Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Graduation: The beginning of your...
 Letter to the editor
 Impostors everywhere
 Reflections on teaching creati...
 Division activities
 Model predictive control
 Technical communications for graduate...
 Multivariable control methods
 Book reviews
 Topics in random media
 Book reviews
 Animal cell culture in microca...
 Letter to the editor
 Biochemical engineering
 In memoriam - Robert L. Pigfor...
 Thermodynamics and fluid prope...
 Chemical engineering and instructional...
 Chemical engineering education...
 Graduate education advertiseme...
 Back Cover

Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00100
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication: Storrs, Conn
Publication Date: Fall 1988
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00100

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Table of Contents
        Page 163
    Graduation: The beginning of your education
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Letter to the editor
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Impostors everywhere
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Reflections on teaching creativity
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Division activities
        Page 177
    Model predictive control
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Technical communications for graduate students
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Multivariable control methods
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Book reviews
        Page 191
    Topics in random media
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Book reviews
        Page 195
    Animal cell culture in microcapsules
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
    Letter to the editor
        Page 201
    Biochemical engineering
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    In memoriam - Robert L. Pigford
        Page 207
    Thermodynamics and fluid properties
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    Chemical engineering and instructional computing: Are they in step? (Part 2)
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    Chemical engineering education in Japan and the United States: A perspective (Part 2)
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    Graduate education advertisements
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

chemical engineering education



FALL 1988


Award Lecture *

Reflections on Teaching Creativity
James J. Christensen


Model Predictive Control
Technical Communications for Graduate Students
Multivariable Control Methods
Topics in Random Media
Biochemical Engineering



Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules
Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties


Impostors Everywhere FEIDER
Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the United States (Part 2) FLOYD
Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing(Part 2) SEIDER


Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education
J. L Duda






We wish to

acknowledge and thank...



...for supporting

with a donation of funds.

Editorial ...



As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate
school. In this issue, we attempt to assist you in finding answers.

Should you go to graduate school?

Through the papers in this special graduate
education issue, Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion invites you to consider graduate school as an
opportunity to further your professional develop-
ment. We believe that you will find that graduate
work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying
experience. We also feel that graduate study can
provide you with insurance against the increas-
ing danger of technical obsolescence. Further-
more, we believe that graduate research work un-
der the guidance of an inspiring and interested
faculty member will be important in your growth
toward confidence, independence, and maturity.

What is taught in graduate school?

In order to familiarize you with the content of
some of the areas of graduate chemical engineer-
ing, we are continuing the practice of featuring
articles on graduate courses as they are taught by
scholars at various universities. We strongly
suggest that you supplement your reading of this
issue by also reading the articles published in
previous years. (If your department chairman or
professors cannot supply you with the latter, we
would be pleased to do so at no charge.) These
articles are only intended to provide examples of
graduate course work. The professors who have
written them are by no means the only authorities
in those fields, nor are their departments the only
departments which emphasize that area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?

It is common for a student to broaden himself
by doing graduate work at an institution other
than the one from which he receives his bachelor's
degree. Fortunately there are many fine chemi-
cal engineering departments, and each of them
has its own "personality" with special emphases
and distinctive strengths. For example, in choos-
ing a graduate school you might first consider
which school is most suitable for your own future
plans to teach or to go into industry. If you have a
specific research project in mind, you might want
to attend a university which emphasizes that area
and where a prominent specialist is a member of
the faculty. On the other hand, if you are unsure of
your field of research, you might consider a de-
partment that has a large faculty with widely di-
versified interests so as to ensure for yourself a
wide choice of projects. Then again you might
prefer the atmosphere of a department with a
small enrollment of graduate students. In any
case, we suggest that you begin by writing the
schools that have provided information on their
graduate programs in the back of this issue. You
will probably also wish to seek advice from mem-
bers of the faculty at your own school.

But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that
you explore the possibility of continuing your
education in graduate school.


Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

FALL 1988

... 4. -

yo e kind of person who can take the
'I-- ,._ *(yotEethe kind of person who can take the
Mitiatte and aggressively reach for increasing
responsibility, consider a careerwith Rohm and
Sifas. We are a highly diversified major chemi-
Scal company producing over 2,500 products
used ti industry and agriculture. Because our
S si ployees are a critical Ingredient in our con-
tinuing success, we place great emphasis on
I:-;; tleir .-Alppment and growth. When you join
Rohm and Haas, you'll receive a position with
substantial initial responsibility and plenty of
Room for growth. And we'll provide the oppor-
tunities to acquire the necessary technical and
S rmanagerial skills to Insure your personal and
professional development. Our openings
: in FEngineering, Manufacturing, Research,
T echnicallSales and Finance. For more infor-
Iaatioh visit your College Placement Office,
or write: Rohm and Haas Company, Recruit-
I ig atfPlacement #786,Phila., PA 19105.

1IVL PI. PA 1S10

4'' t ..

.. "L .."



"' ,' *^
,, : .,

; : .- -ll*

An Eqtia/ Oppflw4yERflcBW8irF

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---- :



Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857

Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner

Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Richard Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology

Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley

Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Raymond Baddour
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York

Chemical Engineering Education


164 Graduation: The Beginning of Your Education,
J. L. Duda


169 Impostors Everywhere, Richard M. Felder


170 Reflections on Teaching Creativity,
James J. Christensen


178 Model Predictive Control,
Yaman Arkun, G. Charos, D. E. Reeves

184 Technical Communications for Graduate Students,
Daina M. Briedis

188 Multivariable Control Methods, Pradeep B. Deshpande

192 Topics in Random Media, Eduardo D. Glandt

202 Biochemical Engineering,
Terry K.-L. Ng, Jorge F. Gonzalez, Wei-Shou Hu


196 Animal Cell Culture in Microcapsules,
Mattheus F. A. Goosen

208 Thermodynamics and Fluid Properties,
Amyn S. Teja, Steven T. Schaeffer


212 Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing:
Are They In Step? (Part 2), Warren D. Seider

218 Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the
United States: A Perspective (Part 2); Sigmund Floyd

161 Editorial
166 Letterto the Editor
177 Division Activities
191,195 Book Reviews
201 Letter to the Editor
207 In Memoriam: Robert L. Pigford

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to E. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, FL 32028. Copyright
S1988 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.

FALL 1988

[Inl5 views and opinions


The Beginning of Your Education*

Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

MOST OF YOU participating in this conclave will be
graduating and going into industry in a few
months, and I felt that this was a good time to attempt
to describe the world you are about to enter. After
discussions with many friends and acquaintances in
different segments of the U.S. chemical and petro-
leum industries, I uncovered a consistent industrial
point of view which was somewhat of a surprise. It is
evident that:

The United States is in a war!
We don't realize it.
We are losing!

The natural response to this is, what war? One
reason we don't recognize the situation is because this
war is camouflaged. By war, I mean an aggressive
foreign policy for nationalistic goals. In the past, wars
were fought for territory. Today the war is for inter-
national markets, and all indicators show that the
U.S. is losing. We can see evidence of this in the trade
imbalance, the national debt, and the personal debt.
Even more ominous is the fact that more and more of
the U.S. resources, such as real estate, industrial
companies, and stocks and bonds are owned by for-
eigners. If this trend continues, historians will look
back and describe a country which hid in the bunkers
with their missiles, totally unaware that the enemy
was already behind the lines. The net result will be a
loss of territory by a technique that is quite different
from anything that man has previously experienced.
This war has many casualties. All one has to do is
travel through the Monongahela Valley and see the
unemployed steel workers and the deserted, run-
down steel mill towns. Or drive down the streets of
Detroit with its graffiti-covered buildings and un-
employed auto workers standing on street corners.
Or check out Manhattan, where white collar middle
*Presentation to the 1987 AIChE Mid-Atlantic Regional Conclave

managers have been forced into early retirement. All
of these victims are psychologically wounded and
many turn to alcoholism, gambling, violence, and
suicide. The statistics also show that abrupt changes
in employment reduce the life expectancy of individu-
But how does all this affect you? The fact is that
as graduating chemical engineers, you will be the
front line troops in this technological war. When we
look at the gamut of industrial activities covering basic
research, applied research, development, manufactur-
ing, technical marketing, and marketing, it is appar-
ent that we are still winning at the two extremes. Our
basic research is very strong, and this places us in the
forefront scientifically. At the other extreme, our
marketing techniques have become an art as expres-
sed in advertising, and here again, we rank among the
best in the world. However, we are losing the battle
in the central regions of applied research, develop-
ment, manufacturing, and technical marketing. These
are areas dominated by engineers and, consequently,
we are losing the war on the engineering front.
The military is completely impotent in this war.
Similarly, management and government can optimize
our ability to respond, but the final load will fall on

J. L. Duda is professor and head of the chemical engineering de-
partment at The Pennsylvania State University. He received his BS in
chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology and his MS and
PhD at the University of Delaware. He joined the staff at Penn State
in 1971 after eight years in research with the Dow Chemical Company.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


I lira


I '

How does all this affect you? The fact is that as graduating chemical engineers,
you will be the front line troops in this technological war. When we look at the gamut of industrial activities covering
basic research, applied research, development, manufacturing, technical marketing, and
marketing, it is apparent that we are still winning at the two extremes

the shoulders of our engineers. We must become bet-
ter at turning our scientific advantage into a technical
and industrial advantage. We must become better at
manufacturing quality goods at low cost. We must be-
come better at technical marketing where we can re-
spond to the technical needs of our industrial custom-
ers both here and overseas. The outcome of this war
will have more impact on your career than any other
external factor.
The papers are filled with the impact of this war
on the steel industry, the auto industry, and the high-
tech computer industry, but the chemical industry is
also in the heat of the battle. Twenty-five years ago,
when I entered the chemical industry, the U.S. mar-
ket and most of the international markets were domi-
nated by American companies. Industry was ex-
periencing steady growth. Competition existed, but
just enough to keep everyone on their toes, and com-
panies had the luxury of trying a few new things and
making some mistakes.
Today, all of the major chemical industries are in-
ternational. Not only is our share of the foreign mar-
ket down, but we are also experiencing a strong inva-
sion of the U.S. chemicals market. The Arabs and
other countries with low-cost fuel stocks are invading
the commodity market. Japanese and Europeans,
with backgrounds in high technology, are invading the
specialty chemicals market. The U.S. chemical indus-
try (our territory) is being bought out by foreign com-
panies, particularly the Germans and Japanese. The
industry is in a period of low growth and very stiff
competition. To survive, companies have to provide
high-quality products at a competitive price with ex-
tensive technical service and development for their
customers. Because of the instabilities in oil prices
and the value of the U.S. dollar, it is very difficult to
plan and there are renewed pressures for short-term
Engineering has always involved a lifetime of con-
tinuing education, but the world situation today calls
for even greater effort in this area. I feel you will
learn more in the next four years than you did in the
past four years. Unlike your previous education, most
of your continuing education will not take place in a
formal classroom setting. Many "A" students who are
very good at learning in a formal educational system
will have difficulty adjusting to self education through
work experience and interacting with individuals in

the work place. I have been able to identify six areas,
which I feel will dominate your continuing education.

Assimilating the Industrial Culture
The first thing you will have to learn is the culture
of the company and the industry you join. All institu-
tions have specific cultures and it is impossible to be
effective without working within that culture. Unfor-
tunately, the culture is something that everyone in
the institution is aware of, but no one ever explicitly
states or formulates. It has to be assimilated by in-
teractions with the people in that culture. It has al-
ways been difficult for students to learn the culture of
industry, but it is even more difficult today because
the culture of many companies is changing in response
to the war for international markets.

Defining Problems
Up to this point in your education, the emphasis
has been on solving problems that have been explicitly
presented to you. In industry, you will discover that
the biggest problem is determining the nature of the
problem. Compared to defining the real problem, the
solution is often trivial.

Learning Through Mistakes
To be creative and innovative, you will have to be
able to adjust to failing and learning from your mis-
takes. This is a difficult transition for many serious
students who have achieved high grade point aver-
ages. They are not used to traveling over uncharted
territory. But the great chemical engineers are those
who weren't afraid of failure if they felt it would even-
tually bring success with a unique innovation.

You will have to learn how to communicate and
realize that the communication of the solution of a
problem is in many cases more important than the
actual function of solving the problem. Communication
becomes paramount. During my eight years in indus-
try, I did not see one engineer fail because of incompe-
tence on the technical plane. However, I did see many
very bright engineers lose their jobs because they
could not communicate.

FALL 1988

Travelling Over Unfamiliar Areas

You will have to learn to enter many areas which
are now foreign to you. Some of these areas will be
technical areas such as electronics, biotechnology, ma-
terials, etc. However, many other areas, such as busi-
ness accounting, management, psychology, communi-
cations, etc., will be totally unrelated to your technical
background. You'll have to use a combination of for-
mal and self-education to make the transition into
these new areas. Successful engineers indicate that
after a few months of self-education, they can move
into any new area, interact with experts in the area,
and make contributions to the area.

Decision Making

You will have to learn to make decisions with a
limited amount of information. It will often be neces-
sary to make a decision on the basis of knowledge
sufficient for action but insufficient to satisfy the intel-
lect. This is quite different from solving problems on
an examination where you have all the required infor-


Up to this point, my presentation has been rather
pessimistic and you may feel overwhelmed by the
challenges that you are going to face. There is a posi-
tive side to the picture, however. For one thing, the
United States is the best-equipped nation to survive
this war because we know the terrain and we essen-
tially started the war. When the movement of the in-
dustrial revolution came together with the movement
for individual freedom in the United States, the result
was a system which other countries would emulate.
Our main opponents in this war are not the countries
who have different systems of government, such as
the Russians, but the countries who have copied our
There is another very optimistic aspect concerning
this war. All previous wars were zero sum wars. If
one country gained territory, someone had to lose ter-
ritory. But this war is different and everyone could
win to some degree. If the United States continues to
lead in science and engineering, this engine could drag
the rest of the world to a higher standard of living.
Finally, a chemical engineering education is the
best preparation for survival and success. As Carl
Gerstacker said when he was CEO of Dow Chemical:
"A chemical engineering education is the best educa-
tion for whatever you want to do in life, and particu-
larly if you do not know what you want to do." In

many ways, the chemical engineering degree is the
liberal arts degree of the technological age. The
reasons for this are very basic to the chemical en-
gineering curriculum. You have learned fundamentals
that have broad applicability. You have been taught
to think and solve technical problems and the same
techniques can be used in all areas of human endeavor,
and should be, since the aim of a true chemical en-
gineering education is to teach people to continue to
learn. Your professors have given you the basic train-
ing required to win this war, but some skills can only
be learned in the heat of battle. O

I s letters


Dear Editor:

I have enclosed an item for inclusion in your "Letters"
section. I am suggesting that an explanatory note be
added in Chapter 8 of Modell and Reid. Note that I have
already corresponded with Bob Reid about this and he
has agreed with my suggestion.
I would appreciate your publishing this in a
forthcoming issue.

Comment on
Thermodynamics and Its Applications
Among the pleasures of using Thermodynamics and Its
Applications by Modell and Reid (1983) is the precise, logical
way with which the subject is developed and the corresponding
traceability of any given result to first principles. For the dis-
cerning reader, operations are explained in sufficient detail to
avoid having to puzzle over results and having to reconstitute
missing steps. I have found one instance, however, where an
additional note of explanation might be helpful.
The book bases its development on fundamental equations
and shows early on the important role played by the Legendre
transform in providing a link among the various fundamen-
tal forms. Coupling these forms to specific state equations (the
Peng-Robinson is the equation of choice in the book) is done in
terms of departure functions, both for pure fluids (Chapter 7)
and for mixtures (Chapter 8).
Understandably, the analysis begins in both cases with the
Helmholtz energy. Differentiating the pure-fluid expression
(Eq. 7-81) with respect to temperature yields the entropy depar-
ture function, but not without an interesting aside that the
authors perceptively highlight in a footnote. The operation in
question (expressed intensively) is

[A(T, V) -A(T, V)]
3T v

= f (P RTadV + RFU In (1)
and its well known result follows:

s(T,V)-S (T, V )- [(P- )d] -R In V (2)


The footnote on page 155 calls attention to the fact that
differentiation at constant molar volume implies a change in
the intensive state. Since this variation forces the hypothetical
reference condition A0(T,V0 = RT/P) to change as well, this
latter variation must be accounted for in the result. Expressing
the differential of the reference condition

dA= S d PdV
the variation is seen to be


=-S -P

The second term on the right, however, is exactly canceled by a
term resulting from the differentiation in Eq. 1,

-a[RT In Vo] =R n Vo+P( aV
vT v KT

and to the less-than-careful reader, the scenario is invisible
from Eq. 2.
A similar situation arises in Chapter 8 where the
Helmholtz energy (Eq. 8-130, now in extensive form to permit
mole-number operations) is differentiated to yield the differ-
ence in chemical potential and, ultimately, an equation-of-




Texts from


state-based expression for the fugacity coefficient. The proce-
dure is

p_ [ JdV+NRTln-n (3)

N= XNk

Once again, the differentiation constraints imply that
when N is varsignified there will mole a change in the intensive are state
of the mixture intermediate d a corresultsponding movementerms of the referencemical
conditials) is
0 0
9,v9 _LdV+RTlnL (4)
N 1 [1)
Once again, the differentiation constraints imply that
when Ni is varied there will be a change in the intensive state
of the mixture and a corresponding movement of the reference

A (T,V = NRT/P, N1, N2, ...,Nn)
Continued on page 169.

Stanley I. Sander, The University of Delaware
0-471-83050-X, 656pp., Cloth, AvailableJanuary 1989
A fully revised new edition of the well received sophomore/junior level thermo-
dynamics text, now incorporating microcomputer programs.

Dale E. Seborg, University of California, Santa Barbara,
Thomas R. Edgar, University of Texas, Austin,
and Duncan A. Mellichamp, University of California,
Santa Barbara
0-471-86389-0, 840pp., Cloth, Available February 1989
A balanced, in-depth treatment of the central issues in process control, including
numerous worked examples and exercises.

Contact your local Wiley representative or write on your school's stationery to
Angelica DiDia, Dept 9-0264,John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York,
NY 10158. Please include your name, the name of your course and its enrollment,
and the title of your current text IN CANADA- write toJohn Wiley & Sons Canada
Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario, M9W IL.

605 Third Avenue
WILEY New York, NY10158 sakm

FALL 1988


Felder's Filosophy ..


EDITOR'S NOTE: This paper introduces a new column
in CEE- an expression of opinion by a frequent contributor
to CEE. The column will supplement our regular "Views and
Opinions" department.

North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7905

HE KNOCKS ON my office door, scans the room to
make sure no one else is with me, and nervously
approaches my desk. I ignore the symptoms of crisis
and greet him jauntily.
"Hi, Don-what's up?
"It's the test tomorrow, Dr. Felder. Um ... could
you tell me how many problems are on it?"
"I don't see how it could help you to know, but
"Oh. Uh ... will it be open book?"
"Yes-like every other test you've taken from me
during the last three years."
"Oh . well, are we responsible for the plug flow
reactor energy balance?"
"No, it happened before you were born. Look,
Don, we can go on with this game later but first how
about sitting down and telling me what's going on.
You look petrified."
"To tell you the truth, sir, I just don't get what
we've been doing since the last test and I'm afraid I'm
going to fail this one."
"I see. Don, what's your GPA?"
"About 3.6, I guess, but this term will probably
knock it down to .. ."
"What's your average on the first two kinetics

Richard M. Fielder is a professor of ChE at
N.C. State, where he has been since 1969. He
received his BChE at City College of C.U.N.Y. and
hs PhD from Princeton. He has worked at the
A.E.R.E., Harwell, and Brookhaven National
Laboratory, and has presented courses on
chemical engineering principles, reactor design,
process optimization, and radioisotope
applications to various American and foreign
industries and institutions. He is coauthor of the
text Elementary Principles of Chemical
Processes (Wiley, 1986).

"And you really believe you're going to fail the
test tomorrow?"
"Uh ... ."
Unfortunately, on some level he really does believe
it. Logically he knows he is one of the top students in
the department and if he gets a 60 on the test the class
average will probably be in the 30's, but he is not
operating on logic right now. What is he doing?
The pop psychology literature calls it the impostor
phenomenon [1]. The subliminal tape that plays end-
lessly in Don's head goes like this:

I don't belong here ... I'm clever and hard-working enough
to have faked them out all these years and they all think I'm
great but I know better . and one of these days they're going
to catch on . they'll ask the right question and find out
that I really don't understand ... and then .. and then....

The tape recycles at this point, because the conse-
quences of them (teachers, classmates, friends, par-
ents, . ) figuring out that you are a fraud are too
awful to contemplate.
I have no data on how common this phenomenon
is among engineering students, but when I speak
about it in classes and seminars and get to ". . and
they all think I'm great but I know better," the audi-
ence resonates like a plucked guitar string-students
laugh nervously, nod their heads, turn to check out
their neighbors' reactions. My guess is that most of
them believe deep down that those around them may
belong there but they themselves do not.
They are generally wrong. Most of them do be-
long-they will pass the courses and go on to become
competent and sometimes outstanding engineers. But
the agony they experience before tests and whenever
they are publicly questioned takes a severe toll along
the way. Sometimes the toll is too high: even though
they have the ability and interest to succeed in en-
gineering, they cannot stand the pressure and either
change majors or drop out of school.
It seems obvious that someone who has ac-
complished something must have had the ability to do
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


so (more concisely, you cannot do what you cannot
do). If students have passed courses in chemistry,
physics, calculus, and stoichiometry without cheating,
they clearly had the talent to pass them. So where did
they get the idea that their high achievements so far
(and getting through the freshman engineering cur-
riculum is indeed a high achievement) are somehow
fraudulent? Asking this gets us into psychological wat-
ers that I have neither the space nor the credentials
to navigate; suffice it to say that if you are human you
are subject to self-doubts, and chemical engineering
students are human.
What can we do for these self-labeled impostors?

Mention the impostor phenomenon in classes
and individual conferences and encourage the
students to talk to one another about it.

There is security in numbers: students will be re-
lieved to learn that those around them-including that
hotshot in the first row with the straight-A average-
have the same self-doubts.

Remind students that their abilities-real or
otherwise-have sustained them for years and
are not likely to desert them in the next twenty-
four hours.

They won't believe it just because you said so, of
course-those self-doubts took years to build up and
will not go away that easily. But the message may get
through if it is given repeatedly. The reassurance
must be gentle and positive, however; it can be helpful
to remind students that they have gone through the
same ritual of fear before and will probably do as well
now as they did then, but suggesting that it is idiotic
for a straight-A student to worry about a test will
probably do more harm than good.

Point out to students that while grades may be
important, the grade they get on a particular
test or even in a particular course is not that
crucial to their future welfare and happiness.

They will be even less inclined to believe this one
but you can make a case for it. One bad quiz grade
rarely changes the course grade, and even if the worst
happens, a shift of one letter grade changes the final
overall GPA by about 0.02. No doors are closed to a
student with a 2.84 GPA that would be open if the
GPA were 2.86. (You may not think too much of this
argument but I have seen it carry weight with a
number of panicky students.)

Make students aware that they can switch
majors without losing face.

It is no secret that many students enter our field
for questionable reasons-high starting salaries, their
fathers wanted them to be engineers, their friends all
went into engineering, and so on. If they can be per-
suaded that they do not have to be chemical engineers
(again, periodic repetition of the message is usually
necessary), the consequent lowering of pressure can
go a long way toward raising their internal comfort
level, whether they stay in chemical engineering or go
somewhere else.
Caution, however. Students in the grip of panic
about their own competence or self-worth should be
deterred from making serious decisions (whether
about switching curricula or anything else) until they
have had a chance to collect themselves with the as-
sistance of a trained counselor.

One final word. When I refer at seminars to feeling
like an impostor among one's peers, besides the reso-
nant responses I get from students I usually pick up
some pretty strong vibrations from the row where the
faculty is sitting. That's another column.

1. Pauline R. Clance, Impostor Phenomenon: Overcoming the
Fear that Haunts Your Success, Peachtree Pubs., 1985. E

Continued from page 167.

The differential of this quantity is
o 0 0 0
dA = dT PdY + X k dNk
and the variation in question is


T. .N[1 i ]

So av
=.N -I (

By analogy with the previous case, the second term on the
right is canceled by differentiation of the NRT In V0 term in
Eq. 3 and is accordingly absent from Eq. 4. The fact that this
cancellation has taken place is not apparent from the
expression appearing at the top of page 204, and a note to this
effect may help students follow the development.
Literature Cited: Modell, M., and R. C. Reid,
Thermodynamics and Its Applications (2nd ed.),
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1983).

Kenneth Jolls
Iowa State University

FALL 1988

Award Lecture ...


Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602

I would like to express appreciation to the 3M
Company and members of the selection committee, to
my family, and to all of those others who were in-
volved in my nomination. I was extremely surprised
and pleased at being chosen for this honor and award.
However, I was totally unprepared for this selection
and it surprised me for two reasons: I had never con-
sidered myself a candidate for this prestigious award,
and the nominators did their work very carefully and
The 3M Lectureship Award is given to recognize
and encourage outstanding achievement in an impor-
tant field of fundamental chemical engineering theory
or practice. As I thought about this talk, I considered
such titles as 'The Joy of Calorimetry' and 'What You
Always Wanted to Know About Thermochemistry
But Were Afraid to Ask.' Rather than speak on my
research area, I chose instead to speak about teaching
creativity. I chose this topic for several reasons:

* I am not an expert in the field, so I can speak on
the subject without limit and without fear.
* This talk is given at the summer school for a broad
chemical engineering audience which is mainly con-
cerned with educating chemical engineers.
* Current times find our profession in a state of
change. This includes the application of chemical en-
gineering principles into new areas of processing as
well as the molding of curricula as we decide what
relevant classes are to be taught. I think that
creativity bears on both of these areas.

I have had experience over the past 20 years in
teaching a class on creativity. This is a class taught at

*This paper was prepared, using Dr. Christensen's notes, by Dee
H. Barker, Professor Emeritus, and Richard L. Rowley, Associate
Professor, Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University.

. the single greatest hurdle to teaching
creativity is the widely held idea that [it] cannot be
taught.... There are many who argue that the ability
to create is largely gene-dominated, and that you
cannot therefore teach creativity . Still others
argue that the creative process is primarily
a function of external experiences.

the Master's degree level, but it includes under-
graduate as well as graduate students. I have also
taught several short courses (day-and-a-half) on
creativity in industry. I would emphasize that neither
the class nor the short course is on creative problem
solving, but more of an expos on creativity as out-
lined by Robert C. Reid of MIT (CEP, June 1981).
That article deals with the definition of creativity, the
value of being creative, an examination of the creative
process, and the problems of being creative. On the
other hand, a recent article by Richard M. Felder of
North Carolina State (Eng. Ed., Jan. 1987) discusses
the education of creative engineers by focusing on
exercises in problem solving, quizzes, and tests. In
this lecture, I have reflected on my experiences and
tried to distill out the main ideas and concepts con-
cerning teaching creativity. In other words, I will
focus on the essence of my experiences in this area.

I have found that the single greatest hurdle to
teaching creativity is the widely held idea that creativ-
ity cannot be taught. Can creativity be taught? There
are many who argue that the ability to create is
largely gene-dominated, and that you cannot there-
fore teach creativity. You may be able to teach some
tricks and methodology, but you cannot affect the
basic capability. Still others argue that the creative
process is primarily a function of external experi-
To better examine this question, we need to look
at the ways in which the brain is thought to work.

0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


Many think that the brain is dominated by heredity
or genes. They argue that we have fixed "outlets" in
our minds and that we are creative only to the extent
that we are "plugged in" or can make the right connec-
tions. That is, we are all "idiot savants" to one degree
or another. We can be very bright in one area but
totally disconnected in others. The best we can do is
simulate or encourage inherent abilities. This
philosophy is questioned by many people. Arguments
on both sides include:

Everything else can be taught (e.g., physics and art), but
not creativity.

All fields have their natural geniuses ( e.g., Einstein and
Van Gogh), but we still believe that we can teach these
areas to others.

There are creative geniuses ( e.g., Edison, Tesla, and Stein-
metz), but creativity is mystical and cannot be taught to

My personal view is intermediate between the
gene-dominated and the teachable positions. I believe
that it can be taught to some extent, but perhaps it is
better to say creativity can be enhanced. Some exam-
ples from my own experience may serve to illustrate

A recent poll of chemical engineering graduates re-
quested a ranking of what they found of value in their
educational experience at Brigham Young University.
Creativity ranked very high, with thirty-nine responses

indicating that it was valuable. Evidently something
was taught.

* One of the exercises in class is to identify as many uses
of a common object as possible. One student took this
principle to heart in his research. He was trying to
figure out a way to collect samples from a coal combus-
tion unit, but the samples were very fine grains that
needed to be weighed. He came to me and said,
"Creativity really works! I thought of all the different
common things that could be used and finally decided
to use a condom as a collector. He put the condom on
the sample port and finally weighed the collector and
contents. Now that's being creative! He was not the
only one to make the connection between a prophylac-
tic device and separations. An article in the Journal of
Sedimentary Petrology (Vol. 44, No. 1) entitled
"Prophylactic Separation of Heavy Minerals," had the
following abstract: "A method is proposed for separa-
tion of heavy minerals that eliminates the need for dry
ice or liquefied gas in mineral recovery. The technique
consists of using a rubber contraceptive device inserted
in a cyndrical tube. The technique is rapid and inexpen-
sive." The authors were glad that in Oklahoma, their
home state, prophylactic devices were available
through the health department. They were not sure
how their purchasing department would have reacted
to the purchase of eight gross of condoms.

* Utilizing the principles that I have been teaching in
creativity has been a great help in designing the
calorimeters in our laboratory. As I run into a problem,
I employ the principles taught in that course and am
amazed at the varied solutions that can be obtained.

* I have demonstrated many times that the best way to
enhance creativity is to have more ideas. If ten ideas

The ASEE Chemi-
cal Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer for 1987 is
James J. Christensen of
Brigham Young Univer-
sity. Professor Christ-
ensen died shortly after
presenting his Award
Lecture (see page 72 of --
the spring 1988 issue of
CEE). We are grateful j
to Professors Dee H.
Barker and Richard L.
Rowley of Brigham Young University for recreating
this Award Lecture from Dr. Christensen's notes and
submitting it to CEE for publication. The 3M Com-
pany provides financial support for this annual lec-
tureship award.
James Christensen earned his BS and his MS
from the University of Utah, both in chemical en-

gineering, and his PhD from Carnegie-Mellon Uni-
versity (1958), doing work in the fields of heat transfer
and fluid flow. He joined the faculty at Brigham
Young University in 1957 and served as chairman of
the chemical engineering department from 1959-1961.
His primary research interests were in the fields
of coordination chemistry, thermodynamics, and
calorimetry. These interests led him into such varied
areas as calorimeter design, thermodynamics of pro-
ton ionization and metal-ligand interactions, metal-
macrocycle interactions, facilitated transport of met-
als through membranes, prediction of vapor-liquid
equilibria from heats of mixing, and measuring heats
of mixing and heats of absorption.
Dr. Christensen won numerous university and na-
tional awards for his teaching and research, and has
held a number of national and regional committee
posts in technical societies. He was a member of a
number of honorary professional societies and was
listed in many national and international biographi-
cal references.

FALL 1988

Creativity is difficult to define. It is much like trying to define pornography-it's hard to define, but
you know it when you see it. However, it is also like pornography in that everyone has a different idea of what
it is. Creativity can be recognized when it is seen.

give one creative idea, then twenty ideas will give two
creative ideas. What we need are more ideas, whether
bad or good, in order to find the good ones.

Creativity is difficult to define. It is much like try-
ing to define pornography-it's hard to define, but
you know it when you see it. However, it is also like
pornography in that everyone has a different idea of
what it is. Creativity can be recognized when it is
seen. For example, Utah is the second driest state in
the United States, but in recent years heavy spring
rains and high snow-melt created a flooding problem
in Salt Lake, with water flowing down one of the main
streets. The University of Utah capitalized on this in
an advertisement for graduate students showing sand-
bagged river-streets. The title of the advertisement
said, "Fluid Mechanics in Utah?" and added, "We can't
promise the spectacular attractions you may have
seen on TV. But we can assure you that other in-
teresting experiments are going on. Some are con-
ducted by graduate students in Chemical Engineering
in the University of Utah and some make a big splash
of their own."
The problem with definitions is that they never
really match the particular cases. Consider this 1922
definition of chemical engineering, taken from the
British Institute of Chemical Engineering inaugural

FIGURE 1. Schroder's reversible staircase

meeting in 1922: "A chemical engineer is a professional
man, experienced in design, construction, and opera-
tion of plants in which materials undergo chemical or
physical change." Only two years later, A. Duckham,
in his Presidential Address to the same society, admit-
ted, "We have come to the conclusion that a chemical
engineer, as such, does not really exist."
In general, creativity is seen to be a joining to-
gether of two or more concepts, etc., to produce a new
idea ur useful product. A synthesis to get something
new and useful.

If it is agreed that creativity can be taught, and
we know what creativity is, let us examine some of
the major ideas or concepts involved in teaching
1. The first concept has already been mentioned-
that is, have more ideas. Too often we are concerned
about what others may think of our ideas, and so we
do not allow them to blossom nor do we express them
until we are sure that they are good ideas. Being crea-
tive means having more ideas. Some may be bad, but
the total number of good ones will also go up. You will
be surprised at how many successful ideas result from
ideas which may at first appear dumb.
2. Develop an ability to see or observe things in
different ways. The Roman goddess Janus is the pa-
tron saint of this concept. Janus had two faces, en-
abling her to see things from two different perspec-
tives. An example of this is Figure 1, Schroder's re-
versible staircase. It can be seen to either go up or go
down, depending on your point of view. Another
example is shown in Figure 2. An engineer and an art
student were asked to complete the figures shown in
(a). As you can see from (b) and (c), the art student
had much more imagination and creativity than the
engineer. Part of the reason for this will be discussed
later in this paper, but the artist was not limited to a
quick closure of the figures; he saw them as part of a
bigger picture.
3. Defer judgement of ideas until they can be tried,
tested, analyzed, and viewed in relationship to other
ideas and concepts. We might call this the "deferment-
of-judgement" principle. Frederick Sheeler had this


to say when a friend complained about not being crea-
tive enough:

The reason for your complaint lies, it seems to me, in the
constraint which your intellect imposes upon your imagina-
tion. Here I will make an observation and illustrate it by an
allegory. Apparently it is not good-and indeed it hinders the
creative work of the mind-if the intellect examines too
closely the ideas already pouring in, as it were, at the gates.

II -

Ll z

3C >


40 1

8 0- >

E 8


a) Original

b) Engineer

c) Artist

Regarded in isolation, an idea may be quite insignificant and
venturesome in the extreme; but it may acquire importance
from an idea which follows it. In the case of a creative mind,
it seems to me, the intellect has withdrawn its watchers from
the gates, and the ideas rush in pell-mell, and only then does
it review and inspect the multitude. You reject too soon and
discriminate too severely.

This principal is the basis of the "brainstorming"
method developed by Alex Osborne, of "Synectics,"
developed by Gordon N. Prince, and of "lateral think-
ing" by DeBono. In these concepts we lay out all our
ideas, no matter how irrational they may seem. We
try to think of as many possible ways of accomplishing
the goal as possible, and only then do we begin to pass
judgement on them and begin to analyze the pros and
cons of each.
4. Students in engineering are often too quick to
pounce on a solution. They are so glad to finally ob-
tain a solution, any solution, that they never look back
for alternatives.
5. There are also creative inhibitors that must be
guarded against and eliminated. These roadblocks to
creativity often fall into two categories: habits and
mental blocks. Let us look at examples of some mental
blocks that limit our creative thinking:

An example is shown in Figure 3, which is the solution to
the traditional nine dot problem. The task is very simple-
connect all nine dots with four straight lines without lift-
ing your pencil from the surface. The block arises from the
fact that people think that they have to stay within the
bounds of the nine dots. Once you have seen an example
of a solution that breaks the artificial boundaries we im-


FALL 1988

Too often we are concerned about what others may think of our ideas, and so we do not allow them to
blossom nor do we express them until we are sure that they are good ideas. Being creative means having more
ideas. Some may be bad, but the total number of good ones will also go up. You will be surprised
at how many successful ideas result from ideas which may at first appear dumb.

pose on ourselves, many more ideas and solutions flow. In
fact, we can think of many solutions that use even fewer
than four lines: three lines that are angled slightly, one
line on the surface rolled on a cylinder, etc.
Another example of a cultural block is the story of Abdul
in the boat with his child, his wife, and his mother, and he
is asked if the boat were sinking which would he save? This
posed no problem for Abdul, since in his culture the mother
was the most revered. Abdul responded, "One can always
get another wife and another child, but never another
Another example of perceptual blocks is shown in Figure
4. The problem is to add one line to the Roman numeral
XI so that it is changed to the number X. Figure 4 lists
several ways in which this can be done. This block is a
constraint of expected or implied results assumed from the
way the problem is worded or phrased.
6. There are also helps that can be used to enhance
You can develop a check-list of sets of questions. A sample
list of questions is shown in Table 1. One recent example
of minifying is Burger King's mini-cheeseburgers sold in
sets of four. The technique of reversing and rearranging is
illustrated in the following newspaper clipping:
DRAINAGE. Use of phosphate rock before lime neu-
tralization step in treating contaminated waters re-
duces sludge handling problem, aids iron removal. A
quartet of scientists from Wright State University, Day-
ton, Ohio, has turned a sewage treatment technique up-
side down and developed a new process for treating
stream waters contaminated by acid mine drainage. Or-
dinary phosphate rock is a major ingredient in the
method. According to the Dayton team, treatment with
phosphate before lime neutralization greatly reduces
the sludge handling problem and also is more effective
in removing iron.
Superconductors also came into being through a combina-
tion, substitution, and reversal process. Drs. Miller and
Bednort reversed conventional wisdom by testing sub-
stances so electron-poor that they normally do not conduct
at all.
You can use triggers to help get outside of the mental block
and try to analyze from a more objective viewpoint. One
such trigger is to ask, "How does nature do it?" In 1876, in
Nevada, the ground-structure and over-burden was such
that mine cave-ins were a serious problem. Someone con-
ceived the idea of putting the shoring in cells like a bee's
honeycomb, and this resulted in a successful ability to
mine the structure. Other triggers are shown in Table 2.

7. Looking at examples of successfully creative in-
dividuals and their characteristics helps our own
creativity. Consider, for example, the following suc-
cess stories:
Al Kuwait and Carl Courrier needed to raise a sunken
treasure ship intact. They discovered that Donald Duck










tuX I






Questions as Spurs to Ideation

New ways to use as is? Other uses if modified?

What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest?
Does past offer a parallel? What could I copy? Whom could
I emulate?

New twist? Change meaning, color, motion, sound, odor,
form, shape? Other changes?

What to add? More time? Greater frequency? Stronger?
Higher? Longer? Thicker? Extra value? Plus ingredient?
Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate?

What to subtract? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? Lower?
Shorter? Lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split-up? Understate?

Who else instead? What else instead? Other ingredient?
Other material? Other process? Other power? Other place?
Other approach? Other tone of voice?

Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout?
Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace?
Change schedule?

Transpose positive and negative? How about opposites?
Turn it backward? Turn it upside down? Reverse roles?
Change shoes? Turn tables? Turn other cheek?

How about a blend, an alloy, an assortment, an ensemble?
Combine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals?
Combine ideas?

had accomplished a similar feat in a comic book with table-
tennis balls. They raised the ship by filling it with
27,000,000,000 polystyrene balls.

* Buckminster Fuller is another example. In 1927, as a short,
wiry 32-year-old, he stood silently on the shore of Lake
Michigan. He had been a poor student and was then living
with his wife Ann in a Chicago slum. He had twice been
expelled from Harvard University. Their first daughter had
just died, and he was bankrupt. There he stood, con-
templating suicide. It was a "jump or think" decision, he
recalls. Fortunately for the world he chose the latter. "A
major change came about in my life. Up to then I had been
conditioned to live in accordance with inspiration, biases,
values, concepts, results, laws, loyalties, and credos
evolved by others. I resolved to do my own thinking, and
to see what the individual, starting without any money or
credit (in fact with considerable discredit, but with a whole

Other Triggers



How does nature do it?
Juxtaposition or random input of 3 words, or use
of "chance" or "force fit"
Personal analogy
Wildest fantasy
What if? In the extreme
Functional analogy
Appearance analogy
Symbolic analogy/Simple replacement
Book title
Use a checklist

lot of experience) could produce on behalf of his fellow
men." Since then he has been the Charles Elliot Norton
professor of poetry and has taught at Southern Illinois Uni-
versity and the University of Pennsylvania. He holds 39
honorary degrees, 118 patents in 55 countries, and has pub-
lished 18 books. He is the designer of geodesic domes, of
which 100,000 have been built. "Every child," Bucky
claims, "is born a genius, but is enslaved by the misconcep-
tions and self-doubt of the adult world and spends much of
his life having to unlearn that perspective. After all," he
says, "I'm really nothing special. I'm just a healthy, low-
average human being who happened to be nudged out of
the nest. It is something anyone could do." He pauses and
smiles, "Perhaps that is the good news."

* Now consider Charles Kettering (who even has a creativity
principle named after him), Research Director of General
Motors at Dayton. Charles Kettering continually made use
of Trigger #4 (Wildest fantasy), Trigger #5 (What if in the
extreme), and Trigger #12 (Reversal). For example, a man
came to see his new diesel engine. "I would like to talk to
your thermodynamics expert about it," said the visitor. "I
am sorry," Kettering replied, "we don't have anyone here
who even understands the word 'thermodynamics,' much
less is an expert on it. But if you want to know how we
developed this engine, I'll be glad to show you." On another
occasion, Kettering put three men to work in a little room
and told them they ought to be able to develop a gasoline
that would give the motorist five times as many miles per
gallon. They never found what they were after, but they
did hit on the idea of lead, and that resulted in ethyl
gasoline. As a result, instead of increasing the mileage of
gasoline, they decreased its knocking.
* Many creative things seem to occur because of good luck.
Table 3 presents some of the things which might occur
because of luck. Nevertheless, good luck is not very often
blind luck but comes to those with certain personality

FALL 1988

Good Luck and Personality Traits

Elements Involved

Personality Traits
You Need

An Accident

General Exploratory



"Blind Luck"

The Kettering Principle

The Pasteur Principle

The Disraeli Principle

Chance happens, and nothing
about it is directly attributable
to you, the recipient.

Chance favors those in motion.
Events are brought together to
form "happy accidents" when you
diffusely apply your energies in
motions that are typically non-

Chance favors the prepared mind.
Some special receptivity born from
past experience permits you to dis-
cern a new fact or to perceive ideas
in a new relationship.

Chance favors the individualized
action. Fortuitous events occur
when you behave in ways that are
highly distinctive of you as a per-


Curiosity about many things. Per-
sistence, willingness to experi-
ment and to explore.

A background of knowledge, based
on your abilities to observe, re-
member, and quickly form signif-
icant new associations.

Distinctive hobbies, personalized
life styles, and activities peculiar
to you as an individual, especially
when they operate in domains
seemingly far removed from the
area of discovery.

traits which foster and encourage that luck. Increased
"luck" can result from fostering those character traits.

8. Problems and games can also embellish our
creative ability. Here is a statement on an aluminum
alloy that decomposes in water:

An aluminum alloy that has all of the classic characteristics
of conventional metals--strength, durability, machinability,
and electrical conductivity-but can be decomposed rapidly
by cold water has been developed and is being marketed by
T.A.F.A., a firm in Bow, New Hampshire. Away from the
water the alloy is stable under a wide range of atmospheric
conditions and has shown no sign of erosion or deterioration
over long test periods, according to the firm.

You could have the students figure out the many
uses that this alloy could be put to. It is not necessary,
in creativity, to use chemical engineering in all exam-
ples. In fact, I tend to stay away from a lot of chemical
engineering problems and try to present creativity in
a broader sense. This also helps in breaking the habit
patterns which have been instilled in chemical en-
gineering students. I use many other examples in my
teaching, such as ways to use a box of paper clips,
what to do with bricks, and visualizing objects as hav-
ing other functions. All of these help in developing
creativity in students.


Great works (of creativity) need not only the flash,
the inspiration, and the experience; they also need
hard work, long training, relevant criticism, and per-
fectionist standards.
Creativity may require two differing sets of per-
sonality characteristics. The creative person may
more closely resemble two thinkers in tandem than
one fully integrated being. The two facets of creativity
suggest that a completely creative person may have
need of both a mode of thinking conducive to genera-
tion of original ideas and a separate mode useful for
discerning feasible ideas from the rest.
Creativity has everything going for it. Everyone
wants to be more creative in their daily lives. The
teaching of creativity adds a new dimension to the
abilities of chemical engineering students, both at the
bachelors level and at the graduate level. It can also
be offered to students outside of the chemical en-
gineering department as a service course. I have done
this primarily in teaching industrial groups in an in-
dustrial environment.
And finally, it is fun to teach. It helps to keep my
ideas flowing and helps me in my daily work in adding
creativity to the things which I do, both in my profes-
sional and in my social life. D


Good Luck is
the Result of

of Luck



The 1988 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer is STANLEY I. SANDLER of the
University of Delaware. The purpose of this
award lecture is to recognize and encourage
outstanding achievement in an important field of
fundamental chemical engineering theory or
practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the annual lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate.
These were presented to Dr. Sandler at a banquet
on June 21, 1988, during the ASEE annual
meeting in Portland, Oregon.
Dr. Sandler's lecture was entitled "Physical
Properties and Process Design," and it will
published in a forthcoming issue of CEE.
The award is made on an annual basis, with
nominations being received through February 1,
1989. Your nominations for the 1989 lectureship
are invited.


A number of chemical engineering professors
were recognized for their outstanding achieve-
ments. The George Westinghouse Award was
presented to THOMAS F. EDGAR (University of
Texas at Austin) to acknowledge his commitment
to excellence in education and his many contri-
butions to the improvement of teaching methods
for engineering students.
The Curtis W. McGraw Research Award went
to NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS (Purdue University) in
recognition of his exceptional research accom-
plishments in advancing the fundamental un-
derstanding of basic process systems.

DANIEL E. ROSNER (Yale University)
received the Meriam/Wiley Distinguished
Author Award, and RICHARD M. FELDER (North
Carolina State University) was the recipient of the
Wickenden Award. The Dow Outstanding Young
Faculty Award for the Midwest Section went to
BALA SUBRAMANIAM (University of Kansas).
THOMAS W. WEBER (State University of New
York at Buffalo) was honored with two awards:
The AT&T Foundation Award for the St.
Lawrence Section and the Outstanding Zone
Campus Representative Award.
ANGELO J. PERNA (New Jersey Institute of
Technology) was one of the select few singled out
for special recognition by his election as an ASEE


C. THOMAS SCIENCE (E. I. Du Pont de Nemours
and Company) was the recipient of the third annual
Corcoran Award, presented in recognition of the most
outstanding paper published in Chemical
Engineering Education in 1987. His paper,
"Chemical Engineering in the Future," appeared in
the winter 1987 issue of CEE.


The Chemical Engineering Division officers
for 1988-89 are: Chairman, JAMES E. STICE
(University of Texas at Austin); Past Chairman,
JOHN SEARS (Montana State University); Vice-
Chairman/Chairman-Elect, WILLIAM E.
BECKWITH, (Clemson University); Secretary-
Treasurer, WALLACE B. WHITING (West
Virginia University); and Directors, WILLIAM
L. CONGER (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University), RICHARD M. FELDER (North
Carolina State University), and LEWIS
DERZANSKY (Union Carbide).




FALL 1988

A course in...


and D. E. REEVES
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0100

THE PROCESS CONTROL curriculum at Georgia
Tech consists of two undergraduate and two
graduate courses taught by two faculty members. The
purpose of this paper is to describe one of the graduate
courses which specializes on Model Predictive Con-
trol. Traditionally the two graduate courses have
covered multivariable control systems, frequency do-
main approaches, and robust control systems (Ad-
vanced Process Control I), and state space concepts,
state estimation, and optimal control (Advanced Pro-
cess Control II) in two quarters. For the first time,
in the spring quarter of 1988, Model Predictive Con-
trol (MPC) became the theme of one of our graduate
control courses.
The objective of this course is to teach the students
the general principles of MPC and give them the op-
portunity to implement the powerful predictive con-
trol methods on case studies of industrial importance.
The need for teaching the MPC methods came from
industrial success stories. It is now widely recognized
that MPC is an emerging technology which provides
the best framework to address the industrially rele-

vant control problems involving hard and soft con-
straints, continuously changing operational objec-
tives, poor models, and sensor and actuator failures.
Despite the significant amount of research in the
area of MPC and the increasing industrial utilization
of the new predictive control methods, only a few pro-
grams in the country offer courses on this subject to
the best of our knowledge. This is not very surprising
considering that there is no textbook; the concepts
are new and require integration of knowledge from
different subdomains of modeling, control, and optimi-
zation, and finally there is very limited CAD software,
without which the students cannot appreciate the full
power of the MPC methods.
Our ten-week course drew upon the key papers
from the MPC literature, covered parts of the forth-
coming book, Robust Process Control, by Morari, et
al. [5], and used the in-house CAD software developed
by Charos [19]. In the remainder of the paper we will
discuss the course contents and share with the reader
our first experience.

A requirement of the course is that students have
taken an undergraduate control course. Knowledge of
z-transforms is also desirable. The course outline is
given in Table 1. The required and supplementary

Yaman Arkun is an associ-
ate professor at Georgia Tech.
He received his degrees from
the University of Bosphorous
(Turkey; BS, 1974) and the Uni-
versity of Minnesota (PhD,
1979). He spent six years at Re-
nsselaer Polytechnic Institute
before joining the faculty at
Georgia Tech. His research in-
terests are in process control. (L)
Georgios N. Charos
graduated from the University of New Hampshire with a BS in chem-
ical engineering. He was awarded an MS degree from Cornell Univer- 1986 and her MS from Georgia Tech in 1988. She is presently a PhD
sity, and he is currently pursuing a PhD degree in the area of process student in chemical engineering at Georgia Tech. As a National Science
control at Georgia Tech. (C) Foundation Fellow she is concentrating her research in the field of
Deborah E. Reeves received her BS from Clemson University in process control. (R)
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


The objective of this course is to teach the students the general principles of MPC and give them the opportunity
to implement the powerful predictive control methods on case studies of industrial importance. ...
It is now widely recognized that MPC is an emerging technology which provides the
best framework to address industrially relevant control problems . .

Course Outline

Process control objectives
Motivation for MPC
Principles of feedback: nominal stability and performance,
robust stability and performance
SISO IMC design procedure
Unconstrained SISO Problem
Discrete system representations
Least-squares solution and stability theorems
Implementation and controller tuning guidelines
Unconstrained MIMO Problem
Discrete MIMO representation
Factorization of multiple time delays
MPC solution and the control law
Controller tuning rules
Constrained MIMO Problem
Quadratic Dynamic Matrix Control
Description of our CAD software
Case studies (see Table 2)

reading list for each topic is supplied in the Literature
Cited section. The course commences by introducing
the students to Model Predictive Control through a
critical view of the fundamental process control prob-
lem using a mixture of industrial and academic
critique papers. These key papers put the control
problem into perspective, define the performance
criteria for process control, and motivate the study of
Next we start with the text Robust Process Con-
trol and present the Internal Model Control (IMC)
structure in its simplest form as shown in Figure 1.
Students are repeatedly told that this generic struc-
ture explicitly uses a separately identifiable model in
parallel with the plant and is common to all the MPC
methods to be discussed in the course. It is also stres-
sed that IMC establishes the necessary foundation for
general analytical treatment of the different MPC
The IMC concepts are best illustrated using open-
loop stable single-input-single-output (SISO) systems
and extensions to unstable and MIMO systems are
briefly mentioned by referring to the appropriate
chapters in the text. The essential topics that are
taught under IMC include: zero steady-state offset
property; simplicity of nominal stability test in con-

trast with classical feedback; parameterization of all
stabilizing controllers; characterization of achievable
regulatory and servo performances in the absence of
model/plant mismatch; the concept of inverse or per-
fect controller and the fundamental limitations to per-
fect control, i.e., time delays, right half-plane zeros,
constraints and uncertainty; design of the approxi-
mate inverse controller Q using H2-optimal control de-
sign for a given input; robust stability, robust perfor-
mance and the design of the filter F to detune the
controller against uncertainty. The Laplace domain is
adopted throughout and the design calculations are
demonstrated on first order systems with deadtime
(see Chapter 4). The experimental evaluation of the
method is addressed using the heat exchanger im-
plementation given in Arkun et al. [6]. Coverage of
the basic IMC concepts closes with a homework as-
signment in which the students define their own SISO
system and demonstrate the utility of all the analysis
and design tools they have so far learned. Computer
aids such as Program CC [21] or PC MATLAB [20]
are used to perform the more tedious calculations. It
is important that the students go through such an
exercise to make sure that they have mastered the
principles of the IMC design. The first part of the
course takes about two weeks with three hours of lec-
tures per week.
The second part of the course recasts IMC into the
general predictive control formulation as presented in
the landmark paper by Garcia and Morari [9]. This is
done in an on-line optimization framework to pave the
way to general MPC algorithms such as QDMC (Quad-
ratic Dynamic Matrix Control) which can deal with
input and output constraints. Basically, based on past

FIGURE 1. The IMC structure

FALL 1988

control actions and current measurements, the con-
troller calculates the current and future control ac-
tions which will insure that the model predicted out-
put follows the desired output trajectory as close as
possible in a horizon of specified sampling times into
the future. Because of disturbances and model/plant
mismatch, only the current control action is im-
plemented as computed, and the calculation is re-
peated as illustrated in Figure 2.

F----M T --
10 < ^ ei-es~~a

Y9 (K)

- 9 ...


-m (k)

K K-2


hor Jizon0

FIGURE 2. The model predictive control scheme with its
"moving horizon."

Since the MPC problem is formulated and solved
in discrete time, discrete system representations are
covered, emphasizing the development of the discrete
pulse response model, the step response model, and
their connection. Although the mathematical prelimin-
aries in Garcia and Morari [9] are self-contained, our
students have found the supplementary reading mate-
rial cited in the Literature section particularly useful
to brush up their background on discrete systems.
We first look at the unconstrained SISO problem.
Since the control law turns out to be a least-squares
solution, and the stability theorems are well-charac-
terized, this case is the easiest to grasp. The students
master the material easily in three weeks, but special
care should be given to bookkeeping of matrices. A
homework problem asking for the verification of the
key system matrices and the least-squares solution
has helped the students follow the notation. Also,
since the IMC paper discusses some of its results
within the context of dead beat control which is new
to the majority of the students, supplemental material
and half a lecture is given on the subject. Finally the
unconstrained SISO MPC problem is completed by
mid-quarter projects. Each group of two students is
asked to write its own software and report on its find-

ings with tuning of different controller parameters.
This is done in a two-week period using two MICRO-
VAX workstations. The program is not difficult to
write and the students value the experience.
Some sample results from a project looking at the
control of a nonminimum phase second order system
with dead time are shown in Figures 3-5. Using
Program CC, a sample time is chosen to yield a
discrete monotonic step response. IMSL subroutines
VMULFF and LINVF are used for matrix manipula-
tions while DGEAR is used to integrate the state-
space system realization to calculate the output at and
between sampling points. MPC tuning parameters M

G(.)-1 ) = -

) 20 40 60


0 20 40 60
FIGURE 3. Unstable response with perfect controller
(M = N = P = 6)


(input suppression), P (optimization horizon length),
P (input penalty) and y (output penalty) are adjusted
to show their effects on closed-loop stability and per-
formance. The perfect controller is unstable due to
the inversion of RHP zero (Fig. 3). Figure 4 demon-
strates that the nominal system is stabilized and per-
formance improved by decreasing M, increasing P,
and adjusting y. Robustness against uncertainty in
the location of the RHP zero is illustrated for set-point
responses shown in Figure 5. Note that when the
RHP zero is closest to the origin (a = 4), one gets the
worst performance deterioration as expected.
In the last part of the course we devote five weeks


-- M=1,N=P=6,Ai=O,y=l
M = 14,N = P = 6,G = 0, -> 1
---------- P=12,M=N=6,A=0,.i 1,

- 0.2
0 \


--- M = 1,N = P = 6,f6 = 0,,i = 1
--------- P=12,M= N =6,f# =0,1, >

S 20 40

to more advanced constrained MIMO predictive
methods. The intricacies of MIMO systems are intro-
duced based on the papers IMC Parts 2 and 3 by Gar-
cia and Morari [12, 13]. From IMC Part 2 we basically
cover the factorization of multiple time delays and its
optimality. The rest of the concepts carry over from
the SISO IMC design. The MPC problem is formu-
lated next as an unconstrained quadratic optimization
and the analytical solution based on least-squares is
studied in detail following IMC Part 3. The students
are asked to verify the system of linear equations and
the resulting control law. The analogy with the SISO
results is made, and the conditions under which decou-

(1 a.)
G() = _- (2.- + -,



---------- at=0
----a 4


-0= --a=0
----- a=2


FIGURE 4. Stabilized and improved response with pa-
rameters varied

FIGURE 5. Robust performance with uncertainty in RHP
zero (M = N = P = 6, )3i = 5, yi = 1)

FALL 1988



S-- --- in
--- setpoint
--.------ setpoint

f _'- -------------------------

I 10 20 30

40 50


I- setpoint
0.50- --- Vn lower constraint
---- ts upper constraint

0.25 -

0 - -----------------

-0.25 3
0 10 20 30 40 5'0

S 10 20 30

40 50


10 20

40 50



S -- eetpoint
----.... lower constraint
S --..-- upper constraint

.. .. ...- . . - - - - - - -

-------- **1
- - ,u lower constraint
------ upper contraint
--.-- us upper contraint
-15 S Au S 15
-10 5 A&e S 10

40- --------


-0 .- --------

-20- --- ------------

I b eb 30b

40 50

FIGURE 6. Model predictive control applied to the Wardle and Wood distillation column (M = 10, N = 50, P = 60).
a) unconstrained, b) y, constrained, c) y,, ul, u2, Au,, Au2 constrained


---- "1






_ on ___ -_______________


pling is optimal (in the least-squares sense) is dis-
cussed. Examples from the paper IMC Part 3 are used
After covering the unconstrained problem, the
focus finally shifts to the constrained MIMO MPC
which reflects the ultimate industrial practice. We
have found the QDMC (Quadratic Dynamic Matrix
Control) of Garcia and Morshedi [14] and the work of
Ricker [15] easiest to teach from. Starting with the
QDMC paper, the DMC equations are derived using
step response coefficients, and the unconstrained
MPC solution is shown to be the least-squares solution
of the DMC equations. Next we show how the prob-
lem is augmented with constraints on inputs and out-
puts and formulated as a constrained quadratic pro-
gramming problem. The role of different tuning pa-
rameters is discussed, but detailed assessment of their
effects is assigned to the final design project. The
work of Ricker [15] is briefly visited to teach "input
blocking" which generalizes and gives additional in-
sight to the use of the moving suppression parameter
M. In discussing quadratic programming, one lecture
is spent on the program QPSOL [22] which we use in
our CAD software, and a brief background is given on
Kuhn-Tucker conditions for optimality. Once the basic
principles behind QDMC are understood, in the in-
terest of time its solution procedure is accepted almost
like a black box.
The course ends with the final projects on the ap-
plication of QDMC prepared and presented orally by
groups of two students. The list of case studies is
given in Table 2. Selected results for the Wardle and
Wood column are given in Figure 6. The column sepa-
rates a binary mixture of benzene and methyl ethyl
ketone. The manipulated variables are reflux flowrate
(ul) and reboil flowrate (u2). Since the control of the
distillate (yi) is the primary objective, y, is included
in the objective function of QDMC and the bottoms Y2
is allowed to float between limits. Additional con-
straints on the absolute values of inputs and on the
magnitude of changes in the inputs (i.e., rate con-
straints) are also considered. Figure 6a shows that

Final Projects

* The evaporator system: Ricker [15]
* A nonlinear isothermal CSTR: Ray [16], p.120
* UW water tank system with level and temperature control:
Arkun et al [6]
* Wardle and Wood distillation column: Luyben [17], Wardle and
Wood [18]

control of y, is excellent while y2 drifts when it is
unconstrained. Also significant control action is re-
quired when inputs are unconstrained. Slight vari-
ations in y, from the setpoint trajectory result as some
of the control action is employed in keeping y2 within
its constraints (Figure 6b). Finally, constraints on the
inputs insure more realistic control action, but at the
expense of further deterioration in the performance of
the first output (Figure 6c).

MPC is an industrially important control
framework and should be part of any process control
curriculum. We have found that CAD software is very
valuable for demonstrating the power of the methods
and for performing creative designs. Although uncon-
strained MPC programs can be easily developed and
used by the students as we have done in this course,
constrained MPC software is not trivial and should be
made available to the students. We hope that in the
near future we will be able to make our software avail-
able to the interested educators.

We acknowledge all the graduate students who took
this course and who made very valuable contributions
to its development. We also thank Manfred Morari for
providing us with the first draft copy of his book. This
material is partially based upon work supported under
a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship.

Required Reading
1. Foss, A. S., "Critique of Chemical Process Control Theory,"
AIChE 1., 19,209-214; 1973
2. Lee, W., and V. W. Weekman, "Advanced Control Practice
in the Chemical Process Industry," AIChE J., 22, 27-38; 1976
3. Kestenbaum, A., R. Shinnar, and F. E. Than, "Design Con-
cepts of Process Control," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev.,
15, 2; 1976
4. Morari, M., "Three Critiques of Process Control Revisited a
Decade Later," Shell Process Control Workshop,
Butterworths; 1987
Internal Model Control
Required Reading
5. Morari, M., E. Zafiriou, and C. Economou, Robust Process
Control, Prentice-Hall, Chaps. 2-4; 1989
6. Arkun, Y., J. Hollett, W. M. Canney, and M. Morari,
"Experimental Study of Internal Model Control," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev., 25, 102-108; 1986
Supplementary Material
7. Vidyasagar, M., Control System Synthesis: A Factorization
Approach, The MIT Press; 1985
8. Francis, B. A., "On the Wiener-Hopf Approach to Optimal
Feedback Design," Systems & Control Letters, 2, 197-201;
Continued on page 187.

FALL 1988

A course in ...



Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824-1226

THE DEVELOPMENT OF technical communications
courses in the undergraduate chemical engineer-
ing curriculum has been the topic of several recent
articles in CEE and other periodicals [1-5], and sev-
eral reports on the future of engineering have em-
phasized communication skills as a vital element in
our students' education [6, 7]. Very little, however,
has been written about the necessity of such training
for graduate students. This article describes a course
which has been designed to develop oral and written
communication skills appropriate for engineering
graduate students and for the demands of their post-
graduate careers.
Graduate students have as great a need for a good
foundation in oral and written communication skills as
do undergraduates. During their tenure in graduate
school, they usually have opportunities to present pa-
pers at conferences and to write technical articles and
reports, and eventually they each face the considera-
ble task of preparing a thesis or dissertation. Students
often venture into these exercises with little formal
training in technical communication skills except what
might be resurrected from an undergraduate labora-
tory course or provided informally by their faculty
Despite the heavy course loads and long hours in
the research lab that graduate students must endure,
investment of relatively little time in a communica-
tions course is easily justified and, in most cases,
comes to be greatly appreciated. After graduation,
the MS or PhD engineers enter a work environment
where adequate communication skills are required,

This article describes a course which
has been designed to develop oral and written
communication skills appropriate for engineering
graduate students and for the demands of their
post-graduate careers.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988

Daina Briedis is an associate professor of chemical engineering at
Michigan State Univesity. She received her PhD degree from Iowa
State University in 1981. Her research interests include bioadhesion,
enzyme technology, and precipitation of inorganic salts.

and at that point in their careers there is little time
to spend on refining, much less acquiring, such skills.
Being able to communicate effectively and efficiently
is as important as having the necessary technical back-
ground and is a significant factor in career advance-
We have offered a graduate level communications
course as an elective during the summer terms of the
past two years. The summer term provides an appro-
priate setting for the relatively informal classroom en-
vironment. The course is typically not part of the stu-
dent's formal program of study, and most take it
either because of their own interest or at the encour-
agement of their faculty advisers. We have had no
difficulties in populating the course. There are three
major course objectives:

Familiarizing students with the skills necessary to prepare
and give extemporaneous oral presentations
Providing an arena for the practical development of compe-
tence and confidence in these skills
Improving technical writing skills appropriate for graduate
students (papers, proposals, theses, dissertations)

Although students must devote a fair amount of
time to preparation for a broad array of course assign-


[Success] is . often due to an ability to interpret technical material at a level appropriate
for the audience. A basic premise of our course is that the student already has an adequate knowledge of
technical chemical engineering principles-we seek to develop the mechanism by which that
technical knowledge may be efficiently and effectively conveyed to the audience.

ments, they consistently evaluate the class as vital
and recommend it to their peers.

Success in communication does not always depend
upon competence in technical content. It is more often
due to an ability to interpret the technical material at
a level appropriate for the audience. A basic premise
of our course is that the student already has an
adequate knowledge of technical chemical engineering
principles-we seek to develop the mechanism by
which that technical knowledge may be efficiently and
effectively conveyed to the audience. Some of the key
concerns of the course, therefore, are "knowing the
audience," speaking and writing in a style and lan-
guage adapted to the audience, and being conscious of
audience feedback.
The course covers both technical writing and oral
presentations, but more time is spent on oral presen-
tation skills since this type of instruction is usually
lacking in a student's background. Most course assign-
ments, however, integrate both written and oral com-
munication to some degree in order to realistically re-
flect typical career demands.
Because of the fast pace of the course, the instruc-
tor must be a model of organization and preparedness.
Course material must be sequenced to allow adequate
time for students to prepare assignments which re-
quire practice, drafting and revising, or gathering of
data and background information. Occasionally, spe-
cifics of the course content must be altered to suit the
background of the students. If, for example, a signif-
icant portion of the class is composed of foreign stu-
dents, we take additional time to discuss their unique
barriers to technical communication in English.
The students give four talks, with each talk focus-
ing on delivery to a different type of audience. In
order to encourage organization and timely prepara-
tion, an outline must be submitted several days before
the presentation date. All presentations are video-
taped and evaluated on rating sheets by the classroom
"audience." Talks are rated on organization, style, de-
livery, quality of visual aids, and length of the presen-
tation, and a brief critique session follows each talk.
The speaker must also review the video recording of
his/her talk and submit a self-evaluation of the presen-
tation. The immediate feedback provided by the class,

the comments of the instructor, and the self-evalua-
tions all allow the student to integrate the observa-
tions into the next assignment.

The first class session begins with a discussion of
the barriers to effective oral communication. Students
readily identify the characteristics of a poor talk
(which leads one to believe that they have seen many
examples of poor talks!). The characteristics cited
most often include lack of organization, speaking
beyond the allotted time, using subject material
beyond the comprehension of the audience, poor visual
aids, and poor voice quality. The lecture that follows
the discussion uses it as the basis for addressing
methods of effective public speaking. Emphasis is
placed on preparation and organization of the talk
(outlining), the method and style of delivery, the me-
chanics of speaking (voice volume, speaking rate,
posture, use of prompts, eye contact, use of a pointer),
and the preparation and use of effective visual aids.
Overheads are used for most presentations, but the
final presentation is given using projected slides.
The first assignment is to give a five-minute talk
on any subject. Familiarity with the subject material
allows the student to concentrate on the basics of pre-
paring the talk and serves as a mild initiation into the
classroom format for presentations-speaking before
one's peers, being evaluated by them, and being mon-
itored by the eye of a video camera. The audience
members also have the opportunity to become accus-
tomed to their role of evaluating their colleagues.
We next cover the topic of classroom lecturing.
Since some of our graduate students either serve as
teaching assistants or anticipate careers in academics,
this topic has wide appeal. Particular emphasis is
placed on maintaining audience interest through an
enthusiastic and conversational speaking style, by
using classroom demonstrations, by effective use of
the chalkboard, and by the visual and verbal highlight-
ing of important lecture concepts. The next assign-
ment is to prepare and present a ten to fifteen minute
lecture on undergraduate chemical engineering course
material. Examples of student lectures include such
topics as the development of shell balances, properties
of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, vapor-liquid
equilibria, and other chemical engineering basics. An

FALL 1988

alternative to this assignment (or an additional assign-
ment) is the preparation of a talk for a lay audience.
Students must present technical material (possibly
their research topics) in a form understandable to an
audience at the college freshman level. This exercise
provides an opportunity to observe how easily chemi-
cal engineering jargon can slip into a student's vocab-
ulary and serves especially well in sensitizing the stu-
dent to the needs of the audience.
The course next focuses on technical writing. It is
useful to illustrate differences between technical writ-
ing and creative or expository writing in order to dis-
tance the student from an "English essay" attitude.
We emphasize that, in contrast to creative or exposit-
ory writing, technical writing must be clear, precise,
and (usually) unemotional. It should be based on facts
and should always be in response to a need-the need
for funding, the need to provide information, the need
to provide instruction [8]. Because of these specific
needs, we again stress the importance of knowing the
audience for whom the writing is intended.
Since technical writing must be grammatically cor-
rect and stylistically compact, we briefly review the
basic elements of grammar: punctuation, use of verbs,
subject-verb agreement, and common grammatical er-
rors. Writing style is discussed in the framework of
Alley's seven goals of language in technical writing
[9]: precision, clarity, forthrightness, familiarity, con-
ciseness, fluidity, and imagery. Verbs are major
players in achieving these goals, and it is worthwhile
to focus a class lecture on some of the typical verb
usage problems. We discuss the common difficulty of
choosing proper verb tenses for technical documents.
A second problem is the selection of verb voice (active
or passive). Most students have been taught to be as
impersonal as possible in technical writing by avoiding
the use of "I" or "we." The consensus now is that the
appropriate use of the active voice and the pronouns
"I" and "we" results in a straightforward, honest pre-
sentation [8].
To illustrate these points, we provide the students
with a poorly written technical paper. It contains
many examples of grammatical errors and poor writ-
ing style-imprecise words, overly complex phrases,
run-on sentences, incorrect punctuation, poor spel-
ling, and a host of other technical writing offenses.
The students must rewrite the paper to eliminate the
errors. They may, if they wish, use a software pack-
age such as RightWriter (RightSoft, Inc., [10]) to
compare the unedited and edited versions of the
paper. RightWriter is one example of a style and syn-
tax analysis program intended as an aid for business
and technical writing. The program is made available

to students and provides a useful tool for pointing out
possible errors and stylistic weaknesses.
Once the fundamentals of technical writing have
been established, we proceed by covering a few spe-
cific applications of writing skills appropriate for
graduate students. We discuss abstracts, technical
journal articles, proposals, and, if time remains, re-
sumes and cover letters. Technical documents such as
journal articles, reports, and proposals consist of simi-
lar elements: an abstract, an introduction, the text
body, a summary/conclusion section, a bibliography,
and appendixes. The content of these elements is co-
vered in a general discussion, and particulars are em-
phasized when we consider each document type indi-
We review several different types of abstracts:
those for conference proceedings, theses and disserta-
tions, technical articles, and proposals. For the next
assignment, we distribute copies of a published techni-
cal article from which the abstract and reference infor-
mation have been removed and ask the students to
write a new informative abstract. The student
abstracts are then compared to the original. (Often
the student abstracts are of much better quality than
the original!) Each student must also submit an
abstract of his next presentation, a ten- to fifteen-min-
ute talk on the student's research topic. The abstract
format and the technical talk are intended to simulate
the conditions that the student would encounter when
preparing for a professional meeting.
Writing proposals and grants is covered in detail
since most professionals will encounter the need to
write a proposal at some point in their careers. We
discuss not only the content and logical structure of
proposals, but we also provide a summary of typical
proposal formats of several major funding agencies,
we review examples of budgets, and we discuss the
positive writing style appropriate for proposals.
The course culminates in the writing and presenta-
tion of a short proposal. The class is given strict
guidelines on abstract length, page limitations, budget
restrictions, and so on. An outline of the proposal
must be discussed with the instructor at least one
week before the project is due. The students usually
choose a topic from their own research area and select
an appropriate funding agency to which they address
the proposal. A strict requirement is that the proposal
must be in the student's own words and should not be
borrowed from the research adviser. The presentation
format is one in which the student must "sell" the
proposal to a panel representing the funding agency,
with the class playing the role of the review panel.
The panel is given the opportunity to ask critical ques-


tions after the talk, thus putting the speaker in the
position of having to logically and eloquently defend
the proposal. The panel then decides whether or not
to fund the project. It is interesting to observe that
proposal success rates in this course are significantly
higher than in the real world!


It is a rare individual who can deliver a well-or-
ganized impromptu talk or write a grant proposal in
one draft. Most people require skill development,
preparation, and practice. This course offers not only
the fundamentals of how these skills may be de-
veloped, but also serves to reassure the students that
they can become effective communicators. We believe
that we have been successful in accomplishing the
three main course objectives described earlier in this
article, but much more is accomplished in developing
the students as professionals. Students are stimulated
intellectually by what they learn about communication
and by what they learn about their colleagues through
communication. They learn a valuable lesson about the
willingness to give and to accept constructive criti-
cism, a fact of life for someone in a technical field. At
the beginning of the course, students are happy to
praise the strengths of a classmate's presentation and
are reluctant to criticize the weaknesses. But the
classroom environment eventually evolves into a colle-
gial one as students recognize the value of construc-
tive criticism and how much can be learned from
others. We hope that these attitudes, as well as what
they have learned about technical communication,
carry over into their professional interactions in
graduate school and into their careers beyond.


1. Sullivan, R. M., "Teaching Technical Communication to
Undergraduates: A Matter of Chemical Engineering," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 20, 32 (1986).
2. Hudgins, R. R., "Tips on Teaching Report Writing," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 21, 130 (1987).
3. Brewster, B. S., and W. C. Hecker, "A Course on Making Oral
Technical Presentations," Chem. Eng. Ed., 21, 48 (1988).
4. Felder, R. M., "A Course on Presenting Technical Talks,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 22, 84 (1988)
5. Gallant, R. W., "So You Want to be a Manager," Chemical
Engineering, 94(16), 55 (1987).
6. "The National Action Agenda for Engineering Education: A
Summary," Eng. Ed., 78,95 (1987).
7. "Chemical Engineering Education for the Future," CEP,
81(10), 9 (1985).
8. Cain, B. Edward, The Basics of Technical Communicating,
ACS Professional Reference Book, American Chemical
Society, Washington, DC, 1988.
9. Alley, M., The Craft of Scientific Writing, Prentice-Hall,
Inc., New Jersey, 1987.

10. RightWriterR, Version 2.1, User's Manual, RightSoft, Inc.,
Other Selected References Used in the Course
* Osgood, C., Osgood on Speaking: How to Think on Your Feet
Without Falling on Your Face, William Morrow and
Company, Inc., New York, 1988.
Scott, B., Communication for Professional Engineers, Thomas
Telford Ltd., London, 1984.
Shertzer, M., The Elements of Grammar, MacMillan
Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1986.
Stock, M., A Practical Guide to Graduate Research, McGraw-
Hill, Inc., New York, 1985.
Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White, The Elements of Style,
3rd edition, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1979.
Turner, R. P., Grammar Review for Technical Writers,
revised edition, Rinehart Press, San Francisco, 1971 0

Continued from page 183.

Unconstrained SISO MPC
Required Reading
9. Garcia, C. E., and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 1. A
Unifying Review and Some New Results," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Process Des. Dev., 21, 308-323; 1982
Supplementary Material
10. Astrom, K. J., and B. Wittenmark, Computer Controlled
Systems, Prentice-Hall; 1984
11. Reid, J. G., Linear System Fundamentals: Continuous and
Discrete, Classical and Modern, McGraw-Hill; 1983

Unconstrained MIMO MPC
Required Reading
12. Garcia, C. E., and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 2.
Design Procedure for Multivariable Systems," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev., 24, 472-484; 1985
13. Garcia, C. E., and M. Morari, "Internal Model Control. 3.
Multivariable Control Law Computation and Tuning
Guidelines," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 24, 484-494;

Constrained MIMO MPC
14. Garcia, C. E., and A. M. Morshedi, "Quadratic Programming
Solution of Dynamic Matrix Control (QDMC)," Chem. Eng.
Commun., 46, 73-87; 1986
15. Ricker, N. L., "Use of Quadratic Programming for Con-
strained Internal Model Control," Ind. Eng. Chem. Process
Des. Dev., 24, 925-936; 1985

Case Studies
16. Ray, W. H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill; 1981
17. Luyben, W. L., Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 25, 654-
660; 1986
18. Wardle, A. P., and R. M. Wood, Chem. E. Symp. Ser., 32,
6:68-6:81; 1969

19. Charos, G., CAD Software for MPC, Georgia Tech
(manuscript for publication in preparation)
20. Moler, C., J. Little, S. Bangert, and S. Kleiman, PC-Matlab,
The MathWorks Inc., Sherborn, MA
21. Thompson, P. M., Program CC, Systems Technology, Inc.,
Hawthorne, CA
22. Gill, P. E., W. Murray, M. A. Saunders, and M. H. Wright,
"User's Guide for QPSOL," Technical Report SOL 84-6,
Dept. of Operations Res., Stanford University; 1984 O

FALL 1988

A course in ...


University of Louisville
Louisville, KY 40292

DURING THE LAST several years numerous prom-
ising approaches to the solution of multivariable
control problems have become available. These con-
trol strategies are likely to play an important role in
coming years as the processes become more complex
and the demands for more efficient operation grow in
the light of competitive pressures and environmental
considerations. Taking these trends into considera-
tion, we have developed a new graduate course in mul-
tivariable control methods. The multivariable control
concepts were covered in an intensive four-day short
course offered recently, and the responses of the in-
dustrial participants were very favorable. The con-
cepts have also been taught in existing graduate
courses. An overview of the proposed course is being
given in this paper, accompanied by pertinent com-
ments and literature references. It is hoped that it
will serve as an impetus for instructors in the area of
process control.

Pradeep B. Deshpande is currently Professor and Chairman of the
Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Louisville. His
specialization is in the area of process dynamics and control. He has
approximately seventeen years of academic and full-time industrial
experience and has published three textbooks in control and over forty
papers. He has consulted for several major companies in this country
and abroad and has done collaborative research with them.

There are four major topical areas of concentra-
tion. They are

Interaction Analysis
Multiloop Controller Design
Multivariable Control Strategies

Table 1 shows these areas further subdivided to
provide greater detail. The contents can be comfort-
ably covered in a standard one-semester graduate
course. The prerequisites for the course should be a
course in linear control theory and Laplace trans-
forms, and a course in z-transforms and digital control
concepts. More details about the topics are provided
in the following paragraphs.

Interaction Analysis
Interaction analysis is the first phase of multivari-
able control systems design. The objective of interac-
tion analysis can be twofold. The first objective is to
select a suitable set of controlled and manipulated
variables from competing sets. In a distillation control
system, for example, there can be three (or more)
possibilities: D, V; R, V; and R, B (first variable con-
trols top composition, second controls bottoms compo-
sition). The second objective is to select controlled and
manipulated variables within a given set; for example,
should D be manipulated to control XD and V to con-
trol XB or should the reverse pairing be used? For
small dimensional, say 2x2 systems, this step could
perhaps be skipped if detailed dynamic information
about the process is available. Then the available mul-
tivariable techniques could be tried through simula-
tion, and a final pairing and control methodology could
be selected based on the closed-loop simulation re-
sults. For large dimensional systems this is not feasi-
ble, and interaction analysis would have to be carried
Numerous techniques for carrying out interaction
analysis are available. Some utilize steady-state gain

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


Multivariable Control Methods Course Outline

1. Introduction to Multivariable Control
Incentive for Multivariable Control
Why Multivariable Systems are Difficult to Control
Industrial Examples
2. Interaction Analysis
*Relative Gain Arrays
Singular Value Decomposition
Other Interaction Measures.
3. Multiloop ControllerDesign
Design of Multiloop PID-Type Controller
IMC Multiloop Controller
4. Decoupling (Explicit)
Decoupling in the Framework of RGA
Decoupling in the Framework of SVD
5. Multivariable Control Strategies
a. Nyquist Arrays
Direct Nyquist Arrays
Inverse Nyquist Arrays
b. Model Predictive Control
Internal Model Control
Dynamic Matrix Control
Model Algorithmic Control
Simplified Model Predictive Control
c. Modern Control Theory
Introduction to State-Space Models
The Linear Quadratic Problem

information, while others require detailed knowledge
of process dynamics. Clearly, there are incentives for
wanting to determine the extent of interaction based
on steady-state information. In many instances this is
the only type of information available. Unfortunately,
the interaction measures which utilize only steady-
state gain data sometimes give wrong results. The
methods of interaction analysis include relative gain
arrays (RGA), singular value decomposition, IMC in-
teraction measure, and inverse and direct Nyquist ar-
rays, among others.

Multiloop Contoller Design
If interaction analysis reveals "modest" interac-
tion, a multiloop control structure may be adequate.
Cost-to-performance ratios could perhaps be consid-
ered in deciding whether a multiloop control structure
should be employed or whether a full multivariable
control system would be preferable. If PID-type con-
trollers are employed, then a relatively simple tuning
procedure is available. As an alternative to PID con-
trol, one may consider using the IMC multiloop con-
troller. The PID tuning procedure is based on the
Nyquist stability criteria, while the IMC multiloop

controller design procedure neglects the off-diagonal
elements of the process transfer function matrix.

If the extent of interaction is such that a multiloop
controller structure is deemed to be inadequate, then
there are two alternatives. The first is to carry out
explicit decoupling in the framework of RGA or SVD,
and the second is to use a full multivariable controller.

The multivariable control concepts were
covered in an intensive four-day short course . ., and
the responses of the industrial participants were very
favorable. The concepts have also been taught
in existing graduate courses.

Explicit decoupling is covered here, and multivariable
control strategies are the topics that follow. In explicit
decoupling in the framework of RGA, one designs de-
coupling elements such that one pseudo manipulated
variable affects only one controlled variable. In the
SVD decoupling approach, one carries out a singular
value decomposition of the process gain matrix (or
process transfer function matrix, depending on
whether only steady-state decoupling is desired or
dynamic decoupling is desired) and then multiplies the
resulting expression by appropriate left and right sin-
gular vectors to give a decoupled system and a set of
"structured" manipulated and controlled variables.
These variables are connected via PID-type control-
lers to give decoupled responses. Two points are
worth mentioning here. One is that modeling errors
will degrade performance, and the second is that com-
plete decoupling is not always the best approach if the
goal is to achieve minimum ISE or minimum settling
times. Better results can sometimes be achieved by
allowing interactions in the closed-loop system.

Multivariable Control Techniques
In many instances a full multivariable controller
may well be the preferred choice. This is especially
true in those applications where constraints are pres-
ent and perhaps in those which have an unequal
number of inputs and outputs. (If a system is non-
square, then singular value decomposition is an alter-
native to consider, although in this case external dead
time compensation may have to be applied, making
the approach somewhat cumbersome.) Additional ben-
efits accruing from a multivariable controller include
dead time compensation and decoupling.
There are several multivariable control techniques
available. Three are included in Table 1. The first is

FALL 1988

based on Nyquist arrays. Direct and inverse Nyquist
arrays are frequency domain techniques that require
interactive computing with graphics for optimum ben-
efits. Nyquist arrays can also be used for interaction
analysis. Furthermore, they can be used to design
precompensators and postcompensators such that in-
teraction is greatly reduced. These compensators per-
mit the designer to control an n x n interacting system
by n SISO PID-type controllers.
The second of the three topics is on model predic-
tive control methods. In model predictive control, a
mathematical model of the process is used for identifi-
cation/control. The discussion begins with internal
model control design based on factorization of the
transfer function matrix into two parts, one involving
the nonminimum phase elements and the other con-
taining the remaining terms. The latter, when in-
verted, leads to the IMC controller. A diagonal filter
network insures robustness in the presence of mod-
eling errors. In the next phase, the predictive formu-
lation of IMC is discussed. The objective in this in-
stance is to calculate a set of future control actions
based on the actual and model outputs such that a
suitable performance index is minimized. Only the
first control action is applied and the computations
are repeated at the next sampling instant. Since the
optimization procedure yields future control actions,
one can anticipate when constraint violations are
likely to occur and therefore what actions to take to
keep this from happening. The predictive formulations
lead to dynamic matrix control and model algorithmic
control. In the final phase, a technique known as
simplified model predictive control is discussed.
SMPC is a relatively simple multivariable control
technique that utilizes an impulse response type model
of the process for implementation. It insures some de-
coupling. SMPC is suitable for low dimensioned pro-
The final topic in multivariable control is on mod-
ern control theory. Here, the student is first intro-
duced to the notion of state space models. Then the
optimal control problem is formulated, and the
methods of solving it are described. The solution of
the optimal control problem gives a matrix of control
actions which, when applied, leads to process re-
sponses that satisfy a quadratic performance index.
Recent research indicates that the linear quadratic
problem can be formulated in the context of IMC.
At this time research is in progress at various loca-
tions which is aimed at designing controllers in the
presence of uncertainties. The concept of structured
singular values has been employed for this purpose.
These concepts have not been incorporated into the

current version of the course.


A course on multivariable control methods has
been described. Instructional tools, including a text
and computer-aided instruction software (CAI), are
available for effective teaching of this course. The ma-
terial is suitable for full-time graduate students and
for control engineers from industry. It is believed that
this course will be a good addition to the control spe-
ciality, not only in the chemical engineering discipline,
but also in other engineering disciplines such as elec-
trical engineering.


1. Arulalan, G. R., P. B. Deshpande, "Simplified Model
Predictive Control," Ind. Eng. Chem., 26, 2, 1987.
2. Athens, M., P. L. Falb, Optimal Control, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1966.
3. Bristol, E., "On a New Measure of Interaction for
Multivariable Process Control," IEEE Trans. Auto.
Control., AC-11, 1966, p. 133.
4. Bruns, D. D., C. R. Smith, "Singular Value Analysis: A
Geometrical Structure for Multivariable Process," paper
presented at AIChE Winter meeting, Orlando, FL, 1982.
5. Cutler, C. R., B. L. Ramaker, "Dynamic Matrix Con-
trol: A Computer Control Algorithm," Paper No. 51B,
AIChE 88th National Meeting, April, 1979.
6. Deshpande, P. B., Ed., Multivariable Control Methods,
ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1988.
7. Deshpande, P. B., R. Ash, Computer Process Control, 2nd
ed., ISA, Research Tri. Park, NC, 1988.
8. Deshpande, P. B., CAI in Advanced Process Control, In
9. Economou, C. G., M. Morari, "Internal Model Control: 6,
Multiloop Design," Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 25,
2,1986, pp. 411419.
10. Edgar, T. F., "Status of Design Methods for
Multivariable Control," AIChE Symposium Series,
Chemical Process Control, 72, 159, 1976.
11. Garcia, C. E., M. Morari, "Internal Model Control: 1, A
Unifying Review and Some New Results," Ind. Eng.
Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 21, 1982, pp. 308-323.
12. Garcia, C.E., M. Morari, "Internal Model Control: 2,
Design Procedures for Multivariable Systems," Ind.
Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev., 24, 1985, pp. 472484.
13. Jensen, N., D. G. Fisher, S. L. Shah, "Interaction
Analysis in Multivariable Control Systems," AIChE J.,
32,6, 1986.
14. Lau, H., J. Alvarez, K. R. Jensen, "Synthesis of Control
Structures by Singular Value Analysis: Dynamic
Measures of Sensitivity and Interaction," AIChE J., 31,
3, 1985, p. 427.
15. Luyben, W. L., "A Simple Method for Tuning SISO
Controllers in Multivariable System," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Proc. Des. Dev., 25, 3, 1986, pp. 654-660.
16. McAvoy, T. J., Interaction Analysis, ISA, Research
Triangle Park, NC, 1983.
17. Mehra, R. K., "Model Algorithmic Control," chapter in
Distillation Dynamics and Control, by P. B. Deshpande,
ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1985.
18. Mihares, G. et al., "A New Criterion for the Pairing of
Control and Manipulated Variables," AIChE J., 32, 9,


19. Moore, B. C., "The Singular Value Analysis of Linear
Systems," Systems Control Reports No. 7801-7802,
University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 1981.
20. Ray, W. H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1981.
21. Richalet, J., A. Rault, J. L. Testud, J. Papon, "Model
Predictive to Heuristic Control: Application to Industrial
Processes," Automatica, 14, 1978, pp.413-428.
22. Rosenbrock, H. H., State Space and Multivariable
Theory, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1970.
23. Rosenbrock, H. H., C. Storey, Mathematics of Dynam-
ical Systems, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1970.
24. Rosenbrock, H. H., Computer-Aided Control Systems
Design, Academic Press, New York, 1974. O

Book reviews

by Morton M. Denn
Prentice-Hall Publishing Co.,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
Reviewed by
John Eggebrecht
Iowa State University
At Iowa State University "Momentum Transport"
is required as the first of a three-semester sequence
which continues with "Heat" and "Mass." The second-
year student has, with adequate high school prepara-
tion, completed the introductory calculus and physics
courses. Frequently students are concurrently enrol-
led in introductory ordinary differential equations.
As the instructor, I see the focus of the course,
and of the engineering science curricula in general, as
a development of analytical skills. The significant part
of a section of text in support of this is not the deriva-
tion or the equation confined by a box at the end, but
the physical principles, assumptions and approxima-
tions which are expressed by these. Many students,
having restricted their intellectual objectives to those
which they perceive as appropriate for a BS engineer,
regard only the "formulae." Some students, enrap-
tured by the mechanics of the calculus, only regard
the derivation. To persuade both groups to my point
of view I need a text which emphasizes the physics of
fluid flow both in the development of topics and in
their relations.
On the other hand, engineering practice is as much
art, viz., design, as it is science. A responsibility of
the course is to introduce the jargon and operational
empiricism of process equipment. It is not possible to
find a single text on fluid mechanics which encompas-
ses this range of material and conforms to my focus.

However, Denn's text is superior to all others which
I have considered in the treatment of the physical
principles of fluid flow. It is much easier to compen-
sate for the omission of material, which can be ex-
tracted from handbooks, than for a presentation which
shares the students' bias for either formula or cal-
culus. I am especially appreciative of the organization
of the text. Topics appear in an order which reflects
the evolution of understanding of fluid flow, and for
that reason, I believe, the order which is most easily
understood by the student.
The text opens with observation and experimenta-
tion on flow primitives; the cylindrical filled conduit
and the submerged sphere. This can provide a
framework for an appreciation of the analysis of sim-
ple systems by the identification of key physical de-
pendencies and the analysis of complex systems by
construction from primitives. Also, this introduction
establishes the proper relationship between observa-
tion and analysis and may help to correct the mistaken
perception that discovery is deductive. The prediction
of the pressure drop in a straight pipe leads, through
Reynolds, to the friction factor correlation and the
viscous force on a falling sphere leads, through
Stokes, to the drag coefficient correlation. The simi-
larity of these two important results is striking and
properly emphasized. Key discoveries are followed by
extension to more complex systems and the presenta-
tion acknowledges this process by presenting reason-
able, yet simple arguments, which lead to correlations
for non-cylindrical conduits, partially filled conduits,
rough pipes, non-spherical submerged objects and
packed beds. These progressions allow me to highlight
central themes; the importance of symmetry and
frame invariance, the emergence of design correla-
tions from the identification of the significant physics
and the replacement of complex systems by simpler
systems through judicious approximation. All of this
is accomplished without ever taking a derivative.
While the first section of the text is the greatest
strength, the following section must be supplemented
as an introduction to the application of the conserva-
tion of energy to the analysis of macroscopic flows.
The derivation of the mechanical energy balance equa-
tion is easily understood and very thorough in the
statement of assumptions by which the conservation
equation is simplified to a "formula." The conservation
of linear momentum is combined with the energy con-
servation equation to analyze a sequence of increasing
complexity; expansion, elbow, contraction, free jet
and manifold. A logical parallel of the first section
Continued on page 195.

FALL 1988

A course in ...


University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

NEW ONE-SEMESTER graduate course in topics
on random media is being offered in the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering at the University of
Pennsylvania. The following is a report on the experi-
ence of preparing and delivering such material. As is
probably the case with all topical graduate courses,
this one is highly biased towards the research in-
terests of the instructor.
The need to predict bulk properties of ordered,
and especially of disordered, two-phase materials per-
vades almost every field of chemical engineering. Por-
ous rocks and porous catalysts, composite solids and
packed beds, microporous membranes and hollow-
fiber bioreactors, are only a few of the myriad exam-
ples where it is necessary to cope with a random con-
figuration that cannot be described deterministically
but only through a few statistical averages. Both the
importance and the difficulty of these problems are
well measured by the voluminous size of the literature
that has been written in the last one hundred years.

Eduardo D. Glandt is professor of chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania. After receiving his BS degree from the Univer-
sity of Buenos Aires, in his native Argentina, he spent five years there
with the National Institute of Industrial Technology. He earned his PhD
degree from Penn in 1978. In addition to his research interests in
theory and computer simulations of fluids, and in membrane and ad-
sorption equilibria, his recent work includes problems on the effective
behavior of systems disordered at the colloidal and macroscopic levels.

Unfortunately, much of it has consisted of ad hoc ap-
proximations; most of the available rigorous results
have been generated only in the last fifteen years.
The material covered in the course has its sources
in several rather disjointed fields of science and
technology. In addition to classical engineering areas
such as transport in composites and other two-phase
materials and transport in porous media, it draws its
concepts and problems from active areas of con-
densed-matter physics. The study of amorphous sol-
ids, and especially of critical phenomena, has brought
about the ideas of percolation theory, for example.
Therefore, the selection of material for one semester
from the long list of what can conceivably be touched
upon represents a significant challenge. The main
peril is, of course, that the course may result in an
encyclopedic juxtaposition of topics. The outline,
shown in Table 1, is the still evolving compromise.
A few words on prerequisites are in order. A cur-
sory reading of Table 1 will reveal that the level at
which these topics may be presented depends very
strongly on the previous exposure of the students to
material in a few important areas. Students enrolled
in this course are chemical engineering PhD candi-
dates who have previous education in transport pro-
cesses. Another ideal prerequisite for a course of this
nature ought to be a semester of statistical mechanics,
something perhaps not as easy to implement un-
iformly. In chemical engineering, statistical mechanics
is usually identified with the study of the molecular
theory of liquids, aimed at a prediction of their ther-
modynamic properties. The subject of liquids might
not seem too relevant to a study of the effective be-
havior of random solids. However, exposure to statis-
tical mechanics would ideally train a student to think
at a molecular level and to relate, as cause to effect,
phenomena occurring at very different scales of length
and time. The student would also develop an intuitive
understanding of the interplay of energetic and en-
tropic tendencies in nature, as well as of the cruc:
importance of cooperative effects in determining mac-
roscopic behavior. Lastly, but equally important, the
studies of fluids and of random geometries share the
same statistical formalism (although the theories writ-
ten in it are different). The ability to write and under-

0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


stand probability distributions and correlation func-
tions represents a distinct advantage.
The introduction to the course consists of a survey
of transport and related processes in fluid and solid
multiphase systems. Batchelor (1974) presented a
comparison of the most relevant ones, with special
emphasis on fluid mechanical problems, such as viscos-
ity, sedimentation rate, flow permeability, etc. The
complexity of each problem depends on tensorial order
and also on whether the initial microstructure of the
system is fixed or whether it varies as a result of the
transport phenomenon under consideration.
For the sake of simplicity, diffusion (or equiva-
lently conduction) in a two-phase solid system was
selected as a paradigm for detailed discussion. All stu-
dents in the course have had previous exposure to
material of this level of difficulty in their under-
graduate and graduate transport courses. Although
effective diffusion is in many ways simpler than other
problems, a variety of particular regimes can be gen-
erated as the relative length and time scales are
changed. The class discussion is focused on the iden-
tification of the relevant diffusion mechanism when,
for example, the size of the inhomogeneities is
changed. Providing the ability to distinguish mecha-
nisms is one of the objectives of the course. Another
goal is to familiarize the students with key references

The material covered in the course has its
sources in several rather disjointed fields ... In
addition to classical engineering areas... it draws its
concepts and problems from active areas
of condensed-matter physics.

and techniques appropriate for each of such problems.
Lastly, it is hoped that the overview serves an inte-
grating purpose: an awareness of the similarity behind
seemingly different phenomena and at the same time
of the differences between processes sometimes
lumped under a single name.
The discussion on the experimental determination
of the microstructure of a system is limited to
porosimetry and to image-analysis techniques. The
existence of an image analysis laboratory in our de-
partment creates a particular interest in quantitative
stereology, an application of geometric probability to
the study of lower-dimensional sections of three-di-
mensional systems.
Although many of the available rigorous results on
disordered systems, such as those of percolation
theory, have been developed using lattice models, the
course strives to avoid "lattice thinking" as much as
possible. The survey of useful models (section 3 of the
course outline) is a further application of statistical

Course Outline


1. Introduction: Transport through Disordered Systems
Survey of effective transport, electrical, magnetic, and
elastic properties of miltiphase systems. Analogies and
differences between problems.
Time and length scales in diffusion problems. Effective,
anomalous and hindered diffusion. Knudsen diffusion.
Diffusion limited reaction. Diffusion with homogeneous

2. Microstructure Determination
Porosimetry and its interpretation
Introduction to quantitative stereology. Concepts in statis-
tical geometry.

3. Survey of Models
Random-pore and random-fiber models. Cylindrical and
spherical pores. Porosity and surface area. Pore size dis-
tributions. Time-dependent examples. Applications to gas-
solid reactions.
Cellular structures. Voronoi and other tessellations. Gener-
ation and statistical properties
Correlated pores and inclusions. Equilibrium and nonequi-
librium structures. Correlation functions and their use.
Continuous disorder. Correlation length. Models for random

4. Connectivity and Dimensionality
Percolation theory and its applications. Problems: lattice,
off-lattice and truly continuous percolation. Survey of
available results. Site and bond percolation. Simulation
and renormalization methods. Scaling laws and dimen-
sional invariants. Percolation on a Cayley tree and in in-
teracting systems. Application to porosimetry.
Fractal geometries. Characteristic lengths and self-simi-
larity. Methods of determination of the fractal dimen-
sionality of "surfaces" and "volumes." Diffusion in fractal

5. Effective Properties
Dispersions of low concentrations. Maxwell and related
Dense dispersions. Resistor network approximation.
Effective medium theories.
Variational bounds.

6. Special Topics

Student papers and presentations to the class based on
applications of interest to each individual.

FALL 1988

geometry to the most popular representations of the
geometry and topology of a two-phase solid. At least
one lecture on truly continuous disorder is also in-
cluded. In the situations described by this picture, the
properties of the material do not take just two or three
values, corresponding to (say) two or three distinct
phases, but vary in a smooth fashion, taking an infin-
ity of values.
Percolation theory is the study of the connected-
ness between phases or between different regions of
a phase. The percolation transition is the sudden
change in the appearance and properties of a system
when previously disjointed regions of it coalesce,
forming a continuous path. The transformation of a
liquid into a gel, the extended wetting of a porous
rock or ceramic, the incipient conduction in a metal-in-
insulator composite, are examples of percolation pro-
cesses. Percolation theory is a young but already es-
tablished field, as indicated by the fact that at least
two introductory textbooks have been written on it. It
is likely that it will become a standard component of
even undergraduate chemical engineering curricula.
A short section of the course is devoted to fractals,
another new (if not outright trendy) topic. There is
indeed more to fractals than beautiful pictures of snow
crystals or landscapes in full color, although the quan-
titative aspects have received much less publicity. The
fractal nature of the geometry of a system has direct
consequences on its transport properties, in the form
of a small-sample effect. It is surprising that for diffu-
sion in samples smaller that a certain length, the ap-
parent diffusivity depends on the size of the system.
In other words, doubling the size of the sample does
not add "more of the same": in some examples it might
imply the presence of larger and larger pores.
The last part of the course deals with the calcula-
tion of effective diffusivities (or conductivities) in two-
phase systems. Of course, no general analytic solution
is possible, so that three limits are discussed, each
corresponding to a different small-parameter approx-
imation. It is unfortunate that a practical "mapping"
of the regimes of validity of these approximations is
yet to be done. The derivation of variational bounds
to the effective diffusivity offers another rigorous line
of approach. The length and diversity of the material
already included in the semester does not allow the
presentation of numerical techniques.
The course concludes with student presentations
and written reports of key papers in the field. Most
of these papers are applications selected from the list
of references given below, and are assigned in accor-
dance to the specific interests of the students. About
twenty homework problems are also assigned. Grad-

ing is based on the term papers and on one in-class
examination. The list of suggested books and addi-
tional references is perhaps too long. This indicates
the need for a synthesis of selected material into a
monograph that can at the same time summarize the
high points and open doors for in-depth further read-
ing in specific areas. It is hoped that the class notes
for this course may serve as a starting point in such
a development.


* M. J. Beran, Statistical Continuum Theories, Wiley-Interscience
E. L. Cussler, Diffusion, Cambridge (1984)
G. Deutscher, R. Zallen, and J. Adler (eds), Percolation Struc-
tures and Processes, Israel Physical Society (1983)
F. A. L. Dullien, Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Struc-
ture, Academic (1979)
A. L. Efros, Physics and Geometry of Disorder: Percolation
Theory, Mir (1986)
J. Feder, Fractals, Plenum (1988)
J. C. Garland and D. B. Tanner (eds), Electrical, Transport and
Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Media, American Institute
of Physics (1978)
M. G. Kendall and P. A. P. Moran, Geometrical Probability,
Griffin (1963)
H. E. Stanley and N. Ostrowsky (eds), On Growth and Form, M.
Nijhoff (1986)
D. Stauffer, Introduction to Percolation Theory, Taylor and
Francis (1985)
W. Strieder and R. Aris, Variational Methods Applied to Prob-
lems of Diffusion and Reaction, Springer (1973)
E. E. Underwood, Quantitative Stereology, Addison-Wesley
R. Zallen, The Physics of Amorphous Solids, Wiley-Interscience
J. M. Ziman, Models of Disorder, Cambridge (1979)
* A. Acrivos and E. Chang, Phys. Fluids, 29, 3 (1986)
* G. K. Batchelor, Ann. Rev., Fluid Mech.,6, 227 (1974)
* G. K. Batchelor and R. W. O'Brien, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
355, 313 (1977)
M. Beran, Nuovo Cimento, 38, 771 (1965)
J. G. Berryman, J. Appl. Phys., 57, 2374 (1985); ibid, 60, 1930
S. K. Bhatia and D. D. Perlmutter, AIChE J., 26, 379 (1980);
ibid., 27, 247 (1981)
*Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, J. Colloid Int. Sci., 94, 90 (1983);
ibid, 99, 86 (1984)
Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, I&EC Fund., 22, 276 (1983)
Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, J. Phys A., 16, 2599 (1984)
Y. C. Chiew and E. D. Glandt, Chem. Eng. Sci., 42, 2677 (1987)
S. W. Churchill, Adv. Trans. Proc., 4, 394 (1986)
A. L. Devera and W. Strieder, I. Phys. Chem., 81, 1783 (1977)
G. Gavalas, AIChE J., 26, 577 (1980)
Z. Hashin and S. Shtrikman, J. Appl. Phys., 33, 3125 (1962)
G. R. Jerauld, J. C. Hatfield, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, J.
Phys. C., 17, 1519, 3429 (1984)
D. J. Jeffrey, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 335, 355 (1973)
S. Kirkpatrick, Rev. Mod. Phys., 45, 574 (1973)
G. W. Milton, J. Appl. Phys., 52, 5294 (1981)
S. Reyes and K. F. Jensen, Chem. Eng. Sci., 41, 333, 345 (1986)
M. Sahimi, B. D. Hughes, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, Chem.
Eng. Sci., 41, 2103 (1986)


* N. A. Seaton and E. D. Glandt, J. Phys. A., 20, 3029 (1987)
" S.V. Sotirchos and H.-C. Yu, Chem. Eng. Sci., 40, 2039 (1985)
" G. Stell, in The Mathematics and Physics of Disordered Media,
B. D. Hughes and B. W. Ninham (eds), Springer (1983)
* P. Stroeve, I. Theor. Biol., 64, 237 (1977)
SS. Torquato, I. Appl. Phys., 58, 3790 (1985)
" S. Torquato, in Advances in Multiphase Flow and Related Prob-
lems, G. Papanicolau (ed), S.I.A.M. (1986)
* S. Torquato and G. Stell, J. Chem. Phys., 77, 2071 (1982); ibid. 80,
878 (1984)
* H. L. Weissberg and S. Prager, Phys. Fluids, 5, 1390 (1962); ibid,
13,2958 (1970)
* P. H. Winterfeld, L. E. Scriven, and H. T. Davis, J. Phys. C., 14,
2361 (1981)
* Y. C. Yortsos and M. Sharma, AIChE J., 32, 46 (1986); ibid, 33,
1636, 1644, 1654(1987) O

REVIEW: Process Fluid Mechanics
Continued from page 191.

would have been to present a detailed presentation of
a few important design correlations. A more complete
treatment of the application of the mechanical energy
balance to non-isothermal and compressible systems
is needed.
In the third section the development of differential
balances of mass and linear momentum is given, with
the same clarity and in the same notation as the mac-
roscopic balances of the preceding section. The pre-
sentation of the Cauchy and Navier-Stokes equations
is made in tensor notation. I have not found this to be
an impediment to students' understanding. To the
contrary, the dimensional relationship between vec-
tors and tensors provides a clear distinction between
force and stress. Students in my classes are very wil-
ling to learn new mathematics when they believe it is
motivated by a need to frame an otherwise difficult
concept and not by a pretense of rigor. The following
chapter applies these conservation equations to the
usual one dimensional flows.
The next section of the text is a skillful arrange-
ment of topics in which creeping and inviscid flow lim-
its are taken on the Navier-Stokes equation in reduced
form. These limits are first introduced in a separate
chapter on Hamel flow which is an excellent choice of
problems, since numerical solutions can be obtained
easily and compared to the limiting analytic solutions.
This gives me a chance to reiterate the importance of
the reduction of complex problems to underlying
primitives and to make the connection between this
reduction and the limiting process.
The final section is composed of a series of "special
topics," which includes chapters on turbulence and

viscoelasticity. Much of the background for a discus-
sion of turbulence is provided in the preceding chap-
ters on inviscid and boundary layer flow and the em-
phasis here is on the time averaging of the Navier-
Stokes equation and the development of the universal
velocity distribution. I believe that a brief introduc-
tion to stochastic processes is more useful to the stu-
dent at this point than the following chapter on num-
erical solutions of PDEs. This allows for some con-
tinuity in the introduction of viscoelastic behavior as
"fluid with memory." Missing from the chapters on
viscoelastic and turbulent flows are the "gee-whiz"
phenomenon which leave the student at the end of the
semester with a taste for the variety of scientific ex-
perience and provide the qualitative extension to com-
plex systems which had, otherwise, been the consis-
tent theme of the text. [

by Octave Levenspiel
Plenum Press, New York, NY 10013 (1984)
366 pages, $34.50
Reviewed by
Roland A. Mischke
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ.
This book presents the basic macroscopic equa-
tions for the solution of fluid flow and heat transfer
problems in concise form. However, the major thrust
of the book is in the application of these fundamental
equations to the solution of problems not usually en-
countered in typical courses in fluid flow and heat
transfer (particularly those dealing with particulate
On paging through the book, one is first struck by
the freehand illustrations (did a human being write
this book rather than a computer?) and fluid flow prob-
lems with such intriguing titles as "Counting Canaries
Italian Style." I have often thought of Octave
Levenspiel as the Dr. Seuss of chemical enginering-
an author who uses the premise that even the learning
of engineering principles can be fun. Just as Dr. Seuss
introduced us to the alphabet beyond the letter "z" in
"On Beyond Zebra," so Octave Levenspiel might well
have titled this work "On Beyond Transport Phenom-
The book is divided almost equally between the
two areas, and the fluids portion successively treats:
Basic Equations for Flowing Streams, Flow of Incom-
Continued on page 200.

FALL 1988

Research on ...


Queen's University
Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6

THE SINGLE MOST successful biotechnology product
to date, the monoclonal antibody, is utilized for
the detection of drugs in the blood (such as cocaine)
and in the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases
such as cancer. In another important area, genetic
engineering, the development of new techniques has
allowed for the enhanced production of a variety of
polypeptides and proteins such as human insulin and
growth hormone. There are still many human biologi-
cals, however, which are too complex to be produced
by either yeast or bacterial systems. Animal cell cul-
ture is presently the only method for the synthesis of
many of these complex biologicals.
The major market driving force behind biotechnol-
ogy is economic potential. For example, current mar-
kets for monoclonal antibodies for use in cancer
therapy are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. It
has been projected [1] that by 1991 the world market
for monoclonal antibodies will be about 1.2 billion dol-
lars (US).
It has become apparent over the past two decades

Mattheus F. A. Goosen is associate professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Queen's University. After obtaining his doctorate in chemical-
biomedical engineering from the University of Toronto, he spent sev-
eral years at the Connaught Research Institute in Toronto as an NSERC
Industrial Research Fellow. His research interests are in the areas of
animal and insect cell culture engineering, microencapsulation
technology, bioseparation processes, the development of polymeric
vaccine and agrochemical delivery systems, and biomaterials.

that conventional suspension cell culture is limited by
relatively low cell densities. As a result, the concen-
tration of the desired product is low and purification
from the growth medium is difficult. A major focus,
therefore, has been placed on attempting to find cell
culture methods which can improve the concentration
of cell products and enhance product recovery,
thereby permitting cost-effective, large-scale produc-
tion. The long-term objective of the work being under-
taken in our laboratory is the use of membrane
technology, such as microencapsulation, in animal cell
culture for the enhanced production and recovery of
monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins.

Antibodies are proteins produced by white blood
cells (B-lymphocytes) to aid in the destruction of
foreign antigens. Hybridomas result from the fusion
of antibody-producing lymphocytes with their malig-
nant counterparts (myelomas) and exhibit the genetic
characteristics of both parent cells. After a screening
process, hybridoma cell lines can, if they are subcul-
tured at regular intervals, indefinitely produce anti-
genically specific and identical (monoclonal) antibodies
of the lymphocytes while, at the same time, retaining
the ability to proliferate like the myeloma cells. Typi-
cally, levels of antibody in tissue culture supernatants
are 5 to 50 pg/mL of medium [2]. Monoclonal anti-
bodies have been used in immunoaffinity columns for
the efficient purification of proteins such as interferon.
As diagnostics, they have been used as sensitive de-
tectors of minute quantities of illegal drugs such as
marijuana and cocaine in the blood. They are also
being employed in the treatment of diseases such as
leukemia and cancer. In the latter case, a chemo-
therapeutic drug was covalently attached to an anti-
body which has a high specificity for the tumor cells.
Insect cell culture has received an increased
amount of attention recently since these cells are hosts
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


for a class of viruses, the baculoviruses, which has
been shown to be an excellent vector for genetic en-
gineering [3]. This is mainly due to the high expres-
sion rate of the baculovirus and its post-translational
processing capabilities [4]. After a protein's amino
acid structure has been synthesized, certain proces-
sing or post-translational modifications must be made
in order to make the protein biologically active. These
modifications include efficient secretion, proteolytic
cleaving, phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and possi-
bly myristylation and palmitylation. Procaryotes (bac-
teria), on the other hand, cannot perform many of
these modifications.


Perhaps the most widely used of all available cell
culture methods is suspension culture. With this tech-
nique, cells grow in suspension throughout the
medium and are circulated by means of air sparging
(which also serves to transfer oxygen to the cells) and/
or mechanical agitation. Careful consideration, how-
ever, must be given to the type of system to be used
for large-scale work. Several investigators, for exam-
ple, have noted that, unlike bacterial fermentations,
agitation and aeration must be carefully controlled
since mammalian [5] and insect cell cultures [6] have
been reported to be extremely shear-sensitive. For
this reason, air-lift bioreactors have proven to be use-

Comparison of Different Cell Culture Methods

Specific Antibody Antibody
Productivity Concentration in
(mg/L of Harvest Liquor1
medium'day) (mg/L of
Harvest Liauorl

Suspension (Batch)
Suspension (Chemostat)
Alginate Gel Beads
Hollow Fiber

Mic rocarrier (Verax)
multiple membrane
single membrane



Phillips etal., [21]
Dean, et. al., [10]
Bugarski, et al., [8]
Altshuler, et al., {9]

Dean et al., [10]

500-5000 King [18]
200-900 King [22]

1. Harvest Uquor liquid which must be processed to recover he antibody
2 Space Time Producivity
3. Total Antibody Produced/Toltl Medium/Culture Period
4. Basd on 7 lies of capules +33 lies of medium
& Based on 1 mL of Capsules + 30 mL of medium
& Shellde
7. Fiber ide

Monoclonal antibodies have been used in
immunoaffinity columns for the efficient purification
of proteins such as interferon. .. [and] as sensitive
detectors of minute quantities of illegal drugs
such as ... cocaine in the blood.

ful. Besides having lower shears, higher oxygen trans-
fer rates may be obtained.
The major drawbacks associated with suspension
cell culture, however, are the low cell densities (106
cells/mL medium) and low product concentrations (for
example 10-150 Rg antibody/mL medium). As a conse-
quence, the recovery of biologicals from the culture
medium is difficult and expensive. In addition, the
sensitivity of mammalian and insect cells to shear
stress is of major concern. A major focus, therefore,
has been placed on attempting to find cell culture
methods which can improve the concentration of cells
and cell products and thus permit cost-effective large-
scale production while, at the same time, offer protec-
tion to the shear-sensitive cells.


One of the most common of all cell immobilization
techniques is gel entrapment. This involves the con-
finement of cells within porous polymer matrices such
as calcium alginate, polyacrylamide gels, K-car-
rageenan and chitosan. This method offers the advan-
tages of increased stability and protection from shear
forces for fragile mammalian and insect cells, allows
for higher cell densities to be obtained and virtually
eliminates the need for the separation of the cells from
the medium [7]. However, with this technique, there
is no physical barrier to separate the proteins in the
growth medium from the proteins produced by the
cells. In addition, the antibody must be recovered
from relatively large volumes of medium. Bugarski et
al. [8], for example, immobilized mouse hybridoma
cells in calcium-alginate beads, obtained, in an 11-day
culture period, cell densities of 4.3 x 107 cells/mL of
alginate bead and antibody concentrations of 100 p~g/
mL of medium (Table 1). This represented a produc-
tivity of 9 mg of antibody (IgG) per litre of medium
per day. The advent of hollow fiber bioreactors, a
major advancement in cell culture technology, re-
sulted in significantly higher cell densities and anti-
body concentrations. With this type of reactor, the
cells are cultivated on the outside surface of hollow,
semi-permeable fibers while medium passes through
the interior of the fibers. Diffusion of oxygen and nu-
trients to the cells, the removal of wastes from the
cells, and the retention of high molecular weight cell


FALL 1988

products can be controlled by the choice of the fiber
membrane molecular weight cut-off, medium flow-
rate, and pressure drop across the fiber membrane.
Ideally, retention of the cell product in the volume
outside of the fibers (shell side) is desired. Altshuler
et al. [9], for example, produced an IgG antibody in
such a device reporting IgG concentrations of 740 jig/
mL in the 2.5 mL shell space and maximum IgG con-
centrations of 150 [jg/mL in the bioreactor reservoir
(volume 150 mL). This compares favourably with a
maximum concentration of 7.6 jLg/mL for the same
cell type in suspension culture. Cell concentrations ap-
proached 1 x 107 cells/mL in the reactor shell as com-
pared to 1 x 106 cells/mL in suspension culture.
A major problem encountered with hollow fiber
systems, though, was the poor control of the mem-
brane molecular weight cut-off and the resulting loss
of product. A polysulfone fiber rated to nominally re-
tain 90% of molecules with molecular weight greater
than 105 was employed by Altshuler and co-workers.
However, their data suggest that only about 10% of
the antibody (MW 160000) was retained by the mem-
brane over a four-day culture period.
Microcarriers have also been investigated as an al-
ternative to suspension culture. Successful carrier ma-
terials, based on the adsorption of cells onto the sur-
face of or into a pore structure, include ion-exchange
resin, ceramic supports, stainless steel mesh, and
polyacrylamide beads. Perhaps the most interesting
carriers are the weighted microsponge beads pro-
duced by the Verax Corporation [10]. The major prob-
lem associated with microcarriers as with gel entrap-
ment and suspension, is loss of cells from the matrix.

Viable cells may also be immobilized in micro-
spheres which possess a semi-permeable membrane.
The membrane offers protection to shear-sensitive
cells and provides a surface to which anchorage-de-
pendent cells can adhere. Perhaps the greatest asset
of microencapsulation, though, is the ability of the
semi-permeable membrane to retain a high percent-
age of the protein product within the capsule. This
high product retention may greatly reduce down-
stream processing problems.
Over the past two decades, several enzyme and
living cell microencapsulation procedures have been
developed. These include the polyacrylate capsules of
Sefton [11], the chitosan/alginate system of Rha [12]
and McKnight [13], the alginate-polylysine (PLL)
polyethyleneimine (PEI) system of Lim and Sun [14]
and the alginate-PLL technique of Goosen et al. [15].
Sun's group [16] extended this work to streptozotocin-

induced diabetic rats, and found that transplanted,
microencapsulated islet cells were effective in revers-
ing the diabetic state in animals for more than 12
In 1986, Posillico reported [17], for the first time,
the use of microencapsulation for the production of
monoclonal antibodies in multigram quantities. They
reported, however, that their cells appeared to grow
preferentially near the interior surface of the micro-
capsule membrane and speculated that this could have
been due to mass transfer limitations during the cell
culture or to the presence of a viscous intracapsular
alginate solution. We have been able to show [15, 18]
that the physico-chemical properties of these alginate/
polyamino acid microcapsules such as size, shape and
membrane molecular weight cut-off, could be varied
by: changing the molecular weight and concentration
of the PLL used in the encapsulation procedure and
by adjusting the alginate-PLL reaction time. A re-
view of this technology was recently published [19].



A' 4

AY 21

FIGURE 1. Tissue culture of encapsulated mouse hy-
bridoma cells using a single alginate-PLL membrane.
The initial cell density was 5 x 10 cells/mL of capsules
and the final density was 2 x 107 cells/mL of capsules
after about two weeks. The capsule diameter was 600
gm : 60 uim. [18]


The tissue culture studies in our laboratory with
single-membrane alginate-PLL encapsulated mouse
hybridoma cells confirmed similar work reported by
Posillico [17] and Rupp [20]: hybridoma cells preferen-
tially grow near the interior surface of the capsules,
reaching a maximum cell density of about 2 x 107 cells/
mL of capsules after about two weeks of growth.
However, it was found that while the encapsulated
hybridoma cells produced active monoclonal antibody,
approximately two thirds of the capsule volume re-
mained free of cells and was actually occupied by a
viscous alginate core (Figure 1). This difference in the

FIGURE 2. Hybridoma cells cultured in multiple mem-
brane alginate-PLL microcapsules. Hybridoma cells were
encapsulated with an initial cell density of 5 x 10s
cells/mi of capsules. After about two weeks, the cell
density had risen to 7 X 107 cells/mL of capsules. The
average capsule diameter was 850 gm 85 pm. [22].

physical state of the capsule core may have been due
to the fact that, in the present system, the capsule
membrane molecular weight cut-off was lower (60000)
than that reported by Posillico (80000). However,
similar to our own observations, they found that only
part of their capsule volume was occupied by cells.
The presence of significant amount of intracapsular
alginate (gel or liquid) would not only result in an inef-
ficient use of capsule volume, but may also cause prob-
lems in the recovery and purification of the desired
intracapsular protein productss. With a modified,
multiple membrane, capsule [18] on the other hand,
significantly higher (300%) cell densities and product
concentrations could be obtained (Figure 2). The en-
tire capsule volume was eventually occupied by cells.
This was presumably due to the lower viscosity of the
intracapsular core.
Various cell culture methods are summarized in
Table 1. In terms of productivity, it appears that the
Verax microcarrier system is superior. However,
what is perhaps more important is the antibody con-
centration in the harvest liquor; that is, the liquid that
must be processed to recover the antibody. In every
case, except microencapsulation, this liquid is serum-
supplemented medium. Virtually all of the harvest liq-
uor antibody concentrations are equal except that of
microencapsulation which is, at least, a factor of 10
higher. The result of this is that significantly less
purification is required to recover the antibody. Other
factors, however, such as process scale-up, equip-
ment, raw materials and labour cost, and the mode of
operation (i.e., batch or continuous) must also be con-
The culture of encapsulated insect cells in our lab-
oratory proved to be more difficult. Insect cells, in-
fected with a temperature sensitive baculovirus, could
not be cultured in either single or multiple membrane
capsules when the initial intracapsular alginate con-
centration was 1.4%. It can be postulated that the
alginate may have inhibited oxygen or nutrients from
reaching the insect cells or perhaps the cells were sen-
sitive to the viscous alginate environment. Toxicity
tests supported this observation. Only at alginate con-
centrations of 0.75% or less was cell growth observed.
Cells encapsulated using single (low molecular weight
cut-off) membrane capsules grew poorly (possibly due
to some inhibitory effect of the alginate). However,
infected cells would grow well in single (high molecu-
lar weight cut-off) membrane capsules but the mem-
brane which formed was weak (causing the capsule to
collapse) and often broke, allowing cells to escape into
the medium. On the other hand, multiple membrane
capsules were significantly stronger than their single

FALL 1988

membrane counterparts. Better cell and virus growth
was obtained with the former capsules. This was pos-
sibly due to the lower intracapsular alginate content.
High virus concentration (9 x 108 IFU/mL) were ob-
tained with these microcapsules.
The growth of temperature-sensitive baculoviruses
inside microcapsules appears to be a novel develop-
ment. The ability to turn viral replication on by simply
lowering the culture temperature has allowed, for the
first time, the growth and concentration of virus in-
side of cell-filled microcapsules. Work is continuing on
the production of recombinant proteins by encapsu-
lated infected insect cells in an external-loop air-lift


The encapsulated cell culture studies were per-
formed by Mr. Glenn King. The insect cell baculovirus
work is being done in collaboration with Dr. Peter
Faulkner. The bioreactor expertise was provided by
Dr. Andrew J. Daugulis. This work was supported by
a Strategic Grant from the Natural Sciences and En-
gineering Research Council of Canada.


1. McCormick, D., "Pharmaceutical Markets for the 1990's,"
Bio/Technology, 5, 27 (1987)
2. Goding, J. W., in Monoclonal Antibodies: Principles and
Practices Academic Press, New York, 56-98 (1983)
3. Luckow, V. A., and M. D. Summers, "Trends in the Develop-
ment of Baculovirus Expression Vectors," Bio/Technology,
6(1), 47-55 (1988)
4. Bialy, H., "Recombinant Proteins: Viral Authenticity,"
Bio/Technology 5(10), 885-890 (1987)
5. Van Brunt, J., "Immobilized Mammalian Cells: The Gentle
Way to Productivity," Bio/Technology, 4(6), 505-510 (1986)
6. Hink, W. G., in Microbial and Viral Pesticides, E. Kurstak
(ed), Marcel Dekker Pubs, 493-506 (1982)
7. Nilsson, K., W. Scheirer, O. W. Merten, L. Ostberg, E.
Liehl, H. W. D. Katinger, and K. Mosback, "Entrapment of
Animal Cells for Production of Monoclonal Antibodies and
Other Biomolecules," Nature, 302, 629-230 (1983)
8. Bugarski, B., G. A. King, A. J. Daugulis, and M. F. A. Goosen,
"Performance of an External Loop Air-Lift Bioreactor for
the Production of Monoclonal Antibodies by Immobilized
Hybridoma Cells," Applied Microbiology and Bioengi-
neering ( Submitted July, 1988)
9. Altshuler, G.L., D. M. Dziewski, J. A. Sowek, and G.
Belfort, "Continuous Hybridoma Growth and Monoclonal
Antibody Production in Hollow Fiber Reactors-Separators,"
Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 28(5), 646-658 (1986)
10. Dean, R. C., S. B. Karkare, N. G. Ray, P. W.Runstadler, and
K. Vankatasubramanian, "Large-Scale Culture of
Hybridoma and Mammalian Cells in Fluidized Bed
Bioreactors," Ann. N. Y. Acad. of Sciences, 506, 129-146
11. Sefton, M. V., R. M. Dawson, R. L. Broughton, J. Blysniuk,
and M. E. Sugamori, "Microencapsulation of Mammalian
Cells in a Water Insoluble Polyacrylate by Coextrusion and
Interfacial Precipitation," Biotechnology and
Bioengineering, 29, 1135-1143 (1987)

12. Rha, C. K. European Patent Application #152898 (1985)
13. McKnight, C. A., C. Penny, A. Ku, D. Sun, and M. F. A.
Goosen, "Synthesis of Chitosan-Alginate Microcapsule
Membranes," Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers
(Accepted May 26, 1988)
14. Lim, F., and A. M. Sun, "Microencapsulated Islets as
Bioartificial Endocrine Pancreas," Science, 210, 908-910
15. Goosen, M. F. A., G. M. O'Shea, H. M. Gharapetian, S.
Chou, and A. M. Sun, "Optimization of Microencapsulation
Parameters: Semipermeable Microcapsules as a Bioartifi-
cial Pancreas," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 27, 146-
150 (1985)
16. O'Shea, G. M., M. F. A. Goosen, and A. M. Sun, "Prolonged
Survival of Transplanted Islets of Langerhans Encapsulated
in Biocompatible Membrane," Biochimica et Biophysica
Acta., 804, 133-136 (1984)
17. Posillico, E. G., "Microencapsulation Technology for Large-
Scale Antibody Production," BiolTechnology, 4(2) 114-117
18. King, G. A., A. J. Daugulis, P. Faulkner, and M. F. A. Goosen,
"Alginate-Polylysine Microcapsules of Controlled Mem-
brane Molecular Weight Cut-Off for Mammalian Cell
Culture Engineering," Biotechnology Progress, 3(4), 231-240
19. Goosen, M. F. A., "Insulin Delivery Systems and the Encap-
sulation of Cells for Medical and Industrial Use," CRC
Critical Reviews in Biocompatibility, 3(1), 1-24 (1987)
20. Rupp, R. G., in Large-Scale Mammalian Cell Culture, J.
Feder and W. R. Tolbert (eds), Academic Press (1985)
21. Phillips, H. A., J. M. Scharer, N. C. Bols, and M. Moo-
Young, "Effect of Oxygen on Antibody Production in
Hybridoma Culture," Biotechnology Letters, ((11) 745-750
22. King, G. A., A. J. Daugulis, P. Faulkner, and M. F. A. Goosen,
manuscript in preparation (1988) i

REVIEW: Levenspiel
Continued from page 195.

pressible Newtonians in Pipes, Compressible Flow of
Gases, Molecular Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Flow
Through Packed Beds, Flow in Fluidized Beds, and
Solid Particles Falling Through Fluids. The heat
transfer section covers: The Three Mechanisms of
Heat Transfer, Combination of Heat Transfer Resis-
tances, Unsteady-State Heating and Cooling of Solid
Objects, Introduction to Heat Exchangers, Re-
cuperators, Direct-Contact Gas-Solid Nonstoring Ex-
changers, and Heat Regenerators. The book ends
with a chapter called Potpourri of Problems.
The preface to the book indicates it is not for begin-
ners. Levenspiel carefully states that the book is
meant for practicing engineers and for those who have
had an introductory course in transport phenomena.
In keeping with that statement, the first paragraph
of the text starts out with the First Law of Ther-
modynamics; the Second Law is covered in the second
paragraph. This is definitely not a place for the raw
beginner. Levenspiel quickly develops the macro-


scopic equations and then moves into applications of
the whimsical, thought-provoking type for which he is
While reviewing the book I got the feeling that
Levenspiel is trying to fill a void in modern engineer-
ing education. Here is a book devoid of partial differ-
ential equations (except for the unavoidable ones in
unsteady heat transfer), vector notation, numerical
methods and computer-based problems. This is a book
that tries to keep thinking from becoming a lost art.
Levenspiel has cleverly used his whimsical problems
to encourage new thinking and application. By moving
the reader away from standard CPI applications,
creativity and thinking are encouraged because these
are not the "real" problems facing an engineer. In fan-
tasy land one is not constrained by past experiences,
so imagination can have free rein. Almost unknow-
ingly one takes his fundamental models of the universe
and applies them to the new situation.
I found the heat transfer part of the book less satis-
fying than the fluid flow part. The second half of the
book is much more a recital of equations. There are
chapters with no examples or problems at the end of
the chapter. The clever application problems drop
from about 50% in the fluids portion down to about
25% in the latter portion. One almost gets the im-
pression that the author was running out of steam
during the last part of the book.
Chapter 16 is a refreshing assembly of problems
with no tie to any previous chapters. In an era where
many textbooks almost tell you what equation in a
given chapter applies to a particular problem,
Levenspiel gives some multi-concept problems and
leaves the rest to the reader. Bravo!
The book uses SI units exclusively. I would rather
see a mixture of applications using English units, par-
ticularly if the audience is to include practicing en-
gineers. Engineers still must be comfortable with
more than one system of units.
There are no answers provided for any of the prob-
lems. For a clientele of practicing engineers who want
to check their understanding of what they are learn-
ing, answers to some of the problems would help.
It may prove unfortunate that the book will not
really find a home. With the structured and crowded
curricula which are now so common, it may not be
readily usable. It is definitely not a teaching text in
the usual sense-there are too many gaps for a new
learner to bridge. Perhaps it may serve as an adjunct
text in a design course. If such is the case, then a less
expensive paperback edition would make it more at-
tractive. In any case, finding a home within the uni-

versity for this book may well require some creativity
on the part of the professor (the author has already
done his part). D

M letters


Dear Editor:
I read with considerable interest the article in the
spring 1988 issue, "Safety and Loss Prevention in the Un-
dergraduate Curriculum: A Dual Perspective," by Dan
Crowl and Joe Louvar. As one of the founders of AIChE's
Center for Chemical Process Safety and as a promoter,
while AIChE Executive Director, of increased emphasis
on safety in the undergraduate curriculum, I commend
Wayne State and BASF for their video training sessions.
In their article, Crowl and Louvar note the "ambitious
safety and loss prevention program" in Great Britain.
This program, under the leadership of the Institution of
Chemical Engineers, has led not only to formal safety in-
struction in universities, but also to excellent interactive
hazard workshop modules. These excellent products are
now available in the western hemisphere.
These modules are available in different formats.
First, there are seven slide module programs, on subjects
ranging from the hazards of plant modifications to hu-
man error. In addition, IChemE offers four current
videotape and slide programs, on Preventing Emergen-
cies, Inherent Safety (by Trevor Kletz), Safe Handling of
LPG, and Safer Piping. Finally, a computer emergency
simulation module on Handling Emergencies for IBM
and compatible PCs involves the students in a very real
simulation of fire or toxic gas release at an operating
chemical plant, with actions and results occurring ac-
cording to the pre-plan assembled by the group. New
modules are being prepared on other important process
safety subjects.
These modules are ideal for use in the undergraduate
curriculum, and are available at special university dis-
count prices. Each package comes with a full text and
trainer's guide. I will be pleased to describe and discuss
these products with interested chemical engineering
J. Charles Forman
The Institution of Chemical Engineers
165-171 Railway Terrace
Rugby CV21 3HQ, England

FALL 1988

A course in ...


University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

THE DEPARTMENT OF Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science at the University of Minnesota
has developed a series of courses on biochemical en-
gineering for its senior undergraduate and first-year
graduate students. The series includes three lecture
courses, which are offered sequentially, and one labo-
ratory course. The lecture courses are entitled
Stoichiometry, Energetics and Kinetics of Biological
Systems; Biochemical Processing Technology; and
Bioseparations. The first course deals with engineer-
ing aspects of cellular processes and includes an intro-
duction to the kinetics and mathematical modeling of
growth and product formation. The processing
technology course covers the reactor aspects of bio-
chemical engineering; topics include kinetics and mass
transfer in bioreactors, medium and air sterilization,
and enzyme-catalyzed bioreactors. The bioseparations
course deals with the unit operations used in the four
stages of separation of biomolecules: solids removal,
isolation, purification and polishing.
In the Biochemical Engineering Laboratory
course, students perform experiments to obtain data

for the design of a continuous sterilizer and to compare
oxygen uptake rates of yeast cells in free suspension
and immobilized in agar beads. They also perform a
fermentation experiment in which they use a com-
puter-coupled fermentor to gather kinetic data and to
determine the program for feeding rate-limiting nutri-
ent. These four courses give chemical engineering stu-
dents a relatively complete background in biochemical
engineering and also prepare them for meeting chal-
lenges in the bioprocessing industries. This communi-
cation will discuss the organization and the content of
the laboratory course.

Typically, a class of fifteen to twenty students is
divided into groups of three or four. Each group
chooses a leader who is responsible for the coordina-
tion and planning of an experiment. The group leader
position rotates with each new experiment. Before
each experiment, the instructor gives a one-hour lec-
ture on the principles, instrumentation, and methods
of chemical analysis needed to carry out the experi-
The time period required to carry out the experi-
ment varies with different projects. Considerably
longer periods (as long as a few days) are required for

Terry K. L. Ng is a PhD stu-
dent in the Department of
Chemical Engineering and Ma-
terials Science, University of
Minnesota. He received his P BS b
degree from Columbia Univer-
sity. His research interests ore
liquid-liquid two-phase cul-
tures, oxygenation of mamma-
lian cell cultures with
perfluorocarbon liquids, and
mass spectrometry of fermentor
off gases. (L) L
Jorge F. Gonzalez is a PhD student in the Department of Chemical
Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota. He contaminated soil. (C)
has a degree in chemical engineering from the National University of Wei-Shou Hu is an assistant professor in the Department of Chem-
Mar del Plata, Republica Argentina. Prior to being admitted to Min- ical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota.
nesota, he did research on wastewater treatment at fisheries. His PhD He received his PhD in biochemical engineering from Massachusetts
thesis is a kinetic study of biodegradation of pentachlorophenol in Institute of Technology in 1983. (R)
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


the batch fermentation experiment, which is the last
experiment in this course. Laboratory hours for this
experiment are arranged individually with the teach-
ing assistant to ensure close supervision.
Teaching assistants play an important role in this
course. They supervise students on the operation of
instruments and equipment and ensure that safety
procedures are being followed in the laboratory.
Teaching assistants also prepare inocula and sterilize
laboratory glassware when sterile operation is


1. Aseptic techniques
The first experiment is an introduction to sterile
techniques during which students practice the aseptic
handling of microorganisms. Two strains of Es-
cherichia Coli (E. Coli) C600 r n+ are used; one har-
bors the plasmid PDU 1003 which encodes resistance
to antibiotic tetracycline, and the other does not. Stu-
dents prepare two sets of nutrient agar plates; one
contains tetracycline (10 jig/ml), and the other does
not. Students are given cell suspensions of the two E.
coli strains and are asked to identify each of them and
to determine their cell concentrations. In this experi-
ment, students are exposed to the concept of selective
pressure, the principle of gene amplification which is
used in modern molecular biology and the new bio-
technology industry. This experiment takes a two-
hour session.

2. Dissolve oxygen concentration measurement
The second experiment is the construction of a gal-
vanic dissolved oxygen (D.O.) electrode [1, 2] and the
measurement of dissolved oxygen concentration. The
galvanic electrodes consist of a silver cathode and a
lead anode. These electrodes are also to be used in
subsequent experiments. The construction of the elec-
trode is completed in the first of the two sessions (total
of six hours) assigned to this project.
The overall reactions are:

cathode :

1 02 + H2 + 2e- 2 OH

lead anode : Pb --Pb" +2e-


10+ Pb+H,0 Pb(OH) (3)
2 2 2 2

The first course deals with engineering aspects of
cellular processes and includes an introduction to the
kinetics and mathematical modeling of growth and
product formation. The processing technology
course covers the reactor aspects
of biochemical engineering.

The current generated by the reaction is measured by
a microameter. If the resistance to transfer of oxygen
from the bulk liquid to the silver cathode resides
primarily in the membrane, the output of the elec-
trode at steady state can be described by

I= nFA -- C (4)
The use of the electrode requires proper calibration.
In the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations to be
used in the experiment, the output is proportional to
the dissolved oxygen concentration. A two-point calib-
ration is usually used. First, the response of the probe
in the solution in which the dissolved oxgen is in
equilibrium with air at ambient pressure is recorded
as the 100% level. The second point is one with all the
dissolved oxygen depleted either by the addition of
1.0 M of sodium sulfite (with a trace amount of Cu+2
(-103 M) as a catalyst) or by sparging the fluid with
nitrogen gas.
Subsequently students measure the response of
the electrode to a step change of dissolved oxygen
from depletion to saturation with air. The transient
output of the probe can be expressed as an infinite
series [3] as

I=nFA M Ci 1+2 (-1)nexp(-n2kt) (5)
b n=

where k Dm

The experiment is to be carried out twice; (i) using a
magnetic stirrer to stir the oxygen-saturated water in
(1) the flask, and (ii) no stirring. After obtaining the re-
sponse curve, students are asked to examine if the
response can be estimated by Eq. (5) and to determine
(2) the time constant, k.

3. Oxygen uptake rate of yeast cells in suspension
and immobilized in agar gel
A schematic diagram of the set-up for the oxygen

FALL 1988

uptake rate measurements, the third experiment in
this course, is shown in Figure 1. The device for oxy-
gen uptake measurement is a 250 cm3 Erlenmeyer
flask with a tightly sealed rubber stopper. A dissolved
oxygen electrode, previously prepared by the stu-
dents themselves, is inserted through the stopper to
the flask. During the experiment, the flask is placed
in a constant temperature water bath. Care should be
taken to ensure that the stopper of the flask is tightly
sealed and that no gas bubble enters the flask during
the experiment. The cell suspension inside the flask is
stirred by a magnetic stirrer. Prior to the experiment,
the D.O. electrode is calibrated under the experimen-
tal conditions to be used. The analogue output of the
dissolved oxygen electrode is converted to digital sig-
nals and stored in an IBM personal computer.
The students are provided with a suspension of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae that were growing expo-
nentially in complex medium. The optical density of
the culture broth is measured to determine the cell
concentration. The suspension is sparged with air to
bring the D.O. to a higher concentration and is trans-





0 10 20

Time (min)

FIGURE 2. Changes of dissolved oxygen concentration
during the oxygen uptake rate measurement using sus-
pension of yeast cells

ferred into the measurement flask, overfilling it
slightly. The stopper, along with the D.O. electrode,
is quickly inserted and the flask is sealed, avoiding
entrapment of air bubbles.
The dissolved oxygen electrode constructed by the
students typically has a 90% response time (the time
period in which the output of the electrode reaches
90% of the new steady state value after a step change
in dissolved oxygen from 0% to 100% saturation with
air) ranging from one minute to a few minutes. In the
measurement of the oxygen uptake rate it is necessary
to ensure that the rate measured is not limited by the
electrode response time. This is achieved by measur-
ing the oxygen consumption using cell suspensions of
different cell concentration. The proper experimental
condition is in the range bounded by (i) the oxygen
consumption rate of the suspension being proportional
to the cell concentration, and (ii) the total time span
needed to acquire an accurate measurement of the
oxygen uptake rate being short relative to the doubl-
ing time of the cells under the conditions used. The
second constraint is needed so that cell concentration
can be assumed to be constant. A typical D. 0. concen-
tration profile from this experiment is shown in Fi-
gure 2. Except for the initial few data points and the
period in which the oxygen concentration is very low,
the rate of decrease of oxygen is constant. The specific
oxygen consumption is then

FIGURE 1. Experimental set-up for the oxygen uptake
rate measurement

q = (AC/At)/x


The linear range in the dissolved oxygen concen-
tration curve is used to calculate the oxygen consump-
tion rate. The deviation from linearity at the begin-
ning is due to the switch of the D.O. electrode from a
solution in which the electrode is previously sub-
merged to the cell suspension. The consumption of
oxygen by yeast cells follows Michaelis Menten kine-
tics; thus the rate is zero order with respect to the
dissolved oxygen concentration only at concentrations
above a certain level. The decrease in the oxygen con-
sumption rate at the end of the measurement (longer
than ten minutes, as shown in Figure 3) is most likely
due to the intrinsic kinetic behavior of yeast cells.
To prepare the immobilized cell system, yeast cells
are harvested by centrifugation and subsequently re-
suspended in a smaller volume of the growth medium.
The cell suspension is then mixed with an equal vol-
ume of 4% agar solution which has been maintained
just above its solidifying temperature (-400C). This
agar-cell suspension is quickly poured into a Petri dish
and allowed to solidify. The volume of agar added to
each Petri dish is adjusted to give rise to a gel thick-
ness of 2.4 mm. The agar gel disk is then removed
from the Petri dish and gently pressed against a
screen with an opening of 2.4 mm. The almost cubic
agar particles so formed are collected and poured into
the oxygen uptake rate measurement flask. The flask
is subsequently filled with growth medium and the
dissolved oxygen is measured and recorded in the
computer. The experiment is repeated with agar
cubes containing different concentrations of im-
mobilized cells.
Students are instructed to analyze the mass trans-
fer processes in the immobilized cell system. The dis-
solved oxygen concentration at the interface of agar
beads and liquid is assumed to be the same as that in
the bulk liquid. At a high cell concentration and, thus,
a high reaction rate in the agar gel, the intraparticle
diffusion of oxygen can be limiting. The cell concentra-
tions used in the agar gel are selected to allow stu-
dents to observe cases of both oxygen transfer limita-
tion and no limitation. Furthermore, students are
asked to compare the experimental results to the
theoretical analysis using effectiveness factor (0r) for
substrate utilization with Michaelis-Menten kinetics
[6]. The observable modulus ( is defined as

qX b (Vp
De. Co A,

In Equation 7, q is obtained from the measurement
using free cells in suspension. The diffusion of oxygen

in agarose gel needed for the theoretical analysis is
obtained from literature [7].

4. Continuous sterilization
The fourth project is the continuous sterilization
of Escherichia coli cell suspensions. The continuous
sterilizer consists of a cell suspension reservoir, a
peristaltic pump, and a piece of silicone tubing con-
necting the reservoir to a four-foot long coiled copper
tubing submerged in a constant temperature water
bath (Figure 3). The cell suspension stream from the
sterilizer is collected in flasks submerged in an ice
bath. A three-way valve is installed before the collec-

FIGURE 3. Scheme of the apparatus for continuous
tion flask to allow for rapid switch from one flask to
another so that samples from various time points can
be taken easily.
In the first session of this experiment, students
determine the thermal death rate constant of the cells.
Three water baths are set up at 500, 60 and 65C
respectively. A series of test tubes containing buffer
solution are prewarmed in each water bath. To begin
the experiment, small aliquots of cell suspension are
added to the test tubes so that the sterilization tem-
perature is reached almost instantaneously. At differ-
ent time intervals tubes are withdrawn from the
water bath and the contents are transferred to bottles
containing chilled dilution solution for viable cell
count. From the viable count of cells the death rate
constant at the three temperatures are determined:

-d -K(T)N (8)
Arrhenius plot is then prepared to estimate the death
rate constants as a function of temperature.
The temperature for the continuous sterilization is
65C. However, with the system employed for this

FALL 1988

experiment, the temperature rising period is a signif-
icant fraction of the holding time in the sterilizer.
Thus, both the heating region and the temperature
holding region are important in the killing of bacteria.
Students calculate the temperature profile in the
sterilizer for a number of flow rates. The heat transfer
coefficient of the coil is obtained from the reported
value for the same material in literature. Students are
also instructed to assume a plug flow behavior for fluid
flow inside the sterilizer. Their assignments involve
determining sterilization flow rates required to
achieve two different degrees of killing (N/No) [4, 5,
6] and carrying out the processes.

5. Cultivation of microorganisms in a stirred tank
The last project is a fermentation experiment
which is designed to expose students to the tasks in-
volved in fermentation operations. The tasks they
carry out include setting up a 2 1 or 16 1 fermentor and
auxiliary systems, preparation ofinocula, sterilization
of vessel and medium, aseptic inoculation, sampling,
data acquisition and analysis. The specifics of the fer-
mentation experiments carried out vary from year to
year. Among them is the classical yeast fermentation
of glucose. Students are asked to study the production
of ethanol and its further oxidation to carbon dioxide
and water during different stages of the batch culture.
Another experiment is the fed-batch cultivation of
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 using
ethanol as the carbon and energy source. In this case
a sufficiently high ethanol concentration in the
bioreactor is necessary to sustain an optimal growth
rate; however, it will inhibit growth if it is allowed to
exceed an upper limit. In this experiment, program-
med feeding of ethanol is carried out during the culti-
vation to control ethanol concentration in the tolerable
range. Without such a feeding scheme, cell growth
ceases after ethanol initially present in the bioreactor
is depleted. Students are given kinetic data obtained
from a batch culture without programmed feeding.
From the data, they determine the specific growth
rate and specific ethanol consumption rate or the yield
coefficients. The kinetic parameters are used in the
growth model to calculate the feeding rate. Students
input the feeding rate as a function of process time
into the microprocessor. The execution of the feeding
is carried out by a microprocessor controlled pump.
The temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen concen-
tration are controlled by simple feedback loops. The
oxygen consumption rate, determined by the analysis
of off-gas by mass spectrometer, can be used to esti-

mate the specific growth rate, and such information
can be used to adjust the feeding rate of ethanol on-
line. However, because of the extensive program de-
velopment needed to implement such on-line adjust-
ment, any adjustment of feeding rate is implemented
by the students but not by on-line computer. During
the fermentation, samples are withdrawn periodically,
and the cell concentration is measured by a colorime-
ter. A portion of the samples is frozen for the mea-
surement of ethanol concentration by gas chromatog-
raphy. The experimental results are compared to the

One achievement of this laboratory course is the
demonstration to our undergraduate students that
chemical engineering principles do apply to systems
involving living microorganisms. Probably equally im-
portant is for the students to realize that the system
they deal with is never as simple as it is represented
in the textbook. However, it is the simplification or
idealization of the complex biological systems that al-
lows us to apply the chemical engineering principles
to systematically analyze these systems. In the sterili-
zation experiment, they quickly realize that the ther-
mal death rate constant of microbial cells is affected
by many factors, such as growth medium, pH, and
culture stage, in addition to temperature. It only
takes a few hours into the fermentation experiments
for the students to discover that the yield coefficient
is not constant in a batch culture, as it is frequently
assumed to be in most mathematical growth models.
One of the student groups noted in its report: "The
overall experiment gave us a very good opportunity
to apply knowledge gained in the previous courses of
the Biochemical Engineering series, and most impor-
tantly to realize that things in the lab are much less
ideal than presented by theory!"

Footnote: The student manual, which includes step-by-step instruc-
tions for each experiment, is available by writing to W-S. Hu.

A = area of silver cathode
Ap = area of agar particles
b = membrane thickness
C1 = concentration of 02 in the bulk liquid
Co = oxygen concentration in the bulk of medium
in Eq. 7
AC = difference in oxygen concentration
Des = oxygen diffusivity in agar particles


= oxygen diffusivity through the membrane
= Faraday's constant
= current
= electrode time constant
= thermal death rate constant
= number of electrons
= number of viable cells
= permeability coefficient of the membrane
= specific oxygen consumption rate
= time
= temperature
= time elapsed between oxygen concentration
= volume of agar particles
= cell concentration being used in the experiment
= cell concentration in agar particles

1. Johnson, M. J., J. Borkowsky, and C. Engblom,"Steam
Sterilizable Probes for Dissolved Oxygen Measurement,"
Biotechnol. Bioen. 6:457-468, 1964
2. Borkowsky, J. D., and M. J. Johnson, "Long-Lived Steam
Sterilizable Membrane Probes for Dissolved Oxygen
Measurement," Biotechnol. Bioeng. 9:635-639, 1967
3. Lee, Y. H., and G. T. Tsao, "Dissolved Oxygen Electrodes,"
Adv. Biochem. Eng. 13:35-86, ed. by T. K. Chose, A.
Fiechter, and N. Blakebrough. Springer Verlag, Berlin,
4. Wang, D. I. C., et al., Chapter 8, Fermentation and Enzyme
Technology, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1979
5. Aiba, S., A. E. Humphrey, and N. F. Millis, Biochemical
Engineering, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, New York, 1973
6. Bailey, J., and D. Ollis, Chapters 4 and 8, Biochemical
Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1986
7. An-Lac Nguyen and J. H. T. Luong, "Diffusion in K-
Carrageenan Gel Beads," Biotechnol. Bioeng. 28:1261-1267,
1986 L

In memorial ...



Professor Robert L. Pigford died on August 4th after
suffering a stroke on May 14th from which he never
recovered. He was 71 years old and a long-time resident
of Newark, Delaware.
He was born and raised in Meridian, Mississippi. He
earned his BS degree in chemical engineering from Mis-
sissippi State College in 1938, his MS and PhD degrees
from the University of Illinois. His next six years were
spent in the Engineering Research Laboratory at the
DuPont Experimental Station, working on both civilian
and military research problems, the latter arising from
World War II. With his industrial colleagues, he partici-
pated in what was to become one of the national centers
for a renaissance in engineering education, in which the
group replaced approximate analyses guided by experi-
ment with careful, quantitative models of the chemical
and physical processes being considered. Dr. Pigford's
association with the University of Delaware began
shortly after his arrival in Delaware when he began or-
ganizing these new analyses into evening and week-end
courses for chemical engineering students on the cam-
pus. One result of this activity was a textbook, Application
of Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering Prob-
lems, which he coauthored with the late W. R. Marshall.
In 1947 Allan Colburn prevailed upon Bob Pigford to
come to the University on a full-time basis as chairman of
the fledgling department of chemical engineering. His
association with the University of Delaware spanned
more than thirty years. From 1966 to 1975 he served on
the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley.
He was one of the earliest proponents of the use of
computers in engineering and built several for both in-
struction and research before the widespread availability

of such machines. His colleagues remember the numer-
ous hurdles he had to overcome to convince conservative
administrators of the need for these expensive new tools
of science and technology.
His advice was sought by numerous industrial, aca-
demic and governmental institutions. He served as a
member of the U.S. Army's Advisory Council, the Scien-
tific Advisory Board of the U.S. Air Force, the Depart-
ment of Energy and the National Research Council, as
well as being a member of the Advisory Committees for
Chemical Engineering at Princeton University and Mas-
sachusetts Institute of Technology. He received virtually
all the national awards of the American Institute of
Chemical Engineers and served as a Director of that or-
ganization from 1963 to 1966. In 1983, on the occasion of
that organization's 75th anniversary, he was named as
one of thirty pre-eminent leaders of his profession. He
was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in
1971 and to the National Academy of Sciences in 1972. In
1977, the University of Delaware named him as its first
Alison Scholar, and in 1983 he was appointed to the
University's Board of Trustees.
In addition to serving on numerous editorial advisory
boards, he served as editor of the American Chemical So-
ciety Journal Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Fundamentals for a full quarter century. The Delaware
Association of Professional Engineers named him Engi-
neer-of-the-Year in 1988.
Professor Pigford married Marian Pinkston in 1939.
Their daughter, Nancy, is a resident of Philadelphia and
their son, Robert, lives in Newark, Delaware. There are
three grandsons.
Arthur Metzner, Marian Pigford

FALL 1988

Research on ...


Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0100

E XCEPT IN THE MOST established industries,
today's chemical engineers will undoubtedly face
the problem of designing processes and sizing equip-
ment with little or no reliable thermodynamic or phys-
ical property data. This problem will occur more fre-
quently as chemical engineers continue to expand into
emerging technologies such as biotechnology, biopro-
cessing, and electronic materials processing. Even in
the traditional industries such as oil and coal, the need
for reliable physical property information will increase
as these industries strive to meet changing pollution,
safety and efficiency standards.
The chemical engineering applied thermodynamics
community is quite active in its attempts to "keep
pace" with the increased demand for data. While data
at the exact conditions of interest are obviously the
most desirable, the general trend of thermodynamics
research is toward theoretical or semi-theoretical
models and property correlations which permit exten-

- 1 1*i
Amyn Teja received his BS and PhD degrees in chemical engineer-
ing from Imperial College in London and is currently a professor in the
School of Chemical Engineering at Georgia Tech. His research interests
are in the thermodynamics and fluid properties area for which he was
recently awarded the Sustained Research Award of the Georgia Tech
Chapter of Sigma Xi. (L)
Steven Schaeffer received his BS and MS degrees in chemical en-
gineering from Lehigh University. He recently received his PhD degree
in chemical engineering from Georgia Tech. (R)

FIGURE 1. Interrelationships between thermophysical
property research

sion of the information to other conditions of temper-
ature, pressure, and composition. A broader trend is
toward models which require very limited informa-
tion. For example, computer simulation and group
contribution methods require a knowledge only of the
molecular structure to estimate physical properties.
However, the basis for reliable correlations remains
the accurate measurement of thermophysical proper-
ties of interest.
Thermophysical property research at Georgia
Tech has a long and distinguished history. Indeed,
Professor Waldemar Ziegler was performing solubil-
ity studies using supercritical fluids [1] long before
this subject became "fashionable." In general terms,
our current research is concerned with the measure-
ment, correlation, and prediction of basic properties
such as phase equilibria, critical phenomena, enthal-
pies, specific heats, densities, viscosities, thermal con-
ductivities, diffusion coefficients, and surface ten-
sions. Our ultimate goal is to develop reliable predic-
tive methods for thermophysical properties and phase
equilibria and to further the understanding of the un-
derlying molecular phenomena (Figure 1).
The members of our research group consist of the
authors, two visiting professors, one post-doctoral fel-
low, seven graduate students, and two undergraduate
students. In addition, we interact closely with re-

O Copyright ChE Division ASEE 198,


search programs in the Schools of Mechanical En-
gineering, Chemistry, and Applied Biology. In the
past four years, six masters degrees and eight PhDs
have been awarded for research ranging from experi-
mental studies of hydrocarbon solubilities in supercrit-
ical fluids to fundamental equations of state. Our re-
search facilities include equipment for critical point
studies, phase equilibrium studies (two at high pres-
sures and one at ambient pressure), several high pres-
sure viscometers, a transient hot-wire thermal con-
ductivity apparatus, a drop calorimeter, two high
pressure density apparatuses, and a low pressure
densiometer. This equipment is summarized in Table
1. In addition, a wide range of analytical equipment
(GC, HPLC, MS, and NMR) is available, as are stand-
ards (platinum resistance thermometers, dead weight
gauges, etc.) for calibration. Our laboratories also
have a dedicated microvax II workstation with plotter
and laser printer and several PCs for data acquisition,
analysis, and report writing. Four current research
projects are described in more detail below.

Experimental Thermophysical Property Capabilities at Georgia Tech


Measurement Technique

Critical temperature
and volume

Rapid heating of a sealed

Operation Ranges
T(C) P(bar)

25-500 1-100

Critical temperature Low residence time flow 5-400 1-100
and pressure apparatus

Fluid-solid equilibria Single-pass flow apparatus -10-90 1-340

Vapor-liquid equilibria Vapor and liquid recirculation 25-200 1-340

Vapor-liquid equilibria Recirculation still 25-200 0.1-2

Thermal conductivity Transient hot wire method 25-210 1-100

Heat capacity Adiabatic drop calorimeter 100-500 1-100

Viscosity Capillary viscometer 25-1100 1-680
Rolling ball viscometer 25-250 1-680
Capilaryviscometers -10-250 1

Density High pressure pycnometer -10-300 1-100
Vibrating tube densiometer -10-150 1-350
Vibrating tube densiometer -10-50 1-10

While critical point measurements have
been made for many stable substances, experimental
data are almost non-existant for thermally unstable
compounds commonly found in heavy oil
processing, biochemical separations,
and supercritical extraction.


In addition to its fundamental importance in
molecular theory, the critical point of a substance
forms the basis for the corresponding states and equa-
tion of state calculations of thermodynamic properties
and phase equilibria. A knowledge of the critical point
is also required in supercritical fluid extraction, ret-
rograde condensation, and supercritical fluid power
While critical point measurements have been made
for many stable substances, experimental data are al-
most non-existent for thermally unstable compounds
commonly found in heavy oil processing, biochemical
separations, and supercritical extraction. At Georgia
Tech, we have developed two methods for determin-
ing the critical properties of thermally unstable fluids.
The first method involves the rapid heating in a
platinum furnace of a sealed glass ampoule containing
the substance. By observing the changing meniscus
disappearance-reappearance phenomena characteris-
tic of the critical point with time, and by extrapolation
to a thermally stable state, the critical temperature
and critical volume can be obtained (Figure 2). The

8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0
Time (min)
FIGURE 2. Temperature-time history of a thermally un-
stable substance (octan-1-ol) showing points of menis-
cus disappearance and reappearance

FALL 1988

second method is a low-residence time technique in
which the fluid is pumped rapidly through a view cell
in a heated oven. In this apparatus, critical opales-
cence is observed by manipulating the pressure, tem-
perature, heating rate, and flow rate of the fluid. The
combination of these two methods provides all three
critical properties (Pc, Vc, and T,) of pure fluids and
fluid mixtures. New methods, including one involving
rapid heating with a CO2 laser, are being developed
to extend the range of fluids which can be studied.
The critical properties of several homologous
series of compounds have been measured in our
laboratories including the alkanes, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5-al-
kanols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, perfloroalkanes,
and mercaptans. We estimate that some 8% of all ex-
perimental critical properties have been measured in
our laboratories. Part of this research is funded by
the AIChE through DIPPR (Design Institute for
Physical Property Research) and part by the National
Science Foundation. Several correlations for critical
properties have also been developed, as well as a
method for estimating the effect of impurities using
continuous thermodynamics [2].

The advantages of supercritical fluids for biosep-
arations have been noted by many researchers [3]. In

S Methane
5 < o Ethane
d A Propane
+ n-Pentane
x n-Heptane
v n-Decane
Group EOS

3.0 7.0 11.0 15.0 19.0 23.0
Pressure (MPa)

FIGURE 3. Predicted phase equilibria using a group con-
tribution equation of state [4] at 360K

particular, physiologically inert solvents with moder-
ate critical temperatures (such as CO2) are well-suited
to the separation and isolation of biochemicals. Our
interest in supercritical fluid extraction is multifa-
ceted. We are interested in the phenomenological as-
pects of phase equilibria at high pressure as well as in
the modelling and prediction of these phenomena. For
example, a recent PhD thesis [4] successfully de-
monstrated that multicomponent high pressure phase
equilibria could be predicted using generalized equa-
tions of state with only a knowledge of the chemical
structures of the components (Figure 3). We are also
very interested in separations with potential applica-
tions in biotechnology. Towards this end, we are car-
rying out joint research with the natural products
group of Dr. Leon H. Zalkow in the School of Chemis-
try and Dr. Leslie T. Gelbaum of the School of Applied
Biology at Georgia Tech. This joint work has included
the separation and isolation of several chemotherapeu-
tic compounds of interest to the National Cancer Insti-
We have recently completed a study of the extrac-
tion of the anti-cancer alkaloid monocrotaline (Figure
4) from the seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis using
supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures [5].
It was found that pure carbon dioxide extracted only
the non-polar lipid materials from the seeds, which is
to be expected in view of the chemical nature of carbon
dioxide. By adding ethanol, the alkaloid of interest
could be removed, although the lipids were still pres-
ent in the extracts. In order to reduce the downstream
separation requirements of a potential commercial
process, a second stage separation employing a novel
adsorbent was used to separate the components in the
supercritical fluid phase. Using this technique, al-
kaloid purities of almost 100% were obtained. This
process offers significant economic as well as regula-
tory (FDA) advantages over conventional separation
processes and is being patented.
A study has also been recently completed involving
the separation of fructose from glucose in aqueous sol-
utions, again using carbon dioxide-ethanol mixtures
[6]. Fructose has nutritional advantages for normal,
controlled diabetic and reactive hypoglycemic per-
sons. In this study, it was found that high fructose
purities could be obtained in the vapor phase. Cur-
rently, using this same apparatus, an investigation is
under way to separate taxol from Indian Yew tree
bark. Taxol is a very effective anticancer drug which
is difficult to separate from its natural source. Indeed,
the conventional separation technique is so elaborate
and has such low yields that effective clinical testing
of the drug is difficult. It is our hope that an alterna-


~ +

+ + ~ - -I--*- -- ^ x

tive carbon dioxide based separation process will re-
sult from our study.

Two pairs of working fluids are in common use in
commercial absorption chillers and heat pumps: am-
monia-water and lithium bromide-water. The ther-
modynamic properties and phase equilibria of these
binary working pairs determine the energy flows

Diethylene glycol Triethylene glycol

-- ---

100% Di -0% Tri
0% Di 20% Tri
I -_ f f"--_ VI-FF-

290.0 340.0 390.0
Temperature (K)


440.0 490.0


FIGURE 4. ORTEP drawing of monocrotaline from a
single crystal X-ray diffraction

necessary to drive the dissolution and separation steps
in the absorption cycle. Efforts to quantify the perfor-
mance of absorption cycles have, however, been hin-
dered by a lack of consistent thermophysical property
data for lithium bromide-water systems, particularly
at high temperatures and high concentrations.
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is sup-
porting an extensive investigation of the properties of
these concentrated electrolyte solutions (concentra-
tions approaching 65 wt %) at temperatures up to
473K. We are measuring heat capacities, densities,
viscosities, thermal conductivities, and vapor pres-
sures of these solutions. The system also serves as a
model for the development of correlations for concen-

FIGURE 5. Thermal conductivity of diethylene and
triethylene glycol mixtures

treated electrolyte solutions and is part of a collabora-
tive effort with Dr. Sheldon Jeter of the School of
Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Tech.

Much has been written about industrial support of
thermophysical property research [7]. One cost-effec-
tive way in which industry supports such research is
by participation in consortia such as the Fluid Proper-
ties Research Institute. FPRI is an industrially spon-
sored co-operative research organization which was
founded in 1973 for the purpose of acquiring sound
thermophysical property data. It was originally based
at Oklahoma State University but was relocated to
Georgia Tech at the end of 1985. The industrial mem-
bers of FPRI include petroleum companies (Amoco),
specialty chemical (Hoechst-Celanese) and chemical
companies (Dow), as well as contracting companies
(UOP, Steams-Catalytic, JGC, Sasakura Engineer-
ing). Basic data on heat capacities, densities, thermal
conductivities (Figure 5) and viscosities of classes of
compounds (e.g., glycols, crude oils, aqueous solu-
tions) are being measured and computer data banks
are being developed. Graduate students and postdoc-
toral fellows participate in the FPRI research effort.
Thus program funding produces two outputs: techni-
cal information and talented chemical engineering
graduates. The program sponsors benefit by "leverag-
ing" their research funds for basic studies, gaining
access to experimental data and correlations, and by

Continued on page 222.

FALL 1988


N curriculum



Are They In Step?

EDITORIAL NOTE: Part 1 of this article appeared in the summer 1988 issue of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
and ended with the questions
Can microcomputers stimulate the use ofopen-ended, design-orientedproblems?
Can high-resolution displays permit students to better learn the principles through visualization of streamlines in
fluid flows, visualization ofPVT, etc?
Can computers enable students to analyze and possibly design less conventional processes involving, for example,
crystallization of chips, deposition of thin films, natural convection in solar cells, etc?
These questions are addressed in this second part ofDr. Seider's paper.

University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

THE STIMULUS FOR open-ended problem-solving in
the core courses of the undergraduate curriculum
arises from the need to expose students to the
methods of formulating and solving problems with
many alternate solutions. In many curricula, this
exercise is reserved primarily for the capstone design
course. Yet with highly-interactive computers which
require the student to do minimal or no programming,
it should be possible to add more open-ended problems
to the core courses while more adequately satisfying
the controversial requirement of one-half year of
course work in design for the accreditation of under-
graduate curricula [1].
This has been the basis for the CACHE Corpora-
tion project to develop CACHE IBM PC Lessons for
Courses Other Than Design and Control [2]. In the
first phase, six authors prepared their lessons with

. . with highly-interactive computers which require
the student to do minimal or no programming, it should
be possible to add more open-ended problems to the
core courses while more adequately satisfying
the controversial requirement of one-half year
of course work in design for accreditation

Warren Seider is professor of chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania. He and his students are conducting re-
search on process design with an emphasis on operability and con-
trollability. In course work, they utilize many computing systems,
including several of the programs described in this article. He is
currently serving as the chairman of the CACHE Curriculum Task
Force. He received his BS degree from the Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and his PhD from the University of Michigan. He served
as the first chairman of CACHE and was elected a director of AIChE
in 1983.

the restriction of the use of the BASICA language on
an IBM PC with a color graphics monitor. No other
restrictions were set and, consequently, several dif-
ferent formats evolved, some using extensive color
graphics with animation to present new concepts,
some presenting a derivation of the principal equa-
tions (with interspersed questions to be answered by
the student), and most permitting parametric studies

C Copyright ChE Dnisiom ASEE 1988


Lesson (Program)

Slurry Flow in Channels

Supercritical Fluid
Gas Absorption with
Chemical Reaction
Design of Flash Vessels and
Distillation Towers
Heterogeneous Reaction
CSTR Dynamics and

Design and Control


Freeman, Provine, Dow, Denn
Kellow, Cygnarowicz,Seider
Nordstrom, Seinfeld
Cal. Tech.
Finlayson, Kaler, Heideger
Bauer, Fogler
Vajdi, Alien

Couxses h

Fluid Mechanics

Separations and

Separations and
Reactor Analysis

Reactor Analysis

with graphical output. The six lessons (see Table 1)
have recently been distributed on diskettes by the
CACHE Corporation.
The lesson for the "Design of a Slurry Pipeline,"
developed for the fluid mechanics course, presents the
student with a mass rate of solids to be pumped a
given distance. Using the Frankel-Acrivos equation
for the viscosity as a function of composition, he or
she must choose the slurry concentration and pipeline
diameter to minimize the net present value of the cost
over the life of the pipeline. First, the student derives
the equations to minimize the power consumption.
Then the microcomputer program is used to vary the
design parameters interactively and to prepare a fam-
ily of curves, as illustrated in Figure 1, in which the

CACHE IBM PC Lessons for Courses Other than


.1 RE : 2108


i I

-- -

2,0 2 2 ,.4 8,6 ,.8 1,8
FIGURE 1. Power consumption in slurry flow. From IBM
PC lesson for the design of a slurry pipeline [2].

HEIGHT' 1.98 M
COST: $ 73,310


S 546,619

F[[L [,T:.RCI
(b) Extractor design
FIGURE 2. Supercritical fluid extraction lesson [2].

power is plotted as a function of the solids fraction.
The lesson on supercritical extraction provides ap-
proximately fifty frames, some with animation, to in-
troduce the principles of SCE before teaching, by
example, the design procedure [3]. The program,
which is currently limited to the dehydration of
ethanol with carbon dioxide, allows the student to find
the optimal design for the flowsheet in Figure 2a. The
student guides the program through the procedures
that compute the size and cost of the extractor, flash
vessel, and compressor. With highly interactive
graphics, the student enters the design variables (sol-
vent/feed ratio, flash temperature and pressure, etc.)
and observes the results in annotated, graphical dis-
plays of the process units as well as cost charts. For
example, see Figure 2b. The important objectives in
the preparation of this lesson included: (1) the pro-
vision of an open-ended problem for the separations
course that applies the principles to a potentially at-
tractive process, especially when non-toxic solvents
are used in food processing, and (2) the use of graphics


(a) Flow sheet for dehydration of ethanol with CO2

Rp.FFiiNAE ''.' 7


FALL 1988

and animation to present new material, enabling the
student to monitor complex calculations in a way that
conventional text books are unable to accomplish.
A third lesson focuses on the dynamics and stabil-
ity of a CSTR with a first-order, exothermic reaction
and heat transfer to a cold reservoir. It begins with
an introduction of the concepts of CSTR multiplicity,
stability, and dynamics. The basic equations are de-
rived with interspersed questions. Then the student
varies the key parameters and the program locates
the steady-state nodes and foci and limit cycles, when
they exist, and plots the dynamic performance. One
such plot is shown in Figure 3. While this lesson
doesn't involve a cost function, it exposes the student
to the vagaries of exothermic reactor design through




FIGURE 3. Phase-plane of a CSTR with a first-order,
exothermic reaction and heat transfer (Y1 = conversion,
Y2 = product T). From IBM PC lesson on CSTR dynamics
and stability [2].

instruction in the principles of stability analysis and
parameterization. Such an analysis, which has often
been regarded as beyond the scope of undergraduate
reactor courses, can now be presented to the student
without consuming valuable lecture time.
It should be noted that the six CACHE IBM PC
lessons were developed, for the most part, on an ex-
perimental basis, often by student programmers, with
little or no remuneration. Hence, it is reasonable to
expect that they will not entirely fulfill their objec-
tives. Perhaps they will be most useful in presenting
examples of what can be accomplished with highly-in-
teractive microcomputers, as well as in having pro-
vided the authors experience in the preparation of

CAI software.
It is also noteworthy that BASICA was the pro-
gramming language and that no utility routines were
provided for creating the menus, text screens, graphi-
cal screens with animation, quizzes, etc. Hence, it was
necessary to create these facilities in the BASICA lan-
guage. This resulted in as many as 1200 hours being
required to prepare interesting and challenging se-
quences which use color and animation, avoid repeti-
tion, give the students much control, etc.
In parallel, several "authoring systems" were
being developed in which these and other utility
routines are provided for the authors of CAI lessons.
MICROCACHE [4], developed at the University of
Michigan, keeps records of student usage and perfor-
mance much more completely than the commercial
systems we examined. The latter include the UN-
ISON system [5] by Courseware Applications, Inc.,
which the CACHE Curriculum Task Force has judged
to be the most cost-effective for its next set of CAI
lessons (currently in preparation). Others are the
PLATO PCD3 (CDC), TENCORE (Computer Teach-
ing Corp.), and CSR Trainer 4000 (Computer Systems
Research) Authoring Systems.
In summary, it seems reasonable to answer the
question "Can microcomputers stimulate the use of
open-ended, design-oriented problems?" in the affir-
mative. Microcomputers are beginning to stimulate
the use of open-ended problems in the core courses.
The cost of software development, principally in stu-
dent and faculty time, continues to be high. But, the
new authoring systems have the potential to sharply
reduce the cost and associated effort.

-- 5'- ~
I mHEmT !-' - flE BEI~~~-C CONDENSER D,
QI !Q2 6 8 0 0
Expected Output: SEP B B
5 ,63 33,6 .881 ,883 888 88 888 ,817 ,814 ,965 I
? 19,99 33,6 ,808 1.88,8 .88 .888 ,8 ,88, 888 .888 S. Operating
18 ,78 73,3 ,944 ,88 ,013 ,819 .816 988 7 ,888 TI ParaMeters:
11 1,38 77,6 ,533 .988 ,467 .00888 ,08880 .,88 ,008 1 ETB: 2,88 nol/h
L 9 H20:20,00 Mol/h
Actual Output: I- :1: 488,8 watts
I 2: 108,8 watts
5 ,27 46,1 .885 .09, .,01 .00, .800 ,879 ,883 ,912 0 Pres: 8,6 psi
7 ,.8 25,8, .88,8 .88,888. .000 00 .6 8 00 ,888 0 .6.8 Ads.line: 5,8 h
10 ,.7 73,4 ,958 .880 ,885 .882 ,833 ,8 81 ,881 ._ 8 D istillation:
11 1,38 75,1 .799 ,088 ,201 .80 ,80 .000 ,88 .00 -- lDist: ,78mol/h
(R) 11 Pres 189,MnHg

FIGURE 4. Styrene microplant before and after random
generation of a fault [6].


... job opportunities are shifting toward the manufacture of silicon chips, the processing of
pharmaceuticals and foods, the manufacture of solar collectors, etc., and chemical engineers are being
challenged to develop new sensing devices that provide better data and more
detailed models to clarify their processing mechanisms.


While on the subject of interactive microcomputers
in undergraduate coursework and before turning to
the next question, a program by Heil and Fogler [6]
that enables students to detect faults in a styrene
microplant is an extraordinary example of a chemical
engineering mystery (comparable to the well-known
SNOOPER TROOPS detective game). This program
is intended to teach the basics of structured problem-
solving using the Kepner and Tregoe Method [7].
Through many frames, the student is presented with
information concerning the normal operation of the
microplant and its performance after a failure has
been randomly generated. See, for example, Figure
4. Given $2500, the student must locate the fault,
while spending as little money as possible. Detailed
information about each process unit is available at no
cost. However, when necessary, the student can make
experimental measurements at costs between $50-
$200. At some point, the student selects from approx-
imately 75 possible faults, thereby initiating repair
work at costs between $200-$800. Mistaken diagnoses
are charged the full cost of repairs and, hence, it is
important to carefully isolate the fault before report-
ing it.
It is noteworthy that several researchers are seek-
ing methods to automate the fault detection strategies
through the use of logic-based, expert systems [8].

Probably the greatest limitation of the widely
available PCs for use in the core courses is their
medium- to low-resolution graphics displays. Distrib-
uted parameter problems arise often in courses on
transport processes, separations, and reactor design,
and their solutions, in the form of streamlines,
isotherms, lines of constant composition, etc., can be
plotted using software for two- and three-dimensional
graphics. As this software becomes easier to use and
more widely available, the limiting factor shifts to the
resolution of the graphics display. Thus far, research-
ers have found it necessary to use the more expensive,
and less widely available, high-resolution graphics
workstations such as the Evans and Sutherland,
MicroVAX II/GPX, Apollo, and Sun. However, these
are becoming cheaper and consequently will be more

cubic centimeters/g-mol
degrees Keluin

FIGURE 5. PVT surface for a van der Waals' fluid. Line
of constant internal energy. (Reprinted with permission
from [9])

available to undergraduate students. They are en-
dowed with full 32 bit processors and speeds in the
range of 1-10 MIPS, which reduce the computation
times for finite-element analyses and graphical trans-
An excellent example of the power of high-resolu-
tion displays is the program by Jolls [9] to plot three-
dimensional PVT surfaces and related thermodynamic
properties for the ideal gas and van der Waals' equa-
tions of state. The FORTRAN program, which runs
on VAX computers with Tektronix 4107 color graphics
terminals, is particularly effective in displaying the
thermodynamic paths between two states. For exam-
ple, isenthalpic, isentropic, isothermal, isobaric, etc.,
paths can be displayed. See Figure 5, in which a path
of constant internal energy is displayed on a PVT sur-
face. While the Jolls displays are for pure fluids only,
Gubbins and co-workers [10] have prepared composi-
tion-dependent displays for binary systems, as illus-
trated in Figure 6, using a FORTRAN program that
runs on DEC VAX systems under VMS with Evans
and Sutherland Multipicture System II workstations.
When similar workstations are mass-produced at
lower costs, their impact on the teaching of subjects
that benefit from three-dimensional visualization
should be dramatic. For now, however, it seems
reasonable to conclude that instructional computing

FALL 1988

lags behind current practice in several areas funda-
mental to classical chemical engineering, including
thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.

The processing of materials, biochemicals, biomed-
ical systems, solar collectors, etc., is often complex,
difficult to model, and difficult to measure. As a con-
sequence, until recently, young chemical engineers
usually sought and found work in industries that apply
the principles of transport processes, thermo-

FIGURE 6. PTX surface for H,S CH, system using the
Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation. (Reprinted with permis-
sion from [10])

dynamics, chemical kinetics, etc., to less complex pro-
cesses. However, job opportunities are shifting to-
ward the manufacture of silicon chips, the processing
of pharmaceuticals and foods, the manufacture of solar
collectors, etc., and chemical engineers are being chal-
lenged to develop new sensing devices that provide
better data and more detailed models to clarify their
processing mechanisms.
Academicians are prominent in these fields and,
consequently, are introducing new experimental and



FIGURE 7. Three-dimensional modeling of Czochralski
crystal growth in the manufacture of silicon chips [12].

theoretical techniques as applications in their core
courses and in specialized electives. With these areas
expanding, it seems reasonable to question whether
the computer is enabling undergraduate students to
better understand, and possibly design, less conven-
tional processes. The response, it seems clear, is no;
or at least, not yet.
The theoretical work of these researchers has be-
come so computer-dependent that undergraduate stu-
dents can be expected to gain exposure to their models
as they evolve. In many cases, although the details of
the models and finite-element analyses are beyond
their comprehension, the students should be able to
perform meaningful computational experiments, try-
ing different geometries and configurations, calculat-
ing power requirements, etc. For the most part, these
teaching materials will require high-resolution graphi-
cal displays with acceptable computing speeds and suf-
ficient storage to perform the finite-element analyses.
One such application involves the Czochralski
method of crystal growth in the manufacture of silicon
chips [11], for which Ozoe and Matsui [12] have de-
veloped a three-dimensional model of the crucible
shown in Figure 7. Their model accounts for the
bouyant and centrifugal forces, with zero gradients
assumed in the azimuthal direction, and confirms that
at critical Raleigh numbers and critical ratios of


FIGURE 8. Sketch of the streaklines from three-dimen-
sional modeling of natural convection in a solar collector

Grashof number to Reynolds number squared, unde-
sirable recirculation patterns develop in the crystal-
line melt. A related example involves natural convec-
tion in a solar collector that absorbs solar energy at
the lower surface and transmits it to the fluid by con-
vection and conduction. Figure 8 shows the system
under study by Churchill and co-workers [13]. Their
results show a three-dimensional transition in the pat-
tern of flow and the rate of heat transfer as the angle
0 varies. Clearly, programs that solve the partial dif-
ferential equations and display the results in three
dimensions can add immeasurably to courses in heat
and mass transfer. At this time, the use of these pro-
grams for instructional computing lags far behind the
development of these algorithms. The gap, however,
can be expected to narrow appreciably over the next
2-3 years, as high-resolution graphical workstations
replace the current generation of PCs.

It is concluded that:

For the design and control courses, the com-
puting tools are, for the most part, in step
with design and control practice in chemical
engineering. (See Part 1.)
Microcomputers are beginning to stimulate
the use of open-ended problems in the core
courses. The cost of software development,
principally in student and faculty time,
continues to be high. But, the new author-
ing systems have the potential to reduce the

cost and associated effort sharply.
When high-resolution workstations are mass-
produced at lower costs, their impact on the
teaching of subjects that benefit from three-
dimensional visualization should be dramatic.
Currently, however, instructional computing
lags behind the current practice in several
areas fundamental to classical chemical en-
gineering, including thermodynamics and
fluid mechanics.

Complex computer models, often developed as
a consequence of improved sensing devices,
permit chemical engineers to clarify the
mechanisms that underlie the processing of
materials and biochemicals, the behavior of
biomedical systems, etc. At this time, the use
of such models for instructional computing
lags far behind the development of models for
these processes. The gap, however, can be ex-
pected to narrow over the next 2-3 years, as
high-resolution graphical workstations re-
place the current generation of PCs.

1. Denn, M. M., "Design, Accreditation, and Computing
Technology," Chem. Eng. Ed., Winter, 1986
2. Seider, W. D., ed., CACHE IBM PC Lessons for Chemical
Engineering Courses Other Than Design and Control,
CACHE, 1987
3. Seider, W. D., J. C. Kellow, M. L. Cygnarowicz,
"Supercritical Extraction," in Chemical Engineering in a
Changing Environment, eds., S. I. Sander and B. A.
Finlayson, AIChE, in press, 1988
4. Carnahan, B., and C. Jaeger, "The MicroCACHE System for
Computer-Aided Instruction," presented at the AIChE
National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, May, 1984
5. UNISON Author Language, Courseware Applications, Inc.,
475 Devonshire Drive, Champaign, IL, 1987
6. Heil, A. T., and H. S. Fogler, "Styrene Microplant: An
Exercise in Troubleshooting," Interactive Software for
Chemical Engineers, University of Michigan, 1985
7. Kepner, C. H., and B. B. Tregoe, The New Rational
Manager, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 1981
8. Rich, S. H., and V. Venkatasubramanian, "Model-based
Reasoning in Diagnostic Expert Systems for Chemical
Process Plants," Comp. Chem. Eng., 11, 2, 111, 1987
9. Morrow, J. F., and K. R. Jolls, Equations of State:
Preliminary Operating Manual, Iowa State University,
Chemical Engineering Department, August, 1987
10. Charos, G. N., P. Clancy, and K. E. Gubbins, "The
Representation of Highly Non-Ideal Phase Equilibria
Using Computer Graphics," Chem. Eng. Ed., Spring, 1986
11. Jensen, K. F., "Control Problems in Microelectronic
Processing," in Proceedings of CPC III Conference, eds., T. J.
McAvoy and M. Morari, Elsevier, 1986
12. Ozoe, H., and T. Matsui, "Numerical Computation of
Czochralski Bulk for Liquid Metallic Silicon," in
preparation, Kyushu University, Japan, 1987
13. Ozoe, H., K. Fujii, N. Lior, and S. W. Churchill, "Long Rolls
Generated by Natural Convection in an Inclined,
Rectangular Enclosure," Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 26, 10, 1427,
1983 O

FALL 1988




A Perspective*

EDITORIAL NOTE: Part 1 of this paper appeared
in the previous issue of Chemical Engineering Educa-
tion (Vol. 22, No. 3).

Exxon Chemical Company
Linden, NJ 07036

GRADUATE EDUCATION in Japan and the United
States differs significantly due to cultural/
societal factors. The most obvious difference is the
disparate importance of the Masters and PhD degrees
in the two countries. In the U.S., many universities
allow the student to pursue the Doctoral degree with-
out first obtaining the MS, but there is no fixed period
for either degree. In the case of the PhD in particular,
the primary requirement for graduation is generally
perceived as "satisfying one's adviser." In Japan,
there is a fixed duration of two years for the Master's

{ 1 -?

Sigmund Floyd graduated from the Tokyo Institute of Technology,
Japan, with a BEng in chemical engineering, in 1980, and began
graduate studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, the same
year. He received his PhD in 1986, and is currently working at Exxon
Chemical Company in Linden, New Jersey.
*The views expressed herein are the author's and not those of
Exxon Corporation.

Most U.S. graduate schools have a formal
minor requirement which necessitates passing
several courses outside the major department. In
Japan, the general atmosphere does not encourage
such forays into new knowledge at the graduate
level . graduate courses are kept as free of
work as possible in order to maximize
the time available for research.

and three additional years for the Doctoral degree.
These fixed durations are important because, in con-
trast to U.S. practice, Japanese companies strongly
prefer to hire all their new graduates at the same time
of the year in order to facilitate group training. In the
U.S., the Masters Degree, although seen as a useful
extension of undergraduate work, is not particularly
prestigious. In Japan, on the other hand, the Masters
Degree students who unlike their U.S. counterparts
generally have three solid years of research experi-
ence (counting the undergraduate senior year), are
welcomed by Japanese industry as having the correct
mix of broad and specific knowledge. This is due, at
least partly, to the myopic specialization that is ex-
pected of doctoral students in Japan, evidenced by the
differences in graduate course requirements. Most
U.S. graduate schools have a formal minor require-
ment which necessitates passing several courses out-
side the major department. In Japan, the general at-
mosphere does not encourage such forays into new
knowledge at the graduate level. In fact, graduate
courses are kept as free of work as possible, in order
to maximize the time available for research. The focus
on one narrow area is reinforced by the fact that the
graduate school almost exclusively retains its own un-
dergraduates, who simply remain in the same lab in
which they complete their undergraduate Thesis Pro-
ject (the type of crossover from other disciplines that
occurs in the U.S. is very rare). Doctoral students

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


In the U.S., the Masters Degree, although seen as a useful extension of undergraduate work, is not
particularly prestigious. In Japan, on the other hand, the Masters Degree students who, unlike their U.S.
counterparts, generally have three solid years of research experience (counting the undergraduate senior year),
are welcomed by Japanese industry as having the correct mix of broad and specific knowledge.

generally elect an academic career, continuing at the
institution of their graduation*. Eventually, some of
these "research fellows" move into vacated slots for
assistant professors, while others stagnate or move
out to industry. At the national schools, which are the
primary research universities, each assistant profes-
sor slot is tied to a senior professorial slot in an ad-
ministrative unit known as a koza. The realm of inves-
tigation of the koza is quite sharply defined, and hence
assistant professors are not free to do research in any
realm of choice, as they are in the U.S. In fact, the
assistant professor is usually "mentored" by the senior
professor throughout a significant part of his career.
The creation of new kozas is overseen by the Ministry
of Education, with each koza receiving an identical
amount of funding from the government. Room for
individual initiative under the Japanese system is
much less than in the American system, in which scho-
ols prefer to bring in "new blood" from other institu-
Japanese graduate students put in essentially six
days of lab work per week, spending less than around
15% of their time on coursework. Although the gruel-
ling lab routine leaves little time for pursuit of outside
interests, the Japanese graduate school is not an un-
pleasant social experience. The members of the lab
group, who are usually crowded into small labora-
tories, share a strong sense of camaraderie, enhanced
through interactions such as drinking parties and sum-
mer trips to resort areas (it is very uncommon for
Japanese graduate students to be married). This con-
stant fellowship provides an outlet for stress and
facilitates research discussions and mutual assistance
among students. Formal research meetings involving
the entire group are frequent, and except for the very
newest members of the group (the undergraduate
seniors), suggestions and observations may be made
by anyone, in the best scientific tradition. In the U.S.,
the quality of the graduate school experience is prob-
ably less uniform. For a small but significant percent-
age of students, it turns out to be a nightmare, due to
factors such as capricious advisers, an unsympathetic
bureaucracy, and an overload of teaching duties. Con-
siderable dissatisfaction also results from the fact that
the student could be earning a much larger income in
private industry. In contrast, graduate students in
*There are signs that this situation is beginning to change, with
doctoral degrees now in strong demand at some major companies.

Japan generally receive no financial support and have
minimal teaching duties, continuing for the most part
to live at home or at the expense of their parents*. In
addition, the relatively low starting salaries at all
levels and the high degree of respect for graduate stu-
dents by society largely eliminate the psychological
handicaps suffered by graduate students in the U.S.,
where social status is primarily determined by in-
come. A substantial fraction of an American graduate
student's time is spent on coursework and teaching
duties. In research, U.S. graduate students tend to
work independently of others and also tend to work
in "spurts," alternating between feverish and rela-
tively relaxed periods. In addition, U.S. students are
accustomed to enjoying a broader spectrum of social
activities (e.g., clubs, religious groups) than their
Japanese counterparts. In Japan, peer pressure to
conform to the standard work hours of the lab, men-
tioned in Part 1, is quite intense. Through close super-
vision, gossip, and innuendo, an atmosphere is created
in which shirking is very unfavorably regarded, and
in an extreme case a member might be ostracized by
the group. Because of these differences in work habits
and other cultural and language differences, it is
rather hard for a foreign student to be successfully
assimilated into a Japanese laboratory. Foreign stu-
dents are generally incapable of fully taking part in
the regular group activities, both professional and so-
cial, and many suffer from feelings of isolation (almost
all foreign students are accepted on a case-by-case
basis, and hence are present in far fewer numbers
than on U.S. campuses). From personal observation,
I would recommend that any student who wishes to
experience working in a Japanese laboratory should
at least have a rudimentary knowledge of spoken
Japanese, be willing to work long hours, and be outgo-
ing enough to participate in group activities. Being
unmarried is preferable. While I would not rule out
the possibility of a valuable experience for a female
student, she should be prepared to deal amicably with
a likely all-male environment and a strongly male-
oriented culture.
In contrast Japanese students in American univer-
sities generally seem to adjust very well. There is a
tendency, as in the case of other foreign nationals, to

*A few scholarships, mostly in the form of repayable loans, are
available for the economically disadvantaged.

FALL 1988

socialize with other Japanese and form support net-
works. This sometimes results in less interaction with
American students than is desirable. However, the
large numbers of Japanese students, faculty, and com-
pany personnel* who participate in the U.S. educa-
tional system ensure that Japan has an opportunity to
learn from and absorb the strongest parts of the
American system. Unfortunately, the reverse is not
true; the number of American engineering students
and faculty who participate in some form of educa-
tional experience overseas, particularly in Japan, is
too small.

In both Part 1 and Part 2 of this paper, I have
attempted to convey theflavor of receiving a scientific
education in the social cultures of Japan and the
United States. It should be clear that cultural factors
loom very large in determining the educational experi-
ence, and hence, what is good in each system cannot
necessarily or even desirably be transported to the
other country. For example, American companies will
undoubtedly continue to expect graduates who can
plunge straight into their duties, while Japanese com-
panies will prefer to shape and mold the roles of their
employees. Nevertheless, it should benefit research-
ers, university administrators, science policymakers,
and company managers in both the U.S. and Japan to
have an awareness of these educational and cultural
differences and to try and distill the best possible ex-
perience out of each system.
The Japanese educational system turns out large
numbers of relatively uniform, highly trained, and
rather idealistic graduates. Especially at the MS level,
these graduates combine a fairly broad, though shal-
low, technical background with expertise in a specific
area and a good understanding of research methods.
They are hardworking and, equally important, experi-
enced at getting things to work. These qualities make
them suited to and easily assimilated into the predom-
inantly applied research programs at Japanese com-
panies. Furthermore, in contrast with the U.S.,
Japanese companies have no clearly defined technical
and managerial ladders, and it is uncommon for em-
ployees to remain in an exclusively technical role
throughout their careers. Thus, in the course of em-

*Many Japanese companies and governmental agencies such as
MITI send their employees to foreign universities to acquire a
"broad perspective" as well as research and language skills, often
with an MS degree as the formal objective. This is a prestigious
assignment, and is rooted in Japan's long-standing tradition of
learning from overseas.

. . it is difficult to overemphasize the
importance of the research experience gained by
Japanese Bachelor's and Master's students in
instilling a feeling for scientific methodology
and "doing things right" . .

ployment, the best of these graduates eventually oc-
cupy key managerial roles in Japanese corporations.
(It has been estimated that around half of the direc-
tors of major industrial companies have an engineer-
ing background [1]). In the U.S., many managers who
have BS or MS degrees in engineering have little or
no experience in research. It is worth mentioning that
there is no specific slanting of curricula in Japan to-
wards manufacturing issues, in which Japan is often
ascribed an almost mystical prowess by U.S. obser-
vers. However, it is difficult to overemphasize the im-
portance of the research experience gained by
Japanese Bachelor's and Master's students in instilling
a feeling for scientific methodology and "doing things
right," which is surely applicable to endeavors besides
research. It is also plausible that the fundamental re-
spect for and understanding of the research and de-
velopment process (including staying abreast of the
foreign scientific literature) on the part of Japanese
technical managers has played a significant part in
Japan's successes in adaptation and refinement of
foreign technology, enabling competition with the
U.S. in numerous technical fields.
On the other hand, it must be observed that the
qualities of Japan's technical graduates are obedience
and persistence, rather than independence and in-
quiry. Thus, one can point to numerous factors in
Japan's educational system which will limit its stated
goal of mobilizing the creative process. Among these
are the lack of emphasis on originality, the often sti-
fling level of supervision of projects at the lower de-
gree levels, the tendency to overspecialize at the PhD
and faculty level, and the lack of mobility between
and within universities. While there is definitely a
trade-off between advanced study in major and non-
major fields and getting data for one's research pro-
ject, the balance will have to be shifted somewhat if
Japan is to produce graduates with multidisciplinary
capability. Indeed, the multidisciplinary capability of
American PhD students is probably one of the
strongest features of the American educational sys-
tem, which has translated to leadership advantages in
non-traditional areas such as materials, biotechnol-
ogy, and computers. However, one must never under-
estimate the Japanese capability for a focused re-


sponse in such areas, once the basic work has been
done and the potential is apparent.
Another area in which the Japanese system should
seek improvements is in requiring more rigor in
coursework; a system in which "getting by" is suffi-
cient is detrimental to creativity. Last, but not least,
the rigidity of the current koza system and its restric-
tions on initiative of younger investigators would
seem to be in need of reevaluation in the light of
Japan's desire to become a leader in new technologies.
In the United States, at the undergraduate level,
the most transparent problem is the lack of significant
research (or other practical hands-on) experience for
the majority of the graduating class of engineers. Lab
courses cannot make up for this failure. This results
in an inadequate understanding of the scientific
method of problem-solving on the part of Bachelors
graduates, many of whom eventually go on to careers
in technical management. In addition, at a time when
the U.S. is struggling to maintain its technological
position in several areas, it simply does not make
sense to graduate engineers with little or no sense of
what it means to do research. In the author's view, at
minimum, a one-semester course equivalent (3 cre-
dits) of research should be a graduation requirement
for the Bachelor's degree. In addition, the complexity
and diversity of expertise that is required today would
seem to point to a need for a greater number of
courses, in both technical and non-technical fields. For
example, in an age of international competition, there
should be a requirement to demonstrate at least
rudimentary proficiency in a foreign language.
There should also be some opportunities for discus-
sion of broad social issues and how engineers and sci-
entists can contribute to their resolution. The current
adversarial relationship between technical problem
solvers and people who perceive problems needs to be
improved drastically. One possibility might be a re-
quirement for attending seminars by visiting indus-
trial personnel, regulatory officials, and representa-
tives of responsible environmentalist organizations. A
better understanding of the contributions of science
and engineering to our national security and well-
being would hopefully be an additional factor for stu-
dent motivation, as it is in the Asian cultures of
Taiwan, Korea, China, and Japan.
The ability to achieve such diverse objectives and
still produce graduates of acceptable "drop-in" capa-
bility for American industry obviously requires better
support from the basic educational system. Currently,
the freshman year and part of the sophomore year in
the U.S. are spent in acquiring a level of knowledge

possessed by graduating high school seniors in Japan.
The compression of a rigorous engineering curriculum
into the remaining two years is undoubtedly responsi-
ble for "burnout," as well as the fairly general percep-
tion that engineers do not receive a well-rounded edu-
cation, which in turn means that the least able
graduates are unable to find jobs. Unemployment
among graduating seniors, which has recently been as
high as 20% [2], is one of the major issues confronting
the profession in the United States. In contrast, in
Japan, engineering graduates from prestigious schools

There should be ... discussion of broad social issues
and how engineers and scientists can contribute
to their resolution. The adversarial relationship
between . problem solvers and people who
perceive problems needs to be improved.

are considered eminently employable in non-technical
positions, and some go to work for trading companies
or enter civil service.
Concerning Japanese excellence in manufacturing,
it is evident that this must be attributed to factors
other than course requirements. However, in the
U.S., manufacturing is currently acknowledged to be
of relatively low prestige by many industrial mana-
gers. In order to partially rectify this situation, one
solution would be for engineering schools to offer a
"manufacturing specialty" option consisting of a fo-
cused group of courses in areas such as statistics, pro-
cess control, engineering economics, and quality as-
surance, which are basic to manufacturing technology.
This is neither excessive nor unrealistic, in view of
the fact that some schools currently offer "options" or
"emphases" in topics such as applied mathematics,
biology, food science, microelectronics, and pollution
control. By recognizing the value of this type of option
through hiring practices, industry could stimulate a
greater awareness of the importance of manufacturing
among Bachelor's students.
At the graduate level in the U.S., attempts to
streamline the PhD program should be implemented.
While going to a fixed-duration system like that of
Japan may not be appropriate, conscious efforts to
enhance productive progress and shorten the duration
of research projects so that a PhD is achievable in
four years would be beneficial in encouraging pursuit
of this degree by people whose objective is an indus-
trial career. In attempting to streamline the degree,
the broad interdisciplinary aspects of graduate study

FALL 1988

in the United States, a fundamental strength, should
not be compromised, and perhaps could even be en-
couraged. For example, a student might be asked to
submit a short proposal on extensions of his research
to another field, which would be appended to his thesis
with appropriate keywords for location by researchers
who might otherwise never examine his or her work.
For the MS degree, on the other hand, coursework is
overemphasized, and a greater emphasis on research
contributions would be desirable.
Both Japan and the United States have serious
issues of access to higher education in technical fields
for women and minorities. While the situation for
women in the U.S. has improved significantly in re-
cent years, in Japan the attitude toward women in
technical and supervisory positions remains highly
prejudicial. As the percentage of women in these pos-
itions in the U.S. continues to grow, discomfort will
be experienced in cross-national dealings, e.g., joint
ventures. While change will be slow, it is to be hoped
that Japan will eventually take its place among the
leading societies in this regard. In the U.S., continu-
ing efforts must be made not only to attract minorities
and women into the scientific and engineering profes-
sions, but to deal with the fundamental causes under-
lying reduced participation by these groups.
In summary, although some would argue that each
system serves the unique needs of its country
adequately, comparing the systems of engineering
education in Japan and the United States offers food
for thought on possible improvements to each. While
a significant number of Japanese students and faculty
spend some time within the U.S. educational system,
it is unfortunate that a much smaller number of Amer-
icans participate in the Japanese experience. It is to
be hoped that in the future, more American students
and faculty will view first-hand the workings of
Japanese education. To stimulate this, it would be de-
sirable for engineering departments of major univer-
sities to develop student and faculty exchange pro-
grams and to incorporate courses in Japanese lan-
guage and technical Japanese into their curricula. In
Japan, the focus for the future must be on stimulating
creativity, while in the United States the educational
system does not appear to wholly meet needs for re-
search management capability and solution of pressing
social concerns, including industrial competitiveness.
In particular, concrete measures directed at increas-
ing the prestige of manufacturing among engineering
graduates may be warranted. While the job market
for scientists and engineers frequently appears to be
supersaturated, stable growth in scientific and en-

gineering enrollments with production of good-quality
graduates can be expected to benefit the nation in the
long term. Both countries still face some very real
issues of access and fairness. In the U.S., there is a
clear need for professional societies to assist in
monitoring statistics relating to women and minority
enrollments. Finally, the nation's corporations can do
their part by taking an active interest in education,
promoting stable hiring policies, and maintaining affir-
mative action goals.

1. P. H. Abelson, editorial in Science,210, 965 (1980)
2. 1986 Enrollment Survey in Chemical Engineering Progress, 83,
(6), 90 (June, 1987)

Continued from page 211.
interacting with high-quality students prior to gradu-
ation. The students benefit by interactions with indus-
trial sponsors and by working on industrially-relevant

Thermodynamics and fluid properties research is
a thriving activity at Georgia Tech. Although based
mainly in the School of Chemical Engineering, there
are joint projects with the Schools of Chemistry,
Mechanical Engineering, and Applied Biology. There
is also significant industrial participation via the Fluid
Properties Research Institute. It is obvious from
some of the work described that the need for ther-
mophysical properties and for fundamental under-
standing of molecular behavior which determines
these properties, will continue to grow as new
technologies emerge and established technologies


1. Kirk, B. S., and W. T. Ziegler, Adv. Cryog. Eng., 10, (1965)
2. Anselme, M., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology,
3. McHugh, M., and V. Krukonis, Supercritical Fluid Extraction,
Butterworth, Stoneham, MA 1986
4. Georgeton, G., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology,
5. Schaeffer, S. T., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technol-
ogy, 1988
6. D'Souza, R., PhD Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology,
7. Paspek, S. C. Chem. Eng. Prog., p. 20, Nov. (1985) 2


8Ikron,0H 44325





G. A. ATWOOD____


Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption
Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Processes
Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques
Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion
Thermodynamics, Material Properties
Waste Water Treatment
Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design
Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Nonlinear Dynamics
Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Computer Applications
Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design
Multiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenomena

'Adjunct Professor

Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $7,000. Industrially sponsored
fellowships available up to $16,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees.
Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available.
The deadline for assistantship applications is February 15th

AKRON, OH 44325

FALL 1988

I :


T dI -.-"1

ai -

1 :f IL



ri 4 :

Chemical Engineering at




K. T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis
P. J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics
1. G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
D. G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications
M. R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors
R. E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media
D. T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design
J. H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics
A. E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics
W. K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics

K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomenna,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics
F. D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Modelling and Economics
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,

J. T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media

S. L. SHAH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory

S. E. WANKE, Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics

R. K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control

For further information contact



The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic, with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
fellowships, government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial
grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses
are offered in most of the research areas listed below.


MILAN BIER, Professor, Director of Center for Separation Science*:
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport

Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics, Polyelectrolyte Solutions

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

EDWARD J. FREEH, Research Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue.University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in the
Microcirculation, Biorheology

SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Combustion and Fuel
Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation Processes, Applied Mathematics

GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical Modeling of Transport,

ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor
Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical
Ph.D., UCLA, 1983
Boundary Layers, Stability, Mass and Heat Transport

Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It is
a growing modern city of 450,000 that
retains much of the old Southwestern

For further information, write to

Dr. Jost 0. L. Wendt
Graduate Study Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721

The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity
educational institution/equal opportunity

Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion
Aerosols, Microcontamination

Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena,
Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Computer
Aided Design

FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion

JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement Chemical
Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phenomena
DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic

DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc.,Technlon, 1962
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing
'Center for Separation Science is staffed by four research professors, several
technicians, and several postdocs and graduate students. Other research involves 2-D
electrmphoesis cell culture, electro cell fusion, and electro fluid dynamic modelling.

Arizona State University
Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D.
Degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biomedical Engineering, and
Materials Engineering
Research Specializations include:
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly respected faculty:
James R. Beckman (Arizona) James B. Koeneman (Western Australia)*
Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) Stephen J. Krause (Michigan)
Neil S. Berman (Texas) James L. Kuester (Texas A&M)
David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)*
Llewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin)
Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)*
Veronica A. Burrows (Princeton) Vernon E. Sater (IIT)
Timothy S. Cale (Houston) Milton C. Shaw (Cincinnati)*
Ray W. Carpenter (UC/Berkeley) Kwang S. Shin (Northwestern)
William A. Coghlan (Stanford) James T. Stanley (Illinois)
Sandwip K. Dey (Alfred U.) Robert S. Torrest (Minnesota)
William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) Bruce C. Towe (Pennsylvania State)
R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Thomas L. Wachtel (St. Louis University)*
Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech) Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia)
David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech)*
Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley)
Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) Imre Zwiebel (Yale)
Bal K. Jindal (Stanford) *Adjunct or Emeritus Professor

Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, which is a part of the greater
Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled
in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 are in graduate study. Arizona's
year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own
cultural and recreational facilities.
Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering
Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6006

Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action
and equal opportunity in its employment, activities and programs.
U -

University of Arkansas

Department of Chemical Engineering

Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


Michael D. Ackerson (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Biochemical Engineering, Thermodynamics

Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics,
Enhanced Oil Recovery

Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics

James R. Couper (D.Sc., Washington U.)
Process Design and Economics, Polymers

James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization
Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazards

William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artifical Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering

Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion

Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes
Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation
Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design

Richard K. Ulrich (Ph.D., U. of Texas)
Microelectronics Materials and Processing,
J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control

Graduate students are supported by fellowships and
research or teaching assistantships.

Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, AR 72701

The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is liter-
ally surrounded by some of the most outstanding outdoor
recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a dynamic
city and serves as the center of trade, government, and
finance for the region. The city and University offer a
wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the new Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility, and an additional
20,000 sq. ft. of laboratories at the Engineering Experi-
ment Station.




Graduate Studies

^ LPeIS)'" '-"' --4 -


Auburn University



R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966) Advanced Polymer Science
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1969) Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) Carbon Fibers and Composites
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Conversion
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) Co r
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976) Computer-Aided Process Control
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) Controlled Atmosphere
G. MAPLES (Oklahoma State University, 1967) Electron Microscopy
R. D. NEUMAN (Institute of Paper Chemistry, 1973) Environmental Engineering
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) Heterogeneous Catalysis
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973) THE PROGRAM
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) The Department is one of the faster
The Department is one of the faste
offers degrees at the M.S. and P1
For Information and Application, Write both experimental and theoretic
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head interest, with modern research ec
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head types of studies. Generous finar
Chemical Engineering qualified students.
Auburn University, AL 36849-5127
Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution

Interfacial Phenomena
Process Design
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Surface Science
Transport Phenomena

st growing in the Southeast and
h.D. levels. Research emphasizes
al work in areas of national
tuipment available for most all
ncial assistance is available to

FALL 1988


".'s., l....... .... .

^i^Hifii^^^f ^^Ui^!'40

. ... .. R



THE The Department offers programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees
UNIVERSITY (full-time) and the M.Eng. degree (part time) in the following areas:

R. A. Heidemann, Head, (Washington U.)
A. Badakhshan (Birmingham, UK.)
L. A. Behie (Western Ontario)
J. D. M. Belgrave (Calgary)
F. Berruti (Waterloo)
P. R. Bishnoi (Alberta)
R. M. Butler (Imperial College, U.K.)
A. Chakma (UBC)
M. A. Hastaoglu (SUNY)
A. A. Jeje (MIT)
N. Kalogerakis (Toronto)
A. K. Mehrotra (Calgary)
R. G. Moore (Alberta)
P. M. Sigmund (Texas)
J. Stanislav (Prague)
W. Y. Svrcek (Alberta)
E. L. Tollefson (Toronto)
M. A. Trebble (Calgary) FOR

* Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria
* Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
* Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
* Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
* Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
* Environmental Engineering
* Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
* Enhanced Oil Recovery
* In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
* Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
* Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
* Computer Control and Optimization of Engineering
and Bio Processes
* Biotechnology and Biorheology

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.



The University is located in the City of Calgary, the Oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary
Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The City combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of
a modern urban center. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of Banff, Lake
Louise,and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. In the above photo the University Campus is shown with the
Olympic Oval and the student residences in the foreground. The Engineering complex is on the left of the picture.

FALL 1988






. offers graduate programs leading to the Maste
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro
grams involve joint faculty-student research a
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings o
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreationE
activities of California's northern coast and mount


Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Arup K. Chakraborty
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soane
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
Berkeley, California 94720

University of California, Davis
Department of Chemical Engineering

BELL, Richard L.
University of Washington, Seattle Mass
transfer phenomena on non-ideal trays,
environmental transport, biochemical
University of Melbourne Chemical en-
gineering aspects of fermentation and
wine processing, fermentation kinetics,
computer simulation and control of enol-
ogical operations.
University of Minnesota Wetting hy-
drodynamics, fluid mechanics of thin
films, coating flows, Langmuir-Blodgett
Films, Sol-Gel processes.
University of Minnesota Biological ki-
netics and reactor design, kinetics of ion
exchange, environmental solute trans-
port, heat and mass transport at air-water
interface, hemodynamics and fluid ex-
KATZ, David F.
University of California, Berkeley Bio-
logical fluid mechanics, biorheology,
cell biology, image analysis.
McCOY, Benjamin J.
University of Minnesota Chemical re-
action engineering adsorption, cataly-
sis, multiphase reactors; separation proc-
esses chromatography, ion exchange,
supercritical fluid extraction.
University of Maryland, College Park -
Distillation control, control of multivari-
able, nonlinear processes, control of bio-
chemical processes, adaptive control,
parameter and state estimation.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Proc-
ess control, process design and synthesis.
POWELL, Robert L.
The Johns Hopkins University Rheol-
ogy, fluid mechanics, properties of sus-
pensions and physiological fluids.
RYU, Dewey D.Y.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Kinetics and reaction engineering of
biochemical and enzyme systems, opti-
mization of continuous bioreactor, bio-
conversion of biologically active com-
pounds, biochemical and genetic engi-
neering, and renewable resources devel-
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport rates and chemical kinetics for
catalytic reactors, studies by dynamic
and steady-state methods in slurry,
trickle-bed, single pellet, and fixed-bed
Massachusetts Institute of Technology -
Transport with chemical reaction, bio-
technology, rheology of heterogeneous
media, thin film technology, interfacial
phenomena, image analysis.
University of Delaware Drying porous
media, transport processes in heteroge-
neous reactors, multiphase transport
phenomena in heterogeneous systems.

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from
Sacramento and just an hour away from
the San Francisco Bay Area. Outdoor
enthusiasts may enjoy water sports at
nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other
alpine activities in the Lake Tahoe Bowl
(2 hours away). These recreational op-

portunities combine with the friendly
informal spirit of the Davis campus and
town to make it a pleasant place in which
to live and study.
The city of Davis is adjacent to the
campus and within easy walking or cy-
cling distance. Both furnished and unfur-
nished one- and two-bedroom apart-
ments are available. Married student
housing, at reasonable cost, is located on-

Course Areas
Applied Kinetics & Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Environmental Transport
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Design & Control
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Transport Phenomena in Multiphase

More Information
The Graduate Group in Biomedical
Engineering is now housed within the
Department of Chemical Engineering.
Further information and application ma-
terials for either program (Chemical En-
gineering or Biomedical Engineering)
and financial aid may be obtained by
Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616




D. T. Allen
Y. Cohen
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
R. F. Hicks
E. L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis
H. G. Monbouquette

UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of-
fers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
needs. The department's national leadership is de-
monstrated by the newly established Engineering
Research Center for Hazardous Substance Control.
This center of advanced technology is com-
plemented by existing center programs in Medical
Engineering and Environmental Transport Re-
Fellowships are available for outstanding ap-
plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition
and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access
to the highly regarded science programs and to a
variety of experiences in theatre, music, art and
sports on campus.

K. Nobe
L. B. Robinson
O. I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
(Prof. Emeritus)
V. L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan

Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering

Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063




wo-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety,
Computational Fluid Dynamics, Turbulence.
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science.
DAN G. CACUCI Ph.D. (Columbia)
Computational Engineering, Radiation Transport,
Reactor Physics, Uncertainty Analysis.
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear
Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis,
Transport Phenomena
Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon, Adhesion,
Colloidal Systems, Surface Forces.
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials.
Computer Control, Process Dynamics,
Real-Time Computing.
JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Professor Emeritus)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

FALL 1988

(Vice Chairman)
radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related
Materials Development
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern)
Polymer Rheology.
Theory of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors,
Radiation Transport Analyses.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy
Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control, Process
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota)
Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety,
Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
Surface and Interfacial Phenomen,
Structure of Microemulsions.

The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.

One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even

For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106



at the


"At the Leading Edge"



Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F. Brady
George R. Gavalas
Julia A. Kornfield
L. Gary Leal
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Fred H. Shair
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
W. Henry Weinberg

Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Colloid Physics
Computational Hydrodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Polymer Physics
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Surface Science

for further information, write:

Professor John F.Brady
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125




v op




J < '

. I


Join the chemical engineering team at CASE WESTERN RESERVE U
top-ranked teachers and researchers and practice in one of the best res

Faculty and specializations:
Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh
University Particle separations, mixing,
acid gas recovery
John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University
of Michigan Redox equilibria, thin car-
bon films, modulated electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962,
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adap-
tive inferential control, multi-variable
control, coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns
Hopkins University Laser anemometry,
mathematical modelling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton
University Colloidal phenomena,
ceramic dispersions, fine-particle

Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa
State University High-gravity separa-
tions, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of
California (Berkeley) Electrochemical
engineering, current distributions,
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case
Western Reserve University Elec-
trochemical sensors, electrochemical
synthesis, electrochemistry related to elec-
tronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1962, Iowa
State University Surface phenomena,
interfacial dynamics, light scattering
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Car-
negie-Mellon University Surfactant
systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil
Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977, Univer-
sity of Pittsburgh Electrochemical
:[--iri... i l-:rl2 : ~'l r jc il 'd -ir i l iTlJ.I.l i
doil~ r-i-' I-' :*:r **:

NIVERSITY. Work out with
;earch facilities in the country.

Train in:
* Electrochemical engineering
* Laser applications
* Mixing and separations
* Process control
* Surface and colloids

For more information contact:
The Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
University Circle
Cleveland, Ohio 44106




i n









Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Robert Jenkins
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Sotiris Pratsinis
Neville Pinto
Stephen Thiel
Joel Weisman

Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow
equipment. Laser induced effects.

pattern and mixing in chemical

Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION

Boiling. Stability and transport properties of

Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221

Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.

graduate Study i


For details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676

Clarkson University is a nondiscriminatory,
equal opportunity, affirmative action educator
and employer.

Potsdam New York 13676

Graduate Study at

Clemson University

- I-in Chemical Engineering

Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking
in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to
South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
processing, composite materials, process
automation, thermodynamics, catalysis, and
membrane separation what more do you need?

The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 13,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.

The Faculty
Forest C. Alley William F. Beckwith Joseph C. Mullins
William B. Barlage, Jr. Dan D. Edie Amod A. Ogale
Charles H. Barron, Jr. Charles H. Gooding Richard W. Rice
John N. Beard, Jr. Stephen S. Melsheimer Mark C. Thies

Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering _
Earle Hall
Clemson University TUTI rRST
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering


Alternate Energy Sources Mass Transfer
Biotechnology and Bioengineering Membrane Transport and Separations
Heterogeneous Catalysis Numerical and Analytical Modeling
Coal Gasification and Combustion Process Control and Identification
Enhanced Oil Recovery Semiconductor Processing
Fluid Dynamics and Fluidization Surface Chemistry and Surface Science
Interfacial and Surface Phenomena Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Low Gravity Fluid Mechanics and Thin Film Science
Materials Processing Transport Processes

DAVID E. CLOUGH, Professor, Associate Dean WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
for Academic Affairs Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1968
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1975
LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor
ROBERT H. DAVIS, Associate Professor Ph.D., Purdue University, 1982
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1983
RICHARD D. NOBLE, Research Professor
JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Davis, 1976
Ph.D., Stanford University, 1974
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor Ph.D. Tulane University, 1965
Ph.D., University of Colorado, 1967
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
HOWARD J. M. HANLEY, Professor Adjoint Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1963
Ph.D., University of London, 1963
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Professor and Chairman
DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Illinois, 1951
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1984
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1958

FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE TO Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424






A. J. KIDNAY, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School of
Mines. Thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, vapor-
liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineering.
J. H. GARY, Professor; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery pro-
cessing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal cracking,
visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. YESAVAGE, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry.
E. D. SLOAN, JR., Professor; Ph.D. Clemson. Phase equilibrium
measurements of natural gas fluids and hydrates, thermal
conductivity of coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria,
education methods research.
R. M. BALDWIN, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines.
Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefaction, catalysis, oil shale
processing, supercritical extraction.
M. S. SELIM, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass
transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation and diffusion
of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with
chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas
hydrate dissociation modeling.
A. L. BUNGE, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Membrane
transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media, ion
exchange and adsorption chromatography, in place
remediation of contaminated soils, percutaneous absorption.
P. F. BRYAN, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Computer
aided process design, computational thermodynamics, novel
separation processes, applications of artificial
intelligence/expert systems.
R. L. MILLER, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy
oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil shale processing,
particulate removal with venturi scrubbers, supercritical
J. F. ELY, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.

For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401

Colorado State University

CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.

Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:
Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.


University of Wisconsin

Iowa State University

University of Manchester

Iowa State University

Iowa State University

Stanford University

University of Massachusetts

California Institute of Technology

Research Areas:

Alternate Energy Sources
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
Environmental Engineering
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems

For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Scientists and Engineers

Faculty and Research Areas

statistical thermodynamics, polymer science, polymer morphology
phase equilibria, separations composite materials and properties
structure and electrochemical engineering, polymer processing,
properties of polymers enrivonmental engineering rheology
expert systems, process dynamics, environmental engineering,
process control, energy technology biochemical engineering
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN biochemical engineering, polymer science
catalysis, biotechnology, environmental engineering
surface science
chemical reaction engineering,
computer applications

We'll gladly supply the Answers!

STHE Graduate Admissions
'UNIVERSITY O)F Dept. of Chemical Engineering
Box U-139
-CONNECTTIC The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019

Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

at Cornell University

World-class research in...
biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science and engineering
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
Molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design

A diverse intellectual A distinguished faculty
l im t

Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including chemistry,
biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment.

Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A. Clark
Claude Cohen
Robert K. Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe
Robert L. Von Berg (Emeritus)
Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg

Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.
For further information
write to:

Professor William L. Olbricht
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201

^ {



Chemical En ineerin at

The Faculty
Giovanni Astaritae
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Andrew L. Zydney

The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

New York For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Philadelphia Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Baltimore Newark, Delaware 19716
Washington The University of







Gainesville, Florida

Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD

For more information please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611




TIM ANDERSON Semiconductor Processing, Ther-
modynamics IOANNIS BITSANIS Molecular Dynam-
ics Simulations SEYMOUR S. BLOCK Biotech-
nology RAY W. FAHIEN Transport Phenomena, Re-
actor Design A. L. FRICKE Polymers, Pulp & Paper
Characterization GAR HOFLUND Catalysis, Sur-
face Science LEW JOHNS Applied Design, Process
Control, Energy Systems DALE KIRMSE Computer
Aided Design, Process Control HONG H. LEE Reac-
tion Engineering, Semiconductor Processing GERASI-
MOS LYBERATOS Biochemical Engineering,
Chemical Reaction Engineering FRANK MAY
Computer-Aided Learning RANGA NARAYANAN
Transport Phenomena, Space Processing MARK E.
ORAZEM Electronic Materials Processing CHANG-
WON PARK Fluid Mechanics and Polymer Processing *
DINESH 0. SHAH Enhanced Oil Recovery, Biomedi-
cal Engineering SPYROS SVORONOS Process
trochemical Engineering, Membrane Phenomena.

i tn meerm^

A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia

Graduate Studies
in Chemical

A. S. Abhiraman
Pradeep K. Agrawal
Yaman Arkun
Sue Ann Bidstrup
Eric J. Clayfield
William R. Ernst
Larry J. Forney
Charles W. Gorton
Jeffery S. Hsieh
Michael J. Matteson
John D. Muzzy
Robert M. Nerem
Gary W. Poehlein
Ronnie S. Roberts
Ronald W. Rousseau
Robert J. Samuels
F. Joseph Schork
A. H. Peter Skelland
Jude T. Sommerfeld
D. William Tedder
Amyn S. Teja
Mark G. White
Timothy M. Wick
Jack Winnick
Ajit Yoganathan

Research Interests
Biomedical engineering
Biochemical engineering
Composite materials
Electrochemical engineering
Environmental chemistry
Fine particles
Interfacial phenomena

Physical properties
Polymer science and engineering
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor analysis and design
Separation processes
Surface science and technology
Transport phenomena

For more Information write:
Ronald W. Rousseau
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100

FALL 1988

What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty o0your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.

"It's great

Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery

Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Harry Deans

Abe Dukler
Demetre Economou
Chuck Goochee
Ernest Henley

Dan Luss
Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan

For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407 and ask for F

Jim Richar
Frank Tille
Richard W
Frank Wor

-L ~s~- --


Illinois Institute of Technology


* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of
Lake Michigan
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business and
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 40 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and assistant-
ships available to outstanding students


(Ph.D., IIT)
Multi-phase flow and fluidization, flow in porous media,
gas technology

(D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological
systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids

(Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter
systems, expert systems

(Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow,
separations processes

(Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting

(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction

(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering and electrochemical
energy storage

(Sc.D., MIT)
Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction

(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes,
enhanced oil recovery


Dr. D. Gidaspow
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616

FALL 1988


Chemical Engineering

The University of Illinois at Chicago

MS and PhD Graduate Program

Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor

Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969

Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head

Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Associate Professor
John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor, Director of Graduate Studies

David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor

Reaction Engineering with primary focus on
gas-solid reaction kinetics; diffusion and
adsorption phenomena; surface chemistry;
environmental technology
Heterogeneous Catalysis and surface
chemistry, catalysis by supported metals,
subseabed radioactive waste disposal studies,
clay chemistry
Kinetics of Gas Reactions, energy transfer
processes, laser diagnostics, combustion
Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics,
supercritical fluid extraction/retrograde
condensation, asphalthene characterization and
deposition, thermodynamics of bioseparation.
Biotransport Phenomena, Lipid
microencapsulation, pulmonary deposition and
clearance, membrane transport, synthetic blood,
Thermodynamics and Transport Properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical
mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures
Heterogeneous Catalysis, fundamental studies
of catalyst preparation, characterization of solids
and solid surfaces, heterogeneous reaction
Transport Properties of Fluids and Solids,
fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal
liquefaction, slurry bubble column
hydrodynamics and heat transfer
Chemical Reaction Engineering, catalysis,
energy transmission, modelling and optimization

Transport Phenomena, slurry transport,
suspension and complex fluid flow and heat
transfer, porous media processes, mathematical
analysis and approximation
Heterogeneous Catalysis, structure sensitivity
of oxide catalysts for selective oxidation, catalyst
preparation techniques, artificial intelligence
applied to descriptive kinetics

For more information:
Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424

University of Illinois

at Urbana-Champaign

The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading
to the M.S. and Ph.D degrees.

The combination of distinguished faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for
graduate education.

igh Pressure Studies

Polymer Processing

Richard C. Alkire
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Richard I. Masel

Walter G. May
Anthony J. McHugh
Edmund G. Seebauer
Mark A. Stadtherr
Frank B. van Swol
James W. Westwater
K. Dane Wittrup
Charles F. Zukoski, IV

Plasma etching

Electrochemical and Plasma Processing
High Pressure Studies, Structure and Properties of Solids
Molecular Thermodynamics, Applied Chemical Kinetics
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematics
Surface Science Studies of Catalysts and Semiconductor
Chemical Process Engineering
Polymer Engineering and Science
Laser Studies in Semiconductor Growth
Process Flowsheeting and Optimization
Wetting and Capillary Condensation
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes
Colloid and Interfacial Science

For information and application forms write:

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 West California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


is an independent graduate
school. It has an
interdisciplinary degree
program designed for B.S.
chemical engineering
Fellowships and full tuition
scholarships are available to
qualified U.S. and Canadian
residents. Our students
receive minimum $10,000
fellowships each calendar
Our research activities relate
to a broad spectrum of
industry needs, including:

process engineering
simulation and control
heat and mass transfer
separation science
reaction engineering
fluid mechanics
material science
surface and colloid science
combustion technology
chemical kinetics
For further information contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone: 414/734-9251



William H. Abraham
thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
processs modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
5eorge Burnet
3oal technology, separation processes, high
temperaturee ceramics
lohn M. Eggebrecht
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and
Eluid surfaces
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
Fames C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
rerry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing, sensors
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Process modeling, simulation
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011




c- W4


Timothy A. Barbari
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Separations
Diffusion in Polymers
Separation Processes
Michael J. Betenbaugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Microbial Metabolism
Recombinant DNA Technology
Marc D. Donohue
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria
Joseph L. Katz
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Robert M. Kelly
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separations Processes


Mark A. McHugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction
Geoffrey A. Prentice
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
W. Mark Saltzman
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport in Biological Systems
Controlled Release
Cell-Surface Interactions
William H. Schwarz
Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics of Fluids

For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
Chemical Engineering Department
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7170





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8B 8
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M.S. and Ph.D. programs
'Chemical Engineering
*Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering
*Food Science
*Environmental Engineering

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year

For More Information Write To
Professor B.G.,Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506

Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering
and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment




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