Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Clarkson University
 Book reviews
 Letter to the editor
 J. C. Friedly, of Rochester
 Creativity in engineering...
 Book reviews
 In memoriam, W. Robert Marshal...
 Instruction in scaleup
 Chemical engineering and instructional...
 Book reviews
 Books received
 The operations and process laboratory:...
 Chemical engineering education...
 Calculation of pre-exponential...
 Book reviews
 Simulation exercises for an undergraduate...
 An option in applied microbiol...
 Books received
 Back Cover

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PDIV1 Front Cover
PAGE1 Page
PDIV2 Table of Contents
PAGE3 109
PDIV3 Clarkson University 3 Section
PAGE4 110
PAGE5 111
PAGE6 112
PAGE7 113 4
PDIV4 Book reviews
PAGE8 114
PDIV5 Letter to the editor 5
PAGE9 115
PDIV6 J. C. Friedly, Rochester 6
PAGE10 116
PAGE11 117
PAGE12 118
PAGE13 119
PDIV7 Creativity in 7
PAGE14 120
PAGE15 121
PAGE16 122
PAGE17 123
PAGE18 124
PAGE19 125
PDIV8 In memoriam W. Robert Marshall 8
PAGE20 126
PAGE21 127
PDIV9 Instruction scaleup 9
PAGE22 128
PAGE23 129
PAGE24 130
PAGE25 131
PAGE26 132
PAGE27 133
PDIV10 and instructional computing: Are they step 10
PAGE28 134
PAGE29 134-1
PAGE30 134-2
PAGE31 134-3
PAGE32 134-4
PAGE33 134-5
PAGE34 134-6
PAGE35 134-7
PAGE36 134-8
PAGE37 134-9
PAGE38 134-10 11
PAGE39 134-11 12
PAGE40 134-12 13
PAGE41 134-13 14
PAGE42 134-14 15
PAGE43 134-15 16
PAGE44 134-16 17
PAGE45 135 18
PAGE46 136 19
PAGE47 137 20
PAGE48 138 21
PDIV11 Books received
PAGE49 139
PDIV12 The operations process laboratory: A unique summer course at Wisconsin
PAGE50 140
PAGE51 141
PAGE52 142
PAGE53 143
PDIV13 Japan United States, part I: perspective
PAGE54 144
PAGE55 145
PAGE56 146
PAGE57 147
PAGE58 148
PAGE59 149
PDIV14 Calculation pre-exponential term kinetic rate expression
PAGE60 150
PAGE61 151
PAGE62 152
PAGE63 153
PDIV16 Simulation exercises for an undergraduate digital control
PAGE64 154
PAGE65 155
PAGE66 156
PAGE67 157
PDIV17 An option applied microbiology
PAGE68 158
PAGE69 159
PAGE70 160
PDIV19 Back

Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00000383/00099
 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication: Storrs, Conn
Publication Date: Summer 1988
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification: lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00099

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 109
    Clarkson University
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Book reviews
        Page 114
    Letter to the editor
        Page 115
    J. C. Friedly, of Rochester
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Creativity in engineering education
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Book reviews
        Page 125
    In memoriam, W. Robert Marshall
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Instruction in scaleup
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Chemical engineering and instructional computing: Are they in step?
        Page 134
        Page 134-1
        Page 134-2
        Page 134-3
        Page 134-4
        Page 134-5
        Page 134-6
        Page 134-7
        Page 134-8
        Page 134-9
        Page 134-10
        Page 134-11
        Page 134-12
        Page 134-13
        Page 134-14
        Page 134-15
        Page 134-16
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Book reviews
        Page 138
    Books received
        Page 139
    The operations and process laboratory: A unique summer course at Wisconsin
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Chemical engineering education in Japan and the United States: I. A perspective
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Calculation of pre-exponential term in kinetic rate expression
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Book reviews
        Page 153
    Simulation exercises for an undergraduate digital process control course
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    An option in applied microbiology
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Books received
        Page 160
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

chmial eniern education

We wish to

acknowledge and thank...



...for supporting

with a donation of funds.


Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner
Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology
Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Richard Felder
North Carolina State University
Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University
Donald R. Paul
University of Texas
James Fair
University of Texas
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York

Chemical Engineering Education

110 Clarkson University, Robert Cole,
Don Rasmussen

116 J. C. Friedly, of Rochester, Gulam Samdani

Views and Opinions
120 Creativity in Engineering Education,
Richard M. Felder

128 Instruction in Scaleup, Robert L. Kabel
154 Simulation Exercises for an Undergraduate
Digital Process Control Course,
Deborah E. Reeves, F. Joseph Schork

134 Chemical Engineering and Instructional
Computing: Are They in Step?
Warren D. Seider
144 Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and
the United States: I. A Perspective,
Sigmund Floyd
150 Calculation of Pre-Exponential Term in Kinetic
Rate Expression, Mukesh Maheshwari,
Laks Akella
158 An Option in Applied Microbiology,
William E. Lee III

140 The Operations and Process Laboratory: A
Unique Summer Course at Wisconsin,
Glenn A. Sather, Jose Coca

114, 125, 138, 153 Book Reviews

115 Letter to the Editor

126 In Memoriam, W. Robert Marshall

139, 160 Books Received

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edite at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to 0. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, FL 32028. Copyright
1988 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced ifnotified with
120 days of pubicatin. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POS ER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.



Babu MoCluskey Nunge Welland

Oyama Sukanek Chin Taylor

Wllox Ward 8ubramanlan
Baltus Harris Obt Luola

Rasmussen Campbell C ole MoLaughlln


Clarkson University
Potsdam, NY 13676

Clarkson University is a private co-educational in-
stitution located in the village of Potsdam in upstate
New York, twenty miles from the Canadian border
and the St. Lawrence Seaway. The university was
founded by three sisters as a memorial to their
brother, Thomas S. Clarkson, a local businessman and
humanitarian who was accidentally killed in his
sandstone quarry in 1894. The first classes were held
for seventeen young men and women on September
2, 1896.
Chemical engineering was inaugurated at the
Thomas S. Clarkson Memorial School of Technology
in 1903, and the first chemical engineering degree was
awarded in 1904. In 1913, the charter was amended,
authorizing the awarding of graduate degrees and
changing the name to the Thomas S. Clarkson Memo-
rial College of Technology. The first masters degrees
were awarded in 1916. It was not until 1964 that the
first PhD was awarded (in chemistry). The first PhD
in chemical engineering was awarded one year later
in 1965. Continued growth and development resulted

in the New York State Board of Regents designating
Clarkson as a university in 1984.
For many years, chemistry and chemical engineer-
ing were combined as one department. In 1958, this
association was dissolved and Herman L. Shulman be-
came the first chairman of chemical engineering. Shul-
man was committed to expanding the graduate pro-
gram, and under his leadership, graduate activity in-
creased from three to twenty-three full time graduate
students and the department increased in size from
three to seven faculty members. By 1965 Shulman was
Dean of the Graduate School and Head of the Division
of Research, and William N. Gill from Syracuse Uni-
versity was appointed as the new chairman of chemi-
cal engineering. Exciting times were in store for
chemical engineering over the next six years. In 1968
Shulman became Dean of Engineering. In September
1969 the department was awarded a $590,000 NSF
development grant. That same month Eli Ruck-
enstein joined the department as an NSF visiting
foreign scientist, and in the spring semester of 1970,
T. Brooke Benjamin, F.R.S., joined us as a Distin-
guished Visiting Professor. By 1971 the department
had doubled in size to fourteen full time faculty mem-
bers and the graduate enrollment had risen to forty-

0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


five. In September of 1971, Gill left Clarkson to be-
come Provost of Engineering and Applied Science at
SUNY Buffalo.
Gill had built a strong department with many out-
standing faculty members, and for the next few years,
Joseph Estrin, E. James Davis, and Richard J. Nunge
successively occupied the chairman's position. In 1975,
William R. Wilcox from USC was appointed as Gill's
successor. At USC, Wilcox had been professor of both
chemical engineering and materials science. This lat-
ter area of expertise, combined with the strength in
transport phenomena left by Gill, was to shape the
nature of the department and the school of engineer-
ing for years to come. With the resurgence of NASA
and the successful launch of the space shuttle, many
of the faculty, with the help and encouragement of
Wilcox, found themselves involved in one way or
another with NASA's "Materials Processing in Space"
program. Simultaneously, undergraduate enrollments
recovered from the early 70s, the graduate program
flourished (reaching a high of seventy-six), and the
faculty increased in number to a maximum of twenty-
one. During this time period, Estrin, Davis, and
David O. Cooney left to become chairmen at the uni-
versities of Rhode Island, New Mexico, and Wyom-
ing, respectively. Joseph L. Katz and Marc D.
Donahue also left the department and, in succession,
took over the chairmanship at Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity. Nunge was appointed Dean of the Graduate
School and head of the Division of Research at
Clarkson. In July of 1986 Wilcox stepped down as
chairman and became director of the newly formed
"Center for Advanced Materials Processing" (CAMP)
and the "NASA Center for the Commercialization of
Crystal Growth in Space," both at Clarkson. Shortly
afterwards, Clarkson's CAMP was designated as a
"Center for Advanced Technology" by the State of
New York.
In January of 1987, R. Shankar Subramanian was
appointed chairman of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment. On July 1 of 1987, Wilcox was appointed
Dean of Engineering. Since 1971, the Chemical En-
gineering Department at Clarkson has been consis-
tently ranked in the top ten in the U.S. in terms of
numbers of BS degrees awarded annually. The under-
graduate program is the foundation upon which the
strength of the department depends, and the graduate
program builds upon that strength. Undergraduates
are encouraged to become involved in research pro-
jects to discover "what it is all about." In 1986, new
external research support in chemical engineering
climbed to well over one million dollars annually. The

key to the future of chemical engineering at Clarkson
is "flexibility." We must be prepared to direct our
expertise to new and upcoming fields, both in terms
of research effort and in undergraduate course offer-
ings. At Clarkson, this will no doubt be influenced by
"CAMP," which has already guided our activities to-
ward such areas as fine-particle processing, polymer

The university was founded by
three sisters as a memorial to their brother,
Thomas S. Clarkson, a local businessman and
humanitarian .... The first classes were
held ... on September 2, 1896.

processing, electronic fabrication processing, micro-
contamination control, and materials processing in

Since 1948, chemical engineering has been located
in Peyton Hall, a three-story structure having a total
of 32,000 square feet of floor space. Originally, the
building contained the college library on the third floor
and strength of materials and machine tool
laboratories on the first floor. The unit operations lab-
oratory occupied the second floor, and the traditional
well, which occupied 1650 square feet of floor space
on the ground floor, rose the entire height of the build-
ing. By the mid 1960s, chemical engineering was the
exclusive occupant of Peyton Hall, and with the con-
tinuous expansion of the graduate program and in-
crease in faculty size, many modifications of the in-
terior have been required in order to provide suffi-
cient laboratory and office space. The most significant
of these have perhaps been the covering over of the
well at the third floor level to create research
laboratories, the partial covering of the well on the
second floor to create both faculty offices and research
laboratories, and the renovation of the basement area
to create additional laboratories. Today, the building
houses twenty-one faculty offices, twenty-seven
laboratories, two departmental offices, two fifty-stu-
dent classrooms, a computer laboratory for the design
course, a computer terminal room for the graduate
students, the departmental machine shop, and the
chemical engineering senior laboratory which still oc-
cupies a major portion of the second floor plus the
Every undergraduate student entering Clarkson
is issued a personal computer. In the first year of this


Every undergraduate student entering Clarkson is issued a personal computer. In the first year of
this program, 1983, all entering freshmen were issued a Zenith Z-100 microcomputer. In subsequent years (it)
was updated annually to keep pace with rapid developments in computer technology . Each faculty member
is also issued a microcomputer, the version depending upon undergraduate teaching assignments.

program, 1983, all entering freshmen were issued a
Zenith Z-100 microcomputer. In subsequent years,
the Z-100 was updated annually to keep pace with
rapid developments in computer technology. By Sep-
tember 1986, every Clarkson undergraduate had a
Zenith computer. The class entering in 1986 was is-
sued a special version of the new IBM AT compatible
Z-248 computer. This special version was also Z-100
compatible. In 1987, the entering class was issued the
enhanced graphics version of the Z-248 and compat-
ability with the Z-100 was eliminated. Each faculty
member is also issued a microcomputer, the version
depending upon undergraduate teaching assignments.
For example, all faculty teaching freshmen courses in
1987/88 received new EGA Z-248 computers to replace
whatever version they were previously using. Many
of the faculty members in chemical engineering find
that the capabilities of the current microcomputers
are now quite sufficient for their research needs. Un-
fortunately, the graduate students are not issued com-
puters, so it is necessary to provide appropriate
facilities for them either in the research laboratories
or in departmental terminal rooms. Our graduate ter-
minal room contains three Sun workstations, three Z-
248 computers with 30M hard drives and expanded
memory, one Z-248 with an Opus board, 318M hard
drive and expanded memory, and two Z-100 com-
puters, one with color monitor. Except for the Z-100s,
these are all linked together with similar facilities in
the other engineering departments and with the uni-
versity mainframe computers by an ethernet. The
mainframe computers include an IBM 4341, Gould
9080, VAX 11-780, and an Alliant FX8 mini-supercom-
puter. The IBM machine is now used largely for ad-
ministrative purposes and the VAX for under-
graduate instruction in computer graphics. Because
all faculty offices in the school of engineering are
wired into the ethernet, all of the above facilities and
their software are directly accessible for use by the
faculty from their office. Further, through BITNET,
EARN, ARPANET, UUCP, etc., electronic mail
transfer to faculty at other universities and to col-
leagues in industry, both in the U.S. and abroad, is
easily accomplished.
The research laboratories scattered throughout
the building contain a large variety of equipment and
facilities reflecting the research interests of the fac-
ulty. Among the major large-scale facilities are an ex-

truder, injection molding machine, blown film line, hot
press, Instron universal testing machine, Perkin
Elmer differential thermal analyzer and differential
scanning calorimeter, Siemens D500 X-ray diffrac-
tometer, Plasmatherm PECVD and plasma etching
reactors, C02 and excimer lasers, and commercial
scale crystal growth equipment. There are many well
equipped research laboratories associated with indi-
vidual faculty or groups of faculty but which do not
necessarily contain large scale facilities such as iden-
tified above. These include the electrochemical en-
gineering laboratory (Chin), chemical metallurgy lab-
oratory (Rasmussen), nucleation laboratory (Rasmus-
sen), crystal growth laboratory (Wilcox), glass proces-
sing laboratory (Subramanian, Cole), bubble dynamics
laboratory (Subramanian, Cole), chemical kinetics
laboratory (McCluskey), holographic interferometry
laboratory (Sukanek, Cole), gas treating laboratory
(Weiland), polymer fabrication and properties lab-
oratory (Campbell, Sukanek, Harris), separation
process design laboratory (Taylor), plasma and laser
processing laboratory (Babu, Sukanek), heat transfer
laboratory (Obot), oil residual characterization labora-
tory (Baltus), and the multiphase flow laboratory
(McLaughlin). This summer, a new materials prepara-
tion and ultra-high vacuum surface analysis laboratory
will be established by Dr. S. Ted Oyama who will be
joining the faculty.

Our faculty's research interests and interactions
can be represented schematically as three connected
body centered cubic unit cells with each faculty
member as a lattice point. Conveniently, there are
nineteen faculty members to be placed on the lattice.
An arrangement is presented which optimizes cohe-
sive energy by forming the bonds with the strongest
individual interaction. It can be observed that the two
outer unit cells are centered with the past chairman
of the department, Bill Wilcox, and the current chair-
man of the department, Shankar Subramanian. Each
has his influence within the department through a
maximum number of immediate interactions within
his own area of specialization.
Bill Wilcox's research interest is in materials and
materials processing. Specifically, he is interested in
the effects of crystal growth on the quality of the re-


S.V. Babu

Robert Cole

Ai I-


Sandra L. Harris

uregory A. Gampoell

Angelo Lucia

Don H. Rasmussen

Der-Tau Chin

William R. Wilcox

Richard J. McCluskey

. Shnkr Suramani
R. Shankar Subramanian

Peter C. Sukanek

Richard J. Nunge

Nsima T. Obot

Ralph H. Weiland


sultant crystal or composite eutectic structure. Dur-
ing his tenure as chairman, a number of faculty with
interests in materials or materials processing have
joined the department. Obviously, as indicated by the
lattice connections, the materials and the processing
methods are wide ranging and of current commercial
and theoretical interest. Rasmussen, Babu, Sukanek
and McCluskey, as well as Wilcox, have an interest in
electronic materials and on-chip processing. Each of
these faculty members have spent at least one sum-
mer or sabbatical year with an industrial electronics
manufacturer. Campbell, a polymer processing en-
gineer, and Sukanek, a polymer rheologist, combine
to work on polymer processing in bulk, injection mold-
ing, blown film and spin coating. They are also in-
volved with Rasmussen in work on foaming of
polymeric and multicomponent systems. Baltus's in-
terest in hindered diffusion in porous systems and
McCluskey's work in kinetics and catalysis complete
the left hand unit cell.
Shankar Subramanian did his doctoral dissertation
under Bill Gill and joined Clarkson's faculty in 1973.
His ascent to the chairmanship of the department in
1986 brings continuity to the research group-origi-
nally founded by Gill-interested in transport and
transport related problems. McLaughlin, Chin,
Nunge, and Cole combine with Subramanian to study
turbulence, electrochemical phenomena, fluids, and
bubbles. Weiland has worked in slurry rheology and
fluid flow in filled systems. Taylor, Weiland and Lucia
have interests in mass transfer and separation proces-
ses. Cole and Obot are interested in boiling and con-
vective heat transfer. Harris's work on digital control
and Ward's work on analog control complete both this
unit cell and help to tie together the left and right
hand parts of the department, as does the interaction
between Cole and Sukanek on optical measurement
A number of important interactions have not been
included in the lattice connections because of inability
to place the appropriate parties in nearest neighbor
relationship. For example, Cole's interest in nuclea-
tion during boiling is not far removed from Rasmus-
sen's interest in nucleation of crystals from the liquid
state or solution or his interest in polymeric foams.
Wilcox, Subramanian and Cole all study materials pro-
cessing in low gravity and both Wilcox and Cole enjoy
flying NASA's KC-135 aircraft to monitor low-G ex-
periments themselves. Again, McLaughlin and
Campbell have an interest in fluid rheology of filled
systems under high shear, though our model cannot
indicate this collaboration. The newest faculty
member, S. Ted Oyama, is included in the matrix

where he is expected to interact. His background is
in the study of surfaces on solids and processing at
surfaces. Oyama will arrive on campus this summer.
The research interests of our faculty are constantly
evolving. The future will combine materials and trans-
port phenomena. The obvious evolution continues to
materials processing and the establishment of a center
for materials processing, CAMP. The building of a
physical facility for CAMP which will include our en-
tire department indicates Clarkson's commitment to
our research interests. We will move on. D

M book reviews

TO HEAT TRANSFER: Vol. 1, Plant Principles;
Vol. 2, Equipment
Edited by K. J. McNaughton and the Staff of Chemi-
cal Engineering; Hemisphere Publishing Corp.,
Washington, DC and McGraw-Hill, New York, NY;
362 pages, $49.95 and 300 pages, $49.95, respectively
Reviewed by
Robert Cole
Clarkson University
Each volume consists exclusively of papers origi-
nally published in the McGraw-Hill Chemical En-
gineering magazine. The editors have classified
ninety-three articles into two major categories de-
pending upon whether they emphasize plant principles
or equipment. These categories are further broken
down as

Heat exchangers
Shell-and-tube equipment
Heat recovery

for the former, and

Heating and insulation
Other equipment

for the latter. In general, the classification has been
well done and the articles on heat recovery, for exam-


pie, do emphasize heat recovery. That is not to say,
however, that the same articles do not discuss either
design or equipment.
Chemical Engineering magazine is noted for its
abundance of very practical and clearly written arti-
cles. It is, in effect, a "how to" magazine for the prac-
ticing chemical engineer. It follows that the same may
be said about these two volumes. Articles are found
which discuss, for example:

Choice of construction materials (for heat ex-
Latest TEMA standards
Trouble shooting shell and tube equipment
Hairpin, finned bundle, and helical coil heat ex-
Energy efficiency and conservation
Heat recovery networks
Steam traps and accumulators
Fog formation
Selection of industrial dryers
Microwave drying
Solar ponds
Packaged boilers (specify carefully)
Selecting refrigerants
Coolers for cryogenic grinding
Winterizing process plants
Insulation without economics

The examples above are, of course, just a sampling
of the many interesting articles which have been
selected by the editors. Thirteen articles include de-
tailed programs for both the TI-58/59 and HP-67/97
programmable calculators. Although many engineers
now have their own microcomputers, and portable or
laptop versions are available, it is doubtful that they
are being carried around to the extent that the per-
sonal calculator is or the slide-rule (what?) was. Hence
these programs should still be of considerable interest
and use.
Although these volumes are certainly not intended
as a text for any specific course, they should be part
of any collection of reference books available for use
with courses in heat transfer, design principles, and
plant design. Excellent examples are presented of the
practical usage of equations and concepts already
familiar to upper level chemical engineering students.
Perhaps just as important, the articles are short, in-
teresting, and readable. With the increasing emphasis
accreditation has placed upon such topics as safety,
economics, practical open-ended type problems, etc.,
these volumes become of increasing interest and
value. [O


To the Editor:

An article in Science (236,908,1987) caught my attention. It
was entitled
Libraries Stunned by Journal Price Increase
...research libraries also believe they are being exploited by
journal publishers.
It tells of libraries being terribly upset by a 16% annual price
increase. That's just peanuts. I wonder whether my fellow
academics know what goes on in our field. Let me relate one
of our horror stories.
In the 70s CEC was launched with six real bona fide is-
sues/volume and one volume/year. Then things started
changing with more and more volumes per year, combining
issues, calling one mailing three issues and so on; of course
always charging per volume. Finally they dispensed with the
fiction of issues. Now each mailing is called a volume, and the
number of pages has continually shrunk. The latest volume
has just 254 small pages with large print.
CEC published thirteen and one-half volumes in 1987,
charging close to $300/volume. That comes to just about
$4000/year. In comparison, CES gives you twelve is-
sues/volume, each issue having more in it than a whole vol-
ume of CEC.
The following table compares what you get from these two
commercial publishers (December 1987 figures):
# pages/voL # words/page Cost/voL Cost/1000 words
CES 2,989 -1,240 $435 $0.117
CEC -350 -630 $296 $1.34
Look at that over eleven times as expensive.
A rogue operation like CEC acts as an insidious cancer on
our profession, looking healthy at first but then strangling its
host the information disseminating channels of our profes-
sion. For example, why shouldn't other publishers say, "If
CEC can get away with charging over ten times as much as
we do, we're fools if we don't follow suit." And if many of them
do, what will this do to our libraries and to the profession's
ability to disseminate knowledge?
How does such a situation develop? Simple. You want
something (a place to publish your papers), the publisher
gives you what you want, and it costs you nothing directly. To
get going, the publisher gets a prestigious editorial board, the
rest follows. In a way we are all to blame for this situation:
the editorial board members for allowing their good names to
be associated with these rapacious operations, and we, the
consumers, for going along with it.
What can we do about this? More important do we want to
do anything about it? I wonder. Does anyone have ideas?
This spring our library has asked each university de-
partment to recommend cutting 15%, in dollar terms, from its
journal holdings. I think I know how to do this in chemical
engineering by eliminating just 1% of our journals.

Octave Levenspiel
Oregon State University
EDITOR'S NOTE: CEE welcomes any additional comments from
our readers on this subject. CEE has published four issues/volume
since its inception while at the same increasing the average size of
individual issues. Subscription rates have been raised only twice in
the past ten years.



J. C. Friedly

of Rochester

University of Rochester
Rochester, NY 14627

JOHN C. FRIEDLY is a born gentleman, quite in con-
trast to M. J. Adler's "go-getting materialism of
the American environment." He is always a patient,
cheerful man who, it seems to those who know him,
could not be otherwise even if he tried. Perhaps being
aware that this personality trait could very well align
his future with the inexorable fate of an endangered
species, he learned how to transcend his phylogenic
destiny through ontogenic inventiveness and his
amazing (to others) quickness of mind. In daily in-
teraction with his students and colleagues, he knows
just when to be the anecdotal turtle and when the
rabbit. And to bring this art to perfection, he never
runs out of enthusiasm to test his flexibility against
the demands of a situation, be it in the role of a

teacher, a colleague, or an administrator. One specula-
tion is that this is a legacy from his days on the cham-
pionship teams of three different intramural sports,
namely, basketball at Carnegie Tech, softball at UC
Berkeley and handball at the U. of R. Even to this
day, one colleague and long-time handball partner at-
tests to his dexterity in the handball court.
Professor Friedly comes from a proud family in
Glen Dale, West Virginia. His father was a banker
who taught him the illusory character of money and
inculcated in him the passion for the "finer things in
life." Dr. Friedly seems to fit the overachiever's pro-
file; he was a good student by all measures of compe-
tence in high school and college. His four years at
Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie-Mel-
lon) sharpened his skills and interest in mathematics.
Without much second thought, he chose to study
chemical engineering, perhaps lured by the campus

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


reputation of chemical engineering being the "tough-
est one." While an undergraduate, somehow he came
to know about Charles Wilkes' research at UC Ber-
keley and ended up going to Berkeley for his graduate
Although he was attracted to UC Berkeley by Dr.
Wilkes' work, he was eventually drawn into Professor
E. E. Petersen's group. He reminisces about his days
at Berkeley with such zestful relish that it is hard to
understand why he was in such a hurry to finish his
PhD dissertation in about four years. Professor Peter-
sen gets high marks for his advising style. "He gave
me plenty of independence," says Dr. Friedly. "But
he was always there when I needed him. His approach
to research and student advising has had an enduring
influence. So much so, that to this day I try to follow
his style." He believes that it is a teacher's privilege
to let a fledgling mind grow at its "free will and free
won't," and that the teacher should take every oppor-
tunity to facilitate that growth through exhortation
and the catalyzing action of time-tested experience.
For Dr. Friedly, however, the skeptic in him always
keeps him on his toes with the caveat, "Am I over-
doing my job?" Some, here in the department, have
dubbed it as the "Berkeley Style" of research, teach-
ing and advising.
After finishing his graduate education at Berkeley,
he wanted to sample the real world as a research sci-
entist at General Electric. It was in the Information
Studies Section that he tried out some of his ideas in
computerized process control. GE provided him with
so much independence in the choice and conduct of
research that he was "having a ball" and hardly
noticed any difference between industrial and
academic research in content or style. However, this
research strategy took a turn when the GE manage-
ment decided to pursue a more practical application-
oriented research program, perhaps in anticipation of
their withdrawal from the increasingly competitive
computer market. At this point, Dr. Friedly chose not
to take further stock in industrial research and said
goodbye to GE. He applied to several universities for
a faculty position and accepted an offer from Johns
Hopkins University, hoping that he would be able to
start his own program of research. It turned out that
the Department of Chemical Engineering there was
on top of the University Dean's list of departments
soon to be disbanded because of their high cost of
maintenance, overhead or otherwise, and low enroll-
ment. Because of a nominal teaching load and no ad-
vising responsibility, he spent most of his time at
Johns Hopkins doing research. That was when the

idea of putting together his notes and scribbles and
writing a book dawned on him. It was going to be a
book on process dynamics-a subject he deemed to
have a broader point of view and needed a treatment
parallel to, but separate from, traditional process con-
trol. Although now he cringes at the thought of ven-
turing into such a task (reading endlessly, writing at
all hours, and dealing with the publisher) the end,
according to him, more than justifies all the pains.
For Dr. Friedly, his first brainchild, a lasting gift to
generations of students and researchers of process
dynamics, was his book Dynamic Behavior of Proces-
ses (1972). Surely one can feel the resonance of an

John is a born gentleman .... he is always a
patient, cheerful man who, it seems to those
who know him, could not be otherwise even if he
tried .... he never runs out of enthusiasm to test his
flexibility against the demands of a situation.

inspired mind, with page after page of insightful dis-
cussion and ways to attack realistic problems with the
approximate mathematical techniques available at
that time. He introduced the use of asymptotic
analysis as a way of approximating long-time response
of certain model systems. His treatment was com-
prehensive, starting with the strategic steps of
mathematical model development and concluding with
nontrivial examples of exact and approximate
analyses of linear and nonlinear systems. It was in-
deed a momentous intellectual debut.
Although the idea of the book had its inception in
Baltimore, Dr. Friedly moved to the University of
Rochester in New York to nourish the idea. At that
time, James M. Douglas (the author of two volumes
as Process Dynamics and Control) was getting ready
to leave Rochester for the University of Mas-
sachusetts at Amherst. There was a brief communion
of similar minds alive with the idea of writing books
on process dynamics, but destined to go their separate
Dr. Friedly's thesis work at UC Berkeley was on
the dynamics of chemically reactive systems. He sees
his subsequent interest and research initiative in
other areas as a logical continuum; they all grew, like
branches from the main trunk of a tree, into the
dynamics of distributed and multivariable systems,
system stability, optimal process control, dynamics,
and control of food processing. He concedes that the
area of research one launches into after completion of
graduate work is at least half determined by chance.
There is always the pull of intellectual inertia to stay


Although he is a member of several professional organizations, he seems to enjoy
his association with the AIChE the most. For the Rochester Section of the AIChE, he has served in
positions varying from employment coordinator to director of the section.

on the safe and familiar road and the push from cir-
cumstantial contingencies. One must develop intellec-
tual flexibility while at graduate school and through
exposure to the whole gamut of perspectives neces-

Dr. Friedly and a graduate student studying a computer-
generated graphical representation of a process model.

sary for independent scholarly work. Those who prac-
tice conservatism at this point in their education are
missing out on some of the exquisite thrills of discov-
ery and they end up paying a high price for this error
of omission through regret for not making enough er-
rors of commission while at school.
At the University of Rochester, Professor Friedly
developed his new interests by teaching both graduate
and undergraduate courses on heat transfer while con-
tinuing research in heat exchanger stability, heat
transfer in food processing, combustion, and solar
heater dynamics. He has also been teaching courses
on process dynamics, advanced process control, and
stability in distributed parameter systems, and he be-
came involved in many other emerging areas along
the way. For instance, his interest in environmental
pollution abatement led him to learn about solid waste
management and groundwater pollution. Interest in
chemical process system analysis led him to learn
more about computer-aided design, artificial intelli-
gence and, more recently, design and development of
expert systems for process control applications. If
nothing else, this example gives us some idea of how
an active mind makes its forays into unexplored terri-

tory and how it values the learning experience in and
of itself.
Professor Friedly's approach to teaching is coex-
tensive with his research style. He considers that the
success of his method is in direct proportion to the
extent that students shy away from "telephone-book
memorization." Of course, an engineer ought to know
where to look things up, but the challenge is more
often with problems that are not in handbooks or other
standard references in the library.
Besides his teaching and research activities, Pro-
fessor Friedly has always enjoyed pitching in
whenever there was a call for administrative respon-
sibilities and making things happen in that role. He
once headed, in congruence with his innovative re-
search interest, a flexible student-oriented inter-
departmental engineering program. Then the certain
prospect of heavy administrative chores did not dis-
suade him from serving as the Associate Dean of
Graduate Studies for the College of Engineering and
Applied Science. Since 1981 (the beginning of the
twilight years for the employment of graduating
chemical engineers), he has been at the helm as de-
partment chairman and has weathered the storms of
criticism from professional accreditation boards, in-
dustry, and government for updating and expanding
nationwide chemical engineering curricula within the
four-year span of undergraduate education. Dr.
Friedly seems to subscribe to the ancient Chinese
doll's method of encapsulating breadth within multi-
layered depth. Instead of offering separate courses
for small topics of emerging interest, they are assimi-
lated into appropriate ChE courses and treated in the
overall context of fundamental principles of chemical
engineering. If and when a topic demands a more com-
prehensive coverage, he is quick to invite experts
from local industry and to recruit new faculty mem-
bers to do the job. For example, the recent surge of
interest in biotechnology, materials science in general,
and polymer science and technology in particular, cal-
led for the addition of two new faculty members. He
looks forward to capitalizing as much as possible on
the great resources and fine reputation of the univer-
sity's Institute of Optics and various optics-based con-
cerns such as Bausch & Lomb, Corning, Kodak and
Xerox. He believes the department's emphasis on op-
tical polymericc) materials is only natural for Roches-


Providing a suitable research atmosphere for the
community of scholars and scholars-in-making (i.e.,
the graduate students and post-doctoral fellows) is
also a responsibility of the chairman of the depart-
ment. Marshalling the available resources for the
maintenance of excellence in research and teaching is
no small task. Although there is the higher call for
efficiency, Dr. Friedly is bent on making allowances
for the adventurism of young investigators in pursu-
ing untried avenues of research.
Dr. Friedly's open door policy has a counterpart
for a pair of finches who take advantage of his "open
window" policy in the spring. When they came in as
freshmen to occupy the hanging ivy-plant pot in his
office, he was ambivalent about what to teach them;
nevertheless they had a bird's-eye-view of the rows of
books on his open shelves and perhaps read titles like
Odyssey of a Chemical Engineer and Principles of
Heat Transfer. Although there is no way of knowing
how much they learned about chemical engineering,
they certainly have mastered the techniques on how
to incubate newborn nestlings and to hatch and nur-
ture the little ones until they could be on their own.
We can only speculate about the extent to which they
might have utilized their "textbook knowledge" of
heat transfer during the incubation phase. Upon com-
pletion of the freshman year, their return as sopho-
mores took everybody by surprise, so much so that
their second visit not only made the local news but
was also covered in an Audubon society publication in
When he finds time to relax, Dr. Friedly likes to
listen to classical music. He also likes to unwind by
solving English crossword puzzles which, he never
fails to point out, are quite different from those in
American newspapers. For some time he has been
developing this type of less interlocking, yet cryptic
on a theme, English crossword puzzle and hopes to
publish one some day. He also enjoys travelling with
his family. He is particularly fond of the countryside-
even today he talks endlessly about a small village
near Oxford in England where he stayed during his
last sabbatical at the University of Oxford. Another
private passion of his is restoring old houses and doing
the carpentry work himself. He tries to keep up-to-
date on the "vernacular architecture" of the Rochester
area and is devoted to maintaining the historical land-
mark status of his house in Penfield, New York.
The picture of this man would be an utterly trun-
cated one if we failed to mention his professional in-
volvement and active participation in societal affairs.
Although he is a member of several professional or-

Dr. Friedly admires a tapestry embroidered with Chinese
pandas, a gift from Mr. Tong Chen, a visiting scholar
from China.

ganizations, he seems to enjoy his association with the
AIChE the most. For the Rochester Section of the
AIChE, he has served in positions varying from em-
ployment coordinator to director of the section. He
was once a member of the US-USSR Study Group on
Helium Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Research and
recollects the pleasures and frustrations of com-
municating with the Soviet scientists and engineers
through the iron curtain. He is an activist in consumer
protection and has been a member of the Consumer
Health Protection Committee of the Monroe County
Health Department.
When Professor Friedly, a teacher, researcher and
administrator ponders the future of our profession, he
concludes we have a long way to go. Public perception
of engineers in general and chemical engineers in par-
ticular needs to be improved. Since we have to depend
on government financing for research in academia, the
importance of public opinion looms large in who gets
what share of the government's budget.
Last but not the least important responsibility of
educators in chemical engineering is to write books
and monographs. Textbooks and the allied literature
indeed go a long way in redefining the boundaries of
our profession, and this redefinition influences poten-
tial employers and the decision-makers in research-
supporting institutions in their expectations of what
we as chemical engineers are not only trained to do,
but also are capable of doing. This is no puny task.
But Dr. Friedly is no naive idealist and says, "Did I
say it was going to be easy?" And that is, at least in
the author's opinion, an apt counterpoint to compla-
cency. O


views and opinions I


North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695

Unless man can make new and original adaptations to
his environment as rapidly as his science can change
the environment, our culture will perish.
Carl R. Rogers

There has been much discussion in recent years on
the need for creative engineers in American industry
and the associated need for engineering schools to fos-
ter creative thinking ability in their students [1-5].
The first problem one encounters when thinking about
how these needs might be addressed is that while
creativity has been exhaustively studied [6-11], it has
never been satisfactorily defined. There is general
agreement, however, that creativity (whatever it is)
involves the ability to put things (words, concepts,
methods, devices) together in novel ways. Moreover,
at least some types of creative ability are thought to
involve skill at divergent production-generation of
many possible solutions to a given problem-as op-
posed to convergent production, or generation of "the
right answer" [7,8].
Academic excellence (at least in engineering) is
synonymous with skill at convergent production, since
engineering education (unlike engineering practice
and life in general) normally involves only problems
with single correct answers. On the other hand, both
convergent and divergent production are required to
solve serious technological problems. The purely con-
vergent thinker is not likely to come up with the in-
novative solution required when conventional ap-
proaches fail, while the purely divergent thinker will
generate a great many innovative ideas but may lack
both the analytical ability to carry them through to
their final form and the evaluative ability to discrimi-
nate between good and bad solutions. If we as en-
gineering educators cannot find enough individuals
who combine these abilities, at the very least we
should be turning out some who excel at one and some
who excel at the other. To do this, we must provide
instruction and practice in both modes of thinking.
In this respect we are failing abysmally. In the

0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988

educational experience we provide for our students,
from the first grade through the last graduate course,
never (well, hardly ever) are words breathed to the
following effects:

Some problems do not have unique solutions.
Some problems may not have solutions at all.
Problems in life, unlike problems in school, do not come
packaged with the precise amount of information needed
to solve them-some are overdefined, and most are under-
Problems in life, unlike problems in school, are open-
ended: there is no single correct solution and any realistic
answer invariably begins with, "It depends. .. ."
The more possible solutions you think of for a problem, the
more likely you are to come up with the best solution.
Sometimes a solution that at first sounds foolish is the best
To be wrong is not necessarily to fail.

If we are to produce engineers who can solve soci-
ety's most pressing technological problems we must
somehow convey these messages in our instruction.

Richard M. Felder is a professor of ChE at N.C. State, where he has
been since 1969. He received his BChE at City College of C.U.N.Y. and
his PhD from Princeton. He has worked at the A.E.R.E., Harwell, and
Brookhaven National Laboratory, and has presented courses on chem-
ical engineering principles, reactor design, process optimization, and
radioisotope applications to various American and foreign industries
and institutions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary Principles of
Chemical Processes (Wiley, 1986).




There is general agreement that creativity (whatever it is) involves the ability to put
things . together in novel ways. Moreover, at least some types of creative ability are thought to involve skill at
divergent production-generation of many possible solutions to a given problem-as opposed to
convergent production, or generation of "the right answer."

We must provide our students with opportunities to
exercise and augment their natural creative abilities
and we must create classroom environments that
make these exercises effective. The balance of this
paper suggests methods for achieving these objec-


The need to be right all the time is the biggest bar
there is to new ideas. It is better to have enough ideas
for some of them to be wrong than to be always right
by having no ideas at all.
Edward de Bono
Every really new idea looks crazy at first.
Abraham H. Maslow

Many techniques have been suggested for exercis-
ing creativity and developing problem-solving skills in
the classroom. (See, for example, the articles in Lub-
kin [12], especially that by Woods et al., and Costa
[13].) In every course some open-ended and underde-
fined problems should be assigned, and more informa-
tion than is needed should be provided for problems
with unique solutions. Problems should also be as-
signed which call for the generation of possible alter-
native solutions, and when the solutions are evaluated
credit should be given for fluency (number of solutions
generated), flexibility (variety of approaches
adopted), and originality.
If the generation of possible solutions is to be done
effectively, it is essential that the critical facility be
suspended in the initial stages of the process. The
problem-solver must feel free to advance any idea that
occurs, regardless of its apparent practicality or lack
of it. A number of techniques have been used success-
fully to facilitate the uncritical generation of ideas.
Following are several that have been found particu-
larly effective in industrial settings:

1. Alex F. Osborn's Checklist for New Ideas (cited in Arnold
[14]). A series of questions is used to stimulate new ways
of thinking about a process, plan, or device.

Adapt? (Are there new ways to use this as is? Other uses
if modified?)

Modify? (New twist? Change meaning, color, motion,
sound, odor, form, shape? Other changes?)

Magnify? (What to add? More time? Greater frequency?
Stronger? Higher? Longer? Thicker? Extra value? New
ingredient? Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate?)

Minify? (What to subtract? Smaller? Condensed?
Lower? Shorter? Lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split up?

Substitute? (Who else instead? What else instead? Other
ingredient? Other material? Other process? Other power
source? Other place? Other approach? Other tone of

Rearrange? (Interchange components? Other pattern?
Other layout? Other sequence? Transpose cause and ef-
fect? Change pace? Change schedule?)

Reverse? (Transpose positive and negative? How about
opposites? Turn it backward? Upside down? Reverse
roles? Turn tables?)

Combine? (Blend? Alloy? Assortment? Ensemble? Com-
bine units? Combine purposes? Combine appeals? Com-
bine ideas?)

2. Attribute Listing, proposed by Robert Crawford (cited in
Arnold [14]). List attributes or specifications of the entity
to be improved, and systematically try modifications or
variations. Example: a screwdriver-(1) round, steel
shank; (2) wooden handle riveted to it; (3) wedge-shaped
end for engaging slot in screw; (4) manually operated; (5)
torque provided by twisting. Then try changing each one,
separately and in combinations, and see what you come
up with.

3. Morphological Analysis, proposed by Fritz Zwicky (cited
in Arnold [14]). Set up axes for principal attributes of the
entity, with entries for each variable. Example: devise a
mode of transportation for a specific application. One axis
would be the form of conveyance (cart, chair, sling, bed,
capsule, .. .), another is the medium in or on which the
transportation occurs (air, water, oil, rollers, rails, . .),
another is the power source (internal combustion, com-
pressed air, electricity, steam, magnetic fields, cable, belt,
atomic power, .. .). Then try to come up with an example
of each possible combination of variables (i.e., every
point on the grid formed in the space of the axes).

4. Random stimulation, one of the techniques suggested by
Edward de Bono [15] under the general framework of"lat-
eral thinking," in which something arbitrary is selected
and an attempt is made to apply it to the problem at hand.
Use a dictionary to provide a random word. Pick a book
or journal off a shelf, choose any article or chapter, and
apply the information to the given problem. Pick the
nearest red object.
Making students combine two apparently unrelated
concepts in this manner forces them to think about their
problem in new ways, which is the object of the exercise.
In a recent junior-level class on fluid dynamics and heat
transfer [5] students were assigned to think of as many
ways as they could to measure the viscosity of a fluid.
Extra credit was given for any method that involved the


use of a hamburger. (An instructor who dislikes whimsy
could use a more serious sounding noun-it makes no dif-
ference.) The results were enjoyable: students measured
the settling velocity of a hamburger in the fluid; poured
the fluid over the hamburger like ketchup and measured
its spreading rate; covered a flat surface with the fluid
and skipped the hamburger across it like a stone; offered
a hamburger to someone who owned a viscometer; and
came up with a number of other ideas that (with some
stretching of the imagination) could lead to viable viscos-
ity measurement methods.
5. Brainstorming, formally developed by Alex F. Osborn. A
problem is posed and a group session is held in which
ideas are proposed and recorded but not evaluated criti-
cally, and then in a subsequent session the ideas are
evaluated and the less promising ones are culled out. The

. . since most or all of our teaching is based
on the precisely defined, closed-ended problem
with one and only one correct solution, we tend
to get annoyed when a student produces a
correct solution other than the one we
had in mind-it confuses the grading . .

idea generation phase can be completely unstructured or
one of the preceding four techniques can be used as the
basis of the exercise. Any idea, no matter how far-fetched,
is fair game.
Several brainstorming exercises were used recently in
the junior fluids/heat transfer course cited previously [5].
One asked students to come up with methods of measuring
the velocity of a fluid in a pipe when no conventional
flowmeter is available (several students reached the upper
limit of 50 distinct solutions); another described a hazard-
ous waste treatment method and called on the stu-
dents to identify as many potential flaws in the method
as possible; a third requested them to think of as many
uses as they could for a hot stack gas; and a fourth was
the viscosity measurement exercise.
Such exercises serve several useful purposes: they
encourage and reward creative thinking; they force
students to look at the subjects they are studying from
different perspectives, which leads to deeper under-
standing; they provide excellent points for class dis-
cussion; and they are enjoyable to both the students
and the instructor. In addition, if they are done in
class they are remarkably effective at getting all of
the students involved as opposed to the few who are
normally willing to ask and answer questions in public.
Which technique is used is immaterial: the idea is to
introduce novel ways of looking at problems-to force
thinking patterns out of their well-worn grooves-and
all of these methods achieve this objective.
A word of caution, however. Exercises of these
types seem like games when they are first introduced
and they can easily be dismissed as trivial or frivolous

by faculty colleagues and by the students themselves.
Woods and Crowe, for example, report that students
introduced to brainstorming in a freshman design
course felt the experience was "mickey mouse" and
not useful [16]. It should be impressed on the students
that whatever these methods may look like, they are
used extensively in industry to generate ideas for new
products, cost reductions, and solutions to difficult
Once the ideas have been generated and collected,
the next phase of the process is to bring back the
critical facility and select the solutions that have the
greatest promise of working. Here we are on much
more familiar ground where the convergent thinking
skills that the students are used to exercising can once
again be called into play. At the conclusion of the pro-
cess, however, the students should be reminded that
the more innovative of their eventual solutions proba-
bly would not have emerged from a conventional ap-
Where in the curriculum should this type of exer-
cise be introduced? One possibility is to present an
elective course on problem-solving methods; however,
I would argue that this is not a good way to go. For
one thing, these classes only reach a fraction of the
population that could benefit from them. For another,
they convey the impression that creative problem-
solving methods are in a separate category from reg-
ular engineering analysis: you use them in this course,
but for normal engineering problems you go back to
business as usual. Instead, the methods should be in-
tegrated as thoroughly as possible into the regular
curriculum. Open-ended and divergent problems can
be assigned to individuals or to small groups as in-
class exercises, homework, or take-home quizzes [4,
5]. Assignments to groups of two or three are partic-
ularly effective; students tend to enjoy them, compet-
ing with one another at coming up with outrageous
ideas, and they also discover the synergistic effects of
group interactions on the generation of problem solu-
Training should be provided in asking questions,
not just answering them, especially in advanced un-
dergraduate and graduate courses. Several examples
of problem-defining exercises have been presented re-
cently [4, 5]. In one instance [4], students in a grad-
uate course in chemical reaction engineering were
asked to make up and solve a final examination for the
course. They were told that a straightforward "given
this, calculate that" examination would earn only a
minimum passing grade, and to get more credit they
would have to include questions that called for
analysis beyond that contained in the text, synthesis


Most of us learn early that being wrong is
unacceptable and looking foolish is even worse,
and these lessons are reinforced throughout
our lives. Unfortunately teachers are
frequently the worst offenders in
creating these fears.

of material from other subject areas, and subjective
The results of this exercise ranged from acceptable
to spectacular. Excellent questions were formulated
covering every aspect of chemical reaction engineer-
ing and incorporating elements from chemistry, bio-
technology, a variety of other scientific and engineer-
ing disciplines, behavioral psychology, and several
topics that defy classification. The students almost
unanimously reported finding the exercise instructive
and enjoyable and many of them indicated satisfaction
at discovering abilities in themselves that they had
never valued or even knew they had. The exercise has
subsequently been repeated twice with equally good
Two factors are necessary for exercises of all types
listed above to be effective: preparation and repetition.
The class should initially be given some background
on what the exercises are supposed to accomplish.
What is divergent thinking, for example, and why is
it important? What are synthesis and evaluation?
What is the point of underdefining homework prob-
lems? Illustrative solutions should be presented to
give the students an idea of what they are being asked
for but not to an extent that the students can use
them as detailed models. This preparation can be ac-
complished with a handout preceding the first problem
assignment plus about fifteen minutes of explanation
in class.
The need for repetition is critical. Each new type
of exercise should be assigned at least twice and ide-
ally three times. In their responses to the first assign-
ment the students will almost invariably miss the
point and try to convert the exercise into something
they know how to do, or they will avoid it altogether
out of fear of getting it wrong. The second time they
will begin to take the assignment seriously but will
generally do a mediocre job. By the third time most
of them will start catching on. At this point it is time
to move on to something different.
A useful method to accelerate adaptation to a new
approach is to collect representative samples of the
responses to the first assignment, reproduce them
without attribution, distribute them to the class, and
discuss them. The discussion should bring out the
strong points of the responses and provide ideas for

how they could be improved. When this is done the
improvement in responses to subsequent assignments
is usually dramatic.

What is then the correct way of teaching people to be,
e.g., engineers? It is quite clear that we must teach
them to be creative persons, at least in the sense of be-
ing able to confront novelty, to improvise. They must
not be afraid of change but rather must be able to be
comfortable with change and novelty, and if possible
(because best of all) even to be able to enjoy novelty
and change.
Abraham H. Maslow

Perhaps even more important than providing exer-
cises in creativity is making students feel secure about
participating in them. Most of us learn early that
being wrong is unacceptable and looking foolish is
even worse, and these lessons are reinforced through-
out our lives. Unfortunately teachers are frequently
the worst offenders in creating these fears, and the
child who is humiliated for asking a "stupid" question
or coming up with a "ridiculous" idea or offering an
"obviously wrong" solution will wait a long time before
sticking his or her neck out again. If we are indeed to
produce creative engineers, we should be offering
classes in which the risk-taking usually needed to
solve real problems is encouraged.
No matter how secure we professors are in our
knowledge, there is in most of us the fear of finally
being caught, of being asked something we think
we're supposed to know but in fact don't. Many of us
consequently have a tendency to discourage ques-
tions, although usually not intentionally. Also, since
most or all of our teaching is based on the precisely
defined, closed-ended problem with one and only one
correct solution, we tend to get annoyed when a stu-
dent produces a correct solution other than the one
we had in mind-it confuses the grading terribly.
When students come up with unanticipated ideas, our
impulse is to prove them wrong-both the ideas and
the students.
Eventually, the students get the message. At best
they will just stop asking hard questions and offering
ideas that might be thought wrong or foolish and will
instead concentrate simply on figuring out what we
want and then giving it to us. In the worst case-when
they find no outlet in the educational system for their
creative impulses-they will turn those impulses off,
perhaps for the rest of their careers and lives, to their
own detriment and society's loss.
Several things can be done to create a relatively


safe atmosphere for questioning and idea generation:
Encourage and applaud questioning. Asking a question in
class is taking a risk; if we are to encourage risk-taking in our
students this is a good place to begin. Even when a question
seems "stupid," try if at all possible to find merit in it, even if
it means reinterpreting it or extending it to something that the
questioner undoubtedly never dreamed of.

When you ask students for suggestions, give them time to
think of answers, don't criticize incorrect solutions, and don't
automatically stop asking when you get the answer you're look-
ing for.

If you really want student responses, an almost sure way
to get them is to divide the class into small groups (3 or 4 in a
group) and tell the students to formulate questions or ideas
among themselves; then call on a member of each group to write
down the things they came up with. Most students feel safe
talking, questioning, and floating ideas in a small group of their
peers and the relative freedom they feel in this setting fre-
quently carries over to subsequent full-class discussions. This
technique is particularly useful for large classes, in which stu-
dent involvement is almost impossible to get by conventional

Offer leading questions as focal points for brainstorming
sessions. The questions can be designed to improve understand-
ing of the course material, such as "Which steps are unclear in
this derivation?" "What have I assumed that I didn't specifically
tell you?" "What more would you need to know to really under-
stand how this device functions?" They can also be used to
stimulate thought and discussion about applications and exten-
sions of the material. "How could you measure this quantity?"
"What possible applications might there be of the result we just
proved?" "Think of as many things as you can that could possi-
bly go wrong here and what might be done to correct them (or
prevent them)."

Be on the lookout for solutions, correct and incorrect, that
show clear signs of creativity, and take care not to discourage
the imaginative impulses that gave rise to them. Reward innova-
tion. Reward ideas drawn from fields other than that of the
course in progress.

When innovative solutb ns, correct and incorrect, are
forthcoming, make them and your positive response to them
public so others in the class get the idea.

Provide case histories of problem solutions, especially
creative ones. Show how incomprehensible the process seems
when only the final solution is presented; then show the steps,
including false starts and blind alleys, that led to that result.
In Torrance's phrase, "Dispel the sense of awe of masterpieces."

The sad fact is that teachers generally do not prefer
the more creative students. Furthermore, they do not
have much confidence in the future success of the
more creative students.
J.P. Guilford
The creatively gifted seem to resist being classi-
fied, which is exactly what one would expect of people

who think in unique ways. A number of instruments
have been devised that are supposed to measure crea-
tive potential but no general agreement exists regard-
ing their validity or reliability. However, studies
suggest that certain traits are characteristic of crea-
tive individuals, including independence, inexhaust-
ible curiosity, tolerance of ambiguity in problem defi-
nitions, willingness to take risks, persistence in pur-
suit of problem solutions, and the patience to allow
the solutions to take shape in their own time.
The problem is that these characteristics are dif-
ficult for course instructors to spot, since they don't
show up in normal classroom activities. Other charac-
teristics of some creative individuals are more easily
recognizable but are unfortunately apt to be viewed
in a negative light. Reid [2] speaks of creative stu-
dents whose course performance is highly erratic-
very good grades in some courses, very poor ones in
others. Other studies of creative individuals also refer
to the possible presence of such personality traits as
self-confidence bordering on arrogance, introversion
bordering on misanthropy, and indifference bordering
on hostility directed at anything that diverts the indi-
vidual from his or her immediate areas of interest.
The oddball makes us uncomfortable. The student
in the next-to-last row, chin in hand, looking bored or
apparently sleeping, who suddenly pipes up in the
middle of a phrase with the killer question that zeroes
in on the flaw in our logic-our unstated assumptions,
the exception we never thought of-is not someone
we welcome in our classes with gladness in our hearts.
Those of us without high degrees of self-confidence
don't particularly want to see him coming, and if there
is a way to put him down or shut him up we are temp-
ted to grab it. Failing that, we go to the delay game:
"Good question, but we really don't have time for it
now. I'll get back to you later." That is often the last
anyone hears of it unless our nemesis is pushy enough
to come back with it.
Obnoxious behavior may in fact be the negative
sign we take it to be. However, it could also be an
indicator of the type of thinking ability needed to solve
problems that defy conventional solution. There are
times when we are in unique positions to encourage
or stifle creative individuals in our program, such as
when we advise students, assign grades in courses or
projects, and evaluate applications for graduate
school. On such occasions we might look twice at the
individuals who display the traits we have been dis-
cussing, hunt for evidence of a creative spark in the
erratic or socially unacceptable behavior with which
they often confront the world, and attempt to convince
them that they have something unique and critically


important to contribute.
It is unfortunate, but true, that many creatively
gifted students have never been told they are gifted;
they only know that they are different and that their
differences are socially unacceptable. It may take
nothing more than recognition from a single professor
to set them on the path to the productive use of their
gifts for the rest of their careers and lives.


1. Felder, R. M., "Does Engineering Education Have Anything
to Do with Either One?" R. J. Reynolds Industries Award
Distinguished Lecture Series, N.C. State University,
Raleigh, NC, October 1982. A condensed version of this
monograph appears in Engineering Education, 75, November
1984, p. 95.
2. Reid, R. P., "Creativity and Challenges in Chemical En-
gineering," Olaf Hougen Lectures in Chemical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin, Madison (1982). See also Chem. Eng.
Progr., 77(6),23(1981).
3. Prausnitz, J. M., "Toward Encouraging Creativity in Stu-
dents," Chem Eng. Education, Winter 1985, p. 22.
4. Felder, R. M., "The Generic Quiz: A Device to Stimulate
Creativity and Higher-Level Thinking Skills," Chem. Eng.
Education, Fall 1985, p. 176.
5. Felder, R. M., "On Creating Creative Engineers," Eng. Edu-
cation, January 1987, p. 222.
6. Barron, F., and D. M. Harrington, "Creativity, Intelligence,
and Personality," Ann. Rev. Psych., 32, 439 (1981).
7. Guilford, J. P., The Nature of Human Intelligence, New
York, McGraw-Hill (1967).
8. Guilford, J. P., Way Beyond the IQ: Guide to Improving Intel-
ligence and Creativity, Buffalo, Creative Education Founda-
tion (1977).
9. Rogers, C. R., "Toward a Theory of Creativity," in S. J.
Parnes and H. F. Harding, eds., A Source Book for Creative
Thinking, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons (1962).
10. Stein, M. I., "Creativity as an Intra- and Inter-personal Pro-
cess," in S. J. Parnes and H. F. Harding, eds., A Source Book
for Creative Thinking, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons
11. Maslow, A. H., The Farther Reaches of Human Nature, New
York, Viking Press (1971).
12. Lubkin, J. L., Ed., The Teaching of Elementary Problem
Solving in Engineering and Related Fields, Washington,
American Society for Engineering Education (1980).
13. Costa, A. L., Ed., Developing Minds: A Resource Book for
Teaching Thinking, Alexandria, VA, Association for Supervi-
sion and Curriculum Development (1985).
14. Arnold, J. E., "Useful Creative Techniques," in S. J. Parnes
and H. F. Harding, eds., A Source Book for Creative Think-
ing, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons (1962).
15. de Bono, E., Lateral Thinking, New York, Harper and Row,
16. Woods, D. R., and C. M. Crowe, "Characteristics of Engineer-
ing Students in Their First Two Years," Engineering Educa-
tion, February 1984, p. 289.
17. Torrance, E. P., "Creative Thinking through School Experi-
ences," in S. J. Parnes and H. F. Harding, eds., A Source
Book for Creative Thinking, New York, Charles Scribner's
Sons (1962). DO

NM book reviews

By J. Bougard and N. Afgan, Editors
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave., New
York, NY 10016; 665 pages, $165.00 (1987)
Reviewed by
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

This book is a compilation of papers presented at
an International Symposium organized by the Inter-
national Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer in Du-
brovnik, Yugoslavia, on September 1 to 5, 1986. The
forty-three papers included in this proceedings ad-
dress three areas of concern to specialists working at
low temperatures, namely: thermodynamic and ther-
mophysical properties; heat and mass transfer in re-
frigeration and at low temperatures; and thermal insu-
lation. As is typical of most meeting proceedings, the
quality and the information provided in the papers vary
rather widely. A few of the more interesting papers
will be noted.
A good review of the thermodynamic analyses that
need to be made for refrigeration cycles is presented
in one of the plenary papers. After classifying refrig-
eration cycles into three general types, the author uti-
lizes energy and exergy balances to show the effect of
heat and mass transfer irreversibilities in these cy-
cles. He notes that a ratio of exergy loss to heat trans-
fer of 1-3 percent can, with the inefficiencies of com-
pression equipment, result in an energy dissipation
that is equivalent to 5-20 percent of the overall heat
flux. Guidelines for reducing these losses are
In the heat and mass transfer area there are a
number of good papers providing new experimental
studies for pool boiling and film boiling heat transfer.
The heat transfer and thermodynamic studies made
with a number of less used but more environmentally
acceptable refrigerants will be of particular interest
to designers looking for alternative refrigerants to the
commonly used R11 and R12. Unfortunately, consid-
erable more work must be performed before good
choices can be made between these alternative refri-
gerant mixtures. Another area of heat and mass trans-
fer receiving considerable emphasis was that of freez-
ing soil. One of the papers provides a good experimen-
tal and numerical analysis of the coupling of heat and
mass transfer in partially saturated frozen soil. The
model developed in this study provides a good correla-


tion, provided the hydraulic conductivity of the frozen
zone is factored into the model. Another paper details
a numerical study using various models to predict the
movement of the freezing line in soil around a buried
cold gas pipe. These results are compared to a pilot
experiment for one type of soil. It is noted that more
work will be necessary to verify the models that have
been developed. Another interesting paper provides
new experimental information on the influence of vari-
ous transport mechanisms on the total energy flux
that is transmitted through a frost layer.
The plenary paper reviewing heat transfer in low-
temperature insulation is a good summary of the re-
cent advances in this field. This paper briefly de-
scribes the fundamental aspects of heat transfer in
low-temperature insulations, examines the anomalous
heat transfer effects at cryogenic temperatures and
discusses several insulation types which represent
state-of-the-art in this field. A good bibliography sup-

ports the review presentation.
Another good study is the one reported on heat
transfer in polyurethane foams. In this study the au-
thors experimentally determine the heat flux con-
tributions for each heat transfer mechanism. This per-
mits modeling of the insulation system and optimizing
the foam parameters. A paper that complements this
last study considers the structural parameters of
polyurethane foams and how these affect the thermal
conductivity. Taken together, these two papers pro-
vide a better understanding of the steps that need to
be taken to minimize the themal conductivity of this
widely used insulation material.
Even with a number of excellent papers, the book
is over-priced and will only find its way into selected
library holdings. Therefore, only a very few readers
will have an opportunity to benefit from the dozen or
more good papers that were presented at this interna-
tional meeting. O

In Memoriam ...

W. Robert Marshi

W. Robert Marshall died on January 14, 1988. At
the time of his death he was Director of the Univer-
sity-Industry Research program. He was born in Cal-
gary, Alberta, on May 19, 1916. He earned his BS
degree in chemical engineering in 1938 from Illinois
Institute of Technology, and his PhD from the Univer-
sity of Wisconsin in 1941. In 1947 he joined the faculty
at the University of Wisconsin, and he served the Uni-
versity in many capacities until his untimely death in
Bob became Associate Dean of the College of En-
gineering in 1953, and was Dean from 1971 to 1981.
His interest in new and innovative research and edu-
cational programs was critical to many programs that
are strong on the campus today. He chaired the com-
mittee that led to the establishment of the Depart-
ment of Nuclear Engineering and the development of
the undergraduate curriculum in NE. He was also in-
strumental in the development of the Solar Energy
Laboratory and the Materials Science Program.
Bob was always an enthusiastic supporter of the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He pre-
sented his first paper there in 1939, while a graduate
student of Olaf Hougen. He served as a Director for
years, was vice president in 1962, president in 1963,
and treasurer from 1976 to 1980. He was particularly
influential in establishing the Institute's continuing



educational program to make it possible for members
of the profession to keep up with new developments
in their field.
Bob's accomplishments were recognized in many
ways. He was a member of the National Academy of
Engineering. He received an honorary doctorate from
Illinois Institute of Technology. He was a fellow of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a fellow
of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He
received the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure Gold Medal
in 1974. He was an invited speaker at numerous con-
ferences and meetings.
Bob was devoted to bringing the best possible op-
portunity to the individual. He had great pride in col-
leagues and students. He was able to convey to staff,
students, and colleagues his enthusiasm for their skills
and their potential. He gave them opportunities to
present their ideas and hopes in a supportive setting.
He never assumed any credit for their contributions.
His deep concern was for each individual to have the
opportunity to realize their hopes and dreams.
Bob is survived by his wife, Dorothy, by three
children, and by six grandchildren. He left his col-
leagues, friends, and family a remarkable legacy of
high principles, challenges, and accomplishments on
both professional and human levels. O


If you caught the first issue of ChAPTER One
you would have seen...

Last fall, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) introduced
ChAPTER One (tm) a "full service" magazine geared to the special needs
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There are two kinds of design: design for economic
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estimate of the commercial viability of the process
under consideration but many details are left unresol-
On the other hand, if a plant is to be built it must
work. This implies that a design for construction must
be more rigorous and must be fully supported by a
comprehensive experimental base. The development
of this experimental base (from the chemist's 3-necked
flask, through the pilot plant, to the commercial unit)
is traditionally called "scaleup." Modern scaleup, how-
ever, attempts to achieve the most efficient blend of
theory and experiment. Although scaleup may be the
quintessential chemical engineering activity, it has
been learned only in the "school of hard knocks."
The need for formal instruction in scaleup was de-
monstrated several years ago when the Center for
Professional Advancement asked Attilio Bisio to or-
ganize a course on "Scaleup in the Chemical Process
Industries." Bisio invited the author of this paper and
other experienced engineers to be lecturers in the
course. That short course, for practitioners, was the
genesis of a book, Scaleup of Chemical Processes,
published in June 1985 [1]. The first scaleup course
known to have occurred in an academic setting was
offered to Penn State seniors in 1985-6.
The AIChE and ABET are responsible in the

Modern scaleup . attempts to
achieve the most efficient blend
of theory and experiment. Although scaleup
may be the quintessential chemical engineering
activity, it has been learned only in the
"school of hard knocks."

Robert L. Kabel received his BS degree from the University of Illinois
in 1955 and his PhD from the University of Washington in 1961. From
1961-1963 he served in the U.S. Air Force Space Systems Division,
receiving the Commendation Medal for Meritorious Achievement, and
since 1963 he has been at The Pennsylvania State University. His
primary research areas are catalytic kinetics, reactor dynamics, adsorp-
tion, and scaleup. He has received numerous awards for outstanding

U.S.A. for accreditation of undergraduate programs
in chemical and all engineering, respectively. Both
AIChE and ABET have recognized weaknesses in the
creative and interdisciplinary components of engineer-
ing education. Accordingly they have placed an in-
creased emphasis on synthesis and design. Moreover,
support is building for the introduction of applied
chemistry, emerging technologies, environmental con-
siderations, safety, reliability, aesthetics, ethics, and
social impact into our curricula. Wei [2] urged in-
creased attention in the curriculum to "macroscale"
topics such as 1) process and product design, 2) safety,
health, and the environment, 3) economics, and 4) pro-
ductivity and world competition. Although such mat-
ters can be addressed in isolated courses, scaleup is
the natural context for them. It also provides a new
perspective for economic considerations.
Scaleup involves the judicious use of all engineer-
ing tools in effective synergism. Thus the scaleup
course is a capstone course in the same sense as the
traditional design course or as the product design
course proposed by Wei. There is no overlap, how-
ever, as the scaleup course can build upon and/or com-
plement design courses. As this is a new instructional
venture, substantial experimentation on how to teach
the sense and skills of scaleup is required. Being de-

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


veloped at this time are a textbook and the whole
complement of teaching aids (course outlines, reading
materials, examples, exercises, experiments, pro-
jects, solution manuals, etc.). Ideas on teaching
scaleup follow.

Almost by definition, what is taught in the univer-
sities is that which is known. In contrast, scaleup im-
plies the reconciliation of the unknown in pursuing a
commercial goal. The goals of scaleup instruction are
to generate an awareness of scaleup issues, to offer
solutions to scaleup problems when possible, and to
suggest approaches for resolving issues for which sol-
utions are unavailable.
Eight different instructional modes, appropriate to
this task, are listed below, with six categories under
the project mode.

Instructional Modes

Lecture Project Activity
Recitation Literature Surveys
Quizzes Conceptual Problems
Essays Detailed Calculations
Oral Reports Laboratory Work
Written Reports Computer Simulations
Computer-Assisted Instruction Integrated Projects

Experimentation, computer simulation, and in-
teraction with practicing engineers are crucial to the
injection of realism in such instruction. Coordinating
oral reports and laboratory demonstrations with visits
by practitioners has proved particularly effective, giv-
ing a rich experience for both students and visitors.
Companies represented are Chevron, Dow, En-
virotherm, Exxon, Kraft, Mixing Equipment Co.,
Mobil, Monsanto, National Bureau of Standards,
Procter & Gamble, Quaker Oats, Quality Chemicals,
Shell, Squibb, and Union Carbide. Making the written
reports due a week after oral presentation enables the
students to exploit their new insights.
Pedagogically, a creative laboratory must be a part
of any meaningful scaleup course. The coordinated
laboratory incorporates experimental work directly
into a capstone course, achieving an integration not
found elsewhere in the curriculum. It is probably im-
practical to operate realistic pilot plants in an
academic environment. However, cold-flow mockups
to investigate the fluid mechanics of non-Newtonian
flow, multiphase systems, and difficult mixing situa-
tions are widely used in industry and can be incorpo-
rated easily and safely into the course. As in actual

Pedagogically, a creative laboratory
must be a part of any meaningful scaleup
course. The coordinated laboratory incorporates
experimental work directly into a capstone
course, achieving an integration not found
elsewhere in the curriculum

practice, the scaleup laboratory is a creative labora-
tory and depends upon the ingenuity of those in-
Some material is most effectively presented by lec-
ture and/or recitation. Quizzes and essays are used to
promote and evaluate student understanding of the
reading material. Student project activities are con-
ducted individually and in teams of two to six mem-
bers. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) is well
suited to open-ended simulation of the practice and
outcome of decision-making aspects of scaleup.

In defining the topics of interest in scaleup, it is
convenient first to identify several well-understood
areas in engineering design (pressure drop, pumps,
compressors, heat exchangers, cooling towers,
homogeneous reactors, and distillation columns).
These are areas in which calculations alone, or in con-
junction with very small scale experiments, often suf-
fice in designs for construction. Of course it is not
difficult to think of exceptions.
Two areas, multiphase processing and solids hand-
ling, absolutely guarantee the need for scaleup
studies. Also most design activities require consider-
able physical, thermodynamic, and transport data.
Only when a similar plant exists are sufficient data
likely to be available.
Many more specific areas receive considerable at-
tention during scaleup. Thermal complications arise
because nonisothermal, and often adiabatic, operation
is common at the commercial scale. Fixed bed reactors
and gas absorbers are good examples. Mixing is often
an important consideration in alleviating thermal ef-
fects. It also comes into play in blending, generation
of interfacial area, and allowance for nonideal states
of flow.
Emerging technologies, such as semiconductor
processing, are inherently accompanied by lack of ex-
perience and hence result in severe scaleup problems.
New separation methods arising from biotechnology,
e.g., HPLC and affinity chromatography, are very dif-
ficult to scale up.


Most processes derive much of their appeal from
special chemical characteristics. Unfortunately, spe-
cial chemistry also leads to trouble, as in the cases of
toxicity, impurity buildup, and corrosion. One simply
cannot think of carbon monoxide, chlorine, and
phosgene as A, B, and C. Such chemical factors have
a major impact on the selection among equipment and
processing options.
Safety comes into play in environmental consider-
ations, fire and explosion hazards, and toxic sub-
stances. Mathematical modeling has proved to be
quite powerful in assessing circumstances which are
not readily subject to experiment. Used judiciously,
modeling can render unnecessary some experimenta-
tion, thereby advancing the date of plant operation
and the generation of profits.

In the spring semester of 1986, twenty-five of the
twenty-nine students engaged in one individual and
two team projects. Four students did all their project
work in teams. A complete listing of the project titles
is given in the Appendix. Footnotes indicate integra-
tion among projects. A few highlights are noted here.
Examples were drawn from the "Ten Greatest
Achievements of Chemical Engineers," published by
the AIChE on the occasion of its diamond anniver-
sary. These are cases of scaleup at its most trium-
Chemical engineering being the diverse and perva-
sive discipline that it is today means that a scaleup
must consider problems of international significance,
e.g., the constraints of natural resources, safety, and
the environment. To illustrate an ethical dilemma,
should an American company, operating in an over-
seas location where environmental regulations are less
rigorous, follow the local laws or its practice in the
U.S.A.? Ethical issues arise naturally in the consider-
ation of scaleup. There is the fear that the exploitation
of recombinant DNA technology could lead to global
ecological disaster. On a more personal scale, if a
probe identifies a genetic defect in an individual,
should the individual be informed?
An unusual manifestation of scaleup principles oc-
curs in biomedical engineering. One project team
explored the use of data on dogs to predict the uptake
of ozone in the lungs of humans. Many similar
physiological scaleup opportunities exist.
Biochemical synthesis also provides interesting
technical and economic features. The desired product
is produced by precursor cells, so the higher the pre-
cursor cell concentration the higher the production
rate. Biosyntheses are almost always done batchwise


FIGURE 1. Screen from CAI scaleup planning module.

to preclude ill effects of contamination. Nevertheless
the autocatalytic nature of the synthesis reaction
suggests substantial economic benefit to continuous
production using stirred tank reactors. Separation re-
mains the most critical issue in biosynthesis scaleup,
but a change in reaction mode could have a positive
impact on separation options and efficiency.
Economic considerations are at least as important
as technical issues in planning a scaleup program. A
Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) module has
been prepared to simulate the planning process and
the impact of the plan on the startup of the plant. The
specific process is the separation, primarily by low
temperature distillation, of steam-cracked naphtha
into hydrogen and light hydrocarbon streams (see Fi-
gure 1). The simulation is based upon a CACHE pro-
cess design case study by Lincoff, Grossmann, and
Blau [3].
Once you begin to look, you discover scaleup exam-
ples everywhere. One recent find involves a vapor
phase process using diethyl zinc for the preservation
of books at the Library of Congress [4].


In contrast to the usual predetermination of ap-
paratus and experiments in familiar transport and unit
operations laboratory courses, the scaleup laboratory
equipment is more an assemblage of components for
the performance of experiments appropriate to par-
ticular scaleup purposes. Certain items have been
found to be particularly useful.
Transparent plastic pipe and containers, column
packing, and flow distributors comprise the primary
vessels and internals in which the processes to be
explored occur. Metering pumps, flow meters and con-
trollers, two- and three-way valves, pressure relief


valves, and digital thermometers allow for measure-
ments and control of flow and temperature to, in, and
from the vessel of interest. Polymers, acidic and basic
aqueous solutions, and gases such as air, oxygen, ni-
trogen, and carbon dioxide are convenient media for
such mock-ups. Spectrophotometers (IR, Visual,
UV), pH meters, and continuous sensing transducers
for CO2 and 02 enable chemical analyses of the media
in use.
In addition to the creative use of the generic com-
ponents described above, it is mandatory to develop
experiments in areas such as multiphase systems, sol-
ids handling, and the flow and mixing of polymers or
slurries. Finally, a plant model kit enables students to
build a model of their scaled up "plant," learning as
they do so about process complexity, maintenance,
and safety. Such tangible models are important even
as we move toward computer-aided design.

Trickle Bed Experiment
An earlier pair of students had studied the major
issues in scaling up a trickle bed reactor and had iden-
tified the liquid-phase residence-time distribution as a
significant problem area. A new team (Ted Rauth and
Carrie Mehalic) was then assigned to explore this
issue experimentally. They assembled a column 10 cm
in diameter and 20 cm high, packed with 2.54 cm Berl
saddles. The rates of downward flowing water and
upward flowing air were varied.
Step-function dye-tracer experiments were per-
formed for flow visualization. Impulse-function HC1-
tracer experiments, with liquid-outlet samples
analyzed by a pH meter, were used for quantification.
The blue dye was observed to collect and remain at
the packing junctions. No effect of gas flow rate was
detected on liquid linear velocity or on axial dispersion
in the liquid.
Rauth and Mehalic calculated the first and second
moments of the experimental exit age distribution.
From these the mean residence time and axial disper-
sion coefficients were determined as functions of the
liquid flow rate. One comparison which could be made
was to data presented by Shah [5]. The results from
his Figure 8-4 are combined with the new data on
Figure 2. The lack of agreement left the two students
discouraged and apologetic.
Jim Oldshue was with us the day they reported
their results and said that they did well to get on the
same graph. Actually their data were quite reason-
able. The data reported by Shah were for 0.635, 0.953,
and 1.9 cm Raschig rings compared to the 2.54 cm
Berl saddles used by the students. Further, no error

bands are given around the lines on Shah's graph.
From the Raschig ring data, the Peclet number tends
to be lower for larger rings at a given Reynolds
number. The data for the larger Berl saddles are
below the lines on the graph. Also the slope of the
new data is consistent with those of the earlier data.

1.0 -I I

0.6 0 This work
0.4 0.635-cm rin

S 0.953-cm rings 0
Bennet and
0.635-cm and 1.9-cm
Raschig rings
0 .1 1 I
100 200 400 600 1000
Reynolds number, ReL
FIGURE 2. Axial dispersions in trickle beds.

This project provided a powerful message to the whole
class on uncertainly in scaleup.
All multiphase reactor experiments were extended
in the spring semester 1987 to include the determina-
tion of mass and heat transfer coefficients. This was
a real eye-opener for the students who, based on their
course experience, took such coefficients as givens. In
the process they came to understand the importance
of coherent mass and energy balances over the ap-

Thermal Effects in Geometric Scaleup
Patti McAuley and Bruce Wonder performed a
modeling study of thermal effects in the batch liquid-
phase nitration of toluene. The assignment specified
geometric scaleup with reactor height and diameter
equal at each scale and with a production scaleup ratio
of 100 between bench, pilot and commercial scales.
The actual cases chosen had reactor volumes of about
0.2, 20, and 2000 litres, respectively, at the three
scales. The exothermic batch reaction was initiated at
350C. In nonisothermal cases the reactor was cooled
by 250C water entering a jacket at a flow rate propor-
tional to the volume of the reactor. The model com-


prised mass and energy balance equations, a reaction
rate correlation from Walas [6], and coefficients and
property data from handbooks.
Figure 3 shows a small portion of the computed
results. A horizontal line at 35C would characterize
isothermal operation. Isothermal and adiabatic perfor-
mance are unaffected by change of scale. Thermal ef-
fects are seen to change significantly with scale for

Time, hrs.
FIGURE 3. Temperature history at various scales.

nonisothermal operation. As the scale increases the
exothermic effect becomes more pronounced because
the volume (-L3)-dependent heat generation gains ad-
vantage over the heat removal which depends on the
surface area (~L2). McAuley and Wonder also consid-
ered the impact of scale on conversion and extended
their results to other practical reacting systems and
reactor configurations.
This example demonstrates the fallacy of geomet-
ric scaleup, which is familiar to experienced chemical
engineers but is rarely contemplated by students. The
principle comes up repeatedly in many different man-

It has been pointed out that the scaleup course is
a natural place for instruction in safety. In the fall of
1985, we contemplated the recent toxic gas leaks in
Bhopal, India, and Institute, West Virginia. Another
project involved modeling of factors related to the
Texas City NH4NO3 explosion of 1947. The appendix
shows considerable attention to safety during the
spring of 1986. During the laboratory portion of the
course, one student (Bruce Wonder) was assigned to
serve as "safety engineer" to monitor the experimen-

tal work and to report to the class on his observations.
He noted the following areas for increased attention.

The use of safety glasses.
Physical support of equipment.
Pressure effects on equipment.
Organization of the work area.
The effects of correcting a symptom instead of the source
of the problem.

Instruction in scaleup was initiated in the 1985-86
academic year with students taking the scaleup course
instead of the traditional capstone design course. In
1987 students studied scaleup in addition to design.
There has been a lot to learn about how to teach this
subject. It now seems certain that effective instruc-
tion in scaleup is possible.
Benefits from this program should be propagative.
The immediate beneficiaries will be the recipients of
the instruction, who will then deliver their new skills
to large and small industrial employers in familiar and
emerging technologies. Sooner than in the past,
perhaps, some of them will start their own companies.
Special mention should be made of the potential of
scaleup courses for students from underdeveloped
countries. Training in developing small plants that
work safely and well will be of much greater value
than experience in designing and costing large, integ-
rated chemical plants and refineries. Such industrial
benefits translate directly into public benefits through
increasingly effective, more timely, and lower priced
products. A broad, but less tangible, public benefit is
to be derived from formal training in ethics and safety
for practicing engineers.
How to introduce emerging technologies, safety,
ethics, economics, applied chemistry, and synthesis
into the chemical engineering curriculum has been a
vexing problem in the United States and abroad. De-
partments often encounter difficulty finding faculty
willing and able to teach the classic capstone design
course. Scaleup offers an alternative capstone course,
which integrates the above elements with the central
components of the curriculum. Indeed, there is a
scaleup issue within every professor's specialty, mak-
ing possible broader and richer participation of all fac-
ulty in the integrative aspects of their students' ex-



Major funding for this work was provided by the
Exxon Education Foundation. Additional funding was
received from Mobil, Procter & Gamble and the Na-
tional Science Foundation. The Penn State College of
Engineering contributed significantly to the establish-
ment of the scaleup laboratory. Penn State's Office of
Microcomputer Applications has supported the de-
velopment of the Computer-Assisted Instruction mod-
The author wishes to express his great apprecia-
tion to industrial and academic colleagues for their
encouragement of and contributions to this course de-
velopment effort. Finally, the students deserve much
credit for the creative and enthusiastic acceptance of
their roles as experiment subjects.


1. Bisio, A. L., and R. L. Kabel, eds., Scaleup of Chemical Pro-
cesses, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 699 pp., 1985.
2. Wei, J., "Towards a New Paradigm," Plenary Lecture, ASEE/
CED Summer School for Chemical Engineering Faculty, North
Dartmouth, MA, August 10, 1987.
3. Lincoff, A. M., I. E. Grossmann, and G. E. Blau, Separation
System for Recovery of Ethylene and Light Products from a
Naphtha-Pyrolysis Gas Stream, CACHE Corp., Austin TX
4. Shahani, C. J., and W. K. Wilson, "Preservation of Libraries
and Archives," American Scientist, 75, 240-251 (May-June
5. Shah, Y. T., Gas-Liquid-Solid Reactor Design, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, New York, NY, p. 289, 1979.
6. Walas, S. M., Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engineers,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, NY, p. 146-7, 1959.

Actual Projects (Spring 1986)


Introduction to Scaleup
The Manhattan Project: The Ultimate Scaleup
The Manufacture of Polystyrene
Scaleup in Polypropylene Manufacture'
Penicillin: A Glorious Story2
Scaleup in Underdeveloped Countries
Scaleup Failures

Emerging Technologies
Colloids: A New Look at a "Familiar" Topic
Semiconductors: An Emerging Technology
Scaleup in the Semiconductor Industry3
Interferon: History and Scaleup
Human Insulin from Recombinant DNA Technology
Materials Processing in Space
Planning for Emerging Technology

Combating Impurities

How Plastics Are Being Developed and Used to Fight Corrosion
Hazardous Wastes
Hazardous Waste Disposal
Material Safety Data Sheets: Origins, Development, Effects
Preproduction Requirements of T.S.C.A.
Carcinogenic Hazards in Direct Coal Liquifaction
Risk Analysis
Fault Tree Analysis in the Scaleup of Chemical Systems
Safety in the Laboratory"3-'

The Debate over Recombinant DNA
We also discussed:
Professional Integrity
Whistle Blowing
The Challenger Disaster and Evolving Implications

Team Projects-I

Reactor Options for Biosynthesis Reactions2

Thermal Effects
Liquid Phase CSTR
Liquid Phase Batch Reactor
Exothermic Tubular Reactor
Gas Phase Endothermic PFR

Multiphase Reactors-Modeling and Scaleup
Bubble Columns4
Slurry Systems6
Spouted Beds6
Chemical Vapor Deposition,
Trickle Beds7

Reactor Type Selection
Ethylene Dichloride Production
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis
Polypropylene Manufacture'

Team Projects-II

Biomedical Scaleup
Prediction of Ozone Uptake in Human Lungs from Data on Dogs

Advanced Chemical Reaction Engineering
Tubular Reactor Hot Spot Simulator
Rigorous Analysis of Multiphase Semibatch Reactor

Experimental-Mockups and Mixing
Bubble Column4
Slurry Reactor"
Spouted Bed6
Chemical Vapor Deposition3
Trickle Bed7
Polymer Flow and Mixing,

Comprehensive Design, Planning, and Economic Analysis
Batch vs. CSTR for Biosynthesis2
Cryogenic Separation of Light Hydrocarbons8

1**'.5.*7. 63--Projects with the same footnote are closely linked.
'-This project was a scaleup follow-on of earlier work by students in the
traditional design course and is also related to the CAI developments of
1987. D


~Ie ol rriculum



Are They in Step?

University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

During the past five years, a large fraction of our
chemical engineering graduates have found jobs in in-
dustries that utilize the principles of the transport
processes, thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics,
but whose primary operations are peripheral to the
mainstream curriculum in chemical engineering and
to the focus of the traditional chemical industries.
These operations include biochemical and biomedical
processing, advanced materials processing, solid-state
electronics, and risk and hazard management. As a

Warren Seider is professor of chemical engineering at the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania. He and his students are conducting research on
process design with an emphasis on operability and controllability. In
course work, they utilize many computing systems, including several
of the programs described in this article. Warren is currently serving
as the chairman of the CACHE Curriculum Task Force. He received his
BS degree from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and his PhD from
the University of Michigan. He served as the first chairman of CACHE
and was elected a director of AIChE in 1983.
*This manuscript is based on a plenary lecture presented at the
ASEE Summer School for Chemical Engineering Faculty in Au-
gust, 1987.


consequence, there have been calls for an enrichment
of the chemical engineering curriculum with subject
matter relevant to these fields by inclusion of applica-
tions in the common core courses and the development
of new, specialized, elective courses. See, for exam-
ple, the Proceedings of the Conference on "Chemical
Engineering in a Changing Environment" [1] and the
Amundson report [2].
Concurrently, computers comparable in power to
the mainframe processors of the mid-1960s (e.g., the
IBM 7090) have become inexpensive and highly in-
teractive, and are now an integral part of our homes,
offices, and laboratories. The rapid growth of this vast
market has stimulated the development of high-qual-
ity, general-purpose software to permit data-base
management, spreadsheet analysis, display of 2- and
3-dimensional colored graphics, numerical analysis,
symbolic manipulation, and word processing. More
specifically, in the chemical engineering curriculum,
these systems, together with specialized packages for
the synthesis and analysis of process flowsheets and
control structures, the estimation of costs, etc., have
become widely used. Software for illustration of the
concepts of transport processes, thermodynamics, and
chemical kinetics, as well as those that emphasize bio-
chemical and materials processing, has been slower to
develop. In an effort to understand this situation,
perhaps it is appropriate to trace the evolution and
status of software for instructional purposes and to
raise the question: "Chemical Engineering and In-
structional Computing-Are They in Step?"
Initial efforts to use digital computation in chemi-
cal engineering coursework were unquestionably
oriented toward the design course, followed closely
by the process dynamics and controls course. With
the advent of personal computers in the early 1980s,
many more faculty became computer users and, al-

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988



The following detachable pages describe
some industrial employment opportunities for
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benefit of your students, or distribute the
pages to students who may be interested.
These companies have expressed a definite
interest in hiring chemical engineers in the
areas described, and we strongly encourage
students seeking employment to respond as

Ray Fahien
Chemical Engineering Education

E.. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc.
1007 Market St., N-13451
Wilmington, DE 19898

Established in 1802, Du Pont today is a diversified international company,
strongly backed by scientific and engineering capabilities, with business
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Professional Staffing Section
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MaorHIdg Locaons
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ITecd Cet Locations
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functional area interests to the above address. Canadian citizens see "additional
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cnemical engineering e


though there is some evidence of computer-oriented
problems in courses other than design and control
(i.e., in courses on transport processes, ther-
modynamics, chemical kinetics, etc.), the level of utili-
zation lags far behind that in the design and control
This article is being published in two parts. Part 1
focuses on the design and control courses, whereas
Part 2 (to be published in the next issue of CEE) con-
centrates on courses other than design and control.
One of the most significant developments in the
field of process design has been the rapid evolution (in
less than three decades) and widespread utilization of
computing systems for the evaluation of alternative
flow sheets. In the 1960s, many systems such as
PACER [3] and CHESS [4] were introduced to per-
form material and energy balances and estimate
equipment sizes and costs. Then, in 1973, the CACHE
Corporation began facilitating the use of Monsanto's
FLOWTRAN system over a communications network
by many chemical engineering departments [5]. These
first and second generation systems contained a li-
brary of subroutines to simulate the more conven-
tional processing units, such as flash vessels, distilla-
tion towers, absorbers and strippers, liquid-liquid ex-
tractors, heat exchangers, compressors and turbines.
For the most part, phase equilibrium was assumed in
the separations, overall heat transfer coefficients
were specified for the heat exchangers, and isentropic
efficiencies characterized the compressors and tur-
bines. Simple reactor models permitted the specifica-
tion of the fractional conversions of key species or the
extents of key reactions. All of the models were
evaluated in the steady-state and the systems placed
emphasis on the convergence of the recycle and con-
trol loops that typically arise through design specifica-
To permit generality in the modeling of streams
with arbitrary mixtures of chemicals over broad
ranges of temperature and pressure, physical prop-
erty data banks were developed. In FLOWTRAN,
the INF program implemented one of the first infor-
mation systems to store and retrieve the physical con-
stants for large numbers of chemical species in public
and private files on random access disks. These sys-
tems permitted the engineer to select the data records
and methods for estimating thermophysical properties
such as the vapor pressure, density, enthalpy, and
entropy of chemical mixtures. These facilities for
selecting from amongst many subroutines and data
were, in many respects, the precursors of today's ex-
pert systems.

With the advent of personal computers ...
many more faculty became computer users and,
although there is some evidence of computer-
oriented problems in courses other than design
and control. . the level of utilization lags far
behind that in design and control courses.

By 1985, with the advent of individual minicomput-
ers for departments and engineering schools, FLOW-
TRAN had been installed in about 100 departments of
chemical engineering. Concurrently, other commer-
cial packages were widely installed, primarily PRO-
CESS (Simulation Sciences) [6], DESIGN II (Chem-
Share) [7], and ASPEN PLUS (Aspen Tech) [8].
These are large systems, which are executed in batch
mode and which require computing power greatly in
excess of that provided by personal computers such
as the IBM PC.
Each of these systems introduced special features,
only a few of which can be mentioned here. ASPEN
PLUS was the first to similate solids-handling equip-
ment, including cyclone separators, flash driers, and
crushers, with several models that account for heat
and mass transfer between phases. Its reactor models
implement nth-order kinetic expressions for CSTR
and PFTR configurations. DESIGN II utilizes a
stand-alone package, CHEMTRAN, for the estima-
tion of thermophysical properties. Its data base con-
tains the physical constants (T,, P,, TNBP, . .) for
nearly 1000 chemicals. Probably the most important
characteristic as far as use by undergraduates in their
design projects is concerned, is the ability of this pack-
age to estimate the physical constants for organic
molecules using group- and bond-contribution
methods. At the University of Pennsylvania, with a
separate design project for each group of three
seniors, unusual chemicals are often encountered. It
is difficult to locate physical property constants for
some of these chemicals, and CHEMTRAN enables
the students to begin their design calculations while
they continue their search for data. In addition to the
physical constants for some of these chemicals,
CHEMTRAN estimates activity coefficients using the
UNIFAC group-contribution method. Hence, it can
estimate the properties of nonideal mixtures of or-
ganic molecules even when no physical property data
are available.
In the past five years, these systems have been
augmented to permit the optimization of process flow
sheets subject to equality and inequality constraints
specified by the engineer. For example, Biegler [5]
added the successive quadratic programming al-
gorithm, QPSOL, to FLOWTRAN. His interface,


SCOPT, and the QPSOL algorithm are distributed by
the CACHE Corporation.
Also, during this period, with the availability of
PCs, COADE prepared a microcomputer version of
CHESS called MICROCHESS and recently upgraded
it to CHEMCAD [9], a highly interactive package
which displays process flowsheets as illustrated in Fi-
gure 1. A similar package is HYSIM [10] by Hyp-
rotech, Ltd. These packages are finding widespread
usage in the chemical engineering curriculum. Two
other packages that run on an IBM PC with an IBM
370 board are ChemShare's DESIGN II and ASPEN/
SP-PC [11], but these are not being used by any
academic departments, to my knowledge.

FIGURE 1. CHEMCAD [9] flowsheet for design of a gas

It is noteworthy that stand-alone, microcomputer
packages are becoming useful for the undergraduate
design courses. One, in particular, is the CHEMCOST
[12] program by COADE. CHEMCOST provides up-
to-date estimates for the capital cost of the individual
process units in a chemical plant.
Software systems for the synthesis of process flow-
sheets have been less successful than those for
analysis, with the exception of software for the syn-
thesis of networks of heat exchangers. Union Car-
bide's ADVENT system [30] provides excellent color
graphics displays of the process flow sheets and the
heat integration diagrams that result from the im-
plementation of Linnhoffs Temperature Interval
Method [13]. Although the ADVENT System is not
available to universities, the Linnhoff March Co. re-
cently began distributing, through the CACHE Cor-
poration, a less complete system, TARGET II [31],
that runs on the IBM PC. TARGET II determines
the minimum requirements for hot and cold utilities,
but does not match the hot and cold streams to synthe-
size a network of heat exchangers. A more complete
system, called HENS [14], has been prepared for the
AT&T 6300 microcomputer. HENS enables the stu-
dent to position heat exchangers on a heat integration
diagram interactively. To my knowledge, however, it
is not being widely used. Other packages, with auto-

mated facilities to design the networks of heat ex-
changers, but not implemented on microcomputers
with highly-interactive graphics, are HEXTRAN
(Simulation Sciences) [15], RESHEX [16], and MAG-
NETS [17].

In process control, mainframe packages have
never achieved the popularity of the comprehensive
packages developed for the analysis of the flow sheet
in process design. One such package, ACS [18], de-
veloped to run on the IBM 4341, performs the dynamic
simulation of processes with alternate control struc-
tures (e.g., PID, lag/lead, ratio, cascade, . .). It has
been used in the control courses of approximately fif-
teen chemical engineering departments.
In the area of digital control, more emphasis has
been placed on real-time interaction, initially with
minicomputers and more recently with microcomput-
ers. Many control laboratories have been created
using microcomputers, as exemplified at Washington
University [19].
Traditionally, procedures for the design of process
control systems have involved the analysis of
linearized systems in the Laplace and frequency do-
mains. With the recent generation of microcomputers,
system designers have added highly interactive
graphical interfaces that display Bod6 and Nyquist
plots, Root-Locus diagrams, responses in the time do-
main, etc. One such package, CC (Systems Technology
Corp.) [20], runs on the IBM PC and is used at many
universities. It includes facilities to convert between
the state-space and the Laplace and Z-domains, and
to implement optimal control algorithms. A more com-
plete package, CONSYD [21], is available for VAX
computers, but provides a lesser quality of graphical
interaction. Yet, another package, PROCOSP [22],
provides better interactive graphics on the IBM PC
with a mouse. PROCOSP focuses on the design of
PID controllers that satisfy the engineer's specifica-
tions for the overshoot ratio and settling time.
Of course, many chemical processes are highly
nonlinear. Hence, software systems that permit both
the steady-state and dynamic simulation of alternate
control structures can be very helpful. For the
analysis of process flowsheets, probably the SPEED-
UP system [23] has received the most publicity in re-
cent years. This package has been used successfully
in industry and is expected to be distributed by the
CACHE Corp. to the universities in the near future.
SPEED-UP has not been installed on PCs and, con-
sequently, can be expected to have limited facilities
for graphical interaction.


A more specialized package is UC ONLINE [24]
for the simulation of distillation towers with alternate
multiloop PID feedback control schemes. UC ON-
LINE runs on the IBM PC with interactive graphics.
For example, the distillation tower and control struc-
ture displayed in Figure 2a were simulated after a
step-change in xp, with the response plotted in Fi-
gure 2b. UC ONLINE has been distributed to several
university departments.
Before long, it can be expected that packages for
the bifurcation analysis of nonlinear systems, both
steady-state and dynamic, will be used routinely for


Distillate D
Y Mole Frac.

Reflux, L

Bottoms B
X Mole Froc.

(a) P&ID

87/ 2/2 lime 0: 6: 6,

Title :D)- CONFIG,,KP:5,KI1:1 TOP; XP:15,XI:39 BOTION

(b) Response to a step-change in x,p

FIGURE 2. Distillation control with UC ONLINE [24].
(Reprinted from CEE, 21, 122-123.)

studying their performance and stability [25]. Pro-
grams for bifurcation analysis, such as AUTO [26],
should become widely used.


The current flurry of activity to develop logic-
based systems has been confined principally to the
design and control areas. One such expert system was
created by Shinskey [27] to design multiloop control
systems for distillation towers. It was written in
BASICA to be run on an IBM PC. Given specifications
for a tower, controlled and manipulated variables,
Shinskey's system calculates relative gains and selects
the control structure by threading through decision
trees with approximately 1000 rules, before drawing
the PID. Other expert systems are being developed
to detect faults in chemical plants [28] and to estimate
thermophysical properties by selecting an appropriate
combination of estimation methods [29].
It is especially noteworthy that, as of this writing,
there is no evidence of the use of expert systems in
chemical engineering coursework. A Task Force of the
CACHE Corporation is working to prepare mono-
graphs that show how to apply the principles of artifi-
cial intelligence in building expert systems.

Having traced the evolution of instructional com-
puting in the design and control courses, it seems
reasonable to conclude that the computing tools for
undergraduate instruction are, for the most part, in
step with design and control practice in chemical en-
gineering. In some cases, the computing systems used
by undergraduate students are less elaborate than
those available to industrial practitioners. In other
cases, the tools are those that have evolved in univer-
sity research and are more advanced than those used
in industry.
The successes in the design and control areas have,
for less well-understood reasons, not been paralleled
in the courses that focus on the transport processes,
thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics. This has led
the Curriculum Task Force of the CACHE Corpora-
tion to seek answers to two questions:
Can microcomputers stimulate the use of "open-ended,"
design-oriented problems in these courses?
Can high-resolution displays permit students to better
learn the principles through visualization of streamlines
in fluid flows, visualization of PVT surfaces, etc.?

These questions, together with one other:

Can computers enable undergraduate students to
analyze and possibly design less conventional processes


involving, for example, crystallization of chips, deposition
of thin films, natural convection in solar cells, etc.?

will be addressed in Part 2 of this paper, to be pub-
lished in the fall 1988 issue of CEE. D


1. Sandler, S. I., and B. A. Finlayson, Eds., Chemical En-
gineering in a Changing Environment, AIChE, in press,
2. Krieger, J. H., "Report on Chemical Engineering Reflects a
Profession in Flux," Chem. Eng. News, Nov. 30, 1987.
3. Crowe, C. M., A. E. Hamielec, T. W. Hoffman, A. I. Johnson,
D. W. Woods, and P. T. Shannon, Chemical Plant Simula-
tion, Prentice-Hall, 1971.
4. Motard, R. L., et al., CHESS, Chemical Engineering Simu-
lation System, Technical Publishing Co., Houston, 1968.
5. Seader, J. D., W. D. Seider, and A. C. Pauls, FLOWTRAN
Simulation-An Intoduction, Third Edition, CACHE, Ul-
rich's Bookstore, Ann Arbor, 1987.
6. Brannock, N. F., V. S. Verneuil, and Y. L. Wang, "PRO-
CESS Simulation Program. A Comprehensive Flowsheeting
Tool for Chemical Engineers," Comp. & Chem. Eng., 3, 329
7. DESIGN II User's Guide, ChemShare Corp., P.O. Box 1885,
Houston, 1985.
8. ASPEN PLUS Introductory Manual, Aspen Tech., Inc., 251
Vassar St., Cambridge, 1985.
9. CHEMCAD: Process Simulation and 2D CAD, COADE, 952
Echo Lane, Suite 450, Houston, 1986.
10. HYSIM User's Guide and Reference Manual, Hyprotech
Ltd., 1700 Varsity Estates Dr. N.W., Calgary, 1986.
11. ASPEN/SP-PC, JSD Simulation Services Co., 600 E. Evans
Ave., Bldg. 1, Denver, CO, 1986.
12. CHEMCOSTIUser Guide, COADE, 952 Echo Lane, Suite 450,
Houston, 1983.
13. Linnhoff, B., and J. R. Flower, "Synthesis of Heat Exchanger
Networks. I: Systematic Generation of Energy Optimal Net-
works," AIChE J., 24, 633 (1978).
14. Dixon, A. G., "Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis
Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics," Chem. Eng.
Educ., Summer, 1987.
15. Challand, T. B., and M. G. O'Reilly, "New Engineering
Software for Energy-conservation Projects," presented at
CHEMCOMP 1982 Symposium, Antwerp, Belgium, 1982.
16. Saboo, A. K., M. Morari, and R. D. Colberg, "RESHEX: An
Interactive Software Package for the Synthesis and Analysis
of Resilient Heat-Exchanger Networks-1 and II," Comp.
Chem. Eng., 10, 6, 577 (1986).
17. Grossmann, I. E.,"MAGNETS. Interactive Program for Heat
Exchanger Network Synthesis," Chem. Eng. Dept., Car-
negie-Mellon Univ., 1986.
18. Koppel, L. B., and G. R. Sullivan, "Using IBM's Advanced
Control System," Chem. Eng. Educ., Spring, 1986.
19. Joseph, B., and D. Elliot, "A Microcomputer Based Labora-
tory for Teaching Computer Process Control," Chem. Eng.
Educ., Summer, 1984.
20. Thompson, P. M., User's Guide-Program CC-Version 3.0,
Systems Tech., Inc., Hawthorne, CA, May, 1985.
21. Holt, B. R., et al., "CONSYD-Integrated Software for Com-
puter Aided Control System Design and Analysis," Comp.
Chem. Eng., 11, 2, 87 (1987).

22. Lewin, D. R., "ProCosp-A Process Control Synthesis Pro-
gram," Technion, Israel Inst. of Tech., 1986.
23. Perkins, J. D., and R. W. H. Sargent, "SPEEDUP: A Com-
puter Program for Steady-State and Dynamic Simulation and
Design of Chemical Processes," in Selected Topics in Com-
puter-aided Process Design and Analysis, eds. R. S. H. Mah
and G. V. Reklaitis, AIChE Symp. Ser., 78, 1, 1982.
24. Foss, A. S., "UC ONLINE," Chem. Eng. Sci., Summer, 1987.
25. Chang, H.-C., and L.-H. Chen, "Bifurcation Characteristics
of Nonlinear Systems Under Conventional PID Control,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 39, 7/8, 1127 (1984).
26. Doedel, E. J., AUTO: Software for Continuation and Bifurca-
tion Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations, Comp. Sci.
Dept., Concordia Univ., Montreal, 1986.
27. Shinskey, F. G., "An Expert System for the Design of Distil-
lation Controls," in Proceedings of CPC III Conference, eds.
T. J. McAvoy and M. Morari, Elsevier, 1986.
28. Rich, S.H., and V. Venkatasubramanian, "Model-based
Reasoning in Diagnostic Expert Systems for Chemical Process
Plants," Comp. Chem. Eng., 11, 2, 111 (1987).
29. Banares-Alcantara, R., A. W. Westerberg, and M. D.
Rychener, "Development of an Expert System for Physical
Property Predictions," Comp. Chem. Eng., 9, 127 (1985).
30. The Advent System, Union Carbide Corp., Proc. Sys. & Serv.,
P. O. Box 8361, So. Charleston, WV, 1985.
31. TARGET II User's Guide, distributed by CACHE Corp., P.
O. Box 7939, Austin, TX 78713-7939, 1987.

I P book reviews

Edited by R. W. Rousseau
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1530 S. Redwood Rd.,
Salt Lake City, UT 84104; $69.95 (1987)

Reviewed by
R. N. Maddox
Oklahoma State University

Webster's Third New International Dictionary
defines "Handbook" as

1. A book capable of being conveniently carried as
a ready reference.
2. A concise reference book covering a particular
subject or field of knowledge.

For an engineering handbook, this writer would
add: For the engineer facing a plant problem, a hand-

1. Provides sufficient information on theory and
application to enable equipment selection.
2. Details the information required for equipment
3. Provides information necessary for estimating
equipment and operating costs.


This handbook meets the dictionary definition of a
handbook, though the print is a little small for long-
time, continuous reading. The handbook also meets
rather well requirements 1 and 2 of the personal def-
inition. Equipment and operating costs are generally
not covered, so presumably were outside the defini-
tion or scope of the work.
Of the thirty-six authors, twenty-two are from
academia and fourteen are from industry or research
institutes-a reasonable balance. Of the twenty-two
chapters, four are devoted to "general principles," and
eighteen discuss specific separation processes and
their applications.
If I were facing the problem of selecting a separa-
tion process to be used for an unfamiliar industrial
application, I would go through the following steps:

1. Select a process.
2. Collect necessary properties and data for de-
3. Size the separation equipment and estimate

In Chapters 4 and 22 there is some discussion of
the applicability of given processes to various types of
separations. In some discussions of the individual pro-
cesses there is indication of the range of applicability
of the process. Unfortunately, in several there is no
indication of the type of separation for which the pro-
cess should be considered. Is the process equally
applicable to mixtures of gases and liquids, and liquids
and solids? Will the process work equally well with
feed concentrations of 0.1% and 90%. Are the process
elements subject to contamination by trace compo-
nents, including "dirt"? These and similar questions
sometimes are not addressed. The uninformed en-
gineer needs this type of information.
All the treatments deal quite well with the sizing
of equipment. Efficiency of operation is addressed in
most cases. The requisite component properties and
other data required for design are indicated, if not
explicitly, by example.
There is a natural tendency of the authors to dwell
at length on things known and particularly on those
that can be satisfactorily dealt with from currently
known and accepted theory. There is much less discus-
sion and presentation of information that is not
known. In the treatment of Phase Segregation (sep-
arations not involving equilibrium considerations or
phase changes) there is an excellent and extensive dis-
cussion of separation of particles of a given size, in a
number of different environments. There is, however,
no discussion of the most perplexing and difficult prob-

lem: how to determine the size distribution in the
stream which must be segregated into two or more
distinct phases. This subject cannot be easily pre-
sented in a simple equation, but there is certainly
some satisfaction for the inexperienced reader in
learning that he is not the only person unable to make
this size distribution determination.
In the discussion on distillation there is no treat-
ment of a common approach to the determination of
the products that can be achieved-using a batch or
continuous laboratory column, performing the distilla-
tion of the feed mixture, varying operating conditions
until the desired products are achieved. The problem
then becomes how to perform the same separation in
full-scale equipment. This, also, is not easily quan-
tified, but it is a technique that is used rather often,
and therefore it is worth mentioning.
Presenting a detailed critique of twenty-two differ-
ent subjects in any field is all but impossible for a
single individual, and separation processes is no ex-
ception. The areas with which this reviewer is most
familiar are treated suitably in scope and in depth.
The book represents a valuable compilation of in-
formation and material. In all probability, it will prove
more valuable to the student or recent graduate than
to the experienced engineer, though the theory of
some of the newer separation processes is well cov-
ered. The handbook represents a compilation of a
number of significant pieces of effort by experts in the
given processes in collecting and presenting informa-
tion of value. For that reason alone it represents a
valuable contribution to the literature on separa-
tion. D

O books received

Fluidization V: Proceedings of the Fifth Engineering Founda-
tion Conference on Fluidization. K. Ostergaard and A.
Sorensen, Eds.; AIChE, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017;
683 pages
Annual Review of Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Heat
Transfer: Vol. 1, edited by T. C. Chawla. Hemisphere Pub-
lishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016 (1987);
454 pages, $149.95
Dynamics of Proteins and Nucleic Acids, by J.A. McCammon
and S.C. Harvey. Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th
St., New York, NY 10022 (1987); 234 pages, $39.50
Handbook of Multiphase Systems, by Gad Hetsroni. Hemi-
sphere Publishing Corp., 1025 Vermont Ave. NW, Washing-
ton, DC 20005 (1982); $64.50
Corrosion Mechanisms, edited by Florian Mansfeld. Marcel
Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016 (1987);
472 pages, $89.75


M laboratory


A Unique Summer Course at Wisconsin

University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706
University of Oviedo
33007 Oviedo, Spain

THE "OPERATIONS AND Process Laboratory" has
a long tradition at the University of Wisconsin.
Since its inception in the 1916-17 academic year, the
course has accommodated the evolution of chemical
engineering by retaining some of the basic operations
and philosophy while at the same time allowing stu-
dents to explore the newer technologies. In those
early years when chemical engineering was consolidat-
ing at Wisconsin, the course was named "Chemical
Manufacture," and its contents, according to the Uni-
versity Catalog, were described as follows [1]:

Laboratory practice supplementary to chemical machinery
courses, tests of chemical machinery, manufacture and re-
covery of products, special problems.

Today it is a five credit course, and the College of
Engineering Bulletin (1986) describes it as follows:

Experiments in unit operations, and supervised individual
assignments selected from areas such as: fluid dynamics,
analogic methods, reaction kinetics, plastics technology,
and use of computers in data processing and simulation.

The course is offered in the summer and is taught
in five-week sessions, with two sessions usually being
offered. The course meets for a full eight hours each
day, five days a week. The enrollment in each session
is typically 35-45 students.
The Chemical Engineering Curriculum shows the
course as being taken at the end of the junior year;
however, approximately one-half of the students post-
pone it until the end of the fourth year of coursework.
The prerequisites for the course are Transport Phe-

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988

nomena, Transport Phenomena Laboratory, Chemical
Engineering Thermodynamics, and Fluid Flow and
Heat Transfer Operations. While not formal pre-
requisites, Mass Transfer Operations and Chemical
Kinetics and Reactor Design have been taken by a
majority of the students when they enroll in the sum-
mer course.

In the early years of the course the pattern of lab-
oratory work was, to some extent, based on the in-
terests and ability of the student. Typical projects
consisted, for example, of setting up a distillation col-
umn or saponifying tallow to produce soap. After a
library search, most of the work was left to the stu-

Glenn Sather received his PhD in chemical engineering from the
University of Minnesota in 1959. He has been a member of the depart-
ment of chemical engineering at the University of Wisconsin since
1959, and is presently Associate Chairman for Undergraduate Studies
and Director of the Summer Sessions. He held a NSF Science Faculty
Fellowship at Imperial College of Science and Technology, London
(1966-67) and was a Dupont Year-in-Industry Professor (1973-74). His
teaching interests in addition to the Operations and Process Laboratory
are in material and energy balances and in thermodynamics. (L)
Jos6 Coca received his PhD in 1968 from the University of
Salamanca in Spain. He spent two years (1968-70) as a post-doctoral
fellow at the University of Wisconsin. As a visiting professor he has
taught the Operations and Process Laboratory on several occasions. He
joined the department of chemical engineering at the University of
Oviedo in 1972 and is currently the chairman of the department. His
research interests are in the area of separations processes: Liquid-liquid
extraction, chromatographic separations and chromatographic reactors.


dent's ingenuity, and as a consequence, even the most
talented students rarely were able to complete more
than three experiments in the course.
After being discontinued during World War II, the
laboratory was reinstated in 1948. At that time, Pro-
fessor Olaf A. Hougen became chairman and several
new experiments in process operations were set up.
Some of these experimental units are still in operation
today, though most of them have been remodeled or
replaced with more modern counterparts.
At the present time the operation of several large
units constitutes the core of the formal experiments
and offers the students (in groups of six or eight) the
opportunity to verify the principles in the areas of
fluid flow (test of a centrifugal pump), heat transmis-
sion (heat transfer from condensing steam to oil), and
mass transfer (distillation, extraction, and air-water
contact). Schematic diagrams and photographs of
these units, together with a brief description of the
main purpose of each experiment, are shown in Fig-
ures 1-5. (See next page.)
The experiments are introduced by a lecture which
consists of a review of the principles underlying the
experiment and specific instructions on the operation
of the equipment. Information on the formal experi-
ments is also supplied in handouts which provide de-
tailed descriptions of the experiments, mode of opera-
tion, etc.
In addition to the formal experiments, which every
student is required to perform, a second series of in-
formal experiments (usually four in number) is as-
signed by the instructors. These experiments are con-
ducted by two-member groups and usually require a
literature survey and a considerable experimental ef-
fort in constructing simple but reliable apparatus. The
type of experiment depends on the instructor's in-
terests and occasionally are related to present or fu-
ture research projects. When possible, student in-
terests are also considered in assigning these experi-
ments. A few examples of informal experiments which
have been used are the following:

Sedimentation of particles in the presence of coagulants or
flocculants. Scale-up of a settling tank.
Flow characteristics of a CaCO3-water slurry.
Hydrodynamic characteristics of a spouted-bed and an air-
lift reactor.
Evaporative cooling of water droplets.
Mass transfer with single drops and coalescence of drops.
Dissolution rate of limestone into an acid solution.
Residence time distribution in a stirred tank and in a
packed bed.
Hydrolysis of methyl acetate catalyzed by an ion exchange
Hydrolysis of amyl acetate in a batch reactor.

Another aspect of this course is that it serves
as a good preparation for the profession. [It] is a
comprehensive learning experience, and at the
end of the course the students are expected
to have acquired a fair amount of expertise
with a variety of equipment.

Oxidation of sulphites with oxygen in a batch reactor.
Catalytic effect of metal ions.
Analysis of the dynamic behavior of a water heating sys-
Plant/model correlation for a first order system by pulse

Tutorial work is particularly intensive in this
course because of the nature of the experiments and
the time which instructors spend with small groups of
students. Students keep in contact with the instruc-
tors through meetings in the laboratory or in a sum-
mer sessions office. All students are required to sub-
mit individual reports on the formal and informal ex-
periments, usually within one week of the completion
of the experiment. Report writing is an important
part of the course, and requirements are rather strin-
gent in this regard. A report which does not meet the
standards may be returned to the student for rewrit-
ing. Students are occasionally asked to present an oral
summary of their report to the class.
At the end of the course the students take a final
examination based on each of the formal experiments.
It includes questions which cover the fundamental
chemical engineering principles that are involved in
each of the formal experiments, equipment operation,
and some specific calculations. The final examination
accounts for ten to twenty percent of the course
The general purpose of the course is contained in
the college bulletin description; however, some spe-
cific aspects deserve special mention. In order to un-
derstand the goals of the Operations and Process Lab-
oratory, it has to be considered in the context of the
other chemical engineering laboratory courses taken
by undergraduate students at the University of Wis-
consin. Two additional laboratories are required of all
students: Transport phenomena laboratory and pro-
cess control laboratory.
The Transport Phenomena laboratory is offered
before the Operations and Process laboratory, while
most of the students take the Process Control labora-
tory later. Both of the laboratories have a four-hour
laboratory session each week for one semester. The


FIGURE 1. Centrifugal Pump. (a) Performance
of the impact tube and the venturi meters,
(b) computation of shaft power and hydraulic
power, (c) total head developed by the pump,
and (d) relationship between pump speed
and its capacity.

FIGURE 2. Heat Exchanger. (a) Determination
of heat transfer coefficients for the oil side,
steam side and overall, (b) estimation of the
liquid side heat transfer coefficient using the
Dittus-Boelter, Sieder-Tate and Colburn corre-
lations, and (c) statistical analysis of data.

FIGURE 3. Liquid-liquid extraction in a rotat-
ing disc contactor using the system, kersene-
propionic acid-water. (a) Number of transfer
units as a function of flow rates, rotor speed
and height of the phase boundary, and (b)
factorial design analysis to determine the im-
portant variables and their interaction in the

FIGURE 4. Distillation of ethanol-water mixture. (a) Performance of a
28 valve-tray, 8 inch O.D. column at total and finite reflux conditions,
(b) tray efficiencies and overall column efficiency. (c) heat transfer
coefficients for the reboiler and condensers, and (d) material and
energy balance calculations.

FIGURE 5. Air-water contacting in a spray tower. (a) Humidification,
water cooling and dehumidification operations, and (b) effect of air
and water rates on heat and mass transfer coefficients.


proportion of student-faculty contact hours in labora-
tory compared to lecture courses is shown in the sec-
tor diagram of Figure 6.
The Operations and Process laboratory is a good
complement to the chemical engineering education of
the UW students because of several special features:

It gives the students the opportunity to operate pilot-plant
scale equipment.
There is a challenge to work on modern chemical engineer-
ing problems of interdisciplinary nature through the as-
signment of informal experiments.
Although the main emphasis of the course is on unit oper-
ations, the informal experiments give the students an op-
portunity to deal with chemical reactors and some less-
traditional chemical engineering problems.
It gives the students a chance to work as a team, and to
obtain by this type of cooperative activity, a sense of chem-
ical engineering practice.

Another aspect of this course is that it serves as a
good preparation for the profession. Some schools in
Europe and in the United States have industrial prac-
tice as a substitute for laboratory courses. In spite of
the importance of industrial experience, it has its dis-
advantages. It is usually limited to one piece of equip-
ment, within a certain process, and obviously the
operating variables cannot be altered at the student's
will. The laboratory course at Wisconsin is a com-
prehensive learning experience, and at the end of the
course the students are expected to have acquired a
fair amount of expertise with a variety of equipment.
Despite budget limitations improvements are
being made in the course. A new eight-inch valve-tray
distillation column was recently installed and was fully
utilized in the 1987 summer sessions. A shell-and-tube
heat exchanger experiment is being constructed to re-
place the present double-pipe steam to oil heat trans-
fer experiment, and a membrane separation experi-
ment is in the planning stage. While improvements
will continue to be made, it is expected that the gen-
eral operation of the course will remain the same. The
best proof that the laboratory achieves its goals is the
positive feedback which the department receives from
graduates who have been in industry for five to ten

Two awards are given to students at the end of the
course. While their main purpose is to recognize in-
genuity and performance, they also honor two faculty
members who were particularly active in the course:
Professors O. L. Kowalke and R. A. Grieger-Block.
The Kowalke-Harr Award is given to the pair of
students who show the most outstanding performance

FIGURE 6. Proportion of student-faculty contact hours in
the undergraduate chemical engineering courses at UW.
Transport phenomena laboratory (6%), process control
laboratory (6%), and operations and process laboratory
as a team. Professor O. L. Kowalke was chairman of
the department from 1914 to 1940, during which
period he helped develop and improve the summer
laboratory. Mr. R. E. Harr, an alumnus and benefac-
tor of the department, took this course as a student.
The Grieger-Block Award is given to the pair of
students who exhibit the most creativity and re-
sourcefulness in conducting experiments. Professor
R. A. Grieger-Block was a faculty member from 1970
until his untimely death in 1980. He was known for
his innovative approach to experimentation in the lab-
It has been a practice to take a group picture of
the students and staff in each session. The department
has pictures of all classes since 1948.
Six staff members are usually involved in each of
the sessions. The staff consists mainly of professors
with one or two graduate students. Numerous visiting
professors and lecturers have taught the course. In
addition to the United States, these visitors have
come from Denmark, F.R. Germany, India, Israel,
Nigeria, Norway, Latin America and Spain. One or
two UW professors are involved in each of the ses-
sions to assure consistency.
The international participation has been challeng-
ing in many respects. It provides opportunities to
compare chemical engineering curricula, to discuss re-
search projects, and to expose students to other lan-
guages and cultures.
1. Daub, E. E., "Chemical Engineering at the University of Wis-
consin: The Early Years." From A Century of Chemical En-
gineering, W. F. Furter, ed., Plenum Press, NY (1982).





A Perspective*
Exxon Chemical Company
Linden, NJ 07036

RECENTLY, CONCERN AND interest in the United
States about Japanese technological and man-
agerial "excellence" has been very high, as evidenced
by numerous books and articles [1]. It is plausible that
Japan's success in commercial technological develop-
ment is intimately related to the Japanese educational
system [2]. Hence, it is of interest to compare the
university training of scientific personnel in each coun-
try, to see how strengths are nurtured. As one who
has experienced an undergraduate education in Japan
(Tokyo Institute of Technology, 1976-1980) and a
graduate education in the United States (University
of Wisconsin, 1980-1986) in chemical engineering, I
will attempt to distill my personal experiences and
observations into such a comparison. In addition to
curriculum content at the institutions I attended [3] I
will focus on some of the broader societal and cultural
factors determining the educational environment. Fi-
nally, I will discuss some advantages and disadvan-
tages that each educational system appears to possess
and attempt to infer where opportunity for learning
from each other might exist.

No discussion of undergraduate education in Japan
would be complete without mention of the entrance
examination system. In Japan both the private schools

It is plausible that Japan's success in
commercial technological development is
intimately related to the Japanese educational
system. Hence, it is of interest to compare the
university training of scientific personnel
in each country.

*The views expressed herein are the author's and not those of
Exxon Corporation.

Sigmund Floyd graduated from the Tokyo Institute of Technology,
Japan, with a BEng in chemical engineering, in 1980, and began
graduate studies at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, the same
year. He received his PhD in 1986, and is currently working at Exxon
Chemical Company in Linden, New Jersey.
as well as the prestigious national universities have
their own entrance exams, and, in addition, there is
currently a standard screening exam for all of the na-
tional universities. In Japan, it is widely recognized
that career opportunities in most major companies are
largely determined by the university to which the per-
son gains admittance. For this reason, the competition
to pass the extrance exams for prestigious universities
such as Tokyo University, Kyoto University, Tokyo
Institute of Technology or Waseda (the last a private
school) is intense, with applicant ratios as high as five
to one. Competition also begins early, as students
endeavor to gain admittance to high schools which
have good records of producing entrants to the pres-
tigious universities. Many students essentially sac-
rifice their high school leisure time, attending pre-
paratory schools (Juku) at which supplementary
homework is given after their regular school day and
on weekends. The level of the entrance exams varies
widely, but for a prestigious university may be consi-
dered to be at roughly the college sophomore level in
the U.S. in areas such as mathematics, physics,
chemistry, and written language. While many of the

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


The highly competitive entrance exam system guarantees that the prestigious
universities get the cream of the high school crop, at least in terms of motivation and
stamina. In addition, the almost uniformly high quality of precollege education in Japan (the product
of a highly standardized curriculum) means that the entering class possesses a significant
head start in scientific knowledge over matriculating U.S. students.

exam problems are extremely complex, there is a ten-
dency on the part of the students to study problem
types by rote, using commercially available booklets
of previously given exam problems. Students who fail
their exams for a prestigious university on their first
attempt often spend an additional year in preparatory
school as ronins (wandering samurai) to get another
chance to take the exams. This activity is generally
supported monetarily by their parents.
The highly competitive entrance exam system
guarantees that the prestigious universities get the
cream of the high school crop, at least in terms of
motivation and stamina. In addition, the almost uni-
formly high quality of precollege education in Japan
(the product of a highly standardized curriculum)
means that the entering class possesses a significant
head start in scientific knowledge over matriculating
U.S. students. For this reason, no classes are offered
in algebra or trigonometry, for example, in major Jap-
anese universities (calculus is taken in high school).
Nor is there a need for courses to develop written
skills in the students' own language. However, from
the foregoing description of the gruelling exam proce-
dure, which looms over the students' entire high
school experience, it is not surprising that under-
graduate college is regarded in Japan as a time for
rest and play by society as a whole [2]. This leads to
a totally different attitude towards classes and course-
work in the U.S. and Japan, which partially nullifies
the starting advantage held by Japanese students. In
contrast to U.S. practice, Japanese students generally
receive very little homework, and what there is tends
to be composed of rote problems, often similar to
textbook examples. There is extensive plagiarism of
homework solutions by perhaps one third of the class,
so that differentiating grades on the basis of home-
work is almost meaningless. Class cutting is common,
especially in the non-major courses, as is lack of atten-
tion (talking, etc.) to a degree that would be con-
sidered intolerable by American professors. While
exams are more formal, students are rarely failed in
courses. Indeed, for mediocre exams, points are some-
times added on for the purpose of allowing students

to make the grade (the colloquial expression for this
is geta-hakase-"putting on the clogs"). While in the
U.S. this situation would be considered to reflect on
the credibility of the institution, this is not the case in
the Japanese cultural context, which does not place a
high premium on individual achievement. It is impor-
tant to remember that in Japan, seniority generally
counts at least as much as performance in career ad-
vancement, and decision-making is collective rather
than on the initiative of individuals. Since the basic
"weeding out" process is the entrance examination, a
person's performance in college is less important than
the college attended in Japan. Furthermore, because
Japanese companies expect that their employees will
remain with them for the duration of their lives, they
provide extensive formal and informal training for em-
ployees newly hired from college. The formal training
stresses company unity rather than technical aspects,
which are picked up later through mentor-pupil re-
lationships similar to those which occur in graduate
school. For example, in some companies, new employ-
ees are grouped in rural locations for programs of
daily calisthenics and sports, as well as seminars and
indoctrination. Typically, technical graduates then go
through an apprenticeship period of several months,
during which they are rotated through such diverse
assignments as shift work or retail sales. By contrast,
most U.S. firms emphasize "on-the-job training," with
the assumption that sufficient mastery of basic skills
in the relevant technical field has been attained. De-
spite this, in the United States, geographical, educa-
tional, and political factors necessitate that even good
universities (especially state schools) accept large
numbers of relatively poor students, who are eventu-
ally weeded out. In this process, students are deluged
with homework, lab reports, and exams, and grading
is generally rigorous, with high standards and at least
some analytical thinking ability expected. Thus, the
situation in the U.S. is just the reverse of that in
Japan-a mediocre performance at a good school is
not especially helpful for employment.
Another likely important factor in the difference
in motivation between Japanese and U.S. under-
graduates is the degree to which each group is self-
supporting. Unlike the U.S., where it is the norm for


university students to live away from home, in Japan,
whether a student lives at home or not is generally
determined by how far he must commute to attend
school. Many students commute from as far as two
hours distance, spending a significant fraction of that
time standing in packed trains. Even when Japanese
students do not live at home, it is common for their
parents to pay all educational expenses, plus a fairly
liberal allowance. Japanese university students often
work as private tutors, earning as much as twenty
dollars an hour (the pay frequently determined by the
prestige of the student's university!). This money
would normally be regarded as pocket-money, rather

... in both countries the best students
are highly motivated . The contrast is that in
Japan the top students study mostly on their
own initiative. American students ... are force-fed
material and expected to become competent in
it or fail, dependent on their innate ability.

than as a contribution to educational expenses. These
customs are, of course, linked to the still prevalent
tradition of living with and supporting one's parents
after the father's retirement. When this is contrasted
to the situation of a typical American student, who
works for long hours at a university co-op or fast-food
restaurant to support his or her basic needs, one can
easily see why the degree of seriousness towards un-
dergraduate coursework is quite different.
While the American student likewise regards un-
dergraduate college as a time for play, it is also recog-
nized as a time for personal and career development.
Certainly, in both countries, the best students are
highly motivated and conscientious. The contrast is
that in Japan the top students study mostly on their
own initiative. American students, on the other hand,
are force-fed material and expected to become compe-
tent in it or fail, dependent on their innate ability. An
unfortunate side effect of this approach is a tendency,
noticeable to anyone who has been a teaching assistant
in a class of seniors, for graduating American en-
gineers who dislike their field. The aspirations of most
seniors, including the best performers, are to move
away from technical work into management as quickly
as possible, and a career as a research scientist or
engineer is frequently not even considered. Going on
to graduate school is relatively unpopular, although
the poor job market in recent years appears to be
leading some seniors with bad employment prospects
to consider it favorably. In the U.S. in 1986, the per-
centage of graduating chemical engineering seniors

continuing directly to graduate school was 16% [4],
probably including a significant number of MBAs.
However, the ratio of graduating Master's and PhD
students to Bachelors in 1986 was 31%. Apart from
yearly enrollment trends [4], this is at least partially
due to students returning from industry, and students
who enter graduate school in chemical engineering
from other fields (particularly chemistry). In contrast,
in engineering departments of prestigious universities
in Japan, it is common for more than 50% of the
graduating class to continue directly to graduate
school in the same department. It is also rare for
Japanese engineering students to voice an interest in
management while still in school. This is probably due
as much to the societal respect for the profession of
engineering as to the inevitability of slow career ad-
vancement under the lifetime employment system.

It is interesting to examine undergraduate cur-
ricula for chemical engineers in Japan and the U.S. In
Japan, as in the U.S., the undergraduate degree
(Bachelor of Engineering) requires four years of
study. At Tokyo Institute of Technology, the school
operates on a two-term system, the first term from
April to September (with a two-month summer vaca-
tion) and the second from October to March (with a
winter break). At Tokyo, the freshman year consists
of basic courses in the natural sciences (including lab
courses), social sciences, humanities, and languages.
It is worth stressing that Japanese students in all en-
gineering fields are required to take language courses,
even though they arrive at the university with six
years of English study completed. At Tokyo Institute
of Technology, there is a de facto requirement for four
English courses, as well as three courses in another
language (German, French, or Russian). In addition,
the first year includes an overview of areas in the
major field presented by different faculty members.
At Wisconsin, as at other institutions, the first year
mix is much narrower, consisting of natural science
"catch-up" courses (calculus, general chemistry, and
freshman English) with only three elective credits
In the sophomore year, the student at each institu-
tion begins to take a significant number of courses in
the major area. Table 1 contrasts the required courses
in the major field for the Bachelor of Science Degree
in Chemical Engineering at the University of Wiscon-
sin with the Bachelor of Engineering Degree at Tokyo
Institute of Technology, as of 1987 [3]. It is evident
from this list that there is considerable overlap in the


"core" courses which constitute the degree. Indeed,
the differences between the curricula of the depart-
ments are probably due more to departmental culture
than national emphasis, e.g., the requiring of trans-
port phenomena-related courses at Wisconsin. How-
ever, the overall flavor and certainly the content of
the courses at Wisconsin is more mathematical and
analytical, whereas the accent at Tokyo tends towards
the chemical and empirical. The U.S. curriculum relies
heavily upon the chemistry department for chemistry
instruction, which is not the case at Tokyo. In fact, it
is usual for Japanese departments to provide almost
all their own instruction, with ties between depart-
ments (even those as closely related as chemistry and
chemical engineering) being almost non-existent. Al-

Major Courses Required for ChE Degree

University of Wisconsin
Physical Chemistry Lab'
Intro. Org. Chem. Lab'
Operations and Process Lab

Transport Phenomena Lab

Intro. Organic Chem.'

Intermed. Organic Chem.'

Physical Chemistry'

Transport Phenomena
Chem. Process Calcs.
Momen. and Heat Trans. Ops.

Mass Transfer Operations
Chem. Kinetics and Rctr. Design
Algebraic Lang. Programming"c
Process Design
Proc. Dynamics and Control
and I offollowing2
Chemical Engineering Materials
Polymer Science and Technology

Tokyo Institute of Technology
ChE Lab I (Phys. Chem.)
ChE Lab II (Org. Chem.)
ChE Lab III (Unit Ops.)
ChE Lab IV (Org. Chem.)
ChE Colloquium I'
ChE Colloquium II'

Special Lectures in Appl. Chem.'
Indust. Organic Chem. I'
and 12 among the following 15
Indust. Organic Chem. II
Indust. Organic Chem. III
Funds. of Chem. Eng.
Indust. Phys. Chemistry I
Indust. Phys. Chemistry II

ChE Stoichiometry
ChE Thermodynamics
Mechanical Operations
Heat Transfer Operations
Mass Transfer Operations
Reaction Engineering
ChE Information Proc.
ChE Equipment Design

Materials Science
Fund. of Bioengineering

*At Tokyo, other courses in the natural sciences, humanities, foreign
languages and physical education are required for graduation, as well as
thesis research. At UW, there are several required courses in math, gen-
eral chemistry and physics as well as a 15-credit liberal studies require-
ment. However, there is no specific requirement for foreign language
physical education, or research.
'Given by Chemistry Department
"Given by Computer Science Department
'Literature survey course

. motivated U.S. students can and do
acquire significant practical experience through
summer jobs and co-op programs. This is rarely
the case in Japan, where companies feel no
incentive ... to train short-term employees.

though the same number of lab courses appears in the
table, Tokyo Institute of Technology has a de facto
requirement for additional freshman labs in chemistry
and physics. Furthermore, the Japanese lab courses
involve at least ten hours per week of actual lab work
(three days per week). Thus, the Japanese student's
exposure to lab work, prior to the senior year, is al-
ready higher than that of the average U.S. under-
graduate (Wisconsin requires more lab work than
many U.S. schools). One should also note the presence
of courses intended to familiarize the student with the
scientific literature. This type of instruction, coupled
with the extensive training in foreign languages, en-
sures that the Japanese graduate can make full use of
the U.S. technical literature, whereas the converse is
certainly not true. Although Wisconsin is a rarity in
offering a course in technical Japanese [5], there is no
foreign language requirement for graduation, and
many U.S. Bachelors graduate without taking a single
language course. In addition to the courses listed in
the table, the graduate at Tokyo must take several
other departmental courses in areas of interest as a
graduation requirement. These include titles such as
Catalyst Chemistry, Separations Science, Environ-
mental Chemical Engineering and Theory of Instru-
mental Analysis. Typically these courses are over-
views, requiring even less assigned work than the
"core" courses. At Tokyo Institute of Technology,
course requirements are basically completed by the
end of the junior year, which is feasible due to the
relatively low workloads (the usual courseload is eight
to ten per semester). While the number of courses
required for graduation is around sixty-five at Tokyo
(approximately half in the major field), compared to
about forty at Wisconsin, the Japanese engineering
undergraduate enjoys a surprising amount of freedom
in shaping his or her education. By contrast, American
students are very constrained in their ability to
broaden their background by the pressures of the re-
quired courses in and outside of the department,
which constitute around 75% of the credits required
for graduation. Examination of the curricula for the
University of Minnesota and the University of Califor-
nia at Berkeley revealed similar trends.


The Japanese public sees engineering and technology as having conferred great economic benefits to
society, and the cynical negativism towards technology that is common in the U.S. and Western Europe is
almost nonexistent. . .professors in the sciences and engineering enjoy particular respect, perhaps
symbolized by their frequent portrayal as heroes in children's TV cartoons.

Although the first three years of the Japanese un-
dergraduate experience are relatively undemanding
by U.S. standards, this changes completely in the
senior year, which is devoted almost entirely to the
student's undergraduate Thesis Project. At the begin-
ning of this year, the student joins one of the depart-
ment's research laboratories and begins to work full
time as a junior researcher, receiving training and
guidance from the senior members of the lab. Usually,
there is a mentor-pupil relationship with a specific
graduate student or research associate, and the un-
dergraduate is expected to do data-gathering and fol-
low-up work under this person's supervision, rather
than work on something completely original.
Nevertheless, after a year of work, most students pro-
duce a fairly good quality thesis, and the student gives
a defense to the assembled faculty. The most impor-
tant consequence of this training is that the student
is directly exposed to research practice and the scien-
tific method. This gives the average Bachelor's
graduate a healthy respect both for graduate school
and for research as a career. Another significant ben-
efit is that the student generally acquires hands-on
experience with several analytical and experimental
techniques as well as with building equipment. In ad-
dition, from a more Japanese viewpoint, the student
becomes conditioned to a rigorous work schedule,
similar to that in Japanese companies. Typical hours
of work are 9:30 AM to 9:30 PM, the maximum feasible
in view of the long commuting times (students in lodg-
ings close by often work later). The whole lab also
works on Saturdays, until at least late afternoon*.
While the Chemical Engineering Department at UW
offers elective credits for working on undergraduate
research projects, there is no stated or unstated re-
quirement to participate in research. Relatively few
students choose to elect research credits, especially
since the junior and senior years consist of very rigor-
ous and time-consuming major courses. Interestingly,
a recent article suggests that participation of under-
graduates in research is encouraged more at certain
liberal arts colleges, which produce a significant
*Needless to say, these statements are based on my own experience
in Prof. Nobuo Ishikawa's fine laboratory. However, my interac-
tions with graduates from other universities suggest that my ex-
perience was typical for undergraduates in technical fields.

number of publications coauthored by under-
graduates, than at the major research universities [6].
On the other hand, motivated U.S. students can and
do acquire significant practical experience through
summer jobs and co-op programs. This is rarely the
case in Japan, where companies feel no incentive
whatsoever to train short-term employees.

To digress for a moment, an important benefit of
receiving an engineering or scientific training in Japan
is its social status. The Japanese public sees engineer-
ing and technology as having conferred great
economic benefits to society, and the cynical
negativism towards technology that is common in the
U.S. and Western Europe is almost nonexistent.
While respect for teachers is a trait of Japanese soci-
ety as a whole, professors in the sciences and en-
gineering enjoy particular respect, perhaps sym-
bolized by their frequent portrayal as heroes in chil-
dren's TV cartoons. Consistent with this, the relation-
ship between professors, engineers, and social ac-
tivists (e.g., environmentalists) is rather less adversa-
rial and more easygoing in Japan. Despite close ties
between industry and universities, professors are
generally not viewed as partisan in environmental is-
sues, but rather as mediators. The general respect for
the scientific professions rubs off onto industrial pro-
fessionals, graduate students, and even under-
graduates of prestigious universities. Interestingly,
this is true despite two major "technological" events
that have left a profound impression on the psyche of
both Japanese scientific personnel and the public at
large: the dropping of the atomic bomb and the tragic
Minamata pollution case. These events are generally
blamed on military personnel and greedy
businessmen, respectively, with scientific and techni-
cal personnel escaping relatively unscathed. In fact,
in the university, it is recognized that environmental
problems are the responsibility of engineers to solve,
rather than problems to be avoided or covered up.
Thus, while there is little formal training in environ-
mental or safety issues, such issues (e.g., Minamata)
are frequently and openly mentioned by professors in
Japan. This is in sharp contrast to the U.S., where
engineering is generally not perceived idealistically,
even by its practitioners. Classes in the U.S. are usu-


ally devoid of commentary on sociotechnical issues,
being wholly composed of the technical nitty-gritty. It
is ironic that U.S. companies are forced by regulatory
agencies and the public to be very attentive to such
One area in which Japanese technical education is
sorely lacking is the presence of women. At Tokyo
Institute of Technology in 1976, for example, out of
approximately 120 matriculating students in applied
chemistry fields there were no women; in some years
since then there have been two or three. This is not
due to formal restrictions, which are unnecessary,
since at the present time women do not enjoy career
opportunities in technical or managerial roles compar-
able with males in Japanese firms. Naturally, this and
other social pressures (e.g., prejudice against married
women working outside the home) strongly discour-
age women from pursuing technical careers. The
highly ingrained cultural factors barring the participa-
tion of women in the professional work force in Japan
are not likely to diminish rapidly, despite recent legis-
lation directing equal pay for equal work for men and
women by the Japanese government. The same is true
for the members of Japan's small minority groups
(people of Korean descent, Ainus and inhabitants of
former "outcast" villages), i.e., while there are no for-
mal restrictions on their participation in university
education, their career opportunities are severely lim-
The United States is far ahead of Japan in bringing
women into the scientific and technical mainstream.
Thus, women have increased their share of doctorates
in science and engineering fields from under 10% in
1970 to more than 25% in 1985 [7]. Although women
continue to be underrepresented in engineering, earn-
ing 6% of the doctoral degrees, the percentage of
women bachelors graduates in engineering is higher
(around 30% at Wisconsin in 1986), so that continued
improvement in women's representation in the profes-
sion may be anticipated. On the other hand, the situ-
ation for minorities in the U.S. has improved less
rapidly, and must be viewed as a fundamental fairness
issue [8]. Recent statistics show, for example, that
blacks constitute only 2.6% of graduating scientists
and engineers at the bachelors level, and only 1.1% of
PhD's [7]. Unfortunately, the highly politicized debate
on the status of American education in 1986 gave rel-
atively little attention to the issue of minority partici-
pation. Although to rectify the current situation much
needs to be done by society as a whole, universities
should not waver in their attempts to draw and retain
more women and minority students into science and
engineering programs [8]. If one takes into account

the fact that the U.S. actually graduates fewer en-
gineers per capital than either Japan, our major trad-
ing competitor, or the Soviet Union, our main ideolog-
ical competitor [9], it is clear that enhanced participa-
tion by these groups is not only requisite, but also
that it need not cause "reverse discrimination" issues.

EDITOR'S NOTE: This comparison of U. S. and Japanese chem-
ical engineering education will continue in the next issue of Chem-
ical Engineering Education with Dr. Floyd's discussion of
graduate education in both countries.


The author is deeply indebted to Prof. Yoshiharu
Doi of Tokyo Institute of Technology and Ms. Brenda
Phyles of American Association for the Advancement
of Science for providing some of the materials refer-
enced, and to Prof. R. B. Bird of the University of
Wisconsin for motivation and guidance in writing this
article. In addition to them, many valuable comments
were provided by Tetsuya Morioka of Tonen Sekiyu
Kagaku, K. K. and J. J. O'Malley, D. J. Lohse, and
N. P. Cheremisinoff of Exxon Chemical.

1. A particularly controversial example was the book Japan As
Number One, by Prof. E. F. Vogel. A concise summary of
Prof. Vogel's views can be found in Foreign Affairs, 64 (4), 752
(Spring 1986). Also see Theory Z, by Prof. William Ouchi (Ad-
dison-Wesley, 1981), Kaisha: The Japanese Corporation, by J.
Abegglen and G. Stalk, Jr. (Basic Books, 1985).
2. An exceptionally perceptive description of Japanese education
in science and engineering is given by M. Gershenzon, Scientific
Bulletin. Dept. of ONR, Far East, 7 (2), 73 (1982). Also see
collection of articles in Science, 233, No. 4761 (18 July 1986).
3. Tokyo Institute of Technology, Undergraduate and Graduate
Studies Bulletins, 1987; University of Wisconsin, College of En-
gineering Bulletin, Graduate School (Natural Sciences and En-
gineering) Bulletin, 1987. In addition to these materials, Bulle-
tins from the University of Minnesota and University of Califor-
nia at Berkeley were examined to see how representative Wis-
consin is of U.S. practice.
4. 1986 Enrollment Survey in Chemical Engineering Progress, 83
(6), 90 (June, 1987).
5. The text for this course is Comprehending Technical Japanese,
by E. E. Daub, R.B Bird, and N. Inoue (University of Wiscon-
sin Press, 3rd printing, 1986).
6. E. Garfield, The Scientist, March 23, 1987.
7. Manpower Comments, 23 (7), September 1986 (published by
Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, Wash.
8. "Equity and Excellence: Compatible Goals", study conducted
by S. M. Malcolm, Office of Opportunities in Science, American
Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS Publication
9. P. H. Abelson, editorial in Science, 210, 965 (1980). [


EN'1 curriculum



Indian Institute of Technology
Kanpur-208 016, India

The rate of a chemical reaction is commonly
pressed as

where k(T) is the rate constant and f(c) represents the
effect of the concentration of all the relevant chem-
ical species on the reaction rate. The effect of temper-
ature on the rate constant is given by

k(t)= ATm exp Rg T (2)

m = 1/2 from the kinetic theory of gases
= 1 from statistical mechanics
= 0 from the Arrhenius relation

In the case of vapor phase reactions, it is custom-
ary and convenient to use partial pressures rather

Mukesh Maheshwari recently graduated with a BTech in chemical
engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He is pres-
ently working as a production engineer with Anil Starch Company in
Ahmedabad, India. (L)
Laks Akella received his BTech in chemical engineering from
Andhra University in Woltair, India, and his PhD from the University
of Florida. He presently teaches chemical engineering at the Indian
Institute of Technology, Kanpur. (R)

than the concentrations. For ideal gases, the molar
concentration of an ith species is related to its partial
pressure by

ex- C R P (3)

(1) Substituting Eqs. (2) and (3) in Eq. (1)

R= A(T)exp E1f(p) (4)

where the pre-exponent is now a function of tempera-
ture. However, it is generally assumed that the effect
of temperature in A(T) is dwarfed by that in the expo-
nential term, and hence the reaction rate can simply
be expressed as

R=A' exp f(p) (5)
R9 T
where the pre-exponent A', just like A in Eq. (2), is
treated to be constant. It was in fact shown by Smith
[1] that, for a simple first order reaction, the use of
Eq. (5) instead of Eq. (4) would lead to insignificant
However, the validity of the above assumption de-
pends on the values of the activation energy, the reac-
tion order and the temperature range. The purpose of
this article is to show that significant errors may re-
sult, under certain conditions, if Eq. (5) is used instead
of Eq. (4) in the estimation of kinetic parameters from
the experimental data to be used in the reactor design.

Let us consider an nth order reaction such that
f(C) ==C (6)

Substituting Eq. (6) in Eqs. (4) and (5), respectively,

R=k(T)p?; k(T)= -T m-nexp (7)

Copi Rght ChE isio ASEE 1988
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


R=k'(T)p? ; k'(T)=A' exp RT (8)

By nondimensionalising the temperature with a refer-
ence temperature To, the rate constants in Eqs. (7)
and (8) can be rewritten as


t- -
To '

Rg To

e R

A m- n "= A exp e']
ko n T exp[-e] and k =A expl-e

Typically, using the experimental isothermal rate
versus partial pressure data, the rate constants at dif-
ferent temperatures are calculated. In turn, these
rate constant versus temperature data are used for
the estimation of the activation energy and the pre-ex-
ponential constant. Obviously, the value of the activa-
tion energy (and so the pre-exponential constant) will
be different depending on whether Eq. (9) or Eq. (10)
is used. Also, one can expect the difference between
the "real" and "apparent" activation energies, i.e.

Errors in Rate Constant
Activation % error Range of %
energy in activation error in rate
o dimensionlesss) energy constant
Reaction ,
order, n e e' = e- ) = (e100(-kk)

5.0 3.60 -28.0%
10.0 8.60 -14.0% -2.2 to + 4.2%
1 20.0 18.60 -7.0%
30.0 28.60 -4.7%
5.0 2.20 -56.0%
10.0 7.20 -28.0% -4.4 to + 8.6%
2 20.0 17.20 -14.0%
30.0 27.20 -9.3%
5.0 0.80 -84.0%
10.0 5.80 -42.0% -6.5. to 13.1%
20.0 15.80 -21.0%
30.0 25.80 -14.0%

(e e'), to increase with the reaction order. Moreover,
this difference should be expected to vary with the
temperature range. It can also be seen that the differ-
ence between e and e' will not depend on the value of
e. These points will be illustrated next.


() As an easier alternative to obtaining the best fit-
ting values of e and e' for a given set of rate constant
versus temperature data, we adopt the following pro-
cedure. First, specific values are assigned to n (1 to
3) and e (5 to 30). ko is conveniently taken to be unity
(10) and m to be zero. Then, using Eq. (9), k versus t data
are generated at several discrete points over a tem-
perature range of 1.0 s t < 2.0. Finally, using the
expression in Eq. (10), the best fitting values of ko'
and e' for the above data are computed by standard
numerical techniques.

As seen from the results summarized in Table 1,
the difference between e and e' increases with the

0 I I I I J
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
Oimensionless temperature, t

FIGURE 1. Real and apparent rate constants versus tem-


k(t) = ko tmn exp- e(l- 1

k'(t)= ko exp[-e' 1e

value of n; however, this difference remains un-
changed with the variation of the e value. Con-
sequently, the percentage error in the apparent acti-
vation energy is the highest for the highest reaction
order and the lowest (real) activation energy. Another
kind of error also appears as a result of forcing an
approximate function k' (t) to represent the "real" k
vs. t data. As shown in Figure 1, when k' is plotted
against t (using, of course, the computed values of ko'
and e'), this curve does not conform accurately with
the real k vs. t curve. The deviation of k' from k in-
creases, as shown in Table 1, with the reaction order.
This deviation is also a function of the temperature
range. For example, the deviation of k' from k will be
within 2% for 1.0 :s t 1.25 as against 13% for
1.0 -s t 2.0 for a third order reaction.
If the value of m is taken to be unity instead of

zero in Eq. (9), the errors will be reduced by one
order. Also, the errors shown in Table 1 are likely to
be somewhat smaller if instead the values of e and e'
are computed using the actual experimental data,
which are generally error-ridden.
Finally, let us see what happens when k' (t) in-
stead of the real k(t) is used in the reactor design
equations. As an illustration, two consecutive
exothermic reactions are assumed to be taking place
in an ideal nonadiabatic plug flow reactor. The design
equations and specifications along with the results are
shown in Table 2. It is seen that the use of Eq. (10)
instead of Eq. (9) in the design equations leads to sig-
nificant errors in the prediction of the reactor perfor-
mance. It should, however, be noted that the condi-
tions in the example are chosen so as to magnify the
possible errors.


Reactor Specifications and Performance

= ai exp[- el 1- )][ 1

ex[ 1 1- x 2
+ a2 exp[- eI2 )1[k] 2

+a2 exp[-e ( 1l[1- x]2

Heat Balance:
dt dx
e =a3 -- a4(t-tw)
dz 3 dz 4




n1 = 3; n = 2; ee = 10.0;
e2 = 20.0; e =5.80; e'2 = 17.20;
a1 = Q0600; a2 = 0.0400; a3 = 11000;
a4 = 0500; a' = 00689; a'2 = 0.0434;
t, = Q8; Inlet conditions: x = 0, t= 1.0

Using Eqs. (11) and (13)
Using Eqs. (12) and (13)



1. Smith, J. M., Chemical Engineering Kinetics, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1981, 48-51.

A = Pre-exponential factor of the rate con-
a,-a4 = reactor parameters in Eqs. (11)-(13)
C = molar concentration
E = activation energy
e = dimensionless activation energy
f = concentration (partial pressure) depen-
dence function
k = reaction rate constant
m = a constant in Eq.(2)
n,nl,n2 = reaction order
p = partial pressure
R = reaction rate
Rg = gas constant
T = temperature
t = dimensionless temperature
x = fractional conversion of the reactant
z = dimensionless length coordinate

i = ith chemical species
o = at the reference temperature
w = at the reactor wall

S = partial pressure based values E[



Book reviews

Ed., M. Radovanovic
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave.,
New York, NY 10016; 307 pages, $79.95 (1986)
Reviewed by
A. W. Nienow
University of Birmingham (England)
This book arises from a course (one of many) given
at the International Centre for Heat and Mass Trans-
fer, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. It was organized by the
departments of mechanical and of chemical engineer-
ing at the Twente University of Technology (Holland).
Each chapter is by a faculty member from Twente
except for one by Professor H. Masson, University of
Brussels, and one by F. Verhoeff, Stork Boilers.
The book is clearly the product of a course. For
example, the introduction (Chapter 1) begins with a
"welcome to the Summer Course and to Dubrovnik."
It also gives details of the departments and the facul-
ty. However, though a little strange, the chapter is
short, and from then on the book clearly arises from
a good course (as one might expect) from a premier
Dutch technical university.
Chapter 2 deals with the mechanical details of
fluidised bed combustors in some detail and also gives
typical process parameters. Bed level control, fly ash
recycle, start-up, and limestone addition are examples
of the detailed considerations that are included. This
is an excellent chapter.
Chapter 3, entitled "Solids Handling," covers hop-
per design in detail; feeds for bulk solid handling; co-
vered coal storage and coal spreaders.
With Chapter 4 the book moves into fundamentals
of chemical engineering aspects with fluidisation. This
is done remarkably well within some forty pages.
Next comes "Combustion in Fluidised Beds," starting
with basic coal combustion chemistry and including
single carbon particle combustion fundamentals.
Chapter 6 is entitled "Fuel Circulation and Segrega-
tion in F.B.C." This chapter also deals with fluidisa-
tion fundamentals, with the addition of segregation.
It is an interesting chapter but indicates the difficulty
of relating the well-known problems that may arise
when handling beds of dissimilar materials, inevitable
in F.B.C., to the question of whether such problems
will arise in practice. Chapter 6 is not as well refer-
enced as the others.
Chapter 7 deals with heat transfer and is a little
thin. Chapter 8 with limestone addition and flue gas

sampling in great detail (thirty pages), and Chapter 9
is a small but interesting one on thermodynamic cy-
cles. The book ends with a chapter by a manufacturer
on the design of a large industrial F.B.C. which is a
very useful finale.
The format is remarkably uniform, even though it
as clearly produced from camera-ready sheets, and it
is also very legible. In places, the English is a little
quaint. Overall, it will make a valuable addition to the
field, especially for practicing engineers and, of
course, for other advanced courses. O

by Allan D. Kraus
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, D.C.,
310 pages, $49.00 (1987)
Reviewed by
John F. Mahoney
University of Florida
For more than twenty years our department (in-
dustrial engineering) has taught a matrix methods
course which is required of all of our undergraduates.
We eschewed similar courses presented by the
mathematics department on the grounds that we
wished our students to have a working knowledge of
matrix methods while not being burdened by too many
proofs. We have considered and adopted many books.
No book was without some perceived faults. One book
would use obscure notation, another would dwell too
extensively on the concept of vector spaces, and virtu-
ally all would devote too much emphasis to proofs.
The matter of proofs is particularly disturbing. Many
theorems are accepted as true since intuitively they
seem to be correct. Yet upon carefully following the
proofs offered by some books, gaps in logic occasion-
ally emerge. Some books ask for proofs in the prob-
lems at the end of chapters which can only be worked
easily if material presented in a later chapter is in-
Initially I was delighted to encounter the subject
book since it appeared to address most of the objec-
tions raised to other texts. It is short enough to be
covered in a three-semester credit course. The Table
of Contents lists nine chapters: Preliminary Concepts;
Determinants; Matrix Inversion, Partitioning of Mat-
rices, Simultaneous Equations; Orthogonality and
Coordinate Transformations; The Eigenvalue Prob-
lem, Matrix Polynomials and the Calculus of Matrics;
and Examples. This is only slightly more extensive
than our intended coverage. I was further encouraged
Continued on page 160.


Sn classroom




Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332

N SEEKING TO develop a set of homework exercises
for a senior level course in digital process control,
the authors have devised an alternative to the classical
approach of short homework problems assigned at the
end of each lecture segment. Instead, we have tried
to provide longer-term exercises which complement
the lecture material while allowing for more creativity
and independence on the part of the student. The con-
cept is to define a control problem, have the students
analyze its dynamics, and then have them digitally

Deborah E. Reeves received her BS from Clemson University in
1986 and her MS from Georgia Tech in 1988. She is presently a PhD
student in chemical engineering at Georgia Tech. As a National Science
Foundation Fellow she is concentrating her research in the field of
process control. (L)
F. Joseph Schork received his BS (1973) and MS (1974) from the
University of Louisville. He was employed as a Research and Develop-
ment Engineer with DuPont for three years before pursuing a PhD in
chemical engineering at the University of Wisconsin, which he received
in 1981. He was the 1981 recipient of the American Chemical Society's
Arthur K. Doolittle Award. He joined the faculty at Georgia Tech in
1982. (R)

simulate both the open-loop process and its closed-loop
dynamics under various control schemes. Digital
simulation has some advantages as a learning tool. It
forces the students to understand the process in order
to write the code to simulate it, and it requires an
understanding of how each control scheme is actually
implemented in quasi-real time. In addition, since di-
gital simulation is, by its nature, digital, the concept
of discrete control is emphasized.
These exercises were designed as the primary
homework set for a two quarter-hour senior-level
course in digital process control. The students have
already taken a three quarter-hour course in classical
control theory, and a one quarter-hour laboratory in
system dynamics and analog and digital control. The
exercises are meant to supplement lectures from
Deshpande and Ash [1] or Stephanopoulos [2]. Exten-
sive use is made of Program CC (a control design
package for the personal computer available from Sys-
tems Technology, Inc., of Hawthorne, California [3]),
but only as an analysis tool to aid in implementation
via digital simulation. Simulations are run on a VAX
11/780 and may make use of numerical integration
routines from the IMSL Library [4]. Students work
in groups of two or three members of their own choos-
ing. Although it is not explicitly stated in the problem
statements below, students are expected to plot and
discuss all results. Due to space limitations, only the
Problem Statements are included here. Full solutions,
documentation of the simulation program, and the
Program CC results may be obtained from the au-
We feel that these exercises give the students ex-
perience in implementation, allow them to compare
various algorithms on a single process, and stimulate
initiative and creativity.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


r~y I",

System Model

Problem Statement
Consider an example from Ray [5] consisting of a
system of two continuous stirred tank reactors in
series as shown in Figure 1. The irreversible reaction
A -> B is carried out isothermally in the two-stage
reactor system. The composition of the product
streams, cl and c2, must be controlled. However,
there is a substantial analysis delay. The manipulated
variables are the feed compositions to the two reac-
tors, elf and c2f, and the process disturbance is the
concentration of an additional feed stream, Cd. The
flowrates to the system are constant, and only the
compositions vary. An additional delay arises due to
the transportation lag in the recycle stream.

A. For the reactor system above, write the material
balances for cl and c2 around the reactor train.
Note that

F p F, + F F + F2
p2 1 d pl 2

B. Cast the equations from (A) in deviation variables.
Use the definitions below. (Subscript s denotes
steady state value.)

0 1
1 F +R+Fd

R F +R+Fd

0 2
2 F2 +R

Fp2 -2 +
F 2 +R

The concept is to define a control problem, have
the students analyze its dynamics, and then
have them digitally simulate both the
open-loop process and its closed-loop
dynamics under various control schemes.

,. Fresh feed
Rec cl
Recycle | R.

.Fd. Cd

F, interstate feed

Product stream
Product stream, 2

FIGURE 1. Two-CSTR System with Delayed Recycle (Re-
printed with permission from Advanced Process Control,
W. H. Ray (1981), McGraw-Hill Co., page 220, figure
matrix form as

r = Aox(t)+A x(t-e) +BU(t)+Ld
dt 0


0 1


1+ Da2


0 0

d Fl +R + Fd

U =c -c
1 if Ifs

Da =k10 Da2=k202


0 ^1-

2 2f 2f8

x =c -c
1 1 lB

C. Show that the results of (B) can be expressed in

x2 1 U 1'
X= U=

D. Assume there are pure delays of 7, and 72 on the
measurements of x, and x2 respectively. Thus


1-h -1


L= 0,

X2 2-C2s


d=c d- ds
d d

Ym (t)=xl(t -i) Ym (s)=e x l(s)

Y, (t)=x2(t- 2) Ym (s)= e 2 2(s)
2 2 2
Ym(s)= H(s)x(s)

H= Y =
0 e 22 Y M 2

E. Take the Laplace transform of the result from (B)
to obtain

Ym(S)=H(s) G(s) U(s)+ H(s) Gd(s) d(s)

i.e., find

G(s) and Gd(s)

F. Into the result of (E), insert the operating parame-
ters given in (G). Let kR = 0.
G. This reactor system will form the basis for the fol-
lowing problems. If we wish to deal with an SISO
system, we will set kR = 0 and focus on the first
reactor. If we wish to deal with a MIMO system,
we will set \R = 0.5 and deal with the coupled
reactors. Base case parameters will be as follows:

x (0)= x 2(0)= U(0)=U2(0)=0

(System is initially at steady state.)

0,= i;

change in d at time = 1 minute. Do this for both
values of KR (0 and 0.5). Use a sampling period of
B. Use Program CC to produce the open-loop simula-
tion above for no recycle. Use the s-domain trans-
fer functions developed in Problem 1.
C. Use Program CC to produce the open-loop simula-
tion above for no recycle. Do this simulation in the
z-domain with sampling period = 0.1 min.

PID Control

Problem Statement
A. Using the FORTRAN simulator developed in
Problem 2, digitally simulate the closed-loop re-
sponse of Reactor 1 to a 0.1 step change in the
disturbance (d). Use the velocity form of the PID
algorithm. Assume zero recycle. Do the simulation
for sampling times (T) of 0.1 and 0.01. Use the
Ziegler Nichols method to tune the controller,
either by constructing a Bode plot (with Program
CC), or by finding the ultimate gain and period
on-line by the loop tuning method. Include in your
program a calculation of the integral squared error
associated with the above disturbance.
B. Use Program CC (in the z domain) to repeat the
simulation in (A) for the case of T = 0.01 only.

Dahlin Algorithm

S= 1

Da1 =1; Da2 =1

R = 0 or 0.5
d = 0.1 (where appropriate)

g = 0.5;

a = 0.5

T=0.1 min or 0.01 min
T1=t =0.5
1 2 = 0

Open-Loop Simulation
Problem Statement
A. Digitally simulate the system of two reactors in
series as analyzed in Problem 1. Simulate the
open-loop response of both reactors to a 0.1 step

Problem Statement
A. Design a Dahlin control algorithm for the system
which has been studied in Problems 2 and 3. The
design should be based on a first order plus dead-
time response to a step change in set point. This
should be an SISO controller which manipulates
the feed concentration to Reactor 1 in order to
control the concentration in Reactor 1 (as before).
Use T = 0.01. There is no recycle.
B. Using the FORTRAN simulator you developed
previously, simulate the response of the Dahlin al-
gorithm you derived in (A) to a 0.1 step change in
d. Plot the concentrations in both reactors, even
though only the concentration in Reactor 1 is being


Analytical Predictor
Problem Statement
A. Design an Analytical Predictor time delay compen-
sator control algorithm for the system which has
been studied in Problems 2-4. This should be a
SISO controller which manipulates the feed con-
centration to Reactor 1 in order to control the con-
centration in Reactor 1 (as before). Use T = 0.01.
There is no recycle.
B. Using the FORTRAN simulator you developed
previously, simulate the response of the Analytical
Predictor algorithm you derived in (A) to a 0.1
step change in d.

Noninteracting Control
Problem Statement
A. Consider the reactor system in Problem 1. Let XR
equal 0.5. Calculate the Relative Gain Array. Dis-
cuss the loop pairings.
B. Simulate the system with both reactors under PI
control. These should be two SISO loops. Sampl-
ing time should be 0.01. Include the delay in the
recycle loop. Tune each controller separately. The
loop not being tuned should be open. Simulate the
response of the system (both loops closed) to a
step change of 0.1 in the set point of Loop 1 (Reac-
tor 1). Repeat for a step change of 0.1 in the set
point of Loop 2. Simulate the response of both
loops to a step change of 0.1 in the disturbance.
C. Design and implement a steady-state decoupler for
this system. Repeat the simulations above. (Use
PI controllers with only slight integral action.) Do
the loops interact more or less than in (B)? Why?


Integral-squared error results for the various
problems are summarized in Table 1. In summary,
the PID results indicate that a smaller sampling
period produces a better response. This is consistent
with digital control theory. Deadtime compensation
inherent in the Dahlin and Analytical Predictor al-
gorithms improves the controlled behavior of the sys-
tem. The predictive capacity of the Analytical Predic-
tor also appears to upgrade the response slightly. It
is imperative to note however that the quality of the

Integral-Squared-Error values of Ym, and Ym, for a time
interval of 10 minutes. The sampling period, T, is 0.01

minutes unless stated otherwise.

Disturbance Step Change
Open Loop Response (T = 0.1)
PID Control (T = 0.1)
PID Control
Dahlin Algorithm
Discrete Analytical Predictor
X = 0.5
Open Loop Response (T = 0.1)
SISO PI Control
Steady State Decoupler
Ymi Set Point Step Change
X = 0.5
SISO PI Control
Steady State Decoupler
Ym2 Set Point Step Change
X = 0.5
SISO PI Control
Steady State Decoupler

ISE (x105)

19.5 1.12
0.568 0.0240
0.541 0.0221
0.611 0.0257
0.555 0.0226

21.7 1.25
1.11 0.0225
1.12 0.0888

736.0 22.7
725.0 15.9

22.8 735
49.2 722

response generated by each method is highly depen-
dent upon the tuning parameters employed. Thus the
above observations should not be taken as conclusive.
In the multivariable case (Problem 6), no clear ad-
vantages result upon decoupling; however several un-
desirable response characteristics are produced by the
steady state decoupler. This is probably due to the
fact that interactions are inherently small for this sys-
tem. Hence, a steady state decoupler would not be
recommended, but a dynamic decoupler might be a
reasonable option for future expansion of the simula-

This material is based upon work supported under
a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship.


1. Deshpande, P. B., and R. H. Ash, Computer Process Control,
ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC (1981).
2. Stephanopoulos, G., Chemical Process Control, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1984).
3. Thompson, P. M., User's Guide Program CC, Systems
Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, CA (1985).
4. IMSL Library, IMSL, Houston, TX (1983).
5. Ray, W. H., Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill, NY
(1981). O




University of South Florida
Tampa, FL 33620

B IOTECHNOLOGY IS AN area which will continue
to be incorporated into the chemical engineering
curriculum to an increasing extent in the near future.
Many departments currently include an under-
graduate course on biochemical engineering. Beyond
this, many faculties are wrestling with the problem of
increasing the biotechnological component of the cur-
riculum. The reasons for this have been documented
in many articles appearing in the last two to three
years. As an example, there has been speculation that
as many as 25% of all practicing chemical engineers
may become involved in various aspects of biotechnol-
ogy within the next decade [1]. The AIChE is also
aware of these kinds of projections [2]. Chemical en-
gineering is an evolving discipline; there is nothing
static about it, and this should also be true of the
curriculum. Failure to recognize the evolutionary as-
pects of the discipline could lead to a serious crisis in
the profession [3].
There are two extreme approaches that could be
used to incorporate biotechnological topics into the

William E. Lee III is currently an assistant professor of chemical
engineering at the University of South Florida. He is the coordinator of
the biotechnology and biomedical programs between chemical en-
gineering, the College of Natural Science, and the College of Medicine.
His current research interests involve the application of chemical en-
gineering principles to problems in the life and medical sciences. This
includes research in sensory perception, metabolic aspects of disease
processes, and problems in citrus processing.

curriculum. One extreme is to do it exclusively within
the confines of the chemical engineering department
(or, less radically, within the confines of engineering
in general). The other extreme is to "farm it out" to
other departments. There are weaknesses with both
approaches. Engineers have one vital role in technol-
ogy: the role of "technology transfer." That is, they
have an important function in translating the bench-
scale ideas of the researcher (in many cases, a
chemist) to an industrial-scale process. Therefore,
they should know something about the entire spec-
trum of technical activity. In regards to the chemical
engineer in a biotechnological environment, this
means that he or she should be able to function both
as a biologist and as an engineer. Any curriculum
should try to accomplish this by drawing upon the
knowledge of both engineering and chemistry depart-
ments as well as the life sciences.

The undergraduate program developed at the Uni-
versity of South Florida is illustrated in Table 1. The
"applied microbiology" option is one of several options
or areas of concentration which students can select
upon admission to the department (typically at the
end of the sophomore year). The program features a
strong chemical engineering core along with a series
of courses in life science. There is one required bio-
chemical engineering class within chemical engineer-
ing which would normally be taken in the senior year.
Students may take an additional elective course within
engineering in areas such as fermentation which
would count towards the degree. While most chemical
engineers would take a course in physical chemistry
as an advanced chemistry elective, this program re-
quires biochemistry in its place. Finally, students
have the option of taking a course in the biomaterials
area in place of the normal introductory materials
class which is offered by civil engineering on this cam-
pus. The total program requires 146 semester hours,
which is slightly more than the 136 hour requirement
of other engineering departments on this campus.
It should be mentioned that the chemical engineer-
ing curriculum in general has been recently over-

O Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1988


S. there has been speculation that as many as 25% of all practicing chemical engineers may
become involved in various aspects of biotechnology within the next decade . Failure to recognize the
evolutionary aspects of the discipline could lead to a serious crisis in the profession.

hauled. For example, there were four required
courses offered in previous years: "Transport Pro-
cesses I" (momentum transport), "Transport Pro-
cesses II" (heat transfer), "Mass Transfer," and "Sep-
aration Processes." They were each assigned 3 semes-
ter hours, for a total of 12 semester hours. We cur-
rently offer two courses in their place, titled simply
"Transport Processes I & II," which address the unit
operations aspects of momentum, heat, and mass
transport. This freed up hours which could be devoted
elsewhere. The general theme has been to make exist-

Program for the Option in Applied Microbiology

Sem. hrs
in the area
Approved liberal arts courses 25
Engineering Calculus (3 semesters); Engineering
Physics (2 semesters, including labs); Differential
Equations, Statistics, System Dynamics, and
Computer Programming (1 course) 29
General Chemistry (2 semesters, including labs);
Organic Chemistry (2 semesters); Organic
Chemistry Laboratory (1 semester);
Biochemistry (1 semester) 20
Statics, Thermodynamics I, Introduction to
Electrical Systems I, and an approved course
in the materials science area 12
Material & Energy Balances, Transport
Processes I & II, Instrument Systems, Phase
& Chemical Equilibrium, Automatic Controls I,
Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Reacting
Systems, Transport Phenomena, Environmental
& Regulatory Aspects of Biotechnology, Theory
& Design of Bioprocesses, Economics &
Optimization, Plant Design, and an approved
elective 41
Fundamentals of Biology (with lab);
Introduction to Microbiology; Cell Biology
(with lab); and 2 of the following 3 courses:
Applied Microbiology (with lab), Bacteriology
(with lab), or Microbial Physiology (with lab) 19
TOTAL: 146

ing courses more reflective of chemical engineering as
it is practiced today (and into the future), and to
create more free elective hours where previously
there had been few.


One of the goals of the program was to enable stu-
dents to select from three possible career paths upon
completion of the undergraduate degree: continued
education within engineering, continued education
within some branch of life science, or entrance into
the industrial sector. The first path is possible since a
strong chemical engineering foundation is provided,
and the second path is possible because a sequence of
classes is taken within the life science area. The en-
gineering course in bioprocesses helps to put an en-
gineering perspective on the biological knowledge
base. Since engineering programs are practical and
applied, students are always in a position to enter in-
The program is described as "applied microbiol-
ogy" rather than "biotechnology" because topics in-
volving molecular biology (particularly genetic en-
gineering) are not covered in depth. These topics are
normally treated in graduate level courses. However,
students coming out of this program could easily pur-
sue advanced training in this area.
This is a rigorous program. Certainly it is more
challenging than the "normal" chemical engineering
program. Our experience is that better-than-average
students are attracted to such a program. One note of
caution must be mentioned to others thinking about
such a program: it is important to get students into
such a program early from an advising viewpoint in
order to keep the residence time comparable to that
of other engineering students. It is also important to
have full support of the appropriate areas of the life
sciences. In many cases, the interaction between the
two groups has led to positive things both inside and
outside the classroom.


1. Humphrey, A. E., "Commercializing Biotechnology: Challenge
to the Chemical Engineer," CEP 81(12): 7-12, (1984).
2. "Report on Biotechnology and Chemical Engineers," Newslet-
ter in Biotech. Prog. 2(1): m7, (1986).
3. Shinnar, R., "The Crisis in Chemical Engineering," CEP 83(6):
16-21, 1987.



REVIEW: Matrices
Continued from page 153
by a statement from the Preface: "The approach here
is to provide the necessary material in a direct man-
ner, in most cases without rigorous proofs and deriva-
tions, because it is believed that the proof is often
formidable and tends to obstruct, rather than aid, the
learning process."
After reading the first chapter, my enthusiasm for
the book started to wane. The author seems to imply
that there are as many equations as there are un-
knowns in a collection of linear equations. He also
states that, "if m = n the matrix is square of order n
x n (or of n or of nth order)." I do not know what the
"order" of a matrix is, and I never find out, although
I am warned not to confuse it with the "dimension" of
a matrix, which is also left undefined. The dot product
A-B is covered on page 9, but I am told that A and B
must be column vectors in spite of the accompanying
formula implying that A must be a row vector. Later,
on page 18, the dot is included in one equation and
then omitted in the same context in the next equation.
This seems to imply poor typesetting and editing.
Chapter Two contains examples of imprecision and
poor editing. Take, for example, the statement of Rule
Six on page 33: "If the elements of any row (column)
of a determinant are multiplied by a constant and then
added to or subtracted from the corresponding ele-
ments of another row (column), the value of the deter-
minant is unchanged." Strict application of this rule
will not leave the determinant unchanged. The numer-
ical example which follows Rule Six indicates what
the author really meant. The reader may come away
with the notion that a determinant is an array of num-
bers, rather than one of many invariants which may
be extracted from a square matrix. Chapters Three
and Seven refer to "symmetrical" matrices. The Index
does not list such a term.
Chapter Six contains some elements of the vector
algebra that is found in vector analysis courses. Nor-
mally it is unwise to mix "vector analysis algebra"
with matrix methods since the former is restricted to
three dimensions owing to the inclusion of the cross
product. Since chemical engineers encounter the cross
product in transport phenomena, this may represent
an important innovation. But, alas, we find the equa-

ixj =jxk=kxi = 1

which leaves this part of the book seriously flawed.
Our students frequently experience difficulty with
eigenvalues. Chapter Seven will not help them. Equa-

tion (7.6) gives one definition of the characteristic
polynomial, while Equation (7.8a) gives a conflicting
definition. Equation (7.8b) contradicts the equation
which follows it. Two pages later, still another form
of the characteristic polynomial is given. These multi-
ple and conflicting definitions seem to be pedagogi-
cally unsound.
While the aim of the book is well directed, it cannot
be regarded as a serious contender for adoption. It
simply contains too many examples of imprecision and
typographical errors. It certainly could not be recom-
mended for self-study either.
The book should not have been printed in its pres-
ent form without greater care being taken to clean up
its rough spots. O

O books received

International Symposium on Preventing Major Chemical
Accidents, Proceedings of the; Edited by John L. Woodward.
AIChE, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017 (1987); $75.00
Fundamentals of Heat Transfer, by Lindon C. Thomas. Pren-
tice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 (1980); 702 pages
Principles of Energetics, by K. S. Spiegler. Springer-Verlag,
44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094 (1983); 168 pages, $25.00
Heat Exchangers: Thermal-Hydraulic Fundamentals and
Design, by S. Kakac, A.E. Bergles, F. Mayinger. Hemisphere
Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016
(1981); 1131 pages, $95.00
Heat Transfer Fluids and Systems for Process and Energy
Applications, by Jasbir Singh. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madi-
son Ave., New York, NY 10016 (1985); 296 pages, $59.75
Design of Equipment: Process Operations, Series G, James
Beckman, Series Editor. AIChE, 345 East 47th St., New York,
NY 10017 (1987); 70 pages, $15 members, $30 others
Transport: Calculation and Measurement Techniques for
Momentum, Energy and Mass Transfer, R. J. Gordon, Series
Editor. AIChE, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017 (1987); 74
pages, $15 members, $30 others
Mechanisms of Inorganic Reactions, D. Katakis and G.
Gordon. Wiley-Interscience, One Wiley Drive, Somerset, NJ
08873(1987); 384 pages, $39.95
Two-Phase Cooling and Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants,
by Styrikovich, Polonsky, and Tsiklauri. Hemisphere Pub-
lishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016 (1987);
415 pages $105
Fiber Optics Engineering: Processing and Applications, by
Thomas O. Mensah and Pundi Narasimham, editors. AIChE
Symposium Series, AIChE, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY
10017 (1987) 68 pages, $15 members, $30 others
Material and Energy Balances: Vol. 5, Steady and Unsteady
State Balances, Eric H. Snider, Series Editor. AIChE, 345 East
47th St., New York, NY 10017 (1987); 62 pages, $15 members, $30



This guide is offered to aid authors in preparing manuscripts for
published by the Chemical Engineering Division of the American Society
for Engineering Education (ASEE).

CEE publishes papers in the broad field of chemical engineering edu-
cation. Papers generally describe a course, a laboratory, a ChE depart-
ment, a ChE educator, a ChE curriculum, research program, machine
computation, special instructional programs or give views and opinions on
various topics of interest to the profession.

Specific suggestions on preparing papers

TITLE. Use specific and informative titles. They should be as brief as possible, consistent with the need
for defining the subject area covered by the paper.
AUTHORSHIP. Be consistent in authorship designation. Use first name, second initial, and surname. Give
complete mailing address of place where work was conducted. If current address is different, include it in
the footnote on title page.
TEXT. Consult recent issues for general style. Assume your reader is not a novice in the field. Include
only as much history as is needed to provide background for the particular material covered in your paper.
Sectionalize the article and insert brief appropriate headings.
TABLES. Avoid tables and graphs which involve duplication or superfluous data. If you can use a graph,
do not include a table. If the reader needs the table, omit the graph. Substitute a few typical results for
lengthy tables when practical. Avoid computer printouts.
NOMENCLATURE. Follow nomenclature style of CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS; avoid trivial names. If trade
names are used, define at point of first use. Trade names should carry an initial capital only, with no
accompanying footnote. Use consistent units of measurement and give dimensions for all terms. Write all
equations and formulas clearly, and number important equations consecutively.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT. Include in acknowledgment only such credits as are essential.
LITERATURE CITED. References should be numbered and listed on a separate sheet in order occurring in
COPY REQUIREMENTS. Send two legible copies of manuscript, typed (double-spaced) on 8V2 X 11 inch
paper. Clear duplicated copies are acceptable. Submit original drawings (or sharp prints) of graphs and
diagrams, and clear glossy prints of photographs. Prepare original drawings on tracing paper or high
quality paper; use black India ink and a lettering set. Choose graph papers with blue cross-sectional lines;
other colors interfere with good reproduction. Label ordinates and abscissas of graphs along the axes and
outside the graph proper. Figure captions and legends may be set in type and need not be lettered on the
drawings. Number all illustrations consecutively. Supply all captions and legends typed on a separate
page. If drawings are mailed under separate cover, identify by name of author and title of manuscript.
State in cover letter if drawings or photographs are to be returned. Authors should include brief bio-
graphical sketches and recent photographs with the manuscript.


Departmental Sponsors

The following 157 departments contributed to the support of CEE in 1988 with bulk subscriptions.

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