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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
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English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

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Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
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Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
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Chemical Engineering Documents

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chemical engineering education


VOLUME XXII


NUMBER 4


FALL 1988


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE


Award Lecture *

Reflections on Teaching Creativity
James J. Christensen



COURSES IN...


Model Predictive Control
Technical Communications for Graduate Students
Multivariable Control Methods
Topics in Random Media
Biochemical Engineering


ARKUN, CHAROS, REEVES
BREDIS
DESHPANDE
GLANDT
NG, GONZALEZ, HU


RESEARCH ON...


Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules
Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties


GOOSEN
7EJA, SCHAEFFER


Impostors Everywhere FEIDER
Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the United States (Part 2) FLOYD
Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing(Part 2) SEIDER

and...

Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education
J. L Duda


0


UJ


z
a

C,
z


ALSO...






We wish to


acknowledge and thank...


3M


FOUNDATION


...for supporting
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


with a donation of funds.









Editorial ...


A LETTER TO

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS


As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate
school. In this issue, we attempt to assist you in finding answers.


Should you go to graduate school?

Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as an
opportunity to further your professional develop-
ment. We believe that you will find that graduate
work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying
experience. We also feel that graduate study can
provide you with insurance against the increas-
ing danger of technical obsolescence. Further-
more, we believe that graduate research work un-
der the guidance of an inspiring and interested
faculty member will be important in your growth
toward confidence, independence, and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?

In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in
previous years. (If your department chairman or
professors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge.) These
articles are only intended to provide examples of
graduate course work. The professors who have
written them are by no means the only authorities
in those fields, nor are their departments the only
departments which emphasize that area of study.


Where should you go to graduate school?

It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many fine chemi-
cal engineering departments, and each of them
has its own "personality" with special emphases
and distinctive strengths. For example, in choos-
ing a graduate school you might first consider
which school is most suitable for your own future
plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a
specific research project in mind, you might want
to attend a university which emphasizes that area
and where a prominent specialist is a member of
the faculty. On the other hand, if you are unsure of
your field of research, you might consider a de-
partment that has a large faculty with widely di-
versified interests so as to ensure for yourself a
wide choice of projects. Then again you might
prefer the atmosphere of a department with a
small enrollment of graduate students. In any
case, we suggest that you begin by writing the
schools that have provided information on their
graduate programs in the back of this issue. You
will probably also wish to seek advice from mem-
bers of the faculty at your own school.

But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that
you explore the possibility of continuing your
education in graduate school.

Sincerely,


Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


FALL 1988















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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857

Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner

Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

Chairman:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Members
SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

CENTRAL:
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology

Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley

NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

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University of Pennsylvania

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M.I.T.
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
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CANADA:
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LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
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State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XXII NUMBER 4 FALL 1988



VIEWS AND OPINIONS

164 Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education,
J. L. Duda

FIELDER'S FILOSOPHY

169 Impostors Everywhere, Richard M. Felder

AWARD LECTURE

170 Reflections on Teaching Creativity,
James J. Christensen

COURSES IN...

178 Model Predictive Control,
Yaman Arkun, G. Charos, D. E. Reeves

184 Technical Communications for Graduate Students,
Daina M. Briedis

188 Multivariable Control Methods, Pradeep B. Deshpande

192 Topics in Random Media, Eduardo D. Glandt

202 Biochemical Engineering,
Terry K.-L. Ng, Jorge F. Gonzalez, Wei-Shou Hu


RESEARCH ON...

196 Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules,
Mattheus F. A. Goosen

208 Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties,
Amyn S. Teja, Steven T. Schaeffer


CURRICULUM

212 Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing:
Are They In Step? (Part 2), Warren D. Seider

218 Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the
United States: A Perspective (Part 2); Sigmund Floyd


161 Editorial
166 Letterto the Editor
177 Division Activities
191,195 Book Reviews
201 Letter to the Editor
207 In Memoriam: Robert L. Pigford


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to E. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, FL 32028. Copyright
S1988 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.


FALL 1988










[Inl5 views and opinions


GRADUATION

The Beginning of Your Education*


J. L. DUDA
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

MOST OF YOU participating in this conclave will be
graduating and going into industry in a few
months, and I felt that this was a good time to attempt
to describe the world you are about to enter. After
discussions with many friends and acquaintances in
different segments of the U.S. chemical and petro-
leum industries, I uncovered a consistent industrial
point of view which was somewhat of a surprise. It is
evident that:

The United States is in a war!
We don't realize it.
We are losing!

The natural response to this is, what war? One
reason we don't recognize the situation is because this
war is camouflaged. By war, I mean an aggressive
foreign policy for nationalistic goals. In the past, wars
were fought for territory. Today the war is for inter-
national markets, and all indicators show that the
U.S. is losing. We can see evidence of this in the trade
imbalance, the national debt, and the personal debt.
Even more ominous is the fact that more and more of
the U.S. resources, such as real estate, industrial
companies, and stocks and bonds are owned by for-
eigners. If this trend continues, historians will look
back and describe a country which hid in the bunkers
with their missiles, totally unaware that the enemy
was already behind the lines. The net result will be a
loss of territory by a technique that is quite different
from anything that man has previously experienced.
This war has many casualties. All one has to do is
travel through the Monongahela Valley and see the
unemployed steel workers and the deserted, run-
down steel mill towns. Or drive down the streets of
Detroit with its graffiti-covered buildings and un-
employed auto workers standing on street corners.
Or check out Manhattan, where white collar middle
*Presentation to the 1987 AIChE Mid-Atlantic Regional Conclave


managers have been forced into early retirement. All
of these victims are psychologically wounded and
many turn to alcoholism, gambling, violence, and
suicide. The statistics also show that abrupt changes
in employment reduce the life expectancy of individu-
als.
But how does all this affect you? The fact is that
as graduating chemical engineers, you will be the
front line troops in this technological war. When we
look at the gamut of industrial activities covering basic
research, applied research, development, manufactur-
ing, technical marketing, and marketing, it is appar-
ent that we are still winning at the two extremes. Our
basic research is very strong, and this places us in the
forefront scientifically. At the other extreme, our
marketing techniques have become an art as expres-
sed in advertising, and here again, we rank among the
best in the world. However, we are losing the battle
in the central regions of applied research, develop-
ment, manufacturing, and technical marketing. These
are areas dominated by engineers and, consequently,
we are losing the war on the engineering front.
The military is completely impotent in this war.
Similarly, management and government can optimize
our ability to respond, but the final load will fall on













J. L. Duda is professor and head of the chemical engineering de-
partment at The Pennsylvania State University. He received his BS in
chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology and his MS and
PhD at the University of Delaware. He joined the staff at Penn State
in 1971 after eight years in research with the Dow Chemical Company.


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I lira


I


I '










How does all this affect you? The fact is that as graduating chemical engineers,
you will be the front line troops in this technological war. When we look at the gamut of industrial activities covering
basic research, applied research, development, manufacturing, technical marketing, and
marketing, it is apparent that we are still winning at the two extremes


the shoulders of our engineers. We must become bet-
ter at turning our scientific advantage into a technical
and industrial advantage. We must become better at
manufacturing quality goods at low cost. We must be-
come better at technical marketing where we can re-
spond to the technical needs of our industrial custom-
ers both here and overseas. The outcome of this war
will have more impact on your career than any other
external factor.
The papers are filled with the impact of this war
on the steel industry, the auto industry, and the high-
tech computer industry, but the chemical industry is
also in the heat of the battle. Twenty-five years ago,
when I entered the chemical industry, the U.S. mar-
ket and most of the international markets were domi-
nated by American companies. Industry was ex-
periencing steady growth. Competition existed, but
just enough to keep everyone on their toes, and com-
panies had the luxury of trying a few new things and
making some mistakes.
Today, all of the major chemical industries are in-
ternational. Not only is our share of the foreign mar-
ket down, but we are also experiencing a strong inva-
sion of the U.S. chemicals market. The Arabs and
other countries with low-cost fuel stocks are invading
the commodity market. Japanese and Europeans,
with backgrounds in high technology, are invading the
specialty chemicals market. The U.S. chemical indus-
try (our territory) is being bought out by foreign com-
panies, particularly the Germans and Japanese. The
industry is in a period of low growth and very stiff
competition. To survive, companies have to provide
high-quality products at a competitive price with ex-
tensive technical service and development for their
customers. Because of the instabilities in oil prices
and the value of the U.S. dollar, it is very difficult to
plan and there are renewed pressures for short-term
profits.
Engineering has always involved a lifetime of con-
tinuing education, but the world situation today calls
for even greater effort in this area. I feel you will
learn more in the next four years than you did in the
past four years. Unlike your previous education, most
of your continuing education will not take place in a
formal classroom setting. Many "A" students who are
very good at learning in a formal educational system
will have difficulty adjusting to self education through
work experience and interacting with individuals in


the work place. I have been able to identify six areas,
which I feel will dominate your continuing education.

Assimilating the Industrial Culture
The first thing you will have to learn is the culture
of the company and the industry you join. All institu-
tions have specific cultures and it is impossible to be
effective without working within that culture. Unfor-
tunately, the culture is something that everyone in
the institution is aware of, but no one ever explicitly
states or formulates. It has to be assimilated by in-
teractions with the people in that culture. It has al-
ways been difficult for students to learn the culture of
industry, but it is even more difficult today because
the culture of many companies is changing in response
to the war for international markets.

Defining Problems
Up to this point in your education, the emphasis
has been on solving problems that have been explicitly
presented to you. In industry, you will discover that
the biggest problem is determining the nature of the
problem. Compared to defining the real problem, the
solution is often trivial.

Learning Through Mistakes
To be creative and innovative, you will have to be
able to adjust to failing and learning from your mis-
takes. This is a difficult transition for many serious
students who have achieved high grade point aver-
ages. They are not used to traveling over uncharted
territory. But the great chemical engineers are those
who weren't afraid of failure if they felt it would even-
tually bring success with a unique innovation.


Communicating
You will have to learn how to communicate and
realize that the communication of the solution of a
problem is in many cases more important than the
actual function of solving the problem. Communication
becomes paramount. During my eight years in indus-
try, I did not see one engineer fail because of incompe-
tence on the technical plane. However, I did see many
very bright engineers lose their jobs because they
could not communicate.


FALL 1988











Travelling Over Unfamiliar Areas

You will have to learn to enter many areas which
are now foreign to you. Some of these areas will be
technical areas such as electronics, biotechnology, ma-
terials, etc. However, many other areas, such as busi-
ness accounting, management, psychology, communi-
cations, etc., will be totally unrelated to your technical
background. You'll have to use a combination of for-
mal and self-education to make the transition into
these new areas. Successful engineers indicate that
after a few months of self-education, they can move
into any new area, interact with experts in the area,
and make contributions to the area.


Decision Making

You will have to learn to make decisions with a
limited amount of information. It will often be neces-
sary to make a decision on the basis of knowledge
sufficient for action but insufficient to satisfy the intel-
lect. This is quite different from solving problems on
an examination where you have all the required infor-
mation.


THE GOOD NEWS

Up to this point, my presentation has been rather
pessimistic and you may feel overwhelmed by the
challenges that you are going to face. There is a posi-
tive side to the picture, however. For one thing, the
United States is the best-equipped nation to survive
this war because we know the terrain and we essen-
tially started the war. When the movement of the in-
dustrial revolution came together with the movement
for individual freedom in the United States, the result
was a system which other countries would emulate.
Our main opponents in this war are not the countries
who have different systems of government, such as
the Russians, but the countries who have copied our
system.
There is another very optimistic aspect concerning
this war. All previous wars were zero sum wars. If
one country gained territory, someone had to lose ter-
ritory. But this war is different and everyone could
win to some degree. If the United States continues to
lead in science and engineering, this engine could drag
the rest of the world to a higher standard of living.
Finally, a chemical engineering education is the
best preparation for survival and success. As Carl
Gerstacker said when he was CEO of Dow Chemical:
"A chemical engineering education is the best educa-
tion for whatever you want to do in life, and particu-
larly if you do not know what you want to do." In


many ways, the chemical engineering degree is the
liberal arts degree of the technological age. The
reasons for this are very basic to the chemical en-
gineering curriculum. You have learned fundamentals
that have broad applicability. You have been taught
to think and solve technical problems and the same
techniques can be used in all areas of human endeavor,
and should be, since the aim of a true chemical en-
gineering education is to teach people to continue to
learn. Your professors have given you the basic train-
ing required to win this war, but some skills can only
be learned in the heat of battle. O


I s letters

THE PLEASURES OF USING MODELL AND REID

Dear Editor:

I have enclosed an item for inclusion in your "Letters"
section. I am suggesting that an explanatory note be
added in Chapter 8 of Modell and Reid. Note that I have
already corresponded with Bob Reid about this and he
has agreed with my suggestion.
I would appreciate your publishing this in a
forthcoming issue.

Comment on
Thermodynamics and Its Applications
Among the pleasures of using Thermodynamics and Its
Applications by Modell and Reid (1983) is the precise, logical
way with which the subject is developed and the corresponding
traceability of any given result to first principles. For the dis-
cerning reader, operations are explained in sufficient detail to
avoid having to puzzle over results and having to reconstitute
missing steps. I have found one instance, however, where an
additional note of explanation might be helpful.
The book bases its development on fundamental equations
and shows early on the important role played by the Legendre
transform in providing a link among the various fundamen-
tal forms. Coupling these forms to specific state equations (the
Peng-Robinson is the equation of choice in the book) is done in
terms of departure functions, both for pure fluids (Chapter 7)
and for mixtures (Chapter 8).
Understandably, the analysis begins in both cases with the
Helmholtz energy. Differentiating the pure-fluid expression
(Eq. 7-81) with respect to temperature yields the entropy depar-
ture function, but not without an interesting aside that the
authors perceptively highlight in a footnote. The operation in
question (expressed intensively) is

[A(T, V) -A(T, V)]
3T v

= f (P RTadV + RFU In (1)
v
and its well known result follows:

s(T,V)-S (T, V )- [(P- )d] -R In V (2)
v


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The footnote on page 155 calls attention to the fact that
differentiation at constant molar volume implies a change in
the intensive state. Since this variation forces the hypothetical
reference condition A0(T,V0 = RT/P) to change as well, this
latter variation must be accounted for in the result. Expressing
the differential of the reference condition

dA= S d PdV
the variation is seen to be


(OT
aT
V


=-S -P
T)


The second term on the right, however, is exactly canceled by a
term resulting from the differentiation in Eq. 1,

-a[RT In Vo] =R n Vo+P( aV
vT v KT

and to the less-than-careful reader, the scenario is invisible
from Eq. 2.
A similar situation arises in Chapter 8 where the
Helmholtz energy (Eq. 8-130, now in extensive form to permit
mole-number operations) is differentiated to yield the differ-
ence in chemical potential and, ultimately, an equation-of-


1989




Chemical




Engineering




Texts from




Wiley


state-based expression for the fugacity coefficient. The proce-
dure is





p_ [ JdV+NRTln-n (3)
T,-[A(TNI NN



where
n
N= XNk
k=1







Once again, the differentiation constraints imply that
when N is varsignified there will mole a change in the intensive are state
of the mixture intermediate d a corresultsponding movementerms of the referencemical
conditials) is
0 0
9,v9 _LdV+RTlnL (4)
N 1 [1)
Once again, the differentiation constraints imply that
when Ni is varied there will be a change in the intensive state
of the mixture and a corresponding movement of the reference
condition

A (T,V = NRT/P, N1, N2, ...,Nn)
Continued on page 169.


CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, 2/E
Stanley I. Sander, The University of Delaware
0-471-83050-X, 656pp., Cloth, AvailableJanuary 1989
A fully revised new edition of the well received sophomore/junior level thermo-
dynamics text, now incorporating microcomputer programs.

PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
Dale E. Seborg, University of California, Santa Barbara,
Thomas R. Edgar, University of Texas, Austin,
and Duncan A. Mellichamp, University of California,
Santa Barbara
0-471-86389-0, 840pp., Cloth, Available February 1989
A balanced, in-depth treatment of the central issues in process control, including
numerous worked examples and exercises.

REQUEST YOUR COMPLIMENTARY COPIES TODAY
Contact your local Wiley representative or write on your school's stationery to
Angelica DiDia, Dept 9-0264,John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York,
NY 10158. Please include your name, the name of your course and its enrollment,
and the title of your current text IN CANADA- write toJohn Wiley & Sons Canada
Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario, M9W IL.


E JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
605 Third Avenue
WILEY New York, NY10158 sakm


FALL 1988


I II I










Felder's Filosophy ..




IMPOSTORS EVERYWHERE


EDITOR'S NOTE: This paper introduces a new column
in CEE- an expression of opinion by a frequent contributor
to CEE. The column will supplement our regular "Views and
Opinions" department.


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7905

HE KNOCKS ON my office door, scans the room to
make sure no one else is with me, and nervously
approaches my desk. I ignore the symptoms of crisis
and greet him jauntily.
"Hi, Don-what's up?
"It's the test tomorrow, Dr. Felder. Um ... could
you tell me how many problems are on it?"
"I don't see how it could help you to know, but
three."
"Oh. Uh ... will it be open book?"
"Yes-like every other test you've taken from me
during the last three years."
"Oh well, are we responsible for the plug flow
reactor energy balance?"
"No, it happened before you were born. Look,
Don, we can go on with this game later but first how
about sitting down and telling me what's going on.
You look petrified."
"To tell you the truth, sir, I just don't get what
we've been doing since the last test and I'm afraid I'm
going to fail this one."
"I see. Don, what's your GPA?"
"About 3.6, I guess, but this term will probably
knock it down to .. ."
"What's your average on the first two kinetics
tests?"

Richard M. Fielder is a professor of ChE at
N.C. State, where he has been since 1969. He
received his BChE at City College of C.U.N.Y. and
hs PhD from Princeton. He has worked at the
A.E.R.E., Harwell, and Brookhaven National
Laboratory, and has presented courses on
chemical engineering principles, reactor design,
process optimization, and radioisotope
applications to various American and foreign
industries and institutions. He is coauthor of the
text Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes (Wiley, 1986).


"92."
"And you really believe you're going to fail the
test tomorrow?"
"Uh ... ."
Unfortunately, on some level he really does believe
it. Logically he knows he is one of the top students in
the department and if he gets a 60 on the test the class
average will probably be in the 30's, but he is not
operating on logic right now. What is he doing?
The pop psychology literature calls it the impostor
phenomenon [1]. The subliminal tape that plays end-
lessly in Don's head goes like this:

I don't belong here ... I'm clever and hard-working enough
to have faked them out all these years and they all think I'm
great but I know better and one of these days they're going
to catch on they'll ask the right question and find out
that I really don't understand ... and then .. and then....

The tape recycles at this point, because the conse-
quences of them (teachers, classmates, friends, par-
ents, ) figuring out that you are a fraud are too
awful to contemplate.
I have no data on how common this phenomenon
is among engineering students, but when I speak
about it in classes and seminars and get to ". and
they all think I'm great but I know better," the audi-
ence resonates like a plucked guitar string-students
laugh nervously, nod their heads, turn to check out
their neighbors' reactions. My guess is that most of
them believe deep down that those around them may
belong there but they themselves do not.
They are generally wrong. Most of them do be-
long-they will pass the courses and go on to become
competent and sometimes outstanding engineers. But
the agony they experience before tests and whenever
they are publicly questioned takes a severe toll along
the way. Sometimes the toll is too high: even though
they have the ability and interest to succeed in en-
gineering, they cannot stand the pressure and either
change majors or drop out of school.
It seems obvious that someone who has ac-
complished something must have had the ability to do
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









so (more concisely, you cannot do what you cannot
do). If students have passed courses in chemistry,
physics, calculus, and stoichiometry without cheating,
they clearly had the talent to pass them. So where did
they get the idea that their high achievements so far
(and getting through the freshman engineering cur-
riculum is indeed a high achievement) are somehow
fraudulent? Asking this gets us into psychological wat-
ers that I have neither the space nor the credentials
to navigate; suffice it to say that if you are human you
are subject to self-doubts, and chemical engineering
students are human.
What can we do for these self-labeled impostors?

Mention the impostor phenomenon in classes
and individual conferences and encourage the
students to talk to one another about it.

There is security in numbers: students will be re-
lieved to learn that those around them-including that
hotshot in the first row with the straight-A average-
have the same self-doubts.

Remind students that their abilities-real or
otherwise-have sustained them for years and
are not likely to desert them in the next twenty-
four hours.

They won't believe it just because you said so, of
course-those self-doubts took years to build up and
will not go away that easily. But the message may get
through if it is given repeatedly. The reassurance
must be gentle and positive, however; it can be helpful
to remind students that they have gone through the
same ritual of fear before and will probably do as well
now as they did then, but suggesting that it is idiotic
for a straight-A student to worry about a test will
probably do more harm than good.

Point out to students that while grades may be
important, the grade they get on a particular
test or even in a particular course is not that
crucial to their future welfare and happiness.

They will be even less inclined to believe this one
but you can make a case for it. One bad quiz grade
rarely changes the course grade, and even if the worst
happens, a shift of one letter grade changes the final
overall GPA by about 0.02. No doors are closed to a
student with a 2.84 GPA that would be open if the
GPA were 2.86. (You may not think too much of this
argument but I have seen it carry weight with a
number of panicky students.)


Make students aware that they can switch
majors without losing face.

It is no secret that many students enter our field
for questionable reasons-high starting salaries, their
fathers wanted them to be engineers, their friends all
went into engineering, and so on. If they can be per-
suaded that they do not have to be chemical engineers
(again, periodic repetition of the message is usually
necessary), the consequent lowering of pressure can
go a long way toward raising their internal comfort
level, whether they stay in chemical engineering or go
somewhere else.
Caution, however. Students in the grip of panic
about their own competence or self-worth should be
deterred from making serious decisions (whether
about switching curricula or anything else) until they
have had a chance to collect themselves with the as-
sistance of a trained counselor.

One final word. When I refer at seminars to feeling
like an impostor among one's peers, besides the reso-
nant responses I get from students I usually pick up
some pretty strong vibrations from the row where the
faculty is sitting. That's another column.

REFERENCE
1. Pauline R. Clance, Impostor Phenomenon: Overcoming the
Fear that Haunts Your Success, Peachtree Pubs., 1985. E

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Continued from page 167.

The differential of this quantity is
o 0 0 0
dA = dT PdY + X k dNk
k=l
and the variation in question is


SAo

T. .N[1 i ]


So av
=.N -I (
T,-.Nllll


By analogy with the previous case, the second term on the
right is canceled by differentiation of the NRT In V0 term in
Eq. 3 and is accordingly absent from Eq. 4. The fact that this
cancellation has taken place is not apparent from the
expression appearing at the top of page 204, and a note to this
effect may help students follow the development.
Literature Cited: Modell, M., and R. C. Reid,
Thermodynamics and Its Applications (2nd ed.),
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1983).

Kenneth Jolls
Iowa State University


FALL 1988










Award Lecture ...


REFLECTIONS ON TEACHING CREATIVITY


JAMES J. CHRISTENSEN (deceased)*
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602

I would like to express appreciation to the 3M
Company and members of the selection committee, to
my family, and to all of those others who were in-
volved in my nomination. I was extremely surprised
and pleased at being chosen for this honor and award.
However, I was totally unprepared for this selection
and it surprised me for two reasons: I had never con-
sidered myself a candidate for this prestigious award,
and the nominators did their work very carefully and
secretively.
The 3M Lectureship Award is given to recognize
and encourage outstanding achievement in an impor-
tant field of fundamental chemical engineering theory
or practice. As I thought about this talk, I considered
such titles as 'The Joy of Calorimetry' and 'What You
Always Wanted to Know About Thermochemistry
But Were Afraid to Ask.' Rather than speak on my
research area, I chose instead to speak about teaching
creativity. I chose this topic for several reasons:

* I am not an expert in the field, so I can speak on
the subject without limit and without fear.
* This talk is given at the summer school for a broad
chemical engineering audience which is mainly con-
cerned with educating chemical engineers.
* Current times find our profession in a state of
change. This includes the application of chemical en-
gineering principles into new areas of processing as
well as the molding of curricula as we decide what
relevant classes are to be taught. I think that
creativity bears on both of these areas.

I have had experience over the past 20 years in
teaching a class on creativity. This is a class taught at

*This paper was prepared, using Dr. Christensen's notes, by Dee
H. Barker, Professor Emeritus, and Richard L. Rowley, Associate
Professor, Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University.


the single greatest hurdle to teaching
creativity is the widely held idea that [it] cannot be
taught.... There are many who argue that the ability
to create is largely gene-dominated, and that you
cannot therefore teach creativity Still others
argue that the creative process is primarily
a function of external experiences.


the Master's degree level, but it includes under-
graduate as well as graduate students. I have also
taught several short courses (day-and-a-half) on
creativity in industry. I would emphasize that neither
the class nor the short course is on creative problem
solving, but more of an expos on creativity as out-
lined by Robert C. Reid of MIT (CEP, June 1981).
That article deals with the definition of creativity, the
value of being creative, an examination of the creative
process, and the problems of being creative. On the
other hand, a recent article by Richard M. Felder of
North Carolina State (Eng. Ed., Jan. 1987) discusses
the education of creative engineers by focusing on
exercises in problem solving, quizzes, and tests. In
this lecture, I have reflected on my experiences and
tried to distill out the main ideas and concepts con-
cerning teaching creativity. In other words, I will
focus on the essence of my experiences in this area.

CAN CREATIVITY BE TAUGHT?
I have found that the single greatest hurdle to
teaching creativity is the widely held idea that creativ-
ity cannot be taught. Can creativity be taught? There
are many who argue that the ability to create is
largely gene-dominated, and that you cannot there-
fore teach creativity. You may be able to teach some
tricks and methodology, but you cannot affect the
basic capability. Still others argue that the creative
process is primarily a function of external experi-
ences.
To better examine this question, we need to look
at the ways in which the brain is thought to work.


0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Many think that the brain is dominated by heredity
or genes. They argue that we have fixed "outlets" in
our minds and that we are creative only to the extent
that we are "plugged in" or can make the right connec-
tions. That is, we are all "idiot savants" to one degree
or another. We can be very bright in one area but
totally disconnected in others. The best we can do is
simulate or encourage inherent abilities. This
philosophy is questioned by many people. Arguments
on both sides include:

Everything else can be taught (e.g., physics and art), but
not creativity.

All fields have their natural geniuses ( e.g., Einstein and
Van Gogh), but we still believe that we can teach these
areas to others.

There are creative geniuses ( e.g., Edison, Tesla, and Stein-
metz), but creativity is mystical and cannot be taught to
others.

My personal view is intermediate between the
gene-dominated and the teachable positions. I believe
that it can be taught to some extent, but perhaps it is
better to say creativity can be enhanced. Some exam-
ples from my own experience may serve to illustrate
this:

A recent poll of chemical engineering graduates re-
quested a ranking of what they found of value in their
educational experience at Brigham Young University.
Creativity ranked very high, with thirty-nine responses


indicating that it was valuable. Evidently something
was taught.

* One of the exercises in class is to identify as many uses
of a common object as possible. One student took this
principle to heart in his research. He was trying to
figure out a way to collect samples from a coal combus-
tion unit, but the samples were very fine grains that
needed to be weighed. He came to me and said,
"Creativity really works! I thought of all the different
common things that could be used and finally decided
to use a condom as a collector. He put the condom on
the sample port and finally weighed the collector and
contents. Now that's being creative! He was not the
only one to make the connection between a prophylac-
tic device and separations. An article in the Journal of
Sedimentary Petrology (Vol. 44, No. 1) entitled
"Prophylactic Separation of Heavy Minerals," had the
following abstract: "A method is proposed for separa-
tion of heavy minerals that eliminates the need for dry
ice or liquefied gas in mineral recovery. The technique
consists of using a rubber contraceptive device inserted
in a cyndrical tube. The technique is rapid and inexpen-
sive." The authors were glad that in Oklahoma, their
home state, prophylactic devices were available
through the health department. They were not sure
how their purchasing department would have reacted
to the purchase of eight gross of condoms.

* Utilizing the principles that I have been teaching in
creativity has been a great help in designing the
calorimeters in our laboratory. As I run into a problem,
I employ the principles taught in that course and am
amazed at the varied solutions that can be obtained.

* I have demonstrated many times that the best way to
enhance creativity is to have more ideas. If ten ideas


The ASEE Chemi-
cal Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer for 1987 is
James J. Christensen of
Brigham Young Univer-
sity. Professor Christ-
ensen died shortly after
presenting his Award
Lecture (see page 72 of --
the spring 1988 issue of
CEE). We are grateful j
to Professors Dee H.
Barker and Richard L.
Rowley of Brigham Young University for recreating
this Award Lecture from Dr. Christensen's notes and
submitting it to CEE for publication. The 3M Com-
pany provides financial support for this annual lec-
tureship award.
James Christensen earned his BS and his MS
from the University of Utah, both in chemical en-


gineering, and his PhD from Carnegie-Mellon Uni-
versity (1958), doing work in the fields of heat transfer
and fluid flow. He joined the faculty at Brigham
Young University in 1957 and served as chairman of
the chemical engineering department from 1959-1961.
His primary research interests were in the fields
of coordination chemistry, thermodynamics, and
calorimetry. These interests led him into such varied
areas as calorimeter design, thermodynamics of pro-
ton ionization and metal-ligand interactions, metal-
macrocycle interactions, facilitated transport of met-
als through membranes, prediction of vapor-liquid
equilibria from heats of mixing, and measuring heats
of mixing and heats of absorption.
Dr. Christensen won numerous university and na-
tional awards for his teaching and research, and has
held a number of national and regional committee
posts in technical societies. He was a member of a
number of honorary professional societies and was
listed in many national and international biographi-
cal references.


FALL 1988











Creativity is difficult to define. It is much like trying to define pornography-it's hard to define, but
you know it when you see it. However, it is also like pornography in that everyone has a different idea of what
it is. Creativity can be recognized when it is seen.


give one creative idea, then twenty ideas will give two
creative ideas. What we need are more ideas, whether
bad or good, in order to find the good ones.


WHAT IS CREATIVITY?
Creativity is difficult to define. It is much like try-
ing to define pornography-it's hard to define, but
you know it when you see it. However, it is also like
pornography in that everyone has a different idea of
what it is. Creativity can be recognized when it is
seen. For example, Utah is the second driest state in
the United States, but in recent years heavy spring
rains and high snow-melt created a flooding problem
in Salt Lake, with water flowing down one of the main
streets. The University of Utah capitalized on this in
an advertisement for graduate students showing sand-
bagged river-streets. The title of the advertisement
said, "Fluid Mechanics in Utah?" and added, "We can't
promise the spectacular attractions you may have
seen on TV. But we can assure you that other in-
teresting experiments are going on. Some are con-
ducted by graduate students in Chemical Engineering
in the University of Utah and some make a big splash
of their own."
The problem with definitions is that they never
really match the particular cases. Consider this 1922
definition of chemical engineering, taken from the
British Institute of Chemical Engineering inaugural


FIGURE 1. Schroder's reversible staircase


meeting in 1922: "A chemical engineer is a professional
man, experienced in design, construction, and opera-
tion of plants in which materials undergo chemical or
physical change." Only two years later, A. Duckham,
in his Presidential Address to the same society, admit-
ted, "We have come to the conclusion that a chemical
engineer, as such, does not really exist."
In general, creativity is seen to be a joining to-
gether of two or more concepts, etc., to produce a new
idea ur useful product. A synthesis to get something
new and useful.


MAJOR CONCEPTS IN TEACHING CREATIVITY
If it is agreed that creativity can be taught, and
we know what creativity is, let us examine some of
the major ideas or concepts involved in teaching
creativity.
1. The first concept has already been mentioned-
that is, have more ideas. Too often we are concerned
about what others may think of our ideas, and so we
do not allow them to blossom nor do we express them
until we are sure that they are good ideas. Being crea-
tive means having more ideas. Some may be bad, but
the total number of good ones will also go up. You will
be surprised at how many successful ideas result from
ideas which may at first appear dumb.
2. Develop an ability to see or observe things in
different ways. The Roman goddess Janus is the pa-
tron saint of this concept. Janus had two faces, en-
abling her to see things from two different perspec-
tives. An example of this is Figure 1, Schroder's re-
versible staircase. It can be seen to either go up or go
down, depending on your point of view. Another
example is shown in Figure 2. An engineer and an art
student were asked to complete the figures shown in
(a). As you can see from (b) and (c), the art student
had much more imagination and creativity than the
engineer. Part of the reason for this will be discussed
later in this paper, but the artist was not limited to a
quick closure of the figures; he saw them as part of a
bigger picture.
3. Defer judgement of ideas until they can be tried,
tested, analyzed, and viewed in relationship to other
ideas and concepts. We might call this the "deferment-
of-judgement" principle. Frederick Sheeler had this


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








to say when a friend complained about not being crea-
tive enough:

The reason for your complaint lies, it seems to me, in the
constraint which your intellect imposes upon your imagina-
tion. Here I will make an observation and illustrate it by an
allegory. Apparently it is not good-and indeed it hinders the
creative work of the mind-if the intellect examines too
closely the ideas already pouring in, as it were, at the gates.


II -

Ll z


3C >


H S






40 1


8 0- >


E 8













FIGURE 2


a) Original












b) Engineer












c) Artist


Regarded in isolation, an idea may be quite insignificant and
venturesome in the extreme; but it may acquire importance
from an idea which follows it. In the case of a creative mind,
it seems to me, the intellect has withdrawn its watchers from
the gates, and the ideas rush in pell-mell, and only then does
it review and inspect the multitude. You reject too soon and
discriminate too severely.

This principal is the basis of the "brainstorming"
method developed by Alex Osborne, of "Synectics,"
developed by Gordon N. Prince, and of "lateral think-
ing" by DeBono. In these concepts we lay out all our
ideas, no matter how irrational they may seem. We
try to think of as many possible ways of accomplishing
the goal as possible, and only then do we begin to pass
judgement on them and begin to analyze the pros and
cons of each.
4. Students in engineering are often too quick to
pounce on a solution. They are so glad to finally ob-
tain a solution, any solution, that they never look back
for alternatives.
5. There are also creative inhibitors that must be
guarded against and eliminated. These roadblocks to
creativity often fall into two categories: habits and
mental blocks. Let us look at examples of some mental
blocks that limit our creative thinking:

An example is shown in Figure 3, which is the solution to
the traditional nine dot problem. The task is very simple-
connect all nine dots with four straight lines without lift-
ing your pencil from the surface. The block arises from the
fact that people think that they have to stay within the
bounds of the nine dots. Once you have seen an example
of a solution that breaks the artificial boundaries we im-


FIGURE 3


FALL 1988








Too often we are concerned about what others may think of our ideas, and so we do not allow them to
blossom nor do we express them until we are sure that they are good ideas. Being creative means having more
ideas. Some may be bad, but the total number of good ones will also go up. You will be surprised
at how many successful ideas result from ideas which may at first appear dumb.


pose on ourselves, many more ideas and solutions flow. In
fact, we can think of many solutions that use even fewer
than four lines: three lines that are angled slightly, one
line on the surface rolled on a cylinder, etc.
Another example of a cultural block is the story of Abdul
in the boat with his child, his wife, and his mother, and he
is asked if the boat were sinking which would he save? This
posed no problem for Abdul, since in his culture the mother
was the most revered. Abdul responded, "One can always
get another wife and another child, but never another
mother."
Another example of perceptual blocks is shown in Figure
4. The problem is to add one line to the Roman numeral
XI so that it is changed to the number X. Figure 4 lists
several ways in which this can be done. This block is a
constraint of expected or implied results assumed from the
way the problem is worded or phrased.
6. There are also helps that can be used to enhance
creativity:
You can develop a check-list of sets of questions. A sample
list of questions is shown in Table 1. One recent example
of minifying is Burger King's mini-cheeseburgers sold in
sets of four. The technique of reversing and rearranging is
illustrated in the following newspaper clipping:
PHOSPHATE PROCESS TREATS ACID MINE
DRAINAGE. Use of phosphate rock before lime neu-
tralization step in treating contaminated waters re-
duces sludge handling problem, aids iron removal. A
quartet of scientists from Wright State University, Day-
ton, Ohio, has turned a sewage treatment technique up-
side down and developed a new process for treating
stream waters contaminated by acid mine drainage. Or-
dinary phosphate rock is a major ingredient in the
method. According to the Dayton team, treatment with
phosphate before lime neutralization greatly reduces
the sludge handling problem and also is more effective
in removing iron.
Superconductors also came into being through a combina-
tion, substitution, and reversal process. Drs. Miller and
Bednort reversed conventional wisdom by testing sub-
stances so electron-poor that they normally do not conduct
at all.
You can use triggers to help get outside of the mental block
and try to analyze from a more objective viewpoint. One
such trigger is to ask, "How does nature do it?" In 1876, in
Nevada, the ground-structure and over-burden was such
that mine cave-ins were a serious problem. Someone con-
ceived the idea of putting the shoring in cells like a bee's
honeycomb, and this resulted in a successful ability to
mine the structure. Other triggers are shown in Table 2.


7. Looking at examples of successfully creative in-
dividuals and their characteristics helps our own
creativity. Consider, for example, the following suc-
cess stories:
Al Kuwait and Carl Courrier needed to raise a sunken
treasure ship intact. They discovered that Donald Duck


X


X+


IX


+X
-i





xj


X


-XI


X


ox
L-VK
DIX














-i1
tuX I






SID00


FIGURE 4


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I

I












TABLE 1
Questions as Spurs to Ideation


PUT TO OTHER USES?
New ways to use as is? Other uses if modified?

ADAPT?
What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest?
Does past offer a parallel? What could I copy? Whom could
I emulate?

MODIFY?
New twist? Change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor,
form, shape? Other changes?

MAGNIFY?
What to add? More time? Greater frequency? Stronger?
Higher? Longer? Thicker? Extra value? Plus ingredient?
Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate?

MINIFY?
What to subtract? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? Lower?
Shorter? Lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split-up? Understate?


SUBSTITUTE?
Who else instead? What else instead? Other ingredient?
Other material? Other process? Other power? Other place?
Other approach? Other tone of voice?

REARRANGE?
Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout?
Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace?
Change schedule?

REVERSE?
Transpose positive and negative? How about opposites?
Turn it backward? Turn it upside down? Reverse roles?
Change shoes? Turn tables? Turn other cheek?

COMBINE?
How about a blend, an alloy, an assortment, an ensemble?
Combine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals?
Combine ideas?


had accomplished a similar feat in a comic book with table-
tennis balls. They raised the ship by filling it with
27,000,000,000 polystyrene balls.

* Buckminster Fuller is another example. In 1927, as a short,
wiry 32-year-old, he stood silently on the shore of Lake
Michigan. He had been a poor student and was then living
with his wife Ann in a Chicago slum. He had twice been
expelled from Harvard University. Their first daughter had
just died, and he was bankrupt. There he stood, con-
templating suicide. It was a "jump or think" decision, he
recalls. Fortunately for the world he chose the latter. "A
major change came about in my life. Up to then I had been
conditioned to live in accordance with inspiration, biases,
values, concepts, results, laws, loyalties, and credos
evolved by others. I resolved to do my own thinking, and
to see what the individual, starting without any money or
credit (in fact with considerable discredit, but with a whole


TABLE 2
Other Triggers


TRIGGER 1:
TRIGGER 2:

TRIGGER 3:
TRIGGER 4:
TRIGGER 5:
TRIGGER 6:
TRIGGER 7:
TRIGGER 8:
TRIGGER 9:
TRIGGER 10:
TRIGGER 11:
TRIGGER 12:
TRIGGER 13:


How does nature do it?
Juxtaposition or random input of 3 words, or use
of "chance" or "force fit"
Personal analogy
Wildest fantasy
What if? In the extreme
Functional analogy
Appearance analogy
Symbolic analogy/Simple replacement
Subproblem
Book title
Morphology
Reversal
Use a checklist


lot of experience) could produce on behalf of his fellow
men." Since then he has been the Charles Elliot Norton
professor of poetry and has taught at Southern Illinois Uni-
versity and the University of Pennsylvania. He holds 39
honorary degrees, 118 patents in 55 countries, and has pub-
lished 18 books. He is the designer of geodesic domes, of
which 100,000 have been built. "Every child," Bucky
claims, "is born a genius, but is enslaved by the misconcep-
tions and self-doubt of the adult world and spends much of
his life having to unlearn that perspective. After all," he
says, "I'm really nothing special. I'm just a healthy, low-
average human being who happened to be nudged out of
the nest. It is something anyone could do." He pauses and
smiles, "Perhaps that is the good news."

* Now consider Charles Kettering (who even has a creativity
principle named after him), Research Director of General
Motors at Dayton. Charles Kettering continually made use
of Trigger #4 (Wildest fantasy), Trigger #5 (What if in the
extreme), and Trigger #12 (Reversal). For example, a man
came to see his new diesel engine. "I would like to talk to
your thermodynamics expert about it," said the visitor. "I
am sorry," Kettering replied, "we don't have anyone here
who even understands the word 'thermodynamics,' much
less is an expert on it. But if you want to know how we
developed this engine, I'll be glad to show you." On another
occasion, Kettering put three men to work in a little room
and told them they ought to be able to develop a gasoline
that would give the motorist five times as many miles per
gallon. They never found what they were after, but they
did hit on the idea of lead, and that resulted in ethyl
gasoline. As a result, instead of increasing the mileage of
gasoline, they decreased its knocking.
* Many creative things seem to occur because of good luck.
Table 3 presents some of the things which might occur
because of luck. Nevertheless, good luck is not very often
blind luck but comes to those with certain personality


FALL 1988











TABLE 3
Good Luck and Personality Traits


Elements Involved


Personality Traits
You Need


An Accident


General Exploratory


Sagacity





Personality


"Blind Luck"


The Kettering Principle


The Pasteur Principle





The Disraeli Principle


Chance happens, and nothing
about it is directly attributable
to you, the recipient.

Chance favors those in motion.
Events are brought together to
form "happy accidents" when you
diffusely apply your energies in
motions that are typically non-
specific.

Chance favors the prepared mind.
Some special receptivity born from
past experience permits you to dis-
cern a new fact or to perceive ideas
in a new relationship.

Chance favors the individualized
action. Fortuitous events occur
when you behave in ways that are
highly distinctive of you as a per-
son.


None


Curiosity about many things. Per-
sistence, willingness to experi-
ment and to explore.


A background of knowledge, based
on your abilities to observe, re-
member, and quickly form signif-
icant new associations.


Distinctive hobbies, personalized
life styles, and activities peculiar
to you as an individual, especially
when they operate in domains
seemingly far removed from the
area of discovery.


traits which foster and encourage that luck. Increased
"luck" can result from fostering those character traits.

8. Problems and games can also embellish our
creative ability. Here is a statement on an aluminum
alloy that decomposes in water:

An aluminum alloy that has all of the classic characteristics
of conventional metals--strength, durability, machinability,
and electrical conductivity-but can be decomposed rapidly
by cold water has been developed and is being marketed by
T.A.F.A., a firm in Bow, New Hampshire. Away from the
water the alloy is stable under a wide range of atmospheric
conditions and has shown no sign of erosion or deterioration
over long test periods, according to the firm.

You could have the students figure out the many
uses that this alloy could be put to. It is not necessary,
in creativity, to use chemical engineering in all exam-
ples. In fact, I tend to stay away from a lot of chemical
engineering problems and try to present creativity in
a broader sense. This also helps in breaking the habit
patterns which have been instilled in chemical en-
gineering students. I use many other examples in my
teaching, such as ways to use a box of paper clips,
what to do with bricks, and visualizing objects as hav-
ing other functions. All of these help in developing
creativity in students.


SUMMARY

Great works (of creativity) need not only the flash,
the inspiration, and the experience; they also need
hard work, long training, relevant criticism, and per-
fectionist standards.
Creativity may require two differing sets of per-
sonality characteristics. The creative person may
more closely resemble two thinkers in tandem than
one fully integrated being. The two facets of creativity
suggest that a completely creative person may have
need of both a mode of thinking conducive to genera-
tion of original ideas and a separate mode useful for
discerning feasible ideas from the rest.
Creativity has everything going for it. Everyone
wants to be more creative in their daily lives. The
teaching of creativity adds a new dimension to the
abilities of chemical engineering students, both at the
bachelors level and at the graduate level. It can also
be offered to students outside of the chemical en-
gineering department as a service course. I have done
this primarily in teaching industrial groups in an in-
dustrial environment.
And finally, it is fun to teach. It helps to keep my
ideas flowing and helps me in my daily work in adding
creativity to the things which I do, both in my profes-
sional and in my social life. D


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Good Luck is
the Result of


Classification
of Luck













CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES


TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP
AWARD TO STANLEY I. SANDLER

The 1988 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer is STANLEY I. SANDLER of the
University of Delaware. The purpose of this
award lecture is to recognize and encourage
outstanding achievement in an important field of
fundamental chemical engineering theory or
practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the annual lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate.
These were presented to Dr. Sandler at a banquet
on June 21, 1988, during the ASEE annual
meeting in Portland, Oregon.
Dr. Sandler's lecture was entitled "Physical
Properties and Process Design," and it will
published in a forthcoming issue of CEE.
The award is made on an annual basis, with
nominations being received through February 1,
1989. Your nominations for the 1989 lectureship
are invited.



AWARD WINNERS

A number of chemical engineering professors
were recognized for their outstanding achieve-
ments. The George Westinghouse Award was
presented to THOMAS F. EDGAR (University of
Texas at Austin) to acknowledge his commitment
to excellence in education and his many contri-
butions to the improvement of teaching methods
for engineering students.
The Curtis W. McGraw Research Award went
to NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS (Purdue University) in
recognition of his exceptional research accom-
plishments in advancing the fundamental un-
derstanding of basic process systems.


DANIEL E. ROSNER (Yale University)
received the Meriam/Wiley Distinguished
Author Award, and RICHARD M. FELDER (North
Carolina State University) was the recipient of the
Wickenden Award. The Dow Outstanding Young
Faculty Award for the Midwest Section went to
BALA SUBRAMANIAM (University of Kansas).
THOMAS W. WEBER (State University of New
York at Buffalo) was honored with two awards:
The AT&T Foundation Award for the St.
Lawrence Section and the Outstanding Zone
Campus Representative Award.
ANGELO J. PERNA (New Jersey Institute of
Technology) was one of the select few singled out
for special recognition by his election as an ASEE
Fellow.


CORCORAN AWARD
TO C. THOMAS SCIENCE

C. THOMAS SCIENCE (E. I. Du Pont de Nemours
and Company) was the recipient of the third annual
Corcoran Award, presented in recognition of the most
outstanding paper published in Chemical
Engineering Education in 1987. His paper,
"Chemical Engineering in the Future," appeared in
the winter 1987 issue of CEE.


NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS

The Chemical Engineering Division officers
for 1988-89 are: Chairman, JAMES E. STICE
(University of Texas at Austin); Past Chairman,
JOHN SEARS (Montana State University); Vice-
Chairman/Chairman-Elect, WILLIAM E.
BECKWITH, (Clemson University); Secretary-
Treasurer, WALLACE B. WHITING (West
Virginia University); and Directors, WILLIAM
L. CONGER (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University), RICHARD M. FELDER (North
Carolina State University), and LEWIS
DERZANSKY (Union Carbide).


00

EI~O
ArnBl


"BC"


FALL 1988










A course in...




MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL


YAMAN ARKUN, G. CHAROS,
and D. E. REEVES
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0100

THE PROCESS CONTROL curriculum at Georgia
Tech consists of two undergraduate and two
graduate courses taught by two faculty members. The
purpose of this paper is to describe one of the graduate
courses which specializes on Model Predictive Con-
trol. Traditionally the two graduate courses have
covered multivariable control systems, frequency do-
main approaches, and robust control systems (Ad-
vanced Process Control I), and state space concepts,
state estimation, and optimal control (Advanced Pro-
cess Control II) in two quarters. For the first time,
in the spring quarter of 1988, Model Predictive Con-
trol (MPC) became the theme of one of our graduate
control courses.
The objective of this course is to teach the students
the general principles of MPC and give them the op-
portunity to implement the powerful predictive con-
trol methods on case studies of industrial importance.
The need for teaching the MPC methods came from
industrial success stories. It is now widely recognized
that MPC is an emerging technology which provides
the best framework to address the industrially rele-


vant control problems involving hard and soft con-
straints, continuously changing operational objec-
tives, poor models, and sensor and actuator failures.
Despite the significant amount of research in the
area of MPC and the increasing industrial utilization
of the new predictive control methods, only a few pro-
grams in the country offer courses on this subject to
the best of our knowledge. This is not very surprising
considering that there is no textbook; the concepts
are new and require integration of knowledge from
different subdomains of modeling, control, and optimi-
zation, and finally there is very limited CAD software,
without which the students cannot appreciate the full
power of the MPC methods.
Our ten-week course drew upon the key papers
from the MPC literature, covered parts of the forth-
coming book, Robust Process Control, by Morari, et
al. [5], and used the in-house CAD software developed
by Charos [19]. In the remainder of the paper we will
discuss the course contents and share with the reader
our first experience.

SCOPE OF THE COURSE
A requirement of the course is that students have
taken an undergraduate control course. Knowledge of
z-transforms is also desirable. The course outline is
given in Table 1. The required and supplementary


Yaman Arkun is an associ-
ate professor at Georgia Tech.
He received his degrees from
the University of Bosphorous
(Turkey; BS, 1974) and the Uni-
versity of Minnesota (PhD,
1979). He spent six years at Re-
nsselaer Polytechnic Institute
before joining the faculty at
Georgia Tech. His research in-
terests are in process control. (L)
Georgios N. Charos
graduated from the University of New Hampshire with a BS in chem-
ical engineering. He was awarded an MS degree from Cornell Univer- 1986 and her MS from Georgia Tech in 1988. She is presently a PhD
sity, and he is currently pursuing a PhD degree in the area of process student in chemical engineering at Georgia Tech. As a National Science
control at Georgia Tech. (C) Foundation Fellow she is concentrating her research in the field of
Deborah E. Reeves received her BS from Clemson University in process control. (R)
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











The objective of this course is to teach the students the general principles of MPC and give them the opportunity
to implement the powerful predictive control methods on case studies of industrial importance. ...
It is now widely recognized that MPC is an emerging technology which provides the
best framework to address industrially relevant control problems .


TABLE 1
Course Outline

INTRODUCTION
Process control objectives
Motivation for MPC
INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL
Principles of feedback: nominal stability and performance,
robust stability and performance
SISO IMC design procedure
MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FORMULATION
Unconstrained SISO Problem
Discrete system representations
Least-squares solution and stability theorems
Implementation and controller tuning guidelines
Unconstrained MIMO Problem
Discrete MIMO representation
Factorization of multiple time delays
MPC solution and the control law
Controller tuning rules
Constrained MIMO Problem
Quadratic Dynamic Matrix Control
Description of our CAD software
Case studies (see Table 2)


reading list for each topic is supplied in the Literature
Cited section. The course commences by introducing
the students to Model Predictive Control through a
critical view of the fundamental process control prob-
lem using a mixture of industrial and academic
critique papers. These key papers put the control
problem into perspective, define the performance
criteria for process control, and motivate the study of
MPC.
Next we start with the text Robust Process Con-
trol and present the Internal Model Control (IMC)
structure in its simplest form as shown in Figure 1.
Students are repeatedly told that this generic struc-
ture explicitly uses a separately identifiable model in
parallel with the plant and is common to all the MPC
methods to be discussed in the course. It is also stres-
sed that IMC establishes the necessary foundation for
general analytical treatment of the different MPC
methods.
The IMC concepts are best illustrated using open-
loop stable single-input-single-output (SISO) systems
and extensions to unstable and MIMO systems are
briefly mentioned by referring to the appropriate
chapters in the text. The essential topics that are
taught under IMC include: zero steady-state offset
property; simplicity of nominal stability test in con-


trast with classical feedback; parameterization of all
stabilizing controllers; characterization of achievable
regulatory and servo performances in the absence of
model/plant mismatch; the concept of inverse or per-
fect controller and the fundamental limitations to per-
fect control, i.e., time delays, right half-plane zeros,
constraints and uncertainty; design of the approxi-
mate inverse controller Q using H2-optimal control de-
sign for a given input; robust stability, robust perfor-
mance and the design of the filter F to detune the
controller against uncertainty. The Laplace domain is
adopted throughout and the design calculations are
demonstrated on first order systems with deadtime
(see Chapter 4). The experimental evaluation of the
method is addressed using the heat exchanger im-
plementation given in Arkun et al. [6]. Coverage of
the basic IMC concepts closes with a homework as-
signment in which the students define their own SISO
system and demonstrate the utility of all the analysis
and design tools they have so far learned. Computer
aids such as Program CC [21] or PC MATLAB [20]
are used to perform the more tedious calculations. It
is important that the students go through such an
exercise to make sure that they have mastered the
principles of the IMC design. The first part of the
course takes about two weeks with three hours of lec-
tures per week.
The second part of the course recasts IMC into the
general predictive control formulation as presented in
the landmark paper by Garcia and Morari [9]. This is
done in an on-line optimization framework to pave the
way to general MPC algorithms such as QDMC (Quad-
ratic Dynamic Matrix Control) which can deal with
input and output constraints. Basically, based on past


FIGURE 1. The IMC structure


FALL 1988










control actions and current measurements, the con-
troller calculates the current and future control ac-
tions which will insure that the model predicted out-
put follows the desired output trajectory as close as
possible in a horizon of specified sampling times into
the future. Because of disturbances and model/plant
mismatch, only the current control action is im-
plemented as computed, and the calculation is re-
peated as illustrated in Figure 2.



Sd(k)
F----M T --
10 < ^ ei-es~~a


Y9 (K)


- 9 ...


-LJ


-m (k)


I K+I
K K-2


+
K+M


hor Jizon0


FIGURE 2. The model predictive control scheme with its
"moving horizon."


Since the MPC problem is formulated and solved
in discrete time, discrete system representations are
covered, emphasizing the development of the discrete
pulse response model, the step response model, and
their connection. Although the mathematical prelimin-
aries in Garcia and Morari [9] are self-contained, our
students have found the supplementary reading mate-
rial cited in the Literature section particularly useful
to brush up their background on discrete systems.
We first look at the unconstrained SISO problem.
Since the control law turns out to be a least-squares
solution, and the stability theorems are well-charac-
terized, this case is the easiest to grasp. The students
master the material easily in three weeks, but special
care should be given to bookkeeping of matrices. A
homework problem asking for the verification of the
key system matrices and the least-squares solution
has helped the students follow the notation. Also,
since the IMC paper discusses some of its results
within the context of dead beat control which is new
to the majority of the students, supplemental material
and half a lecture is given on the subject. Finally the
unconstrained SISO MPC problem is completed by
mid-quarter projects. Each group of two students is
asked to write its own software and report on its find-


ings with tuning of different controller parameters.
This is done in a two-week period using two MICRO-
VAX workstations. The program is not difficult to
write and the students value the experience.
Some sample results from a project looking at the
control of a nonminimum phase second order system
with dead time are shown in Figures 3-5. Using
Program CC, a sample time is chosen to yield a
discrete monotonic step response. IMSL subroutines
VMULFF and LINVF are used for matrix manipula-
tions while DGEAR is used to integrate the state-
space system realization to calculate the output at and
between sampling points. MPC tuning parameters M


G(.)-1 ) = -
(2.+1)


) 20 40 60
TIME


-100-


0 20 40 60
TIME
FIGURE 3. Unstable response with perfect controller
(M = N = P = 6)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











(input suppression), P (optimization horizon length),
P (input penalty) and y (output penalty) are adjusted
to show their effects on closed-loop stability and per-
formance. The perfect controller is unstable due to
the inversion of RHP zero (Fig. 3). Figure 4 demon-
strates that the nominal system is stabilized and per-
formance improved by decreasing M, increasing P,
and adjusting y. Robustness against uncertainty in
the location of the RHP zero is illustrated for set-point
responses shown in Figure 5. Note that when the
RHP zero is closest to the origin (a = 4), one gets the
worst performance deterioration as expected.
In the last part of the course we devote five weeks


0.8-


0.6-
-- M=1,N=P=6,Ai=O,y=l
M = 14,N = P = 6,G = 0, -> 1
---------- P=12,M=N=6,A=0,.i 1,
0.4

O-
0.2
0 \


TIME


--- M = 1,N = P = 6,f6 = 0,,i = 1
--------- P=12,M= N =6,f# =0,1, >


S 20 40
TIME


to more advanced constrained MIMO predictive
methods. The intricacies of MIMO systems are intro-
duced based on the papers IMC Parts 2 and 3 by Gar-
cia and Morari [12, 13]. From IMC Part 2 we basically
cover the factorization of multiple time delays and its
optimality. The rest of the concepts carry over from
the SISO IMC design. The MPC problem is formu-
lated next as an unconstrained quadratic optimization
and the analytical solution based on least-squares is
studied in detail following IMC Part 3. The students
are asked to verify the system of linear equations and
the resulting control law. The analogy with the SISO
results is made, and the conditions under which decou-


0.8-
(1 a.)
G() = _- (2.- + -,

0.6-


0.4-


-a-2
---------- at=0
----a 4


TIME


-0= --a=0
----- a=2


40
TIME


FIGURE 4. Stabilized and improved response with pa-
rameters varied


FIGURE 5. Robust performance with uncertainty in RHP
zero (M = N = P = 6, )3i = 5, yi = 1)


FALL 1988


C'-













140-


S-- --- in
--- setpoint
--.------ setpoint








f _'- -------------------------


I 10 20 30
TIME


40 50


0.75-


I- setpoint
0.50- --- Vn lower constraint
---- ts upper constraint



0.25 -



0-
0 -----------------



-0.25 3
0 10 20 30 40 5'0
TIME


S 10 20 30
TIME


40 50


----------


10 20


40 50


TIME


(b)


S -- eetpoint
----.... lower constraint
S --..-- upper constraint








.. .. ...- -


-------- **1
- ,u lower constraint
------ upper contraint
--.-- us upper contraint
-15 S Au S 15
-10 5 A&e S 10


40- --------



20-


-0 .- --------

-20- --- ------------


I b eb 30b
T ME


40 50


(c)
FIGURE 6. Model predictive control applied to the Wardle and Wood distillation column (M = 10, N = 50, P = 60).
a) unconstrained, b) y, constrained, c) y,, ul, u2, Au,, Au2 constrained


182 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


---- "1

80-


60-


40-


20-

0-----------
0-

_ on ___ -_______________


-20-










pling is optimal (in the least-squares sense) is dis-
cussed. Examples from the paper IMC Part 3 are used
throughout.
After covering the unconstrained problem, the
focus finally shifts to the constrained MIMO MPC
which reflects the ultimate industrial practice. We
have found the QDMC (Quadratic Dynamic Matrix
Control) of Garcia and Morshedi [14] and the work of
Ricker [15] easiest to teach from. Starting with the
QDMC paper, the DMC equations are derived using
step response coefficients, and the unconstrained
MPC solution is shown to be the least-squares solution
of the DMC equations. Next we show how the prob-
lem is augmented with constraints on inputs and out-
puts and formulated as a constrained quadratic pro-
gramming problem. The role of different tuning pa-
rameters is discussed, but detailed assessment of their
effects is assigned to the final design project. The
work of Ricker [15] is briefly visited to teach "input
blocking" which generalizes and gives additional in-
sight to the use of the moving suppression parameter
M. In discussing quadratic programming, one lecture
is spent on the program QPSOL [22] which we use in
our CAD software, and a brief background is given on
Kuhn-Tucker conditions for optimality. Once the basic
principles behind QDMC are understood, in the in-
terest of time its solution procedure is accepted almost
like a black box.
The course ends with the final projects on the ap-
plication of QDMC prepared and presented orally by
groups of two students. The list of case studies is
given in Table 2. Selected results for the Wardle and
Wood column are given in Figure 6. The column sepa-
rates a binary mixture of benzene and methyl ethyl
ketone. The manipulated variables are reflux flowrate
(ul) and reboil flowrate (u2). Since the control of the
distillate (yi) is the primary objective, y, is included
in the objective function of QDMC and the bottoms Y2
is allowed to float between limits. Additional con-
straints on the absolute values of inputs and on the
magnitude of changes in the inputs (i.e., rate con-
straints) are also considered. Figure 6a shows that

TABLE 2
Final Projects

* The evaporator system: Ricker [15]
* A nonlinear isothermal CSTR: Ray [16], p.120
* UW water tank system with level and temperature control:
Arkun et al [6]
* Wardle and Wood distillation column: Luyben [17], Wardle and
Wood [18]


control of y, is excellent while y2 drifts when it is
unconstrained. Also significant control action is re-
quired when inputs are unconstrained. Slight vari-
ations in y, from the setpoint trajectory result as some
of the control action is employed in keeping y2 within
its constraints (Figure 6b). Finally, constraints on the
inputs insure more realistic control action, but at the
expense of further deterioration in the performance of
the first output (Figure 6c).

CONCLUSIONS
MPC is an industrially important control
framework and should be part of any process control
curriculum. We have found that CAD software is very
valuable for demonstrating the power of the methods
and for performing creative designs. Although uncon-
strained MPC programs can be easily developed and
used by the students as we have done in this course,
constrained MPC software is not trivial and should be
made available to the students. We hope that in the
near future we will be able to make our software avail-
able to the interested educators.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We acknowledge all the graduate students who took
this course and who made very valuable contributions
to its development. We also thank Manfred Morari for
providing us with the first draft copy of his book. This
material is partially based upon work supported under
a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship.

LITERATURE CITED
Introduction
Required Reading
1. Foss, A. S., "Critique of Chemical Process Control Theory,"
AIChE 1., 19,209-214; 1973
2. Lee, W., and V. W. Weekman, "Advanced Control Practice
in the Chemical Process Industry," AIChE J., 22, 27-38; 1976
3. Kestenbaum, A., R. Shinnar, and F. E. Than, "Design Con-
cepts of Process Control," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev.,
15, 2; 1976
4. Morari, M., "Three Critiques of Process Control Revisited a
Decade Later," Shell Process Control Workshop,
Butterworths; 1987
Internal Model Control
Required Reading
5. Morari, M., E. Zafiriou, and C. Economou, Robust Process
Control, Prentice-Hall, Chaps. 2-4; 1989
6. Arkun, Y., J. Hollett, W. M. Canney, and M. Morari,
"Experimental Study of Internal Model Control," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev., 25, 102-108; 1986
Supplementary Material
7. Vidyasagar, M., Control System Synthesis: A Factorization
Approach, The MIT Press; 1985
8. Francis, B. A., "On the Wiener-Hopf Approach to Optimal
Feedback Design," Systems & Control Letters, 2, 197-201;
1982
Continued on page 187.


FALL 1988










A course in ...


TECHNICAL COMMUNICATIONS

FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS


DAINA M. BRIEDIS
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824-1226

THE DEVELOPMENT OF technical communications
courses in the undergraduate chemical engineer-
ing curriculum has been the topic of several recent
articles in CEE and other periodicals [1-5], and sev-
eral reports on the future of engineering have em-
phasized communication skills as a vital element in
our students' education [6, 7]. Very little, however,
has been written about the necessity of such training
for graduate students. This article describes a course
which has been designed to develop oral and written
communication skills appropriate for engineering
graduate students and for the demands of their post-
graduate careers.
Graduate students have as great a need for a good
foundation in oral and written communication skills as
do undergraduates. During their tenure in graduate
school, they usually have opportunities to present pa-
pers at conferences and to write technical articles and
reports, and eventually they each face the considera-
ble task of preparing a thesis or dissertation. Students
often venture into these exercises with little formal
training in technical communication skills except what
might be resurrected from an undergraduate labora-
tory course or provided informally by their faculty
advisers.
Despite the heavy course loads and long hours in
the research lab that graduate students must endure,
investment of relatively little time in a communica-
tions course is easily justified and, in most cases,
comes to be greatly appreciated. After graduation,
the MS or PhD engineers enter a work environment
where adequate communication skills are required,

This article describes a course which
has been designed to develop oral and written
communication skills appropriate for engineering
graduate students and for the demands of their
post-graduate careers.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


Daina Briedis is an associate professor of chemical engineering at
Michigan State Univesity. She received her PhD degree from Iowa
State University in 1981. Her research interests include bioadhesion,
enzyme technology, and precipitation of inorganic salts.


and at that point in their careers there is little time
to spend on refining, much less acquiring, such skills.
Being able to communicate effectively and efficiently
is as important as having the necessary technical back-
ground and is a significant factor in career advance-
ment.
We have offered a graduate level communications
course as an elective during the summer terms of the
past two years. The summer term provides an appro-
priate setting for the relatively informal classroom en-
vironment. The course is typically not part of the stu-
dent's formal program of study, and most take it
either because of their own interest or at the encour-
agement of their faculty advisers. We have had no
difficulties in populating the course. There are three
major course objectives:

Familiarizing students with the skills necessary to prepare
and give extemporaneous oral presentations
Providing an arena for the practical development of compe-
tence and confidence in these skills
Improving technical writing skills appropriate for graduate
students (papers, proposals, theses, dissertations)

Although students must devote a fair amount of
time to preparation for a broad array of course assign-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










[Success] is often due to an ability to interpret technical material at a level appropriate
for the audience. A basic premise of our course is that the student already has an adequate knowledge of
technical chemical engineering principles-we seek to develop the mechanism by which that
technical knowledge may be efficiently and effectively conveyed to the audience.


ments, they consistently evaluate the class as vital
and recommend it to their peers.

COURSE STRATEGY
Success in communication does not always depend
upon competence in technical content. It is more often
due to an ability to interpret the technical material at
a level appropriate for the audience. A basic premise
of our course is that the student already has an
adequate knowledge of technical chemical engineering
principles-we seek to develop the mechanism by
which that technical knowledge may be efficiently and
effectively conveyed to the audience. Some of the key
concerns of the course, therefore, are "knowing the
audience," speaking and writing in a style and lan-
guage adapted to the audience, and being conscious of
audience feedback.
The course covers both technical writing and oral
presentations, but more time is spent on oral presen-
tation skills since this type of instruction is usually
lacking in a student's background. Most course assign-
ments, however, integrate both written and oral com-
munication to some degree in order to realistically re-
flect typical career demands.
Because of the fast pace of the course, the instruc-
tor must be a model of organization and preparedness.
Course material must be sequenced to allow adequate
time for students to prepare assignments which re-
quire practice, drafting and revising, or gathering of
data and background information. Occasionally, spe-
cifics of the course content must be altered to suit the
background of the students. If, for example, a signif-
icant portion of the class is composed of foreign stu-
dents, we take additional time to discuss their unique
barriers to technical communication in English.
The students give four talks, with each talk focus-
ing on delivery to a different type of audience. In
order to encourage organization and timely prepara-
tion, an outline must be submitted several days before
the presentation date. All presentations are video-
taped and evaluated on rating sheets by the classroom
"audience." Talks are rated on organization, style, de-
livery, quality of visual aids, and length of the presen-
tation, and a brief critique session follows each talk.
The speaker must also review the video recording of
his/her talk and submit a self-evaluation of the presen-
tation. The immediate feedback provided by the class,


the comments of the instructor, and the self-evalua-
tions all allow the student to integrate the observa-
tions into the next assignment.

COURSE CONTENT
The first class session begins with a discussion of
the barriers to effective oral communication. Students
readily identify the characteristics of a poor talk
(which leads one to believe that they have seen many
examples of poor talks!). The characteristics cited
most often include lack of organization, speaking
beyond the allotted time, using subject material
beyond the comprehension of the audience, poor visual
aids, and poor voice quality. The lecture that follows
the discussion uses it as the basis for addressing
methods of effective public speaking. Emphasis is
placed on preparation and organization of the talk
(outlining), the method and style of delivery, the me-
chanics of speaking (voice volume, speaking rate,
posture, use of prompts, eye contact, use of a pointer),
and the preparation and use of effective visual aids.
Overheads are used for most presentations, but the
final presentation is given using projected slides.
The first assignment is to give a five-minute talk
on any subject. Familiarity with the subject material
allows the student to concentrate on the basics of pre-
paring the talk and serves as a mild initiation into the
classroom format for presentations-speaking before
one's peers, being evaluated by them, and being mon-
itored by the eye of a video camera. The audience
members also have the opportunity to become accus-
tomed to their role of evaluating their colleagues.
We next cover the topic of classroom lecturing.
Since some of our graduate students either serve as
teaching assistants or anticipate careers in academics,
this topic has wide appeal. Particular emphasis is
placed on maintaining audience interest through an
enthusiastic and conversational speaking style, by
using classroom demonstrations, by effective use of
the chalkboard, and by the visual and verbal highlight-
ing of important lecture concepts. The next assign-
ment is to prepare and present a ten to fifteen minute
lecture on undergraduate chemical engineering course
material. Examples of student lectures include such
topics as the development of shell balances, properties
of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, vapor-liquid
equilibria, and other chemical engineering basics. An


FALL 1988










alternative to this assignment (or an additional assign-
ment) is the preparation of a talk for a lay audience.
Students must present technical material (possibly
their research topics) in a form understandable to an
audience at the college freshman level. This exercise
provides an opportunity to observe how easily chemi-
cal engineering jargon can slip into a student's vocab-
ulary and serves especially well in sensitizing the stu-
dent to the needs of the audience.
The course next focuses on technical writing. It is
useful to illustrate differences between technical writ-
ing and creative or expository writing in order to dis-
tance the student from an "English essay" attitude.
We emphasize that, in contrast to creative or exposit-
ory writing, technical writing must be clear, precise,
and (usually) unemotional. It should be based on facts
and should always be in response to a need-the need
for funding, the need to provide information, the need
to provide instruction [8]. Because of these specific
needs, we again stress the importance of knowing the
audience for whom the writing is intended.
Since technical writing must be grammatically cor-
rect and stylistically compact, we briefly review the
basic elements of grammar: punctuation, use of verbs,
subject-verb agreement, and common grammatical er-
rors. Writing style is discussed in the framework of
Alley's seven goals of language in technical writing
[9]: precision, clarity, forthrightness, familiarity, con-
ciseness, fluidity, and imagery. Verbs are major
players in achieving these goals, and it is worthwhile
to focus a class lecture on some of the typical verb
usage problems. We discuss the common difficulty of
choosing proper verb tenses for technical documents.
A second problem is the selection of verb voice (active
or passive). Most students have been taught to be as
impersonal as possible in technical writing by avoiding
the use of "I" or "we." The consensus now is that the
appropriate use of the active voice and the pronouns
"I" and "we" results in a straightforward, honest pre-
sentation [8].
To illustrate these points, we provide the students
with a poorly written technical paper. It contains
many examples of grammatical errors and poor writ-
ing style-imprecise words, overly complex phrases,
run-on sentences, incorrect punctuation, poor spel-
ling, and a host of other technical writing offenses.
The students must rewrite the paper to eliminate the
errors. They may, if they wish, use a software pack-
age such as RightWriter (RightSoft, Inc., [10]) to
compare the unedited and edited versions of the
paper. RightWriter is one example of a style and syn-
tax analysis program intended as an aid for business
and technical writing. The program is made available


to students and provides a useful tool for pointing out
possible errors and stylistic weaknesses.
Once the fundamentals of technical writing have
been established, we proceed by covering a few spe-
cific applications of writing skills appropriate for
graduate students. We discuss abstracts, technical
journal articles, proposals, and, if time remains, re-
sumes and cover letters. Technical documents such as
journal articles, reports, and proposals consist of simi-
lar elements: an abstract, an introduction, the text
body, a summary/conclusion section, a bibliography,
and appendixes. The content of these elements is co-
vered in a general discussion, and particulars are em-
phasized when we consider each document type indi-
vidually.
We review several different types of abstracts:
those for conference proceedings, theses and disserta-
tions, technical articles, and proposals. For the next
assignment, we distribute copies of a published techni-
cal article from which the abstract and reference infor-
mation have been removed and ask the students to
write a new informative abstract. The student
abstracts are then compared to the original. (Often
the student abstracts are of much better quality than
the original!) Each student must also submit an
abstract of his next presentation, a ten- to fifteen-min-
ute talk on the student's research topic. The abstract
format and the technical talk are intended to simulate
the conditions that the student would encounter when
preparing for a professional meeting.
Writing proposals and grants is covered in detail
since most professionals will encounter the need to
write a proposal at some point in their careers. We
discuss not only the content and logical structure of
proposals, but we also provide a summary of typical
proposal formats of several major funding agencies,
we review examples of budgets, and we discuss the
positive writing style appropriate for proposals.
The course culminates in the writing and presenta-
tion of a short proposal. The class is given strict
guidelines on abstract length, page limitations, budget
restrictions, and so on. An outline of the proposal
must be discussed with the instructor at least one
week before the project is due. The students usually
choose a topic from their own research area and select
an appropriate funding agency to which they address
the proposal. A strict requirement is that the proposal
must be in the student's own words and should not be
borrowed from the research adviser. The presentation
format is one in which the student must "sell" the
proposal to a panel representing the funding agency,
with the class playing the role of the review panel.
The panel is given the opportunity to ask critical ques-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











tions after the talk, thus putting the speaker in the
position of having to logically and eloquently defend
the proposal. The panel then decides whether or not
to fund the project. It is interesting to observe that
proposal success rates in this course are significantly
higher than in the real world!

CONCLUSIONS

It is a rare individual who can deliver a well-or-
ganized impromptu talk or write a grant proposal in
one draft. Most people require skill development,
preparation, and practice. This course offers not only
the fundamentals of how these skills may be de-
veloped, but also serves to reassure the students that
they can become effective communicators. We believe
that we have been successful in accomplishing the
three main course objectives described earlier in this
article, but much more is accomplished in developing
the students as professionals. Students are stimulated
intellectually by what they learn about communication
and by what they learn about their colleagues through
communication. They learn a valuable lesson about the
willingness to give and to accept constructive criti-
cism, a fact of life for someone in a technical field. At
the beginning of the course, students are happy to
praise the strengths of a classmate's presentation and
are reluctant to criticize the weaknesses. But the
classroom environment eventually evolves into a colle-
gial one as students recognize the value of construc-
tive criticism and how much can be learned from
others. We hope that these attitudes, as well as what
they have learned about technical communication,
carry over into their professional interactions in
graduate school and into their careers beyond.

REFERENCES


1. Sullivan, R. M., "Teaching Technical Communication to
Undergraduates: A Matter of Chemical Engineering," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 20, 32 (1986).
2. Hudgins, R. R., "Tips on Teaching Report Writing," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 21, 130 (1987).
3. Brewster, B. S., and W. C. Hecker, "A Course on Making Oral
Technical Presentations," Chem. Eng. Ed., 21, 48 (1988).
4. Felder, R. M., "A Course on Presenting Technical Talks,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 84 (1988)
5. Gallant, R. W., "So You Want to be a Manager," Chemical
Engineering, 94(16), 55 (1987).
6. "The National Action Agenda for Engineering Education: A
Summary," Eng. Ed., 78,95 (1987).
7. "Chemical Engineering Education for the Future," CEP,
81(10), 9 (1985).
8. Cain, B. Edward, The Basics of Technical Communicating,
ACS Professional Reference Book, American Chemical
Society, Washington, DC, 1988.
9. Alley, M., The Craft of Scientific Writing, Prentice-Hall,
Inc., New Jersey, 1987.


10. RightWriterR, Version 2.1, User's Manual, RightSoft, Inc.,
1987.
Other Selected References Used in the Course
* Osgood, C., Osgood on Speaking: How to Think on Your Feet
Without Falling on Your Face, William Morrow and
Company, Inc., New York, 1988.
Scott, B., Communication for Professional Engineers, Thomas
Telford Ltd., London, 1984.
Shertzer, M., The Elements of Grammar, MacMillan
Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1986.
Stock, M., A Practical Guide to Graduate Research, McGraw-
Hill, Inc., New York, 1985.
Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White, The Elements of Style,
3rd edition, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1979.
Turner, R. P., Grammar Review for Technical Writers,
revised edition, Rinehart Press, San Francisco, 1971 0



PREDICTIVE CONTROL
Continued from page 183.

Unconstrained SISO MPC
Required Reading
9. Garcia, C. E., and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 1. A
Unifying Review and Some New Results," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Process Des. Dev., 21, 308-323; 1982
Supplementary Material
10. Astrom, K. J., and B. Wittenmark, Computer Controlled
Systems, Prentice-Hall; 1984
11. Reid, J. G., Linear System Fundamentals: Continuous and
Discrete, Classical and Modern, McGraw-Hill; 1983

Unconstrained MIMO MPC
Required Reading
12. Garcia, C. E., and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 2.
Design Procedure for Multivariable Systems," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev., 24, 472-484; 1985
13. Garcia, C. E., and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 3.
Multivariable Control Law Computation and Tuning
Guidelines," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 24, 484-494;
1985

Constrained MIMO MPC
14. Garcia, C. E., and A. M. Morshedi, "Quadratic Programming
Solution of Dynamic Matrix Control (QDMC)," Chem. Eng.
Commun., 46, 73-87; 1986
15. Ricker, N. L., "Use of Quadratic Programming for Con-
strained Internal Model Control," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process
Des. Dev., 24, 925-936; 1985

Case Studies
16. Ray, W. H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill; 1981
17. Luyben, W. L., Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 25, 654-
660; 1986
18. Wardle, A. P., and R. M. Wood, Chem. E. Symp. Ser., 32,
6:68-6:81; 1969

Software
19. Charos, G., CAD Software for MPC, Georgia Tech
(manuscript for publication in preparation)
20. Moler, C., J. Little, S. Bangert, and S. Kleiman, PC-Matlab,
The MathWorks Inc., Sherborn, MA
21. Thompson, P. M., Program CC, Systems Technology, Inc.,
Hawthorne, CA
22. Gill, P. E., W. Murray, M. A. Saunders, and M. H. Wright,
"User's Guide for QPSOL," Technical Report SOL 84-6,
Dept. of Operations Res., Stanford University; 1984 O


FALL 1988











A course in ...


MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL METHODS


PRADEEP B. DESHPANDE
University of Louisville
Louisville, KY 40292

DURING THE LAST several years numerous prom-
ising approaches to the solution of multivariable
control problems have become available. These con-
trol strategies are likely to play an important role in
coming years as the processes become more complex
and the demands for more efficient operation grow in
the light of competitive pressures and environmental
considerations. Taking these trends into considera-
tion, we have developed a new graduate course in mul-
tivariable control methods. The multivariable control
concepts were covered in an intensive four-day short
course offered recently, and the responses of the in-
dustrial participants were very favorable. The con-
cepts have also been taught in existing graduate
courses. An overview of the proposed course is being
given in this paper, accompanied by pertinent com-
ments and literature references. It is hoped that it
will serve as an impetus for instructors in the area of
process control.


Pradeep B. Deshpande is currently Professor and Chairman of the
Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Louisville. His
specialization is in the area of process dynamics and control. He has
approximately seventeen years of academic and full-time industrial
experience and has published three textbooks in control and over forty
papers. He has consulted for several major companies in this country
and abroad and has done collaborative research with them.


THE COURSE
There are four major topical areas of concentra-
tion. They are

Interaction Analysis
Multiloop Controller Design
Decoupling
Multivariable Control Strategies

Table 1 shows these areas further subdivided to
provide greater detail. The contents can be comfort-
ably covered in a standard one-semester graduate
course. The prerequisites for the course should be a
course in linear control theory and Laplace trans-
forms, and a course in z-transforms and digital control
concepts. More details about the topics are provided
in the following paragraphs.

Interaction Analysis
Interaction analysis is the first phase of multivari-
able control systems design. The objective of interac-
tion analysis can be twofold. The first objective is to
select a suitable set of controlled and manipulated
variables from competing sets. In a distillation control
system, for example, there can be three (or more)
possibilities: D, V; R, V; and R, B (first variable con-
trols top composition, second controls bottoms compo-
sition). The second objective is to select controlled and
manipulated variables within a given set; for example,
should D be manipulated to control XD and V to con-
trol XB or should the reverse pairing be used? For
small dimensional, say 2x2 systems, this step could
perhaps be skipped if detailed dynamic information
about the process is available. Then the available mul-
tivariable techniques could be tried through simula-
tion, and a final pairing and control methodology could
be selected based on the closed-loop simulation re-
sults. For large dimensional systems this is not feasi-
ble, and interaction analysis would have to be carried
out.
Numerous techniques for carrying out interaction
analysis are available. Some utilize steady-state gain


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












TABLE 1
Multivariable Control Methods Course Outline

1. Introduction to Multivariable Control
Incentive for Multivariable Control
Why Multivariable Systems are Difficult to Control
Industrial Examples
2. Interaction Analysis
*Relative Gain Arrays
Singular Value Decomposition
Other Interaction Measures.
3. Multiloop ControllerDesign
Design of Multiloop PID-Type Controller
IMC Multiloop Controller
4. Decoupling (Explicit)
Decoupling in the Framework of RGA
Decoupling in the Framework of SVD
5. Multivariable Control Strategies
a. Nyquist Arrays
Direct Nyquist Arrays
Inverse Nyquist Arrays
b. Model Predictive Control
Internal Model Control
Dynamic Matrix Control
Model Algorithmic Control
Simplified Model Predictive Control
c. Modern Control Theory
Introduction to State-Space Models
The Linear Quadratic Problem


information, while others require detailed knowledge
of process dynamics. Clearly, there are incentives for
wanting to determine the extent of interaction based
on steady-state information. In many instances this is
the only type of information available. Unfortunately,
the interaction measures which utilize only steady-
state gain data sometimes give wrong results. The
methods of interaction analysis include relative gain
arrays (RGA), singular value decomposition, IMC in-
teraction measure, and inverse and direct Nyquist ar-
rays, among others.

Multiloop Contoller Design
If interaction analysis reveals "modest" interac-
tion, a multiloop control structure may be adequate.
Cost-to-performance ratios could perhaps be consid-
ered in deciding whether a multiloop control structure
should be employed or whether a full multivariable
control system would be preferable. If PID-type con-
trollers are employed, then a relatively simple tuning
procedure is available. As an alternative to PID con-
trol, one may consider using the IMC multiloop con-
troller. The PID tuning procedure is based on the
Nyquist stability criteria, while the IMC multiloop


controller design procedure neglects the off-diagonal
elements of the process transfer function matrix.

Decoupling
If the extent of interaction is such that a multiloop
controller structure is deemed to be inadequate, then
there are two alternatives. The first is to carry out
explicit decoupling in the framework of RGA or SVD,
and the second is to use a full multivariable controller.


The multivariable control concepts were
covered in an intensive four-day short course ., and
the responses of the industrial participants were very
favorable. The concepts have also been taught
in existing graduate courses.

Explicit decoupling is covered here, and multivariable
control strategies are the topics that follow. In explicit
decoupling in the framework of RGA, one designs de-
coupling elements such that one pseudo manipulated
variable affects only one controlled variable. In the
SVD decoupling approach, one carries out a singular
value decomposition of the process gain matrix (or
process transfer function matrix, depending on
whether only steady-state decoupling is desired or
dynamic decoupling is desired) and then multiplies the
resulting expression by appropriate left and right sin-
gular vectors to give a decoupled system and a set of
"structured" manipulated and controlled variables.
These variables are connected via PID-type control-
lers to give decoupled responses. Two points are
worth mentioning here. One is that modeling errors
will degrade performance, and the second is that com-
plete decoupling is not always the best approach if the
goal is to achieve minimum ISE or minimum settling
times. Better results can sometimes be achieved by
allowing interactions in the closed-loop system.

Multivariable Control Techniques
In many instances a full multivariable controller
may well be the preferred choice. This is especially
true in those applications where constraints are pres-
ent and perhaps in those which have an unequal
number of inputs and outputs. (If a system is non-
square, then singular value decomposition is an alter-
native to consider, although in this case external dead
time compensation may have to be applied, making
the approach somewhat cumbersome.) Additional ben-
efits accruing from a multivariable controller include
dead time compensation and decoupling.
There are several multivariable control techniques
available. Three are included in Table 1. The first is


FALL 1988










based on Nyquist arrays. Direct and inverse Nyquist
arrays are frequency domain techniques that require
interactive computing with graphics for optimum ben-
efits. Nyquist arrays can also be used for interaction
analysis. Furthermore, they can be used to design
precompensators and postcompensators such that in-
teraction is greatly reduced. These compensators per-
mit the designer to control an n x n interacting system
by n SISO PID-type controllers.
The second of the three topics is on model predic-
tive control methods. In model predictive control, a
mathematical model of the process is used for identifi-
cation/control. The discussion begins with internal
model control design based on factorization of the
transfer function matrix into two parts, one involving
the nonminimum phase elements and the other con-
taining the remaining terms. The latter, when in-
verted, leads to the IMC controller. A diagonal filter
network insures robustness in the presence of mod-
eling errors. In the next phase, the predictive formu-
lation of IMC is discussed. The objective in this in-
stance is to calculate a set of future control actions
based on the actual and model outputs such that a
suitable performance index is minimized. Only the
first control action is applied and the computations
are repeated at the next sampling instant. Since the
optimization procedure yields future control actions,
one can anticipate when constraint violations are
likely to occur and therefore what actions to take to
keep this from happening. The predictive formulations
lead to dynamic matrix control and model algorithmic
control. In the final phase, a technique known as
simplified model predictive control is discussed.
SMPC is a relatively simple multivariable control
technique that utilizes an impulse response type model
of the process for implementation. It insures some de-
coupling. SMPC is suitable for low dimensioned pro-
cesses.
The final topic in multivariable control is on mod-
ern control theory. Here, the student is first intro-
duced to the notion of state space models. Then the
optimal control problem is formulated, and the
methods of solving it are described. The solution of
the optimal control problem gives a matrix of control
actions which, when applied, leads to process re-
sponses that satisfy a quadratic performance index.
Recent research indicates that the linear quadratic
problem can be formulated in the context of IMC.
At this time research is in progress at various loca-
tions which is aimed at designing controllers in the
presence of uncertainties. The concept of structured
singular values has been employed for this purpose.
These concepts have not been incorporated into the


current version of the course.

IN CONCLUSION

A course on multivariable control methods has
been described. Instructional tools, including a text
and computer-aided instruction software (CAI), are
available for effective teaching of this course. The ma-
terial is suitable for full-time graduate students and
for control engineers from industry. It is believed that
this course will be a good addition to the control spe-
ciality, not only in the chemical engineering discipline,
but also in other engineering disciplines such as elec-
trical engineering.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Arulalan, G. R., P. B. Deshpande, "Simplified Model
Predictive Control," Ind. Eng. Chem., 26, 2, 1987.
2. Athens, M., P. L. Falb, Optimal Control, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1966.
3. Bristol, E., "On a New Measure of Interaction for
Multivariable Process Control," IEEE Trans. Auto.
Control., AC-11, 1966, p. 133.
4. Bruns, D. D., C. R. Smith, "Singular Value Analysis: A
Geometrical Structure for Multivariable Process," paper
presented at AIChE Winter meeting, Orlando, FL, 1982.
5. Cutler, C. R., B. L. Ramaker, "Dynamic Matrix Con-
trol: A Computer Control Algorithm," Paper No. 51B,
AIChE 88th National Meeting, April, 1979.
6. Deshpande, P. B., Ed., Multivariable Control Methods,
ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1988.
7. Deshpande, P. B., R. Ash, Computer Process Control, 2nd
ed., ISA, Research Tri. Park, NC, 1988.
8. Deshpande, P. B., CAI in Advanced Process Control, In
press.
9. Economou, C. G., M. Morari, "Internal Model Control: 6,
Multiloop Design," Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 25,
2,1986, pp. 411419.
10. Edgar, T. F., "Status of Design Methods for
Multivariable Control," AIChE Symposium Series,
Chemical Process Control, 72, 159, 1976.
11. Garcia, C. E., M. Morari, "Internal Model Control: 1, A
Unifying Review and Some New Results," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 21, 1982, pp. 308-323.
12. Garcia, C.E., M. Morari, "Internal Model Control: 2,
Design Procedures for Multivariable Systems," Ind.
Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 24, 1985, pp. 472484.
13. Jensen, N., D. G. Fisher, S. L. Shah, "Interaction
Analysis in Multivariable Control Systems," AIChE J.,
32,6, 1986.
14. Lau, H., J. Alvarez, K. R. Jensen, "Synthesis of Control
Structures by Singular Value Analysis: Dynamic
Measures of Sensitivity and Interaction," AIChE J., 31,
3, 1985, p. 427.
15. Luyben, W. L., "A Simple Method for Tuning SISO
Controllers in Multivariable System," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Proc. Des. Dev., 25, 3, 1986, pp. 654-660.
16. McAvoy, T. J., Interaction Analysis, ISA, Research
Triangle Park, NC, 1983.
17. Mehra, R. K., "Model Algorithmic Control," chapter in
Distillation Dynamics and Control, by P. B. Deshpande,
ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1985.
18. Mihares, G. et al., "A New Criterion for the Pairing of
Control and Manipulated Variables," AIChE J., 32, 9,
1986.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










19. Moore, B. C., "The Singular Value Analysis of Linear
Systems," Systems Control Reports No. 7801-7802,
University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 1981.
20. Ray, W. H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1981.
21. Richalet, J., A. Rault, J. L. Testud, J. Papon, "Model
Predictive to Heuristic Control: Application to Industrial
Processes," Automatica, 14, 1978, pp.413-428.
22. Rosenbrock, H. H., State Space and Multivariable
Theory, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1970.
23. Rosenbrock, H. H., C. Storey, Mathematics of Dynam-
ical Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1970.
24. Rosenbrock, H. H., Computer-Aided Control Systems
Design, Academic Press, New York, 1974. O



Book reviews


PROCESS FLUID MECHANICS
by Morton M. Denn
Prentice-Hall Publishing Co.,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
Reviewed by
John Eggebrecht
Iowa State University
At Iowa State University "Momentum Transport"
is required as the first of a three-semester sequence
which continues with "Heat" and "Mass." The second-
year student has, with adequate high school prepara-
tion, completed the introductory calculus and physics
courses. Frequently students are concurrently enrol-
led in introductory ordinary differential equations.
As the instructor, I see the focus of the course,
and of the engineering science curricula in general, as
a development of analytical skills. The significant part
of a section of text in support of this is not the deriva-
tion or the equation confined by a box at the end, but
the physical principles, assumptions and approxima-
tions which are expressed by these. Many students,
having restricted their intellectual objectives to those
which they perceive as appropriate for a BS engineer,
regard only the "formulae." Some students, enrap-
tured by the mechanics of the calculus, only regard
the derivation. To persuade both groups to my point
of view I need a text which emphasizes the physics of
fluid flow both in the development of topics and in
their relations.
On the other hand, engineering practice is as much
art, viz., design, as it is science. A responsibility of
the course is to introduce the jargon and operational
empiricism of process equipment. It is not possible to
find a single text on fluid mechanics which encompas-
ses this range of material and conforms to my focus.


However, Denn's text is superior to all others which
I have considered in the treatment of the physical
principles of fluid flow. It is much easier to compen-
sate for the omission of material, which can be ex-
tracted from handbooks, than for a presentation which
shares the students' bias for either formula or cal-
culus. I am especially appreciative of the organization
of the text. Topics appear in an order which reflects
the evolution of understanding of fluid flow, and for
that reason, I believe, the order which is most easily
understood by the student.
The text opens with observation and experimenta-
tion on flow primitives; the cylindrical filled conduit
and the submerged sphere. This can provide a
framework for an appreciation of the analysis of sim-
ple systems by the identification of key physical de-
pendencies and the analysis of complex systems by
construction from primitives. Also, this introduction
establishes the proper relationship between observa-
tion and analysis and may help to correct the mistaken
perception that discovery is deductive. The prediction
of the pressure drop in a straight pipe leads, through
Reynolds, to the friction factor correlation and the
viscous force on a falling sphere leads, through
Stokes, to the drag coefficient correlation. The simi-
larity of these two important results is striking and
properly emphasized. Key discoveries are followed by
extension to more complex systems and the presenta-
tion acknowledges this process by presenting reason-
able, yet simple arguments, which lead to correlations
for non-cylindrical conduits, partially filled conduits,
rough pipes, non-spherical submerged objects and
packed beds. These progressions allow me to highlight
central themes; the importance of symmetry and
frame invariance, the emergence of design correla-
tions from the identification of the significant physics
and the replacement of complex systems by simpler
systems through judicious approximation. All of this
is accomplished without ever taking a derivative.
While the first section of the text is the greatest
strength, the following section must be supplemented
as an introduction to the application of the conserva-
tion of energy to the analysis of macroscopic flows.
The derivation of the mechanical energy balance equa-
tion is easily understood and very thorough in the
statement of assumptions by which the conservation
equation is simplified to a "formula." The conservation
of linear momentum is combined with the energy con-
servation equation to analyze a sequence of increasing
complexity; expansion, elbow, contraction, free jet
and manifold. A logical parallel of the first section
Continued on page 195.


FALL 1988










A course in ...


TOPICS IN RANDOM MEDIA


EDUARDO D. GLANDT
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

NEW ONE-SEMESTER graduate course in topics
on random media is being offered in the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at the University of
Pennsylvania. The following is a report on the experi-
ence of preparing and delivering such material. As is
probably the case with all topical graduate courses,
this one is highly biased towards the research in-
terests of the instructor.
The need to predict bulk properties of ordered,
and especially of disordered, two-phase materials per-
vades almost every field of chemical engineering. Por-
ous rocks and porous catalysts, composite solids and
packed beds, microporous membranes and hollow-
fiber bioreactors, are only a few of the myriad exam-
ples where it is necessary to cope with a random con-
figuration that cannot be described deterministically
but only through a few statistical averages. Both the
importance and the difficulty of these problems are
well measured by the voluminous size of the literature
that has been written in the last one hundred years.


Eduardo D. Glandt is professor of chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania. After receiving his BS degree from the Univer-
sity of Buenos Aires, in his native Argentina, he spent five years there
with the National Institute of Industrial Technology. He earned his PhD
degree from Penn in 1978. In addition to his research interests in
theory and computer simulations of fluids, and in membrane and ad-
sorption equilibria, his recent work includes problems on the effective
behavior of systems disordered at the colloidal and macroscopic levels.


Unfortunately, much of it has consisted of ad hoc ap-
proximations; most of the available rigorous results
have been generated only in the last fifteen years.
The material covered in the course has its sources
in several rather disjointed fields of science and
technology. In addition to classical engineering areas
such as transport in composites and other two-phase
materials and transport in porous media, it draws its
concepts and problems from active areas of con-
densed-matter physics. The study of amorphous sol-
ids, and especially of critical phenomena, has brought
about the ideas of percolation theory, for example.
Therefore, the selection of material for one semester
from the long list of what can conceivably be touched
upon represents a significant challenge. The main
peril is, of course, that the course may result in an
encyclopedic juxtaposition of topics. The outline,
shown in Table 1, is the still evolving compromise.
A few words on prerequisites are in order. A cur-
sory reading of Table 1 will reveal that the level at
which these topics may be presented depends very
strongly on the previous exposure of the students to
material in a few important areas. Students enrolled
in this course are chemical engineering PhD candi-
dates who have previous education in transport pro-
cesses. Another ideal prerequisite for a course of this
nature ought to be a semester of statistical mechanics,
something perhaps not as easy to implement un-
iformly. In chemical engineering, statistical mechanics
is usually identified with the study of the molecular
theory of liquids, aimed at a prediction of their ther-
modynamic properties. The subject of liquids might
not seem too relevant to a study of the effective be-
havior of random solids. However, exposure to statis-
tical mechanics would ideally train a student to think
at a molecular level and to relate, as cause to effect,
phenomena occurring at very different scales of length
and time. The student would also develop an intuitive
understanding of the interplay of energetic and en-
tropic tendencies in nature, as well as of the cruc:
importance of cooperative effects in determining mac-
roscopic behavior. Lastly, but equally important, the
studies of fluids and of random geometries share the
same statistical formalism (although the theories writ-
ten in it are different). The ability to write and under-

0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










stand probability distributions and correlation func-
tions represents a distinct advantage.
The introduction to the course consists of a survey
of transport and related processes in fluid and solid
multiphase systems. Batchelor (1974) presented a
comparison of the most relevant ones, with special
emphasis on fluid mechanical problems, such as viscos-
ity, sedimentation rate, flow permeability, etc. The
complexity of each problem depends on tensorial order
and also on whether the initial microstructure of the
system is fixed or whether it varies as a result of the
transport phenomenon under consideration.
For the sake of simplicity, diffusion (or equiva-
lently conduction) in a two-phase solid system was
selected as a paradigm for detailed discussion. All stu-
dents in the course have had previous exposure to
material of this level of difficulty in their under-
graduate and graduate transport courses. Although
effective diffusion is in many ways simpler than other
problems, a variety of particular regimes can be gen-
erated as the relative length and time scales are
changed. The class discussion is focused on the iden-
tification of the relevant diffusion mechanism when,
for example, the size of the inhomogeneities is
changed. Providing the ability to distinguish mecha-
nisms is one of the objectives of the course. Another
goal is to familiarize the students with key references


The material covered in the course has its
sources in several rather disjointed fields ... In
addition to classical engineering areas... it draws its
concepts and problems from active areas
of condensed-matter physics.


and techniques appropriate for each of such problems.
Lastly, it is hoped that the overview serves an inte-
grating purpose: an awareness of the similarity behind
seemingly different phenomena and at the same time
of the differences between processes sometimes
lumped under a single name.
The discussion on the experimental determination
of the microstructure of a system is limited to
porosimetry and to image-analysis techniques. The
existence of an image analysis laboratory in our de-
partment creates a particular interest in quantitative
stereology, an application of geometric probability to
the study of lower-dimensional sections of three-di-
mensional systems.
Although many of the available rigorous results on
disordered systems, such as those of percolation
theory, have been developed using lattice models, the
course strives to avoid "lattice thinking" as much as
possible. The survey of useful models (section 3 of the
course outline) is a further application of statistical


TABLE 1
Course Outline

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF DISORDERED GEOMETRIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES


1. Introduction: Transport through Disordered Systems
Survey of effective transport, electrical, magnetic, and
elastic properties of miltiphase systems. Analogies and
differences between problems.
Time and length scales in diffusion problems. Effective,
anomalous and hindered diffusion. Knudsen diffusion.
Diffusion limited reaction. Diffusion with homogeneous
reaction.

2. Microstructure Determination
Porosimetry and its interpretation
Introduction to quantitative stereology. Concepts in statis-
tical geometry.

3. Survey of Models
Random-pore and random-fiber models. Cylindrical and
spherical pores. Porosity and surface area. Pore size dis-
tributions. Time-dependent examples. Applications to gas-
solid reactions.
Cellular structures. Voronoi and other tessellations. Gener-
ation and statistical properties
Correlated pores and inclusions. Equilibrium and nonequi-
librium structures. Correlation functions and their use.
Continuous disorder. Correlation length. Models for random
surfaces.


4. Connectivity and Dimensionality
Percolation theory and its applications. Problems: lattice,
off-lattice and truly continuous percolation. Survey of
available results. Site and bond percolation. Simulation
and renormalization methods. Scaling laws and dimen-
sional invariants. Percolation on a Cayley tree and in in-
teracting systems. Application to porosimetry.
Fractal geometries. Characteristic lengths and self-simi-
larity. Methods of determination of the fractal dimen-
sionality of "surfaces" and "volumes." Diffusion in fractal
structures.

5. Effective Properties
Dispersions of low concentrations. Maxwell and related
equations.
Dense dispersions. Resistor network approximation.
Effective medium theories.
Variational bounds.

6. Special Topics

Student papers and presentations to the class based on
applications of interest to each individual.


FALL 1988










geometry to the most popular representations of the
geometry and topology of a two-phase solid. At least
one lecture on truly continuous disorder is also in-
cluded. In the situations described by this picture, the
properties of the material do not take just two or three
values, corresponding to (say) two or three distinct
phases, but vary in a smooth fashion, taking an infin-
ity of values.
Percolation theory is the study of the connected-
ness between phases or between different regions of
a phase. The percolation transition is the sudden
change in the appearance and properties of a system
when previously disjointed regions of it coalesce,
forming a continuous path. The transformation of a
liquid into a gel, the extended wetting of a porous
rock or ceramic, the incipient conduction in a metal-in-
insulator composite, are examples of percolation pro-
cesses. Percolation theory is a young but already es-
tablished field, as indicated by the fact that at least
two introductory textbooks have been written on it. It
is likely that it will become a standard component of
even undergraduate chemical engineering curricula.
A short section of the course is devoted to fractals,
another new (if not outright trendy) topic. There is
indeed more to fractals than beautiful pictures of snow
crystals or landscapes in full color, although the quan-
titative aspects have received much less publicity. The
fractal nature of the geometry of a system has direct
consequences on its transport properties, in the form
of a small-sample effect. It is surprising that for diffu-
sion in samples smaller that a certain length, the ap-
parent diffusivity depends on the size of the system.
In other words, doubling the size of the sample does
not add "more of the same": in some examples it might
imply the presence of larger and larger pores.
The last part of the course deals with the calcula-
tion of effective diffusivities (or conductivities) in two-
phase systems. Of course, no general analytic solution
is possible, so that three limits are discussed, each
corresponding to a different small-parameter approx-
imation. It is unfortunate that a practical "mapping"
of the regimes of validity of these approximations is
yet to be done. The derivation of variational bounds
to the effective diffusivity offers another rigorous line
of approach. The length and diversity of the material
already included in the semester does not allow the
presentation of numerical techniques.
The course concludes with student presentations
and written reports of key papers in the field. Most
of these papers are applications selected from the list
of references given below, and are assigned in accor-
dance to the specific interests of the students. About
twenty homework problems are also assigned. Grad-


ing is based on the term papers and on one in-class
examination. The list of suggested books and addi-
tional references is perhaps too long. This indicates
the need for a synthesis of selected material into a
monograph that can at the same time summarize the
high points and open doors for in-depth further read-
ing in specific areas. It is hoped that the class notes
for this course may serve as a starting point in such
a development.

REFERENCES

BOOKS
* M. J. Beran, Statistical Continuum Theories, Wiley-Interscience
(1968)
E. L. Cussler, Diffusion, Cambridge (1984)
G. Deutscher, R. Zallen, and J. Adler (eds), Percolation Struc-
tures and Processes, Israel Physical Society (1983)
F. A. L. Dullien, Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Struc-
ture, Academic (1979)
A. L. Efros, Physics and Geometry of Disorder: Percolation
Theory, Mir (1986)
J. Feder, Fractals, Plenum (1988)
J. C. Garland and D. B. Tanner (eds), Electrical, Transport and
Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Media, American Institute
of Physics (1978)
M. G. Kendall and P. A. P. Moran, Geometrical Probability,
Griffin (1963)
H. E. Stanley and N. Ostrowsky (eds), On Growth and Form, M.
Nijhoff (1986)
D. Stauffer, Introduction to Percolation Theory, Taylor and
Francis (1985)
W. Strieder and R. Aris, Variational Methods Applied to Prob-
lems of Diffusion and Reaction, Springer (1973)
E. E. Underwood, Quantitative Stereology, Addison-Wesley
(1970)
R. Zallen, The Physics of Amorphous Solids, Wiley-Interscience
(1983)
J. M. Ziman, Models of Disorder, Cambridge (1979)
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
* A. Acrivos and E. Chang, Phys. Fluids, 29, 3 (1986)
* G. K. Batchelor, Ann. Rev., Fluid Mech.,6, 227 (1974)
* G. K. Batchelor and R. W. O'Brien, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
355, 313 (1977)
M. Beran, Nuovo Cimento, 38, 771 (1965)
J. G. Berryman, J. Appl. Phys., 57, 2374 (1985); ibid, 60, 1930
(1986)
S. K. Bhatia and D. D. Perlmutter, AIChE J., 26, 379 (1980);
ibid., 27, 247 (1981)
*Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, J. Colloid Int. Sci., 94, 90 (1983);
ibid, 99, 86 (1984)
Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, I&EC Fund., 22, 276 (1983)
Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, J. Phys A., 16, 2599 (1984)
Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, Chem. Eng. Sci., 42, 2677 (1987)
S. W. Churchill, Adv. Trans. Proc., 4, 394 (1986)
A. L. Devera and W. Strieder, I. Phys. Chem., 81, 1783 (1977)
G. Gavalas, AIChE J., 26, 577 (1980)
Z. Hashin and S. Shtrikman, J. Appl. Phys., 33, 3125 (1962)
G. R. Jerauld, J. C. Hatfield, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, J.
Phys. C., 17, 1519, 3429 (1984)
D. J. Jeffrey, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 335, 355 (1973)
S. Kirkpatrick, Rev. Mod. Phys., 45, 574 (1973)
G. W. Milton, J. Appl. Phys., 52, 5294 (1981)
S. Reyes and K. F. Jensen, Chem. Eng. Sci., 41, 333, 345 (1986)
M. Sahimi, B. D. Hughes, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, Chem.
Eng. Sci., 41, 2103 (1986)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










* N. A. Seaton and E. D. Glandt, J. Phys. A., 20, 3029 (1987)
" S.V. Sotirchos and H.-C. Yu, Chem. Eng. Sci., 40, 2039 (1985)
" G. Stell, in The Mathematics and Physics of Disordered Media,
B. D. Hughes and B. W. Ninham (eds), Springer (1983)
* P. Stroeve, I. Theor. Biol., 64, 237 (1977)
SS. Torquato, I. Appl. Phys., 58, 3790 (1985)
" S. Torquato, in Advances in Multiphase Flow and Related Prob-
lems, G. Papanicolau (ed), S.I.A.M. (1986)
* S. Torquato and G. Stell, J. Chem. Phys., 77, 2071 (1982); ibid. 80,
878 (1984)
* H. L. Weissberg and S. Prager, Phys. Fluids, 5, 1390 (1962); ibid,
13,2958 (1970)
* P. H. Winterfeld, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, J. Phys. C., 14,
2361 (1981)
* Y. C. Yortsos and M. Sharma, AIChE J., 32, 46 (1986); ibid, 33,
1636, 1644, 1654(1987) O




REVIEW: Process Fluid Mechanics
Continued from page 191.

would have been to present a detailed presentation of
a few important design correlations. A more complete
treatment of the application of the mechanical energy
balance to non-isothermal and compressible systems
is needed.
In the third section the development of differential
balances of mass and linear momentum is given, with
the same clarity and in the same notation as the mac-
roscopic balances of the preceding section. The pre-
sentation of the Cauchy and Navier-Stokes equations
is made in tensor notation. I have not found this to be
an impediment to students' understanding. To the
contrary, the dimensional relationship between vec-
tors and tensors provides a clear distinction between
force and stress. Students in my classes are very wil-
ling to learn new mathematics when they believe it is
motivated by a need to frame an otherwise difficult
concept and not by a pretense of rigor. The following
chapter applies these conservation equations to the
usual one dimensional flows.
The next section of the text is a skillful arrange-
ment of topics in which creeping and inviscid flow lim-
its are taken on the Navier-Stokes equation in reduced
form. These limits are first introduced in a separate
chapter on Hamel flow which is an excellent choice of
problems, since numerical solutions can be obtained
easily and compared to the limiting analytic solutions.
This gives me a chance to reiterate the importance of
the reduction of complex problems to underlying
primitives and to make the connection between this
reduction and the limiting process.
The final section is composed of a series of "special
topics," which includes chapters on turbulence and


viscoelasticity. Much of the background for a discus-
sion of turbulence is provided in the preceding chap-
ters on inviscid and boundary layer flow and the em-
phasis here is on the time averaging of the Navier-
Stokes equation and the development of the universal
velocity distribution. I believe that a brief introduc-
tion to stochastic processes is more useful to the stu-
dent at this point than the following chapter on num-
erical solutions of PDEs. This allows for some con-
tinuity in the introduction of viscoelastic behavior as
"fluid with memory." Missing from the chapters on
viscoelastic and turbulent flows are the "gee-whiz"
phenomenon which leave the student at the end of the
semester with a taste for the variety of scientific ex-
perience and provide the qualitative extension to com-
plex systems which had, otherwise, been the consis-
tent theme of the text. [


ENGINEERING FLOW AND HEAT EXCHANGE
by Octave Levenspiel
Plenum Press, New York, NY 10013 (1984)
366 pages, $34.50
Reviewed by
Roland A. Mischke
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ.
This book presents the basic macroscopic equa-
tions for the solution of fluid flow and heat transfer
problems in concise form. However, the major thrust
of the book is in the application of these fundamental
equations to the solution of problems not usually en-
countered in typical courses in fluid flow and heat
transfer (particularly those dealing with particulate
systems).
On paging through the book, one is first struck by
the freehand illustrations (did a human being write
this book rather than a computer?) and fluid flow prob-
lems with such intriguing titles as "Counting Canaries
Italian Style." I have often thought of Octave
Levenspiel as the Dr. Seuss of chemical enginering-
an author who uses the premise that even the learning
of engineering principles can be fun. Just as Dr. Seuss
introduced us to the alphabet beyond the letter "z" in
"On Beyond Zebra," so Octave Levenspiel might well
have titled this work "On Beyond Transport Phenom-
ena."
The book is divided almost equally between the
two areas, and the fluids portion successively treats:
Basic Equations for Flowing Streams, Flow of Incom-
Continued on page 200.


FALL 1988










Research on ...


ANIMAL CELL CULTURE IN MICROCAPSULES


MATTHEUS F. A. GOOSEN
Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6

THE SINGLE MOST successful biotechnology product
to date, the monoclonal antibody, is utilized for
the detection of drugs in the blood (such as cocaine)
and in the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases
such as cancer. In another important area, genetic
engineering, the development of new techniques has
allowed for the enhanced production of a variety of
polypeptides and proteins such as human insulin and
growth hormone. There are still many human biologi-
cals, however, which are too complex to be produced
by either yeast or bacterial systems. Animal cell cul-
ture is presently the only method for the synthesis of
many of these complex biologicals.
The major market driving force behind biotechnol-
ogy is economic potential. For example, current mar-
kets for monoclonal antibodies for use in cancer
therapy are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. It
has been projected [1] that by 1991 the world market
for monoclonal antibodies will be about 1.2 billion dol-
lars (US).
It has become apparent over the past two decades


Mattheus F. A. Goosen is associate professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Queen's University. After obtaining his doctorate in chemical-
biomedical engineering from the University of Toronto, he spent sev-
eral years at the Connaught Research Institute in Toronto as an NSERC
Industrial Research Fellow. His research interests are in the areas of
animal and insect cell culture engineering, microencapsulation
technology, bioseparation processes, the development of polymeric
vaccine and agrochemical delivery systems, and biomaterials.


that conventional suspension cell culture is limited by
relatively low cell densities. As a result, the concen-
tration of the desired product is low and purification
from the growth medium is difficult. A major focus,
therefore, has been placed on attempting to find cell
culture methods which can improve the concentration
of cell products and enhance product recovery,
thereby permitting cost-effective, large-scale produc-
tion. The long-term objective of the work being under-
taken in our laboratory is the use of membrane
technology, such as microencapsulation, in animal cell
culture for the enhanced production and recovery of
monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins.

HYBRIDOMAS AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
Antibodies are proteins produced by white blood
cells (B-lymphocytes) to aid in the destruction of
foreign antigens. Hybridomas result from the fusion
of antibody-producing lymphocytes with their malig-
nant counterparts (myelomas) and exhibit the genetic
characteristics of both parent cells. After a screening
process, hybridoma cell lines can, if they are subcul-
tured at regular intervals, indefinitely produce anti-
genically specific and identical (monoclonal) antibodies
of the lymphocytes while, at the same time, retaining
the ability to proliferate like the myeloma cells. Typi-
cally, levels of antibody in tissue culture supernatants
are 5 to 50 pg/mL of medium [2]. Monoclonal anti-
bodies have been used in immunoaffinity columns for
the efficient purification of proteins such as interferon.
As diagnostics, they have been used as sensitive de-
tectors of minute quantities of illegal drugs such as
marijuana and cocaine in the blood. They are also
being employed in the treatment of diseases such as
leukemia and cancer. In the latter case, a chemo-
therapeutic drug was covalently attached to an anti-
body which has a high specificity for the tumor cells.
INSECT CELLS AND THE BACULOVIRUS
EXPRESSION SYSTEM
Insect cell culture has received an increased
amount of attention recently since these cells are hosts
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










for a class of viruses, the baculoviruses, which has
been shown to be an excellent vector for genetic en-
gineering [3]. This is mainly due to the high expres-
sion rate of the baculovirus and its post-translational
processing capabilities [4]. After a protein's amino
acid structure has been synthesized, certain proces-
sing or post-translational modifications must be made
in order to make the protein biologically active. These
modifications include efficient secretion, proteolytic
cleaving, phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and possi-
bly myristylation and palmitylation. Procaryotes (bac-
teria), on the other hand, cannot perform many of
these modifications.

SUSPENSION CELL CULTURE

Perhaps the most widely used of all available cell
culture methods is suspension culture. With this tech-
nique, cells grow in suspension throughout the
medium and are circulated by means of air sparging
(which also serves to transfer oxygen to the cells) and/
or mechanical agitation. Careful consideration, how-
ever, must be given to the type of system to be used
for large-scale work. Several investigators, for exam-
ple, have noted that, unlike bacterial fermentations,
agitation and aeration must be carefully controlled
since mammalian [5] and insect cell cultures [6] have
been reported to be extremely shear-sensitive. For
this reason, air-lift bioreactors have proven to be use-



TABLE 1
Comparison of Different Cell Culture Methods


Specific Antibody Antibody
Productivity Concentration in
(mg/L of Harvest Liquor1
medium'day) (mg/L of
Harvest Liauorl


Suspension (Batch)
Suspension (Chemostat)
Alginate Gel Beads
Hollow Fiber

Mic rocarrier (Verax)
Micocapsubs
icrocapsules
multiple membrane
single membrane


6.5
240
100
150'
7407
100
1000-4000


References


Phillips etal., [21]
Dean, et. al., [10]
Bugarski, et al., [8]
Altshuler, et al., {9]

Dean et al., [10]
Posillico[17]


500-5000 King [18]
200-900 King [22]


1. Harvest Uquor liquid which must be processed to recover he antibody
2 Space Time Producivity
3. Total Antibody Produced/Toltl Medium/Culture Period
4. Basd on 7 lies of capules +33 lies of medium
& Based on 1 mL of Capsules + 30 mL of medium
& Shellde
7. Fiber ide


Monoclonal antibodies have been used in
immunoaffinity columns for the efficient purification
of proteins such as interferon. .. [and] as sensitive
detectors of minute quantities of illegal drugs
such as ... cocaine in the blood.


ful. Besides having lower shears, higher oxygen trans-
fer rates may be obtained.
The major drawbacks associated with suspension
cell culture, however, are the low cell densities (106
cells/mL medium) and low product concentrations (for
example 10-150 Rg antibody/mL medium). As a conse-
quence, the recovery of biologicals from the culture
medium is difficult and expensive. In addition, the
sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to shear
stress is of major concern. A major focus, therefore,
has been placed on attempting to find cell culture
methods which can improve the concentration of cells
and cell products and thus permit cost-effective large-
scale production while, at the same time, offer protec-
tion to the shear-sensitive cells.

IMMOBILIZED CELL BIOREACTORS

One of the most common of all cell immobilization
techniques is gel entrapment. This involves the con-
finement of cells within porous polymer matrices such
as calcium alginate, polyacrylamide gels, K-car-
rageenan and chitosan. This method offers the advan-
tages of increased stability and protection from shear
forces for fragile mammalian and insect cells, allows
for higher cell densities to be obtained and virtually
eliminates the need for the separation of the cells from
the medium [7]. However, with this technique, there
is no physical barrier to separate the proteins in the
growth medium from the proteins produced by the
cells. In addition, the antibody must be recovered
from relatively large volumes of medium. Bugarski et
al. [8], for example, immobilized mouse hybridoma
cells in calcium-alginate beads, obtained, in an 11-day
culture period, cell densities of 4.3 x 107 cells/mL of
alginate bead and antibody concentrations of 100 p~g/
mL of medium (Table 1). This represented a produc-
tivity of 9 mg of antibody (IgG) per litre of medium
per day. The advent of hollow fiber bioreactors, a
major advancement in cell culture technology, re-
sulted in significantly higher cell densities and anti-
body concentrations. With this type of reactor, the
cells are cultivated on the outside surface of hollow,
semi-permeable fibers while medium passes through
the interior of the fibers. Diffusion of oxygen and nu-
trients to the cells, the removal of wastes from the
cells, and the retention of high molecular weight cell


Culture
Method


FALL 1988










products can be controlled by the choice of the fiber
membrane molecular weight cut-off, medium flow-
rate, and pressure drop across the fiber membrane.
Ideally, retention of the cell product in the volume
outside of the fibers (shell side) is desired. Altshuler
et al. [9], for example, produced an IgG antibody in
such a device reporting IgG concentrations of 740 jig/
mL in the 2.5 mL shell space and maximum IgG con-
centrations of 150 [jg/mL in the bioreactor reservoir
(volume 150 mL). This compares favourably with a
maximum concentration of 7.6 jLg/mL for the same
cell type in suspension culture. Cell concentrations ap-
proached 1 x 107 cells/mL in the reactor shell as com-
pared to 1 x 106 cells/mL in suspension culture.
A major problem encountered with hollow fiber
systems, though, was the poor control of the mem-
brane molecular weight cut-off and the resulting loss
of product. A polysulfone fiber rated to nominally re-
tain 90% of molecules with molecular weight greater
than 105 was employed by Altshuler and co-workers.
However, their data suggest that only about 10% of
the antibody (MW 160000) was retained by the mem-
brane over a four-day culture period.
Microcarriers have also been investigated as an al-
ternative to suspension culture. Successful carrier ma-
terials, based on the adsorption of cells onto the sur-
face of or into a pore structure, include ion-exchange
resin, ceramic supports, stainless steel mesh, and
polyacrylamide beads. Perhaps the most interesting
carriers are the weighted microsponge beads pro-
duced by the Verax Corporation [10]. The major prob-
lem associated with microcarriers as with gel entrap-
ment and suspension, is loss of cells from the matrix.

MICROENCAPSULATION OF ANIMAL CELLS
Viable cells may also be immobilized in micro-
spheres which possess a semi-permeable membrane.
The membrane offers protection to shear-sensitive
cells and provides a surface to which anchorage-de-
pendent cells can adhere. Perhaps the greatest asset
of microencapsulation, though, is the ability of the
semi-permeable membrane to retain a high percent-
age of the protein product within the capsule. This
high product retention may greatly reduce down-
stream processing problems.
Over the past two decades, several enzyme and
living cell microencapsulation procedures have been
developed. These include the polyacrylate capsules of
Sefton [11], the chitosan/alginate system of Rha [12]
and McKnight [13], the alginate-polylysine (PLL)
polyethyleneimine (PEI) system of Lim and Sun [14]
and the alginate-PLL technique of Goosen et al. [15].
Sun's group [16] extended this work to streptozotocin-


induced diabetic rats, and found that transplanted,
microencapsulated islet cells were effective in revers-
ing the diabetic state in animals for more than 12
months.
In 1986, Posillico reported [17], for the first time,
the use of microencapsulation for the production of
monoclonal antibodies in multigram quantities. They
reported, however, that their cells appeared to grow
preferentially near the interior surface of the micro-
capsule membrane and speculated that this could have
been due to mass transfer limitations during the cell
culture or to the presence of a viscous intracapsular
alginate solution. We have been able to show [15, 18]
that the physico-chemical properties of these alginate/
polyamino acid microcapsules such as size, shape and
membrane molecular weight cut-off, could be varied
by: changing the molecular weight and concentration
of the PLL used in the encapsulation procedure and
by adjusting the alginate-PLL reaction time. A re-
view of this technology was recently published [19].


DAY 1


DAY 7


A' 4


AY 21


FIGURE 1. Tissue culture of encapsulated mouse hy-
bridoma cells using a single alginate-PLL membrane.
The initial cell density was 5 x 10 cells/mL of capsules
and the final density was 2 x 107 cells/mL of capsules
after about two weeks. The capsule diameter was 600
gm : 60 uim. [18]


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









CULTURE OF ENCAPSULATED HYBRIDOMA
AND INSECT CELLS
The tissue culture studies in our laboratory with
single-membrane alginate-PLL encapsulated mouse
hybridoma cells confirmed similar work reported by
Posillico [17] and Rupp [20]: hybridoma cells preferen-
tially grow near the interior surface of the capsules,
reaching a maximum cell density of about 2 x 107 cells/
mL of capsules after about two weeks of growth.
However, it was found that while the encapsulated
hybridoma cells produced active monoclonal antibody,
approximately two thirds of the capsule volume re-
mained free of cells and was actually occupied by a
viscous alginate core (Figure 1). This difference in the


FIGURE 2. Hybridoma cells cultured in multiple mem-
brane alginate-PLL microcapsules. Hybridoma cells were
encapsulated with an initial cell density of 5 x 10s
cells/mi of capsules. After about two weeks, the cell
density had risen to 7 X 107 cells/mL of capsules. The
average capsule diameter was 850 gm 85 pm. [22].


physical state of the capsule core may have been due
to the fact that, in the present system, the capsule
membrane molecular weight cut-off was lower (60000)
than that reported by Posillico (80000). However,
similar to our own observations, they found that only
part of their capsule volume was occupied by cells.
The presence of significant amount of intracapsular
alginate (gel or liquid) would not only result in an inef-
ficient use of capsule volume, but may also cause prob-
lems in the recovery and purification of the desired
intracapsular protein productss. With a modified,
multiple membrane, capsule [18] on the other hand,
significantly higher (300%) cell densities and product
concentrations could be obtained (Figure 2). The en-
tire capsule volume was eventually occupied by cells.
This was presumably due to the lower viscosity of the
intracapsular core.
Various cell culture methods are summarized in
Table 1. In terms of productivity, it appears that the
Verax microcarrier system is superior. However,
what is perhaps more important is the antibody con-
centration in the harvest liquor; that is, the liquid that
must be processed to recover the antibody. In every
case, except microencapsulation, this liquid is serum-
supplemented medium. Virtually all of the harvest liq-
uor antibody concentrations are equal except that of
microencapsulation which is, at least, a factor of 10
higher. The result of this is that significantly less
purification is required to recover the antibody. Other
factors, however, such as process scale-up, equip-
ment, raw materials and labour cost, and the mode of
operation (i.e., batch or continuous) must also be con-
sidered.
The culture of encapsulated insect cells in our lab-
oratory proved to be more difficult. Insect cells, in-
fected with a temperature sensitive baculovirus, could
not be cultured in either single or multiple membrane
capsules when the initial intracapsular alginate con-
centration was 1.4%. It can be postulated that the
alginate may have inhibited oxygen or nutrients from
reaching the insect cells or perhaps the cells were sen-
sitive to the viscous alginate environment. Toxicity
tests supported this observation. Only at alginate con-
centrations of 0.75% or less was cell growth observed.
Cells encapsulated using single (low molecular weight
cut-off) membrane capsules grew poorly (possibly due
to some inhibitory effect of the alginate). However,
infected cells would grow well in single (high molecu-
lar weight cut-off) membrane capsules but the mem-
brane which formed was weak (causing the capsule to
collapse) and often broke, allowing cells to escape into
the medium. On the other hand, multiple membrane
capsules were significantly stronger than their single


FALL 1988











membrane counterparts. Better cell and virus growth
was obtained with the former capsules. This was pos-
sibly due to the lower intracapsular alginate content.
High virus concentration (9 x 108 IFU/mL) were ob-
tained with these microcapsules.
The growth of temperature-sensitive baculoviruses
inside microcapsules appears to be a novel develop-
ment. The ability to turn viral replication on by simply
lowering the culture temperature has allowed, for the
first time, the growth and concentration of virus in-
side of cell-filled microcapsules. Work is continuing on
the production of recombinant proteins by encapsu-
lated infected insect cells in an external-loop air-lift
bioreactor.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The encapsulated cell culture studies were per-
formed by Mr. Glenn King. The insect cell baculovirus
work is being done in collaboration with Dr. Peter
Faulkner. The bioreactor expertise was provided by
Dr. Andrew J. Daugulis. This work was supported by
a Strategic Grant from the Natural Sciences and En-
gineering Research Council of Canada.

REFERENCES

1. McCormick, D., "Pharmaceutical Markets for the 1990's,"
Bio/Technology, 5, 27 (1987)
2. Goding, J. W., in Monoclonal Antibodies: Principles and
Practices Academic Press, New York, 56-98 (1983)
3. Luckow, V. A., and M. D. Summers, "Trends in the Develop-
ment of Baculovirus Expression Vectors," Bio/Technology,
6(1), 47-55 (1988)
4. Bialy, H., "Recombinant Proteins: Viral Authenticity,"
Bio/Technology 5(10), 885-890 (1987)
5. Van Brunt, J., "Immobilized Mammalian Cells: The Gentle
Way to Productivity," Bio/Technology, 4(6), 505-510 (1986)
6. Hink, W. G., in Microbial and Viral Pesticides, E. Kurstak
(ed), Marcel Dekker Pubs, 493-506 (1982)
7. Nilsson, K., W. Scheirer, O. W. Merten, L. Ostberg, E.
Liehl, H. W. D. Katinger, and K. Mosback, "Entrapment of
Animal Cells for Production of Monoclonal Antibodies and
Other Biomolecules," Nature, 302, 629-230 (1983)
8. Bugarski, B., G. A. King, A. J. Daugulis, and M. F. A. Goosen,
"Performance of an External Loop Air-Lift Bioreactor for
the Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Immobilized
Hybridoma Cells," Applied Microbiology and Bioengi-
neering ( Submitted July, 1988)
9. Altshuler, G.L., D. M. Dziewski, J. A. Sowek, and G.
Belfort, "Continuous Hybridoma Growth and Monoclonal
Antibody Production in Hollow Fiber Reactors-Separators,"
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 28(5), 646-658 (1986)
10. Dean, R. C., S. B. Karkare, N. G. Ray, P. W.Runstadler, and
K. Vankatasubramanian, "Large-Scale Culture of
Hybridoma and Mammalian Cells in Fluidized Bed
Bioreactors," Ann. N. Y. Acad. of Sciences, 506, 129-146
(1987)
11. Sefton, M. V., R. M. Dawson, R. L. Broughton, J. Blysniuk,
and M. E. Sugamori, "Microencapsulation of Mammalian
Cells in a Water Insoluble Polyacrylate by Coextrusion and
Interfacial Precipitation," Biotechnology and
Bioengineering, 29, 1135-1143 (1987)


12. Rha, C. K. European Patent Application #152898 (1985)
13. McKnight, C. A., C. Penny, A. Ku, D. Sun, and M. F. A.
Goosen, "Synthesis of Chitosan-Alginate Microcapsule
Membranes," Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers
(Accepted May 26, 1988)
14. Lim, F., and A. M. Sun, "Microencapsulated Islets as
Bioartificial Endocrine Pancreas," Science, 210, 908-910
(1980)
15. Goosen, M. F. A., G. M. O'Shea, H. M. Gharapetian, S.
Chou, and A. M. Sun, "Optimization of Microencapsulation
Parameters: Semipermeable Microcapsules as a Bioartifi-
cial Pancreas," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 27, 146-
150 (1985)
16. O'Shea, G. M., M. F. A. Goosen, and A. M. Sun, "Prolonged
Survival of Transplanted Islets of Langerhans Encapsulated
in Biocompatible Membrane," Biochimica et Biophysica
Acta., 804, 133-136 (1984)
17. Posillico, E. G., "Microencapsulation Technology for Large-
Scale Antibody Production," BiolTechnology, 4(2) 114-117
(1986)
18. King, G. A., A. J. Daugulis, P. Faulkner, and M. F. A. Goosen,
"Alginate-Polylysine Microcapsules of Controlled Mem-
brane Molecular Weight Cut-Off for Mammalian Cell
Culture Engineering," Biotechnology Progress, 3(4), 231-240
(1987)
19. Goosen, M. F. A., "Insulin Delivery Systems and the Encap-
sulation of Cells for Medical and Industrial Use," CRC
Critical Reviews in Biocompatibility, 3(1), 1-24 (1987)
20. Rupp, R. G., in Large-Scale Mammalian Cell Culture, J.
Feder and W. R. Tolbert (eds), Academic Press (1985)
21. Phillips, H. A., J. M. Scharer, N. C. Bols, and M. Moo-
Young, "Effect of Oxygen on Antibody Production in
Hybridoma Culture," Biotechnology Letters, ((11) 745-750
(1987)
22. King, G. A., A. J. Daugulis, P. Faulkner, and M. F. A. Goosen,
manuscript in preparation (1988) i




REVIEW: Levenspiel
Continued from page 195.

pressible Newtonians in Pipes, Compressible Flow of
Gases, Molecular Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Flow
Through Packed Beds, Flow in Fluidized Beds, and
Solid Particles Falling Through Fluids. The heat
transfer section covers: The Three Mechanisms of
Heat Transfer, Combination of Heat Transfer Resis-
tances, Unsteady-State Heating and Cooling of Solid
Objects, Introduction to Heat Exchangers, Re-
cuperators, Direct-Contact Gas-Solid Nonstoring Ex-
changers, and Heat Regenerators. The book ends
with a chapter called Potpourri of Problems.
The preface to the book indicates it is not for begin-
ners. Levenspiel carefully states that the book is
meant for practicing engineers and for those who have
had an introductory course in transport phenomena.
In keeping with that statement, the first paragraph
of the text starts out with the First Law of Ther-
modynamics; the Second Law is covered in the second
paragraph. This is definitely not a place for the raw
beginner. Levenspiel quickly develops the macro-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










scopic equations and then moves into applications of
the whimsical, thought-provoking type for which he is
famous.
While reviewing the book I got the feeling that
Levenspiel is trying to fill a void in modern engineer-
ing education. Here is a book devoid of partial differ-
ential equations (except for the unavoidable ones in
unsteady heat transfer), vector notation, numerical
methods and computer-based problems. This is a book
that tries to keep thinking from becoming a lost art.
Levenspiel has cleverly used his whimsical problems
to encourage new thinking and application. By moving
the reader away from standard CPI applications,
creativity and thinking are encouraged because these
are not the "real" problems facing an engineer. In fan-
tasy land one is not constrained by past experiences,
so imagination can have free rein. Almost unknow-
ingly one takes his fundamental models of the universe
and applies them to the new situation.
I found the heat transfer part of the book less satis-
fying than the fluid flow part. The second half of the
book is much more a recital of equations. There are
chapters with no examples or problems at the end of
the chapter. The clever application problems drop
from about 50% in the fluids portion down to about
25% in the latter portion. One almost gets the im-
pression that the author was running out of steam
during the last part of the book.
Chapter 16 is a refreshing assembly of problems
with no tie to any previous chapters. In an era where
many textbooks almost tell you what equation in a
given chapter applies to a particular problem,
Levenspiel gives some multi-concept problems and
leaves the rest to the reader. Bravo!
The book uses SI units exclusively. I would rather
see a mixture of applications using English units, par-
ticularly if the audience is to include practicing en-
gineers. Engineers still must be comfortable with
more than one system of units.
There are no answers provided for any of the prob-
lems. For a clientele of practicing engineers who want
to check their understanding of what they are learn-
ing, answers to some of the problems would help.
It may prove unfortunate that the book will not
really find a home. With the structured and crowded
curricula which are now so common, it may not be
readily usable. It is definitely not a teaching text in
the usual sense-there are too many gaps for a new
learner to bridge. Perhaps it may serve as an adjunct
text in a design course. If such is the case, then a less
expensive paperback edition would make it more at-
tractive. In any case, finding a home within the uni-


versity for this book may well require some creativity
on the part of the professor (the author has already
done his part). D


M letters

SAFETY MODULES AVAILABLE

Dear Editor:
I read with considerable interest the article in the
spring 1988 issue, "Safety and Loss Prevention in the Un-
dergraduate Curriculum: A Dual Perspective," by Dan
Crowl and Joe Louvar. As one of the founders of AIChE's
Center for Chemical Process Safety and as a promoter,
while AIChE Executive Director, of increased emphasis
on safety in the undergraduate curriculum, I commend
Wayne State and BASF for their video training sessions.
In their article, Crowl and Louvar note the "ambitious
safety and loss prevention program" in Great Britain.
This program, under the leadership of the Institution of
Chemical Engineers, has led not only to formal safety in-
struction in universities, but also to excellent interactive
hazard workshop modules. These excellent products are
now available in the western hemisphere.
These modules are available in different formats.
First, there are seven slide module programs, on subjects
ranging from the hazards of plant modifications to hu-
man error. In addition, IChemE offers four current
videotape and slide programs, on Preventing Emergen-
cies, Inherent Safety (by Trevor Kletz), Safe Handling of
LPG, and Safer Piping. Finally, a computer emergency
simulation module on Handling Emergencies for IBM
and compatible PCs involves the students in a very real
simulation of fire or toxic gas release at an operating
chemical plant, with actions and results occurring ac-
cording to the pre-plan assembled by the group. New
modules are being prepared on other important process
safety subjects.
These modules are ideal for use in the undergraduate
curriculum, and are available at special university dis-
count prices. Each package comes with a full text and
trainer's guide. I will be pleased to describe and discuss
these products with interested chemical engineering
academicians.
J. Charles Forman
The Institution of Chemical Engineers
165-171 Railway Terrace
Rugby CV21 3HQ, England


FALL 1988











A course in ...



BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING


TERRY K-L. NG, JORGE F. GONZALEZ,
and WEI-SHOU HU
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

THE DEPARTMENT OF Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science at the University of Minnesota
has developed a series of courses on biochemical en-
gineering for its senior undergraduate and first-year
graduate students. The series includes three lecture
courses, which are offered sequentially, and one labo-
ratory course. The lecture courses are entitled
Stoichiometry, Energetics and Kinetics of Biological
Systems; Biochemical Processing Technology; and
Bioseparations. The first course deals with engineer-
ing aspects of cellular processes and includes an intro-
duction to the kinetics and mathematical modeling of
growth and product formation. The processing
technology course covers the reactor aspects of bio-
chemical engineering; topics include kinetics and mass
transfer in bioreactors, medium and air sterilization,
and enzyme-catalyzed bioreactors. The bioseparations
course deals with the unit operations used in the four
stages of separation of biomolecules: solids removal,
isolation, purification and polishing.
In the Biochemical Engineering Laboratory
course, students perform experiments to obtain data


for the design of a continuous sterilizer and to compare
oxygen uptake rates of yeast cells in free suspension
and immobilized in agar beads. They also perform a
fermentation experiment in which they use a com-
puter-coupled fermentor to gather kinetic data and to
determine the program for feeding rate-limiting nutri-
ent. These four courses give chemical engineering stu-
dents a relatively complete background in biochemical
engineering and also prepare them for meeting chal-
lenges in the bioprocessing industries. This communi-
cation will discuss the organization and the content of
the laboratory course.

ORGANIZATION OF THE COURSE
Typically, a class of fifteen to twenty students is
divided into groups of three or four. Each group
chooses a leader who is responsible for the coordina-
tion and planning of an experiment. The group leader
position rotates with each new experiment. Before
each experiment, the instructor gives a one-hour lec-
ture on the principles, instrumentation, and methods
of chemical analysis needed to carry out the experi-
ment.
The time period required to carry out the experi-
ment varies with different projects. Considerably
longer periods (as long as a few days) are required for


Terry K. L. Ng is a PhD stu-
dent in the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Ma-
terials Science, University of
Minnesota. He received his P BS b
degree from Columbia Univer-
sity. His research interests ore
liquid-liquid two-phase cul-
tures, oxygenation of mamma-
lian cell cultures with
perfluorocarbon liquids, and
mass spectrometry of fermentor
off gases. (L) L
Jorge F. Gonzalez is a PhD student in the Department of Chemical
Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota. He contaminated soil. (C)
has a degree in chemical engineering from the National University of Wei-Shou Hu is an assistant professor in the Department of Chem-
Mar del Plata, Republica Argentina. Prior to being admitted to Min- ical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota.
nesota, he did research on wastewater treatment at fisheries. His PhD He received his PhD in biochemical engineering from Massachusetts
thesis is a kinetic study of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in Institute of Technology in 1983. (R)
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










the batch fermentation experiment, which is the last
experiment in this course. Laboratory hours for this
experiment are arranged individually with the teach-
ing assistant to ensure close supervision.
Teaching assistants play an important role in this
course. They supervise students on the operation of
instruments and equipment and ensure that safety
procedures are being followed in the laboratory.
Teaching assistants also prepare inocula and sterilize
laboratory glassware when sterile operation is
needed.

EXPERIMENTS

1. Aseptic techniques
The first experiment is an introduction to sterile
techniques during which students practice the aseptic
handling of microorganisms. Two strains of Es-
cherichia Coli (E. Coli) C600 r n+ are used; one har-
bors the plasmid PDU 1003 which encodes resistance
to antibiotic tetracycline, and the other does not. Stu-
dents prepare two sets of nutrient agar plates; one
contains tetracycline (10 jig/ml), and the other does
not. Students are given cell suspensions of the two E.
coli strains and are asked to identify each of them and
to determine their cell concentrations. In this experi-
ment, students are exposed to the concept of selective
pressure, the principle of gene amplification which is
used in modern molecular biology and the new bio-
technology industry. This experiment takes a two-
hour session.

2. Dissolve oxygen concentration measurement
The second experiment is the construction of a gal-
vanic dissolved oxygen (D.O.) electrode [1, 2] and the
measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration. The
galvanic electrodes consist of a silver cathode and a
lead anode. These electrodes are also to be used in
subsequent experiments. The construction of the elec-
trode is completed in the first of the two sessions (total
of six hours) assigned to this project.
The overall reactions are:


silver
cathode :


1 02 + H2 + 2e- 2 OH
2


lead anode : Pb --Pb" +2e-


overall
reaction


10+ Pb+H,0 Pb(OH) (3)
2 2 2 2


The first course deals with engineering aspects of
cellular processes and includes an introduction to the
kinetics and mathematical modeling of growth and
product formation. The processing technology
course covers the reactor aspects
of biochemical engineering.


The current generated by the reaction is measured by
a microameter. If the resistance to transfer of oxygen
from the bulk liquid to the silver cathode resides
primarily in the membrane, the output of the elec-
trode at steady state can be described by


I= nFA -- C (4)
b
The use of the electrode requires proper calibration.
In the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations to be
used in the experiment, the output is proportional to
the dissolved oxygen concentration. A two-point calib-
ration is usually used. First, the response of the probe
in the solution in which the dissolved oxgen is in
equilibrium with air at ambient pressure is recorded
as the 100% level. The second point is one with all the
dissolved oxygen depleted either by the addition of
1.0 M of sodium sulfite (with a trace amount of Cu+2
(-103 M) as a catalyst) or by sparging the fluid with
nitrogen gas.
Subsequently students measure the response of
the electrode to a step change of dissolved oxygen
from depletion to saturation with air. The transient
output of the probe can be expressed as an infinite
series [3] as


I=nFA M Ci 1+2 (-1)nexp(-n2kt) (5)
b n=


where k Dm
b2


The experiment is to be carried out twice; (i) using a
magnetic stirrer to stir the oxygen-saturated water in
(1) the flask, and (ii) no stirring. After obtaining the re-
sponse curve, students are asked to examine if the
response can be estimated by Eq. (5) and to determine
(2) the time constant, k.


3. Oxygen uptake rate of yeast cells in suspension
and immobilized in agar gel
A schematic diagram of the set-up for the oxygen


FALL 1988










uptake rate measurements, the third experiment in
this course, is shown in Figure 1. The device for oxy-
gen uptake measurement is a 250 cm3 Erlenmeyer
flask with a tightly sealed rubber stopper. A dissolved
oxygen electrode, previously prepared by the stu-
dents themselves, is inserted through the stopper to
the flask. During the experiment, the flask is placed
in a constant temperature water bath. Care should be
taken to ensure that the stopper of the flask is tightly
sealed and that no gas bubble enters the flask during
the experiment. The cell suspension inside the flask is
stirred by a magnetic stirrer. Prior to the experiment,
the D.O. electrode is calibrated under the experimen-
tal conditions to be used. The analogue output of the
dissolved oxygen electrode is converted to digital sig-
nals and stored in an IBM personal computer.
The students are provided with a suspension of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae that were growing expo-
nentially in complex medium. The optical density of
the culture broth is measured to determine the cell
concentration. The suspension is sparged with air to
bring the D.O. to a higher concentration and is trans-


%
Full
Response


60


40


20


0
0 10 20

Time (min)

FIGURE 2. Changes of dissolved oxygen concentration
during the oxygen uptake rate measurement using sus-
pension of yeast cells

ferred into the measurement flask, overfilling it
slightly. The stopper, along with the D.O. electrode,
is quickly inserted and the flask is sealed, avoiding
entrapment of air bubbles.
The dissolved oxygen electrode constructed by the
students typically has a 90% response time (the time
period in which the output of the electrode reaches
90% of the new steady state value after a step change
in dissolved oxygen from 0% to 100% saturation with
air) ranging from one minute to a few minutes. In the
measurement of the oxygen uptake rate it is necessary
to ensure that the rate measured is not limited by the
electrode response time. This is achieved by measur-
ing the oxygen consumption using cell suspensions of
different cell concentration. The proper experimental
condition is in the range bounded by (i) the oxygen
consumption rate of the suspension being proportional
to the cell concentration, and (ii) the total time span
needed to acquire an accurate measurement of the
oxygen uptake rate being short relative to the doubl-
ing time of the cells under the conditions used. The
second constraint is needed so that cell concentration
can be assumed to be constant. A typical D. 0. concen-
tration profile from this experiment is shown in Fi-
gure 2. Except for the initial few data points and the
period in which the oxygen concentration is very low,
the rate of decrease of oxygen is constant. The specific
oxygen consumption is then


FIGURE 1. Experimental set-up for the oxygen uptake
rate measurement


q = (AC/At)/x


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The linear range in the dissolved oxygen concen-
tration curve is used to calculate the oxygen consump-
tion rate. The deviation from linearity at the begin-
ning is due to the switch of the D.O. electrode from a
solution in which the electrode is previously sub-
merged to the cell suspension. The consumption of
oxygen by yeast cells follows Michaelis Menten kine-
tics; thus the rate is zero order with respect to the
dissolved oxygen concentration only at concentrations
above a certain level. The decrease in the oxygen con-
sumption rate at the end of the measurement (longer
than ten minutes, as shown in Figure 3) is most likely
due to the intrinsic kinetic behavior of yeast cells.
To prepare the immobilized cell system, yeast cells
are harvested by centrifugation and subsequently re-
suspended in a smaller volume of the growth medium.
The cell suspension is then mixed with an equal vol-
ume of 4% agar solution which has been maintained
just above its solidifying temperature (-400C). This
agar-cell suspension is quickly poured into a Petri dish
and allowed to solidify. The volume of agar added to
each Petri dish is adjusted to give rise to a gel thick-
ness of 2.4 mm. The agar gel disk is then removed
from the Petri dish and gently pressed against a
screen with an opening of 2.4 mm. The almost cubic
agar particles so formed are collected and poured into
the oxygen uptake rate measurement flask. The flask
is subsequently filled with growth medium and the
dissolved oxygen is measured and recorded in the
computer. The experiment is repeated with agar
cubes containing different concentrations of im-
mobilized cells.
Students are instructed to analyze the mass trans-
fer processes in the immobilized cell system. The dis-
solved oxygen concentration at the interface of agar
beads and liquid is assumed to be the same as that in
the bulk liquid. At a high cell concentration and, thus,
a high reaction rate in the agar gel, the intraparticle
diffusion of oxygen can be limiting. The cell concentra-
tions used in the agar gel are selected to allow stu-
dents to observe cases of both oxygen transfer limita-
tion and no limitation. Furthermore, students are
asked to compare the experimental results to the
theoretical analysis using effectiveness factor (0r) for
substrate utilization with Michaelis-Menten kinetics
[6]. The observable modulus ( is defined as


qX b (Vp
De. Co A,


In Equation 7, q is obtained from the measurement
using free cells in suspension. The diffusion of oxygen


in agarose gel needed for the theoretical analysis is
obtained from literature [7].

4. Continuous sterilization
The fourth project is the continuous sterilization
of Escherichia coli cell suspensions. The continuous
sterilizer consists of a cell suspension reservoir, a
peristaltic pump, and a piece of silicone tubing con-
necting the reservoir to a four-foot long coiled copper
tubing submerged in a constant temperature water
bath (Figure 3). The cell suspension stream from the
sterilizer is collected in flasks submerged in an ice
bath. A three-way valve is installed before the collec-


FIGURE 3. Scheme of the apparatus for continuous
sterilization
tion flask to allow for rapid switch from one flask to
another so that samples from various time points can
be taken easily.
In the first session of this experiment, students
determine the thermal death rate constant of the cells.
Three water baths are set up at 500, 60 and 65C
respectively. A series of test tubes containing buffer
solution are prewarmed in each water bath. To begin
the experiment, small aliquots of cell suspension are
added to the test tubes so that the sterilization tem-
perature is reached almost instantaneously. At differ-
ent time intervals tubes are withdrawn from the
water bath and the contents are transferred to bottles
containing chilled dilution solution for viable cell
count. From the viable count of cells the death rate
constant at the three temperatures are determined:

dN
-d -K(T)N (8)
dt
Arrhenius plot is then prepared to estimate the death
rate constants as a function of temperature.
The temperature for the continuous sterilization is
65C. However, with the system employed for this


FALL 1988










experiment, the temperature rising period is a signif-
icant fraction of the holding time in the sterilizer.
Thus, both the heating region and the temperature
holding region are important in the killing of bacteria.
Students calculate the temperature profile in the
sterilizer for a number of flow rates. The heat transfer
coefficient of the coil is obtained from the reported
value for the same material in literature. Students are
also instructed to assume a plug flow behavior for fluid
flow inside the sterilizer. Their assignments involve
determining sterilization flow rates required to
achieve two different degrees of killing (N/No) [4, 5,
6] and carrying out the processes.


5. Cultivation of microorganisms in a stirred tank
The last project is a fermentation experiment
which is designed to expose students to the tasks in-
volved in fermentation operations. The tasks they
carry out include setting up a 2 1 or 16 1 fermentor and
auxiliary systems, preparation ofinocula, sterilization
of vessel and medium, aseptic inoculation, sampling,
data acquisition and analysis. The specifics of the fer-
mentation experiments carried out vary from year to
year. Among them is the classical yeast fermentation
of glucose. Students are asked to study the production
of ethanol and its further oxidation to carbon dioxide
and water during different stages of the batch culture.
Another experiment is the fed-batch cultivation of
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 using
ethanol as the carbon and energy source. In this case
a sufficiently high ethanol concentration in the
bioreactor is necessary to sustain an optimal growth
rate; however, it will inhibit growth if it is allowed to
exceed an upper limit. In this experiment, program-
med feeding of ethanol is carried out during the culti-
vation to control ethanol concentration in the tolerable
range. Without such a feeding scheme, cell growth
ceases after ethanol initially present in the bioreactor
is depleted. Students are given kinetic data obtained
from a batch culture without programmed feeding.
From the data, they determine the specific growth
rate and specific ethanol consumption rate or the yield
coefficients. The kinetic parameters are used in the
growth model to calculate the feeding rate. Students
input the feeding rate as a function of process time
into the microprocessor. The execution of the feeding
is carried out by a microprocessor controlled pump.
The temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concen-
tration are controlled by simple feedback loops. The
oxygen consumption rate, determined by the analysis
of off-gas by mass spectrometer, can be used to esti-


mate the specific growth rate, and such information
can be used to adjust the feeding rate of ethanol on-
line. However, because of the extensive program de-
velopment needed to implement such on-line adjust-
ment, any adjustment of feeding rate is implemented
by the students but not by on-line computer. During
the fermentation, samples are withdrawn periodically,
and the cell concentration is measured by a colorime-
ter. A portion of the samples is frozen for the mea-
surement of ethanol concentration by gas chromatog-
raphy. The experimental results are compared to the
prediction.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
One achievement of this laboratory course is the
demonstration to our undergraduate students that
chemical engineering principles do apply to systems
involving living microorganisms. Probably equally im-
portant is for the students to realize that the system
they deal with is never as simple as it is represented
in the textbook. However, it is the simplification or
idealization of the complex biological systems that al-
lows us to apply the chemical engineering principles
to systematically analyze these systems. In the sterili-
zation experiment, they quickly realize that the ther-
mal death rate constant of microbial cells is affected
by many factors, such as growth medium, pH, and
culture stage, in addition to temperature. It only
takes a few hours into the fermentation experiments
for the students to discover that the yield coefficient
is not constant in a batch culture, as it is frequently
assumed to be in most mathematical growth models.
One of the student groups noted in its report: "The
overall experiment gave us a very good opportunity
to apply knowledge gained in the previous courses of
the Biochemical Engineering series, and most impor-
tantly to realize that things in the lab are much less
ideal than presented by theory!"


Footnote: The student manual, which includes step-by-step instruc-
tions for each experiment, is available by writing to W-S. Hu.

NOMENCLATURE
A = area of silver cathode
Ap = area of agar particles
b = membrane thickness
C1 = concentration of 02 in the bulk liquid
Co = oxygen concentration in the bulk of medium
in Eq. 7
AC = difference in oxygen concentration
Des = oxygen diffusivity in agar particles


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










= oxygen diffusivity through the membrane
= Faraday's constant
= current
= electrode time constant
= thermal death rate constant
= number of electrons
= number of viable cells
= permeability coefficient of the membrane
= specific oxygen consumption rate
= time
= temperature
= time elapsed between oxygen concentration
measurements
= volume of agar particles
= cell concentration being used in the experiment
= cell concentration in agar particles


REFERENCES
1. Johnson, M. J., J. Borkowsky, and C. Engblom,"Steam
Sterilizable Probes for Dissolved Oxygen Measurement,"
Biotechnol. Bioen. 6:457-468, 1964
2. Borkowsky, J. D., and M. J. Johnson, "Long-Lived Steam
Sterilizable Membrane Probes for Dissolved Oxygen
Measurement," Biotechnol. Bioeng. 9:635-639, 1967
3. Lee, Y. H., and G. T. Tsao, "Dissolved Oxygen Electrodes,"
Adv. Biochem. Eng. 13:35-86, ed. by T. K. Chose, A.
Fiechter, and N. Blakebrough. Springer Verlag, Berlin,
1979
4. Wang, D. I. C., et al., Chapter 8, Fermentation and Enzyme
Technology, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979
5. Aiba, S., A. E. Humphrey, and N. F. Millis, Biochemical
Engineering, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, New York, 1973
6. Bailey, J., and D. Ollis, Chapters 4 and 8, Biochemical
Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1986
7. An-Lac Nguyen and J. H. T. Luong, "Diffusion in K-
Carrageenan Gel Beads," Biotechnol. Bioeng. 28:1261-1267,
1986 L


In memorial ...


ROBERT L. PIGFORD

1917-1988


Professor Robert L. Pigford died on August 4th after
suffering a stroke on May 14th from which he never
recovered. He was 71 years old and a long-time resident
of Newark, Delaware.
He was born and raised in Meridian, Mississippi. He
earned his BS degree in chemical engineering from Mis-
sissippi State College in 1938, his MS and PhD degrees
from the University of Illinois. His next six years were
spent in the Engineering Research Laboratory at the
DuPont Experimental Station, working on both civilian
and military research problems, the latter arising from
World War II. With his industrial colleagues, he partici-
pated in what was to become one of the national centers
for a renaissance in engineering education, in which the
group replaced approximate analyses guided by experi-
ment with careful, quantitative models of the chemical
and physical processes being considered. Dr. Pigford's
association with the University of Delaware began
shortly after his arrival in Delaware when he began or-
ganizing these new analyses into evening and week-end
courses for chemical engineering students on the cam-
pus. One result of this activity was a textbook, Application
of Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering Prob-
lems, which he coauthored with the late W. R. Marshall.
In 1947 Allan Colburn prevailed upon Bob Pigford to
come to the University on a full-time basis as chairman of
the fledgling department of chemical engineering. His
association with the University of Delaware spanned
more than thirty years. From 1966 to 1975 he served on
the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley.
He was one of the earliest proponents of the use of
computers in engineering and built several for both in-
struction and research before the widespread availability


of such machines. His colleagues remember the numer-
ous hurdles he had to overcome to convince conservative
administrators of the need for these expensive new tools
of science and technology.
His advice was sought by numerous industrial, aca-
demic and governmental institutions. He served as a
member of the U.S. Army's Advisory Council, the Scien-
tific Advisory Board of the U.S. Air Force, the Depart-
ment of Energy and the National Research Council, as
well as being a member of the Advisory Committees for
Chemical Engineering at Princeton University and Mas-
sachusetts Institute of Technology. He received virtually
all the national awards of the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers and served as a Director of that or-
ganization from 1963 to 1966. In 1983, on the occasion of
that organization's 75th anniversary, he was named as
one of thirty pre-eminent leaders of his profession. He
was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in
1971 and to the National Academy of Sciences in 1972. In
1977, the University of Delaware named him as its first
Alison Scholar, and in 1983 he was appointed to the
University's Board of Trustees.
In addition to serving on numerous editorial advisory
boards, he served as editor of the American Chemical So-
ciety Journal Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Fundamentals for a full quarter century. The Delaware
Association of Professional Engineers named him Engi-
neer-of-the-Year in 1988.
Professor Pigford married Marian Pinkston in 1939.
Their daughter, Nancy, is a resident of Philadelphia and
their son, Robert, lives in Newark, Delaware. There are
three grandsons.
Arthur Metzner, Marian Pigford


FALL 1988










Research on ...


THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID PROPERTIES


AMYN S. TEJA, STEVEN T. SCHAEFFER
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0100

E XCEPT IN THE MOST established industries,
today's chemical engineers will undoubtedly face
the problem of designing processes and sizing equip-
ment with little or no reliable thermodynamic or phys-
ical property data. This problem will occur more fre-
quently as chemical engineers continue to expand into
emerging technologies such as biotechnology, biopro-
cessing, and electronic materials processing. Even in
the traditional industries such as oil and coal, the need
for reliable physical property information will increase
as these industries strive to meet changing pollution,
safety and efficiency standards.
The chemical engineering applied thermodynamics
community is quite active in its attempts to "keep
pace" with the increased demand for data. While data
at the exact conditions of interest are obviously the
most desirable, the general trend of thermodynamics
research is toward theoretical or semi-theoretical
models and property correlations which permit exten-


- 1 1*i
Amyn Teja received his BS and PhD degrees in chemical engineer-
ing from Imperial College in London and is currently a professor in the
School of Chemical Engineering at Georgia Tech. His research interests
are in the thermodynamics and fluid properties area for which he was
recently awarded the Sustained Research Award of the Georgia Tech
Chapter of Sigma Xi. (L)
Steven Schaeffer received his BS and MS degrees in chemical en-
gineering from Lehigh University. He recently received his PhD degree
in chemical engineering from Georgia Tech. (R)


FIGURE 1. Interrelationships between thermophysical
property research

sion of the information to other conditions of temper-
ature, pressure, and composition. A broader trend is
toward models which require very limited informa-
tion. For example, computer simulation and group
contribution methods require a knowledge only of the
molecular structure to estimate physical properties.
However, the basis for reliable correlations remains
the accurate measurement of thermophysical proper-
ties of interest.
Thermophysical property research at Georgia
Tech has a long and distinguished history. Indeed,
Professor Waldemar Ziegler was performing solubil-
ity studies using supercritical fluids [1] long before
this subject became "fashionable." In general terms,
our current research is concerned with the measure-
ment, correlation, and prediction of basic properties
such as phase equilibria, critical phenomena, enthal-
pies, specific heats, densities, viscosities, thermal con-
ductivities, diffusion coefficients, and surface ten-
sions. Our ultimate goal is to develop reliable predic-
tive methods for thermophysical properties and phase
equilibria and to further the understanding of the un-
derlying molecular phenomena (Figure 1).
The members of our research group consist of the
authors, two visiting professors, one post-doctoral fel-
low, seven graduate students, and two undergraduate
students. In addition, we interact closely with re-


O Copyright ChE Division ASEE 198,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










search programs in the Schools of Mechanical En-
gineering, Chemistry, and Applied Biology. In the
past four years, six masters degrees and eight PhDs
have been awarded for research ranging from experi-
mental studies of hydrocarbon solubilities in supercrit-
ical fluids to fundamental equations of state. Our re-
search facilities include equipment for critical point
studies, phase equilibrium studies (two at high pres-
sures and one at ambient pressure), several high pres-
sure viscometers, a transient hot-wire thermal con-
ductivity apparatus, a drop calorimeter, two high
pressure density apparatuses, and a low pressure
densiometer. This equipment is summarized in Table
1. In addition, a wide range of analytical equipment
(GC, HPLC, MS, and NMR) is available, as are stand-
ards (platinum resistance thermometers, dead weight
gauges, etc.) for calibration. Our laboratories also
have a dedicated microvax II workstation with plotter
and laser printer and several PCs for data acquisition,
analysis, and report writing. Four current research
projects are described in more detail below.


TABLE 1
Experimental Thermophysical Property Capabilities at Georgia Tech


Property


Measurement Technique


Critical temperature
and volume


Rapid heating of a sealed
anpoule


Operation Ranges
T(C) P(bar)

25-500 1-100


Critical temperature Low residence time flow 5-400 1-100
and pressure apparatus

Fluid-solid equilibria Single-pass flow apparatus -10-90 1-340


Vapor-liquid equilibria Vapor and liquid recirculation 25-200 1-340
still

Vapor-liquid equilibria Recirculation still 25-200 0.1-2

Thermal conductivity Transient hot wire method 25-210 1-100

Heat capacity Adiabatic drop calorimeter 100-500 1-100

Viscosity Capillary viscometer 25-1100 1-680
Rolling ball viscometer 25-250 1-680
Capilaryviscometers -10-250 1

Density High pressure pycnometer -10-300 1-100
Vibrating tube densiometer -10-150 1-350
Vibrating tube densiometer -10-50 1-10


While critical point measurements have
been made for many stable substances, experimental
data are almost non-existant for thermally unstable
compounds commonly found in heavy oil
processing, biochemical separations,
and supercritical extraction.


CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMALLY
UNSTABLE AND STABLE FLUIDS

In addition to its fundamental importance in
molecular theory, the critical point of a substance
forms the basis for the corresponding states and equa-
tion of state calculations of thermodynamic properties
and phase equilibria. A knowledge of the critical point
is also required in supercritical fluid extraction, ret-
rograde condensation, and supercritical fluid power
cycles.
While critical point measurements have been made
for many stable substances, experimental data are al-
most non-existent for thermally unstable compounds
commonly found in heavy oil processing, biochemical
separations, and supercritical extraction. At Georgia
Tech, we have developed two methods for determin-
ing the critical properties of thermally unstable fluids.
The first method involves the rapid heating in a
platinum furnace of a sealed glass ampoule containing
the substance. By observing the changing meniscus
disappearance-reappearance phenomena characteris-
tic of the critical point with time, and by extrapolation
to a thermally stable state, the critical temperature
and critical volume can be obtained (Figure 2). The


8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0
Time (min)
FIGURE 2. Temperature-time history of a thermally un-
stable substance (octan-1-ol) showing points of menis-
cus disappearance and reappearance


FALL 1988










second method is a low-residence time technique in
which the fluid is pumped rapidly through a view cell
in a heated oven. In this apparatus, critical opales-
cence is observed by manipulating the pressure, tem-
perature, heating rate, and flow rate of the fluid. The
combination of these two methods provides all three
critical properties (Pc, Vc, and T,) of pure fluids and
fluid mixtures. New methods, including one involving
rapid heating with a CO2 laser, are being developed
to extend the range of fluids which can be studied.
The critical properties of several homologous
series of compounds have been measured in our
laboratories including the alkanes, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5-al-
kanols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, perfloroalkanes,
and mercaptans. We estimate that some 8% of all ex-
perimental critical properties have been measured in
our laboratories. Part of this research is funded by
the AIChE through DIPPR (Design Institute for
Physical Property Research) and part by the National
Science Foundation. Several correlations for critical
properties have also been developed, as well as a
method for estimating the effect of impurities using
continuous thermodynamics [2].

BIOSEPARATIONS INVOLVING SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS
The advantages of supercritical fluids for biosep-
arations have been noted by many researchers [3]. In


S Methane
5 < o Ethane
d A Propane
+ n-Pentane
x n-Heptane
SToluene
v n-Decane
Group EOS

3.0 7.0 11.0 15.0 19.0 23.0
Pressure (MPa)

FIGURE 3. Predicted phase equilibria using a group con-
tribution equation of state [4] at 360K


particular, physiologically inert solvents with moder-
ate critical temperatures (such as CO2) are well-suited
to the separation and isolation of biochemicals. Our
interest in supercritical fluid extraction is multifa-
ceted. We are interested in the phenomenological as-
pects of phase equilibria at high pressure as well as in
the modelling and prediction of these phenomena. For
example, a recent PhD thesis [4] successfully de-
monstrated that multicomponent high pressure phase
equilibria could be predicted using generalized equa-
tions of state with only a knowledge of the chemical
structures of the components (Figure 3). We are also
very interested in separations with potential applica-
tions in biotechnology. Towards this end, we are car-
rying out joint research with the natural products
group of Dr. Leon H. Zalkow in the School of Chemis-
try and Dr. Leslie T. Gelbaum of the School of Applied
Biology at Georgia Tech. This joint work has included
the separation and isolation of several chemotherapeu-
tic compounds of interest to the National Cancer Insti-
tute.
We have recently completed a study of the extrac-
tion of the anti-cancer alkaloid monocrotaline (Figure
4) from the seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis using
supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures [5].
It was found that pure carbon dioxide extracted only
the non-polar lipid materials from the seeds, which is
to be expected in view of the chemical nature of carbon
dioxide. By adding ethanol, the alkaloid of interest
could be removed, although the lipids were still pres-
ent in the extracts. In order to reduce the downstream
separation requirements of a potential commercial
process, a second stage separation employing a novel
adsorbent was used to separate the components in the
supercritical fluid phase. Using this technique, al-
kaloid purities of almost 100% were obtained. This
process offers significant economic as well as regula-
tory (FDA) advantages over conventional separation
processes and is being patented.
A study has also been recently completed involving
the separation of fructose from glucose in aqueous sol-
utions, again using carbon dioxide-ethanol mixtures
[6]. Fructose has nutritional advantages for normal,
controlled diabetic and reactive hypoglycemic per-
sons. In this study, it was found that high fructose
purities could be obtained in the vapor phase. Cur-
rently, using this same apparatus, an investigation is
under way to separate taxol from Indian Yew tree
bark. Taxol is a very effective anticancer drug which
is difficult to separate from its natural source. Indeed,
the conventional separation technique is so elaborate
and has such low yields that effective clinical testing
of the drug is difficult. It is our hope that an alterna-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


~ +

+ + ~ -I--*- -- ^ x










tive carbon dioxide based separation process will re-
sult from our study.

THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCENTRATED
ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS
Two pairs of working fluids are in common use in
commercial absorption chillers and heat pumps: am-
monia-water and lithium bromide-water. The ther-
modynamic properties and phase equilibria of these
binary working pairs determine the energy flows


Diethylene glycol Triethylene glycol


-- ---


100% Di -0% Tri
0% Di 20% Tri
I -_ f f"--_ VI-FF-


290.0 340.0 390.0
Temperature (K)


\
\


440.0 490.0


C17


FIGURE 4. ORTEP drawing of monocrotaline from a
single crystal X-ray diffraction

necessary to drive the dissolution and separation steps
in the absorption cycle. Efforts to quantify the perfor-
mance of absorption cycles have, however, been hin-
dered by a lack of consistent thermophysical property
data for lithium bromide-water systems, particularly
at high temperatures and high concentrations.
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is sup-
porting an extensive investigation of the properties of
these concentrated electrolyte solutions (concentra-
tions approaching 65 wt %) at temperatures up to
473K. We are measuring heat capacities, densities,
viscosities, thermal conductivities, and vapor pres-
sures of these solutions. The system also serves as a
model for the development of correlations for concen-


FIGURE 5. Thermal conductivity of diethylene and
triethylene glycol mixtures


treated electrolyte solutions and is part of a collabora-
tive effort with Dr. Sheldon Jeter of the School of
Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech.

FLUID PROPERTIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Much has been written about industrial support of
thermophysical property research [7]. One cost-effec-
tive way in which industry supports such research is
by participation in consortia such as the Fluid Proper-
ties Research Institute. FPRI is an industrially spon-
sored co-operative research organization which was
founded in 1973 for the purpose of acquiring sound
thermophysical property data. It was originally based
at Oklahoma State University but was relocated to
Georgia Tech at the end of 1985. The industrial mem-
bers of FPRI include petroleum companies (Amoco),
specialty chemical (Hoechst-Celanese) and chemical
companies (Dow), as well as contracting companies
(UOP, Steams-Catalytic, JGC, Sasakura Engineer-
ing). Basic data on heat capacities, densities, thermal
conductivities (Figure 5) and viscosities of classes of
compounds (e.g., glycols, crude oils, aqueous solu-
tions) are being measured and computer data banks
are being developed. Graduate students and postdoc-
toral fellows participate in the FPRI research effort.
Thus program funding produces two outputs: techni-
cal information and talented chemical engineering
graduates. The program sponsors benefit by "leverag-
ing" their research funds for basic studies, gaining
access to experimental data and correlations, and by

Continued on page 222.


FALL 1988


I I I I










N curriculum


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AND INSTRUCTIONAL COMPUTING

Are They In Step?
PART 2


EDITORIAL NOTE: Part 1 of this article appeared in the summer 1988 issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
and ended with the questions
Can microcomputers stimulate the use ofopen-ended, design-orientedproblems?
Can high-resolution displays permit students to better learn the principles through visualization of streamlines in
fluid flows, visualization ofPVT, etc?
Can computers enable students to analyze and possibly design less conventional processes involving, for example,
crystallization of chips, deposition of thin films, natural convection in solar cells, etc?
These questions are addressed in this second part ofDr. Seider's paper.


WARREN D. SEIDER
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

THE STIMULUS FOR open-ended problem-solving in
the core courses of the undergraduate curriculum
arises from the need to expose students to the
methods of formulating and solving problems with
many alternate solutions. In many curricula, this
exercise is reserved primarily for the capstone design
course. Yet with highly-interactive computers which
require the student to do minimal or no programming,
it should be possible to add more open-ended problems
to the core courses while more adequately satisfying
the controversial requirement of one-half year of
course work in design for the accreditation of under-
graduate curricula [1].
This has been the basis for the CACHE Corpora-
tion project to develop CACHE IBM PC Lessons for
Courses Other Than Design and Control [2]. In the
first phase, six authors prepared their lessons with


. with highly-interactive computers which require
the student to do minimal or no programming, it should
be possible to add more open-ended problems to the
core courses while more adequately satisfying
the controversial requirement of one-half year
of course work in design for accreditation


Warren Seider is professor of chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania. He and his students are conducting re-
search on process design with an emphasis on operability and con-
trollability. In course work, they utilize many computing systems,
including several of the programs described in this article. He is
currently serving as the chairman of the CACHE Curriculum Task
Force. He received his BS degree from the Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and his PhD from the University of Michigan. He served
as the first chairman of CACHE and was elected a director of AIChE
in 1983.


the restriction of the use of the BASICA language on
an IBM PC with a color graphics monitor. No other
restrictions were set and, consequently, several dif-
ferent formats evolved, some using extensive color
graphics with animation to present new concepts,
some presenting a derivation of the principal equa-
tions (with interspersed questions to be answered by
the student), and most permitting parametric studies


C Copyright ChE Dnisiom ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















Lesson (Program)

Slurry Flow in Channels

Supercritical Fluid
Extraction
Gas Absorption with
Chemical Reaction
Design of Flash Vessels and
Distillation Towers
Heterogeneous Reaction
Kinetics
CSTR Dynamics and
Stability


Design and Control

Authors

Freeman, Provine, Dow, Denn
Berkeley
Kellow, Cygnarowicz,Seider
Penn
Nordstrom, Seinfeld
Cal. Tech.
Finlayson, Kaler, Heideger
Washington
Bauer, Fogler
Michigan
Vajdi, Alien
UCLA


Couxses h

Fluid Mechanics

Separations and
Thermodynamics
Separations

Separations and
Thermodynamics
Reactor Analysis

Reactor Analysis


with graphical output. The six lessons (see Table 1)
have recently been distributed on diskettes by the
CACHE Corporation.
The lesson for the "Design of a Slurry Pipeline,"
developed for the fluid mechanics course, presents the
student with a mass rate of solids to be pumped a
given distance. Using the Frankel-Acrivos equation
for the viscosity as a function of composition, he or
she must choose the slurry concentration and pipeline
diameter to minimize the net present value of the cost
over the life of the pipeline. First, the student derives
the equations to minimize the power consumption.
Then the microcomputer program is used to vary the
design parameters interactively and to prepare a fam-
ily of curves, as illustrated in Figure 1, in which the


TABLE 1
CACHE IBM PC Lessons for Courses Other than


LEGEND

LAMINAR
STURBULEHNI
.1 RE : 2108


POWER US, PHI/PHIMA
I I I









-~--'--:-
i I





-- -


2,0 2 2 ,.4 8,6 ,.8 1,8
PHI/PHINMAX
FIGURE 1. Power consumption in slurry flow. From IBM
PC lesson for the design of a slurry pipeline [2].


HEIGHT' 1.98 M
DIAMETER: 0,97 M
COST: $ 73,310
# OF EXTRACTORS: 2
REQUIRED


IOIAL:
ClOST


S 546,619


F[[L [,T:.RCI
(b) Extractor design
FIGURE 2. Supercritical fluid extraction lesson [2].


power is plotted as a function of the solids fraction.
The lesson on supercritical extraction provides ap-
proximately fifty frames, some with animation, to in-
troduce the principles of SCE before teaching, by
example, the design procedure [3]. The program,
which is currently limited to the dehydration of
ethanol with carbon dioxide, allows the student to find
the optimal design for the flowsheet in Figure 2a. The
student guides the program through the procedures
that compute the size and cost of the extractor, flash
vessel, and compressor. With highly interactive
graphics, the student enters the design variables (sol-
vent/feed ratio, flash temperature and pressure, etc.)
and observes the results in annotated, graphical dis-
plays of the process units as well as cost charts. For
example, see Figure 2b. The important objectives in
the preparation of this lesson included: (1) the pro-
vision of an open-ended problem for the separations
course that applies the principles to a potentially at-
tractive process, especially when non-toxic solvents
are used in food processing, and (2) the use of graphics


EXTRACT S___EPARATOR
PRESSURE
ETHANOL REDUCTION
ETHANOL- UALUE
WATER
EXTRACTION
COLUMN
ETHANOL
E C02 RECCLE
RAFFINATEt COMPRESSOR

(a) Flow sheet for dehydration of ethanol with CO2

Rp.FFiiNAE ''.' 7


12.3


FALL 1988










and animation to present new material, enabling the
student to monitor complex calculations in a way that
conventional text books are unable to accomplish.
A third lesson focuses on the dynamics and stabil-
ity of a CSTR with a first-order, exothermic reaction
and heat transfer to a cold reservoir. It begins with
an introduction of the concepts of CSTR multiplicity,
stability, and dynamics. The basic equations are de-
rived with interspersed questions. Then the student
varies the key parameters and the program locates
the steady-state nodes and foci and limit cycles, when
they exist, and plots the dynamic performance. One
such plot is shown in Figure 3. While this lesson
doesn't involve a cost function, it exposes the student
to the vagaries of exothermic reactor design through


Y2







SY1







STABLE FOCUS

FIGURE 3. Phase-plane of a CSTR with a first-order,
exothermic reaction and heat transfer (Y1 = conversion,
Y2 = product T). From IBM PC lesson on CSTR dynamics
and stability [2].


instruction in the principles of stability analysis and
parameterization. Such an analysis, which has often
been regarded as beyond the scope of undergraduate
reactor courses, can now be presented to the student
without consuming valuable lecture time.
It should be noted that the six CACHE IBM PC
lessons were developed, for the most part, on an ex-
perimental basis, often by student programmers, with
little or no remuneration. Hence, it is reasonable to
expect that they will not entirely fulfill their objec-
tives. Perhaps they will be most useful in presenting
examples of what can be accomplished with highly-in-
teractive microcomputers, as well as in having pro-
vided the authors experience in the preparation of


CAI software.
It is also noteworthy that BASICA was the pro-
gramming language and that no utility routines were
provided for creating the menus, text screens, graphi-
cal screens with animation, quizzes, etc. Hence, it was
necessary to create these facilities in the BASICA lan-
guage. This resulted in as many as 1200 hours being
required to prepare interesting and challenging se-
quences which use color and animation, avoid repeti-
tion, give the students much control, etc.
In parallel, several "authoring systems" were
being developed in which these and other utility
routines are provided for the authors of CAI lessons.
MICROCACHE [4], developed at the University of
Michigan, keeps records of student usage and perfor-
mance much more completely than the commercial
systems we examined. The latter include the UN-
ISON system [5] by Courseware Applications, Inc.,
which the CACHE Curriculum Task Force has judged
to be the most cost-effective for its next set of CAI
lessons (currently in preparation). Others are the
PLATO PCD3 (CDC), TENCORE (Computer Teach-
ing Corp.), and CSR Trainer 4000 (Computer Systems
Research) Authoring Systems.
In summary, it seems reasonable to answer the
question "Can microcomputers stimulate the use of
open-ended, design-oriented problems?" in the affir-
mative. Microcomputers are beginning to stimulate
the use of open-ended problems in the core courses.
The cost of software development, principally in stu-
dent and faculty time, continues to be high. But, the
new authoring systems have the potential to sharply
reduce the cost and associated effort.


ETB
-- 5'- ~
20 LIQ-GS
I mHEmT !-' flE BEI~~~-C CONDENSER D,
QI !Q2 6 8 0 0
LIQ-LIQ- R R
Expected Output: SEP B B
FLWRTE TEMP COMPONENT MOLE FRACTIONS -* 7 J J
N GMOL/H DE C ETB H28 STY BENZ TOLN METH ETHL H2 T 1
5 ,63 33,6 .881 ,883 888 88 888 ,817 ,814 ,965 I
? 19,99 33,6 ,808 1.88,8 .88 .888 ,8 ,88, 888 .888 S. Operating
18 ,78 73,3 ,944 ,88 ,013 ,819 .816 988 7 ,888 TI ParaMeters:
11 1,38 77,6 ,533 .988 ,467 .00888 ,08880 .,88 ,008 1 ETB: 2,88 nol/h
L 9 H20:20,00 Mol/h
Actual Output: I- :1: 488,8 watts
I 2: 108,8 watts
FLWRIE TEMP COMPONENT MOLE FRACTIONS I CW: ,833 mol/s
SGHOL/H DEG C EIB H20 STY BENZ TOLN METH ETHL H2 I Liq-Cas Sep,
5 ,27 46,1 .885 .09, .,01 .00, .800 ,879 ,883 ,912 0 Pres: 8,6 psi
7 ,.8 25,8, .88,8 .88,888. .000 00 .6 8 00 ,888 0 .6.8 Ads.line: 5,8 h
10 ,.7 73,4 ,958 .880 ,885 .882 ,833 ,8 81 ,881 ._ 8 D istillation:
11 1,38 75,1 .799 ,088 ,201 .80 ,80 .000 ,88 .00 -- lDist: ,78mol/h
(R) 11 Pres 189,MnHg

FIGURE 4. Styrene microplant before and after random
generation of a fault [6].


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











... job opportunities are shifting toward the manufacture of silicon chips, the processing of
pharmaceuticals and foods, the manufacture of solar collectors, etc., and chemical engineers are being
challenged to develop new sensing devices that provide better data and more
detailed models to clarify their processing mechanisms.

FAULT DETECTION


While on the subject of interactive microcomputers
in undergraduate coursework and before turning to
the next question, a program by Heil and Fogler [6]
that enables students to detect faults in a styrene
microplant is an extraordinary example of a chemical
engineering mystery (comparable to the well-known
SNOOPER TROOPS detective game). This program
is intended to teach the basics of structured problem-
solving using the Kepner and Tregoe Method [7].
Through many frames, the student is presented with
information concerning the normal operation of the
microplant and its performance after a failure has
been randomly generated. See, for example, Figure
4. Given $2500, the student must locate the fault,
while spending as little money as possible. Detailed
information about each process unit is available at no
cost. However, when necessary, the student can make
experimental measurements at costs between $50-
$200. At some point, the student selects from approx-
imately 75 possible faults, thereby initiating repair
work at costs between $200-$800. Mistaken diagnoses
are charged the full cost of repairs and, hence, it is
important to carefully isolate the fault before report-
ing it.
It is noteworthy that several researchers are seek-
ing methods to automate the fault detection strategies
through the use of logic-based, expert systems [8].

HIGH-RESOLUTION GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS
Probably the greatest limitation of the widely
available PCs for use in the core courses is their
medium- to low-resolution graphics displays. Distrib-
uted parameter problems arise often in courses on
transport processes, separations, and reactor design,
and their solutions, in the form of streamlines,
isotherms, lines of constant composition, etc., can be
plotted using software for two- and three-dimensional
graphics. As this software becomes easier to use and
more widely available, the limiting factor shifts to the
resolution of the graphics display. Thus far, research-
ers have found it necessary to use the more expensive,
and less widely available, high-resolution graphics
workstations such as the Evans and Sutherland,
MicroVAX II/GPX, Apollo, and Sun. However, these
are becoming cheaper and consequently will be more


atmospheres
cubic centimeters/g-mol
degrees Keluin


FIGURE 5. PVT surface for a van der Waals' fluid. Line
of constant internal energy. (Reprinted with permission
from [9])

available to undergraduate students. They are en-
dowed with full 32 bit processors and speeds in the
range of 1-10 MIPS, which reduce the computation
times for finite-element analyses and graphical trans-
formations.
An excellent example of the power of high-resolu-
tion displays is the program by Jolls [9] to plot three-
dimensional PVT surfaces and related thermodynamic
properties for the ideal gas and van der Waals' equa-
tions of state. The FORTRAN program, which runs
on VAX computers with Tektronix 4107 color graphics
terminals, is particularly effective in displaying the
thermodynamic paths between two states. For exam-
ple, isenthalpic, isentropic, isothermal, isobaric, etc.,
paths can be displayed. See Figure 5, in which a path
of constant internal energy is displayed on a PVT sur-
face. While the Jolls displays are for pure fluids only,
Gubbins and co-workers [10] have prepared composi-
tion-dependent displays for binary systems, as illus-
trated in Figure 6, using a FORTRAN program that
runs on DEC VAX systems under VMS with Evans
and Sutherland Multipicture System II workstations.
When similar workstations are mass-produced at
lower costs, their impact on the teaching of subjects
that benefit from three-dimensional visualization
should be dramatic. For now, however, it seems
reasonable to conclude that instructional computing


FALL 1988










lags behind current practice in several areas funda-
mental to classical chemical engineering, including
thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.

LESS CONVENTIONAL PROCESSING
The processing of materials, biochemicals, biomed-
ical systems, solar collectors, etc., is often complex,
difficult to model, and difficult to measure. As a con-
sequence, until recently, young chemical engineers
usually sought and found work in industries that apply
the principles of transport processes, thermo-


FIGURE 6. PTX surface for H,S CH, system using the
Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation. (Reprinted with permis-
sion from [10])


dynamics, chemical kinetics, etc., to less complex pro-
cesses. However, job opportunities are shifting to-
ward the manufacture of silicon chips, the processing
of pharmaceuticals and foods, the manufacture of solar
collectors, etc., and chemical engineers are being chal-
lenged to develop new sensing devices that provide
better data and more detailed models to clarify their
processing mechanisms.
Academicians are prominent in these fields and,
consequently, are introducing new experimental and


Melted
Silicon

Crucible(hot)


FIGURE 7. Three-dimensional modeling of Czochralski
crystal growth in the manufacture of silicon chips [12].


theoretical techniques as applications in their core
courses and in specialized electives. With these areas
expanding, it seems reasonable to question whether
the computer is enabling undergraduate students to
better understand, and possibly design, less conven-
tional processes. The response, it seems clear, is no;
or at least, not yet.
The theoretical work of these researchers has be-
come so computer-dependent that undergraduate stu-
dents can be expected to gain exposure to their models
as they evolve. In many cases, although the details of
the models and finite-element analyses are beyond
their comprehension, the students should be able to
perform meaningful computational experiments, try-
ing different geometries and configurations, calculat-
ing power requirements, etc. For the most part, these
teaching materials will require high-resolution graphi-
cal displays with acceptable computing speeds and suf-
ficient storage to perform the finite-element analyses.
One such application involves the Czochralski
method of crystal growth in the manufacture of silicon
chips [11], for which Ozoe and Matsui [12] have de-
veloped a three-dimensional model of the crucible
shown in Figure 7. Their model accounts for the
bouyant and centrifugal forces, with zero gradients
assumed in the azimuthal direction, and confirms that
at critical Raleigh numbers and critical ratios of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





























FIGURE 8. Sketch of the streaklines from three-dimen-
sional modeling of natural convection in a solar collector
[13].

Grashof number to Reynolds number squared, unde-
sirable recirculation patterns develop in the crystal-
line melt. A related example involves natural convec-
tion in a solar collector that absorbs solar energy at
the lower surface and transmits it to the fluid by con-
vection and conduction. Figure 8 shows the system
under study by Churchill and co-workers [13]. Their
results show a three-dimensional transition in the pat-
tern of flow and the rate of heat transfer as the angle
0 varies. Clearly, programs that solve the partial dif-
ferential equations and display the results in three
dimensions can add immeasurably to courses in heat
and mass transfer. At this time, the use of these pro-
grams for instructional computing lags far behind the
development of these algorithms. The gap, however,
can be expected to narrow appreciably over the next
2-3 years, as high-resolution graphical workstations
replace the current generation of PCs.

CONCLUSIONS
It is concluded that:

For the design and control courses, the com-
puting tools are, for the most part, in step
with design and control practice in chemical
engineering. (See Part 1.)
Microcomputers are beginning to stimulate
the use of open-ended problems in the core
courses. The cost of software development,
principally in student and faculty time,
continues to be high. But, the new author-
ing systems have the potential to reduce the


cost and associated effort sharply.
When high-resolution workstations are mass-
produced at lower costs, their impact on the
teaching of subjects that benefit from three-
dimensional visualization should be dramatic.
Currently, however, instructional computing
lags behind the current practice in several
areas fundamental to classical chemical en-
gineering, including thermodynamics and
fluid mechanics.

Complex computer models, often developed as
a consequence of improved sensing devices,
permit chemical engineers to clarify the
mechanisms that underlie the processing of
materials and biochemicals, the behavior of
biomedical systems, etc. At this time, the use
of such models for instructional computing
lags far behind the development of models for
these processes. The gap, however, can be ex-
pected to narrow over the next 2-3 years, as
high-resolution graphical workstations re-
place the current generation of PCs.

REFERENCES
1. Denn, M. M., "Design, Accreditation, and Computing
Technology," Chem. Eng. Ed., Winter, 1986
2. Seider, W. D., ed., CACHE IBM PC Lessons for Chemical
Engineering Courses Other Than Design and Control,
CACHE, 1987
3. Seider, W. D., J. C. Kellow, M. L. Cygnarowicz,
"Supercritical Extraction," in Chemical Engineering in a
Changing Environment, eds., S. I. Sander and B. A.
Finlayson, AIChE, in press, 1988
4. Carnahan, B., and C. Jaeger, "The MicroCACHE System for
Computer-Aided Instruction," presented at the AIChE
National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, May, 1984
5. UNISON Author Language, Courseware Applications, Inc.,
475 Devonshire Drive, Champaign, IL, 1987
6. Heil, A. T., and H. S. Fogler, "Styrene Microplant: An
Exercise in Troubleshooting," Interactive Software for
Chemical Engineers, University of Michigan, 1985
7. Kepner, C. H., and B. B. Tregoe, The New Rational
Manager, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1981
8. Rich, S. H., and V. Venkatasubramanian, "Model-based
Reasoning in Diagnostic Expert Systems for Chemical
Process Plants," Comp. Chem. Eng., 11, 2, 111, 1987
9. Morrow, J. F., and K. R. Jolls, Equations of State:
Preliminary Operating Manual, Iowa State University,
Chemical Engineering Department, August, 1987
10. Charos, G. N., P. Clancy, and K. E. Gubbins, "The
Representation of Highly Non-Ideal Phase Equilibria
Using Computer Graphics," Chem. Eng. Ed., Spring, 1986
11. Jensen, K. F., "Control Problems in Microelectronic
Processing," in Proceedings of CPC III Conference, eds., T. J.
McAvoy and M. Morari, Elsevier, 1986
12. Ozoe, H., and T. Matsui, "Numerical Computation of
Czochralski Bulk for Liquid Metallic Silicon," in
preparation, Kyushu University, Japan, 1987
13. Ozoe, H., K. Fujii, N. Lior, and S. W. Churchill, "Long Rolls
Generated by Natural Convection in an Inclined,
Rectangular Enclosure," Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 26, 10, 1427,
1983 O


FALL 1988










Sacurriculum


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN

JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES

A Perspective*
PART 2


EDITORIAL NOTE: Part 1 of this paper appeared
in the previous issue of Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion (Vol. 22, No. 3).

SIGMUND FLOYD
Exxon Chemical Company
Linden, NJ 07036

GRADUATE EDUCATION in Japan and the United
States differs significantly due to cultural/
societal factors. The most obvious difference is the
disparate importance of the Masters and PhD degrees
in the two countries. In the U.S., many universities
allow the student to pursue the Doctoral degree with-
out first obtaining the MS, but there is no fixed period
for either degree. In the case of the PhD in particular,
the primary requirement for graduation is generally
perceived as "satisfying one's adviser." In Japan,
there is a fixed duration of two years for the Master's










{ 1 -?



Sigmund Floyd graduated from the Tokyo Institute of Technology,
Japan, with a BEng in chemical engineering, in 1980, and began
graduate studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, the same
year. He received his PhD in 1986, and is currently working at Exxon
Chemical Company in Linden, New Jersey.
*The views expressed herein are the author's and not those of
Exxon Corporation.


Most U.S. graduate schools have a formal
minor requirement which necessitates passing
several courses outside the major department. In
Japan, the general atmosphere does not encourage
such forays into new knowledge at the graduate
level graduate courses are kept as free of
work as possible in order to maximize
the time available for research.


and three additional years for the Doctoral degree.
These fixed durations are important because, in con-
trast to U.S. practice, Japanese companies strongly
prefer to hire all their new graduates at the same time
of the year in order to facilitate group training. In the
U.S., the Masters Degree, although seen as a useful
extension of undergraduate work, is not particularly
prestigious. In Japan, on the other hand, the Masters
Degree students who unlike their U.S. counterparts
generally have three solid years of research experi-
ence (counting the undergraduate senior year), are
welcomed by Japanese industry as having the correct
mix of broad and specific knowledge. This is due, at
least partly, to the myopic specialization that is ex-
pected of doctoral students in Japan, evidenced by the
differences in graduate course requirements. Most
U.S. graduate schools have a formal minor require-
ment which necessitates passing several courses out-
side the major department. In Japan, the general at-
mosphere does not encourage such forays into new
knowledge at the graduate level. In fact, graduate
courses are kept as free of work as possible, in order
to maximize the time available for research. The focus
on one narrow area is reinforced by the fact that the
graduate school almost exclusively retains its own un-
dergraduates, who simply remain in the same lab in
which they complete their undergraduate Thesis Pro-
ject (the type of crossover from other disciplines that
occurs in the U.S. is very rare). Doctoral students


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










In the U.S., the Masters Degree, although seen as a useful extension of undergraduate work, is not
particularly prestigious. In Japan, on the other hand, the Masters Degree students who, unlike their U.S.
counterparts, generally have three solid years of research experience (counting the undergraduate senior year),
are welcomed by Japanese industry as having the correct mix of broad and specific knowledge.


generally elect an academic career, continuing at the
institution of their graduation*. Eventually, some of
these "research fellows" move into vacated slots for
assistant professors, while others stagnate or move
out to industry. At the national schools, which are the
primary research universities, each assistant profes-
sor slot is tied to a senior professorial slot in an ad-
ministrative unit known as a koza. The realm of inves-
tigation of the koza is quite sharply defined, and hence
assistant professors are not free to do research in any
realm of choice, as they are in the U.S. In fact, the
assistant professor is usually "mentored" by the senior
professor throughout a significant part of his career.
The creation of new kozas is overseen by the Ministry
of Education, with each koza receiving an identical
amount of funding from the government. Room for
individual initiative under the Japanese system is
much less than in the American system, in which scho-
ols prefer to bring in "new blood" from other institu-
tions.
Japanese graduate students put in essentially six
days of lab work per week, spending less than around
15% of their time on coursework. Although the gruel-
ling lab routine leaves little time for pursuit of outside
interests, the Japanese graduate school is not an un-
pleasant social experience. The members of the lab
group, who are usually crowded into small labora-
tories, share a strong sense of camaraderie, enhanced
through interactions such as drinking parties and sum-
mer trips to resort areas (it is very uncommon for
Japanese graduate students to be married). This con-
stant fellowship provides an outlet for stress and
facilitates research discussions and mutual assistance
among students. Formal research meetings involving
the entire group are frequent, and except for the very
newest members of the group (the undergraduate
seniors), suggestions and observations may be made
by anyone, in the best scientific tradition. In the U.S.,
the quality of the graduate school experience is prob-
ably less uniform. For a small but significant percent-
age of students, it turns out to be a nightmare, due to
factors such as capricious advisers, an unsympathetic
bureaucracy, and an overload of teaching duties. Con-
siderable dissatisfaction also results from the fact that
the student could be earning a much larger income in
private industry. In contrast, graduate students in
*There are signs that this situation is beginning to change, with
doctoral degrees now in strong demand at some major companies.


Japan generally receive no financial support and have
minimal teaching duties, continuing for the most part
to live at home or at the expense of their parents*. In
addition, the relatively low starting salaries at all
levels and the high degree of respect for graduate stu-
dents by society largely eliminate the psychological
handicaps suffered by graduate students in the U.S.,
where social status is primarily determined by in-
come. A substantial fraction of an American graduate
student's time is spent on coursework and teaching
duties. In research, U.S. graduate students tend to
work independently of others and also tend to work
in "spurts," alternating between feverish and rela-
tively relaxed periods. In addition, U.S. students are
accustomed to enjoying a broader spectrum of social
activities (e.g., clubs, religious groups) than their
Japanese counterparts. In Japan, peer pressure to
conform to the standard work hours of the lab, men-
tioned in Part 1, is quite intense. Through close super-
vision, gossip, and innuendo, an atmosphere is created
in which shirking is very unfavorably regarded, and
in an extreme case a member might be ostracized by
the group. Because of these differences in work habits
and other cultural and language differences, it is
rather hard for a foreign student to be successfully
assimilated into a Japanese laboratory. Foreign stu-
dents are generally incapable of fully taking part in
the regular group activities, both professional and so-
cial, and many suffer from feelings of isolation (almost
all foreign students are accepted on a case-by-case
basis, and hence are present in far fewer numbers
than on U.S. campuses). From personal observation,
I would recommend that any student who wishes to
experience working in a Japanese laboratory should
at least have a rudimentary knowledge of spoken
Japanese, be willing to work long hours, and be outgo-
ing enough to participate in group activities. Being
unmarried is preferable. While I would not rule out
the possibility of a valuable experience for a female
student, she should be prepared to deal amicably with
a likely all-male environment and a strongly male-
oriented culture.
In contrast Japanese students in American univer-
sities generally seem to adjust very well. There is a
tendency, as in the case of other foreign nationals, to

*A few scholarships, mostly in the form of repayable loans, are
available for the economically disadvantaged.


FALL 1988










socialize with other Japanese and form support net-
works. This sometimes results in less interaction with
American students than is desirable. However, the
large numbers of Japanese students, faculty, and com-
pany personnel* who participate in the U.S. educa-
tional system ensure that Japan has an opportunity to
learn from and absorb the strongest parts of the
American system. Unfortunately, the reverse is not
true; the number of American engineering students
and faculty who participate in some form of educa-
tional experience overseas, particularly in Japan, is
too small.

CONCLUSIONS
In both Part 1 and Part 2 of this paper, I have
attempted to convey theflavor of receiving a scientific
education in the social cultures of Japan and the
United States. It should be clear that cultural factors
loom very large in determining the educational experi-
ence, and hence, what is good in each system cannot
necessarily or even desirably be transported to the
other country. For example, American companies will
undoubtedly continue to expect graduates who can
plunge straight into their duties, while Japanese com-
panies will prefer to shape and mold the roles of their
employees. Nevertheless, it should benefit research-
ers, university administrators, science policymakers,
and company managers in both the U.S. and Japan to
have an awareness of these educational and cultural
differences and to try and distill the best possible ex-
perience out of each system.
The Japanese educational system turns out large
numbers of relatively uniform, highly trained, and
rather idealistic graduates. Especially at the MS level,
these graduates combine a fairly broad, though shal-
low, technical background with expertise in a specific
area and a good understanding of research methods.
They are hardworking and, equally important, experi-
enced at getting things to work. These qualities make
them suited to and easily assimilated into the predom-
inantly applied research programs at Japanese com-
panies. Furthermore, in contrast with the U.S.,
Japanese companies have no clearly defined technical
and managerial ladders, and it is uncommon for em-
ployees to remain in an exclusively technical role
throughout their careers. Thus, in the course of em-

*Many Japanese companies and governmental agencies such as
MITI send their employees to foreign universities to acquire a
"broad perspective" as well as research and language skills, often
with an MS degree as the formal objective. This is a prestigious
assignment, and is rooted in Japan's long-standing tradition of
learning from overseas.


. it is difficult to overemphasize the
importance of the research experience gained by
Japanese Bachelor's and Master's students in
instilling a feeling for scientific methodology
and "doing things right" .


ployment, the best of these graduates eventually oc-
cupy key managerial roles in Japanese corporations.
(It has been estimated that around half of the direc-
tors of major industrial companies have an engineer-
ing background [1]). In the U.S., many managers who
have BS or MS degrees in engineering have little or
no experience in research. It is worth mentioning that
there is no specific slanting of curricula in Japan to-
wards manufacturing issues, in which Japan is often
ascribed an almost mystical prowess by U.S. obser-
vers. However, it is difficult to overemphasize the im-
portance of the research experience gained by
Japanese Bachelor's and Master's students in instilling
a feeling for scientific methodology and "doing things
right," which is surely applicable to endeavors besides
research. It is also plausible that the fundamental re-
spect for and understanding of the research and de-
velopment process (including staying abreast of the
foreign scientific literature) on the part of Japanese
technical managers has played a significant part in
Japan's successes in adaptation and refinement of
foreign technology, enabling competition with the
U.S. in numerous technical fields.
On the other hand, it must be observed that the
qualities of Japan's technical graduates are obedience
and persistence, rather than independence and in-
quiry. Thus, one can point to numerous factors in
Japan's educational system which will limit its stated
goal of mobilizing the creative process. Among these
are the lack of emphasis on originality, the often sti-
fling level of supervision of projects at the lower de-
gree levels, the tendency to overspecialize at the PhD
and faculty level, and the lack of mobility between
and within universities. While there is definitely a
trade-off between advanced study in major and non-
major fields and getting data for one's research pro-
ject, the balance will have to be shifted somewhat if
Japan is to produce graduates with multidisciplinary
capability. Indeed, the multidisciplinary capability of
American PhD students is probably one of the
strongest features of the American educational sys-
tem, which has translated to leadership advantages in
non-traditional areas such as materials, biotechnol-
ogy, and computers. However, one must never under-
estimate the Japanese capability for a focused re-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










sponse in such areas, once the basic work has been
done and the potential is apparent.
Another area in which the Japanese system should
seek improvements is in requiring more rigor in
coursework; a system in which "getting by" is suffi-
cient is detrimental to creativity. Last, but not least,
the rigidity of the current koza system and its restric-
tions on initiative of younger investigators would
seem to be in need of reevaluation in the light of
Japan's desire to become a leader in new technologies.
In the United States, at the undergraduate level,
the most transparent problem is the lack of significant
research (or other practical hands-on) experience for
the majority of the graduating class of engineers. Lab
courses cannot make up for this failure. This results
in an inadequate understanding of the scientific
method of problem-solving on the part of Bachelors
graduates, many of whom eventually go on to careers
in technical management. In addition, at a time when
the U.S. is struggling to maintain its technological
position in several areas, it simply does not make
sense to graduate engineers with little or no sense of
what it means to do research. In the author's view, at
minimum, a one-semester course equivalent (3 cre-
dits) of research should be a graduation requirement
for the Bachelor's degree. In addition, the complexity
and diversity of expertise that is required today would
seem to point to a need for a greater number of
courses, in both technical and non-technical fields. For
example, in an age of international competition, there
should be a requirement to demonstrate at least
rudimentary proficiency in a foreign language.
There should also be some opportunities for discus-
sion of broad social issues and how engineers and sci-
entists can contribute to their resolution. The current
adversarial relationship between technical problem
solvers and people who perceive problems needs to be
improved drastically. One possibility might be a re-
quirement for attending seminars by visiting indus-
trial personnel, regulatory officials, and representa-
tives of responsible environmentalist organizations. A
better understanding of the contributions of science
and engineering to our national security and well-
being would hopefully be an additional factor for stu-
dent motivation, as it is in the Asian cultures of
Taiwan, Korea, China, and Japan.
The ability to achieve such diverse objectives and
still produce graduates of acceptable "drop-in" capa-
bility for American industry obviously requires better
support from the basic educational system. Currently,
the freshman year and part of the sophomore year in
the U.S. are spent in acquiring a level of knowledge


possessed by graduating high school seniors in Japan.
The compression of a rigorous engineering curriculum
into the remaining two years is undoubtedly responsi-
ble for "burnout," as well as the fairly general percep-
tion that engineers do not receive a well-rounded edu-
cation, which in turn means that the least able
graduates are unable to find jobs. Unemployment
among graduating seniors, which has recently been as
high as 20% [2], is one of the major issues confronting
the profession in the United States. In contrast, in
Japan, engineering graduates from prestigious schools


There should be ... discussion of broad social issues
and how engineers and scientists can contribute
to their resolution. The adversarial relationship
between problem solvers and people who
perceive problems needs to be improved.


are considered eminently employable in non-technical
positions, and some go to work for trading companies
or enter civil service.
Concerning Japanese excellence in manufacturing,
it is evident that this must be attributed to factors
other than course requirements. However, in the
U.S., manufacturing is currently acknowledged to be
of relatively low prestige by many industrial mana-
gers. In order to partially rectify this situation, one
solution would be for engineering schools to offer a
"manufacturing specialty" option consisting of a fo-
cused group of courses in areas such as statistics, pro-
cess control, engineering economics, and quality as-
surance, which are basic to manufacturing technology.
This is neither excessive nor unrealistic, in view of
the fact that some schools currently offer "options" or
"emphases" in topics such as applied mathematics,
biology, food science, microelectronics, and pollution
control. By recognizing the value of this type of option
through hiring practices, industry could stimulate a
greater awareness of the importance of manufacturing
among Bachelor's students.
At the graduate level in the U.S., attempts to
streamline the PhD program should be implemented.
While going to a fixed-duration system like that of
Japan may not be appropriate, conscious efforts to
enhance productive progress and shorten the duration
of research projects so that a PhD is achievable in
four years would be beneficial in encouraging pursuit
of this degree by people whose objective is an indus-
trial career. In attempting to streamline the degree,
the broad interdisciplinary aspects of graduate study


FALL 1988










in the United States, a fundamental strength, should
not be compromised, and perhaps could even be en-
couraged. For example, a student might be asked to
submit a short proposal on extensions of his research
to another field, which would be appended to his thesis
with appropriate keywords for location by researchers
who might otherwise never examine his or her work.
For the MS degree, on the other hand, coursework is
overemphasized, and a greater emphasis on research
contributions would be desirable.
Both Japan and the United States have serious
issues of access to higher education in technical fields
for women and minorities. While the situation for
women in the U.S. has improved significantly in re-
cent years, in Japan the attitude toward women in
technical and supervisory positions remains highly
prejudicial. As the percentage of women in these pos-
itions in the U.S. continues to grow, discomfort will
be experienced in cross-national dealings, e.g., joint
ventures. While change will be slow, it is to be hoped
that Japan will eventually take its place among the
leading societies in this regard. In the U.S., continu-
ing efforts must be made not only to attract minorities
and women into the scientific and engineering profes-
sions, but to deal with the fundamental causes under-
lying reduced participation by these groups.
In summary, although some would argue that each
system serves the unique needs of its country
adequately, comparing the systems of engineering
education in Japan and the United States offers food
for thought on possible improvements to each. While
a significant number of Japanese students and faculty
spend some time within the U.S. educational system,
it is unfortunate that a much smaller number of Amer-
icans participate in the Japanese experience. It is to
be hoped that in the future, more American students
and faculty will view first-hand the workings of
Japanese education. To stimulate this, it would be de-
sirable for engineering departments of major univer-
sities to develop student and faculty exchange pro-
grams and to incorporate courses in Japanese lan-
guage and technical Japanese into their curricula. In
Japan, the focus for the future must be on stimulating
creativity, while in the United States the educational
system does not appear to wholly meet needs for re-
search management capability and solution of pressing
social concerns, including industrial competitiveness.
In particular, concrete measures directed at increas-
ing the prestige of manufacturing among engineering
graduates may be warranted. While the job market
for scientists and engineers frequently appears to be
supersaturated, stable growth in scientific and en-


gineering enrollments with production of good-quality
graduates can be expected to benefit the nation in the
long term. Both countries still face some very real
issues of access and fairness. In the U.S., there is a
clear need for professional societies to assist in
monitoring statistics relating to women and minority
enrollments. Finally, the nation's corporations can do
their part by taking an active interest in education,
promoting stable hiring policies, and maintaining affir-
mative action goals.

REFERENCES
1. P. H. Abelson, editorial in Science,210, 965 (1980)
2. 1986 Enrollment Survey in Chemical Engineering Progress, 83,
(6), 90 (June, 1987)



FLUID PROPERTIES
Continued from page 211.
interacting with high-quality students prior to gradu-
ation. The students benefit by interactions with indus-
trial sponsors and by working on industrially-relevant
research.

CONCLUSIONS
Thermodynamics and fluid properties research is
a thriving activity at Georgia Tech. Although based
mainly in the School of Chemical Engineering, there
are joint projects with the Schools of Chemistry,
Mechanical Engineering, and Applied Biology. There
is also significant industrial participation via the Fluid
Properties Research Institute. It is obvious from
some of the work described that the need for ther-
mophysical properties and for fundamental under-
standing of molecular behavior which determines
these properties, will continue to grow as new
technologies emerge and established technologies
change.

REFERENCES

1. Kirk, B. S., and W. T. Ziegler, Adv. Cryog. Eng., 10, (1965)
2. Anselme, M., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology,
1988
3. McHugh, M., and V. Krukonis, Supercritical Fluid Extraction,
Butterworth, Stoneham, MA 1986
4. Georgeton, G., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology,
1987
5. Schaeffer, S. T., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technol-
ogy, 1988
6. D'Souza, R., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology,
1986
7. Paspek, S. C. Chem. Eng. Prog., p. 20, Nov. (1985) 2


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











THE UNIVERSITY OF lKRON ,
8Ikron,0H 44325


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY

G. A. ATWOOD____
J. M. BERTY
H. M. CHEUNG
S. C. CHUANG
J.R. ELLIOTT
G. ESKAMANI*
L. G. FOCHT
H. L. GREENE
H. C. KILLORY
S. LEE
R. W. ROBERTS ___
M. S. WILLIS


RESEARCH INTERESTS


Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Processes
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Waste Water Treatment
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Computer Applications
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena


'Adjunct Professor


Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,000. Industrially sponsored
fellowships available up to $16,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees.
Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
CHAIRMAN, GRADUATE COMMITTEE
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF AKRON
AKRON, OH 44325


FALL 1988






I :


II L I


T dI -.-"1


ai -


1 :f IL


rl


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ri 4 :






Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics
1. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics


K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomenna,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Upgrading
D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics
D. B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics

J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media

S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory

S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics

R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control


For further information contact
CHAIRMAN
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA
EDMONTON, CANADA T6G 2G6













THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ

The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial
grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses
are offered in most of the research areas listed below.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science*:
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport

HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics, Polyelectrolyte Solutions

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

EDWARD J. FREEH, Research Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue.University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in the
Microcirculation, Biorheology

SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Combustion and Fuel
Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation Processes, Applied Mathematics

GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical Modeling of Transport,
Bioreactors

ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor
Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical
Ph.D., UCLA, 1983
Boundary Layers, Stability, Mass and Heat Transport




Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It is
a growing modern city of 450,000 that
retains much of the old Southwestern
atmosphere.



For further information, write to

Dr. Jost 0. L. Wendt
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721



The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity
educational institution/equal opportunity
employer.


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion
Aerosols, Microcontamination

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena,
Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Computer
Aided Design

FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion

JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement Chemical
Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phenomena
DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic
Processes

DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc.,Technlon, 1962
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing
'Center for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several
technicians, and several postdocs and graduate students. Other research involves 2-D
electrmphoesis cell culture, electro cell fusion, and electro fluid dynamic modelling.











Arizona State University
Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D.
Degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biomedical Engineering, and
Materials Engineering
Research Specializations include:
ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION *
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS
* BIOINSTRUMENTATION BIOMATERIALS CARDIO-
VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS *
CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE
MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE
PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION *
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES *
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly respected faculty:
James R. Beckman (Arizona) James B. Koeneman (Western Australia)*
Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) Stephen J. Krause (Michigan)
Neil S. Berman (Texas) James L. Kuester (Texas A&M)
David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)*
Llewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin)
Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)*
Veronica A. Burrows (Princeton) Vernon E. Sater (IIT)
Timothy S. Cale (Houston) Milton C. Shaw (Cincinnati)*
Ray W. Carpenter (UC/Berkeley) Kwang S. Shin (Northwestern)
William A. Coghlan (Stanford) James T. Stanley (Illinois)
Sandwip K. Dey (Alfred U.) Robert S. Torrest (Minnesota)
William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) Bruce C. Towe (Pennsylvania State)
R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Thomas L. Wachtel (St. Louis University)*
Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech) Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia)
David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech)*
Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley)
Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) Imre Zwiebel (Yale)
Bal K. Jindal (Stanford) *Adjunct or Emeritus Professor

Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, which is a part of the greater
Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled
in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 are in graduate study. Arizona's
year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own
cultural and recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering
Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6006

Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action
and equal opportunity in its employment, activities and programs.
U -











University of Arkansas


Department of Chemical Engineering


Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION

Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics

Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics,
Enhanced Oil Recovery

Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics

James R. Couper (D.Sc., Washington U.)
Process Design and Economics, Polymers

James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization
Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards
Assessment

William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering

Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion

Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes
Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation
Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design

Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas)
Microelectronics Materials and Processing,
Superconductors
J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control

FINANCIAL AID
Graduate students are supported by fellowships and
research or teaching assistantships.

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT
Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701


LOCATION
The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is liter-
ally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor
recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic
city and serves as the center of trade, government, and
finance for the region. The city and University offer a
wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

FACILITIES
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional
20,000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Experi-
ment Station.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


Graduate Studies




^ LPeIS)'" '-"' --4 -


A~on,.


Auburn University


THE FACULTY


RESEARCH AREAS


R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966) Advanced Polymer Science
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1969) Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) Carbon Fibers and Composites
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Conversion
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) Co r
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976) Computer-Aided Process Control
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) Controlled Atmosphere
G. MAPLES (Oklahoma State University, 1967) Electron Microscopy
R. D. NEUMAN (Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1973) Environmental Engineering
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) Heterogeneous Catalysis
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973) THE PROGRAM
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) The Department is one of the faster
The Department is one of the faste
offers degrees at the M.S. and P1
For Information and Application, Write both experimental and theoretic
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head interest, with modern research ec
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head types of studies. Generous finar
Chemical Engineering qualified students.
Auburn University, AL 36849-5127
Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


Interfacial Phenomena
Process Design
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Separations
Surface Science
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena

st growing in the Southeast and
h.D. levels. Research emphasizes
al work in areas of national
tuipment available for most all
ncial assistance is available to


FALL 1988























"IsmA.M.^^^




".'s., l....... .... .


^i^Hifii^^^f ^^Ui^!'40


... .. R












GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL

AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

TTM
THE The Department offers programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees
UNIVERSITY (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree (part time) in the following areas:
OF CALGARY


FACULTY
R. A. Heidemann, Head, (Washington U.)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, UK.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary) FOR


* Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria
* Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
* Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
* Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
* Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
* Environmental Engineering
* Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
* Enhanced Oil Recovery
* In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
* Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
* Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
* Computer Control and Optimization of Engineering
and Bio Processes
* Biotechnology and Biorheology

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE


DR. P. R. BISHNOI, CHAIRMAN GRADUATE STUDIES COMMITTEE
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY, CALGARY, ALBERTA, CANADA T2N 1N4


The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary
Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of
a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake
Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the
Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture.


FALL 1988







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,



BERKELEY...


RESEARCH INTERESTS

ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


. offers graduate programs leading to the Maste
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro
grams involve joint faculty-student research a
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings o
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreationE
activities of California's northern coast and mount
tains.




FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Arup K. Chakraborty
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soane
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720



















University of California, Davis
Department of Chemical Engineering


Faculty
BELL, Richard L.
University of Washington, Seattle Mass
transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays,
environmental transport, biochemical
engineering.
BOULTON, Roger
University of Melbourne Chemical en-
gineering aspects of fermentation and
wine processing, fermentation kinetics,
computer simulation and control of enol-
ogical operations.
HIGGINS, Brian G.
University of Minnesota Wetting hy-
drodynamics, fluid mechanics of thin
films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett
Films, Sol-Gel processes.
JACKMAN, Alan P.
University of Minnesota Biological ki-
netics and reactor design, kinetics of ion
exchange, environmental solute trans-
port, heat and mass transport at air-water
interface, hemodynamics and fluid ex-
change.
KATZ, David F.
University of California, Berkeley Bio-
logical fluid mechanics, biorheology,
cell biology, image analysis.
McCOY, Benjamin J.
University of Minnesota Chemical re-
action engineering adsorption, cataly-
sis, multiphase reactors; separation proc-
esses chromatography, ion exchange,
supercritical fluid extraction.
McDONALD, Karen
University of Maryland, College Park -
Distillation control, control of multivari-
able, nonlinear processes, control of bio-
chemical processes, adaptive control,
parameter and state estimation.


PALAZOGLU, Ahmet
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Proc-
ess control, process design and synthesis.
POWELL, Robert L.
The Johns Hopkins University Rheol-
ogy, fluid mechanics, properties of sus-
pensions and physiological fluids.
RYU, Dewey D.Y.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Kinetics and reaction engineering of
biochemical and enzyme systems, opti-
mization of continuous bioreactor, bio-
conversion of biologically active com-
pounds, biochemical and genetic engi-
neering, and renewable resources devel-
opments.
SMITH, J.M.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport rates and chemical kinetics for
catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic
and steady-state methods in slurry,
trickle-bed, single pellet, and fixed-bed
reactors.
STROEVE, Pieter
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport with chemical reaction, bio-
technology, rheology of heterogeneous
media, thin film technology, interfacial
phenomena, image analysis.
WHITAKER, Stephen
University of Delaware Drying porous
media, transport processes in heteroge-
neous reactors, multiphase transport
phenomena in heterogeneous systems.

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from
Sacramento and just an hour away from
the San Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor
enthusiasts may enjoy water sports at
nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other
alpine activities in the Lake Tahoe Bowl
(2 hours away). These recreational op-


portunities combine with the friendly
informal spirit of the Davis campus and
town to make it a pleasant place in which
to live and study.
The city of Davis is adjacent to the
campus and within easy walking or cy-
cling distance. Both furnished and unfur-
nished one- and two-bedroom apart-
ments are available. Married student
housing, at reasonable cost, is located on-
campus.


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics & Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Environmental Transport
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Design & Control
Process Dynamics
Rheology
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase
Systems


More Information
The Graduate Group in Biomedical
Engineering is now housed within the
Department of Chemical Engineering.
Further information and application ma-
terials for either program (Chemical En-
gineering or Biomedical Engineering)
and financial aid may be obtained by
writing:
Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA



FACULTY 0


D. T. Allen
Y. Cohen
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of-
fers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
needs. The department's national leadership is de-
monstrated by the newly established Engineering
Research Center for Hazardous Substance Control.
This center of advanced technology is com-
plemented by existing center programs in Medical
Engineering and Environmental Transport Re-
search.
Fellowships are available for outstanding ap-
plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition
and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access
to the highly regarded science programs and to a
variety of experiences in theatre, music, art and
sports on campus.


K. Nobe
L. B. Robinson
O. I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan


RESEARCH AREAS *
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering





0 CONTACT 0
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo)
Chairman)
wo-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety,
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence.
PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue)
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science.
DAN G. CACUCI Ph.D. (Columbia)
Computational Engineering, Radiation Transport,
Reactor Physics, Uncertainty Analysis.
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear
Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis,
Transport Phenomena
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford)
Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis.
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D. (Cambridge)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon, Adhesion,
Colloidal Systems, Surface Forces.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D.. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process Dynamics,
Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Professor Emeritus)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

FALL 1988


G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
(Vice Chairman)
radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related
Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern)
Polymer Rheology.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley)
Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid
Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors,
Radiation Transport Analyses.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy
Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control, Process
Identification.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota)
Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety,
Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D.
(Minnesota)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomen,
Structure of Microemulsions.


PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT
The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.



THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.



For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


at the


CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY


* RESEARCH INTERESTS


Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F. Brady
George R. Gavalas
Julia A. Kornfield
L. Gary Leal
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Fred H. Shair
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
W. Henry Weinberg


Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparation
Catalysis
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Computational Hydrodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Polymer Physics
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems
Surface Science


for further information, write:

Professor John F.Brady
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





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EXERCISE YOUF
Join the chemical engineering team at CASE WESTERN RESERVE U
top-ranked teachers and researchers and practice in one of the best res


Faculty and specializations:
Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh
University Particle separations, mixing,
acid gas recovery
John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University
of Michigan Redox equilibria, thin car-
bon films, modulated electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962,
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adap-
tive inferential control, multi-variable
control, coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns
Hopkins University Laser anemometry,
mathematical modelling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton
University Colloidal phenomena,
ceramic dispersions, fine-particle
processing


Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa
State University High-gravity separa-
tions, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of
California (Berkeley) Electrochemical
engineering, current distributions,
electrodeposition
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case
Western Reserve University Elec-
trochemical sensors, electrochemical
synthesis, electrochemistry related to elec-
tronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa
State University Surface phenomena,
interfacial dynamics, light scattering
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Car-
negie-Mellon University Surfactant
systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil
recovery
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, Univer-
sity of Pittsburgh Electrochemical
:[--iri... i l-:rl2 : ~'l r jc il 'd -ir i l iTlJ.I.l i
doil~ r-i-' I-' :*:r **:


MIND
NIVERSITY. Work out with
;earch facilities in the country.

Train in:
* Electrochemical engineering
* Laser applications
* Mixing and separations
* Process control
* Surface and colloids

For more information contact:
The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
University Circle
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY)
CLEVELAND. OHIO 44106




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The

UNIVERSE


OF

CINC


TY


NNAT


GRADUATE STUDY in

Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
FACULTY *
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Robert Jenkins
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Sotiris Pratsinis
Neville Pinto
Stephen Thiel
Joel Weisman


CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow
equipment. Laser induced effects.


pattern and mixing in chemical


PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
AEROSOL ENGINEERING
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
systems.
COAL RESEARCH
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION


TWO-PHASE FLOW
Boiling. Stability and transport properties of
foam.
MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS


Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221


Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.



























graduate Study i

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

CENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS
PROCESSING
NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF
COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE
INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE
For details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676


Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory,
equal opportunity, affirmative action educator
and employer.


Potsdam New York 13676





Graduate Study at


Clemson University

I-in Chemical Engineering


Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking
in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to
South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
processing, composite materials, process
automation, thermodynamics, catalysis, and
membrane separation what more do you need?


The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 13,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.

The Faculty
Forest C. Alley William F. Beckwith Joseph C. Mullins
William B. Barlage, Jr. Dan D. Edie Amod A. Ogale
Charles H. Barron, Jr. Charles H. Gooding Richard W. Rice
John N. Beard, Jr. Stephen S. Melsheimer Mark C. Thies

Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering _
Earle Hall
CLEZSONT
Clemson University TUTI rRST
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering













UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Alternate Energy Sources Mass Transfer
Biotechnology and Bioengineering Membrane Transport and Separations
Heterogeneous Catalysis Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Coal Gasification and Combustion Process Control and Identification
Enhanced Oil Recovery Semiconductor Processing
Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics and Thin Film Science
Materials Processing Transport Processes

FACULTY
DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
for Academic Affairs Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975
LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor
ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor Ph.D., Purdue University, 1982
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983
RICHARD D. NOBLE, Research Professor
JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor Ph.D. Tulane University, 1965
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
HOWARD J. M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963
Ph.D., University of London, 1963
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and Chairman
DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958

FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










COLORADO OF


SCHOOL


OF
1874

MINES

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School of
Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-
liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.
J. H. GARY, Professor; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery pro-
cessing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking,
visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium
measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal
conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria,
education methods research.
R. M. BALDWIN, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines.
Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis, oil shale
processing, supercritical extraction.
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass
transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion
of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with
chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas
hydrate dissociation modeling.
A. L. BUNGE, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane
transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion
exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place
remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.
P. F. BRYAN, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Computer
aided process design, computational thermodynamics, novel
separation processes, applications of artificial
intelligence/expert systems.
R. L. MILLER, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy
oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil shale processing,
particulate removal with venturi scrubbers, supercritical
extraction.
J. F. ELY, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.

For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401












Colorado State University


Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.


Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:
Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.


Faculty:

LARRY BELFIORE, Ph.D.
University of Wisconsin

JUD HARPER, Ph.D.
Iowa State University

NAZ KARIM, Ph.D.
University of Manchester

TERRY LENZ, Ph.D.
Iowa State University


JIM LINDEN, Ph.D.
Iowa State University

CAROL McCONICA, Ph.D.
Stanford University

VINCE MURPHY, Ph.D.
University of Massachusetts

KEN REARDON, Ph.D.
California Institute of Technology


Research Areas:


Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
Environmental Engineering
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems


For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





























Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers

Faculty and Research Areas

THOMAS F. ANDERSON ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
statistical thermodynamics, polymer science, polymer morphology
phase equilibria, separations composite materials and properties
JAMES P. BELL JAMES M. FENTON MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
structure and electrochemical engineering, polymer processing,
properties of polymers enrivonmental engineering rheology
DOUGLAS J. COOPER G. MICHAEL HOWARD DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
expert systems, process dynamics, environmental engineering,
process control, energy technology biochemical engineering
fluidization
JAMES P.BHERBERT E. KLEI ROBERT A. WEISS
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN biochemical engineering, polymer science
catalysis, biotechnology, environmental engineering
surface science
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
chemical reaction engineering,
computer applications



We'll gladly supply the Answers!

STHE Graduate Admissions
'UNIVERSITY O)F Dept. of Chemical Engineering
Box U-139
-CONNECTTIC The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019








Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

at Cornell University


World-class research in...
biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science and engineering
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
Molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design


A diverse intellectual A distinguished faculty
l im t


.l I IIII
Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including chemistry,
biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business
administration.

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
country.
A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment.


Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A. Clark
Claude Cohen
Robert K. Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe
Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus)
Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.
For further information
write to:

Professor William L. Olbricht
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201


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CRTEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Chemical En ineerin at

The Faculty
Giovanni Astaritae
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Andrew L. Zydney


The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

New York For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Philadelphia Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Baltimore Newark, Delaware 19716
Washington The University of
Delaware





















V


E


R


OF FLORIDA


T


Y


Gainesville, Florida


Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD


For more information please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


U


N


FACULTY
TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Ther-
modynamics IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Dynam-
ics Simulations SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotech-
nology RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Re-
actor Design A. L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper
Characterization GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Sur-
face Science LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process
Control, Energy Systems DALE KIRMSE Computer
Aided Design, Process Control HONG H. LEE Reac-
tion Engineering, Semiconductor Processing GERASI-
MOS LYBERATOS Biochemical Engineering,
Chemical Reaction Engineering FRANK MAY
Computer-Aided Learning RANGA NARAYANAN
Transport Phenomena, Space Processing MARK E.
ORAZEM Electronic Materials Processing CHANG-
WON PARK Fluid Mechanics and Polymer Processing *
DINESH 0. SHAH Enhanced Oil Recovery, Biomedi-
cal Engineering SPYROS SVORONOS Process
Control GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Elec-
trochemical Engineering, Membrane Phenomena.


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GEORGIA TECH
A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia


Graduate Studies
in Chemical
Engineering


Faculty
A. S. Abhiraman
Pradeep K. Agrawal
Yaman Arkun
Sue Ann Bidstrup
Eric J. Clayfield
William R. Ernst
Larry J. Forney
Charles W. Gorton
Jeffery S. Hsieh
Michael J. Matteson
John D. Muzzy
Robert M. Nerem
Gary W. Poehlein
Ronnie S. Roberts
Ronald W. Rousseau
Robert J. Samuels
F. Joseph Schork
A. H. Peter Skelland
Jude T. Sommerfeld
D. William Tedder
Amyn S. Teja
Mark G. White
Timothy M. Wick
Jack Winnick
Ajit Yoganathan


Research Interests
Adsorption
Aerosols
Biomedical engineering
Biochemical engineering
Catalysis
Composite materials
Crystallization
Electrochemical engineering
Environmental chemistry
Extraction
Fine particles
Interfacial phenomena


Microelectronics
Physical properties
Polymer science and engineering
Polymerization
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor analysis and design
Separation processes
Surface science and technology
Thermodynamics
Transport phenomena


For more Information write:
Ronald W. Rousseau
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100


FALL 1988







What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty o0your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


"It's great


AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH:
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery


FACULTY:
Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Harry Deans


Abe Dukler
Demetre Economou
Chuck Goochee
Ernest Henley


Dan Luss
Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407 and ask for F


Jim Richar
Frank Tille
Richard W
Frank Wor


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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY


* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY

* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT

* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


THE FACULTY

* HAMIDARASTOOPOUR
(Ph.D., IIT)
Multi-phase flow and fluidization, flow in porous media,
gas technology

RICHARD A. BEISSINGER
(D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

SAU CINAR
(Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

* DIMITRI GIDASPOW
(Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow,
separations processes

* HENRY. LINDEN
(Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

* SATISH J. PARULEKAR
(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction
engineering

* J. ROBERTSELMAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

* SELIMM. SENKAN
(Sc.D., MIT)
Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction
engineering

* DARSH T WASAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


APPLICATIONS

Dr. D. Gidaspow
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


FALL 1988








UIC


Chemical Engineering


The University of Illinois at Chicago



MS and PhD Graduate Program


Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor

Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965
Professor

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head

Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Associate Professor
John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor, Director of Graduate Studies

David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


Reaction Engineering with primary focus on
gas-solid reaction kinetics; diffusion and
adsorption phenomena; surface chemistry;
environmental technology
Heterogeneous Catalysis and surface
chemistry, catalysis by supported metals,
subseabed radioactive waste disposal studies,
clay chemistry
Kinetics of Gas Reactions, energy transfer
processes, laser diagnostics, combustion
chemistry
Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics,
supercritical fluid extraction/retrograde
condensation, asphalthene characterization and
deposition, thermodynamics of bioseparation.
Biotransport Phenomena, Lipid
microencapsulation, pulmonary deposition and
clearance, membrane transport, synthetic blood,
biorheology
Thermodynamics and Transport Properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical
mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures
Heterogeneous Catalysis, fundamental studies
of catalyst preparation, characterization of solids
and solid surfaces, heterogeneous reaction
kinetics
Transport Properties of Fluids and Solids,
fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal
liquefaction, slurry bubble column
hydrodynamics and heat transfer
Chemical Reaction Engineering, catalysis,
energy transmission, modelling and optimization

Transport Phenomena, slurry transport,
suspension and complex fluid flow and heat
transfer, porous media processes, mathematical
analysis and approximation
Heterogeneous Catalysis, structure sensitivity
of oxide catalysts for selective oxidation, catalyst
preparation techniques, artificial intelligence
applied to descriptive kinetics


For more information:
Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424








University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign


The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading
to the M.S. and Ph.D degrees.

The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.


igh Pressure Studies


Polymer Processing


Richard C. Alkire
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Richard I. Masel

Walter G. May
Anthony J. McHugh
Edmund G. Seebauer
Mark A. Stadtherr
Frank B. van Swol
James W. Westwater
K. Dane Wittrup
Charles F. Zukoski, IV


Plasma etching


Electrochemical and Plasma Processing
High Pressure Studies, Structure and Properties of Solids
Molecular Thermodynamics, Applied Chemical Kinetics
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematics
Surface Science Studies of Catalysts and Semiconductor
Growth
Chemical Process Engineering
Polymer Engineering and Science
Laser Studies in Semiconductor Growth
Process Flowsheeting and Optimization
Wetting and Capillary Condensation
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interfacial Science


For information and application forms write:

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801









THE INSTITUTE OF
PAPER CHEMISTRY

is an independent graduate
school. It has an
interdisciplinary degree
program designed for B.S.
chemical engineering
graduates.
Fellowships and full tuition
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receive minimum $10,000
fellowships each calendar
year.
Our research activities relate
to a broad spectrum of
industry needs, including:

process engineering
simulation and control
heat and mass transfer
separation science
reaction engineering
fluid mechanics
material science
surface and colloid science
combustion technology
chemical kinetics
For further information contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone: 414/734-9251









IOWA STATE



UNIVERSITY


William H. Abraham
thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
processs modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
5eorge Burnet
3oal technology, separation processes, high
temperaturee ceramics
lohn M. Eggebrecht
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and
Eluid surfaces
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
Fames C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
rerry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing, sensors
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Process modeling, simulation
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
luidization
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011


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-7:t


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JOHNS 0
CHEMICAL



Timothy A. Barbari
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Separations
Diffusion in Polymers
Separation Processes
Michael J. Betenbaugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Microbial Metabolism
Recombinant DNA Technology
Marc D. Donohue
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria
Joseph L. Katz
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flames
Robert M. Kelly
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separations Processes


HOPKINS
ENGINEERING



Mark A. McHugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction
Geoffrey A. Prentice
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
Corrosion
W. Mark Saltzman
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions
William H. Schwarz
Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics of Fluids

For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
Chemical Engineering Department
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7170


I


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lie


6.7.


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Gas


ae a AI
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KANiSAiS STA UNIVERSITY U 'U


M.S. and Ph.D. programs
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For More Information Write To
Professor B.G.,Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506


Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering
and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment


MCANSAS

tThUIVERSITY


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Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 .:: < u ::, C w C) z ii: w w z C) z w ei:: 0 LL u z < u ii: w < LL 0 z 0 in C C) z ii: w w z [? z w -I < u i w X: u chemical engineering education VOLUME XXII NUMBER 4 FALL 1988 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE Award Lecture Reflections on Teaching Creativity James J. Christensen COURSES IN ... Model Predictive Control Technical Communications for Graduate Students Multivariable Control Methods Topics in Random Media Biochemical Engineering RESEARCH ON ... Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties ALSO ... Impostors Everywhere ARKUN, CHARDS, REEVES BR/EDIS DESHPANDE GLANDT NG, GONZALEZ, HU GCXJSEN TEJA, SCHAEFFER Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the Unrted States (Part 2) Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing(Part 2) FELDER FLOYD SEIDER and. .. Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education J.L.Duda

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We wish to acknowledge and thank ... 3M FOUNDATION .. for supporting CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION with a donation of funds.

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Editorial .. A L ETTER T O CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEN I OR S As a se n i o r you may be asking some questions about grad ua te sch oo l. In this issue, we attempt to assist you in finding answers. S lwuld y o u go to graduate sch oo l? Through the papers in this special graduate education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa tion invites you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional develop ment. We believe that you will find that graduate work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate study can provide you with insurance against the increas ing danger of technical obsolescence. Further more, we believe that graduate research work tm der the guidance of an inspiring and interested faculty member will be important in your growth toward confidence, independence, and maturity. What is taught in graduate school? In order to familiarize you with the content of some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate courses as they are taught by scholars at various universities. We strongly suggest that you supplement your reading of this issue by also reading the articles published in previous years. (If your department chairman or professors cannot supply you with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no charge.) These articles are only intended to provide examples of graduate course work. The professors who have written them are by no means the only authorities in those fields, nor are their departments the only departments which emphasize that area of study. FALL 1988 Where should you go to graduate school? It is common for a student to broaden himself by doing graduate work at an institution other than the one from which he receives his bachelor's degree. Fortunately there are many fine chemi cal engineering departments, and each of them has its own "personality" with special emphases and distinctive strengths. For example, in choos ing a graduate school you might first consider which school is most suitable for your own future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a specific research project in mind, you might want to attend a university which emphasizes that area and where a prominent specialist is a member of the faculty. On the other hand, if you are unsure of your field of research, you might consider a de partment that has a large faculty with widely di versified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a small enrollment of graduate students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by writing the schools that have provided information on their graduate programs in the back of this issue. You will probably also wish to seek advice from mem bers of the faculty at your own school. But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that you explore the possibility of continuing your education in graduate school. Sincerely, Ray Fahien, Editor, GEE University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 161

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Growth Through Responsibility YOUR CAREER WITH ROHM AND HAAS If you're the kind of person who can take the initiative and aggressively reach for increasing responsibility, consider a career with Rohm and Haas. We are a highly diversified major chemi cal company producing over 2,500 products used in industry and agriculture. Because our employees are a critical ingredient in our con tinuing success, we place great emphasis on their development and growth. When you join Rohm and Haas, you'll receive a position-with substantial initial responsibility and plenty of room for growth. And we'll provide the oppor tunities to acquire the necessary technical and managerial skills to insure your personal and professional development. Our openings are in Engineering, Manufacturing, Research, Technical Sales and Finance. For more infor mation, visit your College Placement Office, or write: Rohm and Haas Company, Recruit ing and Placement #786,Phila., PA 19105. ROHMD iHAAS~ PHILADELPHIA, PA 19105

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering Univers i ty of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857 Consulting Ed i tor : Mack Tyn e r Managing Editor: Carol e C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman : Ga r y Po e hl e in Georgia Institute of Techno l ogy Past Chairmen : Klaiis D. T i mmerhau s Univers i ty of Colorado L ee C. Eagl e ton Pennsy l vania State University Members SOUTH: R ic hard F e ld e r North Caro l ina State University Ja c k R Hopp e r Lamar University Donald R Paid University of Te x a s Ja me s Fair University of T e xa s CENTRAL: J. S. Drano_[{ Northwestern University WEST: Fr e derick H. Shair Ca l ifornia Institute of Technolog y Ale x is T. B e ll Universit y of California Berk e le y NORTHEAST: Ang e lo J P e rna New Jersey Institute of Techno l ogy Stuart W. Church i ll University of Pennsy l vania Raymond Baddour M I.T. NORTHWEST: Charl es S l e ich e r Un i versity of Washington CANADA: Le s lie W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W. W e b e r State Univers i ty of New York FAL L 19 88 Chemical V OL UME XX I I Engineering NU M BER 4 Education F ALL 198 8 164 169 170 178 1 84 188 196 212 218 161 166 1 77 V I EWS AND OP INI ONS Gra d uat i on: T he Begin n ing of Your Education, J L. Du da F ELD E R 'S FILOS O P HY Impos t ors Everywhe r e, Richard M Felder A WARD LE C T U R E Re fl ections on Teac h ing C r eativity, J a m es J. Ch r iste n sen COURSES IN. Mo d e l Predictive Cont r o l Ya m an Arkun, G C h a r os, D E Reeves Technical Comm u nications for Graduate Students, D aina M. Briedis M u ltivariable Control Methods, Pradeep B. Deshpande Topics in Rando m Media, Eduardo D Glandt B i oc h emical Engineering, Terry K. L Ng, Jorge F. Gonzalez, Wei-Shau Hu RESEARCH O N ... Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules Mattheus F A. Goosen Thermo d y n amics and Fluid Properties, A m yn S. T eja, Steven T Schaeffer C URRI C ULUM C h emical E ngineering and Instructional Compu t ing: Are T hey In Step? (Part 2), Warre n D. Seide r Chemical E ngineering Ed u cation in Ja p an a n d t h e United Sta t es: A Perspective (Part 2) ; Sigm und Fl oyd Editorial 19 1,195 20 1 207 U!tter to the &lit.o r Divi s ion Ac t iviti es Book R evi e ws Le tter f.o the &Jitor I n M e m o ri am: R obert L. P i gford C HEMI C AL ENG I NEERING ED UC ATION (ISSN 0009-2479 ) i s publ i shed quarterly by Ch e mical Engineering Division American Societ y for Engin e ering Education and i s edited at the University of Florida. Corre s ponden ce regarding editorial matt e r c irculation and changes of address s h ould be s e nt to CEE, Chem i cal Engin e ering Depart m ent University of Florida, Gaine s ville, FL 3 2611. Advert i sing mate rial may be sent direct l y to E. 0. Painter Printing Co. P. 0 Box 877, D e Leon Springs, FL 32028. Copyright 1988 by the Chemical Engineering Divi s ion American Society for Engin e ering Educatio n The statements and opinion s expr ess ed in thi s periodical are thos e of the writers and not nec es sarily those of the C h E Divisw n ASEE, which body ass u mes no r e spons i b i lity for them. Defective copies replaced if n ot ifi ed wit h 1 20 days of p ub lication. Write for i nformation on subs c ription c osts and for bac k copy cost and availabi li ty POS T MAS T E R : Send addres s changes to C EE, Ch e m i cal Engineering Department University of Florida Gainesvi ll e FL 32611. 16 3

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kiftliviews and opinion s GRADUATION The Beginning ol Your Educatio n* J. L. DUDA Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 M OST OF YOU participating in this conclave will be graduating and going into industry in a few months, and I felt that this was a good time to attempt to descri b e the world you are about to enter. After disc u ssions with many friends and acquaintances in diffe r ent segments of the U.S. chemical and petro leum industries, I uncovered a consistent industrial point of view which was somewhat of a surprise. It is evident that: The U nited St ate s is i n a war! We don 't reali ze it. W e ar e lo si n g! The natural response to this is, what war? One reason we don't recognize the situation is because this war is camouflaged. By war, I mean an aggressive foreign policy for nationalistic goals. In the past, wars were fo u ght for territory. Today the war is for inter national markets, and all indicators show that the U.S is losing. We can see evidence of t h is in the trade imbalance, the national debt, and the personal debt. Even m ore omi n ous is the fact that more and more of the U.S. resources, such as real estate, industrial companies, and stocks and bonds are owned by for eigners. If this trend continues, historians will look back and describe a country which hid in the bunkers with their missiles, totally unaware t h at the enemy was already behind the lines. The net result will be a loss of territory by a technique that is quite different from anyt h ing t h at man has previously experienced. This war h as many casualties. All one has to do is travel thro u gh t h e Monongahela Valley and see the unempl o yed steel workers and the deserted, run down stee l mill towns. Or drive down the streets of Detroit with its graffiti-covered buildings and un emp l oyed auto workers standing on street corners. Or check out Manhattan, where white collar middle *Presentation to the 1987 AIChE Mid-Atlantic Regional Conclave managers have been forced into early retirement. All of these victims are psychologically wounded and many turn to alcoholism, gambling, violence, and suicide. The statistics also show that abrupt changes in employment reduce the life expectancy of individu als. But how does all this affect you? The fact is that as graduating chemical engineers, you will be the front line troops in this technological war. When we look at the gamut of industrial activities covering basic research, applied research, development, manufactur ing, technical marketing, and marketing, it is appar ent that we are still winning at the two extremes. Our basic research is very strong, and this places us in the forefront scientifically. At the other extreme, our marketing techniques have become an art as expres sed in advertising, and here again, we rank among the best in the world. However, we are losing the battle in the central regions of applied research, develop ment, manufacturing, and technical marketing. These are areas dominated by engineers and, consequently, we are losing the war on the engineering front. The military is completely impotent in this war. Similarly, management and government can optimize our ability to respond, but the final load will fall on J. L. Duda i s professor and head of the chemical engineering de partment at The Pennsylvania State University He received his BS in chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology and his MS and PhD at the University of Delaware He joined the staff at Penn State in 1971 after eight years in research with the Dow Chemical Company --------Copyright C hE Di visi
PAGE 7

How does all this affect you? The fact is that as graduating chemical engineers, you will be the front line troops in this technological war When we look at the gamut of industrial activities covering basic research, applied research development, manufacturing, technical marketing, and marketing, it is apparent that we are still winning at the two extremes the shoulders of our engineers. We must become bet ter at turning our scientific advantage into a technical and industrial advantage. We must become better at manufacturing quality goods at low cost. We must be come better at technical marketing where we can re spond to the technical needs of our industrial custom ers both here and overseas. The outcome of this war will have more impact on your career than any other external factor. The papers are filled with the impact of this war on the steel industry, the auto industry, and the high tech computer industry but the chemical industry is also in the heat of the battle. Twenty-five years ago when I entered the chemical industry the U.S. mar ket and most of the international markets were domi nated by American companies. Industry was ex periencing steady growth. Competition existed, but just enough to keep everyone on their toes and com panies had the luxury of trying a few new things and making some mistakes. Today, all of the major chemical industries are in ternational. Not only is our share of the foreign mar ket down, but we are also experiencing a strong inva sion of the U.S. chemicals market. The Arabs and other countries with low-cost fuel stocks are invading the commodity market. Japanese and Europeans, with backgrounds in high technology are invading the specialty chemicals market The U.S. chemical indus try ( our territory) is being bought out by foreign com panies particularly the Germans and Japanese. The industry is in a period of low growth and very stiff competition. To s urvive companies have to provide high-quality products at a competitive price with ex ten s ive technical service and development for their customers. Because of the instabilities in oil prices and the value of the U.S. dollar it is very difficult to plan and there are renewed pressures for short-term profit s Engineering has always involved a lifetime of con tinuing education, but the world situation today calls for even greater effort in this area. I feel you will learn more in the next four years than you did in the past four years. Unlike your previous education, most of your continuing education will not take place in a formal classroom setting. Many "A students who are very good at learning in a formal educational system will have difficulty adjusting to self education through work experience and interacting with individuals in F ALL 1988 the work place. I have been able to identify six areas, which I feel will dominate your continuing education. Assi milating the Industrial Culture The first thing you will have to learn is the culture of the company and the industry you join. All institu tions have specific cultures and it is impossible to be effective without working within that culture. Unfor tunately, the culture is something that everyone in the institution is aware of, but no one ever explicitly s tates or formulates. It has to be assimilated by in teractions with the people in that culture. It has al ways been difficult for students to learn the culture of industry, but it is even more difficult today because the culture of many companies is changing in response to the war for international markets. Defining Problems Up to this point in your education, the emphasis has been on solving problems that have been explicitly presented to you. In industry, you will discover that the biggest problem is determining the nature of the problem. Compared to defining the real problem, the solution is often trivial. Learning Through Mistakes To be creative and innovative, you will have to be able to adjust to failing and learning from your mis takes. This is a difficult transition for many serious students who have achieved high grade point aver ages. They are not used to traveling over uncharted territory. But the great chemical engineers are those who weren't afraid of failure if they felt it would even tually bring success with a unique innovation. Communicati n g You will have to learn how to communicate and realize that the communication of the solution of a problem is in many cases more important than the actual function of solving the problem. Communication becomes paramount. During my eight years in indus try, I did not see one engineer fail because of incompe tence on the technical plane. However, I did see many very bright engineers lose their jobs because they could not communicate. 165

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TraveJling Over Unfamiliar Areas You will have to learn to enter many areas which are now foreign to you. Some of these areas will be technical areas such as electronics, biotechnology, ma terials, e tc. However, many other areas, such as busi ness accounting, management, psychology, communi cations, e tc. will be totally unrelated to your technical background. You'll have to use a combination of for mal and self-education to make the transition into these new areas. Successful engineers indicate that after a few months of self-education, they can move into any new area, interact with experts in the area and make contributions to the area. Decision Making You will have to learn to make decisions with a limited amount of information. It will often be neces sary to make a decision on the basis of knowledge sufficient for action but insufficient to satisfy the intel lect. This is quite different from solving problems on an examination where you have all the required infor mation. THE GOOD NEWS Up to this point, my presentation has been rather pessimistic and you may feel overwhelmed by the challenges that you are going to face. There is a posi tive side to the picture, however. For one thing, the United States is the best-equipped nation to survive this war because we know the terrain and we essen tially started the war. When the movement of the in dustrial revolution came together with the movement for individual freedom in the United States, the result was a system which other countries would emulate. Our main opponents in this war are not the countries who have different systems of government, such as the Russians, but the countries who have copied our system. There is another very optimistic aspect concerning this war. All previous wars were zero sum wars. If one country gained territory, someone had to lose ter ritory. But this war is different and everyone could win to some degree. If the United States continues to lead in science and engineering, this engine could drag the rest of the world to a higher standard of living. Finally, a chemical engineering education is the best preparation for survival and success. As Carl Gerstacker said when he was CEO of Dow Chemical: "A chemical engineering education is the best educa tion for whatever you want to do in life, and particu larly if you do not know what you want to do." In 166 many ways, the chemical engineering degree is the liberal arts degree of the technological age. The reasons for this are very basic to the chemical en gineering curriculum. You have learned fundamentals that have broad applicability. You have been taught to think and solve technical problems and the same techniques can be used in all areas of human endeavor, and should be, since the aim of a true chemical en gineering education is to teach people to continue to learn. Your professors have given you the basic train ing required to win this war, but some skills can only be learned in the heat of battle. D t-JN#I letters THE PLEASURES OF USING MODELL AND REID Dear Editor: I have enclosed an item for inclusion in your "Letters" section. I am suggesting that an explanatory note be added in Chapter 8 ofModell and Reid. Note that I have already corresponded with Bob Reid about this and he has agreed with my suggestion. I would appreciate your publishing this in a forthcoming issue. Commenton Thermodynamics and Its Applications Among the pleasures of using Thermodynamics and Its Applications by Modell and Reid (1983) is the precise, logical way with which the subject is developed and the corresponding traceability of any given result to first principles. For the dis cerning reader, operations are explained in sufficient detail to avoid having to puzzle over results and having to reconstitute missing steps. I have found one instance, however, where an additional note of explanation might be helpful. The book bases its development on fundamental equations and shows early on the important role played by the Legendre transform in providing a link among the various fundamen tal forms. Coupling these forms to specific state equations (the Peng-Robinson is the equation of choice in the book) is done in terms of departure functions, both for pure fluids (Chapter 7) and for mixtures (Chapter 8). Understandably, the analysis begins in both cases with the Helmholtz energy. Differentiating the pure-fluid expression (Eq. 7-81) with respect to temperature yields the entropy depar ture function, but not without an interesting aside that the authors perceptively highlight in a footnote. The operation in question ( expressed intensively) is a~[A(T, v)-A 0 (T, v 0 )]v = a;[r (P~)dV+Rf ln ~o] (1) V and its well known result follows: S(T,V)-s 0 (T,v 0 )=_l_[((P~T)dv]-Rln : 0 (2) aT V CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 9

The footnote on page 155 calls attention to the fact that differentiation at constant molar volume implies a change in the intensive state. Since this variation forces the hypoth e tical state-based expression for the fugacity coefficient. The proce dur l'l is reference condition A 0 (T V 0 = RT/P) to change as well, this latter variation must be accounted for in the result. Expressing the differential of the reference condition a o o oNt [_A(T,.Y, Ni'N 2 N,,)-A(T,.Y N 1 ,N 2 .. Nn) \.ll..N}II d.l = s 0 dT PdV 0 the variation is seen to be = 0 -[ f(PNRT)dv + NRT ln.Y 0 ] (3) aN 1 y_ Y. T,.ll.,N}IJ where n The second term on the right, however is exactly canceled by a term resulting from the differentiation in Eq. 1 and Nj[i] signifies that all mole numbers except Ni are held constant. The intermediate result (in terms of chemical potentials) is a [ o] o (av 0 ) -;-RT ln V = R ln V + P -=--dV+RTln-(4) o f:i.[( oP ) RT] L I I oNI y__ y_ aT v oT V T,.Y N}II and to the less-than-careful reader the scenario is invisible from Eq. 2. A similar situation arises in Chapter 8 where the Helmholtz energy (Eq. 8-130, now in extensiv e form to permit mole-number operations) is differentiated to yield the differ ence in chemical potential and ultimately an equation-of Once again, the differentiation constraints imply that when Ni is varied there will be a change in the intensive state of the mixture and a corresponding movement of the reference condition 1989 Chemical Engineering Texts from Wiley FALL 1988 0 0 A (T .Y =NRT/P, N 1 N 2 ,Nn) Continued on page 169. CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING TIIERMODYNAMICS, 2/E Stanley I. Sandler, The University of Delaware 0 471-83050 X 656 pp. Cloth Available January 1989 A full y rev is e d n ew e diti o n o f th e we ll r ece i ve d so phomor e/j unior level thermo d y nami cs t ext, no w in co rp ora t i n g mi croco mputer pr o gram s. PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Dale E. Seborg, University of California Santa Barbara, Thomas R. Edgar University of Texas Austin, and Duncan A. Mellichamp University of California, Santa Barbara 0 4 7 1-86389-0 840 pp ., Cloth Available February 1989 A balan c ed in-depth tr e atment of th e ce ntral is s u es in pr o c e s s co ntrol, including n umer o u s wo rked ex ampl e s and ex er cises. REQUEST YOUR COMPLIMENTARY COPIES TODAY Co nt ac t yo ur l o cal Wil ey r e pre se ntati ve or writ e o n your s c ho o l's stationery to A n g elica DiDia, Dept. 9 0 264 ,John Wil ey & S o ns In c 6 05 Third Avenue New York, NY 10158 Please includ e yo ur nam e, th e nam e of your course and its enrollment, and the title o f y our c urr e nt t ex t IN CAN AD A: writ e to John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd 22 W o rce s ter Road, R ex dal e, Ontari o M9W Ill. II WILEY JOHN WllEY & SONS, INC. 605 lbird Avenue New York, NY10158 s alt/km 167

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Felder's Filosophy ... IMPOSTORS EVERYWHERE EDITOR'S NOTE: This paper introduces a new column in GEE an expression of opinion by a frequent contributor to GEE. The column will supplement our regular "Views and Opinions" department. RICHARD M. FELDER North Carolina State University Ral eigh, NC 27695-7905 H E KNOCKS ON my office door, scans the room to make sure no one else is with me, and nervously approaches my desk. I ignore the symptoms of crisis and greet him jauntily Hi Don-what 's up? "It's the test tomorrow, Dr. Felder. Um ... could you tell me how many problems are on it?" "I don't see how it could help you to know, but three." "Oh. Uh ... will it be open book?" "Yes-like every other test you've taken from me during the last three years." "Oh ... well, are we responsible for the plug flow reactor energy balance?" "No, it happened before you were born. Look, Don, we can go on with this game later but first how about sitting down and telling me what's going on. You look petrified." "To tell you the truth, sir, I just don't get what we've been doing since the last test and I'm afraid I'm going to fail this one." "I see. Don, what's your GPA?" "About 3.6, I guess, but this term will probably knock it down to ''What's your average on the first two kinetic s tests?" Richard M. Felder is a professor of ChE at N C State, where he has been since 1969 He received his BChE at C i ty College of C U.N Y and hs PhD from Princeton He has worked at the A E.R E ., Harwell, and Brookhaven Nat i onal Laboratory and has presented courses on chem ical engineering princip l es, reactor des i gn process optimization and radioisotope applications to various Amer i can and foreign industries and instituti ons He is coauthor of the text Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes (W il ey, 1986) 168 "92." "And you really believe you're going to fail the test tomorrow?" "U h .... Unfortunately, on some level he really does believe it. Logically he knows he is one of the top students in the department and if he gets a 60 on the test the class average will probably be in the 30's, but he is not operating on logic right now. What is he doing? The pop psychology literature calls it the impostor phenomenon [l]. The subliminal tape that plays end lessly in Don 's head goes like this: I don't belong here ... I'm clever and hard-working enough to have faked them out all these years and they all think I'm great but I know better ... and one of these days they're going to catch on they'll ask the right question and find out that I really don't understand ... and then .. and then ... The tape recycles at this point, because the conse quences of them (teachers, classmates, friends, par ents, ... ) figuring out that you are a fraud are too awful to contemplate. I have no data on how common this phenomenon is among engineering students, but when I speak about it in classes and seminars and get to ". and they all think I'm great but I know better," the audi ence resonates like a plucked guitar string-students laugh nervously, nod their heads, turn to check out their neighbors reactions. My guess is that most of them believe deep down that those around them may belong there but they themselves do not. They are generally wrong. Most of them do be long-they will pass the courses and go on to become competent and sometimes outstanding engineers. But the agony they experience before tests and whenever they are publicly questioned takes a severe toll along the way. Sometimes the toll is too high: even though they have the ability and interest to succeed in en gineering, they cannot stand the pressure and either change majors or drop out of school. It seems obvious that someone who has ac complished something must have had the ability to do Q Copyright ChE Dimion ASEE 1988 CHE MICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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so (more concisely, you cannot do what you cannot do). If students have passed courses in chemistry, physics, calculus, and stoichiometry without cheating, they clearly had the talent to pass them. So where did they get the idea that their high achievements so far (and getting through the freshman engineering cur riculum is indeed a high achievement) are somehow fraudulent? Asking this gets us into psychological wat ers that I have neither the space nor the credentials to navigate; suffice it to say that if you are human you are subject to self-doubts, and chemical engineering students are human. What can we do for these self-labeled impostors? Mention the impostor phenomenon in classes and individual conj erences and encourage the students to talk to one another about it. There is security in numbers: students will be re lieved to learn that those around them-including that hotshot in the first row with the straight-A average have the same self-doubts. Remind students that their abilities-real or otherwise-have sustained them for years and are not likely to desert them in the next twenty four hours. They won't believe it just because you said so, of course-those self-doubts took years to build up and will not go away that easily. But the message may get through if it is given repeatedly. The reassurance must be gentle and positive, however; it can be helpful to remind students that they have gone through the same ritual of fear before and will probably do as well now as they did then, but suggesting that it is idiotic for a straight-A student to worry about a test will probably do more harm than good. Point out to students that while grades may be important, the grade they get on a particular test or even in a particular course is not that crucial to their future welfare and happiness. They will be even less inclined to believe this one but you can make a case for it. One bad quiz grade rarely changes the course grade, and even if the worst happens, a shift of one letter grade changes the final overall GPA by about 0.02. No doors are closed to a student with a 2.84 GPA that would be open if the GPA were 2.86. (You may not think too much of this argument but I have seen it carry weight with a number of panicky students.) FALL 1988 Make students aware that they can switch majors without losing face. It is no secret that many students enter our field for questionable reasons-high starting salaries, their fathers wanted them to be engineers, their friends all went into engineering, and so on. If they can be per suaded that they do not have to be chemical engineers (again, periodic repetition of the message is usually necessary), the consequent lowering of pressure can go a long way toward raising their internal comfort level, whether they stay in chemical engineering or go somewhere else. Caution, however. Students in the grip of panic about their own competence or self-worth should be deterred from making serious decisions (whether about switching curricula or anything else) until they have had a chance to collect themselves with the as sistance of a trained counselor. One final word. When I refer at seminars to feeling like an impostor among one's peers, besides the reso nant responses I get from students I usually pick up some pretty strong vibrations from the row where the faculty is sitting. That's another column. REFERENCE 1. Pauline R Clance, Impostor Phenomenon: O v ercoming the Fear that Haunts Your Success, Peachtree Pubs 1985. D LETTER TO THE EDITOR Continued from page 167 The differential of this quantity is n 0 0 0 0 dA =-.S dT-Pd.Y + I k dNk k = l and the variation in question is By analogy with the previous case, the second term on the right is canceled by differentiation of the NRT ln y_O term in Eq. 3 and is accordingly absent from Eq. 4. The fact that this cancellation has taken place is not apparent from the expression appearing at the top of page 204, and a note to this effect may help students follow the development. Literature Cited: Modell, M., and R. C. Reid, Thermodynamics and Its Applications (2nd ed.), Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1983). Kenneth R. Jolls Iowa State University 169

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A ward Lecture REFLECTIONS ON TEACHING CREATIV I TY JAMES J. CHRISTENSEN (deceased)* Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 I would like to express appreciation to the 3M Company and members of the selection committee, to my family, and to all of those others who were in volved in my nomination. I was extremely surprised and p l eased at being chosen for this honor and award. However, I was totally un prepared for this selection and it surprised me for two reasons: I had never con sidered myself a candidate for this prestigious award, and the nominators did their work very carefully and secretively. The 3M Lectureship Award is given to recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in an impor tant field of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice. As I thought about this talk, I considered such titles as 'The Joy of Calorimetry' and 'What You Always Wanted to Know About Thermochemistry But Were Afraid to Ask.' Rather than speak on my research area, I chose instead to speak about teaching creativity. I chose this topic for several reasons: I am not an expert in the field, so I can speak on the subject without limit and without fear. This talk is given at the summer school for a broad chemical engineering audience which is mainly con cerned with educating chemical engineers. Current times find our profession in a state of change. T hi s includes the application of chemical en gineering principles into new areas of processing as well as the molding of curricula as we decide what relevant classes are to be taught. I think that creativity bears on both of these areas I have had experience over the past 20 years in teaching a class on creativity This is a class taught at *Thi s paper was prepared, using Dr. C hristensen s notes by Dee H. Barker, Professor Emeritus, and Richard L. Rowley, Associate Professor, Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young Univ e rsity ... the single greatest hurd l e to teach i ng creativ i ty is the widely held idea that [ it] cannot be taught .... There are many who argue that the ability to create i s largely gene-dominated, and that you c annot therefore teach cr e ativit y ... S t ill o t he rs argu e t ha t t he c rea tive proce ss is prim a rily a f u n ct ion of ex terna l e xperi en ce s. the Master's degree level, but it includes under graduate as well as graduate students. I have also taught several short courses (day-and-a-half) on creativity in industry. I would emphasize that neither the class nor the short course is on creative problem solving, but more of an expose on creativity as out lined by Robert C Reid of MIT (CEP June 1981). That article deals with the definition of creativity the value of being creative, an examination of the creative process, and the problems of being creative On the other hand, a recent article by Richard M. Felder of North Carolina State (Eng. Ed ., Jan. 1987) discusses the education of creative engineers by focusing on exercises in problem solving quizzes and tests. In this lecture, I have reflected on my experiences and tried to distill out the main ideas and concepts con cerning teaching creativity. In other word s I will focus on the essence of my experiences in this area. CAN CREATIVITY BE TAUGHT ? I have found that the single greatest hurdle to teaching creativity is the widely held idea that creativ ity cannot be taught. Can creativity be taught? There are many who argue that the ability to create is largely gene-dominated, and that you cannot there fore teach creativit y You may be able to teach some tricks and methodology but you cannot affect the basic capability. Still others argue that the creative process is primarily a function of external experi ences. To better examine this question, we need to look at the ways in which the brain is thought to work. C Cc,pyrigkt ChE Divisicm ASEE 1988 170 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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Many think that the brain is dominated by heredity or genes. They argue that we have fixed "outlets" in our minds and that we are creative only to the extent that we are "p lugged in" or can make the right connec tions. That is, we are all "idiot savants" to one degree or another. We can be very bright in one area but totally disconnected in others. The best we can do is simulate or encourage inherent abilities. This philosophy is questioned by many people. Arguments on both sides include: Everything else can be taught ( e.g., physics and art), but not creativity. All fields have their natural geniuses ( e.g., Einstein and Van Gogh), but we still believe that we can teach these areas to others. There are creative geniuses (-e.g., Edison, Tesla, and Stein metz), but creativity is mystical and cannot be taught to others. My personal view is intermediate between the gene-dominated and the teachable positions. I believe that it can be taught to some extent, but perhaps it is better to say creativity can be en hanced Some exam ples from my own experience may serve to illustrate this: A recent poll of chemical engineering graduates re quested a ranking of what they found of value in their educational experience at Brigham Young University. Creativity ranked very high, with thirty-nine responses The ASEE Chemi cal Engi neering Divi sion Lecturer for 1987 is James J. Christensen of Brigham Young Univer sity. Professor Christ ensen died shortly after pesenting his Award Lecture ( see page 72 of the spring 1988 issue of GEE). We are grateful to Professors Dee H. Barker and Richard L. Rowley of Brigham Young University for recreating this Award Lecture from Dr. Christensen's notes and submitting it to GEE for publication. The 3M Com pany povides financial support for this annual lec tureship award. James Christensen earned his BS and his MS from the University of Utah, both in chemical enFALL 1988 indicating that it was valuable. Evidently something was taught. One of the exercises in class is to identify as many uses of a common object as possible. One student took this principle to heart in his research. He was trying to figure out a way to collect samples from a coal combus tion unit, but the samples were very fine grains that needed to be weighed. He came to me and said, "Creativity really works! I thought of all the different common things that could be used and finally decided to use a condom as a collector." He put the condom on the sample port and finally weighed the collector and contents. Now that's being creative! He was not the only one to make the connection between a prophylac tic device and separations. An article in the Journal of Sedimentary Petrology (Vol. 44, No. 1) entitled "Prophylactic Separation of Heavy Minerals," had the following abstract: "A method is proposed for separa tion of heavy minerals that eliminates the need for dry ice or liquefied gas in mineral recovery. The technique consists of using a rubber contraceptive device inserted in a cyndrical tube. The technique is rapid and inexpen sive." The authors were glad that in Oklahoma, their home state, prophylactic devices were available through the health department. They were not sure how their purchasing department would have reacted to the purchase of eight gross of condoms. Utilizing the principles that I have been teaching in creativity has been a great help in designing the calorimeters in our laboratory. As I run into a problem, I employ the principles taught in that course and am amazed at the varied solutions that can be obtained. I have demonstrated many times that the best way to enhance creativity is to have more ideas. If ten ideas gineering, and his PhD from Carnegie-Mellon Uni versity ( 1958), doing work in the fields of heat transfer and fluid flow. H e joined the faculty at Brigham Young University in 1957 and served as chairman of the chemical engineering department from 1959-1961. His primary research interests were in the fields of coordination chemistry, thermodynamics, and calorimetry. Th ese interests led him into such varied areas as calorimeter design, thermodynamics of pro ton ionization and metal-ligand interactions, metal macrocycle interactions, facilitated transport of met als through membranes, pediction of vapor-liquid equilibria from heats of mixing, and measuring heats of mixing and heats of absorption. Dr. Christensen won numerous university and na tional awards for his teaching and research, and has held a number of national and regional committee posts in technical societies. He was a member of a num ber of honorary pofessional societies and was listed in many national and international biographi cal references. 171

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Creativity is diff i cult to def i ne It is muc~ ike tryi~g t o define porn ography -i t 's hard to de! i n e, bu ~ you know it when you see it However 1t 1s also like pornography in that everyone ha s a different idea of what it is Creativity can be recognized when i t is seen give o n e creative idea, then twenty i d eas will give two creative i d eas. What we need are m ore ideas, whether b ad or good, in order to fi nd the good ones. WHAT IS CREATIVITY? Creativity is difficult to define. It is much like try ing to define pornography-it's hard to define, but you know it when you see it. However, it is also like pornography in that everyone has a different idea of what it is. Creativity can be recognized when it is seen. For example, Utah is the second driest state in the United States, but in recent years heavy spring rains and high snow-melt created a flooding problem in Salt Lake, with water flowing down one of the main streets. The University of Utah capitalized on this in an advertisement for graduate students showing sand bagged river-streets The title of the advertisement said, "Fluid Mechanics in Utah?" and added, 'We can't promise the spectacular attractions you may have seen on TV. But we can assure you that other in teresting experiments are going on. Some are con ducted by graduate students in Chemical Engineering in the University of Utah and some make a big splash of their own." The problem with definitions is that they never really match the particular cases. Consider this 1922 definition of chemical engineering taken from the British Institute of Chemical Engineering inaugural FIGURE 1 Schroders reversible staircase 172 meeting in 1922: "A chemical engineer is a professional man, experienced in design construction, and opera tion of plants in which materials undergo chemical or physical change." Only two years later, A. Duckham, in his Presidential Address to the same society, admit ted, 'We have come to the conclusion that a chemical engineer, as such, does not really exist. In general, creativity is seen to be a joining to gether of two or more concepts, e t c to produce a new idea or useful product. A synthesis to get something new and useful. MAJOR CONCEPTS IN TEACHING CREATIVITY If it is agreed that creativity can be taught, and we know what creativity is, let us examine some of the major ideas or concepts involved in teaching creativity. 1. The first concept has already been mentioned that is have more ideas. Too often we are concerned about what others may think of our ideas, and so we do not allow them to blossom nor do we express them until we are sure that they are good ideas. Being crea tive means having more ideas. Some may be bad, but the total number of good ones will also go up. You will be surprised at how many successful ideas result from ideas which may at first appear dumb. 2. Develop an ability to see or observ e things i n different ways The Roman goddess Janus is the pa tron saint of this concept Janus had two faces, en abling her to see things from two different perspec tives. An example of this is Figure 1, Schroder's re versible staircase. It can be seen to either go up or go down, depending on your point of view. Another example is shown in Figure 2. An engineer and an art student were asked to complete the figures shown in (a). As you can see from (b) and (c), the art student had much more imagination and creativity than the engineer. Part of the reason for this will be discussed later in this paper, but the artist was not limited to a quick closure of the figures; he saw them as part of a bigger picture. 3. Def e r judgement of i deas until they can be tried, tested, analyzed and viewed in relationship to other ideas and concepts. We might call this the "deferment of-judgement" principle. Frederick Sheeler had this CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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to say when a friend complained about not being crea tive enough: The reason for your complaint lies, it seems to me, in the constraint which your intellect imposes upon your imagina tion. Here I will make an observation and illustrate it by an allegory. Apparently it is not good-and indeed it hinders the creative work of the mind-if the intellect examines too closely the ideas already pouring in, as it were, at the gates. I I )C: _J z a) Original 3 C > H d~ s fa c:J 4:3 IZI b) Engineer 8 O< l> E3 .&f1 8 c) Artist FIGURE 2 FALL 1988 Regarded in isolation, an idea may be quite insignificant and venturesome in the extreme; but it may acquire importance from an idea which follows it. In the case of a creative mind it seems to me, the intellect has withdrawn its watchers from the gates, and the ideas rush in pell-mell, and only then does it review and inspect the multitude. You reject too soon and discriminate too severely. This principal is the basis of the "brainstorming" method developed by Alex Osborne, of "Synectics," developed by Gordon N. Prince, and of "lateral think ing'' by DeBono. In these concepts we lay out all our ideas, no matter how irrational they may seem. We try to think of as many possible ways of accomplishing the goal as possible, and only then do we begin to pass judgement on them and begin to analyze the pros and cons of each. 4. Students in engineering are often too quick to pounce on a solution. They are so glad to finally ob tain a solution, any solution, that they never look back for alternatives. 5. There are also creative inhibiters that must be guarded against and eliminated. These roadblocks to creativity often fall into two categories: habits and mental blocks. Let us look at examples of some mental blocks that limit our creative thinking: An example is shown in Figure 3, which is the solution to the traditional nine dot problem. The task is very simpleconnect all nine dots with four straight lines without lift ing your pencil from the surface. The block arises from the fact that people think that they have to stay within the bounds of the nine dots. Once you have seen an example of a solution that breaks the artificial boundaries we imFIGURE 3 173

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Too often we are concerned about what others may think of our ideas, and so we do not allow them to bloss o m nor do we express them until we are sure that they are good ideas Being creative means having more ideas. Some may be bad, but the total number of good ones will also go up. You will be surprised at how many successful ideas result from ideas which may at first appear dumb. pose on ourselves many more ideas and solutions flow. In fact, we can think of many solutions t ha t use even fewer than four lines: three lines that are angled slightly, one line on the surface rolled on a cylinder, etc. Another example of a cultural block is the story of Abdul in the boat with his child, his wife, and his mother, and he is asked if the boat were si nking which would he save? This posed no problem for Abdul, since in his culture the mother was the most revered. Abdul responded, "One can always get another wife and another child, but never another mother." Another example of perceptual blocks is shown in Figure 4. The problem is to add one line to the Roman numeral XI so that it is changed to the number X. Figure 4 lists several ways in which this can be done. This block is a constraint of expected or implied results assumed from the way the problem is worded or phrased 6. There are also helps that can be used to enhance creativity: You can develop a check-list of sets of questions. A sample list of questions is shown in Table 1. One recent example of minifying is Burger King's mini-cheeseburgers sold in sets of four. The technique of reversing and rearranging is illustrated in the following newspaper clipping: PHOSPHATE PROCESS TREATS ACID MINE DRAINAGE. Use of phosphate rock before lime neu tralization step in treating contaminated waters re duces sludge handling problem, aids iron removal. A quartet of scientists from Wright State University, Day ton, Ohio, has turned a sewage treatment technique up side down and developed a new process for treating stream waters contaminated by acid mine drainage. Or dinary phosphate rock is a major ingredient in the method. According to the Dayton team, treatment with phosphate before lime neutralization greatly reduces the sludge handling problem and also is more effective in removing iron. Superconductors also came into being through a combina tion, substitution, and reversal process. Drs. Muller and Bednort reversed conventional wisdom by testing sub sta n ces so electron-poor that they normally do not conduct at all. You can use triggers to help get outside of the mental block and try to analyze from a more objective viewpoint. One such trigger is to ask, "How does nature do it?" In 1876, in Nevada, the ground-structure and over-burden was s uch that mine cave-ins were a serious problem. Someone con ceived the idea of putting the shoring in cells like a bee's honeycomb, and this resulted in a successful ability to mine the structure. Other triggers are shown in Table 2. 174 7. Looking at examples of successfully creative in dividuals and their characteristics helps our own creativity. Consider, for example, the following suc cess stories: Al Kuwait and Carl Courrier needed to raise a sunken treasure ship intact. They discovered that Donald Duck XI (8:1 x+ r7 IXI DIX Xt2+x xr X] ~XI XI ~I --XI r7 XI-" I~ X ~DOO) -I FIGURE 4 C HEMI CA L ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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T AB LE 1 Questions as Spurs to Ideation PUT TO OTHER USES? New ways to use as is? Other uses if modified? ADAPT? What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest? Does past offer a parallel ? What could I copy? Whom could I emulate? MODIFY? New twist? Change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor, form, shape? Other changes? MAGNIFY? What to add? More time ? Greater frequency ? Stronger? Higher? Longer? Thicker? Extra value? Plus ingredient? Duplicate? Multiply ? Exaggerate? MINIFY? What to subtract? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? Lower? Shorter? Lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split-up? Understate? had accomplished a similar feat in a comic book with table tennis balls. They raised the ship by filling it with 27 000,000 000 polystyrene balls Buckminster Fuller i s another example. In 1927, as a short, wiry 32-year-old he stood silently on the shore of Lake Michigan. He had been a poor student and was then living with his wife Ann in a Chicago slum. He had twice been expelled from Harvard University. Their first daughter had just died, and he was bankrupt. There he stood, con templating suicide It was a "jump or think" decision he recalls. Fortunately for the world he chose the latter. "A major change came about in my life. Up to then I had been conditioned to live in accordance with inspiration bia s es values, concepts, results laws loyalties and credos e v olved by others. I resolved to do m y own thinking, and to see what the individual, starting without any money or credit ( in fact with considerable discredit but with a whole TABLE 2 Other Triggers TRIGGER 1 : How does nature do it ? TRIGGER 2: Juxtaposition or random input of 3 words, or use of "chance" or force fit TRIGGER 3 : Persona/ analogy TRIGGER 4: Wildest fantas y TRIGGER 5: What if? In the extreme TRIGGER 6 : Functional analogy TRIGGER 7: Appearance analogy TRIGGER 8 : Symbolic analogy / Simple replacement TRIGGER 9: Subproblem TRIGGER 10: Book title TRIGGER 11: Morphology TRIGGER 12: Reversal TRIGGER 13: Use a checklist FALL 1988 SUBSTITUTE? Who else instead? What else instead? Other ingredient? Other material? Other process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Other tone of voice? REARRANGE? Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout? Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace? Change schedule? REVERSE? Transpose positive and negative? How about opposites? Turn it backward? Turn it upside down? Reverse roles? Change shoes? Turn tables? Turn other cheek? COMBINE? How about a blend an alloy an assortment, an ensemble? Combine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals? Combine ideas? lot of experience ) could produce on behalf of his fellow men." Since then he has been the Charles Elliot Norton professor of poetry and has taught at Southern Illinois Uni v ersity and the University of Pennsylvania. He holds 39 honorary degrees, 11 8 patents in 55 countries, and has pub lished 1 8 books He is the designer of geodesic domes, of which 100 000 have been built. "Every child," Bucky claims, "is born a genius, but is enslaved by the misconcep tions and self-doubt of the adult world and spends much of hi s life having to unlearn that perspective. After all ," he says, "I'm really nothing special. I'm just a healthy, low average human being who happened to be nudged out of the nest. It is something anyone could do. He pauses and s miles, "Perhaps that is the good news." Now consider Charles Kettering (who even has a creativity principle named after him ) Research Director of General Motors at Dayton. Charles Kettering continually made use of Trigger #4 ( Wilde s t fantasy), Trigger #5 ( What if in the extreme ) and Trigger #12 (Reversal). For example, a man came to see his new diesel engine. "I would like to talk to your thermodynamics expert about it," said the visitor. "I am sorry Kettering replied, "we don't have anyone here who even understands the word thermodynamics,' much less is an expert on it. But if you want to know how we developed this engine I'll be glad to s how you. On another occasion, Kettering put three men to work in a little room and told them they ought to be able to develop a gasoline that would give the motorist five times as many miles per gallon They never found what they were after but they did hit on the idea of lead, and that resulted in ethyl gasoline As a result, instead of increasing the mileage of gasoline, they decreased its knocking. Many creative things seem to occur because of good luck. Table 3 presents some of the things which might occur because of luck. Nevertheless, good luck is not very often blind luck but comes to those with certain personality 175

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TABLE 3 Good Luck and Personality Traits Good Luck is the Result of Classification of Luck Elements Involved Personality Traits You Need An Accident "Blind Luck" Chance happens, and nothing about it is directly attributable to you, the recipient. None General Exploratory The Kettering Principle Chance favors those in motion Events are brought together to form "happy accidents when you diffusely apply your energies in motions that are typically non specific. Curiosity about many things. Per sistence, willingness to experi ment and to explore Sagacity The Pasteur Principle Chance favors the prepared mind. Some special receptivity born from past experience permits you to dis cern a new fact or to percei ve ideas in a new relationship. A background of knowledge, based on your abilities to observe, re member, and quickly form signif icant new associations. Personality The Disraeli Principle Chance favors the individualized action. Fortuitous events occur when you behave in ways that are highly distinctive of you as a per son Distinctive hobbies personalized life styles, and activities peculiar to you as an individual, especially when they operate in domains seemingly far removed from the area of discovery. traits which foster and encourage that luck. Increased "luck" can result from fostering those character traits. 8. Problems and gam es can also embellish our creative ability. Here is a statement on an aluminum alloy that decomposes in water: An aluminum alloy that has all of the classic characteristics of conventional metals-strength, durability, machinabilit y, and electrical conductivity-but can be decomposed rapidly by cold water has been developed and is being marketed by T.A.F.A., a firm in Bow, New Hampshire. Away from the water the alloy is stable under a wide range of atmospheric conditions and has shown no sign of erosion or deterioration over long test periods, according to the firm. You could have the students figure out the man y uses that this alloy could be put to. It is not necessary, in creativity to use chemical engineering in all exam ples. In fact, I tend to stay away from a lot of chemical engineering problems and try to present creativity in a broader sense. This also helps in breaking the habit patterns which have been instilled in chemical en gineering students. I use many other examples in my teaching, such as ways to use a box of paper clips, what to do with bricks and visualizing objects as hav ing other functions. All of these help in developing creativity in students. 176 SUMMARY Great works (of creativity) need not only the flash, the inspiration, and the experience; they also need hard work, long training, relevant criticism, and per fectionist standards. Creativity may require two differing sets of per sonality characteristics. The creative person may more closely resemble two thinkers in tandem than one fully integrated being. The two facets of creativity suggest that a completely creative person may have need of both a mode of thinking conducive to genera tion of original ideas and a separate mode useful for discerning feasible ideas from the rest. Creativity has everything going for it. Everyone wants to be more creative in their daily live s The teaching of creativity adds a new dimension to the abilities of chemical engineering st udents both at the bachelor s level and at the graduate level. It can also be offered to students outside of the chemical en gineering department as a service course. I have done this primarily in teaching industrial groups in an in dustrial environment. And finally, it is fun to teach. It helps to keep my ideas flowing and helps me in my daily work in adding creativity to the things which I do, both in my profes sional and in my social life. D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO STANLEY I. SANDLER The 1988 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi sion Lecturer is STANLEY I. SANDLER of the University of Delaware. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial support for this annual award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi neering educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were presented to Dr. Sandler at a banquet on June 21, 1988, during the ASEE annual meeting in Portland, Oregon. Dr. Sandler's lecture was entitled "Physical Properties and Process Design," and it will published in a forthcoming issue of CEE The award is made on an annual basis, with nominations being received through February 1, 1989. Your nominations for the 1989 lectureship are invited. AWARD WINNERS A number of chemical engineering professors were recognized for their outstanding achieve ments. The George Westinghouse Award was presented to THOMAS F. EDGAR (University of Texas at Austin) to acknowledge his commitment to excellence in education and his many contri butions to the improvement of teaching methods for engineering students. The Curtis W. McGraw Research Award went to NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS (Purdue University) in recognition of his exceptional research accom plishments in advancing the fundamental un derstanding of basic process systems. FALL 1988 DANIEL E. ROSNER (Yale University) received the Meriam/Wiley Distinguished Author Award, and RICHARD M. FELDER (North Carolina State University) was the recipient of the Wickenden Award. The Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award for the Midwest Section went to BALA SUBRAMANIAM (University of Kansas). THOMAS W. WEBER (State University of New York at Buffalo) was honored with two awards: The AT&T Foundation Award for the St. Lawrence Section and the Outstanding Zone Campus Representative Award. ANGELO J. PERNA (New Jersey Institute of Technology) was one of the select few singled out for special recognition by his election as an ASEE Fellow. CORCORAN AWARD TO C. THOMAS SCIANCE C. THOMAS SCIANCE (E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company) was the recipient of the third annual Corcoran Award, presented in recognition of the most outstanding paper published in Chemical Engineering Education in 1987. His paper, "Chemical Engineering in the Future," appeared in the winter 1987 issue of CEE. NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 1988-89 are: Chairman, JAMES E. STICE (University of Texas at Austin); Past Chairman, JOHN SEARS (Montana State University); Vice Chairman/Chairman-Elect, WILLIAM E. BECKWITH, (Clemson University); Secretary Treasurer, WALLACE B. WHITING (West Virginia University); and Directors, WILLIAM L. CONGER (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), RICHARD M. FELDER (North Carolina State University), and LEW IS DERZANSKY (Union Carbide) 177

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A course in .. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL YAMAN ARKUN, G. CHAROS, and D. E. REEVES Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 T HE PROCESS CONTROL curriculum at Georgia Tech consists of two undergraduate and two graduate courses taught by two faculty members. The purpose of this paper is to describe one of the graduate courses which specializes on Model Predictive Con trol. Traditionally the two graduate courses have covered multivariable control systems, frequency do main approaches, and robust control systems (Ad vanced Process Control I), and state space concepts, state estimation, and optimal control (Advanced Pro cess Control II) in two quarters. For the first time, in the spring quarter of 1988, Model Predictive Con trol (MPC) became the theme of one of our graduate control courses. The objective of this course is to teach the students the general principles of MPC and give them the op portunity to implement the powerful predictive con trol methods on case studies of industrial importance. The need for teaching the MPC methods came from industrial success stories. It is now widely recognized that MPC is an emerging technology which provides the best framework to address the industrially releYaman Arkun is an associ ate professor at Georgia Tech. He received his degrees from the University of Bosphorous (Turkey ; BS 1974) and the Uni versity of Minnesota (PhD, 1979). He spent six years at Re nsselaer Polytechnic Institute before joining the faculty at Georgia Tech. His research in terests are in process control. (L) Georgios N. Charos graduated from the University of New Hampshire with a BS in chem ical engineering He was awarded an MS degree from Cornell Univer sity, and he is currently pursuing a PhD degree in the area of process control at Georgia Tech. (C) Deborah E. Reeves received her BS from Clemson University in vant control problems involving hard and soft con straints, continuously changing operational objec tives, poor models, and sensor and actuator failures. Despite the significant amount of research in the area of MPC and the increasing industrial utilization of the new predictive control methods, only a few pro grams in the country offer courses on this subject to the best of our knowledge. This is not very surprising considering that there is no textbook; the concepts are new and require integration of knowledge from different subdomains of modeling, control, and optimi zation, and finally there is very limited CAD software, without which the students cannot appreciate the full power of the MPC methods. Our ten-week course drew upon the key papers from the MPC literature, covered parts of the forth coming book, Robust Process Control, by Morari, et al [5], and used the in-house CAD software developed by Charos [19]. In the remainder of the paper we will discuss the course contents and share with the reader our first experience. SCOPE OF THE COURSE A requirement of the course is that students have taken an undergraduate control course. Knowledge of z-transforms is also desirable. The course outline is given in Table 1. The required and supplementary 1986 and her MS from Georgia Tech in 1988 She is presently a PhD student in chemical engineering at Georgia Tech As a National Science Foundation Fellow she is concentrating her research in the field of process control. (R) Copyright Ch E D ivision ASEE 1988 178 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The objective of this course is to teach the students the general principles of MP~ and ~ive th~m _the opportunity to implement the powerful predictive ~ontrol method~ on case st~d1es of 1ndustr1al ~mporta~ce ... It is now widely recognized that MPC 1s an emerging technology which provides the best framework to address industrially relevant control problems ... INTRODUCTION TABLE 1 Course Outline Process control objectives Motivation for MPC INTERNAL MODEL CONTROL Principles of feedback: nominal stability and performance, robust stability and performance SISO IMC design procedure MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FORMULATION Unconstrained SISO Problem Discrete system rep re sen tations Least-squares solution and stability theorems Implementation and controller tuning guidelines Unconstrained MIMO Problem Discrete MIMO representation Factorization of multiple time delays MPC solution and the control law Controller tuning rules Constrained MIMO Problem Quadratic Dynamic Matrix Control Description of our CAD software Case studies (see Table 2) reading list for each topic is supplied in the Literature Cited section. The course commences by introducing the students to Model Predictive Control through a critical view of the fundamental process control prob lem using a mixture of industrial and academic critique papers. These key papers put the control problem into perspective, define the performance criteria for process control, and motivate the study of MPC. Next we start with the text Robust Process Con trol and present the Internal Model Control (IMC) structure in its simplest form as shown in Figure 1. Students are repeatedly told that this generic struc ture explicitly uses a separately identifiable model in parallel with the plant and is common to all the MPC methods to be discussed in the course. It is also stres sed that IMC establishes the necessary foundation for general analytical treatment of the different MPC methods. The IMC concepts are best illustrated using open loop stable single-input-single-output (S1S0) systems and extensions to unstable and MIMO systems are briefly mentioned by referring to the appropriate chapters in the text. The essential topics that are taught under IMC include: zero steady-state offset property; simplicity of nominal stability test in conFALL 1988 trast with classical feedback; parameterization of all stabilizing controllers; characterization of achievable regulatory and servo performances in the absence of model/plant mismatch; the concept of inverse or per fect controller and the fundamental limitations to per fect control i.e., time delays, right half-plane zeros, constraints and uncertainty; design of the approxi mate inverse controller Q using H 2 -optimal control de sign for a given input; robust stability, robust perfor mance and the design of the filter F to detune the controller against uncertainty. The Laplace domain is adopted throughout and the design calculations are demonstrated on first order systems with deadtime (see Chapter 4). The experimental evaluation of the method is addressed using the heat exchanger im plementation given in Arkun et al. [6]. Coverage of the basic IMC concepts closes with a homework as signment in which the students define their own SISO system and demonstrate the utility of all the analysis and design tools they have so far learned. Computer aids such as Program CC [21] or PC MATLAB [20] are used to perform the more tedious calculations. It is important that the students go through such an exercise to make sure that they have mastered the principles of the IMC design. The first part of the course takes about two weeks with three hours of lec tures per week. The second part of the course recasts IMC into the general predictive control formulation as presented in the landmark paper by Garcia and Morari [9]. This is done in an on-line optimization framework to pave the way to general MPC algorithms such as QDMC (Quad ratic Dynamic Matrix Control) which can deal with input and output constraints. Basically, based on past d Filter Controller Plant y F Q p p FIGURE 1. The IMC structure 179

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control actions and current measurements, the con troller calculates the current and future control ac tions which will insure that the model predicted out put follows the desired output trajectory as close as possible in a horizon of specified sampling times into the future. Because of disturbances and modeVplant mismatch, only the current control action is im plemented as computed, and the calculation is re peated as illustrated in Figure 2. past -F u t u re K+P horizon. FIGURE 2 The model predictive control scheme with i t s mov i ng hor i zon ." Since the MPC problem is formulated and solved in discrete time, discrete system representations are covered, emphasizing the development of the discrete pulse response model, the step response model, and their connection. Although the mathematical prelimin aries in Garcia and Morari [9] are self-contained, our students have found the supplementary reading mate rial cited in the Literature section particularly useful to brush up their background on discrete systems. We first look at the unconstrained SISO problem. Since the control law turns out to be a least-squares solution, and the stability theorems are well-charac terized, this case is the easiest to grasp The students master the material easily in three weeks, but special care should be given to bookkeeping of matrices. A homework problem asking for the verification of the key system matrices and the least-squares solution has helped the students follow the notation. Also, since the IMC paper discusses some of its results within the context of dead beat control which is new to the majority of the students, supplemental material and half a lecture is given on the subject. Finally the unconstrained SISO MPC problem is completed by mid-quarter projects. Each group of two students is asked to write its own software and report on its find180 ings with tuning of different controller parameters. This is done in a two-week period using two MICRO V AX workstations. The program is not difficult to write and the students value the experience. Some sample results from a project looking at the control of a nonminimum phase second order system with dead time are shown in Figures 3-5. Using Program CC, a sample time is chosen to yield a discrete monotonic step response. IMSL subroutines VMULFF and LINVF are used for matrix manipula tions while DGEAR is used to integrate the state space system realization to calculate the output at and between sampling points. MPC tuning parameters M 60 = (I 2a) G (2 + 1) 40 20 -20 -40+------r--------r------~--~ 200 150 100 50 0 20 40 TIME 60 0 +-~~_r--, I -50 -100 -150+------r--------r------~------== o 20 40 TIME 60 FIGURE 3. Unstable response w it h perfect c on t roller ( M = N = P = 6 ) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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(input s u ppression), P (optimization horizon length), f3 (input penalty) and -y (output penalty) are adjusted to show their effects on closed-loop stability and per formance. The perfect controller is unstable due to the inversion of RHP zero (Fig. 3). Figure 4 demon strates that the nominal system is stabilized and per formance improved by decreasing M, increasing P, and adjusting -y. Robustness against uncertainty in the location of the RHP zero is illustrated for set-point responses shown in Figure 5. Note that when the RHP zero is closest to the origin (a = 4), one gets the worst performance deterioration as expected. In the last part of the course we devote five weeks 0 8 0 6 0 4 E-< ::::> p_. 0 2 b 0 0.0 0 2 -0.4 0 0.2 0 -0 2 b -0.4 p_. 25 -0 6 -0 8 -1 0 20 ' ' ' : __ J 20 ---M=~N=P=~--~~-1 ---------P = 12,M = N = 6,/J = O, ~, <: I 40 TIME 60 ---M=~N=P=~--~~-1 ----------P = 12 M = N = 6,/J = O,~ <: I 40 TIME 60 FIGURE 4 Stabilized and i mproved response with pa rameters varied FALL 1988 to more advanced constrained MIMO predictive methods. The intricacies of MIMO systems are intro duced based on the papers IMC Parts 2 and 3 by Gar cia and Morari [12, 13]. From IMC Part 2 we basically cover the factorization of multiple time delays and its optimality. The rest of the concepts carry over from the SISO IMC design. The MPC problem is formu lated next as an unconstrained quadratic optimization and the analytical solution based on least-squares is studied in detail following IMC Part 3. The students are asked to verify the system of linear equations and the resulting control law. The analogy with the SISO results is made, and the conditions under which decoub ::::> 0 E-< ::::> p_. 25 0 8 0.6 0 4 ,'I ;I 0 2 :, !I 0 0 :1 \ -!/ -0 2 V -0 4 0 20 0 8 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 G(,) = (I t>) (2, + I) I o=0 --------a, 2 --o=4 40 60 TIME o=0 --------a, 2 ----o=4 -0 2-+---------------0 20 40 TIME 60 FI GURE 5 Robust performance w i t h uncertainty in RHP z ero ( M = N = P = 6 /3; = 5 'Y; = 1 ) 181

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I Q 75 ----,1 ---112 --r1 aetpoint ----J'I 1etpoint 0 50 0.25 0 __ __ ___ __ .. .. .. /" "---------------------------------------------0 25+----,----,----r----r---.------, 0 10 20 0 75 0 50 0 25 30 TIME ---,, ___ ,, 40 50 ___ 1 eetpoint ______ ____ J'I lower constraint ,i upper cooatr&in t -0 25-1---.----.----.-----r----,----, 0 10 0 76 I I 0 60 I I 0 26 I 20 30 TIME 40 ---,, ... ... ,, --,1 Ntpolat 50 ------ft lower con1tr&iat r, upper cooatr&iat -0 25 +---,----,----r----r---.----, 0 10 20 30 TIME 40 50 (a) (b) (c) t) a.. 2:: t) a.. 2:: I 140 120 100 BO 60 40 20 0 -20 140 120 100 BO 60 40 20 0 -20 140 120 100 80 eo 40 20 0 0 ---u, --------U, __ --~-1 ________ ~ -------------------------------------10 10 20 30 TIME 40 50 20 ---u, --------u, 30 TIME ___ ,. ------u, 40 50 t vt lower coa1traint .. "' 11pp1r coutraiat .. coD1tr&!Dt -u :S """' :S 15 -10 :S "'" :S 10 0 +------------------20 0 10 20 30 TIME 40 FIGURE 6 Model predictive control applied to the Wardle and Wood distillation column (M = 10, N = 50, P = 60). a) unconstrained, b) y 2 constrained, c) y 2 u 1 u 2 Llu,, Llu 2 constrained 182 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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pling is optimal (in the least-squares sense) is dis cussed. Examples from the paper IMC Part 3 are used throughout. After covering the unconstrained problem, the focus finally shifts to the constrained MIMO MPC which reflects the ultimate industrial practice. We have found the QDMC (Quadratic Dynamic Matrix Control) of Garcia and Morshedi [14] and the work of Ricker [15] easiest to teach from. Starting with the QDMC paper, the DMC equations are derived using step response coefficients, and the unconstrained MPC solution is shown to be the least-squares solution of the DMC equations. Next we show how the prob lem is augmented with constraints on inputs and out puts and formulated as a constrained quadratic pro gramming problem. The role of different tuning pa rameters is discussed, but detailed assessment of their effects is assigned to the final design project. The work of Ricker [15] is briefly visited to teach "input blocking" which generalizes and gives additional in sight to the use of the moving suppression parameter M. In discussing quadratic programming, one lecture is spent on the program QPSOL [22] which we use in our CAD software, and a brief background is given on Kuhn-Tucker conditions for optimality. Once the basic principles behind QDMC are understood, in the in terest of time its solution procedure is accepted almost like a black box. The course ends with the final projects on the ap plication of QDMC prepared and presented orally by groups of two students. The list of case studies is given in Table 2. Selected results for the Wardle and Wood column are given in Figure 6. The column sepa rates a binary mixture of benzene and methyl ethyl ketone. The manipulated variables are reflux flowrate (u 1 ) and reboil flowrate (u 2 ). Since the control of the distillate (y 1 ) is the primary objective, y 1 is included in the objective function of QDMC and the bottoms y 2 is allowed to float between limits. Additional con straints on the absolute values of inputs and on the magnitude of changes in the inputs (i.e., rate con straints) are also considered. Figure 6a shows that TABLE 2 Final Projects The evaporator system : Ricker [15] A nonlinear isothermal CSTR: Ray (16], p. 120 UW water tank system with level and temperature control: Arlam et al [6] Wardle and Wood distillation column: Luyben (17], Wardle and Wood[18] FALL 1988 control of y 1 is excellent while y 2 drifts when it is unconstrained. Also significant control action is re quired when inputs are unconstrained. Slight vari ations in y 1 from the setpoint trajectory result as some of the control action is employed in keeping y 2 within its constraints (Figure 6b). Finally, constraints on the inputs insure more realistic control action, but at the expense of further deterioration in the performance of the first output (Figure 6c). CONCLUSIONS MPC is an industrially important control framework and should be part of any process control curriculum. We have found that CAD software is very valuable for demonstrating the power of the methods and for performing creative designs. Although uncon strained MPC programs can be easily developed and used by the students as we have done in this course, constrained MPC software is not trivial and should be made available to the students. We hope that in the near future we will be able to make our software avail able to the interested educators. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We acknowledge all the graduate students who took this course and who made very valuable contributions to its development. We also thank Manfred Morari for providing us with the first draft copy of his book. This material is partially based upon work supported under a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship. LITERATURE CITED Introduction Required Reading 1. Foss, A. S., "Critique of Chemical Process Control Theory," AIChE J., 19, 209-214; 1973 2 Lee, W., and V. W. Weekman, "Advanced Control Practice in the Chemical Process Industry," AIChE J., 22, 27-38; 1976 3 Kestenbaum, A., R. Shinnar, and F. E. Than, "Design Con cepts of Process Control," Ind Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 15, 2; 1976 4 Morari, M., "Three Critiques of Process Control Revisited a Decade Later," Shell Process Control Workshop, Butterworths; 1987 Internal Model Control Required Reading 5 Morari, M E. Zafiriou, and C. Economou, Robust Process Control, Prentice-Hall, Chaps 2-4; 1989 6 Arkun, Y J Hollett, W M. Canney, and M Morari, "Experimental Study of Internal Model Control," Ind. Eng. Chem Process Des Dev. 25, 102-108; 1986 Supplementary Material 7. Vidyasagar, M., Control System Synthesis : A Factorization Approach, The MIT Press; 1985 8. Francis, B A., "On the Wiener-Hopf Approach to Optimal Feedback Design," Systems & Control Letters, 2, 197-201; 1982 Continued on page 187. 183

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A course in .. TECHNICAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS DAINA M. BRIEDIS Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 488 2 4-1 22 6 T H E DEVELOPMENT OF technical communications courses in the undergraduate chemical engineer ing curriculum has been the topic of several recent articles in GEE and other periodicals [1-5], and sev eral reports on the future of engineering have em phasized communication skills as a vital element in our students' education [6, 7]. Very little, however has been written about the necessity of such training for graduate students. This article describes a course which has been designed to develop oral and written communication skills appropriate for engineering graduate students and for the demands of their post graduate careers. Graduate students have as great a need for a good foundation in oral and written communication skills as do undergraduates. During their tenure in graduate school, they usually have opportunities to present pa pers at conferences and to write technical articles and reports, and eventually they each face the considera ble task of preparing a thesis or dissertation. Students often venture into these exercises with little formal training in technical communication skills except what might be resurrected from an undergraduate labora tory course or provided informally by their faculty advisers. Despite the heavy course loads and long hours in the research lab that graduate students must endure, investment of relatively little time in a communica tions course is easily justified and, in most cases, comes to be greatly appreciated. After graduation, the MS or PhD engineers enter a work environment where adequate communication skills are required, This article describes a course which has been designed to develop oral and written communication skills appropriate for engineering graduate students and for the demands of their post-graduate careers. @ Co pyright C hE Di vision ASEE 1 988 184 Daina Briedis is an associate professor of chemical engineering at Michigan State Univesity She received her PhD degree from Iowa State University in 1981 Her research interests i nclude bioadhesion, enzyme technology and precipitation of inorganic salts and at that point in their careers there is little time to spend on refining much less acquiring, such skills. Being able to communicate effectively and efficiently is as important as having the necessary technical back ground and is a significant factor in career advance ment. We have offered a graduate level communications course as an elective during the summer terms of the past two years. The summer term provides an appro priate setting for the relatively informal classroom en vironment. The course is typically not part of the stu dent's formal program of study, and most take it either because of their own interest or at the encour agement of their faculty advisers. We have had no difficulties in populating the course. There are three major course objectives: Familiarizing students with the skills necessary to prepare and give extemporaneous oral presentations Providing an arena for the practical development of compe tence and confidence in these skills Improving technical writing skills appropriate for graduate students (papers, proposals, theses, dissertations) Although students must devote a fair amount of time to preparation for a broad array of course assignCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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[Success] is ... often due to an ability to interpret technical material at a level appropriate for the audience A basic premise of our course is that the student already has an adequate knowledge of technical chemical engineering principles--we seek to develop the mechanism by which that technical knowledge may be efficiently and effectively conveyed to the audience. ment s, they consistently evaluate the class as vital and recommend it to their peers. COURSE STRATEGY Success in communication does not always depend upon competence in technical content. It is more often due to an ability to interpret the technical material at a level appropriate for the audience. A basic premise of our course is that the student already has an adequate knowledge of technical chemical engineering principles-we seek to develop the mechanism by which that technical knowledge may be efficiently and effectively conveyed to the audience. Some of the key concerns of the course, therefore, are "knowing the audience," speaking and writing in a style and lan guage adapted to the audience, and being conscious of audience feedback. The course covers both technical writing and oral presentations, but more time is spent on oral presen tation skills since this type of instruction is usually lacking in a student's background. Most course assign ments, however, integrate both written and oral com munication to some degree in order to realistically re flect typical career demands. Because of the fast pace of the course, the instruc tor must be a model of organization and preparedness. Course material must be sequenced to allow adequate time for students to prepare assignments which re quire practice, drafting and revising, or gathering of data and background information. Occasionally, spe cifics of the course content must be altered to suit the background of the students. If, for example, a signif icant portion of the class is composed of foreign stu dents, we take additional time to discuss their unique barriers to technical communication in English. The students give four talks, with each talk focus ing on delivery to a different type of audience. In order to encourage organization and timely prepara tion, an outline must be submitted several days before the presentation date. All presentations are video taped and evaluated on rating sheets by the classroom "audience." Talks are rated on organization, style, de livery, quality of visual aids, and length of the presen tation, and a brief critique session follows each talk. The speaker must also review the video recording of his/her talk and submit a self-evaluation of the presen tation. The immediate feedback provided by the class, FALL 1988 the comments of the instructor, and the self-evalua tions all allow the student to integrate the observa tions into the next assignment. COURSE CONTENT The first class session begins with a discussion of the barriers to effective oral communication. Students readily identify the characteristics of a poor talk (which leads one to believe that they have seen many examples of poor talks!). The characteristics cited most often include lack of organization, speaking beyond the allotted time, using subject material beyond the comprehension of the audience, poor visual aids, and poor voice quality. The lecture that follows the discussion uses it as the basis for addressing methods of effective public speaking Emphasis is placed on preparation and organization of the talk (outlining), the method and style of delivery, the me chanics of speaking (voice volume, speaking rate, posture, use of prompts, eye contact, use of a pointer), and the preparation and use of effective visual aids. Overheads are used for most presentations, but the final presentation is given using projected slides. The first assignment is to give a five-minute talk on any subject. Familiarity with the subject material allows the student to concentrate on the basics of pre paring the talk and serves as a mild initiation into the classroom format for presentations-speaking before one's peers, being evaluated by them, and being mon itored by the eye of a video camera. The audience members also have the opportunity to become accus tomed to their role of evaluating their colleagues. We next cover the topic of classroom lecturing. Since some of our graduate students either serve as teaching assistants or anticipate careers in academics, this topic has wide appeal. Particular emphasis is placed on maintaining audience interest through an enthusiastic and conversational speaking style, by using classroom demonstrations, by effective use of the chalkboard, and by the visual and verbal highlight ing of important lecture concepts. The next assign ment is to prepare and present a ten to fifteen minute lecture on undergraduate chemical engineering course material. Examples of student lectures include such topics as the development of shell balances, properties of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid s, vapor-liquid equilibria, and other chemical engineering basics. An 185

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alternative to this assignment (or an additional assign ment) is the preparation of a talk for a lay audience. Students must present technical material (possibly their research topics) in a form understandable to an audience at the college freshman level. This exercise provides an opportunity to observe how easily chemi cal engineering jargon can slip into a student's vocab ulary and serves especially well in sensitizing the stu dent to the needs of the audience. The course next focuses on technical writing. It is useful to illustrate differences between technical writ ing and creative or expository writing in order to dis tance the student from an "English essay" attitude. We emphasize that, in contrast to creative or exposit ory writing, technical writing must be clear, precise, and (usually) unemotional. It should be based on facts and should always be in response to a need-the need for funding, the need to provide information, the need to provide instruction [8]. Because of these specific needs, we again stress the importance of knowing the audience for whom the writing is intended. Since technical writing must be grammatically cor rect and stylistically compact, we briefly review the basic elements of grammar: punctuation, use of verbs, subject-verb agreement, and common grammatical er rors. Writing style is discussed in the framework of Alley's seven goals of language in technical writing [9]: precision, clarity, forthrightness, familiarity, con ciseness, fluidity, and imagery. Verbs are major players in achieving these goals, and it is worthwhile to focus a class lecture on some of the typical verb usage problems. We discuss the common difficulty of choosing proper verb tenses for technical documents. A second problem is the selection of verb voice (active or passive). Most students have been taught to be as impersonal as possible in technical writing by avoiding the use of "I" or "we." The concensus now is that the appropriate use of the active voice and the pronouns "I" and "we" results in a straightforward, honest pre sentation [8]. To illustrate these points, we provide the students with a poorly written technical paper. It contains many examples of grammatical errors and poor writ ing style--imprecise words, overly complex phrases, run-on sentences, incorrect punctuation, poor spel ling, and a host of other technical writing offenses. The students must rewrite the paper to eliminate the errors. They may, if they wish, use a software pack age such as RightWriter (RightSoft, Inc., [10]) to compare the unedited and edited versions of the paper. Right Writer is one example of a style and syn tax analysis program intended as an aid for business and technical writing. The program is made available 186 to students and provides a useful tool for pointing out possible errors and stylistic weaknesses. Once the fundamentals of technical writing have been established, we proceed by covering a few spe cific applications of writing skills appropriate for graduate students. We discuss abstracts, technical journal articles, proposals, and, if time remains, re sumes and cover letters. Technical documents such as journal articles, reports, and proposals consist of simi lar elements: an abstract, an introduction, the text body, a summary/conclusion section, a bibliography, and appendixes. The content of these elements is co vered in a general discussion, and particulars are em phasized when we consider each document type indi vidually. We review several different types of abstracts: those for conference proceedings, theses and disserta tions, technical articles, and proposals. For the next assignment, we distribute copies of a published techni cal article from which the abstract and reference infor mation have been removed and ask the students to write a new informative abstract. The student abstracts are then compared to the original. (Often the student abstracts are of much better quality than the original!) Each student must also submit an abstract of his next presentation, a tento fifteen-min ute talk on the student's research topic. The abstract format and the technical talk are intended to simulate the conditions that the student would encounter when preparing for a professional meeting. Writing proposals and grants is covered in detail since most professionals will encounter the need to write a proposal at some point in their careers. We discuss not only the content and logical structure of proposals, but we also provide a summary of typical proposal formats of several major funding agencies, we review examples of budgets, and we discuss the positive writing style appropriate for proposals. The course culminates in the writing and presenta tion of a short proposal. The class is given strict guidelines on abstract length, page limitations, budget restrictions, and so on. An outline of the proposal must be discussed with the instructor at least one week before the project is due. The students usually choose a topic from their own research area and select an appropriate funding agency to which they address the proposal. A strict requirement is that the proposal must be in the student's own words and should not be borrowed from the research adviser. The presentation format is one in which the student must "sell" the proposal to a panel representing the funding agency, with the class playing the role of the review panel. The panel is given the opportunity to ask critical quesCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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tions after the talk, thus putting the speaker in the position of having to logic a ll y and eloquently defend the proposal. Th e panel then decides whether or not to fund the project. It is interesting to observe that proposal success rates in this course are significantly higher than in the real world! CONCLUSIONS It is a rare individual who can deliver a well-or ganized impromptu talk or write a grant proposal in one draft. Most people require skill development, preparation, and practice. This course offers not only the fundamental s of how these skills ma y be de veloped, but also serves to reassure the students that they can become effective communicators. We believe that we have been successfu l in accomplis hin g the three main course objectives described earlier in this article, but much more is accomplished in developing the students as professionals. Students are stimu lat ed intellectually by what they learn abo u t communication and by what they learn about their colleagues through communication. They learn a valuable lesson about the willingness to give and to accept constructive criti cism, a fact of life for someone in a technical field. At the beginning of the course, students are happy to praise the strengths of a classmate's presentation and are reluctant to criticize the weaknesses. But the classroom environment eventually evolves into a colle gial one as students recognize the value of construc tive criticism and how much can be learned from others. We hope that these attitudes as well as what they have learned about technical communication, carry over into their professional interactions in graduate sc hool and into their careers beyond. REFERENCES 1. Sullivan, R M "Teaching Technical Communication to Undergraduates: A Matter of Chemical Engineering, Chem. Eng Ed 20, 32 (1986) 2. Hudgins, R. R Tips on Teaching Report Writing," Chem Eng Ed., 21, 130 (1987) 3. Brewster, B S and W. C. Hecker, "A Course on Making Oral Technical Presentations, Chem. Eng Ed ., 21, 48 (1988) 4 Felder R M "A Course on Presenting Technical Talks," Chem Eng Ed 22, 84 (1988) 5. Gallant, R. W., "So You Want to be a Manager," Chemical En g ineering 94(16) 55 (1987). 6. "The National Action Agenda for Engineering Education : A Summary, E n g Ed. 78, 95 (1987). 7. "Chemical Engineering Education for the Future, CEP, 81(10), 9 (1985). 8. Cain, B Edward, The Ba s i c s of Technical Communicating ACS Professional Reference Book, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1988 9 Alley, M., The Craft of Scientific Writing, Prentice-Hall, Inc New Jersey, 1987 FALL 1988 10 RightWriterR, Version 2.1, User's Manual, RightSoft, Inc 1987 Other Selected References Used in the Course Osgood, C., Osgood on Speaking: How to Think on Your Feet Without Falling on Your Face William Morrow and Company, Inc New York, 1988 Scott, B., Communication for Professional Engi neers, Thomas Telford Ltd London, 1984 Shertzer, M., The Elements of Grammar, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1986 Stock, M A Practical Guide to Graduate Research, McGraw Hill, Inc., New York, 1985. Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B White, The Elements of Style, 3rd edition, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1979. Turner, R. P., Grammar Review for Technical Writers, revi s ed edition, Rinehart Press, San Francisco, 1971 0 PREDICTIVE CONTROL Continued from page 183. Unconstrained 5150 MPC Required Reading 9 Garcia, C. E., and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 1. A Unifying Review and Some New Results," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des Dev 21, 308-323; 1982 Supplementary Material 10 Astrom, K. J., and B. Wittenmark, Computer Controlled Systems, Prentice-Hall; 1984 11. Reid, J G., Linear System Fundamentals: Continuous and Discrete, Classical and Modern, McGraw-Hill; 1983 Unconstrained MIMO MPC Required Reading 12. Garcia, C. E and M Morari, "Internal Model Control. 2 Design Procedure for Multivariable Systems," Ind Eng Chem. Process Des. Dev., 24, 472-484; 1985 13. Garcia, C. E and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 3 Multivariable Control Law Computation and Tuning Guidelines," Ind. Eng Chem. Process Des. Dev., 24, 484-494; 1985 Constrained MIMO MPC 14. Garcia, C. E and A M. Morshedi, "Quad ratic Programming Solution of Dynamic Matrix Control (QDMC)," Chem. Eng. Commun., 46, 73-87; 1986 15 Ricker, N. L., "Use of Quadratic Programming for Con straine d Internal Model Control," Ind Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev 24, 925-936; 1985 Case Studies 16. Ray, W H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill; 1981 17 Luyben, W. L., Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 25, 654660; 1986 18. Wardle, A. P and R. M Wood, Chem. E Symp Ser., 32, 6:68-6:81; 1969 Software 19. Charos, G CAD Software for MPC, Georgia Tech (manuscript for publication in preparation) 20. Moler, C., J. Little, S. Bangert, and S. Kleiman, PC-Matlab, The Math Works Inc., Sherborn, MA 21. Thompson, P M., Program CC, Systems Technology, Inc Hawthorne, CA 22 Gill, P E W Murray, M. A Saunders, and M. H. Wright, "User's Guide for QPSOL," Technical Report SOL 84-6, Dept. of Operations Res Stanford University; 1984 0 187

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A course in .. MULTIVARIABLE CONTROL METHODS PRADEEPB.DESHPANDE University of Louis vi lle Louisville, KY 40292 D URING THE LAST several years numerous prom ising approaches to the solution of multivariable control problems have become available These con trol strategies are likely to play an important role in coming years as the processes become more complex and the demands for more efficient operation grow in the light of competitive pressures and environmental considerations. Taking these trends into considera tion, we have developed a new graduate course in mul tivariable control methods The multivariable control concepts were covered in an intensive four-day s hort course offered recently, and the responses of the in dustrial participants were very favorable. The con cepts have also been taught in existing graduate courses. An overview of the proposed course is being given in this paper, accompanied by pertinent com ments and literature references. It is hoped that it will serve as an impetus for instructors in the area of process control. Pradeep B. Deshpande is currently Professor and Chairman of the Chemical Engineering Deportment at the University of Louisville His specialization is in the area of process dynamics and control. He ho s approximately seventeen years of academic and full-time industri a l experience and hos published three te xtbooks in control and over forty papers. He has consulted for several major companies in this co un try and abroad and has done collaborative research with them THE COURSE There are four major topical areas of concentra tion. They are Interaction Analysis Multiloop Controller Design Decoupling Multivariable Control Strategies Table 1 shows these areas further subdivided to provide greater detail. The contents can be comfort ably covered in a standard one-semester graduate cour se The prerequisites for the course should be a course in lin ea r control theory and Laplace trans forms and a course in z-transforms and digital control concepts. More details about the topics are provided in the following paragraphs. Interaction Analysis Interaction analysis is the first pha se of multivari able control systems design The objective of interac tion analysis can be twofold. The first objective is to select a suitable set of controlled and manipulated variables from competing sets. In a distillation control system, for example, there can be three (or more) possibilities: D, V; R, V; and R, B (first variable con trols top composition, second controls bottoms compo sition). The second objective is to select controlled and manipulated variables within a given set; for example, should D be manipulated to control X 0 and V to con trol X 8 or s hould the reverse pairing be u se d? For small dimensional, say 2x2 systems, thi s step could perhaps be skipped if detailed dynamic information about the process is available. Then the available mul tivariable techniques could be tried through simula tion, and a final pairing and control methodology could be selected based on the closed-loop simulation re sults. For large dimensional systems this is not feasi ble, and interaction analysis would have to be carried out. Numerou s techniques for carrying out interaction analysis are available. Some utilize steady-state gain Co pyright C hE D ivi sio n ASEE 19 88 188 CHE MI CA L ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 1 Multivariable Control Methods Course Outline I. Introduction to Multivariable Control Incentive for Multivariable Control Why Multivariable Systems are Difficult to Control Industrial Examples 2. lnteractionAnalysis Relative Gain Arrays Singular Value Decomposition Other Interaction Measures. 3. Multiloop Controller Design Design of Multiloop PID-Type Controller IMC Multiloop Controller 4. Decoupling (Explicit) Decoupling in the Framework ofRGA Decoupling in the Framework of SVD 5. Multivariable Control Strategies a. Nyquist Arrays Direct Nyquist Arrays Inverse Nyquist Arrays b. Model Predictive Control Internal Model Control Dynamic Matrix Control Model Algorithmic Control Simplified Model Predictive Control c. Modern Control Theory Introduction to State-Space Models The Linear Quadratic Problem information, while others require detailed knowledge of process dynamics. Clearly, there are incentives for wanting to determine the extent of interaction based on steady-state information. In many instances this is the only type of information available. Unfortunately the interaction measures which utilize only steady state gain data sometimes give wrong results. The methods of interaction analysis include relative gain arrays (RGA), singular value decomposition IMC in teraction measure, and inverse and direct Nyquist ar rays, among others. Multiloop Contoller Design If interaction analysis reveals "modest" interac tion, a multiloop control structure may be adequate Cost-to-performance ratios could perhaps be consid ered in deciding whether a multiloop control structure should be employed or whether a full multivariable control system would be preferable If PID-type con trollers are employed, then a relatively simple tuning procedure is available. As an alternative to PID con trol, one may consider using the IMC multiloop con troller. The PID tuning procedure is based on the Nyquist stability criteria, while the IMC multiloop FALL 1988 controller design procedure neglects the off-diagonal elements of the process transfer function matrix. Decoupling If the extent of interaction is such that a multiloop controller structure is deemed to be inadequate, then there are two alternatives. The first is to carry out explicit decoupling in the framework of RGA or SVD, and the second is to use a full multivariable controller. The multivariable control concepts were covered in an intensive four-day short course ... and the responses of the industrial participants were very favorable. The concepts have also been taught in existing graduate courses. Explicit decoupling is covered here, and multivariable control strategies are the topics that follow. In explicit decoupling in the framework of RGA, one designs de coupling elements such that one pseudo manipulated variable affects only one controlled variable. In the SVD decoupling approach, one carries out a singular value decomposition of the process gain matrix (or process transfer function matrix, depending on whether only steady-state decoupling is desired or dynamic decoupling is desired) and then multiplies the resulting expression by appropriate left and right sin gular vectors to give a decoupled system and a set of "structured" manipulated and controlled variables. These variables are connected via PID-type control lers to give decoupled responses. Two points are worth mentioning here. One is that modeling errors will degrade performance, and the second is that com plete decoupling is not always the best approach if the goal is to achieve minimum ISE or minimum settling times. Better results can sometimes be achieved by allowing interactions in the closed-loop system. Multivariable Control Techniques In many instances a full multivariable controller may well be the preferred choice. This is especially true in those applications where constraints are pres ent and perhaps in those which have an unequal number of inputs and outputs. (If a system is non square, then singular value decomposition is an alter native to consider, although in this case external dead time compensation may have to be applied, making the approach somewhat cumbersome.) Additional ben efits accruing from a multivariable controller include dead time compensation and decoupling. There are several multivariable control techniques available. Three are included in Table 1. The first is 189

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based on Nyquist arrays. Direct and inverse Nyquist arrays are frequency domain techniques that require int eract ive computing with graphics for optimum ben efits. Nyqui st arrays can also be used for interaction analysis. Furthermore, they can be u sed to design precompensators and postcompensators s uch that in teraction is greatly reduced. These compensators per mit the designer to control an n x n int eract ing system by n SISO PID-type controllers. The second of the three topics is on model predic tive control methods. In model predictive control, a mathematical model of the process is u sed for identifi cation/control. The discussion begins with internal model control design based on factorization of the transfer function matrix into two parts, one involving the nonminimum phase elements and the other con taining the remaining terms. The latter, when in verted, leads to the IMC controller. A diagonal filter network insures robustness in the presence of mod eling errors. In the next phase, the predictive formu lation of IMC i s discussed. The objective in this in stance is to calculate a set of future control actions based on the actual and mod e l outputs such that a suitable performance index is minimized. Only the first control action is applied and the computations are repeated at the next sampling instant. Since the optimization procedure yields future control actions, one can anticipate when constraint violations are likely to occur and therefore what actions to take to keep this from happening. The predictive formulations lead to dynamic matrix control and model algorithmic control. In the final phase, a technique known as simplified model predictive control is discussed. SMPC is a relatively si mple multivariable control technique that utilizes an impulse response type model of the process for implementation. It insures some de coupling. SMPC is suitable for low dimensioned pro cesses. The final topic in multivariable control is on mod ern control theory. Here, the student i s first intro duced to the notion of state space models. Then the optimal control problem is formulated, and the methods of solving it are described. The so lution of the optimal control problem gives a matrix of control actions which, when applied, lead s to process re sponses that satisfy a quadratic performance index. Recent research indicates that the linear quadratic problem can be formulated in the context of IMC. At this time research is in progress at various loca tions which is aimed at designing controllers in the presence of uncertainties. The concept of structured singular values has been employed for this purpose. These concepts have not been incorporated into the 190 current version of the course. IN CONCLUSION A course on multivariable control method s ha s been described. Instructional tools, including a text and computer-aided instruction software (CAI), are available for effective teaching of this course The ma terial i s suitable for full-time graduate students and for control engineers from indu st ry. It i s believed that this course will be a good addition to the control spe ciality, not only in the chemical engineering discipline, but also in other engineering discipline s such as elec trical engineering. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Arulalan, G. R., P. B Deshpande, Simplifi e d Mod e l Predictive Control," Ind Eng Chem., 26, 2, 1987 2. Athens, M. P L. Falb, Optimal Control, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966. 3. Bristol, E., On a New Measure of Interaction for Multivariable Process Control," IEEE Tran s. Auto Control., AC-11, 1966, p. 133. 4. Bruns, D D C.R. Smith, "Singula r Value Analysis: A Geometrical Structure for Multivariable Process," paper presented at AIChE Winter meeting, Orlando, FL, 1982 5. Cutler, C. R., B L. Ramaker, "Dynamic Matrix Con trol: A Com put er Control Algorithm," Paper No 51B, AIChE 88th National Meeting, April, 1979 6. D eshpande, P B ., Ed., Multivariable Control Methods, ISA, Research Triangle Park NC 1988. 7. Deshpande, P. B., R. Ash, Comput e r Proc ess Control, 2nd ed., ISA Research Tri. Park, NC, 1988 8. Deshpande, P. B ., CAI in Ad v anc e d Process Control, In press. 9. Economou, C G. M Morari, "Internal Model Control : 6, Multiloop Design, Ind. Eng Chem. Proc Des D ev. 25 2, 1986, pp. 411-419. 10. Edgar, T F., "Status of Design Methods for Multivariable Control," AIChE Symposium Series, Chemical Process Control, 72, 159, 1976. 11. Garcia, C. E., M. Morari, "Internal Model Control: 1, A Unifying Review and Some New Results," Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 21, 1982, pp. 308-323. 12. Garcia, C.E., M. Morari Int e rnal Model Control: 2, Design Procedures for Multivariabl e Syst ems Ind. Eng. Chem Proc. Des. Dev., 24, 1985, pp. 472-484. 13 Jensen, N ., D. G Fisher, S. L. Shah, "Interaction Analysis in Multivariabl e Control Systems," AIChE J ., 32,6, 1986. 14. Lau, H ., J Alvarez K. R. Jensen, Synthesis of Control Structures by Singular Value Analysis: Dynamic Measures of Sensitivity and Interaction," A!ChE J., 31, 3, 1985, p. 427. 15. Luyben, W. L., "A Simple Method for Tuning SISO Controllers in Multivariable Syst em," Ind Eng Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 25, 3 1986 pp. 654-660. 16. McAvoy, T. J., Interaction Analysis, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1983. 17. Mehra, R. K., "Model Algorithmic Control ," chapter in Distillation Dynamic s and Control, by P. B Deshpande, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 198 5. 18. Mihares, G. et al., "A N ew Criterion for the Pairing of Control and Manipulated Variables, AIChE J., 32, 9, 1986. C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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19 Moore, B C ., The Singular Value Analysis of Linear Systems, Systems Control Reports No 7801-7802, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 1981. 20 Ray W. H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill, New York 1981. 21. Richalet, J., A Rault, J L. Testud, J. Papon, Mod e l Predictive to Heuristic Control: Application to Industrial Processes, Automatica, 14, 1978, pp.413-428 22. Rosenbrock, H. H., State Space and Multivariable Theory, John Wiley and Sons N e w York, 1970. 23 Rosenbrock H. H C. Storey, Mathematics of Dynam ical Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New York 1970 24 Rosenbrock, H. H Computer-Aided Control Systems Design Academic Press, New York, 1974. 0 [eJ ;j I book reviews PROCESS FLUID MECHANICS by Morto n M. D e nn Pr e ntic e -Hall Publish i ng Co., E n gl e wood Cliffs, NJ Reviewed by John Eggebrecht Iowa State University At Iowa State University "Momentum Transport" is required as the first of a three-semester sequence which continues with "Heat" and "Mass." The second year student has, with adequate high school prepara tion, completed the introductory calculus and physics courses. Frequently students are concurrently enrol led in introductory ordinary differential equations. As the instructor, I see the focus of the cours e and of the engineering science curricula in general as a development of analytical skills. The significant part of a section of text in support of this is not the deriva tion or the equation confined by a box at the end, but the physical principles, assumptions and approxima tions which are expressed by these. Many students, having restricted their intellectual objectives to those which they perceive as appropriate for a BS engineer regard only the formulae." Some students, enrap tured by the mechanics of the calculus, only regard the derivation. To persuade both groups to my point of view I need a text which emphasizes the physics of fluid flow both in the development of topics and in their relations. On the other hand, engineering practice is as much art, v i z ., design, as it is science. A responsibility of the course is to introduce the jargon and operational empiricism of process equipment. It is not possible to find a single text on fluid mechanics which encompas ses this range of material and conforms to my focus. FALL 1988 However, Denn's text is superior to all others which I have considered in the treatment of the physical principles of fluid flow. It is much easier to compen sate for the omission of material, which can be ex tracted from handbooks, than for a presentation which shares the students' bias for either formula or cal culus. I am especially appreciative of the organization of the text. Topics appear in an order which reflects the evolution of understanding of fluid flow, and for that reason, I believe, the order which is most easily understood by the student. The text opens with observation and experimenta tion on flow primitives; the cylindrical filled conduit and the submerged sphere. This can provide a framework for an appreciation of the analysis of sim ple systems by the identification of key physical de pendencies and the analysis of complex systems by construction from primitives Also, this introduction establishes the proper relationship between observa tion and analysis and may help to correct the mistaken perception that discovery is deductive. The prediction of the pressure drop in a straight pipe leads, through Reynolds to the friction factor correlation and the viscous force on a falling sphere leads, through Stokes, to the drag coefficient correlation. The simi larity of these two important results is striking and properly emphasized. Key discoveries are followed by extension to more complex systems and the presenta tion acknowledges this process by presenting reason able, yet simple arguments, which lead to correlations for non-cylindrical conduits, partially filled conduits, rough pipes, non-spherical submerged objects and packed beds. These progressions allow me to highlight central themes; the importance of symmetry and frame invariance, the emergence of design correla tions from the identification of the significant physics and the replacement of complex systems by simpler systems through judicious approximation. All of this is accomplished without ever taking a derivative. While the first section of the text is the greatest strength, the following section must be supplemented as an introduction to the application of the conserva tion of energy to the analysis of macroscopic flows. The derivation of the mechanical energy balance equa tion is easily understood and very thorough in the statement of assumptions by which the conservation equation is simplified to a "formula." The conservation of linear momentum is combined with the energy con servation equation to analyze a sequence of increasing complexity; expansion, elbow, contraction, free jet and manifold. A logical parallel of the first section Continued on page 195. 191

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A course in .. TOPICS IN RANDOM MEDIA EDUARDO D. GLANDT Univ e rsity of P e nnsyl v a ni a Ph i ladelphia, PA 19104 A NEW ONE-SEME_S~ER ~aduate course in topics on random media 1s bemg offered in the Depart ment of Chemical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. The following is a report on the experi ence of preparing and delivering such material. As is probably the case with all topical graduate courses this one is highly biased towards the research in~ terests of the instructor The need to predict bulk properties of ordered and especially of disordered, two-phase materials per~ vades almost every field of chemical engineering. Por ous rocks and porous catalyst s composite solids and packed beds microporous membranes and hollow fiber bioreactors, are only a few of the myriad exam ples where it is necessary to cope with a random con figuration that cannot be described deterministically but only through a few statistical averages. Both the importance and the difficulty of these problems are well measured by the voluminous size of the literature that has been written in the last one hundred years. Eduardo D Glandt is profe s sor of chemical engineering at the Un versity of Pennsylvania After receiving his BS degree from the Un i ver sity of Buenos Aires i n his nat i ve Argentina he spen t f i ve years there with the Notional Institute of Industr i al Te c hnology He earned his PhD degree from Penn in 1978. In addition to his research i nterests i n theory and computer simulations of fluids and i n membrane and ad sorption equilibria, his recent work includes problems on the effective behavior of systems disordered at the colloidol and macroscopic levels 192 Unfo_rtun_ately, much of it has consisted of ad hoc ap prox1mat10ns; most of the available rigorous results have been generated only in the last fifteen years. The material covered in the course has its sources in several rather disjointed fields of science and technology In addition to classical engineering areas s uch as transport in composites and other two-phase materials and transport in porous media, it draws its concepts and problems from active areas of con ?ensed-matter physics. The study of amorphous sol ids, and especially of critical phenomena, has brought about the ideas of percolation theory, for example. Therefore the selection of material for one semester from the long list of what can conceivably be touched upon represents a significant challenge. The main peril is of course, that the course may result in an encyclopedic juxtaposition of topics. The outline, shown in Table 1, is the still evolving compromise. A few words on prerequisites are in order. A cur sory reading of Table 1 will reveal that the level at which these topics may be presented depends very strongly on the previous exposure of the students to material in a few important areas. Students enrolled in this course are chemical engineering PhD candi dates who have previous education in transport pro cesses. Another ideal prerequisite for a course of this nature ought to be a semester of statistical mechanics ~omething perhaps not as easy to implement un~ ~ormly. In chemical engineering, statistical mechanics 1s usually identified with the study of the molecular theory of liquids, aimed at a prediction of their ther modynamic properties. The subject of liquids might not seem too relevant to a study of the effective be havior of random solids. However, exposure to statis tical mechanics would ideally train a student to think at a molecular level and to relate, as cause to effect, phen~mena occurring at very different scales of length and time. The student would also develop an intuitive understanding of the interplay of energetic and en tropic tendencies in nature, as well as of the cruc : importance of cooperative effects in determining mac roscopic behavior. Lastly, but equally important the studies of fluids and of random geometries shar; the same statistical formalism (although the theories writ ten in it are different). The ability to write and underCo l'!Jright C hE D ivision AS EE 19 88 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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stand probability distributions and correlation func tions represents a distinct advantage. The introduction to the course consists of a survey of transport and related processes in fluid and solid multiphase systems. Batchelor (1974) presented a comparison of the most relevant ones, with special emphasis on fluid mechanical problems, such as viscos ity, sedimentation rate, flow permeability, etc. The complexity of each problem depends on tensorial order and also on whether the initial microstructure of the system is fixed or whether it varies as a result of the transport phenomenon under consideration For the sake of simplicity, diffusion (or equiva lently conduction) in a two-phase solid system was selected as a paradigm for detailed discussion. All stu dents in the course have had previous exposure to material of this level of difficulty in their under graduate and graduate transport courses. Although effective diffusion is in many ways simpler than other problems, a variety of particular regimes can be gen erated as the relative length and time scales are changed. The class discussion is focused on the iden tification of the relevant diffusion mechanism when, for example, the size of the inhomogeneities is changed. Providing the ability to distinguish mecha nisms is one of the objectives of the course. Another goal is to familiarize the students with key references The material covered in the course has its sources i n severa l rather d i sjointed fields ... In addit i on t o classical eng i neering area s ... it draws its concepts and problems from act i ve areas of condensed-matter physics and techniques appropriate for each of such problems. Lastly, it is hoped that the overview serves an inte grating purpose: an awareness of the similarity behind seemingly different phenomena and at the same time of the differences between processes sometimes lumped under a single name. The discussion on the experimental determination of the microstructure of a system is limited to porosimetry and to image-analysis techniques. The existence of an image analysis laboratory in our de partment creates a particular interest in quantitative stereology, an application of geometric probability to the study of lower-dimensional sections of three-di mensional systems. Although many of the available rigorous results on disordered systems such as those of percolation theory, have been developed using lattice models, the course strives to avoid ''lattice thinking" as much as possible. The survey of useful models (section 3 of the course outline) is a further application of statistical TAB L E 1 C ourse Outline AN INTR O DUCTION TO THE STUDY OF DISORDERED GEOMETRIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES 1. Introduction: Transport through Disordered Systems Survey of effective transport, electrical, magnetic, and elastic properties of miltiphase systems. Analogies and differences between problems. Time and length scales in diffusion problems. Effective, anomalous and hindered diffusion. Knudsen diffusion. Diffusion limited reaction. Diffusion with homogeneous reaction. 2. Microstructure Determination Por o simetry and its interpretation Introduction to quantitative stereology. Concepts in statis tical geometry. 3. Survey of Models Ran d om-p o re and random-fiber m o dels. Cylindrical and I' spherical pores. P o rosity and surface area. P o re size dis tributi o ns. Time-dependent examples Applications to gas s o li d reactions. Cellular structures. V o r o noi and other tessellations. Gener ation and statistical properties Correlated p o res and inclusions. Equilibrium and nonequi librium structures. Correlation functions and their use. C o ntinuous disorder. C o rrelation length. Models for random surfaces. FALL 1988 4. Connectivity and Dimensionality Percolation theory and its applications. Problems: lattice, off-lattice and truly continuous percolation. Survey of available results. Site and bond percolation. Simulation and renormalization methods. Scaling laws and dimen sional invariants. Percolation on a Cayley tree and in in teracting systems. Application to porosimetry. Fractal geometries. Characteristic lengths and self-simi larity. Methods of determination of the fractal dimen sionality of "surfaces" and "volumes." Diffusion in fractal structures. 5. Effective Properties Dispersions of low concentrations. Maxwell a nd related equations. Dense dispersions Resistor network approximation. Effective medium theories. Variational bounds. 6. Special Topics Student papers and presentations to the class based on applications of interest to each individual. 193

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geometry to the most popular representations of the geometry and topology of a two-phase solid. At least one lecture on truly continuous disorder is also in cluded. In the situations described by this picture, the properties of the material do not take just two or three values, corresponding to (say) two or three distinct phases, but vary in a smooth fashion, taking an infin ity of values. Percolation theory is the study of the connected ness between phases or between different regions of a phase. The percolation transition is the sudden change in the appearance and properties of a system when previously disjointed regions of it coalesce, forming a continuous path. The transformation of a liquid into a gel, the extended wetting of a porous rock or ceramic, the incipient conduction in a metal-in insulator composite, are examples of percolation pro cesses. Percolation theory is a young but already es tablished field, as indicated by the fact that at least two introductory textbooks have been written on it. It is likely that it will become a standard component of even undergraduate chemical engineering curricula. A short section of the course is devoted to fractals, another new (if not outright trendy) topic There is indeed more to fractals than beautiful pictures of snow crystals or landscapes in full color, although the quan titative aspects have received much less publicity The fractal nature of the geometry of a system has direct consequences on its transport properties, in the form of a small-sample effect. It is surprising that for diffu sion in samples smaller that a certain length, the ap parent diffusivity depends on the size of the system. In other words, doubling the size of the sample does not add "more of the same": in some examples it might imply the presence of larger and larger pores. The last part of the course deals with the calcula tion of effective diffusivities (or conductivities) in two phase systems. Of course, no general analytic solution is possible, so that three limits are discussed, each corresponding to a different small-parameter approx imation. It is unfortunate that a practical "mapping" of the regimes of validity of these approximations is yet to be done. The derivation of variational bounds to the effective diffusivity offers another rigorous line of approach. The length and diversity of the material already included in the semester does not allow the presentation of numerical techniques. The course concludes with student presentations and written reports of key papers in the field Most of these papers are applications selected from the list of references given below, and are assigned in accor dance to the specific interests of the students. About twenty homework problems are also assigned. Grad194 ing is based on the term papers and on one in-class examination. The list of suggested books and addi tional references is perhaps too long. This indicates the need for a synthesis of selected material into a monograph that can at the same time summarize the high points and open doors for in-depth further read ing in specific areas. It i s hoped that the class notes for this course may serve as a starting point in such a development. REFERENCES BOOKS M J Beran, Statistical Continuum Theories, Wiley-Interscience (1968) E. L. Cussler, Diffusion, Cambridge (1984) G. Deutscher, R Zallen, and J Adler (eds), Percolation Struc tures and Proce s se s Israel Physical Society (1983) F. A. L. Dullien, Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Struc ture, Academic (1979) A. L. Efros, Physics and Geometry of Disorder : Percolation Theory, Mir (1986) J. Feder, Fractals, Plenum (1988) J. C. Garland and D B. Tanner (eds), Electrical Transport and Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Media, American Institute of Physics (1978) M G Kendall and P A. P Moran Geometrical Probability, Griffin (1963) H. E. Stanley and N. Ostrowsky (eds), On Growth and Form M. Nijhoff (1986) D. Stauffer, Introduction to Percolation Theory Taylor and Francis (1985) W Strieder and R. Aris, Variational Methods Applied to Prob lems of Diffusion and Reaction, Springer (1973) E E Underwood, Quantitative Stereology Addison-Wesley (1970) R. Zallen, The Physics of Amorphous Solid s Wiley-Interscience (1983) M. Ziman, Models of Disorder, Cambridge (1979) ADDITIONAL REFERENCES A. Acrivos and E Chang, Phys. Fluids 29 3 (1986) G K. Batchelor, Ann Rev., Fluid Mech. 6, '227 (1974) G K. Batchelor and R. W. O'Brien, Proc R. Soc London Ser. A 355 313 (1977) M Beran, Nuovo Cimento 38, 771 (1965) J. G Berryman, / Appl Phys 57, 2374 (1985); ibid, 60, 1930 (1986) S K. Bhatia and D D Perlmutter, AIChE / 26, 379 (1980); ibid 27, 247 (1981) C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, J. Colloid Int Sci 94, 90 (1983) ; ibid, 99, 86 (1984) Y. C. Chiew and E D Glandt l&EC Fund 22,276 (1983) Y C. Chiew and E D Glandt, J. Phys A. 16, 2599 (1984) Y. C. Chiew and E D Glandt, Chem Eng. Sci ., 42, 2677 (1987) S. W. Churchill, Adv Trans. Proc., 4,394 (1986) A. L. Devera and W Strieder, / Phys. Chem 81, 1783 (1977) G Gavalas, AIChE / 26, 577 (1980) Z. Hashin and S Shtrikman, J. Appl. Phys ., 33, 3125 (1962) G. R. Jerauld, J. C. Hatfield, L. E Scriven, and H. T. Davis,/ Phys C., 17, 1519, 3429 (1984) D J Jeffrey, Proc R. Soc. London, Ser. A 335,355 (1973) S. Kirkpatrick, Rev Mod. Phys., 45, 574 (1973) G W Milton, J. Appl. Phys., 52, 5294 (1981) S. Reyes and K. F Jensen, Chem. Eng Sci ., 41,333,345 (1986) M Sahimi, B D Hughes, L. E Scriven, and H. T. Davis, Chem. Eng Sci 41, 2103 (1986) C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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N. A. Seaton and E. D Glandt, J. Phys. A. 20, 3029 (1987) S V. Sotirchos and H -C. Yu, Chem. Eng Sci., 40, 2039 (1985) G. Stell, in The Mathematics and Physics of Disordered Media B. D. Hughes and B W Ninham (eds), Springer (1983) P Stroeve, J. Theor Biol ., 64, 237 (1977) S Torquato, J. Appl Phys., 58, 3790 (1985) S. Torquato, in Advances in Multiphase Flow and Related Prob lems, G. Papanicolau (ed), S.I.A.M. (1986) S Torquato and G. Stell,/. Chem. Phys. 77, 2071 (1982); ibid. 80, 878 (1984) H L. Weissberg and S. Prager, Phys. Fluids, 5, 1390 (1962); ibid, 13, 2958 (1970) P H. Winterfeld, L. E Scriven, and H T. Davis, J. Phys C., 14, 2361 (1981) Y. C. Yortsos and M. Sharma, AIChE J., 32, 46 (1986); ibid 33, 1636, 1644, 1654 (1987) D REVIEW: Process Fluid Mechanics Continued from page 191. would have been to present a detailed presentation of a few important design correlations. A more complete treatment of the application of the mechanical energy balance to non-isothermal and compressible systems is needed. In the third section the development of differential balances of mass and linear momentum is given, with the same clarity and in the same notation as the mac roscopic balances of the preceding section. The pre sentation of the Cauchy and Navier-Stokes equations is made in tensor notation. I have not found this to be an impediment to students' understanding. To the contrary, the dimensional relationship between vec tors and tensors provides a clear distinction between force and stress. Students in my classes are very wil ling to learn new mathematics when they believe it is motivated by a need to frame an otherwise difficult concept and not by a pretense of rigor. The following chapter applies these conservation equations to the usual one dimensional flows. The next section of the text is a skillful arrange ment of topics in which creeping and inviscid flow lim its are taken on the Navier-Stokes equation in reduced form. These limits are first introduced in a separate chapter on Hamel flow which is an excellent choice of problems, since numerical solutions can be obtained easily and compared to the limiting analytic solutions. This gives me a chance to reiterate the importance of the reduction of complex problems to underlying primitives and to make the connection between this reduction and the limiting process. The final section is composed of a series of "special topics," which includes chapters on turbulence and FALL 1988 viscoelasticity. Much of the background for a discus sion of turbulence is provided in the preceding chap ters on inviscid and boundary layer flow and the em phasis here is on the time averaging of the N avier Stokes equation and the development of the universal velocity distribution. I believe that a brief introduc tion to stochastic processes is more useful to the stu dent at this point than the following chapter on num erical solutions of PDEs. This allows for some con tinuity in the introduction of viscoelastic behavior as "fluid with memory Missing from the chapters on viscoelastic and turbulent flows are the "gee-whiz" phenomenon which leave the student at the end of the semester with a taste for the variety of scientific ex perience and provide the qualitative extension to com plex systems which had otherwise, been the consis tent theme of the text. 0 ENGINEERING FLOW AND HEAT EXCHANGE by Octa ve L even sp ie l Pl enu m Pr e ss, N ew Y o rk, NY 1001 3 (1984) 3 66 pag e s $3 4.50 Reviewed by Roland A. Mischke Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ. This book presents the basic macroscopic equa tions for the solution of fluid flow and heat transfer problems in concise form. However, the major thrust of the book is in the application of these fundamental equations to the solution of problems not usually en countered in typical courses in fluid flow and heat transfer (particularly those dealing with particulate systems). On paging through the book, one is first struck by the freehand illustrations (did a human being write this book rather than a computer?) and fluid flow prob lems with such intriguing titles as "Counting Canaries Italian Style." I have often thought of Octave Levenspiel as the Dr. Seuss of chemical enginering an author who uses the premise that even the learning of engineering principles can be fun. Just as Dr. Seuss introduced us to the alphabet beyond the letter "z" in "On Beyond Zebra," so Octave Levenspiel might well have titled this work "On Beyond Transport Phenom ena." The book is divided almost equally between the two areas, and the fluids portion successively treats: Basic Equations for Flowing Streams, Flow of Incom C o n t inue d on pag e 2 0 0. 195

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Research on ANIMAL CELL CULTURE IN MICROCAPSULES MATTHEUS F. A. GOOSEN Queen's University Kingston Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 T HE SINGLE MOST successful biotechnology product to date, the monoclonal antibody, is utilized for the detection of drugs in the blood (such as cocaine) and in the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer. In another important area, genetic engineering, the development of new techniques has allowed for the enhanced production of a variety of polypeptides and proteins such as human insulin and growth hormone. There are still many human biologi cals, however, which are too complex to be produced by either yeast or bacterial systems. Animal cell cul ture is presently the only method for the synthesis of many of these complex biologicals. The major market driving force behind biotechnol ogy is economic potential. For example, current mar kets for monoclonal antibodies for use in cancer therapy are in the hundreds of millions of dollars It has been projected [1] that by 1991 the world market for monoclonal antibodies will be about 1.2 billion dol lars (US). It has become apparent over the past two decades Mattheus F A. Goosen is associate professor o f c hemical engineer ing ot Queen's Uni vers it y. After obtain ing his doctorate in chemical biomedical engineering from the Uni ve r s ity of Toronto, he spent sev era l years ot the Con nought Resear c h Institute in Toronto os on NSERC Industrial Research Fellow His research interests ore in the areas of animal and insect cell culture engineering, microencop s ulotion technology bioseporation processes th e development of polymeric vaccine and agrochemical delivery systems, ond biomoteriols. 196 that conventional suspension cell culture is limited by relatively low cell densities. As a result, the concen tration of the desired product is low and purification from the growth medium is difficult. A major focus, therefore, has been placed on attempting to find cell culture methods which can improve the concentration of cell products and enhance product recovery, thereby permitting cost-effective, large-scale produc tion. The long-term objective of the work being under taken in our laboratory is the use of membrane technology, such as microencapsulation, in animal cell culture for the enhanced production and recovery of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. HYBRIDOMAS AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES Antibodies are proteins produced by white blood cells (B-lymphocytes) to aid in the destruction of foreign antigens Hybridomas result from the fusion of antibody-producing lymphocytes with their malig nant counterparts (myelomas) and exhibit the genetic characteristics of both parent cells After a screening process, hybridoma cell lines can, if they are subcul tured at regular intervals, indefinitely produce anti genically specific and identical (monoclonal) antibodies of the lymphocytes while, at the same time, retaining the ability to proliferate like the myeloma cells. Typi cally, levels of antibody in tissue culture supernatants are 5 to 50 g/mL of medium [2] Monoclonal anti bodies have been used in immunoaffinity columns for the efficient purification of proteins such as interferon. As diagnostics, they have been used as sensitive de tectors of minute quantities of illegal drugs such as marijuana and cocaine in the blood. They are also being employed in the treatment of diseases such as leukemia and cancer. In the latter case, a chemo therapeutic drug was covalently attached to an anti body which has a high specificity for the tumor cells. INSECT CELLS AND THE BACULOVIRUS EXPRESSION SYSTEM Insect cell culture has received an increased amount of attention recently since these cells are hosts Co pyright C hE Di v ision ASEE 19 88 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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for a class of viruses, the baculoviruses, which has been shown to be an excellent vector for genetic en gineering [3]. This is mainly due to the high expres sion rate of the baculovirus and its post-translational processing capabilities [4] After a protein's amino acid structure has been synthesized, certain proces sing or post-translational modifications must be made in order to make the protein biologically active. These modifications include efficient secretion proteolytic cleaving, phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and possi bly myristylation and palmitylation. Procaryotes (bac teria), on the other hand, cannot perform many of these modifications SUSPENSION CELL CULTURE Perhaps the most widely used of all available cell culture methods is suspension culture. With this tech nique, cells grow in suspension throughout the medium and are circulated by means of air s parging (which also serves to transfer oxygen to the cells) and / or mechanical agitation. Careful consideration, how ever must be given to the type of system to be used for large-scale work. Several investigators, for exam ple have noted that, unlike bacterial fermentations agitation and aeration must be carefully controlled since mammalian [5] and insect cell culture s [6] have been reported to be extremely shear-sensitive For this reason, air-lift bioreactors have proven to be useTABLE1 Comparison of Different Cell Culture Methods Culture Method SpecHic Antibody Antibody References Productivity Concentration in (mg/L of Harvest Llquor 1 medum'day) (mg / L of Harvest Liquor) Suspension (Batch) 6.5 Suspension (Chemostat) 1102 240 Alginate Gel Beads 9 100 Hollow Fiber 5.5 3 150 1 740 7 Microcarrier (Verax) 600 2 100 Pvlcroc~les 28' 1000-4000 Microc~les m.,~le mermrane 8.8 5 500-5000 sngle mermrane 1.0S 200-900 1. Harie91 Liquor = tiquid v.f1ich mial be procelEerlide FALL 1988 Phillips et al., [21) Dean, et al., [10) Bugarski, et al., [8) Altshuler, et al., (9) Dean et al., [1 OJ Posillico [17) King [18) King [22] Monoclonal antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity columns for the efficient purification of proteins such as interferon ... [and] as sensitive detectors of minute quantities of illegal drugs such as ... cocaine in the blood. ful. Besides having lower shears, higher oxygen trans fer rates may be obtained. The major drawback s associated with suspension cell culture, however, are the low cell densities (10 6 cells / mL medium) and low product concentrations (for example 10-150 g antibody / mL medium) As a conse quence, the recovery of biologicals from the culture medium is difficult and expensive In addition, the sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to shear stress is of major concern. A major focus, therefore, has been placed on attempting to find cell culture methods which can improve the concentration of cells and cell products and thus permit cost-effective large scale production while, at the same time, offer protec tion to the shear-sensitive cells. IMMOBILIZED CELL BIOREACTORS One of the most common of all cell immobilization technique s is gel entrapment. This involves the con finement of cells within porous polymer matrices such as calcium alginate, polyacrylamide gels, K-car rageenan and chitosan. This method offers the advan tage s of increased stability and protection from shear forces for fragile mammalian and insect cells, allows for higher cell densities to be obtained and virtually eliminates the need for the separation of the cells from the medium [7] However with this technique, there is no physical barrier to separate the proteins in the growth medium from the proteins produced by the cells. In addition, the antibody must be recovered from relatively large volumes of medium. Bugarski e t al. [8], for example, immobilized mouse hybridoma cells in calcium-alginate beads, obtained, in an 11-day culture period, cell densities of 4 3 x 10 7 cells / mL of alginate bead and antibody concentrations of 100 g/ mL of medium (Table 1). This represented a produc tivity of 9 mg of antibody (lgG) per litre of medium per day. Th e advent of hollow fiber bioreactors, a major advancement in cell culture technology, re sulted in significantly higher cell densities and anti body concentrations. With this type of reactor, the cells are cultivated on the outside surface of hollow, semi-permeable fibers while medium passes through the interior of the fibers. Diffusion of oxygen and nu trient s to the cells, the removal of wastes from the cells and the retention of high molecular weight cell 197

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products can be contro ll ed by the choice of the fiber membrane molecular weig ht c u t-off, medium flow rate, and pressure drop across the fiber membrane. Id ea ll y, retention of the ce ll product in the vo lum e outside of the fibers (s h e ll s id e) is desired. Altshuler et al [9], for example, produced an I gG ant ib ody in s u c h a device reporting I gG concentrations of 740 g / mL in the 2.5 mL she ll space a nd maximum I gG con centrations of 150 / mL in the bioreactor reservoir (vo lum e 150 mL). This compares favo ur ably with a ma xim um concentration of 7.6 g / mL for the same cell type in s u spens i on culture. Ce ll concentrations ap proached 1 x 10 7 cells / mL in the reactor she ll as com pared to 1 x 10 6 cells / mL in suspension c ultur e. A m ajor problem encou nt ered with hollow fiber systems, though, was the poor control of the mem brane molecular weight cut-off and the resulting l oss of product. A polysulfone fiber rated to nominally re tain 90 % of molecules wit h molecular weig ht greater than 10 5 was emp l oyed by Altshuler and co-workers. Ho wever, their data suggest that on l y about 10 % of the ant ib ody (MW 1 60000) was retained by the mem brane over a four-day culture period. Microcarriers have also been investigated as an a l ternative to suspension cu ltur e Successfu l carrier ma terials, based on the adsorption of ce ll s onto the sur face of or into a pore structure, include ion-exchange resin, ceramic supports, stain l ess stee l mesh, and polyacrylamide beads. Perhaps the most interesting carriers are the weig ht ed microsponge beads pro duced by the Verax Corporation [10]. The major prob lem associated with microcarriers as wit h gel entrap ment and suspension, is lo ss of cells from the matrix. MICROENCAPSULATION OF ANIMAL CELLS Viab l e ce ll s may a l so be imm obi li zed in micro sp h eres which posse ss a sem i-p ermeab l e membrane. Th e membrane offers protection to shear-sensitive cells and provides a surface to w hi ch anchorage-de pendent cells can adhere. Perhaps the greatest asset of microencapsulation, though, is the ability o f the semi-permeab l e membrane to retain a hi gh percent age of the protein product within the capsu l e This high product rete nti on may greatly reduce down stream process in g problems. Over the past two decades severa l enzyme and li ving cell microencapsulation procedures have been developed. These include the polyacrylate capsu l es of Sefton [11], the chitosan / a l gi n ate system of Rha [12] and McKnight [13], the a lgin ate-poly ly sine (PLL) polyethyleneimine (PEI) system of Lim and Sun [14] and the a l ginate-PL L technique of Goosen e t al [15]. Sun's group [16] extended this work to streptozotocin1 98 induced diabetic rats, and found that transplanted microencapsulated i s l et cell s were effective in revers in g the diabetic state in an im als for more than 12 month s. In 1986, Posillico reported [17], for the first time, the u se of microencapsulation for the production of monoclonal antibod i es in multigram quantities. They reported, however, that their cells appeared to grow preferentially near the int erior s urface of the micro capsule membrane and s peculated that this could have been due to mas s transfer limitation s during the cell c ultu re or to the presence of a viscous intracapsular a l ginate solut i on. We have been ab l e to show [15, 18] that the physico-chemical properties of these a lgin ate / po l yamino acid microcapsules such as size, shape and membrane molecular we i ght cut-off, co uld be varied by: changing the molecular weight and concentrat i on of the PLL used in the encapsu l ation procedure and by adjusting the a l ginate-PLL reaction time. A re v iew of this techno l ogy was recent l y published [19]. i : : :: -~~J . --f' .,,. :e ~ DAY I DAY 7 DA Y 1 4 D AY 21 FIGURE 1. Tissue culture of encapsulated mouse hy bridoma cells using a single alginate-PLL membrane The initial cell density was 5 X 10 5 cells/mL of capsules and the final density was 2 X 10 7 cells/mL of capsules after about two weeks. The capsule diameter was 600 ,m 60 ,m. [18] C HEMI CA L ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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CULTURE OF ENCAPSULATED HYBRIDOMA AND INSECT CELLS The tissue culture studies in our laboratory with single-membrane alginate-PLL encapsulated mouse hybridoma cells confirmed similar work reported by Posillico [17] and Rupp [20]: hybridoma cells preferen tially grow near the interior surface of the capsules, reaching a maximum cell density of about 2 x 10 7 cells / mL of capsules after about two weeks of growth. However, it was found that while the encapsulated hybridoma cells produced active monoclonal antibody, approximately two thirds of the capsule vo lume re mained free of cells and was actually occupied by a viscous alginate core (Figure 1). This difference in the FIGURE 2. Hybridoma cells cultured in multiple mem brane alginate-PLL microcapsules. Hybridoma cells were encapsulated with an initial cell density of 5 X 10 5 cells/mt of capsules. A~er about two weeks, the cell density had risen to 7 X 10 7 cells/mt of capsules. The average capsule diameter was 850 ,m 85 ,m. [22]. FALL 1988 physical state of the capsule core may have been due to the fact that, in the present system, the capsule membrane molecular weight cut-off was lower (60000) than that reported by Posillico (80000). However similar to our own observations, they found that only part of their capsule volume was occupied by cells. The presence of significant amount of intracapsular alginate (gel or liquid) would not only result in an inef ficient use of capsule volume, but may also cause prob lems in the recovery and purification of the desired intracapsular protein product(s). With a modified, multiple membrane, capsule [18] on the other hand, significan tly higher (300%) cell densities and product concentrations could be obtained (Figure 2). The en tire capsule volume was eventually occupied by cells. This was presumably due to the lower viscosity of the intracapsular core Various cell culture methods are sum marized in Table 1. In terms of productivity, it appears that the Verax microcarrier system is superior. However, what is perhaps more important is the antibody con centration in the harvest liquor ; that is, the liquid that must be processed to recover the antibody. In every case, except microencapsulation, this liquid is serum supp lemented medium. Virtually all of the harvest liq uor antibody concentrations are equal except that of microencapsulation which is at least, a factor of 10 higher. The result of this is that significantly less purification is required to recover the antibody. Other factors, how ever, such as process scale-up, equip ment, raw materials and labour cost, and the mode of operation (i.e., batch or continuous) must also be con s idered. The culture of encapsulated insect cells in our lab oratory proved to be more difficult. Insect cells, in fected with a temperature sensitive baculovirus, could not be cultured in either si ngle or multiple membrane capsules when the initial intracapsular alginate con centration was 1.4 % It can be postulated that the alginate may have inhibited oxygen or nutrients from reaching the insect cells or perhaps the cells were sen sitive to the viscous alginate environment. Toxicity tests supported this observation. Only at alginate con centrations of 0. 75 % or less was cell growth observed. Ce ll s encapsulated using single (low molecular weight cut-off) membrane capsules grew poorly (possibly due to some inhibitory effect of the alginate). However, infected cells would grow well in single (high molecu lar weight cut-off) membrane capsules but the mem brane which formed was weak (causing the capsule to collapse) and often broke, allowing cells to escape into the medium. On the other hand, multiple membrane capsules were significantly stronger than their single 199

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membrane counterparts. Better cell and virus growth was obtained with the former capsules. This was pos sibly due to the lower intracapsular alginate content. High virus concentration (9 x 10 8 IFU/mL) were ob tained with these microcapsules. The growth of temperature-sensitive baculoviruses inside microcapsules appears to be a novel develop ment. The ability to turn viral replication on by simply lowering the culture temperature has allowed, for the first time, the growth and concentration of virus in side of cell-filled microcapsules. Work is continuing on the production of recombinant proteins by encapsu lated infected insect cells in an external-loop air-lift bioreactor. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The encapsulated cell culture studies were per formed by Mr. Glenn King. The insect cell baculovirus work is being done in collaboration with Dr. Peter Faulkner. The bioreactor expertise was provided by Dr. Andrew J. Daugulis. This work was supported by a Strategic Grant from the Natural Sciences and En gineering Research Council of Canada REFERENCES 1. McCormick, D "Pharmaceutical Markets for the 1990's," Bio/Technology, 5, 27 (1987) 2 Goding, J. W., in Monoclonal Antibodies: Principles and Practices, Academic Press, New York, 56-98 (1983) 3. Luckow, V. A., and M D Summers, "Trends in the Develop ment of Baculovirus Expression Vectors," Bio/Technology, 6(1), 47-55 (1988) 4 Bialy, H., Recombinant Proteins: Viral Authenticity," Bio/Technology 5(10), 885-890 (1987) 5 Van Brunt, J., "Immobilized Mammalian Cells : The Gentle Way to Productivity," Bio/Technology, 4(6), 505-510 (1986) 6 Hink, W. G in Microbial and Viral Pesticides, E. Kurstak (ed), Marcel Dekker Pubs, 493-506 (1982) 7. Nilsson, K., W. Scheirer, 0. W Merten, L. Ostberg, E Liehl, H. W. D. Kalinger, and K. Mosback, "Entrapment of Animal Cells for Production of Monoclonal Antibodies and Other Biomolecules," Nature, 302, 629-230 (1983) 8 Bugarski, B., G. A. King, A. J Daugulis, and M F A. Goosen, "Performance of an External Loop Air Lift Bioreactor for the Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Immobilized Hybridoma Cells," Applied Microbiology and Bioengi neering ( Submitted July, 1988) 9 Altshuler, G L., D M Dziewski, J A Sowek, and G. Belfort, "Continuous Hybridoma Growth and Monoclonal Antibody Production in Hollow Fiber Reactors-Separators," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 28(5), 646-658 (1986) 10 Dean, R. C., 5. B Karkare, N. G. Ray, P. W Runstadler, and K. Vankatasubramanian, Large-Scale Culture of Hybridoma and Mammalian Cells in Fluidized Bed Bioreactors," Ann N. Y Acad of Sciences 506, 129-146 (1987) 11. Sefton, M. V., R. M. Dawson, R. L. Broughton, J. Blysniuk and M. E. Sugamori, Microencapsulation of Mammalian C e lls in a Water Insoluble Polyacrylate by Coextrusion and Interfacial Precipitation, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 29, 1135-1143 (1987) 200 12 Rha, C. K. European Patent Application #152898 (1985) 13 McKnight, C. A C. Penny, A. Ku, D. Sun, and M. F. A. Goosen, "Synthesis of Chitosan-Alginate Microcapsule Membranes," Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers (Accepted May 26, 1988) 14. Lim, F and A. M. Sun, Microencapsulated Islets as Bioartificial Endocrine Pancreas," Science, 210, 908-910 (1980) 15 Goosen, M. F A G. M O'Shea, H M. Gharapetian, 5 Chou, and A M. Sun, Optimization of Microencapsulation Parameters : Semipermeable Microcapsules as a Bioartifi cial Pancreas," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 27, 146150 (1985) 16 O'Shea, G. M., M F. A. Goosen, and A. M Sun, "Prolonged Survival of Transplanted Islets of Langerhans Encapsulated in Biocompatible Membrane," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta., 804, 133-136 (1984) 17 Posillico, E. G ''Microencapsulation Technology for Large Scale Antibody Production," Bio/Technology, 4(2) 114-117 (1986) 18. King, G. A., A. J Daugu!is, P. Faulkner, and M F A Goosen, "Alginate-Polylysine Microcapsules of Controlled Mem brane Molecular Weight Cut-Off for Mammalian Cell Culture Engineering," Biotechnology Progress, 3(4), 231-240 (1987) 19. Goosen, M. F. A "Insulin Delivery Systems and the Encap sulation of Cells for Medical and Industrial Use, CRC Critical Reviews in Biocompatibility, 3(1), 1-24 (1987) 20. Rupp, R. G in Large-Scale Mammalian Cell Culture, J. Feder and W.R. Tolbert (eds), Academic Press (1985) 21 Phillips, H. A., J. M. Scharer, N. C. Bois, and M. Moo Young, "Effect of Oxygen on Antibody Production in Hybridoma Culture," Biotechnology Letters, ((11) 745-750 (1987) 22. King, G. A., A. J Daugu!is, P Faulkner, and M. F A. Goosen, manuscript in preparation (1988) 0 REVIEW: Levenspiel Continued from page 195. pressible N ewtonians in Pipes, Compressible Flow of Gases, Molecular Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Flow Through Packed Beds, Flow in Fluidized Beds, and Solid Particles Falling Through Fluids. The heat transfer section covers: The Three Mechanisms of Heat Transfer, Combination of Heat Transfer Resis tances, Unsteady-State Heating and Cooling of Solid Objects, Introduction to Heat Exchangers, Re cuperators, Direct-Contact Gas-Solid Nonstoring Ex changers, and Heat Regenerators. The book ends with a chapter called Potpourri of Problems. The preface to the book indicates it is not for begin ners. Levenspiel carefully states that the book is meant for practicing engineers and for those who have had an introductory course in transport phenomena In keeping with that statement, the first paragraph of the text starts out with the First Law of Ther modynamics; the Second Law is covered in the second paragraph. This is definitely not a place for the raw beginner. Levenspiel quickly develops the macroCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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scopic equations and then moves into applications of the whimsical, thought-provoking type for which he i s famous. While reviewing the book I got the feeling that Levenspiel is trying to fill a void in modern engineer ing education. Here is a book devoid of partial differ ential equations (except for the unavoidable ones in un stea dy heat transfer), vector notation, numerical methods and computer-based problems This is a book that tries to keep thinking from becoming a lost art Levenspiel has cleverly used his whimsical problems to encourage new thinking and application. By moving the reader away from standard CPI applications, creativity and thinking are encouraged because these are not the "real" problems facing an engineer. In fan tasy land one is not constrained by past experiences, so imagination can have free rein. Almost unknow ingly one takes his fundamental models of the universe and applies them to the new situation I found the heat transfer part of the book less satis fying than the fluid flow part The second half of the book is much more a recital of equations. There are chapters with no examples or problems at the end of the chapter The clever application problems drop from about 50% in the fluids portion down to about 25 % in the latter portion. One almost gets the im pression that the author was running out of steam during the last part of the book. Chapter 16 is a refreshing assembly of problems with no tie to any previous chapters In an era where many textbooks almost tell you what equation in a given chapter applies to a particular problem, Levenspiel gives some multi-concept problems and leaves the rest to the reader. Bravo! The book uses SI units exclusively. I would rather see a mixture of applications using English units, par ticularly if the audience is to include practicing en gineers. Engineers still must be comfortable with more than one system of units. There are no answers provided for any of the prob lems. For a clientele of practicing engineers who want to check their understanding of what they are learn ing answers to some of the problems would help. It may prove unfortunate that the book will not really find a home. With the structured and crowded curricula which are now so common, it may not be readily usable. It is definitely not a teaching text in the usual sense-there are too many gaps for a new learner to bridge. Perhaps it may serve as an adjunct text in a design course. If such is the case, then a less expensive paperback edition would make it more at tractive. In any case, finding a home within the uniFALL 1988 versity for this book may well require some creativity on the part of the professor (the author has already done hi s part). D t-Jbil letters SAFETY MODULES AVAILABLE Dear Editor: I read with considerable interest the article in the spring 1988 issue, "Safety and Loss Prevention in the Un dergraduate Curriculum: A Dual Perspective," by Dan Crowl and Joe Louvar. As one of the founders of AIChE's Center for Chemical Process Safety and as a promoter, while AIChE Executive Director, of increased emphasis on safety in the undergraduate curriculum, I commend Wayne State and BASF for their video training sessions In their article, Crowl and Louvar note the "ambitious safety and loss prevention program" in Great Britain This program, under the leadership of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, has led not only to formal safety in struction in universities, but also to excellent interactive hazard workshop modules These excellent products are now available in the western hemisphere. These modules are available in different formats First, there are seven slide module programs, on subjects ranging from the hazards of plant modifications to hu man error. In addition, IChemE offers four current videotape and slide programs, on Preventing Emergen cies, Inherent Safety (by Trevor Kletz), Safe Handling of LPG, and Safer Piping Finally, a computer emergency simulation module on Handling Emergencies for IBM and compatible PCs involves the students in a very real simulation of fire or toxic gas release at an operating chemical plant, with actions and results occurring ac cording to the pre-plan assembled by the group. New modules are being prepared on other important process safety subjects. These modules are ideal for use in the undergraduate curriculum, and are available at special university dis count prices Each package comes with a full text and trainer's guide. I will be pleased to describe and discuss these products with interested chemical engineering academicians. J. Charles Forman The lnsti tution of Chemical Engineers 165-171 Railway Terrace Rugby CV21 3HQ, England 201

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A course in .. BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING TERRY K-L. NG, JORGE F. GONZALEZ, and WEI-SHOD HU University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 T HE DEPARTMENT OF Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota has developed a series of courses on biochemical en gineering for its senior undergraduate and first-year graduate students The series includes three lecture courses, which are offered sequentially, and one labo ratory course. The lecture courses are entitled Stoichiometry, Energetics and Kinetics of Biological Systems; Biochemical Processing Technology; and Bioseparations. The first course deals with engineer ing aspects of cellular processes and includes an intro duction to the kinetics and mathematical modeling of growth and product formation. The processing technology course covers the reactor aspects of bio chemical engineering; topics include kinetics and mass transfer in bioreactors, m edi um and air sterilization, and enzyme-catalyzed bioreactors. The bioseparations course deals with the unit operations used in the four stages of separation of biomolecules: solids removal, isolation, purification and polishing. In the Biochemical Engineering Laboratory course, students perform experiments to obtain data Terry K l Ng is a PhD stu dent in the Deportment of Chemical Engineering and Ma terials Science University of Minnes ota. He received his B S degree from Columbia Un ive sity. His research interests are l iquid-liquid two-phase cul tures oxygenation of mamma lian cel l cultures with perfluorocarbon liquids, and mass spectrometry o f fermentar off gases. {l} Jorge F. Gonzolez is a PhD stude nt in the Deportment of Chemical Engineering and Material s Science at the University of Minn esota H e has a degree in chemical engineering from the National University of Mar del Plata Republic Argentina Prior ta be i ng admitted ta M in nesota he did research on wastewater treatment at fisheries His PhD thesis is a kinetic study of biodegradation of pentachlarophenal in for the design of a continuous sterilizer and to compare oxygen uptak e rates of yeast cells in free suspension and immobilized in agar beads. They also perform a fermentation exper im ent in which they use a com puter-coupled fermentor to gather kinetic data and to determine the program for feeding rate-limiting nutri ent. These four courses give chemical engineering stu dents a relatively complete background in biochemical engineering and also prepare them for meeting chal lenge s in the bioprocessing industries. This communi cation will discuss the organization and the content of the l aboratory co ur se. ORGANIZATION OF THE COURSE Typically, a class of fifteen to twenty students is divided into groups of three or four. Each group chooses a leader who is responsible for the coordina tion and planning of an experiment The group l eader position rotates with eac h new experiment. Before each experi m ent, the in structor gives a one-hour l ec ture on the principles, instrumentation and m et h ods of chemical analysis needed to carry out the experi ment The time period required to carry out the experi ment varies with different projects. Considerably longer periods (as long as a few days) are required for 1./ contaminated soil. ( C) Wei Shau Hu is an assistant professor in the Departm ent of Chem i cal Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minn esota. He received his PhD in biochemical engineering from Mas sachusetts Institut e of Technol ogy in 1983 (R) Co pyright ChE Division ASEE 198 8 202 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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the batch fermentation experiment, which is the last experiment in this course. Laboratory hours for this experiment are arranged individually with the teach ing assistant to ensure close supervision. Teaching assistants play an important role in this course. They supervise students on the operation of instruments and equipment and ensure that safety procedures are being followed in the laboratory. Teaching assistants also prepare inocula and sterilize laboratory glassware when sterile operation is needed. EXPERIMENTS 1. Aseptic techniques The first experiment is an introduction to sterile techniques during which students practice the aseptic handling of microorganisms Two strains of Es cherichia Coli (E. Coli) C600 r-n + are used; one har bors the plasmid PDU 1003 which encodes resistance to antibiotic tetracycline, and the other does not. Stu dents prepare two sets of nutrient agar plates; one contains tetracycline (10 / ml) and the other does not. Students are given cell suspensions of the two E. col i strains and are asked to identify each of them and to determine their cell concentrations. In this experi ment, students are exposed to the concept of selective pressure, the principle of gene amplification which is used in modern molecular biology and the new bio technology industry. This experiment takes a two hour session. 2. Dissolve oxygen concentration measurement The second experiment is the construction of a gal vanic dissolved oxygen (D.0.) electrode [1, 2] and the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration. The galvanic electrodes consist of a silver cathode and a lead anode. These electrodes are also to be used in subsequent experiments. The construction of the elec trode is completed in the first of the two sessions (total of six hours) assigned to this project. The overall reactions are: silver cathode lead anode overall reaction FALL 1988 0 2 +H 2 0+2e 2 OH (1) Pb Pb + + +2e ( 2) ..!. 0 +Pb +H O Pb(OH) 2 (3) 2 2 2 The first course deals with engineering aspects of cellular processes and includes an introduction to the kinetics and mathematical modeling of growth and product formation. The processing technology course covers the reactor aspects of biochemical engineering. The current generated by the reaction is measured by a microameter. If the resistance to transfer of oxygen from the bulk liquid to the silver cathode resides primarily in the membrane, the output of the elec trode at steady state can be described by I= nFA Pm C b i (4) The use of the electrode requires proper calibration. In the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations to be used in the experiment, the output is proportional to the dissolved oxygen concentration. A two-point calib ration is usually used. First, the response of the probe in the solution in which the dissolved oxgen is in equilibrium with air at ambient pressure is recorded as the 100% level. The second point is one with all the dissolved oxygen depleted either by the addition of 1.0 M of sodium sulfite (with a trace amount of Cu+ 2 ( 10 3 M) as a catalyst) or by sparging the fluid with nitrogen gas. Subsequently students measure the response of the electrode to a step change of dissolved oxygen from depletion to saturation with air. The transient output of the probe can be expressed as an infinite series [3] as (5) where The experiment is to be carried out twice; (i) using a magnetic stirrer to stir the oxygen-saturated water in the flask, and (ii) no stirring. After obtaining the re sponse curve, students are asked to examine if the response can be estimated by Eq. (5) and to determine the time constant, k. 3. Oxygen uptake rate of yeast cells in suspension and immobilized in agar gel A schematic diagram of the set-up for the oxygen 203

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uptake rate measurements the third experiment in this course, is shown in Figure 1. The device for oxy gen uptak e mea sureme nt is a 250 cm 3 Erlenmeyer flask with a tightly sealed rubber stopper. A dissolved oxygen electrode, previously prepared by the stu dents themselves, i s inserted through the stopper to the flask. During the experiment, the flask is placed in a constant temperature water bath. Care s hould be taken to ensure that the stopper of the flask is tightly sealed and that no gas bubble enters the fla sk during the experiment. The cell suspension inside the flask is stirred by a magnetic stirrer. Prior to the experiment, the D.O. electrode is calibrated under the experimen tal conditions to be used. The analogue output of the dissolved oxygen electrode is converted to digital sig nals and stored in an IBM personal computer. The students are provided with a s u spension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that were growing expo nentially in complex medium. The optical density of the culture broth is measured to determine the cell concentration. The suspension is sparged with air to bring the D.0. to a higher concentration and is transData translation .......... Strip chart recorder board ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. ... ... Computer Water bath -amp meter Dissolved Oxygen Probe Magnetic stirrer Temp. 3ovc FIGURE 1. Experimental set-up for the oxygen uptake rate measurement 204 120 100 % Full Response 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 0 20 Time (min) FIGURE 2. Changes of dissolved oxygen concentration during the oxygen uptake rate measurement using sus pension of yeast cells ferred into the measurement flask, overfilling it slightly. Th e stopper, along with the D.O. electrode, i s quickly inserted and the flask is sealed, avoiding entrapment of air bubbles. Th e dissolved oxygen electrode constructed by the students typically has a 90% response time (the time period in which the output of the electrode reaches 90% of the new steady state value after a step change in dissolved oxygen from 0% to 100% saturation with air) ranging from one minute to a few minutes. In the measurement of the oxygen uptake rate it is necessary to ensure that the rate measured is not limited by the electrode response time. This is achieved by measur ing the oxygen consumption using Gell suspensions of different cell concentration. The proper experimental condition is in the range bounded by (i) the oxygen consumption rate of the suspension being proportional to the cell concentration, and (ii) the total time span needed to acquire an accurate measurement of the oxygen uptake rate being short relative to the doubl ing time of the cells under the conditions used. The second constraint is needed so that cell concentration can be assumed to be constant. A typical D.O. concen tration profile from this experiment is shown in Fi gure 2. Except for the initial few data points and the period in which the oxygen concentration is very low, the rate of decrease of oxygen is constant. The specific oxygen consumption i s then q = (t.C/ t.t)/x (6) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The linear range in the dissolved oxygen concen tration curve is used to calculate the oxygen consump tion rate. The deviation from linearity at the begin ning is due to the switch of the D.O. electrode from a solution in which the electrode is previously sub merged to the cell suspension The consumption of oxygen by yeast cells follows Michaelis Menten kine tics; thus the rate is zero order with respect to the dissolved oxygen concentration only at concentrations above a certain level. The decrease in the oxygen con sumption rate at the end of the measurement (longer than ten minutes, as shown in Figure 3) is most likely due to the intrinsic kinetic behavior of yeast cells. To prepare the immobilized cell system, yeast cells are harvested by centrifugation and subsequently re suspended in a smaller volume of the growth medium The cell suspension is then mixed with an equal vol ume of 4 % agar solution which has been maintained just above its solidifying temperature ( 40 C). This agar-cell suspension is quickly poured into a Petri dish and allowed to solidify. The volume of agar added to each Petri dish is adjusted to give rise to a gel thick ness of 2.4 mm. The agar gel disk i s then r e moved from the Petri dish and gently pressed against a screen with an opening of 2.4 mm. The almost cubic agar particles so formed are collected and poured into the oxygen uptake rate measurement flask The flask is subsequently filled with growth medium and the dissolved oxygen is measured and recorded in the computer. The experiment is repeated with agar cubes containing different concentrations of im mobilized cells. Students are instructed to analyze the mass trans fer processes in the immobilized cell system. The dis solved oxygen concentration at the interface of agar beads and liquid is assumed to be the s ame as that in the bulk liquid. At a high cell concentration and, thus, a high reaction rate in the agar gel, the intraparticle diffusion of oxygen can be limiting The cell concentra tions used in the agar gel are selected to allow stu dents to observe cases of both oxygen transfer limita tion and no limitation. Furthermore, students are asked to compare the experimental results to the theoretical analysis using effectiveness factor (TJ) for substrate utilization with Michaelis-Menten kinetics [6]. The observable modulus is defined as (7) In Equation 7, q is obtained from the measurement using free cells in suspension. The diffusion of oxygen FALL 1988 in agarose gel needed for the theoretical analysis is obtained from literature [7]. 4. Continuous sterilization The fourth project is the continuous sterilization of Escherichia c ol i cell suspensions The continuous sterilizer consists of a cell suspension reservoir, a peristaltic pump, and a piece of silicone tubing con necting the reservoir to a four-foot long coiled copper tubing submerged in a constant temperature water bath (Figure 3). The cell suspension stream from the sterilizer is collected in flasks submerged in an ice bath. A three-way valve is installed before the collecPump Water bath To collection flasks FIGURE 3. Scheme of the apparatus for continuous sterilization tion flask to allow for rapid switch from one flask to another so that s amples from various time points can be taken easily. In the first session of this experiment, students determine the thermal death rate constant of the cells. Three water baths are set up at 50, 60 and 65 C respectively. A series of test tubes containing buffer solution are prewarmed in each water bath. To begin the experiment, small aliquots of cell suspension are added to the test tubes so that the sterilization tem perature is reached almost instantaneously. At differ ent time intervals tubes are withdrawn from the water bath and the contents are transferred to bottles containing chilled dilution solution for viable cell count. From the viable count of cells the death rate constant at the three temperatures are determined: dN =-K(T)N dt (8) Arrhenius plot is then prepared to estimate the death rate constants a s a function of temperature. The temperature for the continuous sterilization is 65 C. However, with the system employed for this 205

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experiment, the temperature rising period is a signif icant fraction of the holding time in the sterilizer Thus, both the heating region and the temperature holding region are important in the killing of bacteria. Students calculate the temperature profile in the sterilizer for a number of flow rates. The heat transfer coefficient of the coil is obtained from the reported value for the same material in literature. Students are also instructed to assume a plug flow behavior for fluid flow inside the sterilizer. Their assignments involve determining steri lization flow rates required to achieve two different degrees of killing (N / N 0 ) [4, 5, 6] and carrying out the processes. 5. Cultivation of microorganisms in a stirred tank The last project is a fermentation experiment which is designed to expose students to the tasks in volved in fermentation operations. The tasks they carry out include setting up a 2 1 or 16 1 fermentor and auxiliary systems, preparation of inocula, sterilization of vessel and medium aseptic inoculation, sa mpling, data acquisition and analysis. The specifics of the fer mentation experiments carried out vary from year to year. Among them is the classical yeast fermentation of glucose Students are asked to study the production of ethanol and its further oxidation to carbon dioxide and water during different stages of the batch culture. Another experiment is the fed-batch cultivation of A cineto bact er calc oa ce t icus ATCC 31012 u s ing ethanol as the carbon and energy source In thi s case a sufficiently high ethanol concentration in the bioreactor is necessary to sustain an optimal growth rate; however, it will inhibit growth if it is allowed to exceed an upper limit. In this experiment, program med feeding of ethanol is carried out during the culti vation to control ethanol concentration in the tolerable range. Without s uch a feeding s cheme cell growth cease s after ethanol initially pre se nt in the bioreactor i s depleted Students are given kinetic data obtained from a batch culture without programmed fe ed ing. From the data they determine the specific growth rate and specific ethanol consumption rate or the yield coefficients. The kinetic parameters are used in the growth model to calculate the feeding rate. Students input the feeding rate as a function of process time into the microprocessor. The execution of the feeding i s carried out by a microprocessor controlled pump The temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concen tration are controlled by simple feedback loops. The oxygen con s umption rate, determined by th e anal ys is of off-gas by mass spectrometer, can be used to esti206 mate the specific growth rate, and such information can be u se d to adjust the feeding rate of ethanol on line. However, because of the extensive program de velopment needed to implement s uch on-line adju s ment, any adjustment of feeding rate i s impl e mented b y the st udents but not by on -lin e computer. During the fermentation, sa mples are withdrawn periodically, and the cell concentration is mea s ured by a colorime ter. A portion of the s amples is frozen for the mea surement of ethanol concentration by gas chromatog raphy The experimental results are compared to the prediction CONCLUDING REMARKS One achievement of this laboratory course is the demon s tration to our und e rgraduate s tudents that chemical engineering principles do apply to systems involving living microorgani s ms. Probably equally im portant is for the students to realize that the system they deal with is never as s imple as it i s represented in the textbook. However, it is the simplification or id ea lization of the complex biological systems that al lows u s to apply the c hemical engineering principles to systematically analyze the se systems. In the sterili zation experiment, they quickly realize that the ther mal death rate constant of microbial cells is affected by many factors, such as growth medium, pH, and culture s tage in addition to temperature. It only takes a few hours into the fermentation experiments for the students to discover that the yield coefficient i s not constant in a batch culture as it is frequently assumed to be in most mathematical growth models One of the s tudent groups noted in it s report: "The overall experiment gave us a very good opportunity to apply knowledge gained in the previous courses of the Biochemical Engineering series, and most impor tantly to realize that things in the lab are much less ideal than presented by theory!" F o otnot e: Th e s t u d en t manua l, w h ic h i nc l u d es s t e p by-st e p ins tr uc t io ns for e ach ex p e rim e nt, is a v a i labl e by writ i ng to W-S. H u NOMENCLATURE A = area of s ilver cathode Llp = area of agar particles b = membrane thickne ss C 1 = concentration of 0 2 in the bulk liquid C 0 = oxygen concentration in the bulk of medium in Eq. 7 Ll C = differ e nce in oxygen concentration D es = oxygen diffusivity in agar particles C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDU CA TION

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Dm = oxygen diffusivity through the membrane F = Faraday's constant I = current k = electrode time constant K = thermal death rate constant n = number of electrons N = number of viable cells Pm = permeability coefficient of the membrane q = specific oxygen consumption rate t = time T temperature M time elapsed between oxygen concentration measurements VP volume of agar particles x = cell concentration being used in the experiment Xb = cell concentration in agar particles In memoriam REFERENCES 1 Johnson M J J Borkowsky, and C. Engblorn ," Stearn Sterilizable Probes for Dissolved Oxygen Measurement, Biotechnol. Bioen 6:457-468, 1964 2. Borkowsky, J. D., and M J Johnson, "Long-Lived Stearn Sterilizable Membrane Probes for Dissolved Oxygen Measurement," Biotechnol Bioeng. 9:635-639, 1967 3 Lee, Y. H., and G T. Tsao, "Dissolved Oxygen Electrodes ," Adv. Biochem Eng 13:35-86, ed by T K. Chose, A Fiechter, and N Blakebrough. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1979 4 Wang, D I. C., et al. Chapter 8, Fermentation and Enzyme Te c hnology, J Wiley & Sons, New York 1979 5. Aiba, 5 ., A E. Humphrey, and N F Millis, Biochemical Engineering 2nd Ed Academic Press, N e w York, 1973 6. Bailey J., and D Ollis, Chapters 4 and 8 Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd Ed McGraw-Hill, 1986 7 An-Lac Nguyen and J. H T. Luon g "Diffusion in Carrageenan Gel Beads," Biotechnol. Bioeng. 28:1261-1267, 1986 0 ROBERT L. PIGFORD 1917-1988 Professor Robert L Pigford died on August 4th after suffering a stroke on May 14th from which he never recovered. He was 71 years old and a long-time resident of Newark, Delaware He was born and raised in Meridian, Mississippi He earned his BS degree in chemical engineering from Mis sissippi State College in 1938, his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois. His next six years were spent in the Engineering Research Laboratory at the DuPont Experimental Station working on both civilian and military research problems, the latter arising from World War II. With his industrial colleagues, he partici pated in what was to become one of the national centers for a renaissance in engineering education, in which the group replaced approximate analyses guided by experi ment with careful, quantitative models of the chemical and physical processes being considered. Dr. Pigford's association with the University of Delaware began shortly after his arrival in Delaware when he began or ganizing these new analyses into evening and week-end courses for chemical engineering students on the cam pus. One result of this activity was a textbook, Application of Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering Prob lems, which he coauthored with the late W. R. Marshall. In 1947 Allan Colburn prevailed upon Bob Pigford to come to the University on a full-time basis as chairman of the fledgling department of chemical engineering. His association with the University of Delaware spanned more than thirty years. From 1966 to 1975 he served on the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley. He was one of the earliest proponents of the use of computers in engineering and built several for both in struction and research before the widespread availability FALL 1988 of such machines. His colleagues remember the numer ous hurdles he had to overcome to convince conservative administrators of the need for these expensive new tools of science and technology. His advice was sought by numerous industrial, aca demic and governmental institutions. He served as a member of the U.S. Army's Advisory Council, the Scien tific Advisory Board of the U S. Air Force, the Depart ment of Energy and the National Research Council, as well as being a member of the Advisory Committees for Chemical Engineering at Princeton University and Mas sachusetts Institute of Technology. He received virtually all the national awards of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and served as a Director of that or ganization from 1963 to 1966 In 1983, on the occasion of that organization s 75th anniversary, he was named as one of thirty pre-eminent leaders of his profession. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1971 and to the National Academy of Sciences in 1972. In 1977, the University of Delaware named him as its first Alison Scholar, and in 1983 he was appointed to the University's Board of Trustees. In addition to serving on numerous editorial advisory boards, he served as editor of the American Chemical So ciety Journal Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals for a full quarter century The Delaware Association of Professional Engineers named him Engi neer-of-the-Year in 1988. Professor Pigford married Marian Pinkston in 1939. Their daughter, Nancy, is a resident of Philadelphia and their son, Robert, lives in Newark, Delaware. There are three grandsons. Arthur Metzner, Marian Pigford 207

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Research on THERMODYNAMICS AND FLUID PROPERTIES AMYN S. TEJA, STEVEN T. SCHAEFFER Georgia Institute of T ec hnology Atlanta, GA 3 0 332 0100 E XCEPT IN THE MOST established industries, today's chemical engi n eers will undoubtedly face the problem of designing processes and sizing equip ment with little or no reliable thermodynamic or phys ical property data. Thi s problem w ill occ ur more fre q u ently as c h emica l engineers continue to expa nd into e mer ging technologies s u ch as biotechnology, biopro cess in g, and e l ectron i c materials processing. Even in the traditional indu stries s u c h as o il and coa l, the n eed for reliable physical property information will incr ease as these industries str i ve to me et c h a ngin g pollution, safety and efficie ncy sta nd ards The chemical e ngin eering applied thermodynamics co mmunit y is quite act i ve in it s attempts to "keep pace" with the increased demand for data. While data at the exact condit ion s of interest are obvio u s l y the mo st desirable, the general trend of thermodynamics research is toward theoretical or sem i-th eoretica l mod e l s and property correlations which permit extenAmyn Teja received his B S and PhD degrees in c hemical engineer ing fr om Imperial Col l ege in L on don ond is c urrentl y a professor in the School of Chemical E ngineering at Georgia Tech Hi s research interests ore in the therm ody namics and fluid properties area for which h e was recent l y awarded the Sustained Res earch Award o f the Georgia T ech Chapter of Sigma Xi. ( l ) Steven Schaeffer received his B S and MS degrees in chemical en gineering from L eh ig h Uni versi ty H e recen tl y received hi s PhD degree in c hemi ca l engineering from Georgia T ech. ( R) SUPERCRITICAL FLUID PHENOMENA CRITICAL PROPERTIES MODELS i----.-.i PHASE EQUILI BRI A P H YS I CAL PROPERTIES FIGURE 1. Interrelationships between thermophysical property research sio n of the inform ation to other co nditi ons of temper ature, pressure, and composit i on A broader trend is toward models whic h req uir e very limit ed informa tion. For exa mpl e, computer s imul ation and group co ntribution methods require a kn ow led ge only of the m o lecul ar struct ur e to estimate physical properties Howe ver, the basis for reliable correlations remains the accurate measurement of thermophysical proper ties of int e r est Th ermop h ys ic a l property research at Georgia Tech h as a l ong and distinguis h ed hi sto ry. Indeed, Profes sor Waldemar Ziegler was performing so lubil i ty studies using s u percrit i ca l fluid s [1] l ong before this subject became "fashionab l e In genera l terms, our current research i s concerned with the measure ment, corre l at i o n and prediction of basic properties s uch as phase eq uilibri a, critical phenomena, e nth a pies, spec ifi c h eats, densities, viscosities, therma l con ductivities, diffusion coefficients, and s urfa ce ten s i ons Our ultimate goal is to develop reliable predic tive m et hod s for thermophysical properties and pha se eq uilibri a and to further the understanding of the un derlying mol ec ular phenomena (F igur e 1). Th e members of o ur research group co n sist of the a uthor s, two visiting professors, one post-doctoral fel low, seve n grad u ate st ud ents, and two und ergrad u ate st udent s. In add ition we interact closely with reCo py ri ght C hE D ivision ASEE 1 988 208 C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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search programs in the Sc hool s of Mechanical En gineering, C hemi stry, and Applied Biology. In the past four years, six master s degree s and eig ht PhDs hav e been awarded for re searc h ranging from experi mental studies of hydrocarbon so lubilities in s up e rcrit ical fluids to fundam e ntal equations of state. Our re search facilitie s include equipment for critical point studies, phase equilibrium st udi es (two at high pres sures and one at ambient pressure), seve r a l high pres sure visco m eters, a transient hot-wire thermal con ducti vity apparatus, a drop ca l or im eter, two hi gh pr ess ure density apparatuses, and a low pressure den s iomet e r This eq uipm ent is su mmariz ed in Table 1. In add ition a wide range of analytical eq uipm ent (GC, HPLC MS and NMR) i s available, as are s tand ards (platinum resi stance thermometers, dead weight gauges, etc.) for ca libration. Our l aboratories also h ave a dedicated microva x II workstation with plotter and l aser printer and severa l PCs for data aq ui sition, analysis, and report writing. Fo ur current research projects are described in more detail below. TABLE 1 Experimental Thennophysical Property Capabilhies at Georgia Tech Operation Ranges Proeert~ Measurement Technique r1 o c1 P(bar) Critical telll)erature Rapid heating of a sealed 25-500 1-100 andvolnne 811'l)rule Critical te1r4>erature Low residence time flow 5-400 1-100 and pressure apparatus Fluid-solid equilibria Single-pass flow apparatus 10-90 1-340 Vapor-liquid equilibria Vapor and liquid recirculation 25-200 1-340 still Vapor-liquid equilibria Recirculation still 25-200 0.1-2 Thermal conductivity Transient hot wire method 25-210 1-100 Heat capachy Adiabatic drop calorimeter 100-500 1-100 Viscosity Capillary viscometer 25-1100 1-680 Rolling ball viscometer 25-250 1-680 Capilary viscometers -10-250 1 Density High pressure 'Jicnometer -300 1-100 Vibrating tube ensiometer -10 150 1-350 Vibrating tube densiometer -10-50 1-10 FALL 1988 While critical point measurements have been made for many stable substances, experimental data are almost non-existant for thermally unstable compounds commonly found in heavy oil processing, biochemical separations, and supercritical extraction. CRITICAL PROPERTIES OF THERMALLY UNSTABLE AND STABLE FLUIDS In addition to its fundamental importance in molecular theory the critical point of a substa n ce forms the basis for t h e corresponding states and eq ua tion of state calculations of th ermodynamic properties and phase eq uilibria. A knowledge of the critical point is also required in supercritical fluid extraction, ret rograde condensation, and supercritical fluid power cycles While critical point measurements have been made for many stab l e substances, experimental data are al most non-existent for thermally unstable compounds common l y found in h eavy oil processing, biochemical separations, and s uper critical extraction At Geo rgia Tech, we h ave developed two methods for determin ing the critica l properties of thermally un stable fluids. The first method in volves the rapid heating in a platinum furnace of a sealed g l ass a mp o ul e containing the substance By observing the changing meniscus disappearance-reappearance phenomena characteris t ic of the critica l point with time, and by extrapo lati on to a thermally stab l e state, the critical temperature and critical volume can be obtained (Figure 2). Th e 0 ai ~-l-----~-~ --~ -.,....-8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16 0 18.0 20.0 22 0 Time ( min ) FIGURE 2. Temperature-time history of a thermally un stable substance (octan-1-ol) showing points of menis cus disappearance and reappearance 209

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second method is a low-residence time technique in which the fluid is pumped rapidly through a view cell in a heated oven. In this apparatus, critical opales cence is observed by manipulating the pressure tem perature, heating rate, and flow rate of the fluid. The combination of these two methods provides all three critical properties


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tiv e carbon dioxide based separation process will re sult from our study THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCENTRATED ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS Two pairs of working fluid s are in common u s e in commercial absorption chillers and heat pumps: am monia-water and lithium bromide-water. The ther modynamic properties and phase equilibria of these binary working pairs determine the energy flows N1 FIGURE 4. ORTEP drawing of monocrota/ine from a single crystal X-ray diffraction necessary to drive the dissolution and separation steps in the absorption cycle. Efforts to quantify the perfor mance of absorption cycles have however been hin dered by a lack of consistent thermophysical property data for lithium bromide-water systems, particularly at high temperatures and high concentrations. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is sup porting an extensive investigation of the properties of these concentrated electrolyte solutions (concentra tions approaching 65 wt % ) at temperatures up to 473K. We are measuring heat capacities, densities, viscosities, thermal conductivities, and vapor pres sures of these solutions. The system also serves as a model for the development of correlations for concenFALL 1988 0 0 Dieth y lene gl y col Trieth y lene gl yc ol -,,,,.,..------.. --.....__ ""-. ... ..... .. .... .. ,, ""' ~-+---~--~--~~ 290 0 340.0 3 9 0 0 440.0 4 9 0.0 Temperature (K) FIGURE 5. Thermal conductivity of diethylene and triethylene glycol mixtures trated electrolyte solutions and is part of a collabora tive effort with Dr. Sheldon Jeter of the School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech. FLUID PROPERTIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE Much has been written about industrial support of thermophysical property research [7]. One cost-effec tive way in which industry supports such research is by participation in consortia such as the Fluid Proper ties Research Institute FPRI is an industrially spon sored co-operative research organization which was founded in 1973 for the purpose of acquiring sound thermophysical property data. It was originally based at Oklahoma State University but was relocated to Georgia Tech at the end of 1985. The industrial mem bers of FPRI include petroleum companies (Amoco), specialty chemical (Hoechst-Celanese) and chemical companies (Dow), as well as contracting companies (UOP, Stearns-Catalytic, JGC Sasakura Engineer ing). Basic data on heat capacities, densities, thermal conductivities (Figure 5) and viscosities of classes of compounds (e.g., glycols, crude oils, aqueous solu tions) are being measured and computer data banks are being developed Graduate students and postdoc toral fellows participate in the FPRI research effort. Thus program funding produces two outputs: techni cal information and talented chemical engineering graduates. The program sponsors benefit by "leverag ing" their research funds for basic studies, gaining access to experimental data and correlations, and by Continued on page 222. 211

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[e};, a curriculum CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND INSTRUCTIONAL COMPUTING Are They In Step? PART 2 EDITORIAL NOTE: Part 1 of this article appeared in the summer 1988 issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION and ended with the questions Can microcomputers stimulate the use of open-ended, design-oriented problems? Can high-resolution displays permit students to better learn the principles through visualization of streamlines in fluid flows, visualization of PVT, etc? Can computers enable students to analyze and possibly design less conventional processes involving, for example, crystallization of chips, d epoBitio n of thin films, natural convection in solar cells, etc? These questions are addressed in this second part of Dr. Seider's paper. WARREN D. SEIDER University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104 T HE STIMULUS FOR open-ended problem-solving in the core courses of the undergraduate curriculum arises from the need to expose stude nt s to the methods of formulating and so lvin g problems with many alternate so lu tio n s In m any curricula, this exerc i se is reserved primarily for the capstone design course. Yet with hi g hly-interactiv e comp ut ers which require the st udent to do minimal or no programming, it should be possible to add more open-ended problems to the core courses while more adequately satisfying the controversial requirement of one -half year of course work in design for the ac cr editat ion of under graduate curric ul a [1]. This h as been the basis for the CACHE Corpora tion project to develop CACHE IBM PC Les sons for Courses Other Th an Design and Control [2] In the fir st phase, six authors prepared their le sso n s with ... with highly-interactive computers which require the student to do minimal or no programming, it should be possible to add more open-ended problems to the core courses while more adequately satisfying the controversial requirement of one-half year of course work in design for accreditation Wan-en Seider is professor of chemical engineering at the Uni versity of Penn sylvan ia. He and his students ore conduc ting r search on process design with on emphasis on operability and con trollabilit y. In course wo rk they utilize many computing systems including severa l of the programs described in this a rticle He is currently serving as the chairman of the CACHE Curriculum Task For ce. H e received his BS degree from the Polytechnic In sti tute of Brooklyn and hi s PhD from the University o f Michigan He served as the first chairman o f CACHE and was e l ected a director o f AIChE i n 1983 the restriction of the u se of the BASICA languag e on an IBM PC with a color graphics monitor. No other restrictions were set and, consequently, several dif ferent formats evolved, so me u si ng extensive color graphics with animation to present new concepts, some presenting a derivation of the principal equa tions (with int erspersed questions to be answered by the student), and most permitting parametric st udi es C op11right ChE" Di vi.s inn ASE"E" 19 88 212 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 1 CACHE IBM PC Lessons for Courses Other than Design and Control Lesson~ Authors ~h Slurry Flow in Channels Freeman, Provine, Dow Denn Ruid Mechanics Berkeley Supercritical Fluid Kellow Cygnarowicz Seider Separations and Extraction Penn Thermodynamics Gas Absorption with Chemica! Reaction Nordstrom, Seinfe l d Cal. Tech Separations Design of Flash Vessels and Finlayson Kaler, He i deger Separations and Distillation Towers Washington Thermodynamics Heterogeneous Reaction Bauer, Fogler Reactor Analysis Kinetics Michigan CSTR Dynamics and Vajdi Allen Reactor Analysis Stability UCLA with graphical output. Th e six le sso n s (see Table 1) have recently been distributed on diskettes by the CACHE Corporation. The lesson for the "Design of a Slurry Pipeline," developed for the fluid mechanics course, presents the student with a mass rate of solids to be pumped a given distance. Using the Frankel-Acrivos eq uation for the viscosity as a function of composition, he or she must choose the slurry concentration and pipeline diameter to minimize the net present value of the cost over the life of the pipeline. First, the student derives the equations to minimize the power consumption. Then the microcomputer program is used to vary the design parameters interactively and to prepare a fam ily of curves, as illustrated in Figur e 1 in which the PO~ER U \ PHI I PHl ~A i 2 ~ 5 ...---~,---.,---., ---r-,-----, 12 3 ,8.2 4 l --~::----: < LEGEND LA~! NAR JURBULENI ?RE: 2 100 ----------~ --0 ~ ~--.l~-~'-~1 __ ~1--~ 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 t 0 8 1. 0 PHI I PHINA X FIGURE 1. Power consumption in slurry flow. From IBM PC lesson for the design of a slurry pipeline [2]. FALL 1988 power is plotted as a function of the solids fraction. Th e l esson on supercritical extract ion provides ap proximately fifty frames, some with animation, to in troduce the principles of SCE before teaching, by example, the design procedure [3] The program, which is currently limited to the dehydration of ethanol with carbon dioxide, allows the st udent to find the optimal de s ign for the flow s h eet in Figure 2a The student guides the program through the procedures that compute the size and cost of th e extractor, fl as h vessel, and compressor. With highl y interactive graphics, the student e nters the design variables (sol vent / feed ratio flash temperature and pressure, e tc.) and observes the results in annotated, graphical dis plays of the process units as well as cost charts. For exa mple see Figure 2b. The important objectives in the preparation of this lesson included: (1) the pro vision of an open-ended problem for the separations course that applies the principles to a potentially at tractive process especially when non-toxic so lvent s are u sed in food processing, and (2) the use of graphics EXTRACT 1 ~ :~ ---~ / L. _____ PRESSURE SEPARATOR REDUCTION ETHANOLVALUE WATER FE 1EI1, RAFFI NATE~ EXTRACTION COLUMN COMPRESSOR (a) Flow sheet for dehydration of ethanol with CO 2 '/ TRACT (b) Extractor design H El GH I DlAMEIR : 1. 9 8 0. 97 COS T : $ ~73 310 ij o r EXTRACi O RS: 2 REQUIRED T O TAL : 54G 619 CO ST FIGURE 2. Supercritical fluid extraction lesson [2]. 213

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and animation to present new material, enabling the student to monitor complex calculations in a way that conventional text books are unable to accomplish. A third lesson focusses on the dynamics and stabil ity of a CSTR with a first-order, exothermic reaction and heat transfer to a cold reservoir. It begins with an introduction of the concepts of CSTR multiplicity, stability, and dynamics. The basic equations are de rived with intersper se d questions. Then the s tudent varies the key parameters and the program locate s the steady-state nodes and foci and limit cycle s, when they exist and plots the dynamic performance. One such plot is shown in Figure 3. While this lesson doesn't involve a cost function, it exposes the student to the vagaries of exothermic reactor design through Y2 ..... ~ --, -..... ...... .... ____ y .1 STABLE FOCUS FIGURE 3. Phase-plane of a CSTR with a first-order, exothermic reaction and heat transfer (Yl = conversion, Y2 = product T). From IBM PC lesson on CSTR dynamics and stability [2]. instruction in the principles of stability analysis and parameterization. Such an analysis which has often been regarded as beyond the scope of undergraduate reactor courses, can now be presented to the student without consuming valuable lecture time. It should be noted that the six CACHE IBM PC lessons were developed, for the most part, on an ex perimental basis, often by student programmers with little or no remuneration. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that they will not entirely fulfill their objec tives. Perhaps they will be most useful in presenting examples of what can be accomplished with highly-in teractive microcomputers, as well as in having pro vided the authors experience in the preparation of 214 CAI software. It is also noteworthy that BASICA was the pro gramming language and that no utility routines were provided for creating the menus, text screens, graphi cal screens with animation, quizzes, etc. Hence, it was necessary to create these facilities in the BASICA lan guage. This resulted in as many as 1200 hours being required to prepare interesting and challenging se quences which use color and animation, avoid repeti tion, give the students much control, etc. In parallel, several "authoring systems" were being developed in which these and other utility routines are provided for the authors of CAI lesson s. MICROCACHE [4], developed at the University of Michigan, keeps records of student usage and perfor mance much more completely than the commercial systems we examined. The latter include the UN ISON system [5] by Courseware Applications Inc ., which the CACHE Curriculum Task Force has judged to be the most cost-effective for its next set of CAI lessons (currently in preparation). Others are the PLATO PCD3 (CDC), TENCORE (Computer Teach ing Corp.), and CSR Trainer 4000 (Computer Systems Research) Authoring Systems. In summary, it seems reasonable to answer the question "Can microcomputers stimu lat e the use of open-ended, design-oriented problems?" in the affir mative. Microcomputers are beginning to stimulate the use of open-ended problems in the core courses. The cost of software development principally in st dent and faculty time, continues to be high. But, the new authoring systems have the potential to sharply reduce the cost and associated effort. m ---~ rn s __ --=-=.... H2 0 I l -I r-===, : LIQ-G~S A A 4 HEATER! : HEATER2 ~ REACTOR~~ SEP I D [ I 1 -r 2 = 3 4 -, s s Ql 1 Q2 6 ~ 8 0 0 LIO-LIQ R R E xp ected Output : I SEP B I B ------r E r I FLWRTE IEHP CO MP O NENT H OL E FRACTIONS 1 1 ,-a 7 I R I [1 # GHOL/H DEG C ETB H20 STY BENZ TOLN HETH ETHL H2 m 10 T I 5 ,63 33,6 ,001 ,00 3 ,000 ,000 ,000 ,017 ,014 ,965 I I I .. .. 7 19,99 33.6 ,000 1.00 ,000 ,000 ,000 ,000 .000 000 I S I Operating 10 ,70 73 3 ,9 44 000 013 .019 .016 .001 .007 000 T I ParaMeters : 11 1.30 77.6 ,533 000 467 000 000 000 ,000 000 I 1 m : 2.00 M o l / h 1 L 9 1, H20:20.00 M ol / h Actual Output : 1 Li"] Ql : 400 0 w atts I A Q2 : 100.0 w,tts FLWRIE TEMP CO MPONENT HOLE FRACTI ONS T CW: ,833 MOI is # G H OL/ H DEG C ETB H 20 SH BENZ TOLN HETH ETHL H2 1 I Liq-Gas Seg: 5 27 46,1 005 000 001 000 000 079 00 3 .9 12 0 Pm : 8 ~ psi 1 ,00 25,0 000 .000 000 000 000 ,000 000 000 1 I N"Ads Ji Me : 5 0 h 10 ,70 73,4 ,958 ,000 ,005 ,002 033 ,001 .001 .000 I. J. I Distil!ation: 11 1.30 75,l ,799 000 ,2 01 000 .000 000 000 ,000 I --"" 1 Dist: 70M o l / h (R) 11 Pm : 1 00 MMHg FIGURE 4. Styrene microplant before and alter random generation of a fault [6]. CHEM ICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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... job opportunities are shifting toward the manufacture of silicon chips, the processing of pharmaceuticals and foods, the manufacture of solar collectors, etc., and chemical engineers are being challenged to develop new sensing devices that provide better data and more detailed models to clarify their processing mechanisms. FAULT DETECTION While on the subject of interactive microcomputers in undergraduate coursework and before turning to the next question, a program by Heil and Fogler [6] that enables students to detect faults in a styrene microplant is an extraordinary example of a chemical engineering mystery (comparable to the well-known SNOOPER TROOPS detective game). This program is intended to teach the basics of structured problem solving using the Kepner and Tregoe Method [7]. Through many frames the student is presented with information concerning the normal operation of the microplant and its performance after a failure has been randomly generated. See, for example, Figure 4. Given $2500, the student must locate the fault, while spending as little money as possible Detailed information about each process unit is availab le at no cost. However when necessary, the student can make experimental measurements at costs between $50$200 At some point, the student se l ects from approx imately 75 possible faults thereby initiating repair work at cost s between $200-$800. Mistaken diagnoses are charged the full cost of repairs and, hence, it is important to carefully isolate the fault before report ing it. It is noteworthy that several researchers are seek ing methods to automate the fault detection strategies through the use of logic-b ased, expert sys tems [8]. HIGH-RESOLUTION GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS Probably the greatest limitation of the widely available PCs for use in the core courses is their mediumto low-resolution graphics displays. Distrib uted parameter problems arise often in courses on transport processes, separations and reactor design, and their s olutions, in the form of stream line s, isotherms, lines of constant composition, e t c., can be plotted using software for twoand three-dimensional graphics. As this software becomes easier to use and more widely available, the limiting factor shifts to the resolution of the graphics display. Thus far research ers have found it necessary to use the more expensive, and less widely available, high-re solution graphics workstations such as the Evans and Sutherland, MicroVAX II / GPX, Apollo, and Sun. However, these are becoming cheaper and consequently will be more FALL 1988 0 v D o lmosph e res cubic. c. en li me l er5 / g-mol de rc es Ke Ju in FIGURE 5. PVT surface for a van der Waals' fluid. Line of constant internal energy. (Reprinted with permission from [9]) available to undergraduate students. They are en dowed with full 32 bit processors and speeds in the range of 1-10 MIPS, which reduce the computation times for finite-element analyses and graphical trans formations. An excellent example of the power of high-resolu tion displays i s the program by Jolls [9] to plot three dimensional PVT surfaces and related thermodynamic properties for the ideal gas and van der Waals' equa tions of state. The FORTRAN program, which runs on VAX computers with Tektronix 4107 color graphics terminals, is particularly effective in displaying the thermodynamic paths between two states. For exam ple, isenthalpic, isentropic, isothermal, isobaric, etc., paths can be displayed. See Figure 5, in which a path of constant internal energy is displayed on a PVT sur face. While the Jolls displays are for pure fluids only Gubbins and co-workers [10] have prepared composi tion-dependent displays for binary systems, as illu s trated in Figure 6, using a FORTRAN program that runs on DEC VAX systems under VMS with Evans and Sutherland Multipicture System II workstations. When similar workstations are mass-produced at lower costs, their impact on the teaching of subjects that benefit from three-dimensional visualization should be dramatic. For now, however, it seems reasonable to conclude that instructional computing 215

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lags behind current practice in several areas funda mental to classical chemical engineering, including thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. LESS CONVENTIONAL PROCESSING The processing of material s, biochemicals, biomed ical systems, solar collectors, etc., i s often complex, difficult to model and difficult to measure. As a con sequence, until recently, young chemical engineers usually sought and found work in industries that apply the principles of transport processes, thermoFIGURE 6. PTX surface for H 2 5 CH 4 system using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation. (Reprinted with permis sion from [10]) 216 dynamics, chemical kin et ics, etc., to less complex pro cesses. However, job opportunities are shifting to ward the manufacture of silicon chips, the processing of pharmaceuticals and foods, the manufacture of so lar co ll ectors, e tc ., and chemical engineers are being chal lenged to develop new sensing devices that provide better data and more detailed model s to clarify their processing mechanisms. Academicians are prominent in these fields and, consequently, are introducing new experimental and q rys t21 I (cold) M e lt ed S ili con Cruc ib le( h o t) -:~ ,,... ....... FIGURE 7 Three-dimensional modeling of Czochralski crystal growth in the manufacture of silicon chips [12]. theoretical techniques as applications in their core courses and in specialized electives. With these areas expanding, it seems reasonable to question whether the computer is enabling under graduate students to better understand, and possibly design, l ess conven tional processes. The response, it seems clear, i s no; or at lea st, not yet. The theoretical work of these researchers has be come so computer-dependent that undergraduate stu dents can be expected to gain exposure to their models as they evolve. In many cases, although the details of the models and finite-element analyses are beyond their comprehension, the st ud ents sho uld be able to perform meaningful computational experiments, try ing different geometries and configurations, calculat ing power requirements, etc. For the most part, these teaching materials will require high-resolution graphi cal displays with acceptable computing speeds and suf ficient storage to perform the finite-element analyses One such application involves the Czoc hral sk i method of crystal growth in the manufacture of si li con chips [11], for which Ozoe and Matsui [12) have de veloped a three-dimensional model of the crucible shown in Figure 7. Their model accounts for the bouyant and centrifuga l forces, with zero gradients assumed in th e azimutha l direction, and confirms that at critical Raleigh numbers and critical ratios of CHE MICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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H FIGURE 8. Sketch of the streaklines from three-dimen sional modeling of natural convection in a solar collector [13]. Grashof number to Reynolds number squared, unde sirable recirculation patterns develop in the crystal line melt. A related example involves natural convec tion in a solar collector that absorbs solar energy at the lower surface and transmits it to the fluid by con vection and conduction. Figure 8 shows the system under study by Churchill and co-workers [13] Their results show a three-dimensional transition in the pat tern of flow and the rate of heat transfer as the angle e varies. Clearly, programs that solve the partial dif ferential equations and display the results in three dimensions can add immeasurably to courses in heat and mass transfer. At this time, the use of these pro grams for instructional computing lags far behind the development of these algorithms. The gap however, can be expected to narrow appreciably over the next 2-3 years, as high-resolution graphical workstations replace the current generation of PCs. CONCLUSIONS It is concluded that: For the design and control courses, the com puting tools are, for the most part, in step with design and control practice in chemical engineering. (See Part 1.) Microcomputers are beginning to stimulate the use of open-ended problems in the core courses. The cost of software development, principally in student and faculty time, continues to be high. But, the new author ing systems have the potential to reduce the FALL 1988 cost and associated effort sharply. When high-resolution workstations are mass produced at lower costs, their impact on the teaching of subjects that benefit from three dimensional visualization should be dramatic. Currently, however, instructional computing lags behind the current practice in several areas fundamental to classical chemical en gineering, including thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. Complex computer models, often developed as a consequence of improved sensing devices, permit chemical engineers to clarify the mechanisms that underlie the processing of materials and biochemicals, the behavior of biomedical systems, etc. At this time, the use of such models for instructional computing lags far behind the development of models for these processes. The gap, however, can be ex pected to narrow over the next 2-3 years, as high-resolution graphical workstations re place the current generation of PCs. REFERENCES 1. Denn, M. M ., "Design, Accreditation, and Computing Technology," Chem. Eng Ed ., Winter, 1986 2. Seider, W D ., ed., CACHE IBM PC Lessons for Chemical Engineering Courses Other Than Design and Control, CACHE, 1987 3 Seider, W. D., J C. Kellow, M. L. Cygnarowicz, Supercritical Extraction," in Chemical Engineering in a Changing Environment, eds., S. I. Sandler and B A. Finlayson, A!ChE, in press, 1988 4. Carnahan, B., and C. Jaeger, "The MicroCACHE System for Computer-Aided Instruction," presented at the A!ChE National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, May, 1984 5 UNISON Author Language, Courseware Applications, Inc., 475 Devonshire Drive, Champaign, IL, 1987 6 Heil, A. T., and H. S Fogler, "Styrene Microplant: An Exercise in Troubleshooting," Interactive Software for Chemical Engineers, University of Michigan, 1985 7. Kepner, C. H., and B. B Tregoe, The New Rational Manager, Princeton Univ Press, Princeton, 1981 8. Rich, S. H., and V. Venkatasubramanian, "Model-based Reasoning in Diagnostic Expert Systems for Chemical Process Plants, Comp. Chem. Eng ., 11, 2, 111, 1987 9. Morrow, J. F., and K R Jolls, Equations of State: Preliminary Operating Manual, Iowa State University, Chemical Engineering Department, August, 1987 10. Charos, G N., P. Clancy, and K. E. Gubbins, "The Representation of Highly Non-Ideal Phase Equilibria Using Computer Graphics," Chem Eng Ed ., Spring, 1986 11. Jensen, K. F., "Control Problems in Microelectronic Processing," in Proceedings of CPC III Conference, eds., T. J McA voy and M Morari, Elsevier, 1986 12. Ozoe, H., and T. Matsui, "Numerical Computation of Czochralski Bulk for Liquid Metallic Silicon," in preparation, Kyushu University, Japan, 1987 13. Ozoe, H., K. Fujii, N. Lior, and S. W. Churchill, "Long Rolls Generated by Natural Convection in an Inclined, Rectangular Enclosure," Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 26, 10, 1427, 1983 0 217

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[eJ;, a curriculum CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES A Perspective* PART 2 EDITORIAL NOTE: Part 1 of this paper appear ed in the previous issue of Chemical Engineering Educa tion (Vol. 22, No. 3). SIGMUND FLOYD Ex xon Chemical Company L inden, NJ 07036 G RADUATE EDUCATION in Japan and the United States differs significantly due to cultural/ societal factors. The most obvious difference is the disparate importance of the Masters and PhD degrees in the two countries. In the U.S., many universities allow the student to pursue the Doctoral degree with out first obtaining the MS, but there is no fixed period for either degree. In the case of the PhD in particular, the primary requirement for graduation is generally perceived as "satisfying one's adviser." In Japan, there is a fixed duration of two years for the Master 's \ i J / I I ~ Sigmund Floyd graduated from the Tokyo Institute of Technology Japan, with a BEng in chemical engineering, in 1980, and began graduate studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison the same year. He received his PhD in 1986 and is currently working at E xxon Chemicol Campany in Linden New Jersey *The views expressed her ei n are the author's and not those of Exxon Corporation. Most U.S. graduate schools have a formal minor requirement which necessitates passing several courses outside the major department. In Japan, the general atmosphere does not encourage such forays into new knowledge at the graduate level ... graduate courses are kept as free of work as possible in order to maximize the time available for research. and three additional years for the Doctoral degree. These fixed durations are important because, in con trast to U.S. practice, Japanese companies strongly prefer to hire all their new graduates at the same time of the year in order to facilitate group training In the U.S., the Masters Degree, although seen as a useful extension of undergraduate work, is not particularly prestigious. In Japan, on the other hand, the Masters Degree students who unlike their U S. counterparts generally have three solid years of research experi ence (counting the undergraduate senior year), are welcomed by Japanese industry as having the correct mix of broad and specific knowledge. This is due, at least partly, to the myopic specialization that is ex pected of doctoral students in Japan, evidenced by the differences in graduate course requirements. Most U .S. graduate schools have a formal minor require ment which necessitates passing several courses out side the major department. In Japan, the general at mosphere does not encourage such forays into new knowledge at the graduate level. In fact, graduate courses are kept as free of work as possible, in order to maximize the time available for research. The focus on one narrow area is reinforced by the fact that the graduate school almost exclusively retains its own un dergraduates, who simply remain in the same lab in which they complete their undergraduate Thesis Pro ject (the type of crossover from other disciplines that occurs in the U.S. is very rare) Doctoral students C opyrigh.t C hE D ivis ion ASE E 198 8 218 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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In the U.S the Masters Degree, although seen as a useful extension of undergraduate work, is not particularly prestigious. In Japan, on the other hand, the Masters Degree students who, unlike their U.S counterparts, generally have three solid years of research experience (counting the undergraduate senior year), are welcomed by Japanese industry as having the correct mix of broad and specific knowledge. generally e l ect an academic career, continuing at the institution of their graduation Eventually, some of these "research fellows" move into vacated s lot s for assistant professors, wh il e others stagnate or move out to industry. At the national schools, which are the primary research universities, each assistant profe s sor s lot is tied to a senior professorial slot in an ad ministrative unit known as a ko z a. The realm of inves tigation of the ko z a is quite sharp l y defined, and hence assistant professors are not free to do research in any realm of choice, as they are in the U S. In fact, the assistant professor is usually mentored" by the senior professor throughout a s ignificant part of his career The creation of new ko z a s i s overseen by the Ministry of Education, with each ko z a receiving an identical amount of funding from the government Room for individual initiative under the Japanese system is much le ss than in the American system, in which scho o l s prefer to bring in "new blood" from other institu tions. Japanese graduate students put in essentia ll y six days of lab work per week, s pending less than around 15 % of their time on coursework. Although the gruel ling lab routine l eaves little time for pursuit of outside interests, the Japanese graduate school is not an un pleasant socia l experience The members of the l ab group, who are usually crowded into sma ll l abora tories, share a strong sense of camaraderie, enhanced through interactions such as drinking parties and sum mer trips to resort areas (it is very uncommon for Japanese graduate students to be married). This con stant fellowship provides an outlet for stress and facilitates research discussion s and mutual a s s i stance among student s Formal re s earch meetings involving the entire group are frequent, and except for the very newest members of the group (the undergraduate seniors), suggestions and observations may be made by anyone in the best scientific tradition. In the U.S. the qua li ty of the graduate schoo l experience is prob ably le ss uniform. For a small but s i gnificant percent age of students, it turns out to be a nightmare, due to factors such as capricious advi s ers, an un s ympathetic bureaucracy, and an overload of teaching duties. Con siderab le dissatisfaction also results from the fact that the student cou ld be earning a much l arger income in private indu stry In contrast, graduate s tudents in There are s ign s that thi s s ituati o n i s beginnin g t o c hange with doctora l degr ees n o w in s trong d e m a nd at s om e m a j o r c ompani es F ALL 1988 Japan genera ll y receive no financial support and have minimal teaching duties continuing for the most part to live at home or at the expense of their parents In addition, the relatively low starting salar i es at a ll l eve l s and the high degree of respect for graduate stu dents by s ociety largely eliminate the psychological handicaps suffered by graduate students in the U S where social status is primarily determined by in come A substantia l fraction of an American graduate st ud ent's time is spent on coursework a nd teaching duties. In research, U.S graduate students tend to work independently of others and also tend to work in "spurts ," a lternatin g between feveris h and rela tively relaxed periods. In addition, U S. students are accustomed to enjoying a broader spectru m of socia l activities ( e .g., clubs, religious groups) than their Japanese counterparts. In Japan peer pressure to conform to the standard work hours of the lab men tioned in Part 1 i s quite intense. Through close s up er vision, gossip, and innu endo, an atmosphere i s created in which shirk in g is very unfa vorab l y regarded, and in an extreme case a member might be ostracized by t h e group Because of these differences in work habits and other cu ltural and l anguage differences, it is rather hard for a foreign st ud ent to be s ucc essfu ll y ass imil ated into a Japanese lab oratory Foreign stu dents are genera ll y incapable of fully taking part in the regular group activities, both professional and so cia l and many s uff er from fee lin gs of isolation (a lm ost a ll foreign st udent s are accepted on a case-by case basis, and hence are present in far fewer numbers than on U.S campuses). From personal observation, I would recommend that any st u dent who wishes to e xperience working in a Japanese laboratory s h ould at least have a rudimentary knowledge of spoken Japanese be w illing to work long h ours, and be outgo ing enough to participate in group activ itie s Being unmarried is preferable. While I would not rule out the possibility of a valuab l e experience for a female s tudent she should be prepared to deal amicab l y with a likely a ll-m a l e environment and a strong l y male oriented culture. In contrast Japanese students in American univer sities genera ll y seem to adj u st very well. There is a tendency, as in the case of other foreign nationals, to A few sc holar s hip s, mo s tl y in the form o f r e payab l e loan s, ar e a vailabl e fo r th e e conomic a ll y di s advantag e d. 219

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socialize with other Japanese and form support net works. This sometimes results in less interaction with American students than is desirable. However, the large numbers of Japanese students, faculty and com pany personnel* who participate in the U.S. educa tional system ensure that Japan has an opportunity to learn from and absorb the strongest parts of the American system. Unfortunately, the reverse is not true; the number of American engineering students and faculty who participate in some form of educa tional experience overseas, particularly in Japan, is too small CONCLUSIONS In both Part 1 and Part 2 of this paper, I have attempted to convey the flavor of receiving a scientific education in the social cultures of Japan and the United States. It should be clear that cultural factors loom very large in determining the educational experi ence, and hence, what is good in each system cannot necessarily or even desirably be transported to the other country. For example, American companies will undoubtedly continue to expect graduates who can plunge straight into their duties, while Japanese com panies will prefer to shape and mold the roles of their employees Nevertheless, it should benefit research ers, university administrators, science policymakers, and company managers in both the U.S. and Japan to have an awareness of these educational and cultural differences and to try and distill the best possible ex perience out of each system. The Japanese educationa l system turns out large numbers of relatively uniform, highly trained, and rather idealistic graduates. Especially at the MS level, these graduates combine a fairly broad, though shal low, technical background with expertise in a specific area and a good understanding of research methods. They are hardworking and, equally important, experi enced at getting things to work. These qualities make them suited to and easily assimilated into the predom inantly applied research programs at Japanese com panies. Furthermore, in contrast with the U.S. Japanese companies have no clearly defined technical and managerial ladders, and it is uncommon for em ployees to remain in an exclusively technical role throughout their careers Thus, in the course of em *Many Japan ese companies and governmental agencies s uch as MITI se nd their employees to foreign univ e r s ities to acquire a "broad perspective" as well as research and language ski ll s, often with an MS degree as the formal objective. This is a prestigious assignment, and is rooted in Japan's longsta nding tradition of learning from overseas. 220 .. it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of the research experience gained by Japanese Bachelor's and Master's students in instilling a feeling for scientific methodology and "doing things right" ... ployment, the best of these graduates eventually oc cupy key managerial roles in Japanese corporations (It has been estimated that around half of the direc tors of major industrial companies have an engineer ing background [l]). In the U.S., many managers who have BS or MS degrees in engineering have little or no experience in research It is worth mentioning that there is no specific slanting of curricula in Japan to wards manufacturing issues, in which Japan is often ascribed an almost mystical prowess by U.S obser vers. However, it is difficult to overemphasize the im portance of the research experience gained by Japanese Bachelor's and Master's students in instilling a feeling for scientific methodology and "doing things right," which is surely applicable to endeavors besides research. It is also plausible that the fundamental re spect for and understanding of the research and de velopment process (including staying abreast of the foreign scientific literature) on the part of Japanese technical managers has played a significant part in Japan's successes in adaptation and refinement of foreign technology, enabling competition with the U.S. in numerous technical fields. On the other hand, it must be observed that the qualities of Japan 's technical graduates are obedience and persistence, rather than independence and in quiry Thus, one can point to numerous factors in Japan's educational system which will limit its stated goal of mobilizing the creative process. Among these are the lack of emphasis on originality, the often s ti fling level of supervision of projects at the lower de gree levels, the tendency to overspecialize at the PhD and faculty level, and the lack of mobility between and within universities. While there is definitely a trade-off between advanced study in major and non major fields and getting data for one's research pro ject, the balance will have to be shifted somewhat if Japan is to produce graduates with multidisciplinary capability Indeed, the multidisciplinary capability of American PhD students is probably one of the strongest features of the American educational sys tem, which has translated to leadership advantages in non-traditional areas such as materials, biotechnol ogy, and computers. However, one must never under estimate the Japanese capability for a focused reC HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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sponse in such areas, once the basic work has been done and the potential is apparent. Another area in which the Japanese system should seek improvements is in requiring more rigor in coursework; a system in which "getting by" is suffi cient is detrimental to creativity. Last, but not lea st, the rigidity of the current koza system and its restric tions on initiative of younger investigators would seem to be in need of reevaluation in the light of Japan's desire to become a leader in new technologies. In the United States, at the undergraduate level, the most transparent problem is the lack of sign ificant research (or other practical hand s-on) experience for the majority of the graduating class of engineers. Lab courses cannot make up for this failure. This results in an inadequate under standing of the scientific method of problem-solving on the part of Bachelors graduates, many of whom eventually go on to careers in technical management. In addition, at a time when the U.S. is struggling to maintain its technological position in several areas, it simply does not make sense to graduate engineers with little or no sense of what it means to do research. In the author's view, at minimum, a one-semester course equivalent (3 cre dits) of research should be a graduation requirement for the Bachelor's degree. In addition, the complexity and diversity of expertise that is required today would seem to point to a need for a greater number of courses, in both technical and non-technical fields. For example, in an age of international competition, there should be a requirement to demonstrate at least rudimentary proficiency in a foreign language. There should also be some opportunities for discus sion of broad social issues and how engineers and sci entists can contribute to their resolution. The current adversarial relationship between technical problem solvers and people who perceive problems needs to be improved drastically. One possibility might be a re quirement for attending seminars by visiting indus trial personnel, regulatory officials, and representa tives of responsible environmentalist organizations. A better understanding of the contributions of science and engineering to our national security and well being would hopefully be an additional factor for stu dent motivation, as it is in the Asian cultures of Taiwan, Korea, Ch ina and Japan. The ability to achieve such diverse objectives and still produce graduates of acceptable "drop-in" capa bility for American industry obviously requires better support from the basic educational system Currently, the freshman year and part of the sophomore year in the U.S. are spent in acquiring a level of knowledge FALL 1988 possessed by graduating high school seniors in Japan. The compression of a rigorous engineering curriculum into the remaining two years is undoubtedly responsi ble for "burnout," as well as the fairly general percep tion that engineers do not receive a well-rounded edu cation, which in turn means that the least able graduates are unabl e to find jobs. Unemployment among graduating seniors, which has recently been as high as 20% [2], is one of the major issues confronting the profession in the United States. In contrast, in Japan, engineering graduates from prestigious schools There should be ... discussion of broad social issues and how engineers and scientists can contribute to their resolution. The adversarial relationship between ... problem solvers and people who perceive problems needs to be improved. are considered eminently employable in non-technical positions, and some go to work for trading companies or enter civil service Concerning Japanese excellence in manufacturing, it is evident that this must be attributed to factors other than course requirements. However, in the U.S., manufacturing is currently acknowledged to be of relatively low prestige by many industrial mana gers. In order to partially rectify this situation, one solution would be for engineering schools to offer a "manufacturing specialty" option consisting of a fo cused group of courses in areas such as statistics, pro cess control, engineering economics, and quality as surance, which are basic to manufacturing technology. This is neither excessive nor unrealistic, in view of the fact that some schools currently offer "options" or "emphases" in topics such as applied mathematics, biology, food science, microelectronics, and pollution control. By recognizing the value of this type of option through hiring practices, industry could stimulate a greater awareness of the importance of manufacturing among Bachelor's students. At the graduate level in the U.S., attempts to stream lin e the PhD program sho uld be implemented. While going to a fixed-duration system like that of Japan may not be appropriate, conscious efforts to enhance productive progress and shorten the duration of research projects so that a PhD is achievable in four years would be beneficial in encouraging pursuit of this degree by people whose objective is an indus trial career. In attempting to streamline the degree, the broad interdisciplinary aspects of graduate study 221

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in the United States, a fundamental strength, should not be compromised, and perhap s could even be en couraged. For example, a student might be asked to submit a short proposal on extensions of hi s res earc h to another field which would be appended to his thesis with appropriate keywords for location by researchers who might otherwise never exa min e hi s or her work. For the MS degree, on the other hand, coursework i s overemphasized, and a greater emphasis on research contributions would be desirable Both Japan and the United States have serious is s ues of access to higher education in technical field s for women and minorities. While the situation for women in the U.S. has improved s ignificantly in re cent years, in Japan the attitude toward women in technical and s upervisory po s itions remains highl y prejudicial. As the percentage of women in these pos itions in the U.S. continues to grow, discomfort will be experienced in cross-national dealings, e .g., joint ventures. While change will b e slow, it is to be hoped that Japan will eventually take its place among the leading societies in this regard. In the U.S., continu ing efforts must be made not only to attract minoritie s and women into the scientific and engineering profes sions, but to deal with the fundamental causes under lying reduced participation by the se groups. In summary, although some would argue that each system serves the unique needs of its country adequately, comparing the systems of engineering education in Japan and the United States offers food for thought on possible improvements to each. While a significant number of Japanese students and faculty spend some time within the U.S. educational system, it i s unfortunate that a much smaller number of Amer icans participate in the Japane se experience. It is to be hoped that in the future, more American students and faculty will view first-hand the workings of Japanese education. To stimulate this, it would be de sirable for engineering departments of major univer sities to develop student and faculty exchange pro grams and to incorporate courses in Japanese lan guage and technical Japanese into their curricula. In Japan, the focus for the future must be on st imulatin g creativity, while in the United States the educational system does not appear to wholly meet need s for re search management capability and solution of pressing social concerns, including industrial competitiveness. In particular, concrete measures directed at increas ing the prestige of manufacturing among engineering graduates may be warranted. While the job market for scientists and engineers frequently appears to be supersaturated, stable growth in sc ientific and en222 gineering enrollments with production of good-quality graduates can be expected to benefit the nation in the long term. Both countries still face some very real issues of access and fairness. In the U.S., there is a clear n ee d for professional socie ties to assist in monitoring stat i st ic s relating to women and minorit y enrollments. Finally, the nation 's corporations can do their part by taking an active interest in ed ucation promoting stable hiring policies, and maintaining affir mative action goals. REFERENCES 1. P. H Abelson, editorial in Science,210, 965 (1980) 2. 1986 Enrollment Survey in Chemical Engineering Progress, 83, (6), 90 (June, 1987) FLUID PROPERTIES Continued from page 211. interacting with high-quality students prior to gradu ation. The students benefit by interactions with indus trial sponsors and by working on industrially-relevant research. CONCLUSIONS Thermodynamics and fluid properties research i s a thriving activity at Georgia Tech. Although based mainly in the School of Chemical Engineering, there are joint project s with the Schools of Chemistry, Mechanical Engineering, and Applied Biology. There is also significant industrial participation via the Fluid Properties Research Institute It is obvious from some of the work described that the need for ther mophysical properties and for fundamental under standing of molecular behavior which determines these prop ert ie s, will continue to grow as new technologies emerge and established technologies change. REFERENCES 1. Kirk, B. S., and W T Ziegler, Adv. Cryog. Eng 10, (1965) 2. Anselme, M., PhD Th esis, Georgia In s titut e o f Technology, 1988 3. McHugh M ., and V Krukonis, S uper c riti ca l Fluid Ex tra c tion Butterworth, Stoneham, MA 1986 4. Georgeton, G., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institut e of T ec hnology, 1987 5. Schaeffer, S. T ., PhD Thesis Georgia Institute of Technol ogy, 1988 6. D'Souza, R ., PhD Th esis, Georgia Institut e of Technology, 1986 7. Paspek, S. C. Chem. Eng. Prog., p 20, Nov. (1985) 0 C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THEUNWERSWYOfftKRON FACULTY ff kron, OH 44325 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAM RESEARCH INTERESTS G. A. A'IWOOD Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption J. M. BERTY Reactor Design Reaction Engineering, Syngas Processes H. M. CHEUNG Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques S. C. CHUANG Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion J.R. ELIJOTT ______ Thermodynamics, Material Properties G. ESKAMANI* Waste Water Treatment L. G. FOCHT Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design H. L. GREENE Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing H. C. KllLORY Hazardous Waste Treatment. Nonlinear Dynamics S. LEE Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Computer Applications R. w. ROBERTS Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design M. S. WILLIS Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena Ac/Ju.net Professor Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,000. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $16,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees. FALL 198 8 Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship applications is February l5th FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE: CHAIRMAN, GRADUATE COMMITTEE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF AKRON AKRON, OH 44325 223

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... 'ff,,_: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA I,,, I .\ rl" .. ,' '~... ,,. :.;, ~. ........ "' : \ ..... ... .\_.,_.;_;_ ,. I\.....,..~ ; lillt, : .. .. .... ~. _;:v~ \~,_ .. .. .. ... ..... )GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Alabama. enrolling approximately 18,000 undergraduate and graduate students, is located in Tuscaloosa. a town of some 75,000 population in West Central Alabama Since the climate is worm, outdoor activities ore possible most of the year The Deportment of Chemical Engineering hos on annual enrollment of approximately 175 undergraduate and 25 graduate students For information concerning available graduate fellowships and assistantships, contact : Director of Graduate Studies, Deportment of Chemical Engineering, P O. Box 870203, Tuscaloosa. AL 35487-0203 FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS G. C. APRIL, Ph.D. (Louisiana State): Biomass Conversion, Modeling, Transport Processes D. W. ARNOLD, Ph D. (Purdue) : Thermodynamics, Physical Properties, Phase Equilibrium W. C. CLEMENTS, JR., Ph D. (Vanderbilt) : Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware W. J. HATCHER, JR., Ph.D. (Louisiana State) : Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics I. A. JEFCOAT, Ph.D (Clemson University) : Synfuels, Environmental, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks E. K. LANDIS, Ph D (Carnegie Institute of Technology) : Metallurgical Processes, Solid-Liquid Separations, Thermodynamics A. M. LANE, Ph.D (Massachusetts) : Catalysis, Safety Health and Environment M. D. MCKINLEY, Ph.D. (Florida): Mass Transfer, Environmental, Synfuels L. Y. SADLER, Ill, Ph.D (Alabama) : Energy Conversion Processes, Rheology, Lignite Technology V. N. SCHRODT, Ph.D. (Penn State): Separations, Computer Applications, Bioprocessing

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Chemical Engineering at UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A EDMONTON,CANADA p DODCJDDCJDt:JD CJ OCJD DD CJ CJ tJ CJD FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS K. T. CHUANG, Ph D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph D (Queen's) : Applied Mathemat i cs I. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota) : Kin e tics Heterogeneous Catalysis D. G. FISHER, Ph D (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer Applicat i ons M. R. GRAY, Ph.D (Caltech) : Chemical Kinetics, Characterization of Complex Organic Mixtures Bioreactors R. E. HAYES, Ph D (Bath) : Numerical Analysis, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D (Alberta) : Catalysis Kinetic Modelling Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Des i gn J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph D (British Columbia) : Transport Phenomena, Numerical Analysis Particle Fluid Dynamics A. E. MATHER, Ph.D (Michigan) : Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thermodynamics W K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Math e mat ics K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph D (Princeton) : Transport Phenomenna Process Simulation Computational Fluid Dynamic s F. D. OTTO, Ph D (Mich i gan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING : Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Separation Processes, Heavy Oil Upgrad i ng D. QUON, Sc D (M I.T ) PROFESSOR EMERITUS : Energy Modelling and Economics D. B. ROBINSON, Ph D (Michigan) PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Flu i ds Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics J. T. RYAN, Ph D (Missouri) : Energy Economics and Supply, Porous Media S L. SHAH, Ph.D. (Alb er t a): Comput e r Proc ess Control, Adaptive Control, Stab ili ty Th e ory S. E. WANKE, Ph.D (C a lifornia Davis) CHAIRMAN : Heterogeneous Catalysis Kin e tics R. K. WOOD, Ph D. (Northwestern) : Process Simulation, Identification and Modelling Distillat i on Column Control For further information con tact CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA EDMONTON, CANADA T6G 2G6

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON,AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in most of the research areas listed below THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science: Ph D Fordham University, 1950 Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor Ph D University of Florida, 1984 Liquid SoltJtion Theory, SoltJtion Thermodynamics, Polyelectrolyte SoltJtions WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean Ph D., Oregon State University, 1973 Heat transfer in Biological Systems. Blood Processing EDWARD J. FREEH, Research Professor Ph D ., Ohio State University 1958 Process Comrol, ComptJter Applications JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph D ., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in the Microcirculation, Biorheology SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor Sc.D Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982 Co14>1ed T rensport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Combustion and Fuel Technology, PollU1ant Emissions, Separation Processes Applied Mathematics GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head Ph.D University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966 Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical Modeling of Transport, Bio reactors ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical Ph.D ., UCLA, 1983 Boundary Layers, Stability, Mass and Heat Transport Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further Information, write to Dr. Jost 0 L. Wendt Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer. THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor Ph.D ., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutams, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols Microcomamination ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph D Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Tran sf er, Process Instrumentation Packed Column Distillation Comp Vier Aided Design FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor Ph.D University of California-Berkeley, 1972 Reaction Engineering Kinetics Catalysis, Coal Conversion JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor Ph D ., Johns Hopkins University 1968 Combustion Generated A ir Pol l tJtion Nitrogen and SuWur Oxide Abatement Chem ical Kinetics Thermodynamics lmerfacial Phenomena DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph D Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes Solar Energy Microbial and Enzymatic Processes DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor D.Sc., T echnlon, 1962 Energy, Fermemation, Mixing "Center for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several technicians, and several postdocs and graduate students. Olher research involves 2-D electrophoesis, cell culrure, electro cell fusion, and electro fluid dynamic model[,ng.

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Arizona State University Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Materials Engineering Research Specializations include: ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS BIOINSTRUMENTATION BIOMATERIALS CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented by a highly respected faculty : James R. Beckman (Arizona) Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) Neil S. Berman ( Texas ) David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Llewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Veronica A. Burrows (Princeton) Timothy S. Cale ( Houston ) Ray W Carpenter (UC / Berkeley ) William A Coghlan ( Stanford) Sandwip K. Dey (Allred U .) William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech ) David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) Bal K. Jindal ( Stanford ) James B Koeneman (Western Australia)* Stephen J. Krause (Michigan) James L. Kuester (Texas A&M ) Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)* Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin) Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)* Vernon E. Sater (IIT) Milton C. Shaw (Cincinnati)* Kwang S Shin ( Northwestern) James T. Stanley (Illinois) Robert S Torres! (Minnesota) Bruce C Towe (Pennsylvania State) Thomas L. Wachtel ( St. Louis University) Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia) Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech) Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley) lmre Zwiebel (Yale) Adjunct or Emeritus Pr ofesso r Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to qualified applicants. ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, which is a part of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled in ASU s ten colleges ; 10 000 are in graduate study. Arizona s year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU s own cultural and recreational facilities. FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-6006 and eq ual opportunity in i ts employment activities and programs ,.;:: I Arizona State Univers i ty vigorously pursues affirmative action r. Q -----~~

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University of Arkansas Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Michael D. Ackerson (Ph D., U. of Arkansas) Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D U. of Oklahoma) Water Resources Fluid Mechanics Thermodynamics, Enhanced OH Recovery Edgar C. Clausen (Ph D U of Missouri) Biochemical Engineering Process Kinetics James R. Couper (D Sc Washington U.) Process Design and Economics, Polymers James L. Gaddy (Ph D U. of Tennessee) Biochemical Engineering Process Optimization Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma) Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards Assessment William A. Myers (M S., U of Arkansas) Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering Thomas 0. Spicer (Ph D., U. of Arkansas) Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa) Mass Transfer Diffusional Processes Charles M. Thatcher (Ph D., U. of Michigan) Mathematical Modeling Computer Simulation Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D ., U of Oklahoma) Fluid Mechanics Biomass Conversion, Process Design Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D U. of Texas) Microelectronics Materials and Processing Superconductors J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma) Risk Analysis Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control FINANCIAL AID Graduate students are supported by fellowships and research or teaching assistantships. 228 FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering 3202 Bell Engineering Center University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 LOCATiON The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is liter ally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic city and serves as the center of trade, government and finance for the region. The city and University offer a wealth of cultural and intellectual events. FACILITIES The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a $30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional 20,000 sq ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Experi ment Station C H E MI C AL EN G INEERIN G EDU C ATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Graduate Studies Auburn cl! Engineering THE FACULTY R T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966) R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 19651 C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) J. A GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine 1976) Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) G. MAPLES (Oklahoma State University, 1967) R D. NEUMAN (Institute of Paper Chemistry 1973) T. D PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951) A. R. TARRER (Purdue University 1973) B. J TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) For Information and Application, Write Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head Chemical Engineering Auburn University, AL 36849-5127 Auburn University RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Polymer Science Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Carbon Fibers and Composites Coal Conversion Computer Aided Process Control Controlled Atmosphere Electron Microscopy Environmental Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis THE PROGRAM lnterfacial Phenomena Process Design Process Simulation Pulp and Paper Engineering Reaction Engineering Separations Surface Science Thermodynamics Tran sport Phenomena The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M S and Ph D. levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to qualified students Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Edu catio nal Institution FALL 1988 229

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BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY W O R L D C A M P U S ~~--~ .,....,.,,.,. ... ~.-~~~ ;, I"' : :}.GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING in the beautiful Rocky Mountains of Utah Biomedical Engineering Chemical Propulsion Coal Combustion & Gasification Computer Simulation Electrochemistry Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics ( : t L r For additional information write to: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering, 350 CB Brigham Young University Provo, Uta h 84602 Tel: (80 I) 378 2586 Kinetics & Catalysis Mathematical Modeling Materials Transport Phenomena Molecular Dynamics Process Design Process Control

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GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TM THE UNIVERSllY OF CALGARY The Department offers programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree (part time) in the following areas: FACULTY R. A. Heidemann, Head (Washington U ) A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, U.K.) L. A. Behie (Western Ontario) J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary) F. Berruti (Waterloo) P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta) R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.) A. Chakma (UBC) M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY) A. A. Jeje (MIT) N. Kalogerakis (Toronto) A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary) R. G. Moore (Alberta) P. M. Sigmund (Texas) J. Stanislav (Prague) W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta) Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Heat Transfer and Cryogenics Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion Multiphase Flow in Pipelines Fluid Bed Reaction Systems Environmental Engineering Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation Enhanced Oil Recovery In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Computer Simulation of Separation Processes Computer Control and Optimization of Engineering and Bio Processes Biotechnology and Biorheology Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to qualified applicants. E. L. Tollefson (Toronto) M. A. Trebble (Calgary) FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE DR P. R. BISHNOI, CHAIRMAN GRADUATE STUDIES CoMMITTEE DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY, CALGARY, ALBERTA, CANADA T2N 1N4 The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is ~m the left of the picture. FALL 1988 231

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RESEARCH INTERESTS ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING PLEASE WRITE: Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720 BERKELEY ... offers graduate programs leading to the Maste of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pr grams involve joint faculty-student research a well as courses and seminars within and outsid the department. Students have the opportunit to take part in the many cultural offerings o the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreation activities of California's northern coast and mou tains. FACULTY Alexis T. Bell (Chairman) Harvey W. Blanch Elton J. Cairns Amp K. Chakraborty Douglas S. Clark Morton M. Denn Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren David B. Graves Donald N. Hanson Dennis W. Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N. Michaels John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Jeffrey A. Reimer David S. Soane Daros N. Theodorou Charles W. Tobias Michael C. Williams

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Faculty BELL, Richard L. University of Wa s hington, Seattl e Mass transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays, environmental transport, biochemical engineering. BOULTON, Roger University of Melbourne Chemical e gineering aspects of fermentation and wine proces s ing, fermentation kinetic s, computer s imulation and control of enol ogical operations. HIGGINS, Brian G. University of Minnesota Wetting hy drodynamics, fluid mechanics of thin films, coating flows Langmuir-Blodgett Films, Sol-Gel processes. JACKMAN, Alan P. University of Minnesota Biological ki netics and reactor design, kinetics of ion exchange, environmental solute trans port heat and mass transport at air water interfa ce, hemodynamics and fluid ex change. KATZ, David F. University of California, Berkeley Bio logi ca l fluid mechanics, biorheology cell biology, image analysis McCOY, Benjamin J. University of Minnesota Chemical re action engineering-adsorption, cataly sis, multipha se reactors ; separation proc esses chromatography, ion exchange, supercritical fluid extraction. McDONALD, Karen University of Maryland, College Park Distillation control, control of multivari able, nonlinear processes, control of bio chemical proc esses, adaptive control, parameter and state estimation. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Proc ess control, process design and sy nthe sis. POWELL, Robert L. The Johns Hopkins University Rh eo ogy, fluid mechanics, propertie s of s us pensions and physiologi cal fluid s. RYU, Dewey D.Y. Massachusetts Institute of T ec hnology Kinetics and reaction engineering of biochemical and enzyme systems, opti mization of continuous bioreactor bio conversion of biologically active com pound s, biochemic a l and genetic engi neering and renewable re so urces devel opments SMITH,J.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport rates and chemical kinetics for catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic and steady-state method s in slurry, trickle-b e d, single pell e t, and fixed-bed reactors STROEVE, Pieter Massachusetts Institute of T ec hnology Transport with chemical reaction, bio t ec hnology rheology of h e t eroge n eo us media, thin film technolog y, int e rfacial phenomena, image analysis. WHIT AKER, Stephen University of Delaware Drying porou s media, transport proc esses in heteroge neous reactors, multipha se transport phenomena in heterogen eo u s sys t e m s. Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-m inut e drive from Sacramento and ju s t an hour away from th e San Francisco Bay Area Outdoor enthusiasts may enjoy water spo rts at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Lak e Tahoe Bowl (2 hours away). These recreational opportuniti es combine with the friendly informal s pirit of the Davis campus and town to mak e it a pleasant place in which to liv e and st ud y. The ci t y of D avis i s adjacen t to th e campus and within easy walking or cy clin g distan ce. Both furnished and unfur nished oneand two-bedroom apart ments are available. Married s tud e nt housin g, at r easo nabl e cost, is located on campu s. Course Areas Applied Kin e tic s & Reactor D es i g n Applied Mathematics Biomedi ca l/Bio c h e mical Engineering Environmental Tran s port Fluid Mechanics Heat Tran sfe r Ma ss Transfer Process D es i g n & Control Process Dynamics Rh eo logy Separation Processes Thermodynamics Tran s port Phenomena in Multipha se Systems More Information The Graduate Group in Biom ed i ca l Engineerin g i s now hou se d within th e D e partm e nt of Chemical Engin ee rin g. Further informati o n and application ma t e rial s for eithe r program (C hemical En gi n ee rin g o r Biomedical Engineerin g) and financial aid may be obtained by writing: Graduate Admissions D epa rtm en t of C h e mica/ Engineering University of Califo rnia Davi s D av i s, CA 95616

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT PROGRAMS UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of fers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial needs. The department's national leadership is de monstrated by the newly established Engineering Research Center for Hazardous Substance Control. This center of advanced technology is com plemented by existing center programs in Medical Engineering and Environmental Transport Re search. Fellowships are available for outstanding ap plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's expansive 41 7 acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded science programs and to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art and sports on campus. 234 UCLA FACULTY D. T. Allen Y. Cohen T. H. K. Frederking S. K. Friedlander R. F. Hicks E L. Knuth V. Manousiouthakis H. G. Monbouquette K. Nobe L. B. Robinson 0. I. Smith W. D. Van Vorst (Prof Emeritus) V. L. Vilker A. R. Wazzan RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Process Design and Process Control Polymer Processing and Rheology Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Particle Technology Environmental Engineering CONTACT Admissions Officer Chemical Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles, CA 900241592 (213) 825-9063 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA FA CUL TY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D (Waterloo) (Chairman) lwo Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety Computat i onal Fluid Dynamics Turb ul ence. PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph D (Purdue) Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science DANG. CACUCI Ph.D. (Columbia) Computational Engineering Radiation Transport, Reactor Physics, Uncertainty Analysis. HENRI FENECH Ph D (M.I.T ) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow Heat Transfer. OWEN T. HANNA Ph D. (Purdue) Theoretical Methods Chemical Reactor Ana l ysis, Transport Phenomena SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford) Adsorpt i on and Heterogeneous Catalysis JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D (Cambridge) Surface and lnteriacial Phenomenon, Adhesion Colloidal Systems, Surface Forces. GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D .. (M.I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials. DUNCAN A MELLICHAMP Ph.D (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics Real-Time Computing. JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Pro f essor Emeritus) Boiling Heat Transfer FALL 19 88 G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) (Vice Chairman) Rad ia tion Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development DALES. PEARSON Ph D (Northwestern ) Polymer Rheology. PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U C Berkeley) Theory of Surfactant Aggregates Collo i d Systems. A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph D (M.I.T.) Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors Radiation Tran sport Analyses ROBERT G RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis l:nergy Conversion, Air Pollution. ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph D. (U.C Berkeley) Transport Phenomena Separat i on Process es DALEE. SEBORG Ph D (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control Proce s s Identificat i on T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph D. (Minnesota) Nucl ea r and Chemical Plant Safety, Mult i phase Flow Thermalhydra ulics. JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D (Minnesota) Surface and lnterfacial Phenomen, Structure of M i croemulsions. The Department offers M.S. and Ph D. de gr ee programs. Financial aid, including fe llo ws hips, teaching assistantships, and re search assistantships, is available. Some awards provide limited moving expenses. THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100 miles north w est of Los Angeles and 330 miles sou th of San Francisco The student enrollment is over 16 000. The metropoli tan Sa nta Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even c limate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineerin~ University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 235

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at the CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY "At the Leading Edge" FACULTY Frances H. Arnold James E. Bailey John F. Brady George R Gavalas Julia A. Kornfield L. Gary Leal Manfred Morari C. Dwight Prater (Visiting) John H Seinfeld Fred H Shair RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Science Applied Mathematics Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering Bioseparation Catalysis Combustion Colloid Physics Computational Hydrodynamics Fluid Mechanics Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus) W. Henry Weinberg Materials Processing Process Control and Synthesis Protein Engineering 236 Polymer Physics Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous Systems Surface Science for further i nformation, writ e : Professor John F.Brady Department of Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 CHE MI CAL ENGI N EER IN G EDUCATIO N

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It's Your Move. Department of Chemical Engineering John L. Anderson Membrane and Colloid Transport Phenomena Lorenz T. Blegler Process Simulation and Optimization Ethel Z. Casassa Colloids and Polymers Michael M Domach Biochemical Engineering Paul L. Frattini Colloid Dynamics Using Optical Methods Ignacio E. Grossmann Process Synthesis and Optimization Rakesh K. Jain Biomedical Engineering, Tumor Microcirculation Myung S. Jhon Polymer Science and Engineering Edmond I Ko Catalysis and Solid State Chemistry Kun LI Gas-Solid Reaction Kinetics Gregory J. McRae Mathematical Modeling and Environmental Engineering Gary J. Powers Process Synthesis and Design Dennis C. Prleve Transport Phenomena in Colloids Paul J Sides Electrochemical Engineering and Semiconductor Processing HertJert L. Toor Heat and Mass Transfer Arthur W. WestertJerg Design Research

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EXERCISE YOUR MIN Join the chemical engineering team at CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY. Work out with top-ranked teachers and researchers and practice in one of the best research facilities in the country. Faculty and specializations: Robert J. Adler Ph.D. 1959 L eh igh University Particl e separations, mixing acid gas r eco v e ry John C. Angus Ph.D. 1960 University of Michigan Redox equilibria, thin car bon films modulated electroplating Coleman B. Brosilow Ph D. 1962 Polytechnic Institut e of Brooklyn Adap tive inferential control, multi variable control, coordination algorithms Robert V. Edwards Ph D. 1968 Johns Hopkins Univ e rsity Las e r anemometry mathematical mod e lling data ac quisition Donald L. Feke Ph.D. 1981 Princeton University Colloidal phenomena, ceramic disp ers ions fin eparticl e processing Nelson C. Ga rdner Ph D 1966 I owa State Universit y High-gravity separa tions sulfur r e m ova l processes Uziel Landau Ph.D. 1975 Univ e rsit y of California (Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering, current distributions, electrodeposition Chung-Chiun Liu Ph.D. 196 8 Cas e Western Reserve University Elec trochemical sensors electrochemical synthesis electrochemistry r e l a t ed t o elec tronic materials J. Arlin Mann, Jr. Ph.D. 1962 I owa State Universit y Surface phenomena interfacial dynamics light sca tt er in g Syed Qutubuddin Ph.D 19 83 Car negie-Mellon University Surfactant systems, metal extraction enhanced o il recovery Robert F. Savinell Ph.D. 1977 Univ e r sity of Pittsburgh Electroch e mi ca l engineering, r eac tor design and si mulati on electrode proc esses Train in: Electrochemical engineering Las e r applications Mi x ing and separations Proc ess control Surface and colloids For more information contact: The Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve Univ e rsity Universit y Circle Cleveland Ohio 44106 A1," CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSIT CLEVELAND. OHIO 44106

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The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDYin Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY Joel Fried Stevin Gehrke Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Robert Jenkins Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Sotiris Pratsinis Neville Pinto Stephen Thiel Joel Weisman CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivati ng catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCESS SYNTHESIS Computer-aided design. Modeling and s imulati on of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns process unit operations. Pred icti on of reaction by-products. POLYMERS Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AEROSOL ENGINEERING Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions, aerosol depositions AIR POLLUTION Modeling and design of gas cleaning de vi ces and systems. COAL RESEARCH Demonstration of new technology for coal com bustion power plant. TWO-PHASE FLOW Boiling. Stability and transport properties of foam. MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION Cha i rman, Graduate Studies Committee Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, # 171 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 45221 Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.

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Babu _______ McCluskey _______ Nunge _______ Welland /;RS-P~S /INET\ /FLUIDS /RATIONS Oyama------Sukanek -----+--Chin Taylor SURFACES POLYMERS ELECTROCHEM SEPARATIONS Wllcfxj Ward I su~aman~an CRYSTALS CONTROL TRANSPORT 1/ I Baltua ---1~ Harris ________ Obot --+~1----Lucia 1 V."\ CONTROL / TRANSF\ /"'"" Raamuasen Campbell _______ Cole ________ McLaughlin NUCLEATION ______ POLYMERS BOILING TURBULENCE (Jraduate Stud11 i11 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory, equal opportllnity affirmative action educator and employer. (ENTER FOR ADVANCED MATERIALS PROCESSING NASA CENTER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMERCIAL CRYSTAL GROWTH IN SPACE INSTITUTE OF COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE For details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson University Potsdam, New York 13676 Clarkson University Potsdam New York 13676

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Graduate Study at Clemson University The University In Chemical Engineering Coming Up for Air No matter where you do your graduate work, your nose will be in your books and your mind on your research. But at Clemson University, there's something for you when you can stretch out for a break. Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing, sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes Or hiking in the nearby Blue R i dge Mountains Or driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend Something that can really relax you. All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering Department, too With active research and teaching in polymer processing, composite materials, process automation thermodynamics catalysis, and membrane separation what more do you need? Clemson the land grant university of South Carolina offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 13 CXX) students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students The l ,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga. The Faculty Forest C Alley William B. Barlage, Jr. Charles H. Barron, Jr. John N. Beard, Jr. William F. Beckwith Dan D. Edie Charles H. Gooding Stephen S. Melsheimer Programs lead to the M.S and Ph.D. degrees Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available. For Further Information For further information and a descriptive brochure write: G r aduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Earle Hall Clemson University Clemson South Carolina 29634 Joseph C Mullins Amod A. Ogale Richard W. Rice Mark C. Thies CLEMSON UNIVERSITY College of Engineering

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242 UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER RESEARCH INTERESTS Alternate Energy Sourcea Biotechnology and Bioeng i neering Heterogeneous Catalysis Coal Gaaificstion and Combustion Enhanced Oil Recovery Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization lnterfacial and Surface Phenomena low Gravity Fluid Mechanics and Materials Processing Mass Transfer Membrane Transport and Separation Numerical and Analytical Modeling Process Control and Identification Semiconductor Processing Surface Chemistry and Surface Science Thermodynamica and Cryogenics Thin Film Science Transport Proceases FACULTY DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Ph.D., Univ e rsity of Colorado, 1975 ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Profes s or Ph.D Stanford University, 1983 JOHN L. FALCONER, Profes s or Ph D Stanford University, 1974 R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Profes s or Ph D., University of Colorado, 1967 HOWARD J.M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint Ph D University of London, 1963 DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor Ph.D ., Purdue University, 1984 WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor Ph.D University of California, Berkeley, 1968 LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor Ph D., Purdue University 1982 RICHARD D. NOBLE, Research Profe s sor Ph D., University of California, Davis, 1976 W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor Ph.D Tulane University, 1965 ROBERT L. SANI, Professor Ph D., University of Minnesota, 1963 KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and Chairman Ph D University of Illinois 1951 RONALD E WEST, Profes s or Ph.D., Univ e rsity of Michigan, 1958 FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO Chairman, Graduate Admssions Cormittee ~rtment of Chemcal Engineering University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 CHEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH A. J. KIDNAY, Pro f essor and Head ; D Sc Colorado School of M i nes Thermodynamic propert i es of gases and liquids vapor liquid equ i libria cryogen i c engineering J H. GARY, Professor ; Ph D. Flor i da Petroleum refinery pro cess i ng operations heavy o i l processing thermal cracking visbreaking and solvent extraction. V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor ; Ph D Michigan Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids equat i ons of state for highly non-ideal systems flow calorimetry E D. SLOAN, JR., Professor ; Ph D Clemson. Phase equilibrium measurements of natural gas fluids and hyd r ates thermal conductivit}' of coal derived fluids adsorption equilibria education methods research. R. M. BALDWIN, Professor ; Ph D ., Colorado School of Mines Mechanisms and kine ti cs of c oal liquefaction catalysis oil shale processing, supercritical extraction M. S SELIM, Professor; Ph.D Iowa State Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissociation modeling. A L. BUNGE, Associate Professor ; Ph D Berkeley Membrane transport and separations mass transfer in porous media, ion exchange and adsorption chromatography in place remediation of contaminated soils percutaneous absorption P. F. BRYAN, Assistant Professor ; Ph D., Berkeley Computer aided process design computational thermodynamics novel separation processes, applications of artificial intelligence / expert systems R. L. MILLER, Research Assistant Prof e ssor; Ph D ., Colorado School of Mines Liquefaction co processing of coal and heavy oil, low severit}' coal liquefaction oil shale processing particulate removal with venturi s crubbers supercritical e x tra c t i on J. F. ELY, Adjunct Professor ; Ph D., Indiana Mole c ular thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids For Applications and Further Information On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401

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Colorado State University Faculty: LARRY BELFIORE, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin JUD HARPER, Ph.D. Iowa State University NAZ KARIM, Ph.D. University of Manchester TERRY LENZ, Ph.D. Iowa State University JIM LINDEN, Ph.D. Iowa State University CAROL McCONICA. Ph.D. Stanford University VINCE MURPHY, Ph.D. University ofMa888chusetts KEN REARDON, Ph.D. California Institute of Technology 244 Location: CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000 people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view of majestic Long' s Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The campu s is within easy walking or biking di s tance of the town's shopping areas and its new Center for the Performing Arts. I : ~, ..: \~,. I t---~..... ~, t ~ r ~ .1 ,fl,;, /I _':', .1 \!l -4-, t 1 .. ,, I 1 I J I ~ l I Jo Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph D programs in C hemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teachin g and Research Assistantships paying a monthly s tipend plus tuition reimbursement. Research Areas: Alternate Energy Sources Biotechnology Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Vapor Deposition Computer Simulation and Control Environmental Engineering Fermentation Food Engineering Hazardous Waste Treatment Polymeric Materials Porous Media Phenomena Rheology Semiconductor Processing Solar Cooling Systems For Applications and Further Information, write: Professor Vincent G. Murphy Department of Agricultural and C hemical Engineering Colorado S tate U niver s ity Fort Co llin s, CO 80523 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers Faculty and Research Areas THOMAS F. ANDERSON statistical thermodynamics, phase equilibria separations JAMES P. BELL structure and properties of polymers DOUGLAS J. COOPER expert systems, process control fluidization ROBERT W. COUGHLIN catalysis, biotechnology surface science MICHAEL B. CUTLIP ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO polymer science composite materials JAMES M. FENTON electrochemical engineering, enrivonmental engineering G. MICHAEL HOWARD process dynamics energy technology HERBERT E. KLEI biochemical engineering environmental engineering JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN polymer morphology and properties MONTGOMERY T. SHAW polymer processing, rheology DONALD W. SUNDSTROM environmental engineering biochemical engineering ROBERT A. WEISS polymer science chemical reaction engineering computer applications We'll gladly supply the Answers! i THE UN IVERSITY O F CONNECTICUT Graduate Admissions Dept. of Chemical Engineering Box U-139 The University of Connecticut Storrs CT 06268 (203) 486-4019

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering A diverse intellectual climate Graduate students arrange indi vidual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell depart ments, including chemistry biological sciences, physics, computer science, food science materials science, mechanical engineering and business administration A scenic location Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of upstate New York the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the country A stimulating university com munity offers excellent recrea tional and cultural opportunities in an attractive environment. 246 at Cornell University World-class research in biochemical engineering applied mathematic s computer simulation environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science heat and mass transfer polymer science and engineering fluid dynamics rheology and biorheology process control molecular thermodynamics statistical mechanics computer-aided design A distinguished faculty Brad Anton Graduate programs lead to the degrees of master of engineering, master of science and doctor of philosophy. Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available. Paulette Clancy Peter A. Clark Claude Cohen Robert K Finn Keith E Gubbins Daniel A Hammer Peter Harriott Donald L. Koch Robert P Merrill William L. Olbricht Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos Ferdinand Rodriguez George F Scheele Michael L. Shuler Julian C. Smith (Emeritus) Paul H Steen William B. Streett Raymond G. Thorpe Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus) Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus) John A Zollweg For further information write to: Professor William L. Olbricht Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, NY 14853-5201 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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Chemical En 1neer1n The Facul~--Giovanni Astarita Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Kenneth B Bischoff Douglas J. Buttrey Castel D Denson Prasad S. Dhurjati Henry C. Foley Bruce C. Gates Michael T. Klein Abraham M. Lenhoff Roy L. McCullough Arthur B. Metzner Jon H. Olson Michael E Paulaitis T. W. Fraser Russell Stanley I. Sandler Jerold M. Schultz Andrew L. Zydney The University ofDelaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering. ________ For more information and application materials write: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 The University of Delaware _____

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24 8 u N I V E R s I T y OF FLORIDA Gain e s v ille, Florida Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD FACULTY TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Ther modynamics IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Dynam ics Simulations SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotech nology RAY W FAHIEN Transport Phenomena Re actor Design A. L. FRICKE Polymers Pulp & Paper Characterization GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Sur face Science LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process Control, Energy Systems DALE KIRMSE Computer A i ded Design, Process Control HONG H. LEE Reac~ lion Engineering, Semiconductor Processing GERASI MOS LYBERATOS Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering FRANK MAY Computer-Aided Learning RAN GA NARAYANAN Transport Phenomena Space Processing MARK E. ORAZEM Electronic Materials Processing CHANGFo r m ore i nfor m atio n pl ease wr i te : WON PARK Fluid Mechanics and Polymer Processing DINESH 0. SHAH Enhanced Oil Recovery B i omedi cal Engineering SPYROS SVORONOS Process Control GERALD WESTERMANN-CLARK Elec trochemical Engineering, Membrane Phenomena G r a du ate A dmi ss i o n s Coo rd i n ator De p a r t m ent o f C h e mi ca l E n gi n eer in g U ni ve r s i ty o f F l o rid a Ga in esvi ll e F l o rid a 32611 C HEMI C AL EN G I NEERING ED UC ATION

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GEORGIA TECH Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering A Un i t of the Un iv ers i t y System of Georgie Faculty A. S. Abhiraman Pradeep K Agrawal YamanArkun Sue Ann Bidstrup Eric J. Clayfield William R. Ernst Lany J. Forney Charles W. Gorton Jeffery S. Hsieh Michael J. Matteson John D. Muzzy Robert M. Nerem Gary W. Poehlein Ronnie S. Roberts Ronald W. Rousseau Robert J. Samuels F. Joseph Schork A. H. Peter Skelland Jude T. Sommerfeld D. William Tedder Amyn S. Teja Mark G. White Timothy M. Wick Jack Winni ck Ajit Yoganathan FALL 19 88 --5 Research Interests Adsorption Aerosols -----"'ll! ... = Ii e --Microelectronics Physical properties Biomedical engineering Biochemical engineering Catalysis Polymer science and engineering Polymerization Composite materials Crystallization Electrochemical engineering Environmental chemistry Extraction Fine particles Interfacial phenomena Process control and dynamics Process synthesis Pulp and paper engineering Reactor analysis and design Separation processes Surface science and technology Thermodynamics Transport phenomena For more Information write: Ronald W. Rousseau School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100 249

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What do graduate students say about the University of Houston Department of Chemical Engineering? "Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among the top ten schools and you can work in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours too and you're given enough time to make the right decision You can see your advisor almost any time xou want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low. Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry which puts the real world of ~esearch within re~ch. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program m sup.erconduct1v1ty The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts plays nightclubs/. professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away "The taculty are dedicated and always friendly People work hard here but there is time for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers. If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you. AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGT H : Biochemical Engineering Superconducting, Cera mi c and Electronic Materials Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical Reaction Engineering Applied Transport Phenomena Th ermody n a mi cs FACULTY Neal Amund so n Vemu ri Balakotaiah Elmond Claridge Harry Deans AbeDukler Demetre Economou Chuck Cooc h ee Ernest Henle y "It's grea Dan Luss Richard P o llard William Prengle Raj Rajagopalan Jim Richar Frank Tille Richard W Frank War For an application, write : Dept. of Chemical Engineering Un ive r sity of Houston 4800 Calhoun, Hou ston TX 77004 or call c ollect 713 / 749 -4407 and ask for

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT Illinois Institute of Technology THE UNIVERSITY Private, coeducational university 3000 undergraduate students 2400 graduate students 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of Lake Michigan Campus recognized as an architectural landmark THE CITY One of the largest cities in the world National and international center of business and industry Enormous variety of cultural resources Excellent recreational facilities Industrial collaboration and job opportunities THE DEPARTMENT One of the oldest in the nation Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time graduate students M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees Financially attractive fellowships and assistant ships available to outstanding students THE FACULTY HAMID ARASTOOPOUR (Ph D. IIT) Multi-phase flow and fluidization flow in porous media gas technology RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D.E Sc ., Columbia) Transport processes in chemical and biological systems rheology of polymeric and biological fluids AL/CINAR (Ph D Texas A & M) Chemical process control, distributed parameter systems, expert systems DIMITRI GIDASPOW (Ph D ., IIT) Hydrodynamics of fluidization multi phase flow, separations processes HENRY R. LINDEN (Ph D ., IIT) Energy policy, planning and forecasting SA TISH J PARULEKAR (Ph D., Purdue) Biochemical engineering chemical reaction engineering J. ROBERT SELMAN (Ph D., California-Berkeley) Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical energy storage SELIM M SENKAN (Sc D MIT) Combustion high-temperature chemical reaction engineering DARSH T. WASAN (Ph D., California-Berkeley) lnterfacial phenomena, separation processes, enhanced oil recovery APPLICATIONS Dr D Gidaspow Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology I I T Center Chicago IL 60616 FALL 1988 251

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UIC Chemical Engineering The University of Illinois at Chicago MS and PhD Graduate Program Joachim Floess Ph D. Massachusetts Inst. of Tech ., 1985 Assistant Professor Richard D Gonzalez Ph.D ., The Johns Hopkins University 1965 Professor John H Kiefer Ph.D., Cornell University 1961 Professor G Ali Mansoori Ph.D. University of Oklahoma 1969 Professor Irving F. Miller Ph.D ., University of Michigan 1960 Professor and Head Sohail Murad Ph D. Cornell University 1979 Associate Professor John Regalbuto Ph.D ., University of Notre Dame 1986 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph.D. University of Wisconsin 1964 Professor, Director of Graduate Studies David Willcox Ph.D., Northwestern University 1985 Assistant Professor Reaction Engineering with primary focus on gas-solid reaction kinetics ; diffusion and adsorption phenomena; surface chemistry ; environmental technology Heterogeneous Catalysis and surface chemistry catalysis by supported metals subseabed radioactive waste disposal studies clay chemistry Kinetics of Gas Reactions energy transfer processes laser diagnostics combustion chemistry Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics supercritical fluid extraction / retrograde condensation asphalthene characterization and deposition thermodynamics of bioseparation. Biotransport Phenomena Lipid microencapsulation pulmonary deposition and clearance membrane transport synthetic blood biorheology Thermodynamics and Transport Properties of fluids computer simulation and statistical mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures Heterogeneous Catalysis fundamental studies of catalyst preparation characterization of solids and solid surfaces heterogeneous reaction kinetics Transport Properties of Fluids and Solids fixed and fluidized bed combustion indirect coal liquefaction slurry bubble column hydrodynamics and heat transfer Chemical Reaction Engineering catalysis energy transmission modelling and optimization Transport Phenomena slurry transport suspension and complex fluid flow and heat transfer porous media processes mathematical analysis and approximation Heterogeneous Catalysis structure sensitivity of oxide catalysts for selective oxidation catalyst preparation techniques artificial intelligence applied to descriptive kinetics For more information : Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348 Chicago I L 60680 (312) 996-3424

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igh Pressure Studies University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D degrees. The combination of distinguished faculty outstanding facilities and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education. Pol y m er Pro cessi ng Richard C. Alkire Harry G. Drickamer Charles A. Eckert Thomas J. Hanratty Jonathan J. L. Higdon Richard I. Masel Walter G May Anthony J. McHugh Edmund G. Seebauer Mark A. Stadtherr Frank B. van Swol James W. Westwater K. Dane Wittrup Charles F. Zukoski IV Plasma etching Electrochemical and Plasma Processing High Pressure Studies, Structure and Properties of Solids Molecular Thermodynamics, Applied Chemical Kinetics Fluid Dynamics Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematics Surface Science Studies of Catalysts and Semiconductor Growth Chemical Process Engineering Polymer Engineering and Science Laser Studies in Semiconductor Growth Process Flowsheeting and Optimization Wetting and Capillary Condensation Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes Biotechnology Colloid and lnterfacial Science For information and application forms write: Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois Bo x C-3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 W est California Street Urbana Illinois 61801

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THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY is an independent graduate school. It has an interdisciplinary degree program designed for B.S. chemical engineering graduates. Fellowships and tu II tuition scholarships are available to qualified U.S. and Canadian residents. Our students receive minimum $10,000 fellowships each calendar year. Our research activities relate to a broad spectrum of industry needs, including: process engineering simulation and control heat and mass transfer separation science reaction engineering fluid mechanics material science surface and colloid science combustion technology chemical kinetics For further information contact : Director of Admissions The Institute of Paper Chemistry P.O. Box 1039 Appleton, WI 54912 Telephone: 414/734-9251

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY I illiam H. Abraham I hermodynamics, he at and mass transport, rocess modeling awrence E. Burkhart I luid mechanics, separation process, eramic processing eorge Burnet I oal technology, separation processes high emperat ure ceramics ohn M. Eggebrecht Iii tatistical thermodynamics of fluids and i 1 1 uid surfaces harles E. Glatz I iochemical engineering, processing of iological materials urt R. Hebert pplied electrochemistry, corrosion ames C. Hill i luid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport I henomena, aerosols enneth R. Jolls hermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics i erry S. King atalysis, surface science, catalyst applications aurice A. Larson rystallization, process dynamics eter J. Reilly i I iochemical engineering, enzyme echnology, carbohydrate chromatography Jenn L. Schrader atalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics rocessing, sensors ichard C. Seagrave i iological transport phenomena, biothermo ynamics, reactor analysis !ii ean L. Ulrichson rocess modeling simulation homas D. Wheelock hemical reactor design, coal technology, uidization ordon R. Youngquist rystallization, chemical reactor design, olymerization ij or additional information, please write: raduate Officer ti I epartment of Chemical Engineering owa State University mes, Iowa 50011 r r .. .. t A ,. ~ :.. "" f-';~ ,. ,. r r ,.: .. A ,. ~ ~. ,. ... ,, I l. I !.. -: ":IF 1IF \'t

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JOHNS CHEMICAL Timothy A. Barbarl Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin Membrane Separations Diffusion in Polymers Separation Processes MichaelJ.Betenbaugh Ph.D., University of Delaware Biochemical Kinetics Microbial Metabolism Recombinant DNA Technology Marc D. Donohue Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Equations of State Statistical Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Joseph L. Katz Ph.D ., University of Chicago Nucleation Crystallization Flames Robert M. Kelly Ph.D North Carolina State University Process Simulation Biochemical Engineering Separations Processes HOPKINS ENGINEERING Mark A. McHugh Ph.D., University of Delaware High-Pressure Thermodynamics Polymer Solution Thermodynamics Supercritical Solvent Extraction Geoffrey A. Prentice Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Electrochemical Engineering Corrosion W. Mark Saltzman Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport in Biological Systems Controlled Release Cell-Surface Interactions William H. Schwarz Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University Rheology Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics Physical Acoustics of Fluids For further information contact: The Johns Hopkins University Chemical Engineering Department Baltimore, MD 21218 (301) 338-7170

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The University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas Graduate Study in Chemical and Petroleum Engineering GRADUATE PROGRAMS The M.S. degree with a thesis requirement is offered in both the chemical and petroleum engineering disciplines. In addition, an M.S. degree with a major in petroleum manage ment is offered jointly with the School of Business The Ph D degree with emphasis in either chemical or petroleum engineering is characterized by moderate and flexible course requirements and a strong research emphasis. Typical completion times are 1618 months for an M.S. degree and 4 1 / 2 years for a Ph.D. degree (from B.S.) RESEARCH AREAS. Catalytic Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Kinetics and Reactor Modeling Controlled Drug Delivery Corrosion Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes Fluid Phase Equilibria and Process Design Nucleate Boiling Numerical Modeling of Pore Structure Plasma Modeling and Plasma Reactor Design Process Control Supercomputer Applications Supercritical Fluid Applications FINANCIAL AID Financial aid is available in the form of fellowships, and research and teaching assistantships. RESEARCH FACILITIES Excellent facilities are available for research and instruction. Extensive equipment and shop facilities are available for research in such areas as enhanced oil recovery proc esses, fluid phase equilibria nucleate boil ing, catalytic kinetics and supercritical fluid applications. The Harris H1000 computer, the VAX 8600 along with a network of Macintosh personal computers and IBM, Apollo and Sun workstations support compu tational and graphical needs FACULTY Kenneth A Bishop (Ph.D ., Oklahoma) John C Davis (Ph.D .. Wyoming) Don W. Green (Ph.D. Oklahoma) Colin S Howat (Ph.D. Kansas) Carl E. Locke (Ph.D ., Texas) James 0. Maloney (Ph.D., Penn State) Russell B Mesler (Ph.D., Michigan) Floyd W. Preston (Ph D. Penn State) Harold F Rosson (Ph.D ., Rice) Randall V. Sparer (Ph.D. Case Western Reserve) Bala Subramaniam (Ph D., Notre Dame) George W. Swift (Ph.D., Kansas) Brian E. Thompson (Ph.D., MIT) Shapour Vossoughi (Ph.D., Alberta, Canada) Stanley M Walas (Ph D., Michigan) G. Paul Willhite (Ph.D. Northwestern) For further information, please write to: The Graduate Adviser Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 4066 Learned Hall The University of Kansas Lawrence KS 66045-2223 (913) 864-4965.

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Durland Hall-Home of Chemical Engineering KANSAS ST A TE UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. programs 'C hemical Engineering Interdi sc iplinary Ar eas of Systems E n g in eer in g ,, Food Science -" E nvironm e ntal Engineering Financial Aid Available Up to$ 12 000 Per Year For More Information Write To Profe ssor B. G .. K y l e Durland Hall K a n s as State Universit v Manha11an. KS 66506 Areas of Study and Research Tran s port Ph e n o m e n a Energy Engineerin g Coa l a nd Bi o m ass Co n ve r s ion Th e rm o d y namic s and Ph ase E quilibrium Bioch e mical Engineering Pro cess D y n a mic s a nd Contro l Chemical R eac tion E n g in eeri n g M a t e ri a l s Science Cataly s is a nd Fuel Sy nth es i P roce ss Sy s t e m E n gi n eerin g a nd Artificia l Int e lli gence En v i ro nment a l Pollution Contro l Fluidi za ti on and So l i d Mi x in g Ha za rdou s Waste Treatment KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY : I 'I :Ji I ~i -: ~ ..,:,,..~ DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology Novel Separation Processes; Membranes; Water Pollution Control; Hazardous Waste Treatment G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia Computer-Aided Process Design, Coal Liquefaction C. E. Hamrin, Jr., Ph.D., Northwestern Superconductor Processing; Chemical Vapor Deposition G. P. Huffman, Ph.D., West Virginia Coal Science, Mossbauer and EXAFS Spectroscopy R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern Process Control and Economics E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State Dynamics of Electrochemical Processes; Computer Measurement Techniques and Modeling L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh Atmospheric Transport/Chemistry; Aerosol Phenomena A. K. Ray, Ph.D ., Clarkson Heat and Mass Transfer; Aerosol Physics and Chemistry J. T. Schrodt, Ph D., Louisville Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer; Fuel Gas Desulfurization T. T; Tsang, Ph.D. Texas-Austin Aerosol Dynamics in Uniform and Non-Uniform Systems K. A Ward, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon Molecular-Cellular Bioengineering ; Environmental Pharmacology; Tumor Microcirculation ; Synthetic and Biological Membrane Transport Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants In Addition, Outstanding Students May Qualify for a McAdams Fellowship For details write to: R L Kermode, Director for Graduate Studies Chemical Eng ineering Department Universtity of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046

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, UNIVERSITE Quebec, Canada Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering Research Areas ---------------CATALYSIS (S. Kaliaguine) BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Chaplin, A. LeDuy, R. W. Lencki, J. -R. Moreau, J. Thibault) ENVIRONMENT AL ENGINEERING (R. S. Ramal ho, C. Roy) COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P. A. Tanguy) TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P. -H. Roy) MODELUNG AND CONTROL (J. Thibault) RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING (A. Ait-Kadi, L. Chaplin, P. A. Tanguy) THERMODYNAMICS (R. S. Ramalho, S. Kaliaguine) CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING OF BIOMASS (S. Kaliaguine, A. LeDuy, C. Roy) Universite Laval is a French speaking University. It pro vides the graduate student with the opportunity of learn ing French and becoming acquainted with French cul ture Please write to: Le Responsable du Comite d Admiss i on et de Supervision Departement de genie chimique Faculte des sciences et de genie Universite Laval Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada G l K 7P L1 The Faculty ____ ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI Ph D Ecole Poly. Montreal Professeur adjoint LIONEL CHOPLIN Ph D. Ecole Poly. Montreal ProfeBSeur ti tulaire SERGE KALIAGUINE D.lng. I.G C. Toulouse Professeur ti tulaire ANH LEDUY Ph.D Western Ontario ProfeBSeur ti tulaire ROBERT W. J. LENCKI Ph D. McGill Professeur assistant J. -CLAUDE METHOT D Sc. Laval Professeur titulaire JEAN-R. MOREAU Ph D M.I.T Professeur ti tulaire RUBENS S. RAMALHO Ph.D Vanderbilt Professeur titulaire CHRISTIAN ROY Ph.D. Sh e rbrooke Profes se ur agrege PAUL-H. ROY Ph.D. Illinois Inst ofTechn o l o gy Profess e ur ti tulaire PHILLIPPE A. TANGUY Ph D Laval Professeur agrege JULES THIBAULT Ph.D McMaster Professeur agrege JULES THIBAULT Ph D McMaster Professeur agrege

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(Qutstana Stati Untvirstt~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CITY Ba ton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major state institution for higher education LSU. Situated in the Acadian region, Ba ton Rouge blends the Old South and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Ba ton Rouge is a main chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras. THE DEPARTMENT M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Approximately 70 Graduate Students DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES IBM 4341 with more than 50 color graphics terminals Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR, LC GC, AA, XRD, Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities TO APPLY, CONTACT: DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE INSTRUCTION Department of Chemical Enginering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 FACULTY J .R. COLLIER (Ph.D., Case Institute) Polymers, Fluid Flow, CAD/CAM A.B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU) Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design K.M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering G.L. GRIFFIN (Ph.D., Princeton) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surf aces, Materials Processing F .R. GROVES (Ph. D., Wisconsin) Control, Modeling, Separation Processes O.P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas) Fluid-Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes A.E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida) Distillation, Control, Modeling M. HJORTS0 (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) Biotechnology, Applied Ma them a tics F .C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Purdue) Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing E. McLAUGHLIN CD.Sc., Univ. of London) Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties R.W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech) Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization G.L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces 0.0. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech) Environmental Chemodynamics, Transport Modeling R.G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, Separation Processes A.M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington) Transport Phenomena, Combustion L.J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., LSU) Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste O.M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware) Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes FINANCIAL AID Fellowships and assistantships with tuition paid ($850 per month, 1988-89) Up to Eight Dean's Fellowships at $15,000 per year plus tuition and a travel grant Special industrial and alumni fellowships for outstanding students Some part-time teaching experience available for graduate students interested in an academic career

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Faculty and Research Int e rest s DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley) Fluid Mechanics, Rheology Biochemical En gineering. WILLIAM H CECKLER Sc.D. (M.I.T.} Heat Transfer, Pressing & Drying Operations, Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simula tion & Modeling. ALBERT CO Ph D (Wisconsin) Polymeric Fluid Dynamics Rheology Trans port Phenomena, Numerical Methods JOSEPH M GENCO Ph.D. (Ohio State) Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Technol ogy, Wood Delignification. JOHN C HASSLER Ph.D. (Kansas State) Process Control, Numerical Methods, In strumentation and Real Time Computer Appli cations MARQUITA K HILL Ph.D (U C. Davis) Separation Processes, Pulping Chemistry, Ul trafi ltration JOHN J HWALEK Ph D. (Illinois) Liquid Metal Natural Convection, Electronics Cooling, Process Control Systems. ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph D (Princeton) Polymer Physics & Chemistry Supercritical Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis, Pulp & Paper Science. DAVID J KRASKE Ph D. (Inst. Paper Chemistry) Pulp, Paper & Coating Technology, Additive Chemistry, Cellulose & Wood Chemistry JAMES D LIS IU S Ph D. (Illinois) Electrochemical Engineering Composite Ma terial s Coupl ed Mass Transfer KENNETH I. MU MM E Ph D (Maine) Process Simulation and Control, System Iden tification & Optimization. HEMANT PENDSE Ph.D (Syracuse) Colloidal Phenomena, Particulate & Multi phase Processes, Porous Media Modeling. IVAR H S T O CKE L Sc D. (M I.T ) (Chairman) Droplet Formation Fluidization Pulp & Paper Technology. EDWARD V TH OMPSON Ph D (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn) Thermal & Mechanical Properties of Polymers, Papermaking and Fiber Physics DOUGLAS L WOERNER Ph D (Washington) Membrane Separations Polymer Solutions, Colloid & Emulsion Technology Programs and Financial Support Eighteen research groups attack fundamental problems leading to M S and Ph D degrees. Industrial fellowships, univers i ty fellowships, research assistantships and teaching assis tantships are available Presidential fellow ships provide $4,000 per year in addition to the regular stipend and free tuition The Univers i ty The spacious campus i s situated on 1,200 acres overlooking the Penobscot and Stillwater R i vers. Present enrol I men! of 12 000 offers the diversity of a large school, while preserving close personal contact between peers and fac ulty The University's Maine Center far the Arts, the Hauck Auditorium, and Pavilion Theatre provide many cultural opportunities, in addition to those i n the nea r by city of Ban gor Less than an hour away from campus are the beautiful Maine coast and Acadia Na tional park, alpine and cross-country ski re sorts, and northern wilderness areas of Baxter State Park and Mount Katahdin Enjoy life, work hard and earn your graduate degree in one of the most beautiful spots in the world Call Collect or Write James D. Lisius University of Maine Department of Chemical Engineering Jenness Hall Box B Orono Ma i ne 04469-0135 ( 207) 581-2292

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UMBC UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND BALTIMORE COUNTY Emphasis The UMBC Chemical Engineering Program offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering with a primary research focus in biochemical engineering. Affiliations Specifically for promoting interdisciplinary research at the interface between the science and engineering of biotechnology, formal affiliations have been established with: Engineering Research Center Biotechnology Program (E.M. Sybert, Manager) Maryland Biotechnology Institute Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Center on Marine Biotechnology Medical Biotechnology Center Public Issues in Biotechnology Fermentation Microbiology and Engineering Group GRADUATE STUDY IN 810CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE MAJORS Facilities The 6000 square feet of space dedicated to faculty and graduate student research includes core laboratory facilities and a Mammalian Cell Scale-up Facility operated by the Engineering Research Center. A BL2-BL3 Recombinant DNA Containment Facility is planned. The BioProcess Scale-Up Facility on the College Park Campus is also available for use with classical microbial systems. Future Directions The faculty will grow with the addition of one new member per year for the next two years. New additions will focus on: Biosensors Bioseparation rDNA product development Faculty T.W. Cadman, Ph.D. Carnegie Mellon Bioprocess modeling, control, and optimization, Animal cell culture S .J. Coppella, Ph.D. Delaware Recombinant microorganism fermentation, Bioprocess control, On-line and off-line analysis S.W. Davison Ph.D. Maryland Bio process modeling, On-line data acquisition and reduction GRADUATE STUDY IN 810CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOR ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE MAJORS G.F. Payne, Ph.D.* Michigan Plant cell process technology, Secondary metabolite production, Bioseparations G. Rao, Ph.D.* Drexel Anima( cell culture, Metabolic state sensing, Bioenergetics *Joint appointment with the Maryland Biotechnology Institute For further information contact the Program Director: Professor T. W. Cadman UMBC Chemical Engineering Program University of Maryland Baltimore County Baltimore, Maryland 21228 (301) 455-3270

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University of Maryland Faculty: Odd A. Asbjornsen Richard V. Calabrese KyuY. Choi Larry L. Gasner James W. Gentry Keshava P. Halemane Yih-Yun Hsu Thomas J McAvoy Thomas M. Regan Joseph Silverman Theodore G Smith Nam S. Wang William A Weigand Evanghelos Zafiriou College Park Location: The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately 70 miles from the heart of the nation, Washington, D C. Excellent public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House, Arlington Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistant ships at S 11.533/yr .. plus tuition Research Areas: Aerosol Science Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Multiphase Heat Transfer Polymer Processing Polymerization Reactions Process Control Risk and Reliability Analysis Separation Processes Simulation Systems Engineering Thermal-Hydraulics in Multi-Loop Systems Turbulence and Mixing For Applications and Further Information, Write: Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of Maryland College Park, Md. 20742

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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS Amherst The Chemical Engineering Department at the Uni v ersity of Massachusetts offers graduate programs leading to M S. and PhD. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Acti v e research areas include polymer engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or the Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid, in the form of research assistantships and teaching assistantships, is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. FALL 1988 For further details, please write to Prof. M. F. Doherty Graduate Program Director Department of Chemical Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 or Prof. M. Muthukumar Graduate Program Director Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M A. BURNS Biochemical engineering, Chromatographic separations W. C. CONNER Catalysis Kinetics Surface diffusion M. F. DOHERTY Separations Thermodynamics, Design J. M. DOUGLAS Process des i gn and control Reactor engineering V. HAENSEL Catalysis, Kinetics M. P. HAROLD Kinetics and Reactor Eng i neering R S. KIRK Kinetics, Ebulient bed reactors R. L. LAURENCE Polymerization raact>rs FkJid mechanics M. F MALONE Rheology Po~mer processing Design P.A. MONSON Statistical mechanics K. M. NG Enhanced oil recovery Two-phase flows J. M. omNO Mixing, Fluid mechanics Polymer engineering M. VANPEE Combustion Plasma processing P.R. WESTMORELAND CornbJstion, Plasma processing H. H. WINTER* Polymer rheology and process i ng, Heat transfer B. E YDSTIE Process control POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING J.C. W CHIEN Polymerization catalysts Biopolymers, Polymer degradation R. J. FARRIS Polymer composites, Mechanical properties, Elastomers D A. HOAGLAND* Hydrodynamic chromatography separations S. L HSU Polymer spectrosco111 Polymer structure analysis F. E KARASZ Polymer transitions Polymer blends Conduct i ng polymers R. W. LENZ* Polymer~ynthes i s, Kinetics of polymerization W. J. MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers T. J. McCARTHY Polymer synthesis Polymer surfaces M. MUTHUKUMAR Statistical mechanics of polymer so luti ons, gels and melts R. S PORTER Polymer rheology, Polymer processing R. S. STEIN Polymer crystalinity and morphology Characterization D. A. TIRRELL Polymer synthesis and membranes E. L THOMAS* Electron microsco111 Polymer morphology x-Ray scatter in g *Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering 265

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT Faeulty Research Areas Artificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology J. Wei, Department Head R. C. Armstrong R. F. Baddour J.M. Beer E. D. Blankschtein H. Brenner R. A. Brown R.E.Cohen C.K.Colton C. Cooney W M. Deen L.B. Evans K. K. Gleason T. A. Hatton J.B. Howard M. Karel M. Kramer R. S. Langer E W. Merrill C. M. Mohr A. F Sarof"im C. N. Satterfield H. H. Sawin K. A. Smith G. Stephanopoulos G. N. Stephanopoulos M. Stephanopoulos U. W. Suter J W. Tester P. S. Virk D I. C. Wang Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Fluid Mechanics Electronic Materials Processing Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena Photo by CalTJin Campbell MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, wi t h field s tations a t t he 266 General Electric Company in Albany New York, the Brookhaven National Lab at Long Island New York, and the Dow Chemical Company in M i dland, Michigan For Information: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING HEADQUARTERS ROOM 66-350 MIT CAMBRIDGE, MA 02139 ( 617) 253-4561 CHE M ICAL ENGI N EE RIN G EDUCA T IO N

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Chemical Engineering at The University of Michigan 1. H. Scott Fogler, Chairman Flow in porous media, microelectronics processing 2. Stacy G. Bike Colloids, transport, electrokinetic phenomena 3. Dale E. Briggs Coal processes 4. Brice Carnahan Numerical methods, process simulation 5. Rane L. Curl Rate processes, mathematical modeling 6. Frank M. Donahue Electro chemical engineering 7. Erdogan Gulari Interfacial phenomena, catalysis, surface science 8. Robert H. Kadlec Ecosystems, process dynamics 9. Costas Kravaris Non-linear process control, system identification 10. Jennifer J. Linderman Engi neering approaches to cell biology 11. Bernhard 0. Palsson Cellular bioengineering 12. Tasos C. Papanastasiou Fluid mechanics, rheology, polymers 13. Phillip E. Savage Reaction pathways in complex systems 14. Johannes Schwank Hetero geneo us catalysis, surface science 15. Levi T. Thompson, Jr. Catalysis processing materials in space 16. Henry Y. Wang Biotechnology processes, industrial biology 17. James 0. Wilkes Numerical methods, polymer processing 18. Gregory S. Y. Yeh Chain conformation infolymers 19. Robert M. Zif Aggregation processes, statistical mechanics For More Information, Contact: Prof. B. Carnahan, Graduate Program Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 313 763-1148 1 4 8 ... ._, "":12 16 2 3 5 6 9 10 13 14 17 18 Faculty 1988 7 11 15 19

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Eng i neer i ng offers Graduate Program s lead ing to M S and Ph D degrees in Chem i cal Engineering The facul t y con duct fundamental and applied research in a variety of Chemical Eng i nee ing disciplines The Michigan Biotechnology Institute and the Center for Composite Materials and Structures provide a forum for interdisciplinary work in current high technology fields ASSISTANTSHIPS; Teaching and research assistantships pay approximately $1100.00 per mon t h to a s t uden t study i ng for the M.S. degree and approximately $1200.00 per month fo r a Ph.D. cand i date FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $ 1 6 000 per year plus out-o fs t ate tu i tion. The s ti pend i ncludes a waiver of non-res i dent tu iti on FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D K. ANDERSON Chairman Ph D ., 1960 University o f Wa s h i n g t o n Transport Phenomena Diffusion in P olymer Solut i on s K A BERGLUND P h D 1 981 Iowa Sta t e Un iv ers ity Crystalli z ation and Pr ecip i ta ti on fr om Solution F o o d Engi neering, Application s of Raman Spectrosc o p y, Biosep arations D M BRIEDIS Ph D 198 1, Iowa State Un i ver si ty Biomedical Engineerin g, B i ological M in era liz a ti on Bio chemical Engineering, Ceram ic Powder Processin g R. E BUXBAUM P h D 1981 Princeton Univers i ty Thermodynamics, Transport, Th e Bio-Physics of C ell Struc tures Nuclear Fusion Theo r etical and Experimental Diffu. s i vity Studies C. M COOPER, Professor Emeritus Sc. D ., 1949 Massachusett s Institute of Technology Thermodynam ic s and Phase E quili b r ia, Mod eling of Trans port Processes L. T.DRZAL Ph D., 1974 Ca s e We s t e rn Re s erv e Univ e r s ity Surface and Interfacial P henomena Adh esi on Com posite Materials Surface Characterizat i on Gas So li d and Li q uid Solid Adsorption H E GRETHLEIN Ph D ., 196 2, Princeton Univers i ty Biomass Conversion B i o-Degration Wa s te Tr e atm e nt Bi o process Development, Di s tilla ti on B i ochemical E n ginee r ing E.A .GR ULKE Ph D 1975 Ohio State Unive r sity Mass T r anspor t P h enomena, Polymer Devolatilization, Bio c h emical Engineering, Food Engineering M.C.H AW LEY Ph.D ., 1964 Michigan State U n i ve rsity Kinetics Catalysis, Reacions in Plasmas, Polymerization Reactions Compo s it e Processing, Biomass Convers i on, Reac tion Engineering K. J A YARAMAN Ph D ., 1975 Princeto n Univer s ity Polymer Rheology, Melt Blending of Polymers, Two-Phase Flow in Polyme r Processing, Applied Acoustics C. T. LIRA I Ph.D ., 1985, University of Illi n ois at U r ba n a-Champ a ign Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria of Complex Systems, S u percritical Fluid S t udies D.J MIL LER Ph D ., 1982 Univer s ity of Florida Kinetics and Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Carbon Gasification, Thermal and Chemical Conversion of Biomass C A P ETTY Ph D ., 1970 U n iversity of Florida Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport P h enomena, Solid Fluid and Liquid-Liquid Separations B W. WI L K IN SO N P h D Ohio State U n iversity Energy Systems a n d Environmental Control, N u clear Reac t or, Radioisotope Applications R M W ORD EN Ph.D ., 1986, Unive r sity of Te nn essee Biochemical Engineering, Immobilized Cell Technology Bioreactor Dynamics and Control FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE C oordinator of Graduate Recruiting Department c ; C hemlcal Engineering 173 Engineering Building Michigan State University E as t Lans i ng M i chigan 48824-1226 MSU is an. Aff i rmat ive Ac t io n. / Eq ua l O ppo r tunity ln.stitution.

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Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N. L. BOOK (Ph.D Colorado) Computer aided Process Design, Bioconvers i on 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D Rice) Transport Properties Kinetics, Catalysis M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida) Biochemical Studies, Biomass Utilization J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D. Missouri) Electrode Reactions Corrosion A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D.,ETH-Zurich) Adsorpt i on Freeze Dry i ng Modeling Optimization Reactor Design J M. D. MAC ELROY (Ph.D., University College Dublin) Transport Phenomena, Hetero geneous Catalysis Drying Statistical Mechanics D. 8. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas) Thermody namics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon) lnterfa cia l Phenomena B. E POLING (Ph.D., 1//inols) Kinetics, Energy Storage Catalysis X B REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota) Fluid Mechanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenom ena Liquid-Liquid Extraction Turbulence Structure 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Roi/a) Bio eng i neering R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Multistage Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Extraction, Process Control R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue) Rheology of Polymer Solutions, Chemical Reaction Kinetics Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. FALL 19 88 269

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Advanced Studies in Chen,ical Engineering atNJIT NJIT, the comprehensive technological university of New Jersey, offers the Master of Science in Chemical Engineering, Master of Science, Degree of Engineer, and Doctor of Engineering Science. AT NJITYOU'LL FIND: Outstanding relationships with major petrochemical and pharmaceutical corporations. Approximately $1 O million annually in support from corporate and state and federal agencies The National Science Foundation industry/university hazardous substance management research cente,-. Financial support available to qualified, full-time graduate students. Faculty: Chemical Engineering Division P. Armenante (Virginia) B Baltzis (Minnesota) E. Bart (NYU) T. Greenstein (NYU) D. Hanesian (Cornell) C. R. Huang (Michigan) 0. Knox (RPI) G. Lewandowski (Columbia) A. J Perna (Connecticut) E C Roche, Jr. (Stevens) S. Sofer (Utah) D. Tassios (Texas) Faculty: Chemistry Division J Bozzelli (Princeton) V. Cagnati (Stevens) L. 0auerman (Rutgers) D. Getzin (Columbia) A. Greenberg (Princeton) J. Grow (Oregon State) T. Gund (Princeton) B. Kebbekus (Penn State) H. Kimmel (CUNY) D. S. Kristal (NYU) 0. Lambert (Oklahoma State) G. Lei (PINY) R. Parker (Washington) H. Perlmutter (NYU) A. Shilman (PINY) L. Suchow (PINY) R. Tomkins (London) R. Trattner (CUNY) C. Venanzi (UC at Santa Barbara) CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Air pollutant analysis and transport of organic compounds D Biological and chemical detoxification D Design of air pollution control equipment D Toxicology REACTION KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Fixed and fluidized bed reactors D Free radical and global reaction kinetics D Biochemical reactors D Reactor modeling and transport mechanisms THERMODYNAMICS Vapor-liquid equilibria D Calorimetry D Equations of state D Solute / solvent systems APPLIED CHEMISTRY Electrochemistry D Trace analysis and instrument development D Strained molecules D Inorganic solid state and material science D Heterocyclic and synthetic organic compounds D Drug receptor interaction modeling D Enzyme / substrate geometrics POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Rheology of polymer melts D Synthesis of dental adhesive D Photo initiated polymerization D Size distribution of emulsion polymerization D Fire resistance fibers D Polymer based propellant BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Thixotropic property of human blood D Modified glucose tolerance test D Mathematical modeling of metabolic processes PROCESS SIMULATION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES Distillation D Parametric pumping D Protein separation D Liquid membranes New Jersey Institute of Technology is a publicly supported university with 7 700 students enrolled in baccalaureate through doctoral programs, within its collegiate units : Newark College of Engineering, the School of Architecture, the College of Science and Liberal Arts and the School of Industrial Management. We invite you to explore academic opportunities at NJIT For further information call (201) 596-3460 or write : Graduate Division NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Newark, New Jersey 07102 i NJIT do es not discrim i nate on the basis of sex, race color handicap nation a l or ethnic origin or age in t he administration of st ud en t programs

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 Ruben Carbonell (Princeton) ReyChern (NCSU) Peter S. Fedkiw (Berkeley) Richard M. Felder (Princeton) Jam.es K. Ferrell, Head (NCSU) Benny D. Freeman (Berkeley) Carol K. Hall (Stony Brook) Harold B. Hopfenberg (MIT) Peter K. Kilpatrick (Minnesota) H. Henry Lamb (Delaware) P. K. Lim (Illinois) Alan S. Michaels (MIT) David F. Ollis (Stanford) Michael R. Overcash (Minnesota) Steven W. Peretti (Caltech) C. John Setzer, Ass't Head (Ohio State) Edward P. Stahel (Ohio State) Vivian T. Stannett (Brooklyn Poly) Hubert Winston (NCSU) FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS Multi-Phase Transport Phenomena; Bioseparations Structure-Property Relations of Polymers; Membrane Separations Electrochemical Engineering Computer-Aided Manufacturing of Specialty Chemicals; Process Simulation and Optimization Heat Transfer; Process Control; Coal Gasification Polymer Physical Chemistry Statistical Mechanics; Bioseparations; Semiconductor Interfaces Transport in Polymers; Controlled Membrane Separations Interfacial and Surfactant Science; Bioseparations Heterogeneous Catalysis; Surface Science Interfacial Phenomena; Homogeneous Catalysis; Free Radical Chemistry Polymer and Membrane Science; Biomedical and Biochemical Separations Biochemical Engineering; Heterogeneous Photocatalysis Improving Manufacturing Productivity by Waste Reduction; Environment Genetic and Metabolic Engineering; Microbial, Plant and Animal Cell Culture Plant and Process Economics and Management Chemical and Polymer Reaction Engineering Pure and Applied Polymer Science Chemical Process Control; Oil Field Reservoir Dynamics Inquiries to: Prof. Carol K. Hall, Director of Graduate Studies, (919) 737-3571

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Chen1ical Engineering at Northwestern University S. George Bankoff Two-phase heat transfer, fluid mechanics John B. Butt Chemical reaction engineering Stephen H. Carr Solid state properties of polymers Buckley Crist Jr. Pol y mer science Joshua S. Dranoff Chemical reaction engineering c hromatographic separations Thomas K. Goldstick Biomedical engineering, oxygen transport in the human body Iftekhar Karimi Computer-aided design scheduling of noncontinuous processes Harold H Kung Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis Richard S.H. Mah Computer-aided pro cess planning design and analysis, distillation systems William M. Miller Biochemical engineering E. Terry Papoutsakis Biochemical engineering Mark A. Petrich Electronic materials, microelectronics Gregory R yskin Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquids Wolfgang M.H. Sachtler Heterogeneous catalysis John C. Slattery Interfacial transport phenomena, multiphase flows John M. Torkelson Pol y mer science For information and application to the graduate program, write John M. Torkelson Chairperson of Graduate Program Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60208

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at Notre Dame The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master's degree are normally completed in twelve to fourteen months. The doctoral program requires about four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. These programs can usually be tailored to accommodate students whose undergraduate degrees are in areas of science or engineering other than chemical engineering. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships, which include a full tuition waiver, are available to students pursuing either program. For further information, write to: Dr. H. -C. Chang FACULTY J. T Banchero J. J Carberry H. -C. Chang J.C. Kantor J.P. Kohn D. T. Leighton, Jr. M. J. McCready R. A. Schmitz W. C. Strieder A. Varma F. H. Verhoff E. E. Wolf RESEARCH AREAS Advanced Ceramic Materials Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineerin g Catalysis and Surface Science Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas-liquid Flows Nonlinear Dynamics Phase Equilibria Process Dynamics and Control Statistical Mechanics Suspension Rheology Transport Phenomena Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556

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T H E OHIO UNIVERSITY Relevant Graduate Education Excellence in Research Close Relationships Between Graduate Students and Their Faculty Advisors GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W HY should you consider Ohio State for graduate study in chemical engineering? Some of the facts that may influence your decision are that we have a unique, high quality combination of research projects, facilities fa c ulty and student body, all situated in pleasant surroundings We c an provide a stimulating, productive and worthwhile means for you to further your education Finan c ial support is available ranging from $8 500 to $15,000 annually We would be glad to provide you with complete i nformation regarding our programs, including potential thesis topics and degree requirements. Please write or call collect : Professor Jacques L. Zakin Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 19th Avenue Colum bus, Ohio 43210 1180, (614) 292-6986 Robert S. Brodkey Wi s con s in 1952 Turbulence, Mi x ing, Image Analysis, Reactor Design and Rheology Jeffrey J. Chalmers Cornell 1 988, Bi ochemical Engineering, Protein Excre tion and Production, and Immobilized Cell Reactor Design James F. Davis Northwestern 1982, Artificial Intelligence, Computer Aided Des i gn, and Process Control L. S Fan, West Virginia 1975 Fluidization, Chemical & Biochemical Reaction Engineering, and Mathemat i cal Modeling Edwin R. Haering Ohio State 1966 Reaction Engineering, Catalysis, and Adsorption Harry C. Hershey, Missouri Rolla 1965 Thermodynamics, and Drag R eduction Kent S Knaebel Delaware 1980 Mass Transfer Separations, Computer Aided Design, and Power Conversion Cy c les L. James Lee Minnesota 1979 Polymer Processing Polymer i zation, and Rheology Won Kyoo Lee, Missouri Columbia 1972, Process Control, Computer Con trol, and Computer Aided Design Umit Ozkan Iowa State 1984, Heterogeneous Catalysis, and Reaction Kinetics Duane R. Skidmore, Fordham 1960 Coal Processing, and Bio c hemical Engineering Edwin E. Smith, Ohio State 1 949, Combustion, and Environmental Engineering Thomas L. Sweeney Case 1962, Air Pollution Control, Heat Transfer, and Legal Aspects of Engineering Shang Tian Yang Purdue 1984, Biochemical Engineering and Biotech nology, Fermentation Processes, and Kinetics Jacques L. Zakin N ew York 1959 Drag Reduction, Rheology, and Emu l sions The Ohio State University is an equal opportunity / affirmative action institution

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Ohio University Chemical Engineering

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276 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA Graduate P rograms in Chemical Engineering and Materials S cience Areas Of Research Interest: SURFACTANTS CORROSION THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING STATISTICAL MECHANICS SYNTHETIC FUELS REACTION ENGINEERING METALLURGY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY ULTRATHIN FILMS NOVEL SEPARATION PROCESSES POLYMER PROCESSING STIPENDS TO: $1250/MO. For the application materials and further information, wr i te to Graduate Program Coordinator School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Oklahoma 100 East Boyd Norman, Oklahoma 73019 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVER IT //;,~ .,. I .... Where People Are Important ~ a ~-_ i ..;,_ r. ~-. --. I'.\ II "' L, .,,. .. ,. ~ I U --. t ,,. > -'. .. ~ ,. ;, ,. .. -~ '!f. !: R C. E rb ar Adsorption Aerosol Science Air Pollution Biochemical Processes Catalysis Design Equations of State M M J o hn son Fluid Flow Gas Processing Ground Wate r Quality Hazardous Wastes Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics R L R obinson, Jr. Address inquiries to: Robert L. Robinson, Jr. Mass Transfer Modeling Phase Equilibria Process Simulation Separations Thermodynamics School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University 7

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University of Pennsylvania Chemical Engineering Stuart W. Churchill Combustion, thermoacoustic convection, rate processes Gregory C. Farrington Electrochemi stry, solid state and polymer chemistry, catalysis William C. Forsman Polymer science and engineering, graphite intercalation Eduardo D. Glandt Classical and statistical thermodynamics, random media Raymond J. Go rte Heterogeneous catalysis, surface science, zeolites David J. Graves Biochemical and biomedical engineering, bioseparations Douglas A. Lauffenburger Biomedical/ biochemical engineering, math ematica l modeling Mitchell Litt Biorheology, transport systems, biomedical engineering Alan L. Myers Adsorption of gases and liquids thermodynamics of electrolytes Daniel D. Perlmutter Chemical reactor design superconducting composites John A. Quinn Membrane transport, biochemical/ biomedical engineering Warren D. Seider Process analysis, simulation, design, and control Lyle H. Ungar Crystal growth, artificial intelligence in process control T. Kyle Vanderlick Thin-film and interfacial phenomena John M. Vohs Metal oxide surface chemistry Paul B. Weisz Molecular selectivity in chemical and life processes Pennsylvania's chemical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the department The full resources of this Ivy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University. For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering 3 llA Towne Building University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6393

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FACULTY PAUL BARTON (Penn State) ALI BORHAN (Stanford) ALFRED CARLSON (Wisconsin) WAYNE CURTIS (Purdue) RONALD P. DANNER (Lehigh) THOMAS E. DAUBERT (Penn State) J. LARRY DUDA (Delaware) ALFRED J. ENGEL (Wisconsin) JOHN A. FRANGOS (Rice) FRIEDRICH G. HELFFERICH (Gottingen) ROBERT L. KABEL (Washington) RICHARD D. LaROCHE (Illinois) JOHN R. McWHIRTER (Penn State) R. NAGARAJAN (SUNY Buffalo) JONATHAN PHILLIPS (Wisconsin) JOHN M. TARBELL (Delaware) JAMES S. ULTMAN (Delaware) M. ALBERT VANNICE (Stanford) JAMES S. VRENTAS (Delaware) For application forms and further information, write to Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering 158 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Individuals holding the B.S. in Chemistry or other related areas are encouraged to apply. We've Made Our Choice! PENN STATE APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS API Technical Data BookPetroleum Refining AIChE-DIPPR Data Prediction Manual Equation of State Models Phase Equilibria in Mixtures Critical Property, Vapor Pressure Measurements Polymer Solution Thermodynamics BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERJNG Flow and Mixing in Lung Airways Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics Thermal Regulation of Newborn Infants Transport Phenomena on Arterial Wall Effect of Hydrodynamic Forces on Mammalian Cells Signal Transduction in Mammalian Cells BIOTECHNOLOGY Affinity Based Purification Processes Protein-Separation Media Interaction and Modeling Growth of Recombinant Microorganisms Mutation Kinetics and Plasmid Stability Molecular Biology of Shear Stress Activation of Cells Biochemical Oxidation Technology CATALYSIS AND SURFACE PHENOMENA Metal-Support Interactions CO/Hydrogen Synthesis Reactions Sulfur Poisoning of Catalysts Carbon-Supported Metal Cluster Catalysts Noble Metal Reconstruction Characterization of Iron-Carbon Catalysts Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Adsorption Microcalorimetric Studies Catalytic Etching of Metals POLYMERS AND COLLOIDS Diffusion in Polymers Rheology and Flow Behavior Micelles, Vesicles, Microemulsions Applications of Organized Molecular Assemblies Polymer Microencapsulation Technology TRIBOLOGY Lubricant Rheology Tribology at Elevated Temperatures Oxidation of Lubricants Vapor Deposited Lubricants Tribology and Lubrication of Ceramics OTHER AREAS Mixing and Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flows Analysis of Free Convection Perturbation Approach to Moving Boundary Problems Laminar Flow in Complex Systems Multicomponent Ionic Transport Propagation Phenomena in Multicomponent Systems Application of Advanced Computer Architecture Scaleup of Chemical Processes Simultaneous Modular Process Design

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RESEARCH AREAS Composite Materials Computer Aided Process Design Engineering Properties of Polymers Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfe Plasma and Thin Films Polymer Processing Polymer Morphology Polymer Synthesis and Modification Rheology Separation Sciences Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Programs lead to Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees. Fellowships and research assistantshi are available. For further Information, please contac Professor A.S. Myerson Head, Department of Chemical Enginee Polytechnic University 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, NY 11201 Polytechnic University is the nation's second oldest technological university. A private, coeducational university founded in 1854, it was known as Brooklyn Poly until 1973 when It merged with New York University s School of Engineering and Science lo create Polytechnic Institute of New York. In 1985, its name was changed lo Polytechnic University reflecting its position as one of the major technological universities in the New York metropolitan region.

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GRADUATE PROGRAMS M.S. in Chemical Engineering M.S. in Petroleum Engineering Dual M.S. in Chemical/Petroleum Engineering Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering University of RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Bioengineering Surface Chemistry Reactor Engineering lnterphase Transport Particulate Systems Thermodynamics Super Critical Extractions Gas Hydrates Reservoir Mechanics Secondary Oil Recovery I ,/ N111~11---., ,fl ,, I I FACULTY Mohammed Ataal Donna G. Blackmond Alan J. Brainard Shlao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb, Jr. Robert F. Enick James G. Goodwin, Jr. Gerald D. Holder George E. Kllnzlng Joseph H. Maglll George Marcelln Badie Morsl Albert J. Post Alan A. Reznik Jerome S. Schultz John W. Tierney lrvlng Wender FOR MORE INFORMATION Graduate Coordinator Chemical/Petroleum Engineering School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 Pittsburgh

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Research Areas Applied Mathematics Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Colloids and lnterfacial Engineering Computer Aided Design Environmental Science Materials and Microelectronics Processing Polymer Science and Engineering Process Systems Engineering Separation Processes Surface Science and Engineering Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Transport Phenomena Contact Us Today Graduate Information School of Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 An Equal Access/Equal Opportunity University PURDUE UNIVERSITY Faculty L F. Albr i ght R P Andres J.M. Caruthers K.C Chao W.N Delgass R E Eckert A.H Emery E.I. Franses R A. Greenkorn R E Hannemann R N Houze D P Kessler N A. Peppas D Ramkrishna G V. Reklait i s J H Seo R G Squires C G Takoudis G T Tsao V. Venkatasubramanian N H L. Wang P C Wankat J.M. Wiest

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University of Queensland POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships Available Return Airfare Included STAFF P. R BELL(N.S.W.) J. N. BEL TRAMINI (Santa Fe) I. T. CAMERON (Imperial College) D. D DO (Queensland) P. F. GREENFIELD (N S.W.) M. JOHNS (Massey) P. L. LEE (Monash) J. D. LITSTER (Queensland) M E. MACKAY (Illinois) R. B. NEWELL (Alberta) D. J NICKLIN (Cambridge) V. RUDOLPH (Natal) B. R. STANMORE (Manchester) E. T. WHITE (Imperial College) R J WILES (Queensland) ADJUNCT STAFF J. M. BURGESS (Edinburgh) J.E. HENDRY (Wisconsin) L S. LEUNG (Cambridge) G W. PACE (Min D. H RANDERSON (N.S.W ) THE DEPARTMENT --, I I --,., r RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Particle Mechanics Process Simulation Fermentation Systems Tissue Culture Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics Mineral Processing Adsorption Membrane Processes Hybridoma Technology Numerical Analysis Large Scale Chromatography The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an extensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M. Eng Studies, M. Eng. Science, M. Sci. Studies, M. Agr Studies, and Ph.D. degrees. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY The University is one of the largest in Australia, with more than 18,000 students. Brisbane, with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef For further infonnation write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. 4067, AUSTRALIA

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Ph.D. and M.S. Programs in Chemical Engineering Advanced Study and Research Areas Advanced materials Air pollution control Biochemical engineering Bioseparations Fluid-particle systems Heat transfer High temperature kinetics Interfacial phenomena Microelectronics manufacturing Multiphase flow Polymer reaction engineering Process control and design Separation engineering Simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction Thermodynamics Transport Processes For full details write Dr. P.K. Lashmet, Executive Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 The Faculty Michael M. Abbott Ph.D., Rensselaer Elmar R. Altwicker Ph.D., Ohio State Georges Belfort Ph.D., California-Irvine B. Wayne Bequette Ph.D., Texas-Austin Henry R. Bungay III Ph.D., Syracuse Chan I. Chung Ph.D., Rutgers Steven M. Cramer Ph.D., Yale Arthur Fontijn D.Sc., Amsterdam William N. Gill Ph.D., Syracuse Richard T. Lahey, Jr. Ph.D., Stanford Peter K. Lashmet Ph.D., Delaware Howard Littman Ph.D., Yale Morris H. Morgan III Ph.D., Rensselaer Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D., Wisconsin E. Bruce Nauman Ph.D., Le e ds Joel L. Plawsky D.Sc., M.I.T Sanford S. Stemstein Ph.D., Rensselaer Hendrick C. Van Ness D.Eng., Yale Peter C. Wayner, Jr. Ph.D., Northwestern Robert H. Wentorf, Jr. Ph.D., Wisconsin

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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering APPLICATIONS AND INQUIRIES Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineer i ng PO Box 1892 Rice Univers i ty Houston TX 77251 FACULTY William W Akers (Michigan 1950) THE UNIVERSITY Privately endowed coeducational school 2600 undergraduate students 1300 graduate students Quiet and beautiful 300-acre trees haded campus 3 miles from downtown Houston THE DEPARTMENT M ChE., M.S., and Ph D degrees Archrtecturally uniform and aesthetic campus THE CITY Large metropolitan and cultural center Petrochemical capital of the world Industrial collaboration and job opportun i ties World renowned research and treatment medical center Professional sports Close to recreational areas Approximately 65 graduate students (predominantly Ph D ) Stipends and tuition waivers for full-time students Special fellowships with higher stipends for outstanding candidates RESEARCH INTERESTS Constantine D. Armeniades (Case Western Reserve 1969) Applied Mathematics Sam H Davis Jr (MIT, 195 7 ) Biochemical Engineering Derek C Dyson (London 1966) Biomedical Engineering Michael W Glacken (MIT 1987) Equilibrium Thermodynamic Properties J David Hellums (Michigan, 1961) Fluid Mechanics Joe W Hightower (Johns Hopkins, 1963) lnterfacial Phenomena Riki Kobayashi (Michigan, 1951) K i netics and Catalysis Larry V. McIntire (Princeton, 1970) Polymer Science Clarence A. Miller (Minnesota, 1969) Process Control Mark A. Robert (Swiss Fed. Inst of Technology 1980) Reaction Engineering Ka-Yiu San (Ca/Tech 1984) Rheology Jacqueline Shanks (Ca/Tech, 1988) Transport Processes Kyriacos Zygourakis (Minnesota, 1981) Transport Properties

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Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY of ROCHESTER JOINUS Graduate Study and Research leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Fellowships to $14,000 Summer Research Program available for entering students For furtlw hlonnatlon and application, wrtt. ProfeseorJohn C. Friedly, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Univendcy, of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627 Phone: (716) 275-4042 Faculty and Research Areas S. H. CHEN, Ph.D. 1981, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Transport Phenomena, Optical Materials E. H. CIDMOWITZ, Ph.D. 1982, Connecticut Computer-Aided Design, Super-Critical Extraction, Control G. R. COKELET, Sc.D. 1963, M.I.T. Microcirculatory Transport Processes, Biomedical Engineering M. R. FEINBERG, Ph.D. 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems, Applied Mathematics J. R. FERRON, Ph.D. 1958, Wisconsin Molecular Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics J.C. FRIEDLY, Ph.D. 1965, California (Berkeley) Process Dynamics, Control, Heat Transfer R.H. HEIST, Ph.D.1972, Purdue Nucleation, Solid State, Ultrafine Particles S. A. JENEKHE, Ph.D. 1985, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Electronic and Optical Materials, Chemical Sensors J. JORNE, Ph.D. 1972, California (Berkeley) Electrochemical Engineering, Microelectronic Processing, Theoretical Biology R.H. NOTTER, Ph.D. 1969, Washington (Seattle) M.D. 1980, Rochester Biomedical Engineering, Lung Disease and Toxicology, Aerosols H.J. PALMER, Ph.D. 1971, Washington (Seattle) Interfacial Phenomena, Mass Transfer, Bioengineering H. SALTSBURG, Ph.D. 1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering S. V. SOTIRCHOS, Ph.D. 1982, Houston Reaction Engineering, Combustion and Gasification of Coal, Gas-Solid Reactions J. H. D. WU, Ph D. 1987, M.I.T. Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation, Biocatalysis, and Industrial Microbiology

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=>~(\~ RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. AND AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS e THERMODYNAMICS e TRANSPORT PHENOMENA e KINETICS AND CATALYSIS e CONTROL THEORY e COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION e POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY e SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS e MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS e SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED BIOCATALYSIS e BIOMATERIALS e ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS e HYBRIDOMA, PLANT, AND INSECT CELL CULTURE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS e BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY e CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING EXPERT SYSTEMS/Al e MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE TREATMENT FOOD PROCESSING ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND REUSE GENETIC ENGINEERING STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS INCINERATION & RESOURCE RECOVERY MICROBIAL DETOXIFICATION PROTEIN ENGINEERING TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN IMMUNO-TECHNOLOGY MUL Tl PHASE SYSTEMS SOURCE CONTROL AND RECYCLING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE FALL 1 988 For Appli cat i o n Forms and Further Informa t ion Write To, Di r ector of Graduate Program Dept of Chem i cal and Biochemical Enginee r ing Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey P O Box 909 Pisca t away NJ 0BSSS 0909 2 87

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I I I UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA The Chemical Engineering Department offers M S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees. Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely with the faculty on research projects. Research and teaching stipends are available. The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of 22,800 on the Columbia campus, offers a variety of cultural and recreational activities. Columbia is part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country. THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY M.W. Davis, Jr., Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis solvent extraction waste treatment). F.A. Gadala-Maria, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Stanford University, 1979 (Fluid mechanics, rheology) J H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph D. University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer,fluid mechanics) E.L. Hanzevack, Jr., Associate Professor, Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1974 (Two-phase flow turbulence) F.P. Pike, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria). R L. Smith, Jr., Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology, 1985 (Thermodynamics, phase equilibria, critical phenomena). T.G Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph.D. University of Michigan, 1977 (Chemical react o r engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems, process design, thermodynamics) V Van Brunt, Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass transfer computer modeling, liquid extraction). J.W. Van Zee, Assistant Prof esso r, Ph D., Texas A&M University, 1984 (Electrochemical system s, mathematical modelin g, statistical applications). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT PROFESSOR J.H. GIBBONS CHAIRMAN, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SWEARINGEN ENGINEERING CENTER UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA COLUMBIA, SC 29208

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Faculty J. A. Biesenberger (PhD, Princeton U.) G. B. Delancey (PhD, Pittsburgh U ) C. G. Gogos (PhD, Princeton U.) D M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill U.) S. Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens) A. B. Pasari (PhD, U Idaho) D H. Sebastian (PhD, Stevens) H. Silla (PhD, Stevens) K K Sirkar (PhD, Illinois U ) C Tsenoglou (PhD, Northwestern U.) Research in Membrane Technology Separation Processes Biochemical Reaction Engineering Polymer Reaction Engineering Polymer Rheology and Processing Polymer Characterization Catalysis Physical Property Estimation Process Design and Development s TEV E N S INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Beautiful campus on th e Hudson River overlooking metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and culture At the hub of major highways, air, rail and bus lines At the center of the country's largest con c entration of research laboratories a nd chemical petroleum and pharmaceutical c ompanie s Excellent facilities and instrumentation Close collaboration with other discipline s, especially chemistry and biolog y One of the leaders in c hemical engineering computing GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. For application contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5234 For additional information, contact : Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5546 Financial Aid is Available to qualified students. St e v e n s In s titute o f Technol o g y d oes not di sc riminate again s t an y p e r so n b e caus e o f ra c e cr e ed co lor national o rigin se x ag e, marital s tatu s, h a ndicap liabiliry fo r se rvi c e in the armed force s o r s tatu s as a di sa bled o r Vietnam e ra ve t e ran

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FACULTY Mien J. Barduhn (emeritus) John C. Heydweiller Cynthia S. Hirtzel George C. Martin Philip A Rice (chairman) Ashok S. Sangani Klnus Schroder JamesA Schwarz S. Alexander Stern Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien for information: Dr. George C. Martin Dept of Chemical Engineering and Materials science 320 Hinds Hall Syracuse University Syracuse, NY 13244 (315) 443-2559 Kle i ne Welten (Small Worlds) VII, Wassily Kandinsky c. 1922 Syracuse University Art Collection Syracuse University

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THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY AT KNOXVILLE AND OAK RIDGE P.R. Bienkowski D.C Bogue D.D. Bruns C.H. Byers E .S. Clark H.C Cochran' R M. Counce B.H Davison T.L. Donaldson J .F. Fellers Bioprocessing Thermodynamics Polymers, Rheology Process Control, Modeling Separations & Transport Polymers Thermodynamics Separations & Transport Bioprocessing Bioprocessing Polymers MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING Center for Environmental Biotechnology Bioprocess Research Facility at ORNL PROCESS CONTROL Measurement and Control Engineering Center POLYMER PROCESSING Center for Materials Processing SEPARATIONS AND TRANSPORT G C Frazier Bioprocessing Kinetic s H W Hsu Bioprocessing Transport C.F. Moore Process Control J.J. Perona ( Head) Separations & Transport G.D. Scott Bioprocessing Separations T.C Scott Bioprocessing Separations C O Thomas Computer aided D esign Economics T.W. Wang Process Control Bioprocessing J.S Watson Separations & Transport, Nuclear Fu si on F.E Weber Computer aided Design Radiation Chemistry Adjun ct Faculty at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL ), 20 miles from the main campus at Knoxville WRITE TO: DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE KNOXVILLE, TN 37996-2200

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Chemical Engineering at Texas Inquiries should be sent to: Graduat e Advis e r Departm e nt of Chemical Engine e ring The U niv e rsity of Texas Austin T e xas 7 8 7 12 (512) 47 1-6991 Research Interests Aerosol Physics & Chemistry Aqueous Mass Transfer Biochemical & Biomedical Engineering Biomaterials Biosensors Catalysis Chemical Engineering Education Chemical Reaction Kinetics Chemical Vapor Deposition Colloid & Surface Science Combustion Crystal Structure & Properties Crystallization Electrochemistry Enhanced Oil Recovery Expert Systems Fault Detection & Diagnosis Heat Transfer Laser Processing Materials Science Membrane Science Optimization Plasma Processing Polymer Blends Polymer Processing Polymer Thermodynamics Process Dynamics & Control Process Modelling & Simulation Protein & Fermentation Engineering Reaction Injection Molding Separation Processes Stack Gas Desulfurization Supercritical Fluid Science Thermodynamics Faculty Joel W Barlow Wisconsin James R. Brock Wisconsin Thomas F Edgar Princeton John G Ekerdt Berkeley James R Fair Texas George Georgiou Cornell Adam Heller Hebrew (Jerusalem) David M. Himmelblau Washington Jeffrey A Hubbell Rice Keith P Johnston Illinois William J. Koros Texas Douglas R Lloyd Waterloo Donald R. Paul Wisconsin Robert P. Popovich Washington llya Prigogine Brussels Howard F Rase Wisconsin James B. Rawlings Wisconsin Gary T. Rochelle Berkeley Isaac C Sanchez Delaware Robert S Schechter Minnesota Hugo Steinfink Brooklyn Polytechnic James E Stice Illinois Inst. Technology Isaac Trachtenberg Louisiana State Eugene H Wissler Minnesota

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The University of Toledo Graduate study toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships available. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Gary F. Bennett, Ph.D., University of Michi gan. Professor; Environmental Pollution Control, Biochemical Engineering Kenneth J. De Witt, Ph.D., Northwestern University. Professor; Transport Phenomena, Math ematical Modeling and Numerical Methods Ronald L. Fournier, Ph.D., University of Toledo. Assistant Professor; Transport Phenomena, Thermodynamics, Mathematical Modeling and Biotechnology MIiiard L. Jones, Jr., Ph.D., University of Michigan, Professor; Process Dynamics and Control, Mathematical Modeling and Heat Transfer James W. Lacksonen, Ph.D., Ohio State University. Professor; Chemical Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Design, Pulp and Paper Engineering Leslie E. Lahti, Ph.D. Carnegie-Mellon University. Professor; Adductive Crystallization, Flue gas Desulfurization Steven E. LeBlanc, Ph D., University of Michigan. Assistant Professor; Dissolution Kinetics, Surface and Colloid Phenomena, Controlled Re lease Technology Stephen L. Rosen, Chairman, Ph.D., Cornell University. Professor; Polymeric Materials, Polymer ization Kinetics, Rheology Sasldhar Varanasi, PhD ., State University of New York at Buffalo. Associate Professor; Colloidal and lnterfacial Phenomena, Enzyme Kinetics Mem brane Transport For Details Contact: Dr. S L. Rosen, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (419) 537-2639 EN -179-387 1 Regarded as one of the nation's most attractive campuses, The University of Toledo is located in a beautiful residential area of the city approximately seven miles from downtown. The University's main campus occupies more than 200 acres with 40 major build ings. A member of the state university system of Ohio since July 1967, The University of Toledo observed its 100th anniversary as one of the country's major universities in 1972.

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87 YEARS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TUFTS UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering RESEARCH AREAS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING t. : FUNDAMENTALS .:: CRYSTALLIZATION "MEMBRANE PROCESSES CHROMATOGRAPHY FACILITATED TRANSPORT OPTIPJIZATION HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS ELECTROCATALYTIC PROCESSES 'THERMODYNAMICS ., MATERIALS AND INTERFACES .. ... .. ... :,:, ,.,, .. ,, :-,,., ,, ..... STABILITY OF SUSPENSIONS COAL SLURRIES "COMPOSITE MATERIALS POLYMER AND FIBER SCIENCE CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF HIGH TECH CERAMICS 'PLASMA POLYMERIZATION OF THIN FILMS BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL .. ENGINEERING t FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY MAMMALIAN CELL BIOREACTORS RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY "APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY BIOSEPARATIONS ............... ... SOLID-WASTE PROCESS ENGINEERING BIOLOGICAL WASTE DEGRADATION FACULTY GREGORY D. BOTSARIS Ph D. M.I T. 1965 ELIANA R. DEBERNARDEZ-CLARK Ph D. U.N.L. (Argentina) 1984 A small (4500 students) prestigious private University in Metropolitan Boston Graduate students have close and immediate access to faculty; to the Tufts Biotechnology Engineering Center and the Laboratory for Materials and Interfaces; to the country's foremost medical centers; and of course to the cultural social, recreational excitement of Boston, Cape Cod, and New England Fellowships and assistantships with tuition paid are available to qualified students JERRY H. MELDON Ph.D. M./. T. 1973 JAMES J. NOBLE Ph D. M.I T. 1968 DANIEL F. RYDER Ph.D. Worcester Polytechnic 1984 MICHAEL STOUKIDES Ph D M.I T. 1982 MARTIN V. SUSSMAN Ph D. Columbia 1958 NAK-HO SUNG For information and applications, write to : Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Tufts University Medford, MA 02155 Phone (617) 381 3445 Ph.D. M.I. T 1972 RANDALL W. SWARTZ Ph.D. Rensselaer Polytechnic 1972 KENNETH A. VAN WORMER Sc D M.I. T. 1961 ADJUNCT FACULTY FROM INDUSTRY GEORGE AVGERINOS FRANCIS BROWN JOHN R. GHUBLIKIAN BING LOU WONG

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Use Virginia Tech as your catalyst to a good education. At Virginia Tech's Chemical Engineering Department, you will learn about: SURFACE SCIENCE model catalyst systems metal oxide surface chemistry, semiconductor interfaces, gas sensors UHV surface analysis and high -pressure reaction studies. CATALYSIS homogeneous heterogeneous spec troscopy novel immobilizations of homogeneous systems zeolite synthesis. HAZARDOUS WASTE in-situ treatment, enhanced biologi c al treatment, waste minimization, microbubble flotation. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING affinity and immunoaffinity (mono clonal antibody) isolation of plasma proteins transgenic expression and recovery of human plasma protein s in larg e animals DNA amplification kinetics in-situ biodegradation of toxic wastes POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING rheology, processing morphology synthesis, s urface science biopoly mers polymer suspensions For further information, contact the Department of Chemical Engineering, Randolph Hall, Virginia Tech, SURFACE ACTIVITY use of bubbles and other interfaces for separations, improved combus tion, water purification, trace ele ments concentration, detergency and bacteriocidal uses understanding liv ing systems FLUID-PARTICLE SYSTEMS novel application of vibrated beds in heat transfer, in microreactors with rapid frequent shift in gas atmos phere (for unsteady state kinetic studies) in microreactors simu lating large-scale gas-fluidized beds Blacksburg, VA 24061 (703) 961-6631

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The Department has a vigorous research program a nd exce ll ent physica l facilities There a r e about 7 0 graduate s tu dents of whom typica ll y 10-1 5 are foreign students and th e remainder are from about 30 un i ve r sities in over 20 states. All full time g r adua t e students are supported The research environment is stimulat in g and supportive and there is a fine esprit de corps among th e graduate students and facu lt y. S eattle is a beautiful cit y w i th outstanding cu ltur al activ itie s and unparalleled outdoor activities throughout the y ear. We welcome your inqui ry For further information please write : Chairman Departme nt of Chemical Eng in eeri n g, BF I O U niversit v o f Washington Sea ttle WA 9819 5 Regular Faculty J Ra v Bowen Ph D., Ca li forn i a (Berke l ey) (Dean. College of Engineering ) John C. Berg Ph D Ca li forn i a (Be rk elev) E. Jam es Davi s, Ph.D. Washing t on Bruce A. Finla yso n. Ph D Minneso t a Rod R Fisher Ph D I owa Sta t e Wiliam J Heide ge r. Ph .D Princeton Brad l ev R Holt. Ph D ., W i scons in Eric W. Kaler. Ph D ., Minnesota Barbara Krieger Brockett Ph.D. Wa y ne S t ate N. Lawrence R i cker. Ph D Ca l ifornia (Be rkele y) Jame s C. Seferis. Ph.D ., Delaware Charles A S l e i cher Ph D Michigan E ri c M. S tuve PhD ., Sta nford Research Facult y Thomas A. Horbett PhD .. Washington Jan -A nders Manson Ph D Chalmers U niversit v of Technology (Sweden) Adjunct and Joint Faculty Active in Department Research G Gra h am A ll an Ph.D ., Glasgow Albert L. Babb Ph D Illinois Allan S Hoffman Sc.D, M I.T. Buddv D Ratn er Ph .D., Brooklyn Pol v technic Research Areas Aerosols Biochemical and Biomedical E n gineering Co ll o i ds and Microe mul s i ons Fluid Mec h a nics and Rheology Heat Transfer I nterfacial Phenomena Ma th emat i ca l Mode lin g Polvmer Sc i ence and Eng in eering Process Con trol and Optimization Pu lp and Paper Chemistrv and Processes Reaction Engineering Su rface Science

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING '1M'-:.:~ ;f; "i ;ey; Washi11g1011 U11ir e r s itr e n co 1ira ges and g ir es j i ill c o 11.1id c rari o 11 1 0 a ppli c mi o11 j11 r admi ssion o n d/ i 11 0 11 c i a l aid ll'i1/ w 111 re,pff l /0 se x race ha nd i m p co l o r crl'l'd or 110 1 io 11 a l o n g in. MASTER'S AND DOCTORAL PROGRAMS FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS .M. P. Dudukovic Chemical Reaction Engineering J. T. Gleaves Heterogeneous Catalysis Surface Science, Microstructured Material B.Joseph Process Control, Process Optimization, Expert Systems J.LKardos Composite Materials and Polymer Engineering F. Kargi Biotechnology Engineering B.Khomami Rheology Polymer and Composite Materials Processing J .M. McKelvey Polymer Science and Engineering R.LMotard Computer Aided Process Engineering P.A. Ramachandran Chemical Reaction Engineering B.D.Smith Thermodynamics R.E.Sparka Biomedical Engineering, Microencapsulation, Transport Phenomena C. Thies Transport Phenomena Microencapsulation .M. Underwood Unit Operations, Process Safety, Polymer Processing FOR INFORMATION CONTACT G raduate Admis s i o n s Co mmittee Wa s hin g t o n U ni ve r s it y D e p a rtm e nt of C h e mi ca l E n g in ee rin g Ca mpu s B ox I 1 9X O n e B roo king s Dri ve St. L o ui s Mi sso uri 63 1 3 0

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i Chemical Engineering Faculty _____________ Richard C. Bailie (Iowa State University) Eugene V. Cilento, Acting Chair. (University of Cincinnati) Dady B. Dadyburjor (University of Delaware) Hisashi 0. Kono (Kyushu University) Edwin L. Kugler (Johns Hopkins University) Joseph A. Shaeiwitz (Carnegie-Mellon University) Alfred H. Stiller (University of Cincinnati) Richard Turton (Oregon State University) Wallace B. Whiting (University of California, Berkeley) Ray Y. K. Yang (Princeton University) John W. Zondlo (Carnegie-Mellon University) West VirgInIa UnIvers1ty Topics _________ Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Phase Equilibria Fluidization Biomedical Engineering Solution Chemistry Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Biological Separations M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid, write: Graduate Admission Committee Department of Chemical Engineering P .0. Box 6101 West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6101

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Faculty Research Interests R. Byron Bird Transport phenomena polymer fluid dynamics, polymer kinetic theory Douglas C. Cameron Biochemical engineering Thom a W. Chapman Electrochemistry, multiphase reaclors, hydrometallurgy biomass conversion Camden A. Coberly Hazardous waste management, process design, composite materials processing Stuart L. Cooper (Chmn.) Polymer structure property relations, biomaterials E. Johansen Crosby Spray and suspended particle processing Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering John A Duffie Solar energy James A Dumeslc Kinetics and catalysis, surface chemistry Charles G HIii, Jr. kinetics and catalysis mem brane separation processes Sangtae Kim Fluid mechanics applied mathematics James A Koutsky Polymer science adhesives composites Stanley H Langer Kinetics catalysis electro chemistry chromatography hydrornetallurgy E. N. Lightfoot, Jr. Mass transfer and separations processes biochemical engineering Patrick D McMahon Thermodynamics, statistical physics W. Harmon Ray Process dynamics and control, reaction engineering, polymerization Thatcher W. Root Surface chemistry catalysis Dale F Rudd Process design and industrial development Glenn A. Sather Development of instructional program Warren E Stewart Reactor modeling transport phenomena applied mathematics Ross E Swaney Process synthesis and optimi zation computer aided design For further information abo u t graduate st u dy i n chemical engineering w r i t e : The Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Un i versity of Wiscons i n-Madison 1415 Johnson Dr i ve Madison Wisconsin 53706

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Department of Chemical Engineering JOIN THE RANKS of Josiah Willard Gibbs, Yale 1863 Ph.D. Eng., and other distinguished Yale alumnilae. Douglas D. Frey Ph.D. California-Berkeley Gary L. Haller Ph.D. Northwestern Csaba G. Horvath Ph.D. Frankfurt James A. O'Brien Ph.D Pennsylvania Lisa D. Pfefferle Ph.D. Pennsylvania Daniel E. Rosner Ph.D. Princeton Robert S. Weber Ph.D Stanford JOIN US! 2159 Yale Station New Haven, CT 06520 (203) 432-2222 Adsorption Aggregation, Clustering Biochemical Separations Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Chromatography Combustion Fine Particle Technology Heterogeneous Kinetics lnterfacial Phenomena Molecular Beams Multiphase Transport Phenomena Statistical Thermodynamics

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302 Brown University Faculty Joseph M. Calo, Ph.D. ( Princet o n ) Bruce Caswell, Ph D. ( Stanford ) Richard A. Dobbins Ph.D. ( Princet o n ) Sture K F Karlsson, Ph.D ( J o hns H o pkins ) Joseph D. Kestin D Sc. ( University of L o nd o n ) Joseph T C. Liu, Ph.D. ( Californ"ia In s titute of Technology ) Edwa rd A. Mason, Ph D. ( Ma ss a c hu s ett s In s tit u t e of Technol o gy ) T.F. M orse, Ph.D. ( Northw e st e rn ) Peter D. Richa rd son, Ph D D.S c. Eng ( Universi t y of London ) M e rw in Sibulkin A.E. ( California In s titute o f Technology ) Eric M SuJJberg Sc D. ( Massachusetts I nstitute of Technology ) Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering Chemical kinetics, combustion, two phase flows, fluidized beds, separation processes, numerical simulation, vortex methods, turbulence, hydrodynamic stability, coal chemistry, coal gasification, heat and mass transfer, aerosol condensation, transport processes, irreversible thermodynamics, membranes particulate deposition, physiological fluid mechanics, rheology. A program of graduate study in Chemical Engineering leads toward the M .Sc. or Ph.D. Degree. Teaching and Research Assistantships as well as Industrial and University Fellowships are available For further information write: Professor J. Calo, Coordinator Chemical Engineering Program Division of Engineering Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 02912 THE CITY COLLEGE of The City University of New York offers M.S and PhD. Program. in Chemical Engineering FACULTY A. Acrivos R. Graff L. Isaacs C. Maldarelli R. Mauri K.McKeigue R. Pfeffer I. Rinard D. Rumschitzki R Shinnar C. Steiner G. Tardos C. Tsiligiannis H. Weinstein RESEARCH~ Fluid Mechanics Coal Liquefaction Materials Colloid & Interfacial Phenomena Composite Materials, Suspensions, Porous Media Hydrodynamic Stability Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics Process Simulation Process Control Process Systems Engineering and Design Reaction Engineering Industrial Economics Polymer Science Air Pollution Fluidization Biomembranes Bioengineering Multiphase Reactors For applications for admission ass i stantships and fellowships please write to : D. Rumschltzkl, Department of Chemical EnginBBring City College of New York, Convent Ave at 140th St. New York, NY 10031 CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FALL 1988 CLEVELAND ST A TE UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.Sc. and D.Eng. Programs RESEARCH AREAS: Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactor Design Materials Processing and Engineering M a thematical Modeling Simulation of Batch Processes Separation Processes Surface Phenomena and Mass Transf e r Thermodynamics and Fluid Phase Equilibria Transport Phenomena, Fluid Mechanics Tribology Zeolites: Synthesis, Sorption Diffusion FACULTY: G. A. Coulman (Case Reserve) R. P. Elliott (IIT) B. Ghorashi (Ohio State) E. S. Godleski (Oklahoma State) E E. Graham (Northwestern) D. T. Hayhurst (WPI) A B. Ponter (UMIST) D. B. Shah (Michigan State) 0. Talu (Arizona State) S. N Tewari (Purdue) G Wotzak ( Princeton) Cl eve land S t a t e U ni ve r s i ty ha s 1 8, 000 s tud e nt s e n ro lled in i t s ac ademic p rog ram s. It i s located in the ce nt e r of t h e city o f Cle ve land w ith man y o ut s tandin g c ultur al a nd r e cr ea ti o nal opportunities nearby FOR FU R T H E R I N FORMATIO N WRITE TO : D B. S h a h D e partm e nt of C h e mi ca l Engin ee rin g Cl eve land S tate Univ e rsity C l eve land, Ohi o 4411 5 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS H. Y. CHEH Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Electrochemical Engineering C. J. DURNING Polymer Physical Chemistry C. C. GRYTE Polymer Science, Separation Processes E. F. LEONARD Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena B. O'SHAUGHNESSY Polymer Physics ALEXSERESSIOTIS Biochemical Engineering J. L SPENCER Applied Mathematics, Chemical Reactor Engineering U. STIMMING Electrochemistry Financial Assistance is Available For Further Information, Writ Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Columbia University New York, NY 10027 (212) 280-4453 303

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304 THAYER SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AT DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Doctoral and Masters Programs in Engineering with a concentration in Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Courses from Tha yer School and the Dartmouth Medical School, Biochemi stry Program and Biology Department DOCTORAL AND MASTERS PROGRAMS WITH OPPORTUNITIES IN: APPLICATIONS OF ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL SYSTEMS THERMOPHILIC ETHANOL PRODUCTION ATTACHED-FILM WASTEWATER TREATMENT MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE MEMllRANE AND IMM OlllLIZED CELL REACTOR DESIGN PHYSIOLOGI CAL A D BIOCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO IMPROVING PERFORMANCE ENZYMOLOGY AND PROTEIN CHEMISTRY FuNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED STUDIES OF CELLULASES KINETIC MOD EL! I G COMPUT E R ANALYSIS OF MACROMOLECULAR STRUCTURE BIOMASS CONVERSION PRETREATMENT AND HYDROLYSIS OF LIGNOCELL ULOSE SOLVENT R ECOVERY BY DISTILLATIO N PROCESS DESIGN AND EVAL UATION RELATED RESEARCH IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING LAS ER SCANNING FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY IMAGE A NA LYSIS RELATED TO MICROSCOPY AND TISSUE CHARACTERIZATION HIP AND KNEE PROSTHESES HYPERTH ERM I A AND RADIATION CANCER TREATMENT PHYSIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT AND CONTROL For f urther information : Director of Admissions, Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Program, Thayer Schg_gl of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering FACULTY CONSIDER D. R Coughanowr E. D. Grossmann Y. H. Lee S. P Meyer R Mutharasan J. A Tallmadge J. R 'Ibygeson C. B. Weinberger M. A Wheatley High faculty/ student ratio Excellent facilities RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Reactor Engineering Microcomputer Applications Polymer Processing Process Control ana Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Semiconductor Processing Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Drying Processes Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options WRITE TO: Dr. J. R. Thygeson Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Phlladelphla, PA 19104 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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HOWARD UNIVERSIT Y Chemical Engineering MS Degree Faculty/Research Areas M. E. ALUKO, Ph.D., UC (Santa Barbara) Dynamics of Reacting Systems, Applied Mathematics, Process Control J. N. CANNON, Ph.D., Colorado Fluid and Thermal Sciences (Experimental, Computational) A ir and Water Pollution Control, Reaction Kinetics, Hazardous Waste Incineration R. C. CHAWLA, Ph.D., Wayne State H. M. KATZ, (Emeritus) Ph D., Cincinnati M. G. RAO, Ph.D., Washington (Seattle) Environmental Engineering Process Synthesis and Design, Biochemical Separations For Information Write Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University Washington, DC 20059 0 Universityotldaho CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS T. E. CARLESON D. C DROWN L. L. EDWARDS FACULTY -Mass Transfer Enhancement, Chemical Reproc essing of Nuclear Wastes, Bioseparation -Process Design, Computer Applications Model ing, Process Economics and Optimization with Emphasis on Food Processing -Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp / Paper Engineering, Numerical Methods and Optimization M. L. JACKSON R. A. KORUS T. J. MORIN -Mass Transfer in Biological Systems, Particulate Control Technology -Polymers, Biochemical Engineering -Chemical Reaction Engineering, Transport phenomena, Thermophysics of Nonequiilibrum Sys tems The department has a highly active re~earch program covering a wide range of interests. With Washington State University just 8 miles away, the two departments jointly schedule an expanded list of graduate courses for both MS and PhD candidates, giving the graduate student direct a c cess to a combined graduate faculty of eighteen. The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking, white water rafting, skiing, and camping. J. Y. PARK J. J. SCHELDORF G. M. SIMMONS FALL 1988 -Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, lab oratory Reactor Development, Thermal Plasma Systems -Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics -Geothermal Energy Engineering, Pyrolysis Kinetics Process Control, Supercritical Fluid Ex traction FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho 83843 305

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306 ~ill IBu ill rn oo [~m wrn rn mrw Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Doctor of Engineering FACULTY: D. H. CHEN (Ph.D., Oklahoma State Univ ) J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State Univ.) T. C. HO (Ph.D., Kansas State Univ.) K. Y. LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State Univ.) R. E. WALKER (Ph.D., Iowa State Univ ) C. L. YAWS (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) 0. R. SHAVER (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) RESEARCH AREAS: Computer Simulation, Process Dynamics and Control Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Fluidization and Mass Transfer Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Rheology of Drilling Fluids, Computer-Aided Design Thermodynamic Properties Cost Engineering, Photovoltaics FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE: Graduate Adml11lon1 Chairman Department of Chemlcal Engineering Lamar Unlver lty P. 0. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 An equal opportunll)'/ fflrmatlft action unlverall)'. LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Philip A. Blythe Hugo S. Caram Marvin Charles JohnC. Chen Mohamed El-Aasser Christos Georgakis JamesT Hsu Arthur E. Humphrey Andrew Klein William L. Luyben Janice A. Phillips Matthew J. Reilly William E. Schiesser Cesar A. Silebi Leslie H. Sperling Fred P. Stein Harvey Stenger Israel E. Wachs Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS Polymer Science & Engineering Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering, Biochemical Engineering Process Simulation & Control Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Thermodynamic Property Research Energy Conversion Technology Applied Heat & Mass Transfer Multiphase Processing DEGREE PRooRAMs M.S. and Ph.D. in Ch.E. M.Eng. Program in Design M.S. and Ph.D. in Polymer Science & Engineering FINANCIAL AID Of course WRIJE Us FOR DETAILS C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY Master of Science and Doctor of Engineering Programs The D e partment of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech University o ff e rs a we ll balanced graduate program for e i ther the Master s or Doctor of Engineering degree Fourt e en full-time students (nine doctoral candidates) and fourteen part time students are pursuing research in Artificial Intelligence and Adaptive Control, Biotechnology Chemical Hazard and Fire Safety, Energy Use Models Lignite Utilization Nuclear Energy Ozo,ition Process Simulation and Two-Phase Heat Transfer with major concentrations in Energy, Environment and Control Studies. For information, write Dr. Hou s ton K. Hu c kaba y Professor and Head Department of C hemical Engineering Louisiana Tech University Ruston, Louisiana 71272 (318) 257-2483 FACULTY Brace H Boyden Arkansas Joseph B. Fernandes, UDCT Bombay Houston K. Huckabay, LSU David H. Knoebel, Oklahoma State Norman F. Marsolan, LSU Ronald H. Thompson Arkansas Manhattan College Design-Oriented Master's Degree Program Ch e mical Engineering 1n This well established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of process engineering problems Financial aid is available, including industrial fellowships in a one-year program involving participation of the following companies: FALL 19 88 Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. AKZO Chemicals Inc. Consolidated Edison Co. Exxon Corporation Mobil 011 Corporation Pfizer, Inc. Manhattan Colleg e i s lo ca t e d in R iv erdal e, an att r acti v e area i n the n o r th we st s e c t i o n of N ew Yo r k C i ty For brochure and application form, write to CHAIRMAN, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MANHATTAN COLLEGE RIVERDALE, NY 10471 3 07

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M H. I. Baird, Ph D (Cambridge) Mass Trans/er, Solvent Extraction J L. Brash Ph D (Glasgow) Biomedical Engineering, Polymers C. M. Crowe, Ph D (Cambridge) Data Reconc iliation, Cp#mization, Simulation J M Dickson, Ph D (Virginia Tech) MerriJrane T ranspott Phenomena, Reverse Osmosis A. E Hamielec, Ph D (Toronto) Polymer Reaction Engineering Director: McMaster /nstftute for Polymer Production T echno/ogy A. N. Hrymak, Ph.D (Carnegie-Mellon) Corrputer Aided Design, Numerical Methods I. A. Feuerstein, Ph D. (Massachusetts) Biomedical Engineering, Transport Prenorrena McMASTER UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Polymer Reaction Engineering Computer Process Control and Much More! J F. MacGregor Ph D (Wisconsin) Computer Process Control Polymer Reaction Engineering T. E. Marlin, Ph D (Massachusetts) Computer Process Control R. H. Pelton, Ph.D (Bristol) Water Soluble Polymers, Colloid Polymer Systems L. W. Shemilt, Ph D. (Toronto) Electrochemical Mass Trans/er, Corrosion, Thermodynamics P A. Taylor, Ph.D. (Wales) Computer Process Control M Tsezos, Ph D (McGilQ Wastewater Treatment Biosorptive Recovery J Vlachopoulos, D Sc (Washington University) Polymer Processing Rheology, Numerical Methods P E. Wood, Ph D. (Caltech) T uibu/ence Modeling, Mixing D R Woods, Ph D (Wisconsin) Surface Phenomena, Cost Estimation, Problem Solving J D. Wright, Ph.D. (Cambridge)/Part T i me Computer Process Control, Process Dynamics ardModeing M Eng and Pb P Programs Research Scholarships and Teaching Assistantships are available For further information please contact Professor A N Hrymak Department of Chem i cal Engineering McMaster Un i vers i ty Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 4L7 MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: The department offers a broad range of traditional and interdisciplinary programs leading to the M S. and Ph D. degrees. Program areas include the traditional areas of chemistry and chemical engineering with particular emphasis in polymer and composite materials ; process design, control, and improvement; free radical chemistry; bioorganic chemistry; and surface Raman spectroscopy COST OF TUITION: Full-time in-state graduate tuition is $615/quarter Tuition is normally included as part of the student 's financial support. THE COMMUNITY: MTU is located in Houghton on the beautiful Keweenaw Peninsula overlooking Lake Superior The region surrounding MTU is a virtual wilderness of interconnected lakes, rivers, and forest lands Outdoor activites abound al I year with superb fishing boating hiking, camping and skiing available within minutes of campus. FINANCIAL AID: Financial support in the form of fellowships, research assistantships, and graduate teaching assis tantships is available Starting stipends are $6600 per academic year in addition to tuition 308 For more information write: Graduate Studies Chairman Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 Michigan Technological Univers ity is an equal opportunity educational institutio n / equal opportunity employer. C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Melbourne, Australia Research Degrees: Ph.D., M.Eng.Sc. FACULTY: 0. E. POTTER (Chairman) J. R. G. ANDREWS G. A. HOLDER C. KAVONIC F. LAWSON I. H. LEHRER J. F. MATHEWS W. E. OLBRICH I. G. PRINCE T. SRIDHAR C. TIU P. H. T. UHLHERR M. R. W. WALMSLEY RESEARCH AREAS: Gas-Solid Fluid i sation Brown Coal Hyd r ol i quefact i on Gas i f i cat i on Oxygen Removal, Flu i dised Bed Dry i ng Chemical Reaction Engineer i ng Gas Liqu i d Gas Solid Three Phase Heterogeneous Catalys i s Catalyst Design Transport Phenomena Heat and Mass Transfer, Transport Properties Extractive Metallurgy and M i neral Processing Rheology Suspens i ons Polymers Foods B i ochem i cal Eng i neering Cont i nuous Cu l ture Waste Treatment and Water Purif i cation Pulp and Paper Technology FOR FURTHER INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Studies Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University Clayton Victoria 3168 Australia Montana State University Montana State offers M.S. and Ph.D. degree programs in chemical engineering with research programs in Separations, Biotechnology, Catalysis, and Materials Science. Interdisciplinary research oppor tunities exist with the University's Institute for Chemical and Biological Process Analysis (IPA) and the new Center for the Synthesis and Characterization of Advanced Materials (SACAM). L BERG (Ph.D Pittsburgh ) Extractive Distillation W. G. CHARACKLIS, Adjunct Director IPA (Ph.D ., Johns Hopki ns) Microbial Engineering, Industrial Wat e r Quality M C. DEIBERT (Sc.D. MIT) Zr02 Catalysts, lntermetallic Compounds R. W. LARSEN (Ph.D., Penn State ) Biofilm Modeling, Continuous Chromatography J. F. MANDELL (Sc.D., MIT) Composites, Debonding F. P. McCANDLESS (Ph.D. MSU ) Membranes Extractive Crystallization R. L. NICKELSON ( Ph.D. Minnesota) Process Control T. SAIIlN (Ph.D ., MSU) Sulfided Catalysts Chemical Vapor Deposition W. P. SCARRAH (Ph D., MSU) Supercritical Extraction, Biomass Fuels J. T. SEARS Head (Ph.D., Princeton) Catalysts, Microbe Adsorption D. L. SHAFFER (Ph.D ., Penn State ) Biomass Fuels Ultrasonics lnfomwtion Dr J T. Sears, Head Department of Otemical Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, MT 59717 FAL L 19 88 3 09

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UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN: Bio-mass Conversion Reaction Kinetics Real-time Computing Computer-aided Process Design and Process Synthesis Polym er Engineering Separation Processes Surface Science Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Electrochemical Engineering For Application and Information: Chairman of Chemical Engineering 236 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0126 UNIVERSITY OF NEW BRUNSWICK Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.Eng., M.Sc., and Ph.D. Programs RE,EARCH Adsorption and Diffusion in 7.eolites Automatic Control Catalysis Combustion and Heat Transfer Fluid Dynamics Fluidization Non-Power Applications of Nuclear Technology Nuclear Reactor Engineering Power Plant Engineering Simulation Spray Technology Thermal Hydraulics Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry Transport Phenomena For further Information write to Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Brunswick P.O. Box 4400 Fredericton, N.B., CANADA E3B 5A4 FAQJLlY R. A. Chaplin (Queen's) M. Couturier (Queen's) R. Girard (McMaster) M. V. Goddard (UNB) E. M.A. Hussein (McMaster) D. Karman (UNB) D. D. Kristmanson (London) D. A. Meneley (London) C. Moreland (Birmingham) D. R. Morris (London) J. J.C. Picot (Minnesota) D. M. Ruthven (Cambridge) F. R. Steward (M. I. T.) 310 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FALL 1988 -The University of New Mexico H ANDERSON: microelectronics process technology; discharge and plasma science; laser /plasma interactions; ceramic powders; transport and kinetic modeling C. Y. CHENG: desalination, eutectic freezing; superpurifaction A. K DATYE: heterogeneous catalysis; structure and interfacial phenomena in VLSI devices; materials characterization by transmission electron microscopy D. KAUFFMAN: design; environmental engineering; safety analysis T. T. KODAS: Laser-enhanced CVD; aerosol physics R. W. MEAD: process analysis; hydrometallurgy, fossil energy. H. E. NUTTALL: radio-colloid transport; process control; geo-process modeling; fossil energy research D. M. SMITH: characterization of powders/porous media; colloidal processing of ceramics; transport phenomena in porous media E S. WILKINS: biomedical instrumentation; renewable energy sources. F. L. WILLIAMS: catalysis; shock enhanced reactivity of solids and vacuum technology For further information, write Graduate Secretary Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 Graduate study in (505) 277-5431 chemical engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Major energy research center: Biotechnology Computer Aided Design Food Processing Oil Recovery Financial assistance available Special programs for students with B S. degrees in other fields FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION : Department of Chemical Engi n eering P O Box 30001/New Mexico State U niversit y Las Cruces. New Mexi co 88003-0001 New Mexico Stale University is an Equal Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer. 311

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THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AREAS Aa>ustic Emissions of Chemical Reactions High Temperature Materials Air and Water Pollution Control Memtrane Technology Battery Research and Development Particle Technology Catalysis and Reactor Design Petroleum Engineering Characterisation and Optimization in Minerals Processing Polymer Science and Engineering Chemical Separations Particle Technology Com?,Jtational Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Process Control and Miaoprocessor Applications Computer Aided Design and Process Synthesis for Energy Conservation Pyrometallurgical Reactor Modelling Corrosion Solvent Extraction Electrochemistry Sp;mtaneous tlnition Phenomena Extractive Metallurgy Supercritical i::1uids Flow Phenomena in Mass Transfer Equipment Two-Phase Flc:,,v Fuel Technology Waste Processing Glass Technology THE DEPARTMENT This is the largest Chemical Engineering School in Australia, with 25 academic staff, over 400 undergraduates and about 80 postgraduates The School is well supplied with equipment and is supported by research grants from Government and Industry. The five main departments of Chemical Engineer ing, Industrial Chemistry, Petroleum Engineering, Fuel Technology and Poly mer Science offer course work and research work leading to M Sc M E. and Ph.D degrees. The breadth and depth of experience available leads to the production of well rounded graduates with excellent job potential. Interna tional recognition is only one of the many benefits of a degree from UNSW THE UNIVERSITY The University is the largest in Australia and is located between the centre of Sydney and the beaches The cosmopolitan city and the wide range of out door activities make life very pleasant for students, and people from America, Europe Africa and the East feel welcome from their first arrival. For further information concerning specific research areas, facilities, and financial assistancs, write to : Professor D L. Trimm School of Chemical Engineering & Industrial Chemistry University of New South Wales PO Box 1, Kensington, NSW 2033 Australia OREGON ST A TE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY 'J .,. W. J. Frederick, Jr. -Heat Transfer, Pulp and Paper J. G. Knudsen 0. Levenspiel K. L. Levien R. V. Mrazek R. Sproull C. E. Wicks Technology -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two-Phase Flow -Reador Design, Fluidization -Process Simulation and Control -Thermodynamics, Applied Mathematics -Biomass Conversion, Plant Design -Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment Our current programs reflect not only traditional chemical engineering fields but also new technologies important to the Northwest's industries, such as electronic de vice manufacturing, forest products, food science and ocean products. Oregon State is located only a short drive from the Pacific Ocean, white-water rivers and hiking / skiing / climbing in the Cascade Mountains. For further information write : Chemical Engineering Department Gleeson Hall, Room 103 Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2702 312 CHE MI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Princeton University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS Bioengineering; Catalysis ; Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering ; Plasma Processing; Colloidal Phenomena; Computer Aided Design; Nonlinear Dynamics ; Polymer Science; Process Control; Flow of Granular Media ; Rheology ; Statistical Mechanics; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria FACULTY Jay B. Benziger, Joseph L. Cecchi Pablo G. Debenedetti Christodoulas A. Floudas John K. Gillham, William W. Graessley, Roy Jackson, Steven F. Karel, Yannis G. Kevrekidis, Morton D. Kostin, Robert K Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld, William B Russel Chairman, Dudley A. Saville, Sankaran Sundaresan Write to : Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Inquiries can be addressed via Electronic Mail ove r BITNET to CHEGRAD@PUCC Qgeen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs J. Abbot PhD (McGill) D. W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H. A. Becker ScD (MIT) D. H. Bone PhD (London) S. H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R. H. Clark PhD (Imper ial College) R. K Code PhD (Cornell) A. J Daugulis PhD (Queen's) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) M. F. A. Goosen PhD (Toronto) E. W. Grandmaison PhD (Queen's) T. J Harris PhD (McMaster) C. C Hsu PhD (Texas) C. Kiparissides PhD (McMaster) B. W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) FALL 1988 Catalysis & Rea ction catalyst aging & decay cata l ytic oxidation & cracking gas adsorption in catalysis reaction network analysis Physical Proc essi ng dryforming technology drying of cereal grains turbulent mixing & flow B ioreactio n & Processing bioreactor modelling and design extrac ti ve fermentation fermentation using genetically e n gineered organisms uti Ii ization of biowastes control led release delivery systems P o lymer Eng ineeri ng Ziegler-Notto polymerization CAD/CAM of polymers porous polymer mic r oparticles Fuels and Energy Fischer-T ropsch synthesis fluidized bed combustion fuel alcohol production gas flames & furnaces petroleum reservoir engineering Proce ss Control & Simulation botch reactor control multivariable contro l systems non Ii near control systems on line optimization stotistica I identificat i on of process dynamics Write : Dr James C. C. Hsu Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's University Kingston Ontario Canada K7L 3N6 313

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314 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Biochemical Engineering Corrosion Crystallization Processes Energy Engineering CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Food Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer Metallurgy and Ceramics Mixing APPLICATIONS Multiphase Flow Phase Change Kinetics Separation Processes Surface Phenomena APPLY TO: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Applications for financial aid should be received not later than Feb. 16 OF TECHNOLOGY Research Areas Faculty Kinetics and Catalysis C. F. Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State Process Control Polymers Thermodynamics R. S. Artigue, D. E., Tulane W. W. Bowden, Ph.D., Purdue J. A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson Transport Phenomena S. C. Hite, Ph.D., Purdue Biomedical Transport and Control S. Leipziger, Ph.,D., I.I.T. N. E. Moore, Ph.D., Purdue For Information Write: Dr. Stuart Lelpzlger Dept. Graduate Advisor Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute, IN 47803-3999 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING University of Saskatchewan DEftAl'ITMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST N. N. Bakhshi W. J. O.Coursey M. N. Esmail G. Hill D. Macdonald D.-Y. Peng S. Rohani J. Postlethwaite C. A. Shook Fischer-Tropseh synthesis, Reaction Engineering Absorption with chemical reaction, Mass transfer Fluid mechanics, Applied Mathematics Petroleum Recovery, Numerical Modelling Biochemical Engineering Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbons and Petroleum Mixing with fast chemical reactions Mathematical Modelling Corrosion Engineering Transport Phenomena, Slurry Pipelines For Information, Write M. N. Esmail, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Sasketchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W0 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees For further information contact : Graduate Program Coordinator Chenical Engineering University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974.3997 FALL 1988 Faculty V. R. Bhethanabotla J.C. Busot S. W. Campbell L. H. Garcia-Rubio R. A. Gilbert W. E. Lee J. A. Llewellyn C. A. Smith A. K. Sunol Research Areas Applications of Artificial Intelligence Automatic Process Control Coal Liquefaction Computer Aided Process Engineering Computer Simulation Crystallization from Solution Electrolytic Solutions Food Science and Engineering Irreversible Thermodynamics Mathematic Modelling Membrane Transport Properties Molecular Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Physical Property Correlation Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Identification Process Monitoring and Analysis Sensors and Instrumentation Statistical Mechanics Supercritical Extraction Surface Analysis Thermodynamic Analysis of Living Systems 315

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY W. VICTOR CHANG (Ph.D Ch E., Caltech, 1976) Physical properties of polymers and composites ; adhesion ; finite element analysis JOE D. GODDARD (Ph.D., Ch E ., U C Berkeley 1962) Rheology continuum mechanics and transport propert i es of flu i ds and heterogeneous media FRANK J. LOCKHART (Ph D ., Ch E ., University of Michigan 1943) Distillation; air pollution; design of chemical plants (Emeritus) CORNELIUS J. PINGS RONALD SALOVEY (Ph.D., Phys Chem ., Harvard, 1958) Phys i cal chemistry and irradiation of polymers, characterization of elastomers and filled systems; polymer crystallization KA THERINE S SH/NG (Ph.D., Ch.E. Cornell University, 1982) Thermodynam ics and statistical mechanics ; super critical extract i on THEODORE T. TSOTSIS (Ph.D ., Ch.E. University of Illinois, Urbana, 1978) Chemical reaction engineering; process dynamics and control /AN A. WEBSTER Please write far further information about the program, financial su pport and appli cation farms ta : (Ph.D ., Ch.E., Caltech, 1955) Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and liquid state physics (Provost and Senior Vice President, Academic Affairs) (D.Sc ., Ch E. Massachusetts Inst. Tech 1984) Catalysis and react i on kinetics; transport phenom ena, chemical reaction engineering, surface spec troscopy biochemical engineering (Adjunct) M. SAHIMI Graduate Admissions (Ph.D ., Ch.E ., University of Minnesota 1984) Trans port and mechanical properties of disordered systems; percolation theory and non -e quilibrium growth processes; flow, diffusion, dispersion and reaction in porous media YAN/5 C. YORTSOS {Ph.D., Ch.E ., Caltech, 1978) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Southern California University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211 CHEMICAL Mathematical modeling on transport processes; flow in porous media and thermal oil recovery methods ENGINEERING at Stanford University 316 Stanford offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering, with a number of financially attractive fellowships and assistantships available to outstanding students. For further information and application forms, write to; Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305-5025 The closing date for applications is January 1, 1989 Faculty Michel Boudart (Ph.D., 1950, Princeton) Kinetics and Catalysis Curtis W. Frank (Ph.D., 1972, Illinois) Polymer Physics Gerald G. Fuller (Ph.D 1980, Cal Tech) Fluid Dynamics of Polymeric and Colloidal Liquids Alice P. Gast (Ph.D., 1984, Princeton ) Physics of Dispersed Systems George M. Homsy (Ph.D., 1969, Illinois) Fluid Mechanics and Stability Robert J. Madix (Ph D., 1964, U. Cal-Berkeley) Surface Reactivity Franklin M. Orr, Jr. (Ph.D., 1976, Minnesota) Enhanced Oil Recovery and Reservoir Engineering Professor of Petroleum Engineering and (by counesy) Chemical Engineering Channing R. Robertson (Ph.D., 1969, Stanford) Bioengineering John Ross (Ph.D., 1951, MIT) Chemical Instabilitie s Professor of Chemistry and (by counesy/ Chemical Eng i neering Douglass J. Wilde (Ph.D., 1960, U. Cal-Berkeley) Geometric Modelling and Optimization Professor of Mechanical Engineering and (by counesy) Chemical Engineering C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK D. A. Brutvan P Ehrlich RJ Good R. Gupta V.Havacek K. M. Kiser Cart R. F. Lund FACULTY E.Rudn Desg, end Economics F\Jid Mechanics Polymer Processing & Rheology Process Control Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surtace Phenomena Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment Academic programs f o r MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemical engineering fundamental s while preserving the flexibility needed to develop specia l areas o f intere s t. The Depart ment also draws on the strengths o f being part of a large a nd diverse university center Thi s environ ment s timulates interdisciplinary interactions in tea c hing and rese a r c h The new departmental facilities offer an exceptional opportunity f o r s tudents t o de ve lop their re s earch ski ll s and capabilitie s. The s e feature s, combined with yea r -round recreationa l activities affo rded by the Western New York country side and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo, make SUNY/Buffalo an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studies For Information and appllcatlons, write to: TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M E. FACULTY R N. FINCH, Chairman R I CHARD A. NEVILL Ph D ., University of Te xas, P E B. S., T exas A&I Unive rs ity, P.E Ncitnral Gn s Engin ee ring Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 Phase Equilibria and En vi ronm e ntal Engin eerin g F T AL-SAADOON Ph.D ., Univers i ty of Pittsburgh P E R ese r voir Engine e ring and Production P. W PRITCHETT Ph D Un i versity of D e lawa re P E P et roch emic al De ve l opment and Granu lar Solids C. RAI Texas A&I University is located in Tropical South Texas, 40 miles south of the Urban Center of Corpus Christi, and 30 miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. F. H DOTTERWEICH Ph.D John Hop kins Uni v ers i ty P .E. Di s tribution and Transmission W A. HEENAN D.Ch E., University of Detro it, P.E. Proc ess Control and Thermodynamics C. V MOONEY Ph D ., 1 llinois In stitute of T ec hnology P E R ese rvoir Engineering an d Gasification DALE L SCHRUBEN Ph.D. Carnegie M e llon Univ e rsity Tr ansport Ph e nom e na & P olymers R W SERTH M E. O klahoma Un iv ersity, P E Ph.D SUNY at Buffalo, P.E. P G as dMe ta:surement and Rh eo logy and Appl ied ro uc ion Math e matics RESEARCH and TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FALL 19 88 FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: W. A. HEENAN GRADUATE ADVISOR Department of Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering Texas A&I University Kingsville, Texas 78363 317

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318 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Earn a MS or PhD Degree with Research Opportunities in Biotechnology Environmental Control & Occupational Health Polymer Science & Technology Equations of State and VLE Process Control & Numerical Methods Multl-Phase Fluld Flow and Fluidlzatlon Energy Alternatlves Hazardous & Toxic Waste Studies Texas Tech Has An Established Record Of Supplying Engineers To Research And Process F i rms In The Sunbelt BECOME ONE OF THEM For information, brochure and application materials, write Dr. James B. Riggs, Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409-3121 THE UNIVERSITY OF GRADUATE STUDIES IN (}I CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. (Thesis and Non-Thesis) and Ph.D. Programs THE FACULTY MA.Abraham T.Ariman R. L. Cerro J.MHaile K. D. Luks Reaction kinetics, supercritical fluids Particulate science and technology mult i phase separation processes Capillary hydrodynamics unit operations, computer-aided design Statistical mechanics thermodynamics Thermodynamics, phase equilibria FURTHER INFORMATION F. S. Manning E. J. Mddlebrooks Y.T.Shah K. L. Sublette N. D. Sylvester R. E. Thorrpson K. D. Wisecarver Industrial pollution control, surface processing of petroleum Environmental engineering Reactor design, coal liquefaction, mass transfer Fermentation biocatalysis hazardous waste treatment Enhanced oil recovery environmental protection fluid mechanics, reaction engineering Oil and gas processing computer-aided process design Fluidization, bioreactor modeling, mass transfer and adsorption in porous solids If you would like additional information concering specific research areas facilities curriculum, and financial assistance contact the director of graduate programs The University of Tulsa, 600 South College Avenue, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (918) 631-2226 The University of Tulsa has an Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Program for students and employees C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ASPIRE TO NEWHEIGHTS T he L ni wrs ity oft t a h is the ol dest state-run un1v ers1ty \Vest o f the Mississippi River The L ni ve r s i ty is world-renowned ti,r r esearc h activitks in rnedi c in e. science and engineering. The graduate Chem i cal E ngin ee r i ng program o ff e rs a number of co llahorati ve. interdis cip lin ary re seard1 opport unitie s sy mphony a nd the a ter o rg anizat i ons. as well as a varie t y of live music. social clubs. restaurants and coffee h ouses General a re as of re sea rch: co n1hu sti< >11 cata ly sis p o lyrn e r science molecular modeling compute r -a id ed design hi otec hn o logy The L ni ve rsity is l oca ted in Sa lt Lake City the on l y metropolitan area in the coun try v hi c h is v ithin -i n1inutes of seven m ajor ski areas and within a days drive of 5 national p ar ks Enterrainm~nr in the city includes resident ballet n on-Newton ian fluid mechanic s fossil-fuels conversion minerals processing air pollution control For information, write: Director of Crad u a t e Stu dic~ Department (1fC h cmical Engi n eer ing 1 ni n rsity ofl call ~==Ei~~ Offers Graduate Study Leading To The M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY K. A. DEBELAK (Ph.D., Universfty of Kentucky) T. D. GIORGIO (Ph D., Rice Universfty) T. M. GODBOLD (Ph.D., North Carolina State University) K. A. OVERHOLSER (Ph.D., P.E., U. of Wisconsin, Madison) R. J. ROSELLI (Ph.D University of California, Berkeley) J. A. ROTH (Ph.D., P.E., University of Louisville) K B. SCHNELLE, JR. (Ph D., P.E., Carnegie-Mellon Univ.) R. D. TANNER (Ph.D., Case Western ReseNe University) FALL 1988 VANDERBILT Further Information : ENGINEERING ...... ...... DEPARTMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS Atmospheric Diffusion Analysis Biological Transport Processes Biomedical Appl i cations Chemical Process Simulation Coal Conversion Technology Coal Surface and Pore Structure Studies Enzyme Kinetics and Fermentation Processes Physical and Chemical Processes in Wastewater Treatment Kenneth A. Debelak, Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department Box 1700, Station B Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee 37235 319

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320 UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Virginia offers M.S. and Ph D. programs in Chemical Engineering Major research interests of the faculty are Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics-intermolecular association, physical properties of fluids, hindered diffusion. Transport processes and operations-heat and mass transfer, low Reynolds number and surface tension driven flow, crystalliza tion, fixed bed adsorption. Chemical reactor analysis and engineering Separations technology Chemical and energy technology-electrochemical processes, pollution control, catalysis, solar and alternative energy utilization. Biochemical technology and engineering-enzyme engineering, transport processes in biological systems, microbial processes. At "Mr. Jefferson's university," both teaching and research are emphasized in a physical environment of exceptional beauty. WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY 'Wayne State University For admission and financial aid information Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D. A. Crowl, PhD H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. Gulari, PhD R. H. Kummler PhD C B. Leffert, PhD C. W Manke, Jr PhD R. Marriott, PhD J H. McMicking, PhD R. Mickelson, PhD S.Ng,PhD E W. Rothe, PhD S Salley, PhD S. K. Stynes, PhD safety and loss prevention computer applications thermodynamics process design transport laser light scattering environmental engineering kinetics energy conversion heat transfer polymer engineering computer applications nuclear engineering process dynamics mass transfer polymer science combustion processes polymer science catalysis molecular beams analysis of experiments biosystems modelling kinetics multi-phase flows environmental engineering CONTACT: Dr Ralph H. Kummler, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Graduate study and research leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Research Areas Adsorption and diffusion in porous solids Biopolymers Bioseparations Catalytic properties of surfaces Chemical reactor modeling Coal and syngas technology Complex reaction kinetics Fermentation engineering and control Inorganic membranes Homogeneous catalysis Materials processing in space Zeolite synthesis and catalysis Faculty W. M. Clark (Rice) D. DiBiasio (Purdue) A. G. Dixon (Edinburgh) Y. H. Ma (M.I.T.) J. W. Meader (M.I.T.) W.R. Moser (M.I.T.) J. E. Rollings (Purdue) A. Sacco (M.I.T.) R. W. Thompson (Iowa State) A. H. Weiss (U. Penn.) qo\.'iTEc,.,,"' ~ e ~ "' c! "'occ:c\.i--1 WPI is located in central Massachusetts in New England's second largest city. Extensive cultural activities are available as well as easy access to the vast summer and winter recreational activities well known to the New England area. Attractive assistantships are available. Address inquiries to: Dr. Y. H. Ma, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 (617) 793-5250 UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING Chemical Engineering We offer exciting opportunities for research in many energy related areas. In recent years research has been conducted in the areas of kinetics and catalysis, adsorption, combustion, extraction, water and air pollution, computer modeling, coal liquefaction, and in-situ coal gasification. The University of Wyoming is located in sunny and dry Laramie (pop. 25,000), 25 miles from Colorado. Access to superb outdoor activities and to the Denver area is excellent. Graduates of any accredited chemical engineering program are eligible for admission, and the department offers both an M.S. and a Ph.D. program. Financial aid is available, and all recipients receive full fee waivers FALL 1988 For more informaJion contact: Dr. David 0. Cooney, Head Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Wyoming P.O. Box 3295 Laramie, Wyoming 82071-3295 Persons seeking admission, mploymenl or access lo pro grams of IM U ,uversity of Wyoming shall be considered wilhoul regard lo race color, national origin, sex, age, religion, polirical belief. handicap or veteran status. 321

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LL BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering MS W. E. KING, Jr., Chair (Ph.D., University of Pennsyl vania). Mathematical modeling of biomedical systems, applied mathematics. M. E. Hanyak, Jr (Ph.D., University of Penns ylv ania ). Computer aided design and instruction problem-or ie nted languages numerical analysis. F. W Koko, Jr. (Ph D. Lehigh Un ive rsit y) Optimization algorithms, fluid mechanics and rheolog y, direct digital control. J. M. Pommersheim ( Ph D. Univers i ty of Pittsburgh ). Catalyst d eac tivation reaction analysis, mathematical modeling and diffusion with reaction and phase change, cement hydration R E. Slonaker, Jr. ( Ph D ., Iowa State). Growth and properti es of single cry s tal s, high tempera tur e ca l o r ime tr y, vapo r liquid eq uili b ria in ternary sys tems W. J. Snyder ( Ph D ., Pennsyl va nia State Un ive r s it y) Catalysis, polymerization thermal analysis, dev el opm e nt of specific ion e l ec trodes micr o processors and instrum e ntation. Bucknell is a small, private, highly selective university with strong programs in engineering, busine;s and the liberal arts. The College of Engine e ring is located in the newly renovated Charles A Dana Engineering Building and operates a state-of the-art computer-aided engineering and design laboratory equipped with 22 Apollo super microcomputer workstations available to all engineering students In addition a DEC VA X 11 / 780 and PDP 11 / 44 minicomputers, and a Honeywell DPS 8 / C mainframe computer are a vai lable. Graduate students have a unique opportunity to work ve ry closely with a faculty research advisor Lewisburg located in th e center o f Penn sy lvania provides th e attraction of a rural setting while co n ven ientl y lo ca ted wi th in 200 miles of New York, Philadelphia Washington D. C., and Pitt s burgh For further information, write or phone: Dr. William E. King, Jr., Chair Department of Chemical Engineering Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 717-524-1114 _______ __, UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO L a k e Huron Lake Erie Canada's largest Chemical Engineering Department offers regular and co-opera tive M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-doctoral programs in: *Biochemical and Food Engineering Industrial Biotechnology *Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Reactor Design *Environmental and Pollution Control *Extractive and Process Metallurgy Polymer Science and Engineering *Mathematical Analysis, Statistics and Control *Transport Phenomena, Multiphase Flow, Petroleum Recovery *Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling, Microwave Heating Financial Aid: Minimum $12,000 per annum (research option) Academic Staff: G L. Rempel Ph.D.(UBC) Chair man; R. R. Hudgins, Ph D. (Princeton) Associate Chair man (Graduate); C. E Gall, Ph.D. (Minn ), Associate Chairman (Undergraduate); L. E. Bodnar, Ph.D. McMas ter) ; C. M. Burns, Ph.D. (Polytech. Inst. Brooklyn) ; J J. Byerley, Ph.D. (UBC); K. S. Chang, Ph.D (Northwestern); I. Chatzis, Ph.D (Waterloo) ; P. L. Douglas Ph.D (Waterloo); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph D (UBC); K. E. Enns Ph.D. (Toronto); T. Z Fahidy Ph D (Illinois); G. J Far quhar Ph D. (Wisconsin) ; J. D Ford, Ph D (Toronto); D. A Holden, Ph D (Toronto); R Y M. Huang, Ph.D. (Toronto) ; R. L. Legge, Ph D (Waterloo); I. F. Macdonald, Ph D (Wisconsin) ; M Moo-Young, Ph.D. (London); G. S. Mueller, Ph.D (Manchester); F. T. T Ng, Ph.D (UBC); K F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton) ; D C. T. Pei, Ph.D (McGill); A. Penlidis, Ph.D (McMaster); P. M Reilly, Ph D (London); C W. Robinson, Ph D. (Berkeley); A Rudin, Ph D .. (Northwestern) ; J. M. Scharer, Ph D (Pennsylvania); D. S Scott, Ph.D. (Illinois); P L. Silve ston, Dr Ing. (Munich) ; D R Spink Ph.D (Iowa State); G. R. Sullivan Ph D (Imperial College) ; J R Wynnyckyi, Ph D (Toronto) To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G 1

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I I THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Department of Chemical Engineering invites applications for graduate study from candidates who wish to proceed to the M Lng M.Eng. (Pulp & Paper) M A Sc. or Ph Li. degree For the latter two degrees, Assistantships or Fellowships are avail able. AREAS OF RESEARCH Air Pollution Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Coal, Natural Gas and Oil Processing Electrochemical Engineering Electrokinetic and Fouling Phenomena Fluid Dynamics Fluidization Heat Transfer Kinetics Liquid Extraction Magnetic Effects Mass Transfer Modelling and Optimization Particle Dynamics Process Dynamics Pulp & Paper Rheology Rotary Kilns Separation Processes Spouted Beds Sulphur Thermodynamics Water Pollution Inquiries should be addressed to: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1W5 UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON Graduate Study in Chemical and Materials Engineering Research assistantships (including competitive stipend and tuition) are available for students pursuing M S in Chemical Engineering or M S or Ph D in Materials Engineering in the following research areas : PROCESS MODELING EXPERT SYSTEM PROCESS CONTROL COMBUSTION SEPARATION PROCESSES COMPOSITE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS We specialize in offering each student an individualized program of study and research with most projects involving pertinent interaction with indus trial personnel. FALL 1988 For further information write to : Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Dayton 300 College Park Avenue Dayton Ohio 45469-0001 or call (513) 229-2627 t I The University pf Dayton 8/0ENGJNEERINGICHElrlCAL ENGINEERING AT CARNEGE MELLON Carr egie Mell n BIOPHYSICS OF CELLULAR PROCESSES : particle (cell) motion and adhesion; metabolic models; rheological prop erties of cells; dynamics of molecules in cytoplasmic struc ture of cells MICROCIRCULA TION: blood flow and transport in nor mal and tumor microcirculation; transcapillary exchange and interstitial transport in normal and tumor microcircula tion; interaction of blood cells and cancer cells with vasculature; membrane transport and hindered diffusion; retinal capillary changes in diabetes PHYSIOLOGICAL MODELING: pharmacokinetics; pul monary and circulatory models of transport processes; heat transfer; control mechanisms; biosensory perception; matabolic networks and transformation; modeling of the peripheral auditory system; animal models of diabetetes FOR GRADUATE APPUCAnDNS AND INFORMATION, WRITE TO CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Biomedical Engineering Program Graduate Admissions, DH 2313 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 ECOLE POL YTECHNIQUE AFFILIEE A L'UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Research assistantships are available in the following areas: RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING SOLAR ENGERY, ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY CONSERVATION FLUIDISATION AND REACTION KINETICS PROCESS CONTROL, SIMULATION AND DESIGN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY FILTRATION AND MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROFITEZ DE CETTE OCCASION POUR PARFAIRE VOS CONNAISSANCES DU FRANCAIS! VIVE LA DIFFERENCE!* *Some knowledge of the French language is required. For information, write to: Denis Rouleau Department du Genie Chimique Ecole Polytechnique C.P. 6079, Station A Montreal H3C 3A7, CANADA 323

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Florida Institute of Technology GRADUATE STUDIES Graduate Student Assistantships Available Includes Tax Free Tuition Remission M.S. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Faculty R. G. Barile P A Jennings J N. Linsley D R. Mason M.S. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Faculty T V Belanger F E. Dierberg H. H Heck P A Jennings N T Stephens FOR INFORMATION CONTACT Dr. N. T. Stephans, Head Chemical and Environmental Engineering Florida Institute of Technology 150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne, FL 32901-6988 ( 407) 768-8000: Ext. 8068 PhD/MS in Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY of NEW HAMPSHIRE Imagine an exciting education in a relaxed rural atmosphere. Imagine New Hampshire. We're lo cated in the Seacoast region only an hour from the White Mountains to the north or from Boston to the south. Current research projects at UNH: 324 BIOENGINEERING COAL PROCESSING COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING POLYMER ENGINEERING FLAME PROCESSING FLUIDIZATION SOLAR ENERGY SPACE APPLICATIONS For information contact Dr. SST Fan, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824-3591 University of Lowell College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering We offer professionally oriented chemical engineering education at the M.S. level. In addition we offer specializations in PAPER ENGINEERING COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS CONTROL ENGINEERING MATERIALS POLYMERIC MATERIALS BIOTECHNOLOGY Please call (508) 452-5000 (ex. 3024) or write for specifics to Dr. T. Vasilos Graduate Coordinator One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies PROGRAMS : The5 i s and non-thes i s options available for MS degree; substantial design component required for M.Engr program. A full time student with BSChE can complete pro gram in 9-12 months Students with degree in chemistry will require two calendar years to complete MS degree. RESEARCH PROJECTS: Most funded research projects are energy related with the full spectrum of basic to appl i ed projects available. Students participate in project-related thesis problems as project participants ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER : A cooperative program of study/ research with research projects related to low rank coal con version and ut i lization sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy and private industry is available to limited number of students. FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO : Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical EngineerinQ Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (701-777-4244) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering The Department has offered the M.Ch.E. for more than thirty years to both full-time and part-time em ployed students. You may select from over twenty graduate courses in Ch.E. (five offered each semester in a two-year cycle) plus more in other de partments. Thesis is available and encouraged, a concentration in process control is offered, and many environmental engineering courses are available The Department occupies excellent buildings on a pleasant campus in the western suburbs of Philadelphia. Computer facilities on campus and in the department are excellent. The most active research projects recently have been in heat transfer, process control, reverse osmo sis, and surface phenomena. Other topics are avail able. There is a full-time faculty of eight. Graduate assistantships are available. For more information, write C. Michael Kally, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085 WEST VIRGINIA TECH That's what we usually are called. Our full name is West Virginia Institute of Technology. We're in a small state full of friendly people, and we are small enough to keep your personal goals in mind. Our forte is high quality undergraduate instruction, but we are seeking high-grade students for our new graduate program for the M.S. If you are a superior student with an interest in helping us while we help you, we may have funding for you. Write : Dr. E. H. CRUM Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia Inst. of Technology Montgomery, WV 25136 Acknowledgement CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION acknowledges and thanks the 157 chemical engineering departments which contributed to our support in 1988 through their bulk subscriptions. We also wish to thank the 131 departments which have announced their graduate programs in this issue.

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Congratulations from Butterworths The Editor and Advisory Board of Butterworths Series in Chemical Engineering wish to congratulate Professor Daniel Rosner of Yale University, winner of the 1988 ASEE Meriam/Wiley Distinguished Author Award for his book TRANSPORT PROCESSES IN CHEMICALLY REACTING FLOW SYSTEMS ''A significant adz ance on all existing treatments of the general subject .A unique and inualuable contribution for e1 1 ery 1 one concerned with reacting flows." American Scientist "This book coz,ers an enormous amount of material in a predse, rigorous manner in 540 pages. Professor Rosner has u>ritten an imp01tant and useful book ... Chemical Engineering Progress Series Editor: Howard Brenner. _\1JT Advisory Editors: Andreas Acrivos, City College Manfred Morari Cal Tech Robert A. Prud'Homme, Princeton E. Bruce Nauman, RPI James E. Bailey, Cal Tech New Titles in the Butterworth Series in Chemical Engineering Chemical Process Equipment Selection & Design Stanley M. Walas 1988 776 pp S89.95 Viscous Flows Practical Use of Theory Stuart \X '. Churdtil 1988 62-1 pp 52 95 Granular Filtration of Aerosols and Hydrosols Chi Tien 1988 -116pp :52.50 Fundamental Process Control David Prett & Carlos Garcia 1988 26-1 pp s39 95 Physicochemical Hydrodynamics Ronald Probstein 1988 -100 pp 65 00 To order any of these titles or to request additional information. please "-Tite or call D Butterworths nn Marketing Department 80 Montvale Avenue Stoneham, MA 02180 617-438-8464 800-548-4001


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