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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
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TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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VO E XX NUMBER 'FAL 198.7





GRADUATE ED UGATlION ISSUE
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Editorial .



A LETTER TO

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS


As a senior you may be asking some questions about graduate
school. In this issue, we attempt to assist you in finding answers.


Should you go to graduate school?
Through the papers in this special graduate educa-
tion issue, Chemical Engineering Education invites
you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to
further your professional development. We believe
that you will find that graduate work is an exciting
and intellectually satisfying experience. We also feel
that graduate study can provide you with insurance
against the increasing danger of technical obsoles-
cence. Furthermore, we believe that graduate re-
search work under the guidance of an inspiring and
interested faculty member will be important in your
growth toward confidence, independence, and matur-
ity.

What is taught in graduate school?
In order to familiarize you with the content of some
of the areas of graduate chemical engineering, we are
continuing the practice of featuring articles on
graduate courses as they are taught by scholars at
various universities. We strongly suggest that you
supplement your reading of this issue by also reading
the articles published in previous years. If your de-
partment chairman or professors cannot supply you
with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no
charge.

What is the nature of graduate research?
In an effort to acquaint you with some of the areas
of research in chemical engineering, we are also pub-
lishing articles on the research of certain faculty mem-
bers. These articles, as well as those on course work,
are only intended to provide examples of graduate re-
search and course work. The professors who have


written them are by no means the only authorities in
those fields, nor are their departments the only de-
partments which emphasize that area of study.

Where should you go to graduate school?
It is common for a student to broaden himself by
doing graduate work at an institution other than the
one from which he recieves his bachelor's degree. For-
tunately there are many fine chemical engineering de-
partments and each of these has its own "personality"
with special emphases and distinctive strengths. For
example, in choosing a graduate school you might first
consider which school is most suitable for your own
future plans to teach or to go into industry. If you
have a specific research project in mind, you might
want to attend a university which emphasizes that
area and where a prominent specialist is a member of
the faculty. On the other hand if you are unsure of
your field of research, you might consider a depart-
ment that has a large faculty with widely diversified
interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of
projects. Then again you might prefer the atmosphere
of a department with a small enrollment of graduate
students. In any case, we suggest that you begin by
writing the schools that have provided information on
their graduate programs in the back of this issue. You
will probably also wish to seek advice from members
of the faculty at your own school.
But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that
you explore the possibility of continuing your educa-
tion in graduate school.

Sincerely,
RAY FAHIEN, Editor CEE
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611


FALL 1987










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The "approach" is to teach the basic equations of transport phe-
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OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES
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numerical methods for solving chemical engineering problems with
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INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
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To order your examination copy, please write:
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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857

Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner

Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

Chairman:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Members
SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

CENTRAL:
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology

Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York

FALL 1987


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XXI NUMBER 4 FALL 1987


LECTURE

160 American University Graduate Work, Neal R. Amundson

COURSES IN

164 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction, W. J. DeCoursey
170 Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing (VLSI),
Christos G. Takoudis
174 Transport Phenomena, Mark J. McCready, David T. Leighton
178 Nonlinear Systems, Warren D. Seider, Lyle H. Ungar
184 Polymerization Reactor Engineering, J. M. Skaates

RESEARCH ON

186 Advanced Engineering Fibers, Dan D. Edie, Michael
G. Dunham
190 Unit Operations in Microgravity, David T. Allen,
Donald R. Pettit

PROGRAMS ON

194 Chemical Process Modeling and Control,
R. Donald Bartusiak, Randel M. Price
198 Advanced Combustion Engineering, Calvin H. Bartholomew

AN EXPERIMENT IN

200 Liquid-Phase Adsorption Fundamentals, David O. Cooney

CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS

204 Modeling of Heat Transfer with Chemical Reaction: Cooking
a Potato, Kerry L. Sublette

VIEWS AND OPINIONS

210 Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future
Directions, M. P. Dudukovic

157 EDITORIAL

172,197,215 BOOK REVIEWS

167 DIVISION ACTIVITIES

168 SUMMER SCHOOL REPORT

173 POSITIONS AVAILABLE



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation, and changes of address should be sent to
CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesvil e, FL 32611. Advertising mate-
rial may be sent directly to E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. n. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, FL 32028. Copyright
1987 by the Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements
and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE
Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with
120 days of publication. Write for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to CEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.









n1 lecture


AMERICAN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE WORK*


NEAL R. AMUNDSON
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77004

UNIVERSITY PROFESSORSHIP in a good graduate
research department can be the best of all possi-
ble worlds. Nowhere else does the recipient have such
freedom to do as he pleases, a freedom he has earned
presumably by good works-teaching, research, pub-
lication, and good citizenship-both on the academic
scene and outside.
The relationship between PhD adviser and
graduate student is a unique kind of relationship that
obtains nowhere else to my knowledge. It is an im-
provement on the father-son** relationship, for there
is less stress, no competition, and resolution of prob-
lems without trauma. The PhD adviser follows the
career and success of his advisee with great pride and
suffers as much as a father when that success is not
forthcoming. It is a very enduring relationship, and I
know of no other comparable one.
What I have just described is the ideal for which
many of us strive. Yet, for some, it is a difficult path
to trod, for other things get in the way and interfere
with its fulfillment. Not all advisers and not all profes-
sors are capable or willing to participate in the ven-
ture, or understand, in fact, what is involved in proper
PhD training. Other matters and goals interfere and
thus many may miss what can be an extremely
exhilarating experience.
Not all of it is wine and roses. The road can be a
rocky one at times, for standards must be upheld, and

The PhD adviser follows the career and success
of his advisee with great pride and suffers as much
as a father when that success is not forthcoming. It
is a very enduring relationship, and I know
of no other comparable one.


*Reprinted with permission from Parameters, Spring 1987, Cullen
College of Engineering, University of Houston.
**This is a personal account, and I have never had an academic
father-daughter relationship.


Neal R. Amundson is the Cullen Professor of Chemical Engineering
and a professor of mathematics at the University of Houston. He re-
ceived his BChE (1937), his MS (1941), and his PhD (1945) from the
University of Minnesota, where he also served as a faculty member
from 1939-1977 and as head of chemical engineering from 1949-
1974. He is the author of numerous papers and six books, including
First Order Partial Differential Equations, Vol. II. He has been the
recipient of many awards.


the research that is done must stand the scrutiny of
one's peers.
For example, it is not easy to tell one's graduate
student of a few years that the work done thus far
does not constitute an acceptable thesis. It is even
more difficult to tell him after two or three years that,
at the rate he is progressing, he probably will never
finish a satisfactory dissertation. These are traumatic
times for the student, when his perceived career must
suddenly detour to some other goal.
It is even more difficult for Professor X to tell
Professor Y that the thesis of the latter's student does
not meet the standards of the profession. Such a dis-
closure is often more a criticism of Professor Y than
it is of his student.
One of the most critical and important decisions a
department can make is whom to admit to a PhD pro-
gram, for once admitted, most students plan on get-
ting a degree. Since these are very good students,
failure for them would be a new experience, an experi-
ence to which some of them have difficulty accom-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









modating. Usually, departments are too generous in
their admissions policy, and future problems are born
which rest on the shoulders of the individual adviser.
Normally, a graduate student chooses his adviser
at the end of his first year of graduate study during
which he has sat through lectures, worked problems,
attended seminars and colloquia, and has, perhaps,
had casual interaction with some of the faculty at so-
cial functions. If he's the average new graduate stu-
dent, he has chosen his graduate school after visits to
a few places-for at most a day-during which he
talks briefly with faculty and students. And he obtains
some information from his undergraduate teachers.
But, from my experience, this may be unreliable.
He probably has looked into the literature little if at
all, and since chemical engineering textbooks are
notorious in their lack of original literature references,
he probably has never heard of anyone at the school
he visits. With this paucity of information he chooses
a school for graduate study. (Some years ago, while I
was head at Minnesota, I decided to inquire of new
graduate students why they chose us for their work.
Most of the answers had nothing to do with what we
presumed was our exalted reputation. One student
allowed as how he chose us because we started later
than anyone else in the fall, and he wanted to stay in
Europe that summer as long as possible. So much for
exalted reputations.)
Now we have the graduate student in place, and
he must choose an adviser. Students most of the time
have a free choice, and that choice is the result of
faculty presentations to the whole group of new
graduate students and private consultations for those
who want more information. In the meantime, the
prospective advisee has consulted with current
graduate students who give him the lowdown on Pro-
fessor X who probably, therefore, will get no stu-
dents. With this mixed bag of information, the student
makes a "free" choice. (Random would seem to be a
better word.)
Students, of course, almost never ask important
questions like: What will be the need for a certain
kind of expertise in five years or so when I finish?
How successful has Professor X been in placing his
students in responsible positions? How many students
has Professor X produced, and where are they? Does
Professor X work at the front of his field or is he out
of it? As a matter of fact, in a good department the
problem a student chooses to do for his thesis has
little relevance to what he will be doing in a few years,
for successful chemical engineers in industry tend to
be moved about.
The important thing in a chemical engineering


One student allowed as how he chose us
because we started later than anyone else in the
fall, and he wanted to stay in Europe that summer as
long as possible. So much for exalted reputations.


graduate program is that the student learn the funda-
mentals of his craft, learn how to do engineering re-
search, and be instilled with confidence so that when
he leaves he can be successful either in academia or
industry. These things depend upon the way the stu-
dent has been advised and directed for his degree
work and over which the adviser has a great deal of
influence. At the beginning, however, the student is
naive and thinks that his destiny is in his hands, and
his alone. Ah, youth!
The new graduate student is intimidated by the
sudden thought that he is now involved in research.
He is encouraged by his adviser to read the literature,
and that's the way he spends his first summer. He
must learn the techniques and methods of his trade.
This is less difficult than he imagines, and soon he
gains some confidence with the insight that there is
less known about everything than he had thought. He
still has the nagging idea that if he must know some-
thing, it will be out there in a book someplace. The
reminder that he is in a research mode now rather
than a learning mode, and that what he wants to know
has not been done, does not comfort him much.
The student at this stage feels that he cannot com-
pete with all the experts he thinks are out there and
whose papers he must read. I suggest to him that
there are not so many out there and that, when he
finishes his dissertation, he is going to wonder where
the experts all went, for then he will know more about
that topic than anyone else.
In most cases, as the student progresses through
the second and third years, he is struggling. The ex-
periment either does not work or the theoretical
analysis is more than he can handle, and the adviser
plays a crucial role in guiding him and giving him en-
couragement and advice, suggesting ideas when they
are needed. There is a small class of students who
whistle through this period with little advice and coun-
sel from the adviser, and the adviser's main function
is to get out of the way. Such students recognize early
what they want to do, they have no lack of ideas, and
their later success is assured.
The other class of students are those who need a
partnership arrangement with the adviser. They are
good students of high quality, but for a long time re-
quire that the adviser direct their work in detail, tell-
ing them where to go and what to look for and what


FALL 1987









During all of this travail, the adviser must think of the welfare of the student. The adviser does
harm to the student if he uses him in the laboratory as a pair of hands on a fixed piece of equipment or as
a computer algorithm for a theoretical thesis. The PhD student is supposed to have contributed to knowledge
in some way, and that means he contributed. One does him no favors by allowing him to do less.


to do if they find it. With students of this class there
is a problem, for they must be told that the thesis is
their thesis, and if they mean to be called doctor, they
must earn it.
My usual procedure is to be very patient until a
time arrives when it is necessary to say that I do not
want to confer with them again until they can tell me
something about their research that I did not know.
"In fact," I say, "next time you come for a thesis dis-
cussion, I want to be surprised." One former advisee
characterized this as being thrown in the water-
swim or learn to swim or else.
While this may seem cruel, it is an astoundingly
successful ploy, for almost everyone responds to it
well. Students who, up to that point, have never pre-
sented an original idea suddenly blossom. A few do
not respond and unfortunately receive their degrees
without contributing much, and their later careers
show that they probably should not have made the
attempt.
Those who learn to swim leave the institution with
a great deal of confidence and become more successful
than they might have otherwise. A problem here re-
sides in the fact that undergraduate and new graduate
students are seldom asked to do a synthesis or are
challenged in a situation where a novel idea is needed.
Research, therefore, thrusts them into a wholly new
mode.
During all of this travail, the adviser must think
of the welfare of the student. The adviser does harm
to the student if he uses him in the laboratory as a
pair of hands on a fixed piece of equipment or as a
computer algorithm for a theoretical thesis. The PhD
student is supposed to have contributed to knowledge
in some way, and that means he contributed. One does
him no favors by allowing him to do less. He should
be proud of his thesis upon its completion.
From the advisers view, there is always one more
experiment to run or one more calculation to make on
a thesis, and he treads a fine line before using the
student for his own ends. The greatest PR a depart-
ment can promote is to have students say when they
leave, "I'm happy I came!"
Most PhD students go on to other things after
their degrees, whether in academia or industry. In
academia many of them continue to work in the area
in which they did their theses, much to the chagrin of
the adviser, for then he has once again produced still


more competitors and has probably supplied the ideas
that will be exploited for a time by the former stu-
dents.
But this is a short-lived phenomenon, and the
former students soon become interested in other
things. It is rare in industry for a new PhD to work
long in the area of his thesis, since the successful in-
dustrial chemical engineer must be flexible. For this
reason, the choice of a particular thesis topic is prob-
ably the least important of the many other factors
involved in good graduate study.
Unfortunately, engineering departments are sel-
dom composed of large numbers of the kind of re-
search advisers alluded to above. Universities are
strange places, and they attract their own particular
kind of strange characters.
Though the freedom allowed at universities is un-
limited, the proper research adviser uses this freedom
in the pursuit of proper academic goals. But the free-
dom is abused, since the fetters applied to academics
under the name of academic freedom are rather tenu-
ous. A faculty member may spend too much time in
consulting and entrepreneurship, seeking financial re-
wards the academic pursuit will not provide. He gains
financially but loses the respect of his colleagues. This
is not a wide class, but it exists and does no credit to
the institution.
In a well-run department there is a certain spirit,
a spirit difficult to imitate, initiate, develop, even to
maintain. Faculty must have respect for each other
both publicly and privately. The departments that
seem to work best are those in which faculty members
are also friends, and this requires personality traits
more highly developed than in the general population.
Regrettably, good collaborations among faculty are
rare, occurring far less frequently than outsiders
might imagine.
There is severe competition for research space,
new graduate students, money for research equip-
ment and supplies, choice teaching schedules, and
more. In a university there is always a finite, too small
pool of everything, and the selfish individual can be a
problem. It is no wonder that in some departments
rancor and cancer exist.
I was always proud of the Minnesota department,
since they were class chaps (there were no women at
that time) who always thought in terms of what was
best for the department-a rare commodity indeed.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









We called it good university citizenship, a term little
practiced in some places. There is no room in a good
operation for those who think of every action, how
does it affect me? This soon leads to discord, and in a
small group it is disastrous.
The Minnesota department had an amazing suc-
cess, since the sum of its parts was much greater than
the whole, not only because of strong intra- and inter-
departmental cooperation, but because of the superb
personalities that inhabited the place. I think this was
in large measure responsible for its almost complete
dominance of the chemical engineering scene for the
last twenty years. It is not thus all over.
For many years, there were three leading chemical
engineering departments: at Wisconsin, and at two
other large institutions. Wisconsin maintained its po-
sition over the years because it kept its eye on
academic excellence. The other two suffered from
similar problems-too much consulting, too much en-
trepreneurship, too little attention to scholarship, and
too much inbreeding. One of these is recovering, but
at a time when recovery is difficult.
When one carefully examines academic depart-
ments, some difficult questions can be posed. Why is
it that some departments, which absorb an enormous


number of new graduate students each year, produce
relatively few successful PhD's? Why is it that depart-
ments of so-called lesser rank almost never (I'm temp-
ted to say never) produce a world class practitioner?
Why is it that some presumably eminent faculty mem-
bers have never produced a really outstanding PhD?
The opportunities for outside activities are so man-
ifold and the amount of money to be made so great
that the temptations are more than some in academia
can absorb. A really successful PhD adviser with a
good stable of students cannot dissipate his efforts
outside the enterprise. The rewards for superior re-
search of both quality and quantity and the satisfac-
tion obtained from the success of former students re-
main mostly intangible, although the academic com-
munity has belatedly come to recognize quality.
In no place is graduate work so readily available
and run so efficiently and effectively as it is in the
United States; it is truly one of the great develop-
ments of this country. In France, Germany, England,
and Russia, the mechanisms are much different and
far less attractive.
American university graduate work is unique in
the world. I'm very happy and proud to have been a
part of it for over forty years. O


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FALL 1987









A course in ...


MASS TRANSFER WITH CHEMICAL REACTION


W. J. DECOURSEY
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N OWO

NDUSTRIAL USE OF absorption and stripping in
cases where simultaneous homogeneous chemical
reaction has an appreciable effect on the rate of mass
transfer goes back at least fifty years to the introduc-
tion of ethanolamine solutions to absorb hydrogen sul-
fide and carbon dioxide from gases. Theoretical de-
velopment in this area goes back about the same
length of time to the pioneering studies of Hatta [1,
2]. However, as in many other areas, industrial de-
velopment had to run ahead of theory; design was
based on empirical studies and scale-up. The first re-
ference books devoted entirely to mass transfer with
chemical reaction appeared in 1967 [3] and 1970 [4].
I began to teach a graduate course in mass transfer
in 1964. The content of that course has been modified
considerably in the intervening years. It always con-
tained some mass transfer with chemical reaction, but
the content in that area increased appreciably after
the book by Danckwerts [4] was published. In recent
years, mass transfer with chemical reaction has be-
come the dominant section of the course.


W. J. DeCoursey received his bachelor's degree from the University
of Alberta and his PhD from Imperial College, University of London,
England, both in chemical engineering. After five years with Sherritt
Gordon Mines Limited in Alberta, he spent a year in graduate study
at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He has taught chemical
engineering at the University of Saskatchewan since 1961.


. industrial development had to run ahead of
theory; design was based on empirical studies and
scale-up. The first reference books devoted entirely
to mass transfer with chemical reaction
appeared in 1967 and 1970.


COURSE CONTENT
The main topics included in the present course and
the approximate distribution of time are shown in
Table 1.
1. Mathematical Models of Mass Transfer This
topic deals with some basic principles. We consider
diffusion equations, diffusivities, and diffusion of elec-
trolytes. This consideration results in differential
equations of various degrees of complexity based on
various assumptions. Next comes mathematical de-
velopment of the most important models of convective
mass transfer: the film model of Whitman and Lewis,
the penetration model of Higbie, and the surface re-
newal model of Danckwerts. The relation of the
Danckwerts model, with its exponential distribution
function, to the Laplace transform is discussed. We
examine the available experimental evidence regard-
ing the relative accuracy of predictions from the three
basic models of convective mass transfer.

2. Enhancement of Mass Transfer Rates by
Homogeneous Chemical Reaction We begin this
topic with a simplified form of the diffusion equation
with chemical reaction

DA( 2[A]/DX2) (D[A]/3t) rA = 0 (1)

and a simplified form of Fick's Law

NA = DA([A]/x) (2)

These equations are used in subsequent develop-
ment. The rate of diffusion of component A at the
interface between liquid and gas is related to the mass
transfer coefficient for A according to the various
models. The enhancement factor, E, is defined as the
ratio of the time-mean flux of A at the interface with
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













APPROX. NO. OF
LECTURE HOURS


reaction to the time-mean flux of A at the interface
without reaction but with the same driving force and
the same hydrodynamic conditions. This reduces to
the ratio of mass transfer coefficients with and with-
out chemical reaction.
In cases where the enhancement factor is appreci-
ably more than one, several studies [5, 6, 7, 8] have
shown that in normal industrial equipment, the chem-
ical reaction rate must be large enough so that the
composition in the bulk of the liquid is very close to
equilibrium. If the reaction is irreversible, that means
that concentration of component A from the gas phase
is effectively zero in the bulk of the liquid. This
simplifies one of the boundary conditions to Eq. (1).
Hatta's analysis is still applicable to the simplest
cases, absorption with instantaneous irreversible
reaction and absorption with first-order irreversible
reaction, both according to the film model. Although
combination of Eq. (1) for first-order reaction with
the film model, Higbie model, and Danckwerts model
respectively gives expressions for the enhancement
factor which are widely different in mathematical
form, it is quite remarkable how closely the results
agree numerically when they are put in terms of
Brian's general parameter M [9] or the equivalent


TABLE 2
Effect of Increasing Reaction Rate
For mass transfer with second-order reaction,
A + zB -> products
Reaction Reaction Enhancement
Rate [B1] zone Factor
Slow [B]o negligible 1
Pseudo-lst-order [B]o broad region Eist
Intermediate <[B]o, >0 region > Eist, < Ea
Instantaneous 0 plane Ea


TABLE 1
Course Content


TOPIC
A. Mathematical Models of mass
transfer
B. Enhancement of mass transfer
rates
C. Gas-liquid systems with
chemical reaction
D. Industrial examples
E. Students' presentations


Hatta number. The asymptotes for large or small val-
ues of M by the various models are identical, and pre-
dictions of first-order enhancement factors from the
three models agree within 8.1% of the largest predic-
tion, which comes from the Danckwerts model. Such
agreement is extraordinary when the different as-
sumptions of the three models are considered.
Second-order reactions of the type
rA = k[A][B] (3)

simplify to pseudo-first-order reactions when the de-
pletion of component B (from the liquid phase) be-
comes negligible at the interface with the gas phase.
This corresponds to a comparatively slow reaction, or
a small value of the Hatta number. On the other hand,
the asymptotic limit for a second-order reaction at
high reaction rate is an instantaneous reaction. Thus
it is reasonable that expressions for the enhancement
factor for second-order irreversible reactions should


The principal mathematical difficulty in
obtaining an expression for the enhancement factor
for second-order reactions is that the rate expression
makes the differential equation non-linear. In
fact, there is a non-linear differential
equation for each chemical species.


reduce to expressions applicable to pseudo-first-order
reactions at small values of the Hatta number and to
expressions applicable to instantaneous reactions at
large Hatta numbers. A chart for comparison is shown
in Table 2.
The principal mathematical difficulty in obtaining
an expression for the enhancement factor for second-
order reactions is that the rate expression makes the
differential equation non-linear. In fact, there is a non-
linear differential equation for each chemical species.
Van Krevelen and Hoftijzer [10] found an approximate
solution for the irreversible case and the film model
by two modifications. First they combined the differ-
ential equations for species A (from the gas) and B
(from the liquid) to eliminate the non-linear rate term,
and then integrated to obtain a bridging expression
relating the concentration of component B in the liquid
bulk and at the interface. Then, realizing that the
reaction rate closest to the interface has the largest
effect on the enhancement factor, they took the con-
centration of B in the reaction term as equal to its
interfacial concentration independent of distance from
the interface. This gave a linear differential equation
which could be solved by standard methods. The ap-
proach of van Krevelen and Hoftijzer has been applied
also to enhancement factors by the Danckwerts


FALL 1987









model, both for irreversible [11] and reversible [12]
second-order reactions.
Other sub-topics discussed under enhancement in-
clude extension to other kinetic forms and relations
for reversible reactions. Desorption with reaction is
found to be similar to absorption with reaction, but
with some important differences [13]. Liquid extrac-
tion with chemical reaction is also similar. Non-
isothermal enhancement factors are important in
cases where temperatures vary appreciably between
the bulk of the liquid and the interface. The Marangoni
effect gives extra enhancement in some cases. Scale-
up from laboratory or pilot-plant experiments is an
important area in practice.

3. Gas-Liquid Systems with Chemical Reaction *
The ideas of total molarity and degree of saturation,
as introduced by Astarita and Savage [13, 15], are
discussed and applied to chemical equilibrium. These
concepts are applied also in developing an operating
line equation suitable for systems involving chemical
reaction. Design relations for a packed column are de-
rived, and an example design problem is discussed.

4. Industrial Examples The chemistry of a few
important cases, such as reactions of carbonates or
ethanolamines with hydrogen sulfide or carbon
dioxide, is discussed briefly.

ASSIGNMENTS
As you might expect, the course includes frequent
problem assignments to illustrate the theory and its
applications. A longer assignment toward the end of
the course involves design of a packed column for a
particular separation. Some results for mass transfer
coefficients without reaction and for interfacial areas,
calculated from the equation of Onda et. al. [16], are
given to the students to reduce the amount of time
they must spend on the problem.
A term paper is an important part of the course.
It is intended to bring students into contact with re-
cent literature and to promote a critical attitude to-
ward the literature. It is to be a critical review of a
recent paper, pointing out weaknesses in a chosen
paper from the literature, clarifying its application, or
extending its scope. Each student submits a written
term paper and presents it orally to the class.

REFERENCE BOOKS
The main references used in this course are shown
in Table 3. Cussler [17] has produced an excellent book
on topics related to diffusion. The present course uses


TABLE 3
Main Reference Books
A. Mathematical models of mass transfer: Cussler [17]; Bird,
Stewart, Lightfoot [18]
B. Enhancement of mass transfer rates: Danckwerts [4]
C. Gas-liquid systems with chemical: Astarita, Savage, Bisio
[15]
D. Industrial examples: Astarita, Savage, Bisio [15]


only a small part of the material in this book. Some
topics from the standard reference by Bird, Stewart,
and Lightfoot [18] are used.
Teachers and researchers are divided on the best
approach to the theory of enhancement factors. Some
prefer the approach of Astarita [3, 15], while others
prefer the approach of Danckwerts [4]. Personally, I
find Danckwerts more direct and logical.
The book by Astarita, Savage, and Bisio [15] is the
only one which introduces the ideas of total molarity
and degree of saturation. However, I find some incon-
sistencies in this book, and its lack of many references
in my opinion makes it not very useful for a graduate
course.
For recent developments students must be refer-
red to the original articles in the literature.

CONCLUSION
Although many mass transfer devices involving
homogeneous chemical reaction are still designed on a
strictly empirical basis, often with large factors of
safety to allow for areas of ignorance, the theory has
advanced now to the point where it is of considerable
use in practice. Edwards [10] has pointed out some of
the applicable material. Thus there is a need for
graduate courses in this area.

NOMENCLATURE

[A], [B] Concentrations of chemical species
DA Diffusivity of component A
E Enhancement factor
Eist Enhancement factor for first-order reac-
tion
E, Enhancement factor for instantaneous re-
action
Ha Hatta number, VM
k Second-order chemical rate constant
kL* Mass transfer coefficient without reaction
M DA k [B]o/(kL*)2
NA Flux of component A
rA Reaction rate of A per unit volume of solu-
tion


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










A

[3 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DIVISION ACTIVITIES



TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD
TO JAMES J. CHRISTENSEN

The 1987 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec-
turer is James J. Christensen of Brigham Young University.
The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and encour-
age outstanding achievement in an important field of funda-
mental chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M
Company provides the financial support for this annual
award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering
educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical
Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an
engraved certificate. These were presented to James Chris-
tensen at a banquet on August 12, 1987, at the Summer
School at Southeastern Massachusetts University. The
award is made on an annual basis, with nominations being
received through February 1, 1988. Your nominations for
the 1988 lectureship are invited. They should be sent to
Donald K. Anderson, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI 48824-1226.

EDITORS NOTE ADDED IN PROOF: CEE has
learned that Professor Christensen died suddenly at
his home on September 5, 1987. We mourn his loss.

NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS

The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 1987-88
are: Chairman, John Sears (Montana State University);


Past Chairman, Phillip C. Wankat (Purdue University);
Chairman Elect, James E. Stice (University of Texas); Sec-
retary-Treasurer, William E. Beckwith (Clemson Univer-
sity); Directors, Gary Poehlein (Georgia Institute of
Technology), Conrad Burris (Manhattan College), Richard
M. Felder (North Carolina State University), and Lewis
Derzansky (Union Carbide).

AWARD WINNERS

A number of chemical engineering professors were rec-
ognized for their outstanding achievements. The George
Westinghouse Award was presented to John H. Seinfeld
(California Institute of Technology) to acknowledge his com-
mittment to excellence in education and his many contribu-
tions to the improvement of teaching methods for engineer-
ing students.
C. Stewart Slater (Manhattan College) and A. K. M.
Uddin (Trinity University) received the Zone I and Zone
III (respectively) New Engineering Educator Excellence
Awards. The awards are presented to non-tenured
educators in the first six years of their appointment in rec-
ognition of superior performance in teaching and research.
Louis Theodore (Manhattan College) was honored with
an AT&T Foundations Award, presented to outstanding
teachers of engineering students, and the grade of ASEE
Fellow Member was conferred on James E. Stice (Univer-
sity of Texas) in recognition of his many important contribu-
tions in the field of engineering education.

CORCORAN AWARD TO R. BYRON BIRD

R. Byron Bird (University of Wisconsin) was the reci-
pient of the second annual Corcoran Award, presented in
recognition of the most outstanding paper published in
Chemical Engineering Education in 1986. His paper,
"Hougen's Principles," appeared in the fall 1986 issue of
CEE.


t Time
x Distance from the interface
overbar Time-mean value

REFERENCES

1. Hatta, S., Technol. Repts. Tohoku Imp. University, 8, 1
(1928-9), as reported in ref. 4.
2. Hatta, S., Technol. Repts. Tohoku Imp. University, 10, 119
(1932), as reported in ref. 4.
3. Astarita, G., Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction,
Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1967.
4. Danckwerts, P. V., Gas-Liquid Reactions, McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1970.
5. Peaceman, D. W., Sc.D. thesis, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cam-
bridge, Mass., 1951, as reported in ref. 9.
6. Danckwerts, P. V., ref. 4, page 162.
7. Huang, D. T.-J., J. J. Carberry, and A. Varma, AIChE J.,
26, 832 (1980).
8. White, D., L. E. Johns, paper no. 123a, AIChE Annual Meet-
ing, Miami Beach, November 1986.


9. Brian, P. L. T., J. F. Hurley, and E. H. Hasseltine, AIChE
J., 7, 226 (1961).
10. Van Krevelen, D. W., P. J. Hoftijzer, Rec. Trav. Chim. 67,
563 (1948).
11. DeCoursey, W. J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 1867 (1974).
12. DeCoursey, W. J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 1483 (1982).
13. Astarita, G., D. W. Savage, Chem Eng. Sci., 35, 659, 1755
(1980).
14. Joshi, S. V., G. Astarita, D. W. Savage, AIChE Symp. Ser.,
#202, 77, 63 (1981).
15. Astarita, G., D. W. Savage, A. Bisio, Gas Treating with
Chemical Solvents, Wiley, New York (1983).
16. Onda, K., H. Takeuchi, Y. Okumoto, J. Chem. Eng. Japan,
1, 56 (1968).
17. Cussler, E. L., Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems,
Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1984.
18. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phe-
nomena, Wiley, New York, 1960.
19. Edwards, W. M., in R. H. Perry, D. Green, (ed.), Perry's
Chemical Engineers' Handbook, section 14, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1984. O


FALL 1987












1987 SUMMER SCHOOL


G. L. SCHRADER, M. A. LARSON
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50010

The 1987 Summer School for Chemical Engineering Fac-
ulty, arranged through the Chemical Engineering Division
of the American Society for Engineering Education, was
held on August 9-14, 1987, at Southeastern Massachusetts
University, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts. Over 350 at-
tendees were present at the meeting, representing 113 uni-
versities in the United States and Canada and several Euro-
pean and Australian schools. Sixteen industrial sponsors
(see Table 1) contributed nearly $100,000 to assist in the
planning of the program, local expenses, and costs for in-
stuctor and faculty member participation. It was the tenth
Summer School in a series begun in 1931.
The theme of the 1987 Summer School was the revitaliza-
tion of the chemical engineering curriculum in response to
the changing technological needs of modern society. Five
plenary sessions were held to discuss some of the broader
implications of these changes. Four blocks of workshops
were organized around specific themes: Emerging Technol-
ogy (G. L. Schrader, Iowa State University), Computers
and Computation in Chemical Engineering Education (H. S.
Fogler, University of Michigan), Applied Chemistry in
Chemical Engineering (J. W. Schwank, University of Michi-
gan), and Curricula, Courses and Laboratories (J. C.
Friedly, University of Rochester). Forty-four faculty mem-
bers and industrial speakers served as instructors for the
meeting, all donating their time and effort.
The first plenary talk addressing the general future cur-
riculum directions in chemical engineering was given by
Professor James Wei of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology. Professor Wei discussed the important need for a
new paradigm in the curriculum, such as were provided by
the unit operations and transport phenomena directions in
the 1920s and 1960s. Because of the loss of important sectors
of America's industrial economy, there has been a general
concern regarding engineering education in the United
States, and there are strong pressures for chemical en-
gineers to become involved in new technological areas.
Within traditional courses, there are opportunities to intro-
duce new emphases or problems at the micro-, meso-, and
macroscale at which chemical engineers are accustomed to
work. For example, instead of dealing only with small
molecules, gases and homogeneous liquids, large molecules,
complex liquids and solids should be addressed; rather than
being concerned exclusively with inorganic or organic
chemistry applications, biochemistry, material science, and
condensed state physical chemistry should have a role in


chemical engineering courses. Professor Wei provided a
number of specific curriculum suggestions, among which
was the discussion of a product engineering course which
would explore the relation between molecular configuration
and aggregation and product quality. The design and syn-
thesis of materials with specific performance in use could
also be included in traditional design courses. Also proposed
were courses in surface and colloid chemistry, electronic ma-
terials processing, biotechnology, and solid state chemistry.
The new technological demands made on the chemical en-
gineering profession may lead to need for new educational
plans and degree requirements. Professor Wei pointed to
the difficulty of cramming more courses or course content
into the four-year BS degree and to the decline of the indus-
trial "apprentice" format as traditional industry reduces
senior staff, leaving fewer experienced engineers to teach
incoming graduates. This is coupled with an information ex-
plosion which has made it increasingly difficult for all levels
of engineers to be technically well-informed. Professor Wei
called for a new consensus among academic and industrial
engineers in which the first professional degree (four-year
BS) is regarded as being suitable for light technical work
such as marketing, administration, technical personnel, or
production planning. To be effective in heavy technical work
such as design, process development, consulting, and con-
struction, the student should obtain a MS degree or secure
a significant apprenticeship with an experienced senior en-
gineer.
Dr. Stanley Proctor of Monsanto discussed "Biotechnol-
ogy and Chemical Engineering Education" in the second ple-
nary session. The value of products from biotechnology is
projected to grow enormously by the year 2000, with major
opportunities coming in human health care, crop science,
and waste management. Dr. Proctor stated that chemical
engineering is a good base from which the student can ex-
pand into the biotechnology area, specifically by the addition
of life science courses such as microbiology, biochemistry,
and biochemical engineering unit operations. Biotechnology
can also be introduced into the core courses of chemical en-
gineering with subjects such as bioreaction engineering and
bioprocessing purification and separation. There is a need
for laboratories suitably equipped for life science studies,
with the appropriate unit operations and instrumentation.
It is especially helpful to use laboratory assistants with life
science backgrounds, as well as having faculty members
with life science training. Dr. Proctor raised the difficulty
of doing this in a four-year program, but suggested improv-
ing the curriculum flexibility, incorporating biotechnology
into existing courses, reducing duplication, and eliminating
credit for courses which are prerequisite for program admis-
sion. Dr. Proctor projected that the largest need for BS/MS


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION














New Directions in Chemical Engineering Education


TABLE 1
Industrial Sponsors

American Cyanamid Company
Amoco Oil Company
BASF Corporation
Chevron Corporation
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
Dow Coming Corporation
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company
EXXON
Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Labs
Phillips Petroleum
PPG Industries Foundation
Shell Development Company
Tektronix
The Standard Oil Company (SOHIO)
3M
Union Carbide Corporation


biotechnology graduates focused on design and operation
will come after 1990.
The opportunities for chemical engineers in high technol-
ogy materials processing was addressed in two plenary ses-
sions presented by practicing chemical engineers. Dr.
Michael Bohrer of AT&T Bell Laboratories discussed
"Chemical Engineering in Electronic Materials Processing."
Chemical engineers have made substantial contributions to
modern silicon and optical fiber manufacturing technology.
The core curriculum has served chemical engineers well for
working in the electronics industry, as reflected by the rapid
increase in the hiring of BS chemical engineers. Students
should be exposed to a broad range of problems; courses in
material science and solid state physics should also be in-
cluded.
Dr. Kenneth McKelvey of Dupont addressed some of the
important technological problems associated with the design
and manufacture of advanced materials and composites. The
microstructure of these materials must be very carefully
engineered since the interfacial region frequently involves
two incompatible materials. There are important technolog-
ical opportunities in developing more engineered micro-
structure materials, liquid crystalline polymers, and electri-
cally conductive polymers. Dr. McKelvey stated that chem-
ical engineering education frequently does not take the in-
terdisciplinary approach used by industry and this can be a
serious drawback. Chemical engineers do have a unique ap-
proach to problem solving which frequently begins with a
phenomenological description in areas such as transport


phenomena, kinetics, and thermodynamics. This is followed
by a quantifying and modeling approach. Dr. McKelvey
pointed to a reduced hiring pattern for chemical engineers
by companies that are forming special expertise in the ad-
vanced materials area.
The final plenary speaker was Professor Warren Seider
of the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Seider spoke
on "Chemical Engineering and Instructional Computing-
Are They in Step?" Transitions in chemical engineering
courses and advances in instructional computing were
examined. Developments in optimization, micro-computer
software, and expert systems for teaching the design and
control of conventional and unconventional processes were
detailed. New developments to introduce "open-ended," de-
sign-oriented computing lessons in courses other than pro-
cess design and process control were described. In addition,
examples of more advanced concepts in undergraduate
courses were presented, including reactor stability analysis,
thermodynamics in the critical region, and mass transfer in
separators. Questions concerning the minimal requirements
for computation in the accreditation of chemical engineering
curricula were discussed. Professor Seider concluded that
the instructional material for design and control courses are
in step with the technology represented by conventional
processing, but that there needs to be an improvement with
respect to the more recent technological interests of chemi-
cal engineering.
Workshop sessions were held in the mornings and even-
ings and provided an informal atmosphere for faculty mem-
bers to exchange specific information about coursework de-
velopment. Poster sessions were held in the afternoon, per-
mitting up-to-date presentations of materials by the par-
ticipants. Over seventy posters were submitted.
On Wednesday, the 3M Award Lectureship was awarded
to Professor James J. Christensen, of Brigham Young Uni-
versity, who spoke on "Reflections on Teaching Creativity"
and who addressed the essential need of including creativity
in the chemical engineering curriculum.
The lecture was followed by the Division business meet-
ing. The Summer School participants also had opportunities
to tour the Newport area.
A financial report of the Summer School will appear after
the final distribution of subsidies to participating depart-
ments (planned for late 1987). Any questions concerning the
final preparation of this report should be addressed to the
Co-Chairmen.
Local arrangements for the Summer School were as-
sisted by Professor L. Bryce Andersen of Southeastern
Massachusetts University, and by Professor Stanely M.
Barnett of the University of Rhode Island.


FALL 1987











A course in ...



FUNDAMENTALS OF


MICROELECTRONICS PROCESSING (VLSI)


CHRISTOS G. TAKOUDIS
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907

AFIFTEEN-WEEK COURSE in the fundamentals of
microelectronics processing has been prepared to
meet the needs of graduate and advanced under-
graduate students in Purdue's School of Chemical En-
gineering. There is ample evidence of the impact of
large scale integration on calculators and computers.
Very large scale integration (VLSI) is bringing about
great changes in industrial process control, automo-
tive electronics, and other fields in which data acquis-
ition, computation, or controls are necessary. In re-
cent years, chemical engineers have been increasingly
involved in chemical vapor deposition, epitaxial lateral
overgrowth, microlithography and silicon growth on
insulators. The aim of this course is to teach the basic
principles and practical aspects of the most advanced
state of electronics processing. The main emphasis is
on fundamental processes that are especially useful
for VLSI schemes. The course outline is given in
Table 1.


C. G. Takoudis received his Diploma (1977) at the National Techni-
cal University of Athens, Greece, and his PhD in chemical engineering
(1982) at the University of Minnesota. He joined the faculty of Purdue
University in November 1981. His research interests are in the areas
of reaction engineering, heterogeneous catalysis and microelectronics
processing.
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Perhaps the rapid pace of innovation does not fit
the limited timetable for publication of a book [1-5].
Recent efforts are most often treated in journal arti-
cles and as a consequence, those journal articles end
up playing a key role in this course. Some of the arti-
cles are mentioned at the end of this paper [6-14].
In order to maintain the pace shown in Table 1,
some topics were not covered in depth. For these top-
ics, several references were suggested, and students'

TABLE 1
Course Outline

Introduction
Overview of Microelectronics
Semiconductor Devices
Crystal Growth and Epitaxy
Crystal Growth
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Vapor Phase Epitaxy
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Silicon on Insulators
Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth
Doping Profiles in Epi-layers
Dielectric and Polysilicon Film Deposition
Deposition Processes
Reactor Design
Polysilicon and Silicon Dioxide
Process Simulation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implant System-Dose Control
Impurity Profiles of Implanted Ions
Process Considerations
Lithography
Pattern Generation-Mask Making
Printing and Engraving
Resists
Process Considerations
Dry Etching
Selectivity-Feature Size Control
Gas Discharges
Plasma-Assisted Etching Techniques
Process Simulation
Other Processes-Device and Circuit Fabrication
Oxidation
Diffusion
Metallization
Fabrication Considerations


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








comprehension was examined through homework
problems and midsemester exams. At the end of the
course, the students expressed approval of the texts
(1, 2, 5) and of the supplementary readings.
The course begins with an overview of microelec-
tronics. The major technologies for the manufacture
of microcircuits are discussed, and the students be-
come familiar with small-, medium-, large-, and very
large-scale integration. After a general discussion of
some of the materials used in microcircuits (i.e., Si,
Ga, As) the physics of semiconductor devices is briefly
covered. Concepts such as energy bands, carrier con-
centration and carrier transport phenomena are pre-
sented, while the students begin familiarizing them-
selves with the p-n junction and bipolar, unipolar and
microwave devices. The basic principles of these de-
vices are also discussed.
The first major step in device fabrication includes
crystal growth and epitaxy. The starting materials of
semiconductors (e.g., silicon dioxide for a silicon
wafer) are chemically processed to form a high purity
polycrystalline semiconductor from which single crys-
tals are grown. The growth of crystals from a melt as
well as float zone processes is studied in detail. Em-
phasis is placed on the conceptual understanding and
mathematical modelling of such processes.
The growth of a single-crystal semiconductor upon
a single-crystal semiconductor substrate, called
epitaxy, is closely related to the technology of crystal
growth. The epitaxial process offers an important
means of controlling the doping profiles so that device
and circuit performances can be optimized. Many
novel device structures can be made by epitaxial pro-
cesses [3]. Some important epitaxial growth tech-
niques are discussed, with emphasis on vapor-phase
epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of
silicon on insulators is covered next. One of the pri-
mary aims of the study of such a process is the fabri-
cation of three-dimensional integrated circuits. A con-
ceptual understanding and mathematical modeling of
epitaxial lateral overgrowth are emphasized within
this context.
To fabricate discrete devices and integrated cir-
cuits we use many different kinds of thin films, such
as dielectric layers and polycrystalline silicon. Depos-
ited thin films must meet many requirements. The
film thickness must be uniform over a large number
of wafers processed at one time. The structure and
composition of thin films must be controlled and repro-
ducible. Therefore, it is necessary to understand all
the variables in the reactor design of a dielectric or
polysilicon film deposition. The modeling of reactors
used for such depositions is discussed in detail.


The masking structures mentioned previously
provide an introduction to the process of transferring
patterns of geometric shapes on a mask to a thin
layer of radiation-sensitive material covering
the surface of a semiconductor wafer.


Ion implantation is investigated next and is one of
the key processes we use to introduce controlled
amounts of dopants into semiconductors. The specific
goals that must be realized in this process are: the
energetic charged atoms or molecules should be de-
posited in the exact quantity specified and to the cor-
rect depths below the surface; the deposition should
be limited to only the designated areas of the sub-
strate; when required, it should be possible to electri-
cally activate all the implanted impurities; as much as
possible, the silicon (or other material) lattice struc-
ture should be unchanged by the dopant incorporation
process. To meet these goals, a number of approaches
are discussed. Models of the different aspects of ion
implantation as well as adequate masking structures
against the implant are shown to play a key role in the
overall process.
The masking structures mentioned previously pro-
vide an introduction to the process of transferring pat-
terns of geometric shapes on a mask to a thin layer of
radiation-sensitive material (called resist) covering
the surface of a semiconductor wafer. This process is
called lithography, and such patterns define the vari-
ous regions in an integrated circuit such as the contact
windows, the implantation regions, and the bonding-
pad areas. The resist patterns defined by the litho-
graphic process are indicated to be only replicas of
circuit features and not permanent elements of the
final device. Mathematical modeling of some of the
printing and engraving steps in a lithographic process
is discussed in detail.
To produce the circuit features mentioned above,
the resist patterns must be transferred once more into
the underlying layers comprising the device. The pat-
tern transfer is accomplished by an etching process
which selectively removes unmasked portions of a
layer. Emphasis is given to dry etching techniques
that use plasmas in the form of low-pressure gaseous
discharges. These techniques are used in VLSI pro-
cessing because of their potential for very high fidelity
transfer of resist patterns. Modeling and process
simulation of some dry etching methods are presented
in depth. It is important for the students to realize
that selectivity and feature size control are key issues
in any dry etching technique.
Oxidation, diffusion and metallization are dis-


FALL 1987











TABLE 2
Titles of Final Projects in Fall 1985, 1986

* Molecular Beam Epitaxy
* Silicon on Insulators: A Focus on Epitaxial Lateral Over-
growth
* Solid Phase Epitaxy of Silicon
* Gettering
* GaAs Contacts: Theory and Practice
* Review of the Thermal Nitridation of Silicon
* A Comprehensive Study of Plasma Etching Technology
* Optical Resist Systems
* X-Ray Lithography: The Solution to Submicron Device De-
sign?
* Resist Material Considerations for VLSI Edge Definition in
Lithography
* Kinetics in the Vapor Phase Epitaxy of GaAs
* Alternatives at the UV Limit of Optical Lithography
* Recent Studies on the Kinetics of Epitaxial Silicon Growth
* X-Ray Lithography
* Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition
* Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactors
* Chemical Vapor Deposition of II-VI Materials
* Low Temperature Deposition of Silicon Dioxide


cussed briefly, either because chemical engineers are
already familiar with some of the basic principles of
these processes (e.g., oxidation, diffusion) or because
many aspects of such processes have been previously
covered (e.g., metallization). Also, diagnostic tech-
niques and device and circuit fabrication are briefly
discussed. Some emphasis is given to isolation, self-
alignment, local oxidation, planarization, and getter-
ing.
The last stage of this course is a final project that
is mandatory for all graduate students (and optional
for all undergraduates) who take the course. After
choosing from a list of topics, each student works on
his/her own project. Topics covered in the past two
years are listed in Table 2. Within such a project, a
student is expected to critically review any existing
literature and to present his/her own (perhaps innova-
tive) ideas for improving or developing various pro-
cesses.
REFERENCES

1. Ghandi, S. K., VLSI Fabrication Principles, Wiley Intersci-
ence, 1983.
2. Sze, S. M., VLSI Technology, McGraw-Hill, 1983.
3. Sze, S. M., Semiconductor Devices: Physics and Technology,
Wiley, 1985.
4. Till, W. C., and J. T. Luxon, Integrated Circuits: Materials,
Devices and Fabrication, Prentice Hall, 1982.
5. Wolf, S., and R. N. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the VLSI
Era, Lattice Press, 1986.
6. Cullen, G. W., and J. F. Corboy, "Reduced Pressure Silicon
Epitaxy; A Review," J. Crystal Growth, 70, 230 (1984).
7. Arnaud D'Avitaya, F., S. Delage, and E. Rosencher, "Silicon


MBE: Recent Developments," Surf. Sci., 168, 483 (1986).
8. Jastrzebski, L., "SOI by CVD: Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth
Process-Review," J. Crystal Growth, 63, 493 (1983).
9. Jastrzebski, L., "Silicon on Insulators: Different Approaches:
A Review," J. Crystal Growth, 70, 253 (1984).
10. Klingman, K. J., and H. H. Lee, "Design of Epitaxial CVD
Reactors," J. Crystal Growth, 72, 670 (1985).
11. Bloem, J., Y. S. Oei, H. H. C. de Moor, J. H. L. Hanssen,
and L. J. Giling, "Epitaxial Growth of Silicon by CVD in a
Hot-Wall Furnace," J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 1973 (1985).
12. Roenigk, K. F., and K. F. Jensen, "Analysis of Multicompo-
nent LPCVD Processes," J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 448
(1985).
13. Coltrin, M. E., R. J. Kee, and J. A. Miller, "A Mathematical
Model of the Coupled Fluid Mechanics and Chemical Kinetics
in a CVD Reactor," J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 425 (1984).
14. Bloem, J., and L. J. Giling, "VLSI Electronics: Microstruc-
ture Science," Vol. 12, Chapter 3, 89 (1985), "Epitaxial Growth
of Silicon by Chemical Vapor Deposition." O


O D book reviews


COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING FOR
INJECTION MOLDING
Edited by Ernest C. Bernhardt
MacMillan Publishing, New York 10022, 1984

Reviewed by
Donald G. Baird
Virginia Polytechnic Institute

This book is a collection of topics involving the ap-
plication of computers to the design and control of the
injection molding process. Unfortunately, as noted by
the editor, the chapters lack coordination and hence
the book represents a collection of topics rather than
a unified text. However, it is one of the first attempts
in the polymer field to develop a complete package
starting with the ideas of hardware, process control
techniques, the basic equations which are required to
simulate injection molding, and the application of com-
puter simulation to solving injection molding prob-
lems.
The book is divided into three sections, with the
first section being entitled "State of the Technology."
The first chapter in this section is rather general in
nature and attempts to explain in qualitative terms
how the computer is used in the design of injection
molds. For example, it is illustrated how a mold de-
signer might use a computer simulation to predict
where weld-lines would lie and how the location of
cooling channels would change the temperature distri-
bution in a part. Certainly this information is useful,
but it does not allow one to accomplish any quantita-
tive design work. The second chapter is also quite
qualitative in nature as it describes melt flow in


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









cavities. This chapter does emphasize the importance
of fountain flow to the development of properties and
the fact that the properties of a part are related to
melt flow. However, there are a number of topics,
such as computer hardware and computer languages,
which seem to be unconnected to the first part of the
discussion and of such elementary level that they
serve no practical purpose. For example, the distinc-
tion between mainframe computers and minicomput-
ers doesn't seem to be necessary. The third chapter
is also of limited value as it attempts to explain how
the mold designer might use computer aided design
(CAD) but it never specifies what packages are avail-
able or gives examples as to how the mold designer
could use CAD. Hence, in general, the first three
chapters are so descriptive in nature that they serve
very little practical purpose.
Following these first three qualitative chapters
comes Chapter Four, which presents some of the basic
equations which are required in the modeling of injec-
tion molding. Although this information is well pre-
sented and lends to the understanding of what equa-
tions must be solved, there is no connection between
this chapter and the rest of the book. Furthermore,
the author of the chapter does not explain how these
equations are solved on the computer nor how they
could be used in computer aided design. Finally, the
material reflects mostly the author's view of simulat-
ing injection mold filling, and fountain flow is neg-
lected.
Chapter Five is descriptive again and describes
how the computer is used in process control. Control
is all based on reading some process variable such as
mold pressure which must be within some specified
range based on previous experience in generating
parts with acceptable physical properties. This ap-
proach relies on no real knowledge of the mold filling
process. The failure to point out the limits of such an
approach would be quite beneficial, but this is not
done in the chapter.
Chapters six through eleven constitute Part II of
the book, which is entitled "Applications." Again, the
chapters are not connected nor do they always fit
within this heading. Chapter Six discusses how a part
is designed through structural analysis, but there is
no direct correlation back to mold design. The next
chapter discusses (only in a very qualitative sense)
mold design. Only one particular CAD/CAM system
is described. Chapter Eight is how an integrated ap-
proach for the design of an injection molded part
should be implemented. Again, the chapter is very
descriptive and one has no idea as to the limitations
of the approach used by the authors.


- POSITIONS AVAILABLE
'se (CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
page $50; each additional column inch $20.


VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE &
STATE UNIVERSITY

The Chemical Engineering Department at Virginia Tech
is seeking applicants for a full time tenure track faculty
position. Duties include teaching at undergraduate and
graduate levels, establishing and conducting a funded re-
search program, and departmental service. Rank and
salary commensurate with qualifications. Virginia Tech
has approximately 20,000 undergraduates (5,000 in the
College of Engineering, including 170 in Chemical En-
gineering) and 3,600 graduate students (1,200 in the Col-
lege of Engineering, including 50 in Chemical Engineer-
ing). Send resume and names of three references to
Chairman, Departmental Search Committee, Chemical
Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
& State University, 133 Randolph Hall, Blacksburg, VA
24061. Deadline for applications is January 31, 1988. Vir-
ginia Tech hires only U.S. citizens and lawfully au-
thorized alien workers. Virginia Tech is an Affirmative
Action/Equal Opportunity employer.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Chemical Engineering faculty position: A tenure track
position is available for August, 1988, at the University
of Florida. The rank and area are open. Applicants
should submit a brief resume, a description of research
objectives, and the names of three references to: Dr. H.
H. Lee, Chairman of Search Committee, Department of
Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gaines-
ville, FL 32611. The University of Florida is an Equal
Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer.



In Chapter Nine, the Mold Flow program and its
application to solving molding problems are discussed.
This chapter is quite well done and does demonstrate
how a simulation can be used to solve molding prob-
lems. Again, however, the limits of this program and
the range of problems it can handle are not discussed.
This chapter should have been placed near Chapter
Four. Chapter Ten, which is concerned with mold
cooling, is also well-written, but should be grouped
with Chapter Four.
The last chapter in section II is concerned with
data acquisition and control of the injection molding
process. This chapter is of educational value as it ex-
Continued on page 218.


FALL 1987










A course in ...



TRANSPORT PHENOMENA


MARK J. McCREADY, DAVID T. LEIGHTON
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556

F THERE IS ONE subject in which the philosophy of
undergraduate instruction at various institutions
could be best described as diverse, it is transport phe-
nomena. Topics which fall under this heading may be
found in courses titled as unit operations, fluid me-
chanics, heat and mass transfer, or simply transport
phenomena. The content of these courses is as varied
as the titles are, with the resulting extremes being
students who are either quite knowledgeable in the
workings of various pieces of process equipment or
who have a grasp of transport processes only on a
microscopic level. Consequently, each student enter-
ing our graduate program has a different level of un-
derstanding of the basic principles governing the
transport of heat, mass, and momentum as well as a
diversity of the analytical skills which are necessary
to solve these problems. The question becomes: How
does one teach a single course sequence which all of
these students will find interesting and challenging?
At Notre Dame this is done by following a
philosophy for a two semester graduate transport phe-
nomena course sequence which we suspect is similar
to most other schools. The fundamental principles are
explained and emphasized a number of times through-
out the course. The skills necessary to solve the re-
quisite differential equations are honed, and a signifi-
cant amount of time is spent discussing example prob-
lems which display both important physical situations
and interesting solution techniques.
The principal difference between our courses and
those which we have encountered elsewhere is that
we have designed the content and order of presenta-
tion so as to avoid placing undue hardships on students
whose undergraduate education did not emphasize the
formulation and solution of partial differential equa-
tions. This is done by saving most of the advanced
mathematics for the second semester.
The first course strongly stresses the pertinent
physics and the correct way to approach an arbitrary
new problem, be it micro or macroscopic. When stu-
dents learn some of the more powerful mathematical
techniques for solving problems in heat and mass


Mark J. McCready joined the faculty at Notre Dame as an assistant
professor after receiving a BChE degree from the University of Dela-
ware and his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois. His
research interests lie in the area of fluid mechanics and transport prop-
erties of multiphase flows. Current topics include linear and nonlinear
wave phenomena. (L)
David Leighton is an assistant professor in chemical engineering
at the University of Notre Dame. After receiving his doctoral degree
from Stanford University in 1985 he was a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow
in the Department of Applied Mathematics of the University of Cam-
bridge. His research interests at Notre Dame center on the study of the
dynamic properties of sheared suspensions. (R)
transfer in the second semester, they are able to
explore problems involving greater mathematical
complexity (such as Rayleigh-Benard convection and
fluid flow past a heated sphere) without becoming
overwhelmed.

FLUID MECHANICS
The subject of the "Transport Phenomena I"
course, which is taught in the fall, is primarily fluid
mechanics. In fact, given both of the instructors' re-
search interests, the course could be better titled
"Fluid Mechanics." A quick survey of simple macro-
scopic problems is done so that students who spent
their summer in Europe or spinning discs at local dance
establishments can reorient themselves to course-
work. A homework problem set assigned the first
class day includes both easy and difficult problems
which are typically discussed in undergraduate
courses. From the various complaints, it is possible to
judge what topics must be reviewed. (It is interesting
to note how many students have difficulty getting the
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








correct number for pressure drop for turbulent flow
in a smooth pipe.)
Lectures begin with a discussion of the kinds of
forces which are found in fluid flows and how to de-
scribe them mathematically. The stress and strain
tensors are introduced along with transformations and
index notation. The primary references for this mate-
rial are the texts by Whitaker [1] and Batchelor [2].
The boundary conditions which arise in various phys-
ical situations are then introduced. At this point it is
possible to derive the mass and momentum conserva-
tion equations. The derivation is done both by shell
balance and by using the substantial derivative to con-
vert Newton's second law from a Lagrangian to an
Eulerian framework. The conditions under which
these equations reduce to the Navier-Stokes equa-
tions are examined.
The equations of motion are then used to solve
problems in one or more dimensions, first for cases
where exact solutions exist. Mathematical techniques
such as separation of variables and special functions,
which may be new to many students, are introduced
in lectures and are used for homework problems.
A quick survey of the kind of fluid flow problems
which engineers with advanced degrees may need to
solve during their career indicates that'not all of them
should be approached from the microscopic view. Un-
fortunately, many students have gotten the idea that
the macroscopic momentum equations are useful only
to solve homework problems in undergraduate
courses; they have the mistaken impression that all
real problems will yield to a detailed analysis using
the Navier-Stokes equations. In addition to not realiz-
ing whether differential or integral balances are ap-
propriate, their ability to successfully apply integral
balances to other than one dimensional problems is
generally limited.
For this reason, lectures which deal with macro-
scopic problems are inserted at this point. Macro-
scopic balance equations are derived from the differ-
ential equations by the application of the divergence
theorem and also by using integral averages of flows
and forces on macroscopic control volumes. A typical
homework problem might be the derivation of Dress-
ler's equations for flow of a turbulent fluid in channel
including the effects of air shear and surface tension.
The mechanical "energy balance" is derived from the
momentum balance for two reasons. The important
concept of dissipation, which accounts for the missing
energy, is introduced and the natural link between
thermodynamics and fluid mechanics is developed.
This link is further explored when the next sub-
ject, compressible flow, is discussed. Compressible


flows occur in numerous physical situations which
chemical engineers may encounter, but they seldom
receive much attention in courses. (Does the velocity
of a gas really increase as it flows through a pipe?
Why is the gas pump for my experiment not working
at its rated flow rate?) When the macroscopic balance
equation for total energy is derived and compared to
the mechanical energy equation, the physical signifi-
cance of dissipation in terms of entropy becomes clear.
The relation between entropy production and velocity
gradients is discussed. The concept of sonic velocity
and choking are also introduced.
The focus of the course now shifts to follow what
is more commonly taught in graduate transport
courses-application of the Navier-Stokes equations
to problems where exact solutions do not exist. Creep-
ing flow is done first. The important idea here is that
various nonzero terms are neglected not simply be-


we have designed the content and order of
presentation so as to avoid placing undue hardships on
students whose undergraduate education did not
emphasize the formulation and solution
of partial differential equations.


cause they are small, but small in comparison to other
terms. The physics of creeping flows is discussed in
detail-what does it really mean to have no inertia?
It is noted that velocity fields (solutions to Stokes'
equations) are superimposable as a consequence of the
linearity of the equations.
The solution to the zero Reynolds number equa-
tions is done for the sphere, and arguments leading to
Stokes' paradox are investigated. The Oseen solution
is done and Whitehead's paradox is discussed. At this
point the general idea of perturbation solutions is in-
troduced and used to improve the solutions for rotat-
ing flows. In addition, the matched asymptotic solu-
tion for flow around a sphere is briefly outlined.
The next topic, ideal fluid flow, commences with a
description of the physical meaning of irrotationality
and situations where it provides an accurate descrip-
tion. The primary source of information for lectures
on ideal fluids is gotten from the texts by Streeter [3]
and Lamb [4]. The velocity potential function is intro-
duced and used to show that LaPlace's equation gov-
erns these flows. This leads to the amazing realization
that velocity fields are superimposable for ideal flows
as a consequence of the absence of shear forces even
though the underlying Navier-Stokes equations are
nonlinear. The solution of the problem for flow around
a sphere leads to d'Alembert's paradox. The idea of


FALL 1987









circulation is introduced and the application of ideal
fluid theory to the calculation of lift for flow over vari-
ous bodies (including baseballs, golf balls, and sails) is
discussed.
The next topic is boundary layer theory, for which
Schlichting's text [5] serves as an invaluable refer-
ence. BLT is an especially rich subject to study in a
graduate course because all of the many approxima-
tions which arise can be shown to follow as obvious
consequences of Prandtl's observation that viscous
and inertial forces balance near solid boundaries. To
show the utility and validity of the various assump-
tions it is instructive to compare calculations of drag
from solutions to the boundary layer equations with
data to demonstrate that the approximations do in fact
lead to good agreement.
Tests, of which there are usually two in addition
to a final, are designed so that students may be crea-
tive as well as display a basic level of understanding
of the course material. Questions from the most recent
semester included the locomotion of cephalopods, flow
over porous airplane wings, and wave propagation de-
scribed by an Orr-Sommerfeld equation. On each test,
problems which require either integral or differential
balances are interspersed. This requires that students
think about which approach is appropriate. After the
first course, students are expected to ask the correct
questions when confronted with a new problem. They
should know how to examine the essential physics on
an appropriate scale.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
In the spring, the topics switch to heat and mass
transfer. Up to this point the time spent examining
macroscopic problems and emphasizing the physics for
each situation has limited the number of important
analytical methods the students have been exposed to
and which may be necessary for solving difficult de-
tailed problems that arise in their research. In the
second semester the emphasis on physical principles
is retained, but the problems discussed also serve to
introduce the students to advanced mathematical
techniques.
As in the first semester, the second semester be-
gins with the derivation of the transport equations-
this time energy transport-only now the equations
are derived using vector notation. A detailed under-
standing of how the equation of energy works in vec-
tor form is built by signing problems such as the
derivation of the rate of entropy production. The text
for this material (in addition to the texts used in the
first semester) is Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot [6].


Einstein notation is also re-introduced at this point in
the course (as it was not used extensively in the first
semester), leading to a great simplification in the form
of the transport equations.
Following a conventional sequence, steady conduc-
tion in solids is reviewed, first assuming constant
properties and then relaxing this restriction to include
non-constant properties, introducing the student to
regular perturbation methods. A supplemental text
for perturbation methods is Van Dyke [7], which is
further utilized when matched asymptotic expansions
are discussed later in the course. The course now
turns to the effects of convective energy transport,
examining problems such as transpirational cooling
and forced convection through a heated pipe. Rather
than using a cookbook approach to the Graetz prob-
lem, the students are introduced to the formal theory
of a Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. Particular
emphasis is placed on when to expect this type of sol-
ution and how to cast the problem into the Sturm-
Liouville form.
Dimensional analysis is the next topic of discus-
sion. However, here we differ from the usual trans-
port class in that dimensional analysis is introduced in
the context of the large field of similitude. The refer-
ences for this material are the notes from a course on
similitude taught by Van Dyke [8] which are distri-
buted to the class. Over one week is spent introducing
the students to techniques for finding hidden sym-
metry in physical problems, first through the use of
dimensional and inspectional analysis for the reduction
of the number of independent parameters involved in
a problem and then via more advanced techniques,
such as coordinate stretching to achieve reductions in
the number of independent variables upon which a
problem depends. These techniques are illustrated by
examples from both momentum and energy transport,
such as the determination of the radius of a shock
wave produced by an intense point explosion solved
by G. I. Taylor [9], the velocity field of a submerged
laminar jet, and such whimsical examples as the
spread of a viscous thread of liquid flowing down an
inclined plane.
The concept of self-similarity is put to immediate
use in the next topic-that of unsteady conduction in
solids. In addition to the standard semi-infinite and
finite slab problems, a semi-infinite slab with a melt-
ing boundary is also discussed. Students are asked to
explain why such a problem with a step change in
temperature at the edge of the slab admits a similarity
solution, but such a solution for a constant heat flux
does not exist.
The course next turns to boundary layer theory


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








for forced convection past a heated, horizontal flat
plate. This problem is solved in the limiting cases of
large and small Prandtl numbers, and then the plate
is turned to the vertical for a discussion of free convec-
tion. For homework, students use the concept of self-
similarity to solve the analogous problem of a free-
convection laminar jet arising from a point source of
energy. A general dimensional analysis of the free and
forced convection transport equations is inserted at
this point so that the students can develop an intuitive
feel for the relative magnitude of the two transport
mechanisms.
The study of free convection is continued by exami-
nation of the instability of a fluid heated from below.
The Rayleigh-Benard stability problem for free-free
boundaries is discussed in detail, the reference for this
discussion being the text on hydrodynamic stability
by Drazin and Reid [10]. The students' understanding
of the principles of this mathematically complex
phenomenon is reinforced by homework in which the
stability conditions for problems analogous to the
Rayleigh-Benard problem are worked out and also by
assignments on a more cosmic scale in which the stu-
dents solve the Jeans problem for the gravitational
collapse of a galactic sized gas cloud.
At this point in the course we begin our discussion
of singular perturbation theory, drawing heavily on
the text by Van Dyke. First, we examine the classic
problem of creeping flow past a heated sphere at small
Peclet number solved by Taylor and Acrivos [11]. This
problem serves to introduce the concept of a non-uni-
formly valid first approximation, and why a regular
perturbation approach to such problems is doomed to
failure. The students are shown how to overcome
these difficulties via a matched asymptotic expansion
approach which, in this problem, also introduces the
student to special mathematical functions such as
spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials. Flow
past a sphere is followed up by such problems as flow
through a tube with an axial wire and unsteady con-
duction from an infinite cylinder. The method of re-
flections comes next, in which we emphasize the simi-
larity of this technique to the singular perturbation
methods just discussed and which is used to determine
the energy loss from a heated sphere in the vicinity
of a plane. The analogous problem of a heated cylinder
near a plane, which cannot be solved using perturba-
tion techniques, is also examined and solved using con-
formal mapping, adding yet another technique for ob-
taining solutions of the transport equations to the stu-
dents' arsenal.
Brief discussions of turbulent and radiative trans-
port mechanisms complete the portion of the course


dealing with energy transport. Topics discussed here
include Prandtl mixing length theory and transport
correlations in turbulent systems, together with the
concepts of isotropy, black and gray bodies, view fac-
tors, an introduction to configurational algebra and
spectral effects in radiative energy transport.
With three weeks remaining, the course turns to-
wards mass transport. The first two lectures are de-
voted to definitions, the description of mass transport
in terms of Fick's Law, and derivation of the transport
equations. Simple problems come next, such as the
Stefan tube and diffusion with homogeneous or
heterogeneous chemical reaction (the Thiele problem).
Combined mass, momentum and energy transport in
boundary layers is discussed in which the effect of
mass transport on the evolution of the thermal and
momentum boundary layers is examined. Students
are also exposed to mass transport mechanisms not
usually encountered in undergraduate courses, such
as pressure diffusion, forced diffusion (elec-
trophoresis), and the Soret effect. In a typical problem
at this point, students are asked to analyze a Clusius-
Dickel column (a separations device which relies on
the Soret effect), where they are required to deter-
mine what assumptions are necessary to obtain a sol-
ution.
The last formal topic discussed in the course in-
volves the unsteady one- and two-dimensional diffu-
sion of a trace pollutant, focusing on problems such as
the steady or unsteady discharge from a waste pipe
into a stream. The similarity between pollutant con-
centration distributions resulting from the unsteady
convective diffusion equation and a probability distri-
bution arising from stochastic differential equations is
emphasized. The final two lectures are devoted to re-
search interests: one lecture by a professor whose re-
search is in the area of energy or mass transport, and
one lecture by a student in the class working in the
same area who by this time is getting ready for the
first year comprehensive oral examination. These last
lectures give the students some feel for the utility of
the topics and techniques discussed during the semes-
ter in the solution of current graduate research prob-
lems.
In conclusion, this course sequence is designed to
meet the needs of students from diverse backgrounds
who enter our graduate program. Students are first
introduced to the governing physics without undue
emphasis on mathematical techniques. As their level
of understanding increases and their problem solving
approach becomes better refined, more sophisticated
techniques are introduced. When students have com-
Continued on page 218.


FALL 1987









A course in .



NONLINEAR SYSTEMS


WARREN D. SEIDER, LYLE H. UNGAR
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

DURING THE PAST three years we have provided
our graduate students with a third, optional,
course on the mathematics of nonlinear systems. The
course follows two required courses that formalize the
structures of linear, or vector, spaces and nonlinear
metric spaces leading to the solution of partial differ-
ential equations. These two courses have been de-
scribed by Lauffenburger, et al [1].
The nonlinear math course provides an opportu-
nity for the students to examine the complex solution
spaces that chemical engineers encounter in modeling
many chemical processes, especially those involving
reaction and diffusion, autocatalytic reactions, phase
equilibrium in the critical region, and multistaged op-
erations. Some of the simplest exothermic reactions
in CSTRs with heat transfer exhibit branches in their
solution diagrams that contain limit and bifurcation
points, both steady-state and periodic, and trace out
isolas as parameters are varied. For such systems,
solution diagrams are calculated to show the impor-
tance of characterizing the singular points and expres-
sing their normal forms and universal unfoldings so as
to determine the number of steady state solutions in
their vicinity. Examples are selected to demonstrate
steady-state foci that bifurcate to time-periodic limit
cycles which, in turn, undergo secondary bifurcations
that lead to chaotic behavior, and even intermittent
interchanges between periodic and chaotic modes of
operation. Experimental observations of these phe-
nomena are reviewed to drive home the importance of
developing models that have corresponding solutions.
In many cases, the models have complex solution dia-
grams that don't correspond to the experimental mea-

The nonlinear math course
provides an opportunity for the students
to examine the complex solution spaces that
chemical engineers encounter in modeling
many chemical processes .


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Warren Seider is professor of chemical engineering at Penn. He
and his students concentrate on process design with an emphasis on
operability and controllability. More specifically, his research interests
include the computation of chemical and phase equilibrium,
heterogeneous azeotropic distillation, supercritical extraction, analysis
of reaction systems, and heat and power integration of chemical pro-
cesses. He received his BS degree from the Polytechnic Institute of
Brooklyn and his PhD from the University of Michigan. He served as
the first chairman of CACHE and was elected a director of AIChE in
1983. (L)
Lyle Ungar joined the faculty at Penn in 1984 as assistant professor,
having received his BS degree at Stanford and his PhD at MIT. His
research interests include application of perturbation methods, bifurca-
tion theory, and finite element analysis to transport problems in con-
tinuum physics, crystal growth and rapid solidification materials pro-
cessing. He is also applying artificial intelligence programming tech-
niques to process control problems. (R)

surements and which emphasize the importance of
locating the solution that most closely matches the
data.
Nonlinear phenomena, such as the formation of
spatial and temporal patterns and chaotic behavior,
arise naturally in many systems with fluid flow or
chemical reaction. Combustion, natural and forced
convection, biological systems with competing
species, and catalytic reactions can all require non-
linear analysis. Nonlinearities can also be generated
in the design of complex processes, such as those in-
tegrated to achieve a high thermodynamic efficiency,
and can introduce oscillatory and chaotic regimes that
can present pitfalls and obstacles to easy operation
and control. The design of these processes usually be-
gins with the analysis of simple structures using ap-
proximate models. Gradually, as the synthesis tree is


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









pruned, more complex models can be justified to rep-
resent the real phenomena more accurately. How-
ever, the more complex models usually have a richer
solution space and the number, type (steady, periodic,
or chaotic) and stability of the solutions varies with
the specifications and the parameters of the model. In
design calculations, as in all mathematical modeling,
the student must learn to beware of algorithms that
converge to solutions that are not physically correct.
The seriousness of this problem in the design stage,
when experimental data are not available, is em-
phasized. Of course, when the solutions are observed
experimentally, it is important to recognize the possi-
ble existence of multiple solutions and to design con-
trol systems to achieve the desired performance. This
permits focusing on designs that have few regimes of
operation; that is, less complex solution diagrams.


EVOLUTION OF THE COURSE
The initial version of the course concentrated on
the general aspects of bifurcation and singularity
theories with examples of many applications that arise
in chemical processing. Emphasis was placed on the
use of analytical perturbation methods to analyze non-
linear systems. A variety of techniques were covered
for describing steady and oscillatory bifurcations and
how they change as parameters are altered [18]. No
computations were carried out, so complete solution
diagrams were obtained only for very simple prob-
lems. Continuum problems such as natural convection
were studied at the end of the course, but only the
onset of instability could be covered in the homework
exercises. This approach closely parallels that of Iooss
and Joseph [3] in their text, Elementary Stability and
Bifurcation Theory, which was the principal reference
in that initial offering. That text has several limita-
tions, the most severe being the lack of physical exam-
ples and the lack of coverage of chaotic phenomena. A
mixture of papers from the math, physics and en-
gineering literatures was therefore used as supple-
ments.
In the most recent version of the course (Spring,
1987), emphasis was shifted more toward the process
models and the methods of computing the singular
points and the branches that connect them in solution
diagrams. This was facilitated by improvements in
available texts and software. Kubicek and Marek's [2]
text, Computational Methods in Bifurcation Theory
and Dissipative Structures, provides a unified ap-
proach to the analysis of solution diagrams. Several
process models are introduced in Chapter 1. Then, as


In the most recent version of the course,
emphasis was shifted more toward the process
models and the methods of computing the singular
points and the branches that connect
them in solution diagrams.

the singular and bifurcation points are defined, exam-
ples are illustrated in the solution diagrams for these
process models. General methods are presented to
compute the singular and bifurcation points and the
branches that connect them. These are very helpful,
but unfortunately many of the definitions are stated
briefly and the figures and tables in which the results
are presented are explained insufficiently. Many ques-
tions arise which can only be answered by computa-
tional experiments. To accomplish this, we initially
introduced our own program for the continuation of
steady-state solutions [8] and placed some emphasis
on the logic that enables it to traverse turning-points
effectively. Midway through the semester we ob-
tained a copy of the AUTO program [29], and this
added immeasurably to the course. AUTO enabled us
to perform computational experiments with ease and
to answer many questions, especially those concerning
branches of periodic solutions. These will be consi-
dered in the next section, in which the syllabus for the
course is presented and the role of AUTO is described.

COURSE CONTENTS AND PHILOSOPHY
A central aspect of the course as it has evolved is
the integration of analytical and numerical techniques
and their application to physical problems. Analytical
techniques and theorems provide a general framework
for understanding how and when stability can change
and new solution branches can arise. Numerical calcu-
lations provide complete solution diagrams for specific
physical problems. Interpreting these solution dia-
grams in the contexts of both singularity theory and
the physical problem from which they arise gives stu-
dents a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena.
The core of the course concentrates on the methods
of analyzing what happens at and near different
steady and time-periodic bifurcations (see Table 1 for
a list of topics covered). To calculate bifurcations of
nontrivial solutions, one must generally turn to the
computer. Hence, major effort was devoted to numer-
ical techniques. All numerical techniques essentially
grow out of analytical perturbation techniques. When
using Newton's method, the linearized equations are
present and so one can, for example, monitor the de-
terminant to find steady bifurcations and check for
changes in stability without calculating the eigen-


FALL 1987









values. The implicit function theorem guarantees that
stability can only change when the determinant van-
ishes; arc-length continuation around limit points [5]
naturally grows out of the classification of limit points
and steady bifurcation points, and Poincare maps pro-
vide the basis for calculating time-periodic solutions.
The latter can be difficult to compute, especially when
the branches of limit cycles are unstable. Hence, the
Newton-Fox procedure for locating a point on the
limit cycles is described, following the approach of
Aluko and Chang [27]. Stability analysis of the Monod-
romy matrix, according to the Floquet Theory, and
the methods of continuation to locate secondary bifur-
cations lead naturally to studies of the transitions to
chaos.
We have tried to integrate smoothly the three dif-
ferent aspects of the course: analytical methods, num-
erical methods, and physical insight. The general
theory is illustrated throughout with examples, and
relevant computational techniques such as homotopy
methods are covered as they are used.
For example, we have used the Belousov-
Zhabotinskii reaction system as an example of steady
and time-dependent bifurcations and of chaotic be-
havior. This relatively simple set of reactions has been


TABLE 1
Course Topics

BACKGROUND
Implicit function theorem
Stability theory
STEADY BIFURCATIONS
Single and multiple limit points
Continuation methods
Liapunov-Schmidt reduction
Effect of a second parameter
Perturbed and "broken" bifurcations
Singularity theory
Normal forms, unfoldings
Representation of energy for conservative systems
TIME DEPENDENT BIFURCATIONS
Floquet theory
Hopf bifurcations
Integration of stiff ODEs
Secondary bifurcations
CHAOTIC BEHAVIOR
Transitions to chaos
Period doubling
Incomensurate frequencies
Intermittency
Characterization of chaos
Power spectra
Poincare sections and maps
Liapunov exponents


observed to produce a bewildering variety of spatial
and temporal patterns, and has been widely studied
as a simple prototype for many reaction-diffusion sys-
tems. These have been summarized nicely in a review
article by Epstein [41] that illustrates the regimes of
periodic behavior with beautiful color photographs of
the oscillations in a stirred beaker and in a Petri dish
with diffusion effects. In our coverage, the initial
kinetic model of Field and Noyes [33] was presented
and mass balances were derived for the three principal
intermediates, HBr02, Br- and Ce4+:
dy1
d = 77.27 (y yY2 + Y ky )

dY2
= (- y 1Y 2 + )/77.27

dy3
dt 0.161 (y y)
dt 1 3

whose dimensionless concentrations are yl, Y2, and
y3, respectively. For this mechanism, which assumes
the autocatalytic formation of HBr02, the rate con-
stant k is a key parameter. Steady-state continuation
calculations show that as k is decreased, the L2-norm
of y increases, as illustrated in Figure 1. At k =
0.02394, a Hopf bifurcation point is encountered. The
steady-state branch becomes unstable and a new
branch is born. Early in the course, the students com-
puted Figure 1 using our continuation program and
located the Hopf bifurcation point by computing the
eigenvalues of the Jacobian along the steady-state


N
4


Hopf bifurcation
Ua, point





i 0.02394

0. 1 0. 02 0. 03 0. 04 0. 05
k
FIGURE 1. Steady and time-periodic branches for the
Belousov reaction system (TP-time periodic, SS-
steady-state).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









branch. Then, with the LSODE program, they plotted
the limit cycles in the time-domain (see Figure 2), and
showed the decrease in the frequency of oscillation as
k decreases. Finally, the AUTO program performed
these calculations with much less preparation and
traced the periodic branch in more detail, showing the
variation of the frequency with k. This analysis led
naturally to several papers that show how chaotic be-
havior arises in CSTRs and introduces alterations in
the model to track these strange attractors [38, 39,
40]. As expected, computational experiments by the
students with the AUTO program were unable to
track the strange attractors, but success was achieved
with LSODE. These results are displayed in the
phase-plane of Figure 3, which closely resembles the
results illustrated by Epstein and others.
The AUTO program was a great aid in enabling
students to calculate solution structures and to get a
feel for how nonlinear systems behave. AUTO is a
collection of FORTRAN routines whose primary pur-


SY1




y2




'o
'b -




0. 10. 200. 300. 400. 500. 600.

t, sec.
FIGURE 2. Dynamic simulation of Belousov reaction sys-
tem with k=8.375 x 10-.
pose is to compute the branches of stable or unstable
periodic solutions of systems of ODEs that are func-
tions of a free (bifurcation) parameter. AUTO also de-
termines the branches of steady-state solutions, lo-
cates limit and real bifurcation points along solution
branches, and can switch branches at these points. It
can also locate limit points and curves of Hopf bifurca-
tion points using two-parameter, continuation
methods. A tape containing the AUTO routines was
installed on our VAX computer, under the VMS
operating system, in less than two hours. Of special
note is that AUTO is currently limited to small ODE


Y3
FIGURE 3. Phase-plane for Belousov reaction system.
Turner model with 7=0.2962.

systems (up to twelve state variables). Computations
of steady branches normally proceed very rapidly,
whereas time-periodic branches can be slow to com-
pute, especially when they are unstable.
At the end of the course, the students studied ar-
ticles on either analytical or numerical techniques or
on specific systems that exhibit interesting nonlinear
behavior and made presentations to the class. A list
of project areas and references is given in Table 2. In
the initial version of the course emphasis was placed
on classic papers describing the effect of container
shape on the onset of natural convection, pattern for-
mation due to competing biological species (predator-
prey systems with similarities to the Belousov-
Zhabotinskii system) and different transitions to tur-
bulence in forced convection. Several mechanical en-
gineering students enrolled in the course studied
bifurcation-based descriptions of buckling. In 1987,
the papers focused on chemical processes that exhibit
complex solution diagrams, usually with transitions to
chaos. Several of these papers present the latest re-
sults of studies of systems that naturally exhibit cha-
otic behavior or become chaotic under the influence of
forced oscillations.
CONCLUSIONS
Nonlinear phenomena are ubiquitous. They have
received little attention largely because the required
mathematics is less well-developed and harder to com-
prehend than for linear systems. Bifurcation and sing-
ularity theory provide a framework for classifying and
understanding nonlinear phenomena. They follow


FALL 1987









very easily from a linear operator approach and pro-
vide a dramatic demonstration of the constructive use
of Fredholm's alternative. This has enabled us to suc-
cessfully touch on bifurcation theory in the last days
of the prior required portion of our graduate math
sequence. When bifurcation techniques are im-
plemented in a computer package such as AUTO, they
also provide a means of mapping out solution struc-
tures. Students can obtain an intuitive understanding
of nonlinear phenomena by examining the solutions to
physical problems. With the right software, they can
also generate these solutions themselves and prepare
an array of two- and three-dimensional drawings that
permit more thorough analysis and visualization than
is possible with the few drawings that typically accom-
pany technical articles and books.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The assistance of Soemantri Widagdo, Stevens In-
stitute of Technology, in the preparation of the class
notes and homework problems, and in the installation
of the AUTO program, is very much appreciated.
Prof. Robert A. Brown, M.I.T., taught Lyle Ungar
his first course in nonlinear systems in chemical en-
gineering and strongly influenced his view of the field.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Lauffenburger, D. A., E. Dussan V., and L. H. Ungar,
"Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering," Chem.
Engr. Educ., 1984.
General
2. Kubicek, M., and M. Marek, Computational Methods in
Bifurcation Theory and Dissipative Structures, Springer-Ver-
lag, 1983.
3. Iooss, G., and D. D. Joseph, Elementary Stability and Bifur-
cation Theory, Springer-Verlag, 1980.
4. Guckenheimer, J., and P. Holmes, Nonlinear Oscillations,
Dynamical Systems, and Bifurcations of Vector Fields, Appl.
Math. Sci. 42, Springer-Verlag, 1983.
Steady-state Continuation
5. Keller, H. B., Numerical Solution of Bifurcation and Non-
linear Eigenvalue Problems, Academic Press, New York,
1977.
6. Allgower, E., and K. Georg, "Simplicial and Continuation
Methods for Approximating Fixed Points and Solutions to Sys-
tems of Equations," SIAM Review, 22, 1, 28-85 (1980).
7. Wayburn, T. L., and J. D. Seader, "Solution of Systems of
Interlinked Distillation Columns by Differential Homotopy-
Continuation Methods," Foundations of Computer-aided
Chemical Process Design, eds., A. W. Westerberg and H. H.
Chien, CACHE, 1984.
8. Kovach, III, J. W., Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation-
An Experimental and Theoretical Study, PhD Dissertation,
Univ. of Penn., 1986.
9. Kubicek, M., "Algorithm 502: Dependence of Solution of Non-
linear Systems on a Parameter," ACM Trans. of Math Soft.,
2, 98 (1976).


TABLE 2
Sample of Articles Reviewed

EARLIER ARTICLES
AUTHOR TITLE (Reference No.)
Hall, Walton Benard Convection in a Finite Box:
Secondary and Imperfect bifurca-
tions (42)
Keener Oscillatory Coexistence in the
Chemostat: A Codimension Two
Unfolding (43)
Segel Mathematical Models in Molecular
and Cellular Biology (44)
Eckmann Roads to Turbulence in Dissipative
Dynamical Systems (55)
Thompson, Hunt A General Theory of Elastic Stabil-
ity (45)
Triantafyllidis, Tvergaard On the Development of Shear
Bands in Pure Bending (46)

FOCUS ON CHAOTIC BEHAVIOR-1987
Kahlert, Rossler, Varma Chaos in a Continuous Stirred
Tank Reactor with Two Consecu-
tive First-order Reactions: One
Exo-, One Endothermic (50)
Mankin, Hudson Oscillatory and Chaotic Behavior
of a Forced Exothermic Chemical
Reaction (51)
Mankin, Hudson The Dynamics of Coupled
Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred
Tank Reactors (52)
Kim, Hlavacek On the Detailed Dynamics of
Coupled Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactors (32)
Nandapurkar, Hlavacek, Chaotic Behavior of a Diffusion-
Van Rompay Reaction System (53)
Chang, Chen Bifurcation Characteristics of
Nonlinear Systems Under Conven-
tional PID Control (54)


10. Kubicek, M., H. Hofmann, V. Hlavacek, and J. Sinkule, "Mul-
tiplicity and Stability in a Sequence of Two Nonadiabatic,
Nonisothermal CSTRs," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 987 (1980).
11. Kubicek, M., and A. Klic, "Direction of Branches Bifurcating
at a Bifurcation Point. Determination of Starting Points for a
Continuation Algorithm," Appl. Math. Comp., 13, 125 (1983).
12. Kubicek, M., I. Stuchl, and M. Marek, "Isolas in Solution Dia-
grams," J. Comp. Phys., 48, 106 (1982).

Singularity Theory
13. Golubitsky, M., and D. G. Schaefer, Singularities and Groups
in Bifurcation Theory, Volume 1, Springer-Verlag, 1985.
14. Balakotaiah, V., Structure of the Steady-state Solutions of
Lumped-parameter Chemically Reacting Systems, PhD
Thesis, Univ. of Houston, 1982.
15. Balakotaiah, V., and D. Luss, "Structure of Steady-state Sol-
utions of Lumped Parameter Chemically Reacting Systems,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 11, 1611 (1982).
16. Balakotaiah, V., and D. Luss, "Dependence of the Steady-
states of a CSTR on the Residence Time," Chem. Eng. Sci.,
38, 10, 1709 (1983).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










17. Balakotaiah, V., D. Luss, and B. L. Keyfitz, "Steady-state
Multiplicity Analysis of Lumped Parameter Systems De-
scribed by a Set of Algebraic Equations," Chem. Eng. Comm.,
36, 121 (1985).
18. Matkowsky, B. J., and E. L. Reiss, "Singular Perturbations
of Bifurcations," J. Appl. Math, 33, 230 (1977).
Complex Bifurcation
19. Holodniok, M., and M. Kubicek, "New Algorithms for the
Evaluation of Complex Bifurcation Points in Ordinary Differ-
ential Equations. A Comparative Numerical Study," Appl.
Math. Comp., 15, 261 (1984).
20. Hassard, B. D., N. D. Kazarinoff, and Y.-H. Wan, Theory
and Application of Hopf Bifurcation, Cambridge U. Press,
Lec. Note Ser. 41, 1981.
Dynamic Simulation
21. Carnahan, B., and J. O. Wilkes, "Numerical Solution of Differ-
ential Equations-An Overview," in Foundations of Com-
puter-aided Chemical Process Design, eds., R. S. H. Mah and
W. D. Seider, AIChE, 1981.
22. Hindmarsh, A. C., "LSODE and LSODI, Two New Initial
Value Ordinary Differential Equation Solvers," ACM-Signum
Newsletter, 15, 4, 10 (1980).
23. Hlavacek, V., M. Kubicek, and K. Visnak, "Modeling of Chem-
ical Reactors-XXVI. Multiplicity and Stability Analysis of a
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Exothermic Consecu-
tive Reactions A->B->C," Chem. Eng. Sci., 27, 719 (1972).
24. Uppal, A., W. H. Ray, and A. B. Poore, "On the Dynamic
Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 29, 967 (1974).
25. Uppal, A., W. H. Ray, and A. B. Poore, "The Classification
of the Dynamic Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Reac-
tors-Influence of Reactor Residence Time," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 31, 205 (1976).
26. Halbe, D. C., and A. B. Poore, "Dynamics of the Continuous
Stirred Tank Reactor with Reactions A->B--C," Chem. Eng.
J., 21, 241 (1981).
Time-periodic Continuation
27. Aluko, M., and H.-C. Chang, "PEFLOQ: An Algorithm for
the Bifurcational Analysis of Periodic Solutions of Autonomous
Systems," Comp. Chem. Eng., 8, 6, 355 (1984).
28. Holodniok, M., and M. Kubicek, "DERPER-An Algorithm
for the Continuation of Periodic Solutions in Ordinary Differ-
ential Equations," J. Comp. Phys., 55, 254 (1984).
29. Doedel, E. J., AUTO: Softwarefor Continuation and Bifurca-
tion Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations, Comp. Sci.
Dept., Concordia Univ., Montreal, 1986.
30. Doedel, E. J., and R. F. Heinemann, "Numerical Computation
of Periodic Solution Branches and Oscillatory Dynamics of the
Stirred Tank Reactor with A->B->C Reactions." Chem. Eng.
Sci., 38, 9, 1493 (1983).
31. Keller, H. B., Numerical Methods for Two-point Boundary
Value Problems, Blaisdell, 1968.
32. Kim, S. H., and V. Hlavacek, "On the Detailed Dynamics of
Coupled Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 41, 11, 2767 (1986).
Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction System
33. Field, R. J., and R. M. Noyes, "Oscillations in Chemical Sys-
tems. IV. Limit Cycle Behavior in A Model of a Real Chemical
Reaction," J. Chem. Phys., 60, 5, 1877 (1974).
34. Hudson, J. L., M. Hart, and D. Marinko, "An Experimental
Study of Multiple Peak Periodic and Nonperiodic Oscillations


in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction," J. Chem. Phys., 71,
4, 1601 (1979).
35. Roux, J.-C., R. H Simoyi, and H. L. Swinney, "Observation
of a Strange Attractor," Physica 8D, 257 (1983).
36. Simoyi, R. H., A. Wolf, and H. L. Swinney, "One-Dimensional
Dynamics in a Multicomponent Chemical Reaction," Phys.
Rev. Lett., 49, 4, 245 (1982).
37. Roux, J.-C "Experimental Studies of Bifurcations Leading
to Chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction," Physica 7D,
57 (1983).
38. Turner, J. S., J.-C. Roux, W. D. McCormick, and H. L. Swin-
ney. "Alternating Periodic and Chaotic Regimes in a Chemical
Reaction-Experiment and Theory," Phys Lett., 85A, 1, 9
(1981).
39. Field, R. J., "Limit Cycle Oscillation in the Reversible
Oregonator." J. Chem. Phys., 63, 6, 2289 (1975).
40. Tomita, K., and I. Tsuda, "Chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii
Reaction in a Flow System," Phys. Lett., 71A, 5/6, 489 (1979).
41. Epstein, I. R., "Patterns in Time and Space-Generated by
Chemistry," C&EN, 24, Mar. 30, 1987.
Steady and Oscillatory Bifurcation Examples
42. Hall, P., and I. C. Walton, "Benard Convection in a Finite
Box: Secondary and Imperfect Bifurcations," J. Fluid Mech.,
90, 377-395, 1979.
43. Keener, J. P., "Oscillatory Coexistence in the Chemostat: A
Codimension Two Unfolding." SIAM J. Appl. Math., 43, 1005
(1983).
44. Segel, L. A. (ed.), Mathematical Models in Molecular and
Cellular Biology, Cambridge University Press, 1980.
45. Thompson, J. M. T., and G. W. Hunt, A General Theory of
Elastic Stability, 29, Wiley, 1973.
46. Triantafyllidis, N., and V. Tvergaard, "On the Development
of Shear Bands in Pure Bending," Int. J. Solids Struct., 18,
121-138 (1982).
Transition to Chaos
47. Kadanoff, L. P., "Roads to Chaos," Phys. Today, 46, Dec.,
1983.
48. Feigenbaum, M. J., "Tests of the Period-Doubling Route to
Chaos," in Nonlinear Phenomena in Chemical Dynamics,
eds. C. Vidal and A. Pacault, Springer-Verlag, 1981.
49. Packard, N. H., J. P. Crutchfield, J. D. Farmer, and R. S.
Shaw, "Geometry from a Time Series." Phys. Rev. Lett., 45,
9, 712 (1980).
50. Kahlert, C., 0. E. Rossler, and A. Varma, "Chaos in a Con-
tinuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Two Consecutive First-
order Reactions: One Exo-, One Endothermic." in Modeling
Chemical Reaction Systems, eds., K. Ebert and W. Jaeger,
Springer, 1981.
51. Mankin, J. C., and J. L. Hudson, "Oscillatory and Chaotic
Behavior of a Forced Exothermic Chemical Reaction," Chem.
Eng. Sci., 39, 12, 1807 (1984).
52. Mankin, J. C., and J. L. Hudson, "The Dynamics of Coupled
Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem.
Eng. Sci., 41, 10, 2651 (1986).
53. Nandapurkar, P. J., V. Hlavacek, and P. Van Rompay, "Cha-
otic Behavior of a Diffusion-Reaction System," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 41, 11, 2747 (1986).
54. Chang, H.-C., and L.-H. Chen, "Bifurcation Characteristics
of Nonlinear Systems Under Conventional PID Control,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 39, 7/8, 1127 (1984).
55. Eckmann, J.-P., "Roads to Turbulence in Dissipative Dynam-
ical Systems," Rev. Mod. Phys., 53, 4, Pt. 1, 643-654 (1981).
O


FALL 1987









A course in .





POLYMERIZATION REACTOR ENGINEERING


J. MICHAEL SKAATES
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, MI 49931


M ICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL University, to-
gether with the Michigan Molecular Institute
(MMI) and Central Michigan University, has formed
the Michigan Polymer Consortium to provide
graduate degree programs and collaborative research
in polymer science and technology. Michigan Tech
brings to the consortium the particular strengths of a
combined Department of Chemistry and Chemical En-
gineering, conducive to interdisciplinary research,
and an extensive research program in polymer com-
posite materials.
In support of the polymer research program the
department of chemistry and chemical engineering at
Michigan Tech has structured a series of elective
courses, open to graduate students and qualified
seniors, grouped in four blocks (see Table 1). Although
the blocks stand by themselves and can be taken in
any order, students are advised to traverse the se-
quence in the direction shown.


J. M. Skaates received his BSc (1957) at Case Institute of Technology
and his MS (1958) and PhD (1961) at Ohio State University. He worked
at California Research Corporation for three years before joining the
faculty at Michigan Tech. His teaching duties have included under-
graduate and graduate courses in thermodynamics and kinetics, an
undergraduate course in process control, and graduate courses in
catalysis and in process optimization. He has been involved in research
in catalysis, biomass pyrolysis, and wet oxidation.
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


TABLE 1
Sequence of Polymer Courses


Polymer Polymerization
Chemistry Reactor
Design
Polymer Design and
synthesis operation of
Polymer polymerization
properties reactors

(five courses) CM490


Polymer
Forming
Operations
Rheology

Extrusion
Molding
etc.
(three courses)


Composite
Materials

Compounding
and
mechanical
properties of
composites
(courses in
materials
science and
solid
mechanics)


The polymerization reactor engineering course
(CM 490) has as its focus the design and operation of
industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired
degree of polymerization and molecular weight distri-
bution. Topics covered in the ten-week course are
shown in Table 2. For the benefit of students who
have not taken the polymer chemistry courses, the
mechanisms and kinetics of polymerization reactions


TABLE 2
Topics Covered in CM490

* Kinetics of condensation polymerization
* Design of condensation polymerization reactors
* Design of agitated thin-film evaporators
* Kinetics of addition polymerization
* Mechanism of free-radical addition polymerization
* Autoacceleration
* Predicting molecular weight distribution in addition
polymerization
Generating function method
Moment generating function
Z transform methods
The continuous variable technique
* Gel permeation chromatography
* Copolymerization kinetics
* Types of polymerization reactors
* Control and stability of addition polymerization reactors
* Optimization of polymerization reactors
* Flowsheets for the production of polystyrene
* Flowsheets for the production of polyethylene


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









are treated first. From the many available textbooks
emphasizing different aspects of polymer science, the
text by Rudin [1) was chosen because of its outstand-
ing treatment of polymerization kinetics.
Polymerization reactor design and operation are
taught with the aid of a series of literature articles
(Table 3). These were selected to illustrate the de-
velopment of experimental technique and sophistica-
tion of modeling during the past two decades. These
papers are assigned, in the order shown, at the rate
of two or three per week. Students must answer a
series of written questions on each paper and these
homework assignments constitute 20% of the course
grade. Discussion of the papers, led by student volun-
teers, is carried out at the weekly recitation session.



TABLE 3
Assigned Outside Readings

1. Duerksen, J. H., A. F. Hamielec, and J. W. Hodgins,
"Polymer Reactors and Molecular Weight Distribution: Part
I. Free Radical Polymerization in a Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactor," AIChE J 13, 1081 (1967)
2. Hamielec, A. F., J. W. Hodgins, and K. Tebbens, "Polymer
Reactors and Molecular Weight Distribution: Part II. Free
Radical Polymerization in a Batch Reactor," AIChE J 13, 1087
(1967)
3. Albright, L., and C. G. Bild, "Designing Reaction Vessels for
Polymerization," Chem. Eng., Sept. 15, 1975, 121-128
4. Gerrens, Heinz, "How to Select Polymerization Reactors,"
Part 1: CHEMTECH, June, 1982, 380-383, Part 2: CHEM-
TECH, July, 1982, 434-443
5. King, P. E., and J. M. Skaates, "Two-Position Control of a
Batch Prepolymerization Reactor," I&EC Process Des. and
Dev. 8, 114 (1969)
6. Wallis, J. P. A., R. A. Ritter, and H. Andre, "Continuous
Production of Polystyrene in a Tubular Reactor," Part I:
AIChE J 21, 686-691 (1975), Part II: AIChE J 21, 691-698
(1975)
7. Chen, C. H., J. G. Vermeychuk, J. A. Howell, and P. Ehrlich,
"Computer Model for Tubular High-Pressure Polyethylene
Reactors," AIChE J 22, 463 (1976)
8. Marini, L., and C. Georgakis, "Low-Density Polyethylene
Vessel Reactors: Part I: Steady-State and Dynamic Modeling,
Part II: A Novel Controller AIChE J 30, 401-415 (1984)
9. Henderson, L. S., "Stability Analysis of Polymerization in
Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem. Eng. Prog.,
March, 1987, 42-50
10. Mutsakis, M., F. A. Streiff, and E. Schneider, "Advances in
Static Mixing Technology," Chem. Eng. Prog., July, 1986, 42-
48
11. Choi, K-Y, and W. Harmon Ray, "The Dynamic Behavior of
Fluidized Bed Reactors for Solid Catalyzed Gas Phase Olefin
Polymerization," Chem. Eng. Sci. 40, 2261-2279 (1985)


In support of the polymer research program,
the department of chemistry and chemical engineering
at Michigan Tech has structured a series of elective
courses open to graduate students and qualified
seniors, grouped in four blocks.


The study of reactor modeling centers largely around
the work of the two leading research groups in the
field-those of W. Harmon Ray at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison, and of A. Hamielec at McMaster
University.
Two weeks of the course are devoted to the dif-
ficult problem of predicting the molecular weight dis-
tribution in a free-radical addition polymerization. The
topic begins with a discussion of the possibility of di-
rect solution of all the rate equations, as exemplified
by the monumental paper of Liu and Amundson [2].
Attention is then directed to mathematical techniques
for compressing these equations using generating
functions or the z transform. It is emphasized that
limiting assumptions are often required to make these
techniques computationally feasible. Finally, the con-
tinuous variable technique, pioneered by Zeman and
Amundson [3], is presented as the logical successor to
the other methods. A twenty-page handout tracing
the important mathematical ideas in Zeman's thesis is
given to the students. It is shown that Zeman's idea
of replacing the discrete variables by continuous vari-
ables has been successfully applied to other fields (size
reduction, crystallization, aerosol physics) where de-
tailed population balances are required to understand
observed rate behavior.
Industrial practice in polymerization reactor de-
sign is introduced with the excellent review articles
of Albright and Bild, and Gerrens. These are supple-
mented by a series of overhead transparencies show-
ing polymerization reactors in industrial installations.
Auxiliary equipment (agitated thin film evaporators,
motionless mixers, vented extruders) used to com-
plete the polymerization and remove unreacted
monomer, is also described. The course closes with
the study of flowsheets for two important families of
polymers (polystyrene, polyethylene), starting with
monomer synthesis and purification, and going to the
various grades of finished polymer.

REFERENCES

1. Rudin, Alfred, The Elements of Polymer Science and En-
gineering, Academic Press, 1982.
2. Liu, S.-L., and N. R. Amundson, Rubber Chem. and Technol-
ogy 34, 995 (1961).
3. Zeman, Ronald J., "Continuous Polymerization Models,"
Thesis, U. of Minnesota, 1964. D


FALL 1987










Research on ...




ADVANCED ENGINEERING FIBERS


DAN D. EDIE, MICHAEL G. DUNHAM
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0909

ANEW GENERATION of composite materials is rev-
olutionizing today's aircraft and automotive in-
dustries [1]. In applications ranging from the globe-
circling Voyager aircraft to truck drive shafts, com-
posites are demonstrating properties which are
superior to traditional materials. In aircraft applica-
tions where weight, strength, and stiffness are criti-
cal, many structural components are now made using
graphite/epoxy composites. Looking ahead, approxi-
mately half of the structural weight of the Air Force's
advanced tactical fighter will be composite materials.
Composites of glass and carbon fibers surrounded by
epoxy and polyester are being increasingly utilized in

















Dan D. Edie is professor of chemical engineering and co-director of
the Advanced Engineering Fibers Laboratory at Clemson University. He
received his BS degree from Ohio University and his PhD degree from
the University of Virginia. Before joining Clemson he was employed
by NASA and the Celanese Corporation. His research interests include
rheology, polymer processing, high-performance fibers and composite
materials. (L)
Michael G. Dunham, a PhD student in chemical engineering at
Clemson University, received his BS degree from Clemson in 1980.
Prior to returning to pursue an advanced degree, he served in a variety
of technical and supervisory positions with the DuPont Company. In
his research he is using mathematical modeling to study the stabiliza-
tion and carbonization of carbon fibers. (R)


automobile structure applications. Although U.S. auto
production in 1986 fell 3.7% from the 1985 level, com-
posites shipments to the industry rose 3.0%, reaching
585 million pounds [2]. The high-temperature strength
and stability of fiber reinforced ceramics offer the
promise of more fuel efficient engines in tomorrow's
automobiles. In the future, plastics, metals and
ceramics reinforced with graphite, glass, aramid, and
other fibers will replace much of the metal in aircraft
and automobile structures.
In a composite, a structure of fibers provides
strength and stiffness, and these fibers are held to-
gether by a matrix material. The result is that the
properties of a composite material can be exactly tail-
ored to fit the structure. For example, if one end of
the structure is under a higher load, more fibers (or
higher strength fibers) can be added to that end of the
composite structural member.
A composite for use at moderate temperatures
normally consists of high-strength carbon or
polymeric fibers encased in a plastic matrix. Higher
temperature applications may require either carbon
or ceramic fibers to be embedded in a metal, ceramic,
or carbon matrix. The fiber and matrix are carefully
selected to provide the best composite properties for
the particular application.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING'S ROLE
Composite materials represent a major growth
market for the chemical industry. In the future, chem-
ical companies, rather than metal producers, will be
the major raw material suppliers for the automotive
and aircraft industries. Even commercial building and
highway construction may utilize significant amounts
of composite materials. Since the processing, develop-
ment, and production of polymers has been an impor-
tant part of chemical engineering for the last thirty
years, research into the new high-strength fibers and
matrix polymers is a natural extension. New research
and development challenges in the fibers area include
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Composite materials represent a major growth market for the chemical industry.
In the future, chemical companies, rather than metal producers, will be the major raw
material suppliers for the automotive and aircraft industries. Even commercial building and
highway construction may utilize significant amounts of composite materials.


Continually upgrading manufacturing processes for the fi-
bers to improve properties and to reduce cost. Chemical
engineers in industrial research have recently developed
new processes to produce the precursors for many types of
ceramic, carbon, and graphite fibers.
A number of new high-performance fibers have been de-
veloped which are made from polymers as complex as
polybenzimidizole and as simple as polyethylene. Chemical
engineers must develop and design processes to produce
these fibers on an economic commercial basis.

The polymer matrix materials are undergoing
dramatic improvements. New polymers designed for
improved toughness, temperature stability, and melt
processability are being developed by a number of
firms. Chemical engineers will be principally responsi-
ble for developing the processes used to produce and
utilize these polymers.
Another major role for chemical engineers involves
the fabrication of the composites themselves. Today,
most advanced composites are made by manually lay-
ing up layers of matrix coated fibers or by winding the
fibers into the desired shape. These expensive, labor-
intensive processes limit end uses to very high value-
in-use applications. The application of chemical en-
gineering principles to the development of automated
processes for these fibers, such as weaving, braiding,
or the production of non-woven fabrics, will dramati-
cally lower the cost of these materials. These auto-
mated processes require that future reinforcing fibers
be less brittle and have improved finish coatings.
Other processes such as thermoforming, injection
molding, and pultrusion are also being explored by
chemical engineers in order to automate composite
manufacturing.

CLEMSON'S ADVANCED ENGINEERING
FIBERS LABORATORY
To address these challenges, Clemson established
the Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory in Au-
gust of 1986. The laboratory's purpose is to provide
national leadership and expertise in developing the
processing equipment and advanced fibers necessary
for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter
the composite materials market. Since the problems
encountered are often too complex to be solved by a
single academic program, the contribution of each of
the fields involved in the laboratory is critical. Re-


FIGURE 1. Advanced Engineering Fibers Laboratory
areas of emphasis. Faculty from four academic depart-
ments participate in this unique research effort.

searchers in chemical engineering, textile science,
polymer chemistry, mechanical engineering, and
ceramic engineering all interact in laboratory research
projects. The laboratory also offers technical and edu-
cational support to the fiber, textile, and composite
materials industries.
Many universities study composite materials.
However, this research effort has typically focused on
the analysis, fabrication, and mechanical evaluation of
the composite. Clemson's Advanced Engineering Fi-
bers Laboratory is unique in that its efforts are di-
rected toward the high performance fibers and matrix
polymers so critical to composite materials. Research
on these fibers, the matrix polymers, and their fabri-
cation into textile structures using automated equip-
ment is being coordinated by the laboratory. The lab-
oratory conducts research in six primary emphasis
areas

The chemistry of engineering fiber precursors
Fiber formation and processing
Characterization of engineering fibers
Fabrication of three-dimensional textile structures
Composite material characterization
Process economics and information transfer.

Figure 1 lists the faculty who are participating in


FALL 1987








ongoing laboratory projects. It also indicates the in-
terrelationship of the various research areas. For
example, improvements in fiber formation processes
require an understanding of precursor chemistry, an
ability to characterize the resulting fibers, the fabrica-
tion and testing of the fibers in composites, and the
assessment of the process economics. This gives the
laboratory the unique ability to study high perfor-
mance fibers from the chemical precursors through
their application in composite structures.

CURRENT ChE RESEARCH PROJECTS
The Department of Chemical Engineering at
Clemson has had an active and well-funded research
program in polymer processing and fiber formation
for years. The establishment of the Advanced En-
gineering Fibers Laboratory has augmented this ef-
fort and provided an increase in both internal and ex-
ternal funding for this important area of chemical and
materials research. Numerous research projects are


FIGURE 2. An electron microscope photograph of carbon
fibers coated with LaRC thermoplastic polyimide. The
electrical resistance of the carbon fiber is employed to
melt the thermoplastic matrix material.

underway in the laboratory and the following are brief
descriptions of several typical studies being carried
out by chemical engineering graduate students.

Coating of Carbon Fibers with Thermoplastic
Polymers. A novel process for coating carbon fibers
with thermoplastic matrix materials is being de-
veloped. A polymer powder is applied to the carbon
fiber and then melted by utilizing the electrical resis-
tance of the carbon fiber itself [3]. An electrical poten-


For example, improvements in fiber
formation processes require an understanding
of precursor chemistry, an ability to characterize
the resulting fibers, the fabrication and testing
of the fibers in composites, and the assessment
of the process economics.

tial is applied across a length of the fiber. This heats
the fiber to a temperature higher than the melting
point of the thermoplastic matrix and results in flow
of the polymer throughout the fiber bundle. This
technique is currently being used to apply new high-
temperature matrix polymers such as LaRC thermo-
plastic polyimide (developed by NASA) and poly-
etheretherketone (developed by ICI) to carbon fibers.
These tough matrix polymers have been specifically
developed for aircraft applications. The polymer coat-
ing allows the brittle fibers to be readily woven or
braided into a fabric which can be thermoformed into
a composite material. Figure 2 shows an electron
microscope photograph of a bundle of carbon fibers
coated with LaRC thermoplastic polyimide using this
technique.

Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Carbon
Fiber Manufacturing. Two of the most important
steps in the manufacture of carbon fibers are stabiliza-
tion and carbonization of the precursor fibers. Each of
these steps involves high temperature and exothermic
reactions which produce gaseous products. In order
to better understand these processes and predict op-
timum conditions, an effort is underway to model
these two process steps. The equations of heat and
mass transfer are applied to each process step and
solved simultaneously with equations describing the
reaction kinetics. In order to accurately describe the
reacting system, it is also necessary to determine sev-
eral physical constants such as diffusivities and ther-
mal conductivities as well as heat and mass transfer
coefficients. Current work is directed toward under-
standing the reaction kinetics and measuring these
constants and coefficients by a variety of experimental
methods.

Non-Circular Carbon Fibers. Chemical and
ceramic engineers at Clemson have developed a pro-
cess for the production of non-circular carbon fibers
by melt spinning mesophase pitch. The shape of the
fibers has been found to dramatically affect the prop-
erties of the resulting composites [4, 5]. The goal of
the current research is to improve the toughness of
the fibers and resulting composites and to better un-
derstand the novel fracture mechanisms of non-circu-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









lar fibers. Tougher fibers are needed if composite fab-
rication is to be automated to produce the inexpensive
composite materials required for automotive applica-
tions. Figure 3 is an electron microscope photograph
of a C-shaped fiber produced in this research.

Aging Characteristics of High Temperature
Thermoplastic Composites. One of the most impor-
tant trends in composites is toward tough, high tem-
perature thermoplastics to replace the thermosetting
polymers currently used as matrix materials. The
proper design of composite materials which use these
new thermoplastics will require more than the limited
physical data presently available. Clemson chemical
engineers are studying the effect of aging on compos-
ites of high temperature thermoplastics such as
PEEK (polyetheretherketone) and carbon fibers
through dynamic testing on a Rheometrics spectrome-
ter. The loss modulus, a measure of the composite's
ability to absorb energy, goes through a minimum at
a certain frequency of the applied load. The effect of
time, temperature, and composite processing history
on this minimum are being studied. It is expected that
this work will describe the high temperature limits of
the material and provide important physical data to
the composites industry.

THE LABORATORY'S ROLE IN
EDUCATING CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
The laboratory offers no courses or degree pro-
grams. Instead, it complements the existing degree
programs. The laboratory provides a mechanism for
students and faculty to interact with other engineer-
ing and scientific disciplines. This is of increasing im-
portance as chemical engineers enter new areas such
as composite materials where polymer processing,
fiber physics and mechanics, as well as chemical en-
gineering principles, must be applied to solve process
problems.
This interdisciplinary environment has long been
used by companies for research, design, and process
assistance. Normally, a variety of engineering and sci-
entific fields are represented on industrial research
and design teams. The laboratory exposes chemical
engineers to a similar environment and permits the
synergism which can be achieved as students and fac-
ulty with different backgrounds and skills work to-
gether to solve a problem.
The laboratory also provides a mechanism for shar-
ing experimental facilities among four departments
which are located in five buildings on the Clemson
campus. This is important as equipment becomes
more expensive and requires more expertise to oper-


ate. It provides chemical engineering students the op-
portunity to become familiar with processes as diverse
as fiber spinning, composite characterization, and
polymer spectroanalysis.

SUMMARY
Clemson's Advanced Engineering Fibers Labora-
tory provides a unique interdisciplinary environment
for the study of high performance fibers and matrix
polymers from their precursor chemicals to their final


FIGURE 3. A C-shaped carbon fiber produced by melt
spinning mesophase pitch. Non-circular fibers can offer
improved physical properties and toughness.

application in composites. The interaction provided by
the laboratory provides chemical engineers with an
opportunity to explore other engineering and scien-
tific approaches in solving problems. At the same
time, the laboratory itself benefits from the traditional
ability of chemical engineers to solve problems by
utilizing ideas obtained from a number of sources.

REFERENCES
1. D. D. Edie, "Textile Structures and Their Use in Composite
Materials," Int. Fiber J., 2(2), pp. 6-10, March 1987.
2. W. Worthy, "Wide Variety of Applications Spark Polymer
Composites Growth," Chem. and Eng. News, 65(12), pp. 7-13,
March 16, 1987.
3. B. W. Gantt, "The Thermoplastic Coating of Carbon Fibers,"
MS thesis, Clemson University, May, 1987.
4. D. D. Edie, N. K. Fox, B. C. Barnett, and C. C. Fain, "Melt
Spun Non-Circular Fibers," Carbon, 24(4), pp. 447-482, 1986.
5. M. G. Harrison, C. C. Fain, and D. D. Edie, "Study of Hollow
and C-shaped Pitch-based Carbon Fibers," Metal Matrix, Car-
bon, and Ceramic Matrix Composites 1986, NASA conference
Publication 2445, pp. 77-83, 1986. D


FALL 1987









Research on ...



UNIT OPERATIONS IN MICROGRAVITY


DAVID T. ALLEN
University of California
Los Angeles, CA 90024

DONALD R. PETTIT
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, NM 87545

THE SPACE SHUTTLE and the planned space station
offer unique envionments for chemical processing.
The three basic advantages that space offers that are
not generally available in earth-based systems are low
temperature, high vacuum, and sustained periods of
zero or microgravity. Ready access to low tempera-
tures and high vacuum may allow for the development
of processes requiring large structures in vacuum,
long duration cryogenic cooling, or multiple vacuum
to high pressure transitions. However, most of the
unit operations that are being developed for materials
processing in space are designed to take advantage of
reduced gravity. The next few pages will present a
brief review of some of the work currently under way
in the development of microgravity processes. The
material is largely based on a series of symposia held
















David T. Allen is an assistant professor of chemical engineering at
the University of California, Los Angeles, He obtained his BS from
Cornell University in 1979 and his MS and PhD in chemical engineer-
ing from the California Institute of Technology in 1981 and 1983. (L)
Donald R. Pettit is a research engineer at Los Alamos National
Laboratory. He obtained his BS from Oregon State University in 1978
and his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Arizona
in 1983. He is working on problems in low gravity fluid dynamics and
has flown low gravity experiments on board the NASA KC-135
airplane. (R)


Light
source


Microphone

Probe tube

Acoustic -- Acoustic well
waveguide

Acoustic -Sphaerical
Acoustic glass
driver sample

Insulation

Aluminum
sheath Heating
elements
Support
structure Furnace
25 X 2.5 X 2.75 in.
FIGURE 1. Containerless furnace based on acoustical
levitation (ref. 6).

at AIChE meetings since 1985 [1, 2] and a group of
NASA publications [3-5]. Our goal in performing this
review is twofold. First, we seek to highlight some of
the opportunities for materials processing in space,
and second, we want to emphasize the contributions
that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set
of technologies.

UNIT OPERATIONS IN MICROGRAVITY

A spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude of
approximately 190 miles is only 6% farther from the
center of mass of the earth mass than an object on the
earth's surface. Thus, the gravitational force experi-
enced by the spacecraft is only 13% less than the
gravitational force at the earth's surface. However,
because the spacecraft and all of the objects in it are
in free fall, there is no gravitation acceleration of the
objects in the spacecraft relative to the spacecraft.
The objects are in an approximately weightless, or
zero gravity, environment in the frame of reference
of the moving spacecraft. But even in the spacecraft's
frame of reference the gravitational force is not pre-
cisely zero. There are two types of gravitational force
experienced in the spacecraft. The largest forces are
induced by small vibrations in the ship (g-jitter),
which can cause a gravitational force of order 10- g.
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Our goal in performing this review is twofold. First, we seek to highlight
some of the opportunities for materials processing in space, and second, we want to
emphasize the contributions that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set of technologies.


G-jitter is roughly random and averages out to a zero
net force. A constant force of order 10-6 g is caused by
gravitation gradients. The gravitation force in low
earth orbit changes at a rate of 107 g per meter as an
object moves away from the center of mass of the
spacecraft. In a spacecraft with a dimension of 10 m,
a force of order 10- g can be imposed.
Reduced gravity allows two classes of unit opera-
tions to be used in space processing that are not gen-
erally available in a one-g environment. The first type
of unit operation uses various means of levitation to
achieve containerless processing, and the second type
is based on the absence of buoyant and sedimentation
forces.

CONTAINERLESS PROCESSING
In a microgravity environment objects levitate and
will assume a conformation that minimizes interfacial
energy. Thus, it is possible to contain liquids and to
process solids without exposing the materials to vessel
walls. The concept of levitation is not new, nor is it
confined to microgravity environments. Indeed,
Robert Millikan first measured the charge of an elec-
tron by levitating a charged oil drop in an elec-
tromagnetic field. However, the masses that can be
levitated in an earth-based experiment are limited,
and the levitating force can cause significant heating
and distortion of the material. In a microgravity envi-
ronment, levitating forces are imposed primarily to
counter the small gravitational forces discussed ear-
lier or to adjust an object's position. Much larger mas-
ses can be levitated in space than on earth, and heat-
ing effects are not as important.
Eletrostatic suspension, acoustic standing waves,
photon beams, gas or vapor stream momentum, and
magnetic induction have all been proposed as levita-
tion mechanisms for containerless processing in space.
The containerless processing apparatus that has seen
the most extensive use on the space shuttle is acousti-
cal levitation. If the object to be suspended can be
exposed to a gaseous environment, acoustical drivers
(loudspeakers) can be used to control the position of
the object. In a typical configuration, three mutually
perpendicular acoustical drivers are used to produce
a 3-dimensional standing acoustical wave in a roughly
cubical box (Figure 1) [6]. An energy well is created
at a position dependent on the wavelength generated
by the acoustical drivers. Containerless systems that


Gas





,- Heat flux

FIGURE 2. Conceptual configuration of a containerless
process for casting unusual shapes (ref. 7).

can impose a desired shape on a deformable material
are shown conceptually in Figure 2 [7]. These devices
use gas momentum to suspend objects and could be
useful in casting parts of arbitrary shape.
The ability to levitate relatively large masses in
microgravity has resulted in a number of applications.
The primary applications have been in suppressing
heterogeneous nucleation during crystal formation
and in the production of new glasses and unusual al-
loys. Crystallization and the production of new glasses
will be considered briefly in this review because they
represent two quite different examples of container-
less processing (i.e., semi-containerless and truly con-
tainerless).
When a glass forming melt is suspended in a levita-
tion device, heterogeneous nucleation is suppressed.
The outgrowth of this phenomena is the ability to ex-
tend the compositional limits of glasses, making possi-
ble entirely new materials. One such class of materials
is fluoride glasses, which have great promise as in-
frared optical components [8, 9]. A second possibility
for generating unique materials by containerless pro-
cessing in microgravity is the production of millimeter
size glass shells with walls of thin, uniform thickness
[10]. Many other applications are envisioned through
the use of controlled gradient furnaces coupled with
levitation devices.
These processes can be regarded as truly contain-
erless. However, they are forced to operate in a batch
mode. Semi-containerless unit operations can be oper-
ated continuously. One such process involves the crys-
tallization of materials important in electronic devices
and utilizes Czochralski growth (Figure 3) [5]. In this
unit operation, a seed crystal is lowered onto the free
surface of a melt. As the seed is withdrawn, the melt


FALL 1987






























~7112


FIGURE 3. Semicontainerless process for crystal growth.

adhering to it solidifies. This unit operation can be
performed in one g. However, less defects are present
in crystals produced in microgravity than in similar
crystals produced on earth. The defects in one g are
due, in part, to convective stirring caused by the heat
of crystallization. In microgravity, buoyant driven
convective motion is significantly reduced. Problems
associated with this unit operation in microgravity are
contamination by impurities derived from the crucible
and the difficulties associated with maintaining a flat
melt surface in microgravity.
A second semi-containerless unit operation is float
zone refining. Figure 4 shows a typical float zone crys-
tallization configuration. The feed crystal, containing
imperfections, is melted and then slowly recrystal-
lized. The purpose of the float zone is to insure uni-
form dispersal of dopants, reducing imperfections.
The float zone (melt) is suspended by interfacial ten-
sion between the feed material and the crystal. In
microgravity, much larger float zones are possible
than at one g and concentration inhomogeneities due
to convective motion and growth spurts are minimized
[11]. A new approach to float zone crystallization is
shown in Figure 5. In this system [12] the crystallizing
material is isolated by the float zones, and a seed crys-
tal is not required.


UNIT OPERATIONS BASED ON REDUCED
SEDIMENTATION AND BUOYANCY IN MICROGRAVITY
Sedimentation and buoyancy effects are greatly
subdued in microgravity relative to one-g operation.
This can be extremely advantageous in electrophore-
tic separations, making metal foams, and in the pro-
duction of unique alloys. However, the absence of
buoyancy makes some unit operations that are easily
done on earth much more difficult. For example, re-
moving bubbles from glasses [13], obtaining reason-
able mass transfer rates in aerobic reactors, and even
operating a distillation column become difficult. For
the moment let's consider only the advantages of
space processing by focusing on electrophoresis and
the creation of new materials.
Electrophoretic separations are frequently used to
isolate biological molecules and cells. The separation
is based on the net charge obtained on molecules or
cells when they are placed in a buffer solution. The
ions in the buffer associate with the species to be sepa-
rated, providing a net charge. An applied electric field
causes an ionic current to flow and generates a force
on the charged species. The charged molecule or cell
moves with a velocity that balances the electrical force
with viscous drag. Because the charge associated with
particular molecules and cells are highly structure-de-
pendent, different species will migrate at different
rates, allowing them to be separated as shown in Fig-
ure 6. Like most of the unit operations discussed in
this brief review, electrophoretic separations are not


Melt
(Float zone)
FIGURE 4. Float zone crystallization: a semicontainerless
unit operation.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









confined to microgravity environments, However, in
one-g the resistive heat generated by the ionic current
causes convective flow fields that can significantly de-
grade the quality of an electrophoretic separation. The
sedimentation of cells can also degrade the separation.
Since microgravity can eliminate some of these prob-
lems, electrophoretic separations in space have been
actively investigated since the flights of Apollo 14 and
Apollo 16. Most recently, McDonnell Douglas As-
tronautics Corporation has used continuous flow elec-
trophoresis on board the space shuttle to separate
biological model materials [14]. Chemical engineers
are actively involved in modeling this complex
phenomenon [15, 16].
Another type of unit operation which takes advan-
Initial Float Zone Configuration
Heater I Heater 2



Feed solid Float one Feed solid





Float Zone Configuration at a Later Time


-- Heater I


FIGURE 5. A new approach to float zone crystallization.


tage of reduced sedimentation is exemplified by a
proposed method for growing zeolites in microgravity
[17]. When zeolites are formed in solution, their size
is controlled by nucleation rates and the rate at which
crystals sediment out of solution. In microgravity, the
crystals can grow to a much larger size before they
sediment, and nucleation rates may be reduced. This
process is representative of a large class of processes
that rely on solutions remaining homogeneous in
microgravity.
To this point, we have considered only unit opera-
tions that exploit microgravity. While microgravity
can be beneficial, it can also cause difficulties in per-
forming operations that are quite easily done at one-g.
As an example, consider some of the unit operations
required for optimizing the spacecraft ecosystem. In


FIGURE 6. Electrophoretic separation.
a long spaceflight there is strong motivation to use
biological reactors to convert CO2 to 02 in order to
reduce the amount of oxygen required for life support.
In one-g reasonable rates of mass transfer can be ob-
tained in biological reactors by bubbling gases through
the reactor. In microgravity, bubbles do not rise due
to buoyancy. However, it may be possible to im-
mobilize cells on microcarriers and then obtain reason-
able rates of mass transfer through agitation. But,
agitation may result in cell damage. This unit opera-
tion is still under active development by chemical en-
gineers collaborating with NASA [18].

CONCLUSION
This paper has enthusiastically reviewed a few of
the many opportunities available for materials proces-
sing in space. This enthusiasm must be tempered,
however, by the enormous costs associated with
transporting material into space. These costs have
been estimated to be several thousand dollars per
pound. With these transportation costs, the value
added by microgravity processing must approach that
of turning lead into gold. While the value of some
pharmaceuticals may justify manufacturing processes
based on microgravity alchemy, in general the costs
of microgravity processes must be justified by our im-
proved understanding of the role of gravity in earth-
based processes. So, although no great economic in-
centive exists to build manufacturing processes in
space, unit operations in microgravity will continue to
be developed. Opportunities exist for chemical en-
Continued on page 218


FALL 1987










A program on ...




CHEMICAL PROCESS MODELING AND CONTROL


R. DONALD BARTUSIAK, RANDEL M. PRICE
Lehigh University
Bethlehem, PA 18015

W HEN DECIDING TO go on to graduate school,
the prospective student must face two crucial
questions: What to study, and Where? Certainly, any-
one's answer to these questions will reflect a natural
self-interest, but this article will describe some fea-
tures of studying process modeling and control at
Lehigh University that are exciting to us.
The combination of substantial economic incentives
and profound intellectual challenges has motivated in-
creasing emphasis on process control within the chem-
ical process industries and chemical engineering
academia. As the chemical process industry matures,
business success depends more on optimizing the per-
formance of existing or novel process technology and
less on manufacturing new products with little atten-
tion to costs. No longer do overdesign and relaxed
operating criteria make life easy. Even in biotechnol-
ogy, specialty chemicals, and other frontier areas to-
ward which the chemical process industry is migrat-
ing, profitable manufacturing requires the ability to
understand and regulate dynamic processes. At the
intellectual level, process control engineers are ad-
dressing issues that were once simply mathematical
abstractions, but that now translate to real-world con-
cerns like energy efficiency, manufacturing flexibility,
product quality, safety, environmental protection, and
computer-integrated manufacturing. For today's and
tomorrow's chemical engineer, therefore, process
modeling and control skills are important, regardless
of his or her specific technical area of employment or
research interest.
To meet this challenge to chemical engineering
education, Lehigh University initiated the Chemical
Process Modeling and Control Center (PMC) in 1984.
PMC is an industry/academia consortium dedicated to
the education of graduate students for advanced re-
search in process modeling and control. Currently,
PMC is sponsored by twelve companies (both U.S.
and European), by the National Science Foundation,
and by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Its annual


operating budget is in excess of $400K. Christos Geor-
gakis and William Luyben are the center's founders
and its co-directors.
As a result of the industry/academia partnership
in PMC, the research work carried out by the students
is neither all theoretical nor all applied, but is a deli-
cate balance of both. PMC students can be confident
that their research topic is novel and challenging in
the context of the scientific literature and that it is
relevent to professionals working at the highest tech-
nical levels of industry. The vigorous intermixing of
the theoretical and the applied is reflected in the
career goals of the current group of PMC students.
Both industrial and teaching career aspirations are
represented. We expect that a similar diversity of
career goals will be maintained in future PMC teams.
With this introduction on why process control and
the PMC program at Lehigh are exciting to us, let's
examine the philosophy, the people, the technical pro-
gram, and the environment of PMC.













R. Donald Bartusiak received his BS from the University of Pennsyl-
vania and his MS from Lehigh University. He is currently completing
PhD studies at Lehigh. Before returning to graduate school, he worked
as a research engineer for Bethlehem Steel Corp. His industrial experi-
ence also includes employment with Exxon Chemicals. His research
interests and publications ore in the areas of nonlinear process control
and environmental engineering. (L)
Randel M. Price is a graduate student at Lehigh University. He has
a BSChE from the University of Missouri-Columbia and an MSChE from
the University of Arkansas. Prior to graduate school, he worked for the
process engineering department of Conoco Inc. (R)
C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











As a result of the industry/academia
partnership, the research work carried out by the
students is neither all theoretical nor all applied,
but is a delicate balance of both .students can be
confident that their topic is novel and challenging.


THE PHILOSOPHY


Prior to establishing PMC, Lehigh faculty, in col-
laboration with industrial representatives, assessed
the research needs in the area of process modeling
and control. This assessment recognized that rapid
technological advances are driving engineering to-
wards cross-disciplinary interaction. It identified
several important trends that have already affected,
and will continue to affect, the chemical, petroleum,
petrochemical and biochemical industries in the next
decade. These trends, detailed below, justified the
start-up of an intensive research effort.

The trend to improve the production efficiencies of existing
chemical plants has increased the need for more effective
dynamic models, for improved real-time process measure-
ments, and for more practical techniques for synthesizing mul-
tivariable, nonlinear and optimizing control structures. Re-
search activities in this area have already been undertaken,
but there still exists the strong need for practical, comprehen-
sive methods that industry can effectively use.
Efforts to develop new technologies and processes in growth
fields, such as biotechnology and polymer engineering, have
created the need for quickly constructing new process models
and for developing more reliable control strategies. Modeling
and control strategies in this area have barely scratched the
surface of this very important problem. Traditional solutions
influenced by past experiences are clearly not adequate.
Novel ideas are needed in postulating the appropriate re-
search problems and in providing fresh approaches for their
solution.
Increased process complexity, together with strict industry
and governmental standards for safety and the environ-
ment, require more reliable methods for alarm system
analysis, system design, and for new process fault diagnostic
methods with predictive capabilities. Although industry has
applied these concepts quite effectively with in-house ap-
proaches, there is a need for more systematic methods for the
design and safe operation of the tightly integrated processes
we will use in the future.
Rapidly evolving technologies for low-cost computer designs
and VLSI systems fabrication are creating new oppor-
tunities to apply powerful computer hardware and software
for process control including real-time integrated plant tran-
sient simulation and optimization.
Continuing advances in our ability to make more accurate
measurements of process variables, especially under com-
plex or harsh conditions, open up many possibilities for better
understanding of process behavior and lead to improved tech-
niques for process optimization and control. Research oppor-
tunities, for example, with respect to measurements in the
processing of polymers and in biotechnology, are very numer-
ous.


Industry has growing requirements for well-educated en-
gineers who possess a combined understanding of chemical
process technology, up-to-date modeling and control ap-
proaches, and methods and theory for solving challenging pro-
cess related problems. Furthermore, the growing use of com-
puters in industry, coupled with the rapidly increasing power
and distributed nature of the computer, is fundamentally al-
tering the process of design, engineering, and process opera-
tion as well as the manpower needs of industry.

These six trends define the research mission of
Lehigh's Chemical Process Modeling and Control Re-
search Center.

THE PEOPLE

The cross-disciplinary nature of the PMC process
control research effort is reflected in the human re-
sources of the center. Of the sixteen faculty members
participating in the center (Table 1), eleven are af-
filiated with the chemical engineering department,
two with mechanical engineering, two with industrial
engineering, and one with mathematics. Strong in-
teractions exist between PMC, the Bioprocessing Re-
search Institute, and the Emulsion Polymer Institute
at Lehigh.


TABLE 1
PMC Research Center Faculty

Christos Georgakis, Director (ChE) Andrew Klein (ChE)
William L. Luyben, Co-Director (ChE) Janice A. Phillips (ChE)
Hugo S. Caram (ChE) Matthew J. Reilly (ChE)
John C. Chen (ChE) David A. Sanchez (Math)
Mohamed S. El-Aasser (ChE) William E. Schiesser (ChE)
D. Gary Harlow (ME) Harvey G. Stenger (ChE)
Arthur E. Humphrey (ChE) Robert H. Storer (IE)
Stanley H. Johnson (ME) John C. Wiginton (IE)



Two post-doctoral researchers are currently in-
volved with furthering the work on specific research
projects and with defining new projects. We also have
three visiting research engineers from PMC industrial
sponsors.
At present, twelve graduate students are enrolled
in the activities of the center-eleven through the
chemical engineering department and one through
mechanical engineering. Two students will leave in
1987 with MS degrees, while the remaining ten are
working towards the PhD. It is an international
group. Some of the students have industrial experi-
ence, but most do not.
A special human resource of PMC is the close per-
sonal involvement of the company sponsors of the
center. The twice-yearly meetings of the PMC Indus-
trial Advisory Committee provide an opportunity for


FALL 1987










both formal and informal exchanges between the stu-
dents and the practicing engineers. Direct lines of
communication between students and practitioners in-
variably result from these meetings. In fact, essen-
tially all of the PMC thesis committees include a
member from industry.

THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM
The typical initial stages of the graduate student's
program are dominated by course work. As evidence
of Lehigh's emphasis on process control, the advanced
level control courses are all cross-listed by the chemi-
cal, mechanical and electrical engineering depart-
ments. The core advanced courses include state-space
and optimal control, multivariable control, process
identification, and stochastic control. These courses
supplement undergraduate courses in introductory
process control and in sampled-data control. In addi-
tion, topical seminars are periodically offered, for
example, on nonlinear control.
The choice of a graduate research topic is inti-
mately related to the research projects of the PMC
center. The vast majority of research undertaken by
the center is of a generic nature addressing major re-
search challenges not fully addressed and resolved in
the process control literature. A listing of the ten
generic research projects currently active is provided
in Table 2. Typically, thesis topics derive from these
generic research projects.
The charter of PMC also provides for the conduct
of suitable company-specific research projects. Al-
though far less active than the generic research of the
center, this work also provides potential topic areas
for thesis research. As an example of the company-
specific research, an MS thesis has been completed on
"The Control of Low Relative Volatility Distillation
Columns" making extensive use of real plant data
from an industrial sponsor.
There is a liberal exchange of information among
the projects. Students routinely share the software
they have developed. Process models, including those
derived from real industrial systems, are used by sev-
eral researchers on different projects. Conversely,
new control algorithms are tested in several different
applications.
PMC-supported students are always able to pub-
lish their work in a timely manner according to the
center's publication guidelines. Research is also re-
ported at national meetings. Some restrictions pertain
to the components of company-specific research pro-
jects involving proprietary information. PMC-sup-
ported students must file semi-annual progress re-
ports to the Industrial Advisory Committee once they


TABLE 2
Current PMC Research Projects
1. Design of effective nonlinear controllers for chemical reactors
2. Design of practical multivariable process controllers
3. Design and control of energy-efficient distillation column
systems
4. Development of software for dynamic process simulation
and control system design
5. Bioreactor modeling, optimization and control
6. Modeling and control of semi-continuous emulsion poly-
merization reactors
7. Plant-wide control
8. Expert multivariable control
9. Batch reactor control
10. Statistical quality control


become active in project work. In general, one formal
presentation per year is given by each student to the
industrial sponsor. Of course, less formal presenta-
tions on research plans and results are given with
greater frequency within the PMC tream.

THE ENVIRONMENT
A dramatic new development at Lehigh has occur-
red within the past year. A substantial portion of
Bethlehem Steel's Homer Research Laboratory, lo-
cated less than a mile from Lehigh's main campus,
was acquired by Lehigh University. Acquisition of
this beautiful facility nearly doubled the amount of
space for research (laboratory and office) available to
the university. PMC, the Chemical Engineering De-
partment, the Bioprocessing Research Institute and
the Emulsion Polymer Institute were among the first
groups to occupy the new facility.
Foreshadowing the doubling of the research space,
a doubling of the technical library space was ac-
complished during 1984-85. The E.W. Fairchild-Mar-
tindale Library currently houses 435,000 volumes,
with a total capacity of 650,000 volumes. The Lehigh
University library system receives more than 9,000
periodicals and serials. The library system fully uti-
lizes computer database technology for cataloging and
literature-searching. More than sixty-five full-time
staff are available to serve the research needs of fac-
ulty and students.
In the area of computer resources, PMC re-
searchers have access, through the campus-wide tele-
communications network, to all university mainframes
(CDC Cyber 850; Digital DEC-20 and VAX-8530; IBM
4381). Furthermore, PMC is equipped with its own
CDC Cyber 810 computer-a $500,000 grant from
Control Data. For input/output, there are six Tek-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








tronix 4109 graphics terminals, three Control Data
722 terminals, a Tektronix 4692 ink-jet plotter, and a
Control Data 533 line printer dedicated to PMC users
exclusively. Specialized software for process modeling
and control research is available both from in-house
development and from external sources. To further
the work on expert systems, PMC has acquired a
Symbolics 3620 machine with LISP and other ad-
vanced software systems. We plan to purchase a Sun
Engineering Workstation this summer to support the
Batch Reactor Control project. Public microcomput-
ers are widely distributed about campus.

CONCLUSION
These are exciting times at Lehigh and the Chem-
ical Process Modeling and Control Research Center.
The chemical process industry is very much interested
in stimulating research in process control, and in at-
tracting engineers who are well-educated in the field.
The university has responded to this challenge by
initiating an intensive industry/academia cooperative
research program to bring to light new knowledge in
areas of practical importance. The net result for
graduate students is that their research must satisfy
conditions both of novelty and of practical reality. In
our judgment, such a program yields engineers capa-
ble of succeeding in either academic or in industrial
careers. O


*n book reviews



MULTIPHASE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Volume 2
Edited by G. F. Hewitt J. M. Delhaye, N. Zuber
Hemisphere Publishing Co., New York 10016; 1986.
479 printed pages, $62.50
Reviewed by
Y. Y. Hsu
University of Maryland
This book covers six subjects on multi-phase flow:
Chapter 1. Flow Pattern Transition in Gas-Liquid
Systems, Measurement and Modeling (A. E. Dukler,
Y. Taitel); Chapter 2, A Critical Review of the Flood-
ing Literature (S. George Bankoff, Sang Chun Lee);
Chapter 3, A Comprehensive Examination of Heat
Transfer Correlations Suitable for Reactor Safety
Analysis (D. C. Greenoveld, C. W. Snoek); Chapter
4, Reboilers (P. B. Walley and G. F. Hewitt); Chapter
5, Flow of Gas-Solid Mixtures Through Standpipes


and Valves (L. S. Leung, P. J. Jones); Chapter 6,
Core-Annular Flow of Oil and Water Through a
Pipeline (R. V. A. Olieman, G. Ooms).
Chapter One on flow patterns in liquid-gas two
phase flow is a comprehensive review of many years
of significant contributions made by Professor Dukler
and his colleagues at the University of Houston. Two-
phase flow behavior is very much affected by the in-
terfacial transport, which in turn is affected by the
flow patterns. Determination of flow pattern has been
of fundamental importance to two-phase flow studies.
The authors' contribution is to treat flow pattern
transition through modeling instead of the many em-
pirical approaches previously prevalent in the indus-
try. Dukler and Taitel are to be lauded for their more
scientific and mechanistic approach to establish the
flow pattern transition criteria. However, a major
class of flow patterns that are absent are those related
to vertical pipe or bundle with boiling/condensation
which are very important in reactor safety analysis
and in chemical processes.
The second chapter on flooding covers the subject
relating to counter-current flow in a vertical channel.
Since the flooding phenomena are very much affected
by the entrance geometry-the boundary conditions
(such as channel geometry heating or no heating), the
steam or air flow conditions and physical properties
(steam or air with water being subcooled or satu-
rated), etc.-it is very difficult to give an unified and
systematic treatment. The authors did a good job in
this attempt.
After the analytical models, some experimental re-
sults and empirical correlations were introduced. In
this section, unfortunately, a great deal of work car-
ried out in reactor safety research was only briefly
cited.
Chapter Three is a comprehensive examination of
heat transfer correlation used for reactor safety
analysis. The heat transfer package is the heart of
thermal-hydraulic codes developed to predict the
coolability of a reactor core during accidents and tran-
sients. Choice of proper heat transfer correlations for
each heat transfer mode is the key to the success of a
code. The authors of this chapter made a valiant effort
to critically examine the heat transfer correlations and
succeeded in giving a comprehensive review and pro-
vided readers with a fairly complete list of correlations
currently being considered for reactor analysis. But
the reviewer thinks that bundle data should be given
more weight than tube data in assessing the correla-
tions since bundle geometry is what is encountered in
a reactor.
Continued on page 209.


FALL 1987










A program on ...



ADVANCED COMBUSTION ENGINEERING


CALVIN H. BARTHOLOMEW
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602


O UR NATION'S BASIC and high technology indus-
tries are highly dependent on an adequate supply
of energy, the production of which depends upon com-
bustion technology. The future survival of these in-
dustries will hinge on the ability to utilize more effi-
ciently, through advanced combustion technology, our
nation's readily available, low-cost fuel resources.
There are unfortunately several formidable
roadblocks threatening the realization of these criti-
cally needed developments: (1) commitment of com-
bustion-based industries to out-dated technologies, (2)
environmental and operational problems in the utiliza-
tion of low-cost, low-grade fuels, (3) insufficient un-
derstanding of combustion fundamentals, and (4) lack


Calvin H. Bartholomew received his BS degree from Brigham
Young University and his MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering
from Stanford University. He spent a year at Corning Glass Works and
a summer at Union Oil as a visiting consultant before joining the
chemical engineering department at Brigham Young University in
1973. He is presently professor, head of the BYU Catalysis Laboratory,
and Associate Director of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Re-
search Center. Recipient of the Karl G. Maeser Research Award, he has
authored over 70 scientific papers and 5 major reviews in the fields
of heterogeneous catalysis and catalyst deactivation. His major re-
search and teaching interests are heterogeneous catalysis, char com-
bustion, kinetics and reactor design, Moessbauer spectroscopy, surface
science, and air pollution control.


Dir ctor
L. Douga Smoo
















FIGURE 1. Management structure of the Advanced Com-
bustion Engineering Research Center

of communication, collaboration and cooperation
among investigators in academic, industrial and gov-









ernmental research and development communities.
Wm Gould, Chair Dan Hadley. Char









To address the removal of these roadblocks, the
C.H. Bad mew Dav Pesing









Advanced Combustion Engineering Academ Research Center








(ACERC) was established in the summer and fall of
1985 as a cooperative effort among Brigham Young

University (BYU), the University of Utah (U of U),
two national laboratories (Sandia National Labs and
Los Alamos Natio nal Labs), an 2 nd ustrial/re-




search organizations located throughout the United
States. The departments of chemical engineering
fuels engineering (U of U), and mechanical engineer






center. Headquarters were established at BYU. The
organization of the new center, consisting of a Direc-
tfw cnmunical l oabratiores aSa ndia Natoonal Lrab an

















torate, an Executive Advisory Council and Technical
Review Committee, is illustrated in Figure 1. Mem-
bers of the management team consisting of the direc-
bustion Engineering Reecah Cengner-

















torate and coordinators for research, education, and
information dissemination are listed in Table 1, while
in Table 2. Listed in Table 3 are companies and
1985 as a Copyright CerE Dist ion ASEE 1987Yo
University (BYU), the University of Utah (U of U),

Los Alamos National Labs), and 23 industrial/re-
search organizations located throughout the United
States. The departments of chemical engineering


ing (BYU) were involved in the formation of this new

organization of the new center, consisting of a Direc-
torate, an Executive Advisory Council and Technical






in Table 2. Listed in Table 3 are companies and
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










laboratories which have subscribed as technical
partners of the center.
In the fall of 1985, proposals were submitted to the
National Science Foundation (NSF) and the State of
Utah for funding. On May 1, 1986, BYU and the U of
U were jointly awarded a $9.7 million 5-year grant
from NSF as part of its Engineering Research Cen-
ters Program. This award was one of five selected
from 102 proposals submitted by 74 institutions in fall
1985. Also receiving grant awards from NSF in the
1985-86 round were Carnegie-Mellon University, Uni-




TABLE 1
ACERC Management

Director
L. Douglas Smoot
Dean of Engineering and Technology
Head of the Combustion Laboratory
Associate Directors and Research Coordinators
BYU UofU
Calvin H. Bartholomew David W. Pershing
Professor of Chem. Eng. Professor of Chem. Eng.
Head of the Catalysis Lab Assoc. Dean of Grad. School
Academic Coordinator


Calvin H. Barth
Professor of Ch



John C. Laing
Manager, ACEI


lolomew David M. Bodily
em. Eng. Professor of Fuels Eng.
Assoc. Dean of Mines & Min.
External Relations Coordinator
Ronald J. Pugmire
RC Prof. of Fuels Eng.
Assoc. Vice Pres. of Res.


TABLE 2
Executive Advisory Council

* William Gould, Chairman, Retired Chief Executive Officer of
Southern California Edison and EPRI Chairman
* Christian Bolta, Director of Technology Strategy, Combustion
Engineering, Inc.
* Dan Hartley, Vice President of Sandia National Laboratories
* George Hill, Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Univer-
sity of Utah and former Director of the office of Coal Research
and EPRI
* Eric Reichl, Consultant and Retired President of the Conoco
Coal Development Company
* Adel Sarofim, Professor of Chemical Engineering, MIT
* George Watkins, Executive Director of the Empire State Elec-
tric Energy Research Corporation


There are unfortunately several
formidable roadblocks threatening the
realization of these critically needed developments .
To address the removal of these roadblocks, the
Advanced Combustion Engineering Research
Center was established in 1985 .

versity of Illinois-Urbana, Lehigh University and
Ohio State University.
In addition to the funds from NSF, the center will
receive approximately $3.5 million from the two uni-
versities, $500,000 from the State of Utah, and over
$500,000 from private industry, for a total of about
$14 million for the five years. During the first year
the total ACERC budget was $3.2 million.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAM

Objectives. Since combustion is a very broad field,
a focus is essential in order to make a significant con-
tribution. ACERC's research program has been de-
signed to address the most significant research
priorities for U. S. competitiveness in combustion
technology while removing the roadblocks mentioned
above. The principal objective ofACERC is to develop
and implement, within 5 years, advanced computer-
Continued on page 216.


TABLE 3
Technical Partners of ACERC

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATES
Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
Babcock and Wilcox
Combustion Engineering, Inc.
Consolidated Coal Co.
Convex Computer Corp.
Electric Power Research Institute
Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp.
Foster-Wheeler Development Corp./IHI (Japan)
Gas Research Institute
Morgantown Energy Tech. Center
Pittsburgh Energy Tech. Center
Tennessee Valley Authority
Utah Power and Light Co.

TECHNICAL AFFILIATES
General Motors Corp. (Alison Gas Turbine Div.)
Chevron Research Co.
Corning Glass Works
Dow Chemical USA
General Electric Co.
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Pyropower Corp.
Questar Development Corp.
Shell Development Co.
Southern California Edison


FALL 1987









An experiment in .. .




LIQUID-PHASE ADSORPTION

FUNDAMENTALS


DAVID 0. COONEY
University of Wyoming
Laramie, WY 82071

ADSORPTION PROCESSES ARE important in the re-
moval of organic contaminants from wastewaters
and municipal drinking water supplies, in the removal
of solvents and odor compounds from gas streams, in
the drying of air, etc. The adsorbent employed may
be activated carbon, synthetic resins, silica gel, etc.
An adsorption experiment has been developed and
successfully run in our unit operations laboratory
course at the University of Wyoming. It involves the
liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from
aqueous solution on activated carbon, but is relevant
to adsorption processes in general.
In designing the experiment several goals were
set: (1) it had to be capable of being completely run in
four hours or less, (2) it should demonstrate the
applicability of both the Langmuir and Freundlich
isotherm equations to equilibrium data, and (3) it


David Cooney is Head of the Chemical Engineering Department at
the University of Wyoming. His research has focused mainly on liquid-
phase adsorption topics. He is the author of approximately 70 research
papers and two books.


should familiarize the student with both batchwise and
continuous fixed-bed types of operations. In addition,
the component to be adsorbed should be reasonably
water-soluble so that aqueous solutions could be em-
ployed, and it should be colored so that its removal by
batch adsorption and its breakthrough behavior in
fixed-bed operation be visible to the student. This re-
quirement also allowed for easy measurement of the
solute's concentration colorimetrically. One problem
often encountered with colored solutes, however, is
that their color intensity is a function of solution pH.
And, since contact with activated carbon can change
the pH of an aqueous solution and thereby alter the
solute's color intensity (even at constant solute con-
centration), buffering of the aqueous solution to be
used was considered to be necessary.
After some trial-and-error, the stock solution for
the experiment was chosen to be a 0.30 g/liter solution
of 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) in distilled water, buffered
to a pH of 7.4 by the addition of 1.184 g/liter KH2PO4
and 4.289 g/liter NaHP04. The DNP (Eastman Kodak
Chemicals brand) contained around 15% moisture,
which was included in the 0.30 g/L portions weighed
out. A Pye Unicam Model 6-550 UV/Visible spec-
trophotometer was used in the visible mode at a
wavelength of 480 nm with standard 1 cm x 1 cm x
4.5 cm matched glass sample cells (one cell was a ref-
erence cell containing distilled water; the other was
the "sample" cell) to analyze all samples generated in
the experiment for DNP concentration (the stock so-
lution absorbance was around 0.600). Beer's Law was
found to be obeyed for DNP sufficiently well over the
range of concentrations involved in the experiment,
i.e., the DNP concentrations were proportional to the
visible light absorbance values given by the spec-
trophotometer. The stock solution was deep-yellow in
color.
The carbon used was Pittsburgh CPG activated
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Adsorption processes are important in the removal of organic contaminants from wastewaters ...
An adsorption experiment has been developed and successfully run in our unit operations laboratory
course ... It involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous
solution on activated carbon, but is relevant to adsorption processes in general.


carbon, sieved to 28/40 mesh for the fixed-bed exper-
iments and ground to less than 325 mesh for the batch
(equilibrium) experiments. The carbon was heated in
an oven at 1500C for 24 hours prior to use and then
kept in closed glass jars (this prevents contamination
by stray gas-phase adsorbates).

BATCH (EQUILIBRIUM) EXPERIMENTS
Approximately six samples containing roughly
0.005 to 0.030 grams of the powdered carbon (at essen-
tially equally spaced weight intervals) were weighed
into new dust-free liquid scintillation vials (Wheaton
20 mL borosilicate glass vials, from Cole-Parmer In-
strument Co., Chicago, Cat. No. J-8918-02) using a
Mettler AE 160 digital balance capable of weighing to
0.1 mg. Then 10 mL of the stock DNP solution was
added to each vial using a standard volumetric
pipette. The vials were capped with the caps that
came with them (these had Poly-Seal conical seals in
them) and taped (with cellophane tape) onto the bed
of a shaker bath (Precision Scientific, Model 25,
Chicago) (water omitted) set at 100 oscillations/min-
ute. Any other suitable shaking device would work
just as well. After one hour of shaking, the vials were
removed and let stand for about ten minutes to allow
most of the powdered carbon to settle. (It was proved
separately that equilibrium is reached in about twenty
minutes, for < 325 mesh carbon.)
Meanwhile, six filter units each consisting of a 13
mm diameter Millipore HAWP 0.45 p[m pore size
membrane filter in a 13 mm size Swinny filter holder
(both available from the Millipore Corporation, Bed-
ford, MA) were prepared. About 15 mL of each sam-
ple supernatant solution was taken up into a 20 mL
plastic syringe which was then attached to a filter hol-
der, and the solution was filtered to remove the re-
maining carbon particles. The first few mL were dis-
carded (membrane "debris" sometimes flushes off into
the first portion of the filtrate) and the remainder was
collected in a small beaker (covered) or clean capped
scintillation vial for subsequent colorimetric analysis.
For each sample, the DNP concentration was com-
puted from: concentration (g/L) = 0.30 x (sample ab-
sorbance at 480 nm/stock solution absorbance at 480
nm). This concentration, CA, was used in the mass
balance qA W = V (CAO CA) where W = grams of


0 50 100 150
I/CA (L/g)
FIGURE 1. "Linearized" Langmuir equation plot of the
equilibrium data, which should yield a straight line if K
and Q are constant.


powdered carbon used, V = volume of solution used
(0.01 liter), and CAO = initial DNP concentration (0.30
g/liter), to compute the equilibrium carbon-phase con-
centration q* (g DNP/g carbon).

BATCH (EQUILIBRIUM) RESULTS
Since the Langmuir isotherm equation


qA = KQ CA/(1 + K CA)


can be linearized to the form


1 1 1
4 Q KQ CA


the data were plotted in the form of 1/q* versus I/CA
in the hopes that they could be fit with a straight line
to give an intercept of 1/Q and a slope of 1/KQ, from
which K and Q (the value of q* reached as CA -- ,
i.e., the monolayer adsorption capacity of the carbon
for DNP) could be determined. As Figure 1 shows,
such a straight-line fit was impossible (i.e., the data
simply do not fit the Langmuir model).


FALL 1987









The q% versus CA data were also plotted on log-log
paper, since the Freundlich isotherm equation is


qA = k CA /n (3)
hence
log qA = log k + (1/n) log C (4)


Students always try to get an "intercept" on such
a plot, but this is impossible, of course. They should
n5


0.2


0.004


0.01 0.02 0.04 0.1 0.2 0.4


CA (g/L)
FIGURE 2. Linearized Freundlich equation plot of the
equilibrium data.

simply pick two points near the ends of the best fit
straight line, and insert these two (q*, CA) pairs into
the last equation, thereby generating two equations
from which the two unknown parameters k and 1/n
can be determined. As Figure 2 shows, the data fit
the Freundlich expression extremely well. This is con-
sistent with the author's and other investigators' pre-
vious experience in measuring liquid-phase equilibria
for organic compounds adsorbing on activated carbon,
in which it has been repeatedly observed that the
Freundlich equation fits such data very well (see the
references listed at the end of this paper).
Although the Langmuir equation obviously does
not fit the equilibrium data, the data for the four high-
est CA points (i.e., for the four lowest 1/CA points in
Figure 1) can be fit reasonably well to a straight line,
from which one obtains Q = 0.221 and K = 53.7.
Figure 2, for the Freundlich equation, gives k = 0.258
and 1/n = 0.146. Plots of Eqs. (1) and (3) with these
parameter values give the comparison to the equilib-
rium data shown in Figure 3. Obviously, the
Freundlich equation fits essentially exactly, while the
Langmuir equation fits somewhat well at high CA and
poorly at low CA, as one would expect considering
how Q and K were obtained.


FIXED BED EXPERIMENT


Four grams of the 28/40 mesh Pittsburgh CPG car-
bon were loaded into a 0.9 cm I.D. by 15 cm long
chromatography column (type K 9/15 from Pharmacia
Fine Chemicals, Inc., Piscataway, NJ). The empty
column, with the top inlet header unscrewed, was fil-
led with distilled water (with the outlet line clamped),
and small portions of the carbon were dropped into
the column successively until the column was packed
with the full 4 grams of carbon. This technique pre-
vents any trapping of air bubbles in the bed. While
some classification of the carbon particles occurs as
they fall through the water, gross classification of the
bed is avoided by adding the carbon in small batches
with a spatula and waiting for each batch to settle.
The water level in the column rises as one does this,
so the clamp on the column outlet line must be period-
ically opened to drain off some of the water and keep
it from overflowing out of the top of the column. Once


CA (g/L)
FIGURE 3. Comparison of equilibrium data with the
Freundlich equation, and with a Langmuir equation de-
rived from fitting the high CA data.



the column was packed, the top inlet header was
screwed onto the column. The stock DNP solution, 3
liters of which were contained in a standard one-gallon
glass jug, was pumped to the column at 25 mL/minute
using a Masterflex Unified Variable Speed Model
7523-10 tubing pump drive fitted with a number 7014
Standard Pump Head, and number 14 silicone rubber
tubing (Cole-Parmer Instrument Co., Chicago).
The pump was turned on briefly enough to bring
the DNP solution to the end of the tubing, which was


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


------ 0.2 8C14

I I [ I I I I I I I I IA


ntnt









then attached to the column inlet header. At "time
zero," a stopwatch was started and the pump was re-
started. Effluent from the column was collected in a
1000 mL graduated cylinder and, as each successive
100 mL mark was reached, a spectrophotometer cell
was held under the effluent line for long enough to
collect about 2.5 mL of effluent. The sample absor-
bance was then measured colorimetrically (any drops
of sample on the cell outside surfaces were first dried
off using Kimwipes). The reference cell was checked


0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Effluent Volume (mL)
FIGURE 4. Effluent curve behavior for the experiment.


each time to see that its absorbance read 0.000. The
sample was then dumped back into the collection cylin-
der. When the first 1000 mL cylinder was full, a sec-
ond one was used to replace the first one, and the first
one was dumped. The cylinders were alternated this
way, with sample measurements each 100 mL, until
the effluent concentration exceeded 75% of the inlet
concentration. The fixed bed experiment was then
shut down and the data were plotted as CA versus
total effluent volume.

FIXED BED RESULTS
Figure 4 shows the breakthrough curve obtained
from the fixed-bed part of the experiment. If ideally-
sharp breakthrough behavior were to exist, a step
function would have been obtained at a point where a
vertical line passes through the point CA = 1/2 CA,feed
(assuming a symmetrical breakthrough curve). The
total effluent volume corresponding to this step func-
tion can be seen to be about 2460 mL, and hence the
total column capacity for DNP is thus (2.46 liters)
(0.30 g/liter)/4.0 g carbon = 0.185 g DNP/g carbon.
However, inserting CA = 0.30 g/liter into the
Freundlich equation gives a q* value of 0.235. The


reason why the 0.185 is about 21% too low is that the
effluent curve is actually not symmetrical but would
show significant "tailing" if it had been followed fur-
ther. Hence, the proper position to place the step
function for the ideal case would be at an effluent vol-
ume greater than 2460 mL. This would raise up the
calculated 0.185 value and give better agreement with
the "ideal saturation capacity" value calculated from
the Freundlich equation.
Nevertheless, the step-function replacement of the
actual breakthrough curve does give a rough approx-
imation to the column's ideal capacity. Of course, in
actual operation, a fixed-bed system would be shut
down as soon as the outlet concentration is just a few
percent (e.g., 5%) of the inlet concentration. The only
reason we followed the breakthrough curve so far in
this experiment was to allow the students to see what
the curve looks like at later stages, and to allow them
to compare (at least approximately) the total DNP
capacity from this dynamic column technique to values
predicted by batch equilibrium experiments.

COMMENTS
With a group of three students performing this
experiment, we start the batch sample part first.
Then, while the samples are shaking (one hour) we
begin the column part. Sometime during the column
run, the batch samples are ready for filtration, so the
filtration is carried out by one of the students, and the
filtrates are kept aside for analysis after the column
run is over.
In their reports, the students are asked to discuss
general principles of adsorption, particularly low tem-
perature physical adsorption (via van der Waals type
forces) on activated carbon. They are also asked to
discuss how activated carbon is usually made, and its
properties (internal surface area, pore-size distribu-
tion, etc.).
Overall, the experiment and subsequent student
reports are effective in conveying most of the basic
principles of physical adsorption processes.

REFERENCES
1. Cooney, D. 0., Clin. Toxicol. 11, 387 (1977).
2. Cooney, D. 0., Amer. J. Hosp. Pharm. 34, 1342 (1977).
3. Cooney, D. 0., and R. P. Kane, Artif. Organs 7, 197 (1983).
4. Giusti, D. M., R. A. Conway, and C. T. Lawson, JWPCF 46,
947 (1974).
5. Mattson, J. S., and F. W. Kennedy, JWPCF 43, 2210 (1971).
6. Sheindorf, C., M. Rebhun, and M. Sheintuch, Water Res. 16,
357 (1982).
7. Yonge, D. R. et al, Environ. Sci. Technol. 19, 690 (1985). O


FALL 1987









FrnPBclass and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical
engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle
in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested as well as those that
are more traditional in nature, which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor H. Scott
Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.



MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER WITH

CHEMICAL REACTION

Cooking a Potato


KERRY L. SUBLETTE
University of Tulsa
Tulsa, OK 74104

PROBLEM
THE COOKING OF a potato in a hot water bath may
be readily described by combining a model of tran-
sient heat transfer in a sphere (with convective bound-
ary conditions) and kinetic data given by Personius
and Sharp [1] for the rate of change in tensile strength
in potato tubers as a function of temperature. A com-
puter program may be written which uses finite differ-
ence methods to solve the transient heat transfer
equation. When these results are combined with kine-
tic data, transient tensile strength profiles may be
generated. The cooking of the potato can therefore be
simulated. The model is readily verified with a
minimum of laboratory time and equipment.

CHEMICAL BASIS: COOKING A POTATO
Roughly 60-80% of the dry matter of a potato tuber
is starch. Potato starch is a mixture of two polymers
of a-D-glucose, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose
(20% of potato starch) is a linear unbranched chain of
a-D-glucose units joined by a(1 -> 4) acetal linkages.
Amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide with a(1 ->
6) branch points. Native amylose and amylopectin
polymers have molecular weights in the millions.
Within the potato tuber, starch occurs as micro-
scopically visible granules which are 15-100 microns in
diameter and oval in shape. Thin sections of starch
granules reveal them to be highly organized consisting

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Kerry L. Sublette obtained his BS in chemistry from the University
of Arkansas, his MS in biochemistry from the University of Oklahoma,
and his MSE and PhD in chemical engineering from the University of
Tulsa. After six years in research and development with Combustion
Engineering, he joined the chemical engineering faculty at the Univer-
sity of Tulsa in 1986. His research interests are in fermentation,
biocatalysis, microbial desulfurization of coal, and biological methods
of hazardous waste treatment.



of concentric layers. Within these layers, starch
molecules associate through extensive hydrogen bond-
ing between parallel linear segments.
The microscopic appearance of starch granules
changes markedly upon heating. In cold water, iso-
lated starch granules will take up 20-30% of their
weight in water. This association is reversible i.e.,
the granule can be recovered in its original state upon
drying. At about 650C, starch granules will swell
rapidly, taking up large amounts of water (up to 25
times the original weight of the granule). This swel-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


~









ling process, termed gelatinization, is irreversible.
Heating disrupts regional hydrogen bonding between
adjacent starch segments, replacing starch-starch as-
sociation with starch-water association. Upon cooling,
the hydrated segments are no longer free to hydrogen
bond to other starch segments. Starch granules in
plant tissue undergo gelatinization upon heating by
taking up cellular water and/or water from their envi-
ronment if heated by steam or hot water.
The individual potato cell is surrounded by a rigid
cell wall consisting principally of cellulose interwoven
with pectins. Cellulose is a high molecular weight
polysaccharide in which the repeating unit is P-D-glu-
cose. Pectins are a complex mixture of polysac-
charides of galacturonic acid or its methyl ester. These
pectic substances are regarded as the cementing sub-
stances which hold plant cells together.
The softening that occurs upon cooking of fruits
and vegetables is partially the result of depolymeriza-
tion of pectic substances. Depolymerization of pectins
occurs in all types of cooking processes. The common
observation that potatoes cook faster when immersed
in water than if steamed or baked is attributed to
diffusion of pectin degradation products out of the tis-
sue and their solubilization in the cooking water.
When potatoes are cooked, the starch they contain
is gelatinized and the water contained within the cell
is adsorbed in the process. The cells become filled by
swollen starch granules, applying pressure to the cell
wall if sufficient starch granules are present. The cell
walls of individual cells normally remain intact; how-
ever, weakening of the cell walls by depolymerization
of pectins makes the cell wall somewhat flexible.
Therefore, if sufficient starch is present, the cell
(which is normally box-like in shape) becomes roughly
spherical. The change in shape further weakens the
cementing forces which bind cells together by limiting
surface-surface contact.
A potato which is regarded as being of high quality
for cooking will have a mealy texture upon being
baked, boiled, steamed or fried. Mealiness is that
quality of being soft, dry, and easily crumbled. Meal-
iness in a cooked potato results from an ease of separa-
tion of individual cells. A good cooking quality potato
will therefore be one which contains a high proportion
of cells which possess sufficient starch content to
cause cellular and interstitial water to be adsorbed
and to cause distortion of the cell shape to something
more spherical when gelatinization takes place. The
absence of sufficient starch leads to a hard, soggy tex-
ture even after cooking. In addition, a high quality
cooking potato will have a high proportion of cells
which are small enough to resist rupturing when the


The cooking of a potato in a hot water
bath may be readily described by combining a
model of transient heat transfer in a sphere (with
convective boundary conditions) and kinetic data for
the rate of change in tensile strength in potato
tubers as a function of temperature.

cooked tuber is mashed. Rupturing of cells results in
release of swollen starch granules which gives the
cooked potato a sticky, waxy texture.

KINETICS OF COOKING A POTATO
Personius and Sharp [1] have examined the adhe-
sion of potato tuber cells as influenced by tempera-
ture. In their experiments, whole potato tubers were
coated with a thin layer of rubber paint and held in a
constant temperature water bath. The rubber paint
prevented the exchange of water and salts between
the tuber and water bath. Thermocouples measured
the temperature of the potato centers. After the
potato centers reached the temperature of the water
bath, potato tubers were removed at various times
and the tensile strength of sections was obtained.
From data reported by Personius and Sharp, the
rates of decrease in tensile strength as a function of
incubation temperature were determined in order to
prepare an Arrhenius plot (see Figure 1). The primary
assumption made here was that these rates are
roughly equivalent to those which would have been


1.0










I .-
-


/T X 103 (K-I)
FIGURE. 1. Arrhenius plot of data of Personius and Sharp
[11


FALL 1987









observed if the potatoes warmed to the incubation
temperatures instantly. The effect of heat during
warming time on these rates is unknown.
The rate equation for the cooking process may be
expressed as follows


dT = k f(x) = k e-Ea/RT f(X)


where TS = tensile strength (kg/cm2)
k = a rate constant
ko = frequency factor
Ea = energy of activation
R = universal gas constant
T = temperature (OK)
f(x) = some function of the condition of th
potato, assumed to be constant during
the cooking process

In logarithmic form the rate equation becomes

in dt S T~ + ,n k f(x)
( t I.

From the Arrhenius plot the energy of activation a
the factor [kof(x)] were determined to be 32500
mole and 2.85 x 1020 kg/cm2-hr, respectively. S
stituting these values into the rate equation and int
rating we have


TS TSt = 2.85 x 1020 exp164 104 t

where TSo = tensile strength at t = 0
TSt = tensile strength at time t
T = temperature (oK)
t = time (hrs)


Based on data presented by Personius and Sharp, a
value of 6.8 kg/cm2 may be taken as the average ten-
sile strength of a raw potato tuber (TSo).
Personius and Sharp noted that the limiting value
of the tensile strength of a potato heated in a constant
temperature water bath was somewhat dependent
upon the incubation temperature. Above 73C the
.e limiting tensile strength was 0.4 kg/cm2. Below 49C
'g relatively little change in tensile strength occurred
over long periods of incubation. Between 49C and
73C there was observed to be a linear relationship
between incubation temperature and limiting tensile
strength. In this range the limiting tensile strength
(2) can be given by Eq. (4), derived from the data given
by Personius and Sharp


nd
cal/
ub-
eg-


TS1 = 0.24 Ti + 17.8


where TS = limiting tensile strength (kg/cm2)
Ti = incubation temperature (C)


SOLUTION


Modeling the Cooking of a Potato
The process to be modeled is the cooking of a
potato in a hot water bath under conditions of forced
convection. Transient temperature profiles in the
potato may be produced by numerical solution of Eq.
(Al) (see Appendix) which describes unsteady-state
heat conduction in a sphere of constant thermal con-
ductivity, heat capacity and density, heated by a sur-
rounding fluid. The numerical solution of this equation
is detailed in the Appendix utilizing the Crank-Nicol-
son finite difference method. Coupling this solution
with the integrated form of the rate equation describ-
ing the change in tensile strength in a potato tuber as
a function of time and temperature (Eq. 3) allows tran-
sient tensile strength profiles to be generated.
A FORTRAN program which produces transient
tensile strength profiles in a cooking potato is avail-
able from the author. The program incorporates the
following assumptions:


The potato is spherical with a diameter of 3 inches.
The heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the potato
are assumed to be approximately that of water (the potato
is roughly 80% water).
The specific gravity of the potato is approximately 1.08.
The potato is coated with a thin layer of rubber paint or
rubber cement to prevent loss of salts or exchange of water
with its environment (a requirement for validity of Per-
sonius and Sharp's data).
The basic sequence of calculations in this program is
as follows (see appendix):
1. The cooking temperature and value of the parame-
ter hRo/k are assigned. Under conditions of forced
convection the heat transfer coefficient, h, is esti-
mated to be 700-2000 W/m2-oC using the correlation
given by Vliet and Leppert [2]. These values cor-
respond to a relative fluid velocity over the sphere
of 0.1-1.0 ft/s. It may be readily demonstrated that
temperature profiles in the cooking potato are rel-
atively insensitive to hRo/k when hRo/k > 40. For


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION



















ri+l ri ri+l


C n+ NEW TIME LEVEL
o n OLD TIME LEVEL
o-


rR rR+ I


r = (i- '/2)Ar
n
tn= (At)".
ml1
0 FICTITIOUS POINTS

FIGURE 2. Grid points for finite difference calculations

a 3 in. diameter potato with a thermal conductivity
equal to that of water, this corresponds to a heat
transfer coefficient of 540 W/m2-C.
2. As shown in Figure 2, n is the time level index and
i the index of points in space where the dimension-
less temperature u and the subsequent tensile
strength are calculated by the program. Initially
the dimensionless temperatures ui,o for i=1,20 are
set to zero and tensile strengths set to 6.8 kg/cm2,
the average tensile strength of a raw potato. Each
set of dimensionless temperatures ui,, are then cal-
culated in turn (n=1,2,3,...) from the finite differ-
ence equation described in the Appendix. At all
points i for each set of time levels n and n+1 the
average temperature (TAVG) between the "old"
and "new" time levels is calculated.
3. Utilizing Eq. (3) the change in tensile strength
(ATS) at each point i which results from cooking at



hRo/K=3.125
r=R/Ro
ri (i- /2)Ar t, hours
1.0- Ar 0.05 0.56
uo 0.37
cJ


- 0.- 0.13
. 0.2
01 0 0.08
a


TAVG for a length of time equal to the At between
the n1h and (n+l)th time level is then calculated. At
each point i these changes in tensile strength are
added to all of those changes in tensile strength
which took place between t=0 and the nth time
level. These summations for all points i are then
subtracted from 6.8 kg/cm2, the tensile strength of
a raw potato tuber. The result is then the tensile
strength at all points i at the (n+1)th time level.
4. Next the lower limits are applied to the tensile
strength at any point i at the (n+1)th time level
according to the cooking temperature (TAVG) over
the time interval of n to n+1. If TAVG < 49C, the
lower limit of TS is 6.8 kg/cm2. If TAVG > 73C,
the lower limit is 0.4 kg/cm2. If 490C < TAVG <
73C, the lower limit is given by Eq. (4).
5. The (n+l)th time level becomes the nth level and
calculations are repeated giving tensile strength
profiles as a function of radial distance from the
center and time.


Sample outputs of dimensionless temperature and
tensile strength profiles from this program are shown
graphically in Figure 3(a-b) and Figure 4(a-b), respec-
tively, for a 3 in. diameter potato cooking at 900C with
hRo/k of 3.125 and 6400.



Testing the Model

Figure 4(b) may be taken as the predicted tensile
strength profiles in a 3 in. potato cooking at 90C in a
hot water bath under conditions of forced convection
(hRo/k > 40). To test the model, ten Idaho baking


(a) (b)

FIGURE 3. Transient dimensionless temperature profiles in a potato cooking at 900C. hR,/K = (a) 3.125, (b) 6400


FALL 1987




























S 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

(b)


FIGURE 4. Transient tensile strength profiles in a potato cooking at 900C. hR,/K = (a) 3.125 (b) 6400


potatoes were coated with a thin layer of rubber ce-
ment and heated in a water bath at 90C. Water was
circulated by means of a propeller stirrer. Potatoes
were chosen to be as nearly spherical as possible and
approximately 3 in. in diameter. The potatoes chosen
were more accurately described as oblong measuring
two by three inches. Potatoes were removed periodi-
cally, cut in half and an assessment made of the tex-
ture at various locations. The following observations
are typical


Time (hours)
0
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00

1.25
1.50
1.67
1.75


Observation
cooking started
outmost 0.1-0.3 cm cooking
outmost 0.5 cm mealy
outmost 0.8 cm mealy
cooking throughout but outmost
1-1.2 cm mealy
outmost 2 cm mealy
outmost 2.6 cm mealy
mostly cooked, still hard in center
potato cooked and mealy throughout


These results are in good agreement with the pre-
dictions of the model as given by Figure 4(b).

CONCLUSION

In the proposed problem/experiment students
couple transient heat transfer with reaction kinetics
to predict the course of the gelatinization of starch in
a cooking potato. Students are introduced to numeri-
cal methods for the solution of partial differential
equations and computer simulation of a chemical reac-
tion under nonisothermal, unsteady-state conditions.
Students can readily use the model to make predic-


tions and test the validity of those predictions in the
laboratory with a minimum of time and equipment.
The proposed modeling exercise combines skills in
mathematics, computer programming, heat transfer,
and kinetics. The problem is challenging but manage-
able by a senior chemical engineering student.

REFERENCES

1. Personius C. J. and Paul Sharp, "Adhesion of Potato-Tuber
Cells as Influenced by Temperature," Food Research, 3(5), 513
(1938).
2. Vliet, G. C. and G. Leppert, "Forced Convection Heat Transfer
from an Isothermal Sphere to Water," J. Heat Transfer, serv.
c., 83, 163 (1961).
3. von Rosenberg, D., "Methods for the Numerical Solution of
Partial Differential Equations," Gerald L. Farrar & Associates,
Tulsa OK (1969).

APPENDIX
Temperature Profiles in a Cooking Potato

The cooking of a potato in a water bath may be modeled after
that of a sphere of constant thermal conductivity (k), density (p),
and heat capacity (Cp) heated by a surrounding fluid. The differ-
ential equation for the temperature distribution, u(r,t), in the
sphere is given by Eq. (Al)


a2u 2 Bau a
2 r ar t


The boundary and initial conditions are


u=0
au
ar


for t = 0, all r
for r = 0, all t


hR
-- ( u) = 0 for r = 1, all t
k Dr


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


(a)










h = coefficient of heat transfer between the surface of the
sphere and the bulk fluid
u, r and t are all dimensionless parameters defined as follows


T T.
u =


R
r -
a


where T = bulk temperature of the fluid
surrounding the sphere
T. = initial temperature of the sphere
where R = radius of the sphere
R = distance from the center of the
sphere


t =- k where = real time
Ro2C
'pC p

Eq. (Al) with accompanying boundary conditions may be solved
numerically utilizing the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method.
The two independent continuous variables (r and t) are replaced by
discrete variables (also called here r and t) defined at points located
on the grid shown in Figure 2.
The following finite difference analogs may be written


fau Uin+l Ui.n
ti,.n+1/2 At
( =21 2u + u u -2u + u
U 1 Ui+,n 2ui.n + i-l,n i+,n+ i ,n+1 + i-l.n+1
ar2Ji,n+/2 (Ar)2 (Ar)2


ari,nl1/2 2(-- Ar) 2(Ar)


Making these substitutions in Eq. (Al) results in the following finite
difference analog


S+ -2(At) 2(Ar)2 + i+/n+1 [ /2
Ui- ,n+l Ui n+l A! [ i -3/2J+ i+l.n+l -/

=- uil,n + i,n [ At [- /2


+ ai+l, 3/


This equation applies for 2 s i (R-l). In writing this equation
for i = 1 or i = R, terms involving fictitious points (uo,n+l and Uo,n
or UR+l,n and uR+I,n+l, respectively) are produced. Writing finite
difference analogs for the boundary equations allows these terms
to be eliminated.

faul Uls, Uo1 n = 0
o 2
1/2 ,n
for all n. Therefore


u = u
Uo,n = ,n
For i = 1 we have then


and Ul,n+l = Uo,n+l


[3At + 3(Ar)2] [ Ar)2 3At + 3
U +,1 3U2,n+l U,n A 3Un

hR au
(l u)-ar
becomes

hRo 1 -R. + Un j
k 2 r


for all n. Replacing hR /k with I gives

SkAr -2 /r 21
UR+n r 2Ar n
for all n.
Therefore for i = R we have
+ [-t 2 -2(Ar)2 l kAr


= un + R 2At (R /2 + kAr


+2 [R + 1/21 2Ar
[R 3/2) (-kAr 2)


At each time level (where t > 0) R equations may be written
containing R unknowns. Furthermore these equations constitute a
tridiagonal matrix. Equations of this form are readily solved for u
as a function of r and t by the Thomas algorithm [3]. O


REVIEW: Multiphase Science
Continued from page 197.

Chapter Four is a review of a reboiler. The authors
struck a balance between practical application and sci-
entific analysis by discussing both the design strategy
and the appropriate correlations used for thermal-
hydraulic analysis. The authors recommend that a set
of several design equations be presented and a com-
parison be made of the relative merit of each for par-
ticular design applications.
Chapter Five covers flow of gas-solid mixtures
through standpipes and valves. In this chapter, most
attention was devoted to the flow regimes of solid-gas
in standpipes, which include four basic types: type I
fluidized flow and type II fluidized flow, PACFLO and
TRANPACFLO, and the combination thereof.
The gas-solid flow in a standpipe is still a subject
with incomplete knowledge. The authors made an ef-
fort to introduce the subject in a rational manner. The
readers can use this review as a good start to under-
stand not only gas-solid flow in standpipes but may
also find it inspirational in trying to understand other
multi-phase flow systems.
Chapter Six deals with core-annular flow of oil and
water through a pipeline. The motivation of such spec-
ial flow is to find a reduction of pressure drop for
pumping heavy, viscous oil through a pipe using water
in annular as a "lubricant." Thus, the authors pro-
posed their lubricating-film model. In this model, the
main features are the inclusion of core eccentricity
and the ripple lubricating film. The validity range of
core-velocities for the lubricating-film model was
given. The authors also proposed some possible ways
of improving the models and predictions. E


FALL 1987










views and opinions


CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING*

Current Status and Future Directions


M. P. DUDUKOVIC
Washington University
St. Louis, MO 63130

HEMICAL REACTIONS have been used by man-
kind since time immemorial to produce useful
products such as wine, metals, etc. Nevertheless, the
unifying principles that today we call chemical reac-
tion engineering were not developed until relatively a
short time ago. During the decade of the 1940's (not
even half a century ago!) a transition was made from
descriptive industrial chemistry to the conceptual un-
ification of reaction processes and reactor types. The
pioneering work in this area of industrial practice was
done by Denbigh [1] in England. Then in 1947,
Hougen and Watson [2] published the first textbook
in the U.S. that presented a unified approach in tack-
ling catalytic kinetics and reactors. This book has had
a lasting effect on the American school of catalytic
reaction engineering as focused primarily on pet-
roleum processing. The expansion of the petroleum














Milorad (Mike) P. Dudukovii is a professor of chemical engineering,
and director of CREL at Washington University where he has been since
1974. He received his BS in chemical engineering from the University
of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and his MS and PhD from IIT, Chicago. He
has worked as a process design engineer and taught at IIT, Ohio Uni-
versity, and Washington. His research interests encompass a variety of
phenomena involving transport-kinetic interactions.
*Paper presented at the 2nd Yugoslav Congress of Chemical En-
gineering with International Participation, Dubrovnik, May 11-15,
1987.
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


and petrochemical industry provided a fertile ground
for further development of reaction engineering con-
cepts. The final cornerstone of this new discipline was
laid in 1957 by the First Symposium on Chemical
Reaction Engineering [3] which brought together and
synthesized the European point of view. The Amer-
ican and European schools of thought were not identi-
cal, but in time they converged into the subject matter
that we know today as chemical reaction engineering,
or CRE. The above chronology led to the establish-
ment of CRE as an accepted discipline over the span
of a decade and a half. This does not imply that all the
principles important in CRE were discovered then.
The foundation for CRE had already been established
by the early work of Frank-Kamenteski, Damkohler,
Zeldovitch, etc., but at that time they represented
"voices in the wilderness," and no coherent area of
specialization known as CRE had yet emerged.
What then is CRE? It is the discipline that quan-
tifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kine-
tics in relating reactor performance to operating con-
ditions and input variables. CRE, in achieving this
goal, relies on thermodynamics, kinetics, fluid me-
chanics, transport phenomena, chemistry or
biochemistry, physics, etc. The key equation of CRE
can be stated as
Reactor Performance = f (input, kinetics, contacting)

Product yield, or selectivity, or production rate can
be taken as measures of performance. Feed and
operating conditions constitute the input variables.
Fluid mechanics of single or multiphase flows deter-
mines contacting, while kinetic descriptions relate
reaction rate to pertinent intensive variables such as
concentrations, temperature, pressure, catalyst activ-
ity, etc.
CRE is a general methodology for approaching any
system (chemical, biochemical, biological, etc.) where
engineering of reactions is needed, i.e., where cause
and effect relations imparted by reaction and observed
in small laboratory vessels need to be "scaled-up" to
large commercial reactors. CRE can then be used by
the research engineer to quantify the reaction system
and assess transport limitations, by tne design en-
gineer in designing the plant reactor, and by the man-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


I ChE_'-









What is CRE? It is the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and
kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables in achieving this
goal [it] relies on thermodynamics, kinetics, fluid mechanics, transport phenomena physics, etc.


ufacturing engineer in keeping the reactor running ac-
cording to specification. The power of CRE is that it
spans the domain of many diverse technologies in the
petroleum, metallurgical, chemical, materials, fer-
mentation and pharmaceutical industries. The same
framework can be used to attack a reaction problem
irrespective of its chemical nature.
CURRENT STATUS OF CRE
It is impossible in a brief review to do justice to a
discipline as broad as CRE. One can approach the sub-
ject from the generic point of view and talk about the
status of CRE in dealing with homogeneous gaseous
or liquid systems, heterogeneous gas-solid catalytic
systems, heterogeneous gas-solid noncatalytic sys-
tems, gas-liquid systems, gas-liquid-solid systems,
etc., or one can approach it from the technological
point of view and consider the status of CRE in hydro-
desulfurization of crude oil, biochemical processing,
polymerization, food production, baking, electrochem-
ical processing, air pollution abatement, coal gasifica-
tion, etc. All of those areas have received attention,
and plenary lectures were dedicated to them at vari-
ous ISCRE symposia. Here, we will just try to im-
press upon the reader the current status of teaching
CRE at universities and the possible disparity be-
tween that activity and industrial practice.
CRE in Academia
It is instructive to note that in 1958, only 18% of
the academic departments in the U.S. offered a course
on CRE to undergraduate students. In 1962 that per-
centage had already risen to 53%, and by the end of
the 1960's, CRE had become a required course in all
accredited departments in the U.S. This has remained
unchanged today. In the early years, Hougen and
Watson [2] was the only textbook considered in the
U.S. It has been replaced mainly by Levenspiel's text
[4] in the 1960's. Brotz [5] and Kramers and Wester-
terp [6] seem to have been the standards in Europe
until recently. The number of general textbooks of
the subject exceeded forty-eight in 1980 and continues
to rise dramatically. These texts have been sum-
marized by Levenspiel [7] and Dudukovic [8]. Special-
ized monographs treating a particular topic within
CRE are also proliferating.
What are the undergraduate students exposed to
in a typical CRE course in the U.S.? According to the
latest survey [8] (and not much has changed since


then) most of them (over 67%) learn the ideal reactor
concepts, deal with evaluation of kinetic data from
batch experiments, treat some nonideal reactors (via
tanks in series and dispersion model, mainly) and are
introduced to mechanisms and kinetics. Only about
60% are introduced to the transport-kinetic interac-
tions in heterogeneous systems, less than 50% deal
with realistic packed-bed reactor problems, and fewer
than 20% are exposed to fluidized beds. Most depart-
ments claim some industrial input into the course, but
it consists mainly of the instructor's industrial experi-
ence. Use of digital computers, numerical methods,
and programming in dealing with realistic design
problems is on the rise. While over 55% of the depart-
ments utilized numerical approaches in 1982, it is ex-
pected that almost all will do so in 1987.
The increased use of computational tools in CRE
courses is welcome because it allows the basic CRE
principles, once mastered, to be applied to more
realistic, practical problems. Quantification of CRE
principles, through extensive use of mathematics,
dates back to Amundson and co-workers at the Uni-
versity of Minnesota [9] which at the time represented
a significant step forward. Today, most graduate
courses in CRE suffer to some extent from mathemat-
ical oversophistication that has lost touch with reality.
For example, students may work on various numerical
schemes to solve complex reactor models while assum-
ing that the kinetic relations are known with great
accuracy-an unlikely event in industrial practice. A
trend toward better understanding of process chemis-
try or biochemistry, and improved tools to deal with
scant and inaccurate data, seem to be needed instead.
The "computerization" of the CRE courses allows the
students today to handle reactor models that rep-
resented doctoral thesis projects a decade ago. There-
fore an increased emphasis on tying CRE principles
to process chemistry is possible and is needed.
Academic research is split between traditional
reactor type oriented research and the new emphasis
on process development. For example, continued re-
search is being done on improved understanding of
various multiphase reactors such as fluidized beds,
slurry reactors, three phase fluidized beds, bubble col-
umns, trickle-beds, stirred tanks, etc. Increased em-
phasis on process oriented research is apparent, e.g.,
silane pyrolysis to silicon, epitaxial growth of single
crystals, preparation of novel zeolites, preparation of
new polymers, etc.


FALL 1987









Industrial Practice of CRE
There is a wide gap between industrial practice
and academic approaches to CRE in the U.S. It is
expected that the gap is even wider in developing
countries. Reaction engineering is practiced at a high
level of sophistication, paralleling approaches outlined
in most modern textbooks [10-12], only in some large
petroleum companies. There, kinetic data are sought
in absence of transport effects on small scale equip-
ment, mechanisms and kinetics on catalytic surfaces
are studied, and the scale-up problem is approached
in stages. Scale-up often involves the evaluation of
hydrodynamic assumptions made in reactor design by
tracer studies on a cold real scale model of the produc-
tion reactor. Recently, the Mobil Corporation has
used this classical and methodical approach to success-
fully develop methanol-to-gasoline large scale
fluidized bed reactors which were the key to the suc-
cess of the process. Unfortunately, U.S. petroleum
companies have not been building many new plants in
the last five years, and their CRE advances have been
temporarily halted. In industry, advances of a
methodology like CRE are process demand driven.
When the demand disappears, the advances slow
down. The danger of this situation is that some of the
best CRE teams which had been assembled at large
petroleum companies are now disintegrating and dis-
persing. Thus, when synfuels become needed again,
there will be a painful period of adjustment in reas-
sembling teams with CRE expertise.
Chemical, pharmaceutical and other companies in
the U. S. and elsewhere in the world have not, in gen-
eral, practiced CRE on the same level as petroleum
companies. Often they did not realize that the reactor,
although not a major item in capital expenditures for
a new plant, by its performance dictates the load on
and size of separation equipment. Reactor design
often followed a "seat-of-the-pants" approach and was
rarely optimized. Major advances have been made in
reactor control where digital, multivariable control
conducted through a central station is the dominant
feature of modern plants. Frequently, companies
either rely on patent protection or are pressured to
introduce a product on the market within a short time,
so they tolerate sloppy reactor design. Prater's princi-
ple of optimum sloppiness [13] is not practiced here.
That principle, practiced in petroleum companies,
states that as more and more relations for a reaction
system are quantified, costs go up but the uncertainty
of design goes down, and the cross section of the two
curves indicates an optimum. Most reactor designs in
chemical and other industries are done with very little


quantitative information in hand regarding kinetics.
Scale-up based on equal liquid hourly space velocity
(LHSV) is the rule of the day, followed by incorpora-
tion of additional reactor volume in the design as a
safety factor. It is hoped that the increased competi-
tiveness in the specialty chemicals area will force the
chemical companies to practice CRE at a higher level.
Significant savings should be possible with better
reactor designs.
CRE research in industry has been traditionally
process driven. New contractors (new reactor types)
are introduced for a particular technology and then
sometimes become adopted elsewhere, e.g., fluidized
bed for catalytic cracking, radial flow reactor for am-
monia synthesis, Shell bunker (moving) bed reactor
for hydrodesulfurization with deactivating catalysts,
fast fluidized bed for coal combustion, etc. Most of the
industrial research today is oriented towards the de-
velopment of better zeolites and other catalysts, spec-
ialty chemicals, specialty polymers, composite mate-
rials, high performance ceramics, improved pigments,
etc. CRE, unfortunately, seems to play only a minor
role in these bench scale endeavors, but is expected
to be needed in scale-up. The current economic situa-
tion has brought to a temporary halt the research on
synthetic fuels, alternate energy sources, and process-
ing of heavy oils.

FUTURE TRENDS
Reaction engineering is now a mature discipline.
It evolved in the 1940's from the ideal reactor concepts
on one side and from the systematic treatment of
transport-kinetic intractions on catalyst particles on
the other. Mathematical approaches of the early 1960's
established the foundation on which the principles of
CRE dealing with transport-kinetic interactions can
be applied to a vast variety of fields. The unification
of CRE approaches has been achieved. Increased com-
puterization allows its application in complex prob-
lems. What of the future then? What will be the re-
search directions and where, i.e., in which field, will
the major industrial impact be felt? What kind of CRE
should be taught and practiced in developing coun-
tries?
Many would argue that the future of CRE is in
high technologies. However, high technology must be
carefully defined. Often biotechnology, high technol-
ogy, high performance composites, semiconductor ma-
terials, high performance ceramics, optical fibers
technology, pharmaceuticals, etc., are understood to
be high technology. However, that is not necessarily
so. For example, a fully automated modern steel plant


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








may involve much more sophistication, control, and
automation than a primitive autoclave for curing of
thermosetting composites or for production of cells.
Really, what is often meant by high-tech is high-value
added products, i.e., relatively new technologies that
produce specialty, often low volume, products the
price of which is an order of magnitude above their
manufacturing costs! We have no argument with the
premise that CRE will be needed and will prosper by
advancing high technology products. However, we are
not at all convinced that it will play a significant role
in development of high-value added products unless
they also happen to be high technology products. The
reason for this is simple and has nothing to do with
science or engineering, but with economics. In produc-
ing a high value added product (a miracle drug, a
super fast semi-conductor chip, etc.) the bottle-neck is
in the science. Once a bench scale scientist makes a
breakthrough, scale-up factors required are small and
the efficiency of manufacturing is not critical since the
profit margin is huge. This is the reason why a de-
mand for CRE specialists in biotechnology has so far
failed to materialize. Very specific, low-volume prod-
ucts are being sought, and engineering involvement is
small and secondary to that of scientists. This will
change when competitiveness in this area increases
and/or when large scale biomass conversion is attemp-
ted.
The CRE research directions in the U.S. invari-
ably follow the funding trends. Therefore in the short-
term future (five years) one can expect increased em-
phasis on

aerosol reactors in production of ceramics and optical fi-
bers
batch processing, control and optimization
biotechnology
chemical vapor deposition in preparation of semiconductor
materials such as MOCVD of gallium arsenide, etc.
combustion and generation of particulates
reaction engineering of composite materials
reaction engineering in microgravity
reaction engineering of specialty polymers
zeolite catalysts, catalyst preparation and quantification,
modifications with transition metals, studies of configura-
tional diffusion.

Over the long run we well know that trends are
cyclic in nature. The energy problem has not been
solved permanently. Eventually petroleum based
products will need replacement and synthetic fuels,
renewable energy sources, and new materials will be
needed. The currently dormant research on

coal gasification and liquefaction
methanol synthesis


methanol to chemicals conversion
multiphase reactors
synfuels from various sources, etc.

will be resurrected in addition to the currently popular
areas.
All of the above areas seem to be more process
oriented than the CRE research in the 1960's and
1970's that concentrated on analysis of various reactor
types. The trend of remarrying CRE concepts with
process chemistry is probably here to stay. It is of
course possible to make further dramatic improve-
ments in our understanding and a priori design of
various multiphase reactor types that are today de-
signed based on empirical relations. The tools neces-
sary to achieve this are available and consist of im-
proved non-invasive technology for monitoring flow
patterns and concentration profiles (gamma cameras
and sources, x-ray and positron emission tomography,
optical fibers, etc.) and of supercomputers that make
difficult flow calculations possible. However, it is un-
likely that any society will in the present climate allo-
cate the resources necessary to tackle with the best
available tools a problem such as fluidized bed or
trickle-bed a priori design. If these breakthroughs
happen, and they are possible based on our currently
available arsenal of tools, they will occur in relation to
the development of a particular technology that relies
on such a reactor type. Research funding will be di-
rected toward the development of new processes for
pollution abatement and acid rain elimination, for the
development of improved data bases in treatment of
hazardous chemicals, for processes for hazardous
chemicals elimination, for expert systems for reactor
safety, etc.
In the near future we can expect chemical reaction
engineers to develop a second specialty (a "minor," so
to speak) in a scientific discipline such as microbiology,
electronics, ceramics, materials, etc. Then they will
work very effectively together with scientists in the
early stages of developing new processes. Capable
managers with technical backgrounds will realize that
productivity and the success rate in developing new
processes can be increased dramatically by letting
chemical reaction engineers work with scientists on a
new process or new material from the very conception
of new ideas. Thus, we will see significant involve-
ment of CRE in new areas such as materials, semicon-
ductors, ceramics, specialty polymers, and food and
feed. Major industrial impact will be in scale-up and
design of flexible processes that can meet changing
customer needs. All high technology areas will benefit
from CRE, and they include "old" technologies, large
scale commodity and specialty chemicals, petroleum


FALL 1987









processing, and all the new high-value products where
a high level of competition exists.
This implies that developing countries must teach
well the CRE principles, but should not try to do re-
search in all of the areas. Their research should be
directed toward improving and further developing the
technologies for which there are economic advantages
and incentives. A close and productive academic-in-
dustrial relationship is the only way for developing
nations to achieve a competitive position in certain
industries.
Since reaction engineering is considered a mature
discipline, it is clear that higher returns are expected
by application of the CRE principles in emerging
technologies than by further advancement of these
principles. It is often argued that traditional ap-
proaches in studying a specific reactor type in a gen-
eral sense bring diminishing returns and incremental
improvements in our knowledge base. This might be
true if one insists on using old fashioned experimental
and mathematical tools. However, as argued earlier,
our scientific base in instrumentation and large scale
computation has reached a new dimension. If we
would bring these new tools to bear on multiphase
reactor problems, advances paralleling those in
medicine would be possible. At present, the limiting
factor is a lack of funds since generic reactor analysis
cannot be compared in appeal to health care.
Nevertheless, research of various reactor types will
continue, with increased emphasis on novel devices
that combine reaction and adsorption in one unit (e.g.,
reactive distillation, chromatographic reactor, super-
critical reaction and separation). We should also re-
member that unexpected breakthroughs are possible
at any time and in any area. After all, who could pre-
dict the timing of Danckwerts residence time distribu-
tion concepts and their impact on CRE that lasted
several decades? CRE will remain a vital field and a
fun field to do research in and to practice in industry.
Steady progress will be made, more science will be
brought back to CRE, and major breakthroughs are
possible. These are the conclusions of our recent En-
gineering Foundation Conference on reaction en-
gineering [14].


SUMMARY
Chemical reaction engineering is a mature disci-
pline that has emerged from the treatment of pe-
troleum related catalytic reaction problems and has
been broadened to the point that the word chemical
should be dropped from its title. Reaction engineering
principles deal with the transport phenomena-kinetic


interactions and are general in nature and applicable
to all types of processing and all phenomena where,
in conversion of raw materials to useful products or to
energy, reactions occur. Reaction engineering as a
discipline has profited immensely from the availability
of increased computational power and from the exis-
tence of data base management. Its further evolution
is expected to make its dependence on various sci-
ences (chemistry, biochemistry, materials, etc.) even
stronger and could possibly result in formation of vari-
ous CRE subdisciplines.
Reaction engineering will continue to prosper in
the future by relying more on basic chemistry in reac-
tion pathway development and by incorporating basic
hydrodynamic principles in reactor design. Empirical
correlations will gradually be replaced by relations
based on first principles. In spite of all these predicted
specific advances, however, the most valuable re-
source will remain the reaction engineering methodol-
ogy itself. Perhaps the ultimate achievement will be
the development of expert systems for reaction en-
gineering which will combine the fundamental ap-
proaches of science with the experience, instinct and
intuition of many great reaction engineers. These sys-
tems will then be able to lead us in the design of safe,
optimal reactors based on a minimum data set.


REFERENCES
1. Denbigh, K. G., Trans., Faraday Soc., 40, 352 (1944).
2. Hougen, O. A. and K. M. Watson, Chemical Process Princi-
ples, Part 3: Kinetics and Catalysis, J. Wiley, N. Y., 1947.
3. First Symposium on CRE 1957, Proc. 12th Meeting and the
European Federation of Chemical Engineering, Chem. Eng.
Sci., 8 (1958).
4. Levenspiel, 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering, J. Wiley,
N.Y., 1962.
5. Brdtz, W. Grundriss der chemischen Reaktions-technik. Ver-
lag Chemie, Berlin, 1958.
6. Kramers, H. and K. R. Westerterp, Elements of Chemical
Reactor Design and Operations, Acad. Press, N.Y., 1963.
7. Levenspiel, 0., Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 1821 (1980).
8. Dudukovic, M. P., Chem. Eng. Progress, 78(2), 25 (1982).
9. Aris, R. and A. Varma, The Mathematical Understanding of
Chemical Engineering Systems: Selected Papers of N. R.
Amundson, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980.
10. Froment, G. and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analysis
and Design, J. Wiley, N.Y., 1979.
11. Fogler, H. S., Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1986.
12. Nauman, B. E., Chemical Reactor Design, J. Wiley, N.Y.,
1987.
13. Carberry, J. J., Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineer-
ing, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1976. pp. 8-10.
14. Second Engineering Foundation Conference on Chemical
Reaction Engineering (M. P. Dudukovid, F. Krambeck and P.
A. Ramachandran, Chairmen), Sheraton, Santa Barbara, CA,
March 8-13, 1987. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









M book reviews



MULTIPHASE CHEMICAL: REACTORS:
THEORY, DESIGN, SCALE-UP
edited by Agostino Gianetto, Peter L. Silveston;
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave.,
New York 10016 (1986); 682 pages, $110
Reviewed by
Y. T. Shah
University of Pittsburgh
This volume was developed from notes prepared
for a short course on the theory, design, and scale-up
of multiphase reactors held in 1982. The course was
given by a group of researchers in multiphase reactors
or in some closely related areas of study.
The first chapter (by A. Gianetto) deals with the
classification, characteristics, and uses of these types
of reactors. Chapters 2 to 5 (by J. C. Charpentier) are
extensive reviews of various aspects of gas-liquid
reactors. They cover: mass transfer coupled with
chemical reaction (Chap. 2); solubility and diffusivity
of gases in liquids (Chap. 3); measurement of gas-liq-
uid parameters (Chap. 4); and simulation of industrial
and pilot scale gas-liquid absorbers (Chap. 5). Gener-
ally, the term multi-phase reactors implies reactors
with more than two phases. The author, at the intro-
duction of Chapter 2, explains the reason for including
the gas-liquid (two-phase) system in a monograph de-
voted to multiphase reactors, on the basis of its simi-
larity with the latter types of systems.
Chapters 6 and 7 (by P. L. Silveston) deal with
diffusion and reaction within porous catalysts, and
with the structure of the solid phase and its influence
on diffusivity. These classical subjects can also be
classified under the two-phase category.
Chapters 8 to 12 introduce the core of the book.
They treat in detail three phase fixed bed reactors,
with special attention paid to trickle-bed reactors. Hy-
drodynamics (Chap. 8), Mass Transfer (Chap. 9), Solid
Wetting (Chap. 10), Heat Transfer (Chap. 11), and
Scale-Up of Trickle-Beds (Chap. 12) are developed by
H. Hofmann, J. C. Charpentier, J. M. Smith, G.
Baldi, and A. Gianetto, respectively. The general
evaluation of three-phase reactors is completed with
Chapters 13 to 15, where the hydrodynamics and mass
transfer in bubble columns (by H. Hofmann), hydro-
dynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer in stirred
slurry reactors (by G. Baldi) and modeling of slurry
reactors (by J. M. Smith) are presented.


All through these chapters correlations and models
are critically reviewed, with each author developing
his subject in his own style. Hofmann presents his
chapters in a concise and clear way, with appropriate
recommendations whenever possible. Mass transfer in
fixed beds, developed by Charpentier, is written with
numerous references and correlations of experimental
data. Smith presents the wetting factor in trickle-beds
and modeling of slurry reactors in two short chapters.
Heat transfer in three-phase fixed beds and hydro-
dynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer in stirred
slurry reactors by Baldi, and the scale-up of trickle-
bed reactors by Gianetto, are written in a manner
that can be easily followed by the reader.
In addition, there are three chapters in which the
design and scale-up of multiphase reactors for Hydro-
treating (by A. Gianetto and P. L. Silveston), Coal
Liquefaction (by P. L. Silveston) and Biological Pro-
cesses (by M. Moo-Young) are evaluated. In particu-
lar, the last chapter puts formally under the
framework of multiphase reactors an important area
of research not included in previous books about the
present subject.
The goal of this monograph, as stated by the
editors, is to present the dominant physical processes
occurring in the most widely used three-phase reac-
tors, and to provide models for their scale-up. Since
there are several authors, the reader faces different
styles of presentation as well as some overlapping
(claimed unavoidable and even desirable by the
editors). Part of the presented material is an enriched
version of previous contributions by some of the au-
thors to already published seminars and journal re-
views.
The production quality of text could have been im-
proved: there are many typographical errors. Despite
being published in 1986, the monograph's references
(with a few exceptions) reach only until 1982. The lit-
erature in this area grows at such a rapid rate that
the book should have come out just after the confer-
ence to create its maximum impact. The book will be
particularly useful for those researchers who have to
deal with multiphase reactors, and who need an over-
view of the whole area. The monograph provides sub-
stantial contributions that will be helpful for those
facing this subject for the first time. For those re-
searchers familiar with multiphase reactors, the book
provides another set of review that complements
the already available excellent monographs in the
area. O


FALL 1987


L_


1









COMBUSTION ENGINEERING
Continued from page 199.

aided design methods in U. S. industry, with em-
phasis on clean and efficient use of low-grade fuels.
The approach is to integrate kinetic and mechanistic
data, physical/chemical fuel property data, and pro-
cess performance characteristics into comprehensive
state-of-the-art computer models to be used in the
simulation, design and optimization of advanced com-
bustion processes. The underlying philosophy is that
a fundamental systems approach applied to carefully
selected systems will have wide application to many
important combustion problems. The products of the
new center will include: (1) new computer-aided-de-
sign combustion technology, (2) new understanding of
combustion mechanisms and their relation to fuel
properties, (3) improved process strategies, and (4)
students educated in the fundamentals of combustion
engineering who can solve a wide range of problems.
Program. Research projects are focused in six fun-
damental areas: (1) fuels characterization and reaction
mechanisms, (2) fuel minerals, fouling and slagging,
(3) pollutant formation and control, (4) comprehensive
model development, (5) process characteristics/model
evaluation, and (6) exploratory areas. The first five
areas are the key elements needed for complete de-
sign, optimization and control of advanced technology
for combustion processes. The following three re-
search subjects, specifically identified by a blue ribbon
panel as among the potentially most productive for
the near-term, are receiving particular emphasis: (1)
comprehensive and generalized modeling of coal com-
bustion processes, (2) identification of the relation-
ships between chemical/physical properties of fuels at
the molecular level and reaction processes, and (3)
fundamentals of formation and control of sulfur and
nitrogen emissions. Exploratory research presently
includes hazardous waste disposal and may expand in
the future to fluidized beds, catalytic combustion, or
catalytic reduction of NOx. The heart of the center's
research program presently consists of about thirteen
research projects at BYU and U of U, funded on the
basis of excellence and pertinence to the focus/subject
areas, as well as eight research projects funded by a
consortium of companies through the center. Some of
the key investigators involved in some of these pro-
jects are listed in Table 4.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

The Executive Advisory Council (Table 2), consist-
ing of highly placed executives and professionals, pro-


vides essential direction on the focus of the center's
research and academic programs. Besides financial
support, the Technical Associates of the center (Table
3) participate through representation in the Technical
Review Committee and through attendance at the
ACERC Annual Review. Visits and interchanges of
students and faculty with industrial professionals of
these companies and laboratories are also planned.
Center funds will provide half-support for a visiting
industrial research fellow on a continuing basis. To
promote technology transfer, an annual review and a
biannual technical conference are held on campus with
presentations on advanced combustion from academia,
government and industry. The center also dissemi-
nates new information through annual technical re-
ports, journal publications, presentations at meetings,
technical workshops, and computer networking.

ACADEMIC PROGRAM

The objective is to educate students in engineering
and scientific fundamentals using the systems ap-
proach in a way that will prepare them to solve a wide
range of problems. Fellowship support is provided for
4-5 graduate and 8-10 undergraduate students. A com-
bination of 3-4 new and 20 currently available courses
among six departments in four colleges at the two
universities provide a broad basis for both general and
specific education in combustion-related science and
engineering. At the undergraduate level, students re-



TABLE 4
Key Investigators: ACERC


INVESTIGATOR
Calvin H. Bartholomew, ChE, BYU
William C. Hecker, Chem. Eng., BYU
David M. Grant, Chemistry, U of U
Ronald J. Pugmire, Fuels Eng., U of U
George Hill, Chem. Eng., U ofU
Henk Meuzelaar, Biomaterials
Profiling Center, U of U
Milton R. Lee, Chemistry, BYU

Angus Blackham, Chemistry, BYU
John W. Cannon, Mech. Eng, BYU
David W. Pershing, Chem. Eng.,
UofU
Philip J. Smith, Chem. Eng., BYU
L. Douglas Smoot, Chem. Eng. BYU
Mike Stephensen, Civil Eng., BYU
Paul O. Hedman, Chem. Eng., BYU
Geoffery Germane, Mech. Eng., BYU


AREA OF EXPERTISE
Catalysis, Surface properties
of coal and chars
NMR characterization of fuels

Coal characterization and
properties correlation

Chromatographic analysis of
fuels
Fouling, slagging, minerals,
chemical analysis
Pollutant formation and sub-
models
Comprehensive model develop-
ment
Graphics code development
Process characteristics and
diagnostics


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








ceive general exposure to systems, energy, and en-
vironmental engineering in the form of senior elec-
tives; a new undergraduate program option will be
established in chemical engineering at BYU. Graduate
students receive a more specific education in such top-
ics as combustion science and engineering, kinetics,
physical and chemical structure of solids and fuels,
and process modeling and control. Selected courses,
seminars, and ad hoc seminars from visiting industrial
lecturers at both universities are offered to students
in a coordinated curriculum. Efforts are being made
to optimize the use of remote circuit TV and a shuttle-
bus system between the two campuses. Graduate and
undergraduate participation in combustion research is
also stimulated by research fellowships and assis-
tantships. A continuing education program is being
organized to serve the needs of industrial engineers
and scientists for professional development in combus-
tion related subjects and to train them in the use of
simulation codes using state-of-the-art computer
graphics workstations in our new Computations
Center.

MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE FIRST YEAR
During the first year of its existence, the center
initiated and funded thirteen new projects, purchased
a new Convex Mini Supercomputer, and completed
construction of a new computations laboratory that
features state-of-the-art work stations for computer
code development and demonstration. A proposal for
a link to the NSF-supported San Diego Cray for run-
ning these codes was submitted to NSF and accepted.
Workshops on comprehensive modeling, fouling and
slagging, and other advanced combustion topics were
conducted; organizational meetings for ACERC facul-
ty, the Executive Advisory Council, and the Technical
Review Committee were held; working groups involv-
ing prominent scientists and engineers in each of the
thrust areas were organized; visits were made to
other cooperating laboratories, including Sandia Na-
tional Laboratories, for purposes of establishing col-
laboration; and a number of prominent engineers and
scientists were invited to lecture in the center.
Significant progress was made on twenty-one re-
search projects in the six thrust areas of research
presently emphasized in the center. These projects
included eight active research projects funded by the
foundational consortium grant. A summary of the ac-
complishments of the ACERC and consortium pro-
jects can be obtained from the author. Consortium
projects were active for the entire fiscal year, while


ACERC projects were generally initiated in Sep-
tember, 1986, and progress thus covers only an eight
month period. Even so, several important accomplish-
ments are noted. Of particular significance was the
development and demonstration of a 3-D combustion
code for non-reacting, gaseous flows. Work on a sig-
nificantly improved radiation submodel was success-
fully completed, while submodel elements for SOx-sor-
bent capture, fouling-slagging and carbon nonequilib-
rium were identified. Further evaluation was com-
pleted on an NOx submodel and a comprehensive 2-D
combustion code (PCGC-2) previously developed in
the combustion laboratory. A new algorithm for
graphical representation of combustion model predic-
tions was developed. Standard ACERC coals were
identified, and significant progress was made in
characterizing and documenting the physical, chemical
and structural properties of several of these coals.
Facilities were designed and/or under construc-
tion for study of coal devolatilization, char oxidation,
and in situ CARS study of flames. Development of
submodels and collection of experimental data for SOx
removal and hazardous waste combustion were also
initiated. Advanced chromatographic methods were
developed for separation of and structural assignment
to hydrocarbon fragments from coal extracts of six
ACERC coals. Time-resolved Curie-point pyrolysis
mass spectrometer studies of a Pittsburgh #8 coal re-
vealed an aromatic distillable fraction, a long chain
aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction showing thermoplastic
degradation characteristics and a vitrinite-like
phenolic fraction exhibiting thermosetting degrada-
tion behavior. A new solid state nuclear magnetic
resonance spectroscopy technique was developed for
aromatic ring structural analysis in coals.
Other accomplishments through the spring of 1987
included the hiring of center secretarial and adminis-
trative staff, design and production of a brochure,
publication of internal and external newsletters, de-
sign and initial construction of new laboratories, and
a campaign to increase industrial funding/participa-
tion. An educational (academic) program was or-
ganized to include new coursework, options, and fel-
lowship programs in combustion-related areas at the
two universities. An annual review meeting was held
March 5-6, 1987, at BYU involving over one hundred
participants from industry, government, academia,
and the center. The initial response to the progress
during the first year was generally enthusiastic. Thus,
it appears that ACERC is off to a good start while
combustion research is "heating up" at the BYU and
the U of U campuses. [l


FALL 1987









REVIEW: Injection Molding
Continued from page 173.
plains the methodology of process control. This chap-
ter bears some similarity to Chapter Three, but is
much more thorough and useful.
The last section (Part III) is concerned with data
bases and contains Chapter Twelve. It is one of the
more useful chapters in the book as it describes the
importance to the designer of having data banks avail-
able containing the physical properties in both the
solid and molten phases of each thermoplastic. This
data should be readily available in both the part design
and process simulation phases and must be stored in
the computer system. The chapter contains an over-
view of the development of the present data bases,
including the types of data available in present sys-
tems and future trends.
In summary, there are a number of useful chapters
in the book, but unfortunately the connection between
chapters is not readily apparent. For the inexperi-
enced engineer, it would be difficult to assemble the
appropriate knowledge from this book and then apply
it to process control or mold design. The book would
be more useful if a section on principles of injection
molding, including the fluid mechanics of mold filling
and its connection to the properties of a part, were
included at the beginning of the book. O


TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Continued from page 177.
pleted these courses they will know what to look for
when they encounter new problems, and they will
have acquired the tools necessary to solve a great
many of them.
REFERENCES

1. Stephan Whitaker, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Krieger
1981.
2. G. K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, Cam-
bridge, 1967.
3. V. L. Streeter, Fluid Dynamics, McGraw Hill, 1948.
4. Horace Lamb, Hydrodynamics, Cambridge, 1932.
5. Hermann Schlichting, Boundary-Layer Theory, McGraw-Hill,
1968.
6. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, Wiley, 1960.
7. Milton Van Dyke, Perturbation Methods in Fluid Mechanics,
Parabolic, 1975.
8. Milton Van Dyke, Course Notes for ME 206, Similitude in
Engineering Mechanics, January 1978.
9. G. I. Taylor, "The Formation of a Blast Wave by a Very In-
tense Explosion," Proc. Roy. Soc. A., 201, pp. 159-186.
10. P. G. Drazin and W. H. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability, Cam-
bridge, 1981.
11. Andreas Acrivos and G. I. Taylor, Phys. Fluids, 5, p. 387
(1962). O


MICROGRAVITY
Continued from page 193.
gineers to develop entirely new processes, to under-
stand current unit operations more thoroughly, or to
adapt earth-based unit operations for the demanding
environment of space.

REFERENCES

1. Allen, D. T., and D. Pettit, Symposium on Zero Gravity Pro-
cessing, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Houston, 1985.
2. Subramanian, R. S., and R. Cole, Symposium on Transport
Phenomena in Space Processing, AIChE Annual Meeting,
New York, 1987.
3. NASA Technical Memorandum 89607, "Microgravity Science
and Applications Program Tasks," NASA Office of Space Sci-
ence and Applications, Washington D.C., February 1987.
4. NASA Technical Memorandum 89608, "Microgravity Science
and Applications Bibliography," NASA Office of Space Science
and Applications, Washington, D.C. January 1987.
5. Naumann, R. J., and H. W. Herring, "Materials Processing
in Space: Early Experiments," NASA SP-443, 1980.
6. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Publication, "Micrograv-
ity Science and Applications: Experimental Apparatus and
Facilities," Washington, D.C.
7. Potard, C., and P. Dusserre, "Contactless Positioning, Man-
ipulation and Shaping of Liquids by Gas Bearing for Micro-
gravity Applications," Adv. Space Res., 4(5), 105-108 (1984).
8. Ray, C. S., and D. E. Day, "Description of the Containerless
Melting of Glass in Low Gravity," SAMPE Tech. Conf. Ser.,
15, 135 (1983).
9. Doremus, R. H., "Glass in Space," in Materials Science in
Space (B. Feuerbacher et al., Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1986,
p. 447.
10. Doremus, R. H., "Glass Shell Fabrication Possibilities as
Viewed by a Glass Scientist," J. Vac. Sci. Tech., A3, 1279
(1985).
11. Swanson, L. W., "Optimization of Low Gravity Float Zone
Crystal Growth," M.S. Thesis, University of California, Los
Angeles, 1983.
12. Naumann, R. J., Marshall Flight Center Space Science Labo-
ratory Preprint Series No. 86-137, June 1986.
13. Shankar, N., and R. S. Subramanian, "The Slow Axisymmet-
ric Thermocapillary Migration of an Eccentrically Placed Bub-
ble inside a Drop in Zero Gravity," J. Colloid Interface Sci-
ence, 94, 258-275 (1983).
14. Snyder, R. S., P. H. Rhodes, T. Y. Miller, F. J. Micale, R.
V. Mann, and G. V. F. Seaman, "Polystyrene Latex Separa-
tions by Continuous Flow Electrophoresis on the Space Shut-
tle," Sep. Sci. Tech., 22, 157-185 (1986).
15. Saville, D. A., and 0. A. Palusinski, "The Theory of Elec-
trophoretic Separations. I: Formulation of a Mathematical
Model," AIChE J., 32, 207-214 (1986).
16. Saville, D. A., 0. A. Palusinski, R. A. Graham, R. A. Mosher,
and M. Bier, "The Theory of Electrophoretic Separations. II:
Construction of a Numerical Simulation Scheme," AIChE J.,
32, 215-223 (1986).
17. Sacco, A., L. S. Sand, D. Collette, K. Dieselman, J. Crowley,
and A. Feitelberg, "Zeolite Crystal Growth in Space," AIChE
Spring National Meeting, Houston, 1985.
18. Cherry, R. S., and E. T. Papoutsakis, "Hydrodynamic Effects
on Cells in Agitated Tissue Culture Reactors," Bioprocess
Engr., 1, 29-41 (1986). O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













r THE UNIVERSITY OF flKRON
flkron,OH 44325
DRN


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




GRADUATE PROGRAM


FACULTY


RESEARCH INTERESTS


G.A. ATWOOD ...................................................................................................... Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption.
J.M. BERTY ......................................................................................................... Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Proccesses.
H.M CHEUNG ................................................................ ................................ Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques.
S.C. CHUANG ...................................................................................................... Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion.
J.R. ELLIO TT ............................................................................................................ Therm odynam ics, M material Properties.
*G ESKAM AN I ..................................................................................................... W aste W after Treatm ent.
L.G FO CHT ............................................................................................................ Fixed Bed A dsorption, Process Design.
H.L. GREENE ....................................................................................................... Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, Mixing.
S. LEE ........................................ .......... ............ ................................................ Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Com puter Applications.
R.W. ROBERTS ........................................................................................................ Plastics Processing, Polymer Films, System Design.
M .S. W ILLIS .............................................................................................................. M ultiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenom ena.
*Adjunct professor





Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $6,000. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $14,000. These
awards include waiver of tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship
application is February 15.






ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
Chairman, Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Akron
Akron, Ohio 44325


FALL 1987






:1:


I1 Il


Sel


I.


1 :






Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K.T. CHUANG Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis.

P.J. CRICKMORE Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics.

I.G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis.

D.G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications.

M.R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors.

R.E. HAYES Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media.

D.T. LYNCH Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design.

J.H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics.

A.E. MATHER Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.

A.J. MORRIS, Ph.D. (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne): Process Control, Al
and Expert Systems.


For further information contact:


W.K. NADER Dr. Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics.

K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomena,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics.

F.D. OTTO, Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Upgrading.

D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics.

D.B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics.

J.T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media.

S.L. SHAH Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory.

S.E. WANKE Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics.

R.K. WOOD, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control.

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic
with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate pro-
grams. Financial support is available through government grants and contracts, teaching, and
research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full oppor-
tunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in
most of the research areas listed below.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


MILAN BIER, Professor
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport
HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics
Polyelectrolyte Solutions
WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing
EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications
JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and
Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology
SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com-
bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation
Processes, Applied Mathematics
GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical
Modeling of Transport, Bioreactors
ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor
(Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical)
Ph.D., UCLA, 1983
Boundary Layers, Stability, Mass and Heat Transport



Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.


For further information,
write to:
Dr. Thomas W. Peterson
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant
Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols
ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation.
Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion
JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide
Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phe-
nomena
DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial
and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962.
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing










Arizona State University
Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D.
Degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biomedical Engineering, and
Materials Engineering
Research Specializations include:
ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION *
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS
* BIOINSTRUMENTATION BIOMATERIALS CARDIO-
VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS *
CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE
MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE
PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION *
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES *
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly respected faculty:
James R. Beckman (Arizona) James B. Koeneman (Western Australia)*
Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) Stephen J. Krause (Michigan)
Neil S. Berman (Texas) James L. Kuester (Texas A&M)
David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)*
Llewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin)
Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)*
Veronica A. Burrows (Princeton) Vernon E. Sater (lIT)
Timothy S. Cale (Houston) Milton C. Shaw (Cincinnati)*
Ray W. Carpenter (UC/Berkeley) Kwang S. Shin (Northwestern)
William A. Coghlan (Stanford) James T. Stanley (Illinois)
Sandwip K. Dey (Alfred U.) Robert S. Torrest (Minnesota)
William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) Bruce C. Towe (Pennsylvania State)
R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Thomas L. Wachtel (St. Louis University)*
Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech) Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia)
David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech)*
Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley)
Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) Imre Zwiebel (Yale)
Bal K. Jindal (Stanford) *Adjunct or Emeritus Professor

Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, which is a part of the greater
Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled
in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 are in graduate study. Arizona's
year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own
cultural and recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Department of Chemical, Bio and Materials Engineering
Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6006

Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action
and equal opportunity in its employment, activities and programs.
r4LIU -









University of Arkansas


Department of Chemical Engineering


Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees


Faculty and
Areas of Specialization

Robert E. Babcock (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics,
Thermodynamics, Enhanced Oil Recovery
Edgar C. Clausen (Ph.D., U. of Missouri)
Biochemical Engineering, Process Kinetics
James R. Couper (D.Sc., Washington U.)
Process Design and Economics, Polymers
James L. Gaddy (Ph.D., U. of Tennessee)
Biochemical Engineering, Process
Optimization
Jerry A. Havens (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and
Explosion Hazards Assessment
William A. Myers (M.S., U. of Arkansas)
Natural and Artificial Radioactivity,
Nuclear Engineering
Thomas O. Spicer (Ph.D., U. of Arkansas)
Computer Simulation, Dense Gas
Dispersion
Charles Springer (Ph.D., U. of Iowa)
Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes
Charles M. Thatcher (Ph.D., U. of Michigan)
Mathematical Modeling, Computer
Simulation
Jim L. Turpin (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion,
Process Design
J. Reed Welker (Ph.D., U. of Oklahoma)
Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion
Behavior and Control

FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT:
Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
3202 Bell Engineering Center
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville AR 72701


LOCATION
The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, the flagship
campus in the six-campus system, is situated in the heart
of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique
blend of urban and rural environments. Fayetteville is
literally surrounded by some of the most outstanding
outdoor recreation facilities in the nation, but it is also a
dynamic city and serves as the center of trade, govern-
ment, and finance for the region. The city and University
offer a wealth of cultural and intellectual events.

FINANCIAL AID
Graduate students are supported by fellowships and re-
search or teaching assistantships.

FACILITIES
The Department of Chemical Engineering occupies more
than 40,000 sq. ft. in the Bell Engineering Center, a
$30-million state-of-the-art facility that opened in Janu-
ary, 1987, and an additional 20,000 sq. ft. of
laboratories at the Engineering Experiment Station.











CHEMICAL

ENGINEERING


Graduate Studies





uc, o
ADV-NTCE



0I


Auburn University


THE FACULTY


RESEARCH AREAS


R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1966)
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965)
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976)
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970)
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958)
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976)
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972)
R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973)
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978)
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973)
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981)


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Carbon Fibers and Composites
Coal Conversion
Controlled Atmosphere
Electron Microscopy
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Interfacial Phenomena
Microelectronics


Oil Processing
Process Design and Control
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Separations
Surface Science
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena


THE PROGRAM
The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and
offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes
both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national
interest, with modern research equipment available for most all
types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to
qualified students.


Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


FALL 1987


I






































Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

at BrighamYoung University, Provo, Utah


Programs ofstudy leading to theM.E., M.S. and PhD. degrees on a
beautiful campus located at the base of the Rocky Mountains.


Faculty
Calvin H. Bartholomew, Stanford, 1972
Merrill W. Beckstead, U. of Utah, 1965
Douglas N. Bennion, Berkeley, 1964
James J. Christensen, Carnegie Mellon, 1957
Richard W. Hanks. U. of Utah, 1960
John N. Harb. U. of Illinois, 1987
William C. Hecker, Berkeley, 1982
Paul 0. Hedman, BYU, 1973
John L Oscarson, U. of Michigan, 1982
William G. Pitt, U. of Wisconsin, 1987
Richard L. Rowley, Michigan State, 1978
Philip J. Smith, BYU, 1979
L. Douglas Smoot, U. of Washington, 1960
Kenneth A. Solen, U. of Wisconsin, 1974


For additional information
and application, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
350 CB
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


ResearchAreas
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena
Calorimetry
Computer Simulation
Coal Combustion and Gasification
Kinetics and Catalysis
Biomedical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Chemical Propulsion
Mathematical Modeling
Electrochemistry
Membrane Transport
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics
Process Design and Control














D C


THE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY


GRADUATE STUDIES IN
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
The Department offers programs leading to the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M.
Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas:
Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
Environmental Engineering
Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
Enhanced Oil Recovery
In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
Computer Control and Optimization of
Engineering and Bio Processes
Biotechnology and Biorheology

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.


FACULTY


The University is located in the City of Calgary,
the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world
famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter
Olympics. The city combines the traditions of the
Old West with the sophistication of a modern
urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is
110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the
Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are
readily accessible.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. P. R. Bishnoi, Crairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng.
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada


R. A. HEIDEMANN,* Head
A. BADAKHSHAN
L. A. BEHIE
D. W. BENNION**
F. BERRUTI
P. R. BISHNOI
R. M. BUTLER
M. FOGARASI**
M. A. HASTAOGLU
J. HAVLENA
A. A. JEJE*
N. E. KALOGERAKIS
A. K. MEHROTRA
M. F. MOHTADI
R. G. MOORE
P. M. SIGMUND*
J. STANISLAV
W. Y. SVRCEK
E. L. TOLLEFSON*
M. A. TREBBLE


(Wash. U.)
(Birm. U.K.)
(W. Ont.)
(Penn. State)
(Waterloo)
(Alberta)
(Imp. Coll. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(SUNY-Buffalo)
(Czech.)
(MIT)
(Toronto)
(Calgary)
(Birm. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(Texas)
(Prague)
(Alberta)
(Toronto)
(Calgary)


*On sabbetical leave during the 1987-88 academic year.
**Emeritus


FALL 1987







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,


RESEARCH INTERESTS

ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


BERKELEY...



... offers graduate programs leading to the Maste
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both prc
grams involve joint faculty-student research a
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings c
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreation
activities of California's northern coast and mour
tains.




FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soane
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720









UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-DAVIS


Program
UC Davis, with 20,000 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering, electrical and computer engi-
neering, and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.

Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Faculty and Research Areas
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne
Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control
BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota
Fluid Mechanics of Thin Film Coating, Interfacial
Phenomena
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
DAVID F. KATZ, University of California
Biomedical Engineering, Biorheology, Reproductive
Biology
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes, Kinetics


KAREN A. McDONALD, University of Maryland
Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
AHMET N. PALAZOGLU,, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute
Process Design and Process Control
ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology, Fluid Mechanics, Acoustics, Hazardous
Waste
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology, Thin Film
Technology
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media
Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical Engineering
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interface Processes
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Control
Process Design
Rheology
Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 42,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.
For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Professor Pieter Stroeve
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-2504


FALL 1987









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT


UCLA



FACULTY 0


D.T. Allen
Y. Cohen
T.H.K. Frederking
S.K. Friedlander
R.F. Hicks
E.L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of-
fers a program of teaching and research linking
fundamental engineering science and industrial
needs. The department's national leadership is de-
monstrated by the newly established Engineering
Research Center for Hazardous Substance Control.
This center of advanced technology is com-
plemented by existing center programs in Medical
Engineering and Environmental Transport Re-
search.
Fellowships are available for outstanding ap-
plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition
and fees plus a stipend.
Located five miles from the Pacific Coast,
UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from
Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access
to the highly regarded science programs and to a
variety of experiences in theatre, music, art and
sports on campus.


H.G. Monbouquette
K. Nobe
L.B. Robinson
0.1. Smith
V.L. Vilker
A.R. Wazzan
F.E.Yates


0 RESEARCH AREAS 0
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Process Design and Process Control
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Particle Technology
Environmental Engineering


CONTACT 0
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1592
(213) 825-9063


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Chairman)
Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear
Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue)
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
Science
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor
Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford)
Adsorption and Heterogeneous
Catalysis
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D.
(Cambridge)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
Forces.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D.
(Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan)
Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.
DALE S. PEARSON Ph.D. (Northwestern)
Polymer Rheology
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley)
Theory of Surfactant Aggregates,
Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors,
Radiation Transport Analyses.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley) (Vice Chairman)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota)
Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety,
Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D.
(Minnesota)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Structure of Microemulsions.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.



THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.



For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


FALL 1987








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


at the

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

"At the Leading Edge"


FACULTY
Frances H. Arnold
James E. Bailey
John F. Brady
George R. Gavalas
L. Gary Leal
Manfred Morari
C. Dwight Prater (Visiting)
John H. Seinfeld
Fred H. Shair
Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus)
W. Henry Weinberg


RESEARCH INTERESTS
Aerosol Science
Applied Mathematics
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering
Bioseparation
Catalysis
Combustion
Colloid Physics
Computational Hydrodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Materials Processing
Process Control and Synthesis
Protein Engineering
Polymer Physics
Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous
Systems
Surface Science


for further information, write:
Professor L. Gary Leal
Department of Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















































-- I


wr~ l~





















Faculty and specializations:
Robert J. Adler
Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University
Particle separations, mixing, acid gas recovery
John C. Angus
Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan
Redox equilibria, thin carbon films, modulated electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow
Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-variable control,
coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards
Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical modelling, data acquisition
Donald L. Feke
Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions,
fine-particle processing
Nelson C. Gardner
Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau
Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions,
electrodeposition
Chung-Chiun Li
Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve University
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis, elec-
trochemistry related to electronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr.
Ph.D. 1962, Iowa State University
Surface phenomena, interfacial dynamics, light scattering
Syed Qutubuddin
Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil recovery
Robert F. Savinell
Ph.D. 1977, University of Pittsburgh
Electrochemical engineering, reactor design, and simulation;
electrode processes








The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in
Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY
Robert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Sotiris Pratsinis
Neville Pinto
Stephen Thiel
Joel Weisman
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
AEROSOL ENGINEERING
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
systems.
COAL RESEARCH
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
TWO-PHASE FLOW Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Boiling. Stability and transport properties of ChUniversity Nucleof ar Enineering#1
foam. Cincinnati, OH 45221
MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.















































Clarkson


O M S. and Ph.D. programs 0 Friendly
atmosphere O Vigorous research programs
supported by government and industry
O Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa 0 Skiing.
canoeing, mountain climbing and other
recreation in the Adirondacks D Variety of
cultural activities with two liberal arts
colleges nearby 0 Twenty faculty working on
a broad spectrum of chemical engineering
research problems

Research Areas include:
O Chemical kinetics 0 Colloidal and
interfacial phenomena 0 Computer aided
design 0 Crystallization 0 Electrochemical
engineering and corrosion 0 Integrated
circuit fabrication 0 Laser-matter
interaction 0 Mass transfer 0 Materials
processing in space 0 Optimization
0 Particle separations 0 Phase
transformations and equilibria 0 Polymer
rheology and processing 0 Process
control 0 Turbulent flows 0 And more ...


Financial aid available in the form of:
O instructorships 0 fellowships 0 research
assistantships 0 teaching assistantships
O industrial co-op positions




For more details, please write to:

Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676







Graduate Study at


Clemson University

_- In Chemical Engineering


Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hik-
ing in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving
to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
Fn processing, composite materials, process automa-
tion, computer simulation of fluids, thermody-
namics, catalysis, membrane separation, pollution
control, and pulp and paper operations what
more do you need?

The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 12,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.

The Faculty
Forest C. Alley William F. Beckwith Stephen S. Melsheimer
William B. Barlage, Jr. Dan D. Edie Joseph C. Mullins
Charles H. Barron, Jr. Charles H. Gooding Amod A. Ogale
John N. Beard, Jr. James M. Haile Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies
Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
CLEhdSON
Clemson University NmtEPSZT
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER

GRADUATE STUDY
IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs


* FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0


DAVID E. CLOUGH, Associate Professor,
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs
Ph.D. (1975), University of Colorado
Fluidization, Process Control
ROBERT H. DAVIS, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1983), Stanford University
Fluid Dynamics of Suspensions, Biotechnology

JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D. (1974), Stanford University
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science

R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Colorado
Biophysics, Bioengineering

PAUL G. GLUGLA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Illinois
Ionic Solutions, Thermodynamics,
Membrane Separations

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1984), Purdue University
Biochemical Engineering, Bioseparations,
Bioreactor Design


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1968), University of California, Berkeley
Membranes, Geophysical Fluid Mechanics, Coal
Gasification, Transport Processes in Permafrost
LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1982), Purdue University
Surface Science, Heterogeneous Catalysis,
Molecular Dynamics
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1965), Tulane University
Optimal Control and Identification of Chemical,
Biochemical, and Energy Recovery Processes
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of Minnesota
Numerical Techniques in Fluid Dynamics,
Membranes
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Chairman and
James M. and Catherine T. Patten Professor
Ph.D. (1951), University of Illinois
Economics, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of Michigan
Water Pollution Control, Solar Energy
Utilization


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











COLORADO OF


SCHOOL _


OF 0
1874

MINES oLoRo

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Themodynamic properties of gases and
liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic engi-
neering.
J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery
processing operations, heavy oil processing, ther-
mal cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., Michigan. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating
fluids, properties of coal-derived liquids, equations
of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow
calorimetry.
E. D. Sloan, Jr., Professor; Ph.D., Clemson. Phase equilib-
rium measurements of natural gas fluids and hy-
drates, thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids,
adsorption equilibria, education methods research.
R. M. Baldwin, Professor; Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefac-
tion, catalysis, oil shale processing, supercritical ex-
traction.
M. S. Selim, Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat and mass
transfer with a moving boundary, sedimentation
and diffusion of colloidal suspensions, heat effects
in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance
region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissoci-
ation modeling.
A. L. Bunge, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Mem-
brane transport and separations, mass transfer in
porous media, ion exchange and adsorption
chromatography.
P. F. Bryan, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Com
puter aided process design, computational thermo-
dynamics, novel separation processes, applications
of artificial intelligence/expert systems.
A. D. Shine, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., MIT. Polymer
theology and processing, composites, polymer de-
gradation, composite materials.
R. L. Miller, Research Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal
and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil
shale processing, particulate removal with venturi
scrubbers, multiphase fluid mechanics, supercriti-
cal extraction.
J. F. Ely, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.
For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401












Colorado State University



Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.



Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:
Faculty: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
Larry Helfiore, Ph. D.,
University of Wisconsin
Bruce Dale, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Jud Harper, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Naz Karim, Ph.D.,
University of Manchester
Terry Lenz, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Jim Linden, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Carol McConica, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Vince Murphy, Ph.D.,
University of
Massachusetts Research Areas:

Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
Environmental Engineering
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems


For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
















OUR FACULTY

THOMAS F. ANDERSON
Ph.D., U. of Cal., Berkeley
JAMES P. BELL
Sc.D., MIT
DOUGLAS J. COOPER
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN
Ph.D., Cornell
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO
Ph.D., U. of Wisconsin
JAMES M. FENTON
Ph.D., U. of Illinois
G. MICHAEL HOWARD
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
HERBERT E. KLEI
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts
MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
Ph.D., Princeton
RICHARD M. STEPHENSON
Ph.D., Cornell
DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
Ph.D., U. of Michigan
ROBERT A. WEISS
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts


THE

^UNIVERSITY OF

iCONNECTICUT



Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
for Engineers and Scientists


OUR RESEARCH


CHECK US OUT


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
EXPERT SYSTEMS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
SURFACE SCIENCE
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
THERMODYNAMICS


Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
Box U-139
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019


FALL 1987


S191'











Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering

at Cornell University


World-class research in...
biochemical engineering
applied mathematics
computer simulation
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
0 polymer science and engineering
0 fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
process control
molecular thermodynamics
statistical mechanics
computer-aided design


A diverse intellectual
climate
Graduate Students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses
supplemented by work in other
outstanding Cornell depart-
ments, including those in chem-
istry, biological sciences, physics,
computer science, food science,
materials science, mechanical
engineering, and business
administration.

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger
Lakes region of upstate New
York, the Cornell campus is one
of the most beautiful in the
country.
A stimulating university com-
munity offers excellent recrea-
tional and cultural opportunities
in an attractive environment.


A distinguished faculty
Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Peter A. Clark
Claude Cohen
Robert K. Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe
Robert L. Von Berg
Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus)
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
attractive fellowships, is available.
For further information
write to:

Professor Claude Cohen
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201

RE


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Chemical En ineerin at

The FacultyDel
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Douglas J. Buttrey
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
Robert L. Pigford
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Andrew L. Zydney

The University of Delaware offers M.CE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

New York For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Philadelphia Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Batimore Newark, Delaware 19716
Washington The University of
IDelaware






















V


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OF FLORIDA


Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD


For more information please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


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Gainesville, Florida


Faculty
Tim Anderson Semiconductor Processing,
Thermodynamics/Seymour S. Block
Biotechnology/Ray W. Pahien Transport
Phenomena, Reactor Design/ A. L. Fricke
Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization
/Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface
Science/lew Johns Applied Mathematics/Dale
Kirmse Computer Aided Design, Process
Control, Energy Systems/Hong H. Lee
Reaction Engineering, Semiconductor
Processing/Gerasimos lyberatos Biochemical
Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering
/Frank YMA Computer-aided learning/Ranga
Narayanan Transport Phenomena, Space
Processing/John O'Connell Statistical
Mechanics, Thermodynamics/Dinesh 0. Shah
Enhanced Oil Recovery, Biomedical
Engineering/Spyros Svoronos Process
Control/Gerald Vestermann-Clark
Electrochemical Engineering, Membrane
Phenomena.


0 ng eeri~













GEORGIA TECH
A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia


Graduate Studies

in Chemical

Engineering


Faculty
Agaram S. Abhiraman
Pradeep K. Agrawal
Yaman Arkun
Eric J. Clayfield
William R. Ernst
Larry J. Forney
Charles W. Gorton
Jeffery S. Hsieh
Michael J. Matteson
John D. Muzzy
Gary W. Poehlein
Ronnie S. Roberts
Ronald W. Rousseau
Robert J. Samuels
F. Joseph Schork
A. H. Peter Skelland
Jude T. Sommerfeld
D. William Tedder
Amyn S. Teja
Mark G. White
Jack Winnick
Ajit Yoganathan


Research Interests
Adsorption
Aerosols
Biomedical engineering
Biochemical engineering
Catalysis
Composite materials
Crystallization
Electrochemical engineering
Environmental chemistry
Extraction
Fine particles
Interfacial phenomena


Physical properties
Polymer science and engineering
Polymerization
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor analysis and design
Separation processes
Surface science and technology
Thermodynamics
Transport phenomena


For more information write:

Dr. Ronald W. Rousseau
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100


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What do graduate students say about

the University of Houston

Department of Chemical Engineering?
"Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked
among the top ten schools, and you can work in the specialty o your choice: semiconductor
processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The choice of advisor is yours, too,
and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any
time you want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low.
"Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 'real world' of
research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program
in superconductivity.
The UH campus is really nice, and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays,
nightclubs professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away.
"The faculty are dedicated and always friendly. People work hard here, but there is time
for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers"
If you'd like to be part of this team, let us hear from you.


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AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH:
Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering
Superconducting, Ceramic and Applied Transport Phenomena
Electronic Materials Thermodynamics
Enhanced Oil Recovery


FACULTY:
Neal Amundson
Vemuri Balakotaiah
Elmond Claridge
Harry Deans


Abe Dukler
Demetre Economou
Chuck Goochee
Ernest Henley


Dan Luss
Richard Pollard
William Prengle
Raj Rajagopalan


For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77004, or call collect 713/749-4407 and ask for Hazi


"It's great


Jim Richardsc
Frank Tiller
Richard Wills.
Frank Worley


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U IC Chemical Engineering Department

Graduate Study and Research

MASTER OF SCIENCE AND DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor
Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965
Professor

John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1960
Professor and Head
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Associate Professor
John Regalbuto
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame, 1986
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor

Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor, Director of Graduate Studies
David Willcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


Reaction engineering with primary focus on the
pyrolysis of oil shale and coal, energy
technology environmental controls
Heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry,
catalysis by supported metals, subseabed
radioactive waste disposal studies, clay
chemistry
Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer
processes, laser diagnostics

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of
fluids, solids and solutions, kinetics of liquid
reactions, solar energy
Lipid microencapsulation, adsorption and
surface reactions, membrane transport, synthetic
blood, biorheology
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical
mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures
Heterogeneous catalysis: promoted and
bifunctional catalysis, characterization of solids
and solid surfaces, heterogeneous reaction
kinetics
Transport properties of fluidized solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and
fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal
liquefaction
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modelling and optimization

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid
flow and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation
Structure sensitivity of oxide catalysts for
selective oxidation reactions, catalyst
preparation techniques, artificial intelligence
applied to descriptive kinetics


For more information: Director of Graduate Studies, Dept of Chemical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424


FALL 1987










University of Illinois


at Urbana-Champaign


The chemical engineering depart-
ment offers graduate programs
leading to the M.S. and Ph.D.
degrees.

The combination of distinguished
faculty, outstanding facilities and a
diversity of research interests
results in exceptional opportunities
for graduate education.


Fe





Polymerization Reactors Depropanizer
Sro C h C3
Liq.
Feed
Heaters -
Feed-
Effluent +C C
Exchanger T O **
Feed Debutonizer


Faculty
Richard C. Alkire
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Walter G. May
Richard I. Masel
Edmund G. Seebauer
Anthony J. McHugh
Mark A. Stadtherr
James W. Westwater
Charles F. Zukoski, IV


For information and application
forms write:

Department of Chemical
Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 W. California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801


0










GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT




Illinois Institute of Technology


THE UNIVERSITY


* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west
of Lake Michign
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY

* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business
and industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT


THE FACULTY

* HAMID ARASTOOPOUR
(Ph.D., IIT)
Multi-Phase flow, flow in porous media, gas technology
* RICHARD A. BEISSINGER
(D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological systems,
rheology of polymeric and biological fluids
* ALl CINAR
(Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter systems,
expert systems
* DIMITRI GIDASPOW
(Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow, separation
processes
* HENRY R. LINDEN
(Ph.D., IIT)
Energy policy, planning, and forecasting
* SATISH J. PARULEKAR
(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering
* J. ROBERT SELMAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemistry and electrochemical energy storage
* SELIM M. SENKAN
(Sc.D., MIT)
Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction engineering
* DARSH T. WASAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes, enhanced oil recovery
* WILLIAM A. WEIGAND
(Ph.D., IIT)
Biochemical engineering, process optimization and control


* One of the oldest in the nation
* Approximately 60 full-time and 50 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and
assistantships available to outstanding
students.

APPLICATIONS *

Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616


FALL 1987









THE INSTITUTE OF
PAPER CHEMISTRY

is an independent graduate
school. It has an
interdisciplinary degree
program designed for B.S.
chemical engineering
graduates.
Fellowships and full tuition
scholarships are available to
qualified U.S. and Canadian
residents. Our students
receive minimum $10,000
fellowships each calendar
year.
Our research activities relate
to a broad spectrum of
industry needs, including:

process engineering
simulation and control
heat and mass transfer
separation science
reaction engineering
fluid mechanics
material science
surface and colloid science
combustion technology
chemical kinetics
For further information contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone: 414/734-9251














GRADUATE PROGRAM
FOR
M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES
IN
CHEMICAL & MATERIALS
ENGINEERING

IOfVI RESEARCH AREAS:
--Kinetics & Catalysis
--Biocatalysis & Biosensors
--Bioseparations & Biochemical Engineering
--Membrane Separations
--Particle Morphological Analysis
--Air Pollution Modeling
--Materials Science
--Surface Science & Laser Technology
--Parallel & High Speed Computing

V"'~WElSY For additional information and application write to:
I'l;lill GRADUATE ADMISSIONS
''0SE' Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319/335-1400
The University of Iowa does not discriminate in Its educational programs and activities on the
basis of race, national origin, color, religion, sex. age, or handicap. The University also affirms ts
commitment to providing equal opportunities and equal access to University facilities without
reference to affectional or associational preference. For additional Information on
nondiscrmlnation policies, contact the Coordinator of Title IX and Section 504 In the Office of
Affirmative Action, telephone 319/335-0705.202 Jessup Hall. The University of Iowa, Iowa City,
Iowa 52242.
5337/8-87


FALL 1987









IOWA


STATE


UNIVERSITY


William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes, high
temperature ceramics
John M. Eggebrecht
Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and
fluid surfaces
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology, carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing, sensors
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Process modeling, simulation
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
fluidization
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011 .


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JOHNS

CHEMICAL




Timothy A. Barbari
Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin
Membrane Separations
Diffusion in Polymers
Separation Processes

Michael J. Betenbaugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
Biochemical Kinetics
Microbial Metabolism
Recombinant DNA Technology

Marc D. Donohue
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Equations of State
Statistical Thermodynamics
Phase Equilibria

Joseph L. Katz
Ph.D., University of Chicago
Nucleation
Crystallization
Flames

Robert M. Kelly
Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Process Simulation
Biochemical Engineering
Separation Processes


HOPKINS

ENGINEERING




Mark A. McHugh
Ph.D., University of Delaware
High-Pressure Thermodynamics
Polymer Solution Thermodynamics
Supercritical Solvent Extraction

Geoffrey A. Prentice
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley
Electrochemical Engineering
Corrosion

W. Mark Saltzman
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Transport Phenomena
Controlled Release

William H. Schwarz
Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University
Rheology
Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics
Physical Acoustics of Fluids


For further information contact:
The Johns Hopkins University
Chemical Engineering Department
Baltimore, MD 21218
(301) 338-7170











































Durland Hall-Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs
*Chemical Engineering
'*Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering
*Food Science
*Environmental Engineering

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year


For More Information Write To
Professor B.G.,Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506


Areas of Study and Research
Transport Phenomena
Energy Engineering
Coal and Biomass Conversion
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibrium
Biochemical Engineering
Process Dynamics and Control
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Materials Science
Catalysis and Fuel Synthesis
Process System Engineering
and Artificial Intelligence
Environmental Pollution Control
Fluidization and Solid Mixing
Hazardous Waste Treatment


KANSAS
STATE
UTJIVER.SPI'Y




Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 .:: < u C w C, z ix w w z <3 z w er::: 0 LL 0 z < u w < LL 0 z 0 u; > 0 C, er::: w w z <3 z w ....I < u i w :x: u chemical engineering education VOLUMEXXI NUMBER 4 FALL 1987 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE WORK a lecture by Neal R. Amundson Courses in .. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction Microelectronics Processing Transport Phenomena . . Nonlinear Systems . . . Polymerization Reactor Engineering Research on . Advanced Engineering Fibers Unit Operations in Microgravity Programs on ... Process Modeling and Control Advanced Combustion Engineering and .. EXPERIMENT: Liquid Phase Adsorption PROBLEM: Cooking a Potato . . DeCOURSEY TAKOUDIS McCREADY, LEIGHTON SEIDER, UNGAR . . SKAATES EDIE, DUNHAM ALLEN, PETTIT BARTUSIAK, PRICE BARTHOLOMEW COONEY SUBLETTE CRE: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS M. P. DUDUKOVIC

PAGE 2

ecc ~omkJ~ llianlu .... 3M FOUNDATION --~~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 3

Editorial .. A LETTER TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SENIORS As a se n i o r y o u may be a sking s ome que s t i on s about g r aduate s chool. I n thi s issue w e attemp t to assi st y ou i n finding answers. S h oul d you go to graduate school? Through the papers in this special graduate educa tion issue, Chemical Engineering Education invites you to consider graduate school as an opportunity to further your professional development. We believe that you will find that graduate work is an exciting and intellectually satisfying experience. We also feel that graduate study can provide you with insurance against the increasing danger of technical obsoles cence Furthermore, we believe that graduate re search work under the guidance of an inspiring and interested faculty member will be important in your growth toward confidence, independence, and matur ity. What i s taught in gra d uate schoo l ? In order to familiarize you with the content of some of the areas of graduate chemical engineering, we are continuing the practice of featuring articles on graduate courses as they are taught by scholars at various universities We strongly suggest that you supplement your reading of this issue by also reading the articles published in previous years. If your de partment chairman or professors cannot supp l y you with the latter, we would be pleased to do so at no charge What is the nat u re of gra d uate researc h ? In an effort to acquaint you with some of the areas of research in chemical engineering, we are also pub lishing articles on the research of certain faculty mem bers T h ese artic l es, as we ll as those on course work, are only intended to provide examples of graduate re search and course work. The professors who have FALL 1987 written them are by no means the on l y authorities in those fields, nor are their departments the only de partments which emphasize that area of study Where should yo u go to grad u ate sc h oo l ? It is common for a student to broaden himself by doing graduate work at an institution other than the one from which he recieves his bachelor's degree For tunately there are many fine chemical engineering de partments and each of these has its own "persona l ity" with special emphases and distinctive strengths For example, in choosing a graduate school you might first consider which school is most suitable for your own future plans to teach or to go into industry If you have a specific research project in mind, you might want to attend a university which emphas i zes that area and where a prominent specialist is a member of the faculty On the other hand if you are unsure of your field of research, you might consider a depart ment that has a large faculty with widely diversified interests so as to ensure for yourself a wide choice of projects Then again you might prefer the atmosphere of a department with a small enrollment of graduate students In any case, we suggest that you begin by writing the schools that have provided information on their graduate programs in the back of this issue You will probably a l so wish to seek advice from members of the faculty at your own school. But wherever you decide to go, we suggest that you exp l ore the possibility of continuing your educa tion in graduate school. Sincerely, RAY FAHIEN, Editor GEE Uni ve rsity of Florida Gain e s vi ll e FL 32 611 157

PAGE 4

YOUR CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PUBLISHER McGraw-Hill: ENGINEERING TODAY FOR TOMORROW 1 S ENGINEERS McGraw-Hill, the leading publisher for chemical engineering students, has just the right chemistry for you and your classroom. Here's a glimQse at what we have to offer in 1988. PROCESS EVAWATION AND DESIGN James M. Douglas, University of Massachusetts 0-07-017762-7 This book helps students to develop a systematic procedure for cre ating a process flowsheet for identifying its dominant design varia bles, for identifying process alternatives for consideration and for quickly using alternatives TRANSPORT PHENOMENA: A Unified Approach Robert S. Brodkey and Harry C. Hershey, both of The Ohio State University 0-07-007963-3 The 'app roach is to teach the basic equations of transport phe nomena in a unified manner and use the analogy between heat transfer and mass and momentum OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES Thomas F. Ed~ar and David M. Himmelblau, both of the University of Texas 0-07-018991-9 This authoritative text demonstrates the most recent applications of optimization theory to chemical engineering and the process industries. And from our 1987 list APPLIED NUMERICAL METHODS WITH PERSONAL COMPUTERS Alkis Constantinides, Rutgers University 0-07-079690-4 One of the first books to present the theory and application of numerical methods for solving chemical engineering problems with personal computers INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, 4/e J.M. Smith, University of California, Davis Hendrick C. Van Ness, Rensselaer Fblytechnic I nstitute 0-07-058703 -5 The new edition of this internationally acclaimed text supports a careful exposition of the laws of thermodynamics with abundant applications. To order your examination copy, please write: McGraw-Hill Book Company College Division PO Box 444 Hightstown NJ 08520

PAGE 5

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRES S Depa rt ment o f Chemica l Engineer i ng University of Florida Gaine s ville Flo ri da 32611 Editor : Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857 Consult i ng Editor: Mack Tyner Managing Editor : Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publ i cations Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman : Gary Poehlein Georgia Institute of Techno l ogy Past Chairmen : Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado Lee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University Memb e rs SOUTH: Richard Felder North Carolina State University Jack R. Hopper Lamar University Donald R Paul University of Texas James Fair University of Texas CENTRAL: J. S. Dranoff Northwestern University WEST: Frederick H. Shair California Institute of Technology Alexis T Bell University of California, Berke l ey NORTHEAST: Angelo J. P erna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsy l vania Raymond Baddour M.I.T. NORTHWEST: Charles Sleicher University of Washington CANADA: Lesli e W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W Weber State University of New York FALL 1987 Chemical VOLUM E XX I Engineering NUMBER 4 Education FALL 1987 LECTURE 160 American University Graduate Work, Neal R Amundson COURSES IN 164 Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction, W. J. DeCoursey 170 Fundamentals of Microelectronics Processing (VLS I ), Christos G. Takoudis 174 Transport Phenomena, Mark J McCready Da vid T. L eig hton 178 Nonlinear Systems, Warren D. S eider, Lyl e H Ungar 184 Polymerization Reactor Engineering, J M. Skaates RESEARCH ON 1 86 Advanced Engineer i ng Fibers, Dan D. Edie, Michael G. Dunham 190 Unit Operations in Microgravity, David T. Allen, Donald R. Pettit PROGRAMS ON 194 Chemical Process Modeling and Control, R. Donald Bartusiak, Randel M. Price 198 Advanced Combustion Engineering, Calvin H. Bartholomew AN EXPERIMENT IN 200 Liquid-Phase Ads<:Jrption Fundamenta l s, David 0. Cooney CLASS AND HOME PROBLEMS 204 Modeling of Heat Transfer with Chemical Reaction: Cooking a Potato, Kerry L. Subl et te VIEWS AND OPINIONS 210 Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions, M. P. Dudukovic 157 EDITORIAL 172, 197, 215 BOOK REVIEWS 167 DIVISION ACTIVITIES 168 SUMMER SCHOOL REPORT 173 POSITIONS AVAILABLE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION (ISSN 0009-2479) i s published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education and is edited at the University of Florida Correspondence regarding e ditorial matter circulation, and changes of address should be sent to GEE, Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 326ll. Advertising mate rial may be sent directly to E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P 0 Box 877, DeL eo n Springs, FL 32028. Copyright 1987 by the Chemical Engineerin~ Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this penodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division, ASEE, which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified with 120 days of publication. Writ e for information on subscription costs and for back copy cost and availability. POSTMASTER: Send address c hang es to CEE Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida Gaine s ville, FL 32611. 159

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Ci Na lecture AMERICAN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE WORK* NEAL R. AMUNDSON University of Houston Houston, TX 77004 A UNIVERSITY PROFESSORSHIP in a good graduate research department can be the best of all possi ble worlds. Now here else does the recipient have such freedom to do as he pleases, a freedom he has earned presumably by good works-teaching, research, pub lication, and good citizenship-both on the academic scene and outside. The relationship between PhD adviser and graduate student is a unique kind of relationship that obtains nowhere else to my knowledge. It is an im provement on the father-son** relationship, for there is less stress, no competition, and resolution of prob lems without trauma. The PhD adviser follows the career and success of his advisee with great pride and suffers as much as a father when that success is not forthcoming. It is a very enduring relationship, and I know of no other comparable one. What I have just described is the ideal for which many of us strive. Yet, for some, it is a difficult path to trod, for other things get in the way and interfere with its fulfillment. Not all advisers and not all profes sors are capable or willing to participate in the ven ture, or understand, in fact, what is involved in proper PhD training. Other matters and goals interfere and thus many may miss what can be an extremely exhilarating experience. Not all of it is wine and roses. The road can be a rocky one at times, for standards must be upheld, and The PhD adviser follows the career and success of his advisee with great pride and suffers as much as a father when that success is not forthcoming. It is a very enduring relationship, and I know of no other comparable one. Reprinted with permission from Pa r a me t e r s, Spring 1987, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston. **This is a personal account, and I have never had an academic father-daughter relationship. 160 Neal R Amundson is the Cullen Professor of Chemical Engineering and a professor of mathematics at the University of H ouston. He re ceived his BChE (1937), his MS (1941), and his PhD (1945) from the University of Minnesota, where he also served as a faculty member from 1939 1977 and as head of chemical engineering from 1949 1974 He is the author of numerous papers and six books including First Order Partial Differential Equations Vol. II. H e has been the recipient of many awards the research that is done must stand the scrutiny of one's peers. For example, it is not easy to tell one's graduate student of a few years that the work done thus far does not constitute an acceptable thesis. It is even more difficult to tell him after two or three years that, at the rate he is progressing, he probably will never finish a satisfactory dissertation. These are traumatic times for the student, when his perceived career must suddenly detour to some other goal. It is even more difficult for Professor X to tell Professor Y that the thesis of the latter's student does not meet the standards of the profession. Such a dis closure is often more a criticism of Professor Y than it is of his student. One of the most critica l and important decisions a department can make is whom to admit to a PhD pro gram, for once admitted, most students plan on get ting a degree. Since these are very good students, failure for them would be a new exper ience, an experi ence to which some of them have difficulty accomCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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modating. Usually, departments are too generous in their admissions po lic y, and future problems are born which rest on the s hould ers of the individual adviser. Normally, a graduate student chooses his adviser at the end of hi s first year of graduate st udy during which he ha s sat th ro u g h l ectures, worked problems attended seminars and colloquia, and has, perhaps, had casual interaction with some of the faculty at so cia l functions. If he's the average new graduate stu dent, he has chosen his graduate school after visits to a few places-for at most a day-during which he talks briefly with faculty and students. And he obtains some information from his undergraduate teachers. But, from my experience, this may be unreliable. He probab l y ha s look ed into the lit erature little if at all and s in ce chemical engineering textbooks are notorious in their la ck of original literature references, he probably has never heard of anyone at the school he visits. With this paucity of information he chooses a school for grad uat e study. (Some years ago, while I was head at Minnesota, I decided to inquire of new graduate students why they c hos e u s for their work. Most of the answers had nothing to do with what we presumed was our exalted reputation. One st ud ent a llo wed as how h e chose us because we started later than anyone e l se in the fall, and he wanted to stay in Europe that summer as long as possible. So much for exalted reputations ) Now we have the graduate student in place, and he must choose an adviser Students most of the time have a free choice, and that choice is the result of faculty presentations to the whole group of new graduate students and private consultations for those who want more information. In the meantime, the prospect i ve adv i see has consulted with current graduate students who give him the lowdown on Pro fessor X who probably, therefore will get no stu dents With this mixed bag of information, the student makes a "free" choice. (Random would seem to be a better word ) Students, of course, almost never ask important questions lik e: What will be the need for a certain kind of expertise in five years or so when I finish? How successful has Professor X been in placing his students in responsible positions? How many students has Professor X produced, and where are they? Does Professor X work at the front of his field or is he out of it ? As a matter of fact, in a good department the problem a student chooses to do for his thesis has little re le vance to w h at he will be doing in a few years, for successful chemica l engineers in industry tend to be moved about The important thing in a chemical engineering FALL 19 87 One student allowed as how he chose us because we started later than anyone else in the fall, and he wanted to stay in Europe that summer as long as possible. So much for exalted reputations. graduate program is that the student learn the funda mentals of his craft, learn how to do engineering re searc h and be instilled with confidence so that when he leav es he can be successful either in academia or industry. These things depend upon the way the stu dent has been advised and directed for his degree work and over which the adviser has a great deal of influence. At the beginning, however the st ud ent i s naive and thinks that hi s destiny is in hi s hands and his alone Ah, youth! The new graduate student is intim id ated by the sudden thought that he i s now involved in research He is encouraged by his adviser to read the li terature, and that's the way he spends his first summer. He must l earn the techniques and methods of his trade. This is less difficult than he imagin es, and soon he gains some confidence with the insight that there is less known about everything than he had thought. He st ill has the nagging idea that if he must know some thing, it will be out there in a book someplace. The reminder that he is in a research mode now rather than a learning mode, and that what he wants to know has not been done, does not comfort him much. The student at this stage feels that he cannot com pete with all the experts he thinks are out there and whose papers he must read I suggest to him that there are not so many out there and that, when he finishes his dissertation, he is going to wonder where the experts all went, for then he will know more about that topic than anyone else. In most cases, as the student progresses through the second and third years, he i s strugg ling The ex periment either does not work or the theoretica l ana lysi s is more than he can handle and the adviser plays a crucial role in guiding him and giving him en couragement and advice, suggesting ideas when they are needed. There is a small c la ss of students who whistle through this period with little advice and coun se l from the adviser, and the adviser's main function is to get out of the way. Such students recognize early what they want to do, they have no lack of ideas, and their later s uccess is assured. The other class of st udent s are those who need a partnership arrangement with the adv i ser. They are good students of high quality, but for a lon g time re quire that the adviser direct their work in detail, te ll ing them where to go and what to look for and what 161

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During all of this trava i l the adv i ser must think of the welfare of the student The adv i ser do es harm to the student i f he uses him in the laboratory a s a pair of hands on a fixed p i ece o f equipment or as a computer algorithm for a theoretical thesis. The PhD student is supposed to have contributed to k nowledge in some way, and that means he contributed One doe s him no favors by allow i ng him to do les s. to do i f they find it. W i th students of this c l ass there is a problem, for they must be told that the thesis is their thesis and if they mean to be called doctor, they m u st earn it My usual procedure is to be very patient until a time arrives when it is necessary to say that I do not want to confer with them again until t h ey can tell me something about t h eir research that I did not know I n fact," I say, "next time yo u come for a thesis dis cussion, I want to be surprised One former advisee characterized this as being thrown in the water swim or learn to swim or else. Whi l e this may seem cruel, it is an astoundingly successfu l p l oy for a l most everyone responds to it we ll. Students who, up to that point, have never pre sented an origina l idea sudden l y b l ossom. A few do not respond and unfortunately receive their degrees without contributing much, and their later careers show t h at they probably shou l d not have made the attempt Those who learn to swim leave the institution with a great dea l of confidence and become more successful than they might have otherwise. A problem here re sides i n t h e fact that u ndergraduate and new graduate students are se l dom asked to do a synthesis or are challenged in a situation where a novel idea is needed. Research, therefore, t h rusts t h em into a who ll y new mode. During a ll of this travai l the adviser must think of the welfare of t h e student. The adviser does harm to the student if he uses him in the laboratory as a pair of hands on a fixed piece of equipment or as a computer algorithm for a theoretical thesis. The PhD student is s u pposed to have contributed to know l edge in some way, and that means he contributed One does him no favors by allowing him to do less He should be proud of his thesis upon its co m pletion From the advisers view, there is a l ways one more experiment to run or one more calcu l ation to make on a thesis, and he treads a fine line before using the student for his own ends. The greatest PR a depart ment can promote is to have students say when they leave, "I'm happy I came!" Most PhD st u dents go on to other things after their degrees, whether in academia or industry In academia many of them continue to work in t h e area in w h ich they did their theses, much to the chagrin of the adviser, for then he has once again produced still 162 more competitors and has probab l y supplied the ideas that will be exploited for a time by the former stu dents. But this is a short-lived phenomenon, and the former students s oon become interested in other things. It is rare in industry for a new PhD to work long in the area of his thesis, since the successful in dustrial chemical engineer must be flexib l e. For this reason, the choice of a particular thesis topic is prob ably the least important of the many other factors involved in good graduate study. Unfortunately engineering departments are sel dom composed of large numbers of the kind of re search advisers alluded to above Universities are strange places, and they attract their own particular kind of strange characters. Though the freedom allowed at universities is un l imited, the proper research adviser uses this freedom in the pursuit of proper academic goa l s But the free dom is abused, since the fetters applied to academics under the name of academic freedom are rather tenu ous A faculty member may spend too much time in consulting and entrepreneurship, seeking financial re wards the academic pursuit will not provide He gains financially but loses the respect of his colleagues. Thi s is not a wide class, but it exists and does no credit to the institution In a well-run department there is a certain spirit, a spirit difficu l t to imitate, initiate, deve l op, even to maintain. Faculty must have respect for each other both publicly and privately The departments that seem to work best are those in which faculty members are also friends, and this requires personality traits more highly developed than in the general population. Regrettably, good collaborations among faculty are rare, occurring far less frequently than outsiders might imagine. There is severe competition for research space, new graduate students, money for research equip ment and supplies choice teaching schedules and more In a university there is always a finite, too small pool of everything, and the selfish individual can be a problem. It is no wonder that in some departments rancor and cancer exist I was always proud of the Minnesota department, since they were class chaps (there were no women at that time) who always thought in terms of what was best for the department-a rare commodity indeed. C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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We called it good university citizenship, a term little practiced in some places. There is no room in a good operation for those who think of every action, how does it affect me? This soon leads to discord, and in a sma ll group it is disastrous. The Minnesota department had an amazing suc cess, since the sum of its parts was much greater than the whole, not only because of strong intraand inter departmental cooperation, but because of the superb personalities that inhabited the place. I think this was in large measure responsible for its almost complete dominance of the chemical engineering scene for the last twenty years It is not thus all over. For many years, there were three leading chemical engineering departments: at Wisconsin, and at two other large institutions. Wisconsin maintained its po sition over the years because it kept its eye on academic excellence. The other two suffered from similar problems-too much consulting, too much en trepreneurship, too little attention to scholarship, and too much inbreeding. One of these is recovering, but at a time when recovery is difficult. When one carefully examines academic depart ments, some difficult questions can be posed Why is it that some departments, which absorb an enormous number of new graduate students each year, produce relatively few successful PhD's? Why is it that depart ments of so-called lesser rank almost never (I'm temp ted to say never) produce a world class practitioner? Why is it that some presumably eminent faculty mem bers have never produced a really outstanding PhD? The opportunities for outside activities are so man ifold and the amount of money to be made so great that the temptations are more than some in academia can absorb. A really successful PhD adviser with a good stable of students cannot dissipate his efforts outside the enterprise. The rewards for superior re search of both quality and quantity and the satisfac tion obtained from the success of former students re main mostly intangible, although the academic com munity has belatedly come to recognize quality. In no place is graduate work so readily available and run so efficiently and effectively as it is in the United States; it is truly one of the great develop ments of this country. In France, Germany, England, and Russia the mechanisms are much different and far less attractive American university graduate work is unique in the world. I'm very happy and proud to have been a part of it for over forty years. D AMOCO Making Significant Advances In Technology The Amoco Research Center represents continued advancement in Amoco Corporation's support of research and development. Petroleum products and processes, chemicals, additives, polymers and plastics, synthetic fuels, and alternative sources of energy are only a few of the areas in which the Amoco Research Center has made important contributions. Located on 178 acres of spacious landscaped grounds in Naperville, Illinois, just 30 miles west of Downtown Chicago, the Center employs over 1500 people. We are currently in need of enthusiastic researchers who have received their degree in chemical, mechanical, or electrical engineering, to help us improve the products and services we provide. You'll be part of a team that continually pushes back the parameters of known technology. Amoco is proud of its dedicated personnel and furnishes them an environment that encourages creativity and is conducive to professional advancement. If you have the desire and proven ability to work on mind-stimulating projects, we are prepared to offer a very attractive benefits package and salary that reflects your expertise. The research field provides a backbone for modern development-guiding industry through the future. And you can be part of this. Please send your resume to: Amoco Research Center Professional Recruiting Coordinator Dept. CEE/12 P.O. Box 400 Naperville, Illinois 60566 / FALL 1987 6T~ AMOCO An equal opportunity employer M/F/H/V 163

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A course in ... MASS TRANSFER WITH CHEMICAL REACTION W. J. DECOURSEY Uni ve rs i ty of Saskatch e wan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W0 I NDUSTRIAL USE OF absorption and stripping in cases where simultaneous homogeneous chemical reaction has an appreciable effect on the rate of mass transfer goes back at least fifty years to the introduc tion of ethanolamine solutions to absorb hydrogen sul fide and carbon dioxide from gases. Theoretical de velopment in this area goes back about the same length of time to the pioneering studies of Hatta [1 2]. However, as in many other areas, industrial de velopment had to run ahead of theory; design was based on empirical studies and scale-up. The first re ference books devoted entirely to mass transfer with chemical reaction appeared in 1967 [3] and 1970 [4]. I began to teach a graduate course in mass transfer in 1964. The content of that course has been modified considerably in the intervening years. It always con tained some mass transfer with chemical reaction but the content in that area increased appreciably ;fter the book by Danckwerts [ 4] was published. In recent years, mass transfer with chemical reaction has be come the dominant section of the course. W. J. DeCoursey recei v ed his ba c helor' s d e gr ee fr o m the Un ive r s i ty o f Alberta and his PhD from Imperial College Uni v er s ity of London England, b o th in c hemical e ngine e ring Aft e r fi v e ye a rs w ith S h e rrill Gordon M i nes Limited in Alberta he spent a year in graduat e s tud y at the Massachus e tts Institute of Te c hnology He ha s taught c h e mical e ngineer i ng at the Uni ve r s it y of Saskatche w an since 1961 164 ... industrial development had to run ahead of theory; design was based on empirical studies and scale-up. The first reference books devoted entirely to mass transfer with chemical reaction appeared in 1967 and 1970. COURSE CONTENT The main topics included in the present course and the approximate distribution of time are shown in Table 1. 1. Mathematical Models of Mass Transfer This topic deals with some basic principles. We consider diffusion equations, diffusivitie s, and diffusion of elec trolyte s This consideration result s in differential equations of various degrees of complexity based on various assumptions. Next comes mathematical de velopment of the most important models of convective mass transfer : the film model of Whitman and Lewis the penetration model of Higbie and the surface re~ newal model of Danckwerts. The relation of the Danckwert s model, with it s e x ponential di s tribution function, to the Laplace tran s form is discussed. We examine the available experimental evidence regard ing the relative accuracy of predictions from the three basic models of convective mass transfer. 2. Enhancement of Mass Transfer Rates by Homogeneous Chemical Reaction We begin this topic with a simplified form of the diffusion equation with chemical reaction D A ( a 2 [A]/ ax 2 ) ( a [A] /a t) r A = o (l) and a simplified form of Fick's Law N = D (a[A]/ a x) A A (2) These equations are used in subsequent develop ment. The rate of diffusion of component A at the interface between liquid and ga s is related to the ma s s transfer coefficient for A according to the various models The enhancement factor, E, i s defined as the ratio of the time-mean flux of A at the interface with Co pyr i gh t C hE D ivision ASEE 19 87 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 1 Course Content APPROX.NO.OF TOPIC LECTURE HOURS A. Mathematical Models of mass transfer 5 B. Enhancement of mass transfer rates 18 C. Gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction D. Industrial examples E. Students' presentations 6 3 3 reaction to the time-mean flux of A at the interface without reaction but with the same driving force and the same hydrodynamic conditions. This reduces to the ratio of mass transfer coefficients with and with out chemical reaction In cases where the enhancement factor is appreci ably more than one, several studies [5, 6, 7, 8] have shown that in normal industrial equipment, the chem ical reaction rate must be large enough so that the composition in the bulk of the liquid is very close to equilibrium. If the reaction is irreversible, that means that concentration of component A from the gas phase is effectively zero in the bulk of the liquid. This simplifies one of the boundary conditions to Eq. (1). Hatta's analysis is still applicable to the simplest cases absorption with instantaneous irreversible reaction and absorption with first-order irreversible reaction, both according to the film model. Although combination of Eq. (1) for first-order reaction with the film model, Higbie model, and Danckwerts model respectively gives expressions for the enhancement factor which are widely different in mathematical form, it is quite remarkable how closely the results agree numerically when they are put in terms of Brian's general parameter M [9] or the equivalent TABLE 2 Effect of Increasing Reaction Rate For mass transfer with second-order reaction, A + zB products Reaction Reaction Enhancement Rate [B]; zone Factor Slow [Blo negligible 1 Pseudo-1st-order [B]o broad region E1st Intermediate < [B]o > 0 region > E1 st < Ea Instantaneous 0 plane Ea FALL 1987 Hatta number. The asymptotes for large or small val ues of M by the various models are identical, and pre dictions of first-order enhancement factors from the three models agree within 8 .1 % of the largest predic tion, which comes from the Danckwerts model. Such agreement is extraordinary when the different as sumptions of the three models are considered Second-order reactions of the type rA = k[A][B] (3) simplify to pseudo-first-order reactions when the de pletion of component B (from the liquid phase) be comes negligible at the interface with the gas phase. This corresponds to a comparatively slow reaction, or a small value of the Hatta number. On the other hand, the asymptotic limit for a second-order reaction at high reaction rate is an instantaneous reaction. Thus it is reasonable that expressions for the enhancement factor for second-order irreversible reactions should The principal mathematical difficulty in obtaining an expression for the enhancement factor for second-order reactions is that the rate expression makes the differential equation non-linear. In fact, there is a non-linear differential equation for each chemical species. reduce to expressions applicable to pseudo-first-order reactions at small values of the Hatta number and to expressions applicable to instantaneous reactions at large Hatta numbers. A chart for comparison is shown in Table 2. The principal mathematical difficulty in obtaining an expression for the enhancement factor for second order reactions is that the rate expression makes the differential equation non-linear. In fact, there is a non linear differential equation for each chemical species. Van Krevelen and Hoftijzer [10] found an approximate solution for the irreversible case and the film model by two modifications. First they combined the differ ential equations for species A (from the gas) and B (from the liquid) to eliminate the non-linear rate term, and then integrated to obtain a bridging expression relating the concentration of component B in the liquid bulk and at the interface. Then, realizing that the reaction rate closest to the interface has the largest effect on the enhancement factor, they took the con centration of B in the reaction term as equal to its interfacial concentration independent of distance from the interface. This gave a linear differential equation which could be solved by standard methods. The ap proach of van Krevelen and Hoftijzer has been applied also to enhancement factors by the Danckwerts 165

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model, both for irreversible [11] and reversible [12] second -ord er reactions. Other s ub-topi cs discu ssed under en hanc ement in clude exte n sion to other kinetic forms and relations for reversible reactions. Desorption with reaction is found to be similar to absorption with reaction, but with some important differences [13]. Liquid extrac tion with chemical reaction i s also similar. Non isothermal en han cement factors are important in cases where temperatures vary appreciably between t h e bulk of the liquid and the interface. The Marangoni effect gives extra en hanc ement in so me cases. Sca l e up from l aboratory or pi l ot plant experiments is an important area in practice. 3. Gas-Liquid Systems with Chemical Reaction The ideas of total molarity and degree of saturation, as introduced by Astarita and Savage [13, 15], are discussed and applied to chemical equilibrium. These concepts are applied also in developing an operating line equation suitable for systems involving chemical reaction De s ign relation s for a packed column are de rived, and an example design problem is discussed. 4 Industrial Examples The chemistry of a few important cases, such as reactions of carbonates or et hanol amines with hydrogen su lfide or carbon dioxide, is discussed briefly ASSIGNMENTS As yo u might expect, the course includes frequent problem assignments to illustrate the theory and its applications. A l onger assignment toward the end of the co ur se involves design of a packed co lumn for a particular separation. Some resu lt s for mass transfer coefficients without reaction and for interfaci al areas, calculated from the eq u at i on of Onda et. al. [16], are given to the st udent s to reduce the amount of time they mu st spend on the problem. A term paper i s an im portant part of the course It is intended to bring students into contact with re cent li terature and to promote a critical attitude to ward the lit erat ur e It is to be a critical review of a recent paper, pointing out weaknesses in a chosen paper from the lit erature, clarifying its application, or exte nding it s scope. Each student s ubmit s a written term paper and presents it ora ll y to the class. REFERENCE BOOKS The main reference s used in this course are shown in Table 3. Gussler [17] ha s produced an exce llent book on topics related to diffu s ion. The present course uses 166 TABLE 3 Main Reference Books A. Mathematical models of mass transfer: Cussler [17]; Bird, Stewa rt Lightfoot [18] B Enhancement of mass transfer rates: Danckwerts [4] C Gas-liq uid syste m s with chemical: Astarita, Savage, Bisio [15] D. Industrial examp le s: Astarita, Savage, Bisio [15] only a sma ll part of the material in this book. Some topics from the standard reference by Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot [18] are used Teachers and researchers are divided on the best approach to the theory of enhancement factors. Some prefer the approach of Astarita [3, 15], while others prefer the approach of Danckwerts [4]. Personally, I find Danckwerts more direct and logical. The book by Astarita, Savage, and Bisio [15] is the only one which introduces the ideas of total molarity and degree of saturation However, I find some incon s istencies in this book, and its lack of many references in my opinion makes it not very useful for a graduate course. For recent developments students must be refer red to the original articles in the literature. CONCLUSION Altho u gh many mas s transfer devices involving homogeneous chemical reaction are st ill designed on a strictly empirica l basis often with large factors of safety to allow for areas of ignorance, the theory has advanced now to the point where it is of considerable use in practice Edwards [10] has pointed out some of the applicab l e material. Thus there is a need for graduate courses in this area NOMENCLATURE [A], [BJ D A E Ei s t Concentrations of chemica l species Diffusivity of component A Enhancement factor Enhancement factor for first-order reac tion Enhancement factor for instantaneous reaction Hatta number, VM Second-order chemical rate constant Mass transfer coefficient without reaction D A k [B] 0 / (kL*) 2 Flux of co mpon ent A Reaction rate of A per unit vo lum e of solu tion C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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.... [Ill] CHEMICAL ENGINEERING []l[]I DIVISION ACTIVITIES ..,. TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO JAMES J. CHRISTENSEN The 1987 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec turer is James J. Christensen of Brigham Young University. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and encour age outstanding achievement in an important field of funda mental chemica l engineering theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial support for this annual award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineering educator who delivers the annual lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were presented to James Chris tensen at a banquet on August 12 1987, at the Summer School at Southeastern Massachusetts University. The award is made on an annual basis, with nominations being received through February 1, 1988. Your nominations for the 1988 l ectures hip are invited. They shou ld be sent to Donald K. Anderson, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226. EDITORS NOTE ADDED IN PROOF: GEE has learned that Professor Christensen died suddenly at his home on September 5, 1987. We mourn his loss. NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS The Chemica l Engineering Division officers for 1987-88 are: Chairman, John Sears (Montana State University); t Time x Distance from the interface overbar Time-mean value REFERENCES 1. Hatta, S., Tech nol R epts Tohok u I mp. University, 8, 1 (1928-9), as reported in ref. 4. 2. Hatta, S., Technol Repts. Tohoku Imp. University, 10 119 (1932), as reported in ref. 4. 3. Astarita, G ., Mass Tran sfer wit h Chemical R eac t ion, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1967. 4. Danckwerts, P. V., Gas-Liquid R eac tions, McGraw-Hill, New York 1970. 5. Peaceman, D W., Sc.D th esis, Mass Inst Technol., Cam bridge, Mass., 1951, as reported in ref. 9. 6. Danckwerts, P. V ., ref. 4, page 162. 7. Huang, D. T.-J., J J. Carberry, and A. Varma, AIChE J ., 26, 832 (1980). 8. White, D., L E Johns, paper no. 123a, AIChE Annual Me et ing, Miami Beach, November 1986. FALL 1987 Past Chairman, Phillip C. Wankat (Purdue University); Chairman Elect, James E. Stice (University of Texas); Sec retary-Treasurer, William E. Beckwith (Clemson Univer sity); Directors, Gary Poehlein (Georgia Institute of Technology), Conrad Burris (Manhattan College), Richard M. Felder (North Carolina State University), and Lewis Derzansky (Union Carbide). AW ARD WINNERS A number of chemical engineering professors were rec ognized for their outstanding achievements. The George Westinghouse Award was presented to John H. Seinfeld (Ca lifornia Institute of Technology) to acknowledge hi s com mittment to excellence in education and his many contribu tions to the improvement of teaching methods for engineer ing students. C. Stewart Slater (Manhattan Co llege) and A. K. M. Uddin (Trinity University) received the Zone I and Zone III (respective ly ) New Engineering Educator Excellence Awards. The awards are presented to non-tenured educators in the first six years of their appointment in rec ognition of superior performance in teaching and research. Louis Theodore (Manhattan College) was honored with an AT&T Foundations Award presented to outstanding teachers of engineering students, and the grade of ASEE Fellow Member was conferred on James E. Stice (Univer sity of Texas) in recognition of his many important contribu tions in the field of engineering ed ucation. CORCORAN AW ARD TO R. BYRON BIRD R. Byron Bird (University of Wisconsin) was the reci pient of the second annual Corcoran Award, presented in recognition of the most outstanding paper published in Chemical Engineering Education in 1986. Hi s paper, "Haugen's Principles," appeared in the fall 1986 issue of GEE. 9. Brian, P. L. T., J. F. Hurley, and E. H. Ha sse ltine AIChE J ., 7, 226 ( 1961 ). 10. Van Krevelen, D. W., P. J Hoftijzer Rec. Trav. Chim. 67, 563 (1948). 11. Decoursey, W. J., Chem. Eng. Sci ., 29, 1867 (1974). 12. Decoursey W. J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 14 83 ( 19 82). 13. Astarita, G. D W. Savage, Chem Eng. Sci., 35, 659, 1755 (1980). 14 Joshi S. V., G. Astarita, D W Savage, AIChE Symp. S er. #202, 77, 63 (1981). 15 Astarita, G., D. W Savage, A Bisio, Gas Treating with Chemical Solvents, Wiley, New York (1983). 16. Onda, K., H. Takeuchi, Y. Okumoto, J. Chem. Eng. Japan, 1, 56 (1968). 17. Gussler, E. L., D~ff usion: Ma ss Transf er in Fluid Syst ems, Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1984. 1 8. Bird, R B., W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Ph nomena, Wiley, New York, 1960. 19. Edwards, W. M. in R. H. Perry, D. Green (ed.), P erry's Chemical Engi neers' H andbook, section 14 McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984. D 167

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1987 SUMMER SCHOOL ____ -----1 G L SCHRADER,M A.LARSON Iowa State University Ames, IA 50010 The 1987 Summer School for Chemical Engineering Fac ulty arranged through the Chemical Engineering Division of the American Society for Engineering Education, was held on August 9-14, 1987, at Southeastern Massachusetts University, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts. Over 350 at tendees were present at the meeting, representing 113 uni versities in the United States and Canada and several Euro pean and Australian schools. Sixteen industrial sponsors (see Table 1) contributed nearly $100,000 to assist in the p l ann i ng of the program, local expenses, and costs for in stuctor and facu l ty member participation It was the tenth Summer School in a series begun in 1931. The theme of the 1987 Summer School was the revitaliza tion of the chemical engineering curriculum in response to the changing technological needs of modern society. Five plenary sessions were held to discuss some of the broader implications of these changes. Four blocks of workshops were organized around specific themes: Emerging Technol ogy (G. L. Schrader, Iowa State University), Computers and Computation in Chemical Engineering Education (H. S Fogler, University of Michigan), Applied Chemistry in Chemical Engineering (J. W Schwank, University of Michi gan), and Curricu l a, Courses and Laboratories (J. C Friedly, University of Rochester). Forty four faculty mem bers and industrial speakers served as instructor s for the meeting, all donating their time and effort. T h e first p l enary talk addressing the genera l future cur riculum directions in chemical engineering was given by Professor James Wei of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech nology. Professor Wei discussed the important need for a new paradigm in the curricu lu m such as were provided by the unit operat i ons and transport phenomena directions in the 1920s and 1960s. Because of the loss of important sectors of America's industrial economy, there has been a general concern regarding engineering education in the United States, and there are strong pressures for chemical en gineers to become invo l ved in new technological areas. Within traditional courses, there are opportunities to intro duce new emphases or problems at the micro-, mesa-, and macroscale at which chemical engineers are accustomed to work. For example, instead of dealing only with small molecules, gases and homogeneous liquid s, large molecules complex liquids and solids should be addressed; rather than being concerned exclusively with inorganic or organic chemistry applications, biochemistry, material science, and condensed state physical chemistry s hould have a role in 168 chemical engineering courses. Professor Wei provided a number of specific curriculum suggestions, among which was the discussion of a product engineering course which would explore the relation between molecular configuration and aggregation and product quality. The design and syn thesis of materials with specific performance in use could also be included in traditional design courses. Also proposed were courses in surface and colloid chemistry, electronic ma terials processing, biotechnology, and solid state chemistry. The new technological demands made on the chemical en gineering profession may lead to need for new educational plans and degree requirements. Professor Wei pointed to the difficulty of cramming more courses or course content into the four-year BS degree and to the decline of the indus trial "apprentice" format as traditional industry reduces senior staff, leaving fewer experienced engineers to teach incoming graduates. This is coupled with an information ex plosion which has made it increasingly difficult for all levels of engineers to be technically well-informed. Professor Wei called for a new consensus among academic and industrial engineers in which the first professional degree (four-year BS) is regarded as being suitable for light technical work s uch as marketing, administration, technical personnel, or production planning. To be effective in heavy technical work such as design, process development consulting, and con struction, the student should obtain a MS degree or secure a significant apprenticeship with an experienced senior en gineer. Dr. Stanley Proctor of Monsanto discussed "Biotechnol ogy and Chemical Engineering Education" in the second ple nary session. The value of products from biotechnology is projected to grow enormously by the year 2000, with major opportunities coming in human hea l th care, crop science, and waste management. Dr. Proctor stated that chemical engineering i s a good base from which the student can ex pand into the biotechnology area, specifically by the addition of life science courses such as microbiology, biochemistry, and biochemical engineering unit operations. Biotechnology can also be introduced into the core courses of chemical en gineering with subjects such as bioreaction engineering and bioprocessing purification and separation. There is a need for laboratories s uitably equipped for life science studies, with the appropriate unit operations and instrumentation. It is especially helpful to use laboratory assistants with life science backgrounds as well as having faculty members with life science training. Dr Proctor raised the difficulty of doing this in a four-year program but suggested improv ing the curriculum flexibility, incorporating biotechnology into existing courses, reducing duplication, and eliminating credit for courses which are prerequisite for program admis sion. Dr. Proctor projected that the largest need for BS/MS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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New Directions in Chemical Engineering Education TABLE 1 Industrial Sponsors American Cyanamid Company Amoco Oil Co mpan y BASF Cor porati on Chevron Corporation Dow Chemical U S A Dow Corning Corporation E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company EXXON Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Labs Phillips Petroleum PPG Industries Foundation Shell Development Compa n y Tektronix The Standard Oil Company (SOHIO) 3M Union Carbide Corporation biotechnology graduates focused on design and operation will come after 1990. The opportunities for chemical engineers in high technol ogy materials processing was addressed in two plenary ses sions presented by practicing chemical engineers. Dr. Michael Bohrer of AT&T Bell Laboratories discussed "Chemical Engineering in Electronic Materials Processing. Chemical engineers have made substantial contributions to modern silicon and optical fiber manufacturing technology. The core curriculum has served chemical engineers well for working in the electronics industry as reflected by the rapid increase in the hiring of BS chemical engineers. Students should be exposed to a broad range of problems; courses in material science and solid state physics should also be in cluded. Dr. Kenneth McKelvey of Dupont addressed some of the important technological problems associated with the design and manufacture of advanced material s and composites. The microstructure of these materials must be very carefully engineered since the interfacial region frequently involve s two incompatible materials There are important technolog ical opportunities in developing more engineered micro structure materials, liquid crystalline polymers and electri cally conductive polymers. Dr. McKelvey stated that chem ical engineering education frequently doe s not take the in terdisciplinary approach used by indu st ry and this can be a serious drawback. Chemical engineers do have a unique ap proach to problem solving which frequently begin s with a phenomenological description in areas such as transport FALL 1987 phenomena, kinetics, and thermodynamics. This is followed by a quantifying and modeling approach. Dr. McKelvey pointed to a reduced hiring pattern for chemical engineers by companies that are forming special expertise in the ad vanced materials area The final plenary spea ker was Professor Warren Seider of the University of Pennsylvania. Professor Seider spoke on "C hemical Engineering and Instructional Computing Are They in Step?" Transitions in chemical engineering courses arid advances in instructional computing were examined. Developments in optimization, micro-computer software, and expert systems for teaching the design and control of conventional and unconventional processes were detailed. New developments to introduce "open-ended," de sign-oriented computing lessons in courses other than pro cess design and proce ss control were described. In addition, examples of more advanced concepts in undergraduate courses were presented, including reactor stability analysis, thermodynamics in the critical region, and mass transfer in separators. Questions concerning the minimal requirements for computation in the accreditation of chemical engineering curricula were discussed. Professor Seider concluded that the instructional material for design and control courses are in step with the technology represented by conventional processing, but that there ne e ds to be an improvement with respect to the more recent technological interests of chemi cal engineering. Workshop sessions were held in the morning s and even ings and provided an informal atmosphere for faculty mem ber s to exchange specific information about coursework de velopment. Poster sessions were held in the afternoon, per mitting up-to-date presentations of materials by the par ticipants. Over seventy posters were submitted. On Wednesday the 3M A ward Lectureship was awarded to Professor Jame s J. C hri s ten se n of Brigham Young Uni versity, who spoke on R e fle ct ions on Teaching Creativity" and who addressed the essential need of including creativity in the chemical engineering curriculum. The lecture was followed by the Division business meet ing. The Summer School participants also had opportunities to tour the Newport area. A financial report of the Summer School will appear after the final di st ribution of subsidies to participating depart ments (p lanned for late 1987). Any questions concerning the final preparation of this report should be addressed to the Co-Chairmen. Local arrangements for the Summer School were as s isted by Profe sso r L. Bryc e Andersen of Southeastern Massachu se tts University, and by Professor Stanely M. Barnett of the University of Rhode Island. 169

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A course in ... FUNDAMENTALS OF MICROELECTRONICS PROCESSING (VLSI) CHRISTOS G. TAKOUDIS Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 A FIFTEEN -W EEK COURSE in the fundamentals of microelectronics processing has been prepared to meet the needs of graduate and advanced under graduate st udent s in Purdue's School of Chemical En gineering. There is ample evidence of the impact of large scale integration on calculators and computers. Very large scale integration (VLSI) is bringing about great changes in industrial process control, automo tive electronics, and other fields in which data acquis ition, computation, or controls are necessary. In re cent years, chemical engineers have been increasingly involved in chemical vapor deposition, epitaxial lateral overgrowth, microlithography and s ilicon growth on insulators. The aim of this course is to teach the basic principles and practical aspects of the most advanced state of electronics processing. The main emphasis is on fundamental processes that are especially useful for VLSI schemes. The course outline is given in Table 1. C G Takoudis r eceived his Diploma (1977) at the Notional Te chni cal Universit y of Athens Greece, and his PhD in chemical engineering (1982) at th e University of Minnesota. He joined the faculty of Purdue University in November 1981 Hi s research interests ore in the areas of reaction engineering heterogeneous catalysis and microelectronics processing. Cop y ri ght ChE D ivision ASEE 19 87 170 Perhaps the rapid pace of innovation does not fit the limited timetable for publication of a book [1-5]. Recent efforts are most often treated in journal arti cles and as a consequence, those journal articles end up playing a key role in this course. Some of the arti cles are mentioned at the end of this paper [6-14]. In order to maintain the pace shown in Table 1, some topics were not covered in depth. For these top ics, several references were suggested, and students' Introduction TABLE 1 Course Outline Overview of Microelectronics Semiconductor Devices Crystal Growth and Epitaxy Crystal Growth Chemical Vapor Deposition Vapor Phase Epitaxy Molecular Beam Epitaxy Silicon on Insulators Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Doping Profiles in Epi-layers Dielectric and Polysilicon Film Deposition Deposition Processes Reactor Design Polysilicon and Silicon Dioxide Process Sim ulation Ion Implantation Ion Implant System-Dose Control Impurity Profiles of Implanted Ions Process Considerations Lithography Pattern Generation-Mask Making Printing and Engraving Resists Process Considerations Dry Etching Selectivity-Feature Size Control Gas Discharges Plasma-Assisted Etching Techniques Process Simulation Other Processes-Device and Circuit Fabrication Oxidation Diffusion Metallization Fabrication Considerations CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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~ ---------------------------------, comprehension was examined through homework problems and midsemester exams. At the end of the course, the students expressed approval of the texts (1, 2, 5) and of the supplementary readings. The course begin s with an overview of microelec tronics. The major technologies for the manufacture of microcircuits are discussed, and the students be come familiar with small medium-, large-, and very largesca le integration. After a general discussion of some of the materials used in microcircuits (i.e., Si, Ga, As) the physics of semico nductor devices is briefly covered. Concepts such as energy bands, carrier con centration and carrier transport phenomena are pre sented, while the st udent s begin familiarizing them selves with the p-n junction and bipolar, unipolar and microwave devices. The basic principles of these de vices are also discussed. The first major step in device fabrication includes crystal growth and epitaxy. The starting materials of semiconductors (e.g., silicon dioxide for a silicon wafer) are chemically processed to form a high purity polycrystalline semiconductor from which single crys tals are grown. The growth of crystals from a melt as well as float zone processes is studied in detail. Em phasis is placed on the conceptual understanding and mathematical modelling of such processes. The growth of a single-crystal semiconductor upon a single crystal semiconductor substrate, called epitaxy, is closely related to the technology of crystal growth. The epitaxial process offers an important means of controlling the doping profiles so that device and circuit performances can be optimized. Many novel device structures can be made by epitaxial pro cesses [3]. Some important epitaxial growth tech niques are discussed, with emphasis on vapor-phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of silicon on insulators is covered next. One of the pri mary aims of the study of such a process is the fabri cation of three-dimensional integr ated circuits. A con ceptual understanding and mathematical modeling of epitaxial lateral overgrowth are emphasized within this context To fabricate discrete devices and integrated cir cuits we use many different kinds of thin films, such as dielectric layer s and polycrystalline silicon. Depos ited thin films must meet many requirements. The film thickness must be uniform over a large number of wafers processed at one time. The structure and composition of thin films must be controlled and repro ducible. Therefore, it is necessary to understand all the variables in the reactor design of a dielectric or polysilicon film deposition. The modeling of reactors used for such depositions is discussed in detail. FALL 1987 The masking structures mentioned previously provide an introduction to the process of transferring patterns of geometric shapes on a mask to a thin layer of radiation-sensitive material covering the surface of a semiconductor wafer Ion implantation is investigated next and is one of the key processes we use to introduce controlled amounts of dopants into semiconductors. The specific goals that must be realized in this process are: the energetic charged atoms or molecules should be de posited in the exact quantity specified and to the cor rect depths below the surface; the deposit i on sho uld be limited to only the designated areas of the sub strate; when required, it should be possib l e to electri cally activate all the implanted impurities; as much as possible, the silicon (or other material) l attice str uc ture should be unchanged by the dopant incorporation process To meet these goals, a number of approaches are discussed. Models of the different aspects of ion implantation as well as adequate masking struct ur es against the implant are shown to play a key role in the overall process. The masking structures mentioned previous l y pro vide an introduction to the process of transferring pat terns of geometric shapes on a mask to a thin la yer of radiation-sensitive material (called resist) covering the surface of a semiconductor wafer. This process i s called lithography, and such patterns define the vari ous regions in an integrated circuit such as the contact windows, the implantation regions, and the bonding pad areas. The resist patterns defined by the litho graphic process are indicated to be only replicas of circuit features and not permanent elements of the final device. Math em atical modeling of some of the printing and engraving steps in a lithographic process is discussed in detail. To produce the circ uit features mentioned above, the resist patterns must be transferred once more into the underlyin g layer s compr i s ing the device. The pat tern transfer i s accomp li s h ed by an etching process which se lectiv ely removes unmasked portions of a layer Empha sis i s given to dry etching techniques that u se plasmas in the form of low-pressure gaseous discharge s The se techniques are used in VLSI pro cessing because of their potential for very high fidelity transfer of resist patterns. Modeling and process simulation of some dry etching methods are presented in depth It is important for the students to realize that selectivity and feature size control are key issues in any dry etching technique Oxidation, diffusion and metallization are dis171

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TABLE 2 Titles of Final Projects in Fall 1985, 1986 Molecular Beam Epitaxy Silicon on Insulators: A Focus on Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Solid Phase Epitaxy of Silicon Gettering GaAs Contacts: Theory and Practice Review of the Thermal Nitridation of Silicon A Comprehensive Study of Plasma Etching Technology Optical Resist Systems X-Ray Lithography: The Solution to Submicron Device De sig n? Resist Material Considerations for VLSI Edge Definition in Lithography Kinetics in the Vapor Phase Epitaxy of GaAs Alternatives at the UV Limit of Optical Lithography Recent Studies on the Kinetics of Epitaxial Silicon Growth X-Ray Lithography Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactors Chemical Vapor Deposition of II-VI Materials Low Temperature Deposition of Silicon Dioxide cussed briefly, either because chemical engineers are already familiar with some of the basic principles of these processes (e.g., oxidation, diffusion) or because many aspects of such processes have been previously covered (e g., metallization). Also, diagnostic tech niques and device and circuit fabrication are briefly discussed Some emphasis is given to isolation, self alignment, local oxidation, planarization, and getter ing. The last stage of this course is a final project that is mandatory for all graduate students (and optional for all undergraduates) who take the course. After choosing from a list of topics, each student works on his/her own project. Topics covered in the past two years are listed in Table 2. Within such a project, a student is expected to critically review any existing literature and to present his/her own (perhaps innova tive) ideas for improving or developing various pro cesses. REFERENCES 1. Ghandi, S. K., VLSI Fabrication Principl es, Wiley Int ersc ence, 198 3. 2. Sze, S. M., VLSI T ec hnology, McGraw-Hill 19 83 3 Sze S. M. Semiconductor D evices : Physics and Technology, Wil ey, 19 85. 4. Till W. C., and J T. Luxon, I nte grat ed Circuits: Materials, D evices and Fabricat ion, Prentice Hall, 1982 5. Wolf S., and R. N Tauber Silicon Processing for th e VLSI Era Lattice Press, 1986 6. Cu ll en, G. W ., and J. F. Carboy, "Reduced Pressure Silicon Epitaxy; A Review," J. Crystal Growth, 70, 230 (1984). 7 Arnaud D 'Av itaya, F., S. Delage, and E. Rosencher "Silicon 172 MBE: Recent Developments ," Surf Sci 168, 483 (1986). 8 Jastrzeb s ki L ., "S OI by CVD: Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth Process-Review," J Crystal Growth, 63, 493 (1983). 9. Jastrzebski, L., "Silicon on Insulators: Different Approaches: A Review, J Crystal Growth, 70, 253 (1984). 10. Klingman, K. J., and H. H. Lee, Design of Epitaxial CVD Reactors," J Crystal Growth, 72, 670 (1985). 11. Bloem J., Y. S. Oei, H. H. C. de Moor, J. H. L. Han sse n a nd L. J. Giling, "Ep itaxi a l Growth of Si licon by CVD in a Hot-Wall Furnace," J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1973 (1985). 12. Roenigk, K. F., and K. F. Jensen, "Analysis of Multicompo nent LPCVD Processes," J Electrochem. Soc., 132, 448 (1985). 13. Co ltrin M. E ., R. J Kee, and J. A Miller, "A Mathematical Model of the Coupled Fluid Mechanics and Chemical Kinetics in a CVD Reactor," J. Electrochem. Soc., 132, 425 (1984). 14 Bloem J., and L. J Giling, ''VLS I Electronics: Microstruc ture Science," Vol. 1 2, Chapter 3, 89 (1985), "Epitaxial Growth of Silicon by Chemical Vapor D epos ition ." 0 [eJ ;j I book reviews COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING FOR INJECTION MOLDING Edited by Ernest C. Bernhardt MacMillan Publishing, New York 10022, 1984 Reviewed by Donald G. Baird Virginia Polytechnic Institute This book is a collection of topics involving the ap plication of computers to the design and control of the injection molding process. Unfortunately, as noted by the editor, the chapters lack coordination and hence the book represents a collection of topics rather than a unified text. However it is one of the first attempts in the polymer field to develop a complete package starting with the ideas of hardware, process control techniques, the basic equations which are required to simulate injection molding, and the application of com puter simulation to solving injection molding prob lems. The book is divided into three sections, with the first section being entitled "State of the Technology." The first chapter in this section is rather general in nature and attempts to explain in qualitative terms how the computer is used in the design of injection molds. For example, it is illustrated how a mold de signer might use a computer simulation to predict where weld-lines would lie and how the location of cooling channels would change the temperature distri bution in a part. Certainly this information is useful, but it does not allow one to accomplish any quantita tive design work. The second chapter is also quite qualitative in nature as it describes melt flow in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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cavities. This chapter does emphasize the importance of fountain flow to the development of properties and the fact that the properties of a part are related to melt flow However, there are a number of topics, such as computer hardware and computer languages, which seem to be unconnected to the first part of the discussion and of such elementary level that they serve no practical purpose. For example, the distinc tion between mainframe computers and minicomput ers doesn't seem to be necessary. The third chapter is also of limited value as it attempts to explain how the mold designer might use computer aided design (CAD) but it never specifies what packages are avail able or gives examples as to how the mold designer could use CAD. Hence, in general, the first three chapters are so descriptive in nature that they serve very little practical purpose. Following these first three qualitative chapters comes Chapter Four which presents some of the basic equations which are required in the modeling of injec tion molding. Although this information is well pre sented and lends to the understanding of what equa tions must be solved, there is no connection between this chapter and the rest of the book. Furthermore, the author of the chapter does not explain how these equations are solved on the computer nor how they could be used in computer aided design. Finally, the material reflects mostly the author's view of simulat ing injection mold filling, and fountain flow is neg lected. Chapter Five is descriptive again and describes how the computer is used in process control. Control is all based on reading some process variable such as mold pressure which must be within some specified range based on previous experience in generating parts with acceptable physical properties. This ap proach relies on no real knowledge of the mold filling process. The failure to point out the limits of such an approach would be quite beneficial, but this is not done in the chapter. Chapters six through eleven constitute Part II of the book, which is entitled "Applications." Again, the chapters are not connected nor do they always fit within this heading. Chapter Six discusses how a part is designed through structural analysis, but there is no direct correlation back to mold design. The next chapter discusses (only in a very qualitative sense) mold design. Only one particular CAD / CAM system is de scr ibed. Chapter Eight is how an integrated ap proach for the design of an injection molded part should be implemented. Again, the chapter is very descriptive and one has no idea as to the limitations of the approach used by the authors. FALL 1987 POSITIONS AVAILABLE 1 !-if' ( EE :-. r eas onable r a tes to ad"ertise. l\'linimum ratt> 1 ..., pagf' $50; each additional column int h $20. VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE & STATE UNIVERSITY The Chemical Engineering Department at Virginia Tech is seeking applicants for a full time tenure track faculty position. Duties include teaching at undergraduate and graduate levels, establishing and conducting a funded re search program, and departmental service. Rank and salary commensurate with qualifications. Virginia Tech has approximately 20,000 undergraduates (5,000 in the College of Engineering, including 170 in Chemical En gineering) and 3,600 graduate students (1,200 in the Col lege of Engineering, including 50 in Chemical Engineer ing). Send resume and names of three references to Chairman, Departmental Search Committee, Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, 133 Randolph Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Deadline for applications is January 31, 1988. Vir ginia Tech hires only U.S. citizens and lawfully au thorized alien workers. Virginia Tech is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity employer. UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Chemical Engineering faculty position: A tenure track position is available for August, 1988, at the University of Florida. The rank and area are open. Applicants should submit a brief resume, a description of research objectives, and the names of three references to: Dr. H. H. Lee, Chairman of Search Committee, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gaines ville, FL 32611. The University of Florida is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer. In Chapter Nine, the Mold Flow program and its application to solving molding problems are discussed. This chapter is quite well done and does demonstrate how a simulation can be used to solve molding prob lems. Again, however, the limits of this program and the range of problems it can handle are not discussed. This chapter should have been placed near Chapter Four. Chapter Ten which is concerned with mold cooling, is also well-written, but should be grouped with Chapter Four. The last chapter in section II is concerned with data acquisition and control of the injection molding process. This chapter is of educational value as it ex Continued on pag e Z 18. 173

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A course in ... TRANSPORT PHENOMENA MARK J. McCREADY, DAVID T. LEIGHTON University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, IN 46556 I F THERE IS ONE subject in which the philosophy of undergraduate instruction at various institutions could be best described as diverse, it is transport phe nomena. Topics which fall under this heading may be found in courses titled as unit operations, fluid me chanics, heat and mass tansfer, or simply transport phenomena. The content of these courses is as varied as the titles are, with the resulting extremes being students who are either quite knowledgeable in the workings of various pieces of process equipment or who have a grasp of transport processes only on a microscopic level. Consequently, each student enter ing our graduate program has a different level of un derstanding of the basic principles governing the transport of heat, mass, and momentum as well as a diversity of the analytical skills which are necessary to solve these problems. The question becomes: How does one teach a single course sequence which all of these students will find interesting and challenging? At Notre Dame this is done by following a philosophy for a two semester graduate transport phe nomena course sequence which we suspect is similar to most other schools. The fundamental principles are explained and emphasized a number of times through out the course. The skills necessary to solve the re quisite differential equations are honed, and a signifi cant amount of time is spent discussing example prob lems which display both important physical situations and interesting solution techniques. The principal difference between our courses and those which we have encountered elsewhere is that we have designed the content and order of presenta tion so as to avoid placing undue hardships on students whose undergraduate education did not emphasize the formulation and solution of partial differential equa tions. This is done by saving most of the advanced mathematics for the second semester. The first course strongly stresses the pertinent physics and the correct way to approach an arbitrary new problem, be it micro or macroscopic. When stu dents learn some of the more powerful mathematical techniques for solving problems in heat and mass 174 Mark J. McCready joined the faculty ot Notre Dome os an assistant professor ofter receiving a BChE degree from the University of Delo wore and his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Illinois. His research interests lie in the area of fluid mechanics and transport prop erties of multiphase flows. Current topics include linear ond nonlinear wove phenomena. (L} David Leighton is on assistant professor in chemical engineering at the University of Notre Dome. After receiving his doctoral degree from Stanford University in 1985 he wos a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow in the Deportment of Applied Mathematics of the University of Cam bridge His research interests ot Notre Dome center on the study of the dynamic properties of sheared suspensions. (R) transfer in the second semester, they are able to explore problems involving greater mathematical complexity (such as Rayleigh-Benard convection and fluid flow past a heated sphere) without becoming overwhelmed. FLUID MECHANICS The subject of the "Transport Phenomena I" course, which is taught in the fall, is primarily fluid mechanics. In fact, given both of the instructors' re search interests, the course could be better titled "Fluid Mechanics." A quick survey of simple macro scopic problems is done so that students who spent their summer in Europe or spinning discs at local dance establishments can reorient themselves to course work. A homework problem set assigned the first class day includes both easy and difficult problems which are typically discussed in undergraduate courses. From the various complaints, it is possible to judge what topics must be reviewed. (It is interesting to note how many students have difficulty getting the Cop y 1 i gh t Ch E D ivision ASEE 19 87 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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correct number for pressure drop for turbulent flow in a smooth pipe.) Lectures begin with a discussion of the kinds of forces which are found in fluid flows and how to de scribe them mathematically. The stress and strain tensors are introduced along with transformations and index notation. The primary references for this mate rial are the texts by Whitaker [1] and Batchelor [2]. The boundary conditions which arise in various phys ical situations are then introduced. At this point it is possible to derive the mass and momentum conserva tion equations The derivation is done both by shell balance and by using the substantial derivative to con vert Newton's second law from a Lagrangian to an Eulerian framework. The conditions under which these equations reduce to the Navier-Stokes equa tions are examined The equations of motion are then used to solve problems in one or more dimensions, first for cases where exact solutions exist. Mathematical techniques such as separation of variables and special functions, which may be new to many students, are introduced in lectures and are used for homework problems. A quick survey of the kind of fluid flow problems which engineers with advanced degrees may need to solve during their career indicates that" not all of them should be approached from the microscopic view. Un fortunately, many students have gotten the idea that the macroscopic momentum equations are useful only to solve homework problems in undergraduate courses; they have the mistaken impression that all r e al problems will yield to a detailed analysis using the Na vier-Stokes equations In addition to not realiz ing whether differential or integral balances are ap propriate, their ability to successfully apply integral balances to other than one dimensional problems is generally limited. For this reason, lectures which deal with macro scopic problems are inserted at this point. Macro scopic balance equations are derived from the differ ential equations by the application of the divergence theorem and also by using integral averages of flows and forces on macroscopic control volumes A typical homework problem might be the derivation of Dress ler's equations for flow of a turbulent fluid in channel including the effects of air shear and surface tension. The mechanical "energy balance" is derived from the momentum balance for two reasons. The important concept of dissipation, which accounts for the missing energy, is introduced and the natural link between thermodynamics and fluid mechanics is developed. This link is further explored when the next sub ject, compressible flow, is discussed. Compressible FALL 1987 flows occur in numerous physical situations which chemical engineers may encounter, but they seldom receive much attention in courses. (Does the velocity of a gas really increase as it flows through a pipe? Why is the gas pump for my experiment not working at its rated flow rate?) When the macroscopic balance equation for total energy is derived and compared to the mechanical energy equation, the physical signifi cance of dissipation in terms of entropy becomes clear. The relation between entropy production and velocity gradients is discussed. The concept of sonic velocity and choking are also introduced. The focus of the course now shifts to follow what is more commonly taught in graduate transport courses-application of the Na vier-Stokes equations to problems where exact solutions do not exist. Creep ing flow is done first The important idea here is that various nonzero terms are neglected not simply be... we have designed the content and order of presentation so as to avoid placing undue hardships on students whose undergraduate education did not emphasize the formulation and solution of partial differential equations. cause they are small, but small in comparison to other terms. The physics of creeping flows is discussed in detail-what does it really mean to have no inertia? It is noted that velocity fields (solutions to Stokes' equations) are superimposable as a consequence of the linearity of the equations The solution to the zero Reynolds number equa tions is done for the sphere, and arguments leading to Stokes' paradox are investigated The Oseen solution is done and Whitehead's paradox is discussed. At this point the general idea of perturbation so lutions is in troduced and used to improve the solutions for rotat ing flows. In addition, the matched asymptotic solu tion for flow around a sphere is briefly outlined. The next topic, ideal fluid flow, commences with a description of the physical meaning of irrotationality and situations where it provides an accurate descrip tion The primary source of information for lectures on ideal fluids is gotten from the texts by Streeter [3] and Lamb [ 4). The velocity potential function is intro duced and used to show that LaPlace's equation gov erns these flows. This leads to the amazing realization that velocity fields are superimposable for ideal flows as a consequence of the absence of shear forces even though the underlying Na vier-Stokes equations are nonlinear. The solution of the problem for flow around a sphere leads to d' Alembert's paradox The idea of 175

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circulation is introduced and the application of ideal fluid theory to the calculation of lift for flow over vari ous bodies (including baseballs, golf balls, and sails) is discussed. The next topic is boundary layer theory, for which Schlichting's text [5] serves as an invaluable refer ence BLT is an especially rich subject to study in a graduate course because all of the many approxima tions which arise can be shown to follow as obvious consequences of Prandtl's observation that viscous and inertial forces balance near solid boundaries. To show the utility and validity of the various assump tions it is instructive to compare calculations of drag from solutions to the boundary layer equations with data to demonstrate that the approximations do in fact lead to good agreement. Tests, of which there are usually two in addition to a final, are designed so that students may be crea tive as well as display a basic level of understanding of the course material. Questions from the most recent semester included the locomotion of cephalopods flow over porous airplane wings, and wave propagation de scribed by an Orr-Sommerfeld equation On each test, problems which require either integral or differential balances are interspersed. This requires that students think about which approach is appropriate. After the first course, students are expected to ask the correct questions when confronted with a new problem. They should know how to examine the essential physics on an appropriate scale H E A T A ND MA S S TRAN S FE R In the spring, the topics switch to heat and mass transfer. Up to this point the time spent examining macroscopic problems and emphasizing the physics for each situation has limited the number of important analytical methods the students have been exposed to and which may be necessary for solving difficult de tailed problems that arise in their research. In the second semester the emphasis on physical principles is retained, but the problems discussed also serve to introduce the students to advanced mathematical techniques As in the first semester, the second semester be gins with the derivation of the transport equations this time energy transport---Only now the equations are derived using vector notation A detailed under standing of how the equation of energy works in vec tor form is built by asigning problems such as the derivation of the rate of entropy production. The text for this material (in addition to the texts used in the fir s t semester) is Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot [6]. 176 Einstein notation is also re-introduced at this point in the course (as it was not used extensively in the first semester), leading to a great simplification in the form of the transport equations. Following a conventional sequence, steady conduc tion in solids is reviewed, first assuming constant properties and then relaxing this restriction to include non-constant properties, introducing the student to regular perturbation methods. A supplemental text for perturbation methods is Van Dyke [7], which is further utilized when matched asymptotic expansions are discussed later in the course. The course now turns to the effects of convective energy transport, examining problems such as transpirational cooling and forced convection through a heated pipe. Rather than using a cookbook approach to the Graetz prob lem, the students are introduced to the formal theory of a Sturm-Liciuville eigenvalue problem Particular emphasis is placed on when to expect this type of sol ution and how to cast the problem into the Sturm Liouville form. Dimensional analysis is the next topic of discus sion. However, here we differ from the usual trans port class in that dimensional analysis is introduced in the context of the large field of similitude The refer ences for this material are the notes from a course on similitude taught by Van Dyke [8] which are distri buted to the class. Over one week is spent introducing the students to techniques for finding hidden sym metry in physical problems, first through the use of dimensional and inspectional analysis for the reduction of the number of independent parameters involved in a problem and then via more advanced techniques, such as coordinate stretching to achieve reductions in the number of independent variables upon which a problem depends. These techniques are illustrated by examples from both momentum and energy transport, such as the determination of the radius of a shock wave produced by an intense point explosion solved by G. I. Taylor [9], the velocity field of a submerged laminar jet, and such whimsical examples as the spread of a viscous thread of liquid flowing down an inclined plane. The concept of s elfs imilarity is put to immediate use in the next topic-that of unsteady conduction in solids. In addition to the standard semi infinite and finite slab prob l ems, a semi-infinite slab with a me l ing boundary is also discussed Students are asked to explain why such a problem with a step change in temperature at the edge of the slab admits a similarity solution, but such a solution for a constant heat flux does not exist. The course next turns to boundary layer theory CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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for forced convection past a heated, horizontal flat plate. This problem is solved in the limiting cases of large and small Prandtl numbers and then the plate is turned to the vertical for a discussion of free convec tion. For homework, st udents use the concept of self similarity to solve the analogous problem of a free convection laminar jet arising from a point source of energy. A general dimensional analysis of the free and forced convection transport equations is inserted at this point so that the students can develop an intuitive feel for the relative magnitude of the two transport mechanisms The study of free convection is continued by exami nation of the instability of a fluid heated from below. The Rayleigh-Benard stability problem for free-free boundaries is discussed in detail, the reference for this discussion being the text on hydrodynamic stability by Drazin and Reid [10]. The students' understanding of the principles of this mathematically complex phenomenon is reinforced by homework in which the stability conditions for problems analogous to the Rayleigh-Benard problem are worked out and also by assignments on a more cosmic scale in which the stu dents solve the Jeans problem for the gravitational collapse of a galactic sized gas cloud. At this point in the course we begin our discussion of singular perturbation theory, drawing heavily on the text by Van Dyke. First, we examine the classic problem of creeping flow past a heated sphere at small Peclet number solved by Taylor and Acrivos [11]. This problem serves to introduce the concept of a non-uni formly valid first approximation, and why a regular perturbation approach to such problems is doomed to failure. The students are shown how to overcome these difficulties via a matched asymptotic expansion approach which, in this problem, also introduces the student to special mathematical functions such as spherical harmonics and Legendre polynomials. Flow past a sphere is followed up by such problems as flow through a tube with an axial wire and unsteady con duction from an infinite cylinder. The method of re flections comes next, in which we emphasize the simi larity of this technique to the singular perturbation methods just discussed and which is used to determine the energy loss from a heated sphere in the vicinity of a plane. The analogous problem of a heated cylinder near a plane, which cannot be solved using perturba tion techniques, is also examined and solved using con formal mapping, adding yet another technique for ob taining solutions of the transport equations to the stu dents' arsenal. Brief discussions of turbulent and radiative trans port mechanisms complete the portion of the course FALL 1987 dealing with energy transport. Topics discussed here include Prandtl mixing length theory and transport correlations in turbulent systems, together with the concepts of isotropy, black and gray bodies, view fac tors an introduction to configurational algebra and spectral effects in radiative energy transport With three weeks remaining, the course turns to wards mass transport. The first two lectures are de voted to definitions, the description of mass transport in terms of Fick's Law, and derivation of the transport equations. Simple problems come next, such as the Stefan tube and diffusion with homogeneous or heterogeneous chemical reaction (the Thiele problem). Combined mass, momentum and energy transport in boundary layers is discussed in which the effect of mass transport on the evolution of the thermal and momentum boundary layers is examined. Students are also exposed to mass transport mechanisms not usually encountered in undergraduate courses such as pressure diffusion, forced diffusion (elec trophoresis), and the Soret effect. In a typical problem at this point, students are asked to analyze a Clusius Dickel column (a separations device which relies on the Soret effect), where they are required to deter mine what assumptions are necessary to obtain a sol ution. The last formal topic discussed in the course in volves the unsteady oneand two-dimensional diffu sion of a trace pollutant, focusing on problems such as the steady or unsteady discharge from a waste pipe into a stream. The similarity between pollutant con centration distributions resulting from the unsteady convective diffusion equation and a probability distri bution arising from stochastic differential equations is emphasized. The final two lectures are devoted to re search interests: one lecture by a professor whose re search is in the area of energy or mass transport, and one lecture by a student in the class working in the same area who by this time i s getting read y for the first year comprehen s ive oral examination. These last lectur es give the students some feel for the utility of the topics and techniques discussed during the semes ter in the solution of current graduate research prob lems. In conclusion, this course sequence is designed to meet the needs of students from diverse backgrounds who enter our graduate program. Students are first introduced to the governing physics without undue emphasi s on mathematical techniques. As their level of understanding increa ses and their problem solving approach becomes better refined, more sophisticated techniques are introduced. When students have com Continu e d on page 2 1 8. 177

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A course in ... NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WARREN D. SE IDER LYLE H. UNGAR University of Pennsylvan ia Philadelphia, PA 19104 D URING THE PAST three years we have provided our grad uate st udent s with a third, optional, course on the mathematics of nonlinear systems. The course follows two required courses that formalize the str ucture s of linear or vector, spaces and nonlin ear metric spaces leadin g to the so lution of partial differ e ntial equations. The se two co ur ses have been de scribed by Lauffenburger et al [1]. The nonlinear math course provides an opportu nity for the st udent s to examine the comp le x solution spaces that chemical engineers enco unt er in modeling many chemical processes, especially those in vo l ving reaction and diffusion, a utocatalytic reactions, phase equilibrium in the critical region, and multi staged op erat ions. Some of the s impl es t exot hermic reactions in CSTRs with heat transfer exhib it branches in their so lution diagrams that contain limit a nd bifurcation points, both steady-state and periodic, and trace out isolas as parameters are varied. For such systems, so luti on diagrams are calc ul ated to show the impor tance of characterizing the singular points and expres sing their normal forms and univ ersa l unfolding s so as to determine the number of steady state so lution s in their vicinity. Example s are se le cted to demonstrate steady sta te foci that bifurcate to tim e -periodic limit cycles which, in turn, und ergo secondary bifurcations that le ad to chaotic behavior, and even intermittent interchanges between periodic and chaotic modes of operat ion Experimental observat i ons of these phe nomena are reviewed to drive home the importance of developing models that have corresponding solutions. In many cases, the models hav e complex so lution dia grams that don't correspond to the experimental m eaThe nonlinear math course provides an opportunity for the students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter in modeling many chemical processes ... Copyright ChE Di visi on ASEE 19 87 178 Warren Seider is professor o f chemical engineering at P enn. He and his students concentrate on process design with an emphasis on operability and controllability More specif i cally, his research interests include the computation of chemical and phase equilibrium, heterogeneous ozeotropic distil l ation, supe r critical extraction, analysis of reaction systems, and heat and power integration of chemica l pro cesses He received his BS degree from the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and his PhD from the Uni ve r s ity of Michigan. H e served as the first chairman of CACHE and was elected a director of AIChE in 1983 ( L ) Lyle Ungar joined the faculty at P enn in 198 4 as assistant professor having received his BS degree at Stanford and his PhD at MIT His research interests include application of perturbation methods bifurca tion theory and finite element analysis to transport problems in con tinuum physics crystal growth and rapid so lidificat ion materials pro cessing. He is also applying artificol intelligence programming tech niques to process contro l problems. ( R ) s ur eme nt s and which emphasize the imp ortance of locating the solution that most closely matches the data Nonlinear phenomena, s uch as the formation of spatial and temporal patterns and chaotic behavior, arise naturally in many syste ms with fluid flow or c h emical reaction Combustion, natural and forced convection, biological systems with competing species, and catalytic reactions can a ll require non lin ear analysis. Nonlinearities can a l so be generated in the design of complex processes, such as those in tegrated to achieve a high thermodynamic efficiency, and can introduce oscillatory and chaotic regimes that can present pitfalls and obstacles to easy operation and control. The design of these processes usually be gins with the analysis of s imple structures using ap proximate models. Gradua ll y, as the synt h esis tree is CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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pruned, more complex models can be justified to rep resent the real phenomena more accurately. How ever the more complex models usually have a richer solution space and the number type (steady, periodic, or chaotic) and stability of the solutions varies with the specifications and the parameters of the model. In design calculations, as in all mathematical modeling, the student must learn to beware of algorithms that converge to solution s that are not ph ys ically correct. The seriousne s s of thi s problem in the design stage, when experimental data are not available is em phasized. Of course, when the solutions are observed experimentally, it is important to recognize the possi ble existence of multiple solutions and to design con trol systems to achieve the desired performance. This permits focusing on designs that have few regimes of operation; that is, less complex solution diagram s EVOLUTION OF THE COURSE The initial version of the course concentrated on the general aspects of bifurcation and singularity theories with examples of many applications that arise in chemical processing. Emphasi s wa s placed on the use of analytical perturbation method s to analyze non linear systems. A variety of techniques were covered for describing steady and oscillatory bifurcations and how they change as parameters are altered [18). No computations were carried out, so complete solution diagrams were obtained only for very simple prob lems. Continuum problems such as natural convection were studied at the end of the course, but only the onset of instability could be covered in the homework exercises This approach closely parallels that of Iooss and Joseph [3] in their text, El e m en ta ry Stab i l i ty a n d Bifurcat i on Theory, which was the principal reference in that initial offering. That text has several limita tions the most severe being the lack of physical exam ples and the lack of coverage of chaotic phenomena. A mixture of papers from the math, physics and en gineering literatures was therefore used as supple ments. In the most recent version of the course (Spring, 1987) empha s is was shifted more toward the process models and the methods of computing the singular points and the branches that connect them in solution diagrams. This was facilitated by improvements in available texts and software. Kubicek and Marek's [2] text, Computat i onal M e thods in B i fu r cation Th e ory and D i ss i pat ive Struct u r e s, provides a unified ap proach to the analysis of solution diagrams. Several process models are introduced in Chapter 1. Then as FALL 1987 In the most recent version of the course, emphasis was shifted more toward the process models and the methods of computing the singular points and the branches that connect them in solution diagrams the singular and bifurcation points are defined, exam ples are illustrated in the solution diagrams for these proce s s models General methods are presented to compute the singular and bifurcation points and the branches that connect them These are very helpful, but unfortunately many of the definit i ons are stated briefly and the figures and tables in whic h the resu lt s are presented are explained insufficiently. Many ques tions arise which can only be answered by computa tional experiments. To accomplish this, we initiall y introduced our own program for the continuation of steadys tate solutions [8] and placed some emphasis on the logic that enables it to traverse turning-points effectively Midway through the semester we ob tained a copy of the AUTO program [29] and this added immeasurably to the course. AUTO enab l ed us to perform computational experiments wit h ease and to answer many questions, especially those concerning branches of periodic solutions. These will be consi dered in the next section, in which the syllabus for the course is presented and the role of AUTO is described COURSE CONTENTS AND PHILOSOPHY A central aspect of the course as it has evo l ved is the integration of analytical and numerical techniques and their application to physical problems Analytical techniques and theorems provide a genera l framework for understanding how and when stability can change and new solution branches can arise Numerical calcu lations provide complete solution diagrams for specific physical problems. Interpreting these so lution dia grams in the contexts of both singularity theory and the physical problem from which they arise gives st dents a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena. The core of the course concentrates on the methods of analyzing what happens at and near different steady and time-periodic bifurcations (see Table 1 for a list of topics covered). To calculate bifurcations of nontrivial solutions one must generally turn to the computer Hence, major effort was devoted to numer ical techniques. All numerical techniques essent i a ll y grow out of analytical perturbation techniques. When using Newton's method the linearized equations are present and so one can, for example, monitor the de terminant to find steady bifurcations a nd check for changes in stability without calculat in g the eigen179

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values. The implicit function theorem guarantees that stability can only change when the determinant van ishes; arc-length continuation around limit points [5] naturally grows out of the classification of limit points and steady bifurcation points, and Poincare maps pro vide the basis for calculating time-periodic solutions. The latter can be difficult to compute, especially when the branches of limit cycles are unstable. Hence, the Newton-Fox procedure for locating a point on the limit cycles is described, following the approach of Aluko and Chang [27]. Stability analysis of the Monod romy matrix, according to the Floquet Theory, and the methods of continuation to locate secondary bifur cations lead naturally to studies of the transitions to chaos. We have tried to integrate smoothly the three dif ferent aspects of the course: analytical methods, num erical methods, and physical insight. The general theory is illustrated throughout with examples, and relevant computational techniques such as homotopy methods are covered as they are used. For example, we have used the Belousov Zhabotinskii reaction system as an example of steady and time-dependent bifurcations and of chaotic be havior. This relatively simple set ofreactions has been TABLE 1 Course Topics BACKGROUND Implicit function theorem Stability theory STEADY BIFURCATIONS Single and multiple limit points Continuation methods Liapunov-Schmidt reduction Effect of a second parameter Perturbed and "broken" bifurcations Singularity theory Normal forms, unfoldings Representation of energy for conservative sytems TIME DEPENDENT BIFURCATIONS Floquet theory Hopf bifurcations Integration of stiff ODEs Secondary bifurcations CHAOTIC BEHAVIOR 180 Transitions to chaos Period doubling Incomensurate frequencies Intermittency Characterization of chaos Power spectra Poincare sections and maps Liapunov exponents observed to produce a bewildering variety of spatial and temporal patterns, and has been widely studied as a simple prototype for many reaction-diffusion sys tems. These have been summarized nicely in a review article by Epstein [ 41] that illustrates the regimes of periodic behavior with beautiful color photographs of the oscillations in a stirred beaker and in a Petri dish with diffusion effects In our coverage, the initial kinetic model of Field and Noyes [33] was presented and mass balances were derived for the three principal intermediates, HBr0 2 Brand Ce + : dyl dt = 77.27 (y 2 y 1 y 2 + y 1 ky 1 2 ) whose dimensionless concentrations are Yi, y 2 and y 3 respectively. For this mechanism, which assumes the autocatalytic formation of HBr0 2 the rate con stant k is a key parameter Steady-state continuation calculations show that as k is decreased, the L 2 -norm of y increases, as illustrated in Figure 1. At k = 0.02394, a Hopf bifurcation point is encountered. The steady-state branch becomes unstable and a new branch is born. Early in the course, the students com puted Figure 1 using our continuation program and located the Hopf bifurcation point by computing the eigenvalues of the Jacobian along the steady-state i::i:: 0 ;,;: .. .r ui (\ J ci N ui 0 Hopf bifurcation point ui "71TTTITTITTTnTITTTTTITTmTilTITTT1TTTT1TTTTTTTTrnITTTTTTTT]Tmm1TTTTTTTTTTTj 0 01 o 02 0 0 3 o. 04 0.05 k FIGURE 1. Steady and time-periodic branches for the Belousov reaction system (TP-time periodic, 55steady-state). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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branch. Then, with the LSODE program, they plotted the limit cycles in the time-domain (see Figure 2), and showed the decrease in the frequency of oscillation as k decreases. Finally, the AUTO program performed these calculations with much less preparation and traced the periodic branch in more detail, showing the variation of the frequency with k. This analysis led naturally to several papers that show how chaotic be havior arises in CSTRs and introduces alterations in the model to track these strange attractors [38, 39, 40]. As expected, computational experiments by the students with the AUTO program were unable to track the strange attractors, but success was achieved with LSODE. These results are displayed in the phase-plane of Figure 3, which closely resembles the results illustrated by Epstein and others. The AUTO program was a great aid in enabling students to calculate solution structures and to get a feel for how nonlinear systems behave. AUTO is a collection of FORTRAN routines whose primary pur""o ~---------------~ ..., "' 0 r') 'o \b r n 'o r o l OO 200. 300. 400. 500. 600. t, sec. FIGURE 2. Dynamic simulation of Belousov reaction sys tem with k=B.375 x 1()-~. pose i s to compute the branches of stable or unstable periodic solutions of systems of ODEs that are func tions of a free (bifurcation) parameter. AUTO also de termines the branches of steady-state solutions, lo cates limit and real bifurcation points along solution branches, and can switch branches at these points. It can also locate limit points and curves of Hopf bifurca tion points using two-parameter, continuation methods. A tape containing the AUTO routines was installed on our VAX computer, under the VMS operating system, in less than two hours. Of special note is that AUTO is currently limited to small ODE FALL 1987 1 I D r b j r l"1 'o ..., r ... 'o 1 c,-a Y3 FIGURE 3. Phase-plane for Belousov reaction system. Turner model with -r=0.2962. systems (up to twelve state variables). Computations of steady branches normally proceed very rapidly, whereas time-periodic branches can be slow to com pute, especially when they are unstable. At the end of the course, the students studied ar ticles on either analytical or numerical techniques or on specific systems that exhibit interesting nonlinear behavior and made presentations to the class. A list of project areas and references is given in Table 2. In the initial version of the course emphasis was placed on classic papers describing the effect of container shape on the onset of natural convection, pattern for mation due to competing biological species (predator prey systems with similarities to the Belousov Zhabotinskii system) and different transitions to tur bulence in forced convection. Several mechanical en gineering students enrolled in the course studied bifurcation-based descriptions of buckling. In 1987, the papers focused on chemical processes that exhibit complex solution diagrams, usually with transitions to chaos. Several of these papers present the latest re sults of studies of systems that naturally exhibit cha otic behavior or become chaotic under the influence of forced oscillations. CONCLUSIONS Nonlinear phenomena are ubiquitous. They have received little attention largely because the required mathematics is less well-developed and harder to com prehend than for linear systems. Bifurcation and sing ularity theory provide a framework for classifying and understanding nonlinear phenomena. They follow 181

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very easily from a linear operator approach and pro vide a dramatic demonstration of the constructive use of Fredholm's alternative. This has enabled us to suc cessfully touch on bifurcation theory in the last days of the prior required portion of our graduate math sequence. When bifurcation techniques are im plemented in a computer package such as AUTO, they also provide a means of mapping out solution struc tures. Students can obtain an intuitive understanding of nonlinear phenomena by examining the solutions to physical problems. With the right software, they can also generate these solutions themselves and prepare an array of twoand three-dimensional drawings that permit more thorough analysis and visualization than is possible with the few drawings that typically accom pany technical articles and books. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The assistance of Soemantri Widagdo, Stevens In stitute of Technology, in the preparation of the class notes and homework problems, and in the installation of the AUTO program, is very much appreciated. Prof. Robert A. Brown, M I.T., taught Lyle Ungar his first course in nonlinear systems in chemical en gineering and strongly influenced his view of the field. LITERATURE CITED 1. Lauffenburger, D. A., E. Dussan V., and L. H. Ungar, "Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering ," Chem. Engr Educ., 1984. General 2. Kubicek, M., and M. Marek, Computational Methods in Bifurcation Th eory and D issipative Structures, Springer-Ver lag, 1983 3. Ioos s, G., and D. D Joseph, Elementary Stability and Bifur cation Theory, Springer-Verlag, 1980. 4. Guckenheimer, J., and P. Holmes, Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynam ica l Sy stems, and Bifurcations of Vector Fields, Appl. Math Sci. 42, Springer-Verlag, 1983 Steady-state Continuation 5. Keller, H B., Numerical Solution of Bifurcation and Non linear Eigenvalue Problems, Academic Press, New York, 1977 6. Allgower E., and K. Georg, "Simplicial and Continuation Methods for Approximating Fixed Points and Solutions to Sys tems of Equations, SIAM R eview, 22, 1 28-85 (1980) 7. Wayburn, T. L., and J. D. Seader, "Solution of Systems of Interlinked Distillation Columns by Differential Homotopy Continuation Methods, Foundations of Computer-aided Chemical Pro cess D esign, eds., A. W. Westerberg and H. H. Chien, CACHE, 1984. 8. Kovach, III, J. W., H etero g eneous Azeotropic D istillationr-An Experimental and Theoretical Study, PhD Dissertation, Univ. of Penn ., 1986. 9. Kubicek, M., "Algorithm 502: Dependence of Solution of Non linear Systems on a Paramet er," ACM Trans. of Math Soft., 2, 98 (1976). 182 TABLE 2 Sample of Articles Reviewed EARLIER ARTICLES AUTHOR TITLE (Reference No.) Hall, Walton Benard Convection in a Finite Box: Secondary and Imperfect bifurca tions (42) Keener Oscillatory Coexistence in the Chemostat: A Codimension Two Unfolding (43) Segel Mathematical Models in Molecular and Cellular Biology (44) Eckmann Roads to Turbulence in Dissipative Dynamical Systems (55) Thompson, Hunt A General Theory of Elastic Stabil ity (45) Triantafyllidis, Tvergaard On the Development of Shear Bands in Pure Bending (46) FOCUS ON CHAOTIC BEHA VIOR-1987 Kahlert, Rossler, Varma Mankin, Hudson Mankin, Hudson Kim, Hlavacek Nandapurkar, Hlavacek, Van Rompay Chang, Chen Chaos in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Two Consecu tive First-order Reactions: One Exo, One Endothermic (50) Oscillatory and Chaotic Behavior of a Forced Exothermic Chemical Reaction (51) The Dynamics of Coupled Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (52) On the Detailed Dynamics of Coupled Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (32) Chaotic Behavior of a Diffusion Reaction System (53) Bifurcation Characteristics of Nonlinear Systems Under Conven tional PID Control (54) 10 Kubicek, M ., H. Hofmann, V. Hlavacek, andJ. Sinkule, "Mul tiplicity and Stability in a Sequence of Two Nonadiabatic Nonisothermal CSTRs," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 987 (1980). 11. Kubicek, M., and A. Klic, Direction of Branches Bifurcating at a Bifurcation Point. Determination of Starting Points for a Continuation Algorithm," Appl. Math. Comp 13, 125 (1983). 12. Kubicek M., I. Stuchl, and M. Marek, "Iso l as in Solution Di a grams," J. Comp Phys., 48, 106 (1982). Singularity Theory 13. Golubitsky, M., and D G. Schaefer, Singularities and Groups in Bifurcation Th eory, Volume 1, Springer-Verlag, 1985. 14. Balakotaiah, V., Structure of the Steady-state Solutions of L umped -param eter Chemically R eacting Systems, PhD The s is, Univ. of Hou ston, 1982 15 Balakotaiah, V., and D. Luss, "Structure of Steady-state Sol utions of Lumped Parameter Chemically Reacting Systems," Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 11, 1611 (1982). 16. Balakotaiah, V., and D. Luss, "Dependence of the Steady states of a CSTR on the Residence Time ," Chem. Eng Sci., 38, 10, 1709 (1983). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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17. Balakotaiah, V., D. Luss, and B L Keyfitz, "Steady-state Multiplicity Analysis of Lumped Parameter Systems De scribed by a Set of Algebraic Equations," Chem. Eng Comm ., 36, 121 (1985). 18 Matkowsky, B. J ., and E. L. Reiss, "Singular Perturbations of Bifurcations," J. Appl. Math, 33, 230 (1977). Complex Bifurcation 19. Holodniok, M., and M. Kubicek, "New Algorithms for the Evaluation of Complex Bifurcation Points in Ordinary Differ ential Equations. A Comparative Numerical Study," Appl Math. Comp., 15, 261 (1984). 20. Hassard, B. D N. D. Kazarinoff, and Y.-H. Wan, Th eory and Application of Hopf Bifurcation, Cambridge U. Press, Lee. Note Ser. 41, 1981. Dynamic Simulation 21. Carnahan, B., and J 0. Wilkes, "Numerical Solution of Differ ential Equations-An Overview," in Foundations of Com puter-aided Chemical Proces s D esign, eds., R S. H Mah and W. D Seider, AIChE, 1981. 22. Hindmarsh, A. C., "LSODE and LSODI, Two New Initial Value Ordinary Differential Equation Solvers," ACM-Signum Newsletter, 15 4, 10 (1980) 23. Hlavacek, V ., M. Kubicek, and K. Visnak "Modeling of Chem ical Reactors-XXVI. Multiplicity and Stability Analysis of a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Exothermic Consecu tive Reactions A B C," Chem. Eng. Sci 27, 719 (1972). 24. Uppal, A., W. H Ray, and A. B Poore, "On the Dynamic Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors," Chem Eng. Sci., 29, 967 (1974). 25. Uppal, A., W. H. Ray, and A B. Poore, "The Classification of the Dynamic Behavior of Continuous Stirred Tank Reac tors-Influence of Reactor Residence Time," Chem. Eng. Sci., 31, 205 (1976). 26. Halbe, D. C., and A. B. Poore, "Dynamics of the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Reactions A B C," Chem. Eng. J., 21, 241 (1981) Time-periodic Continuation 27. Aluko, M., and H.-C. Chang, "PEFLOQ: An Algorithm for the Bifurcational Analysis of Periodic Solutions of Autonomous Systems," Comp. Chem. Eng., 8, 6, 355 (1984). 28 Holodniok, M ., and M. Kubicek, DERPER-An Algorithm for the Continuation of Periodic Solutions in Ordinary Differ ential Equations," J. Comp. Phy s ., 55, 254 (1984) 29. Doede!, E J. AUTO: SoftwareforContinuationandBifurca tion Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations, Comp. Sci. Dept., Concordia Univ., Montreal, 1986 30. Doede! E J ., and R F. Heinemann, "Numerical Computation of Periodic Solution Branches and Oscillatory Dynamics of the Stirred Tank Reactor with A B C Reactions." Chem. Eng. Sci., 38, 9, 1493 (1983). 31. Keller, H. B., Numerical M et hod s for Two-point Boundary Value Problems, Blaisdell, 1968 32. Kim, S. H., and V. Hlavacek, On the Detailed Dynamics of Coupled Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors ," Chem. Eng. Sci 41, 11 2767 (1986) Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction System 33. Field, R. J., and R. M. Noyes, Oscillations in Chemical Sys tems. IV Limit Cycle Behavior in A Model of a Real Chemical Reaction," J. Chem Phys., 60, 5, 1877 (1974). 34. Hudson, J. L. M Hart, and D. Marinko, "An Experimental Study of Multiple Peak Periodic and Nonperiodic Oscillations FALL 1987 35. 36. 37. 38. in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction," J. Chem Phys., 71, 4, 1601 (1979). Roux, J.-C., R. H Simoyi, and H. L. Swinney, "Observation of a Strange Attractor," Phys ica B D 257 (1983). Simoyi, R H ., A Wolf, and H L. Swinney, "One-Dimensional Dynamics in a Multicomponent Chemical Reaction," Phys. R ev L ett ., 49, 4, 245 (1982). Roux, J.-C "Experimental Studies of Bifurcations Leading to Chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction," Physica 7D, 57 (1983). Turn e r J. S J -C Roux, W. D. McCormick, and H. L. Swin ney. "Alternating Periodic and Chaotic Regimes in a Chemical Reaction-Experiment and Theory, Phys L ett., 85A, 1, 9 (1981) 39. Field, R. J., "Limit Cycle Oscillation in the Reversible Oregonator." J. Chem. Phys., 63, 6, 2289 (1975). 40. Tomita, K., and I. Tsuda, "Chaos in the Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction in a Flow System," Phys L ett., 71A, 5/6, 489 (1979). 41. Epstein I. R., "Patterns in Time and Space-Generated by Chemistry C&EN, 24, Mar. 30, 1987. Steady and Oscillatory Bifurcation Examples 42. Hall P ., and I. C Walton, "Benard Convection in a Finite Box : Secondary and Imperfect Bifurcations ," J. Fl uid Mech., 90, 37 7-395, 1979. 43 Keener, J. P., "Oscillatory Coexistence in the Chemostat: A Codimension Two Unfolding." SIAM J Appl Math 43, 1005 (1983). 44. Segel, L. A. (ed.), Math ema tical Mod e ls in Molecular and Cellular Biology, Cambridge University Press, 1980. 45 Thompson, J M T. and G. W Hunt, A General Theory of Elast ic Stab i l ity, 29, Wiley, 1973. 46. Triantafyllidis, N ., and V. Tvergaard, "On the Development of Shear Bands in Pure Bending," Int J. Solids Struct., 18, 121-138 (1982) Transition to Chaos 47. Kadanoff L. P. "Roads to Chaos," Phy s Today 46, Dec., 1983. 48. Feigenbaum, M. J., "Tests of the Period-Doubling Route to Chaos," in Nonlinear Ph enomena in Chemical Dynamics, eds. C. Vidal and A. Pacault, Springer-Verlag, 1981. 49. Packard, N. H., J. P. Crutchfield, J D. Farmer, and R. S. Shaw, "Geometry from a Time Series." Phys. R ev. L ett., 45, 9, 712 (1980 ). 50. Kahlert, C., 0. E. Rossler, and A. Varma, "Chaos in a Con tinuous Stirred Tank Reactor with Two Consecutive First order Reactions: One Exo, One Endothermic." in Mod e ling Chemical R eac tion Systems, eds., K. Ebert and W. Jaeger Springer, 1981. 51. Mankin, J C., and J L. Hudson, "Oscillatory and Chaotic Behavior of a Forced Exothermic Chemical Reaction," Chem. E ng Sci., 39, 12, 1807 (1984). 52 Mankin, J. C., and J L. Hudson, "The Dynamics of Coupled Nonisothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors ," Chem Eng Sci., 41, 10, 2651 (1986). 53. Nandapurkar, P J ., V Hlavacek, and P Van Rompay, "C ha otic Behavior of a Diffusion-Reaction System," Chem. Eng. Sci., 41, 11, 2747 (1986) 54. Chang, H -C. and L.-H. Chen, "Bifurcation Characteristics of Nonlinear Systems Under Conventional PID Control," Chem Eng. Sci., 39, 7 / 8, 1127 (1984). 55. Eckmann, J.-P. "Roads to Turbulence in Dissipative Dynam ical Systems," R ev. Mod Phys., 53, 4, Pt. 1, 643-654 (1981). 183

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A course in ... POLYMERIZATION REACTOR ENGINEERING J. MICHAEL SKAATES Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 M I CHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL University, to gether with the Michigan Molecular Institute (MMI) and Central Michigan University, has formed the Michigan Polymer Consortium to provide graduate degree programs and collaborative research in polymer science and technology. Michigan Tech brings to the consortium the particular strengths of a combined Department of Chemistry and Chemical En gineering, conducive to interdisciplinary research, and an extensive research program in polymer com posite materials. In support of the polymer research program the department of chemistry and chemical engineering at Michigan Tech has structured a series of elective courses, open to graduate students and qualified seniors, grouped in four blocks (see Table 1). Although the blocks stand by themselves and can be taken in any order, students are advised to traverse the se quence in the direction shown. J.M. Skaates recei ved his BSc (1957) at Case In stitute af Technology and his MS (1958) and PhD (1961) at Ohio State University H e worked at California Research Corporation for three years before joining the faculty at Michigan Tech His teaching duties have included under graduate and graduate courses in thermodynamics and kinetics an undergraduate course in process control, and graduate courses in catalysis and in process optimization. H e has been involved in research in cata ly sis, biomass pyrolysis, and wet oxidation Copy,ight ChE Divisio n ASEE 1987 184 TABLE 1 Sequence of Polymer Courses Polymer Polymerization Chemistry Reactor Polymer Co mposit e Forming Materials Design Operations Polymer Design a nd Rheology Compou nding synt h esis operation of a nd Polymer polymerization Extrusion m echanical propertie s re actors Molding properties of etc. composites (five courses) CM490 (three courses) (co urses in materials science and solid mechanics} The polymerization reactor engineering course (CM 490) has as its focus the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molcular weight distri bution. Topics covered in the ten-week course are shown in Table 2. For the benefit of students who have not taken the polymer chemistry courses, the mechanisms and kinetics of polymerization reactions TABLE 2 Topics Covered in CM490 Kinetics of condensation polymerization Design of condensation polymerization reactors Design of agitated thin-film evaporators Kinetics of addition polymerization Mechanism of free-radical addition polymerization Autoacceleration Predicting molecular weight distribution in addition polymerization Generating function method Moment generating function Z transform methods The continuous variable technique Gel permeation chromatography Copolymerization kinetics Types of polymerization reactors Control and stability of addition polymerization reactors Optimization of polymerization reactors Flowsheets for the production of polystyrene Flowsheets for the production of polyethylene CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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are treated first. From the many available textbooks emphasizing different aspects of polymer science, the text by Rudin [1) was chosen because of its outstand ing treatment of polymerization kinetics Polymerization reactor design and operation are taught with the aid of a series of literature articles (Table 3). These were selected to illustrate the de velopment of experimental technique and soph i stica tion of modeling during the past two decades. These papers are assigned, in the order shown, at the rate of two or three per week. Students must answer a series of written questions on each paper and these homework assignments constitute 20% of the course grade. Discussion of the papers, led by student volun teers, is carried out at the weekly recitation session TABLE 3 Assigned Outside Readings 1. Duerksen, J. H., A F. Hamielec and J. W. Hodgins "Polymer Reactors and Molecular Weight Distribution: Part I. Free Radical Polymerization in a Cont inuou s Stined Tank Reactor," AIChE J 1 3, 1081 ( 1967 ) 2. Hamielec, A. F., J. W. Hodgin s, and K. Tebbens, Polym e r Reactors and Molecular Weight Distribution: Part II Free Radical Polymerization in a Batch Reactor," AIChE J 1 3, 10 87 (1967) 3. Albright, L ., and C. G. Bild, "Designing Reaction Vessels for Polymerization," Chem. Eng., Sept. 15 1975, 121-128 4. Gerrens, Heinz "How to Select Polymerization Reactors," Part 1 : C HEMTECH June 1982 380-383, Part 2: CHEM TECH, July, 1982, 434-443 5. King, P. E., and J M. Skaates, "Two-Position Control of a Batch Prepolymerization Reactor," !&EC Process D es. and Dev. 8, 114 (1969) 6. Wallis J P. A ., R. A Ritter, and H. Andre, "Co ntinuous Production of Polystyrene in a Tubular Reactor," Part I: AIChE J 2 1, 686-691 (1975), Part II : AIChE J 2 1, 691-698 (1975) 7. C hen C.H J. G. Verme yc huk J. A. Howell, and P. Ehrlich "Comp uter Model for Tubular High-Pr essure Polyethylene Reactors," AIChE J 22, 463 (1976) 8 Marini, L., and C. Georgakis, "Low -Density Polyethylene Vessel Reactors: Part I: Steady-State and Dynamic Modeling, Part II: A Novel Controller AIChE J 30, 401-415 (1984) 9. Henderson, L S "Stability Analysis of Polymerization in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors ," Chem. Eng. Prag ., March, 1987, 42 50 10 Mutsakis, M ., F. A. Streiff, and E. Schneider, "Advances in Static Mixing Technology ," Chem. Eng. Prag., July, 1986, 4248 11. C hoi, K-Y and W. Harmon Ray, "The Dynamic Behavior of Fluidized Bed Reactors for Solid Catalyzed Gas Phase Olefin Polymerization ," Chem. E ng. Sci 40, 2261-2279 (1985) FALL 1987 In support of the polymer research program, the department of chemistry and chemical engineering at Michigan Tech has structured a series of elective courses open to graduate students and qualified seniors, grouped in four blocks. The study of reactor modeling centers largely around the work of the two leading research groups in the field-those of W. Harmon Ray at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and of A. Hamielec at McMaster University. Two weeks of the course are devoted to the dif ficult problem of predicting the molecular weight dis tribution in a free-radical addition polymerization. The topic begins with a discussion of the possibility of di rect solution of all the rate equations, as exemplified by the monumental paper of Liu and Amundson [2]. Attention is then directed to mathematical techniques for compressing these equations using generating functions or the z transform. It is emphasized that limiting assumptions are often required to make these techniques computationally feasible. Finally, the con tinuous variable technique, pioneered by Zeman and Amundson [3], is presented as the logical successor to the other methods. A twenty-page handout tracing the important mathematical ideas in Zeman's thesis is given to the students. It is shown that Zeman's idea of replacing the discrete variables by continuous vari ables has been successfully applied to other fields (size reduction, crystallization, aerosol physics) where de tailed population balances are required to understand observed rate behavior. Industrial practice in polymerization reactor de sign is introduced with the excellent review articles of Albright and Bild, and Gerrens. These are supple mented by a series of overhead transparencies show ing polymerization reactors in industrial installations. Auxiliary equipment (agitated thin film evaporators, motionless mixers vented extruders) used to com plete the polymerization and remove unreacted monomer, is also described. The course closes with the study of flowsheets for two important families of polymers (polystyrene, polyethylene), starting with monomer synthesis and purification, and going to the various grades of finished polymer REFERENCES 1. Rudin, Alfred, The Elem en ts of Polymer Science and En gineering, Academic Press, 1982 2. Liu S.-1., and N. R. Amundson, Rubb er Chem. and T echno ogy 34, 995 (1961). 3. Zeman, Ronald J., "Co ntinuous Polymerization Models" Th esis, U. of Minne sota, 1964 D 185

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Research on . ADVANCED ENGINEERING FIBERS DAN D. EDIE, MICHAEL G. DUNHAM Clemson University Clemson, SC 29634 -0909 A NEW GENERATION of composite materials is rev olutionizing today's aircraft a nd automotive in dustries [1]. In applications ranging from the globe circling Voyager aircraft to truck drive shafts, com posites are demonstrating properties which are superior to traditional materials. In aircraft applica tions where weight, strength, and stiffness are criti cal, many structural components are now made using graphite/epoxy composites. Looking ahead, approxi mately half of the structural weight of the Air Force's advanced tactical fighter will be composite materials. Composites of glass and carbon fibers surrounded by epoxy and polyester are being increasingly utilized in Dan D. Edie is professor of c hemical engi neering ond co-director of the Advanced En ginee ring Fiber s Laboratory at Clemson Uni ve r s it y H e received his BS degree from Ohio University and his PhD degree from the University of Virginia. B efore joining Clemson he was employed by NASA and the Celanese Corporotion. Hi s research interest s include rh eology, polymer processing, high-performance fibers and composite materials. (L) Michael G Dunham, a PhD student in chemical engineering at C l emson Uni versity, received his BS degree from Clemson in 1980. Prior to returning to pursue on advanced degree, he served in a variety of technical and supervisory positions with the DuPont Company In his research he is using mathematical modeling to study the stabiliza ti on and carbonization of carbon fiber s. (R) 186 automobile structure applications. Although U.S. auto production in 1986 fell 3 7% from the 1985 level, com posites shipments to the industry rose 3.0%, reaching 585 million pounds [2]. The high-temperature strength and stability of fiber reinforced cerainics offer the promise of more fuel efficient engines in tomorrow's automobiles. In the future, plastics, metals and ceramics reinforced with graphite, glass, aramid, and other fibers will replace much of the metal in aircraft and automobile structures. In a composite, a structure of fibers provides strength and stiffness, and these fibers are held to gether by a matrix material. The result is that the properties of a composite material can be exactly tail ored to fit the structure. For example, if one end of the structure is under a higher load, more fibers (or higher strength fibers) can be added to that end of the composite structural member. A composite for use at moderate temperatures normally consists of high-strength carbon or polymeric fibers encased in a plastic matrix. Higher temperature applications may require either carbon or ceramic fibers to be embedded in a metal, ceramic, or carbon matrix. The fiber and matrix are carefully selected to provide the best composite properties for the particular application. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING'S ROLE Composite materials represent a major growth market for the chemical industry. In the future, chem ical companies, rather than metal producers, will be the major raw material suppliers for the automotive and aircraft industries. Even commercial building and highway construction may utilize significant amounts of composite materials Since the processing, develop ment, and production of polymers has been an impor tant part of chemical engineering for the last thirty years, research into the new high-strength fibers and matrix polymers is a natural extension. New research and development cha llenge s in the fibers area include Co py ri ght ChE D ivision ASEE 1 987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Composite materials represent a major growth market for the chemical industry. I~ the fut_ure, chemical comp~nies, rather than metal producers, will be the major raw material suppliers for the automotive and aircraft industries. Even commercial building and highway construction may utilize significant amounts of composite materials. Continually upgrading manufacturing processes for the fi. hers to improve properties and to reduce cost. Chemical engineers in industrial research have recently de v eloped new processes to produce the precursors for many types of ceramic carbon, and graphite fibers. A number of new high-performance fibers have been de veloped which are made from polymers as complex as polybenzimidizole and as simple as polyethylene. Chemical engineers must develop and design processes to produce these fibers on an economic commercial basi s The polymer matrix material s a re undergoing dramatic improvements. New polymers designed for improved toughness, temperatur e s tability, and melt proce s sability are being developed by a number of firms. Chemical engineers will be principally responsi ble for developing the processes used to produce and utilize these polymers. Another major role for chemical engineer s involves the fabrication of the composites themselves. Toda y, most advanced composites are made by manually lay ing up layers of matrix coated fibers or by winding the fibers into the desired s hape. The s e expensive, labor intensive processes limit end uses to very high value in-use applications. The application of chemical en gineering principles to the development of automated processes for these fibers, such as weaving, braiding, or the production of non-woven fabric s, will dramati cally lower the cost of these materials. These auto mated processes require that future reinforcing fiber s be less brittle and have improved finish coatings. Other processes such as thermoforming, injection molding, and pultrusion are also being explored by chemical engineers in order to automate composite manufacturing. CLEMSON'S ADVANCED ENGINEERING FIBERS LABORATORY To address these challenges, Clemson established the Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory in Au gust of 1986. The laboratory 's purpose is to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advanced fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Since the problems encountered are often too complex to be solved by a single academic program, the contribution of each of the fields involved in the laboratory i s critical. ReFALL 1987 FIBER S PINN I NG FIBE R C H A RA CTE R IZA TI ON Thi es, Mullin s (Che mi cal E.) Llcldi e ld Drcws (Textiles} Lee (Ceramic E .) Edie (Che mical E.) Fain (Cera mi c E.) Ellison J arvi s (f e xti \ es ) COMPOSITE CHARACTERIZA TI ON Kennedy, Goree, Rack (McchanicaJ E.) Ogale (Che mical E. J R ES IN C HEMISTR Y & COMPOSITE F ABRJ CA TI O N Drews, Licldic l d (Textiles) Ogalc, Edie (Oiemical E .} FIGURE 1. Advanced Engineering Fibers Laboratory areas of emphasis. Faculty from four academic depart ments participate in this unique research effort. searchers in chemical engineering, textile science, polymer chemistry, mechanical engineering, and ceramic engineering all interact in laboratory research projects The laboratory also offers technical and edu cational support to the fiber te x tile, and composite materials industries. Many universities s tudy composite materials. However, this research effort has typically focused on the analysi s fabrication and mechanical evaluation of the composite. Clemson's Advanced Engineering Fi bers Laboratory is unique in that its efforts are di rected toward the high performance fibers and matrix polymers so critical to composite materials. Research on these fibers the matrix polymers, and their fabri cation into textile structures using automated equip ment is being coordinated by the laboratory. The lab oratory conducts research in s ix primary emphasis area s The chemistry of engineering fiber precursors Fiber formation and processing Characterization of engineering fibers Fabrication of three-dimensional textile structures Composite material characterization Process economics and information transfer. Figure 1 lists the faculty who are participating in 187

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ongoing laboratory projects. It also indicates the in terrelationship of the various research areas For example improvements in fiber formation processes require an understanding of precursor chemistry, an ability to characterize the resulting fibers the fabrica tion and testing of the fibers in composites, and the assessment of the process economics. This gives the laboratory the unique ability to study high perfor mance fibers from the chemical precursors through their application in composite structures. CURRENT ChE RESEARCH PROJECTS The Department of Chemical Engineering at Clemson has had an active and well-funded research program in polymer processing and fiber formation for years. The establishment of the Advanced En gineering Fibers Laboratory has augmented this ef fort and provided an increase in both internal and ex ternal funding for this important area of chemical and materials research. Numerous research projects are FIGURE 2. An electron microscope photograph of carbon fibers coated with LaRC thermoplastic polyimide. The electrical resistance of the carbon fiber is employed to melt the thermoplastic matrix material. underway in the laboratory and the following are brief descriptions of several typical studies being carried out by chemical engineering graduate students. Coating of Carbon Fibers with Thermoplastic Polymers. A novel process for coating carbon fibers with thermoplastic matrix materials is being de veloped. A polymer powder is applied to the carbon fiber and then melted by utilizing the electrical resis tance of the carbon fiber itself [3]. An electrical poten188 For example, improvements in fiber formation processes require an understanding of precursor chemistry, an ability to characterize the resulting fibers, the fabrication and testing of the fibers in composites, and the assessment of the process economics. tial is applied across a length of the fiber. This heats the fiber to a temperature higher than the melting point of the thermoplastic matrix and results in flow of the polymer throughout the fiber bundle. This technique is currently being used to apply new high temperature matrix polymers such as LaRC thermo plastic polyimide (developed by NASA) and poly etheretherketone (developed by ICI) to carbon fibers. These tough matrix polymers have been specifically developed for aircraft applications. The polymer coat ing allows the brittle fibers to be readily woven or braided into a fabric which can be thermoformed into a composite material. Figure 2 shows an electron microscope photograph of a bundle of carbon fibers coated with LaRC thermoplastic polyimide using this technique. Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Carbon Fiber Manufacturing. Two of the most important steps in the manufacture of carbon fibers are stabiliza tion and carbonization of the precursor fibers. Each of these steps involves high temperature and exothermic reactions which produce gaseous products. In order to better understand these processes and predict op timum conditions, an effort is underway to model these two process steps. The equations of heat and mass transfer are applied to each process step and solved simultaneously with equations describing the reaction kinetics. In order to accurately describe the reacting system, it is also necessary to determine sev eral physical constants such as diffusivities and ther mal conductivities as well as heat and mass transfer coefficients. Current work is directed toward under standing the reaction kinetics and measuring these constants and coefficients by a variety of experimental methods. Non-Circular Carbon Fibers. Chemical and ceramic engineers at Clemson have developed a pro cess for the production of non-circular carbon fibers by melt spinning mesophase pitch. The shape of the fibers has been found to dramatically affect the prop erties of the resulting composites [ 4 5]. The goal of the current research is to improve the toughness of the fibers and resulting composites and to better un derstand the novel fracture mechanisms of non-circuCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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lar fibers. Tougher fibers are needed if composite fab rication is to be automated to produce the inexpen sive composite materials required for automotive applica tions. Figure 3 is an electron microscope photograph of a C-shaped fiber produced in this research. Aging Characteristics of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composites. One of the most impor tant trends in composites is toward tough, high tem perature thermoplastics to replace the thermosetting polymers currently used as matrix materials. The proper design of composite materials which use these new thermoplastics will require more than the limited physical data presently available. Clemson chemical engineers are studying the effect of aging on compos ites of high temperature thermoplastics such as PEEK (polyetheretherketone) and carbon fiber s through dynamic testing on a Rheometrics spectrome ter. The loss modulus, a measure of the composite 's ability to absorb energy, goes through a minimum at a certain frequency of the applied load. The effect of time, temperature, and composite processing history on this minimum are being studied. It is expected that this work will describe the high temperature limit s of the material and provide important physical data to the composites industry. THE LABORATORY'S ROLE IN EDUCATING CHEMICAL ENGINEERS The laboratory offers no course s or degree pro grams. Instead, it complements the existing degree programs. The laboratory provides a mechanism for students and faculty to interact with other engineer ing and scientific disciplines. This is of increasing im portance as chemical engineers enter new areas such as composite materials where polymer processing, fiber physics and mechanics, as well as chemical en gineering principles must be applied to solve process problems. This interdisciplinary environment has long been used by companies for research design, and process assistance. Normally a variety of engineering and sc entific fields are represented on industrial research and design teams. The laboratory exposes chemical engineers to a similar environment and permits the synergism which can be achieved as students and fac ulty with different backgrounds and skills work to gether to solve a problem. The laboratory also provides a mechani s m for s har ing experimental facilities among four departments which are located in five buildings on the Clemson campus. This is important as equipment becomes more expensive and requires more expertise to operFALL 1987 ate. It provides chemical engineering students the op portunity to become familiar with processes as diverse as fiber spinning, composite characterization, and polymer spec troanaly s is. SUMMARY Clemson's Advanced Engineering Fibers Labora tory provides a unique interdisciplinary environment for the st udy of high performance fibers and matrix polymers from their precursor chemicals to their final FIGURE 3. A C-shaped carbon fiber produced by melt spinning mesophase pitch. Non-circular fibers can offer improved physical properties and toughness. application in composites. The interaction provided by the laboratory provides chemical engineers with an opportunity to explore other engineering and scien tific approaches in solving problems. At the same time, the laboratory itself benefit s from the traditional ability of chemical engineers to so l ve problems by utilizing ideas obtained from a number of sources. REFERENCES 1. D. D. Edie, "Textile Structures and Their Use in Composite Materials," Int. Fiber J., 2(2), pp. 6 -10 March 1987. 2. W. Worthy, ''Wide Variety of Applications Spark Polymer Composites Growth," Chem and Eng. News, 65(12) pp. 7-13, March 16, 1987. 3 B. W. Gantt, "The Thermoplastic Coating of Carbon Fibers," MS thesis, Clemson University, May, 1987. 4. D. D. Edie, N. K. Fox, B C. Barnett, and C C Fain, "Me lt Spun Non-Circular Fibers, Carbon, 24(4), pp. 447-482, 1986. 5 M. G. Harrison, C. C. Fain, and D. D. Edie, "Study of Hollow and C-s h aped Pitch-based Carbon Fibers," Metal Matrix, Car bon, and Ceramic Matri x Composites 1986, NASA conference Publication 2445, pp. 77-83, 1986. D 189

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Research on . UNIT OPERATIONS IN MICROGRAVITY DAVID T. ALLEN University of California Los Angeles, CA 90024 DONALD R. PETTIT Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 T HE SP ACE SHUTTLE and the planned space station offer unique envionments for chemical processing. The three basic advantages that space offers that are not generally ava ilable in earth-based systems are low temperature, high vacuum, and sustained periods of zero or microgravity. Ready access to low tempera tures and high vacuum may allow for the development of processes requiring large structures in vacuum, long duration cryogenic cooling, or multiple vacuum to high pressure transitions. However, most of the unit operations that are being developed for materials processing in space are designed to take advantage of reduced gravity. The next few pages will present a brief review of some of the work currently under way in the development of microgravity processes. The material is largely based on a series of symposia held David T. Allen is an assistant professor of chemical eng i neering at the University of California, Los Angeles, He obtained his BS from Cornell University in 1979 and his MS and PhD in chemical engineer ing from the California In stitute of Technology in 1981 and 1983 (L) Donald R. Pettit is a research engineer at Lo s Alamos National Laboratory He obtained his BS from Oregon State Univers ity in 1978 and his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Arizona in 1983 He is working on problems in low gravity fluid dynamics and has flown low gravity experiments on board the NASA KC-135 airplane. (R) 190 Light source Microphone Probe tube Acoustic waveguide Acoustic driver Insulation Aluminum shea th Support structure Video camera ~---tif+----l4-+--Spherical Furnace 2 5 X 2.5 X 2 75 in glass sample FIGURE 1. Containerless furnace based on acoustical levitation (ref. 6) at AIChE meetings since 1985 [1, 2] and a group of NASA publications [3-5]. Our goal in performing this review is twofold. First, we seek to highlight some of the opportunities for materials processing in space, and second, we want to emphasize the contributions that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set of technologies. UNIT OPERATIONS IN MICROGRAVITY A spacecraft orbiting the earth at an altitude of approximately 190 miles is only 6% farther from the center of mass of the earth mass than an object on the earth's surface. Thus, the gravitational force experi enced by the spacecraft is only 13% less than the gravitational force at the earth's surface. However, because the spacecraft and all of the objects in it are in free fall, there is no gravitation acceleration of the objects in the spacecraft relative to the spacecraft. The objects are in an approximately weightless, or zero gravity, environment in the frame of reference of the moving spacecraft. But even in the spacecraft's frame of reference the gravitational force is not pre cisely zero. There are two types of gravitational force experienced in the spacecraft. The largest forces are induced by small vibrations in the ship (g-jitter), which can cause a gravitational force of order 1()-3 g Copyri{lht ChE Division ASEE 1987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Our goal in performing this review is twofold. First, we seek to highlight some of the opportunities for matgrials processing in space, and second, we want to emphasize the contributions that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set of technologies. G-jitter is roughly random and averages out to a zero net force. A constant force of order lQ-6 g is caused by gravitation gradients The gravitation force in low earth orbit changes at a rate of 10 7 g per meter as an object moves away from the center of mass of the spacecraft. In a spacecraft with a dimension of 10 m, a force of order lQ-6 g can be imposed. Reduced gravity allows two classes of unit opera tions to be used in space processing that are not gen erally available in a one-g environment. The first type of unit operation uses various means of levitation to achieve containerless processing, and the second type is based on the absence of buoyant and sedimentation force s CONTAINERLESS PROCESSING In a microgTavity environment objects levitate and will assume a conformation that minimizes interfacial energy. Thus, it is possible to contain liquids and to process solids without exposing the materials to vessel walls. The concept of levitation is not new, nor is it confined to microgravity environments. Indeed, Robert Millikan first measured the charge of an elec tron by levitating a charged oil drop in an elec tromagnetic field. However, the masses that can be levitated in an earth-based experiment are limited, and the levitating force can cause significant heating and distortion of the material. In a microgravity envi ronment, levitating forces are imposed primarily to counter the small gravitational forces discussed ear lier or to adjust an object's position. Much larger mas ses can be levitated in space than on earth and heat ing effects are not as important. Eletrostatic suspension, acoustic standing waves, photon beams, gas or vapor stream momentum, and magnetic induction have all been proposed as levita tion mechanisms for containerless processing in space. The containerless processing apparatus that has seen the most extensive use on the space shuttle is acousti cal levitation. If the object to be suspended can be exposed to a gaseous environment, acoustical drivers (loudspeakers) can be used to control the position of the object. In a typical configuration three mutually perpendicular acoustical drivers are used to produce a 3-dimensional standing acoustical wave in a roughly cubical box (Figure 1) [6]. An energy well is created at a position dependent on the wavelength generated by the acoustical drivers. Containerless systems that FALL 1987 ~at flux FIGURE 2. Conceptual configuration of a containerless process for casting unusual shapes (ref. 7). can impose a desired shape on a deformable material are shown conceptually in Figure 2 [7]. These devices use gas momentum to suspend objects and could be useful in casting parts of arbitrary shape. The ability to levitate relatively large masses in microgravity has resulted in a number of applications. The primary applications have been in suppressing heterogeneous nucleation during crystal formation and in the production of new glasses and unusual al loys. Crystallization and the production of new glasses will be considered briefly in this review because they represent two quite different examples of container less processing (i.e., semi-containerless and truly con tainerless). When a glass forming melt is suspended in a levita tion device, heterogeneous nucleation is suppressed. The outgrowth of this phenomena is the ability to ex tend the compositional limits of glasses, making possi ble entirely new materials. One such class of materials is fluoride glasses, which have great promise as in frared optical components [8, 9]. A second possibility for generating unique materials by containerless pro cessing in microgravity is the production of millimeter size glass shells with walls of thin, uniform thickness [10]. Many other applications are envisioned through the use of controlled gradient furnaces coupled with levitation devices. These processes can be regarded as truly contain erless. However, they are forced to operate in a batch mode. Semi-containerless unit operations can be oper ated continuously. One such process involves the crys tallization of materials important in electronic devices and utilizes Czochralski growth (Figure 3) [5]. In this unit operation a seed crystal is lowered onto the free surface of a melt. As the seed is withdrawn, the melt 191

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Seed crystal Seed crystal rotation ) I {: Crystal Heater }: pulling : direction Crucible rotation FIGURE 3. Semicontainerless process for crystal growth. adhering to it solidifies. This unit operation can be performed in one g. However, less defects are present in crystals produced in microgravity than in similar crystals produced on earth. The defects in one g are due, in part, to convective stirring caused by the heat of crystallization. In microgravity, buoyant driven convective motion is significantly reduced. Problems associated with this unit operation in microgravity are contamination by impurities derived from the crucible and the difficulties associated with maintaining a flat melt surface in microgravity. A second semi-containerless unit operation is float zone refining. Figure 4 shows a typical float zone crys tallization configuration. The feed crystal, containing imperfections, is melted and then slowly recrystal lized. The purpose of the float zone is to insure uni form dispersal of dopants, reducing imperfections. The float zone (melt) is suspended by interfacial ten sion between the feed material and the crystal. In microgravity, much larger float zones are possible than at one g and concentration inhomogeneities due to convective motion and growth spurts are minimized [11]. A new approach to float zone crystallization is shown in Figure 5. In this sy s tem [12] the crystallizing material is isolated by the float zones, and a seed crys tal is not required 192 UNIT OPERATIONS BASED ON REDUCED SEDIMENTATION AND BUOYANCY IN MICROGRAVITY Sedimentation and buoyancy effects are greatly subdued in microgravity relative to one-g operation. This can be extremely advantageous in electrophore tic separations, making metal foams, and in the pro duction of unique alloys. However the absence of buoyancy makes some unit operations that are easily done on earth much more difficult. For example, re moving bubbles from glasses [13] obtaining reason able mass transfer rates in aerobic reactors, and even operating a distillation column become difficult. For the moment let's consider only the advantages of space processing by focusing on electrophoresis and the creation of new materials. Electrophoretic separations are frequently used to isolate biological molecules and cells. The separation is based on the net charge obtained on molecules or cells when they are placed in a buffer solution The ions in the buffer associate with the species to be sepa rated, providing a net charge. An applied electric field causes an ionic current to flow and generates a force on the charged species. The charged molecule or cell moves with a velocity that balances the electrical force with viscous drag. Because the charge associated with particular molecules and cells are highly structure-de pendent different species will migrate at different rate s allowing them to be separated as shown in Fig ure 6. Like most of the unit operations discussed in this brief review, electrophoretic separations are not Crystallized solid Seed Melt (Float zone) FIGURE 4. Float zone crystallization: a semicontainerless unit operation. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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confined to microgravity environments, However, in one-g the resistive heat generated by the ionic current causes convective flow fields that can significantly de grade the quality of an electrophoretic separation. The sedimentation of cells can also degrade the separation. Since microgravity can eliminate some of these prob lems, electrophoretic separations in space have been actively investigated since the flights of Apollo 14 and Apollo 16. Most recently, McDonnell Douglas As tronautics Corporation has used continuous flow elec trophoresis on board the space shuttle to separate biological model materials [14]. Chemical engineers are actively involved in modeling this complex phenomenon [15, 16]. Another type of unit operation which takes ad vanInit i al Float Zone Configuration ,o-Heater I Heater 2 ----------c> Feed sol i d Feed solid Float Z one C onfiguration at a Loter Time o----Heater I Feed solid Recrystallized solid Feed solid FIGURE 5. A new approach to float zone crystallization. tage of reduced sedimentation is exemplified by a proposed method for growing zeolites in microgravity [17]. When zeolites are formed in solution, their size is controlled by nucleation rates and the rate at which crystals sediment out of solution. In microgravity, the crystals can grow to a much larger size before they sediment, and nucleation rates may be reduced. This process is representative of a large class of processes that rely on solutions remaining homogeneous in microgravity. To this point we have considered only unit opera tions that exploit microgravity. While microgravity can be beneficial it can also cause difficulties in per forming operations that are quite easily done at one-g. As an example, consider some of the unit operations required for optimizing the spacecraft ecosystem. In FALL 1987 Multiple 11111 -receptacles for fraction c ollection ------1-Ionpermeable membrane Column ----1--+++a i I f j Electrode f I I --: ----,.( + ) 1 l 1 Buffer 1 --t:~ _J inlet Sample inlet FIGURE 6. Electrophoretic separation. a long spaceflight there is strong motivation to use biological reactors to convert CO 2 to 0 2 in order to reduce the amount of oxygen required for life support. In one-g reasonable rates of mass transfer can be ob tained in biological reactors by bubbling gases through the reactor. In microgravity, bubbles do not rise due to buoyancy. However it may be possible to im mobilize cells on microcarriers and then obtain reason able rates of mass transfer through agitation. But, agitation may result in cell damage. This unit opera tion is still under active development by chemical en gineers collaborating with NASA [18]. CONCLUSION This paper has enthusiastically reviewed a few of the many opportunities available for materials proces sing in space This enthusiasm must be tempered, however, by the enormous costs associated with transporting material into space. These costs have been estimated to be several thousand dollars per pound. With these transportation costs, the value added by microgravity processing must approach that of turning lead into gold. While the value of some pharmaceuticals may justify manufacturing processes based on microgravity alchemy, in general the costs of microgravity processes must be justified by our im proved understanding of the role of gravity in earth based processes. So, although no great economic in centive exists to build manufacturing processes in space, unit operations in microgravity will continue to be developed. Opportunities exist for chemical en Continu e d on pag e 2 1 8 193

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A program on ... CHEMICAL PROCESS MODELING AND CONTROL R. DONALD BARTUSIAK, RANDEL M. PRICE Lehigh University Bethlehem, PA 18015 W HEN DECIDING TO go on to graduate school, the prospective st udent must face two crucial questions: What to study, and Where? Certainly, any one's answer to these questions will reflect a natural self-interest, but this article will describe some fea tures of studying process modeling and control at Lehigh University that are exciting to us. The combination of substantial economic incentives and profound intellectual challenges has motivated in creasing emphasis on process control within the chem ical process industries and chemical engineering academia. As the chemical process industry matures, business success depend s more on optimizing the per formance of existing or novel process technology and less on manufacturing new products with little atten tion to costs. No longer do overdesign and relaxed operating criteria make life easy. Even in biotechnol ogy, spec ialty chemicals, and other frontier areas to ward which the chemical process industry is migrat ing, profitable manufacturing requires the ability to understand and regulate dynamic processes. At the intellectual level, process control engineers are ad dressing issues that were once simply mathematical abstractions, but that now translate to real-world con cerns like energy efficiency, manufacturing flexibility, product quality, safety, environmental protection, and computer-integrated manufacturing For today's and tomorrow 's chemical engineer, therefore, process modeling and control skills are important, regardless of his or her specific technical area of employment or research interest To meet this challenge to chemical engineering education, Lehigh University initiated the Chemical Process Modeling and Control Center (PMC) in 1984. PMC is an industry /academia consortium dedicated to the education of graduate students for advanced re search in process modeling and control. C urr ent l y, PMC is sponsored by twelve companies (both U S. and European), by the National Science Foundation, and by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. I ts annual 194 operating budget is in excess of $400K. Chr i stos Geor gakis and William Luyben are the center's founders and its co-directors. As a result of the industry / academia partnership in PMC, the research work carried out by the students is neither a ll theoretical nor all applied, but is a deli cate balance of both. PMC students can be confident that their research topic is novel and challenging in the context of the scientific literature and that it is relevent to professionals working at the highest tech nical levels of industry. The vigorous intermixing of the theoretical and the app li ed is reflected in the career goals of the current group of PMC students Both industrial and teaching career aspiratio n s are represented. We expect that a simi lar diversity of career goals will be maintained in future PMC teams. With this introduction on why process control and the PMC program at Lehigh are exciting to u s, let 's examine the philosophy, the people, the technical pro gram, and the environment of PMC. R. Donald Bartusiak r eceived his B S from the Uni versity of Penns y vania and his MS from Lehigh University He is cu rr ent l y comp let ing PhD studies at L ehigh. Before returning to graduate schoo l he worked as a research engineer for B eth l ehem Steel Corp. H is industrial experi ence a l so includes employment with E x xon Chemica l s His research interests and publications ore in the areas of non l inear process con t ro l and environmenta l engineering. ( L ) Randel M Price is a graduate student at Lehigh U ni v ersit y He hos a B SChE from the Uni v ersity of Missouri-Columbia and on MSChE from the University of Arkansas Prior to graduate school he worked for the process engineering deportment of Conoco Inc. (R) Copy,-ig ht C hE D ivision AS EE 1 98 7 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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As a result of the industry/academia partnership, the research work carried out by the students is neither all theoretical nor all applied, but is a delicate balance of both ... students can be confident that their topic is novel and challenging. THE PHILOSOPHY Prior to establishing PMC, Lehigh faculty, in col laboration with industrial repre se ntative s, assessed the research needs in the area of process modeling and control. This assessment recognized that rapid technological advances are driving engineeri ng to wards cross -di sc iplinary interaction. It identified several important trends that have a lr eady affected, and will continue to affect, the chemica l petroleum, petrochemical and biochemical industries in the next decade. These trends, detailed below, justified the start-up of an intensive research effort The trend to improve the production efficiencies of existi n g che mi cal plants h as increased the need for more effect i ve dynamic models, for improv ed real-time process measure ments, and for more practical techniques for synt h esizi ng mul ti variable, non l inear and optimizing co ntrol str uctur es. Re searc h activities in this area ha ve already been undertaken, but there still exists t h e strong need for practical, comprehen sive method s that indu stry can effectively u se Efforts to develop new technologies and pro cesses in growth fields, s uch as biotechnology and polymer e ngine ering, ha ve created the need for quickly co nstructin g new process mode l s and for developing more reliable control strategies Modeling and control strategies in this area ha ve barely scratc h e d the s urfa ce of this very important problem. Traditional so lutions influenced by past experiences are clearly not adequate. Novel ideas are needed in postulating the appropriate re searc h problems and in providing fresh approaches for their so lution Increa sed process comp l exity, together with strict ind u stry and gove rnm e nt a l sta ndard s for safety and the environ ment, require more reliabl e methods for alarm syste m analysis, system de sign, and for n ew process fault diagnostic m et h ods with predictive capabilities. Although industry ha s applied these concepts quite effectively with in-house ap proaches, there is a need for more syste mati c m etho d s for the design and safe operation of the tightly integrated processes we will u se in the futur e. Rapidly evolving technologies for low-cost computer designs a nd VLSI syste m s fabrication are creating new oppor tunities to apply powerful computer hardwar e and software for process control including rea l -time integrated plant tran s i e nt si mul ation and opt imi zatio n Continuing adva nces in our ability to m ake more acc ur ate me asu r e ment s of pro cess variables, especia lly und er com plex or har s h conditions, open up many possibilities for better under sta nding of pro cess behavior a nd lead to improved tech niqu es for process optimization and control. Research oppor tunities, for example, with respect to measurements in the processing of polymers and in biotechnology are very numer ous. FALL 1987 Industry has growing requirements for well-educated en gi n eers who possess a comb in ed understanding of chemical proces s technology, upto-date modeling and control ap proaches, and methods and theory for so lving challenging pro cess re l ated problems Furthermore, the growing use of com puters in industry, co upl ed with the rapidly increasing power and distributed nature of the computer, i s fundamentally a l tering the process of design, e ngineering and process opera tion as well as the manpower needs of industry Th ese six trends define the research mission of Lehigh' s Chemical Process Modeling and Contro l Re search Center. THE PEOPLE The cross -d iscip lin ary nature of the PMC process control research effort is reflected in the human re sources of the center. Of the sixteen facu lt y members participating in the center (Tab l e 1) eleven are af filiated with t h e chemical engineering department, two with mechanical engineering, two with industrial engineering, and one with mathematics. Strong in teractions exist between PM C, the Bioprocessing Re search Institute, and the Emulsion Polymer Institute at Lehigh. TABLE 1 PMC Research Center Faculty C hri stos Georgakis Director (ChE) Willia m L. Luyben, Co-Director (ChE) Hugo S. Caram (C hE ) John C Chen (C hE ) Mohamed S. EI-Aasser (C hE ) D Gary Harlow (ME) Arthur E Humphrey (C hE ) Stan l ey H. Johnson (ME) A ndr ew Klein (C hE ) Janice A. P hillip s (ChE) Matt hew J. Reill y (C hE ) David A Sa nchez (Math) William E Schiesser (C hE ) Harvey G. Ste nger (ChE) Robert H. Storer (IE) Jo hn C. Wiginton (IE) Two post doctoral researchers are currently in volved with furthering the work on specific research projects and with defining new projects We also have three visiting research engineers from PMC industrial sponsors At present, twelve graduate students are enro lled in the activities of the center-eleven through the chemical engineering department and one through mechanical engineering. Two students will l eave in 1987 with MS degrees, while the remaining te n are working towards the PhD. It is an international group Some of t h e students have industrial exper ence, but most do not. A special human resource of PMC is the close per sonal involvement of the company sponsors of the center The twice yearly meetings of the PMC Indus trial Advisory Committee provide an opportunity for 195

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both formal and informal exchanges between the stu dents and the practicing engineers. Direct lines of communication between students and practitioners in variably result from these meetings. In fact, essen tially all of the PMC thesis committees include a member from industry. THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM The typical initial stages of the graduate student's program are dominated by course work. As evidence of Lehigh's emphasis on process control, the advanced level control courses are all cross-listed by the chemi cal, mechanical and electrical engineering departments. The core advanced courses include state-space and optimal control, multivariable control, process identification, and stochastic control. These courses supplement undergraduate courses in introductory process control and in sampled-data control. In addi tion, topical seminars are periodically offered, for example, on nonlinear control. The choice of a graduate research topic is inti mately related to the research projects of the PMC center. The vast majority of research undertaken by the center is of a generic nature addressing major re search challenges not fully addressed and resolved in the process control literature A listing of the ten generic research projects currently active is provided in Table 2. Typically, thesis topics derive from these generic research projects. The charter of PMC also provides for the conduct of suitable company-specific research projects. Al though far less active than the generic research of the center, this work also provides potential topic areas for thesis research As an example of the company specific research, an MS thesis has been completed on "The Control of Low Relative Volatility Distillation Columns" making extensive use of real plant data from an industrial sponsor. There is a liberal exchange of information among the projects. Students routinely share the software they have developed. Process models, including those derived from real industrial systems, are used by sev eral researchers on different projects. Conversely, new control algorithms are tested in several different application s. PMC-supported students are always able to pub lish their work in a timely manner according to the center's publication guidelines. Research is also re ported at national meetings. Some restrictions pertain to the components of company-specific research pro jects involving proprietary information. PMC-sup ported students must file semi-annual progre s s re ports to the Industrial Advisory Committee once they 196 TABLE 2 Current PMC Research Projects 1. Design of effective nonlinear controllers for chemical reactors 2. Design of practical multivariable process controllers 3 Design and control of energy-efficient distillation column systems 4. Development of software for dynamic process simulation and control system design 5. Bioreactor modeling, optimization and control 6. Modeling and control of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization reactors 7. Plant-wide control 8. Expert multivariable control 9. Batch reactor control 10. Statistical quality control become active in project work. In general, one formal presentation per year is given by each student to the industrial sponsor. Of course less formal presenta tions on research plans and results are given with greater frequency within the PMC tream. THE ENVIRONMENT A dramatic new development at Lehigh has occur red within the past year A substantial portion of Bethlehem Steel s Homer Research Laboratory, lo cated less than a mile from Lehigh's main campus, was acquired by Lehigh University. Acquisition of this beautiful facility nearly doubled the amount of space for research (laboratory and office) available to the university. PMC, the Chemical Engineering De partment, the Bioprocessing Research Institute and the Emulsion Polymer Institute were among the first groups to occupy the new facility. Foreshadowing the doubling of the research space, a doubling of the technical library space was ac complished during 1984-85. The E.W. Fairchild-Mar tindale Library currently houses 435,000 volumes, with a total capacity of 650,000 volumes. The Lehigh University library system receives more than 9,000 periodicals and serials The library system fully uti lizes computer database technology for cataloging and literature-searching. More than sixty-five full-time staff are available to serve the research needs of fac ulty and students. In the area of computer resources PMC re searchers have access, through the campus-wide tele communications network, to all university mainframes (CDC Cyber 850; Digital DEC-20 and V AX-8530; IBM 4381). Furthermore, PMC is equipped with its own CDC Cyber 810 computer-a $500,000 grant from Control Data For input / output, there are six TekCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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tronix 4109 graphics terminals, three Control Data 722 terminals, a Tektronix 4692 ink-jet plotter, and a Control Data 533 line printer dedicated to PMC users exclusively. Specialized software for process modeling and control research is available both from in-house development and from external sources To further the work on expert systems, PMC has acquired a Symbolics 3620 machine with LISP and other ad vanced software systems. We plan to purchase a Sun Engineering Workstation this summer to s upport the Batch Reactor Control project. Public microcomput ers are widely distributed about campus. CONCLUSION These are exciting times at Lehigh and the Chem ical Process Modeling and Control Research Center. The chemical process industry is very much interested in stimulating research in process control, and in at tracting engineers who are well-educated in the field. The university has responded to this challenge by initiating an intensive industry / academia cooperative research program to bring to light new knowledge in areas of practical importance. The net result for graduate students is that their research must satisfy conditions both of novelty and of practical reality. In our judgment, such a program yields engineers capa ble of succeeding in either academic or in industrial careers. D (eJ ;j a book reviews MULTIPHASE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Volume 2 Edited by G F. H ewi tt J. M. Delhay e, N. Zuber H emisphere P u blish ing Co., New York 10016; 1986. 479 printed pages, $62.50 Reviewed by Y. Y. Hsu University of Maryland This book covers six subjects on multi-phase flow: Chapter 1. Flow Pattern Transition in Gas-Liquid Systems, Measurement and Modeling (A. E. Dukler, Y. Taitel); Chapter 2, A Critical Review of the Flood ing Literature (S. George Bankoff, Sang Chun Lee); Chapter 3, A Comprehensive Examination of Heat Tran sf er Correlations Suitable for Reactor Safety Analysis (D. C. Greenoveld, C W. Snoek); Chapter 4, Reboilers (P. B. Walley and G. F. Hewitt); Chapter 5, Flow of Gas-Solid Mixtures Through Standpipes FALL 1987 and Valves (L. S Leung, P. J. Jones); Chapter 6, Core-Annu lar Flow of Oil and Water Through a Pipeline (R. V A. Olieman, G. Ooms). Chapter One on flow patterns in liquid-ga s two phase flow is a comprehensive review of many years of significant contributions made by Professor Dukler and his colleagues at the University of Houston. Two phase flow behavior is very much affected by the in terfacial transport, which in turn is affected by the flow patterns. Determination of flow pattern has been of fundamental importance to two-phase flow studies. The authors' contribution is to treat flow pattern transition through modeling instead of the many em pirical approaches previously prevalent in the indus try. Dukler and Taitel are to be lauded for their more scientific and mechanistic approach to establish the flow pattern transition criteria. However, a major class of flow patterns that are absent are those related to vertical pipe or bundle with boiling / condensation which are very important in reactor safety analysis and in chemical processes. The second chapter on flooding covers the subject relating to counter-current flow in a vertical channel. Since the flooding phenomena are very much affected by the entrance geometry -th e boundary conditions (such as channel geometry heating or no heating), the steam or air flow conditions and physical properties (steam or air with water being subcoo led or satu rated), etc .-it is very difficult to give an unified and systematic treatment. The authors did a good job in this attempt After the analytical models, some experimental re su lts and empirical correlations were introduced. In this section, unfortunatel y, a great deal of work car ried out in reactor safety research was only briefly cited Chapter Three is a comprehensive examination of heat transfer correlation used for reactor safety analysis. The heat transfer package is the heart of thermal-hydraulic codes developed to predict the coolability of a reactor core during accidents and tran sients. Choice of proper heat transfer correlations for each heat transfer mode is the key to the success of a code. The authors of this chapter made a valiant effort to critically examine the heat transfer correlations and succeeded in giving a comprehensive review and pro vided readers with a fairly complete list of correlations currently being considered for reactor analysis. But the reviewer thinks that bundle data should be given more weight than tube data in assessing the correla tions since bundle geometry is what is encountered in a reactor. Continued on page 209 197

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A program on ADVANCED COMBUSTION ENGINEERING CAL VIN H. BARTHOLOMEW Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602 O UR NATION'S BASIC and high technology indus tries are highly dependent on an adequate supply of energy, the production of which depends upon com bustion technology. The future survival of these in dustries will hinge on the ability to utilize more effi ciently, through advanced combustion technology, our nation's readily available, low-cost fuel resources. There are unfortunately several formidable roadblocks threatening the realization of these criti cally needed developments: (1) commitment of com bustion-based industries to out-dated technologies, (2) environmental and operational problems in the utiliza tion of low-cost, low-grade fuels, (3) insufficient un derstanding of combustion fundamentals, and (4) lack Calvin H Bartholomew received his BS degree from Brigham Young University and his MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Stanford University. He spent a year at Corning Glass Works and a summer at Union Oil as a visiting consu lt ant before joining the chemica l engineering department at Brigham Young University in 1973 H e is presently professor, head of the BYU Catalysis Laboratory, and Associate Director of the Advanced Combustion Engineering Re search Center. Recipient of the Karl G. Moeser Research Award, he has authored over 70 scientific papers and 5 major reviews in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and catalyst deactivation. His major re search and teaching interests are heterogeneous catalysis char com bustion, kinetics and reactor design, Moessbauer spectroscopy surface science, and air pollution control. 198 Director L Douglas Smool (Dean) ,... . ,.~ ... ,--, ~ --. "" ~ ":'::.''"" ~ ;.,,,, Worlung R .,. 11~Cl'I C H Lab G,oups Pr0tee1s e a n holo mew L Dougl;ls M ~ Ol'1 Lee FIGURE 1. Management structure of the Advanced Com bustion Engineering Research Center of communication, collaboration and cooperation among investigators in academic industrial and gov ernmental research and development communities To address the removal of these roadblocks the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center (ACERC) was established in the summer and fall of 1985 as a cooperative effort among Brigham Young University (BYD), the University of Utah (U of U), two national laboratories (Sandia National Labs and Los Alamos National Labs), and 23 industrial/re search organizations located throughout the United States. The departments of chemical engineering (BYD and U of U), chemistry (BYD and U of U), fuels engineering (U of U), and mechanical engineer ing (BYD) were involved in the formation of this new center. Headquarters were established at BYD. The organization of the new center, consisting of a Direc torate, an Executive Advisory Council and Technical Review Committee, is illustrated in Figure 1. Mem bers of the management team consisting of the direc torate and coordinators for research, education, and information dissemination are listed in Table 1, while members of the Executive Advisory Council are listed in Table 2. Listed in Table 3 are companies and Co p yri ght C hE D ivision AS EE 1987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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laboratories which have subscribed as technical partners of the center. In the fall of 1985, proposals were submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the State of Utah for funding. On May 1, 1986, BYU and the U of U were jointly awarded a $9. 7 million 5-year grant from NSF as part of its Engineering Research Cen ters Program. This award was one of five selected from 102 proposals submitted by 74 institutions in fall 1985. Also receiving grant awards from NSF in the 1985-86 round were Carnegie-Mellon University, UniTABLE 1 ACERC Management Director L. Douglas Smoot Dean of Engineering and Technology Head of the Combustion Laboratory Associate Directors and Research Coordi nator s BYU Calvin H. Bartholomew Professor of Chem. Eng. Head of the Catalysis Lab UofU David W. Pershing Professor of Chem. Eng. Assoc. Dean of Grad. School Academic Coordinator Ca l vin H. Bartholomew Professor of Chem. Eng. David M. Bodily Professor of Fuels Eng. Assoc. Dean of Mines & Min. External Relations Coordinator John C. Laing Manager, ACERC Ronald J. Pugmire Prof. of Fuels Eng. Assoc. Vice Pres. of Res. TABLE 2 Executive Advisory Council William Gould, Chairman, Retired Chief Executive Officer of Southern California Edison and EPRI Chairman Christian Botta, Director of Technology Strategy, Combustion Engineering Inc. Dan Hartley, Vice President of Sandia National Laboratorie s George Hill, Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Univer s ity of Utah and former Director of the office of Coal Research and EPRI Eric Reichl, Consultant and Retired President of the Conoco Coal Development Company Adel Sarofim, Professor of Chemical Engineering, MIT George Watkins, Executive Director of the Empire State Elec tric Energy Research Corporation FALL 1987 There are unfortunately several formidable roadblocks threatening the realization of these critically needed developments ... To address the removal of these roadblocks, the Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center was established ... in 1985 ... versity of Illinois-Urbana Lehigh University and Ohio State University. In addition to the funds from NSF, the center will receive approximately $3.5 million from the two uni versities, $500,000 from the State of Utah, and over $500,000 from private indu stry, for a total of about $14 million for the five years. During the first year the total ACERC budget was $3.2 million. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAM Objectives. Since combustion is a very broad field, a focus is essential in order to make a significant con tribution. ACERC's research program has been de signed to address the most significant research priorities for U S. competitiveness in combustion technology while removing the roadblocks mentioned above. The principal objective of ACE RC is to develop and implement, within 5 years, advanced computer Continued on page 2 16. TABLE 3 Technical Partners of ACERC TECHNICAL ASSOCIATES Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. Babcock and Wilcox Combustion Engineering, Inc. Consolidated Coal Co. Convex Computer Corp. Electric Power Research Institute Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp. Foster-Wheeler Development Corp ./ IHI (Ja pan) Gas Research Institute Morgantown Energy Tech. Center Pittsburgh Energy Tech. Center Tennessee Valley Authority Utah Power and Light Co. TECHNICAL AFFILIATES General Motors Corp. (Alison Gas Turbine Div .) Chevron Research Co. Corning Glass Works Dow Chemical USA General Electric Co. Los Alamos National Laboratory Pyropower Corp. Questar Development Corp. Shell Development Co. Southern California Edison 199

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An experiment in ... LIQUID-PHASE ADSORPTION FUNDAMENTALS DAVID 0. COONEY University of Wyoming Laramie, WY 82071 A DSORPTION PROCESSES ARE important in the re moval of organic contaminants from wastewaters and municipal drinking water supplies, in the removal of solvents and odor compounds from gas streams in the drying of air, etc. The adsorbent employed r:iay be activated carbon, synthetic resins, silica gel, etc. An adsorption experiment has been developed and successfully run in our unit operations laboratory course at the University of Wyoming. It involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, but is relevant to adsorption processes in general. In designing the experiment several goals were set: (1) it had to be capable of being completely run in four hours or less, (2) it should demonstrate the applicability of both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to equilibrium data, and (3) it David Cooney is Head of the Chemical Engine ering Department at the University of Wyoming. Hi s research has focused mainly on liquid phase adsorption t opics. H e is the author of approximately 70 research papers and two books. 200 should familiarize the student with both batchwise and continuous fixed-bed types of operations. In addition, the component to be adsorbed should be reasonably water-soluble so that aqueous so lutions could be em ployed, and it should be colored so that its removal by batch adsorption and its breakthrough behavior in fixed-bed operation be visible to the student. This re quirement also allowed for easy measurement of the so lute' s concentration colorimetrically. One problem often encountered with colored solutes however is ' that their color intensity is a function of solution pH. And, since contact with activated carbon can change the pH of an aqueous solution and thereby alter the solute's color intensity (even at constant solute con centration), buffering of the aqueous solution to be used was considered to be necessary. After some trial-and-error, the stock solution for the experiment was chosen to be a 0.30 g/liter solution of 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) in distilled water, buffered to a pH of 7.4 by the addition of 1.184 g/liter KH 2 P0 4 and 4.289 g/liter NaHP0 4 The DNP (Eastman Kodak Chemicals brand) contained around 15% moisture which was included in the 0.30 g / L portions weighed out. A Pye U nicam Model 6-550 UV /Visible spec trophotometer was used in the visib le mode at a wavelength of 480 nm with standard 1 cm x 1 cm x 4.5 cm matched glass sample cells (one cell was a ref erence cell containing distilled water; the other was the "sample" cell) to analyze all samples generated in the experiment for DNP concentration (the stock so lution absorbance was around 0 600). Beer's Law was found to be obeyed for DNP sufficiently well over the ~ange of concentrations involved in the experiment, i. e ., the DNP concentrations were proportional to the visible light absorbance values given by the spec trophotometer. The stock solution was deep-yellow in color. The carbon used was Pittsburgh CPG activated Co p yri ght ChE D ivision AS EE 1 987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Adsorption processes are important in the removal of organic contaminants from wastewaters ... An adsorption experiment has been developed and successfully run in our unit operations laboratory course ... It involves the liquid-phase adsorption of an organic compound from aqueous solution on activated carbon, but is relevant to adsorption processes in general. carbon, sieved to 28/40 mesh for the fixed-bed exper iments and ground to less than 325 mesh for the batch (equilibrium) experiments. The carbon was heated in an oven at 150C for 24 hours prior to use and then kept in closed glass jars (this prevents contamination by stray gas-phase adsorbates). BATCH {EQUILIBRIUM) EXPERIMENTS Approximately six sampl e s containing roughly 0.005 to 0.030 grams of the powdered carbon (at essen tially equally spaced weight intervals) were weighed into new dust-free liquid scintillation vials (Wheaton 20 mL borosilicate glass vials, from Cole-Parmer In strument Co., Chicago, Cat. No. J-8918-02) using a Mettler AE 160 digital balance capable of weighing to 0.1 mg. Then 10 mL of the stock DNP solution was added to each vial using a standard volumetric pipette The vials were capped with the caps that came with them (these had Poly-Seal conical seals in them) and taped (with cellophane tape) onto the bed of a shaker bath (Precision Scientific, Model 25, Chicago) (water omitted) set at 100 oscillations / min ute. Any other suitable shaking device would work just as well. After one hour of shaking, the vials were removed and let stand for about ten minutes to allow most of the powdered carbon to settle. (It was proved separately that equilibrium is reached in about twenty minutes, for < 325 mesh carbon.) Meanwhile, six filter units each consisting of a 13 mm diameter Millipore HA WP 0.45 m pore size membrane filter in a 13 mm size Swinny filter holder (both available from the Millipore Corporation, Bed ford, MA) were prepared. About 15 mL of each sam ple supernatant solution was taken up into a 20 mL plastic syringe which was then attached to a filter hol der, and the solution was filtered to remove the re maining carbon particles. The first few mL were di s carded (membrane "debris" sometimes flushes off into the first portion of the filtrate) and the remainder was collected in a sma ll beaker (covered) or clean capped scintillation vial for subsequent colorimetric analysis. For each sample, the DNP concentration was com puted from: concentration (g / L) = 0 30 x (sample ab sorbance at 480 nm / stock solution absorbance at 480 nm). This concentration, CA, was used in the mas s balance qi W = V (CAo CA) where W = grams of FALL 1987 9 8 7 2 ~ 6 5 4 0 50 100 150 I / CA (L / g) FIGURE 1. "Linearized" Langmuir equation plot of the equilibrium data which should yield a straight line if K and Q are constant powdered carbon used, V = volume of solution used (0.01 liter), and CAo = initial DNP concentration (0.30 g/liter), to compute the equilibrium carbon-phase con centration q i (g DNP / g carbon). BATCH (EQUILIBRIUM) RESULTS Since the Langmuir isotherm equation q* = KQ C /(1 +KC) A A A (1) can be linearized to the form (2) the data were plotted in the form of 1/qi versus 1/C A in the hopes that they could be fit with a straight lin e to give an intercept of 1/Q and a slope of 1/KQ, from which Kand Q (the value of qi reached as CA 00 i e the monolayer adsorption capacity of the carbon for DNP) could be determined. As Figure 1 shows, such a straight-line fit was impo s sible (i.e., the data simply do not fit the Langmuir model). 201

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The q1 versus CA data were also plotted on log-log paper, since the Freundlich isotherm equation is q* = k C 1/n A A (3) hence log q; = log k + (1/n) log CA (4) Students always try to get an "intercept" on such a plot, but this is impossible, of course. They should c (9 / L) FIGURE 2. Linearized Freundlich equation plot of the equilibrium data. simply pick two points near the ends of the best fit straight line, and insert these two (q1, CA) pairs into the last equation, thereby generating two equations from which the two unknown parameters k and 1/n can be determined As Figure 2 shows, the data fit the Freundlich expression extremely well. This is con sistent with the author s and other investigator s' pre vious experience in measuring liquid-phase equilibria for organic compounds adsorbing on activated carbon, in which it has been repeatedly observed that the Freundlich equation fits such data very well ( s ee the references listed at the end of this paper). Although the Langmuir equation obviously does not fit the equilibrium data the data for the four high est CA points (i. e ., for the four lowest 1/CA points in Figure 1) can be fit reasonably well to a s traight line from which one obtains Q = 0.221 and K = 53. 7. Figure 2, for the Freundlich equation, gives k = 0.258 and 1/n = 0.146. Plots of Eqs. (1) and (3) with these parameter values give the comparison to the equilib rium data shown in Figure 3. Obviously, the Freundlich equation fits e s sentially exactly, while th e Langmuir equation fits somewhat well at high C A and poorly at low C A, as one would expect considering how Q and K were obtained. 202 FIXED BED EXPERIMENT Four grams of the 28 / 40 mesh Pittsburgh CPG car bon were loaded into a 0.9 cm I.D. by 15 cm long chromatography column (type K 9 / 15 from Pharmacia Fine Chemical s, Inc. Piscataway NJ). The empty column, with the top inlet header unscrewed, wa s fil led with di s tilled water (with th e outlet lin e clamped ), and small portions of the carbon were dropped into the column successively until the column was packed with the full 4 grams of carbon. This technique pre vents any trapping of air bubbles in the bed. While some classification of the carbon particles occurs as they fall through the water, gross classification of the bed is avoided by adding the carbon in small batches with a s patula and waiting for each batch to settle. The water level in the column rises a s one does this so the clamp on the column outlet line must be period ically opened to drain off some of the water and keep it from overflowing out of the top of the column. Once 0 25r--------,-------,-------, 0. 2 0 0.15 F(ndlich Equation I / I i ~c:C O IO /\Typical LonQmuir Fit (see text) I I I I o.05 I I 0.0 ~----~-----~-----~ 0 0.1 0 2 0 3 CA (g / L) FIGURE 3. Comparison of equilibrium data with the Freundlich equation, and with a Langmuir equation de rived from fitting the high CA data. the column w as packed, th e top inlet h e ader was screwed onto the column. The stock DNP s olution 3 liters of which were contained in a standard one-gallon glas s jug, was pumped to the column at 25 mL/minute using a Masterflex Unified Variable Speed Model 7523-10 tubing pump drive fitted with a number 7014 Standard Pump Head and number 14 silicone rubber tubing (Cole-Parmer Instrument Co. Chic a go). The pump w as turned on briefl y e nou g h to bring the DNP solution to the end of the tubing which wa s CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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then attached to the column inlet header. At "time zero," a stopwatch was started and the pump was re started. Effluent from the column was collected in a 1000 mL graduated cylinder and, as each successive 100 mL mark was reached, a spectrophotometer cell was held under the effluent line for long enough to collect about 2.5 mL of effluent. The sample absor bance was then measured colorimetrically (any drops of samp le on the cell outside surfaces were first dried off using Kimwipes). The reference cell was checked 1.0 ,------------,-------,--------.------------, 0.8 u 8 e 0.6 :la '3 0.4 0 0.2 0 0 '--------1.-"-""-='----'-----~---~ 0 1000 2000 ~000 4000 Effluent Volume {ml) FIGURE 4. Effluent curve behavior for the experiment. each time to see that its absorbance read 0.000. The sample was then dumped back into the collection cylin der. When the first 1000 mL cylinder was full, a sec ond one was used to replace the first one, and the first one was dumped. The cylinders were alternated this way, with sample measurements each 100 mL, until the effluent concentration exceeded 75% of the inlet concentration. The fixed bed experiment was then shut down and the data were plotted as CA versus total effluent volume. FIXED BED RESULTS Figure 4 shows the breakthrough curve obtained from the fixed-bed part of the experiment. If ideally sharp breakthrough behavior were to exist, a step function would have been obtained at a point where a vertical line passes through the point CA = 1/2 C A,feed (assuming a symmetrica l breakthrough curve). The total effluent volume corresponding to this step func tion can be seen to be about 2460 mL, and hence the total column capacity for DNP is thus (2.46 liters) (0.30 g/liter)/4.0 g carbon = 0.185 g DNP/g carbon. However, inserting CA = 0.30 g/liter into the Freundlich equation gives a q'i value of 0.235. The FALL 1987 reason why the 0.185 is about 21 % too low is that the effluent curve is actually not symmetrical but would show significant "tailing" if it had been followed fur ther. Hence, the proper position to place the step function for the ideal case would be at an effluent vol ume greater than 2460 mL. This would raise up the calculated 0.185 value and give better agreement with the "ideal saturation capacity" value calculated from the Freundlich equation. Nevertheless, the step-function replacement of the actual breakthrough curve does give a rough approx imation to the column's ideal capacity. Of course, in actual operation, a fixed-bed system would be shut down as soon as the outlet concentration is just a few percent (e.g., 5%) of the inlet concentration. The only reason we followed the breakthrough curve so far in this experiment was to allow the students to see what the curve looks like at later stages, and to allow them to compare (at least approximately) the total DNP capacity from this dynamic column technique to values predicted by batch equilibrium experiments. COMMENTS With a group of three students performing this experiment, we start the batch sample part first. Then, while the samples are shaking (one hour) we begin the column part. Sometime during the column run, the batch samples are ready for filtration, so the filtration is carried out by one of the students, and the filtrates are kept aside for analysis after the column run is over. In their reports, the students are asked to discuss general principles of adsorption, particularly low tem perature physical adsorption ( via van der Waals type forces) on activated carbon. They are also asked to discuss how activated carbon is usually made, and its properties (internal surface area, pore-size distribu tion, etc .). Overall, the experiment and s ubsequent student reports are effective in conveying most of the basic principles of physical adsorption processes. REFERENCES 1. Cooney, D. 0., Clin. Toxicol 11, 387 (1977). 2. Cooney, D 0 Amer. J. Hosp. Pharrn. 34, 1342 (1977) 3. Cooney D. 0., and R P Kane, Artif. Organs 7, 197 (1983) 4. Giusti, D. M., R. A. Conway, and C. T. Lawson, JWPCF 46, 947 (1974). 5. Mattson, J. S and F. W. Kennedy, JWPCF 43, 2210 ( 1971 ). 6. Sheindorf, C M. Rebhun, and M. Sheintuch, Water Res. 16, 357 (1982). 7 Yonge, D. R et al, Environ. Sci Technol 19, 690 (1985). D 203

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l;lbI class and home problems The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested as well as those that are more traditional in nature, which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor H. Scott Fogler ChE Department University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER WITH CHEMICAL REACTION Cooking a Potato KERRY L. SUBLETTE University of Tulsa Tulsa, OK 74104 PROBLEM T HE COOKING OF a potato in a hot water bath may be readily described by combining a model of tran sient heat transfer in a sphere (with convective bound ary conditions) and kinetic data given by Personius and Sharp [1] for the rate of change in tensile strength in potato tubers as a function of temperature. A com puter program may be written which uses finite differ ence methods to solve the transient heat transfer equation. When these results are combined with kine tic data, transient tensile strength profiles may be generated. The cooking of the potato can therefore be simulated. The model is readily verified with a minimum of laboratory time and equipment. CHEMICAL BASIS: COOKING A POTATO Roughly 60-80% of the dry matter of a potato tuber is starch. Potato starch is a mixture of two polymers of O'.-D-glucose, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose (20% of potato starch) is a linear unbranched chain of O'.-D-glucose units joined by a(l 4) acetal link ages Amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide with a(l 6) branch points. Native amylose and amylopectin polymers have molecular weights in the millions. Within the potato tuber, starch occurs as micro scopically visible granules which are 15-100 microns in diameter and oval in shape. Thin sections of starch granules reveal them to be highly organized consisting Copyright ChE D ivision ASEE 19 87 204 Kerry l Sublette obtained his BS in chemist r y from the Univer sity of Arkansas his MS in biochemistry from the University of Ok l ahoma and his MSE and PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Tulsa. After six years in research and deve l opment with Combus ti on Engineering, he joined the chemical engineering faculty at the Univer sity of Tulsa in 1986 His research interests are in fermentation biocatalysis microbial desulfurization of coal and biological methods of hazardous waste treatment. of concentric layers. Within these layer s, starch molecules associate through extensive hydrogen bond ing between parallel linear segments The microscopic appearance of starch granules changes markedly upon heating In cold water, iso lated starch granules will take up 20-30 % of their weight in water. This association is reversible i.e the granule can be recovered in its original state upon drying. At about 65C, starch granules will swell rapidly, taking up large amounts of water (up to 25 times the original weight of the granule). This swelCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ling process termed gelatinization, is irreversible. Heating disrupts regional hydrogen bonding between adjacent starch segments, replacing starch-starch as sociation with s tarch-water association Upon cooling the hydrated segments are no longer free to hydrogen bond to other starch segments. Starch granules in plant tissue undergo gelatinization upon heating by taking up cellular water and / or water from their envi ronment if heated by steam or hot water. The individual potato cell is surrounded by a rigid cell wall consisting principally of cellulose interwoven with pectins. Cellulose is a high molecular weight polysaccharide in which the repeating unit is [3 D-glu cose. Pectins are a complex mixture of polysac charides of galacturonic acid or its methyl ester. These pectic substances are regarded as the cementing sub stances which hold plant cells together The softening that occurs upon cooking of fruits and vegetables is partially the result of depolymeriza tion of pectic substances. Depolymerization of pectins occurs in all types of cooking processes The common observation that potatoes cook faster when immersed in water than if steamed or baked is attributed to diffusion of pectin degradation products out of the tis sue and their solubilization in the cooking water When potatoes are cooked, the starch they contain is gelatinized and the water contained within the cell is adsorbed in the process. The cells become filled by swollen starch granules applying pressure to the cell wall if sufficient starch granules are present. The cell walls of individual cells normally remain intact; how ever, weakening of the cell walls by depolymerization of pectins makes the cell wall somewhat flexible. Therefore, if sufficient starch is present, the cell (which is normally box-like in shape) becomes roughly spherical. The change in shape further weakens the cementing forces which bind cells together by limiting surface-surface contact. A potato which is regarded as being of high quality for cooking will have a mealy texture upon being baked, boiled, steamed or fried. Mealiness is that quality of being soft, dry, and easily crumbled. Meal iness in a cooked potato results from an ease of separa tion of individual cells. A good cooking quality potato will therefore be one which contains a high proportion of cells which possess sufficient starch content to cause cellular and interstitial water to be adsorbed and to cause distortion of the cell shape to something more spherical when gelatinization take s place. The a bsence of sufficient starch leads to a hard, soggy tex ture even after cooking. In addition, a high quality cooking potato will have a high proportion of cells which are small enough to resist rupturing when the FALL 1987 The cooking of a potato in a hot water bath may be readily described by combining a model of transient heat transfer in a sphere (with convective boundary conditions) and kinetic data for the rate of change in tensile strength in potato tubers as a function of temperature. cooked tuber is mashed. Rupturing of cells results in release of swollen starch granules which gives the cooked potato a sticky, waxy texture. KINETICS OF COOKING A POTATO Personius and Sharp [1] have examined the adhe sion of potato tuber cells as influenced by tempera ture. In their experiments, whole potato tubers were coated with a thin layer of rubber paint and held in a constant temperature water bath. The rubber paint prevented the exchange of water and salts between the tuber and water bath. Thermocouples measured the temperature of the potato centers. After the potato centers reached the temperature of the water bath, potato tubers were removed at various times and the tensile strength of sections was obtained. From data reported by Personius and Sharp, the rates of decrease in tensile strength as a function of incubation temperature were determined in order to prepare an Arrhenius plot (see Figure 1). The primary assumption made here was that these rates are roughly equivalent to those which would have been .,:; o,' E 0 1 1/J 0:: 0 012 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 1/T X 10 3 (K1 ) FIGURE. 1. Arrhenius plot of data of Personius and Sharp [1] 205

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observed if the potatoes warmed to the incubation temperatures instantly. The effect of heat during warming time on these rates is unknown. The rate equation for the cooking process may be expressed as follows = k f(x) = k e-Ea/RT f(x) (1) dt o where TS tensile strength (kg/cm2) k a rate constant k 0 frequency factor Ea= energy of activation R universal gas constant T temperature (K) f(x) some function of the condition of the potato, assumed to be constant during the cooking process In logarithmic form the rate equation becomes tn (d~~S)) = + tn (k 0 f(x)) (2) From the Arrhenius plot the energy of activation and the factor [kof(x)] were determined to be 32500 cal/ mole and 2.85 x 10 20 kg /c m 2 -hr, respectively. Sub stituting these values into the rate equation and integ rating we have SOLUTION Modeling the Cooking of a Potato The process to be modeled is the cooking of a potato in a hot water bath under conditions of forced convection. Transient temperature profiles in the potato may be produced by numerical solution of Eq. (Al) (see Appendix) which describes unsteady-state heat conduction in a sp here of constant thermal con ductivity, heat capacity and density, h ea ted b y a s ur rounding fluid. The numerical so lution of this equation i s detailed in the Appendix utilizing the Crank-Nicol son finite difference method. Coupling this solution with the integrated form of the rate equation describ ing the change in tensile strength in a potato tuber as a function of time and temperature (Eq. 3) allows tran sient tensile strength profiles to be generated. A FORTRAN program which produces transient tensile stre ngth profiles in a cooking potato is avail able from the author. The program incorporate s the following assumptions: 206 (3) where TSO= tensile strength at t = 0 TSt tensile strength at time t T temperature ("K) t time (hrs) Based on data presented by Personius and Sharp, a value of 6.8 kg / cm 2 may be taken as the average ten sile strength of a raw potato tuber (TS 0 ). Personius and Sharp noted that the limiting value of the tensile strength of a potato heated in a constant temperature water bath was somewhat dependent upon the incubation temperature. Above 73C the limiting tensile strength was 0.4 kg / cm 2 Below 49 C relatively little change in tensile strength occurred over long periods of incubation. Between 49 C and 73 C there was observed to be a linear relationship between incubation temperature and limiting tensile strength. In this range the limiting tensile strength can be given by Eq. (4), derived from the data given by Personius and Sharp TS 1 = 0.24 Ti+ 17.8 (4) where TS 1 limiting tensile strength (kg/cm 2 ) Ti incubation tem pe rature ( C) The potato is spherical with a diameter of 3 inches. The heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the potato are assumed to be approximately that of water (the potato is roughly 80% water). The specific gravity of the potato is approximately 1.08. The potato is coated with a thin layer of rubber paint or rubber cement to prevent loss of salts or exchange of water with its environment (a requirement for validity of Per sonius and Sharp's data). The basic sequence of calculations in this program is as follows (see appendix): 1. The cooking temperature and value of the parame ter hRofk are assigned. Under conditions of forced convection the heat transfer coefficient, h, is esti mated to be 700-2000 W / m 2 C using the correlation given by Vliet and Leppert [2] These values cor respond to a relative fluid velocity over the sphere of O .1-1. 0 ft / s. It may be readily demonstrated that temperature profiles in th e cooking potato are rel atively insensitive to hR J k when hRJk > 40. For CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Co O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o ,:, n+ I NEW TIME LEVEL O o ,:, n OLD TIME LEVEL 0 0 ,:, (, ._. ____________ .._. (, r=(i-1/ 2 )~r n tn= L (Atlm mI ,:, FICTITIOUS POINTS FIGURE 2. Grid points for finite difference calculations a 3 in. diameter potato with a thermal conductivity equal to that of water, this corresponds to a heat transfer coefficient of 540 W / m 2 C 2 As shown in Figure 2 n is the time level index and i the index of points in space where the dimension less temperature u and the subsequent tensile strength are calculated by the program. Initially the dimensionless temperatures ui,o for i=l,20 are set to zero and tensile strengths set to 6.8 kg / cm 2 the average tensile strength of a raw potato. Each set of dimensionless temperatures ui n are then cal culated in turn (n=l,2,3 .. ) from the finite differ ence equation described in the Appendix. At all points i for each set of time levels n and n + 1 the average temperature (TA VG) between the "old" and "new" time levels is calculated 3. Utilizing Eq. (3) the change in tensile strength (ii TS) at each point i which results from cooking at hRo /K = 3 125 r = R/R 0 r;=(i-l/2)Llr !,hours 1.0 Llr = 0 05 0 56 :::, o 9L ____ :::.._ ________ ~=-----:==1 .,, b ___________ ~o~.3~7---= g; 0.8 0 7 l,J !i o sL-----.,, I0 5 Cl) [:l 0 4t::....---...J 0 3 0 21-----1,J 0 1~-----OI 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II (a) TAVG for a length of time equal to the lit between the n th and (n + l) t h time level is then calculated. At each point i these changes in tensile strength are added to all of those changes in tensile strength which took place between t=0 and the n t h time level. These summations for all points i are then subtracted from 6.8 kg / cm 2 the tensile strength of a raw potato tuber. The result is then the tensile strength at all points i at the (n + l) th time level. 4. Next the lower limits are applied to the tensile strength at any point i at the (n+ l) t h time level according to the cooking temperature (TA VG) over the time interval of n ton+ 1. IfTAVG < 49C, the lower limit of TS is 6.8 kg / cm 2 If TAVG > 73C, the lower limit is 0.4 kg / cm 2 If 49 C < TAVG < 73 C, the lower limit is given by Eq. ( 4). 5. The (n+ l) t h time level become s the n t h level and calculations are repeated giving tensile strength profiles as a function of radial distance from the center and time. Sample outputs of dimensionless temperature and tensile strength profiles from this program are shown graphically in Figure 3(a-b) and Figure 4(a-b) respec tively, for a 3 in diameter potato cooking at 90 C with hR 0 /k of 3.125 and 6400. Testing the Model Figure 4(b) may be taken as the predicted tensile strength profiles in a 3 in. potato cooking at 90 C in a hot water bath under conditions of forced convection (hR 0 /k > 40). To test the model, ten Idaho baking hRo/K =6400 r R/R 0 r;(l-l/2)L1r !,hours 1.ot_ _:Ll::_r~::_O :::O(l::_ _______ ~0::.:= 3c!-7---:_::.::.=;~~ 0 9 g; 0 8 io1L--___ 0 6 l,J I0 5 Cl) [30 4~-...J i'5 0 3 iii ~0 2~--0 11--,----0 01 O I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 (b) FIGURE 3. Transient dimensionless temperature profiles in a potato cooking at 90C. hR 0 /K = (a) 3. 125, (b) 6400 FALL 1987 207

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7 t, hours 1.34 COOKING TEMPERATURE= 363 K hR 0 /K =3.125 r = R/R 0 6i=--------r1 = (i-l/ 2 )Llr Llr = 0 05 "' E 5i-------.c..'-_1_e __ :c t; 4 z w a: t; 3 t----=2~.l..:.6_ w ..J iii Z 2 w I2 54 O I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I (a) 7 t, hours 0.905 "'6~------e 5 :c 1(!) 4 z w a: t;; 3 w ..J iii 2 I1.31 COOKING TEMPERATURE= 363K hR 0 /K =6400 r = R/R 0 r; = (i-1/ 2 ) Llr Llr = 0.05 o---....._....._......___._......___._ ......... _._ ....... __.~~.__..__..__....._~ .................. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 i (b) FIGURE 4. Transient tensile strength profiles in a potato cooking at 90 C. hR 0 /K = (a) 3. 125 (b) 6400 potatoes were coated with a thin layer of rubber ce ment and heated in a water bath at 90C. Water was circulated by means of a propeller stirrer. Potatoes were chosen to be as nearly spherical as possible and approximately 3 in. in diameter. The potatoes chosen were more accurately described as oblong measuring two by three inches. Potatoes were removed periodi cally, cut in half and an assessment made of the tex ture at various locations. The following observations are typical Time (ho urs ) 0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.67 1.75 Observation cooking started outmost 0.1-0.3 cm cooking outmost 0.5 cm mealy outmost 0. 8 cm mealy cooking throughout but outmost 1-1.2 cm mealy outmost 2 cm mealy outmost 2.6 cm mealy mostly cooked, still hard in center potato cooked and mealy throughout These results are in good agreement with the pre dictions of the model as given by Figure 4(b). CONCLUSION In the proposed problem / experiment students couple transient heat transfer with reaction kinetics to predict the course of the gelatinization of starch in a cooking potato. Students are introduced to numeri cal methods for the solution of partial differential equations and computer simulation of a chemical reac tion under nonisothermal, unsteady-state conditions. Students can readily use the model to make predic208 tions and test the validity of those predictions in the laboratory with a minimum of time and equipment. The proposed modeling exercise combines skills in mathematics computer programming, heat transfer, and kinetics. The problem is challenging but manage able by a senior chemical engineering student. REFERENCES 1. Personius C. J and Paul Sharp, "Adhesion of Potato-Tuber Cells as Influenced by Temperature ," Food R esearch, 3(5) 513 (1938) 2 Vliet, G. C. and G. Leppert, "F orced Convection Heat Transfer from an Isothermal Sphere to Water," J H eat Transf e r, serv. c 83, 163 (196 1 ) 3. von Rosenberg D., "Methods for the Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations ," Gerald L. Farrar & Associates, Tulsa OK (1969). APPENDIX Temperature Profiles in a Cooking Potato The cooking of a potato in a water bath may be model e d after that of a sphere of constant thermal conductivity (k), density (p), and heat capacity (Cp) h eate d by a surrounding fluid The differ ential equation for the temperature distribution, u(r,t), in the sphere is given by Eq (Al) (A l) Th e boundary a nd initial conditions are u = 0 f o r t = 0, all r = 0 for r = 0, all t a r hR = 0 T (l u ) for r = l, all t CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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h = coefficient of heat transfer between the surface of the sphere and the bulk fluid u, r and t are all dimensionless parameters defined as follows T T u = -r-=+ where T = bulk temperature of the fluid 00 surrounding the sphere 00 i Ti = initial temperature of the sphere where R 0 = radius of the sphere r = t R = di stance from the center of the sphere where = real time Eq (Al) with accompanying boundary conditions may be solved numerically utilizing the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method The two independent continuous variables (r and t) are replaced by discrete variables (also called here r and t) defined at points located on the grid shown in Figure 2. The following finite difference analogs may be written ( ] u u. = 1.,n+l i.,n at i 'n+l / 2 lit [ a 2 u] = 1 [ui+l n 2 ui n + ui-1 n + ui+l ,n+l Zui n+l + ui-1 n+l ar2 1 ;2 2 (llr)2 (11r)2 1.,n+ [ ~] = l[ui+l,n ui-1 n + ui+l, n + l ui-1 1 n+l] ar i n +l / 2 2 2(llr) 2(llr) Making these substitutions in Eq. (Al) results in the following finite difference analog u,-1,n+l + u, ,n+l [-2(6t) 2(llr)2 (.L:....lil.) + U lit i 3/2 i+l,n+l [ i___lli]] i 3/2 = u + u f2(llt) 2(llr) 2 ( .L:....lil. J ] i-1,n i n lit i 3/2 + ui+l,n [ [: ~m) This equation applies for 2 s i s (R-1). In writing this equation for i = 1 or i = R, terms involving fictitious points (Uo n + l and u 0 n or UR + l n and UR + l n + i, respectively) are produced. Writing finite differen~e analogs for the boundary equations allows these terms to be eliminated u u 1,n 2 0 1 n O for a 11 n Therefore and 0 1,n+l = uo,n+l For i = 1 we have then [ 3llt + 2(llrl 2 ) 3 u = u [2(llr) 2 3 ll t] + 3 u 6t 2,n+l l,n 6t 2,n hR -f ,1 u) r= a becomes hR [ u + u ] [u u ] T 1 R+l ,n R+l ,~r R,n = O FALL 1987 for a 11 n. Replacing hRJk with k gives [ kllr 2) UR+l ,n = uR,n l-ktir 2 for all n Therefore for i = R we have u + u [-2llt 2(llr) 2 [ L.Jfl. ] + kllr 2 r~11 R-1, n +l R ,n+l lit R 3/2 (-kllr 2 ) R 3/2 = u + u [2llt 2(llr) 2 [L.Jfl.] + kllr 2 [R + 1/2]] R-1,n R,n lit R 3/2 (-kllr 2 ) lf-:-372 + 2 [~] 211ri< R 3/2 (-kllr 2) At each time level (where t > 0) R equations may be written containing R unknowns. Furthermore these equations constitute a tridiagonal matrix. Equations of this form are readily solved for u as a function of r and t by the Thomas algorithm [3]. REVIEW: Multiphase Science Continued from page 197. Chapter Four is a review of a re boiler. The authors struck a balance between practical application and sci entific analysis by discussing both the design strategy and the appropriate correlations used for thermal hydraulic analysis. The authors recommend that a set of several design equations be presented and a com parison be made of the relative merit of each for par ticular design applications. Chapter Five covers flow of gas-solid mixtures through standpipes and valves In this chapter, most attention was devoted to the flow regimes of solid-gas in standpipes, which include four basic types: type I fluidized flow and type II fluidized flow, PAC FLO and TRANPACFLO, and the combination thereof. The gas-solid flow in a standpipe is still a subject with incomplete knowledge. The authors made an ef fort to introduce the subject in a rational manner. The readers can use this review as a good start to under stand not only gas-solid flow in standpipes but may also find it inspirational in trying to understand other multi-phase flow systems. Chapter Six deals with core-annular flow of oil and water through a pipeline. The motivation of such spec ial flow is to find a reduction of pressure drop for pumping heavy, viscous oil through a pipe using water in annular as a "lubricant." Thus, the authors pro posed their lubricating-film model. In this model, the main features are the inclusion of core eccentricity and the ripple lubricating film. The validity range of core-velocities for the lubricating-film model was given. The authors also proposed some possible ways of improving the models and predictions. D 209

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[eJij9iviews and opinions CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING* Current Status and Future Directions M. P. DUDUKOVIC Washington University St. Louis, MO 63130 C H EMICAL REACTIONS have been used by man kind since time immemorial to produce useful products such as wine, metals, etc. Nevertheless, the unifying principles that today we call chemical reac tion engineering were not developed until relatively a short time ago. During the decade of the 1940's (not even half a century ago!) a transition was made from descriptive industrial chemistry to the conceptual un ification of reaction processes and reactor types. The pioneering work in this area of industrial practice was done by Denbigh [1] in England. Then in 1947, Hougen and Watson [2] published the first textbook in the U.S that presented a unified approach in tack ling catalytic kinetics and reactors. This book has had a lasting effect on the American school of catalytic reaction engineering as focused primarily on pet roleum processing. The expansion of the petroleum Milorad (Mike) P. Dudukovic i s a professor of chemical engineering and director of CREL at Washington University where he has been since 1974 He received his BS in chemical engineering from the University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and his MS and PhD from IIT, Chicago He hos worked as a process design engineer and taught ot IIT Ohio Uni versity, and Washington His research interests encompass a variety of phenomena involving transport-kinetic interactions. *Paper presented at the 2nd Yugoslav Congress of Chemical En gineering with International Participation, Dubrovnik, May 11 15, 19 87. Copy,ight ChE Di vision ASEE 198 7 210 and petrochemical industry provided a fertile ground for further development of reaction engineering con cepts. The final cornerstone of this new discipline was laid in 1957 by the First Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering [3] which brought together and synthesized the European point of view The Amer ican and European schools of thought were not identi cal, but in time they converged into the subject matter that we know today as chemical reaction engineering, or CRE. The above chronology led to the establish ment of CRE as an accepted discipline over the span of a decade and a half. This does not imply that all the principles important in CRE were discovered then. The foundation for CRE had already been established by the early work of Frank-Kamenteski, Damkohler, Zeldovitch, etc., but at that time they represented "voices in the wilderness," and no coherent area of specialization known as CRE had yet emerged. What then is CRE? It is the discipline that quan tifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kine tics in relating reactor performance to operating con ditions and input variab l es CRE, in achieving this goal, relies on thermodynamics, kinetics, fluid me chanics, transport phenomena, chemistry or biochemistry, physics, etc. The key equation of CRE can be stated as Reactor Performance = f ( input kinetics, contacting) Product yield, or selectivity, or production rate can be taken as measures of performance Feed and operating conditions constitute the input variables. Fluid mechanics of single or multiphase flows deter mines contacting while kinetic descriptions relate reaction rate to pertinent intensive variables such as concentrations, temperature, pressure, catalyst activ ity, etc. CRE is a general methodology for approaching any system (chemical, biochemical, biological, etc .) where engineering of reactions is needed, i.e ., where cause and effect relations imparted by reaction and observed in small laboratory vessels need to be "scaled-up" to large commercial reactors CRE can then be used by the research engineer to quantify the reaction sys tem and assess transport lirmtat10ns, by the aes1gn en gineer in designing the plant reactor, and by the manCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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What is CRE? It is the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables ... in achieving this goal [it] relies on thermodynamics, kinetics, fluid mechanics, transport phenomena ... physics, etc. ufacturing engineer in keeping the reactor running ac cording to specification. The power of CRE is that it spans the domain of many diverse technologies in the petroleum, metallurgical, chemical, materials, fer mentation and pharmaceutical industries. The same framework can be used to attack a reaction problem irrespective of its chemical nature. C UR RENT STATUS OF CRE It is impossible in a brief review to do justice to a discipline as broad as CRE. One can approach the sub ject from the generic point of view and talk about the status of CRE in dealing with homogeneous gaseous or liquid systems, heterogeneous gas-solid catalytic systems, heterogeneous gas-solid noncatalytic sys tems, gas-liquid systems, gas-liquid-solid systems, etc., or one can approach it from the technological point of view and consider the status of CRE in hydro desulfurization of crude oil, biochemical processing, polymerization, food production, baking, electrochem ical processing, air pollution abatement, coal gasifica tion, etc. All of those areas have received attention, and plenary lectures were dedicated to them at vari ous ISCRE symposia. Here, we will just try to im press upon the reader the current status of teaching CRE at universities and the possible disparity be tween that activity and industrial practice. CRE in Academia It is instructive to note that in 1958, only 18% of the academic departments in the U.S. offered a course on CRE to undergraduate students. In 1962 that per centage had already risen to 53%, and by the end of the 1960's, CRE had become a required course in all accredited departments in the U.S. This has remained unchanged today. In the early years, Hougen and Watson [2] was the only textbook considered in the U S. It has been replaced mainly by Levenspiel's text [4] in the 1960's. Brotz [5] and Kramers and Wester terp [6] seem to have been the standards in Europe until recently. The number of general textbooks of the subject exceeded forty-eight in 1980 and continues to rise dramatically. These texts have been sum marized by Levenspiel [7] and Dudukovic [8]. Special ized monographs treating a particular topic within CRE are also proliferating. What are the undergraduate students exposed to in a typical CRE course in the U.S.? According to the latest survey [8] (and not much has changed since FALL 1987 then) most of them (over 67%) learn the ideal reactor concepts, deal with evaluation of kinetic data from batch experiments, treat some nonideal reactors (via tanks in series and dispersion model, mainly) and are introduced to mechanisms and kinetics. Only about 60% are introduced to the transport-kinetic interac tions in heterogeneous systems, less than 50% deal with realistic packed-bed reactor problems, and fewer than 20% are exposed to fluidized beds. Most depart ments claim some industrial input into the course, but it consists mainly of the instructor's industrial experi ence. Use of digital computers, numerical methods, and programming in dealing with realistic design problems is on the rise. While over 55% of the depart ments utilized numerical approaches in 1982, it is ex pected that almost all will do so in 1987. The increased use of computational tools in CRE courses is welcome because it allows the basic CRE principles, once mastered, to be applied to more realistic, practical problems. Quantification of CRE principles, through extensive use of mathematics, dates back to Amundson and co-workers at the Uni versity of Minnesota [9] which at the time represented a significant step forward. Today, most graduate courses in CRE suffer to some extent from mathemat ical oversophistication that has lost touch with reality. For example, students may work on various numerical schemes to solve complex reactor models while assum ing that the kinetic relations are known with great accuracy-an unlikely event in industrial practice. A trend toward better understanding of process chemis try or biochemistry, and improved tools to deal with scant and inaccurate data, seem to be needed instead. The "computerization" of the CRE courses allows the students today to handle reactor models that rep resented doctoral thesis projects a decade ago. There fore an increased emphasis on tying CRE principles to process chemistry is possible and is needed. Academic research is split between traditional reactor type oriented research and the new emphasis on process development. For example, continued re search is being done on improved understanding of various multiphase reactors such as fluidized beds, slurry reactors, three phase fluidized beds, bubble col umns, trickle-beds, stirred tanks, etc. Increased em phasis on process oriented research is apparent, e.g., silane pyrolysis to silicon, epitaxial growth of single crystals, preparation of novel zeolites, preparation of new polymers, etc. 211

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Industrial Practice of CRE There is a wide gap between industrial practice and academic approaches to CRE in the U.S. It is expected that the gap is even wider in developing countries. Reaction engineering is practiced at a high level of sophistication, paralleling approaches outlined in most modern textbooks [10-12], only in some large petroleum companies. There, kinetic data are sought in absence of transport effects on small scale equip ment, mechanisms and kinetics on catalytic surfaces are studied, and the scale-up problem is approached in stages. Scale-up often involves the evaluation of hydrodynamic assumptions made in reactor design by tracer studies on a cold real scale model of the produc tion reactor. Recently, the Mobil Corporation has used this classical and methodical approach to success fully develop methanol-to-gasoline large scale fluidized bed reactors which were the key to the suc cess of the process. Unfortunately, U S. petroleum companies have not been building many new plants in the last five years, and their CRE advances have been temporarily halted In industry, advances of a methodology like CRE are process demand driven. When the demand disappears, the advances slow down. The danger of this situation is that some of the best CRE teams which had been assembled at large petroleum companies are now disintegrating and dis persing. Thus, when synfuels become needed again, there will be a painful period of adjustment in reas sembling teams with CRE expertise. Chemical, pharmaceutical and other companies in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world have not, in gen eral, practiced CRE on the same level as petroleum companies. Often they did not realize that the reactor, although not a major item in capital expenditures for a new plant, by its performance dictates the load on and size of separation equipment. Reactor design often followed a "seat-of-the-pants" approach and was rarely optimized. Major advances have been made in reactor control where digital, multivariable control conducted through a central station is the dominant feature of modern plants. Frequently, companies either rely on patent protection or are pressured to introduce a product on the market within a short time, so they tolerate sloppy reactor design. Prater s princi ple of optimum sloppiness [13] is not practiced here. That principle, practiced in petroleum companies, states that as more and more relations for a reaction system are quantified, costs go up but the uncertainty of design goes down, and the cross section of the two curves indicates an optimum. Most reactor designs in chemical and other industries are done with very little 212 quantitative information in hand regarding kinetics. Scale-up based on equal liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) is the rule of the day, followed by incorpora tion of additional reactor volume in the design as a safety factor. It is hoped that the increased competi tiveness in the specialty chemicals area will force the chemical companies to practice CRE at a higher level. Significant savings should be possible with better reactor designs. CRE research in industry has been traditionally process driven. New contactors (new reactor types) are introduced for a particular technology and then sometimes become adopted elsewhere, e.g., fluidized bed for catalytic cracking, radial flow reactor for am monia synthesis, Shell bunker (moving) bed reactor for hydrodesulfurization with deactivating catalysts, fast fluidized bed for coal combustion e tc. Most of the industrial research today is oriented towards the de velopment of better zeolites and other catalysts, spec ialty chemicals, specialty polymers composite mate rials, high performance ceramics, improved pigments, e t c. CRE, unfortunately, seem s to play onl y a minor role in these bench scale endeavors but is expected to be needed in scale-up. The current economic situa tion has brought to a temporary halt the research on synthetic fuels, alternate energy sources, and process ing of heavy oils. FUTURE TRENDS Reaction engineering is now a mature discipline. It evolved in the 1940's from the ideal reactor concepts on one side and from the systematic treatment of transport-kinetic intractions on catalyst particles on the other. Mathematical approaches of the early 1960's established the foundation on which the principles of CRE dealing with transport-kinetic interactions can be applied to a vast variety of fields. The unification of CRE approaches has been achieved. Increased com puterization allows its application in complex prob lems. What of the future then? What will be the re search directions and where, i .e., in which field will the major industrial impact be felt? What kind of CRE should be taught and practiced in developing coun tries? Many would argue that the future of CRE is in high technologies. However, high technology must be carefully defined. Often biotechnology high technol ogy, high performance compo s ites s emiconductor ma terials, high performance ceramics optical fibers technology pharmaceuticals e tc., are understood to be high technology. However, that is not necessarily so For example, a fully automated modern steel plant CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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may involve much more sophistication contro~ and automation than a primitive autoclave for cunng of thermosetting composites or for production of cells . Really, what is often meant by high-tech is hig?-value added products, i. e ., relatively new technologies that produce specialty, often low volume products t~e price of which is an order of magnitude abov~ their manufacturing costs! We have no argument with the premise that CRE will be needed and will prosper by advancing high technology products. However, we are not at all convinced that it will play a significant role in development of high-value added products unless they also happen to be high technology_ products. T he reason for this is simple and has nothmg to do with science or engineering, but with economics In produc ing a high value added product (a miracle drug _a super fast semi-conductor chip, etc ) the bottle-neck is in the science Once a bench scale scientist makes a breakthrough, scale-up factors required are small and the efficiency of manufacturing is not critical since the profit margin is huge. This is the reason why a de mand for CRE specialists in biotechnology has so far failed to materialize. Very specific, low-volume prod ucts are being sought and engineering involvement is small and secondary to that of scientists. This will change when competitiveness in this area increases and/or when large scale biomass conversion is attemp ted. The CRE research directions in the U S invari ably follow the funding trends. Therefore in the short term future (five years) one can expect increased em phasis on aerosol reactors in production of ceramics and optical fibers batch processing, control and optimization biotechnology chemical vapor deposition in preparation of semiconductor materials such as MOCVD of gallium arsenide, etc. combustion and generation of particulates reaction engineering of composite materials reaction engineering in microgravity reaction engineering of specialty polymers zeolite catalysts, catalyst preparation and quantification, modifications with transition metals, studies of configura tional diffusion. Over the long run we well know that trends are cyclic in nature. The energy problem ha s not been solved permanently. Eventually petroleum based products will need replacement and synthetic fuels, renewable energy sources, and new materials will be needed. The currently dormant research on coal gasification and liquefaction methanol synthesis FALL 1987 methanol to chemicals conversion multiphase reactors synfuels from various sources, etc. will be resurrected in addition to the currently popular areas All of the above areas seem to be more process oriented than the CRE research in the 1960's and 1970 s that concentrated on analysi s of various reactor types. The trend of remarrying CRE concepts ~th process chemistry is probably here to stay. It is of course possible to make further dramatic improve ments in our understanding and a priori design of various multiphase reactor types that are today de signed based on empirical relations. The to~ls ne~es sary to achieve this are available and consi s t of im proved non-invasive technology for monitoring flow patterns and concentration profiles (gamma cameras and sources, x-ray and positron emission tomography, optical fibers, etc ) and of supercomputers th~t make difficult flow calculations possible. However, it is un likely that any society will in the present climate allo cate the resources necessary to tackle with the best available tools a problem such as fluidized bed or trickle-bed a priori design. If these breakthroughs happen and they are possible based on our cun:ently available arsenal of tools, they will occur in relat10n to the development of a particular technology that relies on such a reactor type. Research funding will be di rected toward the development of new processes for pollution abatement and acid rain elimination, for the development of improved data bases in treatment of hazardous chemicals, for processes for hazardous chemicals elimination for e x pert systems for reactor safety, e t c. In the near future we can expect chemical reaction engineers to develop a second specialty (a _"min?r," so to speak) in a scientific discipline such as rmcrob10lo~, electronics, ceramics, materials, etc Then they will work very effectively together with scientists in the early stages of developing new processes. Capable managers with technical backgrounds will realize that productivity and the success rate in_ developing n_ew processes can be increased drama~icall~ b~ lettmg chemical reaction engineers work with scientists on a new process or new material from the very conception of new ideas. Thus, we will see significant involve ment of CRE in new areas such as materials, semicon ductors, ceramics, specialty polymers, and food and feed. Major industrial impact will be in scale-up ~nd design of flexible processes that can meet changing customer needs. All high technology areas will benefit from CRE and they include "old" technologies, large scale commodity and specialty chemicals, petroleum 213

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processing, and all the new high-value products where a high level of competition exists. This implies that developing countries must teach well the CRE principles, but should not try to do re search in all of the areas. Their research should be directed toward improving and further developing the technologies for which there are economic advantages and incentives. A close and productive academic-in dustrial relationship is the only way for developing nations to achieve a competitive position in certain industries. Since reaction engineering is considered a mature discipline, it is clear that higher returns are expected by application of the CRE principles in emerging technologies than by further advancement of these principles. It is often argued that traditional ap proaches in studying a specific reactor type in a gen eral sense bring diminishing returns and incremental improvements in our knowledge base. This might be true if one insists on using old fashioned experimental and mathematical tools. However, as argued earlier, our scientific base in instrumentation and large sca le computation has reached a new dimension. If we would bring these new tools to bear on multiphase reactor problems, advances paralleling those in medicine would be possible. At present, the limiting factor is a lack of funds since generic reactor analysis cannot be compared in appeal to health care. Nevertheless, research of various reactor types will continue, with increased emphasis on novel devices that combine reaction and adsorption in one unit (e.g., reactive distillation, chromatographic reactor, super critical reaction and separation). We should also re member that unexpected breakthroughs are possible at any time and in any area. After all, who could pre dict the timing of Danckwerts residence time distribu tion concepts and their impact on CRE that lasted several decades? CRE will remain a vital field and a fun field to do research in and to practice in industry. Steady progress will be made, more science will be brought back to CRE, and major breakthroughs are possible. These are the conclusions of our recent En gineering Foundation Conference on reaction en gineering [14]. SUMMARY Chemical reaction engineering is a mature disci pline that has emerged from the treatment of pe troleum related catalytic reaction problems and has been broadened to the point that the word chemical should be dropped from its title. Reaction engineering principles deal with the transport phenomena-kinetic 214 interactions and are general in nature and applicable to all types of processing and all phenomena where, in conversion of raw materials to useful products or to energy, reactions occur. Reaction engineering as a discipline has profited immensely from the availability of increased computational power and from the exis tence of data base management. Its further evolution is expected to make its dependence on various sci ences (chemistry, biochemistry, materials, etc.) even stronger and could possibly result in formation of vari ous CRE subdisciplines. Reaction engineering will continue to prosper in the future by relying more on basic chemistry in reac tion pathway development and by incorporating basic hydrodynamic principles in reactor design. Empirical correlations will gradually be replaced by relations based on first principles. In spite of all these predicted specific advances, however, the most valuable re so urce will remain the reaction engineering methodol ogy itself. Perhaps the ultimate achievement will be the development of expert systems for reaction en gineering which will combine the fundamental ap proaches of science with the experience, instinct and intuition of many great reaction engineers. These sys tems will then be able to lead us in the design of safe, optimal reactors based on a minimum data set. REFERENCES 1. Denbigh, K. G., Tran s ., Faraday Soc., 40, 352 (1944). 2 Hougen, 0. A. and K. M. Watson, Chemical Process Princi ples, Part 3: Kinetics and Catalysis, J. Wiley, N Y ., 1947. 3. First Symposium on CRE 1957, Proc. 12th Meeting and the European Federation of Chemical Engineering, Chem. Eng Sci., 8 (1958 ). 4 Levenspiel 0., Chemical R eaction Engineering, J. Wiley, N Y ., 1962. 5. Brotz, W Grundriss der chemischen R eaktions -t ec hnik. Ver lag Chemie, Berlin, 1958 6. Kramers, H and K. R. Westerterp, El emen t s of Chemical Reactor D esign and Op e rations, Acad. Press N.Y., 1963. 7. Levenspiel, 0., Chem Eng Sc i 35, 1821 (1980). 8 Dudukovic, M P., Chem. Eng. Progr ess, 78(2), 25 (1982). 9. Aris, R. and A. Varma, Th e Math ematica l Understanding of Chemical Eng ineering Systems: Selected Pap e rs of N. R. Amundson, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 19 80 10. Froment, G and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design, J. Wiley, N Y. 1979. 11. Fogler H S., Elem en ts of Chemical Reaction Eng ineering, Prentice-Hall N.J., 1986. 12. Nauman, B. E., Chemical Reactor Design, J. Wiley, N.Y., 1987 13. Carberry, J. J., Chemical and Catalytic R eac tion Engin eer ing, McGraw-Hill, N Y ., 1976. pp. 8-10 14. Second Engineering Foundation Conference on Chemical Reaction Engineering (M. P. Dudukovic, F. Krambeck and P A. Ramachandran, Chairmen), Sheraton, Santa Barbara, C A March 8-13, 1987. D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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[eJ ;j #I book reviews MULTIPHASE CHEMICAL: REACTORS: THEORY, DESIGN, SCALE-UP edited by Agostino Gianetto, Peter L. Silveston; Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave., New York 10016 (1986); 682 pages, $110 Reviewed by Y. T. Shah University of Pittsburgh This volume was developed from notes prepared for a short course on the theory, design, and scale-up of multiphase reactors held in 1982. The course was given by a group ofresearchers in multiphase reactors or in some closely related areas of study The first chapter (by A. Gianetto) deals with the classification, characteristics, and uses of these types of reactors. Chapters 2 to 5 (by J. C. Charpentier) are extensive reviews of various aspects of gas-liquid reactors. They cover: mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction (Chap. 2); solubility and diffusivity of gases in liquids (Chap. 3); measurement of gas-liq uid parameters (Chap. 4); and simulation of industrial and pilot scale gas-liquid absorbers (Chap. 5). Gener ally, the term multi-phase reactors implies reactors with more than two phases. The author, at the intro duction of Chapter 2, explains the reason for including the gas-liquid (two-phase) system in a monograph de voted to multiphase reactors, on the basis of its simi larity with the latter types of systems. Chapters 6 and 7 (by P. L. Silveston) deal with diffusion and reaction within porous catalysts, and with the structure of the solid phase and its influence on diffusivity. These classical subjects can also be classified under the two-phase category. Chapters 8 to 12 introduce the core of the book. They treat in detail three phase fixed bed reactors, with special attention paid to trickle-bed reactors. Hy drodynamics (Chap. 8), Mass Transfer (Chap. 9), Solid Wetting (Chap. 10), Heat Transfer (Chap. 11), and Scale-Up of Trickle-Beds (Chap. 12) are developed by H. Hofmann, J. C. Charpentier, J. M. Smith, G. Baldi, and A. Gianetto, respectively. The general evaluation of three-phase reactors is completed with Chapters 13 to 15, where the hydrodynamics and mass transfer in bubble columns (by H. Hofmann), hydro dynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer in stirred slurry reactors (by G. Baldi) and modeling of slurry reactors (by J. M. Smith) are presented. FALL 1987 All through these chapters correlations and models are critically reviewed, with each author developing his subject in his own style. Hofmann presents his chapters in a concise and clear way, with appropriate recommendations whenever possible. Mass transfer in fixed beds, developed by Charpentier, is written with numerous references and correlations of experimental data. Smith presents the wetting factor in trickle-beds and modeling of slurry reactors in two short chapters. Heat transfer in three-phase fixed beds and hydro dynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer in stirred slurry reactors by Baldi, and the scale-up of trickle bed reactors by Gianetto, are written in a manner that can be easily followed by the reader. In addition, there are three chapters in which the design and scale-up of multiphase reactors for Hydro treating (by A. Gianetto and P. L. Silveston), Coal Liquefaction (by P. L. Silveston) and Biological Pro cesses (by M. Moo-Young) are evaluated. In particu lar, the last chapter puts formally under the framework of multiphase reactors an important area of research not included in previous books about the present subject. The goal of this monograph, as stated by the editors, is to present the dominant physical processes occurring in the most widely used three-phase reac tors, and to provide models for their scale-up. Since there are several authors, the reader faces different styles of presentation as well as some overlapping (claimed unavoidable and even desirable by the editors). Part of the presented material is an enriched version of previous contributions by some of the au thors to already published seminars and journal re views. The production quality of text could have been im proved: there are many typographical errors. Despite being published in 1986, the monograph's references (with a few exceptions) reach only until 1982. The lit erature in this area grows at such a rapid rate that the book should have come out just after the confer ence to create its maximum impact. The book will be particularly useful for those researchers who have to deal with multiphase reactors, and who need an over view of the whole area. The monograph provides sub stantial contributions that will be helpful for those facing this subject for the first time. For those re searchers familiar with multiphase reactors, the book provides another set of review that complements the already available excellent monographs in the area. 215

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COMBUSTION ENGINEERING Continued from page 199. aided design methods in U. S. industry, with em phasis on clean and efficient use of low-grade fuels. The approach is to integrate kinetic and mechanistic data, physical/chemical fuel property data, and pro cess performance characteristics into comprehensive state-of-the-art computer models to be used in the simulation, design and optimization of advanced com bustion processes. The underlying philosophy is that a fundamental systems approach applied to carefully selected systems will have wide application to many important combustion problems. The products of the new center will include: (1) new computer-aided-de sign combustion technology, (2) new understanding of combustion mechanisms and their relation to fuel properties, (3) improved process strategies, and (4) students educated in the fundamentals of combustion engineering who can solve a wide range of problems. Program. Research projects are focused in six fun damental areas: (1) fuels characterization and reaction mechanisms, (2) fuel minerals, fouling and slagging, (3) pollutant formation and control, (4) comprehensive model development, (5) process characteristics/model evaluation, and (6) exploratory areas. The first five areas are the key elements needed for complete de sign, optimization and control of advanced technology for combustion processes. The following three re search subjects, specifically identified by a blue ribbon panel as among the potentially most productive for the near-term, are receiving particular emphasis: (1) comprehensive and generalized modeling of coal com bustion processes, (2) identification of the relation ships between chemical/physical properties of fuels at the molecular level and reaction processes, and (3) fundamentals of formation and control of sulfur and nitrogen emissions. Exploratory research presently includes hazardous waste disposal and may expand in the future to fluidized beds, catalytic combustion, or catalytic reduction of NOx. The heart of the center's research program presently consists of about thirteen research projects at BYU and U of U, funded on the basis of excellence and pertinence to the focus/subject areas, as well as eight research projects funded by a consortium of companies through the center. Some of the key investigators involved in some of these pro jects are listed in Table 4. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER The Executive Advisory Council (Table 2), consist ing of highly placed executives and professionals, pro216 vides essential direction on the focus of the center's research and academic programs. Besides financial support, the Technical Associates of the center (Table 3) participate through representation in the Technical Review Committee and through attendance at the ACERC Annual Review. Visits and interchanges of students and faculty with industrial professionals of these companies and laboratories are also planned. Center funds will provide half-support for a visiting industrial research fellow on a continuing basis. To promote technology transfer, an annual review and a biannual technical conference are held on campus with presentations on advanced combustion from academia, government and industry. The center also dissemi nates new information through annual technical re ports, journal publications, presentations at meetings, technical workshops, and computer networking. ACADEMIC PROGRAM The objective is to educate students in engineering and scientific fundamentals using the systems ap proach in a way that will prepare them to solve a wide range of problems. Fellowship support is provided for 4-5 graduate and 8-10 undergraduate students. A com bination of 3-4 new and 20 currently available courses among six departments in four colleges at the two universities provide a broad basis for both general and specific education in combustion-related science and engineering. At the undergraduate level, students reTABLE 4 Key Investigators: ACERC INVESTIGATOR AREA OF EXPERTISE Calvin H. Bartholomew, ChE, BYU Catalysis, Surface properties William C. Hecker, Chem. Eng., BYU of coal and chars David M. Grant, C hemistry, U ofU NMR characterization of fuels RonaldJ. Pugmire, Fuels Eng., U ofU George Hill, Chem. Eng., U ofU Coal characterization and Henk Meuzelaar, Biomaterials properties corre lation Profiling Ce nter, U ofU Milton R. Lee, Chemistry, BYU Chromatographic analysis of fuels Angus Blackham, Chemistry, BYU Fouling, s lagging, minerals, John W. Cannon, Mech. Eng, BYU chemical analysis David W. Pershing, Chem. Eng., Pollutant formation and subU ofU models Philip J. Smith, Chem. Eng., BYU Comprehensive model develop L. Douglas Smoot, Chem. Eng. BYU ment Mike Ste phen se n Civil Eng., BYU Graphics code development Paul 0. Hedman, Chem. Eng., BYU Process characteristics and Geoffery Germane, Mech. Eng., BYU diagnosti cs CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ceive general exposure to systems, energy, and en vironmental engineering in the form of senior elec tives; a new undergraduate program option will be established in chemical engineering at BYU. Graduate students receive a more specific education in such top ics as combustion science and engineering, kinetics, physical and chemical structure of solids and fuels and process modeling and control. Selected courses, seminars, and ad hoc seminars from visiting industrial lecturers at both universities are offered to students in a coordinated curriculum. Efforts are being made to optimize the use of remote circuit TV and a shuttle bus system between the two campuses. Graduate and undergraduate participation in combustion research is also stimulated by research fellowships and assis tantships. A continuing education program is being organized to serve the needs of industrial engineers and scientists for professional development in combus tion related subjects and to train them in the use of simulation codes using state-of-the-art computer graphics workstations in our new Computations Center. MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE FIRST YEAR During the first year of its existence, the center initiated and funded thirteen new projects purchased a new Convex Mini Supercomputer, and completed construction of a new computations laboratory that features state-of-the-art work stations for computer code development and demonstration. A proposal for a link to the NSF-supported San Diego Cray for run ning these codes was submitted to NSF and accepted. Workshops on comprehensive modeling, fouling and slagging, and other advanced combustion topics were conducted; organizational meetings for ACERC facul ty, the Executive Advisory Council, and the Technical Review Committee were held; working groups involv ing prominent scientists and engineers in each of the thrust areas were organized; visits were made to other cooperating laboratories, including Sandia Na tional Laboratories, for purposes of establishing col laboration; and a number of prominent engineers and scientists were invited to lecture in the center. Significant progress was made on twenty-one re search projects in the six thrust areas of research presently emphasized in the center. These projects included eight active research projects funded by the foundational consortium grant. A summary of the ac complishments of the ACERC and consortium pro jects can be obtained from the author. Consortium projects were active for the entire fiscal year, while FALL 1987 ACERC projects were generally initiated in Sep tember, 1986 and progress thus covers only an eight month period. Even so, several important accomplish ments are noted. Of particular significance was the development and demonstration of a 3-D combustion code for non-reacting, gaseous flows. Work on a sig nificantly improved radiation submode} was success fully completed, while submodel elements for SO x -sor bent capture, fouling-slagging and carbon nonequilib rium were identified. Further evaluation was com pleted on an NO x submodel and a comprehensive 2-D combustion code (PCGC-2) previously developed in the combustion laboratory. A new algorithm for graphical representation of combustion model predic tions was developed. Standard ACERC coals were identified, and significant progress was made in characterizing and documenting the physical, chemical and structural properties of several of these coals. Facilities were designed and / or under construc tion for study of coal devolatilization, char oxidation, and in situ CARS study of flames. Development of submodels and collection of experimental data for SO x removal and hazardous waste combustion were also initiated Advanced chromatographic methods were developed for separation of and structural assignment to hydrocarbon fragments from coal extracts of six ACERC coals. Time-resolved Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometer studies of a Pittsburgh #8 coal re vealed an aromatic distillable fraction, a long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction showing thermoplastic degradation characteristics and a vitrinite-like phenolic fraction exhibiting thermosetting degrada tion behavior. A new solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique was developed for aromatic ring structural analysis in coals. Other accomplishments through the spring of 1987 included the hiring of center secretarial and adminis trative staff, design and production of a brochure, publication of internal and external newsletters, de sign and initial construction of new laboratories and a campaign to increase industrial funding / participa tion. An educational (academic) program was or ganized to include new coursework, options and fel lowship programs in combustion-related areas at the two universities. An annual review meeting was held March 5-6, 1987, at BYU involving over one hundred participants from industry, government, academia, and the center. The initial response to the progress during the first year was generally enthusiastic. Thus, it appears that ACERC is off to a good start while combustion research is "heating up" at the BYU and the U of U campuses. D 217

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REVIEW: Injection Molding Continued from page 173. plains the methodology of process control. This chap ter bears some similarity to Chapter Three, but is much more thorough and useful. The la st section (Part III) is concerned with data bases and contains Chapter Twelve. It is one of the more useful chapters in the book as it describes the importance to the designer of having data banks avail able containing the physical properties in both the solid and molten phases of each thermoplastic. This data should be readily available in both the part design and process sim ulation phases and must be stored in the computer system. The chapter contains an over view of the development of the present data bases, including the types of data available in present sys tems and future trends. In summary, there are a number of useful chapters in the book, but unfortunately the connection between chapters is not readily apparent. For the inexperi enced engineer, it would be difficult to assemble the appropriate knowledge from this book and then apply it to process control or mold design. The book would be more useful if a section on principles of injection molding, including the fluid mechanics of mold filling and its connection to the properties of a part, were included at the beginning of the book. D TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Continued from page 177. pleted these courses they will know what to look for when they encounter new problems, and they will have acquired the tools necessary to solve a great many of them. REFERENCES 1. Stephan Whitaker, Introdu cti on to Flu id Mechanics, Krieger 1981. 2. G K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Flu id Dynami cs, Cambridge 1967. 3. V. L. Streeter, Flu id Dynamics McGraw Hill, 1948. 4. Horac e Lamb, Hydrodynam ics, Cambridge, 19 32. 5. Hermann Schlichting, Boundary-Layer Th eory, McGraw-Hill, 1968. 6. R. B Bird, W E. Stewart, and E N. Lightfoot, Tra nsport Pheno mena, Wiley 1960 7. Milton Van Dyke, P ertu rbat i on M e thods in Fluid M ec hanics Parabolic, 1975. 8. Milton Van Dyke, Co ur se Notes for ME 206, Similitude in Engin ee ring Mechanics January 1978. 9. G. I. Taylor, "The Formation of a Blast Wave by a Very In tense Explosion," Proc. Roy So c A., 201, pp. 159-186 10. P. G. Drazin and W H. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability, Cam bridge, 1981. 11. Andreas Acrivos and G I. Taylor Phys. Fl uids, 5, p. 387 (1962). D 218 MICROGRAVITY Continued from page 193. gineers to develop entirely new processes, to under stand current unit operations more thoroughly, or to adapt earth-based unit operations for the demanding e nvironment of space. REFERENCES 1. Allen, D. T. and D P ett it, Symposium on Zero Gravity Pro cessing, AIChE Spring National Meeting, Houston, 19 85. 2. Subramanian, R. S., and R. Cole, Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Space Processing, AIChE Annual Meeting New York, 1987. 3 NASA Technical Memorandum 89607, "Microgravity Science and Applications Program Tasks, NASA Office of Space Sci ence and Applications, Washington D .C ., February 1987. 4. NASA Technical Memorandum 89608, "Microgravity Science and Applications Bibliography ," NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Washington, D .C. January 19 8 7 5. Naumann, R. J., and H W. Herring, "Materials Processing in Space: Early Experiments ," NASA SP-443, 1980. 6. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Publication, "Micrograv ity Science and Applications: Experimental Apparatus and Facilities," Washington, D.C. 7 Potard, C., and P. Dusserre "Contactless Positioning, Man ipulation and Shaping of Liquids by Gas Bearing for Micro gravity Applications," Adv. Space R es 4(5), 105-108 (1984) 8 Ray, C. S., and D. E. Day, "Description of the Containerless Melting of Glass in Low Gravity," SAMPE T ech. Conj. Ser., 15, 135 (1983) 9. Doremus, R H., "Glass in Space," in Materials Science in Space (B. Feuerbacher et al Ed s ), Springer-Verlag, 1986 p 447. 10. Doremus, R. H. "G lass Shell Fabrication Possibilities as Viewed by a Glass Scientist," J Vac Sci. Tech A3, 1279 (1985). 11. Swanson, L. W. "Optimization of Low Gravity Float Zone Crystal Growth M.S Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 198 3. 12. Naumann, R J., Marshall Flight Center Space Science Labo ratory Preprint Series No 86 -137, June 1986. 13. Shankar, N., and R. S. Subramanian, "The Slow Axisymmet ric Thermocapillary Migration of an Eccentrically Placed Bub ble inside a Drop in Zero Gravity," J Colloid Int erface Sci ence, 94, 258-275 (1983). 14. Snyder, R. S., P. H. Rhodes, T Y. Miller, F. J. Micale, R V. Mann, and G. V F. Seaman, "Polystyrene Latex Separa tions by Continuous Flow Electrophoresis on the Space Shut tle," Sep. Sci. T ec h., 22, 157-185 (1986). 15 Saville, D. A., and 0 A. Palusinski, "The Theory of Elec trophoretic Separations. I: Formulation of a Mathematical Model, AIChE J. 32, 207-214 ( 1986) 16. Saville, D. A., 0. A. Palusinski, R. A Graham, R. A Mosher, and M. Bier "The Theory of Electrophoretic Separations II: Construction of a Numerical Simulation Scheme," AIChE J., 32, 215-223 (1986). 17. Sacco, A., L. S. Sand, D. Collette, K. Dieselman J. Crowley, and A. Feitelberg, "Zeolite Crystal Growth in Space," AIChE Spring National Meeting, Houston 1985. 18. Cherry, R. S., and E.T. Papoutsakis, "Hydrodynamic Effects on Cells in Agitated Tissue Culture Reactors ," Bioprocess Engr 1, 29-41 (1986). D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FACULTY THE UNIUERSITY Of ff KRON ffkron,OH 44325 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAM RESEARCH INTERESTS G.A. ATWOOD ........... . ................ ......... .. ...... . . .. .. ... .. ...... .. ...... .. ...... .. .. ......... Digital Control Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption J M BERTY ......................... ...... .. .. ... ... ... ... .. ... . ... ....... .. .. ...... .............. ... . ...... ... .. Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Proccesses H M CHEI.JNG ..... ... ... ........ . .. . .. . . .. .. . .. ......... ....... ... .. ... . . . .. .. . . ...... .. .. ..... ... Colloids Light Scattering Techniques. S C. CHUANG ........... .... ...... . ... ... ...... ...... .... .... . ... .. .. ...... .......... . . ..... . . . . .... ... Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion. J R ELLIOTT .. .. .. ... ... .... ...... .. ... . .. ...... ... ... .. .. . . .... .. . . ......... ... ... ....... ..... ............ Thermodynamics Material Properties *G. ESKAMANI ... ... .......... . . ..... . . .. .. .. .. ... ..... ...... .. . ... . . ...... . . . . . .. . . ... ... ... Waste Water Tr eatment. L.G FOCHT .. ... .. ... ..... .. ...... .. . .. .. . .. .. .... . . ... .. . .. ...... .. . . ... . .... .... ......... .. .. ......... Fixed Bed Adsorption Pro cess Design H L. GREENE ..... . .... .... ..... ........... ...... . ............... ... ...................... . .. ... .. . .. .. .. ... .... Oxidative Catalysis, Reactor Design Mixing S LEE .......... ..... .. ..... .. ......... . .. ... . . ..... .. ...... .. . .... ..... . . .. ....... .. . .. ........ ... ... ... ... Synfuel Processing Reaction Kinetics, Computer Applications. R.W ROBERTS ........ . .. ... ..... ... .. ............ .. ... . . .. .. .. . .. ...... ..... . .......... ... . ...... ..... Pla stics Processing, Polymer Films System Design. M.S. WILLIS .................. ..... . .. ... ........ .. ...... . . ...... .. . .... . . . .... . . . ... .. . . ...... . .. Multiphase Transport Theory F iltrat ion, lnterfacial Phenomena Adjunct professor Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $6,000. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $14,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship application is February 15. FALL 1987 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Akron Akron, Ohio 4432S

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'.': ,,, ... n-19 . : .. '1rk I :~, ~.. . ,. ....... _.. : \ ' .t ,.-~ lt~ . ;;)Jt. :-~, . .. \ .,,, ?\, ~ . .-. ... . .... ,.. GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Alabama, enrolling approximately 14,000 undergraduate and 3,000 graduate students, is located in Tuscaloosa, a town of some 70,000 population in West Central Alabama. Since the climate is warm, outdoor activities are possible most of the year. The Department of Chem ica I Engineering has an an n ua I enrol I ment of approximately 200 undergraduate and 20 graduate students For information concerning ova i l ab le graduate fellow sh ips and assistantships, contact: Di rector o f Graduate Studi es, D e part ment of Chemical Engineering, P.O Bo x 6373 Tuscaloosa AL 35487 6373. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST G.C. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State): Biomass Con version, Modeling, Transport Processes D.W. Arnold, Ph.D (Purdue) : Thermodynamics Physical Properties, Phase Equilibrium W.C. Clements, Jr., Ph D (Vanderbilt) : Process Dynamics and Control, Microcomputer Hardware W.J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph D (Louisiana State) : Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics I.A. Jefcoat, Ph D. (Clemson University): Synfuels, Environmental, Alternate Chemical Feedstocks E.K. Landis, Ph D (Carnegie Institute of Technol ogy) : Metallurgical Processes Solid-liquid Sep arations, Thermodynamics A.M. Lane, Ph D (Massachusetts): Catalysis, Safety Health and Environment M.D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida): Mass Transfer, En vironmental, Synfuels L.Y. Sadler, Ill, Ph.D. (Alabama) : Energy Conver sion Processes, Rheology, Lignite Technology

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Chemical Engineering at UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A EDMONTON,CANADA CJDDOCJCJCJCJCJCJ DDCJCJCJDDCJOCJCJ FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS K.T. CHUANG, Ph D. (Alberta) : Mass Transfer Catalysis P.J. CRICKMORE Ph D (Queen s): Applied Mathematics I.G. DALLA LANA Ph D. (Minnesota): Kinetics Heterogeneous Catalysis D.G. FISHER Ph D (Michigan) : Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications. M.R. GRAY Ph D (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics Characterization of Complex Organic Mixtures Bioreactors R.E. HA YES Ph D (Bath) : Numerical Analysis, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media D.T LYNCH, Ph D (Alberta) : Catalysis Kinetic Modelling Numerical Methods Reactor Modelling and Design J.H. MASLIYAH Ph.D (British Columbia) : Transport Phenomena Numerical Analysis Particle-Fluid Dynamics A.E. MATHER Ph D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thermodynamics A.J. MORRIS, Ph D (Newcastle-Upon Tyne): Process Control, Al and Expert Systems. For further information contact: W.K. NADER Dr Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics K. NANDAKUMAR Ph D (Princeton): Transport Phenomena, Process Simulation Computational Fluid Dynamics F.D. OTTO, Ph D. (Michigan) DEAN OF ENGINEERING : Mass Transfer Gas Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes Heavy Oil Upgrading D. QUON Sc D. (M.I.T.) PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy Modelling and Economics D.B. ROBINSON Ph.D (Michigan) PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids Phase Equilibria, Thermodynamics J.T. RYAN Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply, Porous Media S.L. SHAH Ph D (Alberta): Computer Process Control Adaptive Control Stability Theory S.E. WANKE Ph D (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN: Heterogeneous Catalysis Kinetics. R.K. WOOD Ph D (Northwestern) : Process Simulation Identification and Modelling Distillation Column Control. CHAIRMAN Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON, AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate pro grams. Financial support is available through government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full oppor tunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in most of the research areas listed below. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: MILAN BIER, Professor Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950 Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor Ph.D. University of Florida, 1984 Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics Polyelectrolyte Solutions WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973 Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Professor Ph.D Ohio State University, 1958 Process Control, Computer Applications JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph.D Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982 Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation Processes, Applied Mathematics GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966 Rheology Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numericol Modeling of Transport, Bioreoctors ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor (Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical) Ph.D., UCLA, 1983 Boundary Layers Stability Mass and Heat Transport Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing, modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to: Dr. Thomas W. Peterson Graduate Study Committee Departm ent of Chemical Engineeri ng University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/ equal opportunity employer THOMAS W. PETERSON, Professor Ph D., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes Explosives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph.D University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation Computer Aided Design FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972 Reaction Engineering Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor Ph D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics lnterfacial Phe nomena DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes Solar Energy Microbial and Enzymatic Processes DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor D Sc ., Technion, 1962 Energy Fermentation Mixing

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Arizona State University Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Materials Engineering Research Specializations include: ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS BIOINSTRUMENTATION BIOMATERIALS CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Our excellent fac i l i t i es for research and teaching are complemented by a highly r espected faculty : James R Beckman ( Arizona ) Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) Neil S Berman ( Te x as ) David H. Beyda (Lo y ola )* Llewellyn W. Bezanson ( Clar k son ) Roy D Bloebaum ( West e rn Austral i a )* Veronica A. Burrows ( Pr i n c et o n ) Timothy S. Cale ( Houston ) Ray W. Carpenter ( UC / Berkele y) William A. Coghlan ( Stanford ) Sandwip K. Dey (Alfred U. ) William J Dorson (Cincinnati) R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta) Eric J. Guilbeau ( Louis i ana Tech ) David E. Haskins ( Ok l ahoma )* Lester E. Hendrickson ( Il l inoi s) Dean L. Jacobson ( UCLA ) Bal K. Jindal (Stanford ) James B. Koeneman (Western Austral i a) Stephen J. Krause (Michigan) James L. Kuester (Te x as A&M) Vincent B. Pizziconi ( ASU )* Gregory B. Raupp ( Wisconsin ) Castle 0 Re i ser (W i scons i n )* Vernon E Sater ( IIT ) Millon C. Shaw ( Cincinnati )* Kwang S. Shin ( Northwestern ) James T. Stanley (Illinois ) Robert S. Torres! (Minnesota) Bruce C Towe (Pennsylvania State) Thomas L. Wachtel (St. Louis University)* Bruce J Wagner (V i rgin i a ) Allan M. Weinstein ( Broo k lyn Po l ytech)* Jack M Winters ( UC / Ber k eley ) lmre Zwfebel (Yale ) A dj u nct or Em e r i tus Profess or Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to qualified applicants ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000 which is a part of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled in ASU's ten colleges ; 10 000 are in graduate study. Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU s own cultural and recreational facilities FOR INFORMATION CONTACT : Department of Chemical Bio and Materials Engineering Neil S. Berman Graduate Program Coordinator Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 8528 7 -6006 and equal opportunity i n its employment a c t i vitie s and programs. .. I Arizona State University v i g o rously pursue s aff i rmative action r. rJ -----~~

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University of Arkansas Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Study and Research Leading to MS and PhD Degrees Faculty and Areas of Specialization Robert E. Babcock (Ph D. U of Oklahoma) Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Enhanced Oil Recovery Edgar C. Clausen (Ph D U o f M i ssouri) Biochemical Eng i neering Process Kinetics Jame s R. Couper ( D Sc ., W as hingto n U ) Process De si g n a nd Economics Polymers James L. Gaddy ( Ph D ., U of Tenne s see) Biochemical Eng i neering Process Optimization Jerry A. Havens (Ph D ., U o f Oklahoma) Irreversible Thermodynamics Fire and Explosion Hazards Assessment William A. Myers (M.S ., U of Arkansas) Natural and Artificial Radioactivity, Nuclear Engineering Thomas 0. Spicer (Ph D ., U. of Arkansas) Computer Simulation, Dense Gas Dispersion Charles Springer (Ph D U of Iowa) Mass Transfer Diffusional Processes Charles M. Thatcher (Ph D U of Michigan) Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation Jim L. Turpin (Ph D U of Oklahoma) Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conversion, Process Design J. Reed Welker (Ph D U of Oklahoma) Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONTACT: Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering 3202 Bel I Engineering Center University of Arkansas Fayetteville AR 72701 LOCATION The University of Arkansas at Fayettev i lle the flagship campus in the si xcampus system is situated in the hea r t of the Ozark Mountains and offers students a unique blend of urban and rural environments Fayetteville is literally surrounded by some of the most ou t standing outdoor recreation facilities in the nation but it is also a dynamic city and serves as the center of trade govern ment and finance for the region The city and Univer si ty offer a wealth of cu lt u ra l and i ntellectual eve n t s. FINANCIAL AID Graduate students are supported by fellowships and re search or teaching assistantships FACILITIES The Department of Ch e m i cal Engineering occup i es more than 40,000 sq ft in the Bell Eng i ne e ring Center a $30 million st a te of the-art facility that opened in Janu ary, 1987, and an additional 20,000 sq ft of laboratories at the Engineering Experiment Station

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Graduate Studies Auburn a! Engineering THE FACULTY R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales 1966) R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965) C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine 1976 ) Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) R. D. NEUMAN (Inst Paper Chemistry 1973) T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951) A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973) B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head Chemical Engineering Auburn University, AL 36849 Auburn University RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Biomass Conversion Carbon Fibers and Composites Coa I Conversion Controlled Atmosphere Electron Microscopy Environmental Pollution Heterogeneous Catalysis lnterfacial Phenomena Microelectronics THE PROGRAM Oil Processing Process Design and Control Process Simulation Pulp and Paper Engineering Reaction Engineering Reaction Kinetics Separations Surface Science Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S and Ph.D. levels Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to qualified students. Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution FALL 1987 225

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah Programs of study leading to the M.E., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees on a beautiful campus located at the base of the Rocky Mountains. Faculty Calvin H. Bartholomew Stanford, 19 72 Merrill W. Beckstead, U. of Utah, 1965 Douglas N Bennion, Berk e ley, 1964 James J. Christensen, Carnegie Mellon, 1957 Richard W Hanks. U. of Utah, 1960 John N. Harb. U. of Illinois 19 87 William C. Hecker, Berk e l ey, 19 82 Paul 0. Hedman BYU, 1973 John L Oscarson U. of Michigan, 19 8 2 William G. Pitt U of Wisconsin, 1987 Richard L. Rowley, Michiga n State, 1978 Philip J. Smith, BYU, 1979 L. Douglas Smoot, U. of Wash ington, 1960 Kenneth A Solen, U. of Wiscons in, 1974 For additional information and application write: Graduate Coo rdin ator Department of C hemic a l Engineering 350 CB Brigham Young Unive rsit y Provo Utah 846 0 2 Research Areas T hermod yna mics Transport Phenomena Ca lorimetr y Comp uter Simulation Coa l Co mbustion and Gasification Kinetics and Catalysis Biomedical Engineering Fluid Mechanics Chem i ca l Propulsion Mat hemati ca l Modeling Electrochemistry Membrane Trans port Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Process Design and Control

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: . : . ~: ...... : u~= ;-; THE UNIVERSllY OF CALGARY TM The University is located in the City of Calgary, the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olymp i cs. The city c omb i nes the t r aditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban c e ntre. Beautiful Banff Nat i onal Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE Dr. P. R. Bishnoi, Crairman Graduate Studies Committee Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng. The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta T2N 1 N4 Canada FALL 1987 GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING The Department offers programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M. Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas: Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria Heat Transfer and Cryogenics Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion Multiphase Flow in Pipelines Fluid Bed Reaction Systems Environmental Engineering Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation Enhanced Oil Recovery In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Computer Simulation of Separation Processes Computer Control and Optimization of Engineering and Bio Processes Biotechnology and Biorheology Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to qualified applicants. FACULTY R A. HEIDEMANN,* Head (Wash U ) A. BADAKHSHAN (Birm U K ) L. A. BEHIE (W Ont.) D. W. BENNION** (Penn. State) F. BERRUTI (Waterloo) P R. BISHNOI (Alberta) R. M. BUTLER (Imp. Coll. U K ) M. FOGARASI** (Alberta) M A. HASTAOGLU (SUNY Buffalo) J. HAVLENA (Czech.) A. A. JEJE* (MIT) N. E. KALOGERAKIS (Toronto) A. K MEHROTRA (Calgary) M F. MOHTADI (Birm. U K ) R. G. MOORE (Alberta) P. M SIGMUND* (Texas) J STANISLAV (Prague) W Y. SVRCEK (Alberta) E. L. TOLLEFSON* (Toronto) M. A. TREBBLE (Calgary) On sa b bet i ca l l eave du r i n g t h e 1987-88 a cademi c year ** Em e rit us 227

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RESEARCH INTERESTS ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING BERKELEY ... . offers graduate programs leading to the Mast of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pr grams involve joint faculty-student research well as courses and seminars within and outsid the department. Students have the opportuni to take part in the many cultural offerings the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreation activities of California's northern coast and mou tains. FACULTY Alexis T Bell (Chairman) Harvey W. Blanch Elton J. Cairns Douglas S. Clark Morton M. Denn Alan S Foss Simon L Goren David B Graves Donald N. Hanson Dennis W. Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N Michaels John S Newman Eugene E Petersen John M Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Jeffrey A. Rei mer David S Soane Daros N Theodorou Charles W Tobias Michael C. Williams PLEASE WRITE: Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA-DA VIS Program UC Davis, with 20,000 students, is one of the major campuses of the University of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition, the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio chemical engineering, electrical and computer engi neering, and biomedical engineering Excellent laboratories, computation center and electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants. Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Faculty and Research Areas RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota Fluid Mechanics of Thin Film Coating, lnterfacial Phenomena ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena DAVID F. KATZ, University of California Biomedical Engineering, Biorheology, Reproductive Biology BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota Separation and Transport Processes, Kinetics FALL 1987 KAREN A. McDONALD, University of Maryland Process Control, Biochemical Engineering AHMET N. PALAZOGLU,, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Process Design and Process Control ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University Rheology, Fluid Mechanics, Acoustics, Hazardous Waste DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst of Technology Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology, Thin Film Technology STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware Fluid Mechanics, lnterfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes in Porous Media Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied Mathematics Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Colloid and Interface Processes Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Control Process Design Rheology Semiconductor Device Fabrication Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Processes in Porous Media Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just over an hour away from the San Francisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec reational opportunities combine with the friendly in formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished oneand two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Da v is (population 42,000) is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance. For further details on graduate study at Davis, please write to: Professor Pieter Stroeve Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-2504 229

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT PROGRAMS UCLA's Chemical Engineering Department of fers a program of teaching and research linking fundamental engineering science and industrial needs. The department's national leadership is de monstrated by the newly established Engineering Research Center for Hazardous Substance Control. This center of advanced technology is com plemented by existing center programs in Medical Engineering and Environmental Transport Re search. Fellowships are available for outstanding ap plicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access to the highly regarded science programs and to a variety of experiences in theatre, music, art and sports on campus. 230 UCLA FACULTY D.T. Allen Y. Cohen T.H.K. Frederking S.K. Friedlander R.F. Hicks E.L. Knuth V. Manousiouthakis H.G. Monbouquette K. Nobe L.B. Robinson 0.1. Smith V.L. Vilker A.R. Wazzan F.E.Yates RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Cryogenics Process Design and Process Control Polymer Processing and Rheology Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis Semiconductor Device Chemistry and Surface Science Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Particle Technology Environmental Engineering CONTACT Admissions Officer Chemical Engineering Department 5531 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles, CA 900241 592 (213) 825-9063 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo ) (Chairman) Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear Safety Computational Fluid Dynamics Turbulence PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph D (Purdue) Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science HENRI FENECH Ph.D (M I.T ) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heal Transfer OWEN T. HANNA Ph D (Purdue) Theoretical Methods Ch e m i cal Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena. SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph D. (Stanford ) Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph D. (Cambr i dge) Surface and lnterfacial Phenomenon, Adhesion Colloidal Systems Surface Forces GLENN E LUCAS Ph.D (M I.T ) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials DUNCAN A MELLICHAMP Ph.D (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing. FALL 1987 JOHN E MYERS Ph.D. ( Mi c higan ) Boiling Heat Transfer G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph D (M I.T .) Rad i ation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development. DALE 5. PEARSON Ph D. (N o rthwestern) Polymer Rheology PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D ( U C. Berkeley) Theor y of Surfactant Aggr e gates Colloid Systems A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph D. ( M I.T .) B i onuclear Engine e ring Fusion Reactors Radiation Transport Anal y ses ROBERT G RINKER Ph D. (Caltech ) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis Energy Convers i on, Air Pollution ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph D (U C Berkeley) (Vi c e Chairman) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes. DALE E SEBORG Ph D ( Pr i nceton ) Process Control, Computer Control Process Identification T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph D (M i nnesota ) Nuclear and Chem i cal Plant Safety Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics. JOSEPH A N. ZASADZINSKI Ph D (Minnesota) Surface and lnterfacial Phenomenon Structure of Microemulsions. PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de gree programs. Financial aid, including fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re search assistantships, is available. Some awards provide limited moving expenses. THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330 miles south of San Francisco. The student enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even cl i mate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman Departmen~ of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 231

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING at the CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY "At the Leading Edge" FACULTY Frances H. Arnold James E. Bailey John F. Brady George R. Gavalas L. Gary Leal Manfred Morari C. Dwight Prater (Visiting) John H. Seinfeld Fred H. Sha i r RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Science Applied Mathematics Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Biocatalysis and Bioreactor Engineering Bioseparation Catalysis Combustion Colloid Physics Nicholas W. Tschoegl (Emeritus) W. Henry Weinberg Computational Hydrodynamics Fluid Mechanics Materials Processing 232 Process Control and Synthesis Protein Engineering Polymer Physics Statistical Mechanics of Heterogeneous Systems Surface Science for further information, write: Professor L. Gary Leal Department of Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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It's Your Move. Department ot Chemical Engineering John L. Anderson Membrane and Colloid Transport Phenomena Lorenz T. Biegler Process Simulation and Optimization Ethel Z. Casassa Colloids and Polymers Michael M. Domach Biochemical Engineering Paul L. Frattini Colloid Dynamics Using Optical Methods Ignacio E. Grossmann Process Synthesis and Opti01ization Rakesh K. Jain Biomedical Engineering Tumor Microcirculation Myung S Jhon Polymer Science and Engineering Edmond I. Ko Catalysis and Solid State Chemistry Kun LI Gas-Solid Reaction Kinetics Gregory J. McRae Mathematical Modeling and Environmental Engineering Gary J. Powers Process Synthesis and Design Dennis C. Prleve Transport Phenomena in Colloids Paul J Sides Electrochemical Engineering and Semiconductor Processing Herbert L. Toor Heat and Mass Transfer Arthur W. Westerberg Design Research

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Study Chemical Engineering at one of the nations top chemical engineering research facilities .. Case Western Reserve University ~ ~ .~_ '//_ .. r Specializations in : Electrochemical engineerin Laser applications Mi xing and separat i ons Process control Surfaces and colloids . .. . Robert J. Adler Ph.D. 1959 Lehigh Uni versi ty Particl e separations mixing acid gas recovery John C. Angus Ph.D. 1960 University of Michigan R edox eq uilibria thin carbon films, modulated e l ectrop lating Coleman B. Brosilow Ph D 1962 Polyt ech ni c Institut e of Brooklyn Adaptive inferential co ntrol multi -v ariable control, coordination algorithms Robert V. Edwards Ph.D 1968 Johns Hopkins University La ser anemometry mathematical modelling, data acquisition Donald L. Feke Ph.D. 1981 Prin ceton University Colloidal phenomena ceramic dispersions fine particle processing Nelson C Gardner Ph.D 1966 Io wa State University High -grav ity separations sulfur removal processes Uziel Landau Ph.D. 19 75 University of California (Berkeley] Electrochemical enginee ring current distributions electrodeposition Chung-Chiun Li Ph.D 1968 Case Western R e serve University Electrochemical sensors, e lectro chemica l synthesis e l ec trochemistry related to e l ectronic materials J. Adin Mann, Jr. Ph.D 1962 Iowa State University Surface phenomena interfacial dynamics light scattering Syed Qutubuddin Ph D. 198 3, Carnegie-Mellon University Surfactant systems metal extraction, enhanced oil recovery Robert F. Savinell Ph.D 19 7 7, University of Pitt sburgh Electrochemical engineering, reactor design and simulation ; e l ectrode processes Ew 0 ~,,~ liii:i ;;;;a CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY CLEVELAND. OHIO 44106 For more information contact: Graduate Coord in ator Department of C hemi ca l Engi n eer in
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The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDYin Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY Robert Delcamp Joel Fried Stevin Gehrke Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Sotiris Pratsinis Neville Pinto Stephen Thiel Joel Weisman CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCES$ SYNTHESIS Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns process unit operations. Prediction of reaction by-products. v--.,.,....,.,.........,.,.,..."". POLYMERS ----..-~ Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AEROSOL ENGINEERING Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions, aerosol depositions AIR POLLUTION Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems. COAL RESEARCH Demonstration of new technology for coal com bustion power plant. TWO-PHASE FLOW Boiling. Stability and transport properties of foam. MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS FOR ADMIS SION INFORMATION Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 4S221 Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.

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Clarkson D M S and Ph D programs D Friendly atmosphere D Vigorous research programs supported by government and industry D Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa D Skiing canoeing, mountain climbing and other recreation in the Adirondacks D Variety of cultural activities with two liberal arts colleges nearby D Twenty faculty working on a broad spectrum of chemical engineering research problems Research Areas include: D Chemical kinetics D Colloidal and interfacial phenomena D Computer aided design D Crystallization D Electrochemical engineering and corrosion D Integrated circuit fabrication D Laser-matter interaction D Mass transfer D Materials processing in space D Optimization D Particle separations D Phase transformations and equilibria D Polymer rheology and processing D Process control D Turbulent flows D And more .. Financial aid available in the form of : D instructorships D fellowships D research assistantships D teaching assistantships D industrial co-op positions For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson University Potsdam, New York 13676

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Graduate Study at Clemson University The University In Chemical Engineering Coming Up for Air No matter where you do your graduate work, your nose will be in your books and your mind on your research. But at Clemson University, there's something for you when you can stretch out for a break Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing, sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes Or hik ing in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains Or driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend Something that can really relax you. All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering Department, too. With active research and teaching in polymer processing, composite materials, process automa tion computer simulation of fluids, thermody namics, catalysis, membrane separation, pollution control, and pulp and paper operations what more do you need? Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 62 undergraduate and 61 graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges Present on-campus enrollment is about 12,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 2,600 graduate students. The l ,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N C., and Atlanta, Ga. The Faculty Forest C. Alley William B. Barlage, Jr. Charles H Barron, Jr. John N. Beard, Jr. William F. Beckwith Dan D. Edie Charles H. Gooding James M. Haile Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available. For Further Information For further information and a descriptive brochure, write: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Earle Hall Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29634 Stephen S. Melsheimer Joseph C. Mullins Amod A. Ogale Richard W. Rice Mark C. Thies CLEMSON UNIVERSITY College of Engineering

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS DAVIDE. CLOUGH, Associate Professor, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Ph.D. (1975), University of Colorado Fluidization, Process Control ROBERT H. DA VIS, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1983), Stanford University Fluid Dynamics of Suspensions, Biotechnology JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor Ph.D. (1974), Stanford University Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1967), University of Colorado B i ophysics, Bioengineering PAUL G. GLUGLA, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1977), University of Illinois Ionic Solutions, Thermodynamics, Membrane Separations DHINAKAR S. KOMP ALA, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1984), Purdue University Biochemical Engineering, Bioseparations, Bioreactor Design WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor Ph.D. (1968), University of California, Berkeley Membranes, Geophysical Fluid Mechanics, Coal Gasification, Transport Processes in Permafrost LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1982), Purdue University Surface Science, Heterogeneous Catalysis, Molecular Dynamics W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor Ph.D. (1965), Tulane University Optimal Control and Identification of Chemical Biochemical, and Energy Recovery Processes ROBERT L. SANI, Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of Minnesota Numerical Techniques in Fluid Dynamics, Membranes KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Chairman and James M. and Catherine T. Patten Professor Ph.D. (1951), University of Illinois Economics, Thermodynamics, Heat Tr(1JYl,8fer RONALD E. WEST, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of Michigan Water Pollution Control, Solar Energy Utilization FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 238 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES 1 THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH A J. Kidnay, Professor and Head ; D Sc., Colorado School of Mines Themodynamic properties of gases and liquid s, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic engi neering J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph D., Florida. Petroleum refinery processing operations, heavy oi I processing, ther mal cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction. V F Yesavage, Professor ; Ph.D ., Michigan Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, properties of coal-derived liquids, equations of state for highly non-ideal systems, flow calorimetry. E D Sloan, Jr ., Professor ; Ph D. Clemson. Phase equilib rium measurements of natural gas fluids and hy drates, thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids adsorption equilibria, education methods research. R. M. Baldwin, Professor; Ph.D ., Colorado School of Mines. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal liquefac tion, catalysis, oil shale processing, supercritical ex traction M. S. Selim, Professor ; Ph D., Iowa State. Heat and mass transfer with a moving boundary sedimentation and diffusion of colloidal suspensions, heat effects in gas absorption with chemical reaction, entrance region flow and heat transfer, gas hydrate dissoci ation modeling. A. L. Bunge, Associate Professor; Ph D., Berkeley Mem brane transport dnd separations, mass transfer in porous media ion exchange and adsorption chromatography. P. F Bryan, Assistant Professor ; Ph.D., Berkeley. Com puter aided process design computational thermo dynamics, novel separation processes, applicotions of artificia I i ntel I igence/expert systems. A. D. Shine, Assistant Professor; Ph D ., MIT. Polymer rheology and processing, composites, polymer de gradation, composite materials R. L. Miller, Research Assistant Professor; Ph D ., Colorado School of Mines. Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, particulate removal with venturi scrubbers, multiphase fluid mechanics, supercriti cal extraction J. F. Ely, Adjunct Professor; Ph D ., Indiana Molecular thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids. For Applications and Further Information On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401

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Colorado State University Faculty: Larry Belfiore, Ph. D., University of Wisconsin Bruce Dale, Ph.D. Purdue University Jud Harper, Ph.D., Iowa State University Naz Karim, Ph.D., University of Manchester Terry Lenz, Ph.D., Iowa State University Jim Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State University Carol McConica, Ph.D. Stanford University Vince Murphy, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts 240 Location: CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000 people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new Center for the Performing Arts. Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement. Research Areas: Alternate Energy Sources Biotechnology Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Vapor Deposition Computer Simulation and Control EnYironmental Engineering Fermentation Food Engineering Hazardous Waste Treatment Polymeric Materials Porous Media Phenomena Rheology Semiconductor Processing Solar Cooling Systems For Applications and Further Information, write: Professor Vincent G. Murphy Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF --=--CONNECTICUT OUR FACULTY THOMAS F ANDERSON Ph.D ., U. of Cal ., Berkeley JAMES P BELL Sc.D., MIT DOUGLAS J. COOPER Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Ph.D ., U. of Colorado ROBERT W COUGHLIN Ph D Cornell MICHAEL B. CUTLIP Ph D., U. of Colorado ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO Ph D ., U. of Wisconsin JAMES M. FENTON Ph.D U. of tllinois G. MICHAEL HOWARD Ph.D., U. of Connecticut HERBERT E KLEI Ph D., U. of Connecticut JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN Ph D., U. of Massachusetts MONTGOMERY T. SHAW Ph.D ., Princeton RICHARD M STEPHENSON Ph.D ., Cornell DONALD W. SUNDSTROM Ph D U of Michigan ROBERT A. WEISS Ph.D U. of Massachusetts OUR RESEARCH BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPOSITE MATERIALS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EXPERT SYSTEMS FALL 1987 POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS SURFACE SCIENCE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL THERMODYNAMICS M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Engineers and Scientists CHECK US OUT Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering Box U-139 The University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06268 (203) 486-4019 241

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering A diverse intellectual climate Graduate Students arrange indi vidual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell depart ments including those in chem istry, biological sciences, physics, computer science, food science materials science, mechanical engineering, and business administration A scenic location Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes region of upstate New York the Cornell campus is one of the most beautiful in the country A stimulating university com munity offers excellent recrea tional and cultural opportunities in an attractive environment. 242 at Cornell University World-class research in. biochemical engineering applied mathematics computer simulation environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science heat and mass transfer polymer science and engineering fluid dynamics rheology and biorheology process control molecular thermodynamics statistical mechanics computer-aided design A distinguished faculty Brad Anton Graduate programs lead to the degrees of master of engineering, master of science, and doctor of philosophy Financial aid including attractive fellowships is available Paulette Clancy Peter A. Clark Claude Cohen Robert K Finn Keith E. Gubbins Daniel A. Hammer Peter Harriott Donald L. Koch Robert P. Merrill William L Olbricht Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos Ferdinand Rodriguez George F. Scheele Michael L. Shuler Julian C. Smith (Emeritus) Paul H. Steen William 8 Streett Raymond G Thorpe Robert L. Von Berg Herbert F. Wiegandt (Emeritus) John A. Zollweg For further information write to: Professor Claude Cohen Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, NY 14853-520! CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Chemical En 1neer1n The Facul~--Giovanni Astarita Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris Kenneth B. Bischoff Douglas J. Buttrey Costel D. Denson Prasad S. Dhurjati Henry C. Foley Bruce C. Gates Michael T. Klein Abraham M. Lenhoff Roy L. McCullough Arthur B. Metzner Jon H. Olson Michael E. Paulaitis Robert L. Pigford T. W. Fraser Russell Stanley I. Sandler Jerold M. Schultz Andrew L. Zydney The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering. --------For more information and application materials write : Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 The University of Delaware _____

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u N I V E R s I T y OF FLORIDA Gainesville, Florida Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD Faculty Tia .Anderson Semiconductor Processing, Thermodynamics/Seymour s. Block Biotechnology/RB,.,V. Pahi.en Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design/ A. L. Pricke Polymers, Pulp & Paper Characterization /Ger Hofiund Catalysis, Surface Science/Lev Jabne Applied Mathematics/Dale Ki:rEe Computer Aided Design, Process Control, Energy Systems/Hong H. Lee Reaction Engineering, Semiconductor Processing/Ge1'88:i.aoe Iqberatoa Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering /Frank Jls.Y Computer-aided learning/~ lfan\yaDen Transport Phenomena, Space Processing/John O'Connell. Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics/Dineeh O. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery, Biomedical Engineering/Spyroe Svoranoe Process Control/Gerald Veetermann-Cl.ark Electrochemical Engineering, Membrane Phenomena. For more information please write: Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611

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GEORGIA TECH Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering A Unit of the University System of Georgia Faculty----Agoram S Abhiroman Pradeep K. Agrawal Yoman Arkun Eric J. Clayfield William R Ernst Lorry J Forney Charles W. Gorton Jeffery S. Hsieh Micha e l J. Matteson John D. Mu zzy Gary W Poehlein Ronnie S Roberts Ronald W Rousseau Robert J Samuels F Joseph Schork A. H Peter Skelland Jude T Sommerfeld D. William Tedd er Amyn S. Teja Mar k G. White Jack Winnick Ajit Yoganathan Research lnterests----------------------------Adsorption Aerosols Biomedical engineering Biochemical engineering Catalysis Composite materials Crystallization Electrochemical engineering Environmental chemistry Extraction Fine particles lnterfacial phenomena Physical propertie s Polymer science and engineering Polymerization Process control and dynamics Proce ss synthesis Pulp and paper engineering Reactor analysis and design Separation processes Surface science and technology Thermodynamics Transport phenomena For more information write: Dr. Ronald W. Rousseau School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100

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What do graduate students say about the University of Houston Department of Chemical Engineering? "Houston is a university on the move. The chemical engineering department is ranked among the top ten schools and you can work in the specialty of your choice: semiconductor processing, biochemical engineering, the traditional areas. The dioice of advisor is yours, too, and you're given enough time to make the right decision. You can see your advisor almost any time xou want to because the student-to-teacher ratio is low. 'Houston is the center of the petrochemical industry, which puts the 're al world' of research within reach. And Houston is one of the few schools with a major research program in sup.erconductivity. The UH campus is really nice and city life is just 15 minutes away for concerts, plays, nightclubs professional sports-everything. Galveston beach is just 40 minutes away. "The faculty are dedicated and afways friendly People work hard here, but there is time for intramural sports and Friday night get togethers." If you'd like to be part of this team let us hear from you. AREAS OF RESEARCH STRENGTH : Biochemical Engineering Superconducting, Ceramic and Electronic Materials Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical Reaction Engineering Applied Transport Phenomena Thermodynamics FACULTY : Neal Amund so n Vemuri Balakotaiah Elmond Claridge Harry Deans c~ AbeDukler Demetre Economou Chuck Goochee Erne s t Henley "It's great Dan Luss Richard Pollard William Prengle Raj Rajagopalan Jim Richards Frank Tiller Richard Wills Frank Worley For an application, write: Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Houston 4800 Calhoun Houston TX 77004 or call collect 713 / 749-4407 and ask for Haz

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U IC Chemical Engineering Department Graduate Study and Research MASTER OF SCIENCE AND DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Joachim Floess Ph.D Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., 1985 Assistant Professor Richard D. Gonzalez Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965 Professor John H. Kiefer Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Irving F. Miller Ph D., University of Michigan, 1960 Professor and Head Sohail Murad Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 Associate Professor John Regalbuto Ph.D., University of Notre Dame 1986 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor, Director of Graduate Studies David Willcox Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985 Assistant Professor Reaction engineering with primary focus on the pyrolysis of oil shale and coal, energy technology environmental controls Heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry, catalysis by supported metals, subseabed radioactive waste disposal studies, clay chemistry Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids, solids and solutions kinetics of liquid reactions, solar energy Lipid microencapsulation, adsorption and surface reactions, membrane transport, synthetic blood, biorheology Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures Heterogeneous catalysis: promoted and bifunctional catalysis, characterization of solids and solid surfaces, heterogeneous reaction kinetics Transport properties of fluidized solids, heat and mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized bed combustion, indirect coal liquefaction Catalysis, chemical reaction enQineering energy transmission, modelling and optimization Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow and heat transfer, porous media processes, mathematical analysis and approximation Structure sensitivity of oxide catalysts for selective oxidation reactions, catalyst preparation techniques artificial intelligence applied to descriptive kinetics For more Information : Director of Graduate Studies, Dept of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL, 60680, (312) 996-3424 F ALL 1987 247

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The chemical engineering depart ment offers graduate programs leading to the M S and Ph.D degrees. The combination of distinguished faculty outstanding facilities and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign For information and application forms write: Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 W. California Street Urbana, Illinois 61801 Faculty Richard C Alkire Harry G. Drickamer Charles A. Eckert Thomas J. Hanratty Jonathan J. L. Higdon Walter G May Richard I. Masel Edmund G Seebauer Anthony J McHugh Mark A. Stadtherr James W. Westwater Charles F Zukoski IV

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT Illinois Institute of Technology THE UNIVERSITY Private, coeducational university 3000 undergraduate students 2400 graduate students 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of Lake Michign Campus recognized as an architectural landmark THE CITY One of the largest cities in the world National and international center of business and industry Enormous variety of cultural resources Excel lent recreational foci I ities THE FACULTY HAMID ARASTOOPOUR (Ph D ., IIT) Multi Pha se flow flow i n porous media, gos technology RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D E Sc. Columbia) Transport processes in c hemical and biological systems, rheology of polymeric and biological fluids ALI CINAR (Ph D ., Te xas A & M) Chemical process control, distributed parameter systems expert systems DIMITRI G/DASPOW (Ph.D ., IIT) Hydrodynamics of fluidizotion multi-phase flow separation processes HENRY R. LINDEN (Ph.D. IIT) Energy policy, planning and forecasting SAT/SH J. PARULEKAR (Ph D ., Purdue) Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering J ROBERT SELMAN (Ph D California Berkeley) Electrochemistry and electrochemical energy storage SELIM M SENKAN (Sc D ., MIT) Combustion, high-temperatur e chemical reaction enginee ring DARSH T. WASAN (Ph D ., California-Berkeley) Industrial collaboration and job opportunities lnterfacial phenomena separation processes enhanced oil recovery THE DEPARTMENT One of the oldest in the nation Approximately 60 full-time and 50 part time graduate students M Ch E ., M.S. and Ph D degrees Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships available to outstanding students. WILLIAM A. WEIGAND (Ph.D ., IIT) B ioche mical engineering, process optimization and control APPLICATIONS Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology 1.1.T Center Chicago, IL 60616 FALL 1987 249

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THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY is an independent graduate school. It has an interdisciplinary degree program designed for B.S. chemical engineering graduates. Fellowships and full tuition scholarships are available to qualified U.S. and Canadian residents. Our students receive minimum $10,000 fellowships each calendar year. Our research activities relate to a broad spectrum of industry needs, including: process engineering simulation and control heat and mass transfer separation science reaction engineering fluid mechanics material science surface and colloid science combustion technology chemical kinetics For further information contact: Director of Admissions The Institute of Paper Chemistry P.O. Box 1039 Appleton, WI 54912 Telephone: 414/734-9251

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FALL 1987 IOVCI GRADUATE PROGRAM FOR M.S. & PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL & MATERIALS ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS: --Kinetics & Catalysis ...__ _____ ___. --Biocatalysis & Biosensors --Bioseparations & Biochemical Engineering --Membrane Separations --Particle Morphological Analysis --Air Pollution Modeling --Materials Science --Surface Science & Laser Technology --Parallel & High Speed Computing : 11 ~ ~,v~{" For additional information and application write to: ~] [! GRADUATE ADMISSIONS ~ 0 vNbe6 Chemical and Materials Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 319/335-1400 The University of Iowa does not discriminate In Its educational programs and activities on the basis of race. notional origin color religion sex. age. or handicap The University also affirms Its commitment to providing equal opportunities and equal access to University facilities without reference to offectlonal or associational preference For oddltlonal lnformotlon on nondlscrtmlnollon policies, contact the Coordinator of TIiie IX and Section 504 In the Office of Affirmative Action, telephone 319/335-0705, 202Jessup Holl, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 5337/8-87 251

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY William H. Abraham Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport, process modeling Lawrence E. Burkhart Fluid mechanics, separation process, ceramic processing George Burnet Coal technology, separation processes, high temperature ceramics John M. Eggebrecht Statistical thermodynamics of fluids and fluid surfaces Charles E. Glatz Biochemical engineering, processing of biological materials Kurt R. Hebert Applied electrochemistry, corrosion JamesC.Hill Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport phenomena, aerosols Kenneth R. J oils Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics Terry S. King Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications Maurice A. Larson Crystallization, process dynamics Peter J. Reilly Biochemical engineering, enzyme technology, carbohydrate chromatography Glenn L. Schrader Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics processing, sensors Richard C. Seagrave Biological transport phenomena, biothermo dynamics, reactor analysis Dean L. Ulrichson Process modeling, simulation Thomas D. Wheelock Chemical reactor design, coal technology, fluidization Gordon R. Youngquist Crystallization, chemical reactor design, polymerization For additional information, please write: Graduate Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 ' I I \ :_ ---, ---, .. ---\ \ 'I, ,, ,. I

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JOHNS CHEMICAL Timothy A. Barbari Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin Membrane Separations Diffusion in Polymers Separation Processes Michael J. Betenbaugh Ph.D., University of Delaware Biochemical Kinetics Microbial Metabolism Recombinant DNA Technology Marc D. Donohue Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley Equations of State Statistical Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Joseph L. Katz Ph.D., University of Chicago Nucleation Crystallization Flames Robert M. Kelly Ph.D., North Carolina State University Process Simulation Biochemical Engineering Separation Processes HOPKINS ENGINEERING Mark A. McHugh Ph;D., University of Delaware High-Pressure Thermodynamics Polymer Solution Thermodynamics Supercritical Solvent Extraction Geoffrey A. Prentice Ph D., University of California, Berkeley Electrochemical Engineering Corrosion W. Mark Saltzman Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Transport Phenomena Controlled Release William H. Schwarz Dr. Engr., Johns Hopkins University Rheology Non-Newtonian Fluid Dynamics Physical Acoustics of Fluids For further information contact: The Johna Hopkin, Univeraity Chemical Engineering Department Baltimore, MD 21218 (301) 338-7170

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Durland Hall-Home of Chemical E ngine e ring KANSAS ST ATE UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. programs ; C h e mic a l E n gi neerin g '' Int er di sc iplinary Area s of S ys t e m s Eng in eer in g '' Food Science ' E n v ironment a l Engineerin g Financial Aid Available Up t o $ 12,000 P e r Y ea r For More Information Write To Prof esso r B Ci . K yle Durl a nd H a ll Kan sas State Univmit1 Ma nhatt a n. KS 66506 Areas of Study and Research Tran s port Phenomen a E n ergy Engi n ee rin g Co al and Biom ass Co n ve r s i on Thermod y namic s and Pha se Equi li brium Biochemic a l E n g in ee rin g Proce ss D y namic s a nd Con trol C h em i ca l R eac tion E n gi ne e rin g M a t e ri a l s Sc i e nce Ca t a l y s i s a nd Fuel S y nth es i s Proc ess Syste m Eng in ee rin g and Artificial Int e lli ge n ce Env i ro nm enta l Pollution Co ntrol Fluidi za tion and Solid M i x in g H azardous Wa s t e Tre a tment :KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS J. Berman, Ph.D., Northwestern Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology Novel Separation Processes; Membranes; Water Pollution Control G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia Computer-Aided Process Design; Coal Liquefaction C. E. Hamrin, Jr., Ph D., Northwestern Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Three-phase Reactors G. P. Huffman, Ph.D West Virginia Coal Science; Mossbauer and EXAFS Spectroscopy R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern Process Control and Economics E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State Dynamics of Electrochemical Processes; Computer Measurement Techniques and Modeling L. K. Peters, Ph D., Pittsburgh Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen Regime; Transport Phenomena J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer; Fuel Gas Desulfurization T. T. Tsang, Ph.D., Texas-Austin Aerosol Dynamics in Uniform and Non-Uniform Systems K. A. Ward, Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon Biomedical Engineering; Environmental Pharmacology; Tumor Microcirculation; Synthetic and Biological Membrane Transport Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants In Addition, Outstanding Students May Qualify for a McAdams Fellowship For details write to: R. I. Kermode, Director for Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department Universtity of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046

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Quebec, Canada Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Chemical Engineering Research Areas---------CATALYSIS (5. Kaliaguine) BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING (L. Chop/in, A. LeDuy, R W J. Lencki, J.-R. Moreau, J. Thibault) ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING (R.S. Rama/ho, C. Roy) COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING (P A. Tanguy) TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (P.-H. Roy) MODELLING AND CONTROL (L. Cloutier, J.-C. Methot, J. Thibault) RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING (A. Ait-Kadi, L. Chop/in P.A. Tanguy) THERMODYNAMICS (R.S Rama/ho, 5 Kaliaguine) CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL UPGRADING OF BIOMASS (5. Kaliaguine, A LeDuy, C. Roy) Universite Laval is a French speaking University It pro vides the graduate student with the opportunity of learn ing French and becoming acquainted with French cul ture. Please write to : Le Responsable du Comite d Admission et de Supervision Departement de genie chimique Faculte des sciences et de genie Universite Laval Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada G l K 7P4 The Faculty---ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI Ph D Eco l e Poly. Montreal Professeur adjoint LIONEL CHOPLIN Ph.D. Ecole Poly. Montreal Professeur agrege LEONCE CLOUTIER D .Sc. Laval Professeur titulaire SERGE KALIAGUINE D Ing. I.G.C. Toulouse Professeur titulaire ANHLEDUY Ph .D. Western Ontario Professeur titulaire ROBERT W.J LENCKI Ph.D. McGill Professeur assistant J.-CLAUDE METHOT D.Sc. Laval Professeur titulaire JEAN-R MOREAU Ph.D. M.I.T Professeur titulaire RUBENSS.RAMALHO Ph.D. Vanderbilt Professeur titulaire CHRISTIAN ROY Ph.D. Sherbrooke Professeur agrege PAUL-H. ROY Ph.D Illinoi s In stit ute of Technology Professeur titulaire PHILIPPE A. TANGUY Ph.D Laval Professeur adjoint JULES THIBAULT Ph.D. McMaster Professeur agrege

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l9utsiana Stati Untvtrstt~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CITY Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major state institution for higher education LSU. Situated in the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Ba ton Rouge is a main chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras. THE DEPARTMENT M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Approximately 70 Graduate Students DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES IBM 4341 with more than 50 color graphics terminals Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR, LC's, GC, AA, XRD, Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities TO APPLY, CONTACT: DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE INSTRUCTION Department of Chemical Enginering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 FACULTY A.B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU) Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design K.M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering G.L. GRIFFIN (Ph.D., Princeton) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces, Materials Processing F.R. GROVES (Ph. D., Wisconsin) Control, Modeling, Separation Processes D.P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas) Fluid-Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes A.E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida) Distillation, Control, Modeling M. HJORTS0 (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics F .C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Purdue) Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing E. McLAUGHLIN CD.Sc., Univ. of London) Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties R.W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech) Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization J.A. POLACK (Sc.D., MIT) Sugar Technology, Separation Processes G.L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces D.D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech) Transport Phenomena, Environmental Engineering R.G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, Separation Processes A.M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington) Biomedical Engineering, Transport Properties, Combustion L.J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., LSU) Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste D.M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware) Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes FINANCIAL AID Fellowships and assistantships with tuition paid are available Special industrial and alumni fellowships with higher stipends for outstanding students Some part-time teaching positions for graduate students in high standing

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Faculty and Research Interests DOUGLAS BOUSFIELD Ph D (U.C. Berkeley) Fluid Mechanics Rheology, Biochemical En gineering. WILLIAM H CECKLER Sc D (M.I.T.) Heat Transfer Pressing & Drying Operations, Energy from Law BTU Fuels Process Simula tion & Modeling ALBERT CO Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Polymeric Fluid Dynamics, Rheology Trans port Phenomen a, Numerical Methods. JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph.D. (Ohio State) Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Techn ol ogy, Wood Delignification. JOHN C HASSLER Ph.D. (Kansas State) Process Control, Numerical Methods In strumentation and Real Time Computer Appli cations. MARQUITA K. HILL Ph D (U.C. Davis) Separation Processes Pulping Chemistry, Ul trafi ltratian. JOHN J HWALEK Ph.D (Illinois) Liquid Metal Natural Convection, Electronics Cooling, Process Control Systems. ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph D. (Princeton) Polymer Physics & Chemistry, Supercritical Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis, Pulp & Paper Science. DAVID J. KRASKE Ph.D. {Inst. Paper Chemistry) Pulp, Paper & Coating Technology Additive Chemistry, Cellulose & Wood Chemistry JAMES D. LISIUS Ph D. (Illinois) Electrochemical Engineering Composite Ma terials Coupled Mass Transfer KENNETH I. MUMME Ph.D. (Maine) Process Simulation and Control System Iden tification & Optimization HEMANT PENDSE Ph D. (Syracuse) Colloidal Phenomena Particulate & Multi phase Processes, Porous Media Modeling. /VAR H. STOCKEL Sc.D. (M I.T .) (Chairman) Droplet Formation, Fluidization, Pulp & Paper Technology EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph.D. (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn) Thermal & Mechanical Properties of Polymers Papermaking and Fiber Physics DOUGLAS L. WOERNER Ph D (Washington) Membrane Separations, Polymer Solutions, Colloid & Emulsion Technology. Programs and Financial Support Eighteen research groups attack fundamental problems leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Industrial fellowships, university fellowships, research assistantships and teaching assis tantships are available. Presidential fellow ships provide $4,000 per year in addition to the regular stipend and free tuition. The University The spacious campus is situated on 1,200 acres overlooking the Penobscot and Stillwater Rivers Present enrollment of 12 000 offers the diversity of a large school while preserving close personal contact between peers and fac ulty. The University's Maine Center for the Arts, the Hauck Auditorium, and Pavilion Theatre provide many cultural opportunities in addition ta those in the nearby city of Ban gor Less than an hour away from campus are the beautiful Maine coast and Acadia Na tional park, alpine and cross-country ski re sorts, and northern wilderness areas of Baxter State Park and Mount Kotohdin Enjoy life work hard and earn your graduate degree in one of the mast beou.tiful spats in the world. Call Collect or Write James D. Lisius University of Maine Department of Chemical Engineering Jenness Hall, Box B Orono, Maine 04469-0135 (207) 581-2292

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University of Maryland Faculty: Odd A. Asbjornsen Robert B Beckmann Richard V Calabrese Kyu Y Choi Larry L. Gasner James W Gentry Keshava P Halemane Yih-Yun Hsu Thomas J McAvoy Thomas M Regan Joseph Silverman Theodore G Sm i th Nam S Wang Evanghelos Zafiriou College Park Location: The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately 10 miles from the heart of the nation, Washiington, D.C. Excellent public transportion permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House, Arlington Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay \ Degrees Offered. M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering. Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistanships at $11,533/yr. pl us tuition Research Areas: Aerosol Science Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Polymer Processing Polymerization Reactions Process Control Risk and Reliability Analysis Separation Processes Simulation Systems Engineering Turbulence and Mixing For Applications and Further Information, Write: Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of Maryland College Park, Md. 207 42

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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS Amherst The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and PhD. degrees in Chemical Eng ineering Active research areas include polymer engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research in polym er s which can be conducted in either the Chem ica l Engineering Departm en t or the Polymer Science and Engine ering D epar tm en t. Financial aid, in the form of research assistantships and teaching assistantships, is available. Course of study and area of researc h are sel ec t e d in consultation with one or more of the faculty list ed below. or 260 For further details, please write to Prof. M. F. Doherty Graduate Program Director Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass. 01003 Prof. D. A. Tirrell Graduate Program Director Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, MaM. 01003 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M. A. BURNS Bio c hemi ca l e ngineering Chromatographic separa ti ons W. C CONNER Catalysis, Kinetics Surface diffusion M. F. DOHERTY Distillation Thermodynamics, De sig n J. M. DOUGLAS Pr ocess design and con tr ol, Reactor engineering V HAENSEL Catalysis Kinetics M. P. HAROLD Kinetics and Reactor Eng ineering R S. KIRK Kinetics, Ebu lient bed reactors R. L. LAURENCE* P olymerization reactors Fluid mechanics M. F MALONE Rheology Polymer processing Design P A MONSON Statistical mechanics K M NG Enhanced oil recovery Two-phase fl ows J. M, OTTINO* Mi x ing Fluid me c hani cs, Polymer engineering M. VANPEE Combustion, Spectroscopy P R WESTMORELAND Combustion, Pla sma processing H. H. WINTER* Polymer rheology and processing Heat transfer B E. YDSTIE Proc ess con t ro l POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING J. C. W. CHIEN Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers, Polymer degradation R. J. FARRIS Polymer composites Med,anical properties, Elastomers D. A. HOAGLAND* Hydrodynamic chromatography separations S. l. HSU Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis F. E. KARASZ Polymer transitions, Polymer blends, Conducting polymers R. W. LENZ* Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization W. J. MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers T. J McCARTHY Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces M. MUTHUKUMAR Statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, gels, and melts R. S. PORTER Polymer rheology, Polymer processing R S STEIN Polymer crystallinity and morphology, Characterization D. A. TIRRELL Polymer synthesis and membranes E. i.. THOMAS* Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology, x-Rey scattering *Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Sci.ence and Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT J. Wei, Department Head R. C. Armstrong R. F. Baddour J.M. Beer E. D. Blankschtein H. Brenner R. A. Brown R. E. Cohen C. K. Colton C. Cooney W. M. Deen L.B. Evans K. K. Gleason T. A. Hatton J.B. Howard M. Kramer FACULTY J. P. Longwell E. W. Merrill C. M. Mohr R. C. Reid A. F. Sarofim C. N. Satterfield H. H. Sawin K. A Smith G. Stephanopoulos G. N. Stephanopoulos M. Stephanopoulos U. W. Suter J. W. Tester P. S. Virk D. I. C. Wang M. Yarmush RESEARCH AREAS Artificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Fluid Mechanics Electronic Materials Processing Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena Photo b11 James Wei MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in Albany, New York, the Brookheaven National Lab at Long Island, New York, and the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan. FALL 1987 For Information Chemical Engineering Headquarters Room 66-350 MIT Cambridge, MA 02139 261

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Where Reputations Are Made "Our goal Is to have each Ph.D. student leave Ann Arbor with a reputation a~ scholar who has added some significant contribution to the world's knowledge." H. Scott Fogler., Chairman Michigan has been a leader since it established one of the country's first Chemical Engineering programs in 1901. From a position of strength in our classical research areas including transport phenomena, reaction engineering, catalysis, electrochemical engineering, process control, computing, and coal processes, the department has already built momentum in new research directions. Biotechnology and Biomedical Engineering Continuous Processing of High Performance Materials Microelectronics and Sensors Colloid and Surface Science Microseparations, Ecosystems Supercomputer-Aided Analysis You can begin building your professional reputation at Michigan under one of the country's most generous student aid programs for full financial support. For more information contact: Professor Brice Carnahan Graduate Program dvisor. Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 313-763-1148 D.E. Briggs B. Carnahan R.L. Curl F.M. Donahue H.S. Fogler, Chairman E. Gulari R.H. Kadlec C. Kravaris J. Linderman B. Palsson A.C. Papanastasiou P.E. Savage J.S. Schultz J. Schwank H.Y. Wang J.O. Wilkes G.S Y. Yeh E.H. Young R.M. Ziff (Emeritus: D.L Katz, L.L. Kempe, J.E. Powers, M.J. Sinnott, R. Tek, B. Williams.)

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN ST ATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering offers Graduate Programs lead ing to M.S. and Ph.D degrees in Chemical Engineering The faculty con duct fundamental and applied research in a variety of Chemical Engineer ing disciplines. The Michigan Biotechnology Institute and the Center for Composite Materials and Structures provide a forum for interdisciplinary worlc in current high technology fields. ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $1020.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S. degree and approximately $1100.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $16,000 per year plus out-of-state tuition. The stipend includes a waiver of non-resident tuition. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman Ph.D., 1960, University of Washington Transport Phenomena, Diffusion in Polymer Solutions K.A.BERGLUND Ph.D., 1981, Iowa State University Crystallization and Precipitation from Solution, Food Engineer ing, Applications of Raman Spectroscopy D. M. BRIEDIS Ph.D., 1981, Iowa State University Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living Systems, Biological Mineralization, Biochemical Engineering R. E. BUXBAUM Ph.D., 1981, Princeton University Thermodynamics, Chemical Engineering of Nuclear Fusion, Theoretical and Experimental Diffusivities and Separation Rates, Bio-Physics C. M. COOPER, Professor Emeritus Sc .D. 1949, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of Transport Processes L.T.DRZAL Ph.D., 1974, Case Western Reserve University Surface and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Com1;>osite Mate rials, Surface Characterization, Gas-Solid and Liqllld-Solid Ad sorption H. E. GRETHLEIN Ph.D., 1962, Princeton University Biomass Conversion Bio-Degration, Waste Treatment, BIO process Development, Distillation, Biochemical Engineering E.A.GRULKE Ph.D., 1975, Ohio State University Mass Transport Phenomena, Polymer Devolatilization, Bio chemical Engineering, Food Engineering M.C.HAWLEY Ph.D., 1964, Michigan State University Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas, Polymerization Reac tions, Composite Processing, Biomass Conversion, Reaction En gineering K. JAYARAMAN Ph.D., 1975, Princeton University Polymer Rheology, Melt Blending of Polymers, Two-Phase Flow in Polymer Proc ess ing Applied Acoustics C.T.LIRA Ph.D ., 1985, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria of Complex Systems, Supercritical Fluid Studies D. J. MILLER Ph.D., 1982, University of Florida Kinetics and Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Carbon Gasifica tion, Thermal and Chemical Conversion of B10mass C A.PETTY Ph.D., 1970, University of Florida Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena, Solid-Fluid Separations B. W. WILKINSON Ph.D., 1958, Ohio State University Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Reactor Radioisotope Applications R.M.WORDEN Ph.D., 1986, University of Tennessee Biochemical Engineering Immobilized Cell Technology, Bioreactor Dynamics and Control FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE Dr Dennis J. Miller, Coordinator of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering, 173 Engineering Building Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1226 MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution

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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Chemical Engineering Program I Process Control Synthesis, Design Fluid Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Statistical Mechanics Reaction Engineering Kinetics Heterogeneous Catalysis Catalyst Design New Catalyst Materials Surface Reaction Kinetics Colloid and Interlace Science Surf actancy Capillary Hydrodynamics Adhesion and Surface Forces Coating Flows Bioengineering Biochemical, Biomedical The Faculty R A ri s W-S.Hu L.E. Scriven R W. Carr, Jr. K.F Jensen D A. Shores E. L. Cussler K.H Keller J.M S i vertsen J.S Dahler C W. Macosko W.H Smyrl H.T Davis J .L. Martins F. Srienc D.F. Evans M.L. Mccartney M Tirrell A. Franciosi A V. McCormick R. Tranq uillo A.G. Fredrickson R.A. Oriani J H. Weaver CJ Geankoplis W.E. Ranz H.S. White W.W. Gerberich L.D. Schmidt Materials Science Program Polymer Science I Polymer Processes Physical Metallurgy Mechanical Metallurgy Thermodynamics Thermodynamics of Solids Transport Diffusion and Kinetics Rheology Electrochemical Corrosion Processes Materials Failure Surface Science Microelectronic Materials Microelectronics Metal/Semiconductor Preparation Processes Interfaces, Thin Films Polymer Films Magnetic Materials Sols, Gels Suspension Processing Ceramics lntetfacial Cohesion Porous Media Science Fracture Micromechanics Sol-Gel Films Ceramic Microstructures Biomedical Dental Materials Materials Artifical Organ Materials For information and application forms, write: Graduate Admissions Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Minnesota 421 Washington Ave. S.E Minneapolis, MN 55455

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Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado) -Comp uter Aided Process Design, Bioconvers ion 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice) -Transport Properties, Kinetics, Catalysis. M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida) Biochemical Stud ies, Biomass Utilization J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri) Electrode Re actions, Corrosion. A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich) Adsorpt ion, Free ze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor Design J. M. D. MAC ELROY (Ph.D., University College Dublin)-Transport Phenomena Heterogeneous Catalysis, Drying, Statistical Mechanics D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon) lnterfacial Phenomena B E. POLING (Ph.D., lllinois) -Kinetics, Energy Stor age Catalysis X B REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota)-Flu id Mechan ics, Drop Mechanics Coalescence Phenomena, Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure. 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla) Bioengineer ing R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M) -Multi stage Mass Transfer Operations, D istillation Extraction Process Control. H K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse) Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin Film Technol ogy, Plasma Polymer ization, Biomedical Materials R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue) Rheology of Polymer Solutions, Chemical Reaction Kinetics Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. FALL 1987 265

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Advanced studies in Chemical Engineering at NJIT NJIT, the public technological university of New Jersey, offering the Master of Science in Chemical Engineering, Master of Science, Degree of Engineer, and Doctor of Engineering Science. AT NJIT YOU'LL FIND : Outstanding relationships with major petrochemical and pharmaceutical corporations, yielding significant support for research efforts The National Science Foundation university / industry cooperative center for research in hazardous and toxic substances Graduate and undergraduate enrollment in chemical engineering among the largest in the country Financial support available to qualified full-time graduate students Faculty: Chemical Engineering Division P Armenante (Virginia) B. Baltzis (Minnesota) E. Bart (NYU) T Greenstein (NYU) D Hanesian (Cornell) C A. Huang (Michigan) D Knox (RPI) G. Lewandowski (Colum bia) C C. Lin (Technische Universitat Munchen) J E McCormick (Cincinnati) T. Petroulas (Minnesota) A J Perna (Connecticut) E C. Roche Jr (Stevens) D Tassios (Texas) W T. Wong (Princeton) Faculty: Chemistry Division J Bozzelli (Princeton) V. Cagnati (Stevens) L. Dauerman (Rutgers) D Getzin (Columbia) A. Greenberg (Princeton) J Grow (Oregon State) T. Gund (Princeton) B Kebbekus (Penn State) H Kimmel (CUNY) D S. Kristol (NYU) D Lambert (Oklahoma State) G Lei (PINY) R Parker (Washington) D H Perlmutter (NYU) D A Shilman (PINY) D L. Suchow (PINY) D R Tomkins (London) D R. Trattner (CUNY) D C. Venanzi (UC at Santa Barbara) CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Air pollutant analysis and transport of organic compounds D Biological and chemical detoxification D Design of air pollution control equipment D Toxicology REACTION KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Fixed and fluidized bed reactors D Free radical and global reaction kinetics Biochemical reactors D Reactor modeling and transport mechanisms THERMODYNAMICS Vapor-liquid equilibria D Calorimetry D Equations of state D Solute / solvent systems APPLIED CHEMISTRY Electrochemistry D Trace analysis and instrument development D Strained molecules D Inorganic solid state and material science D Heterocyclic and synthetic organic compounds D Drug receptor interaction modeling D Enzyme / substrate geometrics POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Rheology of polymer melts D Synthesis of dental adhesive D Photo initiated polymeriza tion D Size distribution of emulsion polymerization D Fire resistance fibers BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Thixotropic property of human blood D Modified glucose tolerance test D Mathematical modeling of metabolic processes PROCESS SIMULATION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES Distillation D Parametric pumping D Protein separation D Liquid membranes New Jersey Institute of Technology is a publicly supported university with 7 500 students enrolled in baccalaureate through doctoral programs within three colleges : Newark College of Engineering, the School of Architecture and the College of Science and Liberal Arts We invite you to explore academic opportunities at NJIT For further information call (201) 596-3460 or write : Director of Graduate Studies NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Newark, New Jersey 07102 AA/EO Institution fil

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Bo~ 7905, North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST Ruben Carbonell Multi phase Transport Phenomena, Bioseparations (Princeton) Re y Chern Structure-property Relations; Membrane gas separations (NCSU) Peter Fedkiw Electrochemical engineering (Berke l ey) Richard M. Felder Simulation and optimization; Chemical reaction engineering (Pri n ceton) James K. Ferrell Coal gasification (NCSU) Carol K. Hall Statistical mechanics; Bioseparations (Corne ll ) Harold B. Hopfenberg Transport in polymers; Controlled release biologicals (MI T ) Peter K. Kilpatrick I nterfacial chemistry; Bioseparations ( M in n es ot a) H. Henry Lamb H eterogeneous catalysis; surface science ( D e l awa r e) P. K. Lim Interfacial phenomena; H omogeneous catalysis (Illinois) Da v id B. Marsland Environmental engineering (Corne ll ) Alan S. Michaels Polymer and membrane science; Biomedical and biochemical separations (MI T ) David F. Ollis Head Biochemical engineering; Heterogeneous photocatalysis (Sta nf o rd ) M i chael R. Overcash Industrial and hazardous waste management and treatment (Mi nn esota) Steven W. Peretti Genetic and metabolic engineering; Microbial, plant and animal cell culture (Ca l tech) C. John Setzer Associate Head Plant and process economics and management (Ohio State) Edward P. Stabel Chemical and polymer reaction engineering (Oh i o Sta t e) Vivian T. Stannett Pure and applied polymer science ( B roo kl yn P o l y) Hubert Winston Chemical process control; oil field reservoir dynamics (NCSU) FALL 19 8 7 I n quir i es to : Prof. Carol K. Hall D irector of Graduate St u dies (9 19 ) 737 3571 267

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Chen1ical Engineering at Northwestern University S. George Bankoff Two-phase heat transfer, fluid mechanics John B. Butt Chemical reaction engineering Stephen H. Carr Solid state properties of polymers Buckley Crist Jr. Polymer science Joshua S. Dranoff Chemical reaction engineering, chromatographic separations Thomas K. Goldstick Biomedical engineering, oxygen transport in the human body Iftekhar Karimi Computer-aided design, scheduling of noncontinuous processes Harold H. Kung Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis Richard S.H. Mah Computer-aided process planning, design and analysis, distillation systems William M. Miller Biochemical engineering E. Terry Papoutsakis Biochemical engineering Mark A. Petrich Electronic materials, microelectronics Gregory Ryskin Fluid mechanics, computational methods, polymeric liquids Wolfgang M.H. Sachtler Heterogeneous catalysis John C. Slattery Interfacial transport phenomena, multiphase flows John M. Torkelson Polymer science For information and application to the graduate program, write John M. Torkelson Chairperson of Graduate Program Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois 60201

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T H E OHIO UNIVERSITY Relevant Graduate Education Excellence in Research Close Relationships Between Graduate Students and Their Faculty Advisors GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W HY sho u ld you consider Ohio State for graduate study in chemical enginee r ing? Some of the facts that may influence your decision are that we have a unique, high quality combination of research projects, facilities, faculty and student body, all situated in pleasant surroundings We can provide a stimulating, productive and worthwhile means for you to further your education. Financial support is available ranging from $8,500 to $15,000 annually We would be glad to provide you with complete information regarding our programs, including potential thesis topics and degree requirements. Pl ease write or ca ll collect: Professor Jacques L. Zakin Chairman, Department of Chemical E ngineer i ng, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 19th Avenue, Colum bus, Ohio 432 1 0-1180, (614) 292-6986 Robert S. Brodkey Wisconsin 1952, Turbulence, Mixing, I mage Analysis, R eactor D esign, and Rheology Jeffrey J. Chalmers Corne ll 1988, Biochemical Engineering, Protein Excre tion and Produc ti on, and I mmobilized Cel l R eactor Design James F. Davis N orthwestern 1982, A r tificia l I ntelligence, Computer Aided Design, and Process Control L. S Fan West Virginia 1975, Fluidization, Chemical & Biochemical Reaction Engineering, and Mathematical Modeling Edwin R. Haering, Ohio State 1966, Reaction Engineering, Cata l ysis, and Adsorption Harry C. Hershey Missouri-Rolla 1965, Thermodynamics, and Drag Reduct i on Kent S. Knaebel, D e l aware 1980, Mass Transfer, Separations, Computer Aided D es i gn, and Power Conversion Cyc l es L. James Lee, Minnesota 7979, Polymer Processing, Polymer i zation, and Rheo l ogy Won-Kyoo Lee, Missouri-Columbia 7972, Process Control, Computer Con tro l and Computer Aided D esign Umit Ozkan I owa State 7984, Heterogeneous Catalysis, and Reaction Kinetics Duane R. Skidmore Fordham 1960, Coal Processing, and Biochemical Enginee r ing Edwin E. Smith, Ohio State 794-9, Combustion, and Environmental E ngineering Thomas L. Sweeney, Case 7962, Air P ollution Control, H eat Transfer, and L egal Aspec t s of Engineering Shang Tian Yang Purdue 7984, Biochemical Engineering and Bi otech no l ogy, Fermentation Processes, and K i ne ti cs Jacques L. Zakin New York 1959, Drag Reduction, Rheology, and Emulsions T h e O h io S t ate U niversity is an equa l oppor tu nity/affirmative action institution

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Ohio University Chemical Engineering 3819-87

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FALL 1987 THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Areas Of Research Interest: SURFACTANTS CORROSION THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING STATISTICAL MECHANICS SYNTHETIC FUELS REACTION ENGINEERING METALLURGY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY ULTRATHIN FILMS NOVEL SEPARATION PROCESSES POLYMER PROCESSING BASE STIPEND: $800 / MO. For the application materials and further information, write to Graduate Program Coordinator School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Oklahoma 100 East Boyd Norman, Oklahoma 73019 271

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OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY ... Where People Are Important R .C Erbar Adsorption Aerosol Science Air Pollution Biochemical Processes Catalysis Design Equations of State M.M Johnson G.L. Foutch Fluid Flow Gas Processing Ground Water Quality Hazardous Wastes Heat Transfer Ion Exchange Kinetics R L. Robinson Jr. Address inquiries to: Robert L. Robinson, Jr. Mass Transfer Modeling Phase Equilibria Process Simulation Separations Thermodynamics J Wagner School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University (;Hll, .. ,..+nr ()U 7/ll\7!,Ll\:;:-:t7

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University of Pennsylvania Chemical Engineering Stuart W. Churchill Combustion, thermoacoustic convection, rate processes Gregory C. Farrington Electrochemistry, solid state and pol y mer chemistry, catalysis William C. Forsman Polymer science and engineering, graphite intercalation Eduardo D. Glandt Classical and statistical thermodynamics, random media Raymond J. Go rte Heterogeneous catalysis, surface science, zeolites David J. Graves Biochemical and biomedical engineering, bioseparations Douglas A. Lauffenburger Biomedical/ biochemical engineering, mathematical modeling Mitchell Litt Biorheology transport systems, biomedi ca l engineering Alan L. Myers Adsorption of gases and liquids thermodynamics of electrolytes Daniel D. Perlmutter Chemical reactor design, gas-solid reactions coal processing John A. Quinn Membrane transport, biochemical/ biomedical engineering Warren D. Seider Process analysis, simulation and design, numerical methods Lyle H. Ungar Crystal growth, artificial intelligence in process control John M Vohs Metal oxide surface c hemi s tr y Paul B. Weisz Molecular selectivity in chemical and life processes Pennsylvania's chemical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the department The full resources of this Ivy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. The cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering 311A Towne Building University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6393

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FACULTY PAUL BARTON (Penn State) ALFRED CARLSON (Wisconsin) RONALD P. DANNER (Lehigh) THOMAS E. DAUBERT (Penn State) J. LARRY DUDA (Delaware) ALFRED J. ENGEL (Wisconsin) JOHN A. FRANGOS (Rice) FRIEDRICH G. HELFFERICH (Gottingen) ROBERT L. KABEL (Washington) RICHARD D. LaROCHE (Illinois) JOHN R. McWHIRTER (Penn State) R. NAGARAJAN (SUNY Buffalo) JONATHAN PHILLIPS (Wisconsin) JOHN M. TARBELL (Delaware) JAMES S. ULTMAN (Delaware) M. ALBERT VANNICE (StanforaJ JAMES S. VRENTAS ,Delaware) DANIEL WHITE (Florida) For application forms and further information, write to: Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering 133 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Individuals holding the B.S. in Chemistry or other related areas are encouraged to appl11. We've Made Our Choice! PENN STATE APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS Compilation, Correlation, Prediction of Thermodynamic, Transport, Physical Properties API Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining AIChE-DIPPR Data Prediction Manual Equation of State Models Phase Equilibria in Mixtures Critical Property, Vapor Pressure Measurements BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Flow and M i xing in Lung Airways Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics Mechanical Origin of Atherosclerosis Thermal Regulation of Newborn Infants Transport Phenomena on Arterial Wall BIOTECHNOLOGY Affinity Based Purification Processes Protein-Separation Media Interaction and Modeling Growth of Recombinant Microorganisms Mutation Kinetics and Plasmid Stability CATALYSIS AND SURFACE PHENOMENA Metal-Support lriteractions CO / Hydrogen Synthesis Reactions Sulfur Poisoning of Catalysts Carbon-Supported Metal Cluster Catalysts Sintering of Silver Oxidation Catalysts Noble Metal Reconstruction Characterization of Iron-Carbon Catalysts Catalytic Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Adsorption POLYMERS AND COLLOIDS Diffusion in Polymers Rheology and Flow Behavior Enhanced Oil Recovery Micelles, Vesicles, Microemulsions Separation of Biopolymers TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Flow Through Porous Media Mixing and Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flows Mathematical Analysis of Free Convection Perturbation Analysis of Free Convection Perturbation Approach to Moving Boundary Problems Laminar Flow in Complex Systems Gas-Liquid and Gas-Solid Reactors Multicomponent Ionic Transport Propagation Phenomena in Multicomponent Systems Atmospheric Modelling Semiconductor Processing TRIBOLOGY Lubricant Rheology Tribology at Elevated Temperatures Oxidation of Lubricants Vapor Deposited Lubricants Trlbology and Lubrication of Ceramics

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GRADUATE PROGRAMS M.S. in Chemical Engineering M.S. in Petroleum Engineering Dual M.S. in Chemical/Petroleum Engineering Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering University of RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Surface Chemistry Reactor Engineering lnterphase Transport Particulate Systems Thermodynamics Super Critical Extraction Gas Hydrates Reservoir Mechanics Secondary Oil Recovery ,/ II I 'I ,, f FACULTY Charles S. Beroes Alfred A. Bishop Donna G. Blackmond Alan J Brainard Shiao-Hung Chiang James T Cobb, Jr. Robert M. Enick James G Goodwin, Jr. Gerald D. Holder George E. Klinzing Joseph H. Magill George Marcelin Badie Morsi Albert J. Post Alan A. Reznik John W. Tierney Irving Wender FOR MORE INFORMATION Graduate Coordinator Chemical/Petroleum Engineering School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 Pittsburgh

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? CHEMICAL ENGINEERING/POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg M M Ataai J. R. Battler R. F Benenati J. J. Conti C. D Han J. S. Mijovic A. S. Myerson E. M. Pearce L. I. Stiel E. N. Ziegler W P Zurawsky Polytechnic University Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and New York Univers i ty School of Engineering and Science Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's and Doctor's degrees Areas of Study and research : chemical engineering, polymer science and engineering. RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Engineering Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Computer Aided Process Design Energy Conversion Engineering Properties of Polymers Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Polymer Processing Polymer Morphology Polymer Synthesis and Modification Polymerization Reaction Engineering Rheology Separation Sciences Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available. For further information contad Professor A. S. Myerson Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic University 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, New York 11201

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GRAolJP-iE s11JD\ES \N esearch Areas ppe: ;.;_ .....-. ------___. Aerosols --;;.... B _. i ochem athematics 1cal En Biomedic I E ?ineering Cot a . ~ ..:.. __::... ------~ .__ ___ 1srs and Rea t' iemical Process~ ,on Engineering evelopment esearch an Collo'

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University of Queensland POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships Available Return Airfare Included STAFF P R BELL (N S.W ) J N BELTRAMINI (Santa Fe) L T CAMERON (Imperial College) D D DO (Queensland) P F GREENFIELD (N S.W ) M JOHNS (Massey) P L. LEE (Monash) J D. LITSTER (Queensland) M E MACKAY (Illino i s) R B NEWELL (Alberta) D J. NICKLIN (Cambridge) V RUDOLPH (Natal) M TADE (Queen's) E T. WHITE (Imper i al College) R J WILES (Queensland) ADJUNCT STAFF J M BURGESS (Edinburgh) J E HENDRY (Wiscons i n) L. S LEUNG (Cambridge) G W PACE (MIT) D H RANDERSON (NSW) B R STANMORE (Manchester) THE DEPARTMENT / 7__ I --1 I .. --,.r RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Particle Mechanics Process Simulation Fermentation Systems Tissue Culture Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics Mineral Processing Adsorption Membrane Processes Hybridoma Technology Numerical Analysis The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an ex tensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M.Eng. Studies, M Eng.Science and Ph.D.degrees. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY The University is one of the largest in Australia with more than 18 000 students. Brisbane, with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef. For further information write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. 4067 AUSTRALIA.

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Advanced Study and Research Areas Air pollution control Biochemical engineering Combustion Fluid-particle systems Heat transfer lnterfacial phenomena Multiphase flow Polymer reaction engineering Separation engineering Simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction Thermodynamics Transport Processes For full details write Dr. P.K. Lashmet, Executive Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590 RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Ph.D. and M.S. Programs in Chemical Engineering The Faculty Michael M. Abbott Ph.D., Rensselaer Elmar R. Altwicker Ph.D Ohio State Georges Belfort Ph.D., California-lNine Henry R. Bungay Ill Ph.D., Syracuse Chan I. Chung Ph.D., Rutgers Steven M. Cramer Ph.D Yale Arthur Fontijn O.Sc., Amsterdam William N. Gill Ph.D., Syracuse Richard T Lahey, Jr. Ph.D., Stanford Peter K. Lashmet Ph.D., Delaware Howard Littman Ph.D ., Yale Morris H. Morgan Ill Ph.D., Rensselaer Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D ., Wisconsin E. Bruce Nauman Ph.D., Leeds Sanford S. Sternstein Ph.D., Rensselaer Hendrick C. Van Ness D.Eng., Yale Peter C. Wayner, Jr. Ph.D ., Northwestern

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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY Privately endowed coeducational school 2600 undergraduate students 1200 graduate students Quiet and beautiful 300 acre tree-shaded campus 3 miles from downtown Houston Architecturally uniform and aesthetic campus THE CITY Large metropolitan and cultural center Petrochemical capital of the world Industrial collaboration and job opportunities World renowned research and treatment medical center Professional sports Close to recreational areas THE DEPARTMENT M.ChE M.S., and Ph.D. degrees Approximately 80 graduate students (predominately PhD.) 13 full-time faculty Stipends and tuition waivers for full-time students Special fellowships with higher stipends for outstanding candidates THE FACULTY WILLIAM W. AKERS (Michigan, 1950) Vice-president for administration. CONSTANTINE D. ARMENIADES (Case Western Reserve, 1969) Polymers and composites, biomaterials. SAM H. DAVIS, JR. (MIT, 1957) Dynamics of chemical systems, optimization, and process control. DEREK C. DYSON (London, 1966) lnterfacial phenomena, hydrodynamic stability, and enhanced oil recovery. MICHAEL W GLACKEN (M I.T 1987) Biochemical en gineering mammalian cell culture, immunological engineering J. DAVID HELLUMS (Michigan, 1961) Fluid mechanics and biomedical engineering JOE W HIGHTOWER (Johns Hopkins, 1963) Kinetics and heterogeneous catalysis. RIKI KOBAYASHI (Michigan, 1951) Thermodynamics and transport properties, chromatography, coal liquefaction, and high-pressure properties LARRY V. MclNTIRE (Princeton, 1970) Rheology, fluid mechanics, and biomedical engineering CLARENCE A. MILLER (Minnesota, 1969) lnterfacial phenomena, enhanced oil recovery, detergency MARK A. ROBERT (Swiss Fed Institute of Technology, 1980) Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics. KA-YIU SAN (CalTech, 1984) Biochemical engineer ing, and process control KYRIACOS ZYGOURAKIS (Minnesota, 1981) Chemical reaction engineering computer applications for control and data acquisition. APPLICATIONS Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 1892 Rice University Houston, TX 77251

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Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY of ROCHESTER Graduate study and research leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Fellowships to $12,000 Summer Research Program available for entering students. For further information and applications, contact : Professor John C Friedly Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Univer s ity of Rochester Rochester New York 14627 Phone : (716) 275-4042 Faculty and Research Areas S. H. CHEN, Ph.D.1981, Minnesota Polym er S cie n c e and E n g ineering, T rans port Ph e no mena, Op tica l Materia l s E. H. CHIMOWITZ, Ph.D. 1982, Connecticut Computer-Aided Design, Super-Critical Extraction, Control G. R. COKELET, Sc.D. 1963, M.I.T. M ic ro ci rculatory Tr ansp o r t P rocesses, Biom e d ica l Engineering M. R. FEINBERG, Ph.D. 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems Applied Mathematics J. R. FERRON, Ph.D 1958, Wisconsill Molecular Transport Proc e sses, Applied Mathematics J.C. FRIEDLY, Ph.D. 1965, California (Berkeley) Process Dynamics, Control, Heat Transfer R.H. HEIST, Ph D.1972, Purdue Nucleation, Solid State Atmospheric C h emistry J. JORNE, Ph.D. 1972, California (Berkeley) E l ec t roc h e m ica l E n g ineeriing M icr o e l ec t r o ni c P rocessing, Th e o re t ica l Biolo gy R H NOTTER, Ph.D. 196 9, Wa s hington (Seattle) M.D. 19 8 0 Roch es t e r Biomedical E n g ineering, L ung Surfactants and P ulmonary D isease, Aerosols H.J. PALMER Ph D. 1971 Wa s hington (Seattle) Int erf a ci al Phe n omena Mass Transfer H. SALTSBURG Ph D 1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering S. V. SOTIRCHOS, Ph.D. 1982, Houston Reaction Engineering, Combustion and Gas i fication of Coal Gas-Solid Reactions J. H. D. WU, Ph.D 19 8 7 M I.T Biochemica l E ngineering, F ermentation and I ndustrial Micro b iology FALL 19 8 7 281

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~(\~ RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. AND AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY, COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED BIOCATALYSIS BIOMATERIALS ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTES INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING CONTROL OF FERMENTATION FOOD PROCESSING GENETIC ENGINEERING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE 2 8 2 EXPERT SYSTEMS/Al HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE TREATMENT ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS POLYMER PROCESSING WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND REUSE SOLID STATE CATALYSIS INCINERATION & RESOURCE RECOVERY STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS MICROBIAL DETOXIFICATION Fo r Ap pl ica ti on F orms and F u rt he r Info r mat i on Write T o : Director of Graduate Program Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Rutgers The State University of New Jersey P O Box 909 Piscataway, NJ 0BSSS-0909 C H E MI CAL E N GI N EER IN G ED UCA T IO N

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I I UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA The Chemical Engineering Department offers M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely with the faculty on re search projects Research and teaching stipends are available. The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of 23,800 on the Columbia campus, offers a variety of cultural and recreational activities. Columbia is part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country. The Chemical Engineering Faculty B.L. Baker Distinguished Professor Emeritus Ph D ., North Carolina State University 195 5 (Process design environment problems ion transport) M.W. Davis, Jr., Weisiger Chair Professor, Ph.D University of California (Berkeley) 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis solvent extraction, waste treatment) F.A. Gadala-Maria, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Stanford University, 1979 (Fluid me c hanics, rhe ology) J.H Gibbons, Professor, Ph D ., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer.fluid mechanics) E.L. Hanzevack, Jr Associate Professor, Ph.D ., Northwestern University, 1974 (Two-phase flow, turbulence). F.P Pike, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid-liq uid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria). T.G Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph.D The University of Michigan, 1977 (Chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems, process design, thermodynamics) V. Van Brunt, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass transfer, com puter modeling liquid extraction) J.W. Van Zee, Assistant Professor Ph D. Texas A & M University, 1984 (Electrochemical sys tems mathematical modeling statistical applications). R.W. Wenig, Assistant Professor, Ph D., Iowa State University, 1986 (Catalysis reaction kinetics surface science). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT Prof. J.H. Gibbons Chairman, Chemical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208

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FACULTY H. Assadipour (PhD, Michigan Tech. U.) J.A. Biesenberger (PhD, Princeton U.) G.B. Delancey (PhD, Pittsburgh U.) C.G. Gogos (PhD, Princeton U.) D.M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill U.) S. Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens) D.H. Sebastian (PhD, Stevens) H. Silla (PhD, Stevens) K.K. Sirkar (PhD, Illinois U.) C. Tsenoglou (PhD, Northwestern U.) For application, contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5234 For additional information, contact: Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5546 Financial aid is available to qualified students. STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Beautiful campus on the Hudson River overlooking metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and culture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concentration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum and pharmaceutical companies Excellent facilities and instrumentation Close collaboration with other disciplines, especially chemistry and biology One of the leaders in chemical engineering computing GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. RESEARCH IN Membrane Technology Separation Processes Biochemical Reaction Engineering Polymer Reaction Engineering Polymer Rheology & Processing Polymer Characterization Catalysis Physical Property Estimation Process Design & Development Stevens In s titute of Technology does not discriminate against any person because of race, creed color, national origin sex, age marital status handicap, liability for service in the armed forces or status as a disabled or Vietnam era veteran

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Expand Your World ... SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY offers Chemical Engineering and mu ch m ore. FACULTY Allen J. Barduhn (emeritus) John C. Heydweiller Cynthia S. Hirtzel George C Martin Philip A. Rice (chairman) Ashok S. Sangani Klaus Schroder James A. Schwarz S Alexander Stern Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien for information: Dr George C. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science 320 Hinds Hall Syracuse University Syracuse, NY 13244 315-423-2559 Kle ine W elton (Small Worlds) VII, Wa s sily Ka ndinsky c. 1 922 Syracuse University Art Collecti on

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THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING UT Knoxvi ll e gra du a t e s tu de n ts V i c ki e Gilbert a nd Jim G amb ill u se o n e of th e 50 0 li ter fe r me nt ors in t h e Bi o l ogy d i visio n oi th e Oa k R i d ge National L abo r atory t or their resea r ch on l arge scale prod u ction of genetical l y enginee r ed DN A. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING Center for Environmental Biotechnology Bioprocess Research Facility at ORNL PROCESS CONTROL Measurement and Control Engineering Center Internships at Tennessee Eastman POLYMERS Center for Materials Processing COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN Waste Management and Educational Institute SEPARATIONS AND TRANSPORT WRITE T O : DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING U N IVE R SI TY O F TE NN ESSEE KNOX V ILLE T N 379 96 -2200 FACULTY AT KNOXVILLE AND OAK RIDGE P R Bienkowsk i Bioprocessing Thermodynamics D C Bogue Polymers Rheology D.D Bruns P rocess Control Modeling C H B y er s 1 Separations & Transport E S Clark Polymers H C Cochran 1 Thermodynamics R M Counce Separations & Transport B H Davison 1 B ioprocessing T L D ona l dso n 1 B ioprocessing J F Fellers Polymers G.C Frazier Bioprocessing Kinetics J.M. H o l mes Compute r -aided D esign Economics H.W Hsu Bioprocessing Transport C.F. Moore Process Control J.J. P erona ( H ead) Separations & Transport, Heat & Mass Transfer C.D Scott 1 T.C. Scott 1 C O T homas T.W Wang J S Watson 1 F E Weber Bioprocessing Sepa r ations B ioprocessing, Separations Computer-aid~d D esign E conomics P rocess Control Bioprocessing Sepa r ations & Transport Nuclear F usion Computer-aided Design R adiation Chemistry 1 1ocated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 20 miles from the main campus at Kno xv ille

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Artificial Internal O ns Aqueous Mass Transfer Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Blood-Contacting Biomaterials Catalysis Chemical Engineering Educat i on Chemical Vapor Deposition Colloid Science Combustion Crystal Structure & Properties Crystallization Enhanced Enzyme P r oduction Fault Detection & Diagnosis Heat Transfer Laser Processing Materials Science Membrane Science Multi-phase Systems Optimization Plasma Processing Polymer Blends Polymer Processing Polymer Thermodynamics CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY

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The University of Toledo Graduate study toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships available. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Gary F. Bennett, Ph.D., University of Michi gan. Professor; Environmental Pollution Con trol, Biochemical Engineering. Kenneth J. De Witt, Ph D., Northwestern Uni versity. Professor; Transport Phenomena, Math ematical Modeling and Numerical Methods. Ronald L. Fournier, Ph.D., University of To ledo. Assistant Professor; Transport Phenome na, Thermodynamics, Mathematical Modelling and Biotechnology. Millard L. Jones, Jr ., Ph.D., University of Michigan. Professor; Process Dynamics and Control, Mathematical Modelling and Heat Transfer James W. Lacksonen, Ph.D., Ohio State Uni versity. Professor; Chemical Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Design, Pulp and Paper Engineering. Leslie E. Lahti, Ph.D Carnegie-Mellon Univer sity. Professor; Adductive Crystallization, Flue gas Desulfurization. Steven E. LeBlanc, Ph.D., University of Michi gan. Assistant Professor; Dissolution Kinetics, Surface and Colloid Phenomena, Controlled Re lease Technology. Stephen L. Rosen, Chairman, Ph.D., Cornell University. Professor; Polymeric Materials, Polymerization Kinetics, Rheology. Sasidhar Varanasi, Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo. Assistant Professor; Col loidal and lnterfacial Phenomena, Enzyme Kinet ics, Membrane Transport For Details Contact: Dr. S. L. Rosen, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (419) 537-2639 EN 179 387 1 Regarded as one of the nation's most attractive campuses, The Univers i ty of Toledo is located in a beautiful residential area of the city approximately seven m i les from downtown. The University's main campus occupies more than 200 acres with 40 major build ings. A member of the state university system of Ohio since July 1967, The University ofToledo observed its 100th anniversary as one of the country's major universities in 1972.

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a TUFTS UNIVERSITY (,,,er, <' } 85 YEARS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEER/NG M.S. and PhD Programs in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS SEPARATION PROCESSES: Crystallization, Membrane Processes, Chromatography MATERIALS AND INTERFACES: Polymers and Fiber Science, Composite Materia Is, Adhesion at Interfaces, Sta bi I ity and Rheology of Suspensions, Coal Slurries, VLSI Fabrication BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Fermentation Technology, Mammalian Cell Bioreactors, Separation of Biomolecules KINETICS AND CATALYSIS: Heterogeneous Catalysis, Electrocata lytic Processes ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF GREGORY D BOTSARIS, CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEM I CAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD MA 02155 IN METROPOLITAN BOSTON

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An aerial view of the campus located on a pla teau between the Allegheny and Blue Ridge Mountains. Chemical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University At Virginia Tech, we apply chemistry to the needs of man! Study with outstanding professors in the land of Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Lee ... where Chemical Engineering is an exciting art. Some current areas of major activity are: Renewable Resources chemical and microbiological processing, chemicals from re newable resources Catalysis homogeneous, heterogeneous spectroscopy novel immobili zations of homogeneous systems, zeolite synthesis Fluid-Particle Systems novel applications of vibrated beds: in heat transfer; in micro reactors with rapid, frequent shift in gas atmosphere (for unsteady state kinetic studies); in microreactors that simu late the reaction scene in large-scale gas-fluidized beds (for process development of such beds) Surface Chemistry semiconductors, model catalysis, metal oxides gas sensors, combiined high pressure UHV surface analysis Microcomputers, Digital Electronics, and Control digital process measurements, microconputer inter-facing, remote data acquisition, digital controls Polymer Science and Engineering processing, morphology, s ynthesis, surface science, bio ploymers Biotechnology rheology of large-scale cultures, oxygen mass transfer in large scale cultures, membrane isolation science, hydro phobic interaction chromatography, in situ biodegradation of toxic wastes Surface Activity use of bubbles and other interfaces for separations, water purification, trace elements concentration, understanding living systems VPI&SU is the state university of Virginia with 20,000 students and over 5,000 engineering students . located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern Virginia White-water canoeing, skiing, backpacking, and the like are all nearby, as are Washington, D.C. and historic Williamsburg. Initial Stipends to $12,000 per year. Write to: Graduate Committee, Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

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The Department has a vigorous research program and excellent physical facilities There are about 7 0 graduate st udents of whom typically 10-15 are foreign students and the remainder are from about 30 universities in over 20 states All full-time graduate students are supported. The research environment is stimulating and supportive and there is a fine esprit de corps among the graduate students and faculty. Seattle is a beautiful city with outstan ding cultural activities and unparalleled outdoor activities throughout the y ear. We welcome your inquiry. For further information please write: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering, BF-10 University of Washington Seattle WA 98195 Regular Faculty J Ray Bowen, Ph.D. Stanford (Dean, College of Engineering) John C. Berg, Ph.D., California (Berkeley) E. James Davis, Ph.D., Washington Bruce A. Finlayson, Ph.D., Minnesota Rod R. Fisher, Ph.D., Iowa State William J Heideger Ph.D., Princeton Bradley R. Holt, Ph.D., Wisconsin Eric W. Kaler, Ph D. Minnesota Barbara B. Krieger, Ph.D. Wayne State N. Lawrence Ricker, Ph.D., California (Berkeley) James C. Seferis Ph.D. Delaware Charles A. Sleicher Ph D., Michigan Eric M. Stuve, Ph.D. Stanford Research Faculty Thomas A. Horbett, Ph D., Washington Adjunct and Joint Faculty Active in Department Research G. Graham Allan, Ph.D. Glasgow Allan S. Hoffman Sc D., M.I.T. Buddy D. Ratner Ph .D., Brooklyn Polytechnic Research Areas Aerosols Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Colloids and Microemulsions Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Heat Transfer Interfacial Phenomena Mathematical Modeling Polymer Science and Engineering Process Control and Optimization Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Processes Reaction Engineering Surface Science

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WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering Department Here at Washington State University, we are proud of our graduate program, and of our students. The program has been grow ing quickly in size and quality, but is still small and informal. For a department of this size, the range of faculty research interests is very broad. Students choose research projects of inFACUL TY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS J. M. Lee (Ph.D University of Kentucky): plant tissue cultivation, genetic engineering, enzymatic hydrolysis, mixing. K. C. Liddell (Ph.D., Iowa State University): semiconductor electrochemistry, reactions on fractal surfaces, separa tions, radioactive waste management R. Mahalingam (Ph.D., University of Newcastle-upon Tyne): multiphase syste ms, physical and chemical separa tions, particulate phoretic phenomena, electronic materials and polymers, synfuels and environment. R. C. Miller (Ph D University of California-Berkeley): chemical/phase equilibria, thermodynamic properties, cryogenics, chemical process engineering. terest to them, then have the opportunity and the responsibility-to make an individ ual contribution. Through a combination of core courses and many electives, students can gain a thorough understanding of the basics of chemical engineering. J. N. Petersen (Ph D., Iowa State University): adaptive on-line optimization of biochemical processes, adaptive control, drying of food products. J. C. Sheppard (Ph.D., Washington University): radioac tive wastes, actinide element chemistry atmospheric chemistry, radiocarbon dating. W. J. Thomson (Ph.D., University of Idaho): kinetics of solid state reactions, sintering rates of ceramic and electronic material precursers, chemical reaction en gineering B. J. Van Wie (Ph.D., University of Oklahoma): kinetics of mammalian tissue cultivation bio-reactor design, cen trifugal blood cellular separations, development of biochemical sensors. R. L. Zollars (Ph.D., University of Colorado): multiphase reactor design. polymer reactor design, colloidal phenomena, chemical vapor deposition reactor design. GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS AT WSU M.S. in Chemical Engineering Twelve credits in graduate chemical engineering courses, nine credits in supporting courses and a thesis are required Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering Eighteen credits in graduate chemical engineering courses, six teen credits in supporting courses and a dissertation are re quired Upon successful completion of the coursework and the Ph.D. preliminary examination, a student is admitted to can didacy for the degree. The dissertation must represent a signifi cant original contribution to the research literature Conversion Program Students with B.S degrees in the physical or life sciences 1 1 may apply for admission to the conversion program Normally ;Ja small number of undergraduate courses must be taken in ad" I\ ; dition to the regular requirements for the M S. or Ph D I \ FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE \ -----------------! Research or teaching assistantships, partial tuition waivers, and fellowships are available and nearly all of our students ..,__------------receive financial assistance Living costs are quite low WANT TO APPLY? Contact: Dr. K.C. Liddell, Graduate Coor dinator, Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2710, 509/335-4332 or 509/335-3710.

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Washington U ni vers it y e n co urag es and g i1 es full cons id e rati o n t o app li ca ti on for adm i ss i on and financial a id w ith o ut respect t o sex. rac e. handi cap. co l or. c r eed o r national or i gin. MASTER'S AND DOCTORAL PROGRAMS FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS M. P Dudukovic C h em i ca l R eac ti o n E ngin eer in g B. Joseph P rocess Contro l. Proce ss Optimization. Exper t Systems J. L. Kardos Co mp osi t e M a t e ri a l s a nd P o l y m e r Engineering F. Kargi Bi o t ec hn o l ogy Engineering J. M. McKelvey P o l y m e r Sc i e n ce a nd E ngine e ring R L. Motard Comp ut er Aided P rocess E ngin eeri n g P A. Ramachandran C h e mic a l R eac ti o n E ngin ee ring B. D. Smith Thermodynamics R. E. Sparks Bi omed i ca l E n g in ee rin g Mi croe ncap s ul a ti o n. Transport Phenomena C. Thies Transport Phenomena. Microencapsulation M. Underwood Un it Operations. P rocess Safety P o l y m e r P rocess in g FOR INFORMATION CONTACT Graduate Admissions Committee W as hin g ton U niver s i ty Department of C h e mi ca l Engineering Camp u s B ox 11 98 One Brooking s Dri ve S t. Louis. Missouri 63130

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Chemical Engineering Faculty Richard C. Bailie (Iowa State Univ.) Eugene V. Cilento (Univ. of Cincinnati) Dady B. Dadyburjor (Univ. of Delaware) Joseph D. Henry, Jr., Chair. (Univ. of Michigan) Hisashi 0. Kono (Kyushu Univ.) Joseph A. Shaeiwitz (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.) Alfred H. Stiller (Univ. of Cincinnati) Richard Turton (Oregon State) Wallace B. Whiting (Univ. California, Berkeley) Ray Y. K. Yang (Princeton Univ.) John W. Zondlo (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.) West VlrgInIa Un1versIty Topics Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Phase Equilibria Fluidization Biomedical Engineering Solution Chemistry Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Biological Separations M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write: Graduate Admission Committee Department of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 6101 West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6101

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Faculty Research Interests R. Byron Bird: Tran sport phenomena polymer fluid dynamics polymer kinetic theory Douglas C. Cameron: Biochemical enginee rin g Thomas W. Chapman : Electrochemi st r y, multiph ase r eacto r s, hydrometallurg y biomass conversion Camden A. Coberly: Hazardou s waste management process design, composi te materials processing Stuart L. Cooper (Chmn.): P o l ymer structure-property rel a t io n s biomaterials E Johansen Crosby : Spray and suspe nded particle pro cessi ng Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering John A. Duffie: Solar ene r gy James A. Dumesic: Ki n etics and cata l ys i s, s urface chemistry Charles G. Hill Jr : Kinetics and cata l ysis membrane separation processes Sangtae Kim : Flu id mechanics applied mathematics James A. Koutsky : Polymer science ad hesi ves, composites Stanley H Langer : Kinet i cs catalysis el ec trochemistry chromatography hydrometallurgy E N Lightfoot, Jr: M ass t ran sfer and sepa ra t ions processe s, biochemical engineering W. Robert Marshall: Dir ector, Univer s it yIndu st r y R esearch Program Patrick D McMahon: Th ermodynamics statistica l physics W. Harmon Ray : Pr ocess dynamics and control reaction engineering polyme r iza tion Thatcher W. Root: Su rf ace chemistry ca talysi s Dale F. Rudd: Pro cess design and indu st rial development Glenn A. Sather : D eve l opment of instructional program Warren E. Stewart : R eactor modeling transport phenomena applied mathematics Ross E. Swaney: Pr ocess sy nthesi s and optimization computer-aided design F or further information about graduate st ud y in chemical e n gineering, write : The Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison 1415 Johnson Drive Madison, Wisconsin 53706

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Department of Chemical Engineering JOIN THE RANKS of Josiah Willard Gibbs, Yale 1863 Ph.D. Eng., and other distinguished Yale alumnilae. Douglas D. Frey Ph.D. California-Berkeley Gary L. Haller Ph.D. Northwestern Csaba G. Horvath Ph.D. Frankfurt James A. O'Brien Ph.D. Pennsylvania Lisa D. Pfefferle Ph.D. Pennsylvania Daniel E. Rosner Ph.D. Princeton Robert S. Weber Ph.D. Stanford JOIN US! 2159 Yale Station New Haven, CT 06520 (203) 432-2222 Adsorption Aggregation, Clustering Biochemical Separations Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineering Chemical Vapor Deposition Chromatography Combustion Fine Particle Technology Heterogeneous Kinetics lnterfacial Phenomena Molecular Beams Multiphase Transport Phenomena Statistical Thermodynamics

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DUC W E KING, Jr., Chair (Ph.D., University of Pennsyl vania). Mathematical modeling of biomedical systems, applied mathematics. M. E. Hanyak, Jr (Ph D ., University of Pennsylvania) Computer-aided design and instruction, problem-oriented languages, numerical analysis. F W. Koko, Jr. (Ph.D., Lehigh Univer si ty) Optimization algorithms, fluid me c han ics and rheology, direct digital control. J M Pommersheim (Ph D ., University of Pittsburgh ) Catalyst deactivation react io n analysis, mathemat ica l modeling and diffusion with reaction and phase change cement hydration. R. E. Slonaker, Jr (Ph.D., Iowa State) Growth and properties of single crystals, high t empe ra ture calo r ime tr y, vapor liquid equilibria i n ternary systems W. J. Snyder ( Ph.D P e nns y l va nia State Uni ve r sity). Catalysis, polym e rization th e rmal analysis, development of specific ion electrodes, microprocessors and i nstrum e ntation. Bucknell is a small, private, highly s e l ecti v e university with strong programs in engineering busine;s and the liberal arts. The College of Engineering is located in the newly renovated Charles A. Dana Engineering Build i ng and operates a state-of the-art computer-aided engineering and design laboratory equipped with 22 Apallo super microcomputer workstations available to all engineering students In addition, a DEC VAX 11 / 780 and PDP 11 / 44 m i nicomputers and a Honeywell DPS 8 / C mainframe computer are available Graduate students have a unique opportunity to work very closely with a faculty research advisor. Lewisburg, located in the center of Penn sy lvania provides the attract io n af a rural setting while canvenie ntly lo ca ted within 200 miles of New York, Philadelphia Washington, D C., and P i ttsburgh For further information, write or phone: Dr William E. King, Jr., Chair Department of Chemical Engineering Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 717-524-1114 _______ __, UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Lake Huron Canada's largest Chemical Engineering Department offers regular and co-opera tive M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-doctoral programs in: *Biochemical and Food Engineering Industrial Biotechnology *Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Reactor Design *Environmental and Pollution Control *Extractive and Process Metallurgy *Polymer Science and Engineering *Mathematical Analysis, Statistics and Control *Transport Phenomena, Multlphase Flow, Petroleum Recovery *Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling, Microwave Heating Financial Aid: Minimum $10 560 per annum (research option) Academic Staff: R R. Hudgins Ph D (Princeton), Chair man ; R R Hudgins Ph D (Princeton), Associate Cha ir man (Graduate); C. M Burns Ph D. (Polytech Inst Brooklyn), Associate Chairman (Undergraduate) ; L. E Bodnar, Ph.D (McMaster) ; J J Byerley, Ph.D. (UBC) ; K S Chang, Ph D. (Northwestern); I. Chatzis, Ph.D. (Water loo); P. L. Douglas, Ph D (Waterloo); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph D. (UBC); K E. Enns, Ph D. (Toronto) ; T. Z Fahidy, Ph D (Illinois) ; G J Farquhar, Ph D (Wisconsin); J D Ford, Ph D (Toronto) ; C. E Gall Ph D (Minn.); D A. Hol den, Ph D. (Toronto); R Y M Huang, Ph D (Toronto) ; R L. Legge, Ph.D. (Waterloo) ; I. F Macdonald Ph D (Wis consin); M Moo-Young, Ph D (London) ; G S Mueller, Ph D (Manchester) ; F T T Ng Ph D (UBC); K. F O Dris coll, Ph D (Princeton) ; D C. T. Pei Ph D (McGill); A. Pen lidis, Ph D. (McMaster) ; P M Reilly, Ph.D (London) ; G L. Rempel, Ph.D (UBC) ; C. W Robinson, Ph D. (Berkeley); A. Rudin, Ph D (Northwestern) ; J M Scharer Ph D (Pennsylvania); D S Scott, Ph D (Illinois); P L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich); D R Spink, Ph D (Iowa State) ; G. R Sullivan Ph D (Imperial College); J R. Wynnyckyi Ph D (Toronto) To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G 1

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Brown University Faculty Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering Jos e ph M Calo Ph D ( Prin ce t on ) Chemical kinetics com bustion two phase flows, fluidized beds se parati o n processes numerical simulation, vortex methods turbul e n ce, h y drod y namic stability, coa l chemistry, coa l gasification he a t a nd mass transfer, aerosol condensation, transport processe s, irreversible thermodynamics membranes particulate deposition, physiological fluid mechanics rheo l ogy Bruce Caswell Ph D. ( Stanfo rd ) Richard A. Dobbins Ph.D. ( Princ e t o n ) Sture K.F. Karlsson Ph.D (Jo hn s H o pkin s ) Joseph D. Kestin, D.Sc. ( University of L o nd on ) Joseph T.C Liu Ph .D. ( Ca l iforn'ia I nstitute o f T ec hn o logy ) Edward A. Ma so n Ph.D ( Ma ssac hu se tt s Institut e of Tec hn o l ogy ) T.F. Mor se, Ph.D ( Northwe s tern ) Peter D Ri cha rd so n Ph .D D.Sc. Eng ( Unive r s it y of Lond o n ) A program of graduate study in Chemical Engineering l eads toward the M .Sc. or Ph.D. Degree. Teaching and Research Assistantships as well as Industrial and Universit y Fellowships are avai labl e. M e rwin Sibulkin A.E ( California I nstitute of Tech no log y) Eric M Suuberg Sc.D. ( M assac hu se tt s In s titut e of Technolog y ) For further information wri t e: Profe sso r J. Calo, Coo rdinator Chemical Engin eeri ng Program Div i sion of Engineering Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 02912 CLEVELAND ST A TE UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.Sc. and D. Eng. Programs RESEARCH AREAS: Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactor Design Materials Processing and Engineering Mathematical Modelling, Simulation of Batch Processes Sepa r at ion Processes S u rface Phenomena and Mass Transfer Thermodynamics and Fluid Phase Equilibria Tran spo rt Phenomena, Fluid Mechanics Tribology Zeolites: Synthesis Sorption, Diffusion FACULTY: G.A. Co ulman (Case Reserve) R.P. Elliott (!IT) B. Ghorashi ( Ohio State) E.S. Godl es ki (Oklahoma State) E.E Graham (Northwestern) D.T. Ha y hurst (WPI) A.B. Ponter (UMIST) D.B Shah (Mic higan State) 0. Talu (Arizona State) S N. Tewari (P urdu e) G Wotzak (Prin c eto n ) Cleveland State University h as 18 ,00 0 s tudents enro lled in its academic programs It is located in the center of the city of Cleveland with many o ut standing cultural and recreational oppor tunitie s nearb y. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE TO: D B Shah Departm e nt of Chemical Engineering Cleveland State University C le ve l and, Ohio 44115 csu~~State Un1vers1ty

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300 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS: H. Y. CHEH C. J. DURNING C.C.GRYTE E.F.LEONARD ALEX SERESSIOTIS J. L. SPENCER U. STIMMING V VENKATASUBRAMANIAN For Further InfonAation, Write: Financial assistance is available Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics E lectrichem ic al Engineering Polymer Physical Chemistry Polymer Science, Separation Processes Biom e dical Engineering, Transport Ph enomena Biochemical Engineering Appli ed Math ematics, Chemical Reactor Engin eering E l ect roch emistry Artif icial Intelligence, Statistical Mechanics Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Columbia University New York, New York 10027 (212) 280-4453 THAYER SCHOOL OF ENGINEER ING AT DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Masters and Doctoral Programs in Engineering with a concentration in Bio/ Chemical Engineering Courses available from The Thayer School of Engineering, The Dartmouth Medical School, The Dartmouth College Biochemistry Program RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS : FERMENTATION ENZYME KINETICS HYPERTHERMIA CANCER THERAPY BIOMASS CONVERSION HIP AND KNEE PROTHESES PHYSIOLOGY SEPARATION OPERATIONS WASTE-WATER TREATMENT IMMOBILIZED HYBRIDOMA CELL REACTOR DEVELOPMENT For further information and application forms, write: Director of Admissions, Bio/ Chemical Engineering Program Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering Faculty D. R. Coughanowr E. D. Grossmann Y. H. Lee S. P. Meyer R. Mutharasan J. A. Tallmadge J R Thygeson X. E. Verykios C. B. Weinberger Consider: High faculty/ student ratio Excellent facilities Research Areas Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Reactor Engineering Microcomputer Appl i cations Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology arid Fluid Mechanics Semiconductor Processing o Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Drying Processes Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options Write to: Dr. C. B. Weinberger Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering MS Degree Faculty/R98earch Areas M. E. ALUKO, Ph.D., UC (Santa Barbara) J N. CANNON, Ph.D Colorado Dynam i cs of Reacting Systems, Applied Mathematics Fluid and Thermal Sciences (E x perimental, Com putationa I) R C. CHAWLA, Ph D Wayne State H. M. KATZ, (Emeritus) Ph D ., C i ncinnati F. G. KING, D Sc Stevens Institute Air and Water Pollution Control Reaction Kinetics Env i ron men ta I Engineering Biochemical Engineering, Process Control, Pharmacokinetics M. G. RAO, Ph D Washington (Seattle) Process Synthesis and Des i gn, Ion Exchange Separations FALL 1987 For Information Write Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University Washington, DC 20059 301

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0 Universityotldaho CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS T. E. CARLESON D. C. DROWN L. L. EDWARDS M. L. JACKSON R. A. KORUS T, J. MORIN J. Y. PARK J. J. SCHELDORF G. M. SIMMONS FACULTY -Mass Transfer Enhancement, Chemical Reproc essing of Nuclear Wastes, Bioseparation -Process Design, Computer Applications Model ing, Process Economics and Optimization with Emphasis on Food Processing -Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp / Paper Engineering, Numerical Methods and Optimization -Mass Transfer in Biological Systems, Particulate Control Technology -Polymers, Biochemical Engineering -Chemical Reaction Engineering, Transport phenomena, Thermophysics of Nonequiilibrum Sys tems -Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis, Lab oratory Reactor Development, Thermal Plasma Systems -Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics -Geothermal Energy Engineering, Pyrolysis Kinetics, Process Control, Supercritical Fluid Ex traction The department has a highly active research program covering a wide range of interests. With Washington State University just B miles away, the two departments jointly schedule an expanded list of graduate courses for both MS and PhD candidates, giving the graduate student direct access to a combined graduate faculty of eighteen. The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including h i king, white water rafting, skiing, and camping. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho 83843 ~ffi~ffiOO OO~~W~OO@~VW 302 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Doctor of Engineering FACULTY: D. H. CHEN (Ph D., Oklahoma State Univ.) J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State Univ.) T.. C. HO (Ph D., Kansas State Univ.) K. Y. LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State Univ.) R. E. WALKER (Ph D., Iowa State Univ.) C. L. YAWS (Ph.D Univ. of Houston) 0. R. SHAVER (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) RESEARCH AREAS: Computer Simulation Process Dynamics and Control Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Fluidization and Mass Transfer Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Rheology of Drilling Fluids, Computer-Aided Design Thermodynamic Properties, Cost Engineering, Photovoltaics FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE: Graduate Adml11lon1 Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar Unlverelty P. 0. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 An equal opportunlty/ fflrmatlwe action unlwenlty. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FACULTY Philip A Blythe Hugo S. Caram Marvin Charles John C. Chen Curtis W Clump Mohamed EI-Aasser Christos Georgakis James T. Hsu Arthur E Humphrey Andrew Klein William L Luyben Janice Phillips Matthew J Reilly William E Schiesser Cesar Si lebi Leslie H Sperling Fred P Stein Harvey Stenger Israel Wachs Leonard A. Wenzel LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS Polymer Science & Engineering Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering, Biochemical Engineering Process Simulation & Control Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Thermodynamic Property Research Energy Conversion Technology Applied Heat & Mass Transfer Multiphase Processing DEGREE PROGRAMS M.S. and Ph D. in Ch E. M.Eng. Program in Design M.S. and Ph D. in Polymer Science & Engineering FINANCIAL AID Of course. WRITE US FOR DETAILS LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY For information, write Dr. Houston K. Huckaba y Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana Tech University Ruston, Louisiana 71272 (318) 257-2483 FALL 1987 Master of Science and Doctor of Engineering Programs Th e D epartment of Chemical Engineering at Lo uisiana Te c h Un-i ver sity offers a wellbalanced graduate program for either the Master's or Docto r of Engin eering degree. T wenty -thr ee full-time students ( eleven doctoral candida t es) and se ven teen part-time students are pursuing re search in Artif icial Int elligence and Adapt ive Control Biotechnology of Natural Polym ers, Chemical H azard and F ire Safety, Energy Use Mod els, L igni t e Utili za tion, Nuclear Energ y, Ozonation, Process Simulation, and T wo -Phas e Heat Transf er wi th maior concentration in Energ y, En vi ronment, and Control Studies. FACULTY Brace H. Boyden, Arkansas Joseph B. Fernandes, UDCT, Bombay Houston K. Huckabay, LSU David H Knoebel, Oklahoma State Norman F. Marsolan, LSU Ronald H. Thompson, Arkansas 303

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Manhattan College Design-Oriented Master's Degree Program in Chemical Engineering This well established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of process engineering problems. Financial aid is available, including industrial fellowships in a one-year program involving participation of the following companies: Exxon Corp. Pfizer Inc. Con Edison Stauffer Chemical Co., Inc. Mobil Oil Corp. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. R. B. Andenon, Ph.D (lowa)/Emeritus Fi1cher-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysis M. H. I. Baird, Ph.D. (Cambridge) Mass Transfer, Solvent Extraction J. L Brash, Ph D (Glasgow) Biomedical Engineering, Polymers C. M. Crowe, Ph.D. (Cambridge) Data Reconciliation, Optimization, Simulation J M. Dickson, Ph.D (Virginia Tech) Membrane Transport Phenomena, Reverse Osmosis A. E. Hamielec, Ph.D. (Toronto) Polymer Reaction Engineering Director McMaster Institute for Polymer Production Technology A. N. Hrymak, Ph.D. (Carnegie-Mellon) Computer Aided Design, Numerical Methods 304 For brochure and application form, write to CHAIRMAN, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MANHATTAN COLLEGE RIVERDALE, NY 10471 McMASTER UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Polymer Reaction Engineering Computer Process Control and Much More! I. A. Feuerstein ; Ph.D. (Massachusetts) Biomedica1 Engineering, Transport Phenomena J. F. MacGregor, Ph D. (Wisconsin) Computer Process Control, Polymer Reaction Engineering T. E. Marlin, Ph D (Massachusetts) Computer Process Control R. H. Pelton, Ph D (Bristol) Water Soluble Polymers Colloid Polymer Systems L W. Shemilt, Ph.D (Toronto) Electrochemical Mass Transfer Corrosion, Thermodynamics P A. Taylor, Ph.D. (Wales) Computer Process Control M. Tsezos, Ph.D. (McGill) Wastewater Treatment, Biosorptive Recovery J. Vlachopoulos, D Sc. (Washington U.) Polymer Processing, Rheology, Numerical Methods P .E. Wood, Ph D. (Caltech) Turbulence Modeling, Mixing D. R. Woods, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Surface Phenomena, Coat Estimation, Problem Solving J. D. Wright, Ph.D. (Cambridge)/Part Time Computer Process Control, Procesa Dynamics and Modeling M.Eng and Ph.D. Programs Research Scholarships and Teaching Assistantships are available For further information please contact Professor P. E. Wood Department of Chemical Engineering McMaster Un i versity Hamilton, Ontario, Canada LBS 4L7 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: The department offers a broad range of traditional and interdisciplinary programs leading to the M S and Ph.D. degrees Program areas include the traditional areas of chemistry and chemical engineering with particular emphasis in polymer and composite materials; process design, control and improvement; free radical chemistry; bioorganic chemistry; and surface Raman spectroscopy COST OF TUITION: Full time in-state graduate tuition is $615/quarter Tuition is normally included as part of the student's financial support THE COMMUNITY: MTU is located in Houghton on the beautiful Keweenaw Peninsula overlooking Lake Superior. The region surrounding MTU is a virtual wilderness of interconnected lakes, rivers, and forest lands Outdoor activites abound all year with superb fishing, boating, hiking, camping, and skiing available within minutes of campus. FINANCIAL AID: Financial support in the form of fellowships, research assistantships, and graduate teaching assis tantships is available Starting stipends are $6600 per academic year in addition to tuition For more information write: Graduate Studies Chairman Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 Michigan Technological Univeraity is an equal opportunity educational inatitution/equal opportunity employer. Melbourne, Australia Research Degrees: Ph.D., M.Eng.Sc. FACULTY: 0. E. POTTER (Chairman) J. R. G. ANDREWS R. J. DRY G. A. HOLDER C. KAVONIC F. LAWSON I. H. LEHRER J. F. MATHEWS W. E. OLBRICH I. G. PRINCE T SRIDHAR C. TIU P. H. T. UHLHERR FALL 1987 RESEARCH AREAS: Gas-Solid Fluidisation Brown Coal-Hydroliquefaction, Gasification, Oxygen Removal, Fluidised Bed Drying Chemical Reaction Engineering-Gas-Liquid, Gas-Solid, Three Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis-Catalyst Design Transport Phenomena-Heat and Mass Transfer, Transport Properties Extractive Metallurgy and Mineral Processing Rheology-Suspensions, Polymers, Foods Biochemical Engineering-Continuous Culture Waste Treatment and Water Purification FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Studies Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton. Victoria, 3168, Australia. 305

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306 M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering Montana State University I For more information and application: Dr. J.T. Sears. Head Chemical Engineering Department Montana State Universit y Bozeman. Montana 59717 I Special master's program for students with undergraduate preparation in chemi s try o r other scientific areas The department currently has active research programs in a number of areas including Separations: super critical extraction extractive distilla tion membranes continuous chrom atography ; Biotechnology: biomass conversion biofouling ; Catalysis/ Materials: surface science. catalyst poisoning mass transfer heavy oil upgrading While pursuing your graduate degree in chemical engineering at MSU you can enjoy unlimited opportunities for outdoor activities in the Rocky Mountains including skiing. back packing fishing Yellowstone Na tional Park is only 90 miles from Bozeman Financial support is available UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN: Bio-mass Conversion Reaction Kinetics Real-time Computing Computer-aided Process Design and Process Synthesis Polymer Engineering Separation Processes Surface Science Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Electrochem ica I Engineering For Apptication and Information: Chairman of Chemical Engineering 236 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0126 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FALL 1987 -The University of New Mexico H. ANDERSON: microelectronics process technology; dis charge and plasma science; laser / plasma interactions; trans port and kinetic modeling. C. Y. CHENG: desalination, eutectic freezing; superpurification. A.K. DATYE: heterogeneous catalysis; struct ure and interfacial phenomena in VLSI device s; materials characterization by transmission electron microscopy D. KAUFFMAN: design ; environmental engineering; safety analysis R.W. MEAD: process analysis; hydrometallurgy, fossil energy. H.E NUTTALL: fossil e n ergy research; radio-colloid transport; process control; geo-process modeling. D.M. SMITH: characterization of powders/porous media; trans port phenomena in porous media. E W. WILKINS: renewable energy sources; biomedical in strumentation F .L. WILLIAMS: catalysis; shock enchanced reactivity of solids and vacuum technology. ********************************************************* For furth e r information, write: Graduate Secretary Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (505) 277-5431 Graduate study in chemical engineering Major energy research center: Biotechnology Computer Aided Design Food Processing Oil Recovery Financial assistance available. Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other fields FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION: Department of Chemical Engineering P O Box 30001/New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-000 I New Mexico State University is an Equal Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer. 307

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THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AREAS Acoustic Emissions Air pollution control Cotolyst and reodor design Characterisation and optimisation in minerals processing Computer aided design and process synthesis for energy conservation Corrosion Electrochemistry Flow phenomena i n mo ss transfer equipment Fuel technolog y Gloss technology THE DEPARTMENT This is the largest Chemical Engineering School in Australia, with 25 academic staff, over 400 undergraduates and about 80 post graduates. The School is well supplied with equipment and is sup ported by research grants from Government and Industry. The four main departments of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry Petroleum Engineering and Fuel Technology offer course work and research work leading to M Sc M.E. and Ph D. degrees. The breadth and depth of experience available leads to the production of well rounded graduates with excellent job potential. International recog nition is only one of the many benefits of a degree from UNSW. High temperature materials Membrane technology Particle technology Petroleum engineering Polymer science and engineering Particle te c hnology Process control and microprocessor applications Pyrometollurgicol reactor modelling Supercritical fluids T wo-phose flow THE UNIVERSITY The University is the largest in Australia and is located between the centre of Sydney and the beaches The cosmopolitan city and the wide range of outdoor activities make life very pleasant for students and people from America, Europe, Africa and the East feel welcome from their first arrival For further information concerning specific research areas, facilities and financial assistance, write to Pr o fessor D.L. Tr imm School of Chemical Engineering & Indu s tr ia l Chemistry Un ive rsit y of New South Wales PO B ox I Kensi ngton NSW 2033 Australia. North Carolina A&T State University 308 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS Tevfik Bardakci, Ph D., University of Maryland Biochemical Engineering Timothy Faley, Ph.D University of Notre Dame Vinayak Kabadi, Ph D., Pennsylvania State University Catalysis Coal Research Franklin King, D Sc., Stevens Institute of Technology Thermodynamics Li Ting, Ph.D ., Illinois Institute of Technology Supercritical Extraction Composite Materials lnterfacial Phenomena Process Control FOR FULL DETAILS WRITE TO: Graduate Information Department of Chem i cal Engineering North Carolina A&T State University Greensboro, North Carolina 274 l l CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU CA TION

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RESEARCH AREAS Artificial Intelligence Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Surface Science Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas-liquid Flows Nonlinear Dynamics Phase Equilibria Process Dynamics and Control Statistical Mechanics Suspension Rheology Transport Phenomena FACULTY A. Varma, Chairman J. T. Banchero J. J. Carberry H.-C. Chang J.C. Kantor J.P. Kohn D. T. Leighton, Jr. M. J. McCready R. A. Schmitz W. C. Strieder F. H. Verhoff E. E. Wolf e1te111ical 8npineerinp at Jvotre 1)a111e The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master's degree are normally completed in twelve to fourteen months. The doctoral program usually requires three to four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships are available to outstanding students pursuing either program. For further information, write to Dr. M. J. Mccready Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 OREGON ST A TE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY W. J. Frederick, Jr. -Heat Transfer, Pulp and Paper J. G. Knudsen 0. Levenspiel K. L. Levien R. V. Mrazek R. Sproull C. E. Wicks Technology -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two-Phase Flow -Reactor Design, Fluidization -Process Simulation and Control -Thermodynamics, Applied Mathematics -Biomass Conversion, Plant Design -Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment Our current programs reflect not only traditional chemical engineering fieuls but also new technologies important to the Northwest's industries, such as electronic device manufacturing, forest products, food science and ocean products. Oregon State is located only a short drive from the Pacific Ocean, white-water rivers and hiking / skiing / climbing in the Cascade Mountains. For further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department, Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 FALL 1987 309

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310 Princeton University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS Bioengineering; Catalysis; Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering; Plasma Processina : Colloidal Phe nomena; Computer Aided Design; Nonlinear Dynamics; Polymer Science; Process Control ; Flow of Granular Media; Rheology; Statistical Mechanics; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilib ria. FACULTY Robert C. Axtmann, Jay B Benziger, Joseph L. Cecchi, Pablo G. Debenedetti, Christodoulas A. Floudas, John K. Gillham, William W Graessley, Roy Jackson, Steven F Karel, Yannis G. Kevrekidis, Morton D Kostin, Robert K. Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld, William B. Russel, Chairman, Dudley A. Saville, William R Schowalter, Sankaran Sundaresan. WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Qgeen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs J. Abbot PhD (McGill) D. W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H. A. Becker ScD (MIT) D. H. Bone PhD {London) S. H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R. H. Clark PhD {Imperial College) R. K. Code PhD (Corne! I) A. J. Daugulis PhD (Queen's) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) M. F. A. Goosen PhD (Toronto) E. W. Grandmaison PhD (Queen's) T. J. Harris PhD (McMaster) C. C. Hsu PhD {Texas) C. Kiparissides PhD (McMaster) B. W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) Catalysis & Reaction catalyst aging & decay catalytic oxidation & cracking gas adsorption in catalysis reaction network analysis Physical Processing dryforming te c hnology drying of cereal grains turbulent mixing & flow Bioreaction & Processing bioreactor modelling and design extractive fermentation fermentation u s ing genetically engineered organisms utiliizat i on of biowastes controlled release delivery systems Polymer Engineering Ziegler-Notto polymerization CAD/CAM of polymers porous polymer microparticles Fuels and Energy Fischer Tropsch synthesis fluidized bed combustion fuel alcohol production gas flames & furnaces petroleum reservoir engineering Process Control & Simulation batch r e actor contr o l multivariable control systems nonlinear control systems on-line optimization statistical i dentif i cation of process dynamics Write : Dr James C. C. Hsu Department of Chemical Eng i neering Queen s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Biochemical Engineering Corrosion Crystallization Processes Energy Engineering CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Food Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer Metallurgy and Ceramics Mixing Multiphase Flow Phase Change Kinetics Separation Processes Surface Phenomena FALL 1987 APPLICATIONS APPLY TO: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Applications for financial aid should be rece i ved not later than Feb 16 EHULMAN OF RESEARCH AREAS Kinetics and Catalysis Energy Resources and Conversion Process Control Polymers Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Biomedical Transport and Control TECHNOLOGY FACULTY C. F Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State R. S. Artigue, D E, Tulane W. W. Bowden, Ph.D., Purdue J. A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson S. C. Hite, Ph.D., Purdue S. Leipziger, Ph.D., I.I.T. N. E. Moore, Ph.D., Purdue For lnfonnation Write: Dr. Stuart Leipziger Dept. Graduate Advisor Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute, IN 47803 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 311

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Graduate Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING University of Saskatchewan DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST N. N. Bakhshl W. J. DeCoursey M.N. hmail G. Hill D. Macdonald D.-Y. Pong 5. Rohani J. Po1tlothwaito C. A. Shook Fischer-Tropsah synthesis, Reaction Engineering Absorption with chemical reaction, Mass transfer Fluid mechanics, Applied Mathematics Petroleum Recovery, Numerical Modelling Biochemical Engineering Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbons and Petroleum Mixing with fast chemical reactions, Mathematical Modelling Corrosion Engineering Tranaport Phenomena, Slurry Pipelines For Information, Write M. N. Esmail, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Sasketchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W0 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees For further information contact: Graduate Program Coordinator Chemical Engineering University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974-2581 312 Faculty V. R. Bethanabotla J. C. Busot S. W. Campbell L. H. Garcia-Rubio R. A Gilbert W. E. Lee J. A Llewellyn C. A. Smith A. K. Sunol Research Areas Applications of Artificial Intelligence Automatic Process Control Coal Liquefaction Computer Aided Process Engineering Crystallization from Solution Electrolytic Solutions Food Science and Engineering Irreversible Thermodynamics Mathematic Modelling Membrane Transport Properties Molecular Thermodynamics Phase Equilibria Physical Property Correlation Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Identification Process Monitoring and Analysis Sensors and Instrumentation Supercritical Extraction Surface Analysis Thermodynamic Analysis of Living Systems CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Please write for further information about the program, financial support, and appl cation forms to : Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Southern California University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211 CHEMICAL FACULTY W. VICTOR CHANG (Ph.D Ch E. Caltech 1976) Physica I properties of polymers and com posites ; adhesion ; finite element analysis JOE D. GODDARD (Ph D ., Ch E ., U C. Berkeley 1962) Rheology, continuum mechanics and transport properties of fluids and heterogeneous media FRANK J. LOCKHART (Ph D ., Ch E ., U of Mich ., 1943) Distillation; air pollution; design of chemi ca I plants (Emeritus) CORNELIUS J. PINGS (Ph D ., Ch E. Caltech, 1955) Thermodynamics, stat i stical mechanics and l i quid state physics (Provost and Senior Vice Pres Academic Affairs) M SAHIMI (Ph D ., Ch.E ., U of Minnesota, 1984) Transport and mechanical properties of disordered systems Percolation theory and non-equilibrium growth processes Flow d i ffusion, dispersion and reaction in por ous media. RONALD SALOVEY (Ph D Phys Chem ., Harvard, 1958) Physical c hemistry and irradiation of polymer s; chara c teri z ation of elastomers and filled system s; polymer crystallization KATHERINE S. SHING (Ph D Ch E Cornell U ., 1982) Thermodynamics and statistical mechan ics; supercritical extraction. THEODORE T. TSOTSIS (Ph D Ch E ., U. of Ill., Urbana, 1978) Chemical reaction engineering; process dynamic s and control. JAMES M. WHELAN (Ph D. Chem ., U C. Berkeley, 1952) Th i n Films 111-V ; heterogenous catalysis ; sintering processes Y ANIS C. YORTSOS (Ph D ., Ch E ., Caltech, 1978) Mathematical modelling an transport pro cesses; flow in porous media and thermal oi l recovery methods. ENGINEERING at Stanford University Stanford offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering, with a number of financially attractive fellowships and assistantships available to outstanding students For further information and application forms, write to: Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, California 94305-5025 The closing date for applications is January 1, 1988. FALL 1987 Faculty Andreas Acrivos (Ph D 1954, Minnesota] Fluid Mechanics Michel Boudart (Ph D ., 1950 Princeton] Kinetics and Catolysis Curtis W. Frank (Ph D ., 1972, Illinois] Polymer Physics Gerald G. Fuller (Ph D 1980, Cal Tech] Fluid Dynamics of Polymeri c and Colloidal Liquids Alice P. Gast (Ph D 1984, Princeton] Physics of Dispersed Systems Geol'!II! M. Homsy (Ph D. 1969, Illinois] Fluid Mechanics and Stobility Robert J. Madix (Ph.D., 1964 U Cal-Berkeley] Surface Reactivity David M. Muon (Emeritus) (Ph D ., 1949, Cal Tech] Applied Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics Channing R. Robertson (Ph D. 1969 Stanford] Bioengineering John R088 (Ph.D ., 1951 MIT) Chemical Instabilities Professor of Chemistry and (by courtesy) Chemical Engineering 313

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK D.R Brutvan P. Ehrlich R.J Good R. Gupta V Hlavacek K.M Kiser Carl R. F. Lund Faculty E. Ruckenstei n M E Ryan J.A. Tsamopoulos C.J. van Oss T.W Weber S W Weller R T. Yang Research Areas Adhesion Adsorption Applied Mathematics Biochemical & Biomedical Catalysis, Kinetics, & Reactor Design Coal Conversion Desalination & Reverse Osmosis Design and Economics Fluid Mechanics Polymer Processing & Rheology Process Control Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface Phenomena Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemical engineering fundamentals while preserving the flexibility needed to develop special areas of interest The Depart ment also draws on the strengths of being part of a large and diverse university center This environ ment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research. The new departmental facilities offer an exceptional opportunity for students to develop their research skills and capabilities. These features, combined with year-round recreational activities afforded by the Western New York country side and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo, make SUNY/Buffa/o an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studies. For Information and applications, write to: TEXAS A & I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. FACULTY Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 R. N. FINCH, Chairman RICHARD A NEVILL Ph.D., University of Texas, P.E. Phase Equilibria and Environmental Engineering F. T. AL-SAADOON Ph.D University of Pittsburgh, P.E. Reservoir Engineering and Production F. H. DOTTERWEICH Ph.D John Hopkins University, P E. Distribution and Transmission W. A HEENAN D.Ch.E., University of Detroit, P E Process Control and Thermodynamics C. V. MOONEY B.S. Texas A&I University, P.E N at u ral Ga s Engin ee ring P. W PRITCHETT Ph.D., University of Delaware, P E Petrochemical Development and Granular Solid s C RAI Ph D Illinois Institute of Technology, P.E R ese rvoir Engine e ring and Gasification DALE L. SCHRUBEN Ph D ., Carnegie-Mellon University Tran s por t Ph e nom e na & Polym e rs R W. SERTH M E., Oklahoma University, P.E. Ph D SUNY at Buffalo p E Gas Measurement and ., P d t Rh e ology and Applied ro uc ion Mathematics RESEARCH and TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE 314 Texas A&I University is located in Tropical South Texas, 40 miles south of the Urban Center of Corpus Christi, and 30 miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: W. A. HEENAN GRADUATE ADVISOR Department of Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering Texas A&I University Kingsville, Texas 78363 CHEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Earn a MS or PhD Degree with Research Opportunities in Biotechnology Equations of State and VLE Process Simulation and Control Multi-Phase Fluid Flow and Fluidization Environmental Control Polymer Science and Technology Energy-Coal, Biomass and Enhanced Oil Recovery Texas Tech Has An Established Record Of Supplying Engineers To Research And Process Firms In The Sunbelt BECOME ONE OF THEM For information, brochure and application materials, write Dr. James B. Riggs, Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 THE FACULTY Kerry L. Sublette Fermentation biocatalysis hazardous waste treatment N D Sylvester Enhanced oil recovery environmental protection fluid mechanics reaction engineering M A Abraham Reaction kinetics supercritical fluids R L. Cerro Capillary hydrodyn a mics unit operations computer-ai ded design K. D. Luks Thermodynamics phase equilibria F S Manning Indu st rial pollution control s urface processing of petroleum Y T. Shah Reactor design coal liquefaction mass transfer FURTHER INFORMATION R. E Thompson Oil and gas processing computer-aided process design A J. Wilson Environmental engineering, water treatment processes process simulation K D Wisecarver Fluidization bioreactor modeling mass transfer and adsorption in porous solids If you would like additional information concerning specific research areas facilities curriculum and financial assistance contact Professor Sublette the director of graduate programs The University of Tulsa 600 South College Avenue Tulsa Oklahoma 74104 (918) 592-6000 extension 2226 The University of Tulsa has an Equal Opportunity /Affi rmative Action Program for students and employees FALL 19 87 315

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316 These eggs aren't what they're cracked up to be! Why? Because they're not eggs. They're silica microspheres, 0.25 microns in diameter. You're invited to find out how to make billions of these little spheres, simply by clever chemical engineering. Or how they're used to develop new engineering materials with both interesting and practical properties. Or just to become immersed in a host of other challenging problems in chemical engineering. Please contact Noel de Nevers Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Offers Graduate Study Leading To The M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY: DEPARTMENTAL RESEARCH AREAS: K.A. DEBELAK (Ph.D., Univ of Kentucky) Atmospheric Diffusion Analysis T.D. GIORGIO (Ph.D. Rice University) Biological Transport Processes T.M. GODBOLD Ph D., North Carolina State Univ.) Biomedical Applications K.A. OVERHOLSER (Ph D. P.E. Univ. of Wisconsin Madison) Chemical Process Simulation R.J. ROSELLI Ph D ., Univ. of California Berkeley) Coal Conversion Technology J A ROTH (Ph D. P.E. Univ of Louisville) Coal Surface and Pore Structure Studies K.B. SCHNELLE, JR. (Ph D ., P E. Carmegie-Mellon Univ.) Enzyme Kinetics and Fermentation Processes R.D. TANNER (Ph.D., Case Western Reserve Univ .) Physical and Chemical Processes In Wastewater Treatment VANDERBILT ENGINEERING Further Inf ormation: Robert D Tanner ....... ---Direct o r of Graduate Studies Chemical Engin eering Department Bo x 6173, Station B Vanderbil t Uni ve rs ity Nashville Tennessee 37235 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Virginia offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Major research interests of the faculty are Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics-intermolecular association, physical properties of fluids, hindered diffusion. Transport processes and operations-heat and mass transfer, low Reynolds number and surface tension driven flow, crystalliza, lion, fixed bed adsorption. Chemical reactor analysis and engineering. Separations technology Chemical and energy technology-electrochemical processes, pollution control, catalysis, solar and altemative energy utilization. Biochemical technology and engineering-enzyme engineering, transport processes in biological systems, microbial processes. At "Mr. Jefferson's university," both teaching and research are emphasized in a physical environment of exceptional beauty. WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY For admission and financial aid information Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSRY OF VIRGINIA Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D A. Crowl, PhD H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. Gulari, PhD R. H Kummler, PhD C. B. Leffert, PhD R. Marriott, PhD J. H. McMicking, PhD R. Mickelson, PhD S. Ng, PhD P. K. Roi, PhD E W. Rothe, PhD S. Salley, PhD S K. Stynes, PhD combustion-process control thermodynamics-process design transport-laser light scattering environmental engr.-kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr. process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes polymer science-catalysis molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments b i osystems model I ing-kinetics multi-phase flows-environmental engr. Contact: Dr. Ralph H. Kummler 'Wayne State University Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 FALL 1987 317

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UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. programs are available RESEARCH INTERESTS Environmental Engineering Three-Phase Fluidization Rheology Membrane Separation Processes Computer Aided Process Design Fluid Dynamics in Two-Phase Systems Coal Beneficiation Transport Processes Quenching Systems in Plasma Reactors 318 For further information contact Dr. A. A. Asfour, Chairman Graduate Studies Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Windsor Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Graduate study and research leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Research Areas Adsorption and diffusion in porous solids Biopolymers Bioseparations Catalytic properties of surfaces Chemical reactor modeling Coal and syngas technology Complex reaction kinetics Fermentation engineering and control Inorganic membranes Homogeneous catalysis Materials processing in space Zeolite synthesis and catalysis Faculty W M. Clark (Rice) D. DiBiasio (Purdue) A. G. Dixon (Edinburgh) Y. H. Ma (M I.T.) J. W. Meader (M.I.T.) W. R. Moser (M.I.T.) J. E. Rollings (Purdue) A. Sacco (M.I.T ) R. W. Thompson (Iowa State) A. H. Weiss (U. Penn.) WPI is located in central Massachusetts in New England's second largest city. Extensive cultural activities are available as well as easy access to the vast summer and winter recreational activities well known to the New England area. Attractive assistantships are available. Address inquiries to: Dr Y H. Ma, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 (617) 793-5250 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING Chemical Engineering For more informaJion contact: We offer exciting opportunities for research in many ene rgy related areas. In recent years research has been conducted in the areas of kinetics and catalysis adsorption, combustion, extraction, water and air pollution, computer modeling, coal liquefaction, and in-situ coal gasification. Dr. David 0. Cooney, Head Dept of Chemical Engineering University of Wyoming P O Box 3295 Laramie, Wyoming 82071-3295 Persons see/ri,.g adnussio1l, employt1umt or access to programs of the University of Wyomi,.g shall be considered withoul regard to race, color, national origin, sex, age religi o1l, political belief. handicap or veteran status The University of Wyoming is located in sunny and dry Lararnie (pop. 25,000), 25 miles from Colorado. Access to superb outdoor activities and to the Denver area is excellent. Graduates of any accredited chemical engineering program are eligible for admission, and the department offers both an M.S. and a Ph D. program Financial aid is available, and all recipients receive full fee waivers. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The D epart ment of Chemical Engineering invites applications for graduate stu dy from candidates who wis h to proceed to the M Lng., M.Eng (P ulp & Paper ), M.A.S c. or F-h.u degree. For the latter two degrees Assistantships or Fellowships are a vail able AREAS OF RESEARCH Air Pollution Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Coal Natural Gas and Oil Processing Electrochemical Engineering Electrokinetic and Fouling Phenomena Fluid Dynamics Fluidization Heat Transfer Kinetics Liquid Extraction Magnetic Effects Mass Transfer Modelling and Optimization Particle Dynamics Process Dynamics Pulp & Paper Rheology Rotary Kilns Separation Processes Spouted Beds Sulphur Thermodynamics Water Pollution Inquir i es should be addressed to : FALL 1987 Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver, B C., Canada V6T IWS BIOENGINEERING / CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT CA RNEGIE MELLON Car, egie Mell n *M ICROCIRCULATION: blood flow and transport in nor mal and tumor microcirculation ; transcapillary exchange and interstitial transport in normal and tumor microcirculation; interaction of blood ce ll s and cancer ce ll s with vasculature; membrane transport and hindered diffusion; retinal capillary changes in diabetes *BIOPHYS ICS OF CELLULAR PROCESSES: particle (cell) motion and ad h es ion; metabolic models; rheological properties of cells; dynamics of molecules in cytoplasmic structure of cells *PHYSIO LOGICAL MODELING: pharmacokinetics; pul monary and circulatory models of transport processe s; heat transfer; control mechanisms; biosensory perception ; metabolic networks and transformation; modelling of the peripheral auditory system; ani mal models of diabetes FOR GRADUATE APPLI CA TIONS AND INFORM ATION WRITE TO: CARl\'EGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Biomedical Engineering Program Graduate Admissions, DH 2313 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 319

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ECOLE POL YTECHNIQUE AFFILIEE A L UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Research assistantships are available in the following areas: RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING SOLAR ENGERY, ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY CONSERVATION FLUIDISATION AND REACTION KINETICS PROCESS CONTROL, SIMULATION AND DESIGN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY FILTRATION AND MEMBRANE SEPARATION 320 PROFITEZ DE CETTE OCCASION POUR PARFAIRE VOS CONNAISSANCES DU FRANCAIS! VIVE LA DIFFERENCE!* *Some knowl e dge of the French l a nguage is required For information, write to: Claude Chava ri e Department du Genie Chimique, Ecole Polytechnique C.P. 6079, Station A Montreal H3C 3A7, CANADA University of Lowell College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering We offer professionally oriented chemical engineering education at the M.S. level. In addition we offer specializations in PAPER ENGINEERING COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS CONTROL ENGINEERING MATERIALS Please call (617) 452-5000 (ex. 2339) or write for specifics to Dr. D A. Sama Graduate Coordinator One University Avenue Lowell, MA 01854 Florida Institute of Technology GRADUATE STUDIES Graduate Student Assistantships Available Includes Tax Free Tuition Remission M.S. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Faculty R. G. Barile P A. Jenn i ngs J N Linsley D R Mason M. U. Wigg i ns M.S. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Faculty T V. Belanger F. E Dierberg H H Heck P A Jennings N T Stephens FOR INF<>fATION CONTACT Dr. R G. Barile, Chm. Chemical Engineering F I.T 150 W Univers i ty Blvd. Melbourne, Fl 32901-6988 (305) 768-8046 Dr N T Stephens, Head Environmental Engineering F.1 T. 150 W University Blvd. Melbourne, Fl 32901-6988 (305) 768-8068 PhD/MS in Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY of NEW HAMPSHIRE Imagine an exciting education in a relaxed rural atmosphere. Imagine New Hampshire. We're lo cated in the Seacoast region only an hour from the White Mountains to the north or from Boston to the south. Current research projects at UNH: BIOENGINEERING COAL PROCESSING COMPUTER APPLICATIONS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FLAME PROCESSING FLUIDIZATION SOLAR ENERGY SPACE APPLICATIONS For information contact Dr. SST Fan, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824-3591 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING ED UC ATION

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UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies PROGRAMS: The,;is and non thesis options available for MS degree; substantial design component required for M.Engr. program. A full-time student with BSChE can complete pro gram in 9-12 months. Students with degree in chemistry will require two calendar years to complete MS degree RESEARCH PROJECTS: Most funded research projects are energy related with the full spectrum of basic to applied projects available. Students participate in project related thesis problems as project participants ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER: A cooperative program of study/ research with research projects related to low rank coal con version and utilization sponsored by U S. Department of Energy and private industry is available to limited number of students. FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (701-777-4244) WEST VIRGINIA TECH That's what we usually are called. Our full name is West Virginia Institute of Technology. We're in a small state full of friendly people, and we are small enough to keep your personal goals in mind. Our forte is high quality undergraduate instruction, but we are seeking high-grade students for our new graduate program for the M.S. If you are a superior student with an interest in helping us while we help you, we may have funding for you. Write: Dr. E. H. CRUM Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia Inst. of Technology Montgomery, WV 25136 VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering The Department has offered the M.Ch E. for rr.ore than thirty years to both full time and part time employed students You may select from over twenty graduate courses in Ch E. (five offered each semester in a two-year cycle) plus m ore i n other departments. Thesis is available and encouraged a concentration in process control is offered, and many environmental engi neerin g cours es are available. The Department o cc upies e x cellent buildings on a pleasant campus in the western suburbs of Philadelphia. Com puter fa c ilities on campus and in the depart ment are excellent The most active research projects recently have b e en in heat transfer, process control, re verse o s mosi s and surface phenomena. Other topics are available. There is a full-time faculty cf eight. Teaching assistantships are available. For more information, write Robert F. Sweeny, Chairman Dept. of Chemical Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085 THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO R e s e ar c h A ssis tant s h i ps are avai labl e to q ua l ifie d c and idates f or t h e M.E S c a nd Ph.D. d e g rees -AREAS OF RESEARCHFLUIDISATION CHEMICAL REACTOR ENGINEERING BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FOOD ENGINEERING PARTICULATE PROCESSING AND CLASSIFICATION PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION CONTROLS F o r in format ion wri t e to Graduate Board Chairman Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineerin g Faculty of Engineering Science The Univer s tiy of Western Ontario London Canada N6A 5B9

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Growth Through Responsibility YOUR CAREER WITH ROHM AND HAAS If you're the kind of person who can take the initiative and aggressively reach for increasing responsibility, consider a career with Rohm and Haas. We are a highly diversified major chemi cal company producing over 2,500 products used in industry and agriculture. Because our employees are a critical ingredient in our con tinuing success, we place great emphasis on their development and growth. When you join Rohm and Haas, you ll receive a position with substantial initial responsibility and plenty of room for growth. And we ll provide the oppor tunities to acquire the necessary technical and managerial skills to insure your personal and professional development. Our openings are in Engineering, Manufacturing Research Technical Sales and Finance. For more infor mation, visit your College Placement Office or write: Rohm and Haas Company, Corporate Staffing #1387, Philadelphia, PA 19105. RDHMD iHAAS~ PHI L ADE L PH I A P A 19105 .a, n E qual Opportun !)f' E mp'c,y e r