Problem 2
A pipeline of a gas processing facility ruptured and released
72,000 g of H1S. The ambient wind speed was 5 mi/hr (8 km/hr),
and the wind was from 350'. The atmospheric stability was neutral
(D), and the ambient air temperature was 28'C. Assume an inver-
sion height of 600 ft (183 m).
Assume an instantaneous release and determine the down-
wind IDLH and TLV-TWA distances and travel times. Locate the
source at the chemical facility of South Chicago Street on Map
E13 or F13, and plot the IDLH ands TLV-TWA vapor hazard zones
(see Figures 1 and 2).

Problem 3
During the night, at about 2 a.m., 20 tons (20 x 106 g) of
fuming nitric acid were spilled on flat ground. At 2:05 a.m. the
temperature was 20'C, and the wind was from the northwest
(315') at 4.7 mi/hr (7.5 km/hr). Assume an atmospheric stability of
(E) and an inversion height of 500 ft (152 m). Assume a
continuous source (66,000 g/sec).
Compute the downwind IDLH and TLV distances and travel
times. Plot these contours on the map and make rec-
ommendations about the extent of the evacuation zone.

Problem 4
A continuous release of chlorine at a rate of 11,340 g/sec oc-
curs at a chemical plant. The atmospheric conditions at the time
are neutral (D). The ambient wind speed is 10 mi/hr (16 km/hr) and
the wind is blowing from the west. The ambient air temperature is
20'C. Assume a mixing height of 600 ft (183 m). Assuming a
continuous release, determine the TLV and IDLH travel times and
distances; plot the TLV and IDLH hazard zones.

Problem 5
In a disaster at a pesticide plant in India, 40 tons (40 x 106 g) of
methyl isocyanate were released in 90 minutes (7400 g/sec) at
12:30 a.m. when the ambient temperature was 17.5'C.
The ambient wind speed was 9 mi/hr (14 km/hr) and the wind
was from 310'. The mixing height at that time was about 650 ft
(198 m). The conditions were said to be very stable, and a stability
class of (F) may be assumed. Compute the TLV and IDLH travel
times and distances, and determine the area for evacuation if the
plant had been located at the chemical facility of South Chicago
Street on map F13 (Figure 2). HINT: MIC does not exist in the
chemical library. It has to be added to the library first. Enter "create
library" and add MIC and the data for it as given below:

Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
Boiling Point
IDLH Value

20 ppm
0.02 ppm

Problem 6
100,000 gal of toluene were spilled as a result of a pipeline
rupture in Ohio. The time was 10 p.m. and the ambient tempera-
ture was 10'C. The wind speed was 3 mi/hr (4.8 km/hr) and the

Solutions for Six Chemical Spills Using CAMEO Model

Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob.
#1 #2 #3 #4 # #6

TLV-TWA Distance (km)
TLV-TWA Travel Time (min)
IDLH Distance (km)
IDLH Travel Time (min)

1.2 2.3
22.0 17.4
0.2 0.7
3.7 5.3

140.4 23.5 509.9 1.1
1046.0 87.5 2110.8 13.6
8.9 3.0 3.6 0.2
66.4 11.2 14.9 2.1

The students are asked to change the
values of variables in order to understand the
importance of the role played by the input data. The
graphical display of results is of immeasurable
value in accidents situations. Three possible
plots are included in this paper.

conditions were neutral (D Stability). The mixing height was 600 ft
(183 m). Use the puddle model to determine the TLV and IDLH
distances and travel times. Assume a puddle area of 1000 ft2 (93
m2) and an exit velocity of 1 ft/sec (0.3 m/sec).


Table 1 shows the input required for each problem.
The input for each variable is obtained from the state-
ment of the problem given above. The name of the
chemical, atmospheric stability, inversion height,
wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature,
and source strength are required for the first five
problems. In the sixth problem, values for puddle area
and exit velocity are also needed for the computation
of the source strength term. If the puddle area is
known, it can be used in place of the mass of the chem-
ical spilled, but this assumption might give different
results. Since, in an accidental spill, it is relatively
easier to estimate puddle area than mass spilled, the
area covered by the spilled chemical has been used in
this problem. Moreover, the average ground rough-
ness around the spill site must be specified for each
problem; the model gives five options.
Table 2 shows the solutions obtained for each of
the six illustrative problems. IDLH distances and
TLV distances are given in this table along with the
arrival times of plume at those distances. The dis-
tances give the student an understanding of the poten-
tial area of the evacuation zone, and the arrival time
helps him/her to appreciate the importance of time
available for control measures and evacuation
schedules. The TLV distances are higher than IDLH
distances because TLV concentration is smaller than
IDLH concentration. For Problem 5, the TLV dis-
tance is more than 140 times the IDLH distance. In
such cases, it may be appropriate to use one-tenth of
the IDLH concentration to compute the hazard zone.
The students are asked to change the values of
variables in order to understand the importance of the
role played by the input data. The graphical display
of results is of immeasurable value in accident situa-
tions. Three possible plots are included in this paper.
Figure 1 is the TLV plot that is obtained from Prob-
lem 1, while Figure 2 is the IDLH plot obtained from
Problem 2. A plot of IDLH distances for varying in-

FALL 1989

puts of wind speed for Problem 1 is shown in Figure 3.


The CAMEO system is a useful tool for teaching
basic concepts related to dispersion modeling of chem-
ical spills. The students are able to conduct computer
experiments to enhance their understanding of the ef-
fects of accidents involving hazardous chemicals. With

E'"eng Fiild

increasing public concern of chemical releases and the
recent passage by Congress of spill planning regula-
tions (Title III of SARA), inclusion of chemical spill
modeling in the chemical engineering curriculum be-
comes very important. Modeling of spills at fixed base
facilities (in advance of a spill) to produce predictions
of danger zones is becoming common, and chemical
engineering students should be familiar with the mod-
eling methods and public concern of possible dangers
of chemical spills.


C- ----

Fi :i~~


FIGURE 1. TWA contour for ammonia solution (>44%
ammonia) on Map E13.

~^ T

FIGURE 2. IDLH contour for hydrogen sulphide (instan-
taneous release).



0 12-

o. 014-

0 2 4 6 8 10
WIND SPEED (mi/hr)

FIGURE 3. Variation of IDLH distances with wind speed.

1. Kummerlowe, D.L., "Computer-Aided Management of
Emergency Operations," The International Fire Chief,
January (1987)
2. Nye, W.B., "The Hazardous Materials Spill Experience
in Shawnee Lake, Ohio: A Case History," Proc. 1972
Nat. Conf. on Control of Hazardous Materials Spills,
Houston, TX, p 217-219, March (1972)
3. Wilson, J.A., C.P. Baldwin, and T. J. McBridge, "Case
History: Contamination of Louisville, Kentucky, Mor-
ris Forman Treatment Plant (by) Hexachlorocyclopen-
tadiene," Proc. 1978 Nat. Conf. on Control of Hazardous
Materials Spills, Miami, Fl., p 170-177; April (1978)
4. Marshall, V.C., Major Chemical Hazards, Ellis Hor-
wood Ltd., Chichester, England, p 369-379 (1987)
5. Raj, P.K., "Ammonia" in G.F. Bennett, F.S. Feates,
and I. Wilder, Eds., Hazardous Materials Spills Hand-
book, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p 10-34 to 10-57
6. Hilbert, G.D., J.H. Berkley, Jr., and F. Quinn,
"Mississauga: Lessons Learned in Large-Scale Evacu-
ations," Proc. 1982 Nat.Conf. on Control of Hazardous
Materials Spills, Milwaukee, WI, p 56-63, April (1982)
7. Hoyle, W.C., "Silicone Tetrachloride Incident," G.F.
Bennett, et al., op. cit., p 11-11 to 11-17
8. Diefenbach, R.C., "Pesticide Fires," G.F. Bennett, et
al., op. cit., p 11-2 to 11-10
9. McVeigh, T., "Case History of a Major Nitric Acid
Spill," Envir. Prog., 4, p 212-216 (1985)
10. Scoville, W.H., S.D. Springer, and J. Crawford,
"Response and Cleanup Efforts Associated with the
White Phosphorus Releases," Miamisburg, Ohio;
Haz. Mat., 21, p 47-64, January (1989)
11. Kumar, A., and S.T. Thomas, "A Hybrid Model for
Computing Ground-Level Concentration Near a Coastal
Plant," Proc. of AMS and APCA Joint Conference, Port-
land OR, October (1984)
12. Nitric Acid: Environmental and Technical Informa-
tion for Problem Spills, Environmental Protection Ser-
vice, Ottawa, Ontario, April (1985)
13. "Calculating the Area Affected by Chlorine Releases,"
Chlorine Institute Pamphlet #74, Edition 1, Revision 1,
Chlorine Institute, New York, NY, June (1982)
14. Singh, M.P., and S. Ghosh, "Bhopal Gas Tragedy:
Model Simulation of the Dispersion Scenario," J. Haz.
Mat., 17, p 1-22, December (1987)
15. Campanella, Vincent, "Life Returning to Normal After
Leak," news story in Tiffin Advertiser-Tribune,
February 24 (1988)
16. Sax, N.I., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materi-
als" 6th Edition,Van Nostrand, New York, NY (1984) 0


book reviews

BIOSEPARATIONS: Downstream Processing for
by Paul A Better, E. L. Cussler, Wei-Shou Hu
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 368 pages, $39.95 (1988)

Reviewed by
Murray Moo-Young
University of Waterloo

In the broad field of biotechnology, any new book
with the words "bioseparations" and "downstream pro-
cessing" in its title will attract much attention since these
are the current trendy, fashionable areas of biotechnol-
ogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this is probably the first
book devoted entirely to this area, which is partly due to
the difficulty in handling it for a multidisciplinary audi-
ence indigenous to biotechnology. Whereas Volume II of
the multi-volume work, Comprehensive Biotechnology
(Pergamon Press) is a major reference, this book is a
primer on the subject matter. As such, it is a good teach-
ing text and is well worth its list price of $39.95.
The authors, comprising a group of experts with
both industrial and academic experience, have developed
an effective pedagogical strategy in which typical
bioseparations are viewed as an idealized four-step pro-
cess according to a so-called RIPP organization: Removal
of insolubles, Isolation of product, Eurification and
Polishing. The book helps to bridge the gap between the
usually separate, parallel evolving cultures of the life sci-
ences and engineering in this area by providing material
for "scientists with no background in engineering" and
"engineers with no background in biology." Inevitably,
this ambitious approach to satisfy such a wide audience
results in sections (e.g., filtration, drying) which are
rather rudimentary for chemical engineering graduates
(which is the usual level at which biotechnology is taught
in chemical engineering departments), while the same
sections are too advanced for the life science undergrad-
uates. Regardless, the authors are to be commended for
providing in one place "an introduction to the separation
and purification of biochemicals."
After an overview introductory chapter, the book is
divided into four parts which cover a total of twelve
chapters, and ends with two appendices. It is of interest
to note the section titles and number of pages allocated to
these topics: Overview (11), Filtration and Ultrafiltration
(35), Centrifugation (21), Cell Disruption (21), Extraction
(47), Adsorption (37), Elution Chromatography (39),
Precipitation (17), Ultrafiltration and Electrophoresis
(35), Crystallization (35), Drying (29), Auxiliary
Operations (12), Characteristics of Biological Materials
(5), and Limits of the Continuum Approximations (5).
Possibly, a disproportionate amount of space is given to
the classical methods of liquid extraction (which is
primarily for relatively small molecules in "new"

biotechnology terms) at the expense of other aspects (e.g.,
isoelectric focusing) and recent innovations.
For example, it could be argued that there are a
number of other topics or subtopics that should have
been covered in a book of this type. Among these are the
following: supercritical fluid extraction (its use is increas-
ing); relevant process control and CAD/CAM; multi-unit
integration strategies; bioreactor/downstream processing
interfacing optimization, bioseparations in microgravity
environments (prospects of biomanufacturing on a fu-
ture space platform are of practical interest); develop-
ment of new polymeric and composite materials for
membrane separations and chromatography column
packing; effect of surfactants on membrane separation
performance; equipment innovations such as the use of
Taylor vortices to reduce polarization effects in mem-
brane separations; the implications of solid-state fermen-
tations to downstream processing economics; materials
of construction of the various bioseparation devices. Pre-
sumably, the authors could excuse these omissions on the
basis of their philosophy that "mixing, like life, is
The subject matter is given quantitative testament as
a series of unit operations (typical of chemical engineer-
ing) in terms of mass and energy balance and kinetics of
the processes involved. Fundamental concepts are pre-
sented clearly. Where correlations derivable from first
principles are not possible, the authors draw attention to
the traditional usefulness of dimensional analysis for
complex flow systems, e.g., the analysis and design of cell
disruption devices (Chapter 4). Each chapter contains
several illustrative examples and at the end, practice
problems with answers (which should please students
and practitioners alike) are given. Curiously, some of the
problem statements are given in mixed S.I. and British
units (e.g., kg, ft) and probably reflects the immediate
real-world industry situations addressed. Line diagrams,
some with three-dimensional cut-away views, are used to
depict clearly the mechanical features and physical func-
tions of various equipment. As a teaching tool, this tech-
nique is more effective than photographs.
As suggested by the authors, the book appears to be
suitable as a one-semester course for senior undergradu-
ate chemical engineering students and first-year science
graduates (including those from chemistry, microbiol-
ogy, food science). The book should also be useful in in-
dustry where calculations in downstream processing are
required in research, development, design, and plant op-
erations. The book is sufficiently robust to withstand
many hours of use. It has a good subject index, but unfor-
tunately no author index. More discriminating students
(and others) would have welcomed some references to
the research literature, especially in view of the advances
being made in this area. However, this is a minor criti-
cism. Despite the omissions mentioned earlier, the book
has something in it for almost everyone interested in
bioseparations, a term synonymously now used with
downstream processing in biotechnology. 0

FALL 1989

A program on ...


Wayne State University
Detroit, MI 48202

THE NEED FOR environmental professionals is es-
calating. The 1987 Bureau of Health Professionals
report, "Evaluating the Environmental Health Work
Force," [1] identified 50,000 environmental profes-
sionals in the U.S. and projected that by 1992 there
will be a need for 100,000. Paul Busch, immediate past
president of the American Academy of Environmental
Engineers [2], estimates that 22,500 environmental
engineers will be needed from 1990 to 1995 "just to
meet the problem of hazardous waste clean up." Each
year, less than 10% of the hazardous waste engineers

Ralph H. Kummler received his BS
from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and
his PhD from John Hopkins. He is
Professor and Chairman of Chemical and
Metallurgical Engineering at Wayne State
University. Before Joining WSU he was a
research engineer at the General Electric
Space Sciences Laboratory. His research
interests include air, water, and multimedia
environmental engineering

James H. McMicking received his BS
and MS from Wayne State University and
his PhD from the Ohio State University. He
is Associate Professor and Associate
Chairman of Chemical and Metallurgical
Engineering at Wayne State University.

Robert W. Powitz received his BS
from the University of Georgia and his MPH
and PhD from the University of Minnesota.
He is currently Director of Environmental
Health and Safety and an Adjunct
Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Wayne State University.

that are needed are graduating from our universities
[3]. Summit VI, a top level interaction between indus-
try and AIChE (as reported by Mathis [4]), identified
the environment and ecology as the number-one
growth area for chemical engineers and suggested
curriculum changes and more intense training to meet
the growing need. Some educational programs have
begun to emerge, but not in chemical engineering [5,
The chemical and manufacturing industries are
working vigorously to maximize recycle and to
minimize waste. Major corporations are establishing
their own landfill standards, with their own cradle-to-
grave accounting systems and certification of both
professionals and facilities. Consulting companies
which perform the same services for small industries
are thriving.
A new breed of professional, a "chemical control
engineer," is emerging. This individual must be tech-
nically educated and trained in regulations, but with
the focus on management rather than on science or
design, and he or she must have such skills as:

Risk assessment capability
Computer experience
Ability to maintain community involvement
Material use control procedures
Chemical management systems
Land use planning
Knowledge of health issues
Transportation awareness
Liability awareness

The boards of major corporations must be in-
formed about these issues on a regular basis. Career
path professionals in hazardous waste management
will therefore have high rank and pay [7].
Chemical engineers are uniquely qualified to train
for this opportunity. A solid background in mathemat-
ics, chemistry, and physics, with economics, process
control, separations, and a thorough training in logical

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


thinking and organization, is characteristic of the
chemical engineering BS degree. Waste minimization
in the chemical industry involves optimization of unit
operations, the classic tool of the chemical engineer.
However, within the confines of an ABET-accred-
ited chemical engineering degree, it is not easy to pro-
vide the additional education necessary to allow the
BS chemical engineer to become a "Chemical Control
Engineer." Thus, at Wayne State University we have
created a new concept in graduate education, called
the "Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Man-
agement," which is designed to provide auxiliary edu-
cation not only to chemical engineers, but also to all
conventional science and engineering majors who have
the prerequisite mathematics and chemistry back-
This program is a major departure for the chemical
engineering faculty. As discussed below, the courses
attract a substantial number of non-chemical en-
gineers and as a result constitute the largest service
teaching that we have ever undertaken. The chemical

Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate
Program Participants
Industrial Advisory Committee Faculty Course

James Carlson
Director, Hazardous Waste Management
Chrysler Corporation
Del Rector
Deputy Director, Michigan Department of
of Natural Resources
Myron Black
Director, Environmental Affairs
Dondee Cement

James Dragun, PhD
President, Dragun Associates, Inc.
J. Chu, PhD (deceed, April 1989)
Asst. Director, Hazardous Waste Manage-
ment, General Motors Research Center
Rick Powals
Vice President, Petrochem, Inc.

Ralph Kummler, PhD
Director: Chairman of Chemical
and Metallurgical Engneeing
James Dragun, PhD
Dragun Assodates, Inc.
Tim Lang, PhD
Chief Manufacturing Chemist
Environmental Operatons
GM Tech Center
Carol Miller, PhD
Assodate Prof., Civil Engineering
Jeffrey Howard, PhD
Assistant Professor, Geology

Joe Oravec, BS
Academic Serv. Officer, Chemistry

Robert Powitz, PhD
Director, Environmental Health
and Safety
James McMicking, PhD
Associate Prot Chemical Ergeeing
Daniel Crowl, PhD
Professor, Chemical Engineering
Khalil Atasi, PhD
Head, Appled Tech. & Evaluaton
Debroit Water and Sewerage Dept
A. L. Reeves, PhD
Prof., Ocapat. & Environ. Health

Devon Schwalm, MS CHE 726,727
Hazardous Materials Coordnator
Environmental Health & Safety

The program's courses are available as
electives to both undergraduate and graduate
students in our regular university degree programs,
and they have attracted many new students
into full-time and part-time programs.

engineering profession is uniquely qualified to lead
this new effort, but expansion of the traditional tools
of chemical engineering will be necessary.
In order to determine the content of the Graduate
Certificate program, an interdisciplinary team con-
sisting of faculty and an industrial advisory committee
was assembled. A brief description of their back-
grounds is given in Table 1.
The goal of the certificate program is to prepare
admissible students to take and pass certification
examinations. At the present time, WSU administers
the Hazardous Materials Manager Certification
Examination (CHMM) developed by the Institute of
Hazardous Materials Management, and the Certified
Hazardous Waste Specialist Examination developed
by the National Environmental Health Association.
The examinations are dynamic in nature and hence
the courses must also be dynamic, to reflect the con-
tinual changes in technology, law, policy, and regula-
tions. Thus, both the course outlines and topics vary
S from time to time. A poll of various governmental
agencies and industry has shown enthusiastic support
for this program. The student response to the certifi-
cate program has also surpassed all expectations;
nearly half of the student body has requested that the
program be expanded into a full Master's program in
Hazardous Waste Management. The faculty developed
and approved the curriculum for the MS degree, and
authorization to begin awarding degrees in January of
1990 was granted by the Wayne State University
Board of Governors.
The program's courses are available as electives to
both undergraduate and graduate students in our reg-
ular university degree programs, and they have at-
tracted many new students into full-time and part-
time programs. Professionals already working in the
field may require one or two courses prior to attempt-
ing the certification examinations; even certified man-
agers require continuing education to retain gov-
ernmental or industrial acceptance. Thus, the courses
have wide applicability.


The need for training in hazardous waste control
technology, laws, policy, and regulations clearly im-
plies more than the minimum coursework in any single

FALL 1989

traditional discipline. Hence, WSU chose to recognize
a group of credits as a "Certificate Program," where
"certificate" simply refers to university-level recogni-
tion and is totally separate from the externally-ad-
ministered examinations.
Our program consists of a minimum of thirteen
credits, distributed as follows:


* CHE 551. Introduction to Industrial Waste Management (2 cr: no
credit toward a graduate engineering degree)
The first required course in the sequence is an overview of the
program, including topics on solid waste management, site selec-
tion, thermal processing, biological waste disposal, hazardous
chemical spill clean-up, and hazardous chemical transportation.

* CHE 554. Law and Administration Issues in Industrial Waste Man-
agement (2 cr: no credit toward a graduate engineering degree)
The second required course covers management guidelines, Su-
perfund issues, the Solid Waste Disposal Act, identification con-
cepts, standards, reports, permits, and rules.

* CHE 556. Transportation and Emergency Spill Response (3 cr)
This course covers marine, rail and tank truck transport method-
ology, planning and regulations, and emergency spill response,
with field experience.

* CHE 751. Public Issues of Hazardous Waste, (2 cr)
This course is devoted to current issues in hazardous waste man-
agement and is presented by nationally recognized leaders in

Students will also be required to take an additional
four credits from among the following courses.

* GEL 515. Soils and Soil Pollution (3 cr)
The properties and classification of soils are covered. Knowledge
of soil properties is used to understand the removal of pollutants
from soils and groundwater.

* CHE 553. Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste (2 cr)
This course covers thermal processing technology, including
combustion fundamentals, incineration equipment, waste heat
boilers, air pollution control equipment, and facilities design.

* CHE/CE 558. Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous Waste (2 cr)
This course covers industrial landfills, biological processes, land
disposal techniques, ocean disposal techniques, and the disposal

* CHE/CE 559. Biological Waste Disposal (2 cr)
This course, taught in conjunction with Civil Engineering, con-
siders environmental requirements, activated sludge, anaerobic
systems, stabilization ponds, dewatering experiments, and acti-
vated carbon systems.

* CE 619. Ground Water (4 cr)
Aquifers, aquitards, saturated and unsaturated flow, sources of
contamination, artificial recharge, development of basins, and
efficient utilization are discussed.

* CHE 657. Safety in the Chemical Process Industry (3 cr)
This course covers the fundamental and practical experience
necessary for safe operation of a chemical process plant, includ-
ing case studies conducted under an industrial supervisor.

* OEH 832. Principles of Toxicology (4 cr)
Qualified students (those with a biological background) gain ex-
posure to toxicity ofindustrial chemicals, absorption of gases and
dust, laboratory studies oftoxicity, inhalation data, and experi-
mentation methodology.

* CHE 726. Waste Management Internship (1-3 cr)
Students earn credit by working in WSU's Environmental Health
and Safety hazardous waste program, or other environmental
control programs in local industry.

* CHE 727. Hazardous Waste Laboratory (2 cr)
This is a structured laboratory experience in waste characteriza-
tion, analysis, disposal techniques, and waste minimization.

A "B" average in these 13 credits is required for
recognition by the university. Individual courses may

B-.- h

FIGURE 1. Academic degree of participants

FIGURE 2. Academic goals of participants


be taken as elective credit toward undergraduate or
graduate degrees as well as by non-matriculated stu-
An industrial/governmental advisory committee
has been recruited, with representation from the basic
chemical and automotive industries, hazardous waste
operators, consultants, and regulatory agencies. This
committee evaluates the program at yearly intervals
and suggests revisions in course content for compati-
bility with current regulations and state-of-the-art

The Graduate Certificate program was initiated in
the fall of 1986 with the offering of "Introduction to
Industrial Waste Management." There was no formal
survey of the students at that time; however, records
indicate that the class was composed mainly of under-
graduate chemical engineering students. Since the
course was given during the day and was not heavily
publicized, this was expected. In winter 1987, "Law
and Administration in Industrial Waste Manage-
ment," "Land and Ocean Disposal of Hazardous
Waste," "Public Issues of Hazardous Waste," "Waste
Management Internship," and "Hazardous Waste
Laboratory" were added to the curriculum. Beginning
with that semester, classes were offered in the even-
ing and were publicized to attract graduate and post-
degree students. "Transportation and Emergency
Spill Response," "Thermal Processing of Hazardous
Waste," and "Biological Waste Disposal" were added
in subsequent semesters.

FIGURE 3. Job classification of participants

FIGURE 3. Job classification of participants

In the fall of 1988 there were approximately ninety
new students in the program, including students in
both the regular graduate and undergraduate pro-
grams and those enrolled in the Hazardous Waste
Management Graduate Certificate program. An off-
campus program began in winter 1989 with fifty stu-
dents. From a modest beginning of 8-10 students per
year prior to the introduction of the Graduate Certifi-
cate Program, the class has now grown to 140 stu-
dents per year.

For future use in planning, a survey was taken of
the winter and fall, 1987, and fall 1988 classes to deter-
mine the background and the goals of the students in
this program. The total number of students surveyed
was 223. Figure 1 shows the baccalaureate degrees of
the students in the categories of civil engineering,
chemical engineering, geology, chemistry, biology,
and other (health management, other engineering,
law, business, and liberal arts).
Figure 2 shows the goals of the participants in
three basic categories: Graduate Certificate conferred
by the University, Certification and Examination by
an external agency, and Selected Courses. It should
be noted that several participants selected more than
one category.
Figure 3 indicates the general areas in which the
participants are classified relative to their work or
study situation: Hazardous Waste Generators,
Hazardous Waste Haulers and Disposers, Environ-
mental Regulators, Students, and Consultants.

F I go l o.....
I I i 1

FIGURE 4. Academic goals of 1988 participants

FALL 1989

Curiculum: Master of Science In Hazardous Waste Management
Prerequisite/Corequisite: Graduate Certificate in Hazardous Waste Management

Introduction to Industrial Waste Management 2 (S/U)
(no graduate credit)
Thermal Processing of Hazardous Waste 2
Law and Administration in Industrial Waste Management 2 (S/U)
(no graduate credit)
Transportation and Emergency Spill Response 3
Land Disposal 2
Biological Treatment of Hazardous Waste 2
Public Issues of Hazardous Waste 2
Hydrogeology 4
Waste Minimization 2
Safety in the Chemical Process Industry 3

Waste Management Internship
Hazardous Waste Laboratory
or -
Air Sampling and Analysis
Principles of Industrial Toxicology
Design of Chemical Process Experiments I
or -
Probability Models and Data Analysis

Minimum Required
(excess credit may be applied to electives)




(33 including
noncredit requirements)

Unit Operation: Unit Processes in Environmental Engg.

Industrial Waste: Control, regulations, and treatment
Safety in the Laboratory
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CHE 899)
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CE 899)
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (CM 899)
or -
Master's Thesis Research and Direction (OEH 899)
Environmental Microbiology
Soils and Soil Pollution
Sanitary Chemistry
Anal/Inst Chemistry
Environmental Law
Transnational Environmental Problems
Environmental Pollution
Radiation Safety: Principles and Practice
Chemistry of Industrial Processes
Applied Epidemiology
Chemical Engineering Graduate Seminar

Total Electives
(Including overage from required selection)



Student demand for more information led the fac-
ulty and the industrial advisory committee to develop
a curriculum for a Master of Science in Hazardous
Waste Management. Approximately 37% of the enter-
ing class of '88 expressed interest in the full MS pro-
gram, as illustrated in Figure 4.
The Graduate Certificate is a prerequisite to ad-
mission in the Masters program, and all credits are
directly applicable toward the Masters. The approved
curriculum is listed in Table 2. A full discussion of all
the MS courses is beyond the scope of this paper, but
graduates will have solid backgrounds in biological
and thermal processing, land disposal, hydrogeology,
toxicology, laboratory techniques, waste minimiza-
tion, and chemical process safety.


It has become evident that industry must learn to
design and operate plants to prevent spills and
episodes, and to manage their chemical wastes prop-
erly. However, it is equally true that they must learn
to cope with emergencies and to be able to deal with
the public and regulatory agencies before, during, and
after such problems.

A graduate certificate program such as the one
offered by WSU provides a new avenue of education
in this field. The uniqueness of this program lies in the
fact that it is area-specific, flexible, and subject to
frequent content review. Some changes have already
been made, and others are currently under study by
the faculty involved in the program, such as the devel-
opment of the full Masters Degree.

1. Levine Associates, "Evaluating the Environmental
Health Workforce," U.S. Department of Health and Hu-
man Services Report on HRSA contract 240-286-00076,
January (1988)
2. Busch, P.L., and W. C. Anderson, "Education of Haz-
ardous Waste Engineering Professionals," 116th An-
nual Meeting of the American Public Health Ass'n.,
Boston, MA, November (1987)
3. Busch, P.L., "A Hazardous Waste Crisis: Too Few Peo-
ple," Waste Age, September (1988)
4. Mathis, J.F., "Building an Industry/AIChE Partnership,
AIChExtra, a supplement to Chem. Eng. Prog., April
5. The Environmental Manager's Compliance Advisor, V.
232,6, June 6 (1988)
6. Portnoy, K., "Education: Hazmat Management Goes to
School," Hazmat World, 54, August (1988)
7. Kachman, N.C., "The Environmental Professional-An
Established Career Path," lecture to the 13th Annual
Michigan Air Pollution Control Ass'n., May (1989) 0




3 or 5


(38 including
noncredit courses)

Continued from page 215.

ing the relative sensitivity of secondary nucleation to
growth rate G (used as a surrogate variable for super-
saturation) and slurry density MT.

contain only crystals less than some cut size LF. Class-
ification is usually done passively by settling within
the vessel. Figure 2 shows the dramatic average par-
ticle size increase that this simple configuration can
achieve vis-a-vis the MSMPR configuration. Simple
power-law nucleation kinetics of the form


re 1 shows the configuration and theoretical were used for these calculations. As the slurry density
on density plot for both the MSMPR and Dou- also increases in DDO operation this configuration is
-Off (DDO) crystallizers [6]. The DDO config- only fully useful for weak feeds giving a low natural
merely removes and then com lines two sepa- slurry density. Per-pass yield is also increased. Thus,
ry streams, one mixed and one classified to the DDO configuration is also used to increase yield
rry streams, one mixed and one classified to in systems with slow growth kinetics.
in systems with slow growth kinetics.
Bench-scale studies are currently being done to
evaluate the DDO crystallizer as a method of making
(c) j=2 --- = 1 larger calcium sulfite and sulfate (gypsum) particles
S.. i3 in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) processes. Larger
particles would greatly reduce downstream costs in
such FGD processes.
S6In ChE-514, students have access to a computer
4 program (Program Crystal Ball [7]) which solves
-- 2 simultaneous population and mass balances for the
CSD using arbitrary crystallization kinetics. Students
use this program to design a crystallizer producing a
desired crystal size and yield.
(b)j=1 ouU= In summary, the course explores the PSD of par-
i = 3 7 ticulate processes, while emphasizing the distributed
.nature of these processes. It attempts to show predic-
tion as well as description of the PSD with the ulti-
/R2 mate aim of manipulation. However, these goals are
/' only achieved in the study of CSD from well-defined
4 crystallization processes.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 18

FIGURE 2. Mass Mean Size Improvement, DDO/MSMPR
Crystallizers (after E. T. White and A. D. Randolph


1. Irani, R.R., and C.F. Callis, Particle Size: Measure-
ment, Interpretation, and Application, John Wiley &
Sons, New York (1963)
2. Randolph, A.D., and M.A. Larson, Theory of Particu-
late Processes: Analysis and Techniques of Continuous
Crystallization, second edition, Academic Press, San
Diego, CA (1988)
3. McCabe, W.L., J.C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Opera-
tions of Chemical Engineering, fourth edition, McGraw-
Hill, New York (1985)
4. Kelly, E.G., and D.J. Spottiswood, Introduction to Min-
eral Processing, Wiley, New York (1982)
5. Felder, R.M., "Impostors Everywhere," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 22, 168 (1988)
6. White, E.T., and A.D. Randolph, "Optimum Fines Size
for Classification in Double Draw-Off Crystallizers,
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 276 (1989)
7. Sharnez, Riswan, "Dynamic Simulation and Control of
Crystal-Size Distribution in a Continuous Crystallizer,"
MS Thesis, University of Arizona (1987) 0

ble Drav
uration I
rate slur








FALL 1989

A course in ...


University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424

2a, particle diameter or length, pm (1pm =10-4cm = 10 4 A)
10-1 1 10

SUSPENSIONS CONSISTING of small particles, drop-
lets, or cells dispersed in a liquid or gas are found
in a wide variety of natural and industrial processes.
We are all familiar with many examples of aerosol
suspensions, for which the continuous phase is air
(such as smoke, smog, mist, fog, clouds, and various
sprays and dusts). We are also familiar with many
examples of hydrosol suspensions, for which the con-
tinuous phase is water. These include coal slurries,
drilling muds, blood, unstrained fruit juice, silt and
clay in estuaries, and submerged cultures of microbial,
plant, animal, or insect cells. Further important
examples of suspensions are paints, ointments, immis-
cible bimetallic melts, and oil-water emulsions.
A chart showing typical sizes for several types of
suspended particles is given in Figure 1. In general,
suspended particles are smaller than approximately
100 pm (1 mm = 10-m) in size, since larger particles
rapidly settle out of suspension due to gravity. The
Reynolds number for flow around suspended particles
is typically small compared to unity, and so inertia
effects may be neglected relative to viscous forces.
Particles smaller than approximately one micron in
size are called colloidal particles. They settle out of
suspension only very slowly due to gravity. Moreover,
because of their large surface area to volume ratio,
these particles are subject to Brownian motion and
attractive and repulsive interparticle forces.
The behavior of suspensions of colloidal and fine
particles represents a fascinating and challenging area

Robert H. Davis is an associate pro-
fessor in chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Colorado. After receiving his doc-
toral degree from Stanford University in
1983, he was a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow
in the Department of Applied Mathematics
and Theoretical Physics at the University of
Cambridge. His research interests lie in the
area of fluid mechanics of suspensions, in-
cluding microbial suspensions. r.

smog smoke dust
mist,i fog s
;,, ----sprays
colloidal silica st
clay sand
paint pigment
carbon black pulverized coal

flexible long-chain macromolecule (M.W. =106)
coiled extended
viruses bacteria

m. f. p. of air

t red blood cells
S blood capillaries

wavelength of light
ultraviolet visible infrared
U, fall speed of rigid sphere (s. g. = 2) in water, pm/s
0.5x10 4 0.5x10-2 05 0.5102 0 5xl04
pUa/p, Reynolds number of flow due to falling sphere in water
2 5x10-13 2.5x10-10 2.5x10-7 2.5x10-4 025
D, diffusivity of rigid sphere in water, pm2/s
0.5x102 0.5x101 0.5 0.5X10-1 0.5x10-2
aU/D, Peclet number of sedimenting sphere in:water
0.5x10-8 0.5x10-4 0.5 0.5x104 0.5xi08

FIGURE 1. Orders of magnitude for typical colloids and
fine particles (after Batchelor, 1976a).

for research. There are many active groups studying
the fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspen-
sions. This research effort needs to be supported by
graduate courses which provide students with a fun-
damental background and the necessary skills for
further study of suspenisons. In this paper, I sum-
marize such a course that was introduced at the Uni-
versity of Colorado during this past year.


The course philosophy is based on two goals:

To provide the students with a fundamental background
that encompasses various aspects of the fluid mechanics
and physical chemistry of suspensions.
To provide the students with an understanding and appreci-

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts, as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of
lectures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions, and the second part consists of
seminars on research frontiers and applications involving suspensions.

ation of the state-of-the-art research which is being under-
taken in this area.

Accordingly, the course is divided into two parts,
as outlined in Table 1. The first part consists of lec-
tures which cover the fundamentals of suspensions,
and the second part consists of seminars on research
frontiers and applications involving suspensions.
These seminars are presented by students who are
taking the course, other, more advanced students,
guest speakers, and myself. It is assumed that the
students have previously taken a graduate level
course in fluid mechanics and an undergraduate course
in physical chemistry, and that they have a working
knowledge of differential, integral, and vector cal-

After an introductory lecture, one lecture period
(75 minutes) is spent on a whirlwind review of con-
tinuum mechanics for fluids, culminating with the
Navier-Stokes equations. The next three lectures
focus on general features of the creeping flow or
Stokes equations, which result when the Reynolds
number is sufficiently small so that the inertia terms
(both the local and convective acceleration) may be
neglected. One important feature of these equations
is their linearity, which allows us to draw many signif-
icant conclusions without having to solve the equa-
tions. For example, it is easily shown from the rever-
sibility property of linear equations that a nonBrown-
ian particle with fore-and-aft symmetry will not ex-
perience a lift force when placed at an arbitrary loca-
tion in a tube with laminar flow. In contrast, such a
particle will experience a lift force and migrate across
streamlines when the particle Reynolds number is not
small compared to unity. Other features of creeping
flow that are covered include general solutions based
on harmonic functions and corresponding particular
solutions, the fundamental solution for the velocity
and pressure fields generated by a point force, the
reciprocal theorem, and the boundary integral rep-
resentation of the Stokes equations. The latter is par-
ticularly convenient for numerical solutions of mul-
tiphase flow and moving boundary problems, because
the velocity field is given in terms of integrals over
the boundaries of the domain.
The sixth lecture describes the details of creeping

Course Outline
SGeneral Features of Suspensions
Applications Involving Suspensions
Part 1: Fundamentals
Review of the Equations of Motion
Creeping Flow Equations and General Considerations
Motion of a Single Rigid Sphere in a Fluid
Motion of a Single Spherical Drop in a Fluid
Motion of Two Interacting Spheres in a Fluid
Brownian Motion and Diffusion of Suspended Particles
Interparticle Attractive and Repulsive Forces
Dimensional Analysis and Order-of-Magnitude Estimates
Part 2: Applications and Research Frontiers
Sedimentation and Centrifugation
Coagulation and Flocculation
Particle Capture and Adhesion
Suspension Rheology
Drop and Bubble Deformation, Breakup, and Coalescence
Marangoni Migration of Drops
Dynamic Simulations of Suspensions
Particle Size Measurement
Particle Size Classification

flow past a rigid sphere. The quantity of primary in-
terest, the drag force, is easily found by using the
boundary integral equations and the principles of
linearity. The complete velocity field in the fluid sur-
rounding the particle is found either from evaluating
the integrals that appear in the boundary integral
equations, or by using the boundary conditions to
evaluate the constants that appear in the general sol-
ution to the corresponding differential equations. The
following two lectures extend these concepts to the
flow internal and external to a viscous drop in creep-
ing motion. Fundamental concepts such as interfacial
tension and normal and tangential stress balances are
also covered.
Lectures nine and ten describe the interaction of
two spherical particles in creeping flow, such as is
important for theoretical descriptions of sedimenta-
tion, coagulation, and suspension rheology. As a con-
sequence of the linearity of the Stokes equations, this
interaction may be decomposed into a superposition of
motion along the line-of-centers and motion normal to
the line-of-centers. The two-sphere resistance and mo-
bility functions are described, where the resistance
functions yield the force and torque on each sphere
when their translational and rotational velocities are

FALL 1989

known, and the mobility functions yield the transla-
tional and rotational velocities when the force and tor-
que applied to each sphere are specified. Asymptotic
solutions for these functions are presented using the
method of reflections when the spheres are far apart,
and using lubrication theory when the spheres are
nearly touching.
Shortly after the invention of the optical micro-
scope, scientists observed that very small particles
such as bacteria maintained a constant state of random
motion when dispersed in water. This phenomenon
occurs due to the thermal motion of the molecules
comprising the surrounding fluid and is called Brown-
ian motion, after Robert Brown, a Scottish botanist
who published his observations in the early 1800s. The
classical thermodynamic analysis to yield the Stokes-
Einstein diffusivity of Brownian particles is presented
in one lecture, and then is supplemented by a second
lecture covering the more rigorous derivation based
on the Langevin equation for particle motion. Further
aspects which are considered include the relative dif-
fusion of two interacting spheres and the spreading of
a sedimenting interface due to Brownian diffusion.
The next three lectures are devoted to the inter-
particle attractive and repulsive forces which arise in
colloidal suspensions. It is the relative magnitude of
the attractive and repulsive forces which determines
whether a suspension is stable (the particles do not
aggregate) or unstable (the particles aggregate to-
gether in clumps). The attractive forces considered
are London-van der Waals dispersion forces, which
arise from induced-dipole interactions between the
molecules in the two interacting particles. We start
with an analysis of induced-dipole interactions be-
tween two isolated molecules, and then follow the
pair-wise additivity theory of Hamaker (1937) and
others to develop expressions for van der Waals at-
tractive forces between macroscopic bodies. Since this
approach does not correctly account for screening due
to intervening molecules, and retardation due to phase
shifts, the more complete continuum theory of Lifshitz
and others (see Russel et al., 1989) is also discussed.
The repulsive forces which are considered are
primarily electrostatic due to charges on the particle
surfaces, although Born repulsion and steric and
charge stabilization due to adsorbed polymers are also
briefly described. When the charged particles are
present in a solvent containing ions, a double-layer
with an excess of counter ions will form around each
particle, thereby reducing the repulsive force between
two particles of like charge. The potential field in the
ionic solution is described by the Poisson-Boltzmann
equation. The analytical and numerical solutions to

this equation and its boundary conditions are pre-
sented for a variety of cases. The solutions lead to
expressions for the electrostatic repulsive force be-
tween charged objects. Finally, these are combined
with the expressions for London-van der Waals at-
traction to yield the DLVO theory for the net force
potential as a function of the separation distance be-
tween two particles.
The final lecture of Part 1 of the course is a review
which is accomplished by collecting the expressions
which have been derived for the various forces acting
on colloidal and fine particles in suspensions. These
include gravity, viscous, inertial, Brownian, van der
Waals, and double-layer forces. Order-of-magnitude
estimates for these forces as functions of particle size
and separation are made. By comparing the relative
magnitudes of the forces, it is easy to see which forces
typically dominate for different size ranges and parti-
cle separation distances. This analysis leads naturally
to the identification of key dimensionless groups, such
as the Reynolds number (ratio of inertia to viscous
forces) and the Peclet number (ratio of convection to

I start off the second part of the course by giving
one overview lecture which briefly describes selected

FIGURE 2. Wave formation at the interface between sus-
pension and clarified fluid during sedimentation in an
inclined channel (from Davis and Acrivos, 1985).


practical applications and current research activities
involving suspensions. The ones chosen for this past
year are listed in Table 1. Most of these were then
elaborated on in a seminar-style format by myself, a
student, or a guest speaker. Brief summaries are
given in the following paragraphs.
Sedimentation and centrifugation are commonly
used to separate particles from fluid; they also form
the basis for indirect measurements of particle size. A
few areas of current research interest include hin-
dered settling and hydrodynamic diffusion due to par-
ticle interactions, enhanced sedimentation in inclined
channels, lateral segregation and instabilities in
sedimentation of bidisperse (two particle sizes or
types) suspensions, and analysis of flow patterns in
centrifuges. One of our seminars this past year cov-
ered recent advances in sedimentation in inclined
channels (Figure 2), and another described the
spreading of the interface at the top of a sedimenting
suspension due to the collective action of hydro-
dynamic diffusion, size polydispersity, and hindered
In order for particles in a suspension to coagulate,
aggregate, or flocculate, the particles must first be

| I-cc-H- ^ ^^^^ ^

FIGURE 3. Aggregates of yeast cells with loosely-
branched fractal structure.

brought close together by Brownian motion, differen-
tial sedimentation, or stirring. They then must experi-
ence an attractive force which is sufficiently strong to
overcome any repulsive force and the fluid-mechanic
lubrication resistance to relative motion. Considerable
recent research on Brownian-induced, shear-induced,
and gravity-induced flocculation has extended the
early collision models of Smoluchowski (1917) to in-
clude the effects of hydrodynamic interactions and in-
terparticle attractive and repulsive interactions. One
of our seminars described a model for predicting the
rate of doublet formation in a polydisperse suspension
due to the combined action of gravity sedimentation
and attractive van der Waals forces. Further current
research on flocculation involves the experimental and
theoretical elucidation of the loosely-branched fractal
structure of aggregates of colloidal particles or micro-
bial cells (Figure 3).
Two different types of filtration to remove small
particles from gas or liquid streams are common. Par-
ticle capture and adhesion are the underlying process-
es in deep-bed filtration by stationary collectors such
as granular beds and fibrous mats. The basic concept
is that a gas or liquid stream is passed through the
filter, and the suspended particles collide with the col-
lecting elements due to their inertia or Brownian mo-
tion and adhere to them as a result of attractive
forces. Current fundamental research on particle cap-
ture and adhesion was reviewed in one of the seminars
and includes determining fluid flow patterns and par-
ticle trajectories in deep-bed filters, predicting the
conditions for which the colliding particles will adhere
as opposed to bounce, and examining the influence of
particle inertia, Brownian motion, interparticle at-
tractive and repulsive forces, and hydrodynamic in-
teractions on capture rates.
The second type of filtration considered is cross-
flow microfiltration, in which a suspension under pres-
sure is passed through a narrow tube or channel hav-
ing microporous membrane walls (Figure 4). The sol-
vent and small molecules pass through the walls as
permeate, whereas the particles are retained on the
membrane surface. If these particles are allowed to
accumulate in a stagnant cake or fouling layer adja-
cent to the membrane, then the permeate flux rate is

Microporous Permeate
Membrane t t t t t t t t t t t t t
Suspension --:4 ". .'. ; '.' .' '* ".'. Retentate
-F Concentrated
) U 4 S m t I c 1 Tf t I w I Cake Layer
FIGURE 4. Schematic of crossflow microfiltration.

FALL 1989

reduced. In order to understand and overcome this
phenomenon, current research is directed at describ-
ing how the shear stress exerted at the membrane
wall by the tangential flow of suspension through the
filter tube or channel is able to limit the buildup of a
fouling layer.
Suspension rheology refers to the flow behavior of
suspensions. Suspensions often exhibit nonNewtonian
theological behavior, in large part due to interparticle
attractive and repulsive forces and Brownian motion.
In addition to studies of nonNewtonian behavior, con-
siderable theoretical and experimental research is cur-
rently directed at extending Einstein's relationship
for the effective viscosity of a sheared suspension.
Another active research area involves shear-induced

Suspension rheology refers to the flow
behavior of suspensions. Suspensions often
exhibit nonNewtonian theological behavior, in large
part due to interparticle attraction and repulsive
forces and Brownian motion.

hydrodynamic diffusion, for which particles migrate
across bulk streamlines due to hydrodynamic interac-
tions with other particles. The key role that this
phenomenon plays in crossflow microfiltration was de-
scribed in one of the seminars.
Drop and bubble deformation, breakup, and
coalescence play key roles in a variety of important
processes, such as raindrop growth, liquid-liquid ex-
traction, mixing, dissolved oxygen transfer in fermen-
tors, and materials processing of bimetallic melts with
a liquid-phase miscibility gap. Accordingly, research
in this area is very active. Boundary integral methods
are used to study the deformation and burst of single
drops, as well as the motion and deformation of two
interacting drops. Lubrication forces, van der Waals
interactions, and interfacial phenomenon have been
shown to significantly affect film drainage and film
rupture between two colliding drops or bubbles. One
of our seminars this past year reviewed techniques
such as bispherical coordinate transformations, mul-
tipole expansions, and lubrication theory coupled with
boundary integral methods for describing the hydro-
dynamic interaction between two spherical drops in
creeping flow. Two other seminars dealt with popula-
tion dynamics models and holographic techniques for
predicting and measuring, respectively, shifts in drop
size distributions due to collisions and coalescence.
When a drop (or bubble) is placed in an otherwise
quiescent liquid on which a temperature gradient is
imposed, it will migrate (in addition to its motion due
to gravity or other external forces) toward the region

of higher temperature. This phenomenon is referred
to as thermal Marangoni migration or thermocapillary
migration and occurs because the interfacial tension
decreases with increasing temperature. The interfa-
cial tension difference between the hot and cold sides
of the drop sets up a circulatory motion so that the
drop, in effect, "swims" up the temperature gradient.
This migration was first analyzed by Young et al.
(1959) under conditions of small Reynolds and Peclet
numbers. Current research was reviewed in one of
our seminars and includes extending the analysis to
higher Peclet numbers, considering the interaction of
two drops or bubbles in a temperature gradient, and
analyzing the analogous phenomenon of solutal Maran-
goni migration of a drop or bubble in a concentration
gradient of a surfactant.
Recently, Brady and Bossis (1988) and co-workers
have developed a method to dynamically simulate the
behavior of many particles suspended in a fluid. The
method incorporates hydrodynamic interactions be-
tween particles, at least in an approximate sense, as
well as other forces applied to particles, such as grav-
ity, Brownian forces, and attractive and repulsive in-
terparticle forces. This method, known as Stokesian
dynamics, follows the position and velocity of each of
the suspended particles as functions of time, for sus-
pension flows such as sedimentation and simple shear.
Although excessive computational requirements gen-
erally limit the simulations to a monolayer of sus-
pended particles, they are able to predict macroscopic
information, such as effective viscosities or average
hindered settling velocities, as well as microscopic in-
formation, such as the local arrangement or micro-
structure of the particles as it evolves with time (in-
cluding addressing questions such as whether or not
the particles tend to cluster).
Another application area for research involving
suspensions is that of fluidized beds, which are com-
mon in the chemical process industry. Solid particles
at rest in a vertical column form a packed bed through
which fluid may be forced. If the rate at which fluid
is forced through the bed exceeds a critical value (i.e.,
that for which the drag force exceeds the gravity force
on the particles), then the particles are lifted and sepa-
rated from one another. The bed is then said to be
fluidized. If the fluid velocity is increased further, the
fluidized bed will become unstable. Bubbles of fluid
that are relatively free of particles will form near the
base of the bed and rise through it. As a result, partial
by-passing of the particles by the fluid occurs. In addi-
tion to studies of these instabilities and bubble forma-
tion, current research on fluidized beds includes
studies of particle attrition and of hindered settling of


particles relative to the fluid.
For a variety of reasons, it is important to know
the size distribution of particles in suspension. This is
particularly true for the design of solid-liquid separa-
tion equipment, particle size classifiers, and catalytic
reactors. The many methods available for sizing parti-
cles include electrical conductivity, gravitational and
centrifugal sedimentation with light extinction, hydro-
dynamic chromatography, photomicroscopy, optical
blockage or shadowing, light scattering, aerosol iner-
tia, diffraction, field-flow fractionation, gas adsorp-
tion, elutriation, and holography. Seminars presented
by students this past year included light scattering
and holographic techniques for measuring particle size
The final application area considered in Part 2 of
the course involves particle classification, where class-
ification involves the separation of particles according
to size, shape, or density. A variety of commercial
devices are available for particle classification. These
include screens, elutriators, continuous centrifuges,
and cyclones. A single pass through one of these de-
vices will divide a feed stream into a coarse fraction
and a fine fraction. One of our seminars focused on
elutriators, which require the particles to settle
against an upward flowing liquid stream. Classifica-
tion occurs due to differences in the sedimentation ve-
locities of the particles. Fundamental analyses to pre-
dict the compositions of the product streams are pos-
sible for relatively simple geometries, such as a rec-
tangular channel inclined from the vertical.

As is often true of advanced speciality courses,
there is no single textbook which covers all of the
material presented. A new text which covers most of
the fundamental material and some of the application
areas is Colloidal Dispersions, by Russel, Saville, and
Schowalter (1989). Another new text, which focuses
on mathematical treatments of fundamental fluid
mechanics of noncolloidal suspensions, is An Introduc-
tion to Microhydrodynamics, by Kim, Karrila, and
Jeffrey (1989). I thank Bill Russel and Sang Kim for
providing me with advance copies of the relevant
chapters of these texts. These and other useful books
are listed in the reference section. Also provided is an
extensive, but by no means exhaustive, list of techni-
cal and review articles on suspensions.
Since the lectures cover considerable complex ma-
terial, I wrote them out in advance in order to provide
copies to the students. Similarly, copies of the over-
heads or text for each seminar are provided to the
class. This minimizes the requirement for notetaking

and allows the students to participate more fully in
the class discussion.

Several homework assignments are given in order
to provide the students with a deeper understanding
of the fundamental material on suspensions presented
in the lectures, and to give them practice with the
necessary analytical tools. An in-class midterm exami-
nation is given at the end of Part 1 of the course,
covering the fundamentals of fluid mechanical and col-
loidal aspects of suspensions. During Part 2 of the
course, each student prepares a written paper review-
ing the state-of-the-art of a particular research subject
that falls under the general theme of the course. These
papers are of 10-15 pages in length and are prepared
in a journal-style format. Each must review at least
two journal references from the past decade. The stu-
dents also present their review papers to the class in
a seminar-style format.
The course is graded with equal weighting on the
homework, the midterm, and the review paper. In
addition, regular attendance and participation in crit-
ical discussions are expected. Since speciality courses
are usually small in size (we had eleven students in
this course last fall), there is plenty of opportunity for
all to participate. An effective way to promote this is
to take the class on a mini-retreat early in the term.
We went to the Mountain Research Station of the Uni-
versity of Colorado one Saturday last fall, where I
delivered three of the lectures interspersed with lunch
and volleyball games.

Suspensions represent a fruitful area for funda-
mental research with a wide variety of important ap-
plications. This course provides graduate students
with the fundamental background that is needed to
pursue this research. It also provides them with a
broad understanding and appreciation of the current
applications and research frontiers in this area.

Barth, H.G., ed., Modern Methods of Particle Size Analysis,
Wiley (1984)
Batchelor, G.K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cam-
bridge University Press (1967)
Happel, J., and H. Brenner, Low Reynolds Number Hydro-
dynamics, Prentice-Hall (1965); republished by Martinus
Hiemenz, P.C., Principles of Colloid and Surface Chemistry,
2nd ed., Marcel Dekker (1986)

FALL 1989

Hirtzel, C.S., and R. Rajagopalan, Colloidal Phenomena:
Advanced Topics, Noyes Publications (1985)
Kim, S., S.J. Karrila, and D.J. Jeffrey, An Introduction to
Microhydrodynamics, Butterworths (1989)
Landau, L.D., and F.M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 2nd ed.,
Pergamon Press (1987)
Mahanty, J., and B.W. Ninham, Dispersion Forces, Aca-
demic Press (1976)
Probstein, R.F., Physicochemical Hydrodynamics, Butter-
worths (1989)
Russell, W.B., D.A. Saville, and W.R. Schowalter, Col-
loidal Dispersions, Cambridge University Press (1989)


Acrivos, A., and E. Herbolzheimer, "Enhanced Sedimenta-
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Mech., 92,435 (1979)
Adler, P.M., "Heterocoagulation in Shear Flow," J. Colloid
Interface Sci., 83, 106 (1981)
Amberg, G., and H.P. Greenspan, "Boundary Layers in a
Sectioned Centrifuge," J. Fluid Mech., 181, 77 (1987)
Anderson, J.L. "Droplet Interactions in Thermocapillary
Motion," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 11, 813 (1985)
Barnocky, G., and R.H. Davis, "Elastohydrodynamic
Collision and Rebound of Spheres: Experimental Verifi-
cation," Phys. Fluids, 31, 1324 (1988)
Batchelor, G.K., "Developments in Microhydrodynamics,"
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Batchelor, G.K., "Brownian Diffusion with Hydrodynamic
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Batchelor, G.K., "Sedimentation in a Dilute Polydisperse
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Fluid Mech., 119, 379 (1982)
Batchelor, G.K., "A New Theory of the Instability of a Uni-
form Fluidized Bed," J. Fluid Mech., 193, 75 (1988)
Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, "The Determination of the
Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Particles to Order c2," J.
Fluid Mech., 56,401(1972)
Batchelor, G.K., and J.T. Green, "The Hydrodynamic In-
teraction of Two Small Freely-Moving Spheres in a Lin-
ear Flow Field," J. Fluid Mech., 56, 375 (1972)
Bentley, B.J., and L.G. Leal, "An Experimental Investiga-
tion of Drop Deformation and Breakup in Steady, Two-
Dimensional Linear Flows," J. Fluid Mech., 167, 241
Brady, J.F., and G. Bossis, "Stokesian Dynamics," Ann.
Rev. Fluid Mech., 20, 111 (1988)
Chen, J.-D., "A Model of Coalescence Between Two Equal-
Sized Spherical Drops or Bubbles," J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 107, 209 (1985)
Chi, B.K., and L.G. Leal, "A Theoretical Study of the Motion
of a Viscous Drop Toward a Fluid Interface at Low
Reynolds Number," J. Fluid Mech., 201, 123 (1989)
Davis, K.E., and W.B. Russel, "An Asymptotic Description
of Transient Settling and Ultrafiltration of Colloidal Dis-
persions," Phys. Fluid A., 1, 82 (1989)
Davis, R.H., "The Rate of Coagulation of a Dilute Polydis-
perse System of Sedimenting Spheres," J. Fluid Mech.,
145, 179 (1984)
Davis, R.H., and A. Acrivos, "Sedimentation of Noncol-
loidal Particles at Low Reynolds Numbers, Ann. Rev.
Fluid Mech., 17,91(1985)
Davis, R.H., and M.A. Hassen, "Spreading of the Interface

at the Top of a Slightly Polydisperse Suspension," J. Fluid
Mech., 196, 107 (1988)
Davis, R.H., J.A. Schonberg, and J.M. Rallison, "The Lu-
brication Force Between Two Viscous Drops," Phys. Flu-
idsA, 1, 77 (1989)
Davis, R.H., X. Zhang, and J.P. Agarwala, "Particle
Classification for Dilute Suspensions Using an Inclined
Settler," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 28, 785 (1989)
Feke, D.L., and W.R. Schowalter, "The Influence of Brown-
ian Diffusion on Binary Flow-Induced Collision Rates in
Colloidal Dispersions," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 106, 203
Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions
for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 1.
Axisymmetric Motions," Phys. Fluids, 31, 2445 (1988)
Fuentes, Y.O., S. Kim, and D.J. Jeffrey, "Mobility Functions
for Two Unequal Viscous Drops in Stokes Flow: Part 2.
Asymmetric Motions," Phys. Fluids A, 1, 61 (1989)
Gal, E., G. Tardos, and R. Pfeffer, "A Study of Inertial Ef-
fects in Granular Bed Filtration," AIChE J., 31, 1093 (1985)
Geller, A.S., S.H. Lee, and L.G. Leal, "The Creeping Motion
of a Spherical Particle Normal to a Deformable Interface,"
J. Fluid Mech., 169, 27 (1986)
Goldman, A.J., R.G. Cox, and H. Brenner, "The Slow Mo-
tion of Two Identical Arbitrarily Oriented Spheres
Through a Viscous Fluid," Chem. Eng. Sci., 21, 1151 (1966)
Haber, S., and G. Hetsroni, "Sedimentation in a Dilute Dis-
persion of Small Drops of Various Sizes," J. Colloid Inter-
face Sci., 79, 56 (1981)
Haber, S., G. Hetsroni, and A. Solan, "On the Low Reynolds
Number Motion of Two Droplets," Int. J. Multiphase Flow,
Hahn, P.-S., J.-D. Chen, and J.C. Slattery, "Effects of Lon-
don-van der Waals Forces on the Thinning and Rupture
of a Dimpled Liquid Film as a Small Drop or Bubble Ap-
proaches a Fluid-Fluid Interface," AIChE J., 31, 2026
Hamaker, H.C., "London-van der Waals Attraction Be-
tween Spherical Particles," Physica, 4, 1058 (1937)
Ivanov, I.B., D.S. Dimitrov, P. Somasundaran, and R.K.
Jain, "Thinning of Films With Deformable Interfaces:
Diffusion-Controlled Surfactant Transfer," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 40, 137 (1985)
Jeffrey, D.J., and Y. Onishi, "Calculations of the Resistance
and Mobility Functions for Two Unequal Rigid Spheres in
Low-Reynolds-Number Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 139, 261
Johnson, R.E., and S.S. Sadhal, "Fluid Mechanics of Com-
pound Multiphase Drops and Bubbles," Ann. Rev. Fluid
Mech., 17, 289 (1985)
Jones, A.F., and S.D.R. Wilson, "The Film Drainage Prob-
lem in Droplet Coalescence," J. Fluid Mech., 87, 263 (1978)
Leighton, D.T., and A. Acrivos, "The Shear Induced Migra-
tion of Particles in Concentrated Suspension," J. Fluid
Mech., 181, 415 (1987)
Melik, D.H., and H.S. Fogler, "Effect of Gravity on Brown-
ian Flocculation," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 101, 84 (1984)
Rallison, J.M., "The Deformation of Small Viscous Drops
and Bubbles in Shear Flows," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16,
Rallison, J.M., and A. Acrivos, "A Numerical Study of the
Deformation and Burst of a Viscous Drop in an Exten-
sional Flow," J. Fluid Mech., 89, 191 (1978)
Romero, C.A., and R.H. Davis, "Global Model of Crossflow
Microfiltration Based on Hydrodynamic Particle Diffu-


sion," J. Memb. Sci., 39, 157 (1988)
Russel, W.B., "Brownian Motion of Small Particles Sus-
pended in Liquids," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 13, 425 (1981)
Schowalter, W.R., "Stability and Coagulation of Colloids in
Shear Fields," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16, 245 (1984)
Shankar, N., and R.S. Subramanian, "The Stokes Motion of
a Gas Bubble Due to Interfacial Tension Gradients at Low
to Moderate Marangoni Numbers," J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 123, 512 (1988)
Smoluchowski, M. von, "Versuch Einer Mathematischen
Theorie der Kongulationskinetik Kolloider Losungen,"
Z. Phys. Chem., 92, 129 (1917)
Spielman, L.A., "Viscous Interactions in Brownian Coagu-
lation," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 33, 562 (1970)
Tien, C., and A.C. Payatakes, "Advances in Deep Bed Fil-
tration,"AIChE J., 25, 735 (1979)
van de Ven, T.G.M., and S.G. Mason, "The Microrheology
of Spheres in Shear Flow: IV. Pairs of Interacting Spheres
in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface Sci., 57, 505 (1976)
van de Ven, T.G.M., and S.G. Mason, "The Microrheology
of Spheres in Shear Flow: V. Primary and Secondary
Doublets of Spheres in Shear Flow," J. Colloid Interface
Sci., 57, 517 (1976)
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the Kinetics of Aggregation of Gold Colloids," in Kinetics
of Aggregation and Gelation, ed by P. Family and D.P.
Landau, Elsevier Science, p. 19 (1984)
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Bubbles in a Vertical Temperature Gradient," J. Fluid
Mech., 6, 350 (1959)
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Analysis to Study Stability of Colloidal Dispersions in
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Continued from page 203.
times of economic crisis cut their own compensation first.
(In the last two years, Japanese manufacturers cut their
executive salaries to absorb the external shocks of the ap-
preciating yen.)
Many American corporations now are seeking to
lessen the damage of management versus labor battles
by giving more workers a chance to advise on corporate
methods and strategy in the workplace. In the meantime,
in the universities, there has been a proliferation of man-
agers, the very well-paid academic and non-academic
administrators who don't teach. So the universities, al-
ways about a decade behind the rest of the country, are
just now discovering how privileged the management
class has become and finding ways of distancing the
managers and functionaries from the professors. We see
administrative layer upon layer burgeoning, with pro-
portionately less support available to serve those of the
academic "production" side. This hierarchy in a univer-
sity bureaucracy creates alienating conditions deterring
communication between the classroom and the labora-
tory on the one hand and the deans, vice presidents and
the president on the other.
A perception of privilege undermines a sense of

community on many campuses. University administra-
tors in major universities around the country, for exam-
ple, drive university cars, with reserved parking places.
They may also have free memberships in social clubs. A
clear message of power and privilege, symbolically and
actually, is communicated to all. The atmosphere and
class distinctions become demoralizing. Privileges are
perceived not as nurturing qualities of commitment to the
life of the mind, nor qualities promoting loyalty to the in-
stitution. Much of a university's energy today is invested
in perpetuating the non-academic instruments of control
and maintaining the structure of a self-perpetuating bu-
The heart and reputation of a university, and the af-
fection and esteem in which it is held, do not reside solely
in the dollars awarded its research professors by extra-
mural agencies. Rather, the perceived greatness of its
commitment to the education and nurturing of its stu-
dents and the respect accorded faculty and their creative
works, determine the long-term well-being of the univer-
sity. Every student graduating from the institution, and
all its faculty members, promote the university in terms
cynical or laudatory, depending on his or her experi-
ences. Thus the faculty and administrators ought to en-
hance their institution's well-being by promoting the self-
esteem of the students and faculty. Students and faculty
are inexorably linked. This means fostering collegiality,
reducing the sense of an impersonal and disinterested
bureaucracy. It means finding out, perhaps by exit inter-
views with graduates, what is actually happening within
the university (rather than doing surveys on quality of
life). The same ought to be done with departing faculty
members. Paying attention to practical problems such as
the availability and cost of parking, courtesy, maintaining
clean classrooms, and promptness of response to in-
quiries are ways university administrations can show re-
spect for the needs of students and faculty. It also means
the president and vice presidents and deans should meet
with faculty members and students at the working aca-
demic level, the basic teaching units of the university.
Wanting to do those things and more would be a unifying
influence. This requires, ultimately, the recognition that
all administrators are temporary caretakers for the new
generations of students always coming and going and
respecting the teachers who transmit their learning and
pursue new knowledge. The history and continuity of a
university resides in the quality of work and loyalty of its
students and faculty and the non-academic workers who
serve in making the central purposes of the university
easier to accomplish.

Daniel Hershey
Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Cincinnati
and former Assistant to the
President under Warren Bennis

FALL 1989

A course on ...


The University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-2200

N BOTH INDUSTRY and academics, as the emphasis
on multivariable control designs develop, it be-
comes indispensable that the concept of linear algebra
and its geometric and physical interpretations be mas-
tered as background knowledge. As graduate courses
introducing recent developments in the theory and de-
sign of multivariable process controls emerge in the
graduate curriculum, a concomitant background
course in applied linear algebra becomes imperative
in understanding the new complexity of multivariable
control. Three years ago, the chemical engineering de-
partment introduced a new course, cross-listed in both
the electrical and computer engineering and the
mechanical engineering departments, entitled "Appli-
cation of Numeric Linear Algebra in Systems and
Control Engineering." All chemical engineering
graduate students in the system modeling and process
control areas and all electrical engineering students
taking the graduate linear systems theory course are
required to take this course. A prerequisite is senior
or graduate standing with a prior introductory under-
graduate course to vectors and matrices.
The students usually come into the course knowing
only how to do matrix addition, subtraction, and mul-
tiplication-finding the determinant and inverse of up
to 3x3 matrices. Some of them know a little about
basis vectors and have some notions about linear inde-
pendence of vectors. In all three departments, the stu-
dents can use this course to satisfy one of their math
course requirements. All other graduate students are
strongly encouraged to take this course.
The goal of the course is to introduce engineering
students, especially those majoring in the systems and
control area, to the concepts and the physical as well
as the geometric interpretations of some key linear

The goal of the course is to introduce engineering
students, especially those majoring in the systems and
control area, to the concepts and the physical as well
as the geometric interpretations of some key
linear algebra topics and their associated
numerical considerations.

Tse-Wei Wang is an assistant professor
of chemical engineering at the University of
Tennessee. She received a PhD in biophysics
from M.I.T. in 1977, concentrating in the study
of human platelet physiology. She obtained a
MS is chemical engineering from the University
of Tennessee in 1986 and joined the faculty
there soon afterwards. Her areas of interest are
biotechnology and process control of chemical
and biochemical processes.

algebra topics and their associated numerical consid-
eration. Examples from system modeling and control
areas are used extensively in order to lend a sense of
reality to the rather abstract mathematical concepts.
In this article, we describe the course teaching
philosophy, the computer projects assignments, and
the student feedback. We have received such favor-
able comments and support from the faculty and stu-
dents that we plan to offer it annually in the fall
semester. It will also serve as a corequisite for the
500-level course on linear systems theory offered by
the electrical and computer engineering department.
In a previous article [1] published in the fall, 1984,
issue of Chemical Engineering Education, entitled
"Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers," K. Zy-
gourakis (Rice University) describes the linear
algebra course as the first semester of a two-semester
sequence applied math course. Our course at the Uni-
versity of Tennessee differs from that in that we em-
phasize the geometric and physical interpretations of
the various theorems and decompositions in order to
develop, in the students, the ability to answer for
themselves questions such as, how do I go about com-
puting the controllable or observable subspace of a
dynamic system; how do I use the concept of rank and
linear independence to analyze a set of input and out-
put data of a given process; how do I use the concept
of orthogonality in analyzing a system matrix; how
can I tell if a particular algorithm for system analysis
is prone to numerical instability; what is the role of
positive-definite matrices in an optimization problem;
what does it mean for two physical system matrices
to be connected by a similarity transformation; what
is the danger of a pole-zero cancellation of a transfer
O Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


We hope that students will be able to start de-
veloping an intuitive understanding of the relationship
and interactions among the several system variables
by analyzing the matrices that connect between them,
thereby guiding them in choosing the most appropri-
ate design and analysis methods. We do not emphasize
the writing of computer codes to implement the vari-
ous numerical algorithms because we recognize that
reliable numerical software exists (such as MATLAB
[2, 3] that is mainly based on stable routines contained
in such packages as LINPACK [4] and EISPACK [5]
for various computer models). Rather, we use the
software to solve some physical problems or to imple-
ment a certain algorithm in order to study the numer-
ical aspects of it. We are trying to impart to the stu-
dents the intuitive ability to examine a system and by
using fundamental linear algebra concepts, to extract
physical information from it. For instance, in consider-
ing the placement of temperature sensors along a dis-
tillation column, how does one decide where to place
them in order to extract the most useful information
about the behavior of the column from their measure-
ments? Or, in mechanical engineering, where should
the accelerometers be placed along a beam in order to
detect the first N modes of vibration due to a set of
inputs? It can be shown [6] that the choice is the sites
where the gain matrix between the control inputs,
e.g., reflux ratio, and bottom heat duty, and the sys-
tem outputs, e.g., the temperature measurements,
that yields the smallest condition number and that has
the largest sensitivity in the gains, or a compromise
of the two, because this arrangement implies a more
balanced distribution of energy involved in each of the
control input variables.
As the description of a system changes from single
variable to multivariable, very often the single-vari-
able concepts, such as size and interaction, do not
carry straight forward into the multivariable case. In
the latter, the concept of directionality as exhibited
by the various variables and their interactions with
each other necessitates the use of a set of coordinate
systems to describe the dynamics. The motto "happi-
ness is finding things are linear" extends into the
realm of linear algebra in that "happiness is finding
that coordinates are perpendicular"; therefore, the
various decompositions (such as QR, SVD, Househol-
der) emerge so that a system can be transformed into
a new representation with mutually orthogonal basis
True, all these theories and algorithms involved
are normally covered in upper-level mathematical
courses offered by a math department. One asks,
legitimately, why is the engineering department

As the description of a system changes from single
variable to multivariable, very often the single-variable
concepts, such as size and interaction, do not carry
straight forward into the multivariable case.

bothering to cover the same materials? Why not just
send the graduate students over to the math depart-
ment? The answer is that unless the math department
maintains a constant liaison with the various engineer-
ing departments in order to monitor their need in
higher level mathematics, the courses they offer will
usually not serve the needs of the engineering stu-
dents who want to use the mathematics as tools in
solving practical problems.
Take linear algebra as an example. At the Univer-
sity of Tennessee, three undergraduate courses
(semester) exist in the theory and numerical aspects
of linear algebra; at least four graduate courses exist
that deal with the theory and algorithms of various
topics of linear algebra, such as solving the least
square problem and the various decompositions. En-
gineering students who take them come away know-
ing how to perform a certain decomposition or how to
calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and have
learned the numerical aspects of the various al-
gorithms. But they have not acquired the intuition
relating knowledge of the mathematics to selection of
the methods for analysis, design, and control of phys-
ical systems. Study of the properties of linear vector
spaces should be linked to the notion that the state
space of a dynamical system constitutes a linear vector
space and that the controllable and/or observable
space constitutes a subspace of the original state
space. Then all the manipulations, such as change of
basis, orthogonalization, QR, and SVD, can be viewed
as a way to view the system states in a more facilitat-
ing coordinate frame orthogonall), and the system
matrices or transformation matrices can be viewed
with respect to these new coordinate frames. As a
result, the properties associated with these special
matrices, such as unitarity, orthonormality, and trian-
gularity, can be used to view the transformation as
represented by these matrices in a more intuitive and
simplified manner. An area where a variety of physi-
cal problems can be used to illustrate the math princi-
ples is that of using SVD and pseudoinverse in solving
least-square problems. In the long run, we hope that
the experience gained in teaching both the engineer-
ing and mathematical version of the materials can lead
to a single course meeting the goals of both groups.
The textbook used is Linear Algebra and Its Ap-
plications [7], by Gilbert Strang. Table 1 lists the

FALL 1989

Course Materials

Course Textbook
Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed., Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, Inc., (1988)
Additional Course References
1. Stewart, G.W., Introduction to Matrix Computations, Academic
Press (1973)
2. Golub, G., and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations, Johns Hopkins
Press (1983)

textbook along with the supplemental reference books,
and Table 2 shows the topics covered in the course.
From time to time, details of some topics are also
presented from references listed [8] and [9]. Strang
presents the materials as a systematic development of
observations on a set of linear algebraic equations
(later on, on a set of linear ordinary differential equa-
tions). His presentation elicits enthusiasm from the
readers until the mystery of observations is solved,
seemingly intuitively. Then, voild, he formally states
the deductions in theorems. He leads one from the
beginning to the end of the development of a concept
in such a manner that one cannot help following him
in order to see the interpretation of the observations!
Most students in the class also appreciate Strang's
style of presentation.
Over half of the class time is devoted to the first
three chapters, involving analysis of solving the prob-
lem of Ax = b, the over- and under-determined, and the
inconsistent cases. After the mechanism of Gaussian
eliminations with pivoting is presented, the concept of
the four fundamental subspaces is introduced. Geo-
metric visualization of the orthogonal complementary
subspaces, e.g., the row and null spaces, is stressed.
The roles of the four subspaces with respect to linear
transformations are, in turn, explained and visualized
in detail. The decomposition of any vector into its or-
thogonal components is emphasized. In geometric vis-
ualization, a three-dimensional space is always used
because of its familiarity. Then, the visualization of
the vectors b and x, as in Ax= b, in the recipient and
domain space, respectively, of the linear transforma-
tion represented by the matrix A, is made. Figures 1
and 2 (from Strang) are used very often to depict the
actions of A and the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse,
A+, with respect to the four subspaces. The role of
each of the four fundamental subspaces with respect
to the under- or over-determined and inconsistent
cases is analyzed in detail. At this point, an example
is given concerning the underdetermined case. The
problem is presented of a physical process with more
inputs than outputs, and they are related at steady

state, by A, as in y = Au. The dimension of A is there-
fore rectangular, mxn, with m constraints. Therefore, from linear algebra theory,
many solutions exist. One can pose an optimization
problem where one wants to find the solution, Xop,
from the set of all possible solutions, such that some
function of Xop is minimized (or maximized).
A physical example where an inconsistent case of
Ax = b may arise is offered at this point. Cases involv-
ing multiple measurement data points are the most
common. A specific example, mentioned earlier, is one
of temperature sensor measurements along the many
trays of a distillation column. Usually, two control in-
puts are considered. Yet there may be five or more

Topical Outline, Applied Linear Algebra Course

Matrices and Gaussian Elimination
The geometry of linear equations
An example of Gaussian elimination
Matrix notation and matrix multiplication
Triangular factors and row exchanges
Inverses and transposes
Vector Spaces and Linear Equations
Vector spaces and subspaces
Solution of m equations in n unknowns
Linear independence, basis, and dimension
The four fundamental subspaces
Linear transformations
SPerpendicular vectors and orthogonal subspaces
Inner products and projections onto lines
Orthogonal bases, orthogonal matrices, and Gram-Schmidt
The fast Fourier transform
The properties of the determinant
Formulas for the determinant
Applications of determinants
Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
The diagonal form of a matrix
Difference equations and the powers Ak
Differential equations and exponential eAt
Complex matrices: Symmetric vs. hermitian and orthogonal
vs. unitary
Similarity transformations
Positive Definite Matrices
Minima, maxima, and saddle points
Tests for positive definiteness
Semidefinite and indefinite matrices: Ax = XMx
Minimum principles and the Rayleigh quotient
The finite element method
Computations with Matrices
The norm and condition number of a matrix
Householder transformation
Hessenberg form
Gaussian elimination with pivoting
Linear Programming
Linear inequalities
SThe simplex method
The theory of duality


FIGURE 1. The action of a matrix A (from Strong, 1988)

temperature measurements along the tower. The ma-
trix that relates the inputs and outputs would be of
dimension 5x2. Because of noise or biases, the temper-
ature measurements would usually be inconsistent
when compared to that calculated from the physical
and thermodynamic data of the components and pro-
cess involved. The solution to Ax = b in this case rep-
resents the input necessary to give a set of measure-
ments "closest" to the desired outputs as measured by
the sensors. These presentations on the four funda-
mental subspaces pave the way for introduction of the
singular value decomposition (SVD), the pseudoin-
verse, and application of SVD in solving the least-
square problems. SVD has proven to have many appli-
cations in system analysis and plays a major role in
the implementation of many stable numerical al-
gorithms. See Klema and Laub [10], for example, for
more detailed discussion concerning the numerical as-
pect of SVD.
Let A= UIV' be the SVD of A. We present the
notion that transformation of a vector x by A can be
viewed as series of transformations: first a rotation by
V', a unitary matrix, followed by a decoupled trans-
formation represented by the diagonal 1, followed by
another rotation by the unitary U. The notion that the
columns of the matrices U and V in serving as the
orthonormal basis vectors of the appropriate sub-
spaces is presented.
The concept of singular values of a matrix is pre-
sented as follows (this geometric representation is
borrowed from that of Moore [11]). If an r-dimensional
sphere of unit radius resides in the row space of ma-
trix A, with the r orthogonal unit vectors given by the
first r columns of the matrix V as the coordinate axes
(r denotes the rank of A), then the transformation
process maps it into an r-dimensional ellipsoid in the
column space of A. The nonzero singular values of A
represent the magnitudes of the axes of the ellipsoid

FIGURE 2. The action of the Moore-Penrose pseudoin-
verse of A (from Strang, 1988)

(the largest singular value gives the length of the
major axis, etc.). The mutually orthogonal axes of the
ellipsoid point in the directions given by the first r
columns of the matrix U. In this way, the singular
values can be viewed as scaling factors for the unit
radii of a sphere in the row space when mapped into
an ellipsoid in the coulmn space of A. Again, the stu-
dents are asked to picture the various manipulations
in 3-D space. Finally, the concept of the pseudo-in-
verse of A is presented. The roles of U' and V in
accomplishing projection and change of basis are care-
fully presented, using Figure 2 as an aid.
At this point, a computer assignment is made for
finding the completely controllable, completely ob-
servable, and completely controllable and observable
subspaces of a linear dynamic system, described by
the equation x(t)=Ax + Bu, where x represents the
state vector and u represents the input vector. The
idea is that from the controllability and observability
grammians of the system, (positive definite solutions,
P and M, to the Lyaponov equations, below)

AP + PA' = -BB'
A'M + MA = -C'C

one can project the original state space down to the
controllable or observable subspace spanned by the
columns of P or M, respectively, by doing an equiva-
lence transformation, using a set of orthogonal basis
vectors that span the appropriate subspace, for the
transformation. The rank of each of the subspaces is
the rank of P or M respectively. Stable routines exist
for solving equations of the above type. The matrices
P and M can also be solved in a stable manner by
assuming a QR decomposition of A, and in conjunction
with back substitutions, the elements of P and M can
be determined in a straightforward manner.

FALL 1989

This exercise also illustrates that often a good al-
gorithm can be ruined by bad numerics. Let me ex-
plain. The controllability or observability of a system
can also be analyzed by examining the rank and the
span of the associated controllability or observability
matrix U and V as calculated by

U = [BI ABI A2BI ... I A"n-)B]
V = [C| CAI CA21 ... I CA(n- )]

respectively. In order to calculate U and V, repeated
multiplications by A up to (n-1) times are necessary.
If n is large and A is poorly conditioned, then it can
lead to numerical instability such that rank determina-
tion of the resultant U and V may be obscured by
their near singularity; the singularity may have been
an artifact of the numerics and not necessarily a rep-
resentation of any physical defect. For the completely
controllable and observable system, one finds the in-
tersection of the two respective subspaces by project-
ing, for example, the controllable subspace down to
the observable subspace. A good illustration of apply-
ing numerical linear algebra to system concept here is
that if one only desires to test the controllability (ob-
servability) of a system, one can normally get accurate
results by applying a random state feedback (ob-
server) through gain K (F), to form A + BK (A + FC)
in the state propagation equation, where K (F) is ran-
domly chosen. Then one computes the eigenvalues of
A and A+BK (A+FC) and pair off nearest eigen-
values between the two matrices. The system is com-
pletely controllable (completely observable) if, and
only if, the two matrices A and A + BK (A + FC) have
no common eigenvalues with probability 1.
About two thirds of the course is spent in covering
the first three chapters and the appendix on pseudoin-
verse, which we consider to be the heart of the mat-
ter. Each notion is presented geometrically and intui-
tively as much as the subject matter allows. Sometimes
it takes quite a few lectures to get an idea across. But
each decomposition and manipulation is accompanied
by an explanation of why one wants to do that decom-
position and manipulation and what does it get you?
As many physical examples are offered as possible. In
this respect, Strang's presentation of the material
does lend a much more intuitive appeal than some of
the other textbooks.

The second portion of the course starts with a re-
view of the properties of determinants. This is fol-
lowed by the next four chapters on eigenvalues and

eigenvectors, positive definite matrices, computations
with matrices, and linear programming. The book is
followed fairly closely except for the chapter on com-
putations with matrices. For this subject matter,
Strang is supplemented by materials from Stewart [8]
and Golub and Van Loan [9], which both deal with the
numerical aspect of matrix computations. The Gaus-
sian elimination with pivoting is presented first, and
is followed by the Householder's transformation and
upper Hessenberg matrices and their significance in
speeding up the computation efficiency. The condition
number and the Raleigh's quotient of a matrix are
discussed with respect to stability and perturbation.
At this point, physical examples are offered to il-
lustrate the danger of dealing with a matrix with a
high condition number. The students are asked to vis-
ualize a system with states residing in an ellipsoid
with two long major axes and a very short third minor
axis. Suppose one wants to find the control input re-
quired to produce some desired states. Such system
matrix with high condition number would yield a very
large control input upon inversion of the matrix.
Therefore, the students are asked to ponder if it would
not have been more appropriate to lop off one dimen-
sion (the one spanned by the short axis) and project
the original system down to a subspace with dimen-
sion of one less.
A computer project is assigned to consider a 2x2
case where the gain matrix of a system is derived
experimentally where the measurements are rather
noisy. The students are asked to calculate inputs
necessary in order to yield certain output vector val-
ues. The condition number of the gain matrix given is
rather high due to the fact that the real gain matrix
is singular, because only one of the two outputs is
independent. But, due to noise, the experimentally
derived gain matrix is not singular, but rather is near
singular. The students are to compare the sensitivity
of the calculated results using the original full matrix
with slightly varying entries to reflect the noisy na-
ture of the data. Further, they are asked to offer a
plausible explanation for the high sensitivity of the
calculated results to the slight perturbations in the
system matrix entries and to offer a solution for avoid-
ing this problem. The students are asked how to com-
pute, using SVD, the reduced order models to elimi-
nate modes which have little effect on system re-
sponse. They find this exercise enlightening.
The presentation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors
is straightforward. The intuitive approach has not
been used much except where the notions from the
first part of the course apply. A note has to be said


about the Jordan canonical form of a matrix A. In
every linear algebra textbook there is a section de-
voted to the explanation and calculation of the Jordan
canonical form of a matrix A. Some emphasize it more
than others. However, when dealing with large sys-
tems (as in many practical problems) where computers
are employed for matrix manipulations, an approach
employing the calculation of the Jordan decomposi-
tion, i.e., X-1 AX = diag(J1,.. ., Jt), where each J is
a Jordan block, is not numerically stable. This comes
about because at several steps of calculating the de-
composition, rank decisions must be made, and the
final computed block structure depends heavily on
these blocks, thus on these rank decisions. In practical
applications, Golub and Van Loan suggest using the
more stable Schur decomposition in eigenvector prob-
lems. Therefore, the Jordan canonical approach is not
covered in detail in this course.
The course has now been taught twice at our uni-
versity, and the students have received it with en-
thusiasm. Many of them have taken courses in linear
algebra in the mathematics department prior to taking
this course. They comment that the approach taken
here is very different and that their intuitive under-
standing of the key theorems has increased. They
further state that this course has helped them to bet-
ter understand papers involving matrix manipulations.


A new applied linear algebra course, cross-listed
in three engineering departments, has been created.
The emphasis is on intuitive understanding and
geometric visualization and interpretation of the key
theorems of linear algebra. The students should learn
the why's of doing certain matrix decompositions and
manipulations and should be able to visualize the al-
gorithms in 3-D space. Numerous physical examples
from systems area are offered, tying together the
mathematical manipulations and their physical signifi-
cance. Computer projects are assigned from time to
time to illustrate the utility of the various algorithms
in solving practical problems. The course has also been
made a co-requisite for the linear systems theory
course offered by the electrical engineering depart-
ment, so as to take the pain of teaching simultaneously
both the applied linear algebra and linear systems
theory out of that course. The students who have
taken the course appreciate its approach, and I have
found that every time I have taught it, I find more
points that I am able to interpret intuitively that I
was not able to before. The Chinese have an old prov-
erb that says that new things are learned from review-

ing old things. It has proven to be the case with this
1. Zygourakis, K., "Linear Algebra for Chemical Engi-
neers," Chem. Eng. Ed., 18, 176 (1984)
2. Pro-MATLAB, The MathWorks, Inc., South Natick, MA
3. Kantor, J.C., "Matrix Oriented Computation Using
Matlab," CACHE News, 28, 27 (1989)
4. LINPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathe-
matics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA
5. EISPACK, Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics (SIAM), Philadelphia, PA
6. Moore, C.F., "A Reliable Distillation Column Analysis
Procedure for Use During Initial Column Design," pa-
per presented at the November meeting of AIChE (1985)
7. Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 3rd ed.,
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (1988)
8. Stewart, G.W., Introduction to Matrix Computations,
Academic Press (1973)
9. Golub, G., and C. Van Loan, Matrix Computations,
Johns Hopkins Press (1983)
10. Klema, V.C., and A.J. Laub, "The Singular Value De-
composition: Its Computation and Some Applications,"
IEEE Trans. on Auto. Cont., AC-25, 164 (1980)
11. Moore, B., internal report ELE-1633-F, System Control
Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Univer-
sity of Toronto, September (1978) 0

Continued from page 207
commentary. But when we comment on practice tests or
revisable papers we are not saying, "Here's why you got
this grade." We are saying, "Here's how you can get a
better grade."

Alternating between the roles of student advocate
and guardian of standards-good cop and bad cop-
enables teachers to serve comfortably in both capacities.
It's easier to set high standards if you know you're going
to be helping the students attain them, and it's easier to
enforce the standards once you've made them quite clear
and given the students every opportunity to meet them.
In addition, the approach may also provide a significant
fringe benefit:

In the end, I do not think I am just talking about how to
serve students and serve knowledge or society. I am also
talking about developing opposite and complementary
sides of our character or personality: the supportive and
nurturant side and the tough, demanding side. I submit
that we all have instincts and needs of both sorts. The
gentlest, softest, and most flexible among us really need a
chance to stick up for our latent high standards, and the
most hawk-eyed, critical-minded bouncers at the bar of
civilization among us really need a chance to use our
nurturant and supportive muscles instead of always being
There's much more. Get the book.

1. Peter Elbow, Embracing Contraries: Explorations in
Learning and Teaching, New York, Oxford University Press

FALL 1989


The Neuron-Based Chemical Sensor Project

Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164-2752

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING is essential to the pro-
cess of bringing new areas like biotechnology,
electronic, and other advanced materials to commer-
cial success. The success of this process depends on
significant cooperation between chemical engineering
and other disciplines. Although there is a large volume
of literature on the subject of interdisciplinary and/or
crossdisciplinary research [1-3], most of it concerns
large projects (as defined in Table 1) and little has
been written from a chemical engineering perspective.
The rationale behind the levels of funding used in
Table 1 is called for. Usually in the initial stages of a
project, $30,000 to $70,000 for a single year is only
sufficient to generate pilot data and perhaps to pro-
vide incentive for the formation of a cross- or an inter-
disciplinary team. A yearly budget of $70,000 to
$150,000 for a period of three to five years provides
enough for more than one graduate student to focus
on specific aspects relating to the expertise of each
co-investigator. Amounts above $150,000 can support
large groups with more personnel per discipline in-
volved as well as supporting inter-university research
activities where extensive travel may be necessary.
The purpose of this paper is to address the problems

Project Size Based on Yearly Budget

Project Size

Yearly Budget (US $)
Between $30,000 and $70,000
Between $70,000 and $150,000
Greater than $150,000

of initiating and conducting a small university level
crossdisciplinary project with a yearly budget at
$30,000-$70,000. As an example, specific reference is
made to a Washington State University (WSU) pro-
ject on neuron-based chemical sensors which involved
chemical and electrical engineers as well as neuro-
scientists and an immunologist. The experience gained
by this group in putting together a research team from
various disciplines could be of value to chemical en-
gineering professionals, particularly for young faculty
and graduate students who are considering multi-dis-
ciplinary projects.

What is a discipline? Generally the term 'discipline'
refers to a specialized field of knowledge. Swanson [4]
has pointed out that disciplines in a university envi-
ronment develop when both faculty and administra-
tion come to recognize reasonably distinct areas of in-
quiry. It is important to realize that each discipline is
usually composed of a set of narrower specializations
and that the comprehensiveness of the discipline has
at least three properties [5]: 1) a conceptual model
shared by individual members that forms the heart of
the discipline-an example is the paradigm of trans-
port phenomena, presented in the 1960 textbook by
Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot, which suggests that the
proper study of chemical engineering is the molecular
phenomena that are fundamental to the understanding
of the performance of chemical equipment; 2) a set of
phenomena common to the various specializations
(e.g., chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and others);
and 3) breadth of the discipline, achieved through
overlapping of multiple narrow specializations of dif-
ferent individuals as opposed to being embodied in
one scholar. Through this overlap comes cohesiveness,
and a common discipline language, or jargon, develops
to an extent less possible between disciplines [4].
It should be mentioned that currently there is no
agreement among practitioners of multi-disciplinary
research on a unifying terminology. However, there
is a need for such a consensus. The interchangeable

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


'Chemical Engineeiing Department 2Department of Veterinary
Microbiology and Pathology 3Department of Veterinary and Com-
parative Anatomy, Pharmacology and Physiology 'Electrical and
Computer Engineering Department

use of the terms interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary,
crossdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and others, when
describing research across disciplines, is widespread.
Recently, Castri [6] suggested a set of precise defini-
tions for the above terms which is based on the level
of cooperation among researchers. These definitions,
reproduced in Figure 1 (with minor changes), have
minimized the confusion. Multidisciplinary research
involves several disciplines, usually at the same
hierarchical level, without any demand for coopera-
tion. In most cases interaction occurs only during the
final stages of the project through editorial integration
of the findings. Crossdisciplinary work is characteris-
tic of projects that are problem-focused, where one
discipline interacts with others for what those disci-
plines can offer toward achieving a solution. The pro-
ject described in this paper fits into this category.
Interdisciplinary research, on the other hand, tends
William S. Kisaalita completed his PhD in chemical engineering
in 1986 at the University of British Columbia. After a year of postdoc-
toral work at the University of Waterloo, he joined the Chemical Engi-
neering Department at Washington State University as a postdoctoral
research associate. His research interests include biosensors, bio-
chemical reaction engineering, and downstream processing.
Bernard J. Van Wie received his PhD at the University of Okla-
homa in 1982 and did an additional year of postdoctoral work in the area
of thermodynamics. Since then he has been an Assistant (now Associ-
ate) Professor of Chemical Engineering at Washington State Univer-
sity, where he has established a multidisciplinary effort for the devel-
opment, monitoring, and control of bioreactors and bioseparation pro-
Rodney S. Skeen received his BS and MS in chemical en-
gineering from Washington State University in 1986 and 1987 respec-
tively. He is currently a PhD student working on the development of
neuron-based chemical sensors for long-term continuous monitoring.
In the past he has been involved in developing piezoelectric sensors.
William C. Davis received his BA in biology from Chico State
College in 1955, an MA in biology from Stanford University, and his
PhD in medical microbiology from Stanford University School of
Medicine in 1966. He is currently engaged in analysis of the mecha-
nisms governing the immune response to AIDS related viruses in goats
and the development of subunit vaccines to protozoan parasites and
infectious agents.
Charles D. Barnes received his BS in biology and physics from
Montana State University in 1958, his MS in physiology and biophysics
from the University of Washington in 1961, and his PhD in physiology
from the University of Iowa in 1962. He is currently undertaking a de-
tailed study to delineate the descending modulatory role played by the
locus coeruleus of the cat, rat, and mouse on spinal and autonomic
motor systems.
Simon J. Fung received a BSc in zoology from the University of
Hong Kong in 1974 and his PhD in physiology from Texas Tech Uni-
versity Health Sciences Center in 1980. His research focuses on the
use of electrophysiological approaches in explaining brain stem control
of the spinal cord function.
Kukjln Chun received his PhD in electrical and computer engi-
neering from the University of Michigan in 1986. He joined the depart-
ment of electrical and computer engineering at Washington State Uni-
versity thereafter and is currently an Assistant Professor at the Inter-
University Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University,
Korea. His primary research interests are semiconductor integrated
sensors and microelectronics fabrication.
Numan S. Dogan received his PhD in electrical engineering from
the University of Michigan in 1986 and is currently an Assistant Proces-
sor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Washington State Uni-
versity. His research interests include microelectronic fabrication, com-
puter modeling of integrated circuits and devices, and microwave cir-
cuits and devices.

Recently, Castri suggested a set of
precise definitions for the terms [interdisciplinary,
multidisciplinary, crossdisciplinary, transdisciplinary,
and others] which is based on the level of cooperation
among researchers. These definitions (with minor
changes) have minimized the confusion.

to be characterized by the dominance of a common
view. This type of cooperation may involve more than
one hierarchical level and usually results in new con-
cepts. One example that fits into this category is the
work of Barry Richmond, a neurobiologist with the
National Institute of Mental Health, and Lance Opti-
can, a biomedical engineer with the National Eye In-
stitute. This interdisciplinary team has come up with
a complex mathematical theory (the multiplex filter
hypothesis) that challenges scientific orthodoxy by
proposing that visual nerves transmit information by
multiplexed, encoded signals [7]. This work has the
potential of replacing the current way of thinking
about the brain. Finally, transdisciplinary efforts in-
volve multilevel interactions that lead to an entire
common purpose system. A typical example is the de-
velopment and deployment of military aircraft [8]. A



Iy --- | I








Policy making




FIGURE 1. Models of increasing cooperation and coordi-
nation of research management. (Used by permission
from the International Science Policy Foundation.)

FALL 1989

project of this magnitude involves all the levels from
scientific to policy-making and demands extensive
In the next section a specific example of an ongoing
crossdisciplinary effort between the authors is pre-
sented, from which general principles will be ex-
tracted on how to initiate and conduct such research.

The project rationale is presented below. A de-
tailed description of findings are reported elsewhere


The major problems in reliably determining in
vitro or in vivo concentrations of antibodies or anti-
gens, and for that matter any hormone, protein, ion,

FIGURE 2. Typical morphological appearance of an N- 18
neuron, differentiated with 2% serum and aminopterin

toxin, drug, or hazardous substance, are the lack of
fast, reusable, and accurate sensing devices. To date,
many solutions have been tried [10-18], yet most are
still unsatisfactory. In this project, a new approach to
sensing is being investigated in which the long term
goals are to develop biochips which will be used to
monitor electrical activity of neurons and later, excit-
able synthetic membranes on exposure to analytes.
The proposed sensing devices will allow one to take
advantage of the specificity, sensitivity, and speed of
response characteristic of neurons.
Neurons are the primary nervous system compo-
nents for processing and transmitting information. An
example of a differentiated neuroblastoma (a tumor-
ous nerve cell), cultured in our laboratory, is shown



i aro 1



FIGURE 3. Schematic of experimental equipment.

in Figure 2. Some of the processes (axons) receive,
while others send, information. Nerve cell membranes
contain receptors for neurotransmitters and other
chemical species. Receptor/neurotransmitter binding
events may lead to the activation of second messenger
compounds within the cell, or to the opening or closing
(gating) of specific ion channels (e.g., Na, K+ or
Ca2+). The opening of the channels results in ion pas-
sage that changes the electrical state of the neuron
which in many cases affects neuron electrical proper-
ties like action potential (AP) characteristics. For
electrically active cells, the channels are voltage sensi-
tive and can be caused to open or close by changing
the transmembrane potential through applied current
pulses [19].
To achieve a solution to the problem outlined above
within a reasonable economic timeframe, we assem-
bled a crossdisciplinary team of engineers and
biologists. The engineers brought a systems approach
to the project, with a clear view of how the final prod-
uct should be implemented. The biologists brought es-
sential basic information on the general methodology
used to study neurons. To demonstrate proof of con-
cept, neurons from a fresh water snail, Limnea stag-
nalis, were used with alcohols as model analytes
(methods and results reported are limited to the initial

Methods and Interpretation of Results

A schematic of the experimental set up is shown in
Figure 3. The visceral and right parietal ganglia (a
mass of tissue containing nerve cells) were removed
from the snail, Limnea stagnalis, using the methods
of Byerly and Hagiwara [20]. The ganglia were trans-
ferred to a continuous flow recording chamber and
exposed to varying concentrations of ethanol (0.2-1.0


f .

The methods described above emphasize the need in this project of crossing disciplines. For example,
dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intracellular recording are operations neurobiologists perform
routinely. On the other hand, for decades engineers have been designing and working with devices
capable of processing digital information such as that produced by neuronal firing events.


200 ms

FIGURE 4. Effects of ethanol on the firing frequency in
Limnea neurons (stimulating current was 0.8 nA).

M) in saline solutions. Random cells were impaled
with glass micro-electrodes and stimulated to produce
APs by passage of current through a bridge circuit
from the preamplifier. Signals were monitored using
the storage oscilloscope and stored for later analysis
on the video recorder. Cells selected for analysis were
limited to those which regularly induced spike dis-
charges of amplitudes greater than 50 mV. Repetitive
firing rate was based on the interspike intervals of the
first four APs, for cells induced by passage of a 1.0 S
current pulse with a 0.25 Hz repetition rate.
Responses of different neurons were compared by
normalizing firing frequency values to the baseline (no
alcohol) response at a given current level and plotting
the results as a function of concentration. Some cells
showed excitatory effects with increasing concentra-
tion, as show in Figure 4. The higher the ethanol con-

Ethanol Concentration (M)
FIGURE 5. Normalized firing frequency (FF/FFO) at 0.7
nA. Outer lines for each group of cells represent 95%
confidence limits on the mean values.

centration, the higher the firing frequency. In Figure
5, plots of normalized firing frequency versus ethanol
concentration with 95% confidence interval bands on
the mean values, shows three distinct categories.
Group 1 with a strong excitatory response, Group 2
with a weaker response, and Group 3 with no re-
sponse. Linear correlation between analyte concentra-
tion and a property of a neuron demonstrates in a
preliminary way the feasibility of the sensor concept.
More basic and applied work is currently being con-
ducted to demonstrate an expanded scope of applica-
tions and to explain the mechanism involved in the
sensing process.
The methods described above emphasize the need
in this project of crossing disciplines. For example,
dissecting of the snail to remove the ganglia and intra-
cellular recording are operations neurobiologists per-
form routinely. On the other hand, for decades en-
gineers have been designing and working with devices
capable of processing digital information such as that
produced by neuronal firing events.

Typically an investigator with a problem looks for
new methods or solutions from another discipline, or
may alternatively have a novel solution in need of a
problem. For the neuron biosensor project, one of us

FALL 1989

(BVW) recognized that advances in biosensing
technology would require the systematic study of
biological chemical sensing. The results obtained from
such studies would provide the insights needed to de-
sign highly sophisticated detection and signal trans-
mission devices that mimic those present in living sys-
tems (e.g., the olfactory system). To verify the con-
cept, suitable techniques for studying neuron behavior
were needed. Faculty members who traditionally
study neurons were needed for a crossdisciplinary
team. A group was identified with expertise in spinal
cord neurophysiology, having laboratory facilities
with intracellular recording equipment similar to that
shown in Figure 3. A proposal was put together for
preliminary studies with the main intent of obtaining
pilot data to demonstrate the concept.
Crossdisciplinary ideas such as the one in this
paper depart dramatically from the current knowl-
edge base and contain substantial uncertainties con-
cerning appropriate methods and outcome. Most sys-
tems for selecting university research projects for

funding tend to favor proposals with logical and sys-
tematic extensions of current knowledge. Such pro-
posals are less risky, tend to have easily predictable
outcomes, and are relatively easy to defend. There-
fore, the new and innovative crossdisciplinary pro-
jects may have difficulty surviving the conventional
peer review process. At this point one has to identify
a funding source that can entertain exploratory re-
search projects. Table 2 contains a non-exhaustive list
of such programs known to the authors. Some of the
programs are specifically designed for this purpose.
The neuron-based chemical sensor project was
first funded as a NSF Expedited Award for Novel
Research at a $30,000 level for 1986/87. Additional
funds of $94,000 were obtained from the Washington
Technology Center (WTC) for the 1987-1989 biennium
as well as a $12,400 grant from the WSU College of
Engineering. WTC funds are provided on a matching
basis to encourage faculty of universities in the State
of Washington to obtain extramural resources in re-
search areas of critical importance to the State. Based

Possible Sources of Support for Risky Proposals

Sponsoring Agency

National Science Foundation

National Science Foundation

National Science Foundation

Engineering Foundation

National Institute of Health

State Biotechnology and/or
Technology Centers

Not For-Profit and For-Profit

Local University Grant and
and Research Offices


Expedited Awards for
Novel Research

Research Initiation

Presidential Young
Investigator Awards

Engineering Research
Initiation Grants

Biotech. Research

Not applicable

University Explora-
tory Research
(P & G Co.)

Not applicable


Engineering Director
Washington, DC 20550

Engineering Director
Washington, DC 20550

Engineering Director
Washington, DC 20550

Dr. R.E. Emmert, Exec Dir.
AIChE, United Eng. Cent.
345 East 47th St.
New York, NY 10017
Dr. H. Landsdell
Federal Building
Room 916
Bethesda, MD 20892
Not applicable

Procter and Gamble Co.
Miami Valley
PO Box 398707
Cincinnati, OH 45238
Not applicable


* for exploratory research of high but unproven potential for future advances
* non-renewable funding up to $30,000
* does not require external review
* to be re-evaluated after 1988/89
* designed to encourage faculty to begin their careers and to make an academic
career more attractive
* funding up to $60,000 for 24 months
* multiple investigator proposals not eligible
* provides cooperative research support for the most outstanding and promising
young science and engineering faculty
* nominations originate from department chairs
* minimum of $25,000 and up to $37,000 in matching funds, which comes to a
maximum possible total of $100,000/year, for five years
* for initiating research for new full time engineering faculty without research
* support limited to $20,000
* crossdisciplinary projects encouraged
* This program has recently been initiated in response to the enormous growth of
the biotechnology industry that has resulted in critical shortages of experts in
areas such as biochemical separations and engineering.
* support up to $31,500
* Several states have set up centers to support local efforts in biotechnology.
However, the nature of the centers varies greatly. Each has a different focus
and source of support and set of programs. Some are designed to support
business and create new companies. A survey of 40 state-supported biotech-
nology centers in 28 states was conducted by the Biotechnology Information
Program of the North Carolina Biotechnology Center in the fall of 1987.
focuses on proposals that depart dramatically from current knowledge base
that entail substantial uncertainty
support up to $150,000 for three years
not renewable after the three-year period
Most universities have monies that are available internally for limited support.
The graduate or grants office puts out announcements for such competitions.


on successful completion of the first phase, a proposal
has been submitted to WTC for funding for the next
biennium (1989-91). Two additional proposals have
also been submitted to NSF: one to the Biotechnology
Program to support the present group's effort and
another to the Emerging Technology Program for an
inter-university program with the University of
Washington to support a broader based microsensor
effort. If these proposals are funded, our project will
advance from a small to a medium sized program as
defined in Table 1.
Once the funding sources) is/are identified, it is
important that contact is made with the program di-
rector(s) to obtain their input on the suitability of the
proposal. The next task is writing the proposal-the
following procedure worked well for us. First, a tenta-
tive table of contents was generated by the ChE
group, clearly identifying the parts of the proposal to
be written by each participating discipline. Then the
participants were asked to write those sections consis-
tent with their expertise. These were circulated one
to two weeks before a meeting was held to merge the
sections, and after the meeting, the chemical en-
gineering group had the responsibility of preparing a
first draft. We have found that this approach solves
two key problems associated with proposal writing in
a crossdisciplinary environment. First, any misun-
derstandings regarding approach, paradigms, or jar-
gon are resolved at the outset. Second, consistent ter-
minology and style of writing are adopted since the
integration of the proposal components is entrusted to
one individual. After preparation of the first draft,
the usual procedures for proposal preparation are fol-
lowed. These include distribution to each participant
to check for logical progression of ideas, appropriate-
ness of experimental design to the problem solution,
and clarity of experimental protocols and general edit-
ing, followed by a meeting to incorporate the new
changes prior to preparation of the final copy.
Although the literature is replete with do's and
don't regarding the management of crossdisciplinary
projects [21 & 22], there is a paucity of practical sug-
gestions to obviate some of the frequently listed obsta-
cles. In attempting to address this problem, we have
limited our discussion to those aspects with which we
have had experience.
Language or Jargon
During the proposal writing stages, it is important
to remember that credibility must be maintained

any misunderstandings regarding approach,
paradigms, or jargon are resolved at the outset.
[Then] consistent terminology and style of writing are
adopted since the integration of the proposal
components is entrusted to one individual.

among reviewers who are aware of the specific disci-
plines united in the proposal. Therefore, well-known
terms and concepts must be used. Because of this, the
integration of different language and jargon becomes
a problem and it usually surfaces at this point. Some
researchers have asserted that jargon should be elimi-
nated [23], but this cannot happen quickly since it
takes time to learn another 'discipline language'. How-
ever, efforts have to be made to minimize confusion.
For newly formed groups frequent discussions, query-
ing of co-workers, and exchange of relevant papers
serve as short term solutions. On a long term basis,
participating in a relevant course offered by the co-
workers in the other disciplines makes a big differ-
ence. For example, three of us (BVW, WSK and RSS)
attended a course, "Advanced Neurophysiology," of-
fered by CDB. Another useful effort, especially for
students and postdoctoral associates, is to spend time
in the laboratories of the other investigators, under
their supervision. For example, WSK does 50% of his
experimental work in the laboratory of WCD. The
focus of this effort is to develop monoclonal antibodies
to differentiated neuroblastoma membrance antigens
and to determine the extent of crossreactivity among
several cell lines.

In the early stages of a small crossdisciplinary pro-
ject, there is usually some doubt about the future suc-
cess of the project. This skepticism has been explained
by Bella and Williamson [24] to reflect an understand-
ing of the magnitude of the research problem and the
potential inappropriateness of the existing methods.
Such an attitude of healthy skepticism is essential.
Overconfidence usually reflects a shallow understand-
ing of the important questions. It should be pointed
out, however, that extreme skepticism can be disrup-

Openness to the Evolving Nature of
Crosdisciplinary Work
It is unlikely that a principle investigator deliber-
ately identifies the intellectual and social components
of a research program organizational pattern in ad-
vance. The project organization more often evolves
into a stable pattern by trial and error. In our case

FALL 1989

the project began with one chemical engineering fac-
ulty member (BVW) and two neurophysiologists
(CDB and SJF). After a year of initial experimenta-
tion, it was determined that if the neurons were to be
successfully used as the primary transducers in
biosensors, emphasis needed to include fabrication of
microdevices that would contain the neuron and the
electrical connections. Therefore, electrical engineers
(KC and NSD) with expertise in micromachining and
integrated circuits technology were invited to join the
team. Furthermore, since sensor development efforts
are now directed toward biological molecules of
economic significance, such as monoclonal antibodies
and antigens, an immunologist (WCD) has joined our
team. This demonstrates the evolving nature of cross-
disciplinary work and the importance of openness to
the need of other expertise, which, if ignored, may
result in the demise of the project.

Other Issues

Based on our experience, frequent team meetings
(on top of the standard weekly or bi-weekly meetings
between students, postdocs, and their direct super-
visors) can be time-consuming. Hence, meetings
should be pegged to specific project milestones, as op-
posed to fixed intervals, in order to avoid unproduc-
tive discussions. However, some flexibility should be
maintained for emergency meetings as needed. In this
regard, availability of modern computers attached to
high-speed data networks, such as those donated to
numerous universities by AT&T through their Uni-
versity Equipment Donation Program, can temper the
inconvenience of emergency meetings. For example,
when data are being collected or analyzed, questions
that arise which require discussion can be dealt with
instantly by all investigators across campus via infor-
mation sharing workstations.
Also, financial management (especially for work
done in more than one laboratory) can lead to time
delays. Most universities have straightforward ac-
counting procedures to handle this type of problem.
In cases where this is not true, a procedure for billing
the project account should be put in place im-
mediately. This will save valuable time. For example,
our group needed to immunize rabbits to generate
polyspecific serum for testing neuron responses when
subjected to antibodies. However, the chemical en-
gineers, in whose hands the budget account resided,
lacked clearance to handle live animals, and obtaining
this clearance would have taken at least one month.
To circumvent this problem, rabbits were purchased
through the laboratory of WCD and work was per-

formed under his supervision. The chemical engineer-
ing group was later billed for those expenses.
Another obstacle that is often mentioned is conflict
of paradigms or concepts. This is potentially the case
between scientists (whose focus is mainly on under-
standing the principle mechanism underlying impor-
tant processes) and engineers (whose emphasis is
mainly on applying existing fundamental knowledge
to solving practical problems). Under such cir-
cumstances, the best solution might be maintaining
good communication links through reviewing progress
toward the team's long-term objectives.

In this paper we have attempted to describe our
experience in initiating and conducting a small
biotechnological crossdisciplinary project in a univer-
sity environment. It is wise to put in perspective the
relationship between small university crossdiscipli-
nary projects and the American competitiveness in
the global marketplace. The history of science and
technology teaches us that most significant develop-
ments have occurred as a result of approaches that
involved crossing disciplines. In fact, chemical en-
gineering as a discipline is one of these developments.
Hence, adaptation of technical information from two
disciplines, resulting in a major development, is not
new. Reasons for the greater current interest in the
subject are better expressed by the NSF in their pro-
gram announcement for Centers for Crossdisciplinary
Research in Engineering, otherwise called Engineer-
ing Research Centers (ERC), as follows:
The need for ERC's arose from the fact that despite
America's preeminence in science, our competitive
position in the international marketplace has been in-
creasingly eroded. Besides the various economic and
managerial factors, part of this competitiveness prob-
lem can be attributed to the gradual loss of U.S. indus-
trial prowess in turning research discoveries into
high-quality, competitive products. Many practition-
ers and leaders have come to the realization that while
American academic engineering has made great
strides in basing modern engineering on advanced
scientific knowledge and the latest laboratory and
computational tools, it has not placed sufficient em-
phasis on the design of manufacturing processes and
products to keep pace with increasingly sophisticated
consumer demands around the world. In addition,
crossdisciplinary research focused on technological
advancements from an engineering systems perspec-
tive is needed to better prepare engineering graduates
with the diversity and quality of education needed by
U.S. industry.

The National Research Council study on "Chemical


Engineering Frontiers: Needs and Opportunities,"
chaired by N. R. Amundson of the University of
Houston, identified four major areas of opportunity.
One of these is the development of new high technol-
ogy industries that are driven by scientific break-
throughs, including 1) biotechnology, 2) electronic,
photonic, and recording materials and devices, and 3)
advanced materials. When one focuses on biotechnol-
ogy, it is not clear whether we at the university are
doing enough to "win the war." For example, of the
eighteen Engineering Research Centers currently
supported by NSF, only one (at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology) addresses a biotechnological
aspect (Process Engineering). It appears the process
of creating research groups has to begin with small
crossdisciplinary projects similar to the one described
in this paper, and then grow through the medium and
large size levels to finally attain a level where the
participants can successfully compete for an ERC
grant. The key ingredients to the formation of small
projects are the availability of faculty who are willing
to cross disciplines and the availability of funds for
novel (yet risky) proposals. We believe that a larger
pool of funds targeting such studies, which would not
be funded through conventional means, may be one
step, among many, that could ensure that America
maintains the lead it currently enjoys in areas such as


This study has been made possible by grants from
the National Science Foundation (ECE-8609910), the
Washington Technology Center (WTC-231535), and
the Washington State University Colleges of En-
gineering and Veterinary Medicine.

1. Lewis, C., "Interdisciplinary Engineering Research: A
Case Study," Eng. Ed., 78, 19 (1987)
2. NRC, The Engineering Research Centers: Leaders in
Change, Cross-Disciplinary Engineering Research
Committee, Washington, DC, National Academy Press
3. Rossini, F.A., A.L. Porter, P. Kelly, and D.E. Chubin,
"Interdisciplinary Integration Within Technology As-
sessment," Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utiliza-
tion, 2,503 (1981)
4. Swanson, E.R., "Working With Other Disciplines." In
M.G. Russell, R.J. Sauer, and J.M. Barnes, eds.,
"Enabling Interdisciplinary Research: Perspectives
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Ex. Station, University of Minnesota, 19 (1982)
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Fish-Scale Model of Omniscience." In M. Sherif and

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7. Vaughan, C., "A New View of Vision," Sci. News, 134,
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Gunships 1962-1972, Office of Air Force History, U.S.
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Sensors," MSc Thesis, Washington State University,
Pullman, WA (1987)
10. Freeman, T.M., and R.W. Seitz, "Chemiluminescence
Fiber Optic Probe for Hydrogen Peroxide Based on the
Luminol Reaction," Anal. Chem., 50, 1242 (1978)
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Immunosensor for the Electrochemical Determination
of the Tumor Antigen a-fetoprotein," Anal. Chim. Acta,
115, 61(1980)
12. Danielsson, B., I. Lundstrom, K. Mosbach, and L.
Stiblert, "On a New Enzyme Transducer Combination:
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sitive to Penicillin," Anal. Chem., 52, 1935 (1980)
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for Cephalosporins and Glucose," in K. Venkatsubra-
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posium Series 106, Washington, DC, 221 (1979)
15. Karube, I., T. Matsunaga, and S. Suzuki,
"Microbioassay of Nystatin With a Yeast Electrode,"
Anal. Chim. Acta, 109, 39 (1979)
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of Tetracycline with a Potentiometric CO2 Gas Sensor,"
Anal. Lett., 15, 1345 (1982)
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for Antitumor Drug Screening," Biotech. Prog., 2, 187
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Gebauer, "A Bio-Selective Membrane Electrode Pre-
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(1976/77) 0

FALL 1989


Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506

W HO AMONG US, the initiated, has never paused in
the midst of a second-law problem to ask, "Is
there really such a thing as entropy?" As an un-
abashed admission of such waverings of faith, this
essay attempts to answer the question. It is an exami-
nation of paradoxes and putative interpretations of
entropy in search of its essence.

Quantization of energy is the salient feature that
distinguishes quantum mechanics from classical
mechanics. Because a large number of quantum states
are available to a single molecule and an enormous
number of molecules are present, the number of quan-
tum states accessible to a system of thermodynamic
interest is an astronomically large number. In addition
to this, the quantum state of the system is continually
changing as a result of the motion and collisions of the
molecules. It now becomes obvious that to calculate
the thermodynamic properties of such a system, some
type of statistical averaging process must be used.
Fortunately, the extremely large size of the statistical
population insures the success of such an averaging
procedure and permits certain convenient simplifica-
tions in the attendant mathematics.
The average value of any thermodynamic prop-
erty, X, is calculated in the following manner

X= Pii (1)

where Pi is the probability that the system is in the
ith quantum state, and Xi is the value of the property
when the system occupies the ith quantum state. In

"Is there really such a thing as entropy?"
As an unabashed admission of such waverings of
faith, this essay attempts to answer the question. It is an
examination of paradoxes and putative interpretations
of entropy in search of its essence.

Benjamin G. Kyle is professor of chemi-
cal engineering at Kansas State University,
where he has enjoyed over thirty years of
teaching. He holds a BS from the Georgia
Institute of Technology and a PhD from the
University of Florida. He has not outgrown an
early fascination with thermodynamics and is
interested in practically all aspects of the sub-
ject. He is the author of a thermodynamics
textbook (Prentice-Hall).

assigning probabilities to quantum states the follow-
ing rules are followed:
1) Quantum states of equal energy have equal
2) The statistical weight of a quantum state de-
pends upon the energy of that state and is pro-
portional to exp(-E/kT).
The probability of finding the system in the ith quan-
tum state with energy Ei is

S exp(- Ei/kT)
S exp(-Ei/kT) (2)

The summation in the denominator is taken over all
quantum states and is a normalizing factor needed to
make the sum of the probabilities of all states equal
to unity. This sum will be denoted by Z and is referred
to as the partition function.

Z= eexp(-Ei/kT) (3)

The partition function provides the bridge between
statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, for it can
be shown that the thermodynamic properties are re-
lated in a fairly simple manner to the partition func-
tion. The function A' is defined by

A'= kT In Z

and it can be shown that this function has the proper-
ties of the Helmholtz Free Energy.
The statistical entropy can be calculated from Eq.
4 via the thermodynamic relation

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1989


S=- aA-

In terms of the partition function this becomes

S=k ln Z+kTf aInZ
I aT )
V (5)
which after some manipulation can be written in terms
of probabilities

S=-kk Pi In Pi (6)

In an isolated system the internal energy is in-
variant and all quantum states have the same energy
level. Thus, our probability rules require that all
quantum states be equally probable and


where fi is the total number of quantum states acces-
sible to the system. When this probability is substi-
tuted into Eq. 6, the statistical entropy of an isolated
system becomes
S= k In (7)
For a spontaneous change occurring in an isolated
system we write
S2 S= k n
S1 (8)

and note that the required condition S2 > Si dictates
12g > fil. This means that the more-stable state is
characterized by a larger number of accessible quan-
tum states or a greater number of microscopic config-
urations (each a quantum state contributing to the
number fl) constituting the macroscopic, or ther-
modynamic, state.

Thermodynamics requires the existence of a func-
tion we call entropy and provides the means of cal-
culating its changes as well as the framework within
which it can be advantageously employed. While this
is sufficient for any application of thermodynamics,
we are nevertheless uncomfortable with abstractions
and prefer to attach physical significance to the quan-
tities we deal with. Yet, when the physical represen-
tation is strained and leads to ambiguous or erroneous
interpretation, the effort is counterproductive. This
can often be the case with entropy, especially when it
is identified with disorder.
From a molecular viewpoint, the association of

This concept comes into being only
when we move further into the mental realm and
begin to translate the physical into the mathematical
description. Rudolf Carnap seems to have had this in
mind when he stated that the statistical concept of
entropy is a logical instead of a physical concept.

positive entropy changes with an increase in disorder
seems quite reasonable for phase changes and mixing.
For other processes the association is less obvious and
for at least one process (the adiabatic crystallization
of a subcooled liquid) it fails completely. Unfortu-
nately, order and disorder are not precise objective
terms, but carry considerable subjective bias. For
example, on consulting a thesaurus one finds many
synonyms for order, including regularity, symmetry,
harmony, and uniformity. Conceivably, the absence
of gradients or differences in potential could be
thought to characterize an ordered state. Thus, one
who held this view would never realize that these are
the conditions of an equilibrium state when told that
equilibrium, or a state of maximum entropy, is iden-
tified by a maximum of disorder.
In interpreting Eq. 8 it must be remembered that
the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to equilibrium states. The
accepted microscopic model of an equilibrium state en-
tails complete randomness with regard to molecular
motion-chaos or maximum disorder. It therefore
seems inappropriate to regard 12 > iR as represent-
ing an increase in disorder when each state represents
maximum disorder. All we can say is that fi measures
the complexity of our microscopic description of a sys-
tem, and an increase in f1 can be visualized as a
spreading of the system over accessible quantum
states. The system moves in the direction of more
This is not a physically satisfying representation;
it is not based on the virtual observables of our micro-
scopic model (e.g., positions and velocities). Its signifi-
cance is found on a level removed from these in terms
of something which can exist only in the mind-the
number of quantum states. This concept comes into
being only when we move further into the mental
realm and begin to translate the physical into the
mathematical description. Rudolf Carnap [1] seems to
have had this in mind when he stated that the statis-
tical concept of entropy is a logical instead of a physi-
cal concept.

In 1875 Willard Gibbs published his landmark
paper "On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Sub-

FALL 1989

stances." In this paper he determined the properties
of an ideal gas mixture and found the entropy change
on mixing to be
AS=-R Yi In (9)

He had firmly established the validity of this expres-
sion but Gibbs was not comfortable with the result,
and his deliberations over this result have come to be
known as the Gibbs Mixing Paradox.
According to Eq. 9, the entropy change on mixing
equimolar quantities of two gases is

AS= R In 2

a result that is seen to be independent of the nature
of the gases. Gibbs was concerned about the "degree
of dissimilarity" between the two gases which could
be visualized being made as close to zero as possible.
As long as there is some dissimilarity, the entropy of
mixing is R In 2, but when the "degree of dissimilar-
ity" becomes zero (mixing the same gas), the entropy
change is zero. Thus, the entropy of mixing depends
not on the "degree of dissimilarity," but only on
whether any dissimilarity exists. It is this "either-or"
situation which constitutes the Gibbs Mixing Paradox.
As we have seen, the paradox arises out of classical
thermodynamics and does not require a statistical or
molecular kinetic context. Several attempts have been
made to resolve the paradox with the help of either
statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, or informa-
tion theory. All have been evaluated by Denbigh and
Denbigh [2] and were found wanting.
The usual mixing process is carried out with no
recovery of work, and because the heat of mixing is
zero, there is no exchange of heat with the surround-
ings. In fact, there is no external change to indicate
that the process has occurred. An ordinary mixing of
the same gas could not be distinguished experimen-
tally from the mixing of different gases, although an
entropy change occurs in the latter case and not the
former. Thus, while Eq. 9 was determined in an indi-
rect, but rigorous, thermodynamic manner, we have
seen that the entropy of mixing exhibits curious be-
havior, and further, we have no means of experimen-
tal verification.
Insight into the curious behavior of entropy can be
found by considering distinguishable spatial configura-
tions. This can be illustrated with the lattice model of
solutions [3]. Here one interprets fl and 'f2 in Eq. 8
as the number of spatial arrangements or lattice con-
figurations before and after mixing. Before mixing
there is but one configuration, and fli is unity. After
mixing the number of configurations is

(NA + NB)!

With these values of Q1 and f2 Eq. 8 can be reduced
to Eq. 9. Although the lattice model is more appropri-
ate to liquids, we note that Eq. 9 also gives the en-
tropy of mixing in an ideal liquid solution, and thus
we may expect that the entropy of mixing gases arises
from similar configurational considerations. There are
more distinguishable spatial arrangements available,
hence a larger number of quantum states available, to
a mixture than to a pure gas. The only factor deter-
mining the entropy of mixing is the distinguishability
of the particles of portion A from the particles of por-
tion B. A reason for this will be proposed later.

Eq. 5 may be used to calculate the entropy of an
ideal gas once the partition function has been formu-
lated. The only type of energy possessed by a
monatomic ideal gas is kinetic energy and because the
energy levels, Eis, are extremely close together, E
can be closely approximated as a continuum, and the
summation in Eq. 3 can be replaced by an integral.
Omitting the particulars of the calculation, the parti-
tion function can be obtained straightforwardly and is
2k m3N/2
Z=V 2 mT
-h2 (10)
The entropy may be obtained by the substitution of
Eq. 10 into Eq. 5

S= kN In V+ 31In (2kmT+ 31
2 h2 2 (11)

Entropy is an extensive property, but, unfortu-
nately, not according to Eq. 11. For the simple oper-
ation of combining two 1/2-mol quantities of the same
gas, this equation yields

AS=Nk In 2=R In 2

We have already seen that this is the entropy of mix-
ing different gases, but we know that there is no en-
tropy change on mixing the same gas. This problem
is sometimes identified as the Gibbs paradox although
it is really a special case of the mixing paradox [4].
The problem was resolved by Gibbs in 1902 by the
ad hoc correction of dividing the partition function of
Eq. 10 by N!-the number of permutations involving
N distinguishable entities. This results in the follow-
ing expression for the entropy


S= kNn, +- In(2 +5
S= I N 2 n h2 2j (12)

Eq. 12 satisfies the condition that the entropy be an
extensive property. It has become known as the Sac-
kur-Tetrode equation and has been verified experi-
Today, in the quantum age of physics, it is custom-
ary to specify whether or not the constituent particles
of a system are distinguishable. However, in the class-
ical age of Gibbs' day, the particles of an ideal
monatomic gas were assumed independent with their
motion described by classical mechanics. While there
was certainly an impossible computational difficulty
in providing the exact description prescribed by the
equations of classical mechanics, there was no doubt
that in principle, particles could be traced and thus
retained their identity. While still holding to the prin-
ciple of the distinguishability of particles, Gibbs jus-
tified the adventitious insertion of N! into Eq. 10 by
saying that the interchange of like particles should be
of no statistical consequence.
It is interesting to note that the ad hoc adjustment
is unnecessary in the case of the internal energy. Com-
bination of Eqs. 4 and 5 shows that the internal energy
U= kT2(a 1n Z)
V T (13)
Regardless of whether the partition function of Eq. 10
is divided by N!, the result is the same and correctly
shows that U is linear in N. Thus, of the two basic
thermodynamic properties, only the entropy requires
an adjustment of classical thought by introducing the
concept of indistinguishable particles.
Again, it appears that in order to deal successfully
with entropy it is necessary to go a step beyond a
description of the system in terms of virtual observa-
bles. Instead of a model involving physical quantities,
we have included factors such as distinguishability
which arise from our mathematical treatment and
exist only in the mind of the model maker. The focus
has been shifted from the system to our representa-
tion of the system-again, a move from the physical
to the logical realm.

A major tenet of the philosophical underpinning of
science is the concept of objective observation-an ob-
server independent of the observed object. An un-
questioning acceptance of this concept had prevailed
until recent developments in modern physics
suggested that it may not be applicable at the sub-

atomic level. Specifically, Bohr's concept of com-
plementarity and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
recognize that the behavior of a system cannot be
properly described until the presence of observing in-
struments is accounted for. This implies that the ob-
server is part of the system and has encouraged in
some quarters the advancement of a subjective
philosophic view [5].
The concept of objective observation has been chal-
lenged only in the sub-atomic realm; it is still firmly
entrenched outside this realm, and is unquestioned
when dealing with systems of thermodynamic in-
terest. Nevertheless, there exists a tendency to take
a subjective viewpoint in regard to entropy when in-
terpreted microscopically from the perspective of in-
formation. Recently, Denbigh and Denbigh [2] have
convincingly shown that no formal relation exists be-
tween thermodynamic entropy, a physical quantity,
and a term labeled entropy that arises from informa-
tion theory and is a logical quantity [6]. However,
because the entropy-information association consider-
ably predates information theory [7], it will probably
remain well-ingrained despite the Denbighs' efforts.
The putative view interprets the condition fi2 > 1
corresponding to an increase in entropy as an ob-
server's loss of information about the microscopic
state of the system. Accordingly, one reasons that
there are more possibilities in state 2 and therefore
the increase in f1 implies more uncertainty or a loss
of information. This view presents two difficulties.
First, because f is not a virtual observable quantity,
it is doubtful that an observer could have access to
this type of information. The information associated
with f concerns not the system, but our description
of the system, Second, it is unreasonable to believe
that AS, a thermodynamic property change which de-
pends on objectively determined macrostates, could
also depend on microscopic information gained or lost
by an observer.
In an effort to blunt the last criticism, Jaynes [8]
has suggested the following carefully worded defini-
tion of information.

The entropy of a thermodynamic system is a
measure of the degree of ignorance of a person whose
sole knowledge about its microstate consists of the
values of the macroscopic quantities Xi which define
its thermodynamic state. This is a completely
"objective" quantity, in the sense that it is a function
only of the Xi, and does not depend on anybody's per-
sonality. There is then no reason why it cannot be
measured in the laboratory.

Here, one wonders what type of knowledge of the

FALL 1989

While entropy seems the most subjective property, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomfortably redolent
of human intent. The requirement of subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that the system is
being constrained, or manipulated. Many of its variables lack easy physical correspondence .

microstate is lacking. Virtual observables such as
position and velocity would be subject to continual
fluctuation, and hence an instantaneous determination
of these would be of no practical value. The identifica-
tion of quantum states and the knowledge of their cor-
responding probabilities would be of obvious value,
but these, as we have also shown with l, are not
virtual observables but rather are mental constructs
which allow us to model the system. It would appear
then that this unpossessed knowledge of the micro-
state is either unusable or is an artifact of the micro-
scopic model we have constructed to represent the
macrostate of the system. We surmise that Jaynes is
speaking of useful microscopic knowledge, but must
note that there is a double dose of subjectivity here.
First, we have introduced quantities such as fl which
are mental constructs that relate to our description of
the system rather than to the system itself. Second,
we now say that the macroscopic behavior of the sys-
tem, as reflected in the value of the entropy, is depen-
dent on the extent of our knowledge of these model
Let us test Jaynes' interpretation through the use
of Eq. 8 that relates the statistical entropy change to
fg/-1. It would seem that a definite informational
value could be assigned to the knowledge of fl regard-
less of its numerical value. We are not asking which
microstate the system is presently in, which would
have informational value dependent on the numerical
value of l, but rather how many microstates are pos-
sible. We are dealing with a model parameter, l, and
therefore the knowledge embodied in its determina-
tion should be constant and independent of the mac-
rostate of the system. If this is so, then there is no
change in knowledge of microstates between any two
macrostates and the informational entropy change is
always zero. We reach the same conclusion by noting
that the number of position coordinates and velocity
components is always 6N regardless of the macroscopic
state of the system-a constant amount of microscopic
knowledge. Thus, the concept of entropy as a measure
of microscopic information is inconsistent as well as
extremely subjective.

The interpretation of entropy in terms of informa-
tion leads to an extreme subjective position and must

be rejected. On the other hand, it must be confessed
that entropy is more subjective, or less objective, than
other properties of matter. This is because the exis-
tence of a human mind must be assumed before an
entropy change for a macroscopic system can be
evaluated or, as we have already seen, a microscopic
interpretation can be appreciated. In the case of the
evaluation of an entropy change, it is first necessary
to devise a reversible path and then perform the calcu-
lation from the definition

This is not an act of rote calculation but is rather a
process of mental creation.
While entropy seems the most subjective prop-
erty, the whole field of thermodynamics is uncomfort-
ably redolent of human intent. The requirement of
subscripts on its partial derivatives reminds us that
the system is being constrained, or manipulated.
Many of its variables lack easy physical correspon-
dence and only seldom is a thermodynamic variable
evaluated except as a means of calculating some more
"practical" quantity. In fact, it has been suggested
that its various applications can be integrated into a
coherent whole only by recognizing thermodynamics
to be "a means of extending our experimentally gained
knowledge of a system or as a framework for viewing
and correlating the behavior of the system" [9].
Clearly, the emphasis is on utility. Having arisen from
efforts to exploit rather than to observe nature, the
laws of thermodynamics cannot be completely
cleansed of their earthy taint and are often embarras-
sing to the scientist for their lack of intellectual purity.
Uneasiness with this anthropomorphic quality of ther-
modynamics has been confessed by P. W. Bridgman,
one of its foremost thinkers [10]:

It must be admitted, I think, that the laws of ther-
modynamics have a different feel from most of the
other laws of the physicist. There is something more
palpably verbal about them-they smell more of their
human origin. The guiding motif is strange to most
of physics: namely, a capitalizing of the universal
failure of human beings to construct perpetual motion
machines of either the first or the second kind. Why
should we expect nature to be interested either posi-
tively or negatively in the purposes of human beings,
particularly purposes of such an unblushingly eco-
nomic tinge?


Modern science begins with experience, which is
by nature local and transitory, and by ratiocination
arrives at laws that are considered universal and time-
less. These laws usually connect quantities which are
not directly related to our sensory experience, even
to the extent of being only mental constructs that are
often contrary to common sense. (Recall Newton's un-
easiness over the need for a gravitational force which
acts at a distance.) Thus, the formulations of science
are considered to be in the realm of the pure intellect.
In recognizing this, Sir Arthur Eddington has refer-
red to the enterprise of science as "mind-stuff' and
has expanded this theme most eloquently [11]:

We have found that where science has progressed
the farthest, the mind has but regained from nature
that which the mind put into nature. We have found a
strange footprint on the shores of the unknown. We
have devised profound theories, one after another, to
account for its origin. At last, we have succeeded in
reconstructing the creature that made the footprint.
And Lo! it is our own.

Paraphrasing Eddington with the incorporation of
Bridgman's thought, we could say that in the case of
thermodynamics, that which the mind has regained
from nature reflects the economic, or human, quality
of the input.
Entropy's human scent can be traced to its deriva-
tion. Essential to both the conventional Carnot-cycle
proof and the mathematically more elegant
Caratheodory proof [12] is the concept of a reversible
process. Seldom is this even an approximation of real-
ity. It is a concept understandable only to economic
man desiring to reap the most from his attempted
taming of nature and can not be considered scientifi-
cally objective. Yet, only in this context can an unam-
biguous interpretation of entropy be found: the total
entropy change measures the lost work when a pro-
cess falls short of this human-scented, value-laden
standard. Something on which we have placed value
has been lost. This carries over into the microscopic
view where the valued commodity is either order or
The mixing paradox exposes the incongruity of the
value-laden macroscopic view and a naive microscopic
view of entropy. The microscopic description of an
ideal gas in purely physical terms leads to Eq. 11 anc
to the conclusion that the process of mixing the same
gas is no different from the mixing of different gases.
It is the economic or utilitarian aspect of the situation,
the work of separation, that discriminates between
the processes and forces the inclusion of N! into the
microscopic description. The reversal of the mixing

process requires separational work when the gases
are different. However, we have neither the need nor
the ability to exactly reverse the mixing of portions
of the same gas and therefore need expend no separa-
tional work. Because the minimum work of separation
is TAS for ideal gas mixtures, there must therefore
be no entropy change on mixing the same gas. The
microscopic description is brought into conformance
with the macroscopic situation by requiring indistin-
guishability of particles. Thus, a utilitarian considera-
tion, human in origin, requires the insertion of a logi-
cal (or human-scented) term into the microscopic
In failing to examine nature in a disinterested or
completely objective manner, we have obtained a
quantity, the entropy, which is not completely objec-
tive and which can be understood only by an appeal
to the human mind. We can only conclude that entropy
is neither completely subjective nor completely objec-
tive. Its existence can be publicly agreed upon and its
consistent use has great utility, but its existence does
not seem to be independent of the human mind. It
may not be an intrinsic property of matter, but rather
an objectively defined quantity which, for our conveni-
ence, we may treat as a property. Born of the un-
natural union of wish and reality, entropy is objective
enough to be useful in dealing with the physical world,
but subjective enough that a purely physical interpre-
tation lies beyond our grasp.


1. Schilpp, P.A., ed., The Philosophy of RudolfCarnap, The
Open Court Publishing Co., LaSalle, IL, p 37 (1963)
2. Denbigh, K.G., and J.S. Denbigh, Entropy in Relation to
Incomplete Knowledge, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge (1985)
3. Hildebrand, J.H., and R.L. Scott, The Solubility of Non-
electrolytes, Third Ed., Reinhold Publishing Corp., New
York (1950)
4. Schridinger, E., Statistical Thermodynamics, Cam-
bridge University Press, Cambridge, p 58 (1960)
5. See, for example, Capra, F., The Tao of Physics, Bantam
Books, Inc., New York (1975), or Wigner, E.P., Symme-
tries and Reflections, Indiana University Press, Bloom-
ington (1967)
6. This is also the conclusion of Carnap, reference 1
7. Brush, S., The Kind of Motion We Call Heat, North Hol-
land Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1976)
8. Jaynes, E.T., The Maximum Entropy Formalism, eds.
R.D. Levine and M. Tribus, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge
9. Kyle, B.G., Chemical and Process Thermodynamics,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p 2 (1984)
10. Bridgman, P.W., The Nature of Thermodynamics,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1941)
11. Eddington, A.S., The Nature of the Physical World,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1928)
12. Zemansky, M.W., Am. J. Phys., 34, 914 (1966) 0

FALL 1989


Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey
New Brunswick/Piscataway, NJ 08855-0909

N THE FALL of 1985 I began my graduate study in
chemical engineering at The University of Illinois
at Chicago, where I subsequently received a MS de-
gree in computer science in 1987. Then, following my
dissertation advisor, I joined the Department of
Chemical and Biochemical Enginering at Rutgers,
The State University of New Jersey. As a foreign
student, I have met with many difficulties in my
study. Naturally, I had language problems and, at the
beginning, I did not even know how to "LOG IN" to
computers! However, I approached my graduate
studies in my own way. This report chronicles my
journey through graduate education and provides,
through my own personal observations and experi-
ences, what I hope is a useful itinerary for other
graduate students.

Many graduate students enter graduate school
with no definite plans [1]. They usually spend one or
more years on course study, then select a dissertation
topic and begin research. Following a different ap-
proach, I began my research the first day of graduate
study, since I believed that "learning-by-doing" might
be a much better way to gain creativity and experi-
ence. Also, I wanted to relate course work directly to
thesis research.
My chosen course work is very close to my disser-
tation research topic, "Intelligent Process Control."
Intelligent process control denotes the application of

Ming Rao received his BS in chemical en-
gineering from Kunming Institute of Technol-
ogy (China), his MS in computer science from
the University of Illinois, Chicago, and will re-
ceive his PhD degree in engineering from
Rutgers University. He is presently working on
intelligent control in Maintenance Control
Center Project, sponsored by the FAA and will
join the University of Alberta as an assistant
professor of chemical engineering working on
intelligent control. He has authored and coau-
thored over forty technical papers.
*Present address: University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta,
Canada T6G 2G6
Copyright ChE Diision ASEE 1989

I feel that I benefit the most from research-oriented
courses. At the beginning of such a course, the
instructor.., introduces the basic principles and
refers to the current development of the subject.

artificial intelligence techniques to the control of
chemical processes. Interdisciplinary in nature, it al-
lows knowledge of, for example, computer science and
electrical engineering to be extensively applied to
chemical processes. So far, I have completed 25 regu-
lar graduate courses which are distributed among
three majors: eight courses on fundamentals of chem-
ical engineering, eight on artificial intelligence and
software engineering, and nine on control engineering
and system science.
I have studied aggressively and worked hard in
course work, since I knew that these courses would
directly benefit my thesis research. I took them not
only to satisfy credit requirements, but also to fulfill
the perceived needs of my research. In fact, several
research publications resulted directly from the
course work since I was able to immediately see prac-
tical applications in novel areas and, also, I maintained
an excellent academic record.
I feel that I benefit the most from research-
oriented courses. At the beginning of such a course,
the instructor (usually an expert on the subject he
teaches) introduces the basic principles and refers to
the current development of the subject. Meanwhile,
the key literature and references are distributed to
students. To fulfill the course requirements, every
student has to read the literature carefully, do home-
work assignments, take quizzes or examinations,
present a key paper orally, and finish a research pro-
ject which is followed by a final report. Needless to
say, such a course is usually very demanding and time-
consuming; however, it gives us practical experience
in research and brings us to the frontier of the related
subject quickly. There is another significant benefit
that comes from a research-oriented course. From it
we can learn how to do research: through search and
review of published literature, research topic selec-
tion, oral presentation, conducting the project, and
technical writing. Each of these steps is exactly a prin-
cipal element in the research process, isn't it?


I believe universities provide the best environ-
ment for learning. Facing choices from among many
useful courses offered, we are unable to take all of the
courses we need. However, auditing will help us to
partially solve this problem. I usually audit one course
each semester. Although I do not do the work of this
course in detail, I still learn the basic principles, defi-
nitions, and terminologies.
I am also interested in attending and participating
in various research seminars. I often attend two or
three seminars each week, in different departments
and universities. The speakers at the seminars are
usually famous scholars or young experts in
specialized fields. They can provide us with the
newest developments and the most advanced tech-
niques. We also have the opportunity to extend our
knowledge, to acquire new motivation, to exchange
ideas, and to develop oral communication skills [1].

I believe that the most important element in pur-
suit of a PhD degree is thesis research. The main pur-
pose of thesis research is to learn how to do research
work and how to solve problems independently [2].
Notably, research topic selection plays a key role in
thesis research. Three aspects should be taken into
account in topic selection: 1) personal research in-
terest and academic background, 2) adviser's sugges-
tions, and 3) available research facilities.
I feel that research interest is the most crucial fac-
tor. In a survey on doctoral dissertation experience,
it has been found that personal interest is rated as the
most important factor influencing research topic
choice [3]. If you love the job you are doing, you will
be happy and won't care about how difficult it is. On
the other hand, as we know, no one can succeed at the
work to which he does not bring great confidence and
The choice of research topic also needs to fit our
academic background to a certain extent. Graduate
training is the continuation of undergraduate study.
Undergraduate study provides us with a broad and
basic academic background, while graduate education
trains us to do independent research. Our past experi-
ence and knowledge will pave the way for us to go
toward the final goal.
Unfortunately, many graduate students do not ap-
proach this aspect seriously. They simply ask their
adviser: "What topic is available for me?" Rather, I
believe that the fundamental question is: What is the
purpose of a PhD dissertation? As stated in many
graduate program brochures, it should reflect origi-

nal, independent research, and is supposed to contrib-
ute new knowledge to the field in some way [2]. Here,
originality means "nothing similar to prior work." In-
dependent research requires that we work on our own
at each step of the project, including topic selection.
If we tell the adviser first what we want to do, this
will show that we are approaching our subject with
maturity and motivation, and it will help the adviser
understand our interests and potential. At this mo-
ment, the adviser can encourage and guide us and
suggest appropriate avenues of research [4]. An im-
portant factor is that we are stimulated to gain
creativity by such a training process. When we do not
have enough experience, our ideas are often imper-

I believe that the most important element in pursuit
of a PhD degree is thesis research. [Its] main purpose
... is to learn how to do research work and how to solve
problems independently. Notably, the research topic
selection plays a key role in thesis research.

fect, i.e., wrong in some aspects, even unrealistic. But
one should not forget that new ideas sometimes seem
crazy at first [5, 6].

In recent years, much attention has been focused
on the need to train creative engineers for industry
and society. Though there are many different defini-
tions of creativity, everyone agrees that "creativity
(whatever it is) involves the ability to put things
(words, concepts, methods, devices) together in novel
ways" [5].
I believe that creativity may also include 1) self-
learning capability and 2) independent research cap-
ability. Learning is a process that never ends. Earn-
ing a PhD is by no means the end of learning; it is a
new beginning [7].
In our professional career, it is normal for us to
meet with new problems, some of which are not di-
rectly related to our past knowledge and experience.
The self-learning capability enables us to learn and
obtain what we need in solving these problems. It also
provides a free hand for us to carry out independent
The main objective of dissertation research is to
help us gain a generally valuable experience, particu-
larly by teaching us the skills of independent research
[3]. Independent research capability consists of two
subsets: the capability to analyze problems and the
capability to solve problems. The former can help us

FALL 1989

identify and formulate problems, while the latter may
provide us the means to find the solution to the prob-
In my experience, the secret of learning how to do
independent research can be summarized as "plan big,
start small." "Plan big" means that we should estab-
lish a big, even fantastic research goal. All of the re-
search efforts we make are for society's future needs,
not for the past. "Plan big" addresses our research
into the important investigations of science and
technology. "Start small" suggests that, at the start,
we should initiate a small project in order to obtain
the necessary experience. Meanwhile, early succes-
ses, even small ones, can strengthen our confidence
and stimulate our struggle toward the final objective.
As I complete my graduate study, I find that I
have gained sound training in both academic study
and independent research capability. This professional
training went through four stages. These stages have
a chronological progress, but the main distinctions
separating them are not based on time divisions, but
on the demonstration of independent research capabil-

Stage 1: Implementation
Much of my work before graduate school was
based on the detailed implementation of certain re-
search efforts. I finished undergraduate study, and
was able to implement published theoretical al-
gorithms under my supervisor's advice. These in-
cluded carrying out experiments, repairing in-
strumentation, setting up equipment, and writing
computer programs based on available algorithms. My
adviser assigned the project and gave me details about
related techniques; then I worked on it. I became
truly involved in research and gained hands-on experi-

Stage 2: Programming
An obvious benefit at this level is that I began
doing independent research. My adviser suggested re-
search directions and provided some important techni-
cal details. I sought a possible solution for realization
of these ideas. I initiated small research topics, ob-
tained the needed information by self-instruction, car-
ried out research, and wrote technical papers for pub-
lication. I had learned how to translate an original
idea into a prototype capable of practical application.
Typical examples are: implementation of CAD pack-
ages [8], development of prototype expert systems [9,
10], proof or discovery of new algorithms and criteria
[9, 11], and others.

Stage 3: Problem-Solving
This stage is the key to graduate research [2]. At
this stage my goal was no longer only to deal with a
detailed research project or to get new design criteria.
With encouragement from the adviser, I applied my
knowledge to the formulation of general methodology
for problem-solving, defined research directions and
long-term topics, helped the adviser prepare research
proposals, and made the important discovery.
Several significant research efforts were gener-
ated at this stage, such as an integrated intelligent
system architecture for developing high-performance
intelligent systems [12], adaptive feedback testing
system for enhancing expert system reliability [9],
and graphic simulation as a new knowledge represen-
tation technique [13]. These projects focused on de-
veloping problem-solving methodology and universal
configuration. Beyond the significant theoretical re-
sults and practical applications, the most important
factor is the demonstration of creativity.
Stage 4: Administration
The experience gained at this stage is very impor-
tant for developing management and leadership skills.
It is usually obtained from post-doctoral training or
independent work as a university faculty member.
I was appointed as a supervisor for developing an
Intelligent Control Laboratory, an NSF-sponsored
project. I began to supervise junior graduate students
and learned how to cooperate with other professors.
We are now working together in order to solve the
tough problems in biochemical process control and to
establish university/industry cooperation research.
We are planning to develop a new interdisciplinary
graduate program to train chemical engineers in the
most advanced techniques and to build a comprehen-
sive research center for intelligent control.
I have begun to extend our research into other
engineering fields, and I have also become involved
more in technical management and leadership, such
as helping prepare "Decision Systems Engineering,"
a new interdisciplinary graduate program to design a
PhD curriculum, consulting for business and industrial
companies, and working as session chairman in inter-
national conferences.

The PhD adviser plays a key role in dissertation
research. The faculty adviser guides our study of the
fundamentals, explains why we do research, how to
do research, and instills in us feelings of confidence.
Professor Amundson summarized all of these aspects


and pointed out, "The relationship between PhD ad-
viser and graduate student is a unique kind of relation-
ship that obtains nowhere else ." [4].
Without question, my adviser, Dr. Jiang, As-
sociate Professor of Chemical and Biochemical En-
gineering and Director of Intelligent Control Labora-
tory, deserves much credit for my success. I feel for-
tunate to be able to work in Dr. Jiang's research team.
He has given me the opportunity to learn, and has
trained me as a professional scholar. Throughout my
training process, I have greatly benefitted from his
advice, suggestions, patient observations, help,
strong encouragement, and support. Chronologically,
Dr. Jiang has trained me through three different

The first stage: Infancy
When I started dissertation research, I lacked the
necessary depth of knowledge and experience. I used
to show uncertainty or no confidence in research. Dr.
Jiang always tried to find the positive elements and
proofs of success in my progress, such as getting an
"A" in a course, understanding a new algorithm, and
so on. He always gave me encouragement. This stage
can be called the infancy of my "plan big."

The second stage: Cold War Period
As my professional career progressed, especially
in the transition from the programming stage to the
problem-solving stage, I thought I had achieved a lit-
tle success in both academic background and disserta-
tion research. I was satisfied with certain detailed
technique results and implementations. However, I
limited myself from going more deeply into scientific
research and prevented myself from seeking problem-
solving methodology. Seeing this happen, Dr. Jiang
changed his attitude. He criticized my work se-
verely-even my success. It was a difficult time for
me, like a "cold war" in my graduate study. However,
I was awakened from my ignorance, began more seri-
ous study and thinking, and improved the quality of
my research.

The third stage: Maturity
After I gained more experience in independent re-
search, Dr. Jiang let me become more involved in ad-
ministrative activities in order to develop my leader-
ship skills. Through my training in administrative
capability, I feel that I have become more mature. In
less than four years of graduate study. I took 25
courses, audited 8 courses, published over 40 research
papers in reputable journals and conference proceed-

ings, attended 18 scientific and technical conferences,
and was chosen as session chairman at international
conferences. Also, I was awarded a Doctoral Excel-
lence Fellowship by the Rutgers Graduate School, re-
ceived a MS degree in computer science, and will soon
complete a PhD in engineering. In addition, I have
travelled in 47 American states and 5 foreign countries
and have visited most of the research-oriented univer-
sities in the USA and Canada to obtain information
and knowledge from my colleagues. I now have
enough confidence and experience to believe that
when I complete my doctorate, I can be successful
either in academia or industry [4].

Briefly the main tenets of my view of graduate
study are:

The main objective of graduate study is to learn how to do
independent research and how to foster creativity. Creativity
includes self-learning and independent research capabilities,
which can help one to analyze problems and then to
formulate solutions for them.
How to begin independent research? "Plan big, start small."
The dissertation adviser plays a very important role in our
professional training process.
Personal interest is a key to selecting research topics.
Course work is more fruitful when it is directly related to
dissertation research rather than simply fulfilling curriculum

My future plans are to improve my communication
skills, to expand both my academic background and
research, to learn more, to do more, and to succeed
in my professional career. I feel that I have a contribu-
tion to make to science, technology, and humanity. It
is my goal to make that contribution.

I am indebeted to Tsung-Shann Jiang, Shaw
Wang, Paul Griminger, Marie Tamas, Louis Sabin,
Francene Sabin, Henrik Pedersen, and Jiachen
Zhuang for their encouragement and help. The
Graduate School of Rutgers University provided a
Doctoral Excellence Fellowship to support my disser-
tation research.

1. Reid, R.C., "The Graduate Experience," Phillips
Petroleum Co. Lecture Series in Chemical Engineering
School at Oklahoma State University (1984)
2. Duda, J.L., "Common Misconceptions Concerning

FALL 1989

Graduate School," Chem. Eng. Ed., 18, 156 (1984)
3. Connoly, T., and A.L. Porter, "The Doctoral Disserta-
tion-How Relevant?" Eng. Ed., p 162, November (1980)
4. Amundson, N.R., "American University Graduate
Work," Chem. Eng. Ed., 21, 160 (1987)
5. Felder, R.M., "Creativity in Engineering Education,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 120 (1988)
6. Maslow, A.H., The Farther Reaches of Human Nature,
Viking Press, New York (1971)
7. Van Ness, H.C., "Chemical Engineering Education:
Will We Ever Get It Right?" Chem. Eng. Prog., p 18,
January (1989)
8. Sang. Z.T., M. Rao, and T. W. Weber, "A Microcom-
puter-Based Simulation Laboratory for Process Con-
trol," Proc. SCS Multiconference, Modeling and Simu-
lation on Microcomputers, p. 213, San Diego, CA (1986)
9. Rao, M., T.S. Jiang, and J.P. Tsai, "IDSCA: An

Intelligent Direction Selector for the Controller's Action
in Multiloop Control Systems," Internat. J. of Intell.
Sys., 3, p 361 (1988)
10. Rao, M., J.P. Tasi, and T.S. Jiang, "Intelligent Deci-
sionmaker for Optimal Control," App. Artif. Intell. 2, p
11. Rao, M., and T.S. Jiang, "Simple Criterion to Test Non-
Minimum-Phase Systems," Internat. J. of Control, 47, p
653 (1988)
12. Rao, M., T.S. Jiang, and J.P. Tsai, "Combining
Symbolic and Numerical Processing for Real-Time
Intelligent Control," Eng. Applications of Al (1989)
13. Rao, M., X. Zheng, and T.S. Jiang, "Graphic Simula-
tion: Beyond Numerical Computation and Symbolic
Reasoning," Proc. IEEE Internat. Conf on Systems,
Man, and Cybernetics, Beijing, China, p 523, August

book reviews

by L. L. Lee
Butterworths, 80 Montvale Ave., Stoneham, MA 02180;
$52.95 (1988)

Reviewed by
Keith E. Gubbins
Cornell University

This is a graduate level book aimed at presenting
modern statistical mechanical methods to engineers and
applied scientists. Until the early 1970's these rigorous
methods were only applicable to gases, crystalline solids,
and simple liquids such as argon, and so are of limited
value to engineers. Over the last fifteen years or so they
have been extended to include nonspherical and polar
molecules, electrolytes, nonideal solutions, and most re-
cently, a wide variety of surface phenomena. There have
been rapid developments in perturbation and integral
equation theories, in computer simulation methods, and
in scattering experiments that provide information about
the molecular or atom-atom correlations functions. These
powerful methods are gradually replacing the more em-
pirical methods that engineers have traditionally used,
and so a book of this sort is welcome. The only other
books aimed at engineers of which I am aware are Reed
and Gubbins' Applied Statistical Mechanics (now out of
print and in some respects out of date) and Lucas'
Angewandte Statische Thermodynamik (so far only
available in the original German, although an English
translation is planned for late 1989 or early 1990).
The coverage of the book is good. The first three
chapters deal with introductory material-classical and
quantum mechanics, the ensembles, and ideal gases. The

remainder of the book covers more recent developments
in the theory of liquids (Chapters 4-12, 14), the molecular
dynamics simulation method (Chapter 13), and adsorp-
tion of solids (Chapter 15). There are useful appendices
dealing with intermolecular forces, and giving computer
programs for the solution of integral equations and
molecular dynamics calculations. The parts dealing with
liquids are thorough and well done. They cover the dis-
tribution functions and integral equations for fluids of
polar and nonspherical molecules and not just spherical
molecules as in many other books. There are quite de-
tailed accounts of the integral equation and perturbation
theory methods, including chapters on hard body fluids,
Lennard-Jones fluids, polar fluids, electrolytes, and site-
site model fluids.
As a teaching text the book has some drawbacks. The
introduction to the ensembles is quite brief and lacks illu-
minating examples, figures, or much in the way of physi-
cal interpretation, so most students experiencing this ma-
terial for the first time will find it hard going. There is a
similar problem with the treatment of the distribution
functions in Chapter 4. The chapter on molecular dy-
namics is well done, but for students it would be helpful
to have some simpler examples or programs, and some
discussion of the Monte Carlo method, which is easier to
program for a beginner. It would have been helpful to
have had more illustrative examples and well thought
out questions at the end of chapters. The layout of the
book is rather poor, with too much print on each page
and poorly reproduced figures, making it somewhat dif-
ficult to read.
In conclusion, this is an up-to-date summary of a
rapidly developing field that is aimed at an engineering
audience. It will be especially useful to graduate students
and other researchers as an introduction to the subject,
but will need to be supplemented if it is used as a teaching
text. a









Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Processes
Multiphase Processes, Heat Transfer, Interfacial Phenomena
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Waste Water Treatment
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Process Engineering
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena

*Adjunct Professor

Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,000. Industrially sponsored
fellowships available up to $16,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees.
Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th

AKRON, OH 44325

FALL 1989





The University of Alabama, located in the
sunny South, offers excellent programs lead-
ing to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical
Our research emphasis areas are concentrated
in environmental studies, reaction kinetics
and catalysis, alternate fuels, and related
processes. The faculty has extensive indus-
trial experience, which gives a distinctive
engineering flavor to our programs.
For further information, contact the Director
of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering, Box 870203, Tuscaloosa, AL
35487-0203; (205-348-6450).

G. C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
D. W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue)
W. C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt)
W. J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana State)
I. A. Jefcoat, Ph.D. (Clemson)
A. M. Lane, Ph.D. (Massachusetts)
M. D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida)
L. Y. Sadler III, Ph.D. (Alabama)
V. N. Schrodt, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania State)

Biomass Conversion, Modeling Transport Processes, Thermodynamics, Coal-Water Fuel Development,
Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware, Catalysis,
Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics, Environmental,
Synfuels, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks, Mass Transfer,
Energy Conversion Processes, Ceramics, Rheology, Mineral Processing,
Separations, Computer Applications, and Bioprocessing.
An equoL' employment/cqual educational
opportunity institution.

Chemical Engineering at




K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics
I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics

K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomenna,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Modelling and Economics
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,

J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media

S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory

S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics

R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control

For further Information contact



The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial
grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses
are offered in most of the research areas listed below.


MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science*:
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport

Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics, Polyelectrolyte Solutions

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

EDWARD J. FREEH, Research Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in the
Microcirculation, Biorheology

ROBERTO GUZMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1988
Protein Separation, Affinity Methods

GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical Modeling of Transport,

Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion
Aerosols, Microcontamination

Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It is
a growing modern city of 450,000 that
retains much of the old Southwestern

For further information, write to

Dr. Jost 0. L. Wendt
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721

The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity
educational institution/equal opportunity

Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena,
Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Computer
Aided Design

Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion

JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement, Chemical
Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phenomena

DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic

DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing
'Center for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several
technicians, and several postdocs and graduate students. Other research involves 2-1
electrophoesis, cell culture, electro cell fusion, and electro fluid dynamic modelling.


University of Arkansas

Department of Chemical Engineering

Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics

Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics,
Enhanced Oil Recovery

Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics

James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization

Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards
Assessment, Dense Gas Dispersion

William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering

W. Roy Penney (Ph.D., Oklahoma State University)
Process Engineering, Process Development

Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion

Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes

Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation

Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design

Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas)
Microelectronics Materials and Processing,

J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control

Graduate students are supported by fellowships and
research or teaching assistantships.

Dr. W. Roy Penney, Professor and Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701

The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is liter-
ally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor
recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic
city and serves as the center of trade, government, and
finance for the region. The city and University offer a
wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional
20,000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Research

FALL 1989



Graduate Studies

Auburn University


R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966) Advanced Polymer Science
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965) Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) Carbon Fibers and Composites
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Conversion
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) Computer-Aided Process Control
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976) Controlled Atmosphere
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) Electron Microscopy
G. MAPLES (Oklahoma State University, 1967) Environmental Enneerin
R. D. NEUMAN (Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1973) Enronmental Engineering
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) Heterogeneous Catalysis
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951) THE PROGRAM
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973) TE P A
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) The Department is one of the fast
offers degrees at the M.S. and Pi
both experimental and theoretic
For Information and Application, Write interest, with modern research ec
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head types of studies. Generous finar
Chemical Engineering qualified students.
Auburn University, AL 36849-5127
Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution

Interfacial Phenomena
Process Design
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Surface Science
Transport Phenomena

st growing in the Southeast and
h.D. levels. Research emphasizes
al work in areas of national
equipment available for most all
ncial assistance is available to




i I ":~"b~



The Department offers graduate programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees
in Chemical Engineering (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree in Chemical Engineer-
ing or Petroleum Reservoir Engineering (part-time) in the following areas:

R. A. Heidemann, Head, (Washington U.)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary) FOR

* Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria
* Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
* Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
* Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
* Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
* Environmental Engineering
* Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
* Enhanced Oil Recovery
* In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
* Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
* Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
* Computer Control and Optimization ofBio/Engineer
* Biotechnology and Biorheology

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.



The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calga
Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication
a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lai
Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with t,
Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture.









... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-


Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Arup K. Chakraborty
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soane
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
Berkeley. California 94720

FALL 1989

University of California, Davis
Department of Chemical Engineering

BELL, Richard L.
University of Washington, Seattle Mass
transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays,
environmental transport, biochemical
University of Melbourne Chemical en-
gineering aspects of fermentation and
wine processing, fermentation kinetics,
computer simulation and control of enol-
ogical operations.
University of Minnesota Wetting hy-
drodynamics, fluid mechanics of thin
films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett
Films, Sol-Gel processes.
University of Minnesota Biological ki-
netics and reactor design, kinetics of ion
exchange, environmental solute trans-
port, heat and mass transport at air-water
interface, hemodynamics and fluid ex-
KATZ, David F.
University of California, Berkeley Bio-
logical fluid mechanics, biorheology,
cell biology, image analysis.
McCOY, Benjamin J.
University of Minnesota Chemical re-
action engineering adsorption, cataly-
sis, multiphase reactors; separation proc-
esses chromatography, ion exchange,
supercritical fluid extraction.
University of Maryland, College Park -
Distillation control, control of multivari-
able, nonlinear processes, control of bio-
chemical processes, adaptive control,
parameter and state estimation.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Proc-
ess control, process design and synthesis.
POWELL, Robert L.
The Johns Hopkins University Rheol-
ogy, fluid mechanics, properties of sus-
pensions and physiological fluids.
RYU, Dewey D.Y.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Kinetics and reaction engineering of
biochemical and enzyme systems, opti-
mization of continuous bioreactor, bio-
conversion of biologically active com-
pounds, biochemical and genetic engi-
neering, and renewable resources devel-
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport rates and chemical kinetics for
catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic
and steady-state methods in slurry,
trickle-bed, single pellet, and fixed-bed
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport with chemical reaction, bio-
technology, rheology of heterogeneous
media, thin film technology, interfacial
phenomena, image analysis.
University of Delaware Drying porous
media, transport processes in heteroge-
neous reactors, multiphase transport
phenomena in heterogeneous systems.

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from
Sacramento and just an hour away from
the San Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor
enthusiasts may enjoy water sports at
nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other
alpine activities in the Lake Tahoe Bowl
(2 hours away). These recreational op-

portunities combine with the friendly
informal spirit of the Davis campus and
town to make it a pleasant place in which
to live and study.
The city of Davis is adjacent to the
campus and within easy walking or cy-
cling distance. Both furnished and unfur-
nished one- and two-bedroom apart-
ments are available. Married student
housing, at reasonable cost, is located on-

Course Areas
Applied Kinetics & Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Environmental Transport
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Design & Control
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase

More Information
The Graduate Group in Biomedical
Engineering is now housed within the
Department of Chemical Engineering.
Further information and application ma-
terials for either program (Chemical En-
gineering or Biomedical Engineering)
and financial aid may be obtained by
Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616





D. T. Allen
Y. Cohen
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette


UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment offers a program of teaching and
research linking fundamental engineering
science and industrial needs. The depart-
ment's national leadership is demonstrated
by the newly established Engineering Re-
search Center for Hazardous Substance
Control. This center of advanced technol-
ogy is complemented by existing programs
in Environmental Transport Research and
Biotechnology Research and Education.
Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a
waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly
regarded science programs and to a variety
of experiences in theatre, music, art and
sports on campus

K. Nobe
L. B. Robinson
0. I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan

Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering

Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063

FALL 1989




L. GARY LEAL Ph.D. (Stanford) (Chairman) Fluid Mechanics; Transport Phenomena; Polymer Physics.
PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue) Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science.
SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
DAN G. CACUCI Ph.D. (Columbia) Computational Engineering, Radiation Transport, Reactor Physics, Uncertainty
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford) Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
FRED F. LANGE Ph.D. (Penn State) Powder Processing of Composite Ceramics; Liquid Precursors for Ceramics;
Superconducting Oxides.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D.. (M.I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Professor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern) Rheological and Optical Properties of Polymer Liquids and Colloidal
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Biomedical Engineering, Reactor Physics, Radiation Transport Analysis.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identfication.
PAUL SMITH Ph.D. (State University of Groningen, Netherlands) High Performance Fibers; Processing of Conducting
Polymers; Polymer Processing.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety, Mutiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
W. HENRY WEINBERG Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Surface Chemistry; Heterogeneous Catalysis; Electronic Materials
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D. (Minnesota) Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Structure of Microemulsions.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D.
degree programs. Financial aid, includ-
ing fellowships, teaching assistant-
ships, and research assistantships, is
available. Some awards provide limited
moving expenses.


One of the world's few seashore cam-
puses, UCSB is located on the Pacific
Coast 100 miles northwest of Los Ange-
les and 330 miles south of San Fran-
cisco. The student enrollment is over
16,000. The metropolitan Santa Barbara
area has over 150,000 residents and is
famous for its mild, even climate

For additional information and
applications, write to:

Professor L. Gary Leal
Department of Chemical &
Nuclear Engineering
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93106



at the


"At the Leading Edge"



Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F. Brady
George R. Gavalas
Konstantinos P. Giapis
Julia A. Kornfield
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Fred H. Shair
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)

Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Colloid Physics
Computational Hydrodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Microelectronics Processing
Polymer Science
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous

for further information, write:

Professor John F.Brady
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125

FALL 1989

* 273

,j A

II ^s t? F^ ^

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Join the chemical engineering team at CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY. Work out with
top-ranked teachers and researchers and practice in one of the best research facilities in the country.

Faculty and specializations:
Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh
University Particle separations, mixing,
acid gas recovery
John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University
of Michigan Redox equilibria, thin car-
bon films, modulated electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962,
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adap-
tive inferential control, multi-variable
control, coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns
Hopkins University Laser anemometry,
mathematical modelling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton
University Colloidal phenomena,
ceramic dispersions, fine-particle

Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa
State University High-gravity separa-
tions, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of
California (Berkeley) Electrochemical
engineering, current distributions,
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case
Western Reserve University Elec-
trochemical sensors, electrochemical
synthesis, electrochemistry related to elec-
tronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa
State University Surface phenomena,
interfacial dynamics, light scattering
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Car-
negie-Mellon University Surfactant
systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, Univer-
situ of Pittsburgh Electrochemical
engin te'ring, reacto:-r design and iIrnulatirion.
elxtdrojde proce?3-el:

Train in:
* Electrochemical engineering
* Laser applications
* Mixing and separations
* Process control
* Surface and colloids

For more information contact:
The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
University Circle
Cleveland, Ohio 44106








Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


Amy Ciric
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang

Robert Jenkins
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Glenn Lipscomb
Neville Pinto
Sotiris Pratsinis
Stephen Thiel

Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
TWO-PHASE FLOW Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Boiling. Stability and transport properties of Department of Chemical Engineering, #171
foami University of Cincinnati
foam. Cincinnati, OH 45221
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.


E .i' "

SI 1'

\< ).-.

Graduate Study at

Clemson University

In Chemical Engineering

Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking
in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to
South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
processing, composite materials, process
automation, thermodynamics, catalysis, and
membrane applications what more do you

The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 14,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.
The Faculty
Charles H. Barron, Jr. James M. Haile Amod A. Ogale
John N. Beard, Jr. Douglas E. Hirt Richard W. Rice
Dan D. Edie Stephen S. Melsheimer Mark C. Thies
Charles H. Gooding Joseph C. Mullins

Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
Clemson University NIERST
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering


Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Coal Gasification and Combustion
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena
Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics and
Materials Processing

DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean
for Academic Affairs
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975

ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983

Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974

R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967

HOWARD J. M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint
Ph.D., University of London, 1963

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984


Mass Transfer
Membrane Transport and Separations
Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Process Control and Identification
Semiconductor Processing
Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Thin Film Science
Transport Processes

Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968

RICHARD D. NOBLE, Research Professor
Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976

W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
Ph.D. Tulane University, 1965

ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
Director of Center for Low Gravity
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963

KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and Chairman
Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951

RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958

Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424

FALL 1989






A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School of
Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-
liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.

J. H. GARY, Professor Emeritus; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum
refinery processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal
cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.

V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.

E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium
measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal
conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria,
education methods research.

R. M. BALDWIN, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines.
Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis, oil shale
processing, supercritical extraction.

M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass
transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion
of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with
chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas
hydrate dissociation modeling.

A. L. BUNGE, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane
transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion
exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place
remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.

R. L. MILLER, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy
oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil shale processing,
particulate removal with venturi scrubbers, supercritical

J. F. ELY, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.

For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401

Colorado State University

CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.


University of Wisconsin

University of Strathclyde

Iowa State University

University of Manchester

Iowa State University

Iowa State University

Stanford University

University of Massachusetts

California Institute of Technology

Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:

Teaching and Research Assistantships
paying a monthly stipend plus tuition

Research Areas:

Alternate Energy Sources
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
Environmental Engineering
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems

For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523

FALL 1989

Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers

Faculty and Research Areas
statistical thermodynamics, polymer science, polymer morphology
phase equilibria, separations composite materials and properties
structure and electrochemical engineering, polymer processing,
properties of polymers enrivonmental engineering rheology
expert systems, process dynamics, environmental engineering,
process control, energy technology biochemical engineering
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN biochemical engineering, polymer science
catalysis, biotechnology, environmental engineering
surface science
chemical reaction engineering,
computer applications

We'll gladly supply the Answers!
iTHE Graduate Admissions
NIVERSITY OF Dept. of Chemical Engineering
~CoI Box U-139
T he University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019

Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

at Cornell University

World-class research in...
Biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
1 2 heat and mass transfer
polymer science and engineering
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design

A diverse intellectual
Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including chemistry,
biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment.

A distinguished faculty
Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A, Clark
Claude Cohen
James R. Engstrom
Robert K, Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z, Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C, Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe (Emeritus)
Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus)
Herbert F. Wlegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg

Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.

For further information
write to:

Professor William L. Olbricht
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201

FALL 1989

Chemical Engineerin at

The Faculty
Ricardo Aragon
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Eric W. Kaler
Michael T. Klein-
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur-B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Annette D. Shine
Andrew L. Zydney lhe University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.

degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716

The University of

Modern Applications of

Chemical Engineering

at the

University of Florida

Graduate Study Leading to the MS and PhD


TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics
IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Modeling of Interfaces
SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotechnology
RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design
ARTHUR L FRICKE. Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Surface Science
LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems
DALE KIRMSE Computer Aided Design, Process Control
HONG H. LEE Semiconductor Processing, Reaction Engineering
GERASIMOS LYBERATOS. Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
FRANK MAY Computer-Aided Learning
RANGA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena, Semiconductor Processing
MARK E. ORAZEM Electrochemical Engineering, Semiconductor Processing
CHANG-WON PARK Fluid Mechanics, Polymer Processing
DINESH 0. SHAH Surface Sciences, Biomedical Engineering
SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Electrochemical Engineering, Bioseparations

For more information, please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
or call (904) 392-0881

FALL 1989

A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia

Graduate Studies
in Chemical

A. S. Abhiraman
Pradeep K. Agrawal
Yaman Arkun
Sue Ann Bidstrup
Charles A. Eckert
William R. Ernst
Larry J. Forney
Charles W. Gorton
Jeffery S. Hsieh
Paul A. Kohl
Michael J. Matteson
John D. Muzzy
Robert M. Nerem
Gary W. Poehlein
Ronnie S. Roberts
Ronald W. Rousseau
Thanassios Sambanis
Robert J. Samuels
F. Joseph Schork
A. H. Peter Skelland
Jude T. Sommerfeld
D. William Tedder
Amyn S. Teja
Mark G. White
Timothy M. Wick
Jack Winnick
Ajit Yoganathan

Research Interests
Biomedical engineering
Biochemical engineering
Composite materials
Electrochemical engineering
Environmental chemistry
Fine particles
Interfacial phenomena

Physical properties
Polymer science and engineering
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor analysis and design
Separation processes
Surface science and technology
Transport phenomena

For more Information write:
Ronald W. Rousseau
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100




What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty o your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs, professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.

"It's great!"

a) ,4 /
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Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery

Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Abe Dukler

Demetre Economou
Ernest Henley
John Killough
Dan Luss

For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407
The University is in conpliance with Title IX

Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan
Jim Richardson

Cynthia Stokes
Frank Tiller
Richard Willson
Frank Worley


U I C The University of Illinois at Chicago

Department of Chemical Engineering

MS and PhD Graduate Program

Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor

Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961

G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head l

Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 RESEARCH AREAS
Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies

John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor

Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964

David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor

Transport Phenomena: Slurry transport, multiphase
fluid flow and heat transfer, fixed and fluidized bed
combustion, indirect coal liquefaction, porous media,
membrane transport, pulmonary deposition and clearance,

Thermodynamics: Transport properties of fluids,
statistical mechanics of liquid mixtures, supercritical fluid
extraction/retrograde condensation, asphaltene
characterization, bioseparations.

Kinetics and Reaction Engineering: Gas-solid
reaction kinetics, diffusion and adsorption phenomena,
energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics, combustion
chemistry, environmental technology.

Heterogeneous Catalysis: Surface chemistry, catalyst
preparation and characterization, structure sensitivity,
supported metals, clay chemistry, artificial intelligence
applications, modelling and optimization.

For more information:
Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424

Chemical Engineering at the

University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign

^IJga^,^mj *





The combination of distinguished faculty, out-
standing facilities and a diversity of research
interests results in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.

The chemical engineering department offers
graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D.

Richard C. Alkire
Harry G. Drickamer
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Richard I. Masel
Walter G. May
Anthony J. McHugh
William R. Schowalter
Edmund G. Seebauer
Mark A. Stadtherr
Frank B. van Swol
James W. Westwater
K. Dane Wittrup
Charles F. Zukoski IV

Electrochemical and Plasma Processing
High Pressure Studies, Structure and Properties of Solids
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematics
Surface Science Studies of Catalysts and Semiconductor Growth
Chemical Process Engineering
Polymer Engineering and Science
Mechanics of Colloids and Rheologically Complex Fluids
Laser Studies in Semiconductor Growth
Process Flowsheeting and Optimization
Wetting and Capillary Condensation
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes
Colloid and Interfacial Science

For information and application forms write:

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


Illinois Institute of Technology


* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


Multi-phase flow and fluidization, flow in porous media,
gas technology

Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

* ALl CINAR (Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow,
separations processes

* M. HOSSEIN HARIRI (Ph.D., Manchester-UMIST)
Bioseparation, flow in porous media and process

Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction

* J. ROBERTSELMAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction

* DAVID C. VENERUS (Ph.D., Pennsylvania State U)
Polymer rheology and processing, and transport

* DARSH T. WASAN (Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


Dr. H. Arastoopour
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616



is an independent, fully accredited
graduate school offering an interdis-
" ciplinary degree program designed
for B.S. chemical engineering grad-
uates. The Institute has an excellent
record of preparing graduates for
challenging and highly rewarding
careers in the paper industry. The In-
stitute is located next to the Georgia
Institute of Technology and shares
many educational resources with
Georgia Tech.
All U.S. citizens and permanent resi-
dents accepted into the program are
awarded full tuition scholarships, as
well as stipends of $12,000 to
$14,000 per calendar year.

Graduates select thesis research
projects from a variety of topics,

Process Engineering
Simulation and Control
Heat and Mass Transfer
Separation Science
Reaction Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Science
Surface and Colloid Science
Combustion Technology
Chemical Kinetics

For further information, please contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Science and Technology
575 14th St. N.W.
Atlanta, GA 30318
(404) 853-9500


^\V --Kinetics & Catalysis
--Blocatalysis & Biosensors
--Bioseparatlons & Biochemical Engineering
--Membrane Separations
--Particle Morphological Analysis
--Air Pollution Modeling
--Materials Science
--Surface Science & Laser Technology
--Parallel & High Speed Computing

a_,. For additional Information and application write to:
Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
The Unverslty of Iowa does not discrimninate In it educational programs and activies on the
bash of race. national origin, color, religion, sex. age, or handicap. The Unverslty also affirm Its
commitment to providing equal opportunities and equal accem to Unversity focllles without
reference to affectlonal or assoclatlonal preference. For additional Information on
nondbcrmlnatlon policies, contact the Coordinator of Title IX and Section 604 In the Office of
Affirmative Action. telephone 319/3350705,202 Jessup Hal, The Unlvernty of Iowa, Iowa City.
lowa 52242.




William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes, high
temperature ceramics
John M. Eggebrecht
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and
fluid surfaces
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology, carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing, sensors
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Process modeling, simulation
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011

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Timothy A. Barbari
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Science
Sorption and Diffusion in Polymers
Polymeric Thin Films
Michael J. Betenbaugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Insect Cell Culture
Recombinant DNA Technology
Marc D. Donohue
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria

Joseph L. Katz
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Flame Generation of Ceramic Powders
Robert M. Kelly
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separations Processes



Mark A. McHugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction
Geoffrey A. Prentice
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
W. Mark Saltzman
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Polymeric Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions
W. H. Schwarz
Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics of Fluids

For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
Chemical Engineering Department
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7170



Full Text