Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00096

Full Text













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Editorial .



A LETTER TO

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS


As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate
school. In this issue, we attempt to assist you in finding answers.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate educa-
tion issue, Chemical Engineering Education invites
you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to
further your professional development. We believe
that you will find that graduate work is an exciting
and intellectually satisfying experience. We also feel
that graduate study can provide you with insurance
against the increasing danger of technical obsoles-
cence. Furthermore, we believe that graduate re-
search work under the guidance of an inspiring and
interested faculty member will be important in your
growth toward confidence, independence, and matur-
ity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of some
of the areas of graduate chemical engineering, we are
continuing the practice of featuring articles on
graduate courses as they are taught by scholars at
various universities. We strongly suggest that you
supplement your reading of this issue by also reading
the articles published in previous years. If your de-
partment chairman or professors cannot supply you
with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no
charge.

What is the nature of graduate research?
In an effort to acquaint you with some of the areas
of research in chemical engineering, we are also pub-
lishing articles on the research of certain faculty mem-
bers. These articles, as well as those on course work,
are only intended to provide examples of graduate re-
search and course work. The professors who have


written them are by no means the only authorities in
those fields, nor are their departments the only de-
partments which emphasize that area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself by
doing graduate work at an institution other than the
one from which he recieves his bachelor's degree. For-
tunately there are many fine chemical engineering de-
partments and each of these has its own "personality"
with special emphases and distinctive strengths. For
example, in choosing a graduate school you might first
consider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you
have a specific research project in mind, you might
want to attend a university which emphasizes that
area and where a prominent specialist is a member of
the faculty. On the other hand if you are unsure of
your field of research, you might consider a depart-
ment that has a large faculty with widely diversified
interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of
projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere
of a department with a small enrollment of graduate
students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by
writing the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue. You
will probably also wish to seek advice from members
of the faculty at your own school.
But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that
you explore the possibility of continuing your educa-
tion in graduate school.

Sincerely,
RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


FALL 1987










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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857

Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner

Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

Chairman:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Members
SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

CENTRAL:
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology

Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York

FALL 1987


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XXI NUMBER 4 FALL 1987


LECTURE

160 American University Graduate Work, Neal R. Amundson

COURSES IN

164 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction, W. J. DeCoursey
170 Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing (VLSI),
Christos G. Takoudis
174 Transport Phenomena, Mark J. McCready, David T. Leighton
178 Nonlinear Systems, Warren D. Seider, Lyle H. Ungar
184 Polymerization Reactor Engineering, J. M. Skaates

RESEARCH ON

186 Advanced Engineering Fibers, Dan D. Edie, Michael
G. Dunham
190 Unit Operations in Microgravity, David T. Allen,
Donald R. Pettit

PROGRAMS ON

194 Chemical Process Modeling and Control,
R. Donald Bartusiak, Randel M. Price
198 Advanced Combustion Engineering, Calvin H. Bartholomew

AN EXPERIMENT IN

200 Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals, David O. Cooney

CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS

204 Modeling of Heat Transfer with Chemical Reaction: Cooking
a Potato, Kerry L. Sublette

VIEWS AND OPINIONS

210 Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future
Directions, M. P. Dudukovic

157 EDITORIAL

172,197,215 BOOK REVIEWS

167 DIVISION ACTIVITIES

168 SUMMER SCHOOL REPORT

173 POSITIONS AVAILABLE



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesvil e, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. n. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, FL 32028. Copyright
1987 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.









n1 lecture


AMERICAN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE WORK*


NEAL R. AMUNDSON
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77004

UNIVERSITY PROFESSORSHIP in a good graduate
research department can be the best of all possi-
ble worlds. Nowhere else does the recipient have such
freedom to do as he pleases, a freedom he has earned
presumably by good works-teaching, research, pub-
lication, and good citizenship-both on the academic
scene and outside.
The relationship between PhD adviser and
graduate student is a unique kind of relationship that
obtains nowhere else to my knowledge. It is an im-
provement on the father-son** relationship, for there
is less stress, no competition, and resolution of prob-
lems without trauma. The PhD adviser follows the
career and success of his advisee with great pride and
suffers as much as a father when that success is not
forthcoming. It is a very enduring relationship, and I
know of no other comparable one.
What I have just described is the ideal for which
many of us strive. Yet, for some, it is a difficult path
to trod, for other things get in the way and interfere
with its fulfillment. Not all advisers and not all profes-
sors are capable or willing to participate in the ven-
ture, or understand, in fact, what is involved in proper
PhD training. Other matters and goals interfere and
thus many may miss what can be an extremely
exhilarating experience.
Not all of it is wine and roses. The road can be a
rocky one at times, for standards must be upheld, and

The PhD adviser follows the career and success
of his advisee with great pride and suffers as much
as a father when that success is not forthcoming. It
is a very enduring relationship, and I know
of no other comparable one.


*Reprinted with permission from Parameters, Spring 1987, Cullen
College of Engineering, University of Houston.
**This is a personal account, and I have never had an academic
father-daughter relationship.


Neal R. Amundson is the Cullen Professor of Chemical Engineering
and a professor of mathematics at the University of Houston. He re-
ceived his BChE (1937), his MS (1941), and his PhD (1945) from the
University of Minnesota, where he also served as a faculty member
from 1939-1977 and as head of chemical engineering from 1949-
1974. He is the author of numerous papers and six books, including
First Order Partial Differential Equations, Vol. II. He has been the
recipient of many awards.


the research that is done must stand the scrutiny of
one's peers.
For example, it is not easy to tell one's graduate
student of a few years that the work done thus far
does not constitute an acceptable thesis. It is even
more difficult to tell him after two or three years that,
at the rate he is progressing, he probably will never
finish a satisfactory dissertation. These are traumatic
times for the student, when his perceived career must
suddenly detour to some other goal.
It is even more difficult for Professor X to tell
Professor Y that the thesis of the latter's student does
not meet the standards of the profession. Such a dis-
closure is often more a criticism of Professor Y than
it is of his student.
One of the most critical and important decisions a
department can make is whom to admit to a PhD pro-
gram, for once admitted, most students plan on get-
ting a degree. Since these are very good students,
failure for them would be a new experience, an experi-
ence to which some of them have difficulty accom-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









modating. Usually, departments are too generous in
their admissions policy, and future problems are born
which rest on the shoulders of the individual adviser.
Normally, a graduate student chooses his adviser
at the end of his first year of graduate study during
which he has sat through lectures, worked problems,
attended seminars and colloquia, and has, perhaps,
had casual interaction with some of the faculty at so-
cial functions. If he's the average new graduate stu-
dent, he has chosen his graduate school after visits to
a few places-for at most a day-during which he
talks briefly with faculty and students. And he obtains
some information from his undergraduate teachers.
But, from my experience, this may be unreliable.
He probably has looked into the literature little if at
all, and since chemical engineering textbooks are
notorious in their lack of original literature references,
he probably has never heard of anyone at the school
he visits. With this paucity of information he chooses
a school for graduate study. (Some years ago, while I
was head at Minnesota, I decided to inquire of new
graduate students why they chose us for their work.
Most of the answers had nothing to do with what we
presumed was our exalted reputation. One student
allowed as how he chose us because we started later
than anyone else in the fall, and he wanted to stay in
Europe that summer as long as possible. So much for
exalted reputations.)
Now we have the graduate student in place, and
he must choose an adviser. Students most of the time
have a free choice, and that choice is the result of
faculty presentations to the whole group of new
graduate students and private consultations for those
who want more information. In the meantime, the
prospective advisee has consulted with current
graduate students who give him the lowdown on Pro-
fessor X who probably, therefore, will get no stu-
dents. With this mixed bag of information, the student
makes a "free" choice. (Random would seem to be a
better word.)
Students, of course, almost never ask important
questions like: What will be the need for a certain
kind of expertise in five years or so when I finish?
How successful has Professor X been in placing his
students in responsible positions? How many students
has Professor X produced, and where are they? Does
Professor X work at the front of his field or is he out
of it? As a matter of fact, in a good department the
problem a student chooses to do for his thesis has
little relevance to what he will be doing in a few years,
for successful chemical engineers in industry tend to
be moved about.
The important thing in a chemical engineering


One student allowed as how he chose us
because we started later than anyone else in the
fall, and he wanted to stay in Europe that summer as
long as possible. So much for exalted reputations.


graduate program is that the student learn the funda-
mentals of his craft, learn how to do engineering re-
search, and be instilled with confidence so that when
he leaves he can be successful either in academia or
industry. These things depend upon the way the stu-
dent has been advised and directed for his degree
work and over which the adviser has a great deal of
influence. At the beginning, however, the student is
naive and thinks that his destiny is in his hands, and
his alone. Ah, youth!
The new graduate student is intimidated by the
sudden thought that he is now involved in research.
He is encouraged by his adviser to read the literature,
and that's the way he spends his first summer. He
must learn the techniques and methods of his trade.
This is less difficult than he imagines, and soon he
gains some confidence with the insight that there is
less known about everything than he had thought. He
still has the nagging idea that if he must know some-
thing, it will be out there in a book someplace. The
reminder that he is in a research mode now rather
than a learning mode, and that what he wants to know
has not been done, does not comfort him much.
The student at this stage feels that he cannot com-
pete with all the experts he thinks are out there and
whose papers he must read. I suggest to him that
there are not so many out there and that, when he
finishes his dissertation, he is going to wonder where
the experts all went, for then he will know more about
that topic than anyone else.
In most cases, as the student progresses through
the second and third years, he is struggling. The ex-
periment either does not work or the theoretical
analysis is more than he can handle, and the adviser
plays a crucial role in guiding him and giving him en-
couragement and advice, suggesting ideas when they
are needed. There is a small class of students who
whistle through this period with little advice and coun-
sel from the adviser, and the adviser's main function
is to get out of the way. Such students recognize early
what they want to do, they have no lack of ideas, and
their later success is assured.
The other class of students are those who need a
partnership arrangement with the adviser. They are
good students of high quality, but for a long time re-
quire that the adviser direct their work in detail, tell-
ing them where to go and what to look for and what


FALL 1987









During all of this travail, the adviser must think of the welfare of the student. The adviser does
harm to the student if he uses him in the laboratory as a pair of hands on a fixed piece of equipment or as
a computer algorithm for a theoretical thesis. The PhD student is supposed to have contributed to knowledge
in some way, and that means he contributed. One does him no favors by allowing him to do less.


to do if they find it. With students of this class there
is a problem, for they must be told that the thesis is
their thesis, and if they mean to be called doctor, they
must earn it.
My usual procedure is to be very patient until a
time arrives when it is necessary to say that I do not
want to confer with them again until they can tell me
something about their research that I did not know.
"In fact," I say, "next time you come for a thesis dis-
cussion, I want to be surprised." One former advisee
characterized this as being thrown in the water-
swim or learn to swim or else.
While this may seem cruel, it is an astoundingly
successful ploy, for almost everyone responds to it
well. Students who, up to that point, have never pre-
sented an original idea suddenly blossom. A few do
not respond and unfortunately receive their degrees
without contributing much, and their later careers
show that they probably should not have made the
attempt.
Those who learn to swim leave the institution with
a great deal of confidence and become more successful
than they might have otherwise. A problem here re-
sides in the fact that undergraduate and new graduate
students are seldom asked to do a synthesis or are
challenged in a situation where a novel idea is needed.
Research, therefore, thrusts them into a wholly new
mode.
During all of this travail, the adviser must think
of the welfare of the student. The adviser does harm
to the student if he uses him in the laboratory as a
pair of hands on a fixed piece of equipment or as a
computer algorithm for a theoretical thesis. The PhD
student is supposed to have contributed to knowledge
in some way, and that means he contributed. One does
him no favors by allowing him to do less. He should
be proud of his thesis upon its completion.
From the advisers view, there is always one more
experiment to run or one more calculation to make on
a thesis, and he treads a fine line before using the
student for his own ends. The greatest PR a depart-
ment can promote is to have students say when they
leave, "I'm happy I came!"
Most PhD students go on to other things after
their degrees, whether in academia or industry. In
academia many of them continue to work in the area
in which they did their theses, much to the chagrin of
the adviser, for then he has once again produced still


more competitors and has probably supplied the ideas
that will be exploited for a time by the former stu-
dents.
But this is a short-lived phenomenon, and the
former students soon become interested in other
things. It is rare in industry for a new PhD to work
long in the area of his thesis, since the successful in-
dustrial chemical engineer must be flexible. For this
reason, the choice of a particular thesis topic is prob-
ably the least important of the many other factors
involved in good graduate study.
Unfortunately, engineering departments are sel-
dom composed of large numbers of the kind of re-
search advisers alluded to above. Universities are
strange places, and they attract their own particular
kind of strange characters.
Though the freedom allowed at universities is un-
limited, the proper research adviser uses this freedom
in the pursuit of proper academic goals. But the free-
dom is abused, since the fetters applied to academics
under the name of academic freedom are rather tenu-
ous. A faculty member may spend too much time in
consulting and entrepreneurship, seeking financial re-
wards the academic pursuit will not provide. He gains
financially but loses the respect of his colleagues. This
is not a wide class, but it exists and does no credit to
the institution.
In a well-run department there is a certain spirit,
a spirit difficult to imitate, initiate, develop, even to
maintain. Faculty must have respect for each other
both publicly and privately. The departments that
seem to work best are those in which faculty members
are also friends, and this requires personality traits
more highly developed than in the general population.
Regrettably, good collaborations among faculty are
rare, occurring far less frequently than outsiders
might imagine.
There is severe competition for research space,
new graduate students, money for research equip-
ment and supplies, choice teaching schedules, and
more. In a university there is always a finite, too small
pool of everything, and the selfish individual can be a
problem. It is no wonder that in some departments
rancor and cancer exist.
I was always proud of the Minnesota department,
since they were class chaps (there were no women at
that time) who always thought in terms of what was
best for the department-a rare commodity indeed.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









We called it good university citizenship, a term little
practiced in some places. There is no room in a good
operation for those who think of every action, how
does it affect me? This soon leads to discord, and in a
small group it is disastrous.
The Minnesota department had an amazing suc-
cess, since the sum of its parts was much greater than
the whole, not only because of strong intra- and inter-
departmental cooperation, but because of the superb
personalities that inhabited the place. I think this was
in large measure responsible for its almost complete
dominance of the chemical engineering scene for the
last twenty years. It is not thus all over.
For many years, there were three leading chemical
engineering departments: at Wisconsin, and at two
other large institutions. Wisconsin maintained its po-
sition over the years because it kept its eye on
academic excellence. The other two suffered from
similar problems-too much consulting, too much en-
trepreneurship, too little attention to scholarship, and
too much inbreeding. One of these is recovering, but
at a time when recovery is difficult.
When one carefully examines academic depart-
ments, some difficult questions can be posed. Why is
it that some departments, which absorb an enormous


number of new graduate students each year, produce
relatively few successful PhD's? Why is it that depart-
ments of so-called lesser rank almost never (I'm temp-
ted to say never) produce a world class practitioner?
Why is it that some presumably eminent faculty mem-
bers have never produced a really outstanding PhD?
The opportunities for outside activities are so man-
ifold and the amount of money to be made so great
that the temptations are more than some in academia
can absorb. A really successful PhD adviser with a
good stable of students cannot dissipate his efforts
outside the enterprise. The rewards for superior re-
search of both quality and quantity and the satisfac-
tion obtained from the success of former students re-
main mostly intangible, although the academic com-
munity has belatedly come to recognize quality.
In no place is graduate work so readily available
and run so efficiently and effectively as it is in the
United States; it is truly one of the great develop-
ments of this country. In France, Germany, England,
and Russia, the mechanisms are much different and
far less attractive.
American university graduate work is unique in
the world. I'm very happy and proud to have been a
part of it for over forty years. O


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FALL 1987









A course in ...


MASS TRANSFER WITH CHEMICAL REACTION


W. J. DECOURSEY
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N OWO

NDUSTRIAL USE OF absorption and stripping in
cases where simultaneous homogeneous chemical
reaction has an appreciable effect on the rate of mass
transfer goes back at least fifty years to the introduc-
tion of ethanolamine solutions to absorb hydrogen sul-
fide and carbon dioxide from gases. Theoretical de-
velopment in this area goes back about the same
length of time to the pioneering studies of Hatta [1,
2]. However, as in many other areas, industrial de-
velopment had to run ahead of theory; design was
based on empirical studies and scale-up. The first re-
ference books devoted entirely to mass transfer with
chemical reaction appeared in 1967 [3] and 1970 [4].
I began to teach a graduate course in mass transfer
in 1964. The content of that course has been modified
considerably in the intervening years. It always con-
tained some mass transfer with chemical reaction, but
the content in that area increased appreciably after
the book by Danckwerts [4] was published. In recent
years, mass transfer with chemical reaction has be-
come the dominant section of the course.


W. J. DeCoursey received his bachelor's degree from the University
of Alberta and his PhD from Imperial College, University of London,
England, both in chemical engineering. After five years with Sherritt
Gordon Mines Limited in Alberta, he spent a year in graduate study
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has taught chemical
engineering at the University of Saskatchewan since 1961.


. . industrial development had to run ahead of
theory; design was based on empirical studies and
scale-up. The first reference books devoted entirely
to mass transfer with chemical reaction
appeared in 1967 and 1970.


COURSE CONTENT
The main topics included in the present course and
the approximate distribution of time are shown in
Table 1.
1. Mathematical Models of Mass Transfer This
topic deals with some basic principles. We consider
diffusion equations, diffusivities, and diffusion of elec-
trolytes. This consideration results in differential
equations of various degrees of complexity based on
various assumptions. Next comes mathematical de-
velopment of the most important models of convective
mass transfer: the film model of Whitman and Lewis,
the penetration model of Higbie, and the surface re-
newal model of Danckwerts. The relation of the
Danckwerts model, with its exponential distribution
function, to the Laplace transform is discussed. We
examine the available experimental evidence regard-
ing the relative accuracy of predictions from the three
basic models of convective mass transfer.

2. Enhancement of Mass Transfer Rates by
Homogeneous Chemical Reaction We begin this
topic with a simplified form of the diffusion equation
with chemical reaction

DA( 2[A]/DX2) (D[A]/3t) rA = 0 (1)

and a simplified form of Fick's Law

NA = DA([A]/x) (2)

These equations are used in subsequent develop-
ment. The rate of diffusion of component A at the
interface between liquid and gas is related to the mass
transfer coefficient for A according to the various
models. The enhancement factor, E, is defined as the
ratio of the time-mean flux of A at the interface with
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













APPROX. NO. OF
LECTURE HOURS


reaction to the time-mean flux of A at the interface
without reaction but with the same driving force and
the same hydrodynamic conditions. This reduces to
the ratio of mass transfer coefficients with and with-
out chemical reaction.
In cases where the enhancement factor is appreci-
ably more than one, several studies [5, 6, 7, 8] have
shown that in normal industrial equipment, the chem-
ical reaction rate must be large enough so that the
composition in the bulk of the liquid is very close to
equilibrium. If the reaction is irreversible, that means
that concentration of component A from the gas phase
is effectively zero in the bulk of the liquid. This
simplifies one of the boundary conditions to Eq. (1).
Hatta's analysis is still applicable to the simplest
cases, absorption with instantaneous irreversible
reaction and absorption with first-order irreversible
reaction, both according to the film model. Although
combination of Eq. (1) for first-order reaction with
the film model, Higbie model, and Danckwerts model
respectively gives expressions for the enhancement
factor which are widely different in mathematical
form, it is quite remarkable how closely the results
agree numerically when they are put in terms of
Brian's general parameter M [9] or the equivalent


TABLE 2
Effect of Increasing Reaction Rate
For mass transfer with second-order reaction,
A + zB -> products
Reaction Reaction Enhancement
Rate [B1] zone Factor
Slow [B]o negligible 1
Pseudo-lst-order [B]o broad region Eist
Intermediate <[B]o, >0 region > Eist, < Ea
Instantaneous 0 plane Ea


TABLE 1
Course Content


TOPIC
A. Mathematical Models of mass
transfer
B. Enhancement of mass transfer
rates
C. Gas-liquid systems with
chemical reaction
D. Industrial examples
E. Students' presentations


Hatta number. The asymptotes for large or small val-
ues of M by the various models are identical, and pre-
dictions of first-order enhancement factors from the
three models agree within 8.1% of the largest predic-
tion, which comes from the Danckwerts model. Such
agreement is extraordinary when the different as-
sumptions of the three models are considered.
Second-order reactions of the type
rA = k[A][B] (3)

simplify to pseudo-first-order reactions when the de-
pletion of component B (from the liquid phase) be-
comes negligible at the interface with the gas phase.
This corresponds to a comparatively slow reaction, or
a small value of the Hatta number. On the other hand,
the asymptotic limit for a second-order reaction at
high reaction rate is an instantaneous reaction. Thus
it is reasonable that expressions for the enhancement
factor for second-order irreversible reactions should


The principal mathematical difficulty in
obtaining an expression for the enhancement factor
for second-order reactions is that the rate expression
makes the differential equation non-linear. In
fact, there is a non-linear differential
equation for each chemical species.


reduce to expressions applicable to pseudo-first-order
reactions at small values of the Hatta number and to
expressions applicable to instantaneous reactions at
large Hatta numbers. A chart for comparison is shown
in Table 2.
The principal mathematical difficulty in obtaining
an expression for the enhancement factor for second-
order reactions is that the rate expression makes the
differential equation non-linear. In fact, there is a non-
linear differential equation for each chemical species.
Van Krevelen and Hoftijzer [10] found an approximate
solution for the irreversible case and the film model
by two modifications. First they combined the differ-
ential equations for species A (from the gas) and B
(from the liquid) to eliminate the non-linear rate term,
and then integrated to obtain a bridging expression
relating the concentration of component B in the liquid
bulk and at the interface. Then, realizing that the
reaction rate closest to the interface has the largest
effect on the enhancement factor, they took the con-
centration of B in the reaction term as equal to its
interfacial concentration independent of distance from
the interface. This gave a linear differential equation
which could be solved by standard methods. The ap-
proach of van Krevelen and Hoftijzer has been applied
also to enhancement factors by the Danckwerts


FALL 1987









model, both for irreversible [11] and reversible [12]
second-order reactions.
Other sub-topics discussed under enhancement in-
clude extension to other kinetic forms and relations
for reversible reactions. Desorption with reaction is
found to be similar to absorption with reaction, but
with some important differences [13]. Liquid extrac-
tion with chemical reaction is also similar. Non-
isothermal enhancement factors are important in
cases where temperatures vary appreciably between
the bulk of the liquid and the interface. The Marangoni
effect gives extra enhancement in some cases. Scale-
up from laboratory or pilot-plant experiments is an
important area in practice.

3. Gas-Liquid Systems with Chemical Reaction *
The ideas of total molarity and degree of saturation,
as introduced by Astarita and Savage [13, 15], are
discussed and applied to chemical equilibrium. These
concepts are applied also in developing an operating
line equation suitable for systems involving chemical
reaction. Design relations for a packed column are de-
rived, and an example design problem is discussed.

4. Industrial Examples The chemistry of a few
important cases, such as reactions of carbonates or
ethanolamines with hydrogen sulfide or carbon
dioxide, is discussed briefly.

ASSIGNMENTS
As you might expect, the course includes frequent
problem assignments to illustrate the theory and its
applications. A longer assignment toward the end of
the course involves design of a packed column for a
particular separation. Some results for mass transfer
coefficients without reaction and for interfacial areas,
calculated from the equation of Onda et. al. [16], are
given to the students to reduce the amount of time
they must spend on the problem.
A term paper is an important part of the course.
It is intended to bring students into contact with re-
cent literature and to promote a critical attitude to-
ward the literature. It is to be a critical review of a
recent paper, pointing out weaknesses in a chosen
paper from the literature, clarifying its application, or
extending its scope. Each student submits a written
term paper and presents it orally to the class.

REFERENCE BOOKS
The main references used in this course are shown
in Table 3. Cussler [17] has produced an excellent book
on topics related to diffusion. The present course uses


TABLE 3
Main Reference Books
A. Mathematical models of mass transfer: Cussler [17]; Bird,
Stewart, Lightfoot [18]
B. Enhancement of mass transfer rates: Danckwerts [4]
C. Gas-liquid systems with chemical: Astarita, Savage, Bisio
[15]
D. Industrial examples: Astarita, Savage, Bisio [15]


only a small part of the material in this book. Some
topics from the standard reference by Bird, Stewart,
and Lightfoot [18] are used.
Teachers and researchers are divided on the best
approach to the theory of enhancement factors. Some
prefer the approach of Astarita [3, 15], while others
prefer the approach of Danckwerts [4]. Personally, I
find Danckwerts more direct and logical.
The book by Astarita, Savage, and Bisio [15] is the
only one which introduces the ideas of total molarity
and degree of saturation. However, I find some incon-
sistencies in this book, and its lack of many references
in my opinion makes it not very useful for a graduate
course.
For recent developments students must be refer-
red to the original articles in the literature.

CONCLUSION
Although many mass transfer devices involving
homogeneous chemical reaction are still designed on a
strictly empirical basis, often with large factors of
safety to allow for areas of ignorance, the theory has
advanced now to the point where it is of considerable
use in practice. Edwards [10] has pointed out some of
the applicable material. Thus there is a need for
graduate courses in this area.

NOMENCLATURE

[A], [B] Concentrations of chemical species
DA Diffusivity of component A
E Enhancement factor
Eist Enhancement factor for first-order reac-
tion
E, Enhancement factor for instantaneous re-
action
Ha Hatta number, VM
k Second-order chemical rate constant
kL* Mass transfer coefficient without reaction
M DA k [B]o/(kL*)2
NA Flux of component A
rA Reaction rate of A per unit volume of solu-
tion


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










A

[3 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DIVISION ACTIVITIES



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD
TO JAMES J. CHRISTENSEN

The 1987 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec-
turer is James J. Christensen of Brigham Young University.
The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and encour-
age outstanding achievement in an important field of funda-
mental chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M
Company provides the financial support for this annual
award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering
educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an
engraved certificate. These were presented to James Chris-
tensen at a banquet on August 12, 1987, at the Summer
School at Southeastern Massachusetts University. The
award is made on an annual basis, with nominations being
received through February 1, 1988. Your nominations for
the 1988 lectureship are invited. They should be sent to
Donald K. Anderson, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI 48824-1226.

EDITORS NOTE ADDED IN PROOF: CEE has
learned that Professor Christensen died suddenly at
his home on September 5, 1987. We mourn his loss.

NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS

The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 1987-88
are: Chairman, John Sears (Montana State University);


Past Chairman, Phillip C. Wankat (Purdue University);
Chairman Elect, James E. Stice (University of Texas); Sec-
retary-Treasurer, William E. Beckwith (Clemson Univer-
sity); Directors, Gary Poehlein (Georgia Institute of
Technology), Conrad Burris (Manhattan College), Richard
M. Felder (North Carolina State University), and Lewis
Derzansky (Union Carbide).

AWARD WINNERS

A number of chemical engineering professors were rec-
ognized for their outstanding achievements. The George
Westinghouse Award was presented to John H. Seinfeld
(California Institute of Technology) to acknowledge his com-
mittment to excellence in education and his many contribu-
tions to the improvement of teaching methods for engineer-
ing students.
C. Stewart Slater (Manhattan College) and A. K. M.
Uddin (Trinity University) received the Zone I and Zone
III (respectively) New Engineering Educator Excellence
Awards. The awards are presented to non-tenured
educators in the first six years of their appointment in rec-
ognition of superior performance in teaching and research.
Louis Theodore (Manhattan College) was honored with
an AT&T Foundations Award, presented to outstanding
teachers of engineering students, and the grade of ASEE
Fellow Member was conferred on James E. Stice (Univer-
sity of Texas) in recognition of his many important contribu-
tions in the field of engineering education.

CORCORAN AWARD TO R. BYRON BIRD

R. Byron Bird (University of Wisconsin) was the reci-
pient of the second annual Corcoran Award, presented in
recognition of the most outstanding paper published in
Chemical Engineering Education in 1986. His paper,
"Hougen's Principles," appeared in the fall 1986 issue of
CEE.


t Time
x Distance from the interface
overbar Time-mean value

REFERENCES

1. Hatta, S., Technol. Repts. Tohoku Imp. University, 8, 1
(1928-9), as reported in ref. 4.
2. Hatta, S., Technol. Repts. Tohoku Imp. University, 10, 119
(1932), as reported in ref. 4.
3. Astarita, G., Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction,
Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1967.
4. Danckwerts, P. V., Gas-Liquid Reactions, McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1970.
5. Peaceman, D. W., Sc.D. thesis, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cam-
bridge, Mass., 1951, as reported in ref. 9.
6. Danckwerts, P. V., ref. 4, page 162.
7. Huang, D. T.-J., J. J. Carberry, and A. Varma, AIChE J.,
26, 832 (1980).
8. White, D., L. E. Johns, paper no. 123a, AIChE Annual Meet-
ing, Miami Beach, November 1986.


9. Brian, P. L. T., J. F. Hurley, and E. H. Hasseltine, AIChE
J., 7, 226 (1961).
10. Van Krevelen, D. W., P. J. Hoftijzer, Rec. Trav. Chim. 67,
563 (1948).
11. DeCoursey, W. J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 1867 (1974).
12. DeCoursey, W. J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 1483 (1982).
13. Astarita, G., D. W. Savage, Chem Eng. Sci., 35, 659, 1755
(1980).
14. Joshi, S. V., G. Astarita, D. W. Savage, AIChE Symp. Ser.,
#202, 77, 63 (1981).
15. Astarita, G., D. W. Savage, A. Bisio, Gas Treating with
Chemical Solvents, Wiley, New York (1983).
16. Onda, K., H. Takeuchi, Y. Okumoto, J. Chem. Eng. Japan,
1, 56 (1968).
17. Cussler, E. L., Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems,
Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1984.
18. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phe-
nomena, Wiley, New York, 1960.
19. Edwards, W. M., in R. H. Perry, D. Green, (ed.), Perry's
Chemical Engineers' Handbook, section 14, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1984. O


FALL 1987












1987 SUMMER SCHOOL


G. L. SCHRADER, M. A. LARSON
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50010

The 1987 Summer School for Chemical Engineering Fac-
ulty, arranged through the Chemical Engineering Division
of the American Society for Engineering Education, was
held on August 9-14, 1987, at Southeastern Massachusetts
University, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts. Over 350 at-
tendees were present at the meeting, representing 113 uni-
versities in the United States and Canada and several Euro-
pean and Australian schools. Sixteen industrial sponsors
(see Table 1) contributed nearly $100,000 to assist in the
planning of the program, local expenses, and costs for in-
stuctor and faculty member participation. It was the tenth
Summer School in a series begun in 1931.
The theme of the 1987 Summer School was the revitaliza-
tion of the chemical engineering curriculum in response to
the changing technological needs of modern society. Five
plenary sessions were held to discuss some of the broader
implications of these changes. Four blocks of workshops
were organized around specific themes: Emerging Technol-
ogy (G. L. Schrader, Iowa State University), Computers
and Computation in Chemical Engineering Education (H. S.
Fogler, University of Michigan), Applied Chemistry in
Chemical Engineering (J. W. Schwank, University of Michi-
gan), and Curricula, Courses and Laboratories (J. C.
Friedly, University of Rochester). Forty-four faculty mem-
bers and industrial speakers served as instructors for the
meeting, all donating their time and effort.
The first plenary talk addressing the general future cur-
riculum directions in chemical engineering was given by
Professor James Wei of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology. Professor Wei discussed the important need for a
new paradigm in the curriculum, such as were provided by
the unit operations and transport phenomena directions in
the 1920s and 1960s. Because of the loss of important sectors
of America's industrial economy, there has been a general
concern regarding engineering education in the United
States, and there are strong pressures for chemical en-
gineers to become involved in new technological areas.
Within traditional courses, there are opportunities to intro-
duce new emphases or problems at the micro-, meso-, and
macroscale at which chemical engineers are accustomed to
work. For example, instead of dealing only with small
molecules, gases and homogeneous liquids, large molecules,
complex liquids and solids should be addressed; rather than
being concerned exclusively with inorganic or organic
chemistry applications, biochemistry, material science, and
condensed state physical chemistry should have a role in


chemical engineering courses. Professor Wei provided a
number of specific curriculum suggestions, among which
was the discussion of a product engineering course which
would explore the relation between molecular configuration
and aggregation and product quality. The design and syn-
thesis of materials with specific performance in use could
also be included in traditional design courses. Also proposed
were courses in surface and colloid chemistry, electronic ma-
terials processing, biotechnology, and solid state chemistry.
The new technological demands made on the chemical en-
gineering profession may lead to need for new educational
plans and degree requirements. Professor Wei pointed to
the difficulty of cramming more courses or course content
into the four-year BS degree and to the decline of the indus-
trial "apprentice" format as traditional industry reduces
senior staff, leaving fewer experienced engineers to teach
incoming graduates. This is coupled with an information ex-
plosion which has made it increasingly difficult for all levels
of engineers to be technically well-informed. Professor Wei
called for a new consensus among academic and industrial
engineers in which the first professional degree (four-year
BS) is regarded as being suitable for light technical work
such as marketing, administration, technical personnel, or
production planning. To be effective in heavy technical work
such as design, process development, consulting, and con-
struction, the student should obtain a MS degree or secure
a significant apprenticeship with an experienced senior en-
gineer.
Dr. Stanley Proctor of Monsanto discussed "Biotechnol-
ogy and Chemical Engineering Education" in the second ple-
nary session. The value of products from biotechnology is
projected to grow enormously by the year 2000, with major
opportunities coming in human health care, crop science,
and waste management. Dr. Proctor stated that chemical
engineering is a good base from which the student can ex-
pand into the biotechnology area, specifically by the addition
of life science courses such as microbiology, biochemistry,
and biochemical engineering unit operations. Biotechnology
can also be introduced into the core courses of chemical en-
gineering with subjects such as bioreaction engineering and
bioprocessing purification and separation. There is a need
for laboratories suitably equipped for life science studies,
with the appropriate unit operations and instrumentation.
It is especially helpful to use laboratory assistants with life
science backgrounds, as well as having faculty members
with life science training. Dr. Proctor raised the difficulty
of doing this in a four-year program, but suggested improv-
ing the curriculum flexibility, incorporating biotechnology
into existing courses, reducing duplication, and eliminating
credit for courses which are prerequisite for program admis-
sion. Dr. Proctor projected that the largest need for BS/MS


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION














New Directions in Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 1
Industrial Sponsors

American Cyanamid Company
Amoco Oil Company
BASF Corporation
Chevron Corporation
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
Dow Coming Corporation
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company
EXXON
Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Labs
Phillips Petroleum
PPG Industries Foundation
Shell Development Company
Tektronix
The Standard Oil Company (SOHIO)
3M
Union Carbide Corporation


biotechnology graduates focused on design and operation
will come after 1990.
The opportunities for chemical engineers in high technol-
ogy materials processing was addressed in two plenary ses-
sions presented by practicing chemical engineers. Dr.
Michael Bohrer of AT&T Bell Laboratories discussed
"Chemical Engineering in Electronic Materials Processing."
Chemical engineers have made substantial contributions to
modern silicon and optical fiber manufacturing technology.
The core curriculum has served chemical engineers well for
working in the electronics industry, as reflected by the rapid
increase in the hiring of BS chemical engineers. Students
should be exposed to a broad range of problems; courses in
material science and solid state physics should also be in-
cluded.
Dr. Kenneth McKelvey of Dupont addressed some of the
important technological problems associated with the design
and manufacture of advanced materials and composites. The
microstructure of these materials must be very carefully
engineered since the interfacial region frequently involves
two incompatible materials. There are important technolog-
ical opportunities in developing more engineered micro-
structure materials, liquid crystalline polymers, and electri-
cally conductive polymers. Dr. McKelvey stated that chem-
ical engineering education frequently does not take the in-
terdisciplinary approach used by industry and this can be a
serious drawback. Chemical engineers do have a unique ap-
proach to problem solving which frequently begins with a
phenomenological description in areas such as transport


phenomena, kinetics, and thermodynamics. This is followed
by a quantifying and modeling approach. Dr. McKelvey
pointed to a reduced hiring pattern for chemical engineers
by companies that are forming special expertise in the ad-
vanced materials area.
The final plenary speaker was Professor Warren Seider
of the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Seider spoke
on "Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing-
Are They in Step?" Transitions in chemical engineering
courses and advances in instructional computing were
examined. Developments in optimization, micro-computer
software, and expert systems for teaching the design and
control of conventional and unconventional processes were
detailed. New developments to introduce "open-ended," de-
sign-oriented computing lessons in courses other than pro-
cess design and process control were described. In addition,
examples of more advanced concepts in undergraduate
courses were presented, including reactor stability analysis,
thermodynamics in the critical region, and mass transfer in
separators. Questions concerning the minimal requirements
for computation in the accreditation of chemical engineering
curricula were discussed. Professor Seider concluded that
the instructional material for design and control courses are
in step with the technology represented by conventional
processing, but that there needs to be an improvement with
respect to the more recent technological interests of chemi-
cal engineering.
Workshop sessions were held in the mornings and even-
ings and provided an informal atmosphere for faculty mem-
bers to exchange specific information about coursework de-
velopment. Poster sessions were held in the afternoon, per-
mitting up-to-date presentations of materials by the par-
ticipants. Over seventy posters were submitted.
On Wednesday, the 3M Award Lectureship was awarded
to Professor James J. Christensen, of Brigham Young Uni-
versity, who spoke on "Reflections on Teaching Creativity"
and who addressed the essential need of including creativity
in the chemical engineering curriculum.
The lecture was followed by the Division business meet-
ing. The Summer School participants also had opportunities
to tour the Newport area.
A financial report of the Summer School will appear after
the final distribution of subsidies to participating depart-
ments (planned for late 1987). Any questions concerning the
final preparation of this report should be addressed to the
Co-Chairmen.
Local arrangements for the Summer School were as-
sisted by Professor L. Bryce Andersen of Southeastern
Massachusetts University, and by Professor Stanely M.
Barnett of the University of Rhode Island.


FALL 1987











A course in ...



FUNDAMENTALS OF


MICROELECTRONICS PROCESSING (VLSI)


CHRISTOS G. TAKOUDIS
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907

AFIFTEEN-WEEK COURSE in the fundamentals of
microelectronics processing has been prepared to
meet the needs of graduate and advanced under-
graduate students in Purdue's School of Chemical En-
gineering. There is ample evidence of the impact of
large scale integration on calculators and computers.
Very large scale integration (VLSI) is bringing about
great changes in industrial process control, automo-
tive electronics, and other fields in which data acquis-
ition, computation, or controls are necessary. In re-
cent years, chemical engineers have been increasingly
involved in chemical vapor deposition, epitaxial lateral
overgrowth, microlithography and silicon growth on
insulators. The aim of this course is to teach the basic
principles and practical aspects of the most advanced
state of electronics processing. The main emphasis is
on fundamental processes that are especially useful
for VLSI schemes. The course outline is given in
Table 1.


C. G. Takoudis received his Diploma (1977) at the National Techni-
cal University of Athens, Greece, and his PhD in chemical engineering
(1982) at the University of Minnesota. He joined the faculty of Purdue
University in November 1981. His research interests are in the areas
of reaction engineering, heterogeneous catalysis and microelectronics
processing.
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Perhaps the rapid pace of innovation does not fit
the limited timetable for publication of a book [1-5].
Recent efforts are most often treated in journal arti-
cles and as a consequence, those journal articles end
up playing a key role in this course. Some of the arti-
cles are mentioned at the end of this paper [6-14].
In order to maintain the pace shown in Table 1,
some topics were not covered in depth. For these top-
ics, several references were suggested, and students'

TABLE 1
Course Outline

Introduction
Overview of Microelectronics
Semiconductor Devices
Crystal Growth and Epitaxy
Crystal Growth
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Silicon on Insulators
Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth
Doping Profiles in Epi-layers
Dielectric and Polysilicon Film Deposition
Deposition Processes
Reactor Design
Polysilicon and Silicon Dioxide
Process Simulation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implant System-Dose Control
Impurity Profiles of Implanted Ions
Process Considerations
Lithography
Pattern Generation-Mask Making
Printing and Engraving
Resists
Process Considerations
Dry Etching
Selectivity-Feature Size Control
Gas Discharges
Plasma-Assisted Etching Techniques
Process Simulation
Other Processes-Device and Circuit Fabrication
Oxidation
Diffusion
Metallization
Fabrication Considerations


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








comprehension was examined through homework
problems and midsemester exams. At the end of the
course, the students expressed approval of the texts
(1, 2, 5) and of the supplementary readings.
The course begins with an overview of microelec-
tronics. The major technologies for the manufacture
of microcircuits are discussed, and the students be-
come familiar with small-, medium-, large-, and very
large-scale integration. After a general discussion of
some of the materials used in microcircuits (i.e., Si,
Ga, As) the physics of semiconductor devices is briefly
covered. Concepts such as energy bands, carrier con-
centration and carrier transport phenomena are pre-
sented, while the students begin familiarizing them-
selves with the p-n junction and bipolar, unipolar and
microwave devices. The basic principles of these de-
vices are also discussed.
The first major step in device fabrication includes
crystal growth and epitaxy. The starting materials of
semiconductors (e.g., silicon dioxide for a silicon
wafer) are chemically processed to form a high purity
polycrystalline semiconductor from which single crys-
tals are grown. The growth of crystals from a melt as
well as float zone processes is studied in detail. Em-
phasis is placed on the conceptual understanding and
mathematical modelling of such processes.
The growth of a single-crystal semiconductor upon
a single-crystal semiconductor substrate, called
epitaxy, is closely related to the technology of crystal
growth. The epitaxial process offers an important
means of controlling the doping profiles so that device
and circuit performances can be optimized. Many
novel device structures can be made by epitaxial pro-
cesses [3]. Some important epitaxial growth tech-
niques are discussed, with emphasis on vapor-phase
epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of
silicon on insulators is covered next. One of the pri-
mary aims of the study of such a process is the fabri-
cation of three-dimensional integrated circuits. A con-
ceptual understanding and mathematical modeling of
epitaxial lateral overgrowth are emphasized within
this context.
To fabricate discrete devices and integrated cir-
cuits we use many different kinds of thin films, such
as dielectric layers and polycrystalline silicon. Depos-
ited thin films must meet many requirements. The
film thickness must be uniform over a large number
of wafers processed at one time. The structure and
composition of thin films must be controlled and repro-
ducible. Therefore, it is necessary to understand all
the variables in the reactor design of a dielectric or
polysilicon film deposition. The modeling of reactors
used for such depositions is discussed in detail.


The masking structures mentioned previously
provide an introduction to the process of transferring
patterns of geometric shapes on a mask to a thin
layer of radiation-sensitive material covering
the surface of a semiconductor wafer.


Ion implantation is investigated next and is one of
the key processes we use to introduce controlled
amounts of dopants into semiconductors. The specific
goals that must be realized in this process are: the
energetic charged atoms or molecules should be de-
posited in the exact quantity specified and to the cor-
rect depths below the surface; the deposition should
be limited to only the designated areas of the sub-
strate; when required, it should be possible to electri-
cally activate all the implanted impurities; as much as
possible, the silicon (or other material) lattice struc-
ture should be unchanged by the dopant incorporation
process. To meet these goals, a number of approaches
are discussed. Models of the different aspects of ion
implantation as well as adequate masking structures
against the implant are shown to play a key role in the
overall process.
The masking structures mentioned previously pro-
vide an introduction to the process of transferring pat-
terns of geometric shapes on a mask to a thin layer of
radiation-sensitive material (called resist) covering
the surface of a semiconductor wafer. This process is
called lithography, and such patterns define the vari-
ous regions in an integrated circuit such as the contact
windows, the implantation regions, and the bonding-
pad areas. The resist patterns defined by the litho-
graphic process are indicated to be only replicas of
circuit features and not permanent elements of the
final device. Mathematical modeling of some of the
printing and engraving steps in a lithographic process
is discussed in detail.
To produce the circuit features mentioned above,
the resist patterns must be transferred once more into
the underlying layers comprising the device. The pat-
tern transfer is accomplished by an etching process
which selectively removes unmasked portions of a
layer. Emphasis is given to dry etching techniques
that use plasmas in the form of low-pressure gaseous
discharges. These techniques are used in VLSI pro-
cessing because of their potential for very high fidelity
transfer of resist patterns. Modeling and process
simulation of some dry etching methods are presented
in depth. It is important for the students to realize
that selectivity and feature size control are key issues
in any dry etching technique.
Oxidation, diffusion and metallization are dis-


FALL 1987











TABLE 2
Titles of Final Projects in Fall 1985, 1986

* Molecular Beam Epitaxy
* Silicon on Insulators: A Focus on Epitaxial Lateral Over-
growth
* Solid Phase Epitaxy of Silicon
* Gettering
* GaAs Contacts: Theory and Practice
* Review of the Thermal Nitridation of Silicon
* A Comprehensive Study of Plasma Etching Technology
* Optical Resist Systems
* X-Ray Lithography: The Solution to Submicron Device De-
sign?
* Resist Material Considerations for VLSI Edge Definition in
Lithography
* Kinetics in the Vapor Phase Epitaxy of GaAs
* Alternatives at the UV Limit of Optical Lithography
* Recent Studies on the Kinetics of Epitaxial Silicon Growth
* X-Ray Lithography
* Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
* Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactors
* Chemical Vapor Deposition of II-VI Materials
* Low Temperature Deposition of Silicon Dioxide


cussed briefly, either because chemical engineers are
already familiar with some of the basic principles of
these processes (e.g., oxidation, diffusion) or because
many aspects of such processes have been previously
covered (e.g., metallization). Also, diagnostic tech-
niques and device and circuit fabrication are briefly
discussed. Some emphasis is given to isolation, self-
alignment, local oxidation, planarization, and getter-
ing.
The last stage of this course is a final project that
is mandatory for all graduate students (and optional
for all undergraduates) who take the course. After
choosing from a list of topics, each student works on
his/her own project. Topics covered in the past two
years are listed in Table 2. Within such a project, a
student is expected to critically review any existing
literature and to present his/her own (perhaps innova-
tive) ideas for improving or developing various pro-
cesses.
REFERENCES

1. Ghandi, S. K., VLSI Fabrication Principles, Wiley Intersci-
ence, 1983.
2. Sze, S. M., VLSI Technology, McGraw-Hill, 1983.
3. Sze, S. M., Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology,
Wiley, 1985.
4. Till, W. C., and J. T. Luxon, Integrated Circuits: Materials,
Devices and Fabrication, Prentice Hall, 1982.
5. Wolf, S., and R. N. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the VLSI
Era, Lattice Press, 1986.
6. Cullen, G. W., and J. F. Corboy, "Reduced Pressure Silicon
Epitaxy; A Review," J. Crystal Growth, 70, 230 (1984).
7. Arnaud D'Avitaya, F., S. Delage, and E. Rosencher, "Silicon


MBE: Recent Developments," Surf. Sci., 168, 483 (1986).
8. Jastrzebski, L., "SOI by CVD: Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth
Process-Review," J. Crystal Growth, 63, 493 (1983).
9. Jastrzebski, L., "Silicon on Insulators: Different Approaches:
A Review," J. Crystal Growth, 70, 253 (1984).
10. Klingman, K. J., and H. H. Lee, "Design of Epitaxial CVD
Reactors," J. Crystal Growth, 72, 670 (1985).
11. Bloem, J., Y. S. Oei, H. H. C. de Moor, J. H. L. Hanssen,
and L. J. Giling, "Epitaxial Growth of Silicon by CVD in a
Hot-Wall Furnace," J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 1973 (1985).
12. Roenigk, K. F., and K. F. Jensen, "Analysis of Multicompo-
nent LPCVD Processes," J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 448
(1985).
13. Coltrin, M. E., R. J. Kee, and J. A. Miller, "A Mathematical
Model of the Coupled Fluid Mechanics and Chemical Kinetics
in a CVD Reactor," J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 425 (1984).
14. Bloem, J., and L. J. Giling, "VLSI Electronics: Microstruc-
ture Science," Vol. 12, Chapter 3, 89 (1985), "Epitaxial Growth
of Silicon by Chemical Vapor Deposition." O


O D book reviews


COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING FOR
INJECTION MOLDING
Edited by Ernest C. Bernhardt
MacMillan Publishing, New York 10022, 1984

Reviewed by
Donald G. Baird
Virginia Polytechnic Institute

This book is a collection of topics involving the ap-
plication of computers to the design and control of the
injection molding process. Unfortunately, as noted by
the editor, the chapters lack coordination and hence
the book represents a collection of topics rather than
a unified text. However, it is one of the first attempts
in the polymer field to develop a complete package
starting with the ideas of hardware, process control
techniques, the basic equations which are required to
simulate injection molding, and the application of com-
puter simulation to solving injection molding prob-
lems.
The book is divided into three sections, with the
first section being entitled "State of the Technology."
The first chapter in this section is rather general in
nature and attempts to explain in qualitative terms
how the computer is used in the design of injection
molds. For example, it is illustrated how a mold de-
signer might use a computer simulation to predict
where weld-lines would lie and how the location of
cooling channels would change the temperature distri-
bution in a part. Certainly this information is useful,
but it does not allow one to accomplish any quantita-
tive design work. The second chapter is also quite
qualitative in nature as it describes melt flow in


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









cavities. This chapter does emphasize the importance
of fountain flow to the development of properties and
the fact that the properties of a part are related to
melt flow. However, there are a number of topics,
such as computer hardware and computer languages,
which seem to be unconnected to the first part of the
discussion and of such elementary level that they
serve no practical purpose. For example, the distinc-
tion between mainframe computers and minicomput-
ers doesn't seem to be necessary. The third chapter
is also of limited value as it attempts to explain how
the mold designer might use computer aided design
(CAD) but it never specifies what packages are avail-
able or gives examples as to how the mold designer
could use CAD. Hence, in general, the first three
chapters are so descriptive in nature that they serve
very little practical purpose.
Following these first three qualitative chapters
comes Chapter Four, which presents some of the basic
equations which are required in the modeling of injec-
tion molding. Although this information is well pre-
sented and lends to the understanding of what equa-
tions must be solved, there is no connection between
this chapter and the rest of the book. Furthermore,
the author of the chapter does not explain how these
equations are solved on the computer nor how they
could be used in computer aided design. Finally, the
material reflects mostly the author's view of simulat-
ing injection mold filling, and fountain flow is neg-
lected.
Chapter Five is descriptive again and describes
how the computer is used in process control. Control
is all based on reading some process variable such as
mold pressure which must be within some specified
range based on previous experience in generating
parts with acceptable physical properties. This ap-
proach relies on no real knowledge of the mold filling
process. The failure to point out the limits of such an
approach would be quite beneficial, but this is not
done in the chapter.
Chapters six through eleven constitute Part II of
the book, which is entitled "Applications." Again, the
chapters are not connected nor do they always fit
within this heading. Chapter Six discusses how a part
is designed through structural analysis, but there is
no direct correlation back to mold design. The next
chapter discusses (only in a very qualitative sense)
mold design. Only one particular CAD/CAM system
is described. Chapter Eight is how an integrated ap-
proach for the design of an injection molded part
should be implemented. Again, the chapter is very
descriptive and one has no idea as to the limitations
of the approach used by the authors.


- POSITIONS AVAILABLE
'se (CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
page $50; each additional column inch $20.


VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE &
STATE UNIVERSITY

The Chemical Engineering Department at Virginia Tech
is seeking applicants for a full time tenure track faculty
position. Duties include teaching at undergraduate and
graduate levels, establishing and conducting a funded re-
search program, and departmental service. Rank and
salary commensurate with qualifications. Virginia Tech
has approximately 20,000 undergraduates (5,000 in the
College of Engineering, including 170 in Chemical En-
gineering) and 3,600 graduate students (1,200 in the Col-
lege of Engineering, including 50 in Chemical Engineer-
ing). Send resume and names of three references to
Chairman, Departmental Search Committee, Chemical
Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
& State University, 133 Randolph Hall, Blacksburg, VA
24061. Deadline for applications is January 31, 1988. Vir-
ginia Tech hires only U.S. citizens and lawfully au-
thorized alien workers. Virginia Tech is an Affirmative
Action/Equal Opportunity employer.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Chemical Engineering faculty position: A tenure track
position is available for August, 1988, at the University
of Florida. The rank and area are open. Applicants
should submit a brief resume, a description of research
objectives, and the names of three references to: Dr. H.
H. Lee, Chairman of Search Committee, Department of
Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, FL 32611. The University of Florida is an Equal
Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer.



In Chapter Nine, the Mold Flow program and its
application to solving molding problems are discussed.
This chapter is quite well done and does demonstrate
how a simulation can be used to solve molding prob-
lems. Again, however, the limits of this program and
the range of problems it can handle are not discussed.
This chapter should have been placed near Chapter
Four. Chapter Ten, which is concerned with mold
cooling, is also well-written, but should be grouped
with Chapter Four.
The last chapter in section II is concerned with
data acquisition and control of the injection molding
process. This chapter is of educational value as it ex-
Continued on page 218.


FALL 1987










A course in ...



TRANSPORT PHENOMENA


MARK J. McCREADY, DAVID T. LEIGHTON
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556

F THERE IS ONE subject in which the philosophy of
undergraduate instruction at various institutions
could be best described as diverse, it is transport phe-
nomena. Topics which fall under this heading may be
found in courses titled as unit operations, fluid me-
chanics, heat and mass transfer, or simply transport
phenomena. The content of these courses is as varied
as the titles are, with the resulting extremes being
students who are either quite knowledgeable in the
workings of various pieces of process equipment or
who have a grasp of transport processes only on a
microscopic level. Consequently, each student enter-
ing our graduate program has a different level of un-
derstanding of the basic principles governing the
transport of heat, mass, and momentum as well as a
diversity of the analytical skills which are necessary
to solve these problems. The question becomes: How
does one teach a single course sequence which all of
these students will find interesting and challenging?
At Notre Dame this is done by following a
philosophy for a two semester graduate transport phe-
nomena course sequence which we suspect is similar
to most other schools. The fundamental principles are
explained and emphasized a number of times through-
out the course. The skills necessary to solve the re-
quisite differential equations are honed, and a signifi-
cant amount of time is spent discussing example prob-
lems which display both important physical situations
and interesting solution techniques.
The principal difference between our courses and
those which we have encountered elsewhere is that
we have designed the content and order of presenta-
tion so as to avoid placing undue hardships on students
whose undergraduate education did not emphasize the
formulation and solution of partial differential equa-
tions. This is done by saving most of the advanced
mathematics for the second semester.
The first course strongly stresses the pertinent
physics and the correct way to approach an arbitrary
new problem, be it micro or macroscopic. When stu-
dents learn some of the more powerful mathematical
techniques for solving problems in heat and mass


Mark J. McCready joined the faculty at Notre Dame as an assistant
professor after receiving a BChE degree from the University of Dela-
ware and his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois. His
research interests lie in the area of fluid mechanics and transport prop-
erties of multiphase flows. Current topics include linear and nonlinear
wave phenomena. (L)
David Leighton is an assistant professor in chemical engineering
at the University of Notre Dame. After receiving his doctoral degree
from Stanford University in 1985 he was a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow
in the Department of Applied Mathematics of the University of Cam-
bridge. His research interests at Notre Dame center on the study of the
dynamic properties of sheared suspensions. (R)
transfer in the second semester, they are able to
explore problems involving greater mathematical
complexity (such as Rayleigh-Benard convection and
fluid flow past a heated sphere) without becoming
overwhelmed.

FLUID MECHANICS
The subject of the "Transport Phenomena I"
course, which is taught in the fall, is primarily fluid
mechanics. In fact, given both of the instructors' re-
search interests, the course could be better titled
"Fluid Mechanics." A quick survey of simple macro-
scopic problems is done so that students who spent
their summer in Europe or spinning discs at local dance
establishments can reorient themselves to course-
work. A homework problem set assigned the first
class day includes both easy and difficult problems
which are typically discussed in undergraduate
courses. From the various complaints, it is possible to
judge what topics must be reviewed. (It is interesting
to note how many students have difficulty getting the
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








correct number for pressure drop for turbulent flow
in a smooth pipe.)
Lectures begin with a discussion of the kinds of
forces which are found in fluid flows and how to de-
scribe them mathematically. The stress and strain
tensors are introduced along with transformations and
index notation. The primary references for this mate-
rial are the texts by Whitaker [1] and Batchelor [2].
The boundary conditions which arise in various phys-
ical situations are then introduced. At this point it is
possible to derive the mass and momentum conserva-
tion equations. The derivation is done both by shell
balance and by using the substantial derivative to con-
vert Newton's second law from a Lagrangian to an
Eulerian framework. The conditions under which
these equations reduce to the Navier-Stokes equa-
tions are examined.
The equations of motion are then used to solve
problems in one or more dimensions, first for cases
where exact solutions exist. Mathematical techniques
such as separation of variables and special functions,
which may be new to many students, are introduced
in lectures and are used for homework problems.
A quick survey of the kind of fluid flow problems
which engineers with advanced degrees may need to
solve during their career indicates that'not all of them
should be approached from the microscopic view. Un-
fortunately, many students have gotten the idea that
the macroscopic momentum equations are useful only
to solve homework problems in undergraduate
courses; they have the mistaken impression that all
real problems will yield to a detailed analysis using
the Navier-Stokes equations. In addition to not realiz-
ing whether differential or integral balances are ap-
propriate, their ability to successfully apply integral
balances to other than one dimensional problems is
generally limited.
For this reason, lectures which deal with macro-
scopic problems are inserted at this point. Macro-
scopic balance equations are derived from the differ-
ential equations by the application of the divergence
theorem and also by using integral averages of flows
and forces on macroscopic control volumes. A typical
homework problem might be the derivation of Dress-
ler's equations for flow of a turbulent fluid in channel
including the effects of air shear and surface tension.
The mechanical "energy balance" is derived from the
momentum balance for two reasons. The important
concept of dissipation, which accounts for the missing
energy, is introduced and the natural link between
thermodynamics and fluid mechanics is developed.
This link is further explored when the next sub-
ject, compressible flow, is discussed. Compressible


flows occur in numerous physical situations which
chemical engineers may encounter, but they seldom
receive much attention in courses. (Does the velocity
of a gas really increase as it flows through a pipe?
Why is the gas pump for my experiment not working
at its rated flow rate?) When the macroscopic balance
equation for total energy is derived and compared to
the mechanical energy equation, the physical signifi-
cance of dissipation in terms of entropy becomes clear.
The relation between entropy production and velocity
gradients is discussed. The concept of sonic velocity
and choking are also introduced.
The focus of the course now shifts to follow what
is more commonly taught in graduate transport
courses-application of the Navier-Stokes equations
to problems where exact solutions do not exist. Creep-
ing flow is done first. The important idea here is that
various nonzero terms are neglected not simply be-


. we have designed the content and order of
presentation so as to avoid placing undue hardships on
students whose undergraduate education did not
emphasize the formulation and solution
of partial differential equations.


cause they are small, but small in comparison to other
terms. The physics of creeping flows is discussed in
detail-what does it really mean to have no inertia?
It is noted that velocity fields (solutions to Stokes'
equations) are superimposable as a consequence of the
linearity of the equations.
The solution to the zero Reynolds number equa-
tions is done for the sphere, and arguments leading to
Stokes' paradox are investigated. The Oseen solution
is done and Whitehead's paradox is discussed. At this
point the general idea of perturbation solutions is in-
troduced and used to improve the solutions for rotat-
ing flows. In addition, the matched asymptotic solu-
tion for flow around a sphere is briefly outlined.
The next topic, ideal fluid flow, commences with a
description of the physical meaning of irrotationality
and situations where it provides an accurate descrip-
tion. The primary source of information for lectures
on ideal fluids is gotten from the texts by Streeter [3]
and Lamb [4]. The velocity potential function is intro-
duced and used to show that LaPlace's equation gov-
erns these flows. This leads to the amazing realization
that velocity fields are superimposable for ideal flows
as a consequence of the absence of shear forces even
though the underlying Navier-Stokes equations are
nonlinear. The solution of the problem for flow around
a sphere leads to d'Alembert's paradox. The idea of


FALL 1987









circulation is introduced and the application of ideal
fluid theory to the calculation of lift for flow over vari-
ous bodies (including baseballs, golf balls, and sails) is
discussed.
The next topic is boundary layer theory, for which
Schlichting's text [5] serves as an invaluable refer-
ence. BLT is an especially rich subject to study in a
graduate course because all of the many approxima-
tions which arise can be shown to follow as obvious
consequences of Prandtl's observation that viscous
and inertial forces balance near solid boundaries. To
show the utility and validity of the various assump-
tions it is instructive to compare calculations of drag
from solutions to the boundary layer equations with
data to demonstrate that the approximations do in fact
lead to good agreement.
Tests, of which there are usually two in addition
to a final, are designed so that students may be crea-
tive as well as display a basic level of understanding
of the course material. Questions from the most recent
semester included the locomotion of cephalopods, flow
over porous airplane wings, and wave propagation de-
scribed by an Orr-Sommerfeld equation. On each test,
problems which require either integral or differential
balances are interspersed. This requires that students
think about which approach is appropriate. After the
first course, students are expected to ask the correct
questions when confronted with a new problem. They
should know how to examine the essential physics on
an appropriate scale.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
In the spring, the topics switch to heat and mass
transfer. Up to this point the time spent examining
macroscopic problems and emphasizing the physics for
each situation has limited the number of important
analytical methods the students have been exposed to
and which may be necessary for solving difficult de-
tailed problems that arise in their research. In the
second semester the emphasis on physical principles
is retained, but the problems discussed also serve to
introduce the students to advanced mathematical
techniques.
As in the first semester, the second semester be-
gins with the derivation of the transport equations-
this time energy transport-only now the equations
are derived using vector notation. A detailed under-
standing of how the equation of energy works in vec-
tor form is built by signing problems such as the
derivation of the rate of entropy production. The text
for this material (in addition to the texts used in the
first semester) is Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot [6].


Einstein notation is also re-introduced at this point in
the course (as it was not used extensively in the first
semester), leading to a great simplification in the form
of the transport equations.
Following a conventional sequence, steady conduc-
tion in solids is reviewed, first assuming constant
properties and then relaxing this restriction to include
non-constant properties, introducing the student to
regular perturbation methods. A supplemental text
for perturbation methods is Van Dyke [7], which is
further utilized when matched asymptotic expansions
are discussed later in the course. The course now
turns to the effects of convective energy transport,
examining problems such as transpirational cooling
and forced convection through a heated pipe. Rather
than using a cookbook approach to the Graetz prob-
lem, the students are introduced to the formal theory
of a Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. Particular
emphasis is placed on when to expect this type of sol-
ution and how to cast the problem into the Sturm-
Liouville form.
Dimensional analysis is the next topic of discus-
sion. However, here we differ from the usual trans-
port class in that dimensional analysis is introduced in
the context of the large field of similitude. The refer-
ences for this material are the notes from a course on
similitude taught by Van Dyke [8] which are distri-
buted to the class. Over one week is spent introducing
the students to techniques for finding hidden sym-
metry in physical problems, first through the use of
dimensional and inspectional analysis for the reduction
of the number of independent parameters involved in
a problem and then via more advanced techniques,
such as coordinate stretching to achieve reductions in
the number of independent variables upon which a
problem depends. These techniques are illustrated by
examples from both momentum and energy transport,
such as the determination of the radius of a shock
wave produced by an intense point explosion solved
by G. I. Taylor [9], the velocity field of a submerged
laminar jet, and such whimsical examples as the
spread of a viscous thread of liquid flowing down an
inclined plane.
The concept of self-similarity is put to immediate
use in the next topic-that of unsteady conduction in
solids. In addition to the standard semi-infinite and
finite slab problems, a semi-infinite slab with a melt-
ing boundary is also discussed. Students are asked to
explain why such a problem with a step change in
temperature at the edge of the slab admits a similarity
solution, but such a solution for a constant heat flux
does not exist.
The course next turns to boundary layer theory


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








for forced convection past a heated, horizontal flat
plate. This problem is solved in the limiting cases of
large and small Prandtl numbers, and then the plate
is turned to the vertical for a discussion of free convec-
tion. For homework, students use the concept of self-
similarity to solve the analogous problem of a free-
convection laminar jet arising from a point source of
energy. A general dimensional analysis of the free and
forced convection transport equations is inserted at
this point so that the students can develop an intuitive
feel for the relative magnitude of the two transport
mechanisms.
The study of free convection is continued by exami-
nation of the instability of a fluid heated from below.
The Rayleigh-Benard stability problem for free-free
boundaries is discussed in detail, the reference for this
discussion being the text on hydrodynamic stability
by Drazin and Reid [10]. The students' understanding
of the principles of this mathematically complex
phenomenon is reinforced by homework in which the
stability conditions for problems analogous to the
Rayleigh-Benard problem are worked out and also by
assignments on a more cosmic scale in which the stu-
dents solve the Jeans problem for the gravitational
collapse of a galactic sized gas cloud.
At this point in the course we begin our discussion
of singular perturbation theory, drawing heavily on
the text by Van Dyke. First, we examine the classic
problem of creeping flow past a heated sphere at small
Peclet number solved by Taylor and Acrivos [11]. This
problem serves to introduce the concept of a non-uni-
formly valid first approximation, and why a regular
perturbation approach to such problems is doomed to
failure. The students are shown how to overcome
these difficulties via a matched asymptotic expansion
approach which, in this problem, also introduces the
student to special mathematical functions such as
spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials. Flow
past a sphere is followed up by such problems as flow
through a tube with an axial wire and unsteady con-
duction from an infinite cylinder. The method of re-
flections comes next, in which we emphasize the simi-
larity of this technique to the singular perturbation
methods just discussed and which is used to determine
the energy loss from a heated sphere in the vicinity
of a plane. The analogous problem of a heated cylinder
near a plane, which cannot be solved using perturba-
tion techniques, is also examined and solved using con-
formal mapping, adding yet another technique for ob-
taining solutions of the transport equations to the stu-
dents' arsenal.
Brief discussions of turbulent and radiative trans-
port mechanisms complete the portion of the course


dealing with energy transport. Topics discussed here
include Prandtl mixing length theory and transport
correlations in turbulent systems, together with the
concepts of isotropy, black and gray bodies, view fac-
tors, an introduction to configurational algebra and
spectral effects in radiative energy transport.
With three weeks remaining, the course turns to-
wards mass transport. The first two lectures are de-
voted to definitions, the description of mass transport
in terms of Fick's Law, and derivation of the transport
equations. Simple problems come next, such as the
Stefan tube and diffusion with homogeneous or
heterogeneous chemical reaction (the Thiele problem).
Combined mass, momentum and energy transport in
boundary layers is discussed in which the effect of
mass transport on the evolution of the thermal and
momentum boundary layers is examined. Students
are also exposed to mass transport mechanisms not
usually encountered in undergraduate courses, such
as pressure diffusion, forced diffusion (elec-
trophoresis), and the Soret effect. In a typical problem
at this point, students are asked to analyze a Clusius-
Dickel column (a separations device which relies on
the Soret effect), where they are required to deter-
mine what assumptions are necessary to obtain a sol-
ution.
The last formal topic discussed in the course in-
volves the unsteady one- and two-dimensional diffu-
sion of a trace pollutant, focusing on problems such as
the steady or unsteady discharge from a waste pipe
into a stream. The similarity between pollutant con-
centration distributions resulting from the unsteady
convective diffusion equation and a probability distri-
bution arising from stochastic differential equations is
emphasized. The final two lectures are devoted to re-
search interests: one lecture by a professor whose re-
search is in the area of energy or mass transport, and
one lecture by a student in the class working in the
same area who by this time is getting ready for the
first year comprehensive oral examination. These last
lectures give the students some feel for the utility of
the topics and techniques discussed during the semes-
ter in the solution of current graduate research prob-
lems.
In conclusion, this course sequence is designed to
meet the needs of students from diverse backgrounds
who enter our graduate program. Students are first
introduced to the governing physics without undue
emphasis on mathematical techniques. As their level
of understanding increases and their problem solving
approach becomes better refined, more sophisticated
techniques are introduced. When students have com-
Continued on page 218.


FALL 1987









A course in . .



NONLINEAR SYSTEMS


WARREN D. SEIDER, LYLE H. UNGAR
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

DURING THE PAST three years we have provided
our graduate students with a third, optional,
course on the mathematics of nonlinear systems. The
course follows two required courses that formalize the
structures of linear, or vector, spaces and nonlinear
metric spaces leading to the solution of partial differ-
ential equations. These two courses have been de-
scribed by Lauffenburger, et al [1].
The nonlinear math course provides an opportu-
nity for the students to examine the complex solution
spaces that chemical engineers encounter in modeling
many chemical processes, especially those involving
reaction and diffusion, autocatalytic reactions, phase
equilibrium in the critical region, and multistaged op-
erations. Some of the simplest exothermic reactions
in CSTRs with heat transfer exhibit branches in their
solution diagrams that contain limit and bifurcation
points, both steady-state and periodic, and trace out
isolas as parameters are varied. For such systems,
solution diagrams are calculated to show the impor-
tance of characterizing the singular points and expres-
sing their normal forms and universal unfoldings so as
to determine the number of steady state solutions in
their vicinity. Examples are selected to demonstrate
steady-state foci that bifurcate to time-periodic limit
cycles which, in turn, undergo secondary bifurcations
that lead to chaotic behavior, and even intermittent
interchanges between periodic and chaotic modes of
operation. Experimental observations of these phe-
nomena are reviewed to drive home the importance of
developing models that have corresponding solutions.
In many cases, the models have complex solution dia-
grams that don't correspond to the experimental mea-

The nonlinear math course
provides an opportunity for the students
to examine the complex solution spaces that
chemical engineers encounter in modeling
many chemical processes . .


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Warren Seider is professor of chemical engineering at Penn. He
and his students concentrate on process design with an emphasis on
operability and controllability. More specifically, his research interests
include the computation of chemical and phase equilibrium,
heterogeneous azeotropic distillation, supercritical extraction, analysis
of reaction systems, and heat and power integration of chemical pro-
cesses. He received his BS degree from the Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and his PhD from the University of Michigan. He served as
the first chairman of CACHE and was elected a director of AIChE in
1983. (L)
Lyle Ungar joined the faculty at Penn in 1984 as assistant professor,
having received his BS degree at Stanford and his PhD at MIT. His
research interests include application of perturbation methods, bifurca-
tion theory, and finite element analysis to transport problems in con-
tinuum physics, crystal growth and rapid solidification materials pro-
cessing. He is also applying artificial intelligence programming tech-
niques to process control problems. (R)

surements and which emphasize the importance of
locating the solution that most closely matches the
data.
Nonlinear phenomena, such as the formation of
spatial and temporal patterns and chaotic behavior,
arise naturally in many systems with fluid flow or
chemical reaction. Combustion, natural and forced
convection, biological systems with competing
species, and catalytic reactions can all require non-
linear analysis. Nonlinearities can also be generated
in the design of complex processes, such as those in-
tegrated to achieve a high thermodynamic efficiency,
and can introduce oscillatory and chaotic regimes that
can present pitfalls and obstacles to easy operation
and control. The design of these processes usually be-
gins with the analysis of simple structures using ap-
proximate models. Gradually, as the synthesis tree is


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









pruned, more complex models can be justified to rep-
resent the real phenomena more accurately. How-
ever, the more complex models usually have a richer
solution space and the number, type (steady, periodic,
or chaotic) and stability of the solutions varies with
the specifications and the parameters of the model. In
design calculations, as in all mathematical modeling,
the student must learn to beware of algorithms that
converge to solutions that are not physically correct.
The seriousness of this problem in the design stage,
when experimental data are not available, is em-
phasized. Of course, when the solutions are observed
experimentally, it is important to recognize the possi-
ble existence of multiple solutions and to design con-
trol systems to achieve the desired performance. This
permits focusing on designs that have few regimes of
operation; that is, less complex solution diagrams.


EVOLUTION OF THE COURSE
The initial version of the course concentrated on
the general aspects of bifurcation and singularity
theories with examples of many applications that arise
in chemical processing. Emphasis was placed on the
use of analytical perturbation methods to analyze non-
linear systems. A variety of techniques were covered
for describing steady and oscillatory bifurcations and
how they change as parameters are altered [18]. No
computations were carried out, so complete solution
diagrams were obtained only for very simple prob-
lems. Continuum problems such as natural convection
were studied at the end of the course, but only the
onset of instability could be covered in the homework
exercises. This approach closely parallels that of Iooss
and Joseph [3] in their text, Elementary Stability and
Bifurcation Theory, which was the principal reference
in that initial offering. That text has several limita-
tions, the most severe being the lack of physical exam-
ples and the lack of coverage of chaotic phenomena. A
mixture of papers from the math, physics and en-
gineering literatures was therefore used as supple-
ments.
In the most recent version of the course (Spring,
1987), emphasis was shifted more toward the process
models and the methods of computing the singular
points and the branches that connect them in solution
diagrams. This was facilitated by improvements in
available texts and software. Kubicek and Marek's [2]
text, Computational Methods in Bifurcation Theory
and Dissipative Structures, provides a unified ap-
proach to the analysis of solution diagrams. Several
process models are introduced in Chapter 1. Then, as


In the most recent version of the course,
emphasis was shifted more toward the process
models and the methods of computing the singular
points and the branches that connect
them in solution diagrams.

the singular and bifurcation points are defined, exam-
ples are illustrated in the solution diagrams for these
process models. General methods are presented to
compute the singular and bifurcation points and the
branches that connect them. These are very helpful,
but unfortunately many of the definitions are stated
briefly and the figures and tables in which the results
are presented are explained insufficiently. Many ques-
tions arise which can only be answered by computa-
tional experiments. To accomplish this, we initially
introduced our own program for the continuation of
steady-state solutions [8] and placed some emphasis
on the logic that enables it to traverse turning-points
effectively. Midway through the semester we ob-
tained a copy of the AUTO program [29], and this
added immeasurably to the course. AUTO enabled us
to perform computational experiments with ease and
to answer many questions, especially those concerning
branches of periodic solutions. These will be consi-
dered in the next section, in which the syllabus for the
course is presented and the role of AUTO is described.

COURSE CONTENTS AND PHILOSOPHY
A central aspect of the course as it has evolved is
the integration of analytical and numerical techniques
and their application to physical problems. Analytical
techniques and theorems provide a general framework
for understanding how and when stability can change
and new solution branches can arise. Numerical calcu-
lations provide complete solution diagrams for specific
physical problems. Interpreting these solution dia-
grams in the contexts of both singularity theory and
the physical problem from which they arise gives stu-
dents a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena.
The core of the course concentrates on the methods
of analyzing what happens at and near different
steady and time-periodic bifurcations (see Table 1 for
a list of topics covered). To calculate bifurcations of
nontrivial solutions, one must generally turn to the
computer. Hence, major effort was devoted to numer-
ical techniques. All numerical techniques essentially
grow out of analytical perturbation techniques. When
using Newton's method, the linearized equations are
present and so one can, for example, monitor the de-
terminant to find steady bifurcations and check for
changes in stability without calculating the eigen-


FALL 1987









values. The implicit function theorem guarantees that
stability can only change when the determinant van-
ishes; arc-length continuation around limit points [5]
naturally grows out of the classification of limit points
and steady bifurcation points, and Poincare maps pro-
vide the basis for calculating time-periodic solutions.
The latter can be difficult to compute, especially when
the branches of limit cycles are unstable. Hence, the
Newton-Fox procedure for locating a point on the
limit cycles is described, following the approach of
Aluko and Chang [27]. Stability analysis of the Monod-
romy matrix, according to the Floquet Theory, and
the methods of continuation to locate secondary bifur-
cations lead naturally to studies of the transitions to
chaos.
We have tried to integrate smoothly the three dif-
ferent aspects of the course: analytical methods, num-
erical methods, and physical insight. The general
theory is illustrated throughout with examples, and
relevant computational techniques such as homotopy
methods are covered as they are used.
For example, we have used the Belousov-
Zhabotinskii reaction system as an example of steady
and time-dependent bifurcations and of chaotic be-
havior. This relatively simple set of reactions has been


TABLE 1
Course Topics

BACKGROUND
Implicit function theorem
Stability theory
STEADY BIFURCATIONS
Single and multiple limit points
Continuation methods
Liapunov-Schmidt reduction
Effect of a second parameter
Perturbed and "broken" bifurcations
Singularity theory
Normal forms, unfoldings
Representation of energy for conservative systems
TIME DEPENDENT BIFURCATIONS
Floquet theory
Hopf bifurcations
Integration of stiff ODEs
Secondary bifurcations
CHAOTIC BEHAVIOR
Transitions to chaos
Period doubling
Incomensurate frequencies
Intermittency
Characterization of chaos
Power spectra
Poincare sections and maps
Liapunov exponents


observed to produce a bewildering variety of spatial
and temporal patterns, and has been widely studied
as a simple prototype for many reaction-diffusion sys-
tems. These have been summarized nicely in a review
article by Epstein [41] that illustrates the regimes of
periodic behavior with beautiful color photographs of
the oscillations in a stirred beaker and in a Petri dish
with diffusion effects. In our coverage, the initial
kinetic model of Field and Noyes [33] was presented
and mass balances were derived for the three principal
intermediates, HBr02, Br- and Ce4+:
dy1
d = 77.27 (y yY2 + Y ky )

dY2
= (- y 1Y 2 + )/77.27

dy3
dt 0.161 (y y)
dt 1 3

whose dimensionless concentrations are yl, Y2, and
y3, respectively. For this mechanism, which assumes
the autocatalytic formation of HBr02, the rate con-
stant k is a key parameter. Steady-state continuation
calculations show that as k is decreased, the L2-norm
of y increases, as illustrated in Figure 1. At k =
0.02394, a Hopf bifurcation point is encountered. The
steady-state branch becomes unstable and a new
branch is born. Early in the course, the students com-
puted Figure 1 using our continuation program and
located the Hopf bifurcation point by computing the
eigenvalues of the Jacobian along the steady-state


N
4


Hopf bifurcation
Ua, point





i 0.02394

0. 1 0. 02 0. 03 0. 04 0. 05
k
FIGURE 1. Steady and time-periodic branches for the
Belousov reaction system (TP-time periodic, SS-
steady-state).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









branch. Then, with the LSODE program, they plotted
the limit cycles in the time-domain (see Figure 2), and
showed the decrease in the frequency of oscillation as
k decreases. Finally, the AUTO program performed
these calculations with much less preparation and
traced the periodic branch in more detail, showing the
variation of the frequency with k. This analysis led
naturally to several papers that show how chaotic be-
havior arises in CSTRs and introduces alterations in
the model to track these strange attractors [38, 39,
40]. As expected, computational experiments by the
students with the AUTO program were unable to
track the strange attractors, but success was achieved
with LSODE. These results are displayed in the
phase-plane of Figure 3, which closely resembles the
results illustrated by Epstein and others.
The AUTO program was a great aid in enabling
students to calculate solution structures and to get a
feel for how nonlinear systems behave. AUTO is a
collection of FORTRAN routines whose primary pur-


SY1




y2




'o
'b -




0. 10. 200. 300. 400. 500. 600.

t, sec.
FIGURE 2. Dynamic simulation of Belousov reaction sys-
tem with k=8.375 x 10-.
pose is to compute the branches of stable or unstable
periodic solutions of systems of ODEs that are func-
tions of a free (bifurcation) parameter. AUTO also de-
termines the branches of steady-state solutions, lo-
cates limit and real bifurcation points along solution
branches, and can switch branches at these points. It
can also locate limit points and curves of Hopf bifurca-
tion points using two-parameter, continuation
methods. A tape containing the AUTO routines was
installed on our VAX computer, under the VMS
operating system, in less than two hours. Of special
note is that AUTO is currently limited to small ODE


Y3
FIGURE 3. Phase-plane for Belousov reaction system.
Turner model with 7=0.2962.

systems (up to twelve state variables). Computations
of steady branches normally proceed very rapidly,
whereas time-periodic branches can be slow to com-
pute, especially when they are unstable.
At the end of the course, the students studied ar-
ticles on either analytical or numerical techniques or
on specific systems that exhibit interesting nonlinear
behavior and made presentations to the class. A list
of project areas and references is given in Table 2. In
the initial version of the course emphasis was placed
on classic papers describing the effect of container
shape on the onset of natural convection, pattern for-
mation due to competing biological species (predator-
prey systems with similarities to the Belousov-
Zhabotinskii system) and different transitions to tur-
bulence in forced convection. Several mechanical en-
gineering students enrolled in the course studied
bifurcation-based descriptions of buckling. In 1987,
the papers focused on chemical processes that exhibit
complex solution diagrams, usually with transitions to
chaos. Several of these papers present the latest re-
sults of studies of systems that naturally exhibit cha-
otic behavior or become chaotic under the influence of
forced oscillations.
CONCLUSIONS
Nonlinear phenomena are ubiquitous. They have
received little attention largely because the required
mathematics is less well-developed and harder to com-
prehend than for linear systems. Bifurcation and sing-
ularity theory provide a framework for classifying and
understanding nonlinear phenomena. They follow


FALL 1987









very easily from a linear operator approach and pro-
vide a dramatic demonstration of the constructive use
of Fredholm's alternative. This has enabled us to suc-
cessfully touch on bifurcation theory in the last days
of the prior required portion of our graduate math
sequence. When bifurcation techniques are im-
plemented in a computer package such as AUTO, they
also provide a means of mapping out solution struc-
tures. Students can obtain an intuitive understanding
of nonlinear phenomena by examining the solutions to
physical problems. With the right software, they can
also generate these solutions themselves and prepare
an array of two- and three-dimensional drawings that
permit more thorough analysis and visualization than
is possible with the few drawings that typically accom-
pany technical articles and books.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The assistance of Soemantri Widagdo, Stevens In-
stitute of Technology, in the preparation of the class
notes and homework problems, and in the installation
of the AUTO program, is very much appreciated.
Prof. Robert A. Brown, M.I.T., taught Lyle Ungar
his first course in nonlinear systems in chemical en-
gineering and strongly influenced his view of the field.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Lauffenburger, D. A., E. Dussan V., and L. H. Ungar,
"Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering," Chem.
Engr. Educ., 1984.
General
2. Kubicek, M., and M. Marek, Computational Methods in
Bifurcation Theory and Dissipative Structures, Springer-Ver-
lag, 1983.
3. Iooss, G., and D. D. Joseph, Elementary Stability and Bifur-
cation Theory, Springer-Verlag, 1980.
4. Guckenheimer, J., and P. Holmes, Nonlinear Oscillations,
Dynamical Systems, and Bifurcations of Vector Fields, Appl.
Math. Sci. 42, Springer-Verlag, 1983.
Steady-state Continuation
5. Keller, H. B., Numerical Solution of Bifurcation and Non-
linear Eigenvalue Problems, Academic Press, New York,
1977.
6. Allgower, E., and K. Georg, "Simplicial and Continuation
Methods for Approximating Fixed Points and Solutions to Sys-
tems of Equations," SIAM Review, 22, 1, 28-85 (1980).
7. Wayburn, T. L., and J. D. Seader, "Solution of Systems of
Interlinked Distillation Columns by Differential Homotopy-
Continuation Methods," Foundations of Computer-aided
Chemical Process Design, eds., A. W. Westerberg and H. H.
Chien, CACHE, 1984.
8. Kovach, III, J. W., Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation-
An Experimental and Theoretical Study, PhD Dissertation,
Univ. of Penn., 1986.
9. Kubicek, M., "Algorithm 502: Dependence of Solution of Non-
linear Systems on a Parameter," ACM Trans. of Math Soft.,
2, 98 (1976).


TABLE 2
Sample of Articles Reviewed

EARLIER ARTICLES
AUTHOR TITLE (Reference No.)
Hall, Walton Benard Convection in a Finite Box:
Secondary and Imperfect bifurca-
tions (42)
Keener Oscillatory Coexistence in the
Chemostat: A Codimension Two
Unfolding (43)
Segel Mathematical Models in Molecular
and Cellular Biology (44)
Eckmann Roads to Turbulence in Dissipative
Dynamical Systems (55)
Thompson, Hunt A General Theory of Elastic Stabil-
ity (45)
Triantafyllidis, Tvergaard On the Development of Shear
Bands in Pure Bending (46)

FOCUS ON CHAOTIC BEHAVIOR-1987
Kahlert, Rossler, Varma Chaos in a Continuous Stirred
Tank Reactor with Two Consecu-
tive First-order Reactions: One
Exo-, One Endothermic (50)
Mankin, Hudson Oscillatory and Chaotic Behavior
of a Forced Exothermic Chemical
Reaction (51)
Mankin, Hudson The Dynamics of Coupled
Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred
Tank Reactors (52)
Kim, Hlavacek On the Detailed Dynamics of
Coupled Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactors (32)
Nandapurkar, Hlavacek, Chaotic Behavior of a Diffusion-
Van Rompay Reaction System (53)
Chang, Chen Bifurcation Characteristics of
Nonlinear Systems Under Conven-
tional PID Control (54)


10. Kubicek, M., H. Hofmann, V. Hlavacek, and J. Sinkule, "Mul-
tiplicity and Stability in a Sequence of Two Nonadiabatic,
Nonisothermal CSTRs," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 987 (1980).
11. Kubicek, M., and A. Klic, "Direction of Branches Bifurcating
at a Bifurcation Point. Determination of Starting Points for a
Continuation Algorithm," Appl. Math. Comp., 13, 125 (1983).
12. Kubicek, M., I. Stuchl, and M. Marek, "Isolas in Solution Dia-
grams," J. Comp. Phys., 48, 106 (1982).

Singularity Theory
13. Golubitsky, M., and D. G. Schaefer, Singularities and Groups
in Bifurcation Theory, Volume 1, Springer-Verlag, 1985.
14. Balakotaiah, V., Structure of the Steady-state Solutions of
Lumped-parameter Chemically Reacting Systems, PhD
Thesis, Univ. of Houston, 1982.
15. Balakotaiah, V., and D. Luss, "Structure of Steady-state Sol-
utions of Lumped Parameter Chemically Reacting Systems,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 11, 1611 (1982).
16. Balakotaiah, V., and D. Luss, "Dependence of the Steady-
states of a CSTR on the Residence Time," Chem. Eng. Sci.,
38, 10, 1709 (1983).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










17. Balakotaiah, V., D. Luss, and B. L. Keyfitz, "Steady-state
Multiplicity Analysis of Lumped Parameter Systems De-
scribed by a Set of Algebraic Equations," Chem. Eng. Comm.,
36, 121 (1985).
18. Matkowsky, B. J., and E. L. Reiss, "Singular Perturbations
of Bifurcations," J. Appl. Math, 33, 230 (1977).
Complex Bifurcation
19. Holodniok, M., and M. Kubicek, "New Algorithms for the
Evaluation of Complex Bifurcation Points in Ordinary Differ-
ential Equations. A Comparative Numerical Study," Appl.
Math. Comp., 15, 261 (1984).
20. Hassard, B. D., N. D. Kazarinoff, and Y.-H. Wan, Theory
and Application of Hopf Bifurcation, Cambridge U. Press,
Lec. Note Ser. 41, 1981.
Dynamic Simulation
21. Carnahan, B., and J. O. Wilkes, "Numerical Solution of Differ-
ential Equations-An Overview," in Foundations of Com-
puter-aided Chemical Process Design, eds., R. S. H. Mah and
W. D. Seider, AIChE, 1981.
22. Hindmarsh, A. C., "LSODE and LSODI, Two New Initial
Value Ordinary Differential Equation Solvers," ACM-Signum
Newsletter, 15, 4, 10 (1980).
23. Hlavacek, V., M. Kubicek, and K. Visnak, "Modeling of Chem-
ical Reactors-XXVI. Multiplicity and Stability Analysis of a
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Exothermic Consecu-
tive Reactions A->B->C," Chem. Eng. Sci., 27, 719 (1972).
24. Uppal, A., W. H. Ray, and A. B. Poore, "On the Dynamic
Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 29, 967 (1974).
25. Uppal, A., W. H. Ray, and A. B. Poore, "The Classification
of the Dynamic Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Reac-
tors-Influence of Reactor Residence Time," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 31, 205 (1976).
26. Halbe, D. C., and A. B. Poore, "Dynamics of the Continuous
Stirred Tank Reactor with Reactions A->B--C," Chem. Eng.
J., 21, 241 (1981).
Time-periodic Continuation
27. Aluko, M., and H.-C. Chang, "PEFLOQ: An Algorithm for
the Bifurcational Analysis of Periodic Solutions of Autonomous
Systems," Comp. Chem. Eng., 8, 6, 355 (1984).
28. Holodniok, M., and M. Kubicek, "DERPER-An Algorithm
for the Continuation of Periodic Solutions in Ordinary Differ-
ential Equations," J. Comp. Phys., 55, 254 (1984).
29. Doedel, E. J., AUTO: Softwarefor Continuation and Bifurca-
tion Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations, Comp. Sci.
Dept., Concordia Univ., Montreal, 1986.
30. Doedel, E. J., and R. F. Heinemann, "Numerical Computation
of Periodic Solution Branches and Oscillatory Dynamics of the
Stirred Tank Reactor with A->B->C Reactions." Chem. Eng.
Sci., 38, 9, 1493 (1983).
31. Keller, H. B., Numerical Methods for Two-point Boundary
Value Problems, Blaisdell, 1968.
32. Kim, S. H., and V. Hlavacek, "On the Detailed Dynamics of
Coupled Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 41, 11, 2767 (1986).
Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction System
33. Field, R. J., and R. M. Noyes, "Oscillations in Chemical Sys-
tems. IV. Limit Cycle Behavior in A Model of a Real Chemical
Reaction," J. Chem. Phys., 60, 5, 1877 (1974).
34. Hudson, J. L., M. Hart, and D. Marinko, "An Experimental
Study of Multiple Peak Periodic and Nonperiodic Oscillations


in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction," J. Chem. Phys., 71,
4, 1601 (1979).
35. Roux, J.-C., R. H Simoyi, and H. L. Swinney, "Observation
of a Strange Attractor," Physica 8D, 257 (1983).
36. Simoyi, R. H., A. Wolf, and H. L. Swinney, "One-Dimensional
Dynamics in a Multicomponent Chemical Reaction," Phys.
Rev. Lett., 49, 4, 245 (1982).
37. Roux, J.-C "Experimental Studies of Bifurcations Leading
to Chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction," Physica 7D,
57 (1983).
38. Turner, J. S., J.-C. Roux, W. D. McCormick, and H. L. Swin-
ney. "Alternating Periodic and Chaotic Regimes in a Chemical
Reaction-Experiment and Theory," Phys Lett., 85A, 1, 9
(1981).
39. Field, R. J., "Limit Cycle Oscillation in the Reversible
Oregonator." J. Chem. Phys., 63, 6, 2289 (1975).
40. Tomita, K., and I. Tsuda, "Chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii
Reaction in a Flow System," Phys. Lett., 71A, 5/6, 489 (1979).
41. Epstein, I. R., "Patterns in Time and Space-Generated by
Chemistry," C&EN, 24, Mar. 30, 1987.
Steady and Oscillatory Bifurcation Examples
42. Hall, P., and I. C. Walton, "Benard Convection in a Finite
Box: Secondary and Imperfect Bifurcations," J. Fluid Mech.,
90, 377-395, 1979.
43. Keener, J. P., "Oscillatory Coexistence in the Chemostat: A
Codimension Two Unfolding." SIAM J. Appl. Math., 43, 1005
(1983).
44. Segel, L. A. (ed.), Mathematical Models in Molecular and
Cellular Biology, Cambridge University Press, 1980.
45. Thompson, J. M. T., and G. W. Hunt, A General Theory of
Elastic Stability, 29, Wiley, 1973.
46. Triantafyllidis, N., and V. Tvergaard, "On the Development
of Shear Bands in Pure Bending," Int. J. Solids Struct., 18,
121-138 (1982).
Transition to Chaos
47. Kadanoff, L. P., "Roads to Chaos," Phys. Today, 46, Dec.,
1983.
48. Feigenbaum, M. J., "Tests of the Period-Doubling Route to
Chaos," in Nonlinear Phenomena in Chemical Dynamics,
eds. C. Vidal and A. Pacault, Springer-Verlag, 1981.
49. Packard, N. H., J. P. Crutchfield, J. D. Farmer, and R. S.
Shaw, "Geometry from a Time Series." Phys. Rev. Lett., 45,
9, 712 (1980).
50. Kahlert, C., 0. E. Rossler, and A. Varma, "Chaos in a Con-
tinuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Two Consecutive First-
order Reactions: One Exo-, One Endothermic." in Modeling
Chemical Reaction Systems, eds., K. Ebert and W. Jaeger,
Springer, 1981.
51. Mankin, J. C., and J. L. Hudson, "Oscillatory and Chaotic
Behavior of a Forced Exothermic Chemical Reaction," Chem.
Eng. Sci., 39, 12, 1807 (1984).
52. Mankin, J. C., and J. L. Hudson, "The Dynamics of Coupled
Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem.
Eng. Sci., 41, 10, 2651 (1986).
53. Nandapurkar, P. J., V. Hlavacek, and P. Van Rompay, "Cha-
otic Behavior of a Diffusion-Reaction System," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 41, 11, 2747 (1986).
54. Chang, H.-C., and L.-H. Chen, "Bifurcation Characteristics
of Nonlinear Systems Under Conventional PID Control,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 39, 7/8, 1127 (1984).
55. Eckmann, J.-P., "Roads to Turbulence in Dissipative Dynam-
ical Systems," Rev. Mod. Phys., 53, 4, Pt. 1, 643-654 (1981).
O


FALL 1987









A course in . .





POLYMERIZATION REACTOR ENGINEERING


J. MICHAEL SKAATES
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, MI 49931


M ICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL University, to-
gether with the Michigan Molecular Institute
(MMI) and Central Michigan University, has formed
the Michigan Polymer Consortium to provide
graduate degree programs and collaborative research
in polymer science and technology. Michigan Tech
brings to the consortium the particular strengths of a
combined Department of Chemistry and Chemical En-
gineering, conducive to interdisciplinary research,
and an extensive research program in polymer com-
posite materials.
In support of the polymer research program the
department of chemistry and chemical engineering at
Michigan Tech has structured a series of elective
courses, open to graduate students and qualified
seniors, grouped in four blocks (see Table 1). Although
the blocks stand by themselves and can be taken in
any order, students are advised to traverse the se-
quence in the direction shown.


J. M. Skaates received his BSc (1957) at Case Institute of Technology
and his MS (1958) and PhD (1961) at Ohio State University. He worked
at California Research Corporation for three years before joining the
faculty at Michigan Tech. His teaching duties have included under-
graduate and graduate courses in thermodynamics and kinetics, an
undergraduate course in process control, and graduate courses in
catalysis and in process optimization. He has been involved in research
in catalysis, biomass pyrolysis, and wet oxidation.
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


TABLE 1
Sequence of Polymer Courses


Polymer Polymerization
Chemistry Reactor
Design
Polymer Design and
synthesis operation of
Polymer polymerization
properties reactors

(five courses) CM490


Polymer
Forming
Operations
Rheology

Extrusion
Molding
etc.
(three courses)


Composite
Materials

Compounding
and
mechanical
properties of
composites
(courses in
materials
science and
solid
mechanics)


The polymerization reactor engineering course
(CM 490) has as its focus the design and operation of
industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired
degree of polymerization and molecular weight distri-
bution. Topics covered in the ten-week course are
shown in Table 2. For the benefit of students who
have not taken the polymer chemistry courses, the
mechanisms and kinetics of polymerization reactions


TABLE 2
Topics Covered in CM490

* Kinetics of condensation polymerization
* Design of condensation polymerization reactors
* Design of agitated thin-film evaporators
* Kinetics of addition polymerization
* Mechanism of free-radical addition polymerization
* Autoacceleration
* Predicting molecular weight distribution in addition
polymerization
Generating function method
Moment generating function
Z transform methods
The continuous variable technique
* Gel permeation chromatography
* Copolymerization kinetics
* Types of polymerization reactors
* Control and stability of addition polymerization reactors
* Optimization of polymerization reactors
* Flowsheets for the production of polystyrene
* Flowsheets for the production of polyethylene


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









are treated first. From the many available textbooks
emphasizing different aspects of polymer science, the
text by Rudin [1) was chosen because of its outstand-
ing treatment of polymerization kinetics.
Polymerization reactor design and operation are
taught with the aid of a series of literature articles
(Table 3). These were selected to illustrate the de-
velopment of experimental technique and sophistica-
tion of modeling during the past two decades. These
papers are assigned, in the order shown, at the rate
of two or three per week. Students must answer a
series of written questions on each paper and these
homework assignments constitute 20% of the course
grade. Discussion of the papers, led by student volun-
teers, is carried out at the weekly recitation session.



TABLE 3
Assigned Outside Readings

1. Duerksen, J. H., A. F. Hamielec, and J. W. Hodgins,
"Polymer Reactors and Molecular Weight Distribution: Part
I. Free Radical Polymerization in a Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactor," AIChE J 13, 1081 (1967)
2. Hamielec, A. F., J. W. Hodgins, and K. Tebbens, "Polymer
Reactors and Molecular Weight Distribution: Part II. Free
Radical Polymerization in a Batch Reactor," AIChE J 13, 1087
(1967)
3. Albright, L., and C. G. Bild, "Designing Reaction Vessels for
Polymerization," Chem. Eng., Sept. 15, 1975, 121-128
4. Gerrens, Heinz, "How to Select Polymerization Reactors,"
Part 1: CHEMTECH, June, 1982, 380-383, Part 2: CHEM-
TECH, July, 1982, 434-443
5. King, P. E., and J. M. Skaates, "Two-Position Control of a
Batch Prepolymerization Reactor," I&EC Process Des. and
Dev. 8, 114 (1969)
6. Wallis, J. P. A., R. A. Ritter, and H. Andre, "Continuous
Production of Polystyrene in a Tubular Reactor," Part I:
AIChE J 21, 686-691 (1975), Part II: AIChE J 21, 691-698
(1975)
7. Chen, C. H., J. G. Vermeychuk, J. A. Howell, and P. Ehrlich,
"Computer Model for Tubular High-Pressure Polyethylene
Reactors," AIChE J 22, 463 (1976)
8. Marini, L., and C. Georgakis, "Low-Density Polyethylene
Vessel Reactors: Part I: Steady-State and Dynamic Modeling,
Part II: A Novel Controller AIChE J 30, 401-415 (1984)
9. Henderson, L. S., "Stability Analysis of Polymerization in
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem. Eng. Prog.,
March, 1987, 42-50
10. Mutsakis, M., F. A. Streiff, and E. Schneider, "Advances in
Static Mixing Technology," Chem. Eng. Prog., July, 1986, 42-
48
11. Choi, K-Y, and W. Harmon Ray, "The Dynamic Behavior of
Fluidized Bed Reactors for Solid Catalyzed Gas Phase Olefin
Polymerization," Chem. Eng. Sci. 40, 2261-2279 (1985)


In support of the polymer research program,
the department of chemistry and chemical engineering
at Michigan Tech has structured a series of elective
courses open to graduate students and qualified
seniors, grouped in four blocks.


The study of reactor modeling centers largely around
the work of the two leading research groups in the
field-those of W. Harmon Ray at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison, and of A. Hamielec at McMaster
University.
Two weeks of the course are devoted to the dif-
ficult problem of predicting the molecular weight dis-
tribution in a free-radical addition polymerization. The
topic begins with a discussion of the possibility of di-
rect solution of all the rate equations, as exemplified
by the monumental paper of Liu and Amundson [2].
Attention is then directed to mathematical techniques
for compressing these equations using generating
functions or the z transform. It is emphasized that
limiting assumptions are often required to make these
techniques computationally feasible. Finally, the con-
tinuous variable technique, pioneered by Zeman and
Amundson [3], is presented as the logical successor to
the other methods. A twenty-page handout tracing
the important mathematical ideas in Zeman's thesis is
given to the students. It is shown that Zeman's idea
of replacing the discrete variables by continuous vari-
ables has been successfully applied to other fields (size
reduction, crystallization, aerosol physics) where de-
tailed population balances are required to understand
observed rate behavior.
Industrial practice in polymerization reactor de-
sign is introduced with the excellent review articles
of Albright and Bild, and Gerrens. These are supple-
mented by a series of overhead transparencies show-
ing polymerization reactors in industrial installations.
Auxiliary equipment (agitated thin film evaporators,
motionless mixers, vented extruders) used to com-
plete the polymerization and remove unreacted
monomer, is also described. The course closes with
the study of flowsheets for two important families of
polymers (polystyrene, polyethylene), starting with
monomer synthesis and purification, and going to the
various grades of finished polymer.

REFERENCES

1. Rudin, Alfred, The Elements of Polymer Science and En-
gineering, Academic Press, 1982.
2. Liu, S.-L., and N. R. Amundson, Rubber Chem. and Technol-
ogy 34, 995 (1961).
3. Zeman, Ronald J., "Continuous Polymerization Models,"
Thesis, U. of Minnesota, 1964. D


FALL 1987










Research on ...




ADVANCED ENGINEERING FIBERS


DAN D. EDIE, MICHAEL G. DUNHAM
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0909

ANEW GENERATION of composite materials is rev-
olutionizing today's aircraft and automotive in-
dustries [1]. In applications ranging from the globe-
circling Voyager aircraft to truck drive shafts, com-
posites are demonstrating properties which are
superior to traditional materials. In aircraft applica-
tions where weight, strength, and stiffness are criti-
cal, many structural components are now made using
graphite/epoxy composites. Looking ahead, approxi-
mately half of the structural weight of the Air Force's
advanced tactical fighter will be composite materials.
Composites of glass and carbon fibers surrounded by
epoxy and polyester are being increasingly utilized in

















Dan D. Edie is professor of chemical engineering and co-director of
the Advanced Engineering Fibers Laboratory at Clemson University. He
received his BS degree from Ohio University and his PhD degree from
the University of Virginia. Before joining Clemson he was employed
by NASA and the Celanese Corporation. His research interests include
rheology, polymer processing, high-performance fibers and composite
materials. (L)
Michael G. Dunham, a PhD student in chemical engineering at
Clemson University, received his BS degree from Clemson in 1980.
Prior to returning to pursue an advanced degree, he served in a variety
of technical and supervisory positions with the DuPont Company. In
his research he is using mathematical modeling to study the stabiliza-
tion and carbonization of carbon fibers. (R)


automobile structure applications. Although U.S. auto
production in 1986 fell 3.7% from the 1985 level, com-
posites shipments to the industry rose 3.0%, reaching
585 million pounds [2]. The high-temperature strength
and stability of fiber reinforced ceramics offer the
promise of more fuel efficient engines in tomorrow's
automobiles. In the future, plastics, metals and
ceramics reinforced with graphite, glass, aramid, and
other fibers will replace much of the metal in aircraft
and automobile structures.
In a composite, a structure of fibers provides
strength and stiffness, and these fibers are held to-
gether by a matrix material. The result is that the
properties of a composite material can be exactly tail-
ored to fit the structure. For example, if one end of
the structure is under a higher load, more fibers (or
higher strength fibers) can be added to that end of the
composite structural member.
A composite for use at moderate temperatures
normally consists of high-strength carbon or
polymeric fibers encased in a plastic matrix. Higher
temperature applications may require either carbon
or ceramic fibers to be embedded in a metal, ceramic,
or carbon matrix. The fiber and matrix are carefully
selected to provide the best composite properties for
the particular application.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING'S ROLE
Composite materials represent a major growth
market for the chemical industry. In the future, chem-
ical companies, rather than metal producers, will be
the major raw material suppliers for the automotive
and aircraft industries. Even commercial building and
highway construction may utilize significant amounts
of composite materials. Since the processing, develop-
ment, and production of polymers has been an impor-
tant part of chemical engineering for the last thirty
years, research into the new high-strength fibers and
matrix polymers is a natural extension. New research
and development challenges in the fibers area include
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Composite materials represent a major growth market for the chemical industry.
In the future, chemical companies, rather than metal producers, will be the major raw
material suppliers for the automotive and aircraft industries. Even commercial building and
highway construction may utilize significant amounts of composite materials.


Continually upgrading manufacturing processes for the fi-
bers to improve properties and to reduce cost. Chemical
engineers in industrial research have recently developed
new processes to produce the precursors for many types of
ceramic, carbon, and graphite fibers.
A number of new high-performance fibers have been de-
veloped which are made from polymers as complex as
polybenzimidizole and as simple as polyethylene. Chemical
engineers must develop and design processes to produce
these fibers on an economic commercial basis.

The polymer matrix materials are undergoing
dramatic improvements. New polymers designed for
improved toughness, temperature stability, and melt
processability are being developed by a number of
firms. Chemical engineers will be principally responsi-
ble for developing the processes used to produce and
utilize these polymers.
Another major role for chemical engineers involves
the fabrication of the composites themselves. Today,
most advanced composites are made by manually lay-
ing up layers of matrix coated fibers or by winding the
fibers into the desired shape. These expensive, labor-
intensive processes limit end uses to very high value-
in-use applications. The application of chemical en-
gineering principles to the development of automated
processes for these fibers, such as weaving, braiding,
or the production of non-woven fabrics, will dramati-
cally lower the cost of these materials. These auto-
mated processes require that future reinforcing fibers
be less brittle and have improved finish coatings.
Other processes such as thermoforming, injection
molding, and pultrusion are also being explored by
chemical engineers in order to automate composite
manufacturing.

CLEMSON'S ADVANCED ENGINEERING
FIBERS LABORATORY
To address these challenges, Clemson established
the Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory in Au-
gust of 1986. The laboratory's purpose is to provide
national leadership and expertise in developing the
processing equipment and advanced fibers necessary
for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter
the composite materials market. Since the problems
encountered are often too complex to be solved by a
single academic program, the contribution of each of
the fields involved in the laboratory is critical. Re-


FIGURE 1. Advanced Engineering Fibers Laboratory
areas of emphasis. Faculty from four academic depart-
ments participate in this unique research effort.

searchers in chemical engineering, textile science,
polymer chemistry, mechanical engineering, and
ceramic engineering all interact in laboratory research
projects. The laboratory also offers technical and edu-
cational support to the fiber, textile, and composite
materials industries.
Many universities study composite materials.
However, this research effort has typically focused on
the analysis, fabrication, and mechanical evaluation of
the composite. Clemson's Advanced Engineering Fi-
bers Laboratory is unique in that its efforts are di-
rected toward the high performance fibers and matrix
polymers so critical to composite materials. Research
on these fibers, the matrix polymers, and their fabri-
cation into textile structures using automated equip-
ment is being coordinated by the laboratory. The lab-
oratory conducts research in six primary emphasis
areas

The chemistry of engineering fiber precursors
Fiber formation and processing
Characterization of engineering fibers
Fabrication of three-dimensional textile structures
Composite material characterization
Process economics and information transfer.

Figure 1 lists the faculty who are participating in


FALL 1987








ongoing laboratory projects. It also indicates the in-
terrelationship of the various research areas. For
example, improvements in fiber formation processes
require an understanding of precursor chemistry, an
ability to characterize the resulting fibers, the fabrica-
tion and testing of the fibers in composites, and the
assessment of the process economics. This gives the
laboratory the unique ability to study high perfor-
mance fibers from the chemical precursors through
their application in composite structures.

CURRENT ChE RESEARCH PROJECTS
The Department of Chemical Engineering at
Clemson has had an active and well-funded research
program in polymer processing and fiber formation
for years. The establishment of the Advanced En-
gineering Fibers Laboratory has augmented this ef-
fort and provided an increase in both internal and ex-
ternal funding for this important area of chemical and
materials research. Numerous research projects are


FIGURE 2. An electron microscope photograph of carbon
fibers coated with LaRC thermoplastic polyimide. The
electrical resistance of the carbon fiber is employed to
melt the thermoplastic matrix material.

underway in the laboratory and the following are brief
descriptions of several typical studies being carried
out by chemical engineering graduate students.

Coating of Carbon Fibers with Thermoplastic
Polymers. A novel process for coating carbon fibers
with thermoplastic matrix materials is being de-
veloped. A polymer powder is applied to the carbon
fiber and then melted by utilizing the electrical resis-
tance of the carbon fiber itself [3]. An electrical poten-


For example, improvements in fiber
formation processes require an understanding
of precursor chemistry, an ability to characterize
the resulting fibers, the fabrication and testing
of the fibers in composites, and the assessment
of the process economics.

tial is applied across a length of the fiber. This heats
the fiber to a temperature higher than the melting
point of the thermoplastic matrix and results in flow
of the polymer throughout the fiber bundle. This
technique is currently being used to apply new high-
temperature matrix polymers such as LaRC thermo-
plastic polyimide (developed by NASA) and poly-
etheretherketone (developed by ICI) to carbon fibers.
These tough matrix polymers have been specifically
developed for aircraft applications. The polymer coat-
ing allows the brittle fibers to be readily woven or
braided into a fabric which can be thermoformed into
a composite material. Figure 2 shows an electron
microscope photograph of a bundle of carbon fibers
coated with LaRC thermoplastic polyimide using this
technique.

Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Carbon
Fiber Manufacturing. Two of the most important
steps in the manufacture of carbon fibers are stabiliza-
tion and carbonization of the precursor fibers. Each of
these steps involves high temperature and exothermic
reactions which produce gaseous products. In order
to better understand these processes and predict op-
timum conditions, an effort is underway to model
these two process steps. The equations of heat and
mass transfer are applied to each process step and
solved simultaneously with equations describing the
reaction kinetics. In order to accurately describe the
reacting system, it is also necessary to determine sev-
eral physical constants such as diffusivities and ther-
mal conductivities as well as heat and mass transfer
coefficients. Current work is directed toward under-
standing the reaction kinetics and measuring these
constants and coefficients by a variety of experimental
methods.

Non-Circular Carbon Fibers. Chemical and
ceramic engineers at Clemson have developed a pro-
cess for the production of non-circular carbon fibers
by melt spinning mesophase pitch. The shape of the
fibers has been found to dramatically affect the prop-
erties of the resulting composites [4, 5]. The goal of
the current research is to improve the toughness of
the fibers and resulting composites and to better un-
derstand the novel fracture mechanisms of non-circu-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









lar fibers. Tougher fibers are needed if composite fab-
rication is to be automated to produce the inexpensive
composite materials required for automotive applica-
tions. Figure 3 is an electron microscope photograph
of a C-shaped fiber produced in this research.

Aging Characteristics of High Temperature
Thermoplastic Composites. One of the most impor-
tant trends in composites is toward tough, high tem-
perature thermoplastics to replace the thermosetting
polymers currently used as matrix materials. The
proper design of composite materials which use these
new thermoplastics will require more than the limited
physical data presently available. Clemson chemical
engineers are studying the effect of aging on compos-
ites of high temperature thermoplastics such as
PEEK (polyetheretherketone) and carbon fibers
through dynamic testing on a Rheometrics spectrome-
ter. The loss modulus, a measure of the composite's
ability to absorb energy, goes through a minimum at
a certain frequency of the applied load. The effect of
time, temperature, and composite processing history
on this minimum are being studied. It is expected that
this work will describe the high temperature limits of
the material and provide important physical data to
the composites industry.

THE LABORATORY'S ROLE IN
EDUCATING CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
The laboratory offers no courses or degree pro-
grams. Instead, it complements the existing degree
programs. The laboratory provides a mechanism for
students and faculty to interact with other engineer-
ing and scientific disciplines. This is of increasing im-
portance as chemical engineers enter new areas such
as composite materials where polymer processing,
fiber physics and mechanics, as well as chemical en-
gineering principles, must be applied to solve process
problems.
This interdisciplinary environment has long been
used by companies for research, design, and process
assistance. Normally, a variety of engineering and sci-
entific fields are represented on industrial research
and design teams. The laboratory exposes chemical
engineers to a similar environment and permits the
synergism which can be achieved as students and fac-
ulty with different backgrounds and skills work to-
gether to solve a problem.
The laboratory also provides a mechanism for shar-
ing experimental facilities among four departments
which are located in five buildings on the Clemson
campus. This is important as equipment becomes
more expensive and requires more expertise to oper-


ate. It provides chemical engineering students the op-
portunity to become familiar with processes as diverse
as fiber spinning, composite characterization, and
polymer spectroanalysis.

SUMMARY
Clemson's Advanced Engineering Fibers Labora-
tory provides a unique interdisciplinary environment
for the study of high performance fibers and matrix
polymers from their precursor chemicals to their final


FIGURE 3. A C-shaped carbon fiber produced by melt
spinning mesophase pitch. Non-circular fibers can offer
improved physical properties and toughness.

application in composites. The interaction provided by
the laboratory provides chemical engineers with an
opportunity to explore other engineering and scien-
tific approaches in solving problems. At the same
time, the laboratory itself benefits from the traditional
ability of chemical engineers to solve problems by
utilizing ideas obtained from a number of sources.

REFERENCES
1. D. D. Edie, "Textile Structures and Their Use in Composite
Materials," Int. Fiber J., 2(2), pp. 6-10, March 1987.
2. W. Worthy, "Wide Variety of Applications Spark Polymer
Composites Growth," Chem. and Eng. News, 65(12), pp. 7-13,
March 16, 1987.
3. B. W. Gantt, "The Thermoplastic Coating of Carbon Fibers,"
MS thesis, Clemson University, May, 1987.
4. D. D. Edie, N. K. Fox, B. C. Barnett, and C. C. Fain, "Melt
Spun Non-Circular Fibers," Carbon, 24(4), pp. 447-482, 1986.
5. M. G. Harrison, C. C. Fain, and D. D. Edie, "Study of Hollow
and C-shaped Pitch-based Carbon Fibers," Metal Matrix, Car-
bon, and Ceramic Matrix Composites 1986, NASA conference
Publication 2445, pp. 77-83, 1986. D


FALL 1987









Research on ...



UNIT OPERATIONS IN MICROGRAVITY


DAVID T. ALLEN
University of California
Los Angeles, CA 90024

DONALD R. PETTIT
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, NM 87545

THE SPACE SHUTTLE and the planned space station
offer unique envionments for chemical processing.
The three basic advantages that space offers that are
not generally available in earth-based systems are low
temperature, high vacuum, and sustained periods of
zero or microgravity. Ready access to low tempera-
tures and high vacuum may allow for the development
of processes requiring large structures in vacuum,
long duration cryogenic cooling, or multiple vacuum
to high pressure transitions. However, most of the
unit operations that are being developed for materials
processing in space are designed to take advantage of
reduced gravity. The next few pages will present a
brief review of some of the work currently under way
in the development of microgravity processes. The
material is largely based on a series of symposia held
















David T. Allen is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at
the University of California, Los Angeles, He obtained his BS from
Cornell University in 1979 and his MS and PhD in chemical engineer-
ing from the California Institute of Technology in 1981 and 1983. (L)
Donald R. Pettit is a research engineer at Los Alamos National
Laboratory. He obtained his BS from Oregon State University in 1978
and his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Arizona
in 1983. He is working on problems in low gravity fluid dynamics and
has flown low gravity experiments on board the NASA KC-135
airplane. (R)


Light
source


Microphone

Probe tube

Acoustic -- Acoustic well
waveguide

Acoustic -Sphaerical
Acoustic glass
driver sample

Insulation

Aluminum
sheath Heating
elements
Support
structure Furnace
25 X 2.5 X 2.75 in.
FIGURE 1. Containerless furnace based on acoustical
levitation (ref. 6).

at AIChE meetings since 1985 [1, 2] and a group of
NASA publications [3-5]. Our goal in performing this
review is twofold. First, we seek to highlight some of
the opportunities for materials processing in space,
and second, we want to emphasize the contributions
that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set
of technologies.

UNIT OPERATIONS IN MICROGRAVITY

A spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude of
approximately 190 miles is only 6% farther from the
center of mass of the earth mass than an object on the
earth's surface. Thus, the gravitational force experi-
enced by the spacecraft is only 13% less than the
gravitational force at the earth's surface. However,
because the spacecraft and all of the objects in it are
in free fall, there is no gravitation acceleration of the
objects in the spacecraft relative to the spacecraft.
The objects are in an approximately weightless, or
zero gravity, environment in the frame of reference
of the moving spacecraft. But even in the spacecraft's
frame of reference the gravitational force is not pre-
cisely zero. There are two types of gravitational force
experienced in the spacecraft. The largest forces are
induced by small vibrations in the ship (g-jitter),
which can cause a gravitational force of order 10- g.
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Our goal in performing this review is twofold. First, we seek to highlight
some of the opportunities for materials processing in space, and second, we want to
emphasize the contributions that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set of technologies.


G-jitter is roughly random and averages out to a zero
net force. A constant force of order 10-6 g is caused by
gravitation gradients. The gravitation force in low
earth orbit changes at a rate of 107 g per meter as an
object moves away from the center of mass of the
spacecraft. In a spacecraft with a dimension of 10 m,
a force of order 10- g can be imposed.
Reduced gravity allows two classes of unit opera-
tions to be used in space processing that are not gen-
erally available in a one-g environment. The first type
of unit operation uses various means of levitation to
achieve containerless processing, and the second type
is based on the absence of buoyant and sedimentation
forces.

CONTAINERLESS PROCESSING
In a microgravity environment objects levitate and
will assume a conformation that minimizes interfacial
energy. Thus, it is possible to contain liquids and to
process solids without exposing the materials to vessel
walls. The concept of levitation is not new, nor is it
confined to microgravity environments. Indeed,
Robert Millikan first measured the charge of an elec-
tron by levitating a charged oil drop in an elec-
tromagnetic field. However, the masses that can be
levitated in an earth-based experiment are limited,
and the levitating force can cause significant heating
and distortion of the material. In a microgravity envi-
ronment, levitating forces are imposed primarily to
counter the small gravitational forces discussed ear-
lier or to adjust an object's position. Much larger mas-
ses can be levitated in space than on earth, and heat-
ing effects are not as important.
Eletrostatic suspension, acoustic standing waves,
photon beams, gas or vapor stream momentum, and
magnetic induction have all been proposed as levita-
tion mechanisms for containerless processing in space.
The containerless processing apparatus that has seen
the most extensive use on the space shuttle is acousti-
cal levitation. If the object to be suspended can be
exposed to a gaseous environment, acoustical drivers
(loudspeakers) can be used to control the position of
the object. In a typical configuration, three mutually
perpendicular acoustical drivers are used to produce
a 3-dimensional standing acoustical wave in a roughly
cubical box (Figure 1) [6]. An energy well is created
at a position dependent on the wavelength generated
by the acoustical drivers. Containerless systems that


Gas





,- Heat flux

FIGURE 2. Conceptual configuration of a containerless
process for casting unusual shapes (ref. 7).

can impose a desired shape on a deformable material
are shown conceptually in Figure 2 [7]. These devices
use gas momentum to suspend objects and could be
useful in casting parts of arbitrary shape.
The ability to levitate relatively large masses in
microgravity has resulted in a number of applications.
The primary applications have been in suppressing
heterogeneous nucleation during crystal formation
and in the production of new glasses and unusual al-
loys. Crystallization and the production of new glasses
will be considered briefly in this review because they
represent two quite different examples of container-
less processing (i.e., semi-containerless and truly con-
tainerless).
When a glass forming melt is suspended in a levita-
tion device, heterogeneous nucleation is suppressed.
The outgrowth of this phenomena is the ability to ex-
tend the compositional limits of glasses, making possi-
ble entirely new materials. One such class of materials
is fluoride glasses, which have great promise as in-
frared optical components [8, 9]. A second possibility
for generating unique materials by containerless pro-
cessing in microgravity is the production of millimeter
size glass shells with walls of thin, uniform thickness
[10]. Many other applications are envisioned through
the use of controlled gradient furnaces coupled with
levitation devices.
These processes can be regarded as truly contain-
erless. However, they are forced to operate in a batch
mode. Semi-containerless unit operations can be oper-
ated continuously. One such process involves the crys-
tallization of materials important in electronic devices
and utilizes Czochralski growth (Figure 3) [5]. In this
unit operation, a seed crystal is lowered onto the free
surface of a melt. As the seed is withdrawn, the melt


FALL 1987






























~7112


FIGURE 3. Semicontainerless process for crystal growth.

adhering to it solidifies. This unit operation can be
performed in one g. However, less defects are present
in crystals produced in microgravity than in similar
crystals produced on earth. The defects in one g are
due, in part, to convective stirring caused by the heat
of crystallization. In microgravity, buoyant driven
convective motion is significantly reduced. Problems
associated with this unit operation in microgravity are
contamination by impurities derived from the crucible
and the difficulties associated with maintaining a flat
melt surface in microgravity.
A second semi-containerless unit operation is float
zone refining. Figure 4 shows a typical float zone crys-
tallization configuration. The feed crystal, containing
imperfections, is melted and then slowly recrystal-
lized. The purpose of the float zone is to insure uni-
form dispersal of dopants, reducing imperfections.
The float zone (melt) is suspended by interfacial ten-
sion between the feed material and the crystal. In
microgravity, much larger float zones are possible
than at one g and concentration inhomogeneities due
to convective motion and growth spurts are minimized
[11]. A new approach to float zone crystallization is
shown in Figure 5. In this system [12] the crystallizing
material is isolated by the float zones, and a seed crys-
tal is not required.


UNIT OPERATIONS BASED ON REDUCED
SEDIMENTATION AND BUOYANCY IN MICROGRAVITY
Sedimentation and buoyancy effects are greatly
subdued in microgravity relative to one-g operation.
This can be extremely advantageous in electrophore-
tic separations, making metal foams, and in the pro-
duction of unique alloys. However, the absence of
buoyancy makes some unit operations that are easily
done on earth much more difficult. For example, re-
moving bubbles from glasses [13], obtaining reason-
able mass transfer rates in aerobic reactors, and even
operating a distillation column become difficult. For
the moment let's consider only the advantages of
space processing by focusing on electrophoresis and
the creation of new materials.
Electrophoretic separations are frequently used to
isolate biological molecules and cells. The separation
is based on the net charge obtained on molecules or
cells when they are placed in a buffer solution. The
ions in the buffer associate with the species to be sepa-
rated, providing a net charge. An applied electric field
causes an ionic current to flow and generates a force
on the charged species. The charged molecule or cell
moves with a velocity that balances the electrical force
with viscous drag. Because the charge associated with
particular molecules and cells are highly structure-de-
pendent, different species will migrate at different
rates, allowing them to be separated as shown in Fig-
ure 6. Like most of the unit operations discussed in
this brief review, electrophoretic separations are not


Melt
(Float zone)
FIGURE 4. Float zone crystallization: a semicontainerless
unit operation.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









confined to microgravity environments, However, in
one-g the resistive heat generated by the ionic current
causes convective flow fields that can significantly de-
grade the quality of an electrophoretic separation. The
sedimentation of cells can also degrade the separation.
Since microgravity can eliminate some of these prob-
lems, electrophoretic separations in space have been
actively investigated since the flights of Apollo 14 and
Apollo 16. Most recently, McDonnell Douglas As-
tronautics Corporation has used continuous flow elec-
trophoresis on board the space shuttle to separate
biological model materials [14]. Chemical engineers
are actively involved in modeling this complex
phenomenon [15, 16].
Another type of unit operation which takes advan-
Initial Float Zone Configuration
Heater I Heater 2



Feed solid Float one Feed solid





Float Zone Configuration at a Later Time


-- Heater I


FIGURE 5. A new approach to float zone crystallization.


tage of reduced sedimentation is exemplified by a
proposed method for growing zeolites in microgravity
[17]. When zeolites are formed in solution, their size
is controlled by nucleation rates and the rate at which
crystals sediment out of solution. In microgravity, the
crystals can grow to a much larger size before they
sediment, and nucleation rates may be reduced. This
process is representative of a large class of processes
that rely on solutions remaining homogeneous in
microgravity.
To this point, we have considered only unit opera-
tions that exploit microgravity. While microgravity
can be beneficial, it can also cause difficulties in per-
forming operations that are quite easily done at one-g.
As an example, consider some of the unit operations
required for optimizing the spacecraft ecosystem. In


FIGURE 6. Electrophoretic separation.
a long spaceflight there is strong motivation to use
biological reactors to convert CO2 to 02 in order to
reduce the amount of oxygen required for life support.
In one-g reasonable rates of mass transfer can be ob-
tained in biological reactors by bubbling gases through
the reactor. In microgravity, bubbles do not rise due
to buoyancy. However, it may be possible to im-
mobilize cells on microcarriers and then obtain reason-
able rates of mass transfer through agitation. But,
agitation may result in cell damage. This unit opera-
tion is still under active development by chemical en-
gineers collaborating with NASA [18].

CONCLUSION
This paper has enthusiastically reviewed a few of
the many opportunities available for materials proces-
sing in space. This enthusiasm must be tempered,
however, by the enormous costs associated with
transporting material into space. These costs have
been estimated to be several thousand dollars per
pound. With these transportation costs, the value
added by microgravity processing must approach that
of turning lead into gold. While the value of some
pharmaceuticals may justify manufacturing processes
based on microgravity alchemy, in general the costs
of microgravity processes must be justified by our im-
proved understanding of the role of gravity in earth-
based processes. So, although no great economic in-
centive exists to build manufacturing processes in
space, unit operations in microgravity will continue to
be developed. Opportunities exist for chemical en-
Continued on page 218


FALL 1987










A program on ...




CHEMICAL PROCESS MODELING AND CONTROL


R. DONALD BARTUSIAK, RANDEL M. PRICE
Lehigh University
Bethlehem, PA 18015

W HEN DECIDING TO go on to graduate school,
the prospective student must face two crucial
questions: What to study, and Where? Certainly, any-
one's answer to these questions will reflect a natural
self-interest, but this article will describe some fea-
tures of studying process modeling and control at
Lehigh University that are exciting to us.
The combination of substantial economic incentives
and profound intellectual challenges has motivated in-
creasing emphasis on process control within the chem-
ical process industries and chemical engineering
academia. As the chemical process industry matures,
business success depends more on optimizing the per-
formance of existing or novel process technology and
less on manufacturing new products with little atten-
tion to costs. No longer do overdesign and relaxed
operating criteria make life easy. Even in biotechnol-
ogy, specialty chemicals, and other frontier areas to-
ward which the chemical process industry is migrat-
ing, profitable manufacturing requires the ability to
understand and regulate dynamic processes. At the
intellectual level, process control engineers are ad-
dressing issues that were once simply mathematical
abstractions, but that now translate to real-world con-
cerns like energy efficiency, manufacturing flexibility,
product quality, safety, environmental protection, and
computer-integrated manufacturing. For today's and
tomorrow's chemical engineer, therefore, process
modeling and control skills are important, regardless
of his or her specific technical area of employment or
research interest.
To meet this challenge to chemical engineering
education, Lehigh University initiated the Chemical
Process Modeling and Control Center (PMC) in 1984.
PMC is an industry/academia consortium dedicated to
the education of graduate students for advanced re-
search in process modeling and control. Currently,
PMC is sponsored by twelve companies (both U.S.
and European), by the National Science Foundation,
and by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Its annual


operating budget is in excess of $400K. Christos Geor-
gakis and William Luyben are the center's founders
and its co-directors.
As a result of the industry/academia partnership
in PMC, the research work carried out by the students
is neither all theoretical nor all applied, but is a deli-
cate balance of both. PMC students can be confident
that their research topic is novel and challenging in
the context of the scientific literature and that it is
relevent to professionals working at the highest tech-
nical levels of industry. The vigorous intermixing of
the theoretical and the applied is reflected in the
career goals of the current group of PMC students.
Both industrial and teaching career aspirations are
represented. We expect that a similar diversity of
career goals will be maintained in future PMC teams.
With this introduction on why process control and
the PMC program at Lehigh are exciting to us, let's
examine the philosophy, the people, the technical pro-
gram, and the environment of PMC.













R. Donald Bartusiak received his BS from the University of Pennsyl-
vania and his MS from Lehigh University. He is currently completing
PhD studies at Lehigh. Before returning to graduate school, he worked
as a research engineer for Bethlehem Steel Corp. His industrial experi-
ence also includes employment with Exxon Chemicals. His research
interests and publications ore in the areas of nonlinear process control
and environmental engineering. (L)
Randel M. Price is a graduate student at Lehigh University. He has
a BSChE from the University of Missouri-Columbia and an MSChE from
the University of Arkansas. Prior to graduate school, he worked for the
process engineering department of Conoco Inc. (R)
C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











As a result of the industry/academia
partnership, the research work carried out by the
students is neither all theoretical nor all applied,
but is a delicate balance of both . .students can be
confident that their topic is novel and challenging.


THE PHILOSOPHY


Prior to establishing PMC, Lehigh faculty, in col-
laboration with industrial representatives, assessed
the research needs in the area of process modeling
and control. This assessment recognized that rapid
technological advances are driving engineering to-
wards cross-disciplinary interaction. It identified
several important trends that have already affected,
and will continue to affect, the chemical, petroleum,
petrochemical and biochemical industries in the next
decade. These trends, detailed below, justified the
start-up of an intensive research effort.

The trend to improve the production efficiencies of existing
chemical plants has increased the need for more effective
dynamic models, for improved real-time process measure-
ments, and for more practical techniques for synthesizing mul-
tivariable, nonlinear and optimizing control structures. Re-
search activities in this area have already been undertaken,
but there still exists the strong need for practical, comprehen-
sive methods that industry can effectively use.
Efforts to develop new technologies and processes in growth
fields, such as biotechnology and polymer engineering, have
created the need for quickly constructing new process models
and for developing more reliable control strategies. Modeling
and control strategies in this area have barely scratched the
surface of this very important problem. Traditional solutions
influenced by past experiences are clearly not adequate.
Novel ideas are needed in postulating the appropriate re-
search problems and in providing fresh approaches for their
solution.
Increased process complexity, together with strict industry
and governmental standards for safety and the environ-
ment, require more reliable methods for alarm system
analysis, system design, and for new process fault diagnostic
methods with predictive capabilities. Although industry has
applied these concepts quite effectively with in-house ap-
proaches, there is a need for more systematic methods for the
design and safe operation of the tightly integrated processes
we will use in the future.
Rapidly evolving technologies for low-cost computer designs
and VLSI systems fabrication are creating new oppor-
tunities to apply powerful computer hardware and software
for process control including real-time integrated plant tran-
sient simulation and optimization.
Continuing advances in our ability to make more accurate
measurements of process variables, especially under com-
plex or harsh conditions, open up many possibilities for better
understanding of process behavior and lead to improved tech-
niques for process optimization and control. Research oppor-
tunities, for example, with respect to measurements in the
processing of polymers and in biotechnology, are very numer-
ous.


Industry has growing requirements for well-educated en-
gineers who possess a combined understanding of chemical
process technology, up-to-date modeling and control ap-
proaches, and methods and theory for solving challenging pro-
cess related problems. Furthermore, the growing use of com-
puters in industry, coupled with the rapidly increasing power
and distributed nature of the computer, is fundamentally al-
tering the process of design, engineering, and process opera-
tion as well as the manpower needs of industry.

These six trends define the research mission of
Lehigh's Chemical Process Modeling and Control Re-
search Center.

THE PEOPLE

The cross-disciplinary nature of the PMC process
control research effort is reflected in the human re-
sources of the center. Of the sixteen faculty members
participating in the center (Table 1), eleven are af-
filiated with the chemical engineering department,
two with mechanical engineering, two with industrial
engineering, and one with mathematics. Strong in-
teractions exist between PMC, the Bioprocessing Re-
search Institute, and the Emulsion Polymer Institute
at Lehigh.


TABLE 1
PMC Research Center Faculty

Christos Georgakis, Director (ChE) Andrew Klein (ChE)
William L. Luyben, Co-Director (ChE) Janice A. Phillips (ChE)
Hugo S. Caram (ChE) Matthew J. Reilly (ChE)
John C. Chen (ChE) David A. Sanchez (Math)
Mohamed S. El-Aasser (ChE) William E. Schiesser (ChE)
D. Gary Harlow (ME) Harvey G. Stenger (ChE)
Arthur E. Humphrey (ChE) Robert H. Storer (IE)
Stanley H. Johnson (ME) John C. Wiginton (IE)



Two post-doctoral researchers are currently in-
volved with furthering the work on specific research
projects and with defining new projects. We also have
three visiting research engineers from PMC industrial
sponsors.
At present, twelve graduate students are enrolled
in the activities of the center-eleven through the
chemical engineering department and one through
mechanical engineering. Two students will leave in
1987 with MS degrees, while the remaining ten are
working towards the PhD. It is an international
group. Some of the students have industrial experi-
ence, but most do not.
A special human resource of PMC is the close per-
sonal involvement of the company sponsors of the
center. The twice-yearly meetings of the PMC Indus-
trial Advisory Committee provide an opportunity for


FALL 1987










both formal and informal exchanges between the stu-
dents and the practicing engineers. Direct lines of
communication between students and practitioners in-
variably result from these meetings. In fact, essen-
tially all of the PMC thesis committees include a
member from industry.

THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM
The typical initial stages of the graduate student's
program are dominated by course work. As evidence
of Lehigh's emphasis on process control, the advanced
level control courses are all cross-listed by the chemi-
cal, mechanical and electrical engineering depart-
ments. The core advanced courses include state-space
and optimal control, multivariable control, process
identification, and stochastic control. These courses
supplement undergraduate courses in introductory
process control and in sampled-data control. In addi-
tion, topical seminars are periodically offered, for
example, on nonlinear control.
The choice of a graduate research topic is inti-
mately related to the research projects of the PMC
center. The vast majority of research undertaken by
the center is of a generic nature addressing major re-
search challenges not fully addressed and resolved in
the process control literature. A listing of the ten
generic research projects currently active is provided
in Table 2. Typically, thesis topics derive from these
generic research projects.
The charter of PMC also provides for the conduct
of suitable company-specific research projects. Al-
though far less active than the generic research of the
center, this work also provides potential topic areas
for thesis research. As an example of the company-
specific research, an MS thesis has been completed on
"The Control of Low Relative Volatility Distillation
Columns" making extensive use of real plant data
from an industrial sponsor.
There is a liberal exchange of information among
the projects. Students routinely share the software
they have developed. Process models, including those
derived from real industrial systems, are used by sev-
eral researchers on different projects. Conversely,
new control algorithms are tested in several different
applications.
PMC-supported students are always able to pub-
lish their work in a timely manner according to the
center's publication guidelines. Research is also re-
ported at national meetings. Some restrictions pertain
to the components of company-specific research pro-
jects involving proprietary information. PMC-sup-
ported students must file semi-annual progress re-
ports to the Industrial Advisory Committee once they


TABLE 2
Current PMC Research Projects
1. Design of effective nonlinear controllers for chemical reactors
2. Design of practical multivariable process controllers
3. Design and control of energy-efficient distillation column
systems
4. Development of software for dynamic process simulation
and control system design
5. Bioreactor modeling, optimization and control
6. Modeling and control of semi-continuous emulsion poly-
merization reactors
7. Plant-wide control
8. Expert multivariable control
9. Batch reactor control
10. Statistical quality control


become active in project work. In general, one formal
presentation per year is given by each student to the
industrial sponsor. Of course, less formal presenta-
tions on research plans and results are given with
greater frequency within the PMC tream.

THE ENVIRONMENT
A dramatic new development at Lehigh has occur-
red within the past year. A substantial portion of
Bethlehem Steel's Homer Research Laboratory, lo-
cated less than a mile from Lehigh's main campus,
was acquired by Lehigh University. Acquisition of
this beautiful facility nearly doubled the amount of
space for research (laboratory and office) available to
the university. PMC, the Chemical Engineering De-
partment, the Bioprocessing Research Institute and
the Emulsion Polymer Institute were among the first
groups to occupy the new facility.
Foreshadowing the doubling of the research space,
a doubling of the technical library space was ac-
complished during 1984-85. The E.W. Fairchild-Mar-
tindale Library currently houses 435,000 volumes,
with a total capacity of 650,000 volumes. The Lehigh
University library system receives more than 9,000
periodicals and serials. The library system fully uti-
lizes computer database technology for cataloging and
literature-searching. More than sixty-five full-time
staff are available to serve the research needs of fac-
ulty and students.
In the area of computer resources, PMC re-
searchers have access, through the campus-wide tele-
communications network, to all university mainframes
(CDC Cyber 850; Digital DEC-20 and VAX-8530; IBM
4381). Furthermore, PMC is equipped with its own
CDC Cyber 810 computer-a $500,000 grant from
Control Data. For input/output, there are six Tek-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








tronix 4109 graphics terminals, three Control Data
722 terminals, a Tektronix 4692 ink-jet plotter, and a
Control Data 533 line printer dedicated to PMC users
exclusively. Specialized software for process modeling
and control research is available both from in-house
development and from external sources. To further
the work on expert systems, PMC has acquired a
Symbolics 3620 machine with LISP and other ad-
vanced software systems. We plan to purchase a Sun
Engineering Workstation this summer to support the
Batch Reactor Control project. Public microcomput-
ers are widely distributed about campus.

CONCLUSION
These are exciting times at Lehigh and the Chem-
ical Process Modeling and Control Research Center.
The chemical process industry is very much interested
in stimulating research in process control, and in at-
tracting engineers who are well-educated in the field.
The university has responded to this challenge by
initiating an intensive industry/academia cooperative
research program to bring to light new knowledge in
areas of practical importance. The net result for
graduate students is that their research must satisfy
conditions both of novelty and of practical reality. In
our judgment, such a program yields engineers capa-
ble of succeeding in either academic or in industrial
careers. O


*n book reviews



MULTIPHASE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Volume 2
Edited by G. F. Hewitt J. M. Delhaye, N. Zuber
Hemisphere Publishing Co., New York 10016; 1986.
479 printed pages, $62.50
Reviewed by
Y. Y. Hsu
University of Maryland
This book covers six subjects on multi-phase flow:
Chapter 1. Flow Pattern Transition in Gas-Liquid
Systems, Measurement and Modeling (A. E. Dukler,
Y. Taitel); Chapter 2, A Critical Review of the Flood-
ing Literature (S. George Bankoff, Sang Chun Lee);
Chapter 3, A Comprehensive Examination of Heat
Transfer Correlations Suitable for Reactor Safety
Analysis (D. C. Greenoveld, C. W. Snoek); Chapter
4, Reboilers (P. B. Walley and G. F. Hewitt); Chapter
5, Flow of Gas-Solid Mixtures Through Standpipes


and Valves (L. S. Leung, P. J. Jones); Chapter 6,
Core-Annular Flow of Oil and Water Through a
Pipeline (R. V. A. Olieman, G. Ooms).
Chapter One on flow patterns in liquid-gas two
phase flow is a comprehensive review of many years
of significant contributions made by Professor Dukler
and his colleagues at the University of Houston. Two-
phase flow behavior is very much affected by the in-
terfacial transport, which in turn is affected by the
flow patterns. Determination of flow pattern has been
of fundamental importance to two-phase flow studies.
The authors' contribution is to treat flow pattern
transition through modeling instead of the many em-
pirical approaches previously prevalent in the indus-
try. Dukler and Taitel are to be lauded for their more
scientific and mechanistic approach to establish the
flow pattern transition criteria. However, a major
class of flow patterns that are absent are those related
to vertical pipe or bundle with boiling/condensation
which are very important in reactor safety analysis
and in chemical processes.
The second chapter on flooding covers the subject
relating to counter-current flow in a vertical channel.
Since the flooding phenomena are very much affected
by the entrance geometry-the boundary conditions
(such as channel geometry heating or no heating), the
steam or air flow conditions and physical properties
(steam or air with water being subcooled or satu-
rated), etc.-it is very difficult to give an unified and
systematic treatment. The authors did a good job in
this attempt.
After the analytical models, some experimental re-
sults and empirical correlations were introduced. In
this section, unfortunately, a great deal of work car-
ried out in reactor safety research was only briefly
cited.
Chapter Three is a comprehensive examination of
heat transfer correlation used for reactor safety
analysis. The heat transfer package is the heart of
thermal-hydraulic codes developed to predict the
coolability of a reactor core during accidents and tran-
sients. Choice of proper heat transfer correlations for
each heat transfer mode is the key to the success of a
code. The authors of this chapter made a valiant effort
to critically examine the heat transfer correlations and
succeeded in giving a comprehensive review and pro-
vided readers with a fairly complete list of correlations
currently being considered for reactor analysis. But
the reviewer thinks that bundle data should be given
more weight than tube data in assessing the correla-
tions since bundle geometry is what is encountered in
a reactor.
Continued on page 209.


FALL 1987










A program on ...



ADVANCED COMBUSTION ENGINEERING


CALVIN H. BARTHOLOMEW
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602


O UR NATION'S BASIC and high technology indus-
tries are highly dependent on an adequate supply
of energy, the production of which depends upon com-
bustion technology. The future survival of these in-
dustries will hinge on the ability to utilize more effi-
ciently, through advanced combustion technology, our
nation's readily available, low-cost fuel resources.
There are unfortunately several formidable
roadblocks threatening the realization of these criti-
cally needed developments: (1) commitment of com-
bustion-based industries to out-dated technologies, (2)
environmental and operational problems in the utiliza-
tion of low-cost, low-grade fuels, (3) insufficient un-
derstanding of combustion fundamentals, and (4) lack


Calvin H. Bartholomew received his BS degree from Brigham
Young University and his MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering
from Stanford University. He spent a year at Corning Glass Works and
a summer at Union Oil as a visiting consultant before joining the
chemical engineering department at Brigham Young University in
1973. He is presently professor, head of the BYU Catalysis Laboratory,
and Associate Director of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Re-
search Center. Recipient of the Karl G. Maeser Research Award, he has
authored over 70 scientific papers and 5 major reviews in the fields
of heterogeneous catalysis and catalyst deactivation. His major re-
search and teaching interests are heterogeneous catalysis, char com-
bustion, kinetics and reactor design, Moessbauer spectroscopy, surface
science, and air pollution control.


Dir ctor
L. Douga Smoo
















FIGURE 1. Management structure of the Advanced Com-
bustion Engineering Research Center

of communication, collaboration and cooperation
among investigators in academic, industrial and gov-









ernmental research and development communities.
Wm Gould, Chair Dan Hadley. Char









To address the removal of these roadblocks, the
C.H. Bad mew Dav Pesing









Advanced Combustion Engineering Academ Research Center








(ACERC) was established in the summer and fall of
1985 as a cooperative effort among Brigham Young

University (BYU), the University of Utah (U of U),
two national laboratories (Sandia National Labs and
Los Alamos Natio nal Labs), an 2 nd ustrial/re-




search organizations located throughout the United
States. The departments of chemical engineering
fuels engineering (U of U), and mechanical engineer






center. Headquarters were established at BYU. The
organization of the new center, consisting of a Direc-
tfw cnmunical l oabratiores aSa ndia Natoonal Lrab an

















torate, an Executive Advisory Council and Technical
Review Committee, is illustrated in Figure 1. Mem-
bers of the management team consisting of the direc-
bustion Engineering Reecah Cengner-

















torate and coordinators for research, education, and
information dissemination are listed in Table 1, while
in Table 2. Listed in Table 3 are companies and
1985 as a Copyright CerE Dist ion ASEE 1987Yo
University (BYU), the University of Utah (U of U),

Los Alamos National Labs), and 23 industrial/re-
search organizations located throughout the United
States. The departments of chemical engineering


ing (BYU) were involved in the formation of this new

organization of the new center, consisting of a Direc-
torate, an Executive Advisory Council and Technical






in Table 2. Listed in Table 3 are companies and
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










laboratories which have subscribed as technical
partners of the center.
In the fall of 1985, proposals were submitted to the
National Science Foundation (NSF) and the State of
Utah for funding. On May 1, 1986, BYU and the U of
U were jointly awarded a $9.7 million 5-year grant
from NSF as part of its Engineering Research Cen-
ters Program. This award was one of five selected
from 102 proposals submitted by 74 institutions in fall
1985. Also receiving grant awards from NSF in the
1985-86 round were Carnegie-Mellon University, Uni-




TABLE 1
ACERC Management

Director
L. Douglas Smoot
Dean of Engineering and Technology
Head of the Combustion Laboratory
Associate Directors and Research Coordinators
BYU UofU
Calvin H. Bartholomew David W. Pershing
Professor of Chem. Eng. Professor of Chem. Eng.
Head of the Catalysis Lab Assoc. Dean of Grad. School
Academic Coordinator


Calvin H. Barth
Professor of Ch



John C. Laing
Manager, ACEI


lolomew David M. Bodily
em. Eng. Professor of Fuels Eng.
Assoc. Dean of Mines & Min.
External Relations Coordinator
Ronald J. Pugmire
RC Prof. of Fuels Eng.
Assoc. Vice Pres. of Res.


TABLE 2
Executive Advisory Council

* William Gould, Chairman, Retired Chief Executive Officer of
Southern California Edison and EPRI Chairman
* Christian Bolta, Director of Technology Strategy, Combustion
Engineering, Inc.
* Dan Hartley, Vice President of Sandia National Laboratories
* George Hill, Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Univer-
sity of Utah and former Director of the office of Coal Research
and EPRI
* Eric Reichl, Consultant and Retired President of the Conoco
Coal Development Company
* Adel Sarofim, Professor of Chemical Engineering, MIT
* George Watkins, Executive Director of the Empire State Elec-
tric Energy Research Corporation


There are unfortunately several
formidable roadblocks threatening the
realization of these critically needed developments . .
To address the removal of these roadblocks, the
Advanced Combustion Engineering Research
Center was established . in 1985 . .

versity of Illinois-Urbana, Lehigh University and
Ohio State University.
In addition to the funds from NSF, the center will
receive approximately $3.5 million from the two uni-
versities, $500,000 from the State of Utah, and over
$500,000 from private industry, for a total of about
$14 million for the five years. During the first year
the total ACERC budget was $3.2 million.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAM

Objectives. Since combustion is a very broad field,
a focus is essential in order to make a significant con-
tribution. ACERC's research program has been de-
signed to address the most significant research
priorities for U. S. competitiveness in combustion
technology while removing the roadblocks mentioned
above. The principal objective ofACERC is to develop
and implement, within 5 years, advanced computer-
Continued on page 216.


TABLE 3
Technical Partners of ACERC

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATES
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
Babcock and Wilcox
Combustion Engineering, Inc.
Consolidated Coal Co.
Convex Computer Corp.
Electric Power Research Institute
Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp.
Foster-Wheeler Development Corp./IHI (Japan)
Gas Research Institute
Morgantown Energy Tech. Center
Pittsburgh Energy Tech. Center
Tennessee Valley Authority
Utah Power and Light Co.

TECHNICAL AFFILIATES
General Motors Corp. (Alison Gas Turbine Div.)
Chevron Research Co.
Corning Glass Works
Dow Chemical USA
General Electric Co.
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Pyropower Corp.
Questar Development Corp.
Shell Development Co.
Southern California Edison


FALL 1987









An experiment in .. .




LIQUID-PHASE ADSORPTION

FUNDAMENTALS


DAVID 0. COONEY
University of Wyoming
Laramie, WY 82071

ADSORPTION PROCESSES ARE important in the re-
moval of organic contaminants from wastewaters
and municipal drinking water supplies, in the removal
of solvents and odor compounds from gas streams, in
the drying of air, etc. The adsorbent employed may
be activated carbon, synthetic resins, silica gel, etc.
An adsorption experiment has been developed and
successfully run in our unit operations laboratory
course at the University of Wyoming. It involves the
liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from
aqueous solution on activated carbon, but is relevant
to adsorption processes in general.
In designing the experiment several goals were
set: (1) it had to be capable of being completely run in
four hours or less, (2) it should demonstrate the
applicability of both the Langmuir and Freundlich
isotherm equations to equilibrium data, and (3) it


David Cooney is Head of the Chemical Engineering Department at
the University of Wyoming. His research has focused mainly on liquid-
phase adsorption topics. He is the author of approximately 70 research
papers and two books.


should familiarize the student with both batchwise and
continuous fixed-bed types of operations. In addition,
the component to be adsorbed should be reasonably
water-soluble so that aqueous solutions could be em-
ployed, and it should be colored so that its removal by
batch adsorption and its breakthrough behavior in
fixed-bed operation be visible to the student. This re-
quirement also allowed for easy measurement of the
solute's concentration colorimetrically. One problem
often encountered with colored solutes, however, is
that their color intensity is a function of solution pH.
And, since contact with activated carbon can change
the pH of an aqueous solution and thereby alter the
solute's color intensity (even at constant solute con-
centration), buffering of the aqueous solution to be
used was considered to be necessary.
After some trial-and-error, the stock solution for
the experiment was chosen to be a 0.30 g/liter solution
of 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) in distilled water, buffered
to a pH of 7.4 by the addition of 1.184 g/liter KH2PO4
and 4.289 g/liter NaHP04. The DNP (Eastman Kodak
Chemicals brand) contained around 15% moisture,
which was included in the 0.30 g/L portions weighed
out. A Pye Unicam Model 6-550 UV/Visible spec-
trophotometer was used in the visible mode at a
wavelength of 480 nm with standard 1 cm x 1 cm x
4.5 cm matched glass sample cells (one cell was a ref-
erence cell containing distilled water; the other was
the "sample" cell) to analyze all samples generated in
the experiment for DNP concentration (the stock so-
lution absorbance was around 0.600). Beer's Law was
found to be obeyed for DNP sufficiently well over the
range of concentrations involved in the experiment,
i.e., the DNP concentrations were proportional to the
visible light absorbance values given by the spec-
trophotometer. The stock solution was deep-yellow in
color.
The carbon used was Pittsburgh CPG activated
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Adsorption processes are important in the removal of organic contaminants from wastewaters ...
An adsorption experiment has been developed and successfully run in our unit operations laboratory
course ... It involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous
solution on activated carbon, but is relevant to adsorption processes in general.


carbon, sieved to 28/40 mesh for the fixed-bed exper-
iments and ground to less than 325 mesh for the batch
(equilibrium) experiments. The carbon was heated in
an oven at 1500C for 24 hours prior to use and then
kept in closed glass jars (this prevents contamination
by stray gas-phase adsorbates).

BATCH (EQUILIBRIUM) EXPERIMENTS
Approximately six samples containing roughly
0.005 to 0.030 grams of the powdered carbon (at essen-
tially equally spaced weight intervals) were weighed
into new dust-free liquid scintillation vials (Wheaton
20 mL borosilicate glass vials, from Cole-Parmer In-
strument Co., Chicago, Cat. No. J-8918-02) using a
Mettler AE 160 digital balance capable of weighing to
0.1 mg. Then 10 mL of the stock DNP solution was
added to each vial using a standard volumetric
pipette. The vials were capped with the caps that
came with them (these had Poly-Seal conical seals in
them) and taped (with cellophane tape) onto the bed
of a shaker bath (Precision Scientific, Model 25,
Chicago) (water omitted) set at 100 oscillations/min-
ute. Any other suitable shaking device would work
just as well. After one hour of shaking, the vials were
removed and let stand for about ten minutes to allow
most of the powdered carbon to settle. (It was proved
separately that equilibrium is reached in about twenty
minutes, for < 325 mesh carbon.)
Meanwhile, six filter units each consisting of a 13
mm diameter Millipore HAWP 0.45 p[m pore size
membrane filter in a 13 mm size Swinny filter holder
(both available from the Millipore Corporation, Bed-
ford, MA) were prepared. About 15 mL of each sam-
ple supernatant solution was taken up into a 20 mL
plastic syringe which was then attached to a filter hol-
der, and the solution was filtered to remove the re-
maining carbon particles. The first few mL were dis-
carded (membrane "debris" sometimes flushes off into
the first portion of the filtrate) and the remainder was
collected in a small beaker (covered) or clean capped
scintillation vial for subsequent colorimetric analysis.
For each sample, the DNP concentration was com-
puted from: concentration (g/L) = 0.30 x (sample ab-
sorbance at 480 nm/stock solution absorbance at 480
nm). This concentration, CA, was used in the mass
balance qA W = V (CAO CA) where W = grams of


0 50 100 150
I/CA (L/g)
FIGURE 1. "Linearized" Langmuir equation plot of the
equilibrium data, which should yield a straight line if K
and Q are constant.


powdered carbon used, V = volume of solution used
(0.01 liter), and CAO = initial DNP concentration (0.30
g/liter), to compute the equilibrium carbon-phase con-
centration q* (g DNP/g carbon).

BATCH (EQUILIBRIUM) RESULTS
Since the Langmuir isotherm equation


qA = KQ CA/(1 + K CA)


can be linearized to the form


1 1 1
4 Q KQ CA


the data were plotted in the form of 1/q* versus I/CA
in the hopes that they could be fit with a straight line
to give an intercept of 1/Q and a slope of 1/KQ, from
which K and Q (the value of q* reached as CA -- ,
i.e., the monolayer adsorption capacity of the carbon
for DNP) could be determined. As Figure 1 shows,
such a straight-line fit was impossible (i.e., the data
simply do not fit the Langmuir model).


FALL 1987









The q% versus CA data were also plotted on log-log
paper, since the Freundlich isotherm equation is


qA = k CA /n (3)
hence
log qA = log k + (1/n) log C (4)


Students always try to get an "intercept" on such
a plot, but this is impossible, of course. They should
n5


0.2


0.004


0.01 0.02 0.04 0.1 0.2 0.4


CA (g/L)
FIGURE 2. Linearized Freundlich equation plot of the
equilibrium data.

simply pick two points near the ends of the best fit
straight line, and insert these two (q*, CA) pairs into
the last equation, thereby generating two equations
from which the two unknown parameters k and 1/n
can be determined. As Figure 2 shows, the data fit
the Freundlich expression extremely well. This is con-
sistent with the author's and other investigators' pre-
vious experience in measuring liquid-phase equilibria
for organic compounds adsorbing on activated carbon,
in which it has been repeatedly observed that the
Freundlich equation fits such data very well (see the
references listed at the end of this paper).
Although the Langmuir equation obviously does
not fit the equilibrium data, the data for the four high-
est CA points (i.e., for the four lowest 1/CA points in
Figure 1) can be fit reasonably well to a straight line,
from which one obtains Q = 0.221 and K = 53.7.
Figure 2, for the Freundlich equation, gives k = 0.258
and 1/n = 0.146. Plots of Eqs. (1) and (3) with these
parameter values give the comparison to the equilib-
rium data shown in Figure 3. Obviously, the
Freundlich equation fits essentially exactly, while the
Langmuir equation fits somewhat well at high CA and
poorly at low CA, as one would expect considering
how Q and K were obtained.


FIXED BED EXPERIMENT


Four grams of the 28/40 mesh Pittsburgh CPG car-
bon were loaded into a 0.9 cm I.D. by 15 cm long
chromatography column (type K 9/15 from Pharmacia
Fine Chemicals, Inc., Piscataway, NJ). The empty
column, with the top inlet header unscrewed, was fil-
led with distilled water (with the outlet line clamped),
and small portions of the carbon were dropped into
the column successively until the column was packed
with the full 4 grams of carbon. This technique pre-
vents any trapping of air bubbles in the bed. While
some classification of the carbon particles occurs as
they fall through the water, gross classification of the
bed is avoided by adding the carbon in small batches
with a spatula and waiting for each batch to settle.
The water level in the column rises as one does this,
so the clamp on the column outlet line must be period-
ically opened to drain off some of the water and keep
it from overflowing out of the top of the column. Once


CA (g/L)
FIGURE 3. Comparison of equilibrium data with the
Freundlich equation, and with a Langmuir equation de-
rived from fitting the high CA data.



the column was packed, the top inlet header was
screwed onto the column. The stock DNP solution, 3
liters of which were contained in a standard one-gallon
glass jug, was pumped to the column at 25 mL/minute
using a Masterflex Unified Variable Speed Model
7523-10 tubing pump drive fitted with a number 7014
Standard Pump Head, and number 14 silicone rubber
tubing (Cole-Parmer Instrument Co., Chicago).
The pump was turned on briefly enough to bring
the DNP solution to the end of the tubing, which was


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


------ 0.2 8C14

I I [ I I I I I I I I IA


ntnt









then attached to the column inlet header. At "time
zero," a stopwatch was started and the pump was re-
started. Effluent from the column was collected in a
1000 mL graduated cylinder and, as each successive
100 mL mark was reached, a spectrophotometer cell
was held under the effluent line for long enough to
collect about 2.5 mL of effluent. The sample absor-
bance was then measured colorimetrically (any drops
of sample on the cell outside surfaces were first dried
off using Kimwipes). The reference cell was checked


0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Effluent Volume (mL)
FIGURE 4. Effluent curve behavior for the experiment.


each time to see that its absorbance read 0.000. The
sample was then dumped back into the collection cylin-
der. When the first 1000 mL cylinder was full, a sec-
ond one was used to replace the first one, and the first
one was dumped. The cylinders were alternated this
way, with sample measurements each 100 mL, until
the effluent concentration exceeded 75% of the inlet
concentration. The fixed bed experiment was then
shut down and the data were plotted as CA versus
total effluent volume.

FIXED BED RESULTS
Figure 4 shows the breakthrough curve obtained
from the fixed-bed part of the experiment. If ideally-
sharp breakthrough behavior were to exist, a step
function would have been obtained at a point where a
vertical line passes through the point CA = 1/2 CA,feed
(assuming a symmetrical breakthrough curve). The
total effluent volume corresponding to this step func-
tion can be seen to be about 2460 mL, and hence the
total column capacity for DNP is thus (2.46 liters)
(0.30 g/liter)/4.0 g carbon = 0.185 g DNP/g carbon.
However, inserting CA = 0.30 g/liter into the
Freundlich equation gives a q* value of 0.235. The


reason why the 0.185 is about 21% too low is that the
effluent curve is actually not symmetrical but would
show significant "tailing" if it had been followed fur-
ther. Hence, the proper position to place the step
function for the ideal case would be at an effluent vol-
ume greater than 2460 mL. This would raise up the
calculated 0.185 value and give better agreement with
the "ideal saturation capacity" value calculated from
the Freundlich equation.
Nevertheless, the step-function replacement of the
actual breakthrough curve does give a rough approx-
imation to the column's ideal capacity. Of course, in
actual operation, a fixed-bed system would be shut
down as soon as the outlet concentration is just a few
percent (e.g., 5%) of the inlet concentration. The only
reason we followed the breakthrough curve so far in
this experiment was to allow the students to see what
the curve looks like at later stages, and to allow them
to compare (at least approximately) the total DNP
capacity from this dynamic column technique to values
predicted by batch equilibrium experiments.

COMMENTS
With a group of three students performing this
experiment, we start the batch sample part first.
Then, while the samples are shaking (one hour) we
begin the column part. Sometime during the column
run, the batch samples are ready for filtration, so the
filtration is carried out by one of the students, and the
filtrates are kept aside for analysis after the column
run is over.
In their reports, the students are asked to discuss
general principles of adsorption, particularly low tem-
perature physical adsorption (via van der Waals type
forces) on activated carbon. They are also asked to
discuss how activated carbon is usually made, and its
properties (internal surface area, pore-size distribu-
tion, etc.).
Overall, the experiment and subsequent student
reports are effective in conveying most of the basic
principles of physical adsorption processes.

REFERENCES
1. Cooney, D. 0., Clin. Toxicol. 11, 387 (1977).
2. Cooney, D. 0., Amer. J. Hosp. Pharm. 34, 1342 (1977).
3. Cooney, D. 0., and R. P. Kane, Artif. Organs 7, 197 (1983).
4. Giusti, D. M., R. A. Conway, and C. T. Lawson, JWPCF 46,
947 (1974).
5. Mattson, J. S., and F. W. Kennedy, JWPCF 43, 2210 (1971).
6. Sheindorf, C., M. Rebhun, and M. Sheintuch, Water Res. 16,
357 (1982).
7. Yonge, D. R. et al, Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 690 (1985). O


FALL 1987









FrnPBclass and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical
engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle
in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested as well as those that
are more traditional in nature, which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor H. Scott
Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.



MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER WITH

CHEMICAL REACTION

Cooking a Potato


KERRY L. SUBLETTE
University of Tulsa
Tulsa, OK 74104

PROBLEM
THE COOKING OF a potato in a hot water bath may
be readily described by combining a model of tran-
sient heat transfer in a sphere (with convective bound-
ary conditions) and kinetic data given by Personius
and Sharp [1] for the rate of change in tensile strength
in potato tubers as a function of temperature. A com-
puter program may be written which uses finite differ-
ence methods to solve the transient heat transfer
equation. When these results are combined with kine-
tic data, transient tensile strength profiles may be
generated. The cooking of the potato can therefore be
simulated. The model is readily verified with a
minimum of laboratory time and equipment.

CHEMICAL BASIS: COOKING A POTATO
Roughly 60-80% of the dry matter of a potato tuber
is starch. Potato starch is a mixture of two polymers
of a-D-glucose, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose
(20% of potato starch) is a linear unbranched chain of
a-D-glucose units joined by a(1 -> 4) acetal linkages.
Amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide with a(1 ->
6) branch points. Native amylose and amylopectin
polymers have molecular weights in the millions.
Within the potato tuber, starch occurs as micro-
scopically visible granules which are 15-100 microns in
diameter and oval in shape. Thin sections of starch
granules reveal them to be highly organized consisting

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Kerry L. Sublette obtained his BS in chemistry from the University
of Arkansas, his MS in biochemistry from the University of Oklahoma,
and his MSE and PhD in chemical engineering from the University of
Tulsa. After six years in research and development with Combustion
Engineering, he joined the chemical engineering faculty at the Univer-
sity of Tulsa in 1986. His research interests are in fermentation,
biocatalysis, microbial desulfurization of coal, and biological methods
of hazardous waste treatment.



of concentric layers. Within these layers, starch
molecules associate through extensive hydrogen bond-
ing between parallel linear segments.
The microscopic appearance of starch granules
changes markedly upon heating. In cold water, iso-
lated starch granules will take up 20-30% of their
weight in water. This association is reversible i.e.,
the granule can be recovered in its original state upon
drying. At about 650C, starch granules will swell
rapidly, taking up large amounts of water (up to 25
times the original weight of the granule). This swel-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


~









ling process, termed gelatinization, is irreversible.
Heating disrupts regional hydrogen bonding between
adjacent starch segments, replacing starch-starch as-
sociation with starch-water association. Upon cooling,
the hydrated segments are no longer free to hydrogen
bond to other starch segments. Starch granules in
plant tissue undergo gelatinization upon heating by
taking up cellular water and/or water from their envi-
ronment if heated by steam or hot water.
The individual potato cell is surrounded by a rigid
cell wall consisting principally of cellulose interwoven
with pectins. Cellulose is a high molecular weight
polysaccharide in which the repeating unit is P-D-glu-
cose. Pectins are a complex mixture of polysac-
charides of galacturonic acid or its methyl ester. These
pectic substances are regarded as the cementing sub-
stances which hold plant cells together.
The softening that occurs upon cooking of fruits
and vegetables is partially the result of depolymeriza-
tion of pectic substances. Depolymerization of pectins
occurs in all types of cooking processes. The common
observation that potatoes cook faster when immersed
in water than if steamed or baked is attributed to
diffusion of pectin degradation products out of the tis-
sue and their solubilization in the cooking water.
When potatoes are cooked, the starch they contain
is gelatinized and the water contained within the cell
is adsorbed in the process. The cells become filled by
swollen starch granules, applying pressure to the cell
wall if sufficient starch granules are present. The cell
walls of individual cells normally remain intact; how-
ever, weakening of the cell walls by depolymerization
of pectins makes the cell wall somewhat flexible.
Therefore, if sufficient starch is present, the cell
(which is normally box-like in shape) becomes roughly
spherical. The change in shape further weakens the
cementing forces which bind cells together by limiting
surface-surface contact.
A potato which is regarded as being of high quality
for cooking will have a mealy texture upon being
baked, boiled, steamed or fried. Mealiness is that
quality of being soft, dry, and easily crumbled. Meal-
iness in a cooked potato results from an ease of separa-
tion of individual cells. A good cooking quality potato
will therefore be one which contains a high proportion
of cells which possess sufficient starch content to
cause cellular and interstitial water to be adsorbed
and to cause distortion of the cell shape to something
more spherical when gelatinization takes place. The
absence of sufficient starch leads to a hard, soggy tex-
ture even after cooking. In addition, a high quality
cooking potato will have a high proportion of cells
which are small enough to resist rupturing when the


The cooking of a potato in a hot water
bath may be readily described by combining a
model of transient heat transfer in a sphere (with
convective boundary conditions) and kinetic data for
the rate of change in tensile strength in potato
tubers as a function of temperature.

cooked tuber is mashed. Rupturing of cells results in
release of swollen starch granules which gives the
cooked potato a sticky, waxy texture.

KINETICS OF COOKING A POTATO
Personius and Sharp [1] have examined the adhe-
sion of potato tuber cells as influenced by tempera-
ture. In their experiments, whole potato tubers were
coated with a thin layer of rubber paint and held in a
constant temperature water bath. The rubber paint
prevented the exchange of water and salts between
the tuber and water bath. Thermocouples measured
the temperature of the potato centers. After the
potato centers reached the temperature of the water
bath, potato tubers were removed at various times
and the tensile strength of sections was obtained.
From data reported by Personius and Sharp, the
rates of decrease in tensile strength as a function of
incubation temperature were determined in order to
prepare an Arrhenius plot (see Figure 1). The primary
assumption made here was that these rates are
roughly equivalent to those which would have been


1.0










I .-
-


/T X 103 (K-I)
FIGURE. 1. Arrhenius plot of data of Personius and Sharp
[11


FALL 1987









observed if the potatoes warmed to the incubation
temperatures instantly. The effect of heat during
warming time on these rates is unknown.
The rate equation for the cooking process may be
expressed as follows


dT = k f(x) = k e-Ea/RT f(X)


where TS = tensile strength (kg/cm2)
k = a rate constant
ko = frequency factor
Ea = energy of activation
R = universal gas constant
T = temperature (OK)
f(x) = some function of the condition of th
potato, assumed to be constant during
the cooking process

In logarithmic form the rate equation becomes

in dt S T~ + ,n k f(x)
( t I.

From the Arrhenius plot the energy of activation a
the factor [kof(x)] were determined to be 32500
mole and 2.85 x 1020 kg/cm2-hr, respectively. S
stituting these values into the rate equation and int
rating we have


TS TSt = 2.85 x 1020 exp164 104 t

where TSo = tensile strength at t = 0
TSt = tensile strength at time t
T = temperature (oK)
t = time (hrs)


Based on data presented by Personius and Sharp, a
value of 6.8 kg/cm2 may be taken as the average ten-
sile strength of a raw potato tuber (TSo).
Personius and Sharp noted that the limiting value
of the tensile strength of a potato heated in a constant
temperature water bath was somewhat dependent
upon the incubation temperature. Above 73C the
.e limiting tensile strength was 0.4 kg/cm2. Below 49C
'g relatively little change in tensile strength occurred
over long periods of incubation. Between 49C and
73C there was observed to be a linear relationship
between incubation temperature and limiting tensile
strength. In this range the limiting tensile strength
(2) can be given by Eq. (4), derived from the data given
by Personius and Sharp


nd
cal/
ub-
eg-


TS1 = 0.24 Ti + 17.8


where TS = limiting tensile strength (kg/cm2)
Ti = incubation temperature (C)


SOLUTION


Modeling the Cooking of a Potato
The process to be modeled is the cooking of a
potato in a hot water bath under conditions of forced
convection. Transient temperature profiles in the
potato may be produced by numerical solution of Eq.
(Al) (see Appendix) which describes unsteady-state
heat conduction in a sphere of constant thermal con-
ductivity, heat capacity and density, heated by a sur-
rounding fluid. The numerical solution of this equation
is detailed in the Appendix utilizing the Crank-Nicol-
son finite difference method. Coupling this solution
with the integrated form of the rate equation describ-
ing the change in tensile strength in a potato tuber as
a function of time and temperature (Eq. 3) allows tran-
sient tensile strength profiles to be generated.
A FORTRAN program which produces transient
tensile strength profiles in a cooking potato is avail-
able from the author. The program incorporates the
following assumptions:


The potato is spherical with a diameter of 3 inches.
The heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the potato
are assumed to be approximately that of water (the potato
is roughly 80% water).
The specific gravity of the potato is approximately 1.08.
The potato is coated with a thin layer of rubber paint or
rubber cement to prevent loss of salts or exchange of water
with its environment (a requirement for validity of Per-
sonius and Sharp's data).
The basic sequence of calculations in this program is
as follows (see appendix):
1. The cooking temperature and value of the parame-
ter hRo/k are assigned. Under conditions of forced
convection the heat transfer coefficient, h, is esti-
mated to be 700-2000 W/m2-oC using the correlation
given by Vliet and Leppert [2]. These values cor-
respond to a relative fluid velocity over the sphere
of 0.1-1.0 ft/s. It may be readily demonstrated that
temperature profiles in the cooking potato are rel-
atively insensitive to hRo/k when hRo/k > 40. For


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION



















ri+l ri ri+l


C n+ NEW TIME LEVEL
o n OLD TIME LEVEL
o-


rR rR+ I


r = (i- '/2)Ar
n
tn= (At)".
ml1
0 FICTITIOUS POINTS

FIGURE 2. Grid points for finite difference calculations

a 3 in. diameter potato with a thermal conductivity
equal to that of water, this corresponds to a heat
transfer coefficient of 540 W/m2-C.
2. As shown in Figure 2, n is the time level index and
i the index of points in space where the dimension-
less temperature u and the subsequent tensile
strength are calculated by the program. Initially
the dimensionless temperatures ui,o for i=1,20 are
set to zero and tensile strengths set to 6.8 kg/cm2,
the average tensile strength of a raw potato. Each
set of dimensionless temperatures ui,, are then cal-
culated in turn (n=1,2,3,...) from the finite differ-
ence equation described in the Appendix. At all
points i for each set of time levels n and n+1 the
average temperature (TAVG) between the "old"
and "new" time levels is calculated.
3. Utilizing Eq. (3) the change in tensile strength
(ATS) at each point i which results from cooking at



hRo/K=3.125
r=R/Ro
ri (i- /2)Ar t, hours
1.0- Ar 0.05 0.56
uo 0.37
cJ


- 0.- 0.13
. 0.2
01 0 0.08
a


TAVG for a length of time equal to the At between
the n1h and (n+l)th time level is then calculated. At
each point i these changes in tensile strength are
added to all of those changes in tensile strength
which took place between t=0 and the nth time
level. These summations for all points i are then
subtracted from 6.8 kg/cm2, the tensile strength of
a raw potato tuber. The result is then the tensile
strength at all points i at the (n+1)th time level.
4. Next the lower limits are applied to the tensile
strength at any point i at the (n+1)th time level
according to the cooking temperature (TAVG) over
the time interval of n to n+1. If TAVG < 49C, the
lower limit of TS is 6.8 kg/cm2. If TAVG > 73C,
the lower limit is 0.4 kg/cm2. If 490C < TAVG <
73C, the lower limit is given by Eq. (4).
5. The (n+l)th time level becomes the nth level and
calculations are repeated giving tensile strength
profiles as a function of radial distance from the
center and time.


Sample outputs of dimensionless temperature and
tensile strength profiles from this program are shown
graphically in Figure 3(a-b) and Figure 4(a-b), respec-
tively, for a 3 in. diameter potato cooking at 900C with
hRo/k of 3.125 and 6400.



Testing the Model

Figure 4(b) may be taken as the predicted tensile
strength profiles in a 3 in. potato cooking at 90C in a
hot water bath under conditions of forced convection
(hRo/k > 40). To test the model, ten Idaho baking


(a) (b)

FIGURE 3. Transient dimensionless temperature profiles in a potato cooking at 900C. hR,/K = (a) 3.125, (b) 6400


FALL 1987




























S 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

(b)


FIGURE 4. Transient tensile strength profiles in a potato cooking at 900C. hR,/K = (a) 3.125 (b) 6400


potatoes were coated with a thin layer of rubber ce-
ment and heated in a water bath at 90C. Water was
circulated by means of a propeller stirrer. Potatoes
were chosen to be as nearly spherical as possible and
approximately 3 in. in diameter. The potatoes chosen
were more accurately described as oblong measuring
two by three inches. Potatoes were removed periodi-
cally, cut in half and an assessment made of the tex-
ture at various locations. The following observations
are typical


Time (hours)
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00

1.25
1.50
1.67
1.75


Observation
cooking started
outmost 0.1-0.3 cm cooking
outmost 0.5 cm mealy
outmost 0.8 cm mealy
cooking throughout but outmost
1-1.2 cm mealy
outmost 2 cm mealy
outmost 2.6 cm mealy
mostly cooked, still hard in center
potato cooked and mealy throughout


These results are in good agreement with the pre-
dictions of the model as given by Figure 4(b).

CONCLUSION

In the proposed problem/experiment students
couple transient heat transfer with reaction kinetics
to predict the course of the gelatinization of starch in
a cooking potato. Students are introduced to numeri-
cal methods for the solution of partial differential
equations and computer simulation of a chemical reac-
tion under nonisothermal, unsteady-state conditions.
Students can readily use the model to make predic-


tions and test the validity of those predictions in the
laboratory with a minimum of time and equipment.
The proposed modeling exercise combines skills in
mathematics, computer programming, heat transfer,
and kinetics. The problem is challenging but manage-
able by a senior chemical engineering student.

REFERENCES

1. Personius C. J. and Paul Sharp, "Adhesion of Potato-Tuber
Cells as Influenced by Temperature," Food Research, 3(5), 513
(1938).
2. Vliet, G. C. and G. Leppert, "Forced Convection Heat Transfer
from an Isothermal Sphere to Water," J. Heat Transfer, serv.
c., 83, 163 (1961).
3. von Rosenberg, D., "Methods for the Numerical Solution of
Partial Differential Equations," Gerald L. Farrar & Associates,
Tulsa OK (1969).

APPENDIX
Temperature Profiles in a Cooking Potato

The cooking of a potato in a water bath may be modeled after
that of a sphere of constant thermal conductivity (k), density (p),
and heat capacity (Cp) heated by a surrounding fluid. The differ-
ential equation for the temperature distribution, u(r,t), in the
sphere is given by Eq. (Al)


a2u 2 Bau a
2 r ar t


The boundary and initial conditions are


u=0
au
ar


for t = 0, all r
for r = 0, all t


hR
-- ( u) - = 0 for r = 1, all t
k Dr


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


(a)










h = coefficient of heat transfer between the surface of the
sphere and the bulk fluid
u, r and t are all dimensionless parameters defined as follows


T T.
u =


R
r -
a


where T = bulk temperature of the fluid
surrounding the sphere
T. = initial temperature of the sphere
where R = radius of the sphere
R = distance from the center of the
sphere


t =- k where = real time
Ro2C
'pC p

Eq. (Al) with accompanying boundary conditions may be solved
numerically utilizing the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method.
The two independent continuous variables (r and t) are replaced by
discrete variables (also called here r and t) defined at points located
on the grid shown in Figure 2.
The following finite difference analogs may be written


fau Uin+l Ui.n
ti,.n+1/2 At
( =21 2u + u u -2u + u
U 1 Ui+,n 2ui.n + i-l,n i+,n+ i ,n+1 + i-l.n+1
ar2Ji,n+/2 (Ar)2 (Ar)2


ari,nl1/2 2(-- Ar) 2(Ar)


Making these substitutions in Eq. (Al) results in the following finite
difference analog


S+ -2(At) 2(Ar)2 + i+/n+1 [ /2
Ui- ,n+l Ui n+l A! [ i -3/2J+ i+l.n+l -/

=- uil,n + i,n [ At [- /2


+ ai+l, 3/


This equation applies for 2 s i (R-l). In writing this equation
for i = 1 or i = R, terms involving fictitious points (uo,n+l and Uo,n
or UR+l,n and uR+I,n+l, respectively) are produced. Writing finite
difference analogs for the boundary equations allows these terms
to be eliminated.

faul Uls, Uo1 n = 0
o 2
1/2 ,n
for all n. Therefore


u = u
Uo,n = ,n
For i = 1 we have then


and Ul,n+l = Uo,n+l


[3At + 3(Ar)2] [ Ar)2 3At + 3
U +,1 3U2,n+l U,n A 3Un

hR au
(l u)-ar
becomes

hRo 1 -R. + Un j
k 2 r


for all n. Replacing hR /k with I gives

SkAr -2 /r 21
UR+n r 2Ar n
for all n.
Therefore for i = R we have
+ [-t 2 -2(Ar)2 l kAr


= un + R 2At (R /2 + kAr


+2 [R + 1/21 2Ar
[R 3/2) (-kAr 2)


At each time level (where t > 0) R equations may be written
containing R unknowns. Furthermore these equations constitute a
tridiagonal matrix. Equations of this form are readily solved for u
as a function of r and t by the Thomas algorithm [3]. O


REVIEW: Multiphase Science
Continued from page 197.

Chapter Four is a review of a reboiler. The authors
struck a balance between practical application and sci-
entific analysis by discussing both the design strategy
and the appropriate correlations used for thermal-
hydraulic analysis. The authors recommend that a set
of several design equations be presented and a com-
parison be made of the relative merit of each for par-
ticular design applications.
Chapter Five covers flow of gas-solid mixtures
through standpipes and valves. In this chapter, most
attention was devoted to the flow regimes of solid-gas
in standpipes, which include four basic types: type I
fluidized flow and type II fluidized flow, PACFLO and
TRANPACFLO, and the combination thereof.
The gas-solid flow in a standpipe is still a subject
with incomplete knowledge. The authors made an ef-
fort to introduce the subject in a rational manner. The
readers can use this review as a good start to under-
stand not only gas-solid flow in standpipes but may
also find it inspirational in trying to understand other
multi-phase flow systems.
Chapter Six deals with core-annular flow of oil and
water through a pipeline. The motivation of such spec-
ial flow is to find a reduction of pressure drop for
pumping heavy, viscous oil through a pipe using water
in annular as a "lubricant." Thus, the authors pro-
posed their lubricating-film model. In this model, the
main features are the inclusion of core eccentricity
and the ripple lubricating film. The validity range of
core-velocities for the lubricating-film model was
given. The authors also proposed some possible ways
of improving the models and predictions. E


FALL 1987










views and opinions


CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING*

Current Status and Future Directions


M. P. DUDUKOVIC
Washington University
St. Louis, MO 63130

HEMICAL REACTIONS have been used by man-
kind since time immemorial to produce useful
products such as wine, metals, etc. Nevertheless, the
unifying principles that today we call chemical reac-
tion engineering were not developed until relatively a
short time ago. During the decade of the 1940's (not
even half a century ago!) a transition was made from
descriptive industrial chemistry to the conceptual un-
ification of reaction processes and reactor types. The
pioneering work in this area of industrial practice was
done by Denbigh [1] in England. Then in 1947,
Hougen and Watson [2] published the first textbook
in the U.S. that presented a unified approach in tack-
ling catalytic kinetics and reactors. This book has had
a lasting effect on the American school of catalytic
reaction engineering as focused primarily on pet-
roleum processing. The expansion of the petroleum














Milorad (Mike) P. Dudukovii is a professor of chemical engineering,
and director of CREL at Washington University where he has been since
1974. He received his BS in chemical engineering from the University
of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and his MS and PhD from IIT, Chicago. He
has worked as a process design engineer and taught at IIT, Ohio Uni-
versity, and Washington. His research interests encompass a variety of
phenomena involving transport-kinetic interactions.
*Paper presented at the 2nd Yugoslav Congress of Chemical En-
gineering with International Participation, Dubrovnik, May 11-15,
1987.
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


and petrochemical industry provided a fertile ground
for further development of reaction engineering con-
cepts. The final cornerstone of this new discipline was
laid in 1957 by the First Symposium on Chemical
Reaction Engineering [3] which brought together and
synthesized the European point of view. The Amer-
ican and European schools of thought were not identi-
cal, but in time they converged into the subject matter
that we know today as chemical reaction engineering,
or CRE. The above chronology led to the establish-
ment of CRE as an accepted discipline over the span
of a decade and a half. This does not imply that all the
principles important in CRE were discovered then.
The foundation for CRE had already been established
by the early work of Frank-Kamenteski, Damkohler,
Zeldovitch, etc., but at that time they represented
"voices in the wilderness," and no coherent area of
specialization known as CRE had yet emerged.
What then is CRE? It is the discipline that quan-
tifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kine-
tics in relating reactor performance to operating con-
ditions and input variables. CRE, in achieving this
goal, relies on thermodynamics, kinetics, fluid me-
chanics, transport phenomena, chemistry or
biochemistry, physics, etc. The key equation of CRE
can be stated as
Reactor Performance = f (input, kinetics, contacting)

Product yield, or selectivity, or production rate can
be taken as measures of performance. Feed and
operating conditions constitute the input variables.
Fluid mechanics of single or multiphase flows deter-
mines contacting, while kinetic descriptions relate
reaction rate to pertinent intensive variables such as
concentrations, temperature, pressure, catalyst activ-
ity, etc.
CRE is a general methodology for approaching any
system (chemical, biochemical, biological, etc.) where
engineering of reactions is needed, i.e., where cause
and effect relations imparted by reaction and observed
in small laboratory vessels need to be "scaled-up" to
large commercial reactors. CRE can then be used by
the research engineer to quantify the reaction system
and assess transport limitations, by tne design en-
gineer in designing the plant reactor, and by the man-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I ChE_'-









What is CRE? It is the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and
kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables . in achieving this
goal [it] relies on thermodynamics, kinetics, fluid mechanics, transport phenomena . physics, etc.


ufacturing engineer in keeping the reactor running ac-
cording to specification. The power of CRE is that it
spans the domain of many diverse technologies in the
petroleum, metallurgical, chemical, materials, fer-
mentation and pharmaceutical industries. The same
framework can be used to attack a reaction problem
irrespective of its chemical nature.
CURRENT STATUS OF CRE
It is impossible in a brief review to do justice to a
discipline as broad as CRE. One can approach the sub-
ject from the generic point of view and talk about the
status of CRE in dealing with homogeneous gaseous
or liquid systems, heterogeneous gas-solid catalytic
systems, heterogeneous gas-solid noncatalytic sys-
tems, gas-liquid systems, gas-liquid-solid systems,
etc., or one can approach it from the technological
point of view and consider the status of CRE in hydro-
desulfurization of crude oil, biochemical processing,
polymerization, food production, baking, electrochem-
ical processing, air pollution abatement, coal gasifica-
tion, etc. All of those areas have received attention,
and plenary lectures were dedicated to them at vari-
ous ISCRE symposia. Here, we will just try to im-
press upon the reader the current status of teaching
CRE at universities and the possible disparity be-
tween that activity and industrial practice.
CRE in Academia
It is instructive to note that in 1958, only 18% of
the academic departments in the U.S. offered a course
on CRE to undergraduate students. In 1962 that per-
centage had already risen to 53%, and by the end of
the 1960's, CRE had become a required course in all
accredited departments in the U.S. This has remained
unchanged today. In the early years, Hougen and
Watson [2] was the only textbook considered in the
U.S. It has been replaced mainly by Levenspiel's text
[4] in the 1960's. Brotz [5] and Kramers and Wester-
terp [6] seem to have been the standards in Europe
until recently. The number of general textbooks of
the subject exceeded forty-eight in 1980 and continues
to rise dramatically. These texts have been sum-
marized by Levenspiel [7] and Dudukovic [8]. Special-
ized monographs treating a particular topic within
CRE are also proliferating.
What are the undergraduate students exposed to
in a typical CRE course in the U.S.? According to the
latest survey [8] (and not much has changed since


then) most of them (over 67%) learn the ideal reactor
concepts, deal with evaluation of kinetic data from
batch experiments, treat some nonideal reactors (via
tanks in series and dispersion model, mainly) and are
introduced to mechanisms and kinetics. Only about
60% are introduced to the transport-kinetic interac-
tions in heterogeneous systems, less than 50% deal
with realistic packed-bed reactor problems, and fewer
than 20% are exposed to fluidized beds. Most depart-
ments claim some industrial input into the course, but
it consists mainly of the instructor's industrial experi-
ence. Use of digital computers, numerical methods,
and programming in dealing with realistic design
problems is on the rise. While over 55% of the depart-
ments utilized numerical approaches in 1982, it is ex-
pected that almost all will do so in 1987.
The increased use of computational tools in CRE
courses is welcome because it allows the basic CRE
principles, once mastered, to be applied to more
realistic, practical problems. Quantification of CRE
principles, through extensive use of mathematics,
dates back to Amundson and co-workers at the Uni-
versity of Minnesota [9] which at the time represented
a significant step forward. Today, most graduate
courses in CRE suffer to some extent from mathemat-
ical oversophistication that has lost touch with reality.
For example, students may work on various numerical
schemes to solve complex reactor models while assum-
ing that the kinetic relations are known with great
accuracy-an unlikely event in industrial practice. A
trend toward better understanding of process chemis-
try or biochemistry, and improved tools to deal with
scant and inaccurate data, seem to be needed instead.
The "computerization" of the CRE courses allows the
students today to handle reactor models that rep-
resented doctoral thesis projects a decade ago. There-
fore an increased emphasis on tying CRE principles
to process chemistry is possible and is needed.
Academic research is split between traditional
reactor type oriented research and the new emphasis
on process development. For example, continued re-
search is being done on improved understanding of
various multiphase reactors such as fluidized beds,
slurry reactors, three phase fluidized beds, bubble col-
umns, trickle-beds, stirred tanks, etc. Increased em-
phasis on process oriented research is apparent, e.g.,
silane pyrolysis to silicon, epitaxial growth of single
crystals, preparation of novel zeolites, preparation of
new polymers, etc.


FALL 1987









Industrial Practice of CRE
There is a wide gap between industrial practice
and academic approaches to CRE in the U.S. It is
expected that the gap is even wider in developing
countries. Reaction engineering is practiced at a high
level of sophistication, paralleling approaches outlined
in most modern textbooks [10-12], only in some large
petroleum companies. There, kinetic data are sought
in absence of transport effects on small scale equip-
ment, mechanisms and kinetics on catalytic surfaces
are studied, and the scale-up problem is approached
in stages. Scale-up often involves the evaluation of
hydrodynamic assumptions made in reactor design by
tracer studies on a cold real scale model of the produc-
tion reactor. Recently, the Mobil Corporation has
used this classical and methodical approach to success-
fully develop methanol-to-gasoline large scale
fluidized bed reactors which were the key to the suc-
cess of the process. Unfortunately, U.S. petroleum
companies have not been building many new plants in
the last five years, and their CRE advances have been
temporarily halted. In industry, advances of a
methodology like CRE are process demand driven.
When the demand disappears, the advances slow
down. The danger of this situation is that some of the
best CRE teams which had been assembled at large
petroleum companies are now disintegrating and dis-
persing. Thus, when synfuels become needed again,
there will be a painful period of adjustment in reas-
sembling teams with CRE expertise.
Chemical, pharmaceutical and other companies in
the U. S. and elsewhere in the world have not, in gen-
eral, practiced CRE on the same level as petroleum
companies. Often they did not realize that the reactor,
although not a major item in capital expenditures for
a new plant, by its performance dictates the load on
and size of separation equipment. Reactor design
often followed a "seat-of-the-pants" approach and was
rarely optimized. Major advances have been made in
reactor control where digital, multivariable control
conducted through a central station is the dominant
feature of modern plants. Frequently, companies
either rely on patent protection or are pressured to
introduce a product on the market within a short time,
so they tolerate sloppy reactor design. Prater's princi-
ple of optimum sloppiness [13] is not practiced here.
That principle, practiced in petroleum companies,
states that as more and more relations for a reaction
system are quantified, costs go up but the uncertainty
of design goes down, and the cross section of the two
curves indicates an optimum. Most reactor designs in
chemical and other industries are done with very little


quantitative information in hand regarding kinetics.
Scale-up based on equal liquid hourly space velocity
(LHSV) is the rule of the day, followed by incorpora-
tion of additional reactor volume in the design as a
safety factor. It is hoped that the increased competi-
tiveness in the specialty chemicals area will force the
chemical companies to practice CRE at a higher level.
Significant savings should be possible with better
reactor designs.
CRE research in industry has been traditionally
process driven. New contractors (new reactor types)
are introduced for a particular technology and then
sometimes become adopted elsewhere, e.g., fluidized
bed for catalytic cracking, radial flow reactor for am-
monia synthesis, Shell bunker (moving) bed reactor
for hydrodesulfurization with deactivating catalysts,
fast fluidized bed for coal combustion, etc. Most of the
industrial research today is oriented towards the de-
velopment of better zeolites and other catalysts, spec-
ialty chemicals, specialty polymers, composite mate-
rials, high performance ceramics, improved pigments,
etc. CRE, unfortunately, seems to play only a minor
role in these bench scale endeavors, but is expected
to be needed in scale-up. The current economic situa-
tion has brought to a temporary halt the research on
synthetic fuels, alternate energy sources, and process-
ing of heavy oils.

FUTURE TRENDS
Reaction engineering is now a mature discipline.
It evolved in the 1940's from the ideal reactor concepts
on one side and from the systematic treatment of
transport-kinetic intractions on catalyst particles on
the other. Mathematical approaches of the early 1960's
established the foundation on which the principles of
CRE dealing with transport-kinetic interactions can
be applied to a vast variety of fields. The unification
of CRE approaches has been achieved. Increased com-
puterization allows its application in complex prob-
lems. What of the future then? What will be the re-
search directions and where, i.e., in which field, will
the major industrial impact be felt? What kind of CRE
should be taught and practiced in developing coun-
tries?
Many would argue that the future of CRE is in
high technologies. However, high technology must be
carefully defined. Often biotechnology, high technol-
ogy, high performance composites, semiconductor ma-
terials, high performance ceramics, optical fibers
technology, pharmaceuticals, etc., are understood to
be high technology. However, that is not necessarily
so. For example, a fully automated modern steel plant


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








may involve much more sophistication, control, and
automation than a primitive autoclave for curing of
thermosetting composites or for production of cells.
Really, what is often meant by high-tech is high-value
added products, i.e., relatively new technologies that
produce specialty, often low volume, products the
price of which is an order of magnitude above their
manufacturing costs! We have no argument with the
premise that CRE will be needed and will prosper by
advancing high technology products. However, we are
not at all convinced that it will play a significant role
in development of high-value added products unless
they also happen to be high technology products. The
reason for this is simple and has nothing to do with
science or engineering, but with economics. In produc-
ing a high value added product (a miracle drug, a
super fast semi-conductor chip, etc.) the bottle-neck is
in the science. Once a bench scale scientist makes a
breakthrough, scale-up factors required are small and
the efficiency of manufacturing is not critical since the
profit margin is huge. This is the reason why a de-
mand for CRE specialists in biotechnology has so far
failed to materialize. Very specific, low-volume prod-
ucts are being sought, and engineering involvement is
small and secondary to that of scientists. This will
change when competitiveness in this area increases
and/or when large scale biomass conversion is attemp-
ted.
The CRE research directions in the U.S. invari-
ably follow the funding trends. Therefore in the short-
term future (five years) one can expect increased em-
phasis on

aerosol reactors in production of ceramics and optical fi-
bers
batch processing, control and optimization
biotechnology
chemical vapor deposition in preparation of semiconductor
materials such as MOCVD of gallium arsenide, etc.
combustion and generation of particulates
reaction engineering of composite materials
reaction engineering in microgravity
reaction engineering of specialty polymers
zeolite catalysts, catalyst preparation and quantification,
modifications with transition metals, studies of configura-
tional diffusion.

Over the long run we well know that trends are
cyclic in nature. The energy problem has not been
solved permanently. Eventually petroleum based
products will need replacement and synthetic fuels,
renewable energy sources, and new materials will be
needed. The currently dormant research on

coal gasification and liquefaction
methanol synthesis


methanol to chemicals conversion
multiphase reactors
synfuels from various sources, etc.

will be resurrected in addition to the currently popular
areas.
All of the above areas seem to be more process
oriented than the CRE research in the 1960's and
1970's that concentrated on analysis of various reactor
types. The trend of remarrying CRE concepts with
process chemistry is probably here to stay. It is of
course possible to make further dramatic improve-
ments in our understanding and a priori design of
various multiphase reactor types that are today de-
signed based on empirical relations. The tools neces-
sary to achieve this are available and consist of im-
proved non-invasive technology for monitoring flow
patterns and concentration profiles (gamma cameras
and sources, x-ray and positron emission tomography,
optical fibers, etc.) and of supercomputers that make
difficult flow calculations possible. However, it is un-
likely that any society will in the present climate allo-
cate the resources necessary to tackle with the best
available tools a problem such as fluidized bed or
trickle-bed a priori design. If these breakthroughs
happen, and they are possible based on our currently
available arsenal of tools, they will occur in relation to
the development of a particular technology that relies
on such a reactor type. Research funding will be di-
rected toward the development of new processes for
pollution abatement and acid rain elimination, for the
development of improved data bases in treatment of
hazardous chemicals, for processes for hazardous
chemicals elimination, for expert systems for reactor
safety, etc.
In the near future we can expect chemical reaction
engineers to develop a second specialty (a "minor," so
to speak) in a scientific discipline such as microbiology,
electronics, ceramics, materials, etc. Then they will
work very effectively together with scientists in the
early stages of developing new processes. Capable
managers with technical backgrounds will realize that
productivity and the success rate in developing new
processes can be increased dramatically by letting
chemical reaction engineers work with scientists on a
new process or new material from the very conception
of new ideas. Thus, we will see significant involve-
ment of CRE in new areas such as materials, semicon-
ductors, ceramics, specialty polymers, and food and
feed. Major industrial impact will be in scale-up and
design of flexible processes that can meet changing
customer needs. All high technology areas will benefit
from CRE, and they include "old" technologies, large
scale commodity and specialty chemicals, petroleum


FALL 1987









processing, and all the new high-value products where
a high level of competition exists.
This implies that developing countries must teach
well the CRE principles, but should not try to do re-
search in all of the areas. Their research should be
directed toward improving and further developing the
technologies for which there are economic advantages
and incentives. A close and productive academic-in-
dustrial relationship is the only way for developing
nations to achieve a competitive position in certain
industries.
Since reaction engineering is considered a mature
discipline, it is clear that higher returns are expected
by application of the CRE principles in emerging
technologies than by further advancement of these
principles. It is often argued that traditional ap-
proaches in studying a specific reactor type in a gen-
eral sense bring diminishing returns and incremental
improvements in our knowledge base. This might be
true if one insists on using old fashioned experimental
and mathematical tools. However, as argued earlier,
our scientific base in instrumentation and large scale
computation has reached a new dimension. If we
would bring these new tools to bear on multiphase
reactor problems, advances paralleling those in
medicine would be possible. At present, the limiting
factor is a lack of funds since generic reactor analysis
cannot be compared in appeal to health care.
Nevertheless, research of various reactor types will
continue, with increased emphasis on novel devices
that combine reaction and adsorption in one unit (e.g.,
reactive distillation, chromatographic reactor, super-
critical reaction and separation). We should also re-
member that unexpected breakthroughs are possible
at any time and in any area. After all, who could pre-
dict the timing of Danckwerts residence time distribu-
tion concepts and their impact on CRE that lasted
several decades? CRE will remain a vital field and a
fun field to do research in and to practice in industry.
Steady progress will be made, more science will be
brought back to CRE, and major breakthroughs are
possible. These are the conclusions of our recent En-
gineering Foundation Conference on reaction en-
gineering [14].


SUMMARY
Chemical reaction engineering is a mature disci-
pline that has emerged from the treatment of pe-
troleum related catalytic reaction problems and has
been broadened to the point that the word chemical
should be dropped from its title. Reaction engineering
principles deal with the transport phenomena-kinetic


interactions and are general in nature and applicable
to all types of processing and all phenomena where,
in conversion of raw materials to useful products or to
energy, reactions occur. Reaction engineering as a
discipline has profited immensely from the availability
of increased computational power and from the exis-
tence of data base management. Its further evolution
is expected to make its dependence on various sci-
ences (chemistry, biochemistry, materials, etc.) even
stronger and could possibly result in formation of vari-
ous CRE subdisciplines.
Reaction engineering will continue to prosper in
the future by relying more on basic chemistry in reac-
tion pathway development and by incorporating basic
hydrodynamic principles in reactor design. Empirical
correlations will gradually be replaced by relations
based on first principles. In spite of all these predicted
specific advances, however, the most valuable re-
source will remain the reaction engineering methodol-
ogy itself. Perhaps the ultimate achievement will be
the development of expert systems for reaction en-
gineering which will combine the fundamental ap-
proaches of science with the experience, instinct and
intuition of many great reaction engineers. These sys-
tems will then be able to lead us in the design of safe,
optimal reactors based on a minimum data set.


REFERENCES
1. Denbigh, K. G., Trans., Faraday Soc., 40, 352 (1944).
2. Hougen, O. A. and K. M. Watson, Chemical Process Princi-
ples, Part 3: Kinetics and Catalysis, J. Wiley, N. Y., 1947.
3. First Symposium on CRE 1957, Proc. 12th Meeting and the
European Federation of Chemical Engineering, Chem. Eng.
Sci., 8 (1958).
4. Levenspiel, 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering, J. Wiley,
N.Y., 1962.
5. Brdtz, W. Grundriss der chemischen Reaktions-technik. Ver-
lag Chemie, Berlin, 1958.
6. Kramers, H. and K. R. Westerterp, Elements of Chemical
Reactor Design and Operations, Acad. Press, N.Y., 1963.
7. Levenspiel, 0., Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 1821 (1980).
8. Dudukovic, M. P., Chem. Eng. Progress, 78(2), 25 (1982).
9. Aris, R. and A. Varma, The Mathematical Understanding of
Chemical Engineering Systems: Selected Papers of N. R.
Amundson, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980.
10. Froment, G. and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analysis
and Design, J. Wiley, N.Y., 1979.
11. Fogler, H. S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1986.
12. Nauman, B. E., Chemical Reactor Design, J. Wiley, N.Y.,
1987.
13. Carberry, J. J., Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineer-
ing, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976. pp. 8-10.
14. Second Engineering Foundation Conference on Chemical
Reaction Engineering (M. P. Dudukovid, F. Krambeck and P.
A. Ramachandran, Chairmen), Sheraton, Santa Barbara, CA,
March 8-13, 1987. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









M book reviews



MULTIPHASE CHEMICAL: REACTORS:
THEORY, DESIGN, SCALE-UP
edited by Agostino Gianetto, Peter L. Silveston;
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave.,
New York 10016 (1986); 682 pages, $110
Reviewed by
Y. T. Shah
University of Pittsburgh
This volume was developed from notes prepared
for a short course on the theory, design, and scale-up
of multiphase reactors held in 1982. The course was
given by a group of researchers in multiphase reactors
or in some closely related areas of study.
The first chapter (by A. Gianetto) deals with the
classification, characteristics, and uses of these types
of reactors. Chapters 2 to 5 (by J. C. Charpentier) are
extensive reviews of various aspects of gas-liquid
reactors. They cover: mass transfer coupled with
chemical reaction (Chap. 2); solubility and diffusivity
of gases in liquids (Chap. 3); measurement of gas-liq-
uid parameters (Chap. 4); and simulation of industrial
and pilot scale gas-liquid absorbers (Chap. 5). Gener-
ally, the term multi-phase reactors implies reactors
with more than two phases. The author, at the intro-
duction of Chapter 2, explains the reason for including
the gas-liquid (two-phase) system in a monograph de-
voted to multiphase reactors, on the basis of its simi-
larity with the latter types of systems.
Chapters 6 and 7 (by P. L. Silveston) deal with
diffusion and reaction within porous catalysts, and
with the structure of the solid phase and its influence
on diffusivity. These classical subjects can also be
classified under the two-phase category.
Chapters 8 to 12 introduce the core of the book.
They treat in detail three phase fixed bed reactors,
with special attention paid to trickle-bed reactors. Hy-
drodynamics (Chap. 8), Mass Transfer (Chap. 9), Solid
Wetting (Chap. 10), Heat Transfer (Chap. 11), and
Scale-Up of Trickle-Beds (Chap. 12) are developed by
H. Hofmann, J. C. Charpentier, J. M. Smith, G.
Baldi, and A. Gianetto, respectively. The general
evaluation of three-phase reactors is completed with
Chapters 13 to 15, where the hydrodynamics and mass
transfer in bubble columns (by H. Hofmann), hydro-
dynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer in stirred
slurry reactors (by G. Baldi) and modeling of slurry
reactors (by J. M. Smith) are presented.


All through these chapters correlations and models
are critically reviewed, with each author developing
his subject in his own style. Hofmann presents his
chapters in a concise and clear way, with appropriate
recommendations whenever possible. Mass transfer in
fixed beds, developed by Charpentier, is written with
numerous references and correlations of experimental
data. Smith presents the wetting factor in trickle-beds
and modeling of slurry reactors in two short chapters.
Heat transfer in three-phase fixed beds and hydro-
dynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer in stirred
slurry reactors by Baldi, and the scale-up of trickle-
bed reactors by Gianetto, are written in a manner
that can be easily followed by the reader.
In addition, there are three chapters in which the
design and scale-up of multiphase reactors for Hydro-
treating (by A. Gianetto and P. L. Silveston), Coal
Liquefaction (by P. L. Silveston) and Biological Pro-
cesses (by M. Moo-Young) are evaluated. In particu-
lar, the last chapter puts formally under the
framework of multiphase reactors an important area
of research not included in previous books about the
present subject.
The goal of this monograph, as stated by the
editors, is to present the dominant physical processes
occurring in the most widely used three-phase reac-
tors, and to provide models for their scale-up. Since
there are several authors, the reader faces different
styles of presentation as well as some overlapping
(claimed unavoidable and even desirable by the
editors). Part of the presented material is an enriched
version of previous contributions by some of the au-
thors to already published seminars and journal re-
views.
The production quality of text could have been im-
proved: there are many typographical errors. Despite
being published in 1986, the monograph's references
(with a few exceptions) reach only until 1982. The lit-
erature in this area grows at such a rapid rate that
the book should have come out just after the confer-
ence to create its maximum impact. The book will be
particularly useful for those researchers who have to
deal with multiphase reactors, and who need an over-
view of the whole area. The monograph provides sub-
stantial contributions that will be helpful for those
facing this subject for the first time. For those re-
searchers familiar with multiphase reactors, the book
provides another set of review that complements
the already available excellent monographs in the
area. O


FALL 1987


L_


1









COMBUSTION ENGINEERING
Continued from page 199.

aided design methods in U. S. industry, with em-
phasis on clean and efficient use of low-grade fuels.
The approach is to integrate kinetic and mechanistic
data, physical/chemical fuel property data, and pro-
cess performance characteristics into comprehensive
state-of-the-art computer models to be used in the
simulation, design and optimization of advanced com-
bustion processes. The underlying philosophy is that
a fundamental systems approach applied to carefully
selected systems will have wide application to many
important combustion problems. The products of the
new center will include: (1) new computer-aided-de-
sign combustion technology, (2) new understanding of
combustion mechanisms and their relation to fuel
properties, (3) improved process strategies, and (4)
students educated in the fundamentals of combustion
engineering who can solve a wide range of problems.
Program. Research projects are focused in six fun-
damental areas: (1) fuels characterization and reaction
mechanisms, (2) fuel minerals, fouling and slagging,
(3) pollutant formation and control, (4) comprehensive
model development, (5) process characteristics/model
evaluation, and (6) exploratory areas. The first five
areas are the key elements needed for complete de-
sign, optimization and control of advanced technology
for combustion processes. The following three re-
search subjects, specifically identified by a blue ribbon
panel as among the potentially most productive for
the near-term, are receiving particular emphasis: (1)
comprehensive and generalized modeling of coal com-
bustion processes, (2) identification of the relation-
ships between chemical/physical properties of fuels at
the molecular level and reaction processes, and (3)
fundamentals of formation and control of sulfur and
nitrogen emissions. Exploratory research presently
includes hazardous waste disposal and may expand in
the future to fluidized beds, catalytic combustion, or
catalytic reduction of NOx. The heart of the center's
research program presently consists of about thirteen
research projects at BYU and U of U, funded on the
basis of excellence and pertinence to the focus/subject
areas, as well as eight research projects funded by a
consortium of companies through the center. Some of
the key investigators involved in some of these pro-
jects are listed in Table 4.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

The Executive Advisory Council (Table 2), consist-
ing of highly placed executives and professionals, pro-


vides essential direction on the focus of the center's
research and academic programs. Besides financial
support, the Technical Associates of the center (Table
3) participate through representation in the Technical
Review Committee and through attendance at the
ACERC Annual Review. Visits and interchanges of
students and faculty with industrial professionals of
these companies and laboratories are also planned.
Center funds will provide half-support for a visiting
industrial research fellow on a continuing basis. To
promote technology transfer, an annual review and a
biannual technical conference are held on campus with
presentations on advanced combustion from academia,
government and industry. The center also dissemi-
nates new information through annual technical re-
ports, journal publications, presentations at meetings,
technical workshops, and computer networking.

ACADEMIC PROGRAM

The objective is to educate students in engineering
and scientific fundamentals using the systems ap-
proach in a way that will prepare them to solve a wide
range of problems. Fellowship support is provided for
4-5 graduate and 8-10 undergraduate students. A com-
bination of 3-4 new and 20 currently available courses
among six departments in four colleges at the two
universities provide a broad basis for both general and
specific education in combustion-related science and
engineering. At the undergraduate level, students re-



TABLE 4
Key Investigators: ACERC


INVESTIGATOR
Calvin H. Bartholomew, ChE, BYU
William C. Hecker, Chem. Eng., BYU
David M. Grant, Chemistry, U of U
Ronald J. Pugmire, Fuels Eng., U of U
George Hill, Chem. Eng., U ofU
Henk Meuzelaar, Biomaterials
Profiling Center, U of U
Milton R. Lee, Chemistry, BYU

Angus Blackham, Chemistry, BYU
John W. Cannon, Mech. Eng, BYU
David W. Pershing, Chem. Eng.,
UofU
Philip J. Smith, Chem. Eng., BYU
L. Douglas Smoot, Chem. Eng. BYU
Mike Stephensen, Civil Eng., BYU
Paul O. Hedman, Chem. Eng., BYU
Geoffery Germane, Mech. Eng., BYU


AREA OF EXPERTISE
Catalysis, Surface properties
of coal and chars
NMR characterization of fuels

Coal characterization and
properties correlation

Chromatographic analysis of
fuels
Fouling, slagging, minerals,
chemical analysis
Pollutant formation and sub-
models
Comprehensive model develop-
ment
Graphics code development
Process characteristics and
diagnostics


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








ceive general exposure to systems, energy, and en-
vironmental engineering in the form of senior elec-
tives; a new undergraduate program option will be
established in chemical engineering at BYU. Graduate
students receive a more specific education in such top-
ics as combustion science and engineering, kinetics,
physical and chemical structure of solids and fuels,
and process modeling and control. Selected courses,
seminars, and ad hoc seminars from visiting industrial
lecturers at both universities are offered to students
in a coordinated curriculum. Efforts are being made
to optimize the use of remote circuit TV and a shuttle-
bus system between the two campuses. Graduate and
undergraduate participation in combustion research is
also stimulated by research fellowships and assis-
tantships. A continuing education program is being
organized to serve the needs of industrial engineers
and scientists for professional development in combus-
tion related subjects and to train them in the use of
simulation codes using state-of-the-art computer
graphics workstations in our new Computations
Center.

MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE FIRST YEAR
During the first year of its existence, the center
initiated and funded thirteen new projects, purchased
a new Convex Mini Supercomputer, and completed
construction of a new computations laboratory that
features state-of-the-art work stations for computer
code development and demonstration. A proposal for
a link to the NSF-supported San Diego Cray for run-
ning these codes was submitted to NSF and accepted.
Workshops on comprehensive modeling, fouling and
slagging, and other advanced combustion topics were
conducted; organizational meetings for ACERC facul-
ty, the Executive Advisory Council, and the Technical
Review Committee were held; working groups involv-
ing prominent scientists and engineers in each of the
thrust areas were organized; visits were made to
other cooperating laboratories, including Sandia Na-
tional Laboratories, for purposes of establishing col-
laboration; and a number of prominent engineers and
scientists were invited to lecture in the center.
Significant progress was made on twenty-one re-
search projects in the six thrust areas of research
presently emphasized in the center. These projects
included eight active research projects funded by the
foundational consortium grant. A summary of the ac-
complishments of the ACERC and consortium pro-
jects can be obtained from the author. Consortium
projects were active for the entire fiscal year, while


ACERC projects were generally initiated in Sep-
tember, 1986, and progress thus covers only an eight
month period. Even so, several important accomplish-
ments are noted. Of particular significance was the
development and demonstration of a 3-D combustion
code for non-reacting, gaseous flows. Work on a sig-
nificantly improved radiation submodel was success-
fully completed, while submodel elements for SOx-sor-
bent capture, fouling-slagging and carbon nonequilib-
rium were identified. Further evaluation was com-
pleted on an NOx submodel and a comprehensive 2-D
combustion code (PCGC-2) previously developed in
the combustion laboratory. A new algorithm for
graphical representation of combustion model predic-
tions was developed. Standard ACERC coals were
identified, and significant progress was made in
characterizing and documenting the physical, chemical
and structural properties of several of these coals.
Facilities were designed and/or under construc-
tion for study of coal devolatilization, char oxidation,
and in situ CARS study of flames. Development of
submodels and collection of experimental data for SOx
removal and hazardous waste combustion were also
initiated. Advanced chromatographic methods were
developed for separation of and structural assignment
to hydrocarbon fragments from coal extracts of six
ACERC coals. Time-resolved Curie-point pyrolysis
mass spectrometer studies of a Pittsburgh #8 coal re-
vealed an aromatic distillable fraction, a long chain
aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction showing thermoplastic
degradation characteristics and a vitrinite-like
phenolic fraction exhibiting thermosetting degrada-
tion behavior. A new solid state nuclear magnetic
resonance spectroscopy technique was developed for
aromatic ring structural analysis in coals.
Other accomplishments through the spring of 1987
included the hiring of center secretarial and adminis-
trative staff, design and production of a brochure,
publication of internal and external newsletters, de-
sign and initial construction of new laboratories, and
a campaign to increase industrial funding/participa-
tion. An educational (academic) program was or-
ganized to include new coursework, options, and fel-
lowship programs in combustion-related areas at the
two universities. An annual review meeting was held
March 5-6, 1987, at BYU involving over one hundred
participants from industry, government, academia,
and the center. The initial response to the progress
during the first year was generally enthusiastic. Thus,
it appears that ACERC is off to a good start while
combustion research is "heating up" at the BYU and
the U of U campuses. [l


FALL 1987









REVIEW: Injection Molding
Continued from page 173.
plains the methodology of process control. This chap-
ter bears some similarity to Chapter Three, but is
much more thorough and useful.
The last section (Part III) is concerned with data
bases and contains Chapter Twelve. It is one of the
more useful chapters in the book as it describes the
importance to the designer of having data banks avail-
able containing the physical properties in both the
solid and molten phases of each thermoplastic. This
data should be readily available in both the part design
and process simulation phases and must be stored in
the computer system. The chapter contains an over-
view of the development of the present data bases,
including the types of data available in present sys-
tems and future trends.
In summary, there are a number of useful chapters
in the book, but unfortunately the connection between
chapters is not readily apparent. For the inexperi-
enced engineer, it would be difficult to assemble the
appropriate knowledge from this book and then apply
it to process control or mold design. The book would
be more useful if a section on principles of injection
molding, including the fluid mechanics of mold filling
and its connection to the properties of a part, were
included at the beginning of the book. O


TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Continued from page 177.
pleted these courses they will know what to look for
when they encounter new problems, and they will
have acquired the tools necessary to solve a great
many of them.
REFERENCES

1. Stephan Whitaker, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Krieger
1981.
2. G. K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cam-
bridge, 1967.
3. V. L. Streeter, Fluid Dynamics, McGraw Hill, 1948.
4. Horace Lamb, Hydrodynamics, Cambridge, 1932.
5. Hermann Schlichting, Boundary-Layer Theory, McGraw-Hill,
1968.
6. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, Wiley, 1960.
7. Milton Van Dyke, Perturbation Methods in Fluid Mechanics,
Parabolic, 1975.
8. Milton Van Dyke, Course Notes for ME 206, Similitude in
Engineering Mechanics, January 1978.
9. G. I. Taylor, "The Formation of a Blast Wave by a Very In-
tense Explosion," Proc. Roy. Soc. A., 201, pp. 159-186.
10. P. G. Drazin and W. H. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability, Cam-
bridge, 1981.
11. Andreas Acrivos and G. I. Taylor, Phys. Fluids, 5, p. 387
(1962). O


MICROGRAVITY
Continued from page 193.
gineers to develop entirely new processes, to under-
stand current unit operations more thoroughly, or to
adapt earth-based unit operations for the demanding
environment of space.

REFERENCES

1. Allen, D. T., and D. Pettit, Symposium on Zero Gravity Pro-
cessing, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Houston, 1985.
2. Subramanian, R. S., and R. Cole, Symposium on Transport
Phenomena in Space Processing, AIChE Annual Meeting,
New York, 1987.
3. NASA Technical Memorandum 89607, "Microgravity Science
and Applications Program Tasks," NASA Office of Space Sci-
ence and Applications, Washington D.C., February 1987.
4. NASA Technical Memorandum 89608, "Microgravity Science
and Applications Bibliography," NASA Office of Space Science
and Applications, Washington, D.C. January 1987.
5. Naumann, R. J., and H. W. Herring, "Materials Processing
in Space: Early Experiments," NASA SP-443, 1980.
6. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Publication, "Micrograv-
ity Science and Applications: Experimental Apparatus and
Facilities," Washington, D.C.
7. Potard, C., and P. Dusserre, "Contactless Positioning, Man-
ipulation and Shaping of Liquids by Gas Bearing for Micro-
gravity Applications," Adv. Space Res., 4(5), 105-108 (1984).
8. Ray, C. S., and D. E. Day, "Description of the Containerless
Melting of Glass in Low Gravity," SAMPE Tech. Conf. Ser.,
15, 135 (1983).
9. Doremus, R. H., "Glass in Space," in Materials Science in
Space (B. Feuerbacher et al., Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1986,
p. 447.
10. Doremus, R. H., "Glass Shell Fabrication Possibilities as
Viewed by a Glass Scientist," J. Vac. Sci. Tech., A3, 1279
(1985).
11. Swanson, L. W., "Optimization of Low Gravity Float Zone
Crystal Growth," M.S. Thesis, University of California, Los
Angeles, 1983.
12. Naumann, R. J., Marshall Flight Center Space Science Labo-
ratory Preprint Series No. 86-137, June 1986.
13. Shankar, N., and R. S. Subramanian, "The Slow Axisymmet-
ric Thermocapillary Migration of an Eccentrically Placed Bub-
ble inside a Drop in Zero Gravity," J. Colloid Interface Sci-
ence, 94, 258-275 (1983).
14. Snyder, R. S., P. H. Rhodes, T. Y. Miller, F. J. Micale, R.
V. Mann, and G. V. F. Seaman, "Polystyrene Latex Separa-
tions by Continuous Flow Electrophoresis on the Space Shut-
tle," Sep. Sci. Tech., 22, 157-185 (1986).
15. Saville, D. A., and 0. A. Palusinski, "The Theory of Elec-
trophoretic Separations. I: Formulation of a Mathematical
Model," AIChE J., 32, 207-214 (1986).
16. Saville, D. A., 0. A. Palusinski, R. A. Graham, R. A. Mosher,
and M. Bier, "The Theory of Electrophoretic Separations. II:
Construction of a Numerical Simulation Scheme," AIChE J.,
32, 215-223 (1986).
17. Sacco, A., L. S. Sand, D. Collette, K. Dieselman, J. Crowley,
and A. Feitelberg, "Zeolite Crystal Growth in Space," AIChE
Spring National Meeting, Houston, 1985.
18. Cherry, R. S., and E. T. Papoutsakis, "Hydrodynamic Effects
on Cells in Agitated Tissue Culture Reactors," Bioprocess
Engr., 1, 29-41 (1986). O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













r THE UNIVERSITY OF flKRON
flkron,OH 44325
DRN


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY


RESEARCH INTERESTS


G.A. ATWOOD ...................................................................................................... Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption.
J.M. BERTY ......................................................................................................... Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Proccesses.
H.M CHEUNG ................................................................ ................................ Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques.
S.C. CHUANG ...................................................................................................... Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion.
J.R. ELLIO TT ............................................................................................................ Therm odynam ics, M material Properties.
*G ESKAM AN I ..................................................................................................... W aste W after Treatm ent.
L.G FO CHT ............................................................................................................ Fixed Bed A dsorption, Process Design.
H.L. GREENE ....................................................................................................... Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing.
S. LEE ........................................ .......... ............ ................................................ Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Com puter Applications.
R.W. ROBERTS ........................................................................................................ Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design.
M .S. W ILLIS .............................................................................................................. M ultiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenom ena.
*Adjunct professor





Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $6,000. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $14,000. These
awards include waiver of tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship
application is February 15.






ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
Chairman, Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Akron
Akron, Ohio 44325


FALL 1987






:1:


I1 Il


Sel


I.


1 :






Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K.T. CHUANG Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis.

P.J. CRICKMORE Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics.

I.G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis.

D.G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications.

M.R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors.

R.E. HAYES Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media.

D.T. LYNCH Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design.

J.H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics.

A.E. MATHER Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.

A.J. MORRIS, Ph.D. (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne): Process Control, Al
and Expert Systems.


For further information contact:


W.K. NADER Dr. Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics.

K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomena,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics.

F.D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Upgrading.

D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics.

D.B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics.

J.T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media.

S.L. SHAH Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory.

S.E. WANKE Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics.

R.K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control.

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic
with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate pro-
grams. Financial support is available through government grants and contracts, teaching, and
research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full oppor-
tunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in
most of the research areas listed below.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


MILAN BIER, Professor
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport
HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics
Polyelectrolyte Solutions
WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing
EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications
JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and
Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology
SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com-
bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation
Processes, Applied Mathematics
GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical
Modeling of Transport, Bioreactors
ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor
(Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical)
Ph.D., UCLA, 1983
Boundary Layers, Stability, Mass and Heat Transport



Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.


For further information,
write to:
Dr. Thomas W. Peterson
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant
Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols
ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation.
Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion
JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide
Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phe-
nomena
DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial
and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962.
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing










Arizona State University
Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D.
Degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biomedical Engineering, and
Materials Engineering
Research Specializations include:
ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION *
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS
* BIOINSTRUMENTATION BIOMATERIALS CARDIO-
VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS *
CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE
MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE
PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION *
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES *
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly respected faculty:
James R. Beckman (Arizona) James B. Koeneman (Western Australia)*
Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) Stephen J. Krause (Michigan)
Neil S. Berman (Texas) James L. Kuester (Texas A&M)
David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)*
Llewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin)
Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)*
Veronica A. Burrows (Princeton) Vernon E. Sater (lIT)
Timothy S. Cale (Houston) Milton C. Shaw (Cincinnati)*
Ray W. Carpenter (UC/Berkeley) Kwang S. Shin (Northwestern)
William A. Coghlan (Stanford) James T. Stanley (Illinois)
Sandwip K. Dey (Alfred U.) Robert S. Torrest (Minnesota)
William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) Bruce C. Towe (Pennsylvania State)
R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Thomas L. Wachtel (St. Louis University)*
Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech) Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia)
David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech)*
Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley)
Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) Imre Zwiebel (Yale)
Bal K. Jindal (Stanford) *Adjunct or Emeritus Professor

Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, which is a part of the greater
Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled
in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 are in graduate study. Arizona's
year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own
cultural and recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering
Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6006

Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action
and equal opportunity in its employment, activities and programs.
r4LIU -









University of Arkansas


Department of Chemical Engineering


Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


Faculty and
Areas of Specialization

Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics,
Thermodynamics, Enhanced Oil Recovery
Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics
James R. Couper (D.Sc., Washington U.)
Process Design and Economics, Polymers
James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process
Optimization
Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and
Explosion Hazards Assessment
William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artificial Radioactivity,
Nuclear Engineering
Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas
Dispersion
Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes
Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer
Simulation
Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion,
Process Design
J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion
Behavior and Control

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT:
Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville AR 72701


LOCATION
The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is
literally surrounded by some of the most outstanding
outdoor recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a
dynamic city and serves as the center of trade, govern-
ment, and finance for the region. The city and University
offer a wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

FINANCIAL AID
Graduate students are supported by fellowships and re-
search or teaching assistantships.

FACILITIES
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility that opened in Janu-
ary, 1987, and an additional 20,000 sq. ft. of
laboratories at the Engineering Experiment Station.











CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


Graduate Studies





uc, o
ADV-NTCE



0I


Auburn University


THE FACULTY


RESEARCH AREAS


R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966)
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965)
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976)
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970)
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958)
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976)
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972)
R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973)
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978)
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973)
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981)


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Carbon Fibers and Composites
Coal Conversion
Controlled Atmosphere
Electron Microscopy
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Interfacial Phenomena
Microelectronics


Oil Processing
Process Design and Control
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Separations
Surface Science
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena


THE PROGRAM
The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and
offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes
both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national
interest, with modern research equipment available for most all
types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to
qualified students.


Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


FALL 1987


I






































Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

at BrighamYoung University, Provo, Utah


Programs ofstudy leading to theM.E., M.S. and PhD. degrees on a
beautiful campus located at the base of the Rocky Mountains.


Faculty
Calvin H. Bartholomew, Stanford, 1972
Merrill W. Beckstead, U. of Utah, 1965
Douglas N. Bennion, Berkeley, 1964
James J. Christensen, Carnegie Mellon, 1957
Richard W. Hanks. U. of Utah, 1960
John N. Harb. U. of Illinois, 1987
William C. Hecker, Berkeley, 1982
Paul 0. Hedman, BYU, 1973
John L Oscarson, U. of Michigan, 1982
William G. Pitt, U. of Wisconsin, 1987
Richard L. Rowley, Michigan State, 1978
Philip J. Smith, BYU, 1979
L. Douglas Smoot, U. of Washington, 1960
Kenneth A. Solen, U. of Wisconsin, 1974


For additional information
and application, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
350 CB
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


ResearchAreas
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena
Calorimetry
Computer Simulation
Coal Combustion and Gasification
Kinetics and Catalysis
Biomedical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Chemical Propulsion
Mathematical Modeling
Electrochemistry
Membrane Transport
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics
Process Design and Control














D C


THE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY


GRADUATE STUDIES IN
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
The Department offers programs leading to the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M.
Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas:
Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
Environmental Engineering
Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
Enhanced Oil Recovery
In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
Computer Control and Optimization of
Engineering and Bio Processes
Biotechnology and Biorheology

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.


FACULTY


The University is located in the City of Calgary,
the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world
famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter
Olympics. The city combines the traditions of the
Old West with the sophistication of a modern
urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is
110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the
Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are
readily accessible.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. P. R. Bishnoi, Crairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng.
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada


R. A. HEIDEMANN,* Head
A. BADAKHSHAN
L. A. BEHIE
D. W. BENNION**
F. BERRUTI
P. R. BISHNOI
R. M. BUTLER
M. FOGARASI**
M. A. HASTAOGLU
J. HAVLENA
A. A. JEJE*
N. E. KALOGERAKIS
A. K. MEHROTRA
M. F. MOHTADI
R. G. MOORE
P. M. SIGMUND*
J. STANISLAV
W. Y. SVRCEK
E. L. TOLLEFSON*
M. A. TREBBLE


(Wash. U.)
(Birm. U.K.)
(W. Ont.)
(Penn. State)
(Waterloo)
(Alberta)
(Imp. Coll. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(SUNY-Buffalo)
(Czech.)
(MIT)
(Toronto)
(Calgary)
(Birm. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(Texas)
(Prague)
(Alberta)
(Toronto)
(Calgary)


*On sabbetical leave during the 1987-88 academic year.
**Emeritus


FALL 1987







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,


RESEARCH INTERESTS

ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


BERKELEY...



... offers graduate programs leading to the Maste
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both prc
grams involve joint faculty-student research a
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings c
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreation
activities of California's northern coast and mour
tains.




FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soane
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720









UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-DAVIS


Program
UC Davis, with 20,000 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering, electrical and computer engi-
neering, and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.

Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Faculty and Research Areas
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne
Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control
BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota
Fluid Mechanics of Thin Film Coating, Interfacial
Phenomena
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
DAVID F. KATZ, University of California
Biomedical Engineering, Biorheology, Reproductive
Biology
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes, Kinetics


KAREN A. McDONALD, University of Maryland
Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
AHMET N. PALAZOGLU,, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute
Process Design and Process Control
ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology, Fluid Mechanics, Acoustics, Hazardous
Waste
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology, Thin Film
Technology
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media
Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical Engineering
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interface Processes
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Control
Process Design
Rheology
Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 42,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.
For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Professor Pieter Stroeve
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-2504


FALL 1987









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA



FACULTY 0


D.T. Allen
Y. Cohen
T.H.K. Frederking
S.K. Friedlander
R.F. Hicks
E.L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of-
fers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
needs. The department's national leadership is de-
monstrated by the newly established Engineering
Research Center for Hazardous Substance Control.
This center of advanced technology is com-
plemented by existing center programs in Medical
Engineering and Environmental Transport Re-
search.
Fellowships are available for outstanding ap-
plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition
and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access
to the highly regarded science programs and to a
variety of experiences in theatre, music, art and
sports on campus.


H.G. Monbouquette
K. Nobe
L.B. Robinson
0.1. Smith
V.L. Vilker
A.R. Wazzan
F.E.Yates


0 RESEARCH AREAS 0
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering


CONTACT 0
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Chairman)
Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear
Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue)
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
Science
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor
Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford)
Adsorption and Heterogeneous
Catalysis
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D.
(Cambridge)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
Forces.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D.
(Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan)
Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern)
Polymer Rheology
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley)
Theory of Surfactant Aggregates,
Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors,
Radiation Transport Analyses.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley) (Vice Chairman)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota)
Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety,
Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D.
(Minnesota)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Structure of Microemulsions.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.



THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.



For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


FALL 1987








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


at the

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY
Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F. Brady
George R. Gavalas
L. Gary Leal
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Fred H. Shair
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
W. Henry Weinberg


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparation
Catalysis
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Computational Hydrodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Polymer Physics
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems
Surface Science


for further information, write:
Professor L. Gary Leal
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















































-- I


wr~ l~





















Faculty and specializations:
Robert J. Adler
Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University
Particle separations, mixing, acid gas recovery
John C. Angus
Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan
Redox equilibria, thin carbon films, modulated electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow
Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control,
coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards
Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical modelling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke
Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions,
fine-particle processing
Nelson C. Gardner
Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau
Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions,
electrodeposition
Chung-Chiun Li
Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve University
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis, elec-
trochemistry related to electronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr.
Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University
Surface phenomena, interfacial dynamics, light scattering
Syed Qutubuddin
Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil recovery
Robert F. Savinell
Ph.D. 1977, University of Pittsburgh
Electrochemical engineering, reactor design, and simulation;
electrode processes








The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in
Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY
Robert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Sotiris Pratsinis
Neville Pinto
Stephen Thiel
Joel Weisman
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
AEROSOL ENGINEERING
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
systems.
COAL RESEARCH
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
TWO-PHASE FLOW Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Boiling. Stability and transport properties of ChUniversity Nucleof ar Enineering#1
foam. Cincinnati, OH 45221
MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.















































Clarkson


O M S. and Ph.D. programs 0 Friendly
atmosphere O Vigorous research programs
supported by government and industry
O Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa 0 Skiing.
canoeing, mountain climbing and other
recreation in the Adirondacks D Variety of
cultural activities with two liberal arts
colleges nearby 0 Twenty faculty working on
a broad spectrum of chemical engineering
research problems

Research Areas include:
O Chemical kinetics 0 Colloidal and
interfacial phenomena 0 Computer aided
design 0 Crystallization 0 Electrochemical
engineering and corrosion 0 Integrated
circuit fabrication 0 Laser-matter
interaction 0 Mass transfer 0 Materials
processing in space 0 Optimization
0 Particle separations 0 Phase
transformations and equilibria 0 Polymer
rheology and processing 0 Process
control 0 Turbulent flows 0 And more ...


Financial aid available in the form of:
O instructorships 0 fellowships 0 research
assistantships 0 teaching assistantships
O industrial co-op positions




For more details, please write to:

Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676







Graduate Study at


Clemson University

_- In Chemical Engineering


Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hik-
ing in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving
to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
Fn processing, composite materials, process automa-
tion, computer simulation of fluids, thermody-
namics, catalysis, membrane separation, pollution
control, and pulp and paper operations what
more do you need?

The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 12,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.

The Faculty
Forest C. Alley William F. Beckwith Stephen S. Melsheimer
William B. Barlage, Jr. Dan D. Edie Joseph C. Mullins
Charles H. Barron, Jr. Charles H. Gooding Amod A. Ogale
John N. Beard, Jr. James M. Haile Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies
Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
CLEhdSON
Clemson University NmtEPSZT
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER

GRADUATE STUDY
IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs


* FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0


DAVID E. CLOUGH, Associate Professor,
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Ph.D. (1975), University of Colorado
Fluidization, Process Control
ROBERT H. DAVIS, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1983), Stanford University
Fluid Dynamics of Suspensions, Biotechnology

JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D. (1974), Stanford University
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science

R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Colorado
Biophysics, Bioengineering

PAUL G. GLUGLA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Illinois
Ionic Solutions, Thermodynamics,
Membrane Separations

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1984), Purdue University
Biochemical Engineering, Bioseparations,
Bioreactor Design


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1968), University of California, Berkeley
Membranes, Geophysical Fluid Mechanics, Coal
Gasification, Transport Processes in Permafrost
LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1982), Purdue University
Surface Science, Heterogeneous Catalysis,
Molecular Dynamics
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1965), Tulane University
Optimal Control and Identification of Chemical,
Biochemical, and Energy Recovery Processes
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of Minnesota
Numerical Techniques in Fluid Dynamics,
Membranes
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Chairman and
James M. and Catherine T. Patten Professor
Ph.D. (1951), University of Illinois
Economics, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of Michigan
Water Pollution Control, Solar Energy
Utilization


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











COLORADO OF


SCHOOL _


OF 0
1874

MINES oLoRo

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Themodynamic properties of gases and
liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic engi-
neering.
J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery
processing operations, heavy oil processing, ther-
mal cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating
fluids, properties of coal-derived liquids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow
calorimetry.
E. D. Sloan, Jr., Professor; Ph.D., Clemson. Phase equilib-
rium measurements of natural gas fluids and hy-
drates, thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids,
adsorption equilibria, education methods research.
R. M. Baldwin, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefac-
tion, catalysis, oil shale processing, supercritical ex-
traction.
M. S. Selim, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass
transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation
and diffusion of colloidal suspensions, heat effects
in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance
region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissoci-
ation modeling.
A. L. Bunge, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Mem-
brane transport and separations, mass transfer in
porous media, ion exchange and adsorption
chromatography.
P. F. Bryan, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Com
puter aided process design, computational thermo-
dynamics, novel separation processes, applications
of artificial intelligence/expert systems.
A. D. Shine, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., MIT. Polymer
theology and processing, composites, polymer de-
gradation, composite materials.
R. L. Miller, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal
and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil
shale processing, particulate removal with venturi
scrubbers, multiphase fluid mechanics, supercriti-
cal extraction.
J. F. Ely, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.
For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401












Colorado State University



Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.



Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:
Faculty: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
Larry Helfiore, Ph. D.,
University of Wisconsin
Bruce Dale, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Jud Harper, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Naz Karim, Ph.D.,
University of Manchester
Terry Lenz, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Jim Linden, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Carol McConica, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Vince Murphy, Ph.D.,
University of
Massachusetts Research Areas:

Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
Environmental Engineering
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems


For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
















OUR FACULTY

THOMAS F. ANDERSON
Ph.D., U. of Cal., Berkeley
JAMES P. BELL
Sc.D., MIT
DOUGLAS J. COOPER
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN
Ph.D., Cornell
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO
Ph.D., U. of Wisconsin
JAMES M. FENTON
Ph.D., U. of Illinois
G. MICHAEL HOWARD
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
HERBERT E. KLEI
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts
MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
Ph.D., Princeton
RICHARD M. STEPHENSON
Ph.D., Cornell
DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
Ph.D., U. of Michigan
ROBERT A. WEISS
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts


THE

^UNIVERSITY OF

iCONNECTICUT



Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
for Engineers and Scientists


OUR RESEARCH


CHECK US OUT


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
EXPERT SYSTEMS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
SURFACE SCIENCE
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
THERMODYNAMICS


Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
Box U-139
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019


FALL 1987


S191'











Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

at Cornell University


World-class research in...
biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
0 polymer science and engineering
0 fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design


A diverse intellectual
climate
Graduate Students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including those in chem-
istry, biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business
administration.

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
country.
A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment.


A distinguished faculty
Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A. Clark
Claude Cohen
Robert K. Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe
Robert L. Von Berg
Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.
For further information
write to:

Professor Claude Cohen
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201

RE


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Chemical En ineerin at

The FacultyDel
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
Robert L. Pigford
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Andrew L. Zydney

The University of Delaware offers M.CE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

New York For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Philadelphia Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Batimore Newark, Delaware 19716
Washington The University of
IDelaware






















V


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OF FLORIDA


Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD


For more information please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


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Gainesville, Florida


Faculty
Tim Anderson Semiconductor Processing,
Thermodynamics/Seymour S. Block
Biotechnology/Ray W. Pahien Transport
Phenomena, Reactor Design/ A. L. Fricke
Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
/Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface
Science/lew Johns Applied Mathematics/Dale
Kirmse Computer Aided Design, Process
Control, Energy Systems/Hong H. Lee
Reaction Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing/Gerasimos lyberatos Biochemical
Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
/Frank YMA Computer-aided learning/Ranga
Narayanan Transport Phenomena, Space
Processing/John O'Connell Statistical
Mechanics, Thermodynamics/Dinesh 0. Shah
Enhanced Oil Recovery, Biomedical
Engineering/Spyros Svoronos Process
Control/Gerald Vestermann-Clark
Electrochemical Engineering, Membrane
Phenomena.


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GEORGIA TECH
A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia


Graduate Studies

in Chemical

Engineering


Faculty
Agaram S. Abhiraman
Pradeep K. Agrawal
Yaman Arkun
Eric J. Clayfield
William R. Ernst
Larry J. Forney
Charles W. Gorton
Jeffery S. Hsieh
Michael J. Matteson
John D. Muzzy
Gary W. Poehlein
Ronnie S. Roberts
Ronald W. Rousseau
Robert J. Samuels
F. Joseph Schork
A. H. Peter Skelland
Jude T. Sommerfeld
D. William Tedder
Amyn S. Teja
Mark G. White
Jack Winnick
Ajit Yoganathan


Research Interests
Adsorption
Aerosols
Biomedical engineering
Biochemical engineering
Catalysis
Composite materials
Crystallization
Electrochemical engineering
Environmental chemistry
Extraction
Fine particles
Interfacial phenomena


Physical properties
Polymer science and engineering
Polymerization
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor analysis and design
Separation processes
Surface science and technology
Thermodynamics
Transport phenomena


For more information write:

Dr. Ronald W. Rousseau
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100


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What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty o your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


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AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH:
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery


FACULTY:
Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Harry Deans


Abe Dukler
Demetre Economou
Chuck Goochee
Ernest Henley


Dan Luss
Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407 and ask for Hazi


"It's great


Jim Richardsc
Frank Tiller
Richard Wills.
Frank Worley


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U IC Chemical Engineering Department

Graduate Study and Research

MASTER OF SCIENCE AND DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor
Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965
Professor

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Associate Professor
John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor, Director of Graduate Studies
David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


Reaction engineering with primary focus on the
pyrolysis of oil shale and coal, energy
technology environmental controls
Heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry,
catalysis by supported metals, subseabed
radioactive waste disposal studies, clay
chemistry
Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer
processes, laser diagnostics

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of
fluids, solids and solutions, kinetics of liquid
reactions, solar energy
Lipid microencapsulation, adsorption and
surface reactions, membrane transport, synthetic
blood, biorheology
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical
mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures
Heterogeneous catalysis: promoted and
bifunctional catalysis, characterization of solids
and solid surfaces, heterogeneous reaction
kinetics
Transport properties of fluidized solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and
fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal
liquefaction
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modelling and optimization

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid
flow and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation
Structure sensitivity of oxide catalysts for
selective oxidation reactions, catalyst
preparation techniques, artificial intelligence
applied to descriptive kinetics


For more information: Director of Graduate Studies, Dept of Chemical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424


FALL 1987










University of Illinois


at Urbana-Champaign


The chemical engineering depart-
ment offers graduate programs
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees.

The combination of distinguished
faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests
results in exceptional opportunities
for graduate education.


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Polymerization Reactors Depropanizer
Sro C h C3
Liq.
Feed
Heaters -
Feed-
Effluent +C C
Exchanger T O **
Feed Debutonizer


Faculty
Richard C. Alkire
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Walter G. May
Richard I. Masel
Edmund G. Seebauer
Anthony J. McHugh
Mark A. Stadtherr
James W. Westwater
Charles F. Zukoski, IV


For information and application
forms write:

Department of Chemical
Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 W. California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


0










GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT




Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY


* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west
of Lake Michign
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY

* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business
and industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT


THE FACULTY

* HAMID ARASTOOPOUR
(Ph.D., IIT)
Multi-Phase flow, flow in porous media, gas technology
* RICHARD A. BEISSINGER
(D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological systems,
rheology of polymeric and biological fluids
* ALl CINAR
(Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter systems,
expert systems
* DIMITRI GIDASPOW
(Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow, separation
processes
* HENRY R. LINDEN
(Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting
* SATISH J. PARULEKAR
(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering
* J. ROBERT SELMAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemistry and electrochemical energy storage
* SELIM M. SENKAN
(Sc.D., MIT)
Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction engineering
* DARSH T. WASAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes, enhanced oil recovery
* WILLIAM A. WEIGAND
(Ph.D., IIT)
Biochemical engineering, process optimization and control


* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 50 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and
assistantships available to outstanding
students.

APPLICATIONS *

Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


FALL 1987









THE INSTITUTE OF
PAPER CHEMISTRY

is an independent graduate
school. It has an
interdisciplinary degree
program designed for B.S.
chemical engineering
graduates.
Fellowships and full tuition
scholarships are available to
qualified U.S. and Canadian
residents. Our students
receive minimum $10,000
fellowships each calendar
year.
Our research activities relate
to a broad spectrum of
industry needs, including:

process engineering
simulation and control
heat and mass transfer
separation science
reaction engineering
fluid mechanics
material science
surface and colloid science
combustion technology
chemical kinetics
For further information contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone: 414/734-9251














GRADUATE PROGRAM
FOR
M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES
IN
CHEMICAL & MATERIALS
ENGINEERING

IOfVI RESEARCH AREAS:
--Kinetics & Catalysis
--Biocatalysis & Biosensors
--Bioseparations & Biochemical Engineering
--Membrane Separations
--Particle Morphological Analysis
--Air Pollution Modeling
--Materials Science
--Surface Science & Laser Technology
--Parallel & High Speed Computing

V"'~WElSY For additional information and application write to:
I'l;lill GRADUATE ADMISSIONS
''0SE' Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319/335-1400
The University of Iowa does not discriminate in Its educational programs and activities on the
basis of race, national origin, color, religion, sex. age, or handicap. The University also affirms ts
commitment to providing equal opportunities and equal access to University facilities without
reference to affectional or associational preference. For additional Information on
nondiscrmlnation policies, contact the Coordinator of Title IX and Section 504 In the Office of
Affirmative Action, telephone 319/335-0705.202 Jessup Hall. The University of Iowa, Iowa City,
Iowa 52242.
5337/8-87


FALL 1987









IOWA


STATE


UNIVERSITY


William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes, high
temperature ceramics
John M. Eggebrecht
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and
fluid surfaces
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology, carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing, sensors
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Process modeling, simulation
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
fluidization
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011 .


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JOHNS

CHEMICAL




Timothy A. Barbari
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Separations
Diffusion in Polymers
Separation Processes

Michael J. Betenbaugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Microbial Metabolism
Recombinant DNA Technology

Marc D. Donohue
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria

Joseph L. Katz
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flames

Robert M. Kelly
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separation Processes


HOPKINS

ENGINEERING




Mark A. McHugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction

Geoffrey A. Prentice
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
Corrosion

W. Mark Saltzman
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport Phenomena
Controlled Release

William H. Schwarz
Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics of Fluids


For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
Chemical Engineering Department
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7170











































Durland Hall-Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs
*Chemical Engineering
'*Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering
*Food Science
*Environmental Engineering

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year


For More Information Write To
Professor B.G.,Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506


Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering
and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment


KANSAS
STATE
UTJIVER.SPI'Y




Full Text