Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Chemical Engineering Documents


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Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner
Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology
Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Richard Felder
North Carolina State University
Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University
Donald R. Paul
University of Texas
James Fair
University of Texas
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York

Chemical Engineering Education

58 The University of Texas at Austin, ChE Faculty
64 William D. Baasel of Ohio University, Nicholas Dinos

68 The Industrialization of a Graduate: Methods for Engineering
Education, R. Russell Rhinehart

72 What Will We Remove From the Curriculum to Make Room
for X? Bite the Bullet-Throw Out Obsolete Material,
Phillip C. Wankat
74 The Future ChE Curriculum: Must One Size Fit All?
Richard M. Felder

Views and Opinions
78 Engineering Schools Train Social Revolutionaries!
Isn't it Time Our Students Were Told?, M. V. Sussman

84 A Computer-Controlled Heat Exchange Experiment,
Jack Famularo

90 A Meaningful Undergraduate Design Experience,
Francis S. Manning
98 A Simple Molecular Interpretation of Entropy,
Boyd A. Waite
Class and Home Problems
94 A Contribution to the Teaching of Thermodynamics: A
Problem Based on the Gibbs-Duhem Equation,
Robert J. Good

102 The Development of Appropriate Chemical Engineering Education
for Nigeria, O. C. Okorafor

63 Editorial

67 Positions Available

77 Letter to the Editor

82 Division Activities

66, 77, 88, 89, 93, 101 Book Reviews

101, 104 Books Received

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division,
American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs,
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the adver-
tisin representatives. Other advertising material maybe sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing
Co.,. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 3202. ubcrition rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per
year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the hE Division of ASEE. Bulk subscription rates
to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright 1987 Chemical Engineer-
ing Division of American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this
periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body
assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the
identification of this periodical.


lipn department


University of Texas
Austin, TX 78712

THE UNIVERSITY OF Texas at Austin, established
in 1883, is a major research and teaching institu-
tion. It is the largest member of the University of
Texas system, which consists of seven general aca-
demic institutions and six health science centers. It
has grown from one building, two departments, eight
faculty members, and 221 students on a forty-acre
tract, to a campus of more than three hundred acres
with more than 110 buildings. The enrollment is over
forty-seven thousand.
The Gulf Coast is a major center of petrochemical
activity and a large portion of the nation's chemicals
and polymers are produced in this region. During the
past fifty years the University of Texas at Austin has
played a key role in training the chemical engineers
who provide technical leadership in operation, re-
search, and development of these industries.
A department of industrial chemistry was first es-
tablished at the University of Texas in 1917 as a divi-
sion of the Department of Chemistry. Chemical engi-
neering degrees were first awarded in 1919. The
chemical engineering program in its early years was
embodied by the Bureau of Industrial Chemistry and
was directed by Dr. E. P. Schoch, who served as its
only permanent faculty member for almost twenty

Donald R. Paul and Pamela Tucker following an experi -
ment on an automated thermal mechanical analyzer

years. In 1938 chemical engineering was established
as a full department in the College of Engineering.
Since then dramatic changes have occurred in chemi-
cal engineering education, in the department, and in
the profession. Throughout this period the University
of Texas has taken a leadership position, graduating
over 3000 BS, 700 MS, and 250 PhD's. Over 250 of our
graduates have become president or vice-president of
their respective companies, and UT-Austin ranks in
the top ten chemical engineering departments in
terms of number of graduates cited in Who's Who in
Our department has historically been strongly as-
sociated with the hydrocarbon processing industry.
Retired faculty Cunningham, Hougen and McKetta
made numerous contributions in this area. Beginning

John G. Ekerdt and Clark Williams prepare for an in
situ infrared study of alkane activation catalysis.
in the 1960's, the department added faculty interested
in polymers, biomedical engineering, materials, pro-
cess control, and other diversified topics. Today the
faculty have research expertise that represents the
traditional as well as the emerging areas in chemical

0 Ccopyright ChE Division ASEE 1987



Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Building

engineering. The research program is currently PhD-
dominated, with more than 80% of its 120 graduate
students pursuing the PhD.
As the engineering profession changes and adapts
to the needs of the 1990's, so too must engineering
education. We have continued to be a leader in cur-
riculum development. Early in 1984, the department
coordinated a zero-based study by a group of indus-
trial leaders on the requirements for undergraduate
chemical engineering education. The study resulted in
a report by the Septenary Committee*, "Chemical
Engineering Education for the Future," that was dis-
seminated to chemical engineering educators and was
later published by Chemical Engineering Progress
[1]. This study proposed a framework for the future
growth and development of chemical engineering edu-
cation. Our department has adopted many of the pro-
We are fortunate to have outstanding physical
facilities. In January, 1986, we moved into a new
building with over 90,000 net ft2 for the Chemical En-
gineering Department. Our half of this building in-
cludes fifty state-of-the-art graduate research labora-
tories with the latest safety devices and utility sup-
*This title was chosen because our department was in its
seventh decade as a chemical engineering program.

port, three large laboratories supporting our under-
graduate teaching activities, a polymer processing
laboratory, student study facilities, a large tutoring
area, modern classrooms, a terminal and personal
computer room for student use, a graduate student
shop, and a student reference room. We also have
research space available in the new Center for Energy
Studies building at the Balcones Research Center,
which was completed in 1985 and is located eight miles
from the main campus. The larger scale equipment
involving advanced separation science is located at the
Balcones site. Over $6 million of new equipment for

William J. Koros and Susan Jordan mount a membrane
for gas permeation testing

the two facilities has been obtained from various
sources in the last two years.
Our unit operation laboratory involves a computer
controlled distillation system based around a Hon-
eywell TDC 3000 computer control system. Other sys-
tems used for process control include a Fisher Con-
trols PROVOX unit and several IBM PC's. A variety
of other up-to-date experiments, such as a reverse
osmosis membrane unit, provides the undergraduate
student with an appreciation of current practices in


... in 1984 the department coordinated a zero-based
study by a group of industrial leaders on the
requirements for undergraduate ChE education [which]
resulted in a report by the Septenary Committee,
"Chemical Engineering Education for the Future."

chemical engineering as carried out in modern indus-
trial environments.
The polymer processing laboratory is used in
supervised graduate and undergraduate teaching and
in graduate research. This laboratory includes extrud-
ers with coextrusion capabilities, reaction and injec-
tion molding equipment, two roll mills, a Brabender
system, and various supporting analytical equipment,
all of which provide an excellent cross section of equip-
ment currently used in polymer processing applica-
Support facilities on our campus are also quite im-
pressive. The library system houses more than 5.5
million volumes, ranking it among the top seven aca-
demic libraries in the U.S. The University of Texas
has always taken an aggressive position in making the
latest computational facilities available for teaching
and research. Such facilities include a Dual Cyber 170/
750, IBM 3081 and 4341, VAX 780's, and a supercom-

puter (Cray X-MP/24). We also have over ninety
microcomputers in the ChE building used for educa-
tional and research purposes; a substantial portion of
these is connected to the main university computers
via a network.


The faculty at UT-Austin have fostered high stan-
dards for scholarly activities as well as for professional
leadership. Productivity is at an all-time high. Last
year our faculty wrote over 100 journal articles and
gave 80 oral presentations. Textbook and professional
book writing continue to be important traditions for
the department, with two major textbooks in press.
Three journals are now edited in the department, the
newest addition being I&EC Research, edited by D.
R. Paul. We have three members of NAE, and UT
faculty have held important offices and received
numerous awards from AIChE, ACS, ASEE, and
other professional organizations.
The faculty has a broad range of research interests
covering essentially all of the traditional as well as the
emerging areas in chemical engineering. These in-
terests are reflected in the research projects under-
taken by our graduate students and in the under-

Faculty Research Interests

Joel W. Barlow (PhD, Wisconsin)
polymer properties, polymer thermodynamics, reaction injec-
tion molding
James R. Brock (PhD, Wisconsin)
aerosol physics and chemistry, air pollution science, multi-
phase systems
Thomas F. Edgar (PhD, Princeton)
mathematical modeling, process control, computer applica-
tions, coal combustion
John G. Ekerdt (PhD Cal-Berkeley)
catalysis, reaction mechanisms and kinetics, metallo-organic
chemical vapor deposition
James R. Fair (PhD, Texas)
process design and development, separation processes, distil-
George Georgiou (PhD, Cornell)
protein engineering, fermentation, genetic engineering
David M. Himmelblau (PhD, Washington)
optimization, process simulation, fault detection and diag-
Jeffrey A. Hubbell (PhD, Rice)
thrombosis, biomedical and biochemical engineering
Keith P. Johnston (PhD, Illinois)
molecular thermodynamics, applied statistical mechanics,
separation processes
William J. Koros (PhD, Texas)
membrane science, polymer thermodynamics

Douglas R. Lloyd (PhD, Waterloo)
membrane science, polymer properties
Donald R. Paul (PhD, Wisconsin)
transport in polymers, polymer blends, polymer properties,
polymer processing, membranes
Robert P. Popovich (PhD, Washington)
artificial internal organs, biomedical engineering
Howard F. Rase (PhD, Wisconsin)
catalysis, reaction kinetics, enzyme catalysis, product de-
James B. Rawlings (PhD, Wisconsin)
process control, process simulation, computer applications
Gary T. Rochelle (PhD, Cal-Berkeley)
separation processes, stack gas desulfurization, aqueous
mass transfer, acid gas treatment
Robert S. Schechter (PhD, Minnesota)
colloid and surface science, enhanced oil recovery, adsorp-
tion, chromatography
Hugo Steinfink (PhD, Brooklyn Polytechnic)
crystal structure and properties, materials science, transition
metal oxides and chalcogenides
James E. Stice (PhD, Illinois Inst. Technology)
chemical engineering education, process control
Isaac Trachtenberg (PhD, Louisiana State)
microelectronics processing, electrochemistry, materials sci-
ence, renewable energy conversion
Eugene H. Wissler (PhD, Minnesota)
heat transfer, human performance under environmental
stress, mathematical simulation


Front row, left to right; T. Edgar, J. McKetta. D. Lloyd, D. Himmelblau, W. Cunningham, H. Grove, D. Paul, K. Johnston,
H. Rase, J. Fair, H. Steinfink, J. Brock. Back row, left right; 1. Trachtenberg, J. Ekerdt, W. Koros, N. McDuffie, G.
Rochelle, J. Barlow, R. Popovich, H. Keskkula, E. Wissler, J. Rawlings.

graduate and graduate courses. There are presently
twenty-three faculty on our teaching staff. The re-
search interests of the faculty are summarized in
Table 1. During the past two years the department
has had a total of $7.6 million in research funding,
much of it from the private sector. The research effort
in emerging areas of chemical engineering has been
strengthened by the "high-tech" environment of
Austin, which has grown into a major city of over
400,000 residents. Faculty are interacting with com-
panies on the subjects of electronic materials (IBM,
Texas Instruments, Motorola, AMD, MCC), specialty
materials (3M, IBM), process control (Fisher Con-
trols), and a number of local biotechnology firms are
now starting to appear.
In addition to individual research efforts, a number
of collaborative efforts, both among chemical engi-
neering faculty and faculty in other departments, have
evolved in recent years to address new and compli-
cated areas. The synergism that results from collab-
oration leads to an intellectually stimulating environ-
ment for the graduate students. Examples of such
groups are:

Polymers and Advanced Materials Professors Barlow, Koros,
Lloyd, Paul and Steinfink supervise approximately forty graduate
students, postdoctoral fellows, and other researchers who are as-
sociated with polymer research within the department. Cooperative
programs in the areas of blends and transport phenomena in poly-
mers (membranes and barriers) typify the activities of this group.
Materials research also includes studies of synthesis and property
evaluation of transition metal sulfides and oxysulfides.
Microelectronics Processing This group includes Professors
Barlow, Brock, Edgar (our current chairman), Ekerdt and

Trachtenberg (on assignment from Texas Instruments). Research
in this area was initiated within the past two years and already has
seventeen graduate students and postdoctoral fellows associated
with it. A variety of projects ranging from plasma and aerosol etch-
ing, metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition, control of etching
processes, and microelectronics chip encapsulation using reaction
injection molding are the focus of this group's interest.
Separation Processes In 1984 the Center for Energy Studies
and the Bureau of Engineering Research, with the support of the
chemical engineering and chemistry departments established the
Separations Research Program (SRP) to develop advanced ap-
proaches for current and evolving separation processes [2]. This
cooperative industry-university program does fundamental re-
search of interest to chemical, biotechnological, petroleum refining,
gas processing, pharmaceutical, and food companies. The SRP in-
volves six chemical engineering faculty: Professors Fair, Johnston,
Koros, Lloyd, Paul and Rochelle. The program has achieved im-
mense success with a total of thirty-seven industrial sponsors. Spe-
cific areas of technology now being studied by the program include
distillation, adsorptive/chromatographic separations, liquid-liquid
extraction, supercritical extraction, membrane separations, elec-
tric-based separations, and separations with chemical reactions.
Control and Optimization Professors Edgar, Himmelblau and
Rawlings work with over twenty graduate students and postdoc-
toral associates in this area. The group's interests include develop-
ment of dynamic models for a variety of physical systems, al-
gorithms for control of nonlinear multivariable systems, adap-
tive control strategies, expert systems, distributed parameter
processes, multiple objective optimization, and fault diagnosis and
detection in chemical plants.
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Bioengineering re-
search is presently being carried out by Professors Georgiou, Hub-
bell, Popovich, Rase and Wissler and represents our newest area
of emphasis. Current projects include design and scale-up of enzyme
production, detoxification of insecticide residues, synthesis of re-
combinant proteins, investigation of the interaction of blood cells
with various natural and artificial materials, mammalian tissue cul-


ture processing, mass transfer in artificial kidneys and hemodialyz-
ers, the development of continuous dialysis techniques, and
mathematical simulation of biothermal systems.
In addition, we have ongoing research in surface
science (Professor Schechter) and educational
methods (Professor Stice).

Our undergraduate program, like most, has
changed considerably over the past fifty years in both
content and total hours. Throughout this evolutionary
process we have remained firmly committed to ensur-
ing that our students are well-grounded in science and
engineering fundamentals. The rapid explosion of in-
formation and the introduction of new technology
areas into chemical engineering in recent years have

We have recognized that we cannot teach ... everything.
Science and engineering fundamentals remain unchanged;
it is their application and the technologies that
change. We have attempted to integrate computing
and design throughout the curriculum.

strained curriculum content. We have recognized that
we cannot teach, or expect our students to learn, ev-
erything. Science and engineering fundamentals re-
main unchanged; it is their application and the
technologies to which they are applied that change.
We have attempted to integrate computing and design
throughout the curriculum, introducing students to
flowsheeting programs as early as the junior year. A
ChE computer applications course is taught in the sec-
ond semester of the sophomore year to initiate the
computational experience. The students are intro-
duced to both mainframe and microcomputer usage.
Because "change" is going to be the watchword of
chemical engineering, we require a core set of courses
in science, mathematics and engineering that teaches
the fundamentals essential for all chemical engineer-
ing undergraduates. Students, through a block of "op-
tion area" courses, are then free to choose the best
way to develop their talents or to specialize in an area
they feel will offer the most career opportunities. This
arrangement affords students considerable flexibility
to adapt to new trends.
Each student must complete fifteen semester
hours of option courses. The option courses include
courses in chemical engineering as well as other de-
partments. The eight option areas are: process analy-
sis and control, polymer engineering, electronic ma-
terials engineering, environmental engineering, pro-
cess engineering, product engineering, biomedical en-
gineering and premedical/predental program, and

biotechnology. In support of the option program we
teach an unusually large number of undergraduate
electives in chemical engineering, including process
simulation, optimization, process analysis, polymer
processing, polymer engineering, process economics,
microelectronics processing, biochemical and biomedi-
cal engineering, industrial chemistry, and environ-
mental protection.
Our entering freshmen are academically better
prepared than their predecessors; the top 30% (about
forty to fifty students) have SAT scores averaging
over 1350. In connection with UT-Austin's effort to
attract National Merit Scholars (now second only to
Harvard) the department initiated an Honors Pro-
gram for talented students. We currently offer one
honors section of about fifteen to twenty students for
six core chemical engineering courses, which meshes
with the already established Freshman Engineering
Honors Program. The Honors Program has proven
instrumental in challenging our best students and in
retaining them in chemical engineering. It also serves
as an effective way to channel these students into
graduate programs. Because we offer required
courses each semester, the average class size across
the department is about twenty-five-quite a depar-
ture from the expected number at most large state-
sponsored schools. Teaching effectiveness is an impor-
tant concern in the department, and the fact that our
department has won more than its proportional frac-
tion of the College of Engineering teaching awards is
testimony to that fact.
Graduates from the University of Texas program
have traditionally been actively sought by petroleum
and chemical companies. Recently, however, micro-
electronics companies have joined in the competition
for our graduates. Roughly 25% of our graduates were
hired in this fast-growing new area over the past few
years. In the same period, nearly 20% of our
graduates decided to pursue advanced degrees in
either chemical engineering, medicine, or business.

The University of Texas has an aggressive recruit-
ing program to attract outstanding candidates for ad-
vanced study to Austin and our success is borne out
by statistics that show the GPA of entering students
is around 3.6/4.0. We have students from 27 states in
our group of 120 graduate students (only 4% are from
UT) and international students make up 25% of our
current graduate student body. At least 75% of the
incoming class specify that they want to study for a
PhD; the remainder work for an MS, although some
of these students later decide to go on for the PhD.


For either degree, independent scholarship is em-
phasized and presentations of research results at na-
tional technical meetings is stressed. Every graduate
student gives an average of two formal oral presenta-
tions per year, many at industrial sponsor review
A Master's candidate is required to take eight
courses, at least four of which must be in chemical
engineering, in addition to completing the thesis re-
search. Most students are able to complete the course
work and submit a thesis within 15 to 18 months.
While the PhD program is intended to be flexible
and has no specific course requirements, a typical PhD
course of study would involve completion of approxi-
mately twelve courses, including core courses in the
traditional thermodynamics, kinetics and transport
phenomena areas. An active seminar program involv-
ing outside visitors supplements the scheduled
courses. A prospective PhD student is not required to
complete an MS degree first. A written qualifying
exam on the traditional undergraduate topics must be
passed along with demonstration of reading compe-
tency in a foreign language prior to acceptance into
candidacy. A preliminary oral examination in the area


selected for the dissertation research is also taken
within the first two years in residency. Most students
entering with a BS in chemical engineering take an
average of 4.5 years to earn their PhD.
Doctoral student support can be either a fellowship
or a research assistantship. Some students supple-
ment their income by serving as teaching assistants
beyond the one semester that is expected of all our
PhD candidates. Supervisor selection is done within
the first six weeks of the semester following presenta-
tions by all of our faculty and individual visits with
those faculty who have projects of interest. Students
select three possible supervisors/research projects;
over 90% receive their first choice.
Over the last two years our department has
ranked fourth in PhD production, with thirty-three
degrees awarded. We expect to award fifteen to
twenty PhD's annually for the foreseeable future. Our
PhD's are finding employment in both academic and
industrial positions.
1. Septenary Committee, Univ. of Texas, Chem. Eng. Prog., 81,
9 (1985).
2. Fair, J. R., Chem. Eng. Educ., Fall, 190 (1984). O


In previous editorials (CEE Winter 1986, page 3,
and Spring 1986, page 100) we indicated that the goal
of a chemical engineering department should not be to
compete with other departments for high ratings or
prestige, but instead should be to serve, in its own
unique way, its students, the profession, the state,
the nation, or in general, society as a whole. In our
Fall issue we indicated that the goal of the individual
professor likewise should not be to gain personal rec-
ognition but to serve society in his own unique way.
We illustrated this with the life of Olaf Hougen of the
University of Wisconsin. In this issue we feature the
University of Texas, a prestigious department that
exemplifies the ideal of service.
In 1984 the chemical engineering department at
the University of Texas coordinated a zero-based
study by a group of academic and industrial leaders
on the requirements for undergraduate chemical en-
gineering education. The study resulted in a report by
the Septenary Committee: "Chemical Engineering
Education for the Future."
The study proposed "a framework for the future
role and development of chemical engineering educa-
tion." Instead of an arbitrary, "How can we improve
our rating?" the Texas department in effect asked:

"How can we, as a department in a state university,
better serve our students, our profession, and society
as a whole?"
In trying to answer that question, the department
did not merely adopt the program of the "average"
department, or even that of other top-rated depart-
ments. Instead its Septenary Committee set out on
its own to plan for the chemical engineering of the
future-a future that is characterized by rapid
change. As the committee, in fact, said, "Change ap-
pears to be the only certainty." They agreed that
chemical engineering education must continue to pre-
pare its graduates for change by emphasizing-even
more than it has in the past-fundamental science and
mathematics and "the ability to apply the fundamen-
tals in diverse, complex, real world problem solving."
They also called for "major improvement in teaching
methods, including the extensive rewriting of
Although one may not agree with all the conclu-
sions of this committee, the department should be
commended for its initiative, for its approach, and for
its service to the profession.

Ray Fahien, Editor



William D. Baasel

of Ohio University

Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701-2979

THE FRATERNITY OF chemical engineering profes-
sors is not a very large one and many of us know,
or have met, a sizable portion of the group. For those
who have not met William Baasel, an article is a poor
substitute but, short of stapling WDB clones into each
issue of this journal, it will have to do until a real
meeting can be made.
Bill has been at Ohio University since 1962, serv-
ing the students, the department and his profession
in a variety of ways. As we will see, Bill's interests
are eclectic (as is his taste in hats), and writing about
him poses an interesting puzzle on exactly where to
begin. So, following the White King's advice, let us
begin at the beginning and proceed to the end, and
then stop.
Bill was born (1932) and raised in Chicago, where
he attended public schools through grammar school.
He then went to North Park Academy for his high
school years. After graduation from high school he
went North, all the way to Evanston, where he did
his BS and MS work at Northwestern University. His
co-oping at Northwestern was at the Armour Union
Stockyards. (Bill always points out that he worked at
a pilot plant for amines and quaternary ammonium
salts and vigorously denies he used a sledgehammer
to kill cows.) From there he went to Cornell Univer-
sity, where he worked with J. C. Smith on a heat and
mass transfer problem. While at Cornell he met Pat-
ricia Bradfield, whose father was chairman of Cor-
nell's agronomy department and who was much in-
volved in the "Green Revolution." While Pat clearly

... in 1965 he took advantage of... a Ford
Foundation Residency in Engineering Practice at
Dow Chemical. This experience convinced him that the
teaching of design needed to be changed to better
conform to industrial practice.

0 Copyright ChE Deivision ASEE 1987

The long

and the short

(and the medium)

Bi Baaselof
was the main attraction, her family's involvement in
international affairs was a prelude of things to come.
Pat was a student in child development and she and
Bill were married in the summer of 1960. They spent
their leisure time in the Outing Club, the Choral
Union Club, and folk-dancing. (Bill still claims that
the most perfect art-form is dance.)
In 1959, still ABD, Bill went to Clemson, finishing
his dissertation in the summers. In 1962 he came to
Ohio University. The department at that time was
about five years old, so Bill has had an opportunity to
help establish its direction and character.
For the next three years, Bill taught the various
required undergraduate and graduate courses (the


A little later on, Bill spent some time at MIT learning about self-paced learning (Keller) courses. His
enthusiasm for the method led to the department committing the senior process control course
to the technique with Bill as instructor. He taught the course for several years ...

graduate work started a year later), but in 1965 he
decided to take advantage of an opportunity to do a
Ford Foundation Residency in Engineering Practice
at Dow Chemical in Midland, Michigan. This experi-
ence convinced him that the teaching of design needed
to be changed to better conform to industrial practice.
He used his time at Dow to learn how to best change
the design courses when he returned to Ohio. He
found that his involvement with design people, and
later his interaction with construction people, was
most helpful to him in this respect.
His serious involvement with design led Bill into
teaching the design courses in the curriculum and
later, on a sabbatical in 1969, to use his industrial and
academic experiences to create the shape of his book
Preliminary Plant Design, published by Elsevier in
1976. (That book is now going into a revised second
edition, and Bill says the manuscript is presently in
the hands of the publisher.)
Meanwhile, back at the academic ranch, Bill be-
came much involved with AAUP, ASEE, Sigma Xi
and others, filling positions of leadership and office.
The late 60's and early 70's were perilous times at
OU, and the clash of competing ideologies both in the
student body and in the academic structures led to
very intense and emotional confrontations. Bill tried
through all this to be an agent of constructive debate
and peace and, his colleagues believe, he succeeded in
that task. During that time, while Bill served as divi-
sion chairman, an ASEE regional meeting was held at
OU. Also during that time, OU's President held an
extraordinary summer seminar (of which Bill was an
important part) after student disturbances forced the
premature closing of the University in 1970. Dealing
simultaneously with professional matters, academic
matters, and matters of governance made for busy
times for Bill (and others). In the midst of this, Pat
completed her PhD work in psychology and intensified
her career work.
In the late 60's and early 70's, Bill wore an aggres-
sive crewcut but his political and social views were
more allied with the "long-hairs." The sight of Bill
strolling around campus talking with agitated stu-
dents, who at first sight had made assumptions (er-
roneous) about him, was interesting. In later years,
Bill grew a lot of hair, including an "Old Man of the
Mountains" beard. (As his colleagues, we are some-
times puzzled by his "out-of-phase" behavior. Maybe
it comes from teaching too many control courses!)

Bill and one of his famous chapeaus, both on location
in the Far East.

A little later on, Bill spent some time at MIT learn-
ing about self-paced learning (Keller) courses. His en-
thusiasm for the method led to the department com-
mitting the senior process control course to the
technique with Bill as instructor. He taught the course
for several years and found, as others have, that the
method takes a lot of time. He carried on, however,
until a new faculty member in the department took
over the course, when it reverted to the more tradi-
tional form. The experience was good for all, although
some colleagues were dubious of a process in which
the predominate grade was an "A," even though Bill
insisted that the grade was earned with sweat and
tears. The students did say, as a matter of fact, that
they had worked very hard and had learned a great
deal in the course.
In 1978, Bill took a leave and spent the next two
years with EPA in North Carolina. For some years
he had been active in teaching campus-wide courses
in environmental control, zero population growth, and
other such things, and this seemed like a good oppor-
tunity to expand and intensify that knowledge. After
his return to OU, he continued the relationship with
EPA and finally wrote a book on environmental as-
sessment, Economic Methods for Multi-Pollutant
Analysis and Evaluation, published by Marcel Dek-
ker in 1985.
The EPA experience also led to Bill's increasing
involvement in Ohio's serious concern about acid rain


and polycyclic organic. His computer experience (he
had, among other things, taught the first FORTRAN
course on campus and had served as acting director of
the computer center many years ago) led him to create
a program which computes costs and the implications
of putting scrubbers on various plants and how these
devices affect air quality and economics. Interest-
ingly, some of Bill's studies caused him to form more
cautious conclusions than would be expected from his
long-standing social stance. He has continued this in-
terest in modeling and, even though the EPA has not
been able to implement his views, he still believes
that the methodology is valid. The ability to predict
environmental effects, even for substances for which
no standards exist, would add to the rational planning
process for industry and government.
In recent years, Bill has been an instructor in the
college's freshman introductory courses. As these
courses have evolved (or devolved, depending on one's
point of view), Bill has been an active source of ideas.
Thus, we see that over the years, and in any given
year, Bill's teaching has ranged from entering
freshmen to senior graduate students, a testimony to
his deep concern for education and the academic life.
This past year he took his "Flying Circus of Chemical
Engineering" to Malaysia for a quarter, teaching
FORTRAN and introduction to engineering at Petal-
ing Jaya Community College, near Kuala Lumpur. He
also made separate trips to the People's Republic of
China, Singapore, Japan and Thailand. (You can im-
agine the sorts of hats he collected on these various
Again, for many years, teaching the senior design
course has also led Bill to be official guide and tour
operator for the senior plant trip. Generally, the uni-
versity bus is rented for a few days and Bill takes the
seniors on an intense visitation of a number of plants,
including one operating plant of the type the students
had to design that year. Sometimes the trip would
include other components, as in 1985 when the entire
senior class was taken to the national AIChE meeting
in Chicago before launching into the plant trips prop-
er. This year, the small senior class didn't need the
massive bus, so Bill took them all in a large van and
served as the driver as well. Over the years, this plant
trip has been a good experience for students and, al-
though other faculty members occasionally go along,
Bill has had the major responsibility. He has become
an expert at mediating incipient fistfights or modify-
ing occasional raucous behavior at motels.
In their non-university life, Bill and Pat have re-
tained their interest in folk-dancing and, in addition,
have become ski enthusiasts, traveling wherever the

special Fall issue devoted to graduate education. This issue consists
1) of articles on graduate courses and research, written by profes-
sors at various universities, and 2) of announcements placed by
ChE departments describing their graduate programs. Anyone in-
terested in contributing to the editorial content of the Fall 1987
issue should write the editor, indicating the subject of the contribu-
tion and the tentative date it can be submitted. Deadline is June

snow is when they can. They have two adopted chil-
dren, David and Nancy, and this has led to Pat's pro-
fessional work in the psychology of adoption. Daniel,
their younger son, is active in hockey, and that puts
Bill at the rink as a spectator.
Bill's present task, in addition to teaching and all
his other activities, is to look at the undergraduate
curriculum and lead the discussion of what changes,
substitutions, directions, and emphases should be im-
plemented to keep us where we ought to be. His wide-
ranging interests and professional involvements made
him well-suited for this important work. (We have al-
ready made the laboratory hard hats come in green
and white, the university colors, partly to keep up
with Bill's sartorial eccentricities.) E

lF l book reviews

M. A. Rao and S. S. H. Rizvi, Editors
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1986. 398 pages,
Reviewed by
C. Judson King
University of California, Berkeley
There is a general lack of compiled data on physical
properties of food materials, as relates to various food-
processing operations. Thus this book addresses an
important need. The properties covered in chapters
by different authors are theological properties of fluid
(M. A. Rao) and solid foods (V. N. M. Rao and G. E.
Skinner), thermal (V. E. Sweat), mass-transfer (G.
D. Saravacos), and electrical (R. E. Mudgett) proper-
ties, thermodynamic properties relating to dehydra-
tion (S. S. H. Rizvi), and properties relating to re-
verse osmosis and ultrafiltration (T. Matsuura and S.
Sourirajan). The book represents a substantial effort
on the part of the authors and is generally well edited.
As is characteristic of the food engineering field,


the discussions do not presume or build upon prior
knowledge of heat, mass, and momentum transfer and
thermodynamics. Instead, an effort is made to start
with the necessary basics and build forward. The dif-
ficulty of doing this is particularly evident in the chap-
ter on mass-transfer properties where the forty-three
pages treat diffusion, mass-transfer coefficients,
phase equilibria, interphase mass transfer, operating
diagrams, crystallization, and the various pertinent
properties of foods. For the chemical engineer, the
space occupied by the survey of basics in the various
chapters could much more effectively have been de-
voted to the food properties themselves.
Given the title of the book, it is surprising that
there are not more extensive tables and figures re-
porting actual food properties. Much more data exist
at various places in the literature. In some cases (en-
thalpies, thermal conductivities) there are substantial
listings of data, but in most other cases (e.g., sorption
isotherms) hardly any actual data or references to
compilations of data are reported.
The chapter on membrane processes focuses less
specifically on foods than do the other chapters and
stands as a valuable general-purpose review of separa-
tion properties of membrane materials. E

Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise
Minimum rate, 1/8 page, $60.
Each additional column inch, $25.

Head, Department of Chemical Engineering
Oregon State University's College of Engineering invites appli-
cations for the position of Head of the Department of Chemical
Engineering. Qualifications include: Ph.D. in Chemical Engi-
neering or in a closely related engineering discipline with teach-
ing and research specialization in any area within that disci-
pline; national recognition by peers for teaching, research, and
professional accomplishments; a superior record of dem-
onstrated leadership and administrative ability; a superior rec-
ord of publication, research, and research grant and contract
awards; and achievement of the rank of full professor in a re-
search-based university or equivalent advancement in industry.
Salary range is $65,000-$75,000 per 12 months depending upon
qualifications. Interested persons should forward their resume
to the Search Committee Chair: F. D. Schaumburg, Head, De-
partment of Civil Engineering, Oregon State University, Corval-
lis, Oregon 97331, telephone (503) 754-4934. The closing date for
this position is May 15, 1987. Oregon State University is an Affir-
mative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer and Complies with
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.


Making Significant Advances In Technology

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1 An equal opportunity employer M/F/H/V


n7 lecture



Texas Tech University
Lubbock, TX 79409

THIS IS THE SECOND of two articles* on the indus-
trialization process. In the first article the indus-
trialization process was defined as a required change
in perspective as a person moves from student to pro-
ducer. This change occurs during the first two years
of an employee's career and has been called "learning
the ropes." In recruiting interviews, industry looks
for "fast starters" who will "hit the ground running";
by these terms they mean people who have the extra-
technical awareness that will make them effective
within the human environment and business
priorities. In the traditional academic environment a
student is not exposed to industrial experiences. In-
stead, he is programmed narrowly and technically to
work in isolation and graduates with neither a make-

R. Russell Rhinehart is an assistant professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Texas Tech University. He received his PhD from North Carolina
State University after a 13-year industrial career as an engineer and
group leader which included development of reaction systems, process
control, solvent recovery, and process safety and reliability. His interest
in the special aspects of industrial process modeling, optimization, and
control techniques led to his pursuit of an academic career.
*See Chemical Engineering Education, Vol. 21, No. 1, (Winter
1987), page 18.

it-happen attitude nor an appreciation for the com-
plexity of life. In this article, I will discuss some teach-
ing methods which I believe can broaden student
awareness of the importance of, and skills required in,
effective human interactions. The methods can also
bring the typical open-ended, incompletely defined in-
dustrial problem scope into the classroom and, there-
fore, can accelerate the industrialization process and
create faster starting, more marketable graduates.

Each year, student professional organizations and
senior seminars generally invite a few engineers from
industry to present an industrial technical project. A
speaker's reinforcement that academic skills are used
in industry can inspire students to view classes with
a more serious attitude. I would suggest that such
speakers have at least five years of industrial experi-
ence and that they be asked to address the non-techni-
cal aspects of industrial projects as well as the techni-
cal aspects. Further, I would suggest that technical
managers be invited to discuss requirements from
their perspective of personal effectiveness. Such tes-
timony could enhance the awareness of the business
world, develop a student's perceptiveness for the
extra-technical demands of employment, and perhaps
accelerate the industrialization process.
Student organization activities also provide an op-
portunity for students to make-things-happen. Stu-
dent leaders plan, work through details, interface
with the university, relate to people, and take owner-
ship of the project in order to move a conceptual idea
to a happening. These experiences are important to
their professional preparation, and a department's ef-
forts to support such activities should be viewed as
important to their service responsibility.
Co-op and summer technical employment can be
an excellent awakening for previously book-bound
people, and departments should work with industry
to encourage these real-life experiences. Whether the
job is that of a technician, or an operator, or at an
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


engineering assistant level, the student's experiences
with real equipment, business priorities, and people
can be important [1].

Classroom assignments can be modified to simu-
late practical experience. I make some assignments
which are incompletely specified, some which require
open-ended design and self-critique, some which re-
quire a discussion of aspects (such as environmental
impact, safety, labor, and controllability), and some
which require students to use last semester's course
notes. I am honest with the students and preview
these aspects in an attempt to prevent frustration.
Pedagogically, I recommend an openly "tricky" ap-
proach and even give erroneous or conflicting data
and require the student to be critical of his own work
and of the "givens." I occasionally give the students
data which incorporate nonideal conditions and ask
them to postulate causes for the unexpected result
and to describe experiments to discriminate the cause.
(For example, contrived shell-and-tube condenser
performance data could indicate that the "UoAo" is
40% lower than expected. Causes might include con-
densate puddling, fouling, or plugged tubes, and each
has telltale consequences.) Analysis of industrial oper-
ations are full of assumptions, and the answer is
neither unique nor known. Students should be pre-
pared for such situations throughout their education.
Open-ended problems and critical thinking should not
be reserved for a brief senior design experience. As-
signments with such complications, however, can only
be given after the student has practiced on idealized
problems and understands the technology basics.
Student feedback to such realistic "trickery" in
class assignments is mixed. On the one hand, they
appreciate the additional perspectives gained from
such an approach; but on the other hand, they would
rather have the more directed and explicit traditional
homework problem-it requires less time. A student's
false starts associated with incomplete or conflicting
specifications, the uncertainty in completing problem
specifications, the formulation and testing of pos-
tulated causes, and the consideration of auxilliary as-
pects do take more time. It also requires more of the
teacher's time. Although modification of the textbook
problems to incorporate trickery is easy, grading re-
quires close attention to the student's often inventive
approach as well as a generous amount of subjectivity.
As I interpret the feedback, students especially ap-
preciate comments on their open-ended work, such
as, "Yes, with its low thermal conductivity sulfur

Each year... a few engineers from industry
[are invited] to present an industrial technical
project. A speaker's reinforcement that academic
skills are used in industry can inspire students to
view classes with a more serious attitude.

would make a great pipe insulator. However, wouldn't
a fiberglass composite be safer and easier to install?"
Logically organized, explicitly stated technical
analysis, with assumptions acknowledged and de-
fended, and answers whose reported digits and word-
ing reflect the limits of the analysis, are important
features toward establishing technical credibility. I
require such features in all assignments. With re-
quirements on assignment structure and presentation,
the student practices submitting credible work; addi-
tionally, I believe that the student's technical grasp is
R. M. Felder reports on a teaching device which
he calls "The Generic Quiz." [2] We professors realize
that constructing a final exam is an intensive learning
process. Even in outlining the problem one reviews
the technology, selects a portion, and incorporates all
the necessary assumptions and restrictions into the
problem statement. The problem creator must find
the givens, not just accept and use them. Occasionally
we express humor or relate interest stories in the
problem statement. Why should the fun and learning
process be reserved for the professor?
The problem statement in Felder's take-home
"Generic Quiz" is essentially, "Prepare a final exam
and its solution for this course." He previews for the
student implicit/explicit, qualitative/quantative and
derivation/application formulations. He reports his
own pleasure with the results and an almost unani-
mous student response that the test was challenging,
instructive, and enjoyable. I have used the generic
homework approach: "Create and solve an original
homework problem which incorporates three out of
five [listed] skills." I, too, am pleased with student
response and believe that the open-ended, often mul-
tidisciplinary, creative experience is good for their
professional development.

Opportunities for "trickery" naturally arise in the
unit operations lab where data are already real. Fuzz
and conflicts do not have to be contrived. A teacher
can utilize that fact and not try to make lab data a
perfect expression of the idealized classroom theory.
Instead, students can be required to find sense among
the statistical noise, external systematic effects, and


The unit operations lab also creates a special op-
portunity to practice the important task of com-
municating credibility through technical reporting.
There are several classes of reports, including aca-
demic papers, oral presentations, internal business
memos, and project technology summaries. Each re-
port has its own purpose and style. The students
would benefit if they were required to practice each
style and understand where each would be most effec-
tive. A well written report is more credible than a
poorly written one which offers the same conclusions.
Finally, the unit operations lab can be a key train-
ing ground in several other areas including the statis-
tical treatment of real data, the student's design of
the experiment, and his accountability for safety and
hygiene. Robert M. Bethea and Elizabeth Orem [3]
describe those various lab functions and the integra-

I recommend assigning term papers in technical
courses. The breadth of technology is such that only
the tip of the iceberg is presented in the lecture and
text. From one of twenty or thirty associated topics,
small student groups can select and write a paper that
could be used to teach their chosen subject.

tion of technical and non-technical aspects at Texas
Tech University. Such an integrated approach accus-
toms students to professional expectations.

I recommend assigning term papers in technical
courses. The breadth of technology is such that only
the tip of the iceberg is presented in the lecture and
text. From one of twenty or thirty associated topics,
small student groups can select and write a paper that
could be used to teach their chosen subject. In such
an exercise, the students would see the expanse of
information and realize the limits of their own knowl-
edge. They would practice what they will have to do
to learn job-specific technology, and they would be
required to communicate technology in a logical man-
ner. I have been pleased with the results of this ap-
proach, both in my graduate education (Optimization
of Engineering Processes, under R. M. Felder at
North Carolina State) and in my teaching (Fluid
Dynamics, at Texas Tech). Further, rising beyond a
learning experience, the presentation of a polished,
finished group work is a make-it-happen experience.
My industrial experience has taught me to view
my final report as tentative. After being satisfied with
organization, impact, and completeness, I'd give the
draft to a few people in related departments along
with the note, "Please review. Have I overlooked a
concern that you might have?" With the frequency of

project changes in a business career one is always a
novice and can easily miss at least political sen-
sitivities, if not technical aspects. Rather than train-
ing students that a report is finished when they are
satisfied, I recommend grading it and then saying,
"For your second grade, please explain how this im-
pacts on .," and fill in some concern about safety,
or equipment maintenance, or maybe plant flexibility.
Or perhaps, with less structure, requiring students to
seek and respond to two reviews of the draft prior to
its completion. Where word processors are available
to the student, report modification would be easy.
The passive academic reporting style, which em-
phasizes technology, considerably conflicts with the
action-oriented economic-emphasis report desired by
engineering supervisors. A caricaturized mind-set of
management is, "What's happened?-What's it
mean?-What do I have to do about it?-Move on to
the next problem." Imagine, with that mind-set, the
manager reading a technical report from a young en-
gineer who was coached in the classic academic style
of Title, Abstract, Introduction, Theory, and fi-
nally Conclusions. Most engineering graduates have
industrial careers. I believe that coaching them to
write in a business/technical style as opposed to an
academic/technical style will be instantly recognized
and applauded by industry. Here are my ten rules,
often given to new engineering employees, to aid their
technical report writing:
1) Address the factors which are important to your
audience (not necessarily to you), and do it in your
first sentence.
2) Speak in your audience's language. Do not show
off your command of jargon.
3) Still in the first sentence, address important as-
sociated issues, such as the effect on labor, the
environment, startup control, plant flexibility,
4) In that first sentence, either clearly direct an ac-
tion or report on an activity.
5) In the second sentence elaborate, if necessary.
6) Still in the first paragraph, acknowledge assump-
tions and critique your work and recommenda-
7) Keep the first paragraph within fifty or so words.
8) In moderate detail, in subsequent paragraphs, set
the background for the work, summarize the
methods, etc.
9) For those who wish the delicious details, offer an
appendix. If anyone ever reads your appendix it
will be to judge your competence. Be sure that
the appendix is structured so that your reader is


clearly guided through the calculational proce-
dures. Be sure that assumptions are explicitly
stated and defended. Be sure that the number of
reported digits does not over or understate the
justifiable precision. Be sure that your answer is
labeled and contains units.
10) Before issuing your report, incorporate the com-
ments of several reviewers.
The factors mentioned in the first rule, those which
are important to a manager, are economics, or em-
ployee safety, or product quality, or system reliability
or the like. If a professor invents, or allows each stu-
dent to invent, a business scenario that requires the
execution of some class project (a design or computer
program), then the student can submit the project in
the ten-rule format with an appendix containing the
academic details. I believe such practice is good train-
ing for the student and require computer projects to
be so reported. I am often surprised at how profes-
sional the students' reports are.
Students should be encouraged to take those
sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy elec-
tives which give a perspective on normal adult be-
havior and an awareness of one's own needs. I em-
phasize normal adult behavior. Interpersonal relations
with disparate personalities are a necessity in indus-
try. A development engineer interacts with a mainte-
nance foreman. A sales engineer wants the production
engineer to run a trial. A young engineer wants an
older manager to accept a recommendation. All
players are normal adults, and the daily effectiveness
of an organization depends on the effectiveness of
their one-on-one interactions. Technical graduates
learn to manipulate data, but they can be unaware
and careless of important individual personal needs.
Improved interpersonal effectiveness starts with
awareness of oneself and includes recognition of
other's needs. One can then temporarily adapt be-
havior to create an effective interaction, to establish
credibility, or to make-it-happen.
Practicing engineers assemble technology and
make something work, but they are largely taught by
academic engineers who, by contrast, do science and
publish elegant papers. We academics often admit our
lack of industrial design experience and a weakness in
providing relevant direction in the senior design
course [4, 5]. But our lack of business experience is
more extensive than that. One can imagine practicing
engineering in the business environment, but without
having lived through industrial experiences, a career
academic usually cannot relate general business

priorities, methods, and approaches to their students.
Instead of being trained in the realities of the business
environment, students are normally steered toward
academic mind-sets. It is not necessary, however, for
every professor to have industrial experience. In fact,
I would say that it is very important for students to
experience the direction, perspective, and skills of
more theoretically oriented professors. However, I
recommend a blend of each type on a faculty. Felder
[4] mentions the benefits to the undergraduate labora-
tory, to the students' classroom experiences, and to
department management of hiring a faculty member
with no research interest but with thirty years of in-
dustrial experience. Departments which hire en-
gineers to teach can balance the academic and practi-
cal perspectives. Grecco [5] suggests that practiced
engineers can be hired as adjunct professors if not

In the first article, I described some key industry/
academic differences which need to be internalized be-
fore a student becomes a fully effective engineer. This
industrialization process, in which a new employee
struggles to "get his feet on the ground" or to "learn
the ropes," now lasts about two years. I believe, how-
ever, that a pedagogic style which incorporates indus-
try-like experiences into the normal student assign-
ments and activities can accelerate that process and
produce "faster-starting" professionals.
I have not recommended curriculum subject revi-
sions or additions. I claim we teach technology well.
Instead, I have suggested blending make-it-happen
and human awareness opportunities with the stu-
dents' experiences. As a prior employer that would
please me, and I would preferentially recruit from
such schools.
1. Jagacinski, C. M., W. K. LeBold, K. W. Linden, and K. D.
Shell, "The Relationship Between Undergraduate Work Ex-
perience and Job Placement of Engineers," Engineering Edu-
cation, pp. 232, January, 1986.
2. Felder, R. M., "The Generic Quiz: A Device to Stimulate
Creativity and Higher-Level Thinking Skills," Chemical Engi-
neering Education, pp. 176, Fall, 1985.
3. Bethea, R. M., and E. Orem, "Integrated Approach to Unit
Operations Laboratory Instruction," ASEE 94th Annual Con-
ference Proceedings, Cincinnati, OH, June, 1986.
4. Felder, R. M., "Does Engineering Education Have Anything
To Do With Either One?" R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.
Award, Distinguished Lecture Series, School of Engineering,
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, October, 1982;
Engineering Education 75 (2), 95 (1984).
5. Grecco, W. L., "Adjunct Faculty: Problem or Panacea?" Engi-
neering Education, pp. 180, November, 1982. O





Bite the Bullet-Throw Out Obsolete Material

Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907

THE QUESTION IS: how do we get new material
into the chemical engineering curriculum? The
Septenary Committee on Chemical Engineering Edu-
cation for the Future, sponsored by the Department
of Chemical Engineering at the University of Texas
[3] has done the profession a service by pointing out
the need for change in the education of chemical en-
gineers. This committee also suggested, in general
terms, some ways that this can be done. In this paper
I will first review some methods of making room for
new material in the curriculum while retaining a four-
year program. Then the question of which material

Phil Wankat received his BSChE from Purdue and his PhD from
Princeton. He is currently a professor of chemical engineering at Pur-
due. He is interested in teaching and counseling and has won several
teaching awards. Phil's research interests are in the area of separa-
tion process with particular emphasis on cyclic separations, two-dimen-
sional separations, preparative chromatography, and high gradient
magnetic separation.

*Presented at the AIChE annual meeting, Miami Beach, FL on
November 4, 1986.

has become obsolete will be considered in more detail.
Finally, specific material in the area of separations
which I think should be deleted or changed will be

A variety of methods to make room for new ma-
terial were mentioned by the Septenary Committee
[3]. These will be briefly reviewed and expanded with
some specific examples.

Avoid Duplication
Teach material once, and then use the material
in other courses. There is an advantage to teaching
material more than once and from different viewpoints;
however, this seems to be a less effective use of the
limited available time than covering important new
areas. Plan the key course in the subject to explore
the theory, the philosophy, and some applications of
the subject. Then in later courses expect the students
to use the material to solve problems. Perhaps the
best example of teaching material more than once is
thermodynamics. At many schools thermodynamics is
taught in physical chemistry, in physics, and in chem-
ical engineering. Reducing some of this duplication
would make more time available for other subjects.
Purposely do not cover some of the material
students will have to know for laboratory and design
projects. One of the objectives of the laboratory or de-
sign project would be to require students to ferret out
information on their own. This search for information
and then using it could be guided at first and totally
without help later.
Do less teaching of multiple ways to do the same
thing. For example, learning ten different calculation
methods for multicomponent distillation is probably
not the optimum use of time.
C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Teach material once, and then use [it] in other courses Perhaps the best example of teaching material more
than once is thermodynamics. At many schools thermodynamics is taught in physical chemistry, in physics,
and in chemical engineering. Reducing this duplication would make more time available for other subjects.

Use Problems and Examples
Many students (and practicing engineers) have
trouble generalizing. They cannot see that many of
the methods they know can be applied in new areas.
Practice in generalizing can often be done through
examples and homework problems without teaching a
lot of new material. For example, Michaelis-Menton
kinetics for enzymes is Langmuir-Hinshelwood kine-
tics by another name. If Langmuir-Hinshelwood kine-
tics is covered in a course, Michaelis-Menton kinetics
can easily be introduced either as an example or as a
homework problem. This method for introducing new
material can also help the student broaden his search
for a job. For instance, the production of ultrapure
water is important in electronics and can be done with
standard chemical engineering unit operations. A
problem on production of ultrapure water in an elec-
tronics plant would be a good homework assignment
in a unit operations, separations, or design course.
Everyone agrees that obsolete material should be
removed. The difficulty is in deciding what is obsolete.
The modern practice of chemical engineering is be-
coming more and more computer and programmable
calculator (which I will shorten to computer) oriented.
Thus, we should teach in a computer friendly form.
Teach material in a form which is easy to use with the
computer. This will encourage students to use com-
puters and prepare them for using the computer in
their careers. A small fraction of our students will use
the computer whenever possible and do not need any
encouragement. Another small fraction of students
treat the computer like it has AIDS-these students
are hard to reach. The biggest fraction of students,
however, use the computer when it is convenient, and
we should encourage them by teaching material which
is computer friendly. Computers can be over-stres-
sed; however, I believe this is rarely done.
Using the desire to teach computer friendly ma-
terial as a guide, I have selected the following material
as prime candidates for removal from the curriculum.
Complex graphical calculation methods. The Ponchon-
Savarit method is obsolete. The vast majority of students
never learn the method well enough to use it to think, and
the method does not appear to be used in industry. The
McCabe-Thiele method is not obsolete since it is very use-
ful as a tool to think about distillation problems even if a
computer is used for the design.

Mechanical drawing. The computer is doing drawing and
graphing jobs. However, typing has replaced this as a use-
ful skill. Pre-engineering students should be encouraged
to take typing in high school.
Graphical (count the squares) integration. Teach some of
the simple numerical methods.
Graphical correlations. An excellent way to show the fit of
the correlation to data, but graphs are not computer
friendly. Teach the equation form of the correlations in
addition to the graphs.
Trial-and-error methods devised for hand calculations.
Flow sheets for obsolete processes. This can be a problem
in design courses and requires industrial contacts to avoid.
Why is it difficult to throw out material which is
now dated? First, it may be difficult to identify which
material is obsolete. Second, the material is probably
included in all the books we teach from, and replacing
it will be quite time-consuming. (This point is dis-
cussed in detail in the next section.) All our lectures
and problems use the old material; again, replacing it
will be time-consuming. Student access to computers
may be limited (however, their access to calculators
is not). Most professors learned to use computers
when they were batch systems. Many professors have
not adapted to modern computer work station engi-
neering and are not prepared to teach computer
friendly material. Finally, we learned this material
and are very comfortable with it, and thus on some
level feel that all chemical engineers should learn the
same material.
I am not qualified to evaluate the entire chemical
engineering curriculum. I do feel qualified to evaluate
the areas of separations and the physical properties
required to solve separations problems. I have exten-
sively reviewed a number of modern (1980 and later)
books which cover separations, and have identified
where these books are teaching material in non-com-
puter friendly ways. What I have found is that these
books universally cover a lot of material in ways which
are not computer friendly. Unfortunately, this means
that most courses will be taught the same way.

Physical Properties
We will start with the physical properties required
for many separation calculations. Almost universally
Continued on page 81.





North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695

N THE SOUL-SEARCHING about the future of chem-
ical engineering currently being carried on at great
length in journals, symposia, and the Exxon suite, the
one point of agreement is that new material must be
infused into the undergraduate curriculum. The shop-
ping lists include, in no particular order, biotechnol-
ogy, computer applications, microelectronics, indus-
trial chemistry, quantum chemistry, rigorous
mathematical analysis, economics, statistics, aerobics,
pipe threading, pump sizing, stress tensors, social sci-
ences, several dozen synonyms for "culture," oral
communication skills, written communication skills,
problem-solving skills, critical thinking skills, and
countless things that involve the words "real world."
Can we do all that? Well, there's something to be
said for the twelve-year chemical engineering cur-
riculum-I can think of at least three of our students

Richard M. Felder is a professor of ChE at N.C. State, where he has
been since 1969. He received his BChE at City College of C.U.N.Y. and
his PhD from Princeton. He has worked at the A.E.R.E., Harwell, Exxon
Corporation, and Brookhaven National Laboratory, and has presented
courses on chemical engineering principles, reactor design, process op-
timization, and radioisotope applications to various American and
foreign industries and institutions. He is coauthor of the text Elementary
Principles of Chemical Processes(Wiley, 1986).

*Modified version of paper presented at the AIChE annual meeting,
Miami Beach, FL, on November 4, 1986.

at N.C. State who seem to have made the case for it
for themselves. However, there are practical argu-
ments against stretching the program out beyond four
years, mostly having to do with the large student
population that would result and the critical shortage
of available parking for them. So, the questions: (1)
Which proposed additions to the curriculum are really
all that essential for the preparation of well-trained
and well-rounded students? (2) Which currently co-
vered topics are we willing to scrap to make way for
the essential replacements?
I would like to propose several axioms by way of
introducing my ideas on the subject-axioms meaning
I think we can all agree on them, even if they don't
necessarily lead us to the same conclusions.
Axiom 1. No two of our students will be called on to
solve an identical set of problems in their careers.
Our graduates will go into different industries,
work on different products, provide different services.
Some will go into petroleum-related industries, some
into specialty chemicals, some into polymers, some
into biotechnology, and some into microelectronics.
Some will work in production, some in process design
and development, some in product design and de-
velopment, some in equipment design and construc-
tion, some in sales and service and computer-aided
design and manufacturing and process control and
quality control and project engineering and cost engi-
neering, some in low-level management, some in high-
level management. A few-5%, 10%0-will go on to
get PhD's and go into research or teaching. Which
leads us to
Axiom 2. We can't possibly provide all the informa-
tion our students will need to do all the things they
will be called on to do in their careers.
We couldn't do it even if we did go to a twelve-year
curriculum. Moreover, we have
Axiom 3. Our responsibility as educators is to try to
meet the needs of the greatest possible number of our
students. We should not short-change the many for
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


For at least the past two decades we have hired as faculty members almost exclusively individuals whose
background, training, and interests qualify them as research scientists, not as engineers or educators .. the
undergraduate curriculum has increasingly become a graduate school training program.

the benefit of the few.
This may seem to be a self-evident truth, consis-
tent with the principles of the American democratic
tradition. However, what it means to me is that if
10% of our students are going to go on to get PhD's
and 90% of our curriculum is designed to meet the
needs of this 10%, then something is wrong with the
curriculum. I'm not claiming that our present im-
balance is as serious as the 90% figure I just gave-at
least not yet-but I do think an imbalance exists, that
it has been growing steadily over the past two dec-
ades, and that in the correction of the imbalance lies
at least part of the answer to the question, "What
should we take out?"
The cause of the imbalance is not hard to deduce.
For at least the past two decades we have hired as
faculty members almost exclusively individuals whose
background, training, and interests qualify them as
research scientists, not as engineers or educators.
Clearly, faculty members will focus on what they
know best when they develop and teach courses. The
result is that the undergraduate curriculum has in-
creasingly become a graduate school training pro-
gram. Those who in the past provided the balance-
engineers with industrial experience, men and women
whose principal interest is teaching-are reaching re-
tirement age and leaving, and are being replaced with
more research scientists. Occasionally an experienced
engineer who happens to have a PhD will be hired to
take care of the unit operations laboratory, but for the
most part such individuals can't get through the door
when vacancies arise.
One more proposition.
Axiom 4. Our graduates who go into industry don't
necessarily agree with us about the usefulness of all
we have taught them.
The September 19, 1983 issue of Chemical Engi-
neering contained the results of a survey to which
4,759 readers responded, of whom 3,599 were U.S.-
educated chemical engineers. Of all subjects studied
in college, the one considered most useful was com-
munication skills, which was cited by over 80% of the
respondents. The standard chemical engineering sub-
ject most often cited was material and energy balances
(78.9%), followed by engineering economics (77.7%)
and unit operations (76.5%). The other subjects fell
below 70%, with reactor design trailing the pack at a

dismal 44.5%.
Although roughly 3/4 of the respondents to this
survey thought they had been well-trained for their
first job, many commented negatively on their train-
ing or the training of new engineers whom they super-
vised. To quote several of them:
College prepared me almost not at all for my current work
as a second-line supervisor of a chemical unit. Much of
my engineering background was geared to how to create
new plants, not how to keep 20-year-old plants on line in
worsening economic times or how to manage the people
who run them.
In general, I was totally ill-prepared to apply the theoret-
ical knowledge gainedfrom college to real world problems.
I know so little about fluid flow, material selection, equip-
ment alternatives and cost estimating which is what
chemical engineering design is at my company.
Three years ago, I took a course titled "Intermediate Fluid
Mechanics"... it should have been titled "Application of
Second-Order Differential Equations." Navier-Stokes
equations are fine in their place, but they're no help in
finding fiction factors in piping.
And so on.
Now, what do we do with all this? Let's review the
1. We have at least two populations to serve-indus-
try-bound students and graduate-school bound stu-
2. There are a number of specialty areas-biotechnol-
ogy, microelectronics, computer-aided design, and
so on-that we believe at least some of our stu-
dents should be exposed to.
3. There is pressure from some quarters to give our
students a more solid grounding in rigorous
analysis in mathematics, chemistry, transport
theory, etc.
4. There is equal pressure from other quarters to give
our students less theoretical material and more
background in industrial systems, economics,
scaleup, communications, and so on.
5. You can't do everything for everybody in a four-
year curriculum.
So what's the answer?
We've all been exposed to a similar situation early
in our academic careers-specifically, in high school.
There are two populations there as well: college-bound


and non-college bound. There is no way to put both
groups through the identical curriculum in four years,
and no one even tries. Through a system of electives
and advising, each student winds up with a program
tailored to his or her needs. Sometimes mistakes are
made, but at least the odds are in the student's favor,
whatever his or her post-high school plans.
We also have models to consider in our sister engi-
neering curricula. Long ago, civil engineering depart-
ments decided that all of their graduates do not have
to be experts in design and construction of bridges
and dams, water treatment facilities, highways, and
public transportation systems. Similarly, all electrical
engineering graduates do not necessarily get training
in communications, control theory, power systems,
and artificial intelligence. Students in both disciplines

Why not institute a series of
options or tracks in the curriculum, and
design the courses to meet the needs of those
pursuing these tracks?

take a few core courses and then branch out into diver-
sified programs according to their interests and career
What would be wrong with doing something simi-
lar in the chemical engineering curriculum-abandon-
ing the pretense that all of our students have the same
needs and can therefore be served by the same cur-
riculum, give or take a few electives? Why not insti-
tute a series of options or tracks in the curriculum,
and design the courses to meet the needs of those
pursuing these tracks? In structuring this flexible cur-
riculum, we might proceed in something like the fol-
lowing manner.
1. Decide what general subject areas and specific
subject material are truly indispensable in the educa-
tion of anyone who calls himself a chemical engineer.
As far as I am concerned, the basic freshman science,
math, and English courses, the material and energy
balance course, one thermodynamics course, one
transport/separations course, and a minimal amount
of social sciences and humanities are indispensable,
and almost everything else-strength of materials,
electrical circuit analysis, analytical chemistry, physi-
cal chemistry, the second semester of organic chemis-
try, process control, kinetics, the third course of the
transport sequence, the second course of the transport
sequence, any course involving the Navier-Stokes
equations-is negotiable.
2. Propose track titles. Industrial chemical engi-
neering? Pre-graduate school? Chemical engineering

science? Biotechnology? Microelectronics? Computer-
aided design and manufacture? Economics and man-
agement science? Material science? Aerobics?
The track titles will of course change with the
times: the words energy and environment would have
appeared on most lists of this sort a few years ago,
the words nuclear and polymer would have been on
earlier lists, and so it goes.

3. List required and elective courses for each track.
4. Plan each course thoroughly, deciding what re-
ally needs to be covered in lectures, what can be left
for the students to learn in readings and homework,
and what can profitably be left for graduate school or
on-the-job training. Then cut down on the first cate-
gory by a factor of two, and add the excised material
to categories two and three.
5. Plan a course schedule to minimize the number
of offerings of elective courses. One consequence of
implementing this program-or any other program to
accommodate demands for the inclusion of new ma-
terial in the curriculum-is an inevitable increase in
the number of courses being taught. To minimize the
resulting teaching loads and/or need for additional fac-
ulty, offer courses that were formerly required but
are now elective less often-e.g. once a year instead
of once each semester or quarter.
6. Consider cross-listing courses between depart-
ments, and eliminate duplicate offerings. The usual
practice is for each department to offer its own
courses, regardless of redundancy. Thus, engineering
thermodynamics and heat transfer are each taught in
both chemical and mechanical engineering, and fluid
mechanics is taught by the same two departments and
civil engineering. Eliminating these duplications is
another way to keep the addition of new curricular
material from imposing excessive demands on depart-
ment resources.
7. Devise a mechanism for reasonably frequent re-
view and updating of the system to accommodate
changes in the industrial economy, national
priorities, etc.
8. Implement the changes.
In addition, we should explicitly acknowledge that
a flexible curriculum designed to meet the needs of a
diverse student body can only be implemented by a
diverse faculty. If research science is not to constitute
100% of the curriculum, the faculty should not be com-
posed of 100% research scientists. If engineering prac-
tice is to be taught, some people who are, or have been,
practicing engineers should be around to teach it.


Now, all we have to do is designate someone to
answer all the questions explicit and implicit in this
plan. What's indispensable in our current curriculum?
What tracks should be considered? What are the likely
short-range and long-range demands for graduates
from each of these tracks? In light of the answers to
the previous question, what tracks should actually be
instituted? What should the required and optional
courses be in each track? What really needs to be
taught in each course? Who's going to design and
teach all those courses? How much is it going to cost
to do all this? Who will bear the cost?
Who will come up with the answers? Certainly not
me-I'm just one person, and I'm not getting paid for
this. If history is a guide, designing and implementing
a plan of this magnitude demands no less than a blue-
ribbon panel with three or more corporate executives
at the vice-president level and at least $500,000 sup-
port over a three-year period from the National Sci-
ence Foundation.
However, I really believe that the details of im-
plementation are of secondary importance at this

time. We're all struggling to answer the focal question
of this paper-what should we remove from the chem-
ical engineering curriculum to make room for new ma-
terial? Sometimes when you can't come up with a
reasonable answer to a question no matter how hard
you try, you should consider the possibility that you
haven't asked the right question.
I think that's the case here. The premise that un-
derlies the question is that there's such a thing as
"The Chemical Engineering Curriculum"--one size
fits all. If we back off that premise, and acknowledge
that those coming to us have a spectrum of needs-
most of which don't involve preparation for the PhD
qualifying examination-then we find ourselves ask-
ing a different question: "How can we structure our
program to best meet the needs of most of our stu-
dents?" Since a single rigidly-structured curriculum
presided over by a faculty composed exclusively of
research scientists can't possibly meet those needs,
we should be led to seek diversity and flexibility in
both our curricula and our faculties. I believe that in
this direction lie our answers. D

1 book reviews

by Dennis Wright
Van Norstrand Reinhold Company, 1986,
340 pages, $32.95.
Reviewed by
Jeffrey J. Siirola
Eastman Kodak Company
The title of this book is to be taken both ways: a
collection of very elementary chemical engineering
computer programs, all written in the BASIC com-
puter language. The stated purpose of the book is to
provide engineers who have access to personal com-
puters with ready-to-be-copied listings to enable solu-
tions to problems in thermodynamics, mass and heat
transfer, design, economics, etc. Included with each
listing is a brief explanation of the equations on which
the program is based and an example of typical input
and output. In addition, many of the routines include
tables of properties data for selected compounds or
With less than three dozen routines, the book
covers only a small fraction of chemical engineering
computation. Included, however, are data regression,
Newton-Raphson and Runge-Kutta equation solving,
shell-and-tube and double pipe heat exchange,
Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland distillation, plate effi-

ciency and hydraulics, stoichiometry, chemical and
vapor-liquid equilibria, prediction of critical and other
physical properties of pure components, the design
and economics of packed towers, heat exchangers,
cyclones, and orifices, and a few other miscellaneous
topics. To facilitate transcription, most routines are
very short, averaging just over 100 lines of code. As
much of the BASIC code is often associated with
input-output and data, such short routines are of
necessity quite simplified.
This book is not highly recommended for students.
For computational situations appropriate to the
sophistication of routines contained here, the effort to
understand and transcribe listings error-free probably
exceeds that required to code the simplified equations
from scratch. For more serious work, far more com-
plete and robust routines are widely available in the
form of both software packages and listing. D


It was gratifying, indeed, to read the tributes to
my brother, Olaf, written both by you and Bob Bird.
Thank you for these testimonials and your role in their
Joel O. Hougen
University of Texas at Austin


S views and opinions




Tufts University
Medford, MA 02155

M OST PEOPLE, BOTH IN and out of the technical
professions, realize that technology influences
their lives, but few appreciate the breadth and the
profundity of its effects on all human affairs.
Engineering educators, by and large, have no time
and make little effort to study or become informed
about the nature and extent of the cultural, political,
social, and non-mathematical effects the practice of
our profession produces. We seldom discuss these ef-
fects with our students and almost never teach them
to non-engineering students.
At Tufts, since the early seventies, we have con-
ducted a modest campaign to remedy what in our view
is a serious educational oversight, by developing a
course that shows that technology is a strong deter-
minant of social structure and a prime factor in caus-
ing cultural and even political change. The course has
ambitious objectives that are possibly unrealistic or

M. V. Sussman is professor of chemical engineering at Tufts Univer-
sity. His work in thermodynamics includes the books Availability
(Exergy) Analysis (Mulliken House 1980) and Elementary General
Thermodynamics (Addison-Wesley 1972). He has written numerous
articles and has many patents.

immodest, but are, I believe, necessary and worth-
It attempts to build awareness among engineering stu-
dents that in addition to being chemical, civil, electrical, me-
chanical etc., engineers, they are cultural engineers and
fomentors of relatively bloodless revolutions.
It attempts to have them share and discuss this awareness
with non-engineering, liberal arts students who usually are a
majority in the class.
It attempts to show that technology is a characteristic or
hallmark of all societies that are human and that even the most
primitive society depends on technological skills that are
passed from generation to generation as essential components
of that society's culture.
It attempts to teach a chronology of technological and his-
torical events.
It attempts to teach that technological gains are usually
accompanied by social and cultural changes, and by cost.
Our course is called "Technology as Culture." It
takes as a premise that we (homo sapiens) are too
naked, too slow breeding, too small toothed, too puny,
to get by on physique alone. We overcome our under-
endowment by making things from the environment
that facilitate living. Without this facilitation, called
technology, humans cease to exist. With it, we
threaten the Earth. The course has four parts, as
shown in Table 1.
The first part is called (with no attempt at original-
ity) "Man, The Tool-Making Animal." It presents a
condensed history of technology with special lectures
on the printing press and steam engine, after which
students prepare a chronology of about 100 selected
events (Table 2) ranging from the disappearance of
the dinosaur to the communications satellite, and
write a sentence or two on the cultural-historical re-
percussions of each event. This amounts to a jet-plane
overflht of world and technological history, but it
provi( 3s a historical perspective that most students
have ever had. One student commented that the
worst anachronism in The Flintstones cartoon series
was iot the caveman's television or car, but his pet
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


S. students prepare a chronology of about 100 selected events ranging from the disappearance of the
dinosaur to the communications satellite, and write a sentence or two on the cultural-historical
repercussions of each event. This amounts to a jet-plane overflight of world and technological history ...

dinosaur. He realized, somewhat sadly and for the prescribed sex roles, etc., are adaptations to the
first time, that dinosaurs disappeared 65 million years technological skills available in these societies.
ago, whereas Fred Flintstone or homo sapiens came The third part of the course, called "The Ascen-
on the scene only about 40 thousand years ago. dency of Europe," explores the puzzling question of
The second part of the course is called "Simple why Europe became dominant in technology when
Technology Societies" and examines contemporary many essential aspects, like printing, textile manufac-
and historical societies with technologies less sophisti- ture, ship building, decimal number system, gunpow-
cated than ours. The examination of simpler der, magnetic compass, etc., originated in Asia. We
technological societies is a unique and valuable part of also explore the eighteenth century European ambiva-
the course because it tells us where we have been and lence toward mushrooming technology in a lecture on
helps dispel the "noble savage" mythology that per- the philosopher Jean Jacque Rousseau whose crea-
meates the thinking of many students. Lectures cover tion, the "noble savage," lost nobility and virtue when
the interaction of military technology and tactics in he discovered the hammer.
Athenian and Spartan societies, and an excerpt from The last part of the course deals with "The Ad-
the Hippocratic medicine opus that gives graphic in- vanced Technological Society." The evolution of the
structions for cauterizing hemorrhoids without anes- chemical industry is used as a paradigm for the growth
thesia. ("Your irons must be white hot.") There is a of modern technological industry. Students learn of
lot of seat squirming during this reading, the essential role of the Haber process in permitting
Contemporary societies are covered in readings Germany to pursue World War I in spite of the British
and lectures on Eskimos and on Indian (Hindu) village sea blockade that prevented Chilean nitrates, needed
life which illustrate that family structure, narrowly for munition manufacture, from reaching Germany.

Lecture Schedule, Fall 1986
PART 1: Man:. The Tool-Making Animal 10/17 A village in India Sussman
9/2 Introduction Sussman 10/21 The ecological and social "steady-state" Sussman
9/5 Scope, purpose and conduct of the Sussman 10/24 Early technology in China Schaffer
course; student responsibilities PART 3: The Ascendency of Europe
9/9 A capsule history of technology Reuss/ 10/28 Aspects of Western culture that may Sussman
ATechnology = ACulture Sussman have provided the foundations for the
9/12 Prehistoric technology; tools as the sig- Bailey accelerated and systematic exploita-
nal of the emergence of man; the an- tion of technology
thropologists view; technology of n
thropologist's view; technology of 10/31 Reactions: Rousseau and the "noble Simches
wood, stone, pottery, agriculture, savage"
animal domestication
9/16 The printing press revolutions Solomon PART 4: The Advanced Technological Society
9/19 Industrial revolution Nelson 11/4 The nature of modern technology as ex- Sussman
9/23 The evolution of the steam engine and emplified by the chemical industry;
social consequences review of the history and structure of
a modern industry and its social and
PART. 2: Simple Technology Societies; Contemporary pola de ee its sociala
and Historical
4and Historical 11/7 Population and human ecology Sussman
9/26 Life styles; leisure, work patterns and Sussman 11/14 "Metropolis"; The conflict between man Gittleman
producivity sol s e h11/14 "Metropolis"; The conflict between man Gittleman
productivity; social structure; health, and machine
hygiene, food; individual aspirations 11/18 Same
9/30 Esmo society Carter 11/18 Sam
30 Ekmo society Carter 11/21 Energy and the ATS; Visit Seabrook or
10/7 Military technology and its effects on the Hirsch Tecd law Wells
11/25 Technology and law Wells
cities of ancient Greece 12/2 Summing up Sussman
10/10 Greco-Roman medicine Phillips 12/5 Coda Sussman


Mid-Term Homework Assignment

1. Man becomes a commonplace species
2. Einstein Relativity Theory, E = mc2
3. Man walks on moon
4. Parthenon built
5. Watt steam engine
6. Commercial automobile
7. Galileo-"Epour si muove"
8. Potato introduced in Europe
9. Domesticated animals
10. Wood turning lathe
11. Karl Marx
12. Black Death in Europe
13. Hieroglyphic writing
14. Use of fire
15. Spinning Jenny
16. Dog domesticated
17. Death of Aristotle
18. Chipped flint tools
19. Atom bomb
20. Gunpowder cannon developed-Europe
21. Iron implements
22. Gautama Buddha
23. Savery's "Miner's Friend"
24. Moses, Ten Commandments
25. First silk manufactured in Byzantium
26. Bronze tools
27. Alexander the Great
28. Australopithecus
29. Newcomen engine
30. Constructed fixed shelters
31. Death of Archimedes
32. Flush toilet, internal plumbing
33. Brass tools
34. Magnetic compass in Europe, in China

35. End East Roman Empire; Final Fall of Rome
36. Lateen sail
37. Hinged rudder in West; in East
38. Leonardo da Vinci
39. Wheeled vehicles
40. Atomic pile
41. Copper vessels
42. Pyramids built
43. Paper making in West; in East
44. Stirrup and improved horse collar
45. Age of Arab scientific classics
46. Beginning of agriculture
47. Benedict of Nursia/Labor as Prayer
48. Martin Luther
49. Gothic cathedrals built
50. Copernicus-Heliocentric Universe
51. Shakespeare
52. Elizabeth I of England
53. Queen Victoria
54. Distilled alcohol
55. Roger Bacon-Knowledge is power
56. Alternating current generator-Tesla
57. Computer-digital electronic
58. Transatlantic radio
59. First artificial satellite
60. Isaac Newton
61. Wright brothers'flight
62. Coinage
63. Luddites
64. Gutenberg's printing press
65. Commercial television
66. Synthetic fibers-nylon
67. Synthetic plastics-bakelite
68. Antibiotics-Penicillin manufacture

69. Jet aircraft
70. Paul of Tarsus
71. Weaving
72. Spectacles (eyeglasses)
73. Artificial nitrates from air-Fritz Haber
74. Indo-Arabic numbers
75. Surgery for Appendicitis
76. Meiji restomtion, Japan
77. Roman Capital moved East, Constantine I.
78. Vasco de Gama in India
79. Empire of Ashoka
80. Synthetic dyes (Perkins)
81. End of dinosaur era
82. Ether anesthesia
83. Transistor
84. Soap becomes a common place material
85. Augustus Ceasar-Beginning of Roman
86. Neanderthal man
87. House chimney & hearth
88. Air conditioning
89. Commercial electric power, Edison
90. Qing Dynasty, China, Boxer Rebellion
91. First oil well drilled
92. Hegira-Mohammed
93. Louis Pasteur-Germ theory of disease
94. Justinian-St. Sophia
95. Euclid
96. Aeolia Capitolina, Hadrian, Jerusalem
97. World War I
98. World War II
99. Radar

They learn of an industrial chemical root of the pres-
ent crisis in the Middle East (the Weizmann fermenta-
tion process). They visit a nuclear power plant. Lec-
tures also cover high tech's interactions with popu-
lation, law, energy needs, and such other aspects of
human affairs as may be topical. The class gets to
view Metropolis, a 1926 silent movie that addresses
the topic of human domination by machines.
Students taking the course must read three books
and about fifteen articles. This year's books were:

J. Brunowski, The Ascent of Man: (based on the famous T.V.
C. and W. Wiser, Behind Mud Walls: (a realistic sympathetic
account of life in rural India)
A. Huxley, Brave New World: (where technology achieves
the ultimate in female liberation-freedom from the burden
of reproduction-and establishes a caste system that can be
measured against the Indian system described by the Wisers)

Students keep a journal on their readings, and in
addition to the chronology previously mentioned they

write a term paper on a topic related to the course's
theme. The class meets twice a week for total of three
About 60% of the course participants are liberal
arts majors who can use the course to satisfy part of
their science distribution requirement. Their reac-
tions have been largely enthusiastic. One recently
called the course "an epiphany"-which sent me to my
dictionary. (An uplifting revelation; a sudden insight
into reality.)
I always enjoy conducting the course, and as can
be seen from the names on the Table 1 course outline,
I impose shamelessly on my colleagues for help when
we touch on their specialities. The course has taught
me a little about history, anthropology, and technol-
ogy, some of which may appear in a book one day-
and some of which is handy in a game of "Non-Trivial
More information about the course can be obtained
by contacting the author. O


Continued from page 73.
the physical properties are listed in graphical correla-
tions, nomographs or tables. This strongly encourages
the student to do hand calculations.

1. K values. Simple determination of K values is done with
the dePriester charts. Usually these monographs are pre-
sented without any equations in correlation form [4, 8, 9, 10].
The presentation of both the dePriester charts plus correla-
tions in equation form would be preferable. Faust et al [4],
present equations in terms of temperature at different
selected pressures, and do not present the dePriester charts.
More detailed analysis of K values often includes descrip-
tion of various computer friendly methods [4, 6, 7, 9], but
some books present the convergence pressure charts which
are not computer friendly [5, 9].
2. Physical properties: viscosity, specific heat and enthal-
pies. Both viscosity [1, 5, 8, 9, 10] and specific heat [1, 8, 9,
10] use a nomograph form which is difficult to use and pro-
vides no physical insight. Correlations in equation form are
readily available [ e.g. 11] but have not permeated into the
separations literature. The steam tables remain in tabular
form. Accurate equations to correlate this data would be very
useful to encourage computer problem solving.

Separation Method Calculations

There are several examples of presentations of
non-computer friendly material in teaching separa-
tions. This list is not inclusive.

1. Ponchon-Savarit Diagrams. As was mentioned earlier I
think that the Ponchon-Savarit analysis of distillation is now
obsolete. McCabe et al [8], and Perry and Green [9] appar-
ently agree since this material was removed from the latest
editions. However, it is difficult to obtain agreement on what
is obsolete. Other authors [1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10] apparently disag-
ree since they have included this material. The use of the
Ponchon-Savarit or triangular diagram in extraction calcula-
tions appears to me to be more justified. This method is in-
cluded in most books which discuss extraction.
2. Graphical solution of Kremser or Colburn equations.
Back in slide rule days these equations could be difficult to
solve and graphical plots of the solutions were justified. With
the ready availability of powerful calculators this justifica-
tion is no longer valid. The continued use of these graphs in
many books [1, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10] is a good indication of the
inertia involved in producing chemical engineering
3. Gilliland Correlation. The Gilliland correlation is a use-
ful short-cut technique which was originally done in graphi-
cal form, but has also been correlated by equations. Inclusion
of both a figure to show the fit to data and an equation ap-
pears to be the best way to present this material. This has
been done in Henley and Seader [4], King [6] and Perry and
Green [9]. Only the graphical correlation is presented in
other books [5, 7, 8].
4. Graphical integration. Graphical or numerical integra-
tion is required for batch distillation and for the HTU-NTU
analysis of packed columns. Methods such as the trapezoidal

rule which is easy to computerize are preferred over count-
the-squares graphical integration. The trapezoidal rule is
used by Faust et al. [2], Hines and Maddox [5], and McCabe
et al [8], although Faust et al show a count-the-squares
graphical integration in batch distillation. Only count-the-
squares type of graphical integration are shown in other
books [4, 7]. King [6] and Treybal [10] state that graphical
integration is done, but do not illustrate it; thus, the instruc-
tor can do what he wishes.
5. Design correlations. A number of graphical design cor-
relations are routinely used in separations. For example, the
two O'Connell correlations are often used to estimate the
overall efficiencies of distillation and absorption columns.
This is invariably shown graphically [4, 5, 6, 7, 9]. Unfortu-
nately, I am not aware of an equation form of this correlation
although generating such an equation is straight-forward.
As a second example, the Sherwood correlation (often as
modified by Eckert) is used for both flooding and pressure
drop of packed columns. Equations for the pressure drop
curves are available for different packing [9], but an equa-
tion for the flooding curve does not appear to be available.
Most books which cover this material give the graph only
without any equations [1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Many other examples
in this area could be shown.

Obviously, book authors could be much more care-
ful to try and cover material in computer friendly
forms. This would greatly aid professors in teaching
the material in computer friendly forms. Unfortu-
nately, if the goal is to make room for other material,
only large changes, such as not teaching the Ponchon-
Savarit analysis, have a significant impact. The other
changes will update the course, but they don't make
room for other material.


1. Bennett, C. 0. and J. E. Myers, Momentum, Heat, and Mass
Transfer, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, NY, 1982.
2. Faust, A. S., L. A. Wenzel, C. W. Clump, L. Maus, and L.
B. Andersen, Principles of Unit Operations, 2nd ed., Wiley,
NY, 1980.
3. Groppe, H. (Chairman), "Chemical Engineering Education for
the Future," Septenary Committee sponsored by Department
of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX,
4. Henley, E. J. and J. D. Seader, Equilibrium-Stage Separa-
tion Operations in Chemical Engineering, Wiley, NY, 1981.
5. Hines, A. L. and R. N. Maddox, Mass Transfer: Fundamen-
tals and Applications, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
6. King, C. J., Separation Processes, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, NY,
7. Lydersen, A. L., Mass Transfer in Engineering Practice,
Wiley, NY, 1983.
8. McCabe, W. L., J. C. Smith and P. Harriott, Unit Operations
of Chemical Engineering, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, NY, 1985.
9. Perry, R. H. and D. Green (Eds.), Perry's Chemical En-
gineers' Handbook, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, NY, 1984.
10. Treybal, R. E., Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd ed., McGraw-
Hill, NY, 1980.
11. Yaws. C. L. (Ed.), Physical Properties, McGraw-Hill, NY,
1977. ED




The Summer School for Chemical Engineering Faculty is organized by the Chemical Engineering Division of
the American Society for Engineering Education and is held every five years. The 1987 Summer School will be
the tenth in the series begun in 1931 and will be held at Southeastern Massachusetts University, North
Dartmouth, Massachusetts, on August 9-14, 1987. New developments in chemical engineering education will be
discussed, and opportunities will be provided for interaction between faculty members and representatives from
industrial firms concerned with the education process. Cochairmen for the 1987 Summer School are Glenn L.
Schrader and Maurice A. Larson of Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011.
In January, 1987, a Prelimiary Announcement was mailed to all chairpersons of chemical engineering depart-
ments in the United States and Canada. Attendance at the Summer School is limited because of constraints on
class sizes and accommodations, and the Chemical Engineering Division has elected to have each chairperson
select the departmental representative. Based on this response, program and registration material was mailed
beginning February 28, 1987. The due date for receipt from the designated representatives of the 1) Program
Enrollment Form, 2) Housing and Food Service Reservation and Registration Form, and 3) Poster Session
Proposal-to-Present Form was April 15, 1987. Final information regarding the Summer School will be mailed to
registrants on June 1, 1987.
The theme of the Summer School will be the revitalization of the chemical engineering curriculum in response
to the changing technological needs of modern society. A series of Plenary Sessions and Workshop Blocks have
been organized:


Future Curriculum Directions in Chemical Engineering
Industrial Needs in Biotechnology
Industrial Needs in Electronic Materials Processing
Industrial Needs in Advanced Materials and Composites
Computers in Chemical Engineering Education


Emerging Technology (G. L. Schrader, Chariman)
Electronic Materials Processing I, II, III
Biomedical Engineering I, II
Biochemical Engineering I, II, III
Computers and Computation in Chemical Engineering
Education (H. S. Fogler, Chairman)
CACH Projects
Batch Processes
Process Design
Artificial Intelligence I, II
Process Control

Applied Chemistry in ChE (J. W. Schwank, Chairman)
Applied Thermodynamics I, II
Surface Chemistry I, II, III
Advanced Materials
Electrochemistry I, II
Curricula, Courses and Laboratories (J. C. Friedly,
Chemical Engineering Curriculum
Safety I, II
Introductory Courses
Undergraduate Laboratories
International Programs



Timothy J. Anderson
Jay B. Benzinger
Lorenz T. Biegler
Theodore W. Cadman
Brice Carnahan
Thomas W. Chapman
Ali Cinar
Douglas S. Clark
Clark K. Colton
Ronald P. Danner
Thomas E. Daubert
Francis M. Donahue
James M. Douglas
Thomas F. Edgar
H. Scott Fogler
Ignacio E. Grossmann
Richard H. Heist
Dennis W. Hess
Bradley R. Holt
Klavs F. Jensen
Robert L. Kabel
Jeffrey C. Kantor
Iftekhar Karimi
T. A. Kletz

Mark A. Kramer
Costas Kravaris
Maurice A. Larson
Douglas A. Lauffenburger
Frank P. Lees
Richard S. H. Mah
Michael F. Malone
Kenneth N. McKelvey
Duncan A. Mellichamp
Manfred Morari
Stanley I. Proctor
Clayton J. Radke
Gintaras V. Reklaitis
Edward C. Roche, Jr.
Peter R. Rony
C. T. Science
J. D. Seader
James C. Seferis
Warren D. Seider
Michael L. Shuler
William H. Smyrl
Lyle H. Ungar
James Wei
Eduardo. E. Wolf

The annual 3M Award Lecture will be presented at the Summer School
on Wednesday, August 12, 1987. A special banquet will also be held that
evening. A poster session will also be held to provide participants the
opportunity to present additional topics on teaching chemical engineering.
Additional special sessions are also being planned. Visits to a variety of
special cultural attractions have been arranged.
The Summer School is supported by industrial sponsors. The following
companies have made contributions as of April 8, 1987:

Amoco Oil Company
Chevron Corporation
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
Dow Coring Corporation
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company
Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Labs
PPG Industries Foundation
Shell Development Company
The Standard Oil Company (SOHIO)
Union Carbide Corporation


J laboratory



Manhattan College
Riverdale, NY 10471


periment is one of several experiments utilizing
microcomputers in the senior chemical engineering
laboratory course at Manhattan College. The objec-
tives of the experiment are as follows:
To become acquainted with the components present in a
digital control system and the application of computers for
data acquisition, data analysis, and control.
To investigate instability in a feedback control system
from open-loop frequency response experiments and
closed-loop continuous cycling experiments.
To evaluate system performance with Ziegler-Nichols [1,
2, 3] settings of the parameters in a PID controller.
To demonstrate the use of an error-squared integral objec-
tive function in achieving optimum control.
In the first part of the experiment, conducted in
the first lab period, the open-loop frequency response

Jack Famularo received his BS, MS, and EngScD degrees from New
York University and is an associate professor of chemical engineering
at Manhattan College. His teaching responsibilities are primarily in
the areas of fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. He has been
involved in the development of experiments for the senior chemical
engineering laboratory at Manhattan College and his research in-
terests are in water and wastewater treatment processes.

*This paper is based on a paper that has been previously published
in the ASEE 1986 Annual Conference Proceedings.



4-20 mA D/A STREAM
current CEPUTER

FIGURE 1. Schematic diagram of heat exchanger control

of the system is examined by introducing a sinusoidal
variation in the inlet cold stream flow rate and plotting
the cyclic variation of the exit hot stream tempera-
ture. Bode plots are constructed to obtain the
maximum controller gain, KC,ma, and the ultimate
period, Pu, of the system.
In the second part of the experiment, conducted in
the second lab period, new values of K,,max and Pu are
determined by the continuous cycling method. The
values of Kc,max and Pu obtained from both methods
are used to determine Ziegler-Nichols control param-
eters. Performance of the control system with these
parameters is examined by introducing a step distur-
bance in hot stream flow rate. After completing the
Ziegler-Nichols runs, exploratory runs at different
settings are conducted with the objective of minimiz-
ing an error-squared integral objective function.


A schematic diagram of the experimental system
is shown in Figure 1. A description of system compo-
nents and details of the experimental procedure are
given by Famularo [4]. The controlled variable is the
exit hot stream temperature and the manipulated
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


variable is the cold stream flow rate. Water is the
process fluid for both streams. Step disturbances in
the hot stream flow rate are produced with a quick-
opening ball valve in the piping system upstream from
the rotameter. Inlet and exit stream temperatures are
monitored; however, only the exit hot stream temper-
ature is employed in the control system.
The experiment is conducted in two laboratory
periods, and involves the completion of the following

Period 1

1. Determination of the effluent hot water temperature corre-
sponding to different control valve settings.
2. Determination of K, m and P, from open-loop frequency re-
sponse data.

Period 2

1. Determination of Kc,mx and Pu by the continuous cycling
2. Evaluation of control system performance using Ziegler-Nichols
3. Determination of optimum controller settings.

Steady-state runs are conducted to determine the
effluent hot water temperature at several cold water
flow rates. Runs are conducted at Q/Qmax equal to 0.2,
0.5, and 0.8, with an inlet hot water temperature of
70C and a hot water flow rate of 60% of the full
rotameter capacity. The effluent hot water tempera-
ture from the steady-state run at Q/Qmax equal to 0.5
serves as the reference temperature in automatic con-
trol runs.
In open-loop operation of the heat exchanger con-
trol system, the loop is broken after the control al-
gorithm is executed in the computer, as shown in Fig-
ure 2. Q/Qmax is controlled to follow the sinusoidal

q = qo + A*sin(360*f*t) (1)

where q = Q/Qmx, qo = q at the midpoint of the sine
wave, A = amplitude, f = frequency in cycles per
minute, and t = time in minutes. Runs are conducted
with qo = 0.5 and A = 0.3, producing sine waves rang-
ing from 0.2 to 0.8.
During the execution of a frequency response run,
the time, cold water flow rate, and temperatures are
displayed at the terminal and are written to a disk
file. This file is accessed at a later time to produce a
graph of the run in which the controlled variable, To,
is presented as the dimensionless temperature,

TAU = (T. T )/(T T ) (2)
max 0 max mm

In the first part of the experiment ... the open-loop
frequency response of the system is examined by
introducing sinusoidal variation in the inlet cold
stream flow rate and plotting the cyclic variation
of the exit hot stream temperature.

FIGURE 2. Block diagram for open-loop frequency re-
sponse runs.

where Tma is larger than the greatest value of To and
T,. is smaller than the smallest value of To observed
during the run.
Although the response of TAU to the sinusoidal
variation of Q/Qmx is cyclic and of the same frequency
as the input, TAU does not follow a sine wave. This
fact is illustrated in the graph in Figure 3. The time
lag during the portion of the cycle in which the cold
water flow rate reaches its maximum value of 0.8 is
less than the time lag when the cold water flow rate
is at its minimum value of 0.2. This is explained by
the fact that the film heat transfer coefficient on the
cold water side of the exchanger increases as the flow
rate increases, causing the effluent hot water temper-


- O/.0
--- (Tm..-To'/(

f = 4 cpm
At(avg) = .125 min
S- 4(360)(.125)
S- 1800

.1 .2 .3
TIME, min

.4 .5 .6

FIGURE 3. Determination of frequency response phase


ature to respond more rapidly. A Bode plot analysis
of the frequency response data can be made by cal-
culating the phase angle from the average time lag of
the response of TAU, as shown in Figure 3.
Students conduct a Bode analysis of the frequency
response data prior to the second laboratory period.
The objective of this analysis is to determine the gain
corresponding to marginal stability, K,max, and the
ultimate period, Pu, of the system. Figure 4 and Fig-
ure 5 are Bode plots from a series of frequency re-
sponse runs conducted on the system. The parameters
deduced from the plots are as follows: Kc,max = 1/7 =
0.140C-1, Pu = 1/4 = 0.25 min.


All experimentation in the second lab period is con-
ducted with the heat exchanger operating under
closed-loop automatic control. A control algorithm is

0 r

-30 -

210 w 4 cp.m
240 I

FIGURE 4. Phase angle vs frequency Bode plots.

included in the software which approximates the fol-
lowing proportional-integral-derivative (PID) action

q = K e + L e dt + td t + q0 (3)

where q = fractional flow rate of cold water, q = flow
rate with zero control action, e = error in C, Kc =
controller gain in C-1, ti = integral time in minutes,
and td = derivative time in minutes.
Operation of the system has revealed that To can
experience random changes in temperature by as
much as 0.2 C. These fluctuations are due to "noise"
in the system and do not represent actual changes in
water temperature. The presence of a random tem-
perature error influences the manner in which the
error and error derivative are calculated for use in the
control algorithm. First, with respect to e, instead of
using a single set point temperature, T,, the error is
defined in terms of distance from a set point band.


.1 1 10
FIGURE 5. Amplitude ratio vs frequency Bode plot.

The upper boundary of the set point band, T*, is de-
fined as T, + Et, where Et is the absolute value of the
temperature error. The lower boundary is T, = Tr -
Et, and the error in the control equation is calculated
as follows

If T < T < T then e = 0

If T < T,, then e = T. T

If T, > T

then e = T T

Since "noise" in To can cause erratic changes in
de/dt, this derivative can not be calculated using only
two consecutive temperature scans. In the control
software the derivative at a specific time is calculated
using the current scan and two preceding scans. A
least-squares line is determined for these three points
and de/dt is calculated from the slope of the line.

* Determination of Kc,ma and Pu by the
Continuous-Cycling Method
A discussion of the continuous-cycling method of
determining Kmax and Pu may be found in Harriott
[2]. It is an experimental procedure that involves op-
eration of the system under closed-loop automatic con-
trol with only proportional action. Successive runs are
conducted at increased values of K, until a step distur-
bance causes cycling at a constant amplitude. The cor-

Marginal Stability Parameters

KEmx (C ') P. (min) Footnote
0.14 0.25
0.18 0.28 t

Obtained from open-loop frequency response
t Obtained from continuous-cycling


responding value of K, is K,,max and the period of cy-
cling at the maximum gain is the ultimate period, Pu.
Operation under only proportional control is
achieved by setting the derivative time and the recip-
rocal of the integral time equal to zero. Each run is
conducted in the same fashion. The system is operated
for one-half minute with the ball valve open and 80%
hot water flow rate. The time is recorded and the ball
valve is closed to produce a step change in hot water
flow rate from 80 to 40% of the rotameter range. The
response of the system is observed at the computer
terminal, and if it appears that the oscillations are
decaying in amplitude, the run is stopped and a new
run is started at a higher value of Kc. This process is
continued until the system is clearly unstable, as evi-
denced by cycling in the cold water flow rate from
Q/Qmax = 0 to 1. At this point, K, is reduced in mag-
nitude in small increments with the objective of find-
ing the smallest value of Ke that produces cycling

Ziegler-Nichols Controller Settings

Kc (C-1) ti (min) td (min) Footnote

.063 .208 0
.084 .125 .0312
.081 .233 0 t
.108 .140 .0350 t

Based on open-loop frequency response
t Based on continuous cycling

without decay. The period in minutes of the corres-
ponding cycling in To is Pu.
The values of K,max and Pu obtained by the con-
tinuous-cycling method compare quite well with the
same parameters obtained from frequency response
experiments, as revealed in Table 1.

* Closed-Loop Operation using Z-N Settings

Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) controller settings are re-
lated to the marginal stability parameters through the
following equations:

Proportional-Integral (PI)

K = 0.45 K
c c,max

ti = P/1.2

Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID)

K = 0.6 K
c c,max

t. = P /2, t, = Pu/8

The Z-N setting corresponding to the marginal sta-
bility parameters in Table 1 are listed in Table 2.
In all automatic control runs the input disturbance
is a step change in hot water flow rate from 80% to
40% of full flow. A record of the response of the sys-
tem is available in tabular and graphical form. The
tabular output includes the cold water flow rate, the
error integral, the error derivative, the objective
function, and the system temperatures. The graphical
output contains the error and objective function ver-
sus time.
The particular objective function employed in the
computer software integrates the square of the error
over time, as indicated below

F = e2 dt (6)

Figures 6 and 7 show the response of the system
with three of the sets of Z-N parameters listed in



0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4
TIME, min

FIGURE 6. Closed-loop response to a step change in hot
water flow rate using PI control with Ziegler-Nichols set-

0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4
TIME, min

FIGURE 7. Closed-loop response to a step change in hot
water flow rate using PID control with Ziegler-Nichols


Table 2. An examination of the two PI runs in Figure
6 reveals that the best control is achieved using K, =
0.063 and ti = 0.208, the parameters based on the
open-loop frequency response. The gain of K, = 0.081
derived from continuous cycling experimentation is
too large and caused excessive cycling.
The PID run with Z-N settings shown in Figure 7
represents poor control. However, this should be ex-
pected because derivative action is relatively ineffec-
tive in systems containing a large effective time delay.
The heat exchanger control system contains time de-
lays associated with flow from inlet to exit, and also
time delays associated with the functioning of elec-
tronic components such as the A/D and D/A conver-
ters. In fact, an analysis of the Bode plots in Figures
4 and 5 leads to the following approximate open-loop
transfer function

E(s) 37 e-0.042s
Q(s) (0.176s+1)(0.037s+1)

As can be seen from the above transfer function,
the loop contains an effective time delay of 0.042 min-
utes (2.52 seconds). This time delay is roughly 25% of
the major time constant of 0.176 minutes. At the crit-
ical frequency, the effective time delay accounts for
60 degrees of the total phase lag of 180 degrees and
causes crossover to occur before the smaller time con-
stant is able to reduce the amplitude ratio. Since the
resultant amplitude ratio curve is not steep in the vi-
cinity of the critical frequency, the phase lead contri-
buted by derivative action does not justify increasing
K, very much above the value of K, used in PI control.
This fact is apparent from the poor system response
using Z-N settings with PID control.

* Optimization of Controller Setting
After completing the Z-N runs, students are re-
quired to conduct several exploratory runs to improve
upon the best of the Z-N runs. The goal is to find the
combination of parameters that results in the smallest
error-squared integral objective function, as defined
in Eq. (6). The lower limit of integration is the time
of upset and the upper limit of integration is the time
required for the error to drop to, and remain below,
an absolute value of 0.5C.
A partial optimization of PI control parameters has
revealed that the best parameters are K, = 0.06, and
ti = 0.208. The corresponding objective function was
found to be F = 6.97. It should be noted that these
optimal parameters are almost identical to the Z-N
settings in Table 2, derived from the open-loop fre-
quency response data. Optimization runs were not

conducted with PID control. Therefore, it is possible
that some derivative action might produce a smaller
objective function than 6.97; however the optimal PID
parameters for this control system are not the Ziegler-
Nichols recommendations.
The lab report for the experiment includes all cal-
culations and/or analyses associated with the determi-
nation of K,,max and Pu. Students are also asked to
construct an open-loop transfer function from their
Bode diagrams and to discuss the relative merits of
PI and PID control for the heat exchange control sys-
The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance
of two Manhattan College students, Elizabeth Schaub
and Thomas Meloro, for their part in the preparation
of software for this experiment. Ms. Schaub wrote
the routines controlling the display of data at the com-
puter monitor, and Mr. Meloro wrote the programs
which graph the frequency response and automatic
control runs on the dot-matrix printer.
1. Coughanowr, D. R., and L. B. Koppel, Process Systems
Analysis and Control, p. 241-248, McGraw-Hill, 1965.
2. Harriott, P., Process Control, p. 178-179, McGraw-Hill, 1964.
3. Stephanopoulos, G., Chemical Process Control, p. 349-354,
Prentice-Hall, 1984.
4. Famularo, J., "A Computer-Controlled Heat Exchange Exper-
iment," Proceedings of the ASEE 1986 Annual Conference,
Cincinnati, Ohio, June 1986. O

Book reviews

by J. P. Gupta
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation,
Washington, DC (1986),
607 pages, $45.00
Reviewed by
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
This book is entirely in the form of over 1200 ques-
tions and answers. It provides descriptions of various
types of heat exchangers and pressure vessels, and
also a discussion of the factors which favor the choice
of one form over another for reasons of economics,
safety, maintenance, etc. Both of these aspects are of
direct interest in process design and operation. The


book is said to be intended for newcomers in practice
and for senior-level students. However, it will surely
prove to be a standard reference even for experienced
Preliminary drafts of the various chapters were
reviewed by individual experts. The list of these re-
viewers is virtually an honor-roll of the leaders in pro-
cess heat transfer. Their participation gives this book
an aura of authority over a very broad range, while
at the same time the singular authorship provides a
greater consistency than is ordinarily accomplished in
a compilation of contributions by many authors.
The book is profusely and well illustrated, which
is essential for descriptive purposes. Attention in the
questions and answers is focused on the choice of
various types of equipment for different applications.
Although some quantitative information is given in
connection with such choices, procedures of design for
specific equipment are not included. Such procedures
of course provide the primary content of conventional
books on heat transfer and process design.
Quantities are given in English units with the SI
equivalent in parentheses, or vice versa, depending
on the original source. A detailed table of contents
and a very complete index are essential for a book of
this type in which the reader will be searching for
information on a few special matters rather than read-
ing from cover to cover. Spot tests indicate that both
the table of contents and the index meet this standard,
although omissions were noted in the latter. For
example, the "effectiveness factor" and the "correc-
tion factor" do not appear as primary items.
Fluidized beds, direct-fired boilers, cooling towers
and regenerators were arbitrarily excluded, but
otherwise the book is very comprehensive. Individual
topics are necessarily limited in scope and thereby in-
complete. For example, the discussion of spiral heat
exchangers does not mention the inapplicability of the
log-mean temperature difference owing to two-way
heat exchange at each point of each passage.
Despite the minor omissions noted above, this
book is remarkably complete and generally sound. The
format of questions and answers proves to be surpris-
ingly successful and convenient. Students in process
design will find this volume to be an essential re-
source, and practicing engineers will find it an invalu-
able reference.
The author and the publisher are to be commended
for producing an imaginative and useful contribution
in a mature field.
Despite the overly generous statement in the
acknowledgement, my contribution to the concept was
only in terms of encouragement, and to the content

only as a reader. Hence, I offer the above remarks
objectively as a potential user. O

by Carlos A. Smith and Armando B. Corripio,
John Wiley and Sons, $43.95, 1985
Reviewed by
Glenn A. Atwood
University of Akron
This text is designed to present classical control
theory and practice to senior level students and indus-
trial practitioners. The text focuses on single variable
control loop design for continuous processes using
examples from the chemical process industries. The
topics covered are the same as have been included in
popular chemical engineering control texts for over
twenty years.
The authors have prepared a text comparable to
the classic by Coughanowr and Koppel. They have
succeeded in their goal of preparing a text with both
principles and practice. However, with the recent ad-
vances in control theory and practice, the text should
include coverage of batch process control, program-
able controllers, adaptive control, discrete control, dis-
tributed and computer control. Many of the above top-
ics have been included in texts for other fields since
the early to mid '70's. It is imperative that chemical
engineering control texts include the more modern
topics and that these be included in the curriculum.
The field cannot continue to cover the same topics as
were covered in the past and meet the needs of our
graduating engineers or the industrial users.
The text can be divided into six major sections:
mathematical basics, process dynamics, control sys-
tem components, single loop control system design,
and additional control techniques. The section on
mathematical basics covers Laplace transforms,
linearization, and complex variables. The Laplace
transform and linearization sections are well-written
and should provide the reader with the mathematical
foundation to use the techniques in controls and other
areas. The linearization section includes both single
and multi-variable methods with applications to typi-
cal control problems. The section on complex numbers
is very short and probably should be expanded to give
students an adequate background.
Chapters 3 and 4 introduce the development of
transfer functions for typical first order systems along
with the system response to input disturbances.
Continued on page 97.


S classroom



University of Tulsa
Tulsa, OK 74104-3189

CHANGE IS THE way of life for engineering curric-
ula. There are many obvious reasons: emergence
of calculators and computers to replace slide rules;
technology advances; faculty research interests; and
the genuine faculty desire to improve education.
The present discussion of a meaningful design ex-
perience addresses three topics. First, the question
"What is design?"; second, current and proposed
ABET design requirements; and third, criteria to de-
fine a minimum design competence.

Let us start by comparing Webster's (1973) defini-
tions of engineering and science:
Engineering: the application of science and mathematics
by which the properties of matter and sources of energy in na-
ture are made useful to man in structures, machines, products,
systems, and processes.
Science: knowledge attained through study and practice.
Simplistically, and perhaps overly so, the key dif-
ference between engineers and scientists is that en-
gineers apply what scientists discover. And the impor-
tance of economics is epitomized by the adage, "A
good engineer can do for $1 what any fool can do for
$2 or more."
In other words, "Scientists tackle those problems
which can be solved; engineers are faced with prob-
lems which must be solved." [8]
The original Encyclopedia Britannica definition,
"Engineering is the art and science of weaving

The present discussion .. addresses three
topics. First, the question "What is design?";
second, current and proposed ABET design
requirements; and third, criteria to
define a minimum design competence.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987

Frank Manning is a professor of chemical engineering at the Uni-
versity of Tulsa. He holds a BEng from McGill University and a MSE,
AM, and PhD from Princeton University. His academic experience in-
cludes ten years at Carnegie Tech and nineteen years at Tulsa Univer-
sity. His current interest is field processing of petroleum-a topic he
has presented worldwide.

technology into the fabric of society," is worth discus-
sing [4]. Webster [9] defines technology as: (1) techni-
cal language, (2a) applied science, (2b) a technical
method of achieving a practical purpose, and (3) the
totality of means employed to provide objects for
human subsistence and comfort.
Hugh Guthrie [4] observed that coupling the
Britannica definition of engineering with Webster's
definition of technology generates an all-encompassing
description of engineering. For (1) weaving "technical
language" into the fabric of society implies the need
for public understanding and approval; (2a) "applied
science" reinforces the previously stated key differ-
ence between engineers and scientists; (2b) em-
phasizes the importance of combining theory (science)
with practice (art); and (3) is equivalent to the Webs-
ter definition of engineering.
Now let us examine what is meant by design. Not
surprisingly this is a prime example of "Quot homines,
tot sententiae." However, a safe start is the ABET
definition [1]:
Engineering design is the process of devising a system,
component, or process to meet desired needs. It is a decision-


making process (often iterative), in which the basic sciences,
mathematics, and engineering sciences are applied to convert
resources optimally to meet a stated objective. Among the
fundamental elements of the design process are the establish-
ment of objectives and criteria, synthesis, analysis, construc-
tion, testing, and evaluation. The engineering design compo-
nent of a curriculum must include at least some of the follow-
ing features: development of student creativity, use of open-
ended problems, development and use of design methodology,
formulation of design problem statements and specifications,
consideration of alternative solutions, feasibility considera-
tions, and detailed system descriptions. Further, it is desir-
able to include a variety of realistic constraints such as
economic factors, safety, reliability, aesthetics, ethics, and
social impact.
Because this all-inclusive ABET definition is open
to many interpretations, let us remember AIChE's
Program Criteria statement:
The various elements of curriculum must be brought to-
gether in one or more capstone engineering design courses
built around comprehensive, open-ended problems having a
variety of acceptable solutions and requiring some economic
Peters [5] extends the above definitions of design
to capstone courses "where principles previously
learned are put to use in situations with real-life as-
pects of economic evaluation, social consequences,
communication, and other directly practical considera-
Traditional though it may be, Peters' definition of
design is not universally accepted. Denn [3] correctly
observes that "design" is not restricted to "process
design." Denn also eloquently states that design can
be taught in open-ended problems and that computing
technology can be a great help in solving such open-
ended problems. However the statement that design
is an open-ended problem is necessary but not suffi-
cient criterion. Playing chess is certainly an open-
ended challenge but who will claim design credit for a
win? While design is unquestionably open-ended, it is
also "real world" complete with stated or implied con-
straints such as economics, codes, insurance require-
ments, government permits, safety, environmental
regulations, etc. Again simplistically, "Design fulfills
a need while science satisfies a curiosity." [10] In de-
sign the objective is finite and includes a productive
purpose. Design involves judgement which frequently
includes selection from an apparently overabundant
and sometimes contradictory supply of data, methods,
"laws," and equations.
Successful design implies innovation and entre-
preneurship. In fact, design is the sine qua non that
differentiates engineers from scientists. Faculty who
attribute omnipotence to "a strong grasp of the funda-
mental sciences," or "to teaching students how to
think," overlook the truism-practice makes perfect,

The recently initiated NSF funding of
university-industry-government partnerships
is a welcome new contribution to the challenge of
adding a practice-base or industrial know-how
to the existing science base.

or you learn by doing. Motive also separates design
from engineering science. Studying the stress tensor
is engineering science but how to increase crude oil
flow from an offshore platform through an existing
pipeline to the onshore treating facility is a design
Can anyone imagine training doctors without hos-
pitals? Shouldn't industry play a comparable role in
engineering education? The recently initiated NSF
funding of university-industry-government partner-
ships is a welcome new contribution to the challenge
of adding a practice-base or industrial know-how to
the existing science base.

Current accreditation practices (especially those
involving design) have been subjected to much criti-
cism. Invectives such as "mess at accreditation,"
"stylized charade," "bean counting," "fraud," "mind-
less exercises in mediocrity," have been used. Why
this assault? Is it a sincere desire to improve the engi-
neering design stem? Or is it a clever ruse to decrease
the design content and thus make room for favorite
research topics disguised as fundamentals? As usual,
the truth lies somewhere between these two points of
ABET has suggested that the current curricular
requirements of one year of engineering science and
one half-year of engineering design be replaced with
a single criterion:
One and one-half years of an appropriate combination of
engineering sciences and engineering design, with a distribu-
tion of design throughout the curriculum, that culminates in
a meaningful design experience in the final year of the pro-
This proposed change is very similar to the re-
cently adopted change which combined the old criteria
of one half-year of mathematics and one half-year of
basic sciences into one criterion: one year of mathema-
tics and basic sciences. Has this change improved the
mathematics and/or basic science stems? Or has it
merely permitted more mathematics at the expense
of physics and chemistry?
The proposed one and one-half years of combined
engineering science and design will, it is claimed, re-
duce the problem of "bean counting." And, if adopted,


program evaluators may no longer be required to un-
dergo the alleged "stylized charade" or "fraud" of
seeking partial design content in many engineering
courses. While trying to detect design content in engi-
neering science courses, this ABET program
evaluator has developed sympathy for Supreme Court
justices. Theirs is the no-win task of distinguishing
between "redeeming artistic content" and "pornog-
raphy." Who pleads more fervently-professors or
proprietors of adult bookstores? And who receives
more criticism-ABET or the Supreme Court?
Before we rush to climb on the bandwagon and
adopt this proposed panacea, we would do well to pon-
der three questions recently posed by Saperstein [7]:

1. Do the criteria lead engineering programs into sufficient
depth in the design experience?
2. Do the criteria allow the programs to instill sufficient in-
dependence and creativity?
3. Will the criteria prevent programs from offering a single,
isolated course as their response to the design require-

The last question is frightening. Will 45 credit
hours of engineering science and 3 credit hours of de-
sign produce engineers or scientists?


Saperstein has stated the challenges facing ABET
(and AIChE) very well and succinctly:

1) Can we write criteria in such a way that program
evaluators can judge the sufficiency of a design experi-
2) Within our review process, can evaluators be assured that
the students have acquired the intangible understanding
of the design process while they have produced the tangi-
ble product seen by the evaluator? The ultimate question
for all of us is

Can all of the above be reduced into a few, mutually
understood words that can be easily enforced?

While Saperstein's challenge appears monumental,
I respectfully suggest that AIChE define meaningful
design experience as:

1. A year-long sequence of two or more, senior-level capstone de-
sign courses comprising one quarter of an academic year (e.g.
two four-credit hour semester-long courses).
2. These capstone design courses shall include the three "ingre-
dients" recommended by Peters [5] (see Table 1).
3. We should encourage departments to include the AIChE Design
contest in their senior capstone design experience.
4. We should encourage variety in the design projects and discour-
age an endless sequence of traditional chemical process projects.
By all means let us include biochemical engineering, microchip
manufacture, etc.

"Ingredients" Recommended by Peters

1. Economic Evaluation
A. cost estimation
B. concepts of cash flow and interest
C. measures of profitability
D. choice among alternative investments
2. Engineering Design
A. from preliminary estimates to firm process designs
B. strategy of design including shortcut methods
C. areas of practical significance such as plant loca-
tion, plant layout, safety, pollution, etc.
D. equipment and component design
3. Real Industrial Processes
A. The course should be organized so that the students
work in groups as well as individually, [on prob-
lems of varying length]
B. Computers should routinely be used where appro-
C. Examples of real-life events should be given
D. When the course is finished, the students should
complain about all the hard work they had to do,
but they should also say that they finally found out
where all the material they had studied previously
can be put to use.

5. Students should be exposed to open-ended, real world problems
prior to the senior-level capstone design experience. AIChE
could solicit such problems and make them available (with sol-
utions) to interested faculty.

My reasons for the above recommendations are:

Recommendation 1

Open-ended, incompletely specified design prob-
lems often constitute a "culture shock" for students
accustomed to "one-right-answer" mathematical prob-
lems. A "soak time" of one year is required to wean
would-be engineers from the one-correct-answer
viewpoint. Adequate practice, individually and in
groups, on problems of increasing length and complex-
ity easily requires eight semester credit hours.

Recommendation 2

Max Peters' excellent summary should be inter-
preted broadly-surely "process" is not restricted to
"traditional chemical processing," but rather is "the
manufacture of any product." The design stem should
include the widest spectrum of real world events: in-
complete, incorrect, or contradictory data; the over-
riding necessity of economic viability; the practical
consequences and ethics of specifying "too big" or "too
small" equipment; troubleshooting; improving exist-
ing processes; etc. Allowing students to exercise and
to develop judgement is more important than learning


specific methodologies. Feedback and open-ended
problems are essential.

Recommendation 3
The AIChE design contest problems are prepared
very thoughtfully by outstanding design engineers.
These industry experts make sure that the design
problems are realistic and contain "traps" for the
naive and unwary. In the 1986 contest, forty-four stu-
dent solutions were submitted but only five did not
commit some fatal mistake, such as extrapolating a
vapor pressure curve below the freezing point [6].
Surely the place for learning such facts of life is in the
classroom and not on the job. AIChE devotes a ses-
sion at the annual meeting to the design contest, and
the contest problem, the first-prize solution, and the
judges' comments are published (e.g. AIChE, 1985).
However, expansion of the judges' comments and pub-
lication in a more widely-circulated journal such as
Chemical Engineering Education would be very help-

Recommendation 4
In the past chemical engineering has "missed the
boat" in aerospace, process metallurgy, pollution con-
trol, etc. We must not let current and future oppor-
tunities such as biochemical and electronic-component
manufacture slip away.

Recommendation 5
Senior students with three full years of fundamen-
tals (mathematics, basic sciences, engineering sci-
ences, computer programming) will not automatically
start designing and innovating the moment the first
capstone design course begins. Nor will graduates
with four years of fundamentals magically become de-
sign engineers their first day on the job. Early and
repeated exposures to the "engineering facts of life"
are essential.
We must never forget that far, far more BS
graduates work in design, manufacturing, sales, tech-
nical services, operations, and troubleshooting than in
research. Let us put student welfare first and make
sure that all accredited undergraduate programs con-
tain a truly meaningful design experience.

The author thanks all those colleagues who so
kindly and generously provided their inputs. However
the opinions expressed herein represent the views of
the author and do not, at this time, reflect any official

position of AIChE's Education and Accreditation

1. ABET, "Criteria for Accrediting Programs in Engineering in
the United States," Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology, Inc., New York, NY 10017, 1985.
2. AIChE, "The AIChE Student Annual, 1985," American Insti-
tute of Chemical Engineers, New York, NY 10017, 1985.
3. Denn, Morton M., "Design, Accreditation, and Computing
Technology," Chemical Engineering Education, Vol. XX,
No. 1, p. 18, 1986.
4. Guthrie, Hugh, personal communication, December 5, 1986.
5. Peters, Max S., "Analysis of Past, Present, and Hoped-for
Future in Design Education for Engineering Students," Pre-
sented at ASEE Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, 1985.
6. Reese, Ed, personal communication, Rohm & Haas Delaware
Valley, Inc., Bristol, PA, 1986.
7. Saperstein, Lee W., letter to members of ABET's EAC, July
21, 1986.
8. Sherwood, T. K., R. L. Pigford and C. R. Wilke, Mass Trans-
fer, p. 6, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975.
9. Webster's, New Collegiate Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam Co.,
Springfield, MA, 1975.
10. Zahradnik, R. L., personal communication, December 8,
1986. E

M book reviews

by John B. Fenn
W. H. Freeman and Company, 1982,
288 pages, $12.95 paper
Reviewed by
John P. O'Connell
University of Florida
"Thermodynamics is a state of mind," one of my
colleagues has said, referring to the fact that the de-
sired approach to and understanding of this noble
human construct depends on one's personal taste as
much as anything else. Thus, the plethora of available
beginning treatments range from the mathematical
and abstract, such as the impressive work of C. Trues-
dell, to the historical and physical, such as this charm-
ing book by Fenn, and all have at least a few champi-
Fenn's apparent objective is to make plausible and
understandable the needs and uses of thermodynamic
properties and analysis in two ways. One is his direct
connections to the reader's everyday experience, and
the other is his incisive descriptions of the evolution
of thought from the rudimentary observations of cave-
men, represented by Charlie (who is shown in comic
Continued on page 100.


class and home problems

The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical
engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle
in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested as well as those that
are more traditional in nature, which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor H. Scott
Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.




State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260

A question can be set up in the form of a paradox,
based on a commonly-used form of the Gibbs-
Duhem equation. I have used this problem in an ad-
vanced thermodynamics class and as a question in an
oral examination for admission to candidacy for the
degree of PhD.
Consider a system consisting of two phases, a and
3, and two components, 1 and 2. The condition for

Robert J. (Bob) Good obtained his BA at Amherst College, his MS
at the University of California, and his PhD (1950) at the University of
Michigan. After a number of years spent in industry and teaching at
the University of Cincinnati, in 1964 he joined the faculty at the State
University of New York at Buffalo, where he does research on adhe-
sion, wetting and spreading, pore penetration, the role of surface
chemistry in biological processes such as phagocytosis, and on tertiary
oil recovery.

chemical equilibrium with respect to mass distribution

where Ri is chemical potential. Differentiating Eq. (1),
we obtain
d1a = dp = dp (2)
j i 1
We write the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the form

xLid + xada = 0 (3a)
1d1 2d2

Xld1 + xadli = 0 (3b)

where x is mole fraction.
We now use Eq. (2) to eliminate dplj from Eqs.
(3a) and (3b). Thus

dp = d2 (4a)

2 dp- (4b)
Equating the coefficients of dR2, and rearranging, we
x xa
x xB (5)
2 1
This can be true only if the compositions of the two
phases are the same. A little algebraic manipulation
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


xa = X
2 2

x" = x (6b)

Hence the phases have the same composition, and
there can be only one phase. But we had postulated
that there are two phases.
The question is, "Where did we go wrong?"
It is worth noting, before giving the solution to
this problem, that less than half the teachers of ther-
modynamics to whom this problem has been posed
have given the correct answer at once. Also, at least
one very eminent thermodynamicist (now deceased)
has made precisely the mistake that is the basis for
the problem, and persisted in repeating it in several
editions of his book on thermodynamics.

AG mix



FIGURE la. Free energy of mixing vs mole fraction, for
a two-component system with a miscibility gap: -,
free energy in unstable region; ., free energy in cen-
tral region of gap, for two crystalline solids having un-
like crystal structures.
FIGURE Ib. Chemical potential of component 1 in sys-
tem described by Fig. (la).

less than half the teachers of thermodynamics
to whom this problem has been posed have given the
correct answer at once. Also, at least one very
eminent thermodynamicist (now deceased) has made
precisely the mistake that is the basis for
the problem, and persisted in repeating it...

The problem has a solution which can be drawn
from a paper by Ibl and Dodge [1].
The Gibbs-Duhem equation, in the form that was
employed in the posing of the problem, namely Eq.
(3a) and Eq. (3b), was written for constant tempera-
ture and pressure. But a binary, 2-phase system at
constant temperature and pressure is invariant, ac-
cording to the Phase Rule. So, although the condition
of equal chemical potentials holds, for each component
in all phases, e.g., Eq. (1), this equation is mathemat-
ically "pathological." It cannot be differentiated with
respect to composition, for a binary system. Such a
differentiation would mean, physically, that the con-
centration of a component was being varied. But that
would be impossible in view of the zero variance of the
So, the differential form, Eq. (2), is not valid when
dpi is not identically zero. The term, dpji (if not equal
to zero) has more than an exclusively mathematical
existence only when there is but one phase. Hence the
"x" terms on the left in Eq. (3) have zero as their
multipliers, and this limits Eq. (3) to the trivial case
of 0 = 0.
We can demonstrate the invalidity of Eq. (2) by an
alternative method. Consider the functional depen-
dence of the free energy of the equilibrium system on
composition. This function is a smooth curve when
only one phase is present. When there are two phases
in equilibrium, the free energy in the two phase region
is a linear function of mole fraction in the overall com-
Figure 1 shows schematically (a) the dependence
of free energy on composition at fixed temperature
and pressure, and (b) the dependence of chemical po-
tential of component 1 upon composition. Compare
Ref. [2], p. 278. In Figure la, the dashed line that
crosses the central region smoothly, describes the
nonequilibrium condition for systems in which the
phases are fluid. Systems in which both phases are
crystalline may have miscibility gaps caused by influ-
ences such as differences in crystal structure. For
these, the extrapolated free energy curves for the
phases a and P in the unstable region will not join


X, -

smoothly. (This argument is the basis for one of the
Hume-Rothery rules regarding the existence of solid
solutions in alloys [3].)
In general, the regions around the minima in the
free energy curves for phases a and p, Figure la, will
not have exactly the same shape. So while

vl(x" sat) = pi(x sat)

xd =+ [i xdI = VdP RTd in P (13)
1 1 1 12 m

At constant pressure, the result given in Ref. (1)
can easily be put in the form

xd1 + 1 x d2 = RT dT
1L 1 I 1 2' RT2

the slopes at the saturation compositions

x xasat

Mi xsat

will, in general, have two different values.
Therefore, in general

dp(xa sat) 1 dpo(x sat)

Thus, if the values of the differentials dpi and dpj, in
Eq. (2), are not zero, their values are not unique.
Hence Eq. (3) is not a physically relevant set of equa-
Removing the constraint of constant T and P, we
write the valid, general form

xadp + xdp2 = VdP SadT (10a)

xdU + xddp2 = VbdP S8dT (1Ob)

where the subscript, m, denotes, per mole of (1 + 2).
Ibl and Dodge have discussed how the Gibbs-
Duhem equation may be applied correctly to a binary
liquid-vapor system. Their result, at constant temper-
ature and with neglect of gas imperfections, can be
put in the form

x +d, + 1 xj d2 RTd an P (11)

where a refers to the liquid and P to the gas phase.
The right side of Eq. (11) is approximately zero if

S<< V0
In m

which is generally true at ordinary pressures, though
not at high pressure.
For the gas phase

where AH is the enthalpy of the phase change. The
term on the right cannot be neglected.
If we include the constraint on the number of com-
(8) ponents for the constant-temperature-constant-pres-
sure form for a 2-phase system to be valid, we may

Sx di = 0,

nx0 dpi = 0,

n > 2

n > 2




A corresponding form can be written for a system
with three phases, with the constraint that n > 3. If
the number of phases is v, the constraint is n > v. If
the constraint condition in Eq. (15) is not met, then
the general form, i.e. Eq. (10), must of course be used.

The precise form of the constraints on the form of
the Gibbs-Duhem equation, given above, is directly
implicit in the complete Gibbs-Duhem equation itself,
and in the Phase Rule. The rigorous Gibbs-Duhem
form is presented in practically all modern chemical
engineering thermodynamics textbooks. But I have
not seen the constraints (as in Eq. (15)) spelled out
explicitly. Indeed, authors of some textbooks apply
the Gibbs-Duhem equation to a single-phase, e.g.
using Eq. (3a) by itself, without pointing out that this
form is useable only in single-phase systems.
E. A. Guggenheim fell into this trap some 30 years
ago, and he persisted in using the form, Eq. (3), for
binary, two-phase systems, through five editions [4].
Thus, he wrote


I1 -" x a--
I ax8

a 2

,-- 0


This is a verbatim transcription of Guggenheim's Eqs.
5.60.6 and 6.60.7.
Guggenheim's explicit purpose in his Section 5.60
was to derive rigorous, general formulae in regard to
the effect of pressure and temperature on interfacial
tension, in two-phase systems, that were "applicable
to any interface in any system of two components."
He noted, however, "We warn the reader that these
formulae are too complicated to be of any use." Com-
pare Ref. [5], for a rigorous treatment of the pressure
coefficient of interfacial tension.
In view of the adoption of the error that I have
noted, by so eminent a thermodynamicist as Gug-
genheim, surely a student who, un-warned, makes
this mistake should not be cast into outer darkness.
Thus, there is an obligation for teachers of chemical
thermodynamics to caution against this error. And it
would be, to say the least, desirable for workers in
phase equilibria to be reminded of the Ibl and Dodge
treatment in connection with testing vapor pressure
data for self-consistency, via the Duhem-Margules

1. N. V. Ibl and B. F. Dodge, Chemical Engineering Science, 2,
120 (1953).
2. R. F. Slater, Introduction to Chemical Physics, McGraw-Hill,
3. W. Hume-Rothery, "Structure of Metals and Alloys," Institute
of Metals, London, 1947.
4. E. A. Guggenheim, Thermodynamics, 5th ed., North-Holland
Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1967, pp. 269-72.
5. R. J. Good and F. P. Buff, in The Modern Theory of Capillar-
ity, F. C. Goodrich and A. I. Rusanov, eds., Akademie-Verlag,
Berlin, 1981.

REVIEW: Automatic Process Control
Continued from page 89.
Example problems are typical of the chemical process
industries. Chapter 3 contains an excellent com-
prehensive introduction to block diagrams. However,
this section seems out of place and disrupts the
dynamic response presentation. Chapter 4 is primarily
limited to non-interacting and interacting series of
first order systems with just a brief mention of other
higher order systems.
Chapter 5 is a discussion of control system compo-
nents including the sensors and transmitters, the con-
trol valve, and the controller. The section on control
valves includes design and selection procedures from
two major valve manufacturers, a discussion of the
control valve types, and the importance of including
both the valve and piping system characteristics when

selecting control valves. Appendix C provides a dis-
cussion of specific equipment and is a welcome addi-
tion to the text. The section on controllers includes a
discussion of the major control modes along with pic-
tures of different classical controllers. A major omis-
sion in this section is the absence of a discussion about
programmable controllers.
Chapter 6 introduces the reader to closed loop con-
trol system response, control system stability, control
system tuning, and control system synthesis. This sec-
tion will be especially valuable to those practicing in
plants with standard analog controllers.
Chapter 7 contains the classical single loop feed-
back control design procedures, including both the
root locus and frequency response techniques. The
root locus procedures are presented through the use
of examples. The open loop frequency response
techniques at times were confusing because of the
symbology which is different than that often used in
the literature. Closed loop response from the open
loop response and the Nyquist procedures are briefly
discussed. The chapter contains a section on pulse
testing which should be expanded if it is to be of use
to the reader. A rearrangement of material in Chap-
ters 6 and 7 would improve readability of this major
Chapter 8 covers additional topics in control in-
cluding ratio control, cascade control, a brief introduc-
tion to multivariable control and de-coupling, and an
introduction to feed forward control. The coverage is
sufficient to introduce the reader to the topic but is
not sufficient for design purposes. A further limitation
is the few references provided for further reading.
Chapter 9 is a brief introduction to the modeling
of complex processes. It provides an overview of pro-
cedures to develop and solve the model and provides
simple examples. As with Chapter 8, additional back-
ground will be required for use in design.
Appendix A contains the standard control sheet
notation. Appendix B contains a series of case studies
in control which are valuable for the student. Appen-
dix D contains root finding programs written in FOR-
TRAN. These are a valuable addition to the text.
The text contains numerous solved examples and
has abundant problems at the end of each chapter.
The problems are closely related to the topics pre-
The use of the first person was at times distracting
to this reader. There were sections which could have
benefitted significantly from a tightening of the pre-
sentation. Additional references for each chapter
would be valuable for those wishing a more com-
prehensive discussion in specific areas. O





United States Naval Academy
Annapolis, MD 21402

A CHALLENGE OF MODERN physical science and
engineering is to satisfy students as to the con-
nection between fundamental microscopic theories
(e.g., gas kinetic theory or quantum mechanics) and
macroscopic measurements (e.g., free energy or en-
tropy changes). An approach based on simple notions
from gas kinetic theory (thus avoiding the relatively
inaccessible approach provided by statistical ther-
modynamics [1]) has recently been proposed [2] for ex-
plaining such macroscopic concepts as heat and work,
with specific applications to simple thermodynamic
processes. The purpose of this paper is to extend this
simple approach so as to provide easily assimilated
molecular explanations of entropy changes for such

The most direct link between the microscopic
theories and macroscopic measurements is the inter-
nal energy E. For a system of molecules, the total
energy is essentially the sum of the individual molecu-
lar energies measured relative to some arbitrarily es-
tablished reference configuration. It can be easily
shown [3] that all other macroscopic thermodynamic
quantities (e.g., free energy, enthalpy, etc.) are simple
mathematical extensions of this internal energy which
are in some way convenient for the understanding of
thermodynamic processes.
A given system of molecules (at thermodyamic
equilibrium) is characterized by a temperature T. It
is easy to show [4] that such a system of molecules
exists in a set of distributions of energy translationall,
vibrational, rotational, electronic) centered around
the Boltzmann distribution. This equilibrium distribu-
tion of the energy among the molecules is, in a sense,
a naturally random arrangement of energy within the
physical constraints of fixed particle number and fixed
total internal energy. It is the naturally occurring dis-
tribution which arises from the most random arrange-
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987

Boyd A. Waite has been an assistant professor in the Chemistry
Department of the United States Naval Academy since 1982. He re-
ceived his BS from Brigham Young University in 1978 and his PhD
from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1982. His primary re-
search interests are in molecular reaction dynamics and the physical
chemical aspects of biological phenomena.

ment possible.
It has been shown [5] that an additional input of
internal energy into a system already in Boltzmann
equilibrium results in a rapid "randomization" of the
energy among the particles so that a new Boltzmann
distribution is formed, characterized by a higher tem-
perature T. Energy can be added to such a system in
two distinct ways, giving rise to the phenomena com-
monly referred to as heat and work.
As described previously [2], heat and work are
mechanisms for energy transfer processes involving
contact between molecules set within unique distribu-
tions. Heat is the mechanism for energy transfer be-
tween two systems, both of which are in naturally
random distributions. Work, on the other hand, is the
mechanism of energy transfer between two systems,
at least one of which presents itself in some sort of
organized distribution (non-Boltzmann).

One of the most crucial and least understood of all
macroscopic quantities is entropy. Accepting the sim-
ple definition of entropy as the measure of the ran-
domness inherent to a system (with reference to a


completely non-random condition), it appears that a
molecular understanding of entropy change lies not in
the energy characteristics of individual molecules, but
in the nature of distributions of energy among systems
of molecules. A single molecule may possess internal
energy, but it cannot be described as possessing an
inherent amount of randomness. Randomness must be
measured by the number of different ways in which
the internal energy can be distributed among a system
of particles. For example, if the total internal energy
available is zero, there is only one unique way of dis-
tributing it among the particles. More internal energy
(corresponding to higher temperatures) results in
more possible distributions. Of course, it can be shown
[4] that the Boltzmann distribution consists of a very
large number of identical-looking distributions.
For a gas phase system of molecules, one of the
important measurables relating to entropy is the vol-
ume. The larger the volume, the more translational
energy levels become available for occupation by indi-
vidual molecules, resulting in more alternatives for
constructing distributions. A larger volume, there-
fore, leads to a higher number of identical-looking
naturally random distributions, i.e., a larger entropy.



\ I
D \
P \ -
E ---\*A


FIGURE 1. A PV diagram depicting four typical gas
processes. A-B is a constant volume process resulting in
an increase of entropy (AT>0, AV=0; AS>0). A-C is an
adiabatic compression resulting in no change in entropy
(AT>0, AV<0; AS=0). A-D is an isothermal compression
resulting in a decrease in entropy (AT=0, AV<0; AS<0).
A-E is an isobaric compression resulting in a larger de-
crease in entropy than the isothermal case (AT<0,

Another important factor in changing entropy is
the temperature. Raising the temperature is a result
of increasing the total amount of internal energy avail-
able for distribution, leading to an increase in the
number of identical-looking arrangements available to
the system of particles. Thus, as with the volume,
increase in temperature results in an increase in en-

The four simple gas processes shown in Figure 1
will each be considered separately in order to illus-
trate the concepts of molecularity relating to heat,
work, and entropy as developed above. These proces-
ses can be considered as reversible so long as the dis-
tributions of energy for the systems are maintained
as equilibrium distributions at each infinitesimal step
of the process. Othewise, this constraint need not be
The constant volume process A-B results when a
gas confined to a rigid container with diathermal walls
is brought into contact with a bath at a higher temper-
ature. Heat transfer occurs through the walls via the
random-random mechanism described above. Notice
that there is a "flow" of "randomness" in the direction
of the gas. Since the walls are rigid, there is never an
organized energy transfer. The internal energy of the
gas increases, leading to a new Boltzmann distribution
corresponding to a higher temperature T. Entropy
has increased due to the temperature increase (al-
though the volume is constant).
The adiabatic process A-C results when a gas con-
fined to a container with adiabatic walls is compres-
sed. There is no contact with any external randomly
distributed system. The compression results in a com-
pletely organized energy transfer, i.e., it corresponds
to work and results in an increase of internal energy
of the system. Upon redistribution of this added
energy, the gas achieves a new Boltzmann distribu-
tion with higher temperature T, resulting in a con-
tribution of increased entropy. However, since the
volume has decreased, there is an equal contribution
of decreased entropy yielding a net result of no change
in entropy of the system. This can be seen clearly by
noting that since there has been no contact with exter-
nal random distributions, there can be no change in
randomness of the system. Hence the entropy change
for this adiabatic process is precisely zero.
The isothermal process A-D results when a gas
confined to a container with diathermal walls is com-
pressed. The compression of the box results in or-


ganized energy transfer (work) and would result in a
temperature increase except for the fact that the
diathermal walls allow for contact between two ran-
domly distributed systems. Since the work transfer
tends to push the temperature up, the natural "flow"
of "randomness" will be away from the gas towards
the external bath. Hence, as far as the system of gas
in concerned, the isothermal compression has resulted
in a net decrease of randomness, hence a decrease of
entropy. This is also evident since the temperature
has stayed constant while the volume has decreased.
Finally, the isobaric process A-E results when a
gas confined to a container with diathermal walls is
compressed and also immersed in a variable tempera-
ture bath which is adjusted so as to keep the internal
pressure of the gas constant. Again, the compression
results in an organized transfer of internal energy
(work) tending to increase the temperature. In order
for the system to retain constant pressure, however,
it is necessary for the increased internal energy to
escape via the only route available to it, i.e., the ran-
dom distribution contact with the external bath. Not
only must there be such a contact, but the bath must
be adjusted so that the temperature actually de-
creases. This results in a doubly intense outward
"flow" of internal energy via the random distribution
mechanism (heat). Hence, the entropy of the system
actually decreases more than in the isothermal case.
Also, since both the volume and temperature decrease
for this process, it is clear that the entropy decrease
is greater than for the previous case.
Of course, all of these examples have been previ-
ously described [2] in terms of pressure effects. The
purpose of this set of descriptions has been to extend
the gas kinetic ideas to the very difficult concept of
Definitions of internal energy allow for direct con-
nection to the macroscopic thermodynamic quantities
commonly sought by scientists and engineers. The aim
of this work has been to demonstrate a simple connec-
tion between molecularity (as contained in gas kinetic
theory of distributions) and macroscopic quantities
such as entropy. It has been shown that entropy, de-
fined as a measure of randomness relative to some
reference condition, can be easily interpreted in terms
of the distributions and how they change. "Flow" of
"randomness" due to different interactions between
systems clearly helps to explain entropy changes.
While this approach may not simplify the actual calcu-
lations required in applications of thermodynamics, it
is hoped that it provides a satisfying semi-quantitative
explanation of the inherent connection between

molecular mechanics and macroscopic thermodynamic

1. See, for example, N. Davidson, Statistical Mechanics,
McGraw-Hill, 1962.
2. B. A. Waite, "A Gas Kinetic Explanation of Simple Ther-
modynamic Processes," J. Chem. Educ., 62 (March), 1985, 224-
3. See, for example, I. M. Klotz and R. M. Rosenberg, Chemical
Thermodynamics, Benjamin, 1972, 128-130.
4. B. A. Waite, "Equilibrium Distribution Functions: Another
Look," J. Chem. Educ., 63 (Feb.) 1986, 117-120.
5. See, for example, D. Hinds, D. D. Parrish, and M. A. Wartell,
Jr., "Modelling Molecular Velocity Distributions," J. Chem.
Educ., 55 (October), 1978, 670. O

REVIEW: Engines, Energy, Entropy
Continued from page 93.
drawings with clever poems on most pages), to the
ideas and results of the great thermodynamicists of
the 19th Century. Further, everything is given to ac-
complish the essential calculations for thermal proces-
ses of all types. Thus, anyone with college level ex-
perience and intelligence can calculate the efficiencies
of the various automotive engine and heat pump cycles
without knowing either logarithms or integration be-
forehand-even their basics are included.
This is not to say that the book is superficial or
incomplete (except that it is restricted to constant-
composition systems). The order of contents is ancient
observations, temperature, systems and states, work,
heat, cycles (including Carnot's), energy, heat en-
gines, entropy, and followed by appendices on
mechanical properties, logarithms, entropy as a prop-
erty, atomic weights and symbols. Each chapter has
useful and enjoyable worked examples and problems
whose answers are given in the back. I found the in-
troduction of entropy quite nice since energy had pre-
viously been revealed as a quantity we use merely for
keeping track of observations in a special way, and
the distinction of heat and work had been carefully
established. Then the desirability for having another
state property of the special form 6q/T could be easily
justified by several rigorous, but simple and novel,
physical processes and mathematical relationships.
Unlike the discussions of some others, I found the
portions devoted here to the treatments of tempera-
ture scales, pure component phase behavior and ther-
modynamic cycles to be interesting and in excellent
balance with the more intriguing historical,
mathematical and molecular discussions. I would ex-
pect the book to be challenging to students, but also


not expect to hear any complaints about obscurity or
While the book could not serve as the only text for
an engineering course, I recommend that all instruc-
tors of beginning engineering thermodynamics have a
copy in their library and consider it for either a supple-
mentary required book or a reference for their stu-
dents to access. Teachers will find it a valuable re-
source for correct citations of thermodynamic history,
for good concepts, developments and problems for be-
ginners and for enhancing their own appreciation of
the wondrous breadth of possibilities that
thermodynamics allows in pedagogy and application.
It may also be the best way to help that not-so-small
set of students whose understanding depends on con-
crete physical examples and straightforward discus-
sion in a text they can hold in their hands as much as,
if not more than the sophistication and beauty of the
logic described by their instructor. O

Edited by F. R. Payne, C. C. Corduneanu,
A. Haji-Sheikh and T. Huang
Hemisphere Publishing Company, 1986,
653 pages, $95.50
Reviewed by
Anthony G. Dixon
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
This is a proceedings volume of the first interna-
tional conference on global techniques, held at the
University of Texas at Arlington in March, 1985. The
main emphasis of the conference and its proceedings
was and is global solution methods, such as the finite
element method (FEM), boundary elements (BEM)
and integral transforms, to name a few. A second em-
phasis is the application of such methods to a wide
variety of physical problems, of which those in the
fluid mechanics and thermal sciences areas are proba-
bly of most interest to chemical engineers.
The book contains fifty papers and two synopses,
arranged into six topic areas: mathematical physics,
mathematical analysis, fluid mechanics, solid
mechanics, thermal sciences and finally optimization
and population dynamics. Some unity with areas is
attempted by means of a summary by one of the
editors, before the papers for each area. Given the
aim of diversified applications, however, this is not
very successful.
The volume itself is attractively bound and well-
presented. The papers are not in a standard type,
being reproduced from camera-ready copy, but apart

from one or two cases they are clearly laid out and
easy on the eye. The writing styles vary widely, from
introductory (as in Payne's advocacy of direct formal
integration [DFI] methods) to the very abstruse
"theorem-proof" layout of one or two contributions in
the mathematical analysis section.
I do not believe this book would be suitable as a
main text for any chemical engineering or applied
mathematics course, due to its diversified nature. It
is unlikely that there is enough of interest to any one
reader to warrant the $95 purchase price. On the
other hand, there will be something of interest to any-
one using mathematical methods in engineering. A
copy should be available in the library of any educa-
tional institution, from which judicious selections
could well enhance graduate courses in applied
mathematics, fluid mechanics or heat transfer. E

5 books received

Seventh Symposium of Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals,
edited by Charles D. Scott; Wiley Interscience, Somerset, NJ
08873; 741 pages, $84.95 (1986).
Design of Devices and Systems, by William H. Middendorf; Marcel
Dekker, New York, NY 10016; 456 pages, $35 (1986).
Selected Papers of Turner Alfrey, edited by Raymond F. Boyer
and Herman F. Mark; Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New
York 10016; 592 pages, $95 (1986).
Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions: Physical Properties,
Estimation and Correlation Methods, by A. L. Horvath; John
Wiley & Sons, Halsted, Somerset, NJ 08873; 631 pages (1985).
Dioxins in the Environment, by Michael A. Kamrin and Paul W.
Rogers; Hemisphere Publishing, 79 Madison Ave., New York
10016; 328 Pages, $49.95 (1985).
Process Plant Layout, Edited by J. C. Mecklenburgh; Halstead
Press, Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NY 08873; 625 pages (1985).
Fabric Filtration for Combustion Sources, R. P. Donovan; Marcel
Dekker, New York, NY 10016; 448 pages, $75 (1985)-
Economic Analysis and Investment Decisions, Chi U. Ikoku; John
Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NJ 08873; 277 pages, $34.95 (1985).
Quality Assurance in Process PlantManufacture, by J. H. Roger-
son; Elsevier Publishing Company, 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York,
NY 10017; 159 pages, $41.25.
High Temperature Heat Exchangers, by Mori, Sheindlin and Afgan,
published by Hemisphere Publishing, 79 Madison Ave., New York,
NY 10016; 606 pages, $95.00.
Heat Exchanger Sourcebook, edited by J. W. Palen, published by
Hemisphere Publishing, 79 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016;
805 pages, $59.95.
Managing Steam: An Engineering Guide to Commercial, Industrial
and Utility Systems, edited by Jason Makansi, published by Hemis-
phere Publishing, 79 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016; 224
pages, $37.95.


[i a international



University of Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Sgerian engineer is different from that which is ex-
perienced by a young man in an industrialized coun-
try. Our students do not grow up surrounded by the
familiar products of technology. They do not have the
casual confidence in technology that North Americans
have. Technical knowledge comes from books, but un-
familiarity with technology in daily life makes the
transition from book or theory into reality more dif-
The work environment is also different. A young
graduate in an industrially developed country starts
work in a department where there are many skilled
and knowledgeable people available, and in his first
two years he learns. He could do nothing, and the job
would still be done by others in the organization. In

Ogbonnaya Charles Okorafor graduated with BSc (1977) in chem-
ical engineering at the University of Lagos. After graduation he worked
for two years as a research engineer with the Federal Institute of Indus-
trial Research, Oshodi Lagos. He received his MASc (1980) and his PhD
(1982) from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, and re-
turned to Nigeria as a Lecturer at the department of chemical engineer-
ing, University of Port Harcourt. His present research interests include
crystallization and process engineering.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987

Nigeria a graduate engineer entering industry is im-
mediately given an important, high-level position
where he is expected to get things done. Yet, the
more pressing the need for the engineer to perform,
the lower the probability is that there will be trained
personnel to support him or routines to guide his ac-

Existing Curriculum, Bachelor of Engineering

First Semester

3 Communication Skills, English
3 Chemistry (Matter/Energy I)
3 Physics (Mechanics/Properties
of Matter)
3 Preparatory Mathematics
2 Engineering Drawing I
1 Workshop Practice I

3 Physical Chemistry
3 Physics (Vibration/Waves)
3 Calculus/Analytic Geometry II
3 Engineering Statics
3 Organic Chemistry

3 Probability/Statistics
3 Fluid Mechanics
3 Engineering Thermodynamics
3 Strength of Materials
1 Workshop Practice III

3 ChE Kinetics and Catalysis
3 Industrial Chemistry
3 ChE Lab I
3 Polymer Science and Technology


3 Process Dynamics/Control
3 Process Modeling/Optimization
3 ChE Analysis
3 Intro: Biochemical Engineering
3 Chem Technology of Polymers

3 Science, Technology & Society
3 Chemistry (Matter & Energy II)
3 Physics (Introduction to Electricity
and Magnetism)
3 Calculus with Analytic Geometry I
3 Engineering Drawing II
1 Workshop Practice II
3 Inorganic Chemistry
3 Computer Programming
3 Calculus/Analytic Geometry III
3 Engineering Dynamics
3 ChE Process-Analysis
- Industrial Attachment
3 Mass Transfer Processes
3 Differential Equations
3 Heat Transfer
3 Engineering Economics
3 Particulate Systems
r Industrial Attachment
3 Electrical Technology
3 Chemical Reaction Engineering
3 ChE Lab II
3 Numerical Methods
3 Principles of ChE Design
r Industrial Attachment
3 Chem Process Design Project*
6 ChE Research Project*
1 Technical Seminar

Any Two Courses From
3 Petroleum Production Eng.
3 Food Processing Engineering
3 Physico-Chemical Methods in water
Pollution Control
3 Pulp/Paper Technology
3 Energy Resources/Production

*Actually started in the first semester.


tions or decisions. In this organizational context, it is
not surprising to find even the most competent en-
gineer alarmed by the size of the job and by his inabil-
ity to perform.
It seems obvious that given these differences, vari-
ations would exist in the chemical engineering educa-
tion offered to our students and those offered to North
American students. This paper addresses the question
of what chemical engineering education in Nigeria
should strive for.


As educators, our degree of freedom for improving
engineering practice in Nigeria is largely restricted to
manipulating the curriculum to satisfy goals which we
set. These goals depend on what we perceive chemical
engineering to be, as well as a consideration of the
country's needs.
With many diversified areas of activity for chemi-
cal engineers, a fundamental emphasis on teaching
principles rather than specific industrial applications
has been employed in the teaching of chemical engi-
neering all over the world. The success of this ap-
proach (even in countries such as Nigeria) can be at-
tested to by the fact that no one has complained of a
lack of chemical engineering knowledge by developing

Proposed Curriculum, Bachelor of Engineering
First Semester Second Semester

3 Calculus/Analytic G
3 Engineering Statics
3 Physics (Vibration/
3 Physical Chemistry
3 Organic Chemistry
3 ChE Process Analysi

3 Probability/Statistic
3 Engineering Thermo
3 Strength of Material
3 Engineering Econon
3 Heat Transfer

3 Mass Transfer

3 ChE Lab. II
3 Polymer Science/Techno
3 Electrical Technology
3 Engineering Economics
3 Chem Reaction Engineer
3 Electrical Technology

9 ChE Research
9 ChE Design

(No change from existing curriculum)
eometry II 3 Inorganic Chemistry
3 Computer Programming
Waves) 3 Calculus/Analytic Geometry
3 Engineering Dynamics
3 Differential Equations
is 3 Fluid Mechanics
Summer Industrial Attachment
s 3 Particulate Systems
dynamics 3 ChE Lab I
s 3 ChE Kinetics/Catalysis
lics 3 Separation Process
3 Industrial Chemistry

Summer Industrial Attachment
3 Process Modeling/Optimization
logy 3 ChE Analysis
2 Intro to Biochemical Eng.
2 Technical Seminar
ing 3 Chem Technology of Polymers
Any two courses from courses in the
existing 5th year program
3 Electives
Summer Industrial Attachment
18 ChE Design Practice

S. variations exist in the chemical engineering
education offered to our students and those offered
to North American students. This paper addresses the
question of what chemical engineering education
in Nigeria should strive for.

nations' engineers. The problem has always been an
inability to apply this knowledge in practice. To rem-
edy this, I suggest a different approach in the re-
search and design courses rather than a radical change
in curriculum.


The Nigerian chemical engineering curriculum
should still be a five-year program, but with the mod-
ification that the courses and industrial training re-
quirements be satisfied in four years. The fifth year
would then serve as an internship period for the stu-
dents. A similar pattern is found in the preparation
for careers in medicine or law, and it is characteristic
for development of professional competence. The in-
ternship year would be devoted to research, design,
and fabrication. Table 1 lists the existing curriculum
of a Nigerian University (University of Port-Har-
court), and the proposed revision is given in Table 2.
Most industries in Nigeria are "import-substitu-
tion" ventures that depend on foreign sources for raw
materials and equipment. The flaw in this policy has
manifested itself during our austerity period, and
numerous calls have been made for alternative sources
of indigenous raw materials. The satisfaction of this
need depends on research. If progress is to be made,
Nigeria needs people who know and can apply re-
search methodology.
Teaching research methodology to engineering
graduates is imperative. Presently, most students are
not willing to pursue a graduate program because
there are limited employment opportunities for docto-
rate degree holders in Nigeria. With a background in
research, it would be easier for a fresh graduate to
handle problems where there are little or no data av-
ailable. Research topics should extend from the search
for alternative raw materials to other issues peculiar
to Nigeria, such as political factors where North-
South balancing could dictate a plant location.
The remaining part of the internship year could be
devoted to design and construction of equipment,
either for pilot-plant or industrial plant scale. Efforts
should be geared toward helping the student translate
theory and calculation into engineering drawings, and
from this to actual hardware. This aspect of the prog-
ram would require help from outside Nigeria, perhaps


in the form of fellowship awards to one or two chemi-
cal engineering lecturers to work with a major design-
contracting company for a specific period every year.
The design portion of the internship year must deal
with the following key topics:

Chemical Engineering Systems Analysis: definition of
needs and goals, evolution/innovation, chemical engineer-
ing systems and environment interaction, effect of socio-
techno-economic criteria.
Chemical Engineering Design Analysis: a) principles of au-
thentic design, b) creativity-innovation-reliability in de-
sign which should include group dynamics, brainstorming,
definition and types of failure, and reliability parameters
in design, c) chemical engineering design project, d) feasi-
bility study involving physical realizability, economic
worthwhileness, and financial feasibility, e) preliminary
design including design concept, mathematical modeling,
and sensitivity compatibility and stability analysis, f) syn-
thesis of solutions involving methods of optimization,
linear, nonlinear and dynamic programming, and general
simulation techniques, and g) evaluation and decision in-
cluding value/worth transformations, estimates of system
utility/worth, the decision matrix, decision under risk/cer-
tainty/uncertainty, expected values-probabilities, com-
petitive decisions, and mixed stategies.
Chemical Engineering Application Analysis: a)network
planning techniques with general network methods, criti-
cal path analysis, time-cost effectiveness studies, and con-
trol of the system in action, b) matching of the design to
the environment, c) modifications, d) implementation, and
e) trouble shooting.

The design course should not be a theoretical one.
The implementation part should require the actual
construction of a plant (or some units of it) by the
student-lecturer group. In situations where there is
not enough information for design, the group should
use research methods to fill the gap. In this way stu-
dents would learn to appreciate the value of research
in an industrial concern. This value is not recognized
by graduate engineers in Nigeria and other develop-
ing countries. To assist this program, Nigerian gov-
ernment policy should make it possible to award part
or all of plant design contracts to chemical engineering
departments at various universities in the country.
Some of the benefits of such a policy would be an in-
crease in revenue for the institution, a faster rate of
technology acquisition, and more confident and capa-
ble graduates. It is assumed that a solid understand-
ing of design and construction would help the graduate
to adapt to any type of engineering function. In this
proposal, I have also assumed that the principles of
design for the component units of a plant would be
covered in various areas of chemical engineering fun-
damental courses.
Implementation of such a program should reduce
the inability of Nigerian engineers to apply the knowl-

edge they possess. The argument for the use of uni-
versity facilities for the internship training is that
there are few industries in Nigeria. Chemical plants
that do exist have been built under turnkey contract
and students cannot learn much since their role would
be primarily one of operator, a role they have already
learned during their long vacation (summer) industrial
attachment. O

m books received

Project Evaluation: A Unified Approach for the Analysis of Capi-
tal Investments, J. Morley English; MacMillan Publishing Com-
pany, 866 Third Ave., New York 10022; 401 pages, $29.85,(1984).
Potential Flows: Computer Graphic Solutions, Robert H.
Kirchhoff; Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York 10016; 200
pages, $54 (1985).
Principles of Turbomachinery, R. K. Turton; Methuen Inc., 733
Third Ave., New York 10017; 199 pages, $37 HB, $17.95 PB, (1984).
Mathematics for Chemists. P. G. Francis; Methuen, Inc., 733 Third
Ave., New York, 10017; 193 pages, $33 HB, $15.95 PB (1984).
Designing for Reliability and Safety Control, Ernest J. Henley,
Hiromitsu Kumamoto; Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ
07632; 527 pages, $49.95 (1985).
Mineral Impurities in Coal Combustion:C Behavior, Problems, and
Remedial Measures, Erich Raask; Hemisphere Publishing Corp.,
79 Madison Ave., New York 10016; 484 pages, $69.50 (1985).
Measurement Techniques in Power Engineering, Naim H. Afgan;
Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 79 Madison Ave., New York
10016; 569 pages, $84.50 (1985).
Measurement Techniques in Heat and Mass Transfer, R. I.
Soloukhin, N. H. Afgan; Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison
Ave., New York 10016; 569 pages, $84.50 (1985).
Corrosion and Deposits from Combustion Gases: Abstracts and
Index, Jerrold E. Radway; Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 79 Madi-
son Ave., New York 10016; 575 pages, $95 (1985).
Flow Visualization III, W. J. Yang, Hemisphere Publishing Corp.,
79 Madison Ave., New York 10016; 889 pages, $95.00 (1985).
High Temperature Equipment, edited by A. E. Sheindlin, Hemis-
phere Publishing Corp., 79 Madison Ave., New York 10016; 402
pages $74.95.
Water Treatment Principles & Design, James M. Montgomery,
Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY 10158; 696 pages, $49.95 (1985).
Salts, Evaporites, and Brines: An Annotated Bibliography, Oryx
Press, Phoenix, AZ 85004-1483; 216 pages, $87.50 (1984).
Laser Processing and Analysis of Materials, W. W. Duley; Plenum
Publishing, New York, NY 10013; 463 pages, $59.50 (1983).
Moisture Sensors in Process Control, K. Carr-Brion; Elsevier Sci-
ence Publishing, New York 10017; 122 pages, $39.75 (1986).
Heat Transfer in High Technology and Power Engineering, Wen-
Jei Yang and Yasuo Mori. Hemisphere Publishing, New York,
10016; 602 pages, $95.00 (1987).



Departmental Sponsors

The following 152 departments contributed to the support of CEE in 1987 with bulk subscriptions.

University of Akron
University of Alabama
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University of Arizona
University of Arkansas
Auburn University
Brigham Young University
University of British Columbia
Brown University
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University of New Mexico
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City University of New York
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Purdue University
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University of Tulsa
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Vanderbilt University
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Virginia Polytechnic Institute
Washington State University
University of Washington
Washington University
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
West Virginia Col. of Grad Studies
West Virginia Inst. Technology
West Virginia University
University of Western Ontario
Widener University
University of Windsor
University of Wisconsin (Madison)
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
University of Wyoming
Yale University
Youngstown State University

If your department is not a contributor, write to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION,
c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611, for information on bulk subscriptions.

Chemical Engineering Progress Monthly
Attilio Bisio, Editor
Redesigned in 1986, Chemical Engineering Progress has ex-
panded its coverage of the latest advances and trends in the
chemical process and related industries.
The new Profiles feature provides a close look at companies and
individuals who have a major impact on the industry. Catalysts re-
ports news that affects day-to-day functions as well as profitable
and efficient operation of plants and facilities. Opinion & Com-
ments offers a forum for the exchange of ideas. New sections pro-
vide information on plant expansions, new companies and acqui-
Chemical Engineering Progress continues to provide informa-
tion on new products and materials, regulatory issues, employ-
ment opportunities, publications, Institute news, meetings and
conferences sponsored by AIChE and other societies.
1987 Subscription Price: $40
Foreign Extra: $11
(All AIChE Dues Paying Members Receive Chemical Engineering
Progress as part of their membership)

AIChE Journal
Morton M. Denn, Editor


Provides a comprehensive coverage of ongoing research and de-
veloping technologies in chemical engineering, environmental en-
gineering and biotechnological engineering. Original papers are
reviewed by a board of peer scientists and engineers. Contributors
come from industry, government and university research groups in
the U.S. and throughout the world.
1987 Subscription Price: AIChE Members $40 Others $275
Foreign Extra; $13

International Chemical Engineering Quarterly
Renate U. Churchill, Editor
Presents English language translations of important papers origi-
nally appearing in distinguished foreign periodicals such as:
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik Chimia (Switzerland)
(Federal Republic of Ger-
Magyar Kemikusok Lapja Kagaku Kogaku Ronbunshu
(Hungary) (Japan)
Inzyniera Chemiczna i Proce- Chemicky Prumysl (Czecho-
sowa (Poland) slovakia)
Huagong Xuebao (People's Khimicheskaya Technologiya
Republic of China) (USSR)
Chemische Technik (Demo- Revista de Chimie (Romania)
cratic Republic of Ger-
Hwahak Konghak (Korea) Entropie (France)
as well as from other publications from these and other
1987 Subscription Price: AIChE Members $30 Others $275
Foreign Extra: $6

Energy Progress
Carl Sutton, Editor


Concentrates on practical applications in the search for more ef-
ficient and cost-effective uses of new and existing energy sources.
Material includes ongoing research in coal, shale oil, synthetic,
nuclear, wind, solar and geothermal energy.
1987 Subscription Price: AIChE Members $16 Others $50
Foreign Extra: $6
Dues paying AIChE members who subscribe to this quarterly automati-
cally become members of the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division. Those
who have already joined the division will automatically receive Energy

Environmental Progress
Gary F. Bennett, Editor


Covers all aspects of pollution control including air, water, solid
and liquid wastes. Papers and articles report advances of vital in-
terest to the chemical and environmental engineer as well as to
the chemical industry as a whole.
1987 Subscription Price: AIChE Members $16 Others $50
Foreign Extra: $6
Dues paying AIChE members who subscribe to this quarterly automati-
cally become members of the Environmental Division. Those who have al-
ready joined the division will automatically receive Environmental Pro-

Biotechnology ProgressTM
Michael Shuler, Editor


Reports developments and research results impacting the food,
pharmaceutical, bioengineering and allied fields. Provides engi-
neers and technicians with information on the progress and inno-
vative developments in this dynamic and increasingly important
area of engineering.
1987 Subscription Price: AIChE Members $14 Others $50
Foreign Extra: $6
Dues paying AIChE members who subscribe to this quarterly automati-
cally become members of the Food, Pharmaceutical and Bioengineering
Division. Those who have already joined the division will automatically
receive Biotechnology ProgressT".

Plant/Operations Progress
T.A. Ventrone, Editor


Concentrates on the design, operation and maintenance of safe
installations. Technical papers and reports also present new tech-
niques and advances in the promotion of loss prevention and effi-
cient plant operation.
1987 Subscription Price: AIChE Members $16 Others $50
Foreign Extra: $6
Dues paying AIChE members who subscribe to this quarterly automati-
cally become members of the Safety and Health Division. Those who have
already joined the division will automatically receive Plant/Operations

Subscriptions are on a calendar year basis
SEND SUBSCRIPTIONS to: AIChE Subscriptions Dept. C, 345 East 47 Street New York NY 10017.

Full Text
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INGEST IEID EXH6YIOIW_YWI2M3 INGEST_TIME 2011-09-26T19:19:29Z PACKAGE AA00000383_00094


ti :ij :ij Bill Baasel of Ohio Unfrersity AND ChE AT THE UNIVER5,,_!~r s f!t TEXAS


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[illljil lecture THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF A GRADUATE METHODS FOR ENGINEERING EDUCATION R RUSSELl,RHlm:11ART r:::.,~~~:~:z .. T tri>lizat.,.pr<,.~u,.r,..;':,_,1,,i..::::.. triali!olioo-_, dUinduattw .. ,,..;.,-. ln llM -, w ""'"-in_and..........,.,ri(l,..,;U..,-omaJ t h"'""and .....,ate1 .. ,., ,unu,g,mon,.......,_pa,J_ !Attho)-bt.....i1<>><1<1 .... ,i.....,., ,.r.,ptOIWITffl.iv. .Suti,(ff. 1-,.>uldpo .... .,..Ind ........... ,.,. __ SlodontOl')l'WUltionOopro,ipw, ....i.~,i.u;i..m..,.,..,. ,rithtbe \Ull tnity,,.1at,t,>poople,ondlakeo,,,..,. : i :~~~n:..":;.;=:..~--: lbeir,,.,,r....,...rP""pan,lion ondodeyutmen<. ri l'on,t,>10ppo,-t....i,Olhtir .. rvioo"'p,,noibilily C<>-opondaumrno,....,oic,olemployn,,otlybook-bow>d poople.ond~to"""ldwl

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l!:iJi.5ii curriculum. WHAT WILL WE REMOVE FROM THE CURRICULUM TO MAKE ROOM FOR X? Bi l e th e Bui/el Throw Out Obsol e ,e Mot eriol P H ll LI PC. W AN KA 'f l'l,ajo,U >ri ...-rily w ,.,/Afo,.~ JN"""'' T :! Q:'i.."':~~ ':',,"'~ ~.::1u::i~ Sop1,-y""""" tt .. 00Chtf 'uw. ,,.,--brtheDeputm,ot ofCl>tmitp,o!ffaioo -bypoi,,ti""out "'"-'""~"'l>tl-""'oflwmiolJ..,. g;...,. ,,,,._..., _,... ,, ....... :-:::ft':"' .... ~~i:~:c: ,...,.,.lOl'W lo lhomal

/lla,,yotudr.dr,nrkprolll11,...M;,,t,.,li&-Mtol0!1kin,t;,. eand"""II,..,. ....-..,, .... helpthe..-nt-lm lorjob for~.the,,..,.._ol, ltra pur, ""terioim.,..w,tin-andnl.tio-.i.t<. 'l!Mt"""""'--"'""" m i< al ..._;neeringiobo o-;ming..,..,n,:1..,,.,,,,.on,1,,..,,..,,,_ <>lorit<1lidont;fyhipin ,r,pi>tionmt,I ~rin~and.,,.oot~lJ.t'itlally ,,..1,am..iummaterial and.,.,.,..,comll,,w,le,..;t1, ;, .and t1i .. .,__,., :=:,r,:i,.~_o11ehtm!K't

CiD]II curri c ulum THE FUTURE ChE CURRICULUM MUSr ONE SIZE Fir ALL? 1 N::;:=:;::.c:;;;:~t"'~l:::::~~-:; lenglhm;,.ma11, ,m.,.,..,.ltld,t.of: ..... ;,._u., """poinl"'-'"''"" .... .... ,t.o in -i n toU..oM< .......... ,.Jdlli,,and """' ...... ,1unp '""' ;,.,.,. ,t.o ----CM,.. do .U tlWl Wil. ll,,. -hit!irto be ::::..':--~-:=~ =-~=:~-: --~ -dpir,,lot..teJ,;""u.,__. .. ,1,e~1.,., ,,..,.,""""1y ... vinj:todowi!hlt.oi..,.o .. ...i.,,t pop11lollont1,ot......,.J....,kltldthenitital>hortace "'"'ail>bk,po,tin~rort1oom So.11>e-~,{l) Whitk""""'"""oddrtioutotl 1t t,;,!e,,U!(2)\\'l,;clicu""ntlyoo ,,..-.dtopil>,. ayo( inln>d""""my.....,00111<"'\,jt-&xiomom,aning =.i";;::i':.~":..'!"'"~~'.""""\ Ario>o<1.No, ... .,..... ....., ..i 1i,,.,.,1w,,,.,o ""-"'"'""'"""r.,,,.,.,...,,... 0.rgn,dua.,.illl";ntod;rn.,.mm .. tneo. v.-ond;1t..-.n1pr,;,lh,m-,.lat,d;n,l .. lrioo,...,,. "'Woptring ond ""''"" qu,1;1yooolrolltld,-,ittt ~ru'lj["ond ..,_.el_,,_,_ A f,.,.._qjt, ,_,..;11 ro on IO :-.:..'~t.: ltld !I<' into ,.._,.h 0< -~ \\'hiel, A,..,.. t ,w,.., ,,...;6/r,......oll,.,i-.,;,o-:-;:;;:;::::;,::;~=.:!'."'"";"V',,.,_ ... ~:~;:!:'..~'."':.:1.::,i~ ... .... 1-,A, .o. .... p<,Mibil~ ... ,.;.,.,...;,,.,, y ,. -,,1u.....i,oft/u!l'ffl'<0 lpouibl< -of"" ,,_,_w,,_..,,1-<-.cAa"v<,.,.,. /o<


Thi,may..,,...,1>o .. lf .. ,;, n,inu 11 ;:;;!h ~~ ~~"!:" ... 7 ~"".:.:':",,~ =;;'.:.--:";: ; .=.!:'!::"~':.~:~ =-;g_~;E;:~:fii~ ~:X~':!=::;~im~~ ~~~~t:~~:::: ~= For.tleootthepo,ttW<>~ ~ h>, ollin,d., f>oro,..;llfo<..aloo"hl,ttbey know"""-bontt..y.i.,.1op..,,tt,a,k,oo,...,Th, roooltioU..ttbo~"""'t11rri< kinc...-,_hlnA:re=--=..~=~~== w, 011<>hovo a l'IIU...;Ubohi,.,.Ji., w,,..,..orn 1 un;, ope,.,;.,.,1a,,,,.....,.,.,\>u,fw1M ~~E~:-\~~~boAri<>o<~.0.f"'ld>,ola-,,,; ,.;..i...,.,,-1 _,,,.,u,_,.u ..,.-,tA,1,efid-,.,cfll ........ ,,..., ..... Thdo?d,ot.,.11omM911w .,.. u.s. ... w.Moritdo ;tlill] lhio l -<1 .. .. _,tbo J ,W datodenlaat>d.,-wlw,-boundatu ~-. 2 Th """"oolidl)"OW>dinJ ...,,.,...,., ~p,...,,muni ,rybodyinI""" t"l,aimilariituat""'nrly ;,,,,.,racao:1d


----" ..,i.. .. .,,, .-__ .....,.,,,_,._ .... _.,_ --I lake ............ ..... w. ~ 1 ..... =-,_,.... ...................... ____ .;u,..,__.....,._, ................... ~== .=:t:.=~.:::: -pY'O..-touo--! ll ...,._11,oti. -flf..,C..wln o(lho-.tho-ytllould_bo_, ~d l OOl>--1.lf..,;__,;,._. .... ............ -,..,.i, .... .......... -. ,.._..,,. ___ ...,,.,_"


l!l.ifiij l etters >+OIJGEN t1" t

liijijl views anc.1 opinions I ENGINEERING SCHOOLS TRAIN SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARIES! ISN7 Ir TIME OUR STUDENTS WERE TOLD ? W .Y.SUSSJIA S ,.,..,_ """""' /1 .. -~ __ ,,.._ ...... ~ ... -------___ ,.,.,,.., __ ::---11u1 .... 1-.. .--, ......... ,,_ .. ______ ---------_.., _____ ., __ ... .. _____ ...,_ -----. ,, .. _,._,..,_.,,_~ .. ...._._,.,,_,,, ______ ., ... __ .. .... ..,_ --.. ..... -. .,_,. _______ .,_,. ______ -------0u,,_ .,__. .,.......,. .. c.i,,.._t .- ,...... ....... _.....,..,_* =-~~-g;:g te

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., __ .. ,. --------.._ ____ .......... -._ ----"-------__ ..... .. ~.. ____ ... ,. __ ,.. __ ___ .. ---.._ ___ -,..., ...... ., .. ___ .,""'_ _,,_lntM N Nkllo :aat(U.. W oizrnann-.,ta t1on.,..._),Tlloyl'ioitan.....,.pow,,-plant.t t.,.. olookir"""'m

:~-::.:i OVE .... ,.,,,__. ___ .,....._ =~..:.i~ ...... ........ _.,_.,.,_ .. ___ ... .._..,_. ____ __ ~&;~;~ .. ......... .... _____ __ _,i,_.,., __ ..,.,. _u ,.. ________ ,. __ :=..... -1---'"--, __ .. ___ --~--.. ,,.,11, ... ....., ... .,._111--.... ---------.. --... __ ........... 11 ... ........ -~-........ ...,_, ... _. _____ .,, .. -~----'" -""''"""'" .... ,._ .... _i-, ... ...... ... .. --.... _,__ .. __ .,"'--_,_ __ --... --.. -.. .. _. __ ., _____ ...... ... .. _., ___ ------.,-.. --11 ............ --., ... _,._ .. __ .. -----.. ,., __ ... ._ ___ ,, __ ., ___ ,__,.,,.,._,.. __ .... _. .. ..... ..... ,.._ .... _...., __ ._ __ ,. ., ...., ... _,,., ... ,. .... ....., ... <=-1 .. ,..., ... .........,_ ..... .. .. __ ...__,. _____ ---........ ...,,.,,,., _,.,.,_... ___ ..... ,_ ...... ,. -.c.o. ... ,it.,_ ___ _,,. ...... ,-. .. ~Y.t.r-A.I..LA.-C. W Cloooo,L--1. .. ..._,,._ ., .... __ ...... ...... .. ,. ~-a.-.1-... ........... .._.~_ .. .,,_,_,_,.,T ..... -n. .. ........ ... ,D ____ --io"--1&"_ __ ~Y.l. _.._,.__.L -----..,._,, _____ ,_,IU,


CHEMICAL ENGINHIING DIVISION ACTIVITl(S SUMMER SCHOOL 87 n..-Schoolfo,ci-..:.IE ......... t '-,.;,,o,p,,iao,1"11hoC...,_ le: ...,,.....;l~--.t ,_.._ _,.forE..-.. 1 -....i;.1oe1,1.....-,fl .. _..l1N1t8i--.tllM tho-lolM_..,_iolDL....iwlll,o_.__JI_U~,N..U, o.n-i..-... ...... .. 1,1.r.s--.........-.........s-ril __ .... ____ ,...........,._...._ _,_ __ -..,i-_ =:-~i.::.i:=.~_,.~::,~ 1~&,-..--GlooaL ...!J::'u~ ~-=== .. "':4:.::....~==-~~ __ .,.. __ .,,tct,e,,,ic,,I P,-.;;_.....o;....,.1wo1o

,.....,,,,..........,_ ...... ,._i., .-. ... a..,,,,_ _,_S.a..<. ,_ H .S-, ... 1., ,..., ,. .,_,, __ ,._, __ 0-.!.,A.obeheldt,,providepar\icill""to\h< oppOrtunityi,,p......,,1addi1ionaltopia,ontew:chingehl,olla. ..i.,.-. ', n..s,-.,oa..__,,(SDHK)! Uolon~'


@JJ1:il laborato r y A COMPUTER CONTROLLED HEAT EXCHANGE EXPERIMENT T pori~~i:;!-:z=': labor1oto,y.......,.>t ll anho1 .... Colleg, Thool,jo< Uv,ooflhoexperin>,nt.,...,/olloft: .. --lo _____ ... ... ..... .,~,_ --. -... ... -.... ,.. ___ .. ,__,.,., .... ,__,...,.__" __ --"'"'"" Ton~-.,--.~ 1/. _., ,. ~'1"' """' ... '" '"'",_ o __ .. _, .. ......_.........,_. .... .......... _. __ l lhollnl-oftbeoperimtnt.,:,;wwlueto,;lb, tl>enntlabp,nod,lho"fl" .. loo!> l ttqu,mcy,..._ __ .. .. __ .,. __ ..... ....... ,._,,__,,__ ofU..-umintdby""n>dueukim>t0 period ,P ~ ot1t.o,,..""" l ntl>o......-.lputofU..oxperi.,.n1."'""""""1in tl>o...,....lahp,nod .ntwv ...... ofK..--' 1" ..., d.1'10toftl>otool,dop<,-m,.;,h1~;:,.;.:,::::-: ., "' .. 1;'.:j=-::'t~ l_;,gk,,-N-n1110 .up1onto,y ,,,, ,..,J ;rr,,.n, oebleiolilo ui

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o1 .... 1o,..,.,..."''"rapidly.ABodeplolllW3 ... ol\htinq"""<7...._dataeanbomaolo ..... o,,cl<-theo v, ,_ti.,.l,.-ol thtr,op,,nMolTAU, .. t.o.-.Ult'i,pr<,3 S!odentoofttq"""')I ,.,_datap->Ortot he --'tobomo,ypenod Th,~v,oltllioaoaiyoi,iotodotorww>olhopin -l)(>no ottima 1 0 ,oltlPiJurtandf'ic ,_5.,.11ooep1,,pori,...ntation;ntht-'W>p,riod~<00 o-..-....-~n,;le -\oopaulomollo:""'1NI.A>11 t rololprithmio i~ ., i""Juttoq tr..tioltwflo ........ olroldat,,,q 11ow -itho,Ndaryollhe"'poiotbaoo.T' iod,,. ~,.,.J uT, t:, .... 1,e,.t;iothe-tfflOU ~~.!!.or~=:!=~=~= t.n,lwithonlyP"'P""i,;,nolO

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( (1). 1 ... ,. Q{I) (0 ,,, .. ,)1 0.0 .. 1) An.roompl.lludeot,on,r,,. :.,"';.:;;;;:,:v;~~~~:;:;;:;;i-.: :=:==~'.'::= in]o;q.( 6 ).Tbolov,-.r lil'l'li t~inte,mionillthtor<>d""''""' '" obj,fI PID p&rune<,,.1or, h ;.,..,,n;,1,,....,,,..,.,,,z1epr Ni< ... .....mendation>. Tboi.b .. ,.,...,..., ... ""...-il'ldodnalltal t11tatioMandlo t;ti<>bdh Stl. .. -LO .__,,_ ........ ~~~ --:.~ libJi boo k reviews t"UNl>AllY..,.,, ... LSOrHMTt:NCIIANGlmA ~I> 1: S Sl/ltY.\ Y.SS l I .TY.CHNOU)GY t,, J P .G""' ~~E:EZ~:i_c.._..,._ K,,;,,.;,thy SloartW Chon;h;tt IJn;,,nlt t oll'"'Yl n; a Thi>-"'-""'"''"""'r..,,,o1.,, ... 1 oooq~l:~s;~~ di l'fflint

ll ""' ,I -LllUinlat .. tWUhbo

tiJ1:il classroom A MEANINGFUL UNDERGRADUATE DESIGN EXPERIENCE 1 ......... i,,_.. .,.-.c1'1i.lcltflol. _".....,..... .... -. ... _., __ .. ... -~-----"____ .. ____ ----Si m plloti<&ll)'.OMi,,,i,>.p00

----------_ ... _______ ,,_ --.. ---... ---4 ... ___ ... _4_ ... ___ __ ..... ____ -4------4-,.. __ 4 ____ 4_ ___ ... _4 __ 4 ___ ... ... 4_,.. __ ... _,, __ _,4 ___ ., ________ ...__ ... ~thlooll-induoi .. ,._Bf;T.i.t,nitionio.,_ to~l-'""'"'"'"Mtmbi!_tl,e......,_d....,, ::.:::::::.-;=..:::.== _.t ____ =--------0---_,.... ______ .t ...,..,_--.,._,.i.D< .. i>1-1,,iti, .... __ ,....4 ____ -------_4 ______ --------4-


-----............. ............. ...,__. __ "' ...U..-poniol,_.. ___ ...,..... _.,,._...,....,._...,.._., .. --.--.tliioAB t: T_,_ --~"'11"..,,,.,S..-c-t ~.11,eiro1ou.,,.._wu,.....,.,diotJ,..,i.t,inc bot ...... -...... .............. ._. .-.pi,,,wi..p1tw ,,,.,.1,rvont ly-j,rol-.or p<'ClllnOtorlo(adu~-!AodwlloNffl oo _.. __ AB l.. "TIMS.,:.,....~I -. ......... ... ..... __ odoptllolopr_,.i ______ .. ... ___ ttttndlttUtt.o.-'odbility ;1 he""""ital _,,_ ....... llioooloporilyinc-... ......... --~-= ,--..,~ .. --.,._ .............. -.... ......... ........ ~i.--"""""""" ..... .....


.-111<--....S-.F _. __ ,,,_ __ R-1 Tl,oit l CU:.....,,_.,.-.,,._..i _.,u.,p,w., ... ................ ,_"""""7<>p,rta-_.,tho\LMdoolp ===~~ ... 7~:: t~.:~~ __ .,... __ todlld-......flthiollOblt __ ..,..,..,..,_.,........... __ ..,....-.n-. .... ,,........ .. .------_._,_,_ ...... __....-.,c........... --.....-.--::.... .. ............. _,low......,... r -~--oblol..,iltoinaMpiM,aitoleond _,...,_._,_.,~ .,.,,.,..... .... onoly,i, !,,t .,,,""-0noiohio

CID cla u aud h o me prohl cm & Tl,,~'l{ll, ......... ,.. .... ______ "'_--,....W,..i,,--.,-"' ... '""""".. .. _,.,_., __ ,,._,,,,,"""" .,.,..._.,, ... _.....,_., __ .. ... --,,,___ ... ._...,, ____ ----i,,...... ,,.-~-.,.,.__..._ .. ,...,._H .'!,dt ,,.,..C~ll'o,p.rl-.U~,(Jlni,,,.A-A-./11/U,_ A CONTRIBUTION TO THE TEACHING OF THERMODYNAMICS A PROBLEM BASED ON THE GIBBS-DUHEM EQUATION NOB!:HTJ.0()()0 s...i,y,.;..,..;,,N ;q.. .. .. ... .. ... ... -..,..., .... .........,. __ f~ Tw_-..,,.......,.wu..--.....o1.i., ,-..,. ... __ .._1,;111o.-......


~2;:~~u:-: .. Tbeq-;,,.,io," Wl>t rodid..,.ro".,,.,.r h ioWon-..."""'l'.l'ot!M""'Uibrio"''-"" ~T\iio-io--....,._,._io_ ... ___ ,_,..... ::==.:::;-.:::!.~';;=:.-: ..,..., _....,.00 ... ., __ ..,__,_ .. __ ---""'...,,....._.,_.,.. .....aef_l_~~ Re/,[Zip.m 1 0 ~lo,U..

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~::.;.::;i;1......,.;pt.,.o/Go~m,!;qt. GugJ(ttlheim" 1upbo, 1pu,_;,,1w,S..,i,oo6,60 wutodmV<,...,..,....r,,,,o,tsllorm ut... inr-,gudto ti..rr..c.o/-r,andta...., ..i..:tiog"""rolv,JVff.~P!)Jlri>bl,0110tr,,landd,o--,pliri( and"" """"""i,;,ntof-'l""'ardrontr,,I.Thtoov..-ageio wfli,;;,,,ttointlOO""'V..l'NdertoU,elOpimploxuoploo.A withChapt.,8, 2a~~~h<~ =~ .. = inl;,lor.,t),.M....,,t.Aw<" ~;:1'~,;:: = n;::::.r:~::: :~ORTht t<>t <>lvod ""atnpk!o and hMtpn,ble..,ottl..ondo/_,h,;h,pto-r. ~ore,i-ly .. tal..ttoth<..,_.._ ,., ~.::. ~=.=:::::=:: booofttll,ignilltanllylmll t;p ......... olt!..!""" .. ,tation. A

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