Citation
Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Aggregations:
Chemical Engineering Documents

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner
Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology
Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Members
SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University
Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University
Donald R. Paul
University of Texas
James Fair
University of Texas
CENTRAL:
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University
WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XXI NUMBER 1 WINTER 1987




Educator
2 Lee C. Eagleton of Penn State, Robert L. Kabel

Department
6 Manhattan College, Conrad T. Burris

Lecture
12 Chemical Engineering in the Future, C. T. Science.
18 The Industrialization of a Graduate: The Business
Arena, R. Russell Rhinehart

Classroom
24 Simplifying Chemical Reactor Design by Using
Molar Quantities Instead of Fractional
Conversion, Lee F. Brown, John L. Falconer
34 Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design,
S. D. Roat, S. S. Melsheimer

Laboratory
30 Chemical Reaction Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory,
K. C. Kwon, N. Vahdat, W. R. Ayers

Class and Home Problems
40 A Problem With Coyotes, Mark A. Young

International
44 Chemical Engineering Education and Problems in
Nigeria, O. C. Okorafor

5 Letter to the Editor

49 Books Received

5, 33, 39, 46, 47, 48 Book Reviews


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division,
American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs,
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the adver-
tising representatives. Other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing
Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per
year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk subscription rates
to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright C 1987 Chemical Engineer-
ing Division of American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this
periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body
assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the
identification of this periodical.


WINTER 1987









P educator


Lee C.


Eagleton


of Penn State


ROBERT L. KABEL
Pennsylvania State
University
University Park, PA 16802


T HIS ARTICLE SHOULD be
titled "Tennis, Chemical
Engineering, and Tropical
Fish (In That Order)," but
these articles don't have ti-
tles.
Lee Eagleton had just ar-
rived as the new department
head at Penn State, and to
get acquainted he scheduled
in-depth interviews with all
the members of the chemical
engineering faculty. One
senior professor felt that his
interview was going well. He
was providing profound in-
sights, and Lee seemed re-
ceptive. The interview was
nearing its climax when Lee said, "I have to play ten-
nis in five minutes." The professor was stunned ...
and Lee was gone. Lee explained sometime later that
if you don't put tennis first, it ends up last.
In 1978, John Tarbell wrote in CEE that "when
Dr. Eagleton first arrived on campus in 1970, he was
shocked to find that no one on the faculty played ten-
nis (Lee was seventh man on the tennis team at MIT
one year, but never won a match). As a perceptive
administrator, he quickly recognized this deficiency
and soon convinced Dr. Danner (an assistant professor
at the time) that tennis might be an important compo-
nent of his professional development. Ron was oblig-
ing and served admirably as a partner until he re-
ceived tenure, at which point his tennis enthusiasm
suddenly waned. This situation was alarming and an


exhaustive search for new
ttalent was undertaken. For-
tunately, Dr. Duda (whose
background in polymer sci-
ence was surpassed only by
his twenty years of tennis ex-
perience) was looking for an
academic position at that
Time. Larry and his wife were
conveniently lured away from
Dow Chemical Company to
complete a formidable mixed
doubles opponent for the
Eagletons."
Eagleton earned bache-
lor's and master's degrees
from M.I.T. and the DEng
from Yale, where he per-
formed his doctoral research
under the supervision of
Harding Bliss. The article re-
sulting from his thesis was
cited by George Burnet as a
landmark publication. After
five years as a development engineer with Rohm &
Haas, Lee joined the faculty of the University of
Pennsylvania and was there for fifteen years until his
move to Penn State. His research at Penn focused on
vaporization of liquids, kinetics of catalytic processes,
and reactor design, for which he was cited in being
named AIChE Fellow. He was an acknowledged ex-
pert on the effect of mixing on chemical reactions and
regularly lectured and chaired sessions in this area.
Stuart Churchill credits Lee as being one of those who
was primarily responsible for the upward turn in qual-
ity and reputation of their university's chemical en-
gineering program. Stu writes, "Indeed, we have
never really accepted his departure, and have always
treated him as an unofficial member of our depart-
ment."


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









... to get acquainted [Lee] scheduled in-depth interviews with all [faculty members] ... The
interview was nearing its climax when Lee said, "I have to play tennis in five minutes." The professor was
stunned-and Lee was gone. Lee explained that if you don't put tennis first, it ends up last.
I II I II


Thus it was that Lee Eagleton brought his "Ivy
League" outlook to this Central Pennsylvania outpost
in 1970. We needed him. His unique, urbane style
made a difference in issues broad and small. An exam-
ple of the small occurred when electronic calculators
became available. The College of Engineering Execu-
tive Committee was stampeding toward banning them
from use in examinations when Lee mused aloud as to
whether the college should establish such an anti-
technological policy. The stampede was headed off and
a ludicrous action was avoided.
A broad issue greeted Lee when he arrived at Penn
State. Chemical engineering was perceived externally
as being totally focused on petroleum processing and
irrelevant in modern times. The perception was
exaggerated, but it is true that at that time one-half
of the faculty of fourteen did no teaching. Within two
years, two of those seven had retired at age sixty-five,
and the rest were in the classroom. Lee encouraged
the research programs of the young faculty who had
been carrying the bulk of the teaching load, and he
supported the enhancement of the best of the hydro-
carbon related research. He carried out this trans-
formation, which could have led to rebellion, with dip-
lomacy and savoirfaire.
One of Lee's great pleasures is mingling with the
leaders of any discipline. He turned this inclination to
our great advantage by bringing in many of the
biggest names in chemical engineering from around
the country and the world, as much to expose the
Penn State faculty to their perspectives as to acquaint
the visitors with the departmental renaissance. Those
visitors and our faculty were regularly invited to his
home. Lee's style was to direct the actions of his wife,
Mary, and his children, Bill, Jim, and Beth, this way
and that for the benefit of his guests. His generalship,
and their good-natured acceptance of it, was really
part of the entertainment.
The real stars of his show were two, almost wall-
sized, salt-water aquaria. Lee caught the tropical fish
himself in the Caribbean waters near his vacation
home on St. John. The fish would grow to several
inches in length and often lived to ripe old ages under
his care. Lee used his reaction kinetics expertise to
develop an ultraviolet sterilization technique for the
circulating salt water, to protect the fish from fungi
and other problems. In every major city (after playing
tennis and attending the AIChE meeting) Lee would
seek out the curator of the local aquarium to share


information on the care of salt-water tropical fish. He
even published an article on his UV sterilization
method. His very famous coauthor was Earl Herald,
curator of the Steinhart Aquarium.
Lee's fascination with highly talented people was
also crucial as he initiated a faculty recruiting program
which was to achieve great success. To illustrate, he
attracted Larry Duda, Jim Vrentas, Al Vannice, and
Fred Helfferich to Penn State. All of them had signif-
icant industrial experience, obvious creativity, and an
inclination to fundamental research, factors which


Lee and Mary relaxing over breakfast in the Caribbean.

have since led each of them to national awards.
At the same time as Lee's departmental research
revolution was coming into its own, the enrollment
explosion struck. He saw it as an opportunity for
growth and as a way to gain increased faculty and
financial resources for the department. He encour-
aged creative responses to the problems of advising
and teaching of vastly larger numbers of students.
His research on faculty workload measurement, pub-
lished in 1977 in CEE, was crucial in balancing respon-
sibilities during that stressful time.
The thirteen years (1970-1983) that he led our de-
partment were difficult years for the whole university
and especially so for the College of Engineering. For
chemical engineering to have experienced such
growth and improvement in quality during an era of
retrenchment and deterioration elsewhere on campus
must be attributed to Lee's leadership.
Beyond leadership, Lee Eagleton has perfected
the art of procrastination. The scientific foundation


WINTER 1987










He has been heavily involved in the Summer Schools and has held all offices in the ChE Division. He
volunteered to serve on the CEE Publication Board and was Secretary of the Division when CEE was moved to the
University of Florida. He was elected Publication Board Chairman in 1981, where he served through 1985.


nized Lee Eagleton's contributions to the section and
beyond by giving him the AIChE Diamond Jubilee
Award. At the national level he served a three-year
term as director and was chairman of the committee
on AIChE Dynamic Objective 4. This was the objec-
tive that outlined changes in educational programs
which would prepare chemical engineers for the in-
creasing complexity and diversity of the profession
and which reemphasized the applications of chemistry
as the distinguishing feature of chemical engineering.
Lee was also active on the Education and Accredita-
tion Committee. His work on Dynamic Objective 4 led
the E&A committee to consider the liberalization of
accreditation requirements for chemical engineering
programs. This evolution continues today. An E&A


Lee and Mary pose with friend and primary tennis
partner at Penn, Stu Churchill.
for his practice is, "If you put something off long
enough, the need for it may disappear." The result is
that those things which don't disappear receive his
attention after the last minute. Thus, procrastination
has led him to idiosyncratic efficiencies. Those of us
who have traveled with Lee to local AIChE meetings
recall him dictating responses to a backlog of corre-
spondence in the din of a crowded automobile. One
faculty member in the know says that Lee's adminis-
trative assistant would have candidates for depart-
ment secretarial positions transcribe such dictation to
see if they were immune to discouragement.
Another such example of Lee's "efficiency" is his
use of his HP-41C programmable calculator. Lee,
Larry Duda, and Bill Steele, of Chemistry, were walk-
ing over to the tennis courts a few hours before Lee
was to meet his class. When they were almost there,
Lee reached into his pocket, pulled out the calculator
which had been working a problem the whole time,
wrote down the answer, and went on to play tennis.
Lee is an active member of AIChE at all levels.
Students have always found him to be an enthusiastic
supporter of their organization, and his good nature
has made him the perfect foil for their humor at ban-
quets and other gatherings through the years. He
could always be counted on for an extemporaneous
Jack Benny-type monologue at graduate seminars, re-
tirement parties, or other functions. What could not
be anticipated was his topic or the perspective he
would bring to it. In any lineup of speakers, no one
ever wanted to follow Eagleton's act.
In 1983 the Central Pennsylvania Section recog-


Lee at 1981 graduation, sharing a final word with one
of his students.

colleague, Dee Barker, pointed out that of the large
AIChE membership, only fifteen people comprise this
important body. Of those only three or four are mem-
bers of the ABET Engineering Accreditation Com-
mission. The fact that Lee serves on the ABET EAC
is indicative of the high degree of confidence chemical
engineering people have in him.
One might wonder what special talent makes Lee
invaluable in such roles. Consider that he is the all-
time memo champ. The successive energy shocks of
the middle 1970's brought about widespread and ap-
propriate attention to conservation, as well as some
overzealous if well-intended efforts. Penn State was
no exception, and its energy czar was Ralph E. Zilly,
who inundated us with energy bulletins. Some of them
were inane, and Lee referred to them as "silly Zillies."


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










-sI


A bit of dictation before heading for the courts.
In a memo of March 4, 1975, Zilly banned the use of
portable electric heaters by secretaries. This aroused
the competitive fire and wit of Eagleton and led to
his masterpiece of March 14, 1975, which was termed
a "Zilly dilly" by our appreciative secretaries.
Nevertheless the battle between these two persistent
memo-masters (REZ humorless, LCE wry) raged on
for almost two years until, on January 4, 1977, Zilly
caved in with, "Your point is well taken." Space re-
quirements preclude the inclusion of their memorable
correspondence in this article; however, copies of key
memos will be provided by the author upon request.
This anecdote may seem frivolous, but it illustrates
Lee's determination, his disarming wit, and his toler-
ance of diverse opinions, all of which make him so
effective in deliberative bodies.
Although he had numerous opportunities (Dean-
ships, National ASEE, etc) to expand his field of influ-
ence, Lee consistently chose to focus his energies on
his professional discipline. For example, he was re-
cently elected to the select group of ASEE Fellows.
His election was, however, almost entirely because of
his activity in the Chemical Engineering Division. He
has been heavily involved in the Summer Schools and
has held all offices in the ChE Division. He volun-
teered to serve on the CEE Publication Board and
was Secretary of the Division when CEE was moved
to the University of Florida. He was elected as Publi-
cation Board Chairman in 1981, where he served
through 1985. Klaus Timmerhaus credits Lee with
pushing hard to make CEE the quality publication
that it is and for helping to set up the mechanism for
adequately financing its operation.
All three of Lee and Mary's children followed his
example by studying engineering. Beth is an indus-
trial engineer with Rockwell International in Los
Angeles. Jim most closely fits the mold with chemical
engineering degrees from Michigan and MIT, a job


with Rohm & Haas in Philadelphia, and involvement
in a recent AIChE contest problem. Bill's current pos-
ition as a cook for Stouffer's Restaurant in King of
Prussia seems to go back more to his catering service
at his father's receptions than to his college education.
When you see Mary, ask her about Lee's devotion
to the evening tennis doubles group. The group was
surprised one night when a substitute, Jack Purnell,
showed up for the 8 o'clock game. Jack (who still plays
with the group) is an anesthesiologist at the local hos-
pital where Lee was preparing for minor surgery. Lee
was on the table, ready for the mask, being wheeled
by the anesthesiologist-to the operating room, when
he said, "Wait a minute, I have to play tennis to-
night." ]

letters

HOUGEN MEMORIAL

Editor:
I just wanted to drop you a note and thank you for
initiating the tribute to the memory of Olaf Hougen
in your journal. I think that the finished product is
quite fine, and I have already heard a number of favor-
able comments. I hope that some of the material in
the summary will be interesting to many of your read-
ers and that through the "Hougen Principles" his in-
fluence will spread still further.
R. B. Bird
University of Wisconsin


S book reviews


ECONOMIC EVALUATION IN THE
CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
by Oliver Axtell, James M. Robertson
Wiley-Interscience, Somerset, NJ 08873 (1986),
241 pages, $44.95.
Reviewed by
Max S. Peters
University of Colorado
This short book presents a general treatment of
methods used for economic evaluation in the chemical
process industries with primary emphasis on keeping
the presentation as simple as possible. There are es-
sentially no mathematical equations in the entire
book, and quantitative analysis is limited td examples
Continued on page 33.


WINTER 1987





































mN department


Overview of the Manhattan College campus.


MANHATTAN COLLEGE


CONRAD T. BURRIS
Manhattan College
Bronx, NY 10471

THE YEAR 1987 marks the one hundred thirty-
fourth anniversary of the founding of Manhattan
College as a private independent college under the
sponsorship of the Brothers of the Christian Schools
(Christian Brothers). Although originally a commuter
school for New York City students, the college's 4500
students now come from 17 states and 53 foreign coun-
tries. The largest division, the School of Engineering
with 1500 students, was established in 1896 with pro-
grams in civil engineering and electrical engineering.
Curricula in mechanical engineering and chemical en-
gineering were introduced in 1957 and in 1958, respec-
tively.
Although possessing the name "Manhattan," the
college is located in Riverdale, an attractive residen-
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


tial section of New York City in the northwest corner
of the Bronx on the heights overlooking Van Cortlandt
Park. The campus was previously located on the island
of Manhattan where the name originated, but moved
to its present location in the Bronx in 1924. Since it
already had an established reputation at the time of
the move there was no effort to change the name along
with the location.
Chemical engineering was introduced along with
mechanical engineering at a time when a new en-
gineering building was planned for the campus. As
part of the planning process, advisory groups of indus-
trial consultors were organized to meet with adminis-
trative officers to provide input so that the new de-
partments would reflect the latest thinking of the en-
gineering profession. With the assistance of the mem-
bers of the Chemical Engineering Consultor Commit-
tee, a program was initiated at the sophomore level
in 1958. The first enrollees were chemistry majors
who decided to take advantage of the new opportunity
presented to them. The first class graduated in 1961.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
The program began with very little in the way of
equipment although a recently acquired building near
the campus was available for its use. The industrial
advisors who provided the incentive to get the pro-
gram underway now came to the rescue. The chairman
of the Consultor Committee, who was then a vice
president of a major corporation but who had previ-
ously served as chairman of a chemical engineering
department in an academic institution, realizing the
needs of a new department with limited resources and
knowing how industry could help, provided the neces-
sary assistance. He assigned an engineer from his
company to visit several chemical engineering schools
to determine what experiments were needed for a
modern unit operations laboratory and then au-
thorized him to visit the company's storage locations
to select appropriate surplus equipment which could
be used in an academic environment. A laboratory
manual was prepared based on the donated equipment
so that a full set of experiments was ready for the first
senior class.
Since that time the department has continued to
expand, with modern laboratory equipment having re-
placed the donated surplus equipment. Today's unit
operations laboratory is in excellent condition, thanks
to grants from several companies and government
agencies. Recent equipment grants from the National
Science Foundation are providing opportunities for
further updating of our undergraduate laboratories.
Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, along with exper-
iments in biotechnology, will now become an integral
part of our undergraduate laboratory offerings.
The department has had three chairmen during its
short history. Brother Conrad Burris served as chair-
man during the early years of the program. He was
succeeded by Jack Famularo who served for four
years and Joe Reynolds who served as chairman for
seven years. Brother Burris, after serving ten years
as Dean of Engineering, returned to the chemical en-
gineering department and was again appointed chair-
man.
Close faculty-student interaction characterizes the
Manhattan College program in chemical engineering.
Small class size and excellent library and computer
facilities in the Engineering Building and a newly con-
structed Research and Learning Center provide an
excellent environment for the learning process. A spe-
cial feature of our program is the involvement of un-
dergraduate students in the research activities of the
faculty. Among the research projects involving under-
graduate student participation are the following:
fluidized bed studies; analysis of air pollution control


systems; hazardous waste incineration; paint and col-
loid surface phenomena; protein separation and purifi-
cation processes; industrial wastewater treatment and
membrane mass transfer studies. Many of these stu-
dents are co-authors of published papers and papers
presented at professional society meetings. In the last
five years twelve papers involving student authors
have been presented at meetings or conferences and
nine journal articles have been published or accepted
for publication.


Computer terminal room in the new Research and Learn-
ing Center.

Although primarily an undergraduate institution,
Manhattan College has a chapter of Sigma Xi, which
is somewhat unique since chapters of this prestigious
research honor society are usually associated with
doctoral granting institutions. Over the past five
years, seventeen undergraduate students from the
chemical engineering department have been inducted
into the Manhattan College chapter.
Chemical engineering graduates from the Manhat-
tan College program have done well in both graduate
schools and in industry. In the past five years, 27 of
the department's graduates have obtained or are in
the process of obtaining their doctorate degrees from
a variety of prestigious graduate schools. In addition,
82 graduates have obtained master's degrees. Several
graduates each year also enter medical, dental and
law schools. Chemical engineers from Manhattan Col-
lege are highly regarded professionals in industry,
with many achieving high-level positions in major
chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical and design com-
panies.

DESIGN-ORIENTED MASTER'S PROGRAM
Once the undergraduate program was established
and accredited, consideration was given to developing


WINTER 1987










. Manhattan College, following the advice of its industrial advisors, decided to introduce a
design-oriented master's degree program as an alternative for those students whose career objectives
were directed toward design, production, and management rather than to teaching or research.


a graduate level program. At the time this was being
considered in the mid-sixties, circumstances were
such that there was no need for another doctoral
granting institution in the New York City area. The
college's industrial advisors were of the opinion that
there were more than enough research-trained en-
gineers with masters and doctorate degrees. Much of
the graduate research done during that period was
highly theoretical and geared to the programs being
supported with federal funds. The needs of the more
traditional chemical industries for engineers with
some application-oriented work at the graduate level
was becoming increasingly evident.
At that time it was noted that there were many
talented students who desired advanced training in en-
gineering, but who had little interest in research.
These students were entering research-oriented pro-
grams because there were no alternatives available to
them. The conclusion was that a need existed for a
graduate program in engineering practice. This pro-
gram was planned with the objective of training and
motivating students toward productive careers in in-
dustry, and terminating at the master's degree level.
New York City already had several engineering
schools with excellent research-oriented graduate pro-
grams in chemical engineering, so Manhattan College,
following the advice of its industrial advisors, decided
to introduce a design-oriented master's degree pro-
gram as an alternative for those students whose
career objectives were directed toward design, pro-
duction, and management rather than to teaching or
research. The program was termed "design-oriented"
because process and plant design project work is em-
ployed in place of a research thesis. The projects re-
quire exercise of judgment, creativity, and sound
economic reasoning, and thus prepare a student for a
wide spectrum of engineering assignments in indus-
try. Although design had become an integral part of
undergraduate chemical engineering education, its
role at the graduate level had been minimal.
Several approaches to the program were consid-
ered by the faculty in consultation with their indus-
trial advisors. It was generally agreed that some
meaningful involvement by industry should be an in-
tegral part of the program. The MIT Practice School
model was considered but discarded as being too ex-
pensive and impractical for an institution such as Man-
hattan College. In addition, industry appeared reluc-
tant to support additional programs of that type. It


was finally agreed that a three month "Summer
Phase" should precede a nine month "Academic
Phase." The summer phase would be under the direc-
tion of a "participating company" which supported the
program. The company agreed to provide a work ex-
perience in the design office, laboratory, or plant
which would be relevant to the overall objectives of
the program. During this period a faculty representa-
tive from the chemical engineering department would
monitor the progress of the student by visits to the
industrial site. Selection of the student for specific
summer jobs would be handled cooperatively by the
college and the company involved, and salary, work-
ing conditions, and related matters would be handled
by the company. Because of the proprietary nature of
much of the work done during the summer months, it
was agreed that the summer project should not be
continued during the academic phase as part of the
process and plant design project.
Required courses during the academic phase in-
clude applied process thermodynamics, distillation,
design of thermal systems, and chemical reactor de-
sign. Included among the available elective courses
are advanced chemical engineering economics, en-
gineering statistics, numerical methods and computer
methodology, optimization techniques, and computer
methods in process simulation. In general, graduate
courses are taught by faculty members whose back-
ground includes appropriate industrial experience.
Adjunct faculty are also utilized to take advantage of
their particular specialties. The many industries in the
New York metropolitan area provide an excellent
source of part-time teachers.
The specific objectives of the process and plant de-
sign project are to develop the capabilities of the stu-
dent in the area of process synthesis, technical and
economic evaluation of alternatives, process optimiza-
tion and communication skills. Overall, student reac-
tion to the project has been extremely favorable. Stu-
dents have found it to be the unifying element within
their graduate education. This is not as much due to
the fact that the project represents the culmination of
the program as it is to the fact that it serves to bring
together much of the knowledge previously held to be
unique and isolated.
Industry involvement continues during the aca-
demic phase of the program. A steering committee
made up of members of the faculty and a representa-
tive from each of the participating companies meets


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









once or twice during the year to review the program
and to make recommendations for its improvement.
In addition, the participating companies provide semi-
nar speakers who give appropriate up-to-date infor-
mation on industrial topics. Recent seminar topics
have been: Three Dimensional Plant Design on a CAD
System; Application of Unit Operations in Cryogenic
Air Separation; Hazard and Risk Analysis of Process
Systems; and Hazardous Waste Management in the
Petroleum Refining Industry.
This program has been in operation since 1967 with
the participation and support of such companies as
Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Celanese Plastics
Company, Lummus Crest Inc., Exxon Corporation,
FMC Corporation, Mobil Oil Corporation, Stauffer
Chemical Company, Texaco Inc., Pfizer Inc., Consoli-
dated Edison Company of New York, and Union Car-
bide Corporation. Reports from those companies em-
ploying graduates from the program indicate that it
has been particularly effective in improving the com-
petence of young engineers by affording them an in-
tensive, guided experience in developing their
capabilities in handling industrial problems. Over 450
master's degrees have been granted since the pro-
gram began twenty years ago.

EXTENSION TO LATIN AMERICA
Once the program became successfully established
in the United States, it was expanded to include appli-
cants from Latin America. It was believed that this
type of educational opportunity would be of greater
benefit to many Latin American students seeking an
advanced degree in chemical engineering than the
more traditional "research-oriented" program. This is
particularly true if the student's career objectives are
directed towards production and management. In gen-
eral, programs of this type are not yet available in
Latin America.
On the advice of Manhattan College's committee of
chemical engineering advisors from industry, contact
was made with representatives of government agen-
cies, industry, and educational institutions in several
Latin American countries. There was general agree-
ment with the objectives of the program, and an effort
was made to cooperate with industries and academic
institutions in those countries by providing interested
students from a cooperating engineering school with
summer employment in the plant, design office, or
laboratory of a participating company in the Latin
American country in which the program was to be-
come operative. After completion of the summer in-
dustrial phase, the student would spend the academic
year at Manhattan College before returning to the


Students comparing notes in the unit operations lab.

country of origin. It was hoped that industry would
provide financial assistance for those participating in
the program.
Although there was general agreement with the
value of the program, the format found to be success-
ful in the United States was not viable in Latin
America. Cooperation between industry and educa-
tion in Latin America appears to be less than it is in
the United States, and where it does exist there is
little enthusiasm on the part of academic institutions
involved to use industry support to provide scholar-
ship assistance for local students to study abroad.
They believe that local industry support should be for
local academic institutions. So, while there was some
willingness on the part of industry to provide suitable
employment to satisfy the "summer phase" of the pro-
gram, complications associated with the selection of a
student acceptable to the company and monitoring his
performance made this procedure impractical.
Since the "summer phase," or prior industrial ex-
perience, was felt to be important, a more suitable
model for students from developing countries was
sought. Fortunately, close cooperation with Bufete
Industrial, a Mexican owned design and construction
company, helped provide a suitable model for


WINTER 1987









maximizing the advantages which the program pro-
vides. The "summer phase" has been replaced for the
Bufete candidates with six months to two years of
industrial experience as employees of the company.
They are then, in general, better prepared to ap-
preciate the opportunities which the program pro-
vides than their United States counterparts. Students
accepted for the program are employees of the Pro-
cess Development Department of Bufete Industrial,
so have been exposed to an appropriate industrial en-
vironment.
The Latin American extension of the program has
been particularly successful in Mexico, with over 50


Collecting data for the distillation experiment.


students completing the program. An additional 25
students from several other Latin American countries
have completed the program and returned to their
countries. The recent decline in the price of oil, which
has had an adverse effect on the economies of several
Latin American countries, has resulted in a decrease
in applicants from that part of the world.


OTHER GRADUATE PROGRAM OPTIONS
Although the original "Design-Oriented" Master's
Degree Program was planned for full-time students,
it became apparent that young engineers working in
the chemical industry in the New York metropolitan
area could also benefit from this type of program.
Since they were already engaged in engineering work,
the need for a design project as part of their degree
requirement was considered unnecessary, so a part-
time evening program consisting of the four required
courses and six elective courses was established.
During the period when chemical engineers were

10


in short supply, many chemists wished to work for the
master's degree in chemical engineering. In order to
accommodate these potential applicants, a "Chemist's
Program" was established leading to the Master's De-
gree. Although they had a strong background in
chemistry, these candidates lacked a background in
chemical engineering. As a result, they were required
to take and successfully complete twelve credits in
undergraduate chemical engineering courses before
being allowed to matriculate in the graduate program.
Over 65 chemists have successfully completed this
program in the nine years that it has been in opera-
tion.
PARTICULATE SOLID RESEARCH, INC. (PSRI)
Although not formally a part of the chemical en-
gineering department, this organization (established
in 1970) provides an opportunity for faculty and stu-
dent involvement in applied research of benefit to the
industrial community. The laboratories of PSRI are
adjacent to the Manhattan College campus. The Tech-
nical Director, Fred Zenz, was originally attracted to
Manhattan College because of its "Design-Oriented"
graduate program. His recognized competence in the
area of fluid-particle technology led to an institute de-
voted to the development of design data for use by
industry. PSRI is modeled after the two older re-
search institutes, Heat Transfer Research Institute
(HTRI) and Fractionation Research Institute (FRI).
A wide variety of useful information has been gener-
ated by this organization under Fred Zenz's leader-
ship. Current investigations by this group include di-
lute phase conveying, dense phase conveying, cyclone
efficiency and particle attrition. These studies have
led to the development of basic formulations de-
monstrating that the properties of fluid-solids systems
are analogous to liquid-vapor systems and obey the
same quantitative relationships.
FACULTY ACTIVITIES
Continuing the tradition of excellence in teaching
chemical engineering, the faculty is constantly up-
grading course offerings to keep pace with advances
in technology. Several of the faculty have been instru-
mental in developing new courses. Helen Hollein has
introduced courses in biochemical engineering at both
the undergraduate and graduate levels. Stewart Sla-
ter's contribution includes two new courses; one in
separation techniques for resource recovery and a sec-
ond in membrane process technology. Louis Theo-
dore, who has been teaching graduate courses in air
pollution control for many years, has recently de-
veloped a new course in hazardous waste incineration.
Although the department's Master's Degree Pro-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








gram is still "design-oriented," some experimental
work involving the newer technologies is underway.
A recent NSF equipment grant has enabled Stewart
Slater to develop a laboratory devoted to modern sep-
aration techniques such as reverse osmosis and ul-
trafiltration. Helen Hollein, also with the assistance
of a NSF equipment grant, is establishing a laboratory
in biotechnology. Both of these laboratories will be
devoted to undergraduate instruction, undergraduate
and graduate research participation, and faculty re-
search.
Jack Famularo has been actively involved in updat-
ing our unit operations laboratory by incorporating
computers into several experiments. These include a
computer-controlled heat exchanger experiment and
experiments in unsteady-state conduction and distilla-
tion. In addition he is currently doing research involv-
ing studies of adsorption processes in water treatment
systems.
Helen Hollein is currently conducting research in-
volving experimental studies and mathematical mod-
els for protein adsorption and desorption in ion-ex-
change chromatography. She is also working on the
development of new resins for preparative separation
of biological molecules by high-performance liquid
chromatography. Stewart Slater's research in reverse


osmosis is directed at process modeling and industrial
wastewater treatment. He has developed models to
simulate different processing modes based on mass
transfer and operational parameters and is currently
modeling the effects of concentration polarization.
Helen Hollein and Stewart Slater have joint research
projects on the purification and concentration of
biological mixtures by ultrafiltration processes.
Louis Theodore and Joseph Reynolds are currently
working in the area of air pollution and hazardous
waste disposal by incineration. Their activities nicely
complement the water pollution emphasis of Manhat-
tan College's well-established environmental en-
gineering program.
In addition to his work as Technical Director of
Particulate Solid Research, Inc., Fred Zenz handles
the design component of the undergraduate program
as well as several of the graduate courses in the "de-
sign-oriented" master's degree program. Paul Mar-
nell, who had many years of industrial experience,
handles the graduate program design projects.
The recent opening of a Research and Learning
Center on the Manhattan College campus is providing
the much needed space for the expanding interests of
the chemical engineering department. The future
looks promising. O


-AMOCO"


Making Significant Advances In Technology

The Amoco Research Center represents continued advancement in Amoco Corporation's support of
research and development. Petroleum products and processes, chemicals, additives, polymers and
plastics, synthetic fuels, and alternative sources of energy are only a few of the areas in which the
Amoco Research Center has made important contributions.
Located on 178 acres of spacious landscaped grounds in Naperville, Illinois, just 30 miles west of
Downtown Chicago, the Center employs over 1500 people. We are currently in need of enthusiastic
researchers who have received their degree in chemical, mechanical, or electrical engineering, to help us
improve the products and services we provide. You'll be part of a team that continually pushes back the
parameters of known technology.
Amoco is proud of its dedicated personnel and furnishes them an environment that encourages
creativity and is conducive to professional advancement. If you have the desire and proven ability to
work on mind-stimulating projects, we are prepared to offer a very attractive benefits package and
salary that reflects your expertise.
The research field provides a backbone for modern development-guiding industry through the future.
And you can be part of this.


Please send your resume to:
Amoco Research Center
Professional Recruiting Coordinator
Dept. CEE/12
P.O. Box 400
Naperville, Illinois 60566


I 6


S An equal opportunity employer M/F/H/V


WINTER 1987









nPlecture


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING IN THE FUTURE*


C. T. SCIENCE
E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
Wilmington, DE 19898

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND its future direction
are important and interesting subjects to those
of us in the profession. There is much to talk about.
In this paper we discuss three aspects of the future of
chemical engineering. The first concerns change:
What evidence is there that the profession of chemical
engineering needs to evolve? And why are these
changes taking place?
The second part addresses the needs and expecta-
tions of industry, or at least that segment of it which
is likely to employ chemical engineers: What do we
need and expect from our new engineers? What role
do we expect chemical engineers to play, and what
could that role be if their training were different?
The perspective presented is largely a personal
one. Each company, and each division or even each
individual within a company, sees things differently.
But since each of you know many people from indus-


C. Thomas Sciance received his BS (1960), his MChE (1964) and his
PhD (1966) from the University of Oklahoma. He served in the U.S.
Army during 1961-62 and joined Du Pont in 1966 as a research en-
gineer. Since November 1983, he has been Director of Engineering
Research in Du Pont's Engineering Research and Development Division.
He is responsible for research done by Du Pont's Engineering Physics
and Engineering Technology Laboratories, both located at the Experi-
mental Station near Wilmington, DE.

*"Tutorial Lecture" for ASEE Chemical Engineering Division:
June 23, 1986; Cincinnati, OH.


The first concerns change: What
evidence is there that the profession of chemical
engineering needs to evolve? And why are
these changes taking place?

try, you can judge these opinions in the larger con-
text. Certainly the members of the Septenary Com-
mittee on the Future of Chemical Engineering, spon-
sored by the University of Texas at Austin, rep-
resented a wide spectrum of companies employing
chemical engineers; yet they were in remarkable
agreement about many issues.
The third part suggests possible courses of action.
Some would involve only the academic community.
Others would require the participation of professional
societies such as the ASEE or AIChE; organizations
such as the Chemical Research Council that bring to-
gether academic, government, and industry represen-
tatives; government funding agencies such as the Na-
tional Science Foundation; textbook publishing
houses; or individual firms that employ chemical en-
gineers.
The real issue is cohesive leadership. There are
signs that the need for change is recognized, and at
least some elements of the matrix are willing to be
persuaded to change. Leadership involves setting di-
rections and priorities and providing incentives for
movement in the desired direction.

SIGNS OF CHANGE
The Du Pont Company is a large employer of en-
gineers, especially chemical engineers. Surveys have
shown that chemical engineering students think of Du
Pont as one of the best places to work. Therefore,
changes taking place in Du Pont should be of interest
to suppliers of chemical engineering students. Allow
me, then, to cite several examples that impact upon
the recruitment and careers of chemical engineers.
The Engineering Technology Laboratory, estab-
lished in 1929 in the Chemical Engineering Group of
Du Pont's Central Chemical Department, has been a
continuing major influence in the field of chemical en-
gineering research. It was a thrill for me as a chemical
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 1
Engineers in Du Pont
Final Degrees as of 1/1/86
BS MS PhD Total %
Chemical 2911 768 504 4183 45
Mechanical 2066 361 82 2509 27
Electrical 898 127 21 1046 11
Other 1057 353 105 1515 16

Total 6932 1609 712 9253
Percent 75 17 8

engineer to lead a research organization founded by
Thomas Chilton.
The Chemical Engineering Group grew from two
people in 1929 to 37 in 1953. Many employees such as
James Carberry, Allan Colburn, Thomas Drew,
Robert Marshall, and Robert Pigford have become
well-known in the field. The chemical engineering sec-
tion of the lab has traditionally been a leader in indus-
trial chemical engineering.
Since May 1 of 1986, however, there is no longer
a Chemical Engineering Section per se in the En-
gineering Technology Laboratory. The groups have
been renamed to reflect a focus on technologies of cor-
porate strategic significance. The new names? Bioen-
gineering. Electronics Materials Engineering. Struc-
tural Ceramics. Electronics Ceramics. Polymer Pro-
cessing and Compounding. Composites and Applied
Mechanics. Membranes Engineering.
In the meantime, the tiny Applied Physics Section,
founded in 1945, has become the Engineering Physics
Laboratory, equal in size to its sister Engineering
Technology Laboratory. It is divided into two main
sections (Applied Physics, and Electronics and Optics)
but within those areas there is a substantial and grow-
ing emphasis on materials science. Development of
electro-optic devices, characterization of composites,
work on optical-disk storage devices, and the modifi-
cation of materials by microwave radiation are all
fields that might have a chemical engineering aspect
but are presently the province of solid state physicists
and materials scientists.
What's in a name? A lot. Names help focus direc-
tion. Names inspire loyalty and esprit de corps. If you
are looking for signs of change, do not ignore changes
in the names of organizations, groups, or functions.
You should find this alarming. A shift of emphasis
in industrial research indicates a trend in future jobs
in manufacturing and marketing. To industry, it mat-
ters little whether applied physicists or chemical en-
gineers are doing the work. If chemical engineers
are to be hired, they must receive the training that
will make their expected contributions greater than


those expected from other disciplines.


Recruitment Trends
Another clear indication of change for the field of
chemical engineering can be seen in Du Pont's recruit-
ment trends. Du Pont is a highly diversified company
that employs a great many chemical engineers. As
shown in Table 1, Du Pont (minus Conoco) employs
about 16,000 people with college technical degrees,
out of a total exempt force of 22,000. More than 9,000
of these are engineers, of whom 45% are chemical en-
gineers. In all, 25% of the engineers hold advanced

Since [last] May there is no longer
a Chemical Engineering Section per se in the
Engineering Technology Laboratory. The groups
have been renamed to reflect a focus on technologies
of corporate strategic significance.


degrees, as do 30% of the chemical engineers.
During the past ten years, we have hired 2,242
chemical engineers, half of the total number of en-
gineers hired. Although individual years vary a great
deal, some trends are clear. Figure 1 shows that the
relative percentage of chemical engineers hired has
dropped.
Specific figures are listed in Table 2. In the three-
year period 1976-79, Du Pont hired 746 chemical en-
gineers, 52% of the total number of engineers hired.
Of these, 5% of the chemical engineers had PhD's. In
the three-year period 1983-86, seven years later, 373
chemical engineers were hired, 43% of the total. Of


20


10 -


0 I I I I I I I I I J
76/77 78/79 80/81 82/83 84/85
77/78 79/80 81/82 83/84
ACADEMIC YEARS
FIGURE 1. Ten-Year history: Du Pont engineering hiring
for Bachelors and Masters degrees


WINTER 1987


ELECTRICAL ..'" ... .........
OTHER....... ** "'
OTHER


50 -









these, 21% had the PhD. In this seven-year period,
the total number of chemical engineers hired dropped
by half, and the percentage of PhD's among them
quadrupled. The absolute number of PhD hires in
chemical engineering increased by 114 in the face of a
58% decline in BS/MS hires. The trend toward hiring
fewer chemical engineers who individually know more
seems unmistakable.
Other types of engineers are faring relatively bet-
ter. Subtracting these figures will show that, although

TABLE 2
Chemical Engineering Recruitment
CHEMICAL ALL
ENGINEERS ENGINEERS
B-M PhD Total B-M PhD Total
1976-79 710 36 746 1383 60 1443
1983-86 296 77 373 763 102 865
Change, % -58 +114 -50 -45 +70 -40


the total number of BS/MS hired dropped 45%, this
figure represents a 58% reduction in chemical en-
gineers combined with a 31% reduction in all other
types of engineers.
Consider electrical engineers, not shown specifi-
cally in Table 2. We employ over 1,000, 11% of our
total engineering employment. Comparing the same
periods, Du Pont went from 172 hired to 182, a 6%
rise in the face of a drop of 40% in the total number
of engineers hired. The very small number of PhD's
doubled from 4 to 8, but the latter figure would have
been higher had we been more successful in recruiting
them. One of our problems in recruiting is that, as a
chemical company, we are not yet perceived by re-
search-oriented EE's to offer outstanding oppor-
tunities for them. We are trying to combat this er-
roneous perception.
A number of our R&D positions are being filled
with applied physicists and materials science and
ceramics majors. Again, we are pleased with the qual-
ity of these people, but to the field of chemical en-
gineering such hires may represent lost opportunities.
Unless something is done to change the trend, the
role of chemical engineers in industry will diminish.
Also, it seems that the part of industry which hires
chemical engineers will gradually move away from
having the BS as the terminal degree. This happened
with chemistry, biology and mathematics long ago.
These trends have major implications for those who
teach chemical engineers.


Market Orientation
Everyone pays lip service to market and customer
orientation. In fact, since the publication of In Search
of Excellence [1], not to do so would be heresy. Those
who have seen such trends come and go develop a
certain degree of cynicism about them. However, we
believe that the movement toward better customer
orientation, both in Du Pont and the chemical industry
in general, is truly significant and has long-term impli-
cations for the field of chemical engineering.
We compete in an international market where
other countries have equivalent technical skills and
infrastructure, plus advantages such as labor cost.
Where formerly we might have expected a sustainable
cost and hence price advantage through technology
alone, now we must focus on providing value to the
customer not merely by lower price but in every way
that the customer sees value. Examples of change in
Du Pont include not only formation of new, customer-
oriented entities but also new ways of thinking about
existing organizations. Consider the new organization
chart for our Biomedical Products Department, shown
in Figure 2.
Instead of the traditional triangle with the Group
Vice President at the top, here you see the various
divisions clustered like flower petals about the health-


FIGURE 2. Organization chart


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









care customer. Note also that the names of the divi-
sions-pharmaceuticals, diagnostic imaging, biotech-
nology systems, specialty diagnostics, etc-differ con-
siderably from such traditional areas as nylon, poly-
ethylene, and industrial chemicals.
Although our Engineering Research organization
has no outside customers, we do have a well-defined
internal market. Our clients are Du Pont's other de-
partments. We receive about one-third of our funds
from the corporation for long-range and discretionary
R&D, and must get the other two-thirds by convinc-
ing our clients that we can serve them better than
someone else can. They are free to go elsewhere.
Table 3 lists some of the ways in which recent
trends affect the practice of chemical engineering.

TABLE 3
Recent Trends Affecting ChE's
* MOVE OF BASIC INDUSTRIES OFF-SHORE
* FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING
Automation
Batch Processes
Small Scale / Small Lots
Rapid Changes
* PRIMARY EMPHASIS ON QUALITY, SERVICE, VALUE-
IN-USE RATHER THAN PRODUCTION PROCESS AND
TECHNOLOGY

While this change in emphasis is relatively recent for
much of the chemical industry, the focus on customer
needs is well-established in the electronics industry,
which is now hiring more chemical engineers.
Traditionally, chemical engineers have found posi-
tions in the chemical and petroleum industries in jobs
emphasizing the scaleup of processes. The six-tenths
power factor "proved" that technical work oriented
towards ever-increasing scale would be rewarded
many times over. After all, half again as much invest-
ment would build a plant producing twice as much.
Not many people noticed that in some cases the 0.6
factor was becoming 0.7, 0.8 or even higher, and that
the effort and expense directed toward keeping huge
plants on-line were beginning to outweigh the vaunted
advantage of scale. Technical efforts were directed to-
ward ever-increasing reliability to counter the ex-
tremely high cost incurred when the unit was shut
down for any reason.
Next, problems arising from cyclical swings in the
economy were found to be accentuated by the enor-
mous single-line plants whose breakeven rates were
70% of design or higher. During an economic down-
turn, a producer with two small plants could shut one
down, doing relatively well by running the remaining


Also, it seems that the part of industry
which hires ChE's will gradually move away from
having the BS as the terminal degree. This
happened with chemistry, biology
and mathematics long ago.


unit efficiently. To the large producer, the laws of
economic thermodynamics (you can't win-you can't
break even-you can't quit playing) were not so
funny, as they found themselves forced by contracts
and internal needs to continue playing a losing game.
Another blow to the concept of unalloyed benefits
from ever-larger scale came with the realization that
real value to the customer might lie in small amounts
of material tailored to the customer's needs, as op-
posed to huge amounts tailored to the producer's de-
sires. Considerable technical effort was devoted to
"product wheels" or other schemes to make large
plants behave more like small ones. The effort to be
flexible and maintain high quality while tailoring prod-
ucts to each customer is a dominant theme in process
work today.
Finally, as mentioned earlier, the United States
and Western Europe lost their virtual monopoly on
technical capability and the infrastructure needed to
support large plants. Developing countries could ob-
tain and operate comparable facilities close to the
source of supply. These countries could then price
downstream products to support their internal social
programs, undercutting our industries, which de-
pended upon scale for their economics. Unfortunately
for us, the rules of economics as applied in the United
States are not necessarily those of a nation that owns
raw materials and abundant unemployed labor but
must fuel any real growth with foreign exchange.
The response by industries in the industrialized
nations must be to emphasize flexibility, quality, and
service rather than scale. The need for technical talent
still exists, perhaps more so than in the past, but the
emphasis is different. Educational programs should
be adapted to produce graduates prepared to function
in this new environment.

Organizational Effectiveness
As stated earlier, Du Pont has been hiring fewer
engineers lately. Why is that? The need to become
more competitive, felt by all American industry and
especially in recent years by the chemical and pet-
roleum industries, has resulted in a marked change in
organizational structure and attitude. These changes
are much more fundamental and significant than indi-


WINTER 1987









cated by the mere change in numbers; the kind of
work and the degree of training and expertise needed
are profoundly affected.
In Du Pont, we talk about "organizational effec-
tiveness." In practice, this means doing more with
fewer people, cutting out whole layers of supervision,
depending more upon nontechnically trained people,
and reducing services and administrative support.
Figure 3 shows the change in a hypothetical R&D or
technical support organization. The total size has been
reduced 12%. The number of supervisory or manage-


OLD


JI;CTORn


NEW


10 10 10 10
OLD
SUPERVISORS /MGRS 13
AT BENCH 63
TOTAL 76
RATIO BENCH / MGRS 4.8


10 10
NEW REDUCTION
7 46%
60 5%
67 12%
8.6


FIGURE 3. Example of change in a typical technical or
R&D organization.

rial slots, however, has been reduced by 46%. The
ratio of total people doing technical work to those
supervising or managing it in some capacity has in-
creased from about 5 to about 9.
Notice the change in the kind of work that this
new structure implies. Only half as many engineers
will advance into R&D or technical supervision. The
first supervisory opportunity will be at a higher level
than before and normally will occur later in one's
career. Since there are fewer managerial personnel in
the organization, the individuals at the bench will re-
ceive less direction. This change in effect upgrades
those jobs also, which means that to function effec-
tively those doing technical work will need greater
expertise.


Young people ought not to study a field that they
do not want to practice and do not enjoy. This advice
might sound... ridiculous, but many engineering students
view the field as a stepping-stone into management.

Similar changes in manufacturing have resulted in
fewer supervisory jobs for engineers, a higher barrier
to entry into management, and a longer time spent
doing technical work before having an opportunity to
try management.
This change in the culture of a company-trying to
eliminate all nonessential work and focus on the real
business needs-has even greater effects on the staff
functions than on line organizations. Most staff jobs
are filled by technical people. The result of all this
change is more reliance upon the individual and a con-
sequent premium on knowledge and experience. Since
training people on the job is much more risky and less
affordable now than before, rotational moves are less
frequent. When vacancies created by transfer or other
reasons are filled, there are no excess people to carry
the new person while he learns the new job. Demands
upon the replacement to produce quickly are therefore
very great.
This development will gradually force a search for
more knowledge in the people we hire, manifesting
itself in a premium for the master's degree and an
increased number of experienced hires. Both trends
represent breaks in our tradition. It will also place a
greater premium on continuing education of the volun-
tary, after-hours sort.
Young people ought not to study a field that they
do not want to practice and do not enjoy. This advice
might sound so apparent as to be ridiculous, but in
fact many engineering students view the field as a
stepping-stone into management. In the past, it was
often possible to move into supervisory jobs within a
year or two, and never really learn the practice of
engineering at the bench or in the plant. In the future
the norm, even for managers, will be to practice en-
gineering for several years before the first supervi-
sory opportunity arises, and so they should be well
prepared and motivated to do so. After all, the main
criterion for promotion is nearly always to be out-
standing at the job one has.
This, then, completes the first part of this paper.
Chemical engineers in the future will need to know
more and different things than they did in the past
and be able to operate more independently at the start
of their careers. The typical career path in the chem-
ical industry will be different.
The possibility of employment in other industries
and in even greater numbers exists, but only if the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


cr4E7+i~~~~








graduate fits their needs. Let us turn now to what
those needs might be.


INDUSTRY NEEDS
We have considered the ramifications of industry's
renewed commitment to providing value to the cus-
tomer-value as the user sees it, not as the producer
might see it. Many commercial blunders and even dis-
asters can be traced back to the sincere but naive
belief that the customer would have to be crazy not to
want the producer's wonderful product. Producers
spent their energy trying to change the customer's
perception of value rather than to satisfy his desires.
The academic community has products, too-an
array of them. Probably most of all you enjoy produc-
ing and marketing your premium products-the fruits
of your own research and the PhD's you have person-
ally trained. However, your fixed costs are largely
covered by the lower end of your product line-the
BS and MS recipients-and you ignore their salability
at your peril.
Continuing this analogy, consider what your cus-
tomers are saying and how their message is being con-
veyed; only about half the graduates in many chemical
engineering schools are getting jobs in the field. If
this situation continues, many of your businesses will
fold, the smaller and weaker ones first. The problem
is more than one of economic cycles. It would not be
a good idea to dig in and wait this one out, because
there are long-term changes in American industry
that will require engineers to have different training
in the future than most of them get now. To enjoy a
continued expanding demand for your products, you
must try two approaches-first, to get your existing
customers to buy more, and second, to develop new
customers. The approach to either is the same; try to
analyze value as they see it, develop a product that
provides that value, and then convince potential cus-
tomers that your product will fill their needs better
than any other.
There are potential customers outside the tradi-
tional chemical and petroleum industries. Our en-
gineering research organization works with a number
of industrial segments involving such diverse
technologies as packaging of food products, compos-
ites for aerospace and automotive applications, artifi-
cial ligaments and diagnostic devices for the health
services industry, optical disks, opto-electronic de-
vices and ceramics for the electronics industry, and
many others. Opportunities for chemical engineers in
those fields are as great as those in the traditional
industries hiring chemical engineers. And the general


educational requirements are also similar. Therefore,
let us consider what industry in general expects from
the engineers they hire. We are potentially your cus-
tomers, but we'll seek value where we find it-from
chemical engineers or others.
The first point shown in Table 4 is essential. In


TABLE 4
What Industry Expects from ChE Grads
Maintain traditional strengths such as ability to deal with
complex, real-world problems.
Be able to function productively without extensive additional
training.
Be technically oriented.
Have the tools, motivation and ability to continue to learn.
Be able to communicate effectively.


the discussions held by the Septenary Committee in
Austin, the unanimous opinion held by representa-
tives of the electronics, chemical, and petroleum in-
dustries represented on that panel was this: Chemical
engineers are uniquely trained to apply fundamentals
to complex, unstructured problems of the kind indus-
try faces. When those problems involve molecular
change or the separation of chemical species, the pres-
ent curriculum provides a great deal of additional
knowledge that may be brought to bear. We want to
enhance those capabilities, not lose them. The asser-
tion that "chemical engineers can do anything" has
some evidence to support it, and that reputation is
invaluable to those wanting to broaden the employ-
ment spectrum of chemical engineers.

Special Knowledge
Unfortunately, they cannot do anything well with-
out some specialized knowledge. The traditional cur-
riculum provided that knowledge for the traditional
customer. If you wish to broaden your customer base,
a way of providing the special tools needed to serve
those customers must be devised, which brings up the
subject of curriculum.
In a discussion of the undergraduate curriculum,
the first question that comes to mind is: "So what?
What difference does it make whether a few courses
are added or subtracted from the curriculum, or the
teaching methods and texts are changed a little? Can't
that difference be erased during the first year or so
on the job?"
Of course it can-at a price. Many options are
available. For example, the new hire can be sent back
to school for a master's degree or for supplementary
Continued on page 50.


WINTER 1987














THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF A GRADUATE

THE BUSINESS ARENA


R. RUSSELL RHINEHART
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, TX 79409

W E HIRE ENGINEERS to effect change, to make
things work or work better-but it requires
more than technology to be an effective engineer. It
requires people skills and a "make-it-happen" mental-
ity. I think that such skills should and can be included
in the style of a technical education and that colleges
which do so will be recognized by industry as produc-
ing faster-starting, more effective graduates.
Throughout my 13-year industrial experience, I
found the technical training of engineering graduates
to be sufficiently grounded in fundamental principles
and concepts to allow the engineer to learn a specific
process technology and successfully guide technical
decisions. Schools teach technology well. However,
humans are involved in the chemical process either as
operators or as policy makers and, more often than
not, a technical process change simultaneously re-
quires a change in attitudes and perspectives. Techni-
cal change, the engineer's job, takes place within a
human environment and requires an adeptness with
human nature as well as with technology. Unless man-
agers and operators accept it, a technical change will
not happen: the engineer will be ineffective. The
human awareness required for technical effectiveness
is not, but can be, incorporated in the education ex-
perience. Because this is a time in which the market
demand for new chemical engineers is low, I think
that departments which develop industrial savvy in
their graduates will have a competitive edge.
For the first twenty years of an individual's life,
schools train him/her to be a learner and to work inde-

By analogy to the socialization
process in kindergarten, which prepares children
for the teacher/student and peer social structure
of school, there is an industrialization
process for a new graduate.


Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


R. Russell Rhinehart is an assistant professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Texas Tech University. He received his PhD from North Carolina
State University after a 13-year industrial career as an engineer and
group leader which included development of reaction systems, process
control, solvent recovery, and process safety and reliability. His interest
in the special aspects of industrial process modeling, optimization, and
control techniques led to his pursuit of an academic career.



pendently. By contrast, an engineer must become a
doer and work within a team environment. In growing
from student to engineer, an employee must inter-
nalize a new understanding of the objective and
change his/her approach to the tasks. No business
wants an engineer to stop with the statement, "I un-
derstand the process now," or "If only they'd accept
my idea we could save dollars." Business wants
the engineer to "make-it-happen." Performance ap-
proaches that make a good student are not necessarily
those that make an effective engineer.
By analogy to the socialization process in kinder-
garten, which prepares children for the teacher/stu-
dent and peer social structure of school, there is an
industrialization process for a new graduate. This in-
dustrialization process takes about two years, in-
volves several aspects, and has been widely acknow-
ledged [1-5]. With new names for the players, I will
draw upon my industrial experiences to provide some
examples of the industrialization process.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Although sometimes mathematical analysis is useful, in this instance I missed taking ownership of
business need. I appropriated the problem in pursuit of my own personal need which, I think, was to exhibit
technical competence. I would like to make two points from my story. The first is to contrast the
make-it-happen motive of business in comparison to the "develop skills" motive of the classroom.


In this article I'll describe some of the characteris-
tics of the corporate industrial arena which are both
important to business and which constitute major
changes from academia. In a subsequent article I'll
offer teaching methods which incorporate industrial
experience within formal engineering education. Such
experiences can accelerate the industrialization pro-
cess without displacing topics from an already over-
crowded curriculum.

MAKE IT HAPPEN
In a competitive business, the fundamental reason
for hiring employees is to do a job or to realize a bus-
iness opportunity, and the profit motive calls for
someone who can "make-it-happen." Wanted are ac-
tive, goal-oriented people who take ownership (inter-
nalize responsibility) of the end result and who do
whatever task is necessary to make it happen. For
example, in business the end result is not an academic
task, such as the calculation of an optimum reactor
operating temperature; rather, it may be a reduction
in operating cost that results after management
agrees to a temperature change, after operators are
trained in an associated new process procedure, and
after a process is smoothly operating at the new tem-
perature without unforeseen hitches (control stability,
heater element life, thermal degradation, etc). There
is an extra-technical perspective required to be effec-
tive in industry. Here is a personal example.
I enjoyed engineering math as a student and have
the general view that if I can model a process, I can
understand it, and I can intelligently optimize it. My
confession is important: I enjoy math. In an early pro-
ject of mine, we were developing a dry-spinning pro-
cess to extrude a new fiber. Polymer was dissolved in
a solvent, the solution was extruded through tiny
holes, and as the resulting liquid streams fell, they
dried. The continuous filaments of polymer were
wound in a criss-cross fashion on a tube to build a
wheel-like bobbin. The polymer structure within the
filaments was essentially amorphous, and subsequent
hot stretching oriented the polymer and strengthened
the fiber. The bobbin-wound filament, however, was
not totally dry; some residual solvent remained and
evaporated from the bobbin surfaces as the yarn
waited for subsequent stretching. The bobbin fiber
did not dry uniformly. Fiber at the surface dried be-
fore the internal bobbin fiber dried; and, since it was


wound in a criss-cross manner, the residual solvent
level changed every six inches along the length of the
continuous filament. The residual solvent acted as a
plasticizer and, consequently, the post-stretching pro-
cess (and resulting fiber properties) changed periodi-
cally along the fiber length. Customers don't want
such variability.
I saw an application for my training. If I could
model the bobbin residual solvent evaporation
phenomena, I could determine the length of time one
had to wait for the inside-to-surface residual solvent
difference to be so low as to not create drawing differ-
ences. After several days refreshing my math, diffu-
sion, and evaporation principles and making simplify-
ing assumptions, I was left with one unknown parame-
ter: an effective diffusivity of the solvent through the
yarn/air matrix. I then asked the lab to do some effec-
tive diffusivity measurements, and about a week later
I began to question the validity of the lab-proposed
test procedure to simulate the on-bobbin mechanisms.
Meanwhile, the fiber draw nonuniformity still existed.
Within the business priority list, nothing has hap-
pened.
Also meanwhile, two of my co-workers, Ted and
"Mr. Clean," saw that we just needed to dry the fiber
completely in the first place. So they tried this and
that and finally found a way to wind-up with dry yarn.
Within about six days all extrusion lines had been
modified, the draw uniformity was as desired, and Ted
and "Mr. Clean" went out for a beer.
The business goal was to fix the draw uniformity,
not to determine the required inventory time through
fancy modeling. Although sometimes mathematical
analysis is useful, in this instance I missed taking own-
ership of business need. I appropriated the problem
in pursuit of my own personal need which, I think,
was to exhibit technical competence.
I would like to make two points from my story.
The first is to contrast the make-it-happen motive of
business in comparison to the "develop skills" motive
of the classroom. The second is to indicate that indi-
vidual human needs can interfere with a rational view
of the objective. Extremely rare is the person who is
not driven by personal needs, who does not attempt
to exploit situations to get promoted, to exhibit com-
petence, to gain approval, to gain power. To be
maximally effective as an engineer (and as a person)
one needs to recognize his/her own personal needs and


WINTER 1987









to allow their expression only when they complement
the true goal.

Does engineering education train students
to make-things-happen? Do students
graduate understanding the hidden motives
behind human behavior?

CHANGE AND CREDIBILITY
On an average, during my engineering career I
had a new supervisor every fifteen months and
switched projects every two years. Those changes

The engineer must convince management of
his/her proper overall perspective, and because of
the constant personnel flux, the engineer must
constantly reestablish his credibility.

were in part due to promotions and in part due to
transfers in response to business needs. I believe that
such change is the rule rather than the exception, and
such change has several implications for the em-
ployee-one being the engineer's credibility.
In order to be effective in convincing management
to take a particular action, an engineer's recommenda-
tions must be considered credible within a broad inter-
disciplinary scope. Further, these recommendations
must be consistent with the business's traditions, with
national values, and with the business's long-term goal
and contingency plans. The scope of topics which en-
ters into a business decision is immense, and the re-
quired perspective is much greater than the usually
myopic, one-technology experience indicated in tech-
nical courses.
The engineer must convince management of his/
her proper overall perspective, and because of the
constant personnel flux, the engineer must constantly
reestablish his credibility. Credibility is an image. It
is a belief within others that one's work can be ac-
cepted. An engineer projects credibility by presenting
information from a technical and non-technical per-
spective which coincides with the listener's priorities
and concerns.
Managers are busy people. To make an engineer's
work easily accessible to them, the initial sentences of
oral and written communication should incorporate
the topics which are important to the manager in
terms that he understands. The initial statements
should also summarize non-technical issues and
critique the work. I'll use Neil as an incredible exam-
ple. He was as technically able and eager to produce
as anyone I have seen. His reports were technically


complete with assumptions acknowledged and de-
fended and with conclusions analyzed. However, his
work came from his own point of view. It did not incor-
porate the views of production and was not compatible
with long-term business goals. It was therefore devoid
of some important non-technical business issues, obvi-
ously incomplete, and required more analysis before
it could add business direction. Technical correctness
was his pursuit, and only after pages and pages of
development were business consequences addressed
(as though they were secondary issues). Neil's exclu-
sively technical approach and the inevitable manage-
ment frustration are characterized by this anecdote.
Neil and a manager were on a trip and the man-
ager, who was driving, noticed a sign "Highway ends
2 miles." He asked Neil to look at the map and decide
whether to turn left or right at the exit.
Neil observed red, blue, and black lines, towns be-
tween here and there, and mileage markers on the
map. He began to organize his approach to the prob-
lem. Then he asked, "What is the most important
criteria: to minimize probable time-to-destination, or
probable trip-cost?"
"Neil, there's only a mile and a half left. Which is
the best way?" Realizing "best" was a fuzzy word the
manager asked, "How would you go?"
Wishing to offer a thorough analysis, Neil com-
puted the mileage each way, estimated the toll cost
one way, mentally juggled the time delay through a
small town, but also considered the advantage of being
able to buy cheaper gas in that town. Then there was
the possibility of a ticket, which Neil wouldn't get if
he were driving, but his manager usually speeds ....
"One mile left, Neil," as he eased off the gas.
Finally, Neil gave his report in the familiar techni-
cal style of title, abstract, background ...
"You asked me which way I'd go," Neil started;
and recognizing no quick answer was coming, the
manager slowed down a bit more. "The criteria which
would guide my choice have been classified, and
weighed against them are the possible events which
might happen on either route. Additionally, my
analysis indicates a third possibility."
"We've only a half mile left, Neil. Left or right?"
"Before I recommend a direction to you, you need
to understand the criteria which I used and the as-
sumptions which I made so that you can accept or
reject their validity and decide on the appropriateness
of the decision. As Dr. X pointed out, these criteria
are subjective. For instance, if. .. ."
"NEIL!!" GIVE ME THE MAP!"
Once again, Neil is ineffective in adding direction
to his company.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Let's switch Neil for Al in that trip story, and suppose that Al were working for a
middle-of-the-road, striped-suit management. The closest Al will come to conforming to that
management style is by pedaling his bicycle down the middle of the road with his striped racing tights.


The manager would prefer to hear something like,
"Turn left. You can get there either way but the left
road promises easier driving. Want more details?"

Does an engineering education teach effec-
tive interpersonal communication skills?
Does it address professional credibility? Does
it foster multidisciplinary thinking? Do we
train people to seek and incorporate the con-
cerns of others, or do we train them to work
independently?

THE TEAM UNIFORM
Let's switch Neil for Al in that trip story, and sup-
pose that Al were working for a middle-of-the-road,
striped-suit management. The closest Al will come to
conforming to that management style is by pedaling
his bicycle down the middle of the road with his
striped racing tights. Al says to his manager, "Turn
left easier driving. ." The manager may likely
glance at Al and scowl to himself, "What's he mean by
'easier' driving? Can I trust someone whose value sys-
tem and style are so obviously misplaced to guide my
decisions? Can Al consider data rationally? After all,
look how he wears his hair. Whatever could be guiding
his choices?" Then, out loud, he might say "Yes, I
want more information. What are the distances either
way? Is there an interstate we can take?" Because of
the personal image Al presents, and in spite of his
competence and business sense, Al causes others to
question the propriety of his analysis. Al's profes-
sional credibility is questioned, and he is reduced to
the position of a technician. How long would you pay
an engineer's salary to a technician?
Perhaps it is unfair that personal eccentricities in-
fluence our impression of professional competence.
But they do. And it is a factor in having power and
being effective within a human environment. To make
it happen, it is important to "fit in"-to be in harmony
with the organization. To be accepted as a leader, one
needs to present oneself as part of the team. Although
playing well is important, one must also wear the uni-
form.

Does an engineering education address the
irrationalities of human thinking or foster
personal adaptability? Does college teach the


importance of community or does it reinforce
individualism?

NOVICE PROFESSIONALS
Management mobility requires engineers to con-
sciously present a credible professional image, but by
contrast, project mobility keeps them in a relatively
novice technical state. With moderate technical exper-
tise in the specific technologies of a job, and with pres-
sure to get results, it is commonplace to prematurely
accept an apparently successful result.
Margaret, for example, was running a pilot-scale
liquid-phase batch reactor with an objective to gener-
ate a kinetic expression for a plant reactor design.
She postulated a homogeneous phase, first order in
each reactant, Arrhenius form of the kinetic expres-
sion; and, with experiments which held the initial
reactant concentration constant, she measured the in-
itial reaction rate for several temperatures. Paying
attention to experimental design practices recently
learned in an in-house statistics course, she chose the
temperatures randomly. The Arrhenius plot of the
data [In(rate) vs (T)-1] was a straight line, as beautiful
as any encountered in a kinetics and reactor design
class, and just had to reflect her proper grasp of the
technology. From the plot she got the activation
energy and the pre-exponential and proudly reported
the results. Her boss, a mechanical engineer, viewed
the graphs, listened to her story, and was impressed
with her experimental facility. Subsequent trials at a
different concentration curiously gave a new slope to
another beautiful Arrhenius plot. Thinking it due to
uncontrolled experimental conditions, she responsibly
revised her kinetic expression-by reporting average
values. In her novice state, she did not recognize the
possibility that surface phenomena could explain the
slope differences and that her data neither confirmed
nor rejected the first order assumption. Inexperience
accepted a superficially "good" analysis. A year later
the startup crew would wrestle for months before the
reactor would be operable.

Does engineering education train people
to critique their own work, or to view the fal-
libility of their "knowledge"? What are en-
gineers likely to think of their own ability
when they receive good grades in school?


WINTER 1987









LOCAL TECHNICAL FOLKLORE
With a primary business style of make-it-happen
and move-on-to-the-next-project (the Edison ap-
proach), there is often little effort at confirming why
something worked and why it didn't. Often a technical
explanation is postulated tentatively, given as a possi-
ble cause, accepted as logical, and, as time proceeds,
such hearsay becomes generally established in the
local information data base. A tentative position is
strengthened as the postulate is subsequently refer-
enced. Technical folklore is indistinguishable from
valid technology which also resides in the oral tradi-
tion of the operators and long-term plant profession-
als. It can misguide the work of an engineer and can
be a formidable institutional mind-set to change.
As an example, years ago a polymer solution con-
centration limit of 20% was "established" as the
maximum that would still permit extrusion stability
of a fiber manufacturing plant. However, increases in
concentration promised a significant operating cost re-
duction. Jim was one of several engineers who inter-
preted R&D trials to mean that the improved
spinerette design and solution purity of the day would
allow a concentration increase up to 30%. He knew
that temperature adjustments would be necessary to
maintain viscosity at the higher concentration. The
risks of a plant-wide concentration change were high.
Realizing that the factors which affect fiber dyeability
are not well quantified, the marketing department
saw the possibility of monetary claims if a change in
fiber performance on some customer's obscure textile
process occurred. The production department feared
the havoc that an unstable plant could create. After
vice-presidential discussions, it was decided to in-
crease the concentration in 0.1% increments each
week over a two-year period. To guide the tempera-
ture compensation, Jim would monitor extrusion sta-
bility and dye properties. As it happened though,
after several months Jim was moved, his projects
were distributed among others, and an extrusion
upset occurred. Now, a ruptured filter or a crosslink
event in polymerization is a normal occurrence which
temporarily causes such an upset, but the cause was
never identified by those left "in charge." The "too
high" concentration was blamed, the plant returned
to 20%, and that bit of self-proclaiming folklore was
reinforced. Many people within the company now ac-
cept the 20% maximum as a given.

Does engineering education train students
to unquestionably accept that which they are
taught? Could it encourage students to evoke
critical thinking?


WHAT WENT WRONG
When quality or productivity is upset, the plant
and staff personnel mobilize to determine the causes)
and to take corrective action. Often the cause is not
obvious and, in fact, may be the interaction of several
effects. Sometimes a crisis is not even real. I'm re-
minded of the time a flowmeter calibration error made
it appear that we were leaking 200,000 lb/month of
solvent. Such a mobilization you never saw when that
hit the monthly production reports!
Even in research and development, where we
want things to change, I was faced with "Why didn't
that work?" more often than "How do I design this?"
An efficient engineer can systematically rule out in-
consistent hypotheses and find and fix the reason for
unexpected behavior.
Does engineering education prepare
graduates for systematic diagnostic thinking?

CLOSING
Initially, I stated that colleges do a good job in
teaching technology. It must be obvious though, that
I also think graduates are ill-prepared for some of the
non-technical aspects of an engineering profession.
We could easily do a better job in training students to
be professionals; and, in a subsequent article, I will
suggest some approaches in classroom lecture and
homework style, roles of the laboratory, directions for
humanity electives, and activities for student profes-
sional societies. I find the approaches fun as well as
effective.

EDITOR'S NOTE: The second part of Professor
Rhinehart's lecture, "Methods for Engineering
Education," will appear in the next issue of CEE.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R. M., "Does Engineering Education Have Anything
To Do With Either One?," R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.
Award, Distinguished Lecture Series, School of Engineering,
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, October, 1982. En-
gineering Education, 75(2), 95 (1984).
2. Thompson, A. L., Letter to the Editor in the October, 1985,
The Stanford Observer, the Stanford University Alumni News-
letter.
3. Roberts, W. J., "Problems at the Interface," American Chem-
ical Society Meeting, Operation Interface, University of North
Carolina, Charlotte, NC, August, 1971.
4. Editorial, "Methods of Teaching Chemistry Students Writing
Skills Aired," Chemical & Engineering News, pp. 32-33, Sep-
tember 23, 1985.
5. Garry, F. W., "What Does Industry Need? A Business Look
at Engineering Education," Engineering Education, pp. 203-
205, January, 1986. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION


congratulates


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


in its twenty-first year

of publication


WINTER 1987










classroom


SIMPLIFYING CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN

BY USING MOLAR QUANTITIES INSTEAD OF

FRACTIONAL CONVERSION*


LEE F. BROWN
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, NM 87545
JOHN L. FALCONER
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424

MOST CHEMICAL REACTORS are nonisothermal,
involve multiple reactions, have mole changes
due to reaction, or have reactions with complicated
rate expressions. In teaching reactor analysis, it is
important that the techniques we present can be
applied to these realistic situations; current ap-
proaches violate this principle.
In the textbooks on chemical reaction engineering,






---








Lee F. Brown is a staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
He has degrees from the Universities of Notre Dame and Delaware
and has had experience (and a lot of fun) in chemical engineering
research, development, design, production, reservoir engineering, and
teaching. (L)
John L. Falconer is professor of chemical engineering at the Univer-
sity of Colorado. He has a BES from the Johns Hopkins University and
a PhD from Stanford University. His research interests are in
heterogeneous catalysis on supported metals and on model catalysts,
and the application of surface analysis techniques to the study of
catalytic and gas-solid reactions. (R)

*This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Depart-
ment of Energy.


TABLE 1
Chemical Reaction Engineering Texts Using
Fractional Conversion as the Dependent Variable
Butt, 1980 Chen, 1983
Cooper, Jeffreys, 1971 Denbigh, Turner, 1981
Fogler, 1974; 1986 Froment, Bischoff, 1979
Hill, 1977 Holland, Anthony, 1979
Levenspiel, 1962, 1972 Levenspiel, 1979
Peters, Timmerhaus, 1980 Rase, 1977
Smith, 1956, 1972, 1980 Tarhan, 1983

authors use a variety of dependent variables in reactor
mass balances (see Tables 1, 2). The tables show that
fractional conversion is employed by a significant
majority of authors. We argue here that using frac-
tional conversion in these mass balances is extremely
awkward and can lead to serious confusion. Molar
quantities as dependent variables in reactor-analysis
equations make instruction much easier and chemical
reactor design more straightforward. We show this
by comparing the use of molar quantities with using
fractional conversion for different situations. We also
discuss the advantages of using differential versions
of reactor mass balances rather than the integrated
forms.

GAS-PHASE SYSTEMS
We begin with the steady-state, gas-phase, plug-
flow reactor; extension of the principles to other situ-
ations is direct. Consider a gaseous reaction, A prod-
ucts. The reaction rate rA is a function of the compo-
nent concentrations; carrying out a molar balance on
substance A over a differential control volume results


dV rA = f(CACB- C )


in which FA is the molar flow rate of substance A at
a point in the tube, and the Ci's are concentrations at


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


tIlhEjY










The tables show that fractional conversion is employed by a significant majority of authors. We
argue here that using fractional conversion in these mass balances is extremely awkward and can lead to
serious confusion. Molar quantities as dependent variables in reactor-analysis equations make
instruction much easier and chemical reactor design more straightforward.


this point. To solve this equation, both FA and rA (and
therefore the Ci's) must be expressed in terms of a
common dependent variable. Tables 1 and 2 show that
the most common dependent variable is fractional con-
version. This is the fraction of a substance's entering
molar flow rate which has been converted. For a sub-
stance A,


FA FAO(1 X)


or XA= 1-


(2)


able. In Eq. (1), the concentrations can be expressed
in terms of the molar flow rates and the ideal gas law,


= _F,[T]


and the various Fi's can be related to the dependent
variable, FA, by reaction stoichiometry. This ap-
proach offers a simple means for solving Eq. (1).


Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1) yields

FA0 = f(CA CB ..) (3)

To solve Eq. (3), the Ci's must be expressed in terms
of the fractional conversion. It will be shown that
using fractional conversion in this way frequently
leads to extremely awkward formulations of Eq. (1).
In other situations, fractional conversion cannot be
used at all as a dependent variable in reactor mass
balances.
The molar flow rate of the principal component,
FA in Eq. (1), also can be used as the dependent vari-



TABLE 2
Chemical Reaction Engineering Texts Using
Dependent Variables Other Than Fractional Conversion


Text
Aris, 1969
Carberry, 1976
Denbigh, 1966;
Denbigh, Turner, 1971,1981
Hougen, Watson, 1947
Hill, 1977**
Kramer, Westerterp, 1963

Petersen, 1965

Walas, 1959


Variable Used
extent of reaction, e = (Fi- Fio)/ci
*
moles product/unit mass

moles converted/unit mass feed
extent of reaction
mass fraction formed or
converted
moles/amt. mass numerically
equal to MW of feed
moles converted/unit mass feed


*A single dependent variable is not used. A variable is chosen ap-
propriate to the situation being considered.
**Fractional conversion is used in reactor equations (cf. Table 1),
but extent of reaction is used in other contexts.


DIFFERENTIAL OR INTEGRAL FORMS OF EQUATIONS?

For most realistic cases, reactor-analysis equa-
tions cannot be solved to give analytic closed-form sol-
utions, and numerical techniques must be used. A
method such as a Runge-Kutta technique can be used
to solve the differential equation or equations directly.
In many cases, an alternative attack is possible; the
variables can be separated and the integrals evaluated
using Simpson's rule or some other scheme.
We prefer the first approach, because separation
of variables merely adds an unnecessary step which
gives no advantage in solution technique. Moreover,
direct solution of the differential equations yields the
flow rates, concentrations, temperature, and pressure
as functions of location or time in the reactor. This
enables the analyst to establish the location or point
in time of hot spots, critical concentrations, or danger-
ous pressures. This is not possible when the separated
variables are integrated numerically; to obtain an
equivalent result, separate integration would have
to be carried out for each location or time desired.
Most important, though, the approach involving
direct solution of the differential equations is better
because it can be extended to situations where the
variables are not separable, such as nonisothermal
reactors with heat exchange, many multiple-reaction
systems, and most unsteady-state flow systems. For
these reasons, we consider only the differential equa-
tions in our comparisons.

CONSTANT-DENSITY SYSTEMS

Constant mass-density reactor systems make a
significant class that merits consideration. For exam-
ple, most liquid-phase systems do not change density
much during a chemical reaction. Thus the volumetric


C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


WINTER 1987









flow rate q in liquid-flow reactors is usually not altered
signifitahtly, and the molar concentration CA can be
set equal to FA/q. For this reason, either concentra-
tions or molar flow rates are useful variables in a flow
reactor with a constant-density process. However, for
an unsteady-state flow system, the numbers of moles
of substances in the reactor are the only acceptable
dependent variables. This is shown below in the sec-
ond example.


EXAMPLES
Case 1: Isothermal multiple-reaction system
Reactor system: A gas-phase, steady-state, plug-flow
reactor.
k, k2
Reactions: A + 2B C D + E
+k3
F + -G

Rate laws: rA = k CACB k CAY
rB = 2klCACB
rc = k CAaCBSB -k2Cc
rD = E = k2 C 6; rF = 2rG = k C

Reactor design equations using molar flow rates:


dF a+ )
dV I F kA+FB+F +FG E G I F




dF Fk 1 i (F ) (F
dV 1 FA+F+F+F j [RTJ A B


dFC f 1 1rP
= k A B E G I (FA ) F)





dFF ff 1 1f lir
dF dF
dV dV 1F+F +F+FjiRTJI c


=_ 2Il -= k f 1 I (F )
dV dV 3 F +FB F + IRTJ A
LAO B E j


Reactor design equations using fractional conversions:


S. I a+
dXA k Fa+r -1 F 1F[
dV 1 AO [FA0O-XA+ (FB/FA)-XA+1.5X

S (1 xA)( a 2XACj
F AO
Y
+ k F-1jiF -X (i, 1 *-rP (X
A3 AOAOAOXA(F/F c1)5X J+FJ [RT A)

(10)

FrAC 1 a+- l 1 ) a+P
dV = 0 -XA( BO/F A)- AC+l.5X ]+F RT

l A] y AO AyC
1 X 2XAC]


k2F1 (FAoL-X(F B/FAO -AC+l .5XJ+F (XAC
(11)

kd 2A F FS- A(BO AC! XACIf*X ]+AC
dV F =kF- [A-XA+(F O/F -XA+1.5X i+F R (XAC
(12)

dX AF Y-k 1-P
- = kFAO [FAoLl-XA+(F BO/FAo -XAC+l .5X J+F TJ(1 XA)


Comments: Using the fractional conversion in mul-
tiple-reaction systems requires the definition and use
of several subsidiary fractional conversions. In this
(5) example, XAC is the fraction of A converted only to
C, not to D, E, F, or G; XAD is the fraction of A
converted only to D; XAF is the fraction of A con-
verted only to F, and XA = XAC + XAD +XAF. Not
(6) only are the mass balances much simpler when molar
flow rates are used, but they do not require the tor-
tured mental convolutions necessary for implementa-
tion of the subsidiary fractional conversions. The de-
nominators in the mass balances are especially dif-
ficult for students to create correctly. As shown
above, the molar flow rates are straightforward to
define and use, even in complicated, multiple-reaction
systems.
Of the differential equations presented for each ap-
(8) proach, only three are necessary, since only three in-
dependent reactions occur. Stoichiometric equiva-
lences can determine the other flow rates, e.g., FF =
FAO (FA + FC + FD)
(9)


Case 2: Isothermal stirred tank with outflow
Reactor system: A tank reactor with a steady out-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









flow starting at t = 0. Initial charge contains reactant
A and inerts; the outflow volumetric flow rate is qf.
This might describe a leaking nuclear waste site.
k
Reaction: A B
Rate law: rA = kCA

Reactor design equations using molar quantities:
dN N.
d= kNA qf( V (14)

V = V0 qft (15)


Reactor design equation using fractional conversion:
None possible.

Comments: Using molar quantities, the mass bal-
ance can be integrated analytically; the solution is

N A =NAe-kt1 (qft/V0)] (16)

This is one of the simplest unsteady-state reactor sys-
tems, yet it appears impossible to express the mass
balance in terms of fractional conversion without also
including at least one molar quantity as a variable.
Because A reacts, leaves, or remains in the reactor,
t
NA(t) = NA0[ XA(t)] qf J [NA(B)/V(B)]dB (17)
0
and NA must also be included as a variable. Hill [11,
p. 301] has noted this difficulty. In contrast, the sub-
stance A in a batch reactor is restricted to either
reacting or remaining in the reactor, and NA can be
expressed as NAO(1-XA). Similarly, in a steady-state,
stirred-tank flow reactor, A either reacts or leaves,
and FA can be expressed as FAO(1-XA). For unsteady-
state systems with an outflow stream, too many pos-
sibilities are present, and fractional conversions can-
not be used.
Case 3: Reactor with an entering side stream
Reactor system: Steady-state, isothermal, plug-
flow reactor with entering side stream FA10. Feed
contains A and inerts; the side stream entering the
reactor at point V1 is pure A. This configuration
avoids a high initial concentration of A in order to
reduce production of undesired product C.
kl k2
Reactions: A + B (desired); 2A + C (undesired)

Rate laws: rA = k CA 2k2CA2

rB = klCA; r = k2CA2
r =k *r s C 2A


Reactor design equations using molar flow rates:

FA = FAO F 2Fc 18)

B = k FATF F (19)


dFc 1 F 2 (20)
dV F F + F A

B.C.: At V = 0: FA = FAO; FATo FA
At V = Vl: F A FA + FAl0; FATO =FA + F10 (21)

Reactor design equations using fractional conversions:

X XA + XAC (22)

X A k f ((1 XA) (23)
dV ATO AC) + F) (9T) A)

dXA 2 2T( 1 -I FATO(1 -XA)2 (24)
dV AT1 X )+ F I[RTATO A

B.C.:
At V = 0: FATU= F A; XA = 0; XAC = 0

At V = V : FT= F 0 + FAlO; XABI+ (F oX )/(FAD + F10)
XA+ = (FAoXACl-)/(F A + FA10) (25)


Comments: Here, use of fractional conversions not
only makes the mass balances more involved, but se-
verely complicates the boundary conditions.

Case 4: Energy balance for reactor with heat transfer.

Reactor system: Nonisothermal, gas-phase, plug-
flow reactor with heat transfer (catalytic oxidation of
o-xylene to produce phthalic anhydride).


kl
Reactions: A + 3B -* C + 3D
k2
C + 7.5B 2D + 8E
k3
A + 10.5B k- 5D + 8E

Rate laws [11]:
r = klCA k3CA
A A 3A


(A is o-xylene,
B is oxygen,
C is phthalic anhydride,
0 is water,
E is carbon dioxide)



[ki = Ai exp(-Ei/RT)]
1 2.


r, = 3k CA 7.5k2Cc 10.5k CA

rc = kCA k2Cc
rD = 3k CA + 2k2 C 5k3 C
rE = 8k2CC + 8k3 C


Energy balance equation using molar flow rates:


WINTER 1987










Another benefit to using the differential equations occurs because students tend to memorize
the integrated forms for particular cases. They then use the integrated forms even when the variables
are not separable. This happens much less frequently when the differential-equation approach is taught.


dT 1 I
TV F CPA +F PB C PC+F D +PD F E I P
APA EPE CPC DP Li+ I PT

S= +FA+F C +F +FE +F I

A e-E1/RT FA)(-H ) + A e-E2/RT(FC)(-AH r2
(26)
+ A3e-E3/RT(F )(-AAH3) (4U/D)(T-T)exJ

Energy balance equation using fractional conversions:

dT 1
ddV F{(-X)CpA [( /FAo)-(3XAc+10.5XA )ICp-
+XAC CPC+(3XA +5XAE )CPD+8XAEC PE}+F I C

1fr
SF A(1-XA +X AC+2.5X )+F +F T
tAD A AC AEXO~ E I

FAOLAle-El/RT(-XA)(-AHrl + A2e-2/RT(XAC )(- r2)

+ A3e-3/RT(1-X)(-AHr3)] (4U/D)(T-Tx)
(27)

Comments: Only the energy balance is presented
here; the superiority of the molar quantity approach
in multiple-reaction mass balances was illustrated in
Case 1. In energy balances as in mass balances, the
molar-quantity approach is invariably more
straightforward for all but the simplest systems. If
fractional conversions are used, the denominators,
especially in energy balances, become extremely com-
plex and are difficult to derive and explain.


ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES TO MOLAR QUANTITIES
When fractional conversion is used as a dependent
variable in mass and energy balances, additional
parameters are sometimes introduced to simplify the
forms of the equations. For example, parameters have
been defined for molar ratios of feeds and for volume
change upon reaction [15, 11, 8]. Introduction of these
parameters is not necessary when molar quantities
are used; rather, retention of the molar quantities in
the numerical algorithm makes these parameters un-
necessary.
Earlier, we presented several advantages of using
differential equations instead of using the integrated
forms. Another benefit to using the differential equa-


tions occurs because students tend to memorize the
integrated forms for particular cases. They then use
the integrated forms even when the variables are not
separable. This happens much less frequently when
the differential-equation approach is taught.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Teaching of undergraduate reactor design can be
improved by using molar quantities as variables in the
differential equations for the mass and energy bal-
ances. This approach has several advantages over the
more common approach of using fractional conversion
in the integrated versions of the balances:
1) Most industrial reactor systems contain multi-
ple reactions, nonisothermal reactors, pressure drop,
complicated rate expressions, and reactions with mole
changes. The equations must be solved numerically,
and this approach can be directly applied to these sys-
tems. If students are taught other methods, they must
still learn this approach to do practical calculations
since fractional conversions are unsuitable as a design
variable for complicated systems.
2) For semibatch reactors, unsteady-state
CSTR's, and systems with side streams, fractional
conversion cannot be defined easily. The use of molar
quantities in these systems is straightforward.
3) Separate parameters are not needed to handle
mole changes in gas-phase reactions.
4) By solving the differential equations instead of
separating the variables and integrating the balances,
the flow rates and temperatures are obtained at points
along the reactor length (or molar amounts are ob-
tained as functions of time in a batch reactor) instead
of only at the end point.
5) Molar quantities are physically more interpret-
able variables in many cases. For example, the molar
flow rate does not change when the temperature or
pressure changes, or when inerts are added. On the
other hand, the concentration changes when tempera-
ture, pressure, or amount of inerts is changed, and
the parameter accounting for volume variation
changes when inerts are added. The molar flow rate
will change only due to chemical reaction when no
material is removed or added before the reactor exit.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The seminal contribution of Dr. Jack K. Nyquist


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. is acknowledged.
While a graduate student at the University of Col-
orado in the 1960's, he convinced one of the authors
(LFB) of the superiority of the molar-quantities ap-
proach. The use of a form of the molar-quantities ap-
proach in the book by Franks [9] also contributed to
the authors' formulation of ideas in this area. Discus-
sions with other Boulder faculty members, especially
with Professor David E. Clough, have been very help-
ful.


REFERENCES

1. R. Aris, Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis. Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969.
2. J. Butt, Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design. Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.
3. J. J. Carberry, Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineer-
ing. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976.
4. N. H. Chen, Process Reactor Design. Allyn and Bacon, Bos-
ton, 1983.
5. A. R. Cooper and G. V. Jeffreys, Chemical Kinetics and Reac-
tor Design. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1971.
6. K. G. Denbigh; K. G. Denbigh and J. C. R. Turner, Chemical
Reactor Theory-An Introduction. Cambridge University
Press, London, 1966, 1971, 1981.
7. H. S. Fogler, The Elements of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor
Calculations: A Self-Paced Approach. Prentice-Hall, En-
glewood Cliffs, NJ, 1974.
8. H. S. Fogler, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering.
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986.
9. R. G. E. Franks, Mathematical Modeling in Chemical En-
gineering. Wiley, New York, 1967.
10. G. F. Froment and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analysis
and Design. Wiley, New York, 1979.
11. C. G. Hill, Jr., An Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Kinetics and Reactor Design. Wiley, New York, 1977.
12. C. D. Holland and R. G. Anthony, Fundamentals of Chemical
Reaction Engineering. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
1979.
13. O. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, Chemical Process Princi-
ples. Part Three-Kinetics and Catalysis. Wiley, New York,
1947.
14. H. Kramer and K. R. Westerterp, Elements of Chemical
Reactor Design and Operation. Academic Press, New York,
1963.
15. O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering. Wiley, New
York, 1962, 1972.
16. 0. Levenspiel, The Chemical Reactor Omnibook. Oregon
State University Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis, OR, 1979.
17. M. S. Peters and K. D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design and
Economics for Chemical Engineers, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1980.
18. E. E. Petersen, Chemical Reaction Analysis. Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1965.
19. H. F. Rase, Chemical Reactor Designfor Process Plants. Vol.
1. Principles and Techniques; Vol. 2. Case Studies and Design
Data. Wiley, New York, 1977.
20. J. M. Smith, Chemical Engineering Kinetics. McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1956, 1970, 1980.


21. M. 0. Tarhan, Catalytic Reactor Design. McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1983.
22. S. M. Walas, Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engineers.
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.


NOMENCLATURE

Roman
A pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius expression
for reaction-rate "constant," various units
C concentration, mol/m3
Cp molar heat capacity, J/(mol)(K)
D diameter of tubular reactor, m
E activation energy of reaction, J/mol
F molar flow rate, mol/s
AHr change in enthalpy upon reaction, J/mol
k reaction-rate "constant," various units
N number of moles in reactor, mol
P total pressure in reactor, Pa
q volumetric flow rate, m3/s
R universal gas constant, (Pa)(ms)/(mol)(K) or
J/(mol)(K)
r reaction rate, mol created/(m8)(s)
T temperature, K; without subscript, the temper-
ature of the reacting fluid, K
t time, s
U overall heat transfer coefficient between react-
ing fluid and external heating or cooling
medium, J/(s)(m2)(K)
V reactor volume or volume of reacting mixture,
m3
X fractional conversion, dimensionless
y mole fraction, dimensionless

Greek
a stoichiometric coefficient, dimensionless
p dummy variable in Eq. (17), s
E extent of reaction, mol/s

Subscripts
A, B, C, D, E,F,G of substances A, B,C,D,E,F, or G
ex of external heating or cooling medium
f final value or relating to the effluent stream
I of inert components
i of the i'th component or of the input stream
0 at the entrance to the reactor or at time zero
T total amount
1 referring to point 1 in reactor
1,2,3 referring to Reaction 1,2, or 3

Superscripts
Superscripts indicate order of reaction with respect to
the superscripted term. D


WINTER 1987









tj 2 laboratory


CHEMICAL REACTION EXPERIMENT FOR


THE UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY


K. C. KWON, N. VAHDAT and W. R. AYERS
Tuskegee University
Tuskegee, AL 36088

USKEGEE'S CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Depart-
ment was founded in 1977 and was accredited by
the EAC/ABET in 1983. There are approximately
eighty students presently enrolled. Three chemical
engineering laboratory classes are taught; one for
junior students and two for senior students. The first
laboratory class consists mainly of fluid mechanics and
heat transfer experiments. The second laboratory con-
sists mainly of mass transfer, thermodynamics and
chemical reaction experiments, as shown in Table 1.
Approximately twelve of the experiments are done in
any one semester with the choice being made by the
instructor. The third chemical engineering laboratory
consists of process control experiments. The labora-
tory classes are offered twice a year with an average
class size of ten students, usually divided into three
groups. Each student must analyze the data, make

K. C. Kwon is an associate
professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Tuskegee University. He
received his BS from Hanyang
University, Seoul, Korea, his MS
from the University of Denver,
and his PhD from Colorado r
School of Mines. His industrial
experience includes five years
as a process engineer at the
synthetic fuel division of Gulf
Oil Company, Tacoma, Wash-
ington. His research interests in-
clude reaction kinetics, coal con-
version, fuels from renewable
bio-mass and transport properties. (L)
N. Vahdat is Coordinator of the Chemical Engineering Department
at Tuskegee University. He received his BS from Abadan Institute of
Technology, Iran, his MS from the University of California, and his PhD
from the University of Manchester, England. His research interests in-
clude thermodynamics of solutions and transport properties of polymer
systems. (C)


the necessary calculations and submit a written report
conforming to acceptable standards.

CHEMICAL REACTION EXPERIMENT
For Experiment 16, anthracene is hydrogenated
with molecular hydrogen in the absence of catalyst in
a batch-type microreactor to identify the reaction
order, the reaction rate constant, the frequency factor
and the activation energy for the anthracene-hydro-
gen reaction system shown in Eq. 1.


= + H2
anthracene


9,10-di hydroanthracene


EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
The 316 stainless steel microreactor assembly con-
sists of a 1/2 inch tee, an 11-inch piece of high pressure
3/8" O.D. tubing and a shut-off valve. The tee is the


,a~-,

W. R. Ayers is a visiting faculty member at Tuskegee University.
He received his BChE (1952) from Clarkson University. He was a field
engineer with DuPont's engineering department from 1951 to 1959, a
process engineer with Thiokol Corporation from 1959 to 1960 and a
process engineer/senior research engineer with DuPont's Pigments De-
partment (now C&P Department) from 1960 to 1981 when he retired.
His research interests are primarily related to DuPont's chloride process
for the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigment. (R)


0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Three laboratory classes are taught; one for
juniors and two for seniors. The first consists mainly
of fluid mechanics and heat transfer experiments. The
second consists mainly of mass transfer, thermodynamics
and chemical reaction experiments.


CONTROL PANEL


3/8" high pressure
tubing


1/2" Union tee
microreactor


FIGURE 1. Microreactor Assembly


actual microreactor and is connected to the shut-off
valve by the 3/8" tubing (see Figure 1). A ther-
mocouple extends through the tubing and into the
microreactor, allowing temperature monitoring of the
reactants throughout the experiment. A quick-con-
nect is attached to the shut-off valve in order to intro-
duce hydrogen into the microreactor assembly during
charging and to release excess hydrogen from the


TABLE 1
List of Experiments for the ChE LAB II

EXP. NO. DESCRIPTION
1 Continuous Distillation with Total Reflux
2 Continuous Distillation with Feed at Bubble
Point
3 Batch Distillation in a Packed Column
4 Fluid Flow Through a Packed Column
5 Flow Through a Fluidized Bed
6 Filtration
7 Gas Chromatograph
8 Evaporation
9 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
10 Liquid-Liquid Equilibria
11 Liquid Extraction
12 Hydrodynamics of a Packed Column
13 Absorption of CO2 in Water/Analysis of Gas
Streams
14 Absorption of COz in Water/Analysis of Liquid
Solutions
15 Heats of Solution
16 Reaction Kinetics of the Anthracene-Hydrogen
System
17 Spray Drying


FIGURE 2. Fluidized Sand Bath


microreactor after an experimental run is completed.
The total internal volume of the microreactor is
roughly 13 cc. The microreactor assembly is sub-
merged and heated in a fluidized sand bath (see Figure
2) and is shaken throughout the experimental run in
order to eliminate the mass transfer effects. The sand
bath temperature is adjusted using a thermocouple
and temperature controller.


EXPERIMENT DETAILS

A series of anthracene hydrogenation experiments
is conducted at 375C, 400'C, and 4250C. The micro-
reactor is charged with 0.1 g anthracene, 2.0 g 1-
methylnaphthalene as a physical solvent and 1200 psig
hydrogen at room temperature. After being charged
with the reactants, the reactor is attached to the
shaker mechanism and is submerged in the preheated
fluidized sand bath.
Following hydrogenation of anthracene at the de-
sired reaction time and temperature, the reactor is
quenched in cold water and the excess hydrogen is
released. The liquid products, consisting of an-
thracene, 9-10 dihydroanthracene and 1-methyl-
naphthalene, are injected into a gas chromatograph,


WINTER 1987


Thermocouple


Quick- connect
for pressurizing
microreactor
















1.0





-ln(l- X )
0.5


0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Reaction Times (Minutes)
FIGURE 3. Conversions of Anthracene vs. Reaction Times


equipped with a flame-ionization detector, an inte-
grator-plotter and an 8 ft. long, 1/8 inch O.D., SP 2100
packed column, to analyze conversions of anthracene
to 9,10-dihydroanthracene.

DATA ANALYSIS
The reaction data, anthracene conversions vs reac-
tion times, are plotted on semi-logarithmic paper to
identify the reaction order for the anthracene-hydro-


5





4
-Ink


1.45 1.50


RECIPROCAL REACTION TEMPERATURE X 103, K-'
FIGURE 4. Reaction Rate Constants vs. Reaction Temper-
atures


gen system. A typical plot is shown in Figure 3 and
produces a straight line through the origin, indicating
that the anthracene-hydrogen reaction system is first
order. Reaction rate constants are calculated by ap-
plying conversion vs. reaction time data to the first-
order reaction equation, as shown in Eq. 2.


-kn (1 XA) = kt
A


where XA = fractional conversion of anthracene
k = reaction rate constant, min-
t = reaction time, minutes
The activation energy and the frequency factor for
the anthracene-hydrogen reaction system were found
to be 2.699 x 107 cal/gmole and 1.215 x 104 min-1, re-
spectively, by applying reaction rate constant vs reac-
tion temperature data to the Arrhenius' Law, as
shown in Equation 3 and Figure 4.

k = k exp(- AE/RT) (3)

where k = reaction rate constant, min-'
ko = frequency factor, min-
AE = activation energy, cal/gmole
R = ideal gas constant, cal/gmole-K
T = reaction temperature, K

CONCLUSION
A series of reaction samples is obtained by per-
forming reaction runs at the desired hydrogenation
temperatures and times. These samples are analyzed
using a gas chromatograph.
This batch-type microreactor has several advan-
tages over other type reactors in carrying out reaction
experiments for undergraduate laboratory classes:

It takes a short time (1 minute) to increase reac-
tor temperatures from an ambient temperature
to a desired reaction temperature in comparison
with conventional autoclave reactors. Therefore,
several experimental runs can be conducted dur-
ing the 3-hour class.
It is easy to clean a reactor after finishing a reac-
tion experiment and then to prepare another ex-
perimental setup.
Reactants such as anthracene, 1-methyl-
naphthalene and hydrogen are needed in small
quantities, in comparison with other conven-
tional autoclave reactors.
There are fewer leakage problems with micro-
reactors during reaction experiments at high
temperatures and pressures, in comparison with
conventional autoclave reactors which utilize
stirring systems. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


AN: O.lg
I-MN 2g
H2 1200 psig (cold)









REVIEW: Economic Evaluation
Continued from page 5.
of process applications.
The book is broken down into six chapters with
the first chapter giving a very simple survey of the
principles of economic evaluation with many generali-
zations. The second chapter is on the subject of capital
and is an adequate survey for providing overall infor-
mation with few details. Chapter Three on production
costs and Chapter Four on capacity economics are pre-
sented in the same general survey form as Chapter
Two, with a very simplified description, a few illustra-
tions, and definition of terms. Probably the most use-
ful chapter in the book is the fifth chapter which deals
with year-by-year economics. It is almost completely
a word discussion, with no base equations being given
for the relationships which are presented in the
numerous examples. This chapter gives the general
ideas of discounted cash flow, net present value, and
year-by-year accounting, but very little useful quan-
titative information on the various methods is given.
There is nothing included on income taxes or modern
depreciation based on recent Federal laws.
The final chapter on computer processes is a very
simplified presentation based on flow diagrams and
block schedules. No examples and no problems are
included. The book concludes with a seven-page glos-
sary of terms and a twelve-page index.
The book can serve as a useful over-view for
economic evaluation in the chemical process indus-
tries, but it would not serve as a teaching text because
of the lack of quantitative information. The material
it presents is given in easy-to-understand language
with very little mathematics background required. It
would be of use as an introduction to the subject for
someone who needed to get an overall picture of the
methods and basis of economic evaluation for indus-
trial processes without getting into technical de-
tails. E[


PRINCIPLES OF POLYMER SYSTEMS,
2ND EDITION
by Ferdinand Rodriguez; McGraw-Hill Book Com-
pany,
New York, 1982; pages xvi, 575, $29.95
Reviewed by
D. R. Paul
University of Texas at Austin
The first edition of this book appeared in 1970 as
a text for polymer courses primarily in chemical en-
gineering departments, although at that time not


many departments taught such courses. The second
edition is part of the well-known and respected
McGraw-Hill Chemical Engineering Series. This fact
may be taken as one indication of the degree to which
instruction in polymers has been incorporated into
chemical engineering departments since 1970.
The second edition follows the same format as the
first and is essentially an updated version of that book.
While substantial progress has occurred in the science
and technology of polymers during the years between
the appearance of the first and second editions, the
goal of the book is to present to the beginning student
basic principles of the subject which largely remain
timeless; however, all of the dated content of the first
edition, such as production statistics, has been ap-
propriately made current. The lengths of both editions
are approximately the same so about the same amount
of material was removed as was added. The main
strengths of the new version are more problems at
the end of various chapters, plus greatly expanded
lists of specific and general references which should
help introduce the student to the modern literature.
The first three chapters deal with basic issues of
polymer molecular and physical structure to give a
framework for understanding properties. The next
three chapters are devoted to polymerization reac-
tions and processes and the closely linked issue of the
description and measurement of molecular weight and
its distribution. The following three chapters deal
with theological behavior ranging from laminar flow
of solutions and melts, to viscoelasticity at small defor-
mations and finally ultimate failure properties of
polymers under use-type conditions. The next chapter
introduces the reader to other types of properties than
mechanical ones with a strong, and appropriate, em-
phasis on electrical behavior. The following chapter
deals with types and mechanisms of polymer degrada-
tion with equal focus on how these problems can be
avoided or solved by the use of various additives. This
is a feature unique to this textbook and is one of its
really strong points. The reader is then introduced
qualitatively to some of the common processing and
fabricating techniques. The entire book could be made
stronger at this point by more detailed analyses of
some of these operations to show how theological
data, introduced earlier, can be used in practice and
how molecular weight and its distribution is a power-
ful way of tailoring polymers for these specific proces-
sing methods. In turn, an excellent opportunity could
have been provided to show the chemical engineering
student how the latter ties to the polymerization
mechanism, conditions, and process to give a glimpse
of the strong interrelationship between each of these
Continued on page 46.


WINTER 1987









S classroom


MICROCOMPUTER-AIDED

CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN


S. D. ROAT AND
S. S. MELSHEIMER
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0909

THE LOW PRICE and interactive nature of personal
microcomputers have led to their widespread use
in chemical engineering education in a variety of appli-
cations. Several universities now require students to
own PC's, and at most others personal computer
laboratories are readily available to students. Micro-
computer software is rapidly being developed to dem-
onstrate and teach various aspects of chemical en-
gineering [1,2]. Chemical engineering process
dynamics and control is a course particularly well
suited for microcomputer application.
This paper describes a single input/single output
feedback control systems design program for IBM PC
and compatible microcomputers. Menu-driven, in-
teractive, and user-friendly, it displays control sys-
tems in terms of block diagrams and uses the graphics
capability of the computer in presenting results. The
scope of exercises that can be given using this pro-
gram may be inferred from the main menu shown in
Figure 1.
The program is limited to those systems which can
be described in terms of first order transfer functions


A I b

Stephen S. Melsheimer received his BS at Louisiana State Univer-
sity, and his PhD at Tulane University. He is currently professor of
chemical engineering at Clemson University. His research interests in-
clude automatic process control and applied numerical methods. (L)
Suzanne D. Roat received her BS in chemical engineering at Clem-
son University in 1985. She is currently working toward a PhD in
chemical engineering at the University of Tennessee in their Measure-
ments and Control Center. (R)

and pure time delays, but the open loop system can
have an overall order of up to four. Thus, the control
loop to be studied can be rather complex and challeng-
ing, but open loop underdamped systems are
excluded, as are non self-regulating processes.
A heat exchanger temperature control loop used
for a number of examples in the textbook by Smith
and Corripio [3] will be used to illustrate the various
applications of the program. A schematic depiction
and a block diagram for this system (page 177, 179 of
Smith and Corripio) are shown in Figure 2. The trans-
fer functions are as follows


G = 0.016/(3s + 1)
Gs = 50/(30s + 1)


FIGURE 1. Main Menu Screen


GF = -3.33/(30s + 1)
GT = 1/(30s + 1)


H = 1/(10s + 1)
where Gv is the final control element (valve), and H
is the measuring element (sensor-transmitter). Gs is
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















Process tluic
F(i, kg/s
T, It, C


Heat exchanger




TCor..oler Vve

mA mA A kg/s


Sensor transmtter

FIGURE 2. Schematic and Block Diagrams for Heat Ex-
changer Control Loop (Reprinted from Principles and
Practice of Automatic Process Control, Smith and Cor-
ripio; John Wiley, 1985)

the process transfer function for the manipulated
input (steam), and GT and GF are the process transfer
functions for disturbances in the input temperature
and flow rate respectively. The controller, G,, is to be
designed by the student.

OPEN LOOP SIMULATION
The loop is first configured as shown in Figure 3.
Note that deadtime (transportation delay) is permit-
ted in both Process 2 and the Measuring Element.
The open loop system response to either a servo (ma-


FIGURE 3. Block Diagram Setup Screen


This paper describes a single input/single output
feedback control systems design program for IBM PC
and compatible microcomputers. Menu-driven,
interactive, and user-friendly, it displays control
systems in terms of block diagrams and uses the
graphics capability in presenting results.


nipulated input) or load (disturbance) forcing may be
computed with either step or pulse input functions.
For a disturbance forcing in the example problem,
Process 3 would be used to represent either GT or GF
as appropriate. The "actual response" in Figure 4
shows a step response plot obtained for a manipulated
input forcing for the heat exchanger control system.
This plot can be easily recorded on a dot-matrix
printer, and a printed listing of the system response
can be obtained as well.
One simple exercise with the program is to have
the student simulate a first order process (e.g., Gs in
this system), and then sequentially add additional lags
and/or deadtimes to the system. The effect of lags on
the system response can thus be seen very graphi-
cally.


SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION

In practice, analytic models for the elements in a
control loop are often not available, and experimental
testing must be used to identify a model for the pro-
cess. This may be done either directly from time do-
main response data, or by tranforming the data into
the frequency domain to get a system Bode plot. The
control system design package provides for both time
domain analysis of step response data ("process reac-
tion curve" modeling) and frequency domain analysis
of pulse test data. The program is designed so that


















FIGURE 4. Open Loop Response and First-Order Plus
Deadtime Model


WINTER 1987








the data to be analyzed is read from a file on disk.
Exercises may thus be given where the data is ob-
tained from an open loop simulation as described
above, but the program may also be used to analyze
data obtained from a different computer simulation,
or from laboratory experiments.

STEP TEST MODELING
The first-order plus deadtime (FOPDT) model is
commonly used to fit step response data from over-
damped systems [3]. It is easily and reliably fit, and
a number of feedback controller tuning formulas are
based on it. The FOPDT transfer function is

=C G(s) Ke-ts = Process output (
m(s) T s + 1 Process input

where K, T, and to are the gain, time constant, and
apparent deadtime to be determined. The time domain
solution for a step forcing of magnitude A is

c(t) = KA[ e(tto)/) u(t to) (2)

where u is the unit step function. The actual response
curve in Figure 4 is a "typical" step response, or "pro-
cess reaction curve."
The process gain, K, is obviously
C
K ss (3)

where Cs, is the final value of the process output.
There are numerous methods of determining the
values of to and T to fit the model to the curve [3]. In
the earliest method developed, a line is drawn tangent
to the curve at the point of maximum slope. The dead-
time, to, is then the time at which the tangent line
intersects the abscissa, and the time constant is given
by

A (4)
S

where S is the slope of the tangent line. Another
method fits the model through the actual step re-
sponse curve at two points. Recommended values [4]
are where the response reaches 28.3% and 63.2% of
the final value. In Eq. (2), this is at tl = (to + T/3) and
t2 = (to + T) respectively. Thus,

1 = (t2 ) (5)

to = t2 (6)

Other variations on these schemes are discussed in


introductory control texts [3,5,6,7,8]. The curve fit-
ting method used in the program is similar to the sec-
ond method described above. However, it fits the
FOPDT model to the process reaction curve in a least
squares sense over the range of 20% to 80% response.
For accurate, non-noisy data, the results are very
close to Eqs. (5) and (6). However, the least squares
fit would be less susceptable to error should the data
be noisy. The program displays the FOPDT model
response on the same screen as the actual response
curve for comparison. Figure 4 shows the results for
the example system described earlier. Students can
be assigned to compare the FOPDT models obtained
from the computer curve-fit to those from one or more
hand calculated fits.

FREQUENCY DOMAIN MODELING
If frequency response data on a system can be ob-
tained, it is possible to fit a transfer function that is
more complex than the FOPDT model discussed
above. In addition, well-established controller tuning
criteria [9] are available which are based on the open-
loop system frequency response data. The most com-
mon method of obtaining such data in chemical process
applications is by Fourier analysis of pulse-test data.
Direct sinusoidal forcing could be used in principle,
but is usually impractical in chemical process systems
[3].
The relevent equations are readily derived. The
system transfer function is defined by

Sy(t)e-stdt
G(s) = '()= 0 (7)
X(s) x(t)e-stdt

0
where x(t) and y(t) are the input and output functions,
respectively. If the Laplace variable s is replaced by
j( one obtains

o y(t)e-Jetdt
G(jw) = 0 (8)
F x(t)e-jwtdt
0
Now, if the system input is a pulse, the integral be-
comes


o y(t)e-jwtdt
G(jw) = 0 x(t
f 1 x(t)e-jwtdt
0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









since the values of y(t) and x(t) are zero after some
finite time (To and Ti respectively). Expanding the
complex exponential by the Euler relation makes it
clear that the integrals are readily evaluated with
standard quadrature methods (e.g., trapezoidal rule)
T T
Soy(t)cos(wt)dt j y(t)sin(Tt)dt
G(jw) = 0 0 (10)
i i
x(t)cos(wt)dt j x(t)sin(wt)dt
0 0
Specialized quadrature methods are available [6] that
give more accuracy at high frequencies. At each fre-
quency of interest, the integrals are evaluated to ob-
tain the complex number G(jw), from which the
amplitude ratio and phase angle of the system are ob-
tained

AR = IG(jw)I (11)
S= 4G(jw) (12)
































FIGURE 5. Amplitude Ratio and Phase Angle Plots of
Bode' Diagram.
Bode iagram.ur


Note that this involves a lot of calculation. Hand calcu-
lation of frequency response data from pulse test re-
sults is not practical, so any exercises involving pulse
testing must involve computer data analysis.
The pulse test data analysis routine provided in
the control systems design package may be used
either with pulse test data generated by the open loop
simulator, or data supplied from an external source
(another simulation, or actual experimental data). The
numerical integration method used combines trapezoi-
dal rule at low frequencies, and piecewise linear ap-
proximation [6] at high frequencies. The output is pre-
sented on the screen in the form of a Bode' plot, and
can also be printed in tabular form. Figure 5 shows
the Bode' plot for the example system. It compares.
closely with the analytic results presented in Smith
and Corripio. It should be noted that the time re-
quired for the analysis may be several minutes even
in compiled BASIC.

CONTROLLER DESIGN: FOPDT CORRELATIONS
A large number of studies, beginning with the
classic works of Ziegler and Nichols [9] and Cohen and
Coon [10], have investigated control of systems de-
scribed by the FOPDT model. In each case, the qual-
ity of feedback control with various controller parame-
ter values was determined. The earlier workers used
quarter-decay ratio as their definition of good dynamic
response, while more recent studies have used integ-
ral performance criteria as objective functions in de-
termining the best parameter values [11]. In all cases,
the ultimate result is a set of formulas that relate the
gain (K,), integral time (T1), and derivative time (rd)
for proportional, proportional-integral, or propor-
tional-integral-derivative controllers to the FOPDT
model parameters (K, T, and to). The premise is then
that these optimum controller settings for a FOPDT
process will yield similarly good control when applied
to a process which can be appoximated by the FOPDT
model.
The time domain controller tuning portion of the
design package computes the values of the controller
parameters for either P-only, PI, or PID controllers.
Three correlations are reported: the classic Ziegler-
Nichols and Cohen-Coon settings, and the settings of
Lopez et al [11] based on the integral absolute error
(IAE) performance index. Since the calculation of the
controller settings from the FOPDT model paramet-
ers is rather trivial, students can readily be assigned
to hand-calculate settings from any of the numerous
other tuning formulae [3]. Further, it is instructive to
compare the results for a specific tuning correlation,
but based on alternative FOPDT model fits. Figure 6


WINTER 1987
























FIGURE 6. Closed Loop Block Diagram and PI Controller
Settings Display.

shows the PI controller settings for the example sys-
tem.
CONTROLLER DESIGN: FREQUENCY DOMAIN
The frequency response for the open loop system
can be used directly to compute controller settings.
Ziegler and Nichols [9] related the "optimum" control-
ler settings to a pair of parameters readily obtained
from the system Bode' plot: the crossover frequency
(the frequency at which the phase angle reaches -180
degrees), and the "ultimate gain" (the inverse of the
open loop gain at the crossover frequency). Stability
considerations in the frequency domain indicate that
if the loop were closed with a proportional controller,
the closed loop system would become unstable for any
controller gain greater than the ultimate gain [5]. The
Ziegler-Nichols controller settings give controller
gains which are roughly half the critical value, and
integral and derivative times correlated to the cross-
over frequency. These relations are presented in vir-
tually all introductory control texts [3,5,6,7,8]. The
control system design program finds the crossover
frequency and ultimate gain from the system Bode'
plot, and reports the controller parameters.

CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION
In order to evaluate the actual performance of a
control system, a controller must be added to the open
loop system, and the closed loop system simulated.
Figure 6 shows the resulting block diagram. The stu-
dent is prompted to specify a controller type, and is
permitted to choose one of the controller design
methods incorporated in the design package (if the
necessary open loop tests and data analysis have been
carried out), or to specify values for the individual
controller parameters. The latter option allows use of


qther design methods. It also permits empirical op-
timization of the controller for the particular system
under investigation.
Either set point or disturbance inputs can be per-
turbed, and the user is allowed to specify either a
pulse or step input. The resulting response is plotted
on the screen, and the value of the integral absolute
error (IAE) performance criterion is displayed to pro-
vide an objective measure of performance. Figure 7
shows the results obtained with the example system
with P only, PI, and PID controllers based on the
Ziegler-Nichols FOPDT design procedure.
A typical assignment using the closed loop
simulator is to compare the performance obtained
with various controllers and various controller tuning
formulae, and then to investigate the effect of varying
the controller parameters from the values determined
by the best tuning correlation. This emphasizes the
point that the various empirical correlations are nor-
mally good starting points in tuning a controller, but
will only by chance be optimal.

CONCLUSIONS
The control systems design package described
herein has proved to be quite effective in conveying
basic feedback control concepts to undergraduate stu-
dents. Furthermore, the students have responded
very positively, both because of the opportunity to
work with the computer, and because the program
eliminates a great deal of tedium compared to hand
calculations of controller design and performance.
Enhancements of the program are being planned.
One will permit the student to be provided with a
"black box" process rather than one specified in terms
of loop transfer functions. The student can then be
assigned to identify the unknown process by step and/
or pulse testing and use the results to design a control

hIS'I 313 InteW1 Tim













FIGURE 7. Proportional, PI, and PID Controller Perfor-
mance Comparison.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









system. Optional "noise" on the measured output may
also be added to improve realism. The addition of an
optional feedforward controller for the disturbance is
also being considered.
Copies of the program (on 5 1/4 inch MS-DOS for-
matted diskette) and user documentation are available
for $15 to cover duplication and postage. The program
is supplied as executable files (compiled using the IBM
BASCOM compiler), but BASIC source files are in-
cluded as well.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The financial support of the Olin Charitable Trust
in the form of a Summer Research Grant for one of
the authors is gratefully appreciated.

REFERENCES

1. Carnahan, Brice, MicroCACHE Software for Computer-
Assisted Instruction, CACHE Corporation, Ann Arbor, 1985.
2. Fogler, H. Scott, "Interactive Computing in a Chemical Reac-
tion Engineering Course," 1985 AIChE Annual Meeting,
Chicago, No. 1986.
3. Smith, Carlos A. and Armando B. Corripio, Principles and
Practice of Automatic Process Control, John Wiley, New
York, 1985.
4. Smith, Cecil L., Digital Control of Processes, Intext Educa-
tional Publishers, Scranton, 1972.
5. Coughanowr, Donald R., and Lowell B. Koppel, Process Sys-
tems Analysis and Control, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965.
6. Luyben, W. L., Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control
for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973.
7. Murrill, Paul W., Automatic Control of Processes, Interna-
tional Textbooks, Scranton, 1967.
8. Stephanopoulas, George, Chemical Process Control, Prentice-
Hall, NJ, 1984.
9. Ziegler, J. G., and N. B. Nichols, "Optimum Settings for
Automatic Controllers," Transactions ASME, 64, 759, 1942.
10. Cohen, G. H., and G. A. Coon, Transactions ASME, 75, 827,
1953.
11. Lopez, A. M., P. W. Murrill, and C. L. Smith, "Controller
Tuning Relationships Based on Integral Performance
Criteria," Instrumentation Technology, 14, 11, 57, 1967. [1



ton book reviews


NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER
by Tien-Mo Shih
Hemisphere Publishing, NY; 563 pages (1984)
Reviewed by
Michael F. Malone
University of Massachusetts
This is a lengthy book consisting of fifteen chap-
ters in four parts. Part I is entitled "Preliminaries"


and consists of the four chapters: 1. "Numerical
Methods Used in Heat Transfer (I)," where finite dif-
ference and the finite element are introduced, 2.
"Numerical Methods Used in Heat Transfer (II),"
where a more extensive discussion of the Galerkin and
Collocation methods appears, 3. "Numerical Methods
Used in Heat Transfer (III)," that discusses higher-
order finite elements, integral method and perturba-
tion solutions, and 4. "Numerical Properties of Vari-
ous Discretization Schemes."
Part 2 describes "Fundamental Heat Transfer
Modes" in the chapters: 5. "Heat Conduction," 6.
"Laminar Forced Convection: Hydrodynamic Bound-
ary Layer (I)," 7. "Laminar Forced Convection: Hy-
drodynamic Boundary Layer (II)," 8. "Streamwise
Diffusive Flows," 9. "Transport of Energy and
Species," and 10. "Radiation."
Part 3 consists of three chapters on "Important
Heat Transfer Phenomena": 11. "Laminar Free Con-
vection and Mixed Convection," 12. "Introduction to
Turbulent Flows," and 13. "Introduction to Combus-
tion Phenomena."
"Numerical Analyses" is the fourth and final part
made up of two chapters: 14. "Spaces and Error
Bounds," and 15. "Comparison of Finite-Difference
Method and Finite-Element Method."
There are also three appendices.
This book is detailed in its coverage of numerical
method and examples; the literature references are
concentrated largely in the 1970's and early 1980's. In
some areas, such as the coverage of stiff, coupled,
convective-diffusion models in Chapter 8, the material
provides a welcome addition and summary of
techniques such as upwinding in the Galerkin finite
element method. However, there is a less than
adequate treatment of transient problems using mod-
ern integration packages such as Gear's method to
solve the evolution problem, although there is a dis-
cussion of the well-understood numerical instabilities
and/or inconsistencies introduced by traditional
explicit or explicit-implicit schemes for the initial-
boundary value problem in Chapter 4.
This book could be used as a source of examples in
a course in heat transfer or numerical methods. It
would seem unsuitable as a textbook for either how-
ever, because of its restricted treatment of numerical
methods on the one hand and because of its lack of the
necessary perspective on the role of analytical
methods and physical property measurements in heat
transfer on the other.
The individual sections of the book are clearly writ-
ten, but are heavy in detail at the expense of perspec-
tive. The printing is carefully done and the book seems
to be relatively free of typographical errors. O


WINTER 1987










class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical
engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle
in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested as well as those that
are more traditional in nature, which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor H. Scott
Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.



A PROBLEM WITH COYOTES


MARK A. YOUNG
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695

AS A student in a graduate reaction engineering
course, I was assigned the task of creating and
taking a final examination for the course.* In our class
discussion of reactor stability we had briefly address-
ed limit cycle behavior and its representation using
phase-plane plots. This was the third instance in a
matter of months that I had heard reference made to
limit cycle behavior. The topic had also been broached
in a departmental seminar and in another class. How-
ever, in each case the speaker did not have time to
elaborate on this intuitively puzzling phenomenon.
Hence, it seemed that a problem involving this stabil-
ity concept would be interesting to the imaginary stu-
dent taking my test.
A microbial predator-prey interaction model that
I had been exposed to in a biotechnology course pro-
vided an attractive starting point, mostly due to its
simplicity. However, I chose to apply the microbial
model to a mammalian system, with the thought that
such a macroscopic system would be easier to vis-
ualize. In an ancillary question, I observed that I had
applied a simple model to a complex system and called
upon the student to critique the model's construction
and to propose possibilities for its improvement. The
question and its solution follow.

PROBLEM


Mark A. Young is currently a graduate student at North Carolina
State University. He earned a liberal arts degree from Duke University
in 1975 and a BS in chemical engineering from N.C. State in 1984.
His research interests include biochemical engineering and transport
phenomena. Any of his time not devoted to his wife or to engineering
is generally spent listening to (and learning to play) traditional Amer-
ican and British music.

have been lost to coyotes that his flock is decreasing
in size, a situation resulting in significant economic
hardship. An acquaintance of his at the FCX has of-
fered to trap and destroy coyotes in his region. The
fee, however, is exorbitant. Nevertheless, the
rancher is tempted to try the measure in hopes of
expanding the sheep population.
You vaguely recall reading about the Lotka-Vol-
terra model of predator-prey interactions during your
university days. Leafing through an old book*, you
find the following equations for the model


While working in Arizona as a petroleum engineer, dn1
you are befriended by a sheep rancher who lives down dt = anl kn1n2
the road. One afternoon the rancher seeks your advice
on a problem. Recently his flock has been plagued by dn2 bn +kn
coyote attacks. In fact, in recent years so many lambs dt 2 1 kn2
*For a discussion of this assignment, see Felder, R. M., "The
Generic Quiz: A Device To Stimulate Creativity and Higher-Level *Bailey, J. E. and Ollis, D. F., Biochemical Engineering Funda-
Thinking Skills," Chemical Engineering Education, 19, 176 (1985). mental, [2nd Ed.] New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1986.
Copyrighl ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


[ChEJr









where nI = prey population
n2 = predator population
a,b = specific growth rate constants for prey
and predator respectively (time-')
njn2 = product of predator-prey populations;
proportional to the frequency of
predator-prey encounters
k = proportionality constant; represents
both the fraction of predator-prey
encounters resulting in death of the
prey and the rate of decrease in
prey population per kill (time-'
coyote-')
q = proportionality constant; represents
the amount by which predator pop-
ulation increases per kill (coyote
sheep-1)

The book also states that the model may be expressed
as

expy exp(y = exp(c)

where


=integration
constant


and the steady state solutions, nl, and n2s, are

n =s =ik n22s =

1. Derive the second form of the model beginning
with the first.
2. The trapper estimates that his operation could


0. 2000. 4000. 6000.
Number of Sheep

FIGURE 1. Predator/Prey Population Cycles


A microbial predator-prey interaction
model that I had been exposed to in a biotechnology
course provided an attractive starting point,
mostly due to its simplicity.

provide a 38% reduction in the coyote population. As-
suming the following values for model parameters,
would you recommend the trapping operation based
upon the Lotka-Volterra model? In your analysis con-
sider the time dependence of the sheep population
both before and after the proposed trapping opera-
tion. Summarize your findings using phase-plane
plots.

Data: a = 5 x 103 day-1
b = 5 x 10- day-1
k = 10- day-' coyote-'
q = .002 coyote sheep-1
nI (initial) = 2350 sheep
n2 (initial) = 53 coyotes

3. What assumptions have been integral to your
analysis which might affect the validity of your re-
sults? How might you modify the model to increase its
applicability for this situation?


SOLUTION
1. The derivation is easily performed and is briefly
outlined by Bailey and Ollis (p. 872).
2. The behavior of the two populations over time
may be represented in a phase-plane plot, which could
be generated by either of two means: The second form
of the model could be solved for Y2 for a selected yl,
or the coupled equations could be solved directly via
a numerical technique. The highly nonlinear nature of
the second model expression makes determination of
its roots via conventional numerical techniques quite
difficult. An additional disadvantage to this approach
is that one cannot associate a time with a given posi-
tion on the plot, which might be helpful in an applica-
tion such as this. Consequently, the coupled equations
were solved using a Runge-Kutta routine. The output
appears in Table 1 (next page).
The phase-plane plot appears in Figure 1. Shown
are the predicted population cycles for the situations
with and without the decrease in coyote population.
The stable population of 2500 sheep and 50 coyotes is
indicated. From the graph and the data one would
deduce that the sheep population is currently about
halfway through the declining phase of its cycle, which
correlates with the rancher's account of dwindling
numbers of sheep in recent years. Although the popu-


WINTER 1987


n 2
YI (is 2 (2












lation is cyclic, it is relatively close to the stable popu-
lation. On the other hand, after the elimination of 20
coyotes, the range of the cycle becomes enormous. If
this cycle were followed, the sheep population would
soar to over 6500 for a period but then plummet to
below 1000 for over three years. To determine
whether the trapping operation would lead to a net
increase in the average sheep population, one can
time-average the data for both situations:
T

average number of sheep = 1
year T n dt
0

where T = the cycle period
Taking this average using the trapezoid rule yields

average population without trapping = 2500 sheep
average population with trapping = 2500 sheep

Thus, in either case the population oscillates
around the same value. Consequently, the rancher
would be unwise to pay for trapping the coyotes. Re-
duction of the coyote population would not increase


his average flock size but would introduce huge cyclic
extremes in population, which would exacerbate his
economic difficulties.
3. Clearly, many changes could be made to the
model which would improve its applicability to this
situation. Several suggestions are listed below.
a) The model assumes that predators have only
one food source (the prey species), which is not realis-
tic in this situation. A term could be added to repre-
sent the lumped effects of alternative food sources.
b) The model assumes that prey die only due to
predation. A term could be added to represent the
lumped effects of other means of death, e.g. disease,
old age, and severe weather.

c) The model bases reproduction rate upon the
number of individuals present. This is reasonable for
species subject to asexual reproduction, but for mam-
mals growth would more logically be proportional to
the number of pairs n1/2. Even better, reproduction
could be modeled as being proportional to the number
of interactions between members of the opposite sex,
(ni/2)2. The model would then become


TABLE 1


Population

TIME (years)
0.0
0.7
1.4
2.1
2.7
3.4
4. 1
4.8
5.5
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.2
8.9
9.6
10.3
11.0
11.6
12.3
13.0
13.7
14.4
15 .1
15.8
16.4
17.1
'7.8
18.5
19.2
19.9
20.5
21.2
21 .9
22.6
23.3
24.0


Dynamics With Trapping


SHEEP
2350.0
3578.1
5193.9
6641.0
6780.3
5226.8
3246.9
1880.3
1144.7
779. 2
606. 1
539.7
545.6
618.9
776.4
1059.3
1541.8
2335.6
3557. 1
5169.5
6626.6
6791.7
5256.2
3272. 1
1894.9
1152. 1
782.8
607.8
540. 1
545. 1
617.3
773.3
1054.0
1532.9
2321.3
3536.2


COYOTES
33.0
33.7
37.0
44.0
54.8
65.6
71.4
71.4
67.9
62.8
57.3
52.0
47.2
42.8
39.1
36.1
34.0
33.0
33.7
36.9
43.9
54.6
65.5
71.4
71.5
67.9
62.9
57.4
52.1
47.2
42.9
39.2
36.2
34.0
33.0
33.7


Population Dynamics Without Trapping


TIME (years)
0.0
0.7
1.4
2.1
2.7
3.4
4.1
4.8
5.5
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.2
8.9
9.6
10.3
11.0
11.6
12.3
13.0
13.7
14.4
15 .1
15.8
16.4
17 .1
17.8
18.5
19.2
19.9
20.5
21.2
21.9
22.6
23.3
z4.0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


SHEEP
2350.0
2195.0
2091.0
2044.3
2056.1
2124.7
2245.2
2408.3
2596.8
2784.2
2935.6
3015.8
3002.2
2896.3
2724.2
2525.2
2336.6
2185.1
2085.3
2043.1
2059.4
2132.2
2256.4
2422. 1
2611.6
2797.6
2944.7
3018.2
2997.2
2885.0
2709.4
2509.9
2323.4
2175.5
2080.0
2042.3


COYOTES
53.0
52.4
51.5
50.3
49.2
48.2
47.4
47.0
47.0
47.5
48.4
49.5
50.8
52.0
52.8
53.2
53.0
52.3
51.4
50.3
49.1
48. 1
47.4
47.0
47.0
47.5
48.4
49.6
50.9
52.1
52.9
53.2
52.9
52.3
51.3
50.2










dn fn 2
_a 1 -knn
dt a 2 knln2
d) The model assumes an environment shielded
from external intervention, e.g. urban growth displac-
ing coyotes from an adjacent region into your region.
Such factors would be difficult to incorporate into the
model explicitly, but their existence adds to the uncer-
tainty of the results.
e) The model predicts unbounded prey growth in
the absence of the predator. This is clearly unrealistic
as other limits to growth exist, e.g. food supply and
land area. The specific growth rate term could be mod-
ified to approach zero when the population reaches
the maximum number which the environment can
maintain. For example, if the food supply (F) were
taken to be the limiting factor in the absence of pre-
dators, the model might become:


dn1- c b
-dt c + F "1


where C = a


An additional equation for how F changes with n, and
n2 would also be required.
f) The parameter estimates are clearly a large
source of uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis could be
done on the parameters, and improved estimates
could be sought for those having the greatest impact.
For example, the parameters of most interest are
those determining the steady state sheep population,
i.e., b, q and k. A 20% increase in the estimate of b
results in a comparable increase in the steady state
population, but the average coyote population is un-
changed. Similarly, decreases in q elevate the prey
population without affecting the predator population.
If the estimates for k and q were increased and de-
creased by 20% respectively, the prey population
would increase by 25.0%, while the predator popu-
lation would decrease by 16.6%. However, these
rather modest changes in parameter and steady state
values are accompanied by drastically different be-
havior in the phase plane representation of population
dynamics. As seen in Figure 2, a totally different vis-
ion of the effects of trapping emerges when these
parameter changes are made. Indeed, even the qual-
itative trends are inverted, with the larger oscillations
in population occurring before the trapping operation.
CONCLUSION
Counterparts to the undamped oscillation
examined here in a biological context are readily found
in chemical engineering applications. In both cases
competing effects may be identified as the underlying
cause of the oscillation. In the biological example, the
rate of increase in prey population is enhanced by en-
larged population size and decreased by encounters


0. 2000. 4000. 6000.
Number of Sheep
FIGURE 2. Predator/Prey Population Cycles


8000.


with the predator species. Conversely, the growth
rate of the predator population is negatively affected
by increases in its magnitude and benefited by in-
creased encounters with the prey.
Conceptually similar phenomena may be identified
in a temperature-controlled CSTR in which an
exothermic decomposition reaction occurs. The rate
of heating is elevated by increases in reactant concen-
tration and reactor temperature. Heat exchange coils
in the reactor constantly remove heat at a rate propor-
tional to the difference between the reactor and cool-
ing-water temperatures. In a simple control scheme,
additional cooling capacity would be engaged
whenever the reactor temperature exceeds the set-
point temperature. The rate of the added cooling
would be proportional to the deviation from the de-
sired temperature.
Hence, for such a reactor, high temperatures in-
voke a high cooling rate with concomitant decreases
in the reaction (heating) rate, and the temperature
falls. In contrast, low temperatures result in low cool-
ing rates and low reaction rate constants. Resulting
increases in reactant concentration raise the reaction
(heating) rate, and the temperature rises. For certain
combinations of system parameters, these competing
effects generate limit cycles very similar to those dis-
played by the predator-prey example. However, a
noteworthy distinction may be made between the two
types of oscillations: The position of the predator-prey
population cycle in the phase plane depends upon the
initial population sizes, but for the chemical reactor,
the location of the cycle is independent of initial reac-
tor temperature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes to thank Prof. R. M. Felder for
his numerous helpful suggestions. D


WINTER 1987


OUTER CURVE: WITHOUT TRAPPING
OUTER CURVE: WITHOUT TRAPPING
INNER CURVE: WITH TRAPPING









I I I I I










U international


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

AND PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA


0. C. OKORAFOR
University of Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt, Nigeria

T HE PROBLEMS OF chemical engineering education
in Nigeria, as in other developing countries, are
closely tied to economic conditions and its state of in-
dustrialization. Since it emerged as a sovereign state,
Nigeria has experienced a "pre-austerity" period, fol-
lowed by an "austerity" (1982 till present) period. The
second period is when the government realized it had
a limited and fast-dwindling foreign exchange, and it
imposed stringent measures to protect it. However,
problems with chemical engineering education re-
mained identical in both periods. For example, in the
pre-austerity time the government had a sufficient
budget to establish modern chemical engineering de-
partments and to obtain laboratory equipment.
Nonetheless, maintenance and efficient use of these
facilities was not achieved, as Abdul Kareem [1] and
Silveston [5] discussed. On the other hand, educa-
tional institutions that introduced chemical engineer-
ing programs during the present austerity period do
not have laboratory equipment and other facilities due
to a shortage of funds.

PRESENT STATE OF ChE EDUCATION
In Nigeria there are two types of undergraduate
programs, although they are essentially the same in
actual chemical engineering course content. The four-
year program is mainly for students with the General
Certificate of Education (G.C.E.) A-level diploma in
the three foundation subjects (chemistry, physics, and
mathematics). The G.C.E. A-level is probably equiva-
lent to a two-year post-high school study in a commu-

In Nigeria there are two types
of undergraduate programs, although they are
essentially the same in actual chemical
engineering course content.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Ogbonnaya Charles Okorafor graduated with BSc (1977) in chem-
ical engineering at the University of Lagos. After graduation he worked
for two years as a research engineer with the Federal Institute of Indus-
trial Research, Oshodi Lagos. He received his MASc (1980) and his PhD
(1982) from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, and re-
turned to Nigeria as a Lecturer at the department of chemical engineer-
ing, University of Port Harcourt. His present research interests include
crystallization and process engineering.

nity college as found in U.S. and Canada. The other
is a five-year program for candidates with a high
school diploma (West African School Certificate or
G.C.E. O-level passes in five subjects, including the
foundation subjects). Candidates with G.C.E. A-level
are exempted from the matriculation examination and
are expected to enroll in the second year of the five-
year engineering program. Students with G.C.E. O-
level sit for the matriculation examination organized
by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board
(J.A.M.B) for all the accredited universities in the
country, held every year on the last Saturday of April.
Successful candidates are placed in the schools of their
choice by JAMB and enter the first year of the five-
year program.
There are presently twenty-four universities
accredited by JAMB in the country. Sixteen of them
belong to the Federal Government, while the remain-
ing eight are owned by various state governments. Of
these, only nine institutions have chemical engineer-
ing departments (JAMB Brochure 1985-86). Just four


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









of the nine institutions have begun the graduate pro-
grams.
The chemical engineering courses are introduced
in the second year of the five-year undergraduate edu-
cation. From the second year to the fourth year, inclu-
sive, emphasis is placed on understanding the follow-
ing transport phenomena (heat transfer, mass trans-
fer, and fluid mechanics), thermodynamics, particu-
late systems, separation processes, chemical en-
gineering kinetics and catalysis, chemical reaction en-
gineering, industrial chemistry, polymer science and
technology, principles of plant design, chemical en-
gineering laboratory and chemical engineering
analysis. Subjects like electrical technology, strength
of materials, metallurgy, science of materials, com-
puter programming, mathematics, chemistry,
physics, and humanities are taken from other units of
the institutions. Only a few courses, such as process
dynamics and control, process modeling and optimiza-
tion, introduction to biochemical engineering, man-
agement and law, are taken in the fifth year in order
to provide ample time for the student to tackle the
two important final year projects. The projects are
the chemical engineering research (an individually
supervised research on any chemical engineering topic
of national interest chosen by the student), lecturer
group, and the chemical engineering design project
(the design of an integrated process by a group of
students).
Few institutions in Nigeria (and only the pre-au-
sterity ones) have well-equipped, well-maintained and
up-to-date chemical engineering laboratories that in-
clude unit operations, reaction engineering, and
biochemical engineering laboratories. Even these in-
stitutions do not have process control laboratories.
Computers (digital, analog, and hybrid) are effectively
exploited in just a few chemical engineering depart-
ments.
Another important feature of the undergraduate
curriculum is the compulsory nine months industrial
attachment for the students. This is one of the re-
quirements for a department's accreditation by the
Council of Registered Engineers of Nigeria
(COREN). Some institutions operate a straight aca-
demic year industrial attachment while others split
the nine months into three and attach the students to
industries during the three months summer vacation
of the second, third and fourth years.

DIFFICULTIES IN ChE EDUCATION
Nigeria's problems include: a shortage of technical
know-how (including a shortage of faculty, inadequacy
or lack of support services, shortage of teaching and


research equipment, inadequate or non-existent re-
search funding, lack of administrative experience,
negative attitude towards work, and isolation from
centers of technical activities), insufficient funds, and
lack of supporting industries. The first problem has
been detailed and possible solutions advanced by
Abdul-Kareen [1] and Silveston [5].
The funding problem is an old one in Nigeria. Even
in the "boom" years the percentage of the national
budget allocated to education at all levels should have
been higher than it was. The present severe under-
funding is compounded by the political decision that
students should have a tuition-free university educa-
tion.
A lack of supporting industries means that many
services which promote the quality of engineering
education, such as regular maintenance of laboratory
equipment, consulting opportunities for the engineer-
ing faculty members, training of laboratory techni-
cians and students, are missing.

Few institutions in Nigeria have
well-equipped, well-maintained and up-to-date
chemical engineering laboratories that include unit
operations, reaction engineering, and biochemical
engineering laboratories.

During the boom period, Nigeria imported indus-
tries with the hope that some modern technology
would be transferred to her. This, however, has not
happened. These industries have been "import sub-
stitution"; that is, raw materials, spare parts and
other things are imported. The duty of the imported
industry then reduces to mixing, assembling and pack-
aging. Foreign industries have not been willing to
transfer their up-to-date technical know-how. The
technical people assigned to absorb the modern
technology that is made available are often not know-
ledgeable or competent enough to do so effectively
because their selection may have been carried out for
reasons of political expediency or even through chican-
ery.
The lack of supporting industries causes additional
burdens with respect to training. All students are re-
quired to spend at least nine months at some factory
for training. Unfortunately, many students return
with little or no practical experience. Either they are
not received properly by the industrial organization
through the assignment of challenging and responsible
duties, or the students discover that their chemical
engineering background does not coincide with what
they are presumably being trained for. Some students
lose interest in pursuing an industrial career after
graduation. Instead they choose non-technical, office-


WINTER 1987









type work, or go on to graduate studies, provided that
sufficient interest, a good first degree and funds are
available to them. Furthermore, when the few indus-
tries we do have run into technical problems which
require research and/or development, authorities in
both government and industry turn to the more ex-
pensive foreign experts for help. They hesitate to
make use of the talents of their own researchers and
scholars (who are in most cases educated in the very
same countries from which the technical assistance is
sought).
Student population problems also seem to origi-
nate from a lack of healthy industries as well as a lack
of technical training centers. High school graduates
turn to colleges and universities as their only route to
success and a rewarding future. However, the size
and facilities of the institutions are limited and in most
cases can accommodate a mere 5-10 percent of the
applicants. The demand for higher education tends to
overcrowd all institutions and especially the engineer-
ing schools, which are among the most popular ones.
Faculty-student ratio is reduced and this causes de-
terioration of the quality of engineering education, as
Murti and Murray-Lasso [3] pointed out. Another
problem which places more of a burden on faculty
members is the relatively weak foundation of entering
students in chemistry, mathematics and physics. Al-
though this problem could be solved if only the best
students at the matriculation examination are selected
for admission, a government policy requires preferen-
tial admission for candidates from the so-called "edu-
cationally less developed" areas. The result is poorly
prepared students in our classes.


FUTURE PROSPECTS AND SUGGESTIONS

Even though the government has recognized the
technological education problem, the present ap-
proach does not offer relief. Proliferation of ill-equip-
ped institutions is not a solution. What is needed is:

Improved technical training along the lines proposed by
Abdul-Kareem and Silveston [1]. In addition, governments
should discontinue the 'federal-character' or 'state
character' policy in staff recruiting. A situation where a
foreigner is preferred over a more-qualified fellow citizen,
even one from a different section of the country, is an
anathema.
Improved relations between university communities and
industrial centers. This would make industrial adminis-
trators and government policy makers aware of the poten-
tial talents available in Nigeria's own institutions. It
would permit faculty members to gain practical experi-
ence through short-term or long-term industrial leaves-of-
absence. The lecturers would also become conscious of
chemical engineering problems which industries are fac-


ing and could, in turn, modify the contents of their
courses and their educational programs accordingly. A
closer relationship would open new avenues for chemical
engineering students to get worth-while, on-the-job tech-
nical training during their years at the university. Since
most industries in Nigeria are transnationals with chemi-
cal engineers active in the top echelons of management,
perhaps they can help by urging branch plants to set up
research and development departments and encouraging
these departments to work together with universities.
Effective research institutes and centres which can coop-
erate with our academic institutions and assist our indus-
tries with problems such as alternative raw materials for
industries, energy resources planning, utilization and
management, design and construction of industrial
plants, pollution abatement, greater agricultural produc-
tivity, and food storage, to name the most obvious ones.
Effective research institutions could make proper use of
experts from other countries and attract Nigerian re-
searchers and scientists who are living abroad towards
solving problems of their country without having to re-
turn home. Funds for industrial research centers could
come from government or from some of our own men of
wealth, who now seem to squander their riches on
frivolities.
Foreign Support: Grants now offered for faculty fellow-
ships by the U.S., Canada and Great Britain need to be
redirected towards more urgent needs such as teaching
and research equipment and books for our libraries.

REFERENCES

1. Abdul-Kareen, H. K. (1983) "ChE Education in the Third
World-Need for International Cooperation," CEE, Spring
1983, p. 79-82.
2. J.A.M.B. Brochure 1985-86 Session (Guidelines for Admission
to First Degree Courses in Nigerian Universities).
3. Murray-Lasso, M. A. (1972) "Engineering Education in
Mexico," IEEE Trans. Educ. E-15 (4), 214-219.
4. Murti, (1972) Ibid.
5. Silveston, P. L. (1983) "ChE Eduation in the Third World-
North American Assistance," CEE, Spring 1983, p. 78. O


REVIEW: Polymer Systems
Continued from page 33.
steps in the development of a final product.
After the general treatment outlined above, the
student is introduced to specific polymers, their
characteristics, and their uses in a chapter devoted to
addition type polymers and another chapter on con-
densation type polymers. The final chapter deals with
various analytical methods used in polymer charac-
terization and identification. This serves as a brief in-
troduction for the chemical engineer to some of the
most common techniques likely to be encountered dur-
ing making or using polymers.
The appendices are an especially useful feature of
this book as they give literature sources, a number of
laboratory exercises, and finally, an index of proper-
ties for the most common polymers. The latter may


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









be a convenient reference for the student after gradu-
ation.
While the number of textbooks in this area is much
greater than it was in 1970, the second edition of Rod-
riguez should be given careful consideration when
selecting a text. Its price is reasonable at $29.95. F



ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL
PROCESSES, 2nd Edition
by R. M. Felder and R. W. Rousseau
John Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NJ $43.95 (1986)
Reviewed by
Dady B. Dadyburjor
West Virginia University
Since this is the second edition of one of the more
popular books for an introductory course in chemical
engineering for sophomores, this review will try to
address two audiences-those who are familiar with
the first edition and who wish to know how it differs
from the present one, and those who wish to compare
this text with others on the same topic. At the start,
it is fair to point out that at this university the text
probably receives a more rigorous workout than at
many other places since it is the basis for the major
portion of two semester-long courses; consequently,
many of the points of discussion may not even be
noticed by those moving through the text at a more
hurried pace.
For those unfamiliar with the book, it starts out
with a few preliminaries, reminders of topics covered
in previous courses, then moves to the fundamentals
of material balances. The treatment is extremely
thorough and step-by-step, from non-reacting, single
species, single units to multiple reactions, multiple
units with recycle, bypass, and (new to this edition)
purge. Then follow the constitutive equations for rela-
tions in one or more phases, with examples showing
their use in solving balances with data that is easier
to obtain. The section on energy balances builds on
material covered previously, and first shows how the
simple forms of the general equation can be derived.
This is followed by the constitutive relations defining
specific heats, heats of reaction, heats of phase
change, and heats of mixing, and their use in energy
balances. Then come general chapters on computer-
aided calculations (new) and transient processes. Fi-
nally, there is a set of case studies, different from
those in the first edition. Each case study is a good
example of a set of problems which can be either
treated after all of the book material is covered or in
discrete increments during the course. Either way, in


each case study there are one or two open-ended prob-
lems which serve as capstoness" for all of the material
covered. At the end of every chapter there are numer-
ous problems, with a good mix of calculator- and com-
puter-type solutions. Liberally sprinkled throughout
the chapter are a set of "Test Yourself' exercises with
solutions, verifying that the student has understood
the concepts, and a set of "Creativity Exercises"
(new) to challenge budding engineers. Each chapter
also contains a good number of worked examples of a
wide range of difficulty.
In my mind, there were only a few, minor, nega-
tives in the first edition, and many of these have been
improved upon in this work. A notable example is the
section on bubble and dew points, which has been
greatly expanded and improved. The more formal
treatment of the degrees of freedom and its relation
to the number of unknowns and the number of equa-
tions in a given system is most appropriate. There is
also a much better treatment of the concepts of frac-
tional conversion and stoichiometric coefficient. How-
ever, the treatment of the heat of solution with refer-
ence to an infinitely dilute standard state would be a
good candidate for further expansion together with,
perhaps, a worked example of significant difficulty.
More significantly, in the treatment of material bal-
ances there is a new section on thermodynamic
equilibrium that I believe the book could have done
without. The parameter defined is not the Equilibrium
Constant and will almost certainly lead to confusion in
subsequent courses in thermodynamics, particularly
with respect to equilibrium in multiple phases.
Further, in the treatment of energy balances I am not
particularly in favor of the Table format used, where
component amounts and enthalpies in the inlet and
outlet streams are listed. This is useful only after the
numbers are obtained and does little to explain how
this is done. I would rather see more extensive use of
the diagrams of hypothetical steps in going from inlet
to outlet conditions. Finally, in the treatment of trans-
ient balances, I would have liked to have seen a
greater emphasis on problems requiring the solution
of (simple) differential equations-for instance with
semibatch operations-instead of a rehashing of inte-
gral batch analysis. I would also have liked to have
seen more continuity between material balances and
energy balance transient problems-for instance, the
chemical reactor and batch distillation treated from
the energy balance point of view.
These drawbacks are more than compensated by
the many advantages of both editions of the book. It
is written in a clear, direct, almost conversational
style; a wide range of material is covered in relatively
Continued on next page.


WINTER 1987









few pages; and the coverage is systematic in its prog-
ression from simple systems to more complicated
ones. Almost certainly, this book will maintain its
leading role among its fellows. 0


UNIT OPERATIONS OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING, 4TH EDITION
by Warren L. McCabe, Julian C. Smith and Peter
Harriot, McGraw Hill (1985), 960 pages, $53.95.
Reviewed by
A. H. Peter Skelland
Georgia Institute of Technology

Thirty years have passed since the publication of
the first edition of this durable text, and its influence
on the profession through succeeding editions and
three decades of graduating seniors must have been
profound. The second edition, published in 1967, reor-
ganized the material in the first version into four main
sections, e.g., fluid mechanics, heat transfer, equilib-
rium stages and mass transfer, and operations involv-
ing particulate solids. This format, which has become
one of the hallmarks of the book, has been retained
through the third and fourth editions, published in
1976 and 1985, respectively.
Peter Harriott, mentioned in the preface to the
first edition as one who reviewed a portion of that
early manuscript, now becomes the third author of
the revised fourth edition.
The authors have commendably resisted the temp-
tation to expand the book further by merely adding
new material; instead they have actually achieved a
6.6% reduction in pages to a total of 960. This has
been accomplished by deletions which include most of
the previous material on mass and energy balances
(normally covered elsewhere in the chemical engineer-
ing curriculum), the entire chapter on phase equilibria
(usually treated in thermodynamics courses), and, in-
terestingly, the Ponchon-Savarit method of analysis
for binary distillation, leaching, and liquid-liquid ex-
traction processes. This involves elimination of the
triangular diagram-delta point method and of the Pon-
chon (Janecke) diagrams in extraction. This, the au-
thors contend, is because the procedure "is rarely if
ever used in practice; for simple separations the
McCabe-Thiele method is entirely adequate and for
more complex separations computer methods are
used." A bold move!
These deletions are countered by several addi-
tions, which include (for the first time) an excellent
21-page chapter on adsorption, expanded treatments
of fluidization, packed bed heat transfer, and mul-


ticomponent distillation (which by now has reached a
level of presentation that would probably enable
superior students to perform plate-to-plate calcula-
tions). Further revision and reorganization are appar-
ent in many areas of this familiar work.
An argument might be made for treating packed
distillation columns in the chapter on distillation, in-
stead of in the one on gas absorption. This would be
on the grounds that distillation is characterized by es-
sentially equimolal countertransfer, in contrast to gas
absorption, which is an example of one-component
mass transfer (one-way diffusion). This necessitates
differences in rigorous formulation of the transfer unit
expressions in the two cases, particularly for non-di-
lute systems.
The time has perhaps come to correct an important
error that has curiously persisted through the second,
third, and fourth editions; this occurs in citing the
Friend and Metzner equation for heat transfer in tur-
bulent flow in a smooth tube. The expression is Equ-
ation (12-62) on page 315, where a factor of 11.8 has
been omitted from the second term in the de-
nominator. Offered as a "more accurate analogy equa-
tion" for h, heat exchangers designed using the uncor-
rected equation would be seriously undersized.
Much of the current clamor for writing in SI units
tends to overlook the fact that a great body of en-
gineering literature already exists in either cgs or En-
glish units. Engineers must therefore retain facility
with traditional unit-systems for easy access to the
older literature, while becoming conversant with SI
units for best use of the newer material and for pres-
ent application. This dual need is well accomodated by
the authors' decision to emphasize both SI and English
units throughout the book.
The text is well stocked with problems for practice
solution, 36% of which are new with this edition. The
Appendices have been expanded by two, compared to
the third edition, by the inclusion of the DePriester
charts giving distribution coefficients in light hydro-
carbon systems for low- and high-temperature ranges.
The present reviewer believes that the book would
have been enhanced by the inclusion of an author
index, but a good 16-page subject index has been pro-
vided.
The drawings, printing, and binding all conform to
the high standards we have come to expect in this
series and, at $53.95, the text gives better value than
most others in the field-certainly it should help more
engineers get more jobs done than will most of its
competitors.
When one includes the precursor of this text, Ele-
ments of Chemical Engineering, by W. L. Badger
and W. L. McCabe, first published by McGraw-Hill in


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










1931, it is realized that Warren L. McCabe has pro-
vided textbook guidance to chemical engineers in a
continuous and ongoing manner for more than half a
century. The latest edition of this book constitutes a
fitting memorial to his outstanding contributions to
the profession. EO


PROCESS REACTOR DESIGN
by Ning Hsing Chen
Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Publishers,
Boston, MA (1983) 545 pages
Reviewed by
Arland H. Johannes
Oklahoma State University
Textbooks on chemical engineering kinetics and
reactor design have changed significantly in the past
three decades as the Hougen and Watson approach
shifted to a Levenspiel approach. This evolutionary
change continues in this book by introducing numeri-
cal methods and computer solutions to complex chem-
ical reactor design equations and problems. We expect
that future texts in this area will follow this trend and
use many of the more modern ideas and techniques
presented in this book to solve industrial reactor de-
sign problems.
The text is suitable for a first undergraduate
course in reactor design. The content is divided into
eleven chapters with mathematical techniques re-
viewed briefly in the ten appendices. The author uses
the molar extent of reaction (reaction coordinate
method) as a bookkeeping and computational tool
throughout the text. This method is introduced in the
first two chapters on Fundamentals and Process Ther-
modynamics and is used extensively in the evaluation
of kinetic data presented in Chapter 3.
After introducing the basic transport equations in
Chapter 4, the author covers homogeneous systems
by devoting a chapter to each of the four ideal reac-
tors. In each chapter, isothermal, nonisothermal and
multiple reactions are covered for each ideal reactor
type. This is a particularly refreshing and logical pre-
sentation of the material.
The last three chapters cover heterogeneous reac-
tor systems, nonideal reactors and design considera-
tions. The heterogeneous reactor chapter covers each
heterogeneous system including catalytic and fluidized
bed reactors. Although this chapter is not written in
great detail, it provides a good overview of these sys-
tems and a fairly good presentation of the design equa-
tions and mathematical techniques needed for model-
ing these systems. The nonideal chapter is very brief
and barely covers problems typically encountered in


industrial applications. The material in this chapter
must be externally supplemented to provide coverage
of nonideal systems.
The final chapter covers some of the major design
and economic considerations in reactor sizing. This
chapter also compares combination reactor systems
and looks at selectivity and productivity.
In general, the material throughout the book is
presented using vigorous mathematical development
followed by numerous numerical example problems.
Fourteen short computer programs are included in the
text and are used frequently to solve the more com-
plex problems. Some background in computer pro-
gramming would be helpful to the student using this
text but a solid mathematics background is absolutely
required. Notation is straightforward and is consis-
tent throughout the text. The end-of-chapter prob-
lems cover the material well and are suitable for
homework, but the total number of these problems is
fairly limited. The book is well written and the En-
glish is good, but at times a more general description
would be more helpful than the step-by-step
mathematical development.
In summary, this book is a useful teaching and
reference text on modern reactor design. O


n books received

Microcomputers in the Process Industry, E. R. Robinson. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ 08873; 349 pages, $78.95, (1985).
Instrumentation and Control for the Process Industries, John
Borer; Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue,
New York 10017; 301 pages (1985).
Industrial Environmental Control: Pulp and Paper Industry,
Allan M. Springer; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ 08873;
430 pages, $75 (1986).
Heat Transfer of a Cylinder in Crossflow, by A. Zukauskas and J.
Ziugzda, Edited by G. F. Hewitt; Hemisphere Publishing Co., 79
Madison Ave., New York 10016; 208 pages, $59.50 (1985).
Radiation Heat Transfer Notes, by D. K. Edwards; Hemisphere
Publishing Co., 370 pages (1981).
Industrial Hygiene Aspects of Plant Operations, Volume 3, Edited
by L. V. Cralley, L. J. Cralley, K. J. Caplan; Macmillan Publishing
Company, 866 Third Ave., New York 10022; 785 pages, $65.00 (1985).
Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Vol. 12, by Mary Fieser; Wiley
Interscience, Somerset, NJ 08873; 643 pages, $47.50 (1986),
Basic Corrosion and Oxidation, Second Edition, by John M. West;
Halstead Press, Somerset, NJ 08873; 264 pages, $44.95 (1986).
Modern Control Techniques for the Processing Industries, by T.
H. Tsai, J. W. Lane, C. S. Lin; Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison
Avenue, New York, NY 10016; 296 pages, $59.75 (1986).
Quality Management Handbook, edited by Loren Walsh, Ralph
Wurster, Raymond J. Kimber; Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison
Avenue, New York 10016; 1016 pages, $75.00 (1986).


WINTER 1987










ChE IN THE FUTURE
Continued from page 17.
training. Or one can establish an internal school, like
MacDonalds' Burger Tech. The company can offer
short courses, either taught by employees or con-
ducted by outside firms or local universities. Even
courses for degree credit can be arranged, locally or
by television. All of these things are being done-it is
a big business.
But should this be necessary? A technical degree
is supposed to certify competence to practice in the
field and provide the necessary background for the
recipient to function in a useful capacity while extend-
ing the knowledge into specialized areas on-the-job.
No business would flourish by selling a product that
the buyer had to modify extensively before being able
to use it, even though sophisticated buyers often do
add proprietary touches.
It is inefficient and costly for industry to try to
substitute for the university. Including overhead and
support personnel such as technicians, it costs about
$200,000 per year to support a technical person in an
industrial R&D organization. The lost-opportunity
cost when these people either take instruction or pro-
vide it is even higher. We should expect a return of
nearly $600,000 per year to result from their contribu-
tions. The net present value is even higher-one year
of R&D work by a knowledgeable person working on
new products or major product and process improve-
ments is worth about $2 million. Looked at that way-
and we do-it costs over $2 million per man-year for
a research professional to do nonproductive work.
Let me hasten to add that we do believe in the
value of continuing education to sharpen skills and en-
hance breadth of knowledge. We are willing to pay for
an appropriate amount of it. We have no desire,
though, to pay for remedial education, just as you do
not want to teach students to read or count.
Hence the last three items in Table 4. Engineers
should be taught to use fundamentals to solve prob-
lems and to be mentally prepared and motivated to
use them. They should be prepared to reason effec-
tively and draw logical conclusions using a quantita-
tive approach. They should then be able to communi-
cate well enough to explain their conclusions and
reasoning effectively and to convince management or
customers to act in accordance with the recommenda-
tions. And, of course, engineers should be willing and
eager to learn.

ACTION ITEMS
Assuming that our goal is to expand the market-
ability of chemical engineers, we must ask several


questions: What might be done to provide this kind of
product? What kind of changes are possible, and who
will make them? Why should they make them?
Table 5 lists six areas in which changes might be
made. Each will be discussed in turn.


TABLE 5
Possible Actions
CURRICULUM CHANGES
STRUCTURED OPTIONS
IMPROVED USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY
FORWARD-LOOKING TEXTBOOKS
MORE EMPHASIS ON ADVANCED DEGREES
CONTINUING EDUCATION


Curriculum
Howard Rase, in preparing the report of the
Septenary Committee [2,3], devoted considerable
space to recommendations on the curriculum. Some of
them are listed in Table 6. We urge you to read that
report if you have not already done so. The last four
issues in the table deal with providing room in the
curriculum without sacrificing the most important
subjects or lengthening the undergraduate program.
Minor changes, where two or three courses are
altered or eliminated in favor of others, will have little
if any effect. If the product is to be a chemical en-
gineer able to function in industry and adapt to a con-
tinually changing environment, that engineer must
have not only a broad knowledge of scientific princi-
ples and techniques, but also some specialized knowl-
edge about the particular technology in which he will
be employed-biology, electronics, materials, chemi-
cal separations, statistics, and computer program-
ming, to name a few.
The term "learning curve" has become such a
cliche in the context of pricing strategy, project man-
agement and the like, that sometimes we forget its
original use as a description of an individual's learning
process. Acquiring and using new knowledge depends
upon a host of connections among bits of information
and also upon attitudes and concepts derived from ex-
perience. In four or five years of training, it is impos-
sible to provide every student with every knowledge
segment that will be useful. So what can be done?
First, eliminate duplication. Start with high school
prerequisites. If you require calculus or chemistry,
then expect the student to know it. If it has to be
made up, since not all high schools are equally profi-
cient and not all high school students are as studious
as one might wish, then by all means teach remedial
courses-but don't give credit toward the degree for
them.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The next element of duplication that should be
eliminated is the repetition between different depart-
ments of the university. Reinforcement is certainly
needed for many subjects, but teaching ther-
modynamics in both chemistry and chemical engineer-
ing is really unnecessary. The remedy may require
the faculties of different departments or colleges to
work together to offer sections of, say, physical or
organic chemistry that are slanted toward chemical
engineers. I realize that this area is a problem in most
universities, but it should be addressed.
The second point is to use computers more effec-
tively-and I do not mean requiring more program-
ming! A survey of our own engineers who have
graduated within the last five years or so indicates
that in many cases they feel they got too much of that.
The real need, they think, is to integrate the computer
into the course to such a degree that the added capa-
bility is channelled toward improving their judgment.
All of the tedious hand calculations and shortcut
techniques that used to play such a major role in chem-
ical engineering courses should be abandoned. Instead


TABLE 6
Recommended Curriculum Changes*
Prepare for continual change with a broad range of fundamen-
tal knowledge.
Provide some flexibility for a limited degree of specialization
Provide room by
Eliminating duplication
Using computers more effectively
Combining courses
Switch some organic chemistry to biochemistry and change
physics to emphasize the solid state.
Require modern biology, materials science, modern elec-
tronics, economics.
Use specialized liberal arts courses.
*From report of the Septenary Committee on the future of Chem-
ical Engineering

students should learn to use problem-solving software
to try cases and to clarify the fundamentals. This ap-
proach will require major investments in time, equip-
ment, text writing, problem construction, and nearly
every other phase of teaching. Not only would it make
better engineers, but it could also allow some time to
be cut from the curriculum to make room for other
subjects.
The third and fourth points are different aspects
of the same idea. By judicious selection of problems,
experiments, and special requirements, a single
course can cover several objectives. For example, oral
presentations of results and review by English
teachers of written reports can be part of laboratory


The second possible action, then,
is the use of structured options. Many
schools do this already, to a limited extent.

or unit operations courses. History could cover the
history of science, government might discuss the need
for a national science policy and the workings of gov-
ernment-sponsored research, language can feature
original scientific papers, and philosophy can cover the
development of scientific reasoning and thought.
There is some disagreement about how much of
the curriculum should be devoted to distributional
courses and the kind that should be required. Our sur-
vey revealed a divided opinion. The general consensus
seemed to be that the cafeteria style involving elec-
tives from several categories was not effective, and
that it would be better to provide some focus. I know
that Rice University is considering a "coherent minor"
for all students, in which the liberal arts students
must minor in a scientific discipline and all science and
engineering students must select a liberal arts minor
in which courses from several departments are struc-
tured to reinforce each other. This idea could be car-
ried one step further and the courses themselves re-
structured, rather than using a menu selected from
existing offerings.
Structured Options
Even though some room in the curriculum may be
provided by the measures discussed, it will probably
be too little to provide the range of abilities needed.
The second possible action, then, is the use of struc-
tured options. Many schools do this already, to a lim-
ited extent. The idea is to offer, say, three courses
designed to provide some additional expertise in an
area such as bioengineering, materials science,
polymer science, separations, applied mathematics,
electronics, or chemistry. Completing such an option,
which might require a slight increase in total hours
for that student, should be recognized by designating
it on the diploma. Such an action would be intended
to increase the marketability of students by increasing
their ability to function effectively during their first
job, and to make it easier for them to extend their
education in these areas after leaving school. This ad-
ditional qualification may or may not command a pre-
mium price, but it should make it easier for the
graduates to get jobs.
Improved Use of New Technology
In 1959, I studied chemical process design under
the late Bob Perry. Our university had an IBM 650,
a marvelous machine with 2,000 words of storage on
a rotating drum that used punched cards as input.


WINTER 1987









The compiler required three passes with cards to pro-
duce a machine language program. There was no ap-
plications software available at all-if you wanted to
solve a bubble-point calculation, then first you had to
write a program to do it. Even then, though, the
enormous possibilities to aid process design were evi-
dent. We used that computer, hands on at night, to
improve our understanding of process design. Each
time we wrote a program, we would think, "Never
again will I have to do that iteration. Never again will
I do a tedious, approximate graphical solution to this
problem because now an exact solution is no more
trouble." It was relatively easy to try different config-
urations of equipment, as in multiple-column separa-
tion systems.
Now it is possible to do "what-if" calculations on
whole processes and to even get theoretical, a priori
estimates of the best possible separation schemes in-
volving all known separation methods. Expert sys-
tems programs can be constructed to help guide the
novice engineer through the reasoning process that
was once the province of experienced consultants.
Complex problems in structural analysis, heat trans-
fer, and fluid flow are routinely solved numerically.
In the past 20 years, the evolution in computer
technology has done far more than make repetitive
calculations faster and more accurate. One can now do
things differently, not just faster. Talks with new em-
ployees and others seem to indicate that the univer-
sities are far from exploiting this capability. It is now
possible to concentrate on improving the students'
judgment, assuming that calculations can and should
be made to the accuracy and degree of complexity
warranted by the problem and available data. The stu-
dent can be taught to consider what other data might
be needed, assess the cost and time needed to obtain
them, and evaluate the probable outcome of experi-
ments. Experimental design and economic analysis
can become a routine part of all evaluations, because
complicated statistical inference or discounted cash
flow analyses become relatively easy to do.
Computers are now a ubiquitous tool. Electronic
communication is becoming routine. Word processing,
spreadsheet programs, relational data bases, desktop
publishing, and computer-aided design are now ordi-
nary tools, just as the slide rule was in the 1950's. The
university must teach the student to use these tools
effectively-not just to manipulate them but to under-
stand how they can contribute to technical productiv-
ity in all ways.
Any hardware that is made commonly available,
such as terminal facilities, must be available in suffi-
cient quantity and be well maintained. At many
schools the inconvenience to the students of inade-


quate ways to access required computer equipment is
staggering. You know about the kind of graffiti that is
started by one student, then added to by another. At
one university, the first student posted a sign on the
computer-room door with Dante's words marking the
gate to hell [4]:
Beyond me lies the way into the woeful city.
Beyond me lies the way into eternal woe.
Beyond me lies the way among the lost people.
to which another student had added, "And beyond
that lies a three-day wait for a terminal!"
To integrate computer technology into the under-
graduate curriculum will require a major commitment
of funds and time by the university, the faculty, and
the students. But it must be done. Not only should
adequate common facilities be provided, but every
student should be required to have a relatively power-
ful personal computer that will run engineering
software. All will also need standard commercial
software for word processing and the like. These tools
will be an inevitable part of the cost of an engineering
education.
Forward-Looking Textbooks
Another major point by the Septenary Committee
was that texts will have to be rewritten and courses
completely revised to implement the first three poten-
tial action areas listed in Table 5.
After reading the report, Professor Byron Bird
wrote each of the committee members [5], expressing
his endorsement of the report and particularly of the
recommendation that new textbooks be written. He
enclosed a copy of his 1983 article in Chemical En-
gineering Education on the subject [6], and added the
following comment:
... Ch.E. has suffered in the past decade or so because of a
noticeable lack of exciting, sparkling, and responsible mod-
ern textbooks. Our professors are too busy getting money for
research grants and accounting for it, and the sad result is
that our most prominent and brilliant researchers and
teachers are being actively discouraged from taking time out
(for) text-book writing!!
He went on to make several points about the role
of textbooks in a changing chemical engineering field:
In a very real sense, good books bring about change.
The very boundaries of what we mean by chemical en-
gineering are determined to a significant extent by its
textbooks.
The field of chemical engineering will inevitably be known
and measured by its journals and books.
Professor Bird's article suggested that "book-writ-
ing" ought to be included as a third principal activity
of a university teacher, in addition to teaching and
research, since it is concerned directly with the pro-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









duction, organization and dissemination of new knowl-
edge. How the writing of forward-looking texts might
be encouraged will be discussed later.
More Emphasis on Advanced Degrees
The first four possible actions in Table 5 relate to
the undergraduate curriculum and to teaching
methods and tools. The last two are concerned with
education beyond that.
References to "terminal" masters degrees are
often made with a sneer. Why should there be some
sort of stigma attached to wanting more than an un-
dergraduate education, but less than a PhD? If we did
not all believe that technical knowledge and excellence
translate into better job performance, we would not
be here. We should encourage students to learn more,
even beyond the undergraduate level, before entering
industry. I would much rather hire an MS degree hol-
der than a BS, because the percentage of technical
courses taken is far higher. Much of the under-
graduate program is devoted to humanities and other
broadening courses, as it should be, but graduate
work is almost exclusively technical.
It is surprising that this trend is not already appar-
ent. Part of the reason it is not may be that many of
those responsible for hiring in industry do not realize
the impact of curriculum changes during the past 20
years. They have a mental image of those 145-hour
BS requirements with virtually no electives common
then, rather than the 128-hour programs heavily laced
with electives and distributive requirements common
now. Also, as enrollments decline, the tendency at
some schools is to lighten the workload to keep as
many students as possible in the program. These same
people who remember the 145-hour curricula also re-
member being torqued to the breaking point because
chemical engineering was the premier, prestigious
subject to take-those who wanted the label had to be
ready to pay the price. Today, the electrical engineer-
ing schools are employing the same Draconian meas-
ures to reduce enrollment to the dedicated core.
Whether you accept this reasoning or not, you may
agree that the natural process in a buyer's market is
to be more and more demanding of the quality of the
product. I believe that the natural result of this pro-
cess will be to move toward the MS as the typical final
degree in chemical engineering, rather than the BS.
There may not be so much of a price premium paid,
but the MS recipients will have first call on the avail-
able jobs. Remember the earlier point that engineers
in the future will do more technical work for a longer
period of time than may have been the case in the
past.
In the present academic system, where most


graduate students are paid, the MS candidate can rep-
resent a drain out of proportion to his contribution.
This problem causes some schools to discourage MS
candidates. However, with a good program there is
no reason to have to pay students to attend. Consider,
for example, the better business schools. People fight
for the privilege of re-entering school at an average
age of 25 or 26, to pay $20,000 in tuition and spend
two years getting a master's degree. Why? Because
the buyers are willing to pay for a premium product.
The press is full of articles about how MBA's from the
big schools are not as good as they think they are;
nevertheless, the firms hiring them are willing to pay
a premium of perhaps $10,000 per year for that differ-
ential. The number of them getting jobs is also virtu-
ally 100%.
Continuing Education
Continual change and the need to adapt are
synonymous with continuing, lifelong education (Table
5). A professor once told me that one of the goals of
the formal educational process is to prepare students
and motivate them to continue their education them-
selves, without the need for spoon-feeding. That is a
laudable goal, but most people either continue to need
spoon feeding or retrogress to that stage after a few
years of using only a subset of their hard-won skills.
One aspect of emerging technology will have a
dramatic effect on continuing education. Videotape
combined with teleconferencing and electronic mail is
making it possible to extend the classroom over the
entire country. Several regional efforts have been suc-
cessful, such as Stanford University's programs in
electronics and electrical engineering. Others are
planned. At least one national capability exists, the
National Technological University (NTU).
The NTU has leased microwave channels and has
become an advanced degree-granting institution.
They do no instruction themselves, but rather con-
tract with universities to do it. Although many of the
offerings are short courses, it is possible to enroll in
a masters degree program in electrical engineering,
computer engineering, or manufacturing systems en-
gineering. The students may participate in actual
classroom instruction, in real time, by videoconferenc-
ing or telephone, or in delayed time by videotape
relay. They actually enroll in the university giving the
instruction. The professor receives additional compen-
sation through consulting fees, and the university re-
ceives a negotiated tuition.
For the student, the courses are expensive
(perhaps $1,000 per course) and the company must
pay a hefty one-time subscription fee, and set up a
microwave receiver, provide a "classroom," and fur-


WINTER 1987










After reading the report, Professor
Byron Bird wrote each of the committee
members, expressing his endorsement of the
report and particularly the recommendation
that new textbooks be written.

nish proctors for examinations. In many cases, how-
ever, this arrangement is much cheaper than in-house
instruction, and almost infinite variety is possible. It
also potentially can provide continuity even though
the student may be transferred to a distant or remote
location. Because the programs can be recorded,
people who travel extensively in their jobs can make
up lost work. These latter two issues are major prob-
lems to the continuing education of engineers in indus-
try.
This kind of capability has the potential for great
change in the way instruction is provided, at any de-
gree level. For example, honors students in high
school might begin university courses without the so-
cial penalty of leaving their age group. Under-
graduates could take complex interdisciplinary pro-
grams involving selected courses not available locally.
Perhaps most important of all, it could revitalize em-
phasis on teaching instead of research.
Think about it. You have surely heard comedians
on television bemoaning the departure of the Catskill
circuit and musicians, the virtual disappearance
of the community band. These sources of entertain-
ment fell victim to the ready availability in every
home of outstanding entertainment, so that amateur
efforts in comparison seemed paltry and inadequate.
Now, who do you think will get the extra pay and
prestige for national televised instruction? Once
people see how much easier it is to learn from truly
outstanding, well-prepared teachers who emerge to
prominence as teachers rather than researchers, some
schools that continue to neglect teaching may find
themselves on the educational Catskill circuit.
Another example is instruction in the military.
Years ago in the Artillery and Guided Missile School
at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, I was amazed to see the
amount of technical information that could be im-
parted to a relatively unsophisticated audience within
a few weeks. The secret was preparation. Every lec-
ture was planned, rehearsed, and revised, and no ef-
fort was spared to design and prepare audio-visual
and mechanical aids to instruction. There is little in-
centive for this approach in many universities, but
there will be when national video participative in-
struction becomes widely available.
The best defense being a good attack, we should
examine this new technology to see how it can be used


to advantage in the production of chemical engineers
who will be in wide demand in many industries.
LEADERSHIP
The real issue for the chemical engineering profes-
sion is leadership-who should provide it? A year or
so ago I attended a week-long course in Washington
sponsored by the Brookings Institute on "Under-
standing Federal Government Operations." It fea-
tured presentations by many officials, both elected
and appointed, from all branches of government. A
repeated theme was that the congress views itself as
a reactive body. Its members do not believe that their
job is to lead, or to anticipate change, but rather to
sense the desires of the populace and react-a spirit-
less point of view, I thought. Doesn't possession of
great knowledge and power carry with it an obligation
to lead?
There seems to be a reluctance on the part of the
academic community to lead change in the profession
of chemical engineering, as well as a reactionary force
to resist change. There are no doubt many contribut-
ing factors. For example, some of the better schools
still find themselves to be in a seller's market; their
graduates are easily placed, partly because they can
still impose high selectivity on incoming talent. They
also have the financial flexibility to enter any new field
with additional faculty and facilities, so that change
occurs through a comfortable growth process without
the necessity for major sacrifices. In a shrinking field,
though, those options are not open to most.
As an example of reactionary influences, consider
one of the barriers that Professor Bird cited concern-
ing writing texts. Neither young professors on the
tenure track nor active researchers needing a continu-
ing series of research publications believe that they
can afford to take the time to write books.
Each school will have to address most of the
foregoing issues, taking into account its own financial
and personnel resources, state regulations, and the
like. The ASEE and AIChE have a stake in the out-
come and should consider how some degree of national
coordination might be achieved. There is one impor-
tant issue, though, that might benefit from active in-
volvement of industry and government, as well as the
academic community, and that is to encourage the
preparation of outstanding textbooks.
Providing Forward-Looking Textbooks
As a student of Jack Powers at the University of
Oklahoma in 1959, I was one of the first under-
graduate guinea pigs for the "Notes on Transport
Phenomena." That volume was John Wiley and Sons'
preliminary edition of Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot's


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










famous book that accomplished for that period of time
all of the things for the field of chemical engineering
that Professor Bird urges others to do today. The field
of chemical engineering underwent a dramatic change
between 1955 and 1965, and their book was a powerful
force for that change.
Bird cited two other quotes:
The true University ... is a collection of books.
-Carlyle
There must be more books, for engineering data and interpre-
tation of results are fundamental needs.
-Chilton

But Bird's point about textbooks "determining the
boundaries of the field" may mean either to expand or
to circumscribe them. Unfortunately, because of the
pressures disfavoring time spent in pi- ,ait of writing
books, many are far from revolutionary. As Robert
Burton said in the early 17th century, "they lard their
lean books with the fat of others' works" [7].
Some of the disincentives to writing texts are that
the task
Is time consuming.
Distracts from portions of the job considered critical to
professional success-research and funding.
Is not financially rewarding.
These items would have to be addressed just to
generate more books. But what is needed is not
merely more books, but novel and different ones, writ-
ten with a coherent goal to allow compaction of the
curriculum through sharper focus-books that will use
the new tools of today to impart information needed
for tomorrow.
The Septenary Committee recommended that the
content of every course in the chemical engineering
curriculum be examined and changed where necessary
to meet a number of criteria and urged that textbooks
be rewritten in major ways. But how can incentives


TABLE 7
Leadership
PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES SHOULD LEAD
SUPPORT SHOULD EMERGE FROM
Government
Industry
Universities
Publishers
Authors
FUNCTIONS OF LEADERSHIP
Establish Goals
Focus Activities
Communicate
Remove Obstacles
Provide Incentives


be furnished, and who will provide the needed focus
over several years?
Leadership to change the field through improved
texts is not likely to emerge spontaneously from the
academic community, nor to spring from present mar-
ket forces acting upon prospective authors. The re-
maining possibilities would seem to be government,
industry, publishers, and professional societies. How
might all six groups combine their efforts toward im-

Once people see how much
easier it is to learn from truly outstanding,
well-prepared teachers who emerge to prominence
as teachers rather than researchers, some schools
that continue to neglect teaching may find
themselves on the educational
Catskill circuit.


proving the supply of well-prepared chemical en-
gineers, capable of contributing to the needs of gov-
ernment and industry in a way that rewards the au-
thors and their employers appropriately to the degree
of effort and accomplishment involved.
Let us suppose that the goal is to persuade young,
active research professors, already tenured, to devote
the effort and time needed to write really good
textbooks in chemical engineering. Furthermore, we
want these books to incorporate examples in the
newest technologies and to build computer applica-
tions into their core. If possible, we should like to
encourage co-authorship, preferably by those repre-
senting more than one academic discipline or by a
blend of perspectives from industry and academia.
As stated in the first item of Table 7, leadership
should be provided by the societies, whose stake is in
the preservation and enhancement of the profession.
The Chemical Engineering Division of the ASEE, the
AIChE, and the Chemical Research Council are exam-
ples of organizations whose fortunes rise and fall with
that of the profession itself. There are, of course,
other possibilities. For example, the "National Elec-
trical Engineering Department Heads Association,"
which I am told has received NSF funding, meets an-
nually to discuss issues important to that group.
Let us assume for a moment that some society
would take on the role of setting goals, defining re-
quirements for a series of texts that would achieve
these goals, and reviewing the competing proposals
that would be submitted if suitable incentives were
provided. The society could establish a prize, say
$100,000, split one-third upon selection of the winning
prospectus and two-thirds upon acceptance of the final
text by the society's reviewing committee and a pub-
lisher.


WINTER 1987











Financial support could come from both govern-
ment and industry, and the universities could contrib-
ute faculty-release time for course preparation and
text review as well as sabbatical leaves. A number of
universities might agree to help evaluate draft texts
and use the new texts for at least a trial period.
The next essential element is the publisher, who
might agree to establish a series for these books and
provide a standard set of rewards for the authors,
over and above the initial prize.
The final element is the author. Another Robert
Burton remark [8], is that philosophers advise you to
spurn glory, yet they will put their names to their
books. Prestige is a powerful motivating force, but
this plan would allow the author to gain not only in
reputation as an author and prizewinner but also to
minimize the financial penalty.
Who would gain? Everybody. These thoughts have
been discussed with a number of people in industry
and academia. Most agree that money spent on
stimulating the writing of really good textbooks would
do more than an equivalent amount of money spent
directly in support of research.


SUMMARY

When the future of chemical engineering is the
subject, there is indeed much to talk about. First,
some of the signs of change facing the chemical en-
gineering profession were described and the underly-
ing reasons for them were proposed.
Next, you were urged, as members of the aca-
demic community, to adopt a market-oriented attitude
in addressing the needs of your traditional customers,
the industries who have long employed chemical en-
gineers. But also you were encouraged to include the
electronics, food, health-care, aerospace, and other in-
dustries whose need for chemical engineers might be
expected to grow in an increasingly technological soci-
ety oriented toward high-value-in-use specialty prod-
ucts.
We then reviewed six areas of action to address
the needs of industry by expanding the capabilities
and improving the training of chemical engineers.
Finally, the problem of leadership was raised and
the need for cooperative action in several areas was
stressed. A way was suggested by which your society
or other professional groups might enlist the aid of
industry and government, as well as focus and coordi-
nate your own efforts, to define goals and stimulate
the creation of outstanding texts. Cohesive leadership
must form the cornerstone of any effort directed to-
ward stimulating evolution in the field of chemical en-
gineering.


REFERENCES

1. In search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best Com-
panies, Peters, Thomas J., and Waterman, Jr., Robert H.,
1982.
2. "Chemical Engineering Education for the Future," report by
the Septenary Committee on Chemical Engineering Education
for the Future, sponsored by the University of Texas at Austin.
Mr. Henry Groppe, Chairman. Edited by James R. Brock and
Howard F. Rase. 1985.
3. Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 81, No. 10, "Chemical
Engineering Education for the Future," pp. 9-14. A report by
the Septenary Committee sponsored by the Dept. of Chemical
Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
4. Inferno, Canto III, Dante.
5. Bird, R. B., Vilas Research Professor and John D. MacArthur
Professor, Dept. of Cemical Engineering, University of Wis-
consin, personal communication (letter).
6. "Writing and Chemical Engineering Education," Chemical En-
gineering Education, Fall 1983, pp. 184-193. R. Byron Bird,
University of Wisconsin-Madison. Presented for the Phillips
Petroleum Company Chemical Engineering Lectureship
Award, Oklahoma State University, December 6, 1982.
7. Anatomy of Melancholy, Robert Burton, Ed. by Joan R. Pet-
ers, 1980.
8. Ibid. O




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ecc a,,J tk~ .... 3M FOUNDATION CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857 Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner Managing Editor: Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: Gary Poehlein Georgia Institute of Technology Past Chairmen: Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado Le e C. Eagl eton Pennsylvania State University Members SOUTH: Richard Feld er North Carolina State University Jack R. Hopper Lamar University Donald R. Pa ul University of Texas Jam es Fair University of Texas CENTRAL: J. S. Dranoff Northwestern University WEST: Fr ederick H Shair California Institute of Technology Alexis T. Bell University of Californ i a, Berkeley NORTHEAST: Angelo J. P erna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Raymond Baddour M.I.T. NORTHWEST : Charles Sleicher Univ e rsity of Washington CANADA: L es li e W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W Weber State University of New York WINTER 1987 Chemical VOLUME XXI Educator Engineering NUMBER 1 Education WINTER 1987 2 Lee C. Eagleton of Penn State, Robert L. Kabel Department 6 Manhattan College, Conrad T. Burris Lecture 12 Chemical Engineering in the Future, C. T. Sciance. 18 The Industrialization of a Graduate: The Business Arena, R. Russell Rhin ehart Classroom 24 Simplifying Chemical Reactor Design by Using Molar Quantities Instead of Fractional Conversion, Lee F. Brown, John L. Falconer 34 Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design S. D. Roat, S.S. Melsheimer Laboratory 30 Chemical Reaction Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory, K. C. Kwon, N. Vahdat, W.R. Ayers Class and Home Problems 40 A Problem With Coyotes, Mark A. Young International 44 Chemical Engineering Education and Problems in Nigeria, 0. C. Okorafor 5 Letter to the Editor 49 Books Received 5, 33, 39, 46, 47, 48 Book Reviews C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education The publication is ed it ed at the Chemical Engineering Depart m ent, University of Florida. Seco nd -c la ss postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at D eLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address s hould be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are availab l e from the adver tising repr esentat i ves Other advert i s ing material may b e sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877, DeLeon Springs Florida 32028 Subscription rate U S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk s ub scription rates to ChE faculty on reque s t. Write for price s on indi v idual back copies Copyright 19 87 C h em ic a l Engineer ing Division of American Society for Engineering Education. The stateme n ts and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not nece ssarily those of the C hE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days. The Int e rnational Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical. 1

PAGE 4

[eJ a a educator Lee C. Eagleton of Penn State ROBERT L. KABEL Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 T HIS ARTICLE SHOULD be titled "Tennis, Chemical Engineering, and Tropical Fish (In That Order)," but these articles don't have ti tles. Lee Eagleton had just ar rived as the new department head at Penn State, and to get acquainted he scheduled in-depth interviews with all the members of the chemical engineering faculty. One senior professor felt that his interview was going well. He was providing profound in sights, and Lee seemed re ceptive. The interview was nearing its climax when Lee said, "I have to play ten nis in five minutes." The professor was stunned ... and Lee was gone. Lee explained sometime later that if you don't put tennis first, it ends up last. In 1978, John Tarbell wrote in CEE that "when Dr. Eagleton first arrived on campus in 1970, he was shocked to find that no one on the faculty played ten nis (Lee was seventh man on the tennis team at MIT one year, but never won a match). As a perceptive administrator, he quickly recognized this deficiency and soon convinced Dr. Danner (an assistant professor at the time) that tennis might be an important compo nent of his professional development. Ron was oblig ing and served admirably as a partner until he re ceived tenure, at which point his tennis enthusiasm suddenly waned. This situation was alarming and an exhaustive search for new talent was undertaken. For tunately, Dr. Duda (whose background in polymer sci ence was surpassed only by his twenty years of tennis ex perience) was looking for an academic position at that time. Larry and his wife were conveniently lured away from Dow Chemical Company to complete a formidable mixed doubles opponent for the Eagletons." Eagleton earned bache lor's and master's degrees from M.I.T. and the DEng from Yale, where he per formed his doctoral research under the supervision of Harding Bliss. The article re sulting from his thesis was cited by George Burnet as a landmark publication. After five years as a development engineer with Rohm & Haas, Lee joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania and was there for fifteen years until his move to Penn State. His research at Penn focused on vaporization of liquids, kinetics of catalytic processes, and reactor design, for which he was cited in being named AIChE Fellow. He was an acknowledged ex pert on the effect of mixing on chemical reactions and regularly lectured and chaired sessions in this area. Stuart Churchill credits Lee as being one of those who was primarily responsible for the upward turn in qual ity and reputation of their university's chemical en gineering program. Stu writes, "Indeed, we have never really accepted his departure, and have always treated him as an unofficial member of our depart ment 2 Copyright ChE Di vision ASEE 1987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 5

... to get acquainted [Lee] scheduled in-depth interviews with all [faculty members] ... The interview was nearing its climax when Lee said, "I have to play tennis in five minutes." The professor was stunned--and Lee was gone. Lee explained ... that if you don't put tennis first, it ends up last. Thus it was that Lee Eagleton brought his "I v y League" outlook to this Central Pennsylvania outpo s t in 1970 We needed him. His unique urbane st y l e made a difference in issues broad and small. An exam ple of the small occurred when electronic calculator s became available. The College of Engineering Execu tive Committee was stampeding toward banning them from use in examinations when Lee mused aloud as to whether the college should establish such an anti technological policy. The stampede wa s headed off and a ludicrous action was avoided. A broad issue greeted Lee when he arrived at Penn State. Chemical engineering was perceived externall y a s being totally focused on petroleum processing and irrelevant in modern times. The perception wa s exaggerated, but it is true that at that time one-half of the faculty of fourteen did no teaching. Within two years, two of those seven had retired at age sixty-five and the rest were in the classroom. Lee encouraged the research programs of the young faculty who had been carrying the bulk of the teaching load, and h e supported the enhancement of the best of the hydro carbon related research. He carried out this tran s formation, which could have led to rebellion, with dip lomacy and savoir fair e One of Lee's great pleasures is mingling with th e leaders of any discipline. He turned this inclination to our great advantage by bringing in many of th e biggest names in chemical engineering from around the country and the world, as much to expo s e th e Penn State faculty to their perspectives as to acquaint the visitors with the departmental renaissance. Those visitors and our faculty were regularly invited to his home Lee's style was to direct the actions of hi s wife, Mary, and his children, Bill, Jim and Beth, this way and that for the benefit of his guests His generalship, and their good-natured acceptance of it, was really part of the entertainmment. The real stars of his show were two, almo s t wall sized, salt-water aquaria. Lee caught the tropical fish himself in the Caribbean waters near his vacation home on St. John. The fish would grow to s everal inches in length and often lived to ripe old ages under his care. Lee used his reaction kinetics expertise to develop an ultraviolet sterilization technique for th e circulating salt water to protect the fish from fungi and other problems. In every major city (after playing tennis and attending the AIChE meeting) Lee would seek out the curator of the local aquarium to s hare WINTER 1987 information on the care of salt-water tropical fish. He e ven published an article on his UV sterilization method. His very famous coauthor was Earl Herald curator of the Steinhart Aquarium Lee's fascination with highly talented people was also crucial as he initiated a faculty recruiting program which was to achieve great success. To illustrate he attracted Larry Duda Jim Vrentas, Al Vannice, and Fred Helfferich to Penn State. All of them had signif icant industrial experience obvious creativity, and an inclination to fundamental research, factors which Lee and Mary relaxing over breakfast in the Caribbean. have s ince led each o f th e m to nati o nal awards At the sam e time as Lee' s d e partmental research revolution was co min g into its own, the enrollment explo s ion s truck. H e saw it a s an opportunity for growth and a s a way t o ga in incre a sed faculty and financial resou r c es fo r th e department. He encour aged creative r e s pon ses to the problems of advising and te a ching of va stly larger numbers of students. Hi s re s e a rch o n facult y w o rkload measurement, pub li s hed in 1977 in G EE w a s crucial in balancing respon s ibilitie s durin g that stres sful time. The thirte e n y ears ( 19 7 0-19 83 ) that he led our de partment were diffi c ul t y ears for the whole university a nd es pecially s o fo r t h e C ollege of Engineering. For chemical engin eer in g to have e x perienced such growth and impr ove ment in quality during an era of retrenchment a n d de t e rioration elsewhere on campus mu s t be attribut e d to Lee' s leadership. Beyond le a d ers h ip, L e e Eagleton has perfected the a rt of pr o c rasti nation. The scientific foundation 3

PAGE 6

He has been heavily involved in the Summer Schools and has held all offices in the ChE Division He volunteered to serve on the CEE Publication Board and was Secretary of the Division when CEE was moved to the University of Florida He was elected Publication Board Chairman in 1981, where he served through 1985. Lee and Mary pose with friend and primary tennis partner at Penn, Stu Churchill for his practice is, "If you put something off long enough, the need for it may disappear The result is that those things which don't disappear receive his attent ion after the l ast minute. Thus, procrastination has led him to idiosyncratic efficiencies. Those of us who have traveled with Lee to local AIChE meetings recall him dictating responses to a backlog of corre spondence in the din of a crowded automobile. One fac ult y m ember in the know says that Lee's adminis trative assistant wou ld have candidates for depart ment secretarial positions transcribe such dictation to see if they were immune to discouragement. Another s uch examp l e of Lee's "efficiency" is his use of hi s HP-41C programmable calculator. Lee, Larry Duda, and Bill Steele, of Chemistry, were walk ing over to the tennis courts a few hours before Lee was to meet his class. When they were almost there, Lee reached into his pocket, pulled out the calculator which had been working a problem the who l e time wrote down the answer, and went on to p la y tennis Lee is an active member of AIChE at all levels. Students have always found him to be an enth u siastic supporter of their organization, and his good nature has made him the perfect foil for their humor at ban quets and other gatherings through the years He cou l d always be counted on for an extemporaneous Jack Benny-type monologue at graduate seminars, re tirement parties, or other functions What could not be anticipated was his topic or the perspective he wou ld bring to it. In any lineup of speakers, no one ever wanted to follow Eagleton's act In 1983 the Centra l Pennsylvania Section recog4 nized Lee Eagleton's contribut i ons to the section and beyond by giving him the AIChE Diamond Jubilee Award. At the national level he served a three-year term as director and was chairman of the committee on AIChE Dynamic Objective 4. This was the objec tive that outlined changes in educational programs which would prepare chemical engineers for the in creasing complexity and diversity of the profession and which reemphasized the applications of chemistry as the distinguishing feature of chemical engineering. Lee was also active on the Education and Accredita tion Comm itte e. His work on Dynamic Objective 4 led the E&A committee to consider the liberalization of accreditation requirements for chemical engineering programs. This evolution continues today. An E&A Lee at 1981 graduation, sharing a final word with one of his students. colleague, Dee Barker, pointed out that of the large AIChE membership, only fifteen peop l e comprise this important body Of those only three or four are mem bers of the ABET Engineering Accreditation Com mission The fact that Lee serves on the ABET EAC is indicative of the high degree of confidence chemical engineering peop l e have in him One might wonder what specia l talent makes Lee invaluable in such roles Consider that he is the all time memo champ The successive energy shocks of the middle 1970 s brought about widespread and ap propriate attention to conservation, as well as some overzealous if well-intended efforts. Penn State was no exception, and its energy czar was Ralph E. Zilly, who inundated us with energy bulletins. Some of them were inane, and Lee referred to them as "silly Zillies." C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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A bit of dictation before heading for the courts. In a memo of March 4 1975 Zilly banned the use of portable electric heaters by secretaries. This aroused the competitive fire and wit of Eagleton and led to his masterpiece of March 14, 1975, which was termed a "Zilly dilly" by our appreciative secretaries. Nevertheless the battle between these two persistent memo-masters (REZ humorless, LCE wry) raged on for almost two years until on January 4 1977, Zilly caved in with, "Your point is well taken. Space re quirements preclude the inclusion of their memorable correspondence in this articl e ; however, copie s o f key memos will be provided by the author upon requ e st This anecdote may seem frivolous, but it illustrates Lee's determination his disarming wit and his toler ance of diverse opinions all of which make him so effective in deliberative bodies. Although he had numerous opportunities (Dean ships, National ASEE e t c ) to expand hi s field of influ ence, Lee consistently chose to focus his energies on his professional discipline For example, he was re cently elected to the select group of ASEE Fellows. His election was however, almost entirely because of his activity in the Chemical Engineering Division. He has been heavily involved in the Summer Schools and has held all offices in the ChE Division. He volun teered to serve on the GEE Publication Board and was Secretary of the Division when GEE was moved to the University of Florida. He was elected as Publi cation Board Chairman in 1981, where he served through 1985. Klaus Timmerhaus credits Lee with pushing hard to make GEE the quality publication that it is and for helping to set up the mechanism for adequately financing its operation. All three of Lee and Mary's children followed his example by studying engineering. Beth is an indus trial engineer with Rockwell International in Los Angeles. Jim most closely fits the mold with chemical engineering degrees from Michigan and MIT, a job WINTER 1987 with Rohm & Haa s in Philadelphi a, and involvement in a recent AIChE contest problem. Bill's current pos ition a s a cook for Stouffer's Restaurant in King of Prussia seems to go back more to his catering service at his father's receptions than to his college education. When you see Mary, ask her about Lee's devotion to the evening tennis doubles group. The group was surprised one night when a substitute, Jack Purnell, showed up for the 8 o'clock game. Jack (who still plays with the group) is an anesthesiologist at the local hos pital where Lee was preparing for minor surgery. Lee was on the table, ready for the mask, being wheeled by the anesthesiologist to the operating room, when he said, "Wait a minute, I have to play tennis to night." [eJ;j?I letters HOUGEN MEMORIAL Editor: I just wanted to drop you a note and thank you for initiating the tribute to the memory of Olaf Hougen in your journal. I think that the finished product is quite fine and I have already heard a number of favor able comments. I hope that some of the material in the summary will be intere s ting to many of your read ers and that through the "Hougen Principles" his in fluence will spread still further. R. B. Bird University of Wisconsin ti Na book reviews ECONOMIC EVALUATION IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES by Oli ve r A x t e ll, J a m e s M. Rob er t s o n W i ley-l n t er sc ience, So me r se t, NJ 0 8873 (19 8 6 ) 2 41 pag e s $ 44 95. Reviewed by Max S. Peters University of Colorado This short book presents a general treatment of methods used for economic evaluation in the chemical process industries with primary emphasis on keeping the presentation as simple as possible There are es sentially no mathematical equations in the entire book, and quantitative analysis is limited td examples Continued on page 33. 5

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[eJ ;j Ii department O v erview of the Manhattan College campu s MANHATTAN COLLEGE CONRAD T. BURRIS Manhattan College Bronx, NY 10471 T HE YEAR 1987 marks the one hundred thirty fourth anniversary of the founding of Manhattan College as a private independent college under the sponsorship of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (Christian Brothers). Although originally a commuter school for New York City students, the college's 4500 students now come from 17 states and 53 foreign coun tries The largest division, the School of Engineering with 1500 students, was established in 1896 with pro grams in civil engineering and electrical engineering Curricula in mechanical engineering and chemical en gineering were introduced in 1957 and in 1958, respec tively. Although posse s sing the name "Manhattan," the college is located in Ri v erdale, an attractive residenCopyright ChE D ivision AS E E 1987 6 tial section of New York City in the northwest corner of the Bronx on the heights overlooking Van Cortlandt Park. The campus was previously located on the island of Manhattan where the name originated, but moved to its present location in the Bronx in 1924. Since it already had an established reputation at the time of the move there was no effort to change the name along with the location Chemical engineering was introduced along with mechanical engineering at a time when a new en gineering building was planned for the campus. As part of the p l anning process, advisory groups of indus trial consultors were organized to meet with adminis trative officers to provide input so that the new de partments would reflect the latest thinking of the en gineering profession With the assistance of the mem bers of the Chemical Engineering Consultor Commit tee, a program was initiated at the sophomore level in 1958 The first enrollees were chemistry majors who decided to take advantage of the new opportunity presented to them The first class graduated in 1961. C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM The program began with very little in the way of equipment although a recently acquired building near the campus was available for its use. The industrial advisors who provided the incentive to get the pro gram underway now came to the rescue. The chairman of the Consultor Committee, who was then a vice president of a major corporation but who had previ ously served as chairman of a chemical engineering department in an academic institution, realizing the needs of a new department with limited resources and knowing how industry could help, provided the neces sary assistance. He assigned an engineer from his company to visit several chemical engineering schools to determine what experiments were needed for a modern unit operations laboratory and then au thorized him to visit the company's storage locations to select appropriate surplus equipment which could be used in an academic environment. A laboratory manual was prepared based on the donated equipment so that a full set of experiments was ready for the first senior class Since that time the department has continued to expand, with modern laboratory equipment having r: placed the donated surplus equipment. Today's umt operations laboratory is in excellent condition, thanks to grants from several companies and government agencies. Recent equipment grants from the National Science Foundation are providing opportunities for further updating of our undergraduate laboratories Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, along with exper iments in biotechnology, will now become an integral part of our undergraduate laboratory offerings. The department has had three chairmen during its short history. Brother Conrad Burris served as chair man during the early years of the program. He was succeeded by Jack Famularo who served for four years and Joe Reynolds who served as chairman for seven years. Brother Burris, after serving ten years as Dean of Engineering, returned to the chemical en gineering department and was again appointed chair man. Close faculty-student interaction characterizes the Manhattan College program in chemical engineering. Small class size and excellent library and computer facilities in the Engineering Building and a newly con structed Research and Learning Center provide an excellent environment for the learning process. A spe cial feature of our program is the involvement of un dergraduate students in the research activities of the faculty. Among the research projects involving under graduate student participation are the following: fluidized bed studies; analysis of air pollution control WINTER 1987 systems; hazardous waste incineration; paint and c ol loid surface phenomena; protein separation and purifi cation processes; industrial wastewater treatment and membrane mass transfer studies. Many of these stu dents are co-authors of published papers and papers presented at professional society meetings. In the last five years twelve papers involving student authors have been presented at meetings or conferences and nine journal articles have been published or accepted for publication. Computer terminal room in the new Research and Learn ing Center. Although primarily an undergraduate institution, Manhattan College has a chapter of Sigma Xi which is somewhat unique since chapters of this prestigious research honor society are usually associated with doctoral granting institutions. Over the past five years seventeen undergraduate students from the chemical engineering department have been inducted into the Manhattan College chapter. Chemical engineering graduates from the Manhat tan College program have done well in both graduate schools and in industry In the past five years, 27 of the department's graduates have obtained or are in the process of obtaining their doctorate degrees from a variety of prestigious graduate schools. In addition, 82 graduates have obtained master s degrees. Several graduates each year also enter medical, dental and law schools. Chemical engineers from Manhattan Col lege are highly regarded professionals in indu~try, with many achieving high-level positions in major chemical petroleum, pharmaceutical and design com panies DESIGN-ORIENTED MASTER'S PROGRAM Once the undergradu a t e program was established and accredited, consider a tion was giv e n to d eve loping 7

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... Manhattan College, following the advice of its industrial advisors, decided to introduce a design-oriented master's degree program as an alternative for those students whose career objectives were directed toward design, production, and management rather than to teaching or research. a graduate level program. At the time this was being considered in the mid-sixties circumstances were such that there was no need for another doctoral granting institution in the New York City area The college's industrial advisors were of the opinion that there were more than enough research-trained en gineers with masters and doctorate degrees. Much of the graduate research done during that period was highly theoretical and geared to the programs being supported with federal funds. The needs of the more traditional chemical industries for engineers with some application-oriented work at the graduate level was becoming increasingly evident. At that time it was noted that there were many talented sudents who desired advanced training in en gineering, but who had little interest in research These students were entering research-oriented pro grams because there were no alternatives available to them. The conclusion was that a need existed for a graduate program in engineering practice. This pro gram was planned with the objective of training and motivating students toward productive careers in in dustry, and terminating at the master s degree level. New York City already had several engineering schools with excellent research-oriented graduate pro grams in chemical engineering, so Manhattan College, following the advice of its industrial advisors, decided to introduce a design-oriented master's degree pro gram as an alternative for those students whose career objectives were directed toward design, pro duction, and management rather than to teaching or research. The program was termed "design-oriented" because process and plant design project work is em ployed in place of a research thesis. The projects re quire exercise of judgment, creativity, and sound economic reasoning, and thus prepare a student for a wide spectrum of engineering assignments in indus try. Although design had become an integral part of undergraduate chemical engineering education, its role at the graduate level had been minimal. Several approaches to the program were consid ered by the faculty in consultation with their indus trial advisors. It was generally agreed that some meaningful involvement by industry should be an in tegral part of the program. The MIT Practice School model was considered but discarded as being too ex pensive and impractical for an institution such as Man hattan College. In addition, industry appeared reluc tant to support additional programs of that type. It 8 was finally agreed that a three month "Summer Phase" should precede a nine month "Academic Phase The summer phase would be under the direc tion of a "participating compan y" which s upported the program. The compan y agreed to provide a work ex perience in the design office laboratory or plant which would be relevant to the overall objectives of the program. During this period a faculty representa tive from the chemical engineering department would monitor the progress of the s tudent by visit s to the industrial site. Selection of the student for specific summer jobs would be handled cooperatively b y the college and the company involved, and salary work ing conditions, and related matters would be handled by the company. Because of the proprietary nature of much of the work done during the summer month s it was agreed that the summer project should not be continued during the academic phase as part of the process and plant design project. Required courses during the academic phase in clude applied process thermodynamics distillation design of thermal systems and chemical reactor de sign. Included among the available electi v e course s are advanced chemical engineering economics, en gineering statistics, numerical methods and computer methodology optimization techniques, and computer methods in process simulation. In general, graduate courses are taught by faculty members whose back ground includes appropriate industrial experience. Adjunct faculty are also utilized to take advantage of their particular specialties The many industries in the New York metropolitan area provide an excellent source of part-time teachers. The specific objectives of the process and plant de sign project are to develop the capabilities of the stu dent in the area of process synthesis, technical and economic evaluation of alternatives, process optimiza tion and communication skills. Overall student reac tion to the project has been extremely favorable. Stu dents have found it to be the unifying element within their graduate education. This is not as much due to the fact that the project represents the culmination of the program as it is to the fact that it serves to bring together much of the knowledge previously held to be unique and isolated. Industry involvement continues during the aca demic phase of the program A steering committee made up of members of the faculty and a representa tive from each of the participating companies meet s C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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once or twice during the year to review the program and to make recommendations for its improvement. In addition, the participating companies provide semi nar speakers who give appropriate up-to-date infor mation on industrial topics. Recent seminar topics have been: Three Dimensional Plant Design on a CAD System; Application of Unit Operations in Cryogenic Air Separation; Hazard and Risk Analysis of Process Systems; and Hazardous Waste Management in the Petroleum Refining Industry. This program has been in operation since 1967 with the participation and support of such companies as Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Celanese Plastics Company, Lummus Crest Inc., Exxon Corporation, FMC Corporation, Mobil Oil Corporation, Stauffer Chemical Company, Texaco Inc., Pfizer foe., Consoli dated Edison Company of New York, and Union Car bide Corporation. Reports from those companies em ploying graduates from the program indicate that it has been particularly effective in improving the com petence of young engineers by affording them an in tensive, guided experience in developing their capabilities in handling industrial problems. Over 450 master's degrees have been granted since the pro gram began twenty years ago. EXTENSION TO LATIN AMERICA Once the program became successfully established in the United States, it was expanded to include appli cants from Latin America. It was believed that this type of educational opportunity would be of greater benefit to many Latin American students seeking an advanced degree in chemical engineering than the more traditional "research-oriented" program. This is particularly true if the student's career objectives are directed towards production and management. In gen eral, programs of this type are not yet available in Latin America. On the advice of Manhattan College's committee of chemical engineering advisors from industry, contact was made with representatives of government agen cies, industry, and educational institutions in several Latin American countries. There was general agree ment with the objectives of the program, and an effort was made to cooperate with industries and academic institutions in those countries by providing interested students from a cooperating engineering school with summer employment in the plant, design office, or laboratory of a participating company in the Latin American country in which the program was to be come operative. After completion of the summer in dustrial phase, the student would spend the academic year at Manhattan College before returning to the WINTER 1987 Students comparing notes in the unit operations lab. country of origin. It was hoped that industry would provide financial assistance for those participating in the program. Although there was general agreement with the value of the program, the format found to be success ful in the United States was not viable in Latin America. Cooperation between industry and educa tion in Latin America appears to be less than it is in the United States, and where it does exist there is little enthusiasm on the part of academic institutions involved to use industry support to provide scholar ship assistance for local students to study abroad. They believe that local industry support should be for local academic institutions. So, while there was some willingness on the part of industry to provide suitable employment to satisfy the "summer phase" of the pro gram, complications associated with the selection of a student acceptable to the company and monitoring his performance made this procedure impractical. Since the "summer phase," or prior industrial ex perience, was felt to be important, a more suitable model for students from developing countries was sought. Fortunately, close cooperation with Bufete Industrial, a Mexican owned design and construction company, helped provide a suitable model for 9

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maximizing the advantages which the program pro vides. The "summer phase has been replaced for the Bufete candidates with six months to two year s of industrial experience as employees of the company Th~y are then, in general, better prepared to ap preciate the opportunities which the program pro vides than their United States counterparts. Students accepted for the program are employees of the Pro ces s Development Department of Bufete Industrial, so have been exposed to an appropriate industrial en vironment. The Latin American extension of the program has been particularly successful in Mexico, with over 5 0 Collecting data for the distillation experiment. students completing the program. An additional 25 students from several other Latin American countries have completed the program and returned to their countries. The recent decline in the price of oil, which has had an adverse effect on the economies of several Latin American countries has resulted in a decrea s e in applicants from that part of the world OTHER GRADUATE PROGRAM OPTIONS Although the original "Design-Oriented" Master 's Degree Program was planned for full-time students, it became apparent that young engineers working in the chemical industry in the New York metropolitan area could also benefit from this type of program. ~ Since they were already engaged in engineering work, the need for a design project as part of their degree requirement was considered unnecessary, so a part time evening program consisting of the four required courses and six elect ive courses was established. During the period when chemical engineers .were 10 in short supply, many chemists wished to work for the master s degree in chemical engineering. In order to accommodate these potential applicants, a "Chemist s Program" was established leading to the Master's De gree. Although they had a strong background in chemistry, these candidates lacked a background in chemical engineering. As a result, they were required to take and successfully complete twelve credits in undergraduate chemical engineering courses before being allowed to matriculate in the graduate program. Over 65 chemists have successfully completed this program in the nine years that it has been in opera tion. PARTICULATE SOLID RESEARCH, INC. (PSRI) Although not formally a part of the chemical en gineering department, this organization (established in 1970) provides an opportunity for faculty and stu dent involvement in applied research of benefit to the industrial community. The laboratories of PSRI are adjacent to the Manhattan College campus. The Tech nical Director, Fred Zenz was originally attracted to Manhattan College because of its "Design-Oriented graduate program. His recognized competence in the area of fluid-particle technology led to an institute de voted to the development of design data for use by industry PSRI is modeled after the two older re search institutes, Heat Transfer Research Institute (HTRI) and Fractionation Research Institute (FRI). A wide variety of useful information has been gener ated by this organization under Fred Zenz's leader ship. Current investigations by this group include di lute phase conveying dense phase conveying cyclone efficiency and particle attrition. These studies have led to the development of basic formulations de monstrating that the properties of fluid-solids systems are analogous to liquid-vapor systems and obey the same quantitative relationships. FACULTY ACTIVITIES Continuing the tradition of excellence in teaching chemical engineering the faculty is constantly up grading course offerings to keep pace with advances in technology. Several of the faculty have been instru mental in developing new courses. Helen Hollein has introduced courses in biochemical engineering at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Stewart Sla ter's contribution includes two new courses ; one in s eparation techniques for resource recovery and a s ec ond in membrane process technology. Louis Theo dore, who has been teaching graduate courses in air pollution control for many years, has recently de veloped a new course in hazardous waste incineration. Although the department's Master's Degree ProC HEMI C AL ENGINEERING ED UC ATION

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gram is still "design-oriented, some experimental work involving the newer technologies is underway. A recent NSF equipment grant has enabled Stewart Slater to develop a laboratory devoted to modern sep aration techniques such as reverse osmosis and ul trafiltration. Helen Hollein, also with the assistance of a NSF equipment grant is establishing a laboratory in biotechnology. Both of these laboratories will be devoted to undergraduate instruction, undergraduate and graduate research participation, and faculty re search. Jack Famularo has been actively involved in updat ing our unit operations laboratory by incorporating computers into several experiments. These include a computer-controlled heat exchanger experiment and experiments in unsteady-state conduction and distilla tion. In addition he is currently doing research involv ing studies of adsorption processes in water treatment systems. Helen Hollein is currently conducting research in volving experimental studies and mathematical mod els for protein adsorption and desorption in ion-ex change chromatography She is also working on the development of new resins for preparative separation of biological molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stewart Slater s research in reverse osmosis is directed at process modeling and industrial wastewater treatment. He has developed models to simulate different processing modes based on mass transfer and operational parameters and is currently modeling the effects of concentration polarization. Helen Hollein and Stewart Slater have joint research projects on the purification and concentration of biological mixtures by ultrafiltration processes. Louis Theodore and Joseph Reynolds are currently working in the area of air pollution and hazardous waste disposal by incineration Their activities nicely complement the water pollution emphasis of Manhat tan College's well-established environmental en gineering program. In addition to his work as Technical Director of Particulate Solid Research, Inc., Fred Zenz handles the design component of the undergraduate program a s well as several of the graduate courses in the "de s ign-oriented" master s degree program. Paul Mar nell, who had many years of industrial experience, handles the gradu a te program design projects The recent opening of a Research and Learning Center on the Manhattan College campus is providing the much needed space for the expanding interests of the chemical engineerin g departm e nt. The future looks promising. D AMOCO Making Significant Advances In Technology The Amoco Research Center represents continued advancement in Amoco Corporation's support of research and development. Petroleum products and processes, chemicals, additives, polymers and plastics, synthetic fuels, and alternative sources of energy are only a few of the areas in which the Amoco Research Center has made important contributions. Located on 178 acres of spacious landscaped grounds in Naperville, Illinois, just 30 miles west of Downtown Chicago, the Center employs over 1500 people. We are currently in need of enthusiastic researchers who have received their degree in chemical, mechanical, or electrical engineering, to help us improve the products and services we provide. You'll be part of a team that continually pushes back the parameters of known technology. Amoco is proud of its dedicated personnel and furnishes them an environment that encourages creativity and is conducive to professional advancement. If you have the desire and proven ability to work on mind-stimulating projects, we are prepared to offer a very attractive benefits package and salary that reflects your expertise. The research field provides a backbone for modern development-guiding industry through the future. And you can be part of this. Please send your resume to: Amoco Research Center Professional Recruiting Coordinator Dept. CEE/12 P.O. Box 400 Naperville, Illinois 60566 / WINTER 1987 I'. 6T~ AMOCO ""1!!11111.,, I'\.. An equal opportunity employer M/F/H/V 11

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[iJn#I lecture CHEMICAL ENGINEERING IN THE FUTURE* C. T. gcIANCE E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company Wilmington, DE 19898 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING AND its future direction are important and interesting subjects to those of us in the profession. There is much to talk about. In this paper we discuss three aspects of the future of chemical engineering. The first concerns change: What evidence is there that the profession of chemical engineering needs to evolve? And why are these changes taking place? The second part addresses the needs and expecta tions of industry, or at least that segment of it which is likely to employ chemical engineers: What do we need and expect from our new engineers? What role do we expect chemical engineers to play, and what could that role be if their training were different? The perspective presented is largely a personal one. Each company, and each division or even each individual within a company, sees things differently But since each of you know many people from indusC. Thomas Scionce received hi s BS(l960), his MChE(l964) and his PhD (1966) from the University of Oklahoma. He served in the U S Army during 1961-62 and joined Du Pont in 1966 as a research en gineer Since November 1983 he hos been Director of Engineering Research in DuPont's Engineering Research and Development Division He is responsible for research done by Du Pont s Engineering Physics and Engineering Technology Laboratories, both located at the E x peri mental Station near Wilmington, DE *"Tutorial Lecture" for ASEE Chemical Engineering Division : June 23, 1986; Cincinnati, OH. 12 The first concerns change: What evidence is there that the profession of chemical engineering needs to evolve? And why are these changes taking place? try, you can judge these opinions in the larger con text. Certainly the members of the Septenary Com mittee on the Future of Chemical Engineering, spon sored by the University of Texas at Austin, rep resented a wide spectrum of companies employing chemical engineers; yet they were in remarkable agreement about many issues. The third part suggests possible courses of action. Some would involve only the academic community. Others would require the participation of professional societies such as the ASEE or AIChE; organizations such as the Chemical Research Council that bring to gether academic government, and industry represen tatives ; government funding agencies such as the Na tional Science Foundation; textbook publishing houses; or individual firms that employ chemical en gineers. The real issue is cohesive leadership. There are signs that the need for change is recognized, and at least some elements of the matrix are willing to be persuaded to change. Leadership involves setting di rections and priorities and providing incentives for movement in the desired direction. SIGNS OF CHANGE The Du Pont Company is a large employer of en gineers, especially chemical engineers Surveys have shown that chemical engineering students think of Du Pont as one of the best places to work. Therefore changes taking place in Du Pont should be of interest to suppliers of chemical engineering students. Allow me, then, to cite several examples that impact upon the recruitment and careers of chemical engineers. The Engineering Technology Laboratory, estab lished in 1929 in the Chemical Engineering Group of Du Pont's Central Chemical Department, has been a continuing major influence in the field of chemical en gineering research. It was a thrill for me as a chemical Copyright ChE D ivision ASE E 1987 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING ED UC ATION

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TABLE 1 Engineers in Du Pont Final Degrees a s of 1 1 1 / 86 BS MS PhD Total % Chemical 2911 768 504 4183 45 Mechanical 2066 361 82 2509 27 Electrical 898 127 21 1046 11 Other 1057 353 105 1515 16 Total 6932 1609 712 9253 Percent 75 17 8 engineer to lead a research organization founded by Thomas Chilton. The Chemical Engineering Group grew from two people in 1929 to 37 in 1953 Many employees such as James Carberry, Allan Colburn, Thomas Drew, Robert Marshall, and Robert Pigford have become well-known in the field. The chemical engineering sec tion of the lab has traditionally been a leader in indu s trial chemical engineering. Since May 1 of 1986, howe v er there is no longer a Chemical Engineering Section p er s e in the En gineering Technology Laboratory The groups have been renamed to reflect a focus on technologies of cor porate strategic significance. The new names? Bioen gineering. Electronics Materials Engineering. Struc tural Ceramics. Electronics Ceramics. Polymer Pro cessing and Compounding. Composites and Applied Mechanics. Membranes Engineering. In the meantime, the tiny Applied Physics Section founded in 1945, has become the Engineering Physics Laboratory, equal in size to its sister Engineering Technology Laboratory. It is divided into two main sections (Applied Physics, and Electronics and Optics) but within those areas there is a substantial and grow ing emphasis on materials science. Development of electro-optic devices, characterization of composites work on optical-disk storage devices, and the modifi cation of materials by microwave radiation are all fields that might have a chemical engineering aspect but are presently the province of solid state physicists and materials scientists. What's in a name? A lot. Names help focus direc tion. Names inspire loyalty and esprit de corps. If you are looking for signs of change, do not ignore changes in the names of organizations, groups, or functions. You should find this alarming. A shift of emphasis in industrial research indicates a trend in future jobs in manufacturing and marketing. To industry, it mat ters little whether applied physicists or chemical en gineers are doing the work. If chemical engineers are to be hired, they must receive the training that will make their expected contributions greater than WINTER 1987 those expected from other disciplines. Recruitment Trends Another clear indication of change for the field of chemical engineering can be seen in Du Pont' s recruit ment trends. Du Pont is a highly diversified company that employs a great many chemical engineers. As shown in Table 1, Du Pont (minus Conoco) employs about 16,000 people with college technical degrees out of a total exempt force of 22,000. More than 9,000 of these are engineers, of whom 45 % are chemical en gineers. In all, 25 % of the engineers hold advanced Since [last] May ... there is no longer a Chemical Engineering Section per se in the Engineering Technology Laboratory. The groups have been renamed to reflect a focus on technologies of corporate strategic significance. degrees, as do 30 % of the chemical engineers During the past ten years we have hired 2 242 chemical engineers, half of the total number of en gineers hired. Although individual y ears vary a gr e at deal, some trends are clear Figure 1 shows that th e relative percentage of chemical engineers hir e d has dropped. Specific figures are listed in Table 2. In the three year period 1976-79 Du Pont hired 746 ch e mical e gineers, 52 % of the total number of engineers hi r ed. Of these, 5 % of the chemical engineers had PhD s. In the three-year period 1983-86, s even years later, 37 3 chemical engineers were hired 43 % of the total. Of 50r--------------------, 50 40 I30 tJ a: w 0.. 20 10 \ MECHANICAL \ ......... \ ,,.,,. ., __ ,,. '----"'_.. ...... ELECTRICAL ........ / ... .... .;.:::.:.:,:.::: __ ::::::::,........... --OTHER 0 '---'-----'---'--_.__....,__....__,.___,.____._ _, 76/77 78/79 80/81 82/83 84/85 77 /78 79/80 81 /82 83/84 ACADEMIC YEARS FIGURE 1 Ten-Year history: Du Pont engineering hiring for Bachelors and Masters degrees 13

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these, 21 % had the PhD. In this seven-year period, the total number of chemical engineers hired dropped by half, and the percentage of PhD's among them quadrupled. The absolute number of PhD hires in chemical engineering increased by 114 in the face of a 58% decline in BS/MS hires. The trend toward hiring fewer chemical engineers who individually know more seems unmistakable. Other types of engineers are faring relatively bet ter. Subtracting these figures will show that, altliough 1976-79 1983-86 Change,% TABLE 2 Chemical Engineering Recruitment CHEMICAL ENGINEERS B-M PhD Total 710 36 746 296 77 373 --58 + 114 --50 ALL ENGINEERS B-M PhD Total 1383 60 1443 763 102 865 --45 + 70 --40 the total number of BS / MS hired dropped 45 %, this figure represents a 58 % reduction in chemical en gineers combined with a 31 % reduction in all other types of engineers. Consider electrical engineers, not shown specifi cally in Table 2. We employ over 1,000, 11 % of our total engineering employment. Comparing the same periods, Du Pont went from 172 hired to 182, a 6 % rise in the face of a drop of 40% in the total number of engineers hired. The very small number of PhD's doubled from 4 to 8, but the latter figure would have been higher had we been more successful in recruiting them. One of our problems in recruiting is that, as a chemical company, we are not yet perceived by re search-oriented EE's to offer outstanding oppor tunities for them. We are trying to combat this er roneous perception. A number of our R&D positions are being filled with applied physicists and materials science and ceramics majors. Again, we are pleased with the qual ity of these people, but to the field of chemical en gineering such hires may represent lost opportunities. Unless something is done to change the trend, the role of chemical engineers in industry will diminish. Also, it seems that the part of industry which hires chemical engineers will gradually move away from having the BS as the terminal degree. This happened with chemistry, biology and mathematics long ago. These trends have major implications for those who teach chemical engineers. 14 Market Orientation Everyone pays lip service to market and customer orientation. In fact, since the publication of In S earc h of Excellence [1], not to do so would be heresy. Those who have seen such trends come and go develop a certain degree of cynicism about them. However, we believe that the movement toward better customer orientation, both in Du Pont and the chemical industry in general, is truly significant and has long-term impli cations for the field of chemical engineering. We compete in an international market where other countries have equivalent technical skills and infrastructure, plus advantages such as labor cost Where formerly we might have expected a sustainable cost and hence price advantage through technology alone, now we must focus on providing value to the customer not merely by lower price but in every way that the customer sees value. Examples of change in Du Pont include not only formation of new, customer oriented entities but also new ways of thinking about existing organizations. Consider the new organization chart for our Biomedical Products Department shown in Figure 2. Instead of the traditional triangle with the Group Vice President at the top, here you see the various divisions clustered like flower petals about the healthInternational Sales FIGURE 2. Organization chart CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU CA TION

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care customer. Note also that the names of the divi sions-pharmaceuticals, diagnostic imaging, biotech nology systems, specialty diagnostics, etc-differ con siderably from such traditional areas as nylon, poly ethylene, and industrial chemicals. Although our Engineering Research organization has no outside customers, we do have a well-defined internal market. Our clients are Du Pont's other de partments. We receive about one-third of our funds from the corporation for long-range and discretionary R&D, and must get the other two-thirds by convinc ing our clients that we can serve them better than someone else can. They are free to go elsewhere. Table 3 lists some of the ways in which recent trends affect the practice of chemical engineering TABLE 3 Recent Trends Affecting ChE's MOVE OF BASIC INDUSTRIES OFF-SHORE FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING Automation Batch Processes Small Scale / Small Lots Rapid Changes PRIMARY EMPHASIS ON QUALITY, SERVICE VALUE IN-USE RATHER THAN PRODUCTION PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGY While this change in emphasis is relatively recent for much of the chemical industry, the focus on customer needs is well-established in the electronics industry, which is now hiring more chemical engineers. Traditionally, chemical engineers have found posi tions in the chemical and petroleum industries in jobs emphasizing the scaleup of processes. The six-tenths power factor "proved" that technical work oriented towards ever-increasing scale would be rewarded many times over. After all, half again as much invest ment would build a plant producing twice as much. Not many people noticed that in some cases the 0.6 factor was becoming 0.7, 0.8 or even higher, and that the effort and expense directed toward keeping huge plants on-line were beginning to outweigh the vaunted advantage of scale. Technical efforts were directed to ward ever-increasing reliability to counter the ex tremely high cost incurred when the unit was shut down for any reason. Next, problems arising from cyclical swings in the economy were found to be accentuated by the enor mous single-line plants whose breakeven rates wer e 70% of design or higher. During an economic down turn, a producer with two small plants could shut one down, doing relatively well by running the remaining WINTER 1987 Also, it seems that the part of industry which hires ChE's will gradually move away from having the BS as the terminal degree. This happened with chemistry, biology and mathematics long ago. unit efficiently. To the large producer, the laws of economic thermodynamics (you can't win-you can t break even-you can't quit playing) were not so funny, as they found themselves forced by contracts and internal needs to continue playing a losing game. Another blow to the concept of unalloyed benefits from ever-larger scale came with the realization that real value to the customer might lie in small amounts of material tailored to the customer's need s as op posed to huge amounts tailored to the producer' s d e sires Considerable technical effort wa s dev ot e d t o product wheels" or other s chem es to ma k e l arge plants behave more like small one s Th e effort to be flexible and maintain high qualit y w h i l e tailoring pr od ucts to each customer is a dominant t h e m e in process work today Finally as mentioned earlier, t h e Uni t e d States and Western Europe lost thei r v i r tual mono poly on technical capability and the infra s tructur e ne e d ed to support large plants. Developin g countries could o tain and operate comparable facilities close to the source of supply. These countries could then price downstream products to support their internal social programs, undercutting our industries, which de pended upon scale for their economics. Unfortunately for us, the rules of economics as applied in the United Stat6s are not necessarily those of a nation that owns raw materials and abundant unemployed labor but must fuel any real growth with foreign exchange. The response by industries in the industrialized nations must be to emphasize flexibility, quality, and service rather than scale. The need for technical talent still exists, perhaps more so than in the past, but the emphasis is different. Educational programs should be adapted to produce graduates prepared to function in this new environment. Organizational Effectiveness As stated earlier, Du Pont has been hiring fewer engineers lately Why is that? The need to become more competitive, felt by all American industry and especially in recent years by the chemical and pet roleum industries, has resulted in a marked change in organizational structure and attitude. These changes are much more fundamental and significant than indi15

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cated by the mere change in numbers; the kind of work and the degree of training and expertise needed are profoundly affected. In Du Pont, we talk about "organizational effec tiveness." In practice, this means doing more with fewer people, cutting out whole layers of supervision, depending more upon nontechnically trained people, and reducing services and administrative support Figure 3 shows the change in a hypothetical R&D or technical support organization. The total size has been reduced 12 %. The number of s upervisory or manage01.D NEW SUPV 10 SUPV SUPV 10 10 SUPERVISORS/ MGRS AT BENCH TOTAL RATIO BENCH/ MGRS DIRECTOR SUPV DIRECTOR 10 OLD 13 __g 76 4 8 10 10 NEW REDUCTION 7 46% 60 67 12% 8.6 FIGURE 3. Example of change in a typical technical or R&D organization. rial slots, however, has been reduced by 46 % The ratio of total people doing technical work to those supervising or managing it in some capacity has in creased from about 5 to about 9. Notice the change in the kind of work that this new structure implies. Only half as many engineers will advance into R&D or technical supervision. The first supervisory opportunity will be at a higher level than before and normally will occur later in one's career. Since there are fewer managerial personnel in the organization, the individuals at the bench will re ceive less direction. This change in effect upgrades those jobs also, which means that to function effec tively those doing technical work will need greater expertise. 16 Young people ought not to study a field that they do not want to practice and do not enjoy. This advice might sound ... ridiculous, but many engineering students view the field as a stepping-stone into management. Similar changes in manufacturing have resulted in fewer supervisory jobs for engineers, a higher barrier to entry into management and a longer time spent doing technical work before having an opportunity to try mana g ement. Thi s change in th e culture of a company-trying to eliminate all none s sential work and focus on the real business needs-has even greater effects on the s taff functions than on line organizations. Most staff jobs are filled by technical people. The result of all this change is more reliance upon the individual and a con sequent premium on knowledge and experience. Since training people on the job is much more risky and less affordable now than befor e rotational mo v es are less frequent When vacancies created by tram ; fer or o t her reasons are filled, there are no excess people to carry the new person while he learn s the new job. Demands upon the replacement to produce quickly are therefore very great. This development will gradually force a search for more knowledge in the people we hire, manifesting itself in a premium for the master's degree and an incr e ased number of e x perienced hires. Both trends represent break s in our tradition It will also place a greater pr e mium on c ontinuing education of the volun tary, after-hours sort. Young people ought not to s tudy a field that the y do not want to practice and do not enjoy. This advice might sound so apparent as to be ridiculous, but in fact many engineering students view the field as a stepping stone into management. In the past, it was often po s sible to move into supervisory jobs within a y ear or two, and never really learn the practice of enginee r ing at the bench or in the plant. In the future the norm, even for managers, will be to practice en gineering for several years before the first supervi s ory opportunity arise s, and s o they should be well prepared and motivated to do so. After all, the main criterion for promotion is nearly always to be out standing at the job one has. This, then, completes the first part of this paper Chemical engineers in the future will need to know more and different things than they did in the past and be able to operate more independently at the start of their careers. The typical career path in the chem ical industry will be different. The possibility of employment in other industries and in even greater numbers exists, but only if the C HEMI CAL E N G INE E RING EDU C ATION

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graduate fits their needs. Let us turn now to what those needs might be. INDUSTRY NEEDS We have considered the ramifications of industry's renewed commitment to providing value to the cus tomer-value as the user sees it, not as the producer might see it. Many commercial blunders and even dis asters can be traced back to the sincere but naive belief that the customer would have to be crazy not to want the producer's wonderful product. Producers spent their energy trying to change the customer's perception of value rather than to satisfy his desires. The academic community has products, too-an array of them. Probably most of all you enjoy produc ing and marketing your premium products-the fruits of your own research and the PhD's you have person ally trained. However, your fixed costs are largely covered by the lower end of your product line-the BS and MS recipients-and you ignore their salability at your peril. Contin uing this analogy, consider what your cus tomers are saying and how their message is being con veyed; only about half the graduates in many chemical engineering schools are getting jobs in the field. If this situation continues, many of your businesses will fold, the smaller and weaker ones first. The problem is more than one of economic cycles. It would not be a good idea to dig in and wait this one out, because there are long-term changes in American industry that will require engineers to have different training in the future than most of them get now. To enjoy a continued expanding demand for your products, you must try two approaches-first, to get your existing customers to buy more, and second, to develop new customers. The approach to either is the same; try to analyze value as they see it, develop a product that provides that value, and then convince potential cus tomers that your product will fill their needs better than any other. There are potential customers outside the tradi tional chemical and petroleum industries. Our en gineering research organization works with a number of industrial segments involving such diverse technologies as packaging of food products, compos ites for aerospace and automotive applications, artifi cial ligaments and diagnostic devices for the health services industry, optical disks, opto-electronic de vices and ceramics for the electronics industry and many others. Opportuniti es for chemical engineers in those fields are as great as those in the traditional industries hiring chemical engineers. And the general WINTER 1987 educational requirements are also similar. Therefore, let us consider what industry in general expects from the engineers they hire We are potentially your cus tomers, but we'll see k value where we find it-from chemical engineers or others. The first point shown in Table 4 is essential. In TABLE 4 What Industry Expects from ChE Grads Maintain traditional strengths such as ability to deal with complex, real-world problems. Be able to function productively without extensive additional training. Be technically oriented. Have the tools, motivation and ability to continue to learn. Be able to communicate effectively. the discussions held by the Septenary Committee in Austin, the unanimou s opinion held by representa tiv es of the electronics chemical, and petroleum in du s tries represented on that panel was this: Chemical engineers are uniquely trained to apply fundamentals to comp lex, unstructured problems of the kind indus try faces. When those problems involve molecular change or the separation of chemical species, the pres ent curriculum provides a great deal of additional knowledge that may be brought to bear. We want to enhance those capabilities, not lose them. The asser tion that "chemical engineers can do anything" has some evidence to support it, and that reputation is invaluable to those wanting to broaden the employ ment spectrum of chemical engineers. Special Knowledge Unfortunately, they cannot do anything well with out some specialized knowledge. The traditional cur riculum provided that knowledge for the traditional customer. If you wish to broaden your customer base, a way of providing the specia l tools needed to serve those customers must be devised, which brings up the s ubject of curriculum. In a discussion of the undergraduate curriculum, the first question that comes to mind is: "So what? What difference does it make whether a few courses are added or subtracted from the curriculum, or the teaching methods and texts are changed a little? Can't that difference be erased during the first year or so on the job?" Of course it can-at a price. Many options are available. For example, the new hire can be sent back to school for a master s degree or for supplementary Co ntinued on page 50. 17

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THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF A GRADUATE THE BUSINESS ARENA R. RUSSELL RHINEHART Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409 W E HIRE ENGINEERS to effect change, to make things wor k or work better-but it requires more than technology to be an effective engineer It requires people ski ll s and a m ake-it-happen" mental ity. I think that such s kill s s hould and can be included in the style of a technical ed ucati on and that colleges w hich do so will be recognized by industry as produc ing faster-starting, more effective grad uat es Throu g hout m y 1 3 year industrial experience, I found the technical training of engineering graduates to be s uffici e ntly grounded in fundamental principles and concepts to allow the engineer to l earn a specific process technology and s uc cessfu ll y gu id e technical decisions. Schools teach technology we ll. Ho wever, human s are involved in the c hemi ca l process either as operators or as policy makers and, more often than not, a technical process c han ge sim ultane o u s l y re quires a change in attitudes a nd perspectives. Techni cal change, the engineer's job, takes place within a hum an environment and requires an adeptness with human nature as well as with technology. Un l ess man agers and operators accept it, a technical change will not happ en : the engineer will be ineffective. The human awareness required for technical effectiveness i s not but can be, incorporated in the ed uc ation ex perience. Because this is a time in whic h the market demand for new chemical engineers is l ow, I think that departments which deve lo p industria l savvy in their graduates will have a competitive edge For the first twenty years of an indi vid u al's life sc hool s train him/her to be a le arner and to work indeBy analogy to the socialization process in kindergarten, which prepares children for the teacher/student and peer social structure of school, there is an industrialization process for a new graduate. Copyright C hE D iv ision ASEE 19 87 1 8 R Russell Rhinehart is an assistant professor of chemical engineer ing at Texas Tech Univers i ty He received his PhD from North Carolina State University after a 1 3-yea r industria l ca reer as an engineer and group leader which included development of rea ction systems, process contro l solvent recovery and process sa f ety and reliab ili t y. H is interest in the specia l aspects o f industrial pro cess modeling, optimization, and contro l te chniques led to his pursuit of an academic career. pendently By contrast, an engineer must become a doer and work within a team environment In growing from student to engineer, an emp loy ee must inter nalize a new understanding of the objective and change his/her approach to the tasks. No business wants an engineer to stop with the statement, "I un derstand the process now," or "If only they'd accept my idea we could save ... dollars Business wants the engineer to "make-it-happen." Performance ap proaches that make a good student are not necessarily those that make an effective engineer By analogy to the soc ializ ation process in kinder garten, whic h prepares c hildr en for the teacher /s tu dent and peer social structure of schoo l, there is an industrialization process for a new graduate This in dustrialization process takes about two years, in vo l ves several aspects, and has been widely acknow ledged [l-5). With new names for the players, I will draw upon my industrial experiences to provide some examp l es of the industrialization process. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Although sometimes mathematical analysis is useful, in this instance I missed taking ownership of business need. I appropriated the problem in pursuit of my own personal need which, I think, was to exhibit technical competence. I would like to make two points from my story The first is to contrast the make-it-happen motive of business in comparison to the "develop skills" motive of the classroom. In this article I'll describe some of the characteris tics of the corporate industrial arena which are both important to business and which constitute major changes from academia. In a subsequent article I'll offer teaching methods which incorporate industrial experience within formal engineering education. Such experiences can accelerate the industrialization pro cess without displacing topics from an already over crowded curriculum. MAKE IT HAPPEN In a competitive business, the fundamental reason for hiring employees is to do a job or to realize a bus iness opportunity, and the profit motive calls for someone who can "make-it -happen. Wanted are ac tive, goal-oriented people who take ownership (inter nalize responsibility) of the end result and who do whatever task is necessary to make it happen. For example, in business the end result is not an academic task, such as the calculation of an optimum reactor operating temperature; rather, it may be a reduction in operating cost that results after management agrees to a temperature change, after operators are trained in an associated new process procedure, and after a process is smoothly operating at the new tem perature without unforeseen hitches (control stability, heater element life, thermal degradation, etc) There is an extra-technical perspective required to be effec tive in industry. Here is a personal example. I enjoyed engineering math as a student and have the general view that if I can model a process, I can understand it, and I can intelligently optimize it My confession is important: I enjoy math. In an early pro ject of mine, we were developing a dry-spinning pro cess to extrude a new fiber. Polymer was dissolved in a solvent, the solution was extruded through tiny holes, and as the resulting liquid streams fell, they dried. The continuous filaments of polymer were wound in a criss-cross fashion on a tube to build a wheel-like bobbin. The polymer structure within the filaments was essentially amorphous, and subsequent hot stretching oriented the polymer and strengthened the fiber. The bobbin-wound filament, however, was not totally dry; some residual solvent remained and evaporated from the bobbin surfaces as the yarn waited for subsequent stretching. The bobbin fiber did not dry uniformly. Fiber at the surface dried be fore the internal bobbin fiber dried; and since it was WINTER 1987 wound in a criss-cross manner, the residual solvent level changed every six inches along the length of the continuous filament The residual solvent acted as a plasticizer and, consequently, the post-stretching pro cess (and resulting fiber properties) changed periodi cally along the fiber length. Customers don't want such variability. I saw an application for my training. If I could model the bobbin residual solvent evaporation phenomena, I could determine the length of time one had to wait for the inside-to-surface residual solvent difference to be so low as to not create drawing differ ences. After several days refreshing my math, diffu sion, and evaporation principles and making simplify ing assumptions, I was left with one unknown parame ter: an effective diffusivity of the solvent through the yarn/air matrix. I then asked the lab to do some effec tive diffusivity measurements, and about a week later I began to question the validity of the lab-proposed test procedure to simulate the on-bobbin mechanisms. Meanwhile, the fiber draw nonuniformity still existed. Within the business priority list, nothing has hap pened. Also meanwhile, two of my co-workers, Ted and "Mr. Clean," saw that we just needed to dry the fiber completely in the first place. So they tried this and that and finally found a way to wind-up with dry yarn. Within about s i x days all extrusion lines had been modified, the draw uniformity was as desired, and Ted and "Mr. Clean" went out for a beer. The business goal was to fix the draw uniformity, not to determine the required inventory time through fancy modeling. Although sometimes mathematical analysis is useful, in this instance I missed taking own ership of business need. I appropriated the problem in pursuit of my own personal need which, I think, was to exhibit technical competence I would like to make two points from my story. The first is to contrast the make-it-happen motive of business in comparison to the "deve lop skills" motive of the classroom. The second is to indicate that indi vidual human needs can interfere with a rational view of the objective. Extremely rare is the person who is not driven by personal needs, who does not attempt to exploit situations to get promoted, to exhibit com petence, to gain approval, to gain power .... To be maximally effective as an engineer (and as a person) one needs to recognize his/her own personal needs and 19

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to allow their expression only when they complement the true goal. Does engineering e ducation train students to make-things-happen? Do students graduate understanding the hidden motives b e hind human behavior? CHANGE AND CREDIBILITY On an average, during my engineering career I had a new supervisor every fifteen months and switched projects every two years. Those changes The engineer must convince management of his/her proper overall perspective and because of t he constant personnel flux the engineer must c onstantly reestablish his credibility. were in part due to promotions and in part due to transfers in response to business needs. I believe that such change is the rule rather than the exception, and such change has several implications for the em ployee-one being the engineer's credibility. In order to be effective in convincing management to take a part i c ul ar action, an engineer's recommenda tions must be considered credible within a broad inter disciplinary scope. Further, these recommendations must be consistent with the business's traditions, with nationa l values, and with the business's long-term goal and contingency plans. The scope of topics which en ters into a business decision is immense and the re quired perspective is much greater than the usually myopic, one-tec h nology experience indicated in tech nical courses The engineer must convince management of his / her proper overa ll perspective, and because of the constant personnel flux, the engineer must constantly reestablish his credibility Credibility is an image. It i s a belief within others that one s work can be ac cepted. An engineer projects credibility by presenting information from a technical and non technical per spective which coincides with the listener s priorities and concerns. Managers are busy people To make an engineer's work easily accessible to them, the initia l sentences of oral and written communication should incorporate the topics which are important to the manager in terms that he understands. The initial statements should also summarize non technical issues and critique the work. I'll use Neil as an incredible exam ple He was as technically able and eager to produce as anyone I have seen His reports were technically 20 complete with assumptions acknowledged and de fended and with conclusions analyzed. However his work came from his own point of view. It did not incor porate the views of production and was not compatible with long-term business goals It was therefore devoid of some important non-technical business iss u es, obvi ously incomplete, and required more analysis before it could add business direction. Technical correctness was his pursuit, and only after pages and pages of development were business consequences addressed (as though they were secondary issues). Neil's exclu s ively technical approach and the inevitable manage ment frustration are characterized b y this anecdote Neil and a manager were on a trip and the man ager, who was driving, noticed a sign "Highway ends 2 miles." He asked Neil to look at the map and decide whether to turn left or right at the exit. Neil observed red, blue, and black lines, towns be tween here and there, and mileage markers on the map He began to organize hi s approach to the prob lem. Then he asked What i s the most important criteria: to minimize probable time-to-destination or probable trip-cost ?" Neil, there s only a mile and a half left. Which i s the best way?" Realizing best" was a fuzzy word the manager asked, "How would you go?" Wishing to offer a thorough analysis, Neil com puted the mileage each way estimated the toll cost one wa y, mentally juggled .the time delay through a small town, but also considered the advantage of being able to buy cheaper gas in that town. Then th e re wa s the possibility of a ticket which Neil wouldn t get if he were driving, but his manager usually speed s .... "One mile left, Neil as he eased off the gas Finally, Neil gave his report in the familiar techni cal style of title abstract, background ... "You asked me which way I'd go," Neil started; and recognizing no quick answer was coming, th e manager slowed down a bit more. The criteria which would guide my choice hav e been classified a nd weighed against them ar e the po ss ible events which might happen on either route. Additionally m y analysis indicates a third po s sibility ." 'We've only a half mile left Neil. Left or right? "Before I recommend a direction to you, you need to understand the criteria which I used and the as sumptions which I made so that you can accept or reject their validity and decide on the appropri a ten e ss of the decision As Dr. X pointed out the se crit e ri a are subjective For instance, if .... "NEIL!! GIVE ME THE MAP! Once again, Neil is ineffective in adding dir e ction to his company. C HEMI CAL E N GIN E E RIN G ED U C ATION

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Let's switch Neil for Al in that trip story, and suppose that Al were working for a middle-of-the-road, striped-suit management. The closest Al will come to conforming to that management style is by pedaling his bicycle down the middle of the road with his striped racing tights. The manager would prefer to hear something like, "Turn left. You can get there either way but the left road promises easier driving. Want more details?" Does an engineering education teach effec tive interpersonal communication skills? Does it address professional credibility? Does it foster multidisciplinary th in king? Do we train people to seek and incorporate th e con cerns of others, or do we train th em to work independently? THE TEAM UNIFORM Let's switch Neil for Al in that trip story, and sup pose that Al were working for a middle-of-the-road, striped-suit management. The closest Al will come to conforming to that management style is by pedaling his bicycle down the middle of the road with his striped racing tights. Al says to his manager, "Turn left ... easier driving .. The manager may likely glance at Al and scowl to himself, "What's he mean by 'easier' driving? Can I trust someone whose value sys tem and style are so obviously misplaced to guide my decisions? Can Al consider data rationally? After all, look how he wears his hair. Whatever could be guiding his choices?" Then, out loud, he might say "Yes, I want more information What are the distances either way? Is there an interstate we can take?" Because of the personal image Al presents, and in spite of his competence and business sense, Al causes others to question the propriety of his analysis. Al's profes sional credibility is questioned, and he is reduced to the position of a technician. How long would you pay an engineer's salary to a technician? Perhaps it is unfair that personal eccentricities in fluence our impression of professional competence. But they do. And it is a factor in having power and being effective within a human environment To make it happen, it is important to "fit in"-to be in harmony with the organization. To be accepted as a leader, one needs to present oneself as part of the team. Although playing well is important, one must also wear the uni form. Does an engineering education address the irrationalities of human thinking or foster personal adaptability? Does college teach the WINTER 1987 importance of community or does it reinforce individualism? NOVICE PROFESSIONALS Management mobility requires engineers to con sciously present a credible professional image, but by contrast, project mobility keeps them in a relatively novice technical state. With moderate technical exper tise in the specific technologies of a job, and with pres sure to get results, it is commonplace to prematurely accept an apparently successful result. Margaret, for example, was running a pilot-scale liquid-phase batch reactor with an objective to gener ate a kinetic expression for a plant reactor design. She postulated a homogeneous phase, first order in each reactant, Arrhenius form of the kinetic expres sion; and, with experiments which held the initial reactant concentration constant, she measured the in itial reaction rate for several temperatures. Paying attention to experimental design practices recently learned in an in-house statistics course, she chose the temperatures randomly. The Arrhenius plot of the data [ln(rate) vs (T) 1 ] was a straight line, as beautiful as any encountered in a kinetics and reactor design class, and just had to reflect her proper grasp of the technology. From the plot she got the activation energy and the pre-exponential and proudly reported the results. Her boss, a mechanical engineer, viewed the graphs, listened to her story, and was impressed with her experimental facility. Subsequent trials at a different concentration curiously gave a new slope to another beautiful Arrhenius plot. Thinking it due to uncontrolled experimental conditions, she responsibly revised her kinetic expression-by reporting average va lu es In her novice state, she did not recognize the possibility that surface phenomena could explain the slope differences and that her data neither confirmed nor rejected the first order assumption. Inexperience accepted a superficially "good" analysis. A year later the startup crew would wrestle for months before the reactor would be operable. Does engineering education train people to critique their own work, or to view the f al l ibility of their "knowledge"? What are en gine ers likely to think of th eir own ability when they receive good grades in school? 21

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LOCAL TECHNICAL FOLKLORE With a primary business style of make-it-happen and move-on-to-the-next-project (the Edison ap proach), there is often little effort at confirming why something worked and why it didn't. Often a technical explanatidn'is postulated tentatively, given as a possi ble cause, accepted as logical and, as time proceeds such hearsay becomes generally established in the local information data base. A tentative position is strengthened as the postulate is subsequently refer enced Technical folklore is indistinguishable from valid technology which also resides in the oral tradi tion of the operators and long-term plant profession als. It can misguide the work of an engineer and can be a formidable institutional mind-set to change. As an example, years ago a polymer solution con centration limit of 20 % was "established" as the maximum that would still permit extrusion stability of a fiber manufacturing plant. However, increases in concentration promised a significant operating cost re duction. Jim was one of s everal engineers who inter preted R&D trials to mean that the improved spinerette design and solution purity of the day would allow a concentration increase up to 30%. He knew that temperature adjustments would be necessary to maintain viscosity at the higher concentration. The risks of a plant-wide concentration change were high. Realizing that the factors which affect fiber dyeabilit y are not well quantified, the marketing department saw the possibility of monetary claims if a change in fiber performance on some customer's obscure textile process occurred. The production department feared the havoc that an unstable plant could create. After vice-presidential discussions, it was decided to in crease the concentration in 0.1 % increments each week over a two-year period. To guide the tempera ture compensation, Jim would monitor extrusion sta bility and dye properties. As it happened though, after several months Jim was moved, his projects were distributed among others, and an extrusion upset occurred. Now, a ruptured filter or a crosslink event in polymerization is a normal occurrence which temporarily causes such an upset, but the cause was never identified by those left "in charge." The "too high" concentration was blamed, the plant returned to 20%, and that bit of self-proclaiming folklore was reinforced. Many people within the company now ac cept the 20% maximum as a given. 22 Does engineering education train students to unquestionably accept that which they are taught? Could it encourage students to evoke critical thinking? WHAT WENT WRONG When quality or productivity is upset, the plant and staff personnel mobilize to determine the cause(s) and to take corrective action. Often the cause is not obvious and, in fact, may be the interaction of several effects. Sometimes a crisis is not even real. I'm re minded of the time a flowmeter calibration error made it appear that we were leaking 200 000 lb / month of solvent. Such a mobilization you never saw when that hit the monthly production reports! Even in research and development, where we want things to change, I was faced with "Why didn t that work?" more often than "How do I design this?" An efficient engineer can systematically rule out in consistent hypotheses and find and fix the reason for unexpected behavior. Does eng inee ri n g e d uc at i o n pr e pa re grad u ates for syst e mat ic d i ag n o s t i c th i nk in g ? CLOSING Initially, I stated that colleges do a good job in teaching technology. It must be obvious though, that I also think graduates are ill-prepared for some of the non-technical aspects of an engineering profession. We could easily do a better job in training students to be professionals; and, in a subsequent article, I will suggest some approaches in classroom lecture and homework style, roles of the laboratory directions for humanity electives, and activities for student profes sional societies. I find the approaches fun as well as effective. EDITOR'S NOTE: Th e second part of Professor Rhinehart's lecture, "Methods for Engineering Education," will appear in th e n ex t issue of CEE. REFERENCES 1. Feld e r R. M ., Doe s Engineering Education Have Anything To Do With Either One ? R. J Reynold s Industrie s Inc. Award Distinguished Lecture Series, School of Engineering North C arolina Stat e Univ e r s it y, Ral e igh O c tober 19 8 2 E n g ineering Ed uc a tion, 75 ( 2 ), 9 5 (19 84). 2 Thomp s on A L Letter t o th e Editor in the October 19 85, The Stanford Obser v er, the S tanford University Alumni News letter. 3 Robert s, W. J ., "Problems at the Interface," American Ch e ical Society Meeting, Operation Interface University of North Carolina Charlotte, NC, Augu s t 1971. 4 Editorial, "Methods of Teaching Chemistry Students Writing Skills Aired Chem i cal & Eng ineeri ng N ews, pp. 32-33 Sep tember 23, 1985 5. Garr y, F W ''What Do es Industry Need? A Busin ess Lo o k a t Engineering Educati o n, E n g ineeri ng Edu c at i o n pp 20 3 205 January 19 86 D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION congratulates CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in its twenty-first year of publication WINTER 1987 23

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ti Na classroom SIMPLIFYING CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN BY USING MOLAR QUANTITIES INSTEAD OF FRACTIONAL CONVERSION* LEEF. BROWN Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 JOHN L. FALCONER University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0424 M OST CHEMICAL REACTORS are nonisothermal, involve multiple reactions, have mole changes due to reaction, or have reactions with complicated rate expressions. In teaching reactor analysis, it is important that the techniques we present can be applied to these realistic situatio ns; current ap proaches violate this principle. In the textbooks on chemical reaction engineering, Lee F. Brown is a staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He has degrees from the Universities of Notre Dame and Delaware and has had experience (and a lot of fun) in chemica l engineering research, development, design, production, reservoir eng ineering and teaching. (L) John L Falconer is professor of chemical engineering at the Univer sity of Colorado. He has a BES from the Johns H opkins University and a PhD from Stanford Uni versity. Hi s research interests are in heterogeneous catalysis on supported metals and on model catalysts, and the application of surface analysis techniques to the study of catalytic and gos-solid reactions. (R) *This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Depart ment of Energy. 24 TABLE 1 Chemical Reaction Engineering Texts Using Fractional Conversion as the Dependent Variable Butt, 1980 Chen, 1983 Cooper, Jeffreys, 1971 Denbigh, Turner, 1981 Fogler, 1974; 1986 Froment, Bischoff, 1979 Hill, 1977 Holland, Anthony, 1979 Levenspiel, 1962, 1972 Peters, Timmerhaus, 1980 Smith, 1956, 1972, 1980 Levenspiel, 1979 Rase, 1977 Tarhan, 1983 authors use a variety of dependent variables in reactor mass balances (see Tables 1, 2). The tables show that fractional conversion is employed by a significant majority of authors. We argue here that using frac tional conversion in these mass balances is extremely awkward and can lead to serious confusion. Molar quantities as dependent variables in reactor-analysis equations make instruction much easier and chemical reactor design more straightforward. We show this by comparing the use of molar quantities with using fractional conversion for different situations. We also discuss the advantages of using differential versions of reactor mass balances rather than the integrated forms. GAS-PHASE SYSTEMS We begin with the steady-state, gas-phase, plug flow reactor; extension of the principles to other situ ations is direct. Consider a gaseous reaction, A prod ucts. The reaction rate r A is a function of the compo nent concentrations; carrying out a molar balance on substance A over a differential control volume results in (1) in which FA is the molar flow rate of substance A at a point in the tube, and the C/s are concentrations at CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The tables show that fractional conversion is employed by a significant majority of authors. We argue here that using fractional conversion in these mass balances is extremely awkward and can lead to serious confusion. Molar quantities as dependent variables in reactor-analysis equations make instruction much easier and chemical reactor design more straightforward. this point. To solve this equation, both FA and r A (and therefore the C/s) must be expressed in terms of a common dependent variable. Tables 1 and 2 show that the most common dependent variable is fractional con version. This is the fraction of a substance's entering molar flow rate which has been converted. For a sub stance A, or X =1-(~J A FAO (2) Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1) yields (3) To solve Eq. (3), the C/s must be expressed in terms of the fractional conversion. It will be shown that using fractional conversion in this way frequently leads to extremely awkward formulations of Eq. (1). In other situations, fractional conversion cannot be used at all as a dependent variable in reactor mass balances. The molar flow rate of the principal component, FA in Eq. (1), also can be used as the dependent variTABLE 2 Chemical Reaction Engineering Texts Using Dependent Variables Other Than Fractional Conversion Text Aris, 1969 Carberry, 1976 Variable Used extent of reaction, E = (F;F;o)la; Denbigh, 1966; moles product /unit mass Denbigh, Turner, 1971, 1981 Hougen, Watson, 1947 moles converted/unit mass feed Hill, 1977** extent of reaction Kramer, Westerterp, 1963 mass fraction formed or converted Petersen, 1965 Walas, 1959 moles/amt. mass numerically equal to MW of feed moles converted/unit mass feed *A single dependent variable is not used. A variab l e is chosen ap propriate to the situation being considered. **Fractional conversion is used in reactor equations (cf Table 1), but extent of reaction is used in other contexts. able. In Eq. (1), the concentrations can be expressed in terms of the molar flow rates and the ideal gas law, i.e., (4) and the various F/s can be related to the dependent variable, FA, by reaction stoichiometry. This ap proach offers a simple means for solving Eq. (1). DIFFERENTIAL OR INTEGRAL FORMS OF EQUATIONS? For most realistic cases, reactor-analysis equa tions cannot be solved to give analytic closed-form sol utions, and numerical techniques must be used. A method such as a Runge-Kutta technique can be used to solve the differential equation or equations directly. In many cases, an alternative attack is possible; the variables can be separated and the integrals evaluated using Simpson's rule or some other scheme We prefer the first approach, because separation of variables merely adds an unnecessary step which gives no advantage in solution technique. Moreover, direct solution of the differential equations yie lds the flow rates, concentrations, temperature, and pressure as functions of location or time in the reactor. This enables the analyst to establish the location or point in time of hot spots, critical concentrations, or danger ous pressures. This is not possible when the separated variables are integrated numerically; to obtain an equivalent result, separate integrations would have to be carried out for each location or time desired. Most important, though, the approach involving direct solution of the differential equations is better because it can be extended to situations where the variables are not separable, such as nonisothermal reactors with heat exchange, many multiple-reaction systems, and most unsteady-state flow systems. For these reasons, we consider only the differential equa tions in our comparisons CONSTANT-DENSITY SYSTEMS Constant mass-density reactor systems make a significant class that merits consideration. For exam ple, most liquid-phase systems do not change density much during a chemical reaction. Thus the volumetric Copyright ChE D ivisio n ASEE 19 87 WINTER 1987 25

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flow rate q in liquid-flow reactors is usually not altered s igni:l'ickntly, and the molar concentration CA can be set equal to F A / q. For this reason, either concentra tions or molar flow rates are useful variables in a flow reactor with a constant-density process. However for an unsteady-state flow system, the numbers of moles of substances in the reactor are the only acceptable dependent variables. This is shown below in the sec ond example. EXAMPLES Case 1: Isothermal multiple-reaction system Reactor system: A gas-phase, steady-state, plug-flow reactor. Reactions : k 1 k z A + 28 _,_ C -+ D + E +k3 F + G at! kCY Rate laws : r A k 1 C A C 8 3 A r = 2k C a c tl B 1 A ll r =kc a c tl -kc 0 C 1 A B 2 C r = r = k C o r = 2r = k 3 CAY D E 2 C F G Reactor design equations using molar flow rates: ::c = kl [ ka+FB+~E+FG+FI) [ ~r ) ra (FA) a (FB) a k 2[ ka+FB +~ E+Fc+FJ [ ~r ) ] (Fc) o (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Reactor design equations using fractional conversions: 26 [( 1 X la [ F BO 2X J aJ A FAQ AC + k/:~1[ kat1-x A +(FBo/FAJxAc+1.sxAFJ+FJ [~r] (1-xAf (10) dXA C a + tl -1 [[ 1 ][ p J)a + tl -av-= k/Ao FA 0 [1-X A +(F 80 /F A 0 )-XAC+l 5XAF]+F 1 RT [ [ 1 xA J [ ::~ 2xAl) k/:~1[ kaLl-XA+(F Bo/F AJxAc+ 1 sxAF]+F1] [~r] (x Acf (11) Comments: Using the fractional conversion in mul tiple-reaction systems requires the definition and use of several subsidiary fractional conversions In this example, XA c is the fraction of A converted only to C, not to D, E, F, or G; XAn is the fraction of A converted only to D; XA F is the fraction of A con verted only to F, and X A = XA c + XAD + XA F Not only are the mass balances much simpler when molar flow rates are used but they do not require the tor tured mental convolutions necessary for implementa tion of the subsidiary fractional conversions. The de nominators in the mass balances are especially dif ficult for students to create correctly. As s hown above, the molar flow rates are straightforward to define and use, even in complicated, multiple-reaction systems. Of the differential equations presented for each ap proach, only three are necessary, since only three in dependent reactions occur Stoichiometric equiva lences can determine the other flow rates, e.g F y = FAo -( FA +F c+ Fn). Case 2: Isothermal stirred tank with outflow Reactor system: A tank reactor with a steady outC H EMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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flow starting at t = 0. Initial charge contains reactant A and inerts; the outflow volumetric flow rate is
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Another benefit to using the differential equations occurs because students tend to memorize the integrated forms for particular cases. They then use the integrated forms even when the variables are not separable. This happens much less frequently when the differential-equation approach is taught. + A eE3/RT (F )(6 H 3 ) (4U / D)(T-T ) 3 A r ex (26) Energy balance equation using fractional conversions: dT = 1 dV F AO {{lX A )C PA +[ { F ~J F AO ) { 3X AC + 10 5X AE ) ]C P!l + XAC C PC +( 3 X AC +SX AE )C PD +BX AE CPE}+FICPI [ k 0 ( 1x A + xAc +~ .sxAE )+F n 0 +F J [ ~r ]] F LA eEi/RT (l-X )(6 H ) + A eE2/RT (X )(6 H ) AO l A rl 2 AC r2 + A et3/RT (lX )(6 H )] ( 4U / D)(T-T ex ) 3 A r3 (27) Comments: Only the energy balance is presented here; the superiority of the molar quantity approach in multiple-reaction mass balances was illustrated in Case 1. In energy balances as in mass balances the molar-quantity approach is invariably more straightforward for all but the simplest systems If fractional conversions are used, the denominators, especially in energy balances, become extremely com plex and are difficult to derive and explain. ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES TO MOLAR QUANTITIES When fractional conversion is used as a dependent variable in mass and energy balances, additional parameters are sometimes introduced to simplify the forms of the equations. For example, parameters have been defined for molar ratios of feeds and for volume change upon reaction [15, 11, 8]. Introduction of these parameters is not necessary when molar quantities are used; rather, retention of the molar quantities in the numerical algorithm makes these parameters un necessary. Earlier we presented several advantages of using differential equations instead of using the integrated forms. Another benefit to using the differential equa28 tions occurs because students tend to memorize the integrated forms for particuiar ca s es. They then use the integrated forms even when the variables are not separable. This happens much less frequently when the differential-equation approach is taught. CONCLUDING REMARKS Teaching of undergraduate reactor de s ign can be improved by using molar quantities as variables in the differential equations for the ma ss and energy bal ances. This approach has several advantages over the more common approach of using fractional conversion in the integrated versions of the balances: 1) Most industrial reactor systems contain multi ple reactions, nonisothermal reactors, pressure drop, complicated rate expressions, and reactions with mole changes. The equations must be solved numerically, and this approach can be directly applied to these sys tems. If students are taught other methods they must still learn this approach to do practical calculations since fractional conversions are unsuitable as a design variable for complicated systems. 2) For semibatch reactors, unsteady -s tate CSTR's, and systems with side streams, fractional conversion cannot be defined easily. The use of molar quantities in these systems is straightforward. 3) Separate parameters are not needed to handle mole changes in gas-phase reactions. 4) By solving the differential equations instead of separating the variables and integrating the balances, the flow rates and temperatures are obtained at points along the reactor length (or molar amounts are ob tained as functions of time in a batch reactor) instead of only at the end point. 5) Molar quantities are physically more interpret able variables in many cases. For example, the molar flow rate does not change when the temperature or pressure changes, or when inerts are added On the other hand the concentration changes when tempera ture, pressure, or amount of inerts is changed, and the parameter accounting for volume variation changes when inerts are added. Th e molar flow rate will change only due to chemical reaction when n o material is remove d or added b efore the react o r exit ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The seminal contribution of Dr. Jack K. Nyquist C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co is acknowleged While a graduate student at the University of Col orado in the 1960's, he convinced one of the authors (LFB) of the superiority of the molar-quantities ap proach. The use of a form of the molar-quantities ap proach in the book by Franks [9] also contributed to the authors' formulation of idea s in this area Discus sions with other Boulder faculty members, especially with Professor David E. Clough, have been very help ful. RE F ERENCE S 1. R. Ari s, El ement a ry C h emical R eactor A na l ysis. Pr e nti ce H a ll En g lewood C liff s NJ 19 6 9 2 J. Butt, R eac t i o n K ine t ics and R eactor D esign. Pr e ntic e H a ll En g l e wo o d C liff s, NJ 19 8 0. 3. J J C arb e rry, C h emic al a nd Cata l ytic R eaction E ngineer in g McGr a w-Hill New Y o rk, 197 6. 4 N H. C h e n P rocess R e a c t or D esign. Allyn a nd Bacon Bo s to n 1 983 5. A. R Coo per a nd G V Jeffr eys, Chemical K inetics and R eac tor D esign. Pr e nti ce -Hall En g l ewoo d C liff s, NJ 1971. 6 K. G D e nbi g h ; K. G. D e nbi g h a n d J C. R Turn e r Chemical R eactor T heory An Introduction. Ca mb r id ge U ni ve r s i ty Pr ess, L o ndon 196 6, 1971 19 8 1. 7. H S. Fogl e r, Th e El emen t s of C h emica l K ine t ics and R eac t or Ca l cu lat ions : A S e lf-Pa ce d Ap proac h Pr e ntic e -H a ll, En gl e wood C liff s NJ, 1974 8 H S F og l e r El ements o f C h emica l R eaction E ngineering. Pr e ntic e -Hall, En g l e wood C liff s, NJ 1 98 6 9 R G. E F rank s M at h ematica l Mode l ing in C h emical E n gineering. Wile y Ne w York 1 967 10 G. F Fr o m e n t a nd K B. Bi s ch off, Chemical R eactor Analysis and D esi g n. Wil ey, New Y o rk 1 979 11. C G. Hill Jr. An I ntroduction to Chemical E ngineering K ine t ics and R eactor D esi g n. Wil ey, New York 1 9 7 7. 1 2 C. D Holland a nd R. G. Anthon y, F undamentals of Chemical R eaction E n g ineering. Prenti ceHall En g l e wood C liff s, NJ 1979. 1 3 0 A. Hou ge n and K. M Wat s on C h emica l P r o ces s P rinci ples. P art Th ree -K ine t ics an d Ca t a ly sis. Wil ey, N e w Y o rk 1 94 7 1 4 H Kram e r a nd K. R. W este r ter p El ements of C h emical R eactor D esi g n and Operation. Acade mi c P r ess, N ew Y o r k, 19 63. 1 5 0. L eve n s piel Chemical R eaction E ngineering Wil ey, New York 196 2, 1972 1 6. 0 L eve n s piel Th e C h emica l R eactor Omni b oo k. Or e gon S t a t e U niv e r s it y Book s tor es, In c Co r va lli s, OR 1979 17. M. S. P e t e r s and K. D. Timm e rh a u s, Pl ant D esi g n and E conomics fo r C h emi c a l E n g ineers 3 rd e d. McGraw-Hill N e w Y o rk 19 8 0 1 8 E. E Pete r se n Chemica l R eaction Ana l ysis. Pr e nti ce -Hall En g l ewo od C liff s, NJ 196 5. 1 9. H F R ase, C h emica l R eactor D esign for Process Pl ants Vol. 1. P rincip l es an d T ec h ni q ues ; Vo l 2. Case Stu d ies and D esi g n D ata Wil ey N e w York 1 9 77. 2 0. J. M. S mi t h Chemica l E ngineering Kinetics. M cG r aw -Hill N ew Yo rk 1 956, 1970 19 8 0. WINTE R 19 8 7 21. M. 0 Tarhan Cata l ytic R eactor D esi g n. McGraw-Hill N e w Y o rk 19 83 2 2. S. M W a la s, R eaction K inetics for C h emica l E n g ineers. Mc G raw-Hill New York 19 59 NOMENCLATURE Roman A pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius expression for reaction-rate "constant ," various units C concentration mol / m 3 C p molar heat capacity J / (mol)(K) D diameter of tubular reactor m E activation energy of reaction, J / mol F molar flow rate, molls LiHr change in enthalpy upon reaction, J / mol k reaction-rate "constant," various units N number of moles in reactor mol P total pressure in reactor, Pa q volumetric flow rate, m 3 / s R universal gas constant (Pa)(m 3 ) / (mol)(K) or J / (mol)(K) r reaction rate, mol created /( m 3 ) ( s) T temperature K ; without subscript, the temper ature of the reacting fluid K t time, s U overall heat transfer coefficient between react ing fluid and external heating or cooling medium, J /( s)(m 2 ){K) V reactor volume or volum e of reacting mixture, m 3 X fractional conversion dimensionless y mole fraction dimensionle ss Greek a stoichiometric coefficient, dimensionless 13 dummy variable in Eq (17), s E extent of reaction molls Subscripts A B C D E, F G of substances A B, C D, E, F, or G ex of external heating or cooling medium f final value or relating to the effluent stream I of inert component s of the i'th component or of the input stream 0 at the entrance to the reactor or at time zero T total amount 1 referring to point 1 in reactor 1 2, 3 referring to Reaction 1 2, or 3 Superscripts Super s cripts indicate order of reaction with respect to th e s uper s cripted term. D 29

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[eJ n a laboratory CHEMICAL REACTION EXPERIMENT FOR THE UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY K. C. KWON, N. VAHDAT and W.R. AYERS Tuskegee University Tuskegee, AL 36088 T USKEGEE'S CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Depart ment was founded in 1977 and was accredited by the EAC / ABET in 1983. There are approximately eighty students presently enrolled. Three chemical engineering laboratory classes are taught; one for junior students and two for senior students. The first laboratory class consists mainly of fluid mechanics and heat transfer experiments. The second laboratory con sists mainly of mass transfer, thermodynamics and chemical reaction experiments, as shown in Table 1. Approximately twelve of the experiments are done in any one semester with the choice being made by the instructor. The third chemical engineering laboratory consists of process control experiments. The labora tory classes are offered twice a year with an average class size of ten students, usually divided into three groups. Each student must analyze the data, make K C. Kwon is an associate professor of chemical engineer ing at Tuskegee University. He received his BS from Honyong University, Seoul, Korea, his MS from the University of Denver and his PhD from Colorado School of Mines His industrial experience includes five years as a process engineer at the synthetic fuel division of Gulf Oil Company, Tacoma, Washington. His research interests in\ elude reaction kinetics, cool conL version, fuels from renewable bio-mass and transport properties (L) N. Vahdat is Coordinator of the Chemical Engineering Department at Tuskegee University. H e received his BS from Abodon Institute of Technology Iran, his MS from the University of California, and his PhD from the University of Manchester England. His research interests in clude thermodynamics of solutions and transport properties of polymer systems. (C) the necessary calculations and submit a written report conforming to acceptable standards. CHEMICAL REACTION EXPERIMENT For Experiment 16, anthracene is hydrogenated with molecular hydrogen in the absence of catalyst in a batch-type microreactor to identify the reaction order, the reaction rate constant, the frequency factor and the activation energy for the anthracene-hydro gen reaction system shown in Eq. 1. ro)+H 2 ~ a::() (1) anthracene 9,10-dihydroanthraccne EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION The 316 stainless steel microreactor assembly con sists of a 1/2 inch tee, an 11-inch piece of high pressure 3/8" O.D. tubing and a shut-off valve. The tee is the W. R. Ayers is a visiting faculty member at Tuskegee University. He received his BChE (1952) from Clarkson University He was O field engineer with DuPont 's engineering department from 1951 to 1959, a process engineer with Thiokol Corporation from 1959 to 1960 and 0 process engineer/senior research engineer with DuPont's Pigments De portment (now C&P Department) from 1960 to 1981 when he retired. His research interests are primarily related to DuPont's chloride process for the manufacture of titanium dio x ide pigment (R) Copyri gh t Ch E D ivision ASEE 1987 30 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Thermocouple Quickconnect for pre s surizing microre ctor 3 / 8 high pressure tub i ng 1 / 2 Union tee mi c roreoctpr FIGURE 1. Microreactor Assembly actual microreactor and is connected to the shut-off valve by the 3 / 8" tubing (see Figure 1) A ther mocouple extends through the tubing and into the microreactor, allowing temperature monitoring of the reactants throughout the experiment. A quick-con nect is attached to the shut-off valve in order to intro duce hydrogen into the microreactor assembly during charging and to release excess hydrogen from the TABLE 1 List of Experiments for the ChE LAB II EXP. NO. DESCRIPTION 1 Continuous Distillation with Total Reflux 2 Continuous Distillation with Feed at Bubble 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Point Batch Distillation in a Packed Column Fluid Flow Through a Packed Column Flow Through a Fluidized Bed Filtration Gas Chromatograph Evaporation Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Liquid-Liquid Equilibria Liquid Extraction Hydrodynamics of a Packed Column Absorption of CO 2 in Water / Analysis of Gas Streams Absorption of CO 2 in Water / Analysis of Liquid Solutions Heats of Solution Reaction Kinetics of the Anthracene-Hydrogen System Spray Drying WINTER 1987 Three laboratory classes are taught; one for juniors and two for seniors. The first consists mainly of fluid mechanics and heat transfer experiments. The second consists mainly of mass transfer, thermodynamics and chemical reaction experiments. CONTROL PANEL Microreactor temp Sand-bath temp ~ ....._ T~':lP c o~!r ~ l } ~r wrist-action shaker Bed Heater FIGURE 2. Fluidized Sand Bath microreactor after an experimental run is completed. The total internal volume of the microreactor is roughly 13 cc. The microreactor assembly is sub merged and heated in a fluidized sand bath (see Figure 2) and is shaken throughout the experimental run in order to eliminate the mass transfer effects. The sand bath temperature is adjusted using a thermocouple and temperature controller. EXPERIMENT DETAILS A series of anthracene hydrogenation experiments is conducted at 375 C, 400 C, and 425 C The micro reactor is charged with 0.1 g anthracene, 2.0 g 1methylnaphthalene as a physical solvent and 1200 psig hydrogen at room temperature. After being charged with the reactants the reactor is attached to the s haker mechanism and i s submerged in the preheated fluidized sand bath. Following hydrogenation of anthracene at the de sired reaction time and temperature, the reactor is quenched in cold water and the excess hydrogen is released. The liquid products consisting of an thracene 9-10 dihydroanthracene and 1-methyl naphthalene, are injected into a gas chromatograph, 31

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1.0 -ln(I-X 4 ) 0 5 0 AN: 0.lg I-MN: 2g H 2 : 1200 psig (cold) 10 20 30 REACTION TEMPERATURES(C) 0 375 6. 400 0 425 40 50 60 Reaction Times ( Minutes) FIGURE 3. Conversions of Anthracene vs Reaction Times equipped with a flame-ionization detector, an inte grator-plotter and an 8 ft. long, 1/8 inch O.D., SP 2100 packed column, to analyze conversions of anthracene to 9, 10-dihydroanthracene. DATA ANALYSIS The reaction data, anthracene conversions v s reac tion times, are plotted on semi-logarithmic paper to identify the reaction order for the anthracene-hydroInk 5 4 AN: 0 /g /-MN 2g H 2 1200 psig (cold) 31-_ ____ _._ _____ _,_ _____ 1. 4 1.45 1.50 1.55 RECIPROCAL REACTION TEMPERATURE X 10 3 K FIGURE 4 Reaction Rate Constants vs Reaction Temper atures 32 gen system. A typical plot is shown in Figure 3 and produces a straight line through the origin, indicating that the anthracene-hydrogen reaction system is first order. Reaction rate constants are calculated by ap plying conversion v s reaction time data to the first order reaction equation, as shown in Eq. 2. -tn (1 X) = kt A where XA = fractional conversion of anthracene k reaction rate constant, min I t reaction time minutes (2) The activation energy and the frequency factor for the anthracene-hydrogen reaction system were found to be 2.699 x 10 7 cal / gmole and 1.215 x 10 4 min I, re spectively, by applying reaction rate constant v s reac tion temperature data to the Arrhenius Law, as shown in Equation 3 and Figure 4. wherek k o LiE = R T CONCLUSION k = k exp(AE/RT) 0 reaction rate constant, min 1 frequency factor min I activation energy cal/gmole ideal gas constant, cal / gmole-K reaction temperature K (3) A series of reaction samples is obtained by per forming reaction runs at the desired hydrogenation temperatures and times. These samples are analyzed using a gas chromatograph. This batch-type microreactor has several advan tages over other type reactors in carrying out reaction experiments for undergraduate laboratory classes: It takes a short time (1 minute) to increase reac tor temperatures from an ambient temperature to a desired reaction temperature in comparison with conventional autoclave reactors. Therefore, several experimental runs can be conducted dur ing the 3-hour class. It is easy to clean a reactor after finishing a reac tion experiment and then to prepare another ex perimental setup. Reactants such as anthracene 1-methyl naphthalene and hydrogen are needed in small quantities, in comparison with other conven tional autoclave reactors. There are fewer leakage problems with micro reactors during reaction experiments at high temperatures and pressures in comparison with conventional autoclave reactors which utilize stirring systems. D C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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REVIEW: Economic Evaluation Continued from page 5. of process applications. The book is broken down into s ix chapter s with the first chapter giving a very simple survey of the principles of economic evaluation with many generali zations. The second chapter i s on the subject of capital and is an adequate survey for providing overall infor mation with few details. Chapter Three on production costs and Chapter Four on capacity economics are pre sented in the same general survey form as Chapter Two, with a very simplified description, a few illustra tions, and definition of term s Probably the most use ful chapter in the book is the fifth chapter which deals with year-by-year economics. It is almost completely a word discussion, with no base equations being given for the relationships which are presented in the numerous examples. This chapter gives the general ideas of discounted cash flow net present value, and year-by-year accounting but very little useful quan titative information on the various methods is given. There is nothing included on income taxes or modern depreciation based on recent Federal laws. The final chapter on computer processes is a very simplified presentation based on flow diagrams and block schedules. No examples and no problems are included. The book concludes with a seven-page glos sary of terms and a twelve-page index. The book can serve as a useful over-view for economic evaluation in the chemical process indus tries, but it would not serve as a teaching text because of the lack of quantitative information. The material it presents is given in easy-to-understand language with very little mathematics background required. It would be of use as an introduction to the subject for someone who needed to get an overall picture of the methods and basis of economic evaluation for indus trial processes without getting into technical de tails. D PRINCIPLES OF POLYMER SYSTEMS, 2ND EDITION by Ferdinand Rodrig uez ; McGra w -Hill Book Co m pany, New York, 198 2 ; pages xv i, 575, $ 2 9.95 Reviewed by D.R. Paul University of Texas at Austin The first edition of this book appeared in 1970 as a text for polymer courses primarily in chemical en gineering departments, although at that time not WINTER 1987 many departments taught such courses. The second edition is part of the well-known and respected McGraw-Hill Chemical Engineering Series. This fact may be taken as one indication of the degree to which instruction in polymers has been incorporated into chemical engineering departments since 1970. The second edition follows the same format as the first and is essentially an updated version of that book. While substantial progress has occurred in the science and technology of polymers during the years between the appearance of the first and second editions, the goal of the book is to present to the beginning student basic principles of the subject which largely remain timeless; however, all of the dated content of the first edition, such as production statistics, has been ap propriately made current. The lengths of both editions are approximately the same so about the same amount of material was removed as was added. The main strengths of the new version are more problems at the end of various chapters, plus greatly expanded lists of specific and general references which should help introduce the student to the modern literature. The first three chapters deal with basic issues of polymer molecular and physical structure to give a framework for understanding properties. The next three chapters are devoted to polymerization reac tions and processes and the closely linked issue of the description and measurement of molecular weight and its distribution. The following three chapters deal with rheological behavior ranging from laminar flow of solutions and melts, to viscoelasticity at small defor mations and finally ultimate failure properties of polymers under use-type conditions. The next chapter introduces the reader to other types of properties than mechanical ones with a strong and appropriate, em phasis on electrical behavior. The following chapter deals with types and mechanisms of polymer degrada tion with equal focus on how these problems can be avoided or solved by the use of various additives. This is a feature unique to this textbook and is one of its really strong points. The reader is then introduced qualitatively to some of the common processing and fabricating techniques. The entire book could be made stronger at this point by more detailed analyses of some of these operations to show how rheological data, introduced earlier, can be used in practice and how molecular weight and its distribution is a power ful way of tailoring polymers for these specific proces sing methods. In turn an excellent opportunity could have been provided to show the chemical engineering student how the latter ties to the polymerization mechanism, conditions, and process to give a glimpse of the strong interrelationship between each of these Continued on page 46. 33

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[iJ n #I classroom MICROCOMPUTER-Al DED CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN S. D. ROAT AND S. S. MELSHEIMER Clemson University Cle ms on, SC 2 9634-0909 T HE LOW PRICE and interactive nature of personal microcomputers have led to their widespread use in chemical engineering education in a variety of appli cations. Several universities now require students to own PC's, and at most others personal computer laboratories are readily available to students Micro computer software is rapidly being developed to dem onstrate and teach various aspects of chemical en gineering [1,2]. Chemical engineering process dynamics and control is a course particularly well suited for microcomputer application. This paper describes a single input/single output feedback control systems design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Menu-driven, in teractive, and user-friendly, it displays control sys tems in terms of block diagrams and uses the graphics capability of the computer in presenting results. The scope of exercises that can be given using this pro gram may be inferred from the main menu shown in Figure 1. The program is limited to those systems which can be described in terms of first order transfer functions 34 ""11"1 SETUP BLOCK D IAGRAM .. ........................ .. .. CLOS[]) LOOP SIIIUUIIIOH ............... .... .. .. .. < ) PRHH RISULIS ........ .............. ...... ...... .. flDS IKIIII m 10 1111 CIO!a FIGURE 1. Main Menu Screen Stephen S. Melsheimer received his BS at Louisiana State Univer sity, and his PhD at Tulane University. He is currently professor of chemical engineering at Clemson Un iv ersity His research interests in clude automatic process control and applied numerical methods. (L} Suzanne D. Roat received her BS in chemical engineering at Clem son University in 1985. She is currently working toward a PhD in chemical engineering at the University of Tennessee in their Measure ments and Control Center. (R) and pure time delays, but the open loop system can have an overall order of up to four. Thus, the control loop to be studied can be rather complex and challeng ing, but open loop underdamped systems are excluded, as are non self-regulating processes. A heat exchanger temperature control loop used for a number of examples in the textbook by Smith and Corripio [3] will be used to illustrate the various applications of the program. A schematic depiction and a block diagram for this system (page 177, 179 of Smith and Corripio) are shown in Figure 2. The trans fer functions are as follows G = 0.016/(3s + 1) V G 5 50/(30s + 1) H 1 / ( 1 Os + 1) GF = -3.33/(30s + l) GT= 1/(30s + 1) where Gv is the final control element (valve), and H is the measuring element (sensor-transmitter). Gs is Copyright ChE Di vision ASEE 1987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Steam F ,!O. k g / s P ___ mu, m A ~, r ,. 111. C t T, 1 UJ. rnA TT 42 T ,,u1. C Heat exchanger T ,,(sl. C Sensor transmitter FIGURE 2. Schematic and Block Diagrams for Heat Ex changer Control Loop (Reprinted from Principles and Practice of Automatic Process Control, Smith and Cor ripio; John Wiley, 1985) the process transfer function for the manipulated input (steam), and GT and GF are the process transfer functions for disturbances in the input temperature and flow rate respectively. The controller, Ge, is to be designed by the student. OPEN LOOP SIMULATION The loop is first configured as shown in Figure 3. Note that deadtime (transportation delay) is permit ted in both Process 2 and the Measuring Element. The open loop system response to either a servo (maf FINAL Pl ,1C)N!ROL ) K:: .016 ) K:: 50 ELIKrn! ]AU: 3 JAU: 30 FINAL Pl C)N!ROL ) K:: 016 ) K:: 50 ELIKrn! ]AU: 3 JAU: 30 FINAL Pl )N!ROL ) K:: .016 > K:: 50 LI Krn! ]AU: 3 JAU: 30 I DO YOU H AVE AHY PR((E\ DfADl!K[? I Y o, k OO E R DEADllME :: => 1 D O YOU HA U [ NIII SUR!MG DEADJ!N[? ( Y o H ) FIGURE 3. Block Diagram Setup Screen WINTER 1987 This paper describes a single input/single output feedback control systems design program for IBM PC and compatible microcomputers. Menu-driven, interactive, and user-friendly, it displays control systems in terms of block diagrams and uses the graphics capability in presenting results. nipulated input) or load (disturbance) forcing may be computed with either step or pulse input functions. For a disturbance forcing in the example problem, Process 3 would be used to represent either GT or GF as appropriate. The "actual response" in Figure 4 shows a step response plot obtained for a manipulated input forcing for the heat exchanger control system. This plot can be easily recorded on a dot-matrix printer, and a printed listing of the system response can be obtained as well. One simple exercise with the program is to have the student simulate a first order process (e.g. G s in this system), and then sequentially add additional lags and / or deadtimes to the system. The effect of lags on the system response can thus be seen very graphi cally. SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION In practice, analytic models for the elements in a control loop are often not available, and experimental testing must be used to identify a model for the pro cess. This may be done either directly from time do main response data or by tranforming the data into the frequency domain to get a system Bode plot. The control system design package provides for both time domain analysis of step response data ("process reac tion curve" modeling) and frequency domain analysis of pulse test data. The program is designed so that 8.0 ,,/"' ~----6 0 / 111:ASU ID I -A ct ual Rtsponse OUT PU U T / F iPS t -ON.er Plus l)ndlillf llwl I FOP)! Pametm : 2 0 + I CAIN : ,8 YAU : 32 15925 MADTINE : 14.82628 i : Bf
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the data to be analyzed is read from a file on disk. Exercises may thus be given where the data is ob tained from an open loop simulation as described above, but the program may also be used to analyze data obtained from a different computer simulation, or from laboratory experiments. STEP TEST MODELING The first-order plus deadtime (FOPDT) model is commonly used to fit step response data from over damped systems [3] It is easily and reliably fit, and a number of feedback controller tuning formulas are based on it. The FOPDT transfer function is -ts = G(s) = Ke O = Process ~utput iiiTsT 1 s + 1 Process 1 nput ( 1) where K, -r, and t 0 are the gain, time constant, and apparent deadtime to be determined. The time domain solution for a step forcing of magnitude A is c(t) = KA(l e-(t-to)/ 1 )u(t t 0 ) (2) where u is the unit step function The actual response curve in Figure 4 is a "typical" step response, or "pro cess reaction curve." The process gain, K, is obviously C K = :s ( 3) where C 88 is the final value of the process output. There are numerous methods of determining the values of t 0 and -r to fit the model to the curve [3]. In the earliest method developed, a line is drawn tangent to the curve at the point of maximum slope. The dead time, t 0 is then the time at which the tangent line intersects the abscissa, and the time constant is given by A T = S (4) where S is the slope of the tangent line. Another method fits the model through the actual step re sponse curve at two points. Recommended values [ 4] are where the response reaches 28.3% and 63.2 % of the final value. In Eq. (2) this is at t 1 = (t 0 + -r / 3) and t 2 = (t 0 + -r) respectively. Thus, T = 1 (t t) 2 2 1 t = t T O 2 (5) (6) Other variations on these schemes are discussed in 36 introductory control texts [3,5,6, 7,8]. The curve fit ting method used in the program is similar to the sec ond method described above. However, it fits the FOPDT model to the process reaction curve in a least squares sense over the range of 20 % to 80 % response. For accurate, non-noisy data, the results are very close to Eqs. (5) and (6). However, the least squares fit would be less susceptable to error should the data be noisy The program displays the FOPDT model response on the same screen as the actual response curve for comparison. Figure 4 shows the results for the example system described earlier. Students can be assigned to compare the j<'OPDT models obtained from the computer curve-fit to those from one or more hand calculated fits. FREQUENCY DOMAIN MODELING If frequency response data on a system can be ob tained, it is possible to fit a transfer function that is more complex than the FOPDT model discussed above. In addition, well-established controller tuning criteria [9] are available which are based on the open loop system frequency response data. The most com mon method of obtaining such data in chemical process applications is by Fourier analysis of pulse-test data. Direct sinusoidal forcing could be used in principle, but is usually impractical in chemical process systems [3]. The relevent equations are readily derived. The system transfer function is defined by r y(t)est dt G(s) = = 0 00 (7) f x(t)est dt 0 where x(t) and y(t) are the input and output functions, respectively. If the Laplace variable s is replaced by jw one obtains G(jw) r x(t)e-jwtdt 0 (8) Now, if the system input is a pulse, the integral becomes T f o y(t)e-jwtdt G(jw) 0 T. (9) f 1x(t)e-jwtdt 0 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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since the values of y(t) and x(t) are zero after some finite time (T 0 and Ti respectively). Expanding the complex exponential by the Euler relation makes it clear that the integrals are readily evaluated with standard quadrature methods (e.g., trapezoidal rule) T T f O y(t)cos(wt)dt jf O y(t)sin(wt)dt 0 0 G(jw) T. T. { l O) Ji x(t)cos(wt)dt jf i x(t)sin(wt)dt 0 0 Specialized quadrature methods are available [6] that give more accuracy at high frequencies. At each fre quency of interest, the integrals are evaluated to ob tain the complex number G(jw), from which the amplitude ratio and phase angle of the system are ob tained AR = I G(jw) I


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FIGURE 6. Closed Loop Block Diagram and Pl Controller Settings Display. shows the PI controller settings for the example sys tem. CONTROLLER DESIGN: FREQUENCY DOMAIN The frequency response for the open loop system can be used directly to compute controller settings. Ziegler and Nichols [9] related the "optimum" control ler settings to a pair of parameters readily obtained from the system Bode' plot: the crossover frequency (the frequency at which the phase angle reaches -180 degrees), and the "ultimate gain" (the inverse of the open loop gain at the crossover frequency). Stability considerations in the frequency domain indicate that if the loop were closed with a proportional controller, the closed loop system would become unstable for any controller gain greater than the ultimate gain [5]. The Ziegler-Nichols controller settings give controller gains which are roughly half the critical value, and integral and derivative times correlated to the cross over frequency. These relations are presented in vir tually all introductory control texts [3,5,6, 7,8]. The control system design program finds the crossover frequency and ultimate gain from the system Bode' plot, and reports the controller parameters. CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION In order to evaluate the actual performance of a control system, a controller must be added to the open loop system, and the closed loop system simulated. Figure 6 shows the resulting block diagram. The stu dent is prompted to specify a controller type, and is permitted to choose one of the controller design methods incorporated in the design package (if the necessary open loop tests and data analysis have been carried out), or to specify values for the individual controller parameters. The latter option allows use of 38 Q.ther design methods. It also permits empirical op timization of the controller for the particular system under investigation. Either set point or disturbance inputs can be per turbed, and the user is allowed to specify either a pulse or step input. The resulting response is plotted on the screen, and the value of the integral absolute error (IAE) performance criterion is displayed to pro vide an objective measure of performance. Figure 7 shows the results obtained with the example system with P only, PI, and PID controllers based on the Ziegler-Nichols FOPDT design procedure. A typical assignment using the closed loop simulator is to compare the performance obtained with various controllers and various controller tuning formulae, and then to investigate the effect of varying the controller parameters from the values determined by the best tuning correlation. This emphasizes the point that the various empirical correlations are nor mally good starting points in tuning a controller, but will only by chance be optimal. CONCLUSIONS The control systems design package described herein has proved to be quite effective in conveying basic feedback control concepts to undergraduate stu dents. Furthermore, the students have responded very positively, both because of the opportunity to work with the computer, and because the program eliminates a great deal of tedium compared to hand calcu lations of controller design and performance. Enhancements of the program are being planned. One will permit the student to be provided with a "black box" process rather than one specified in terms of loop transfer functions. The student can then be assigned to identify the unknown process by step and/ or pulse testing and use the results to design a control COIIIIOLLIII SllrlllCS: Cun : 3.851737 ::: l -1 rllUSUl!I] I / / OOTPUT / 5 8 ; // / l' I (AI: lnt!Nl Tilll! = u.mu Dfriutivt Tilll! : ,.8342 135. 1u. m. 211. PHss SNICDAR to COlltiw FIGURE 7. Proportional, Pl, and PIO Controller Perfor mance Comparison. C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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system Optional "noise" on the measured output may also be added to improve realism. The addition of an optional feedforward controller for the disturbance is also being considered. Copies of the program ( on 5 1/4 inch MS-DOS for matted diskette) and user documentation are available for $15 to cover duplication and postage The program is supplied as exec ut able files (compiled using the IBM BASCOM compiler), but BASIC source files are in cluded as well. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The financial support of the Olin Charitable Tru s t in the form of a Summer Research Grant for one of the authors is gratefully appreciated REFERENCES 1. Ca rnahan Brice, MicroCACHE Softwar e for Computer Assist ed I nstruc t ion, CAC HE Co rpor a tion Ann Arbor, 19 85. 2. Fogler, H. Sco tt "Int eractive Co mputin g in a C h e mi c al Reac tion Engineering Co ur se," 19 85 AIChE Annual M eet in g, C hica go, No 19 86. 3 Smith Car l os A. and Armando B Corrip i o, P rinciples and P ractice of Automatic P rocess Control, John Wiley, N ew York 1 985. 4. Smith, Cec il L ., D igital Contro l of Pro cesses, Intext Educa tional Publi s hers, Scranton, 1972. 5 Coughanowr, Donald R., and Lowell B. Koppel P rocess Sy tems Analysis and Control, M cGraw -Hill New York, 196 5 6 Lu y b e n W. L. P rocess Modeling, Simulation, and Control for Chemical Engin eers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 197 3. 7 Murrill, Paul W., Automat ic Control of Processes, Int e rna tional T ex tbook s, Scranton 1967 8. Stephanopoulas, George, C h emica l Pro cess Control, Prentice Hall NJ, 1 984 9. Zi eg l e r J G., and N. B. Nichols Optimum Settings for Automatic Co ntroll e r s," T ransactions ASME, 64, 759, 1942 10. Cohen, G. H., and G A Coo n, Tra nsactions AS ME, 75, 82 7, 195 3. 11. Lop ez, A. M ., P. W Murrill a nd C. L. S mith "Co ntr o ll er Tuning Relationship s Based on In teg ral Performance C rit e ri a," I nstrumentation T ec hnology 1 4, 11 57, 19 67. D ti) b #I book reviews NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER by Ti en -Mo Shih H emisp h ere Publishing, NY; 56 3 pages ( 19 84) Reviewed by Michael F. Malone University of Massachusetts This is a lengthly book consisting of fifteen chap ters in four parts. Part I is entitled "Preliminaries" WINTER 19 8 7 and consists of the four chapters: 1. "Numerical Methods Used in Heat Transfer (I)," where finite dif ference and the finite element are introduced, 2. "Numerical Methods Used in Heat Transfer (II)," where a more extensive discussion of the Galerkin and Collocation methods appears, 3. "Numerical Methods Used in Heat Transfer (Ill)," that discusses higher order finite elements, integral method and perturba tion solutions, and 4. Numerical Properties of Vari ous Discretization Schemes." Part 2 describes "Fundamental Heat Transfer Modes" in the chapter s: 5 "Heat Conduction," 6. "Laminar Forced Convection: Hydrodynamic Bound ary Layer ( I) ," 7. "Laminar Forced Convection: Hy drodynamic Boundar y Layer (II), 8 "Streamwi se Diffusive Flows," 9. "Transport of Energy and Species," and 10 Radiation ." Part 3 consists of three chapters on "Important Heat Transfer Phenomena : 11. "Laminar Free Con vection and Mixed Convection," 12 "Introduction to Turbulent Flows, and 13. "Introduction to Combus tion Phenomena." "Numerical Analy ses" i s the fourth and final part made up of two chapters: 14. "Spaces and Error Bounds ," and 15 "Co mparison of Finite-Difference Method and Finite-Element Method." There are also three appendices. This book is detailed in its coverage of numerical method and examples; the literature references are concentrated largely in the 1970's and early 1980 's In some areas, such as the coverage of stiff, coupled convective-diffusion models in Chapter 8 the material provides a welcome addition and s ummary of techniques s uch a s upwinding in the Galerkin finite element method. However, ther e is a less than adequate treatment of transient problems using mod ern integration packages such as Gear's method to solve the evolution problem, although there is a dis cussion of the well-understood numerical instabilitie s and / or inconsistencie s introducted by traditional explicit or ex plicit-implicit schemes for the initial boundary value problem in Chapter 4 This book could be used as a source of examples in a course in heat transfer or numerical methods. It would seem unsuitable as a textbook for either how ever because of its restricted treatment of num e rical methods on the one hand and because of its lack of the necessar y perspective on the role of analytical method s and physical property mea s urements in heat transfer on the other. The individual sections of the book are clearly writ ten, but are heavy in detail at the expense of perspec tive. The printing is carefully done and the book seems to be relatively free of typographical errors. D 3 9

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li;jI class and home problems The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested as well as those that are more traditional in nature, which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit th em to Professor H Scott Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. A PROBLEM WITH COYOTES MARK A. YOUNG North Carolina Stat e Univ er sity Ral ei gh, NC 27695 A s A student in a graduate reaction engineering course, I was assigned the task of creating and taking a final examination for the course. In our class discussion of reactor stability we had briefly address ed limit cycle behavior and its representation using phase-plane plots. This was the third instance in a matter of months that I had heard reference made to limit cycle behavior. The topic had also been broached in a departmental seminar and in another class. How ever, in each case the speaker did not have time to e laborat e on this intuitively puzzling phenomenon. Hence, it seemed that a problem involving this stabil ity concept would be interesting to the imaginary stu dent taking my test. A microbial predator-prey interaction model that I had been exposed to in a biotechnology course pro vided an attractive starting point, mostly due to its s implicity. However I chose to apply the microbial model to a mammalian system, with the thought that s uch a macroscopic system would be easier to vis ualize. In an ancillary question, I observed that I had applied a simp le model to a complex system and called upon the student to critique the model's construction and to propose possibilities for its improvement. The question and its solution follow PROBLEM While working in Arizona as a petroleum engineer, you are befriended by a sheep rancher who lives down the road. One afternoon the rancher seeks yo ur advice on a problem. Recently his flock has been plagued by coyote attacks. In fact in recent years so many lambs *For a discussion of this ass i gnment, see Fe ld er, R M ., "The Mark A Young is current ly a graduate student at North Carolina State University. He earned a lib era l arts degree from Duke University in 1975 and a BS in chemical engineering from N C. State i n 1984 His research interests include bi o chemical engineer i ng and transport phenomena. Any of his time not devoted to his wife or to engineering is generally spent listening to (and learning to play) traditional Amer ican and British music have been lost to coyotes that his flock is decreasing in size, a situation resulting in s ignificant economic hardship An acquaintance of his at the FCX has of fered to trap and destroy coyotes in his region. The fee, however, is exorbitant. Nevertheless, the rancher is tempted to try the measure in hopes of expanding the sheep population. You vaguely recall reading about the Lotka-Vol terra model of predator-prey interactions during your university days Leafing through an old book*, you find the following equations for the model Generic Quiz: A Device To Stimulate Creativity and Higher-Level *Ba il ey, J. E and Ollis D. F. Biochemical Engine eri ng F unda Thinking Ski ll s," ChemicalEngin ee ring Education, 19, 176(1985) mentals, [2nd Ed.] New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 19 86. ---------Copyrigh t C ltE Di vision ASEE 19 87 40 C HEMI CA L ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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where n 1 = prey population n 2 = predator population a, b = specific growth rate constants for prey and predator respectively (time 1 ) n 1 n 2 = product of predator-prey populations; proportional to the frequency of predator-prey encounters k = proportionality constant; represents both the fraction of predator-prey encounters resulting in death of the prey and the rate of decrease in prey population per kill (time 1 coyote ') q = proportionality constant; represents the amount by which predator pop ulation increases per kill (coyote sheep 1 ) 'The book also states that the model may be expressed as where y = (~) 2 n2s c = integration constant and the steady state solutions, n 1 s and n 2 s are 1. Derive the second form of the model beginning with the first. 2. The trapper estimates that his operation could 0 r-WITH TRAPPING (I) Ill 0 0 >lD 0 WITHOUT TRAPPING u 4-0 0 tn 0 L Ill 0 D E ..,. ::, z 0 "' 0. 2000. 4000. 6000. 8000 Number of Sheep FIGURE 1. Predator/Prey Population Cycles WINTER 1987 A microbial predator prey interaction model that I had been exposed to in a biotechnology course provided an attractive starting point, mostly due to its simplicity. provide a 38% reduction in the coyote population. As suming the following values for model parameters, would you recommend the trapping operation based upon the Lotka-Volterra model? In your analysis con sider the time dependence of the sheep population both before and after the proposed trapping opera tion. Summarize your findings using phase-plane plots. Data: a = 5 x 10 -a day 1 b = 5 x lQ --4 day 1 k = 10""4 day 1 coyote q = 002 coyote sheep n 1 (initial) = 2350 sheep n 2 (initial) = 53 coyotes 3. What assumptions have been integral to your analysis which might affect the validity of your re sults? How might you modify the model to increase its applicability for this situation? SOLUTION 1. The derivation is easily pe r formed and is briefly outlined by Bailey and Ollis (p. 872). 2. The behavior of the two populations over time may be represented in a phase-plane plot, which could be generated by either of two means: The second form of the model could be solved for y 2 for a selected y 1 or the coupled equations could be solved directly via a numerical technique. The highly nonlinear nature of the second model expression makes determination of its roots via conventional numerical techniques quite difficult. An additional disadvantage to this approach is that one cannot associate a time with a given posi tion on the plot, which might be helpful in an applica tion such as this Consequently, the coupled equations were solved using a Runge-Kutta routine. The output appears in Table 1 (next page). The phase-plane plot appears in Figure 1. Shown are the predicted population cycles for the situations with and without the decrease in coyote population. The stable population of 2500 sheep and 50 coyotes is indicated. From the graph and the data one would deduce that the sheep population is currently about halfway through the declining phase of its cycle, which correlates with the rancher's account of dwindling numbers of sheep in recent years. Although the popu41

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lation is cyclic, it is relatively close to the stable popu lation. On the other hand, after the elimination of 20 coyotes, the range of the cycle becomes enormous If this cycle were followed, the sheep population would soar to over 6500 for a period but then plummet to below 1000 for over three years. To determine whether the trapping operation would lead to a net increase in the average sheep population, one can time-average the data for both situations: T average number of sheep= _Tl J d year "1 t 0 where T = the cycle period Taking this average using the trapezoid rule yields average population without trapping = 2500 sheep average population with trapping = 2500 sheep Thus, in either case the population oscillates around the same value Consequently, the rancher would be unwise to pay for trapping the coyotes. Re duction of the coyote population would not increase his average flock size but would introduce huge cyclic extremes in population, which would exacerbate hi s economic difficulties. 3. Clearly, many changes could be made to the model which would improve its applicability to this situation. Several suggestion s are listed below. a) The model assumes that predators have only one food source (the prey species), which is not realis tic in this situation. A term could be added to repre sent the lumped effects of alternative food sources. b) The model assumes that prey die only due to predation A term could be added to repres e nt the lumped effects of other means of death e .g. disease, old age and severe weather c) The model bases reproduction rate upon the number of individuals present. This is reasonable for species subject to asexual reproduction, but for mam mals growth would more logically be proportional to the number of pairs n / 2. Even better reproduction could be modeled as being proportional to the number of interactions between members of the opposite sex (n 1 / 2) 2 The model would then become TABLE 1 Population Dynamics With Trapping Population Dynamics Without Trapping TIME (years) SHEEP COYOTES TIME (years) SHEEP COYOTES 0 0 2350 0 33.0 0 0 2350 0 53 0 0.7 3578. 1 33.7 0 7 2195.0 52.4 1 .4 5193.9 37.0 1 4 2091. 0 51. 5 2. 1 6641. 0 44 0 2 1 2044 3 50.3 2 7 6780.3 54 8 2 7 2056 1 49.2 3 4 5226.8 65.6 3 4 2124.7 48.2 4 1 3246 9 71. 4 4. 1 2245.2 47.4 4.8 1880.3 71. 4 4.8 2408 3 47.0 5 5 1144. 7 67.9 5 5 2596.8 47 0 6 2 779 2 62.8 6 2 2784.2 47.5 6 8 606 1 57.3 6 8 2935 6 48 4 7.5 539 7 52.0 7 5 3015 8 49.5 8.2 545.6 47.2 8.2 3002.2 50.8 8.9 618.9 42.8 8 .9 2896 3 52.0 9. 6 776.4 39 1 9.6 2724 2 52.8 10 3 1059 .3 36 1 10.3 2525. 2 53.2 1 1. 0 1541 8 34.0 1 1. 0 2336 6 53.0 11 6 2335 .6 33.0 I 1 6 2185. 1 52 3 1 2. 3 3557 1 33.7 1 2 3 2085.3 51. 4 1 3. 0 5169 5 36.9 1 3 0 2043. 1 50.3 13 7 6626.6 43 9 13 7 2059.4 49 1 14 4 6791 7 54 6 14 4 2132.2 48 1 15 I 5256.2 65 5 15 1 2256 4 47.4 15 8 3272 1 71. 4 15.8 2422. 1 47.0 16.4 1894 9 71. 5 16.4 2611 6 47 0 1 7 1 1152 1 67.9 1 7 1 2797 6 47.5 '7.8 782.8 62 9 1 7. 8 2944 7 48.4 18 5 607 8 57.4 18 5 3018 2 49.6 19.2 540 1 52. 1 1 9.2 2997 2 50 9 19 9 545 1 47 2 19.9 2885 0 52. 1 2 0.5 617.3 42.9 2 0 5 2709 4 52.9 21 2 773 3 39.2 21 2 2509 9 53.2 2 1. 9 1054 0 36.2 2 1. 9 2323 4 52.9 22 6 1532 9 34.0 22.6 2175 5 52.3 23.3 2321 3 33.0 23.3 2080 0 51. 3 2 4 .0 3536 2 33.7 2042 3 50.2 42 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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dnl (n1)2 dt = a 2 kn1n2 d) The model assumes an environment shielded from external intervention, e. g. urban growth displac ing coyotes from an adjacent region into your region. Such factors would be difficult to incorporate into the model explicitly, but their existence adds to the uncer tainty of the results e) The model predicts unbounded prey growth in the absence of the predator. This is clearly unrealistic as other limits to growth exist, e .g. food supply and land area. The specific growth rate term could be mod ified to approach zero when the population reache s the maximum number which the environment can maintain. For example, if the food supply (F) were taken to be the limiting factor in the absence of pre dators, the model might become: d nl ( b ) dt = a c+FJ nl where (%) = a An additional equation for how F changes with n 1 and n 2 would also be required. f) The parameter estimate s are cle a rl y a larg e source of uncertainty. A sensitivity analy s is could be done on the parameters, and improved e stimates could be sought for those having the greatest impact For example the parameters of most interest are those determining the steady state sheep population, i.e., b, q and k. A 20 % increase in the estimate of b results in a comparable increase in the steady state population, but the average coyote population is un changed. Similarly, decreases in q elevat e the pr e y population without affecting the predator p o pulation. If the estimates for k and q were increased and de creased by 20 % respectively, the prey population wou l d increase by 25.0 % while the predator popu l ation wo u ld decrease by 16.6 % However, these rather modest changes in parameter and steady state values are accompanied by drastically different be havior in the phase plane repre s entation of population dynamics As seen in Figure 2, a totally differ e nt vis ion of the effects of trapping e merges when these parameter changes are made. Indeed, even the qual itative trends are inverted, with the larger oscillations in popu l ation occurring before the trapping operation. CONCLUSION Counterparts to the undamped oscillation examined here in a biological context are readily found in chemical engineering applications In both cases competing effects may be identified as the underlying cause of the oscillation. In the biological example the rate of increase in prey population is enhanced by en l arged population size and decreased by encounters WINTER 1 987 0 O UTER C URV E: WITHOUT TRAPPIN G Ul QJ +J INN E R C URV E: WITH TRAPPIN G a 0 >,
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[eJ ;j ii international CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA O.C.OKORAFOR Univer sity of Port Harcourt P ort Harcourt, Nigeria T HE PROBLEMS OF chemical engineering education in Nigeria, as in other developing countries, are clo s ely tied to economic conditions and its state of in dustrialization. Since it emerged as a sovereign state, Nigeria has experienced a "pre-austerity" period, fol lowed by an "austerity" (1982 till present) period. The se cond period is when the government realized it had a limited and fast-dwindling foreign exchange, and it imposed stringent measures to protect it. However, p r oblems with chemical engineering education re mained identical in both periods. For example, in the pr e-austerity time the government had a sufficient budget to establish modern chemical engineering de p artments and to obtain laboratory equipment. Nonetheless, maintenance and efficient use of these facilities was not achieved, as Abdul Kareem [1] and S ilveston [5] discussed On the other hand educa tional institutions that introduced chemical engineer i ng programs during the present austerity period do n ot have laboratory equipment and other facilities due to a shortage of funds. PRESENT STATE OF ChE EDUCATION In Nigeria there are two types of undergraduate pr ograms, although they are essentially the same in a ctual chemical engineering course content. The four ye ar program is mainly for students with the General Ce rtificate of Education (G.C.E.) A-level diploma in t he three foundation subjects (chemistry, physics, and m athematics). The G.C.E. A-level is probably equiva l e nt to a two-year post-high school study in a commuIn Nigeria there are two types of undergraduate programs, although they are essentially the same in actual chemical engineering course content. Copyright C h. E D iv isio n AS E E 19 87 4 4 Ogbonnaya Charles Okorafo r g r ad u a t ed wi th B Sc ( 1 977 ) in c h em i ca l engineerin g a t the U n i v er s it y of L agos Af t er graduation h e worked for t w o y ear s as a r e s e arch engin ee r wi th t he F ederal I ns ti t ut e o f Indus trial Resear c h O s h o di L a g os H e rec eived h is MA Sc ( 1 98 0) a nd hi s PhD (1982) from the Uni v ersity of Briti s h Col u mbi a, Vanco u v er a n d r e turned to Nigeria as a Lecturer at the departm e nt o f c h e mical e n g in ee r ing University of Port Harcourt. H i s prese n t res e ar c h int e r es t s in cl ud e c r y stallization and process engineering nity college as found in U.S. and Canada. Th e other is a five-year program for candidates with a hi g h school diploma (West African School C ertific a t e o r G.C.E. O-level passes in five subject s, including the foundation subjects). Candidates with G.C.E. A-level are exempted from the matriculation examination and are expected to enroll in the second year of the five year engineering program. Students with G.C.E level sit for the matriculation examination organized by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (J A.M B) for all the accredited universities in the country, held ever y year on the last Saturday of April. Successful candidates are placed in the schools of their choice by JAMB and enter the first year of the five year program. There are presently twenty-four universities accredited by JAMB in the country. Sixteen of them belong to the Federal Government while the remain ing eight are owned by various state governments. Of these only nine institutions have chemical engineer ing departments (JAMB Brochure 1985-86). Just four C HEMI C AL ENGINE ER IN G EDU C ATION

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of the nine institutions have begun the graduate pro grams. The chemical engineering courses are introduced in the second year of the five-year undergraduate edu cation. From the second year to the fourth year, inclu sive, emphasis is placed on understanding the follow ing transport phenomena (heat transfer, mass trans fer, and fluid mechanics), thermodynamics, particu late systems, separation processes, chemical en gineering kinetics and catalysis, chemical reaction en gineering, industrial chemistry, polymer science and technology, principles of plant design, chemical en gineering laboratory and chemical engineering analysis. Subjects like electrical technology, strength of materials, metallurgy, science of matrials, com puter programming, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and humanities are taken from other units of the institutions. Only a few courses, such as process dynamics and control, process modeling and optimiza tion, introduction to biochemical engineering, man agement and law, are taken in the fifth year in order to provide ample time for the student to tackle the two important final year projects. The projects are the chemical engineering research (an individually supervised research on any chemical engineering topic of national interest chosen by the student), lecturer group, and the chemical engineering design project (the design of an integrated pro\.'.ess by a group of students). Few institutions in Nigeria (and only the pre-au sterity ones) have well-equipped, well-maintained and up-to-date chemical engineering laboratories that in clude unit operations, reaction engineering, and biochemical engineering laboratories. Even these in stitutions do not have process control laboratories. Computers (digital, analog, and hybrid) are effectively exploited in just a few chemical engineering depart ments Another important feature of the undergraduate curriculum is the compulsory nine months industrial attachment for the students. This is one of the re quirements for a department's accreditation by the Council of Registered Engineers of Nigeria (COREN). Some institutions operate a straight aca demic year industrial attachment while others split the nine months into three and attach the students to industries during the three months summer vacation of the second, third and fourth years. DIFFICULTIES IN ChE EDUCATION Nigeria's problems include: a shortage of technical know-how (including a shortage of faculty, inadequacy or lack of support services, shortage of teaching and WINTER 1987 research equipment, inadequate or non-existent re search funding, lack of administrative experience, negative attitude towards work, and isolation from centers of technical activities), insufficient funds, and lack of supporting industries. The first problem has been detailed and possible solutions advanced by Abdul-Kareen [1] and Silveston [5]. The funding problem is an old one in Nigeria. Even in the "boom" years the percentage of the national budget allocated to education at all levels should have been higher than it was. The present severe under funding is compounded by the political decision that students should have a tuition-free university educa tion. A lack of supporting industries means that many services which promote the quality of engineering education, such as regular maintenance of laboratory equipment, consulting opportunities for the engineer ing faculty members, training of laboratory techni cians and students, are missing. Few institutions in Nigeria have well-equipped, well-maintained and up-to-date chemical engineering laboratories that include unit operations, reaction engineering, and biochemical engineering laboratories. During the boom period, Nigeria imported indus tries with the hope that some modern technology would be transferred to her. This, however, has not happened. These industries have been "import sub stitution"; that is, raw materials, spare parts and other things are imported. The duty of the imported industry then reduces to mixing, assembling and pack aging. Foreign industries have not been willing to transfer their up-to-date technical know-how. The technical people assigned to absorb the modern technology that is made available are often not know ledgeable or competent enough to do so effectively because their selection may have been carried out for reasons of political expediency or even through chican ery. The lack of supporting industries causes additional burdens with respect to training. All students are re quired to spend at least nine months at some factory for training. Unfortunately, many students return with little or no practical experience. Either they are not received properly by the industrial organization through the assignment of challenging and responsible duties, or the students discover that their chemical engineering background does not coincide with what they are presumably being trained for. Some students lose interest in pursuing an industrial career after graduation. Instead they choose non-technical, office45

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type work, or go on to graduate studies, provided that sufficient interest, a good first degree and funds are available to them. Furthermore, when the few indus tries we do have run into technical problems which require research and/or development, authorities in both government and industry turn to the more ex pensive foreign experts for help. They hesitate to make use of the talents of their own researchers and scholars (who are in most cases educated in the very same countries from which the technical assistance is sought). Student population problems also seem to origi nate from a lack of healthy industries as well as a lack of technical training centers. High school graduates turn to colleges and universities as their only route to success and a rewarding future. However, the size and facilities of the institutions are limited and in most cases can accommodate a mere 5-10 percent of the applicants. The demand for higher education tends to overcrowd all institutions and especially the engineer ing schools, which are among the most popular ones. Faculty-student ratio is reduced and this causes de terioration of the quality of engineering education, as Murti and Murray-Lasso [3] pointed out. Another problem which places more of a burden on faculty members is the relatively weak foundation of entering students in chemistry, mathematics and physics. Al though this problem could be solved if only the best students at the matriculation examination are selected for admission, a government policy requires preferen tial admission for candidates from the so -called "edu cationally less developed" areas. The result is poorly prepared students in our classes. FUTURE PROSPECTS AND SUGGESTIONS Even though the government has recognized the technological education problem, the present ap proach does not offer relief. Proliferation of ill-equip ped institutions is not a solution What is needed is: 46 Improved technical training along the lines proposed by Abdul-Kareem and Silveston [1]. In addition, governments should discontinue the 'federal-character' or 'state character' policy in staff recruiting. A situation where a foreigner is preferred over a more-qualified fellow citizen, even one from a different section of the country, is an anathema. Improved relations between universit y communities and industrial centers. This would make industrial adminis trators and government policy makers aware of the poten tial talents available in Nigeria's own institutions It would permit faculty members to gain practical experi ence through short-term or long-term industrial leaves-of absence. The lecturers would also become conscious of chemical engineering problems which industries are facing and could, in turn, modify the contents of their courses and their educational programs accordingly. A closer relationship would open new avenues for chemical engineering students to get worth-while, on-the-job tech nical training during their years at the university. Since mo st industries in Nigeria are transnationals with chemi cal engineers active in the top echelons of management, perhaps they can help by urging branch plants to set up research and development departments and encouraging these departments to work together with universitie s Effective research institutes and centres which can coop erate with our academic institutions and assist our indus tries with problems such as alternative raw materials for industries energy resources planning, utilization and management, design and construction of industrial plants, pollution abatement, greater agricultural produc tivity, and food storage, to name the most obvious ones. Effective research institutions could make proper use of experts from other countries and attract Nigerian re searchers and scientists who are living abroad towards solving problems of their country without having to re turn home. Funds for industrial research centers could come from government or from some of our own men of wealth, who now seem to sq uander their riches on frivolities. Foreign Support: Grants now offered for faculty fellow ships by the U .S. Canada and Great Britain need to be redirected towards more urgent needs s uch as teaching and research equipment and books for our libraries. REFERENCES 1. Abdul-Kareen H. K. (1983) "ChE Education in the Third World-Need for International Cooperation," GEE, Spring 1983 p 79-82. 2. J.A.M.B. Brochure 19 85 86 Session (Guidelines for Admission to First Degree Courses in Nigerian Universities). 3. Murray-La sso, M. A. (1972) "Engineering Education in Mexico ," IEEE Tra ns. Educ. E-15 (4), 214-219. 4. Murti (1972) lbw 5. Silveston, P. L. (1983) "ChE Eduation in the Third World North American Assistance," GEE, Spring 1983 p. 78. D REVIEW: Polymer Systems Continued from page 33. steps in the development of a final product. After the general treatment outlined above, the student is introduced to specific polymers, their characteristics, and their uses in a chapter devoted to addition type polymers and another chapter on con densation type polymers. The final chapter deals with various analytical methods used in polymer charac terization and identification. This serves as a brief in troduction for the chemical engineer to some of the most common techniques likely to be encountered dur ing making or using polymers. The appendices are an especially useful feature of this book as they give literature sources, a number of laboratory exercises, and finally, an index of proper ties for the most common polymers. The latter may CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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be a convenient reference for the student after gradu ation. While the number of textbooks in this area is much greater than it was in 1970, the second edition of Rod riguez should be given careful consideration when selecting a text. Its price is reasonable at $29. 95. D ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES, 2nd Edition by R. M. Felder and R. W. Rousseau John Wil e y & Sons, Somerset, NJ $4 3. 95 (1986) Reviewed by Dady B. Dadyburjor West Virginia University Since this is the second edition of one of the more popular books for an introductory course in chemical engineering for sophomores this review will try to address two audiences-those who are familiar with the first edition and who wish to know how it differs from the present one, and those who wish to compare this text with others on the same topic. At the start, it is fair to point out that at this university the text probably receives a more rigorous workout than at many other places since it is the basis for the major portion of two semester-long courses; consequently, many of the points of discussion may not even be noticed by those moving through the text at a more hurried pace. For those unfamiliar with the book, it starts out with a few preliminaries, reminders of topics covered in previous courses, then moves to the fundamentals of material balances The treatment is extremely thorough and step-by-step from non-reacting, single species, single units to multiple reactions, multiple units with recycle, bypass, and (new to this edition) purge. Then follow the constitutive equations for rela tions in one or more phases, with examples showing their use in solving balances with data that is easier to obtain The section on energy balances builds on material covered previously and first shows how the simple forms of the general equation can be derived. This is followed by the constitutive relations defining specific heats, heats of reaction, heats of phase change, and heats of mixing and their use in energy balances Then come general chapters on computer aided calculations (new) and transient processes Fi nally, there is a set of case studies, different from those in the first edition. Each case study is a good example of a set of problems which can be either treated after all of the book material is covered or in discrete increments during the course. Either way, in WINTER 1987 each case study there are one or two open-ended prob lems which serve as "capstones" for all of the material covered. At the end of every chapter there are numer ous problems, with a good mix of calculatorand com puter-type solutions. Liberally sprinkled throughout the chapter are a set of "Test Yourself exercises with solutions, verifying that the student has understood the concepts, and a set of "Creativity Exercises" (new) to challenge budding engineers. Each chapter also contains a good number of worked examples of a wide range of difficulty. In my mind, there were only a few, minor, nega tives in the first edition, and many of these have been improved upon in this work. A notable example is the section on bubble and dew points, which has been greatly expanded and improved. The more formal treatment of the degrees of freedom and its relation to the number of unknowns and the number of equa tions in a given system is most appropriate. There is also a much better treatment of the concepts of frac tional conversion and stoichiometric coefficient. How ever, the treatment of the heat of solution with refer ence to an infinitely dilute standard state would be a good candidate for further expansion together with, perhaps, a worked example of significant difficulty. More significantly, in the treatment of material bal ances there is a new section on thermodynamic equilibrium that I believe the book could have done without. The parameter defined is not the Equilibrium Constant and will almost certainly lead to confusion in subsequent courses in thermodynamics, particularly with respect to equilibrium in multiple phases. Further, in the treatment of energy balances I am not particularly in favor of the Table format used, where component amounts and enthalpies in the inlet and outlet streams are listed. This is useful only after the numbers are obtained and does little to explain how this is done. I would rather see more extensive use of the diagrams of hypothetical steps in going from inlet to outlet conditions. Finally, in the treatment of trans ient balances, I would have liked to have seen a greater emphasis on problems requiring the solution of (simple) differential equations-for instance with semibatch operations-instead of a rehashing of inte gral batch analysis I would also have liked to have seen more continuity between material balances and energy balance transient problems-for instance, the chemical reactor and batch distillation treated from the energy balance point of view. These drawbacks are more than compensated by the many advantages of both editions of the book. It is written in a clear direct, almost conversational style; a wide range of material is covered in relatively Continued on next page 47

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few pages; and the coverage is systematic in its prog ression from simple systems to more complicated ones. Almost certainly, this book will maintain its leading role among its fellows. D UNIT OPERATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 4TH EDITION by Warren L. McCabe, Julian C. Smith and Peter Harriot, McGraw Hill (1985), 960 pages, $53 .95. Reviewed by A.H. Peter Skelland Georgia Institute of Technology Thirty years have passed since the publication of the first edition of this durable text, and its influence on the profession through s ucceeding editions and three decades of graduating seniors must have been profound. The second edition, published in 1967, reor ganized the material in the first version into four main sections, e .g., fluid mechanics, heat transfer, equilib rium stages and mass transfer, and operations involv ing particulate solids. This format, which has become one of the hallmarks of the book, has been retained through the third and fourth editions, published in 1976 and 1985, respectively. Peter Harriott, mentioned in the preface to the first edition as one who reviewed a portion of that early manuscript, now becomes the third author of the revised fourth edition. The authors have commendably resisted the temp tation to expand the book further by merely adding new material; instead they have actually achieved a 6.6% reduction in pages to a total of 960. This has been accomplished by deletions which include most of the previous material on mass and energy balances (normally covered elsewhere in the chemical engineer ing curriculum), the entire chapter on phase equilibria (usually treated in thermodynamics courses), and, in terestingly, the Ponchon-Savarit method of analysis for binary distillation, leaching and liquid-liquid ex traction processes. This involves elimination of the triangular diagram-delta point method and of the Pon chon (Janecke) diagrams in extraction. This, the au thors contend, is because the procedure "is rarely if ever used in practice; for simple separations the McCabe-Thiele method is entirely adequate and for more complex separations computer methods are used." A bold move! These deletions are countered by several addi tions, which include (for the first time) an excellent 21-page chapter on adsorption, expanded treatments of fluidization, packed bed heat transfer, and mul48 ticomponent distillation (which by now has reached a level of presentation that would probably enable superior students to perform plate-to-plate calcula tions). Further revision and reorganization are appar ent in many areas of this familiar work. An argument might be made for treating packed distillation columns in the chapter on distillation, in stead of in the one on gas absorption. This would be on the grounds that distillation is characterized by es sentia lly equimolal countertransfer, in contrast to gas absorption, which is an example of one-component mass transfer (one-way diffusion). This necessitates differences in rigorous formulation of the transfer unit expressions in the two cases, particularly for non-di lute systems. The time has perhaps come to correct an important error that has curiously persisted through the second, third, and fourth editions; this occurs in citing the Friend and Metzner equation for heat transfer in tur bulent flow in a smooth tube. The expression is Equ ation (12-62) on page 315, where a factor of 11.8 has been omitted from the second term in the de nominator. Offered as a "more accurate analogy equa tion" for h, heat exchangers designed using the uncor rected equation would be seriously undersized. Much of the current clamor for writing in SI units tends to overlook the fact that a great body of en gineering literature already exists in either cgs or En glish units. Engineers must therefore retain facility with traditional unit-systems for easy access to the older literature, while becoming conversant with SI units for best use of the newer material and for pres ent application. This dual need is well accomodated by the authors' decision to emphasize both SI and English units throughout the book. The text is well stocked with problems for practice solution, 36% of which are new with this edition. The Appendices have been expanded by two, compared to the third edition, by the inclusion of the DePriester charts giving distribution coefficients in light hydro carbon systems for lowand high-temperature ranges. The present reviewer believes that the book would have been enhanced by the inclusion of an author index, but a good 16-page subject index has been pro vided. The drawings, printing, and binding all conform to the high standards we have come to expect in this series and, at $53.95, the text gives better value than most others in the field-certainly it should help more engineers get more jobs done than will most of its competitors. When one includes the precursor of this text, E le ments of Chemical Engineering, by W. L. Badger and W. L. McCabe, first published by McGraw-Hill in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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1931, it is realized that Warren L. McCabe has pro vided textbook guidance to chemical engineers in a continuous and ongoing manner for more than half a century. The latest edition of this book constitutes a fitting memorial to his outstanding contributions to the profession. D PROCESS REACTOR DESIGN by Ning Hsing Chen Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Publ i sh e rs, Boston, MA (198 3 ) 54 5 pages Reviewed by Arland H. Johannes Oklahoma State University Textbooks on chemical engineering kinetics and reactor design have changed significantly in the past three decades as the Hougen and Watson approach shifted to a Levenspiel approach. This evolutionary change continues in this book by introducing numeri cal methods and computer solutions to complex chem ical reactor design equations and problems. We expect that future texts in this area will follow this trend and use many of the more modern ideas and techniques presented in this book to solve industrial reactor de sign problems. The text is suitable for a first undergraduate course in reactor design. The content is divided into eleven chapters with mathematical techniques re viewed briefly in the ten appendices. The author uses the molar extent of reaction (reaction coordinate method) as a bookkeeping and computational tool throughout the text. This method is introduced in the first two chapters on Fundamentals and Process Ther modynamics and is used extensively in the evaluation of kinetic data presented in Chapter 3. After introducing the basic transport equations in Chapter 4, the author covers homogeneous systems by devoting a chapter to each of the four ideal reac tors. In each chapter, isothermal, nonisothermal and multiple reactions are covered for each ideal reactor type. This is a particularly refreshing and logical pre sentation of the material. The last three chapters cover heterogeneous reac tor systems, nonideal reactors and design considera tions. The heterogeneous reactor chapter covers each heterogeneous system including catalytic and fluidized bed reactors. Although this chapter is not written in great detail, it provides a good overview of these sys tems and a fairly good presentation of the design equa tions and mathematical techniques needed for model ing these systems. The nonideal chapter is very brief and barely covers problems typically encountered in WINTER 1987 industrial applications. The material in this chapter must be externally supplemented to provide coverage of nonideal systems. The final chapter covers some of the major design and economic considerations in reactor sizing. This chapter also compares combination reactor systems and looks at selectivity and productivity. In general, the material throughout the book is presented using vigorous mathematical development followed by numerous numerical example problems. Fourteen short computer programs are included in the text and are used frequently to solve the more com plex problems. Some background in computer pro gramming would be helpful to the student using this text but a solid mathematics background is absolutely required Notation is straightforward and is consis tent throughout the text. The end-of-chapter prob lems cover the material well and are suitable for homework, but the total number of these problems is fairly limited. The book is well written and the En glish is good, but at times a more general description would be more helpful than the step-by-step mathematical development. In summary, this book is a useful teaching and reference text on modern reactor design. D kiN=I books received M icrocomputers in th e P rocess I ndus t ry, E. R. Robinson. John Wiley & Son s, In c Som e r s et NJ 0 8 873 ; 3 49 pages, $78. 95 ( 1985). I n st ru m e ntat i on an d C o n trol fo r th e P r oc e ss Industri es John Borer; Elsevier Applied Science Publish e rs, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue New York 10017; 3 01 pages (1985) Indu s trial E n v ironme ntal Control : P u lp and Pap e r I n dustry Allan M. Springer; John Wiley & Sons Inc., Somerset, NJ 0887 3; 430 pages $75 (1986) H ea t Tr a nsf e r of a Cy l i nd e r in Cro ss fl ow, by A Zukauska s and J. Ziugzda Edited by G F. Hewitt ; Hemisphere Publishing Co. 79 Madison Ave., New York 10016; 208 pages, $59.50 (1985) Rad i at ion H e at Tra ns f e r Not es by D. K. Edwards; Hemisphere Publishing Co ., 370 pages (1981) Industrial Hygien e Asp e cts of Plant Op e rations, Volume 3 Edited by L. V. Cralley L. J. Cralley, K. J Caplan; Macmillan Publishing Company 866 Third Ave., New York 10022; 785 pages, $65.00 (1985) R e ag en t s f or O r ga nic Synthe sis, Vol. 12 by Mary Fieser ; Wiley lnterscien ce, Somer s et, NJ 08873; 643 pages, $47.50 (1986), Ba s i c Corro si on and O xi dat i on, Second Edition, by John M. West; Halstead Press, Somerset, NJ 08873 ; 264 pages, $44 95 (1986). Mod ern C o n trol T e ch n iqu es for th e Pro ce ss i ng Ind u stri es by T H. Tsai, J. W. Lane C. S. Lin; Marcel Dekker, Inc 270 Madison Avenue New York NY 10016; 296 pages $59.75 (1986). Qual i ty Management Handbook, edittd b y Loren Walsh, Ralph Wurster, Raymond J. Kimber ; Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue New York 10016; 1016 pages, $75 00 (1986). 49

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ChE IN THE FUTURE Continued from page 17. training. Or one can establish an internal school like MacDonalds' Burger Tech. The company can 'offer short courses, either taught by employees or con ducted by outside firms or local universities. Even courses !~r degree credit can be arranged, locally or by telev1s10n. All of these things are being done-it is a big business. But should this be necessary? A technical degree 1s supposed to certify competence to practice in the field and provide the necessary background for the recipient to function in a useful capacity while extend ing the_ knowledge into specialized areas on-the-job. No busmess would flourish by selling a product that the buY_er had to modify extensively before being able to use 1t, even though sophisticated buyers often do add proprietary touches. It. is inefficient and costly for industry to try to substitute for the university. Including overhead and support personnel such as technicians, it costs about $200,000 per year to support a technical person in an industrial R&D organization. The lost-opportunity cost when these people either take instruction or pro vide it is even higher We should expect a return of nearly $600,000 per year to result from their contribu tions. The net present value is even higher-one year of R&D work by a knowledgeable person working on new p~oducts or major product and process improve ments 1s worth about $2 million. Looked at that way and we do-it costs over $2 million per man-year for a research professional to do nonproductive work. Let me hasten to add that we do believe in the value of continuing education to sharpen skills and en hance breadth of knowledge. We are willing to pay for an appropriate amount of it. We have no desire though, to pay for remedial education, just as you d~ not want to teach students to read or count. Hence the last three items in Table 4. Engineers should be taught to use fundamentals to solve prob lems and to be mentally prepared and motivated to use them. They should be prepared to reason effec tively and draw logical conclusions using a quantita tive approach. They should then be able to communi cate well enough to explain their conclusions and reasoning effectively and to convince management or customers to act in accordance with the recommenda tions. And, of course, engineers should be willing and eager to learn ACTION ITEMS Assuming that our goal is to expand the market ability of chemical engineers, we must ask several 50 questions: What might be done to provide this kind of product? What kind of changes are possible, and who will make them? Why should they make them? Table 5 lists six areas in which changes might be made. Each will be discussed in turn. TABLE 5 Possible Actions CURRICULUM CHANGES STRUCTURED OPTIONS IMPROVED USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY FORWARD-LOOKING TEXTBOOKS MORE EMPHASIS ON ADVANCED DEGREES CONTINUING EDUCATION Curriculum Howard Rase, in preparing the report of the Septenary Committee [2,3], devoted considerable space to recommendations on the curriculum. Some of them are listed in Table 6. We urge you to read that report if you have not already done so. The last four issues in the table deal with providing room in the curriculum without sacrificing the most important subjects or lengthening the undergraduate program. Minor changes, where two or three courses are altered or eliminated in favor of others, will have little if any effect. If the product is to be a chemical en gineer able to function in industry and adapt to a con tinually changing environment, that engineer must have not only a broad knowledge of scientific princi ples and techniques, but also some specialized knowl edge about the particular technology in which he will be employed-biology, electronics, materials, chemi cal separations, statistics, and computer program ming, to name a few. The term "learning curve" has become such a cliche in the context of pricing strategy, project man agement and the like, that sometimes we forget its original use as a description of an individual s learning process. Acquiring and using new knowledge depends upon a host of connections among bits of information and also upon attitudes and concepts derived from ex perience. In four or five years of training, it is impos sible to provide every student with every knowledge segment that will be useful. So what can be done? First, eliminate duplication. Start with high school prerequisites. If you require calculus or chemistry, then expect the student to know it. If it has to be made up, since not all high schools are equally profi cient and not all high school students are as studious as one might wish, then by all means teach remedial courses-but don't give credit toward the degree for them. C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The next element of duplication that should be eliminated is the repetition between different depart ments of the university. Reinforcement is certainly needed for many subjects, but teaching ther modynamics in both chemistry and chemical engineer ing is really unnecessary. The remedy may require the faculties of different departments or colleges to work together to off er sections of, say, physical or organic chemistry that are slanted toward chemical engineers. I realize that this area is a problem in most universities, but it should be addressed. The second point is to use computers more effec tively-and I do not mean requiring more program ming! A survey of our own engineers who have graduated within the last five years or so indicates that in many cases they feel they got too much of that. The real need, they think, is to integrate the computer into the course to such a degree that the added capa bility is channelled toward improving their judgment. All of the tedious hand calculations and shortcut techniques that used to play such a major role in chem ical engineering courses should be abandoned. Instead TABLE 6 Recommended Curriculum Changes* Prepare for continual change with a broad range of fundamen tal knowledge. Provide some flexibility for a limited degree of specialization Provide room by Eliminating duplication Using computers more effectively Combining courses Switch some organic chemistry to biochemistry and change physics to emphasize the solid state. Require modern biology, materials science, modern elec tronics, economics. Use specialized liberal arts courses. *From report of the Septenary Committee on the future of Chem ical Engineering students should learn to use problem-solving software to try cases and to clarify the fundamentals. This ap proach will require major investments in time, equip ment, text writing, problem construction, and nearly every other phase of teaching. Not only would it make better engineers, but it could also allow some time to be cut from the curriculum to make room for other subjects. The third and fourth points are different aspects of the same idea. By judicious selection of problems, experiments, and special requirements, a single course can cover several objectives. For example, oral presentations of results and review by English teachers of written reports can be part of laboratory WINTER 1987 The second possible action, then, is the use of structured options. Many schools do this already, to a limited extent. or unit operations courses. History could cover the history of science, government might discuss the need for a national science policy and the workings of gov ernment-sponsored research, language can feature original scientific papers, and philosophy can cover the development of scientific reasoning and thought. There is some disagreement about how much of the curriculum should be devoted to distributional courses and the kind that should be required. Our sur vey revealed a divided opinion. The general consensus seemed to be that the cafeteria style involving elec tives from several categories was not effective, and that it would be better to provide some focus. I know that Rice University is considering a "coherent minor" for all students, in which the liberal arts students must minor in a scientific discipline and all science and engineering students must select a liberal arts minor in which courses from several departments are struc tured to reinforce each other. This idea could be car ried one step further and the courses themselves re structured, rather than using a menu selected from existing offerings Structured Options Even though some room in the curriculum may be provided by the measures discussed, it will probably be too little to provide the range of abilities needed. The second possible action, then, is the use of struc tured options. Many schools do this already, to a lim ited extent. The idea is to offer say, three courses designed to provide some additional expertise in an area such as bioengineering, materials science, polymer science, separations, applied mathematics, electronics, or chemistry. Completing such an option, which might require a slight increase in total hours for that student, should be recognized by designating it on the diploma. Such an action would be intended to increase the marketability of students by increasing their ability to function effectively during their first job, and to make it easier for them to extend their education in these areas after leaving school. This ad ditional qualification may or may not command a pre mium price, but it should make it easier for the graduates to get jobs. Improved Use of New Technology In 1959, I studied chemical process design under the late Bob Perry. Our university had an IBM 650, a marvelous machine with 2,000 words of storage on a rotating drum that used punched cards as input. 51

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The compiler required three passes with cards to pro duce a machine language program. There was no ap plications software available at all-if you wanted to solve a bubble-point calculation, then first you had to write a program to do it. Even then, though, the enormous possibilities to aid process design were evi dent. We used that computer, hands on at night, to improve our understanding of process design. Each time we wrote a program, we would think, "Never again will I have to do that iteration. Never again will I do a tedious, approximate graphical solution to this problem because now an exact solution is no more trouble." It was relatively easy to try different config urations of equipment, as in multiple-column separa tion systems. Now it is possible to do "what-if" calculations on whole processes and to even get theoretical, a priori estimates of the best possible separation schemes in volving all known separation methods. Expert sys tems programs can be constructed to help guide the novice engineer through the reasoning process that was once the province of experienced consultants. Complex problems in structural analysis, heat trans fer, and fluid flow are routinely solved numerically. In the past 20 years, the evolution in computer technology has done far more than make repetitive calculations faster and more accurate. One can now do things differ en tly, not just faster. Talks with new em ployees and others seem to indicate that the univer sities are far from exploiting this capability. It is now possible to concentrate on improving the students' judgment, assuming that calculations can and should be made to the accuracy and degree of complexity warranted by the problem and available data. The stu dent can be taught to consider what other data might be needed, assess the cost and time needed to obtain them, and evaluate the probable outcome of experi ments. Experimental design and economic analysis can become a routine part of all evaluations, because complicated statistical inference or discounted cash flow analyses become relatively easy to do. Computers are now a ubiquitous tool. Electronic communication is becoming routine. Word processing, spreadsheet programs, relational data bases, desktop publishing, and computer-aided design are now ordi nary tools, just as the slide rule was in the 1950's. The university must teach the student to use these tools effectively-not just to manipulate them but to under stand how they can contribute to technical productiv ity in all ways. Any hardware that is made commonly available, such as terminal facilities, must be available in suffi cient quantity and be well maintained. At many schools the inconvenience to the students of inade52 quate ways to access required computer equipment is staggering. You know about the kind of graffiti that is started by one student, then added to by another. At one university, the first student posted a sign on the computer-room door with Dante's words marking the gate to hell [4]: Beyond me lies the way into the woeful city. Beyond me lies the way into eternal woe. Beyond me lies the way among the lost people. to which another student had added, "And beyond that lies a three-day wait for a terminal!" To integrate computer technology into the under graduate curriculum will require a major commitment of funds and time by the university, the faculty, and the students. But it must be done. Not only should adequate common facilities be provided, but every student should be required to have a relatively power ful personal computer that will run engineering software. All will also need standard commercial software for word processing and the like. These tools will be an inevitable part of the cost of an engineering education. Forward-Looking Textbooks Another major point by the Septenary Committee was that texts will have to be rewritten and courses completely revised to implement the first three poten tial action areas listed in Table 5. After reading the report, Professor Byron Bird wrote each of the committee members [5], expressing his endorsement of the report and particularly of the recommendation that new textbooks be written. He enclosed a copy of his 1983 article in Chemical En gineering Education on the subject [6], and added the following comment: ... Ch.E. has suffered in the past decade or so because of a noticeable lack of exciting, sparWing, and responsible mod ern textbooks. Our professors are too busy getting money for research grants and accounting for it, and the sad result is that our most prominent and brilliant researchers and teachers are being actively discouraged from taking time out (for) text-book writing!! He went on to make several points about the role of textbooks in a changing chemical engineering field: In a very real sense, good books bring about change. The very boundaries of what we mean by chemical en gineering are determined to a significant extent by its textbooks. The field of chemical engineering will inevitably be known and measured by its journals and books. Professor Bird's article suggested that "book-writ ing" ought to be included as a third principal activity of a university teacher, in addition to teaching and research, since it is concerned directly with the proCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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duction, organization and dissemination of new knowl edge. How the writing of forward-looking texts might be encouraged will be discussed later Mo re E mpha sis o n Adv a nced Degre e s The first four possible actions in Table 5 relate to the undergraduate curriculum and to teaching methods and tools. The last two are concerned with education beyond that. References to "terminal" masters degrees are often made with a sneer. Why should there be some sort of stigma attached to wanting more than an un dergraduate education but less than a PhD? If we did not all believe that technical knowledge and excellence translate into better job performance, we would not be here. We should encourage students to learn more, even beyond the undergraduate level, before entering industry. I would much rather hire an MS degree hol der than a BS, because the percentage of technical courses taken is far higher. Much of the under graduate program is devoted to humanities and other broadening courses, a s it should be, but graduate work is almost exclusively technical. It is surprising that this trend is not already appar ent. Part of the reason it is not may be that many of those responsible for hiring in industry do not realize the impact of curriculum changes during the past 20 years. They have a mental image of those 145-hour BS requirements with virtually no electives common then rather than the 128-hour programs heavily laced with electives and distributive requirements common now. Also as enrollments decline the tendency at some schools is to lighten the workload to keep as many students as possible in the program. These same people who remember the 145-hour curricula also re member being torqued to the breaking point because chemical engineering was th e premier, prestigious subject to take-those who wanted the label had to be ready to pay the price. Today the electrical engineer ing schools are employing the same Draconian meas ures to reduce enrollment to the dedicated core. Whether you accept this reasoning or not y ou ma y agree that the natural process in a buyer's market is to be more and more demanding of the quality of the product. I believe that the natural result of this pro cess will be to move toward the MS as the typical final degree in chemical engineering rather than the BS. There may not be s o much of a price premium paid, but the MS recipient s will have first call on the avail able jobs. Remember the earlier point that engineers in the future will do more technical work for a longer period of time than may have been the case in the past. In the present academic system, where most WINTER 19 8 7 graduate students are paid, the MS candidate can rep resent a drain out of proportion to his contribution. This problem causes some schools to discourage MS candidates. However with a good program there is no reason to have to pay students to attend. Consider, for example, the better business schools. People fight for the privilege of re-entering school at an average age of 25 or 26, to pay $20,000 in tuition and spend two years getting a master's degree. Why? Because the buyers are willing to pay for a premium product The press is full of articles about how MBA's from the big schools are not as good as they think they are; nevertheless, the firms hiring them are willing to pay a premium of perhaps $10,000 per year for that differ ential. The number of them getting jobs is also virtu ally 100 % C ont in uing Educat ion Continual change and the need to adapt are synonymous with continuing, lifelong education (Table 5 ). A professor once told me that one of the goals of the formal educational process is to prepare students and motivate them to continue their education them selves, without the need for spoon-feeding. That is a laudable goal, but most people either continue to need spoon feeding or retrogress to that stage after a few years of using only a subset of their hard-won skills One aspect of emerging technology will have a dramatic effect on continuing education. Videotape combined with teleconferencing and electronic mail is making it possible to extend the classroom over the entire country. Several regional efforts have been suc cessful, such as Stanford University's programs in electronics and electrical engineering. Others are planned. At least one national capability exists, the National Technological University (NTU). The NTU has leased microwave channels and has become an advanced degree-granting institution. They do no instruction themselves but rather con tract with universities to do it. Although many of the offering s a1e short courses, it is possible to enroll in a master s degree program in electrical engineering, computer engineering, or manufacturing systems en gineering. The students may participate in actual classroom instruction in real time by videoconferenc ing or telephone, or in delayed time by videotape relay. They actually enroll in the university giving the instruction The professor receives additional compen s ation through consulting fees, and the university re ceives a negotiat e d tuition. For the student, the courses are expensive (perhaps $1,000 per course) and the company must pay a hefty one-time subscription fee, and set up a microwave receiver, provide a "classroom," and fur53

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After reading the report, Professor Byron Bird wrote each of the committee members, expressing his endorsement of the report and particularly the recommendation that new textbooks be written. nish proctors for examinations. In many cases, how ever, this arrangement is much cheaper than in-house instruction, and almost infinite variety is possible. It also potentially can provide continuity even though the student may be transferred to a distant or remote location. Because the programs can be recorded, people who travel extensively in their jobs can make up lost work. These latter two issues are major prob lems to the continuing education of engineers in indus try. This kind of capability has the potential for great change in the way instruction is provided, at any de gree level. For example, honors students in high school might begin university courses without the so cial penalty of leaving their age group. Under graduates could take complex interdisciplinary pro grams involving selected courses not available locally. Perhaps most important of all, it could revitalize em phasis on teaching instead of research. Think about it. You have sure ly heard comedians on television bemoaning the departure of the Catskill circuit and musician s, the virtual disappearance of the community band. These sources of entertain ment fell victim to the ready availability in every home of outstanding entertainment, so that amateur efforts in comparison seemed paltry and inadequate. Now, who do you think will get the extra pay and prestige for national televised instruction? Once people see how much easier it is to learn from truly outstanding, well-prepared teachers who emerge to prominence as teachers rather than researchers, some schoo l s that continue to neglect teaching may find themselves on the educational Catskill circuit. Another example i s instruction in the military. Years ago in the Artillery and Guided Missile School at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, I was amazed to see th e amount of technical information that could be im parted to a relatively unsophisticated audience within a few weeks. The secret was preparation. Every lec ture was planned, rehearsed, and revised, and no ef fort was spared to design and prepare audio-visual and mechanical aids to instruction. There is little in centive for this approach in many universities, but there will be when national video participative in str uction becomes widely available. The best defense being a go od attac k we should examine this new technology to see how it can be u se d 54 to advantage in the production of chemical engineers who will be in wide demand in many industries. LEADERSHIP The real issue for the chemical engineering profes sion is leadership-who should provide it? A year or so ago I attended a week-long course in Washington sponsored by the Brookings Institute on "Under standing Federal Government Operations." It f ea tured presentations by many officials, both elected and appointed, from all branches of government. A repeated theme was that the congress views itself as a reactive body. Its members do not believe that their job is to lead, or to anticipate change, but rather to sense the desires of the populace and react-a spirit less point of view, I thought. Doesn't possession of great knowledge and power carry with it an obligation to lead? There seems to be a reluctance on the part of the academic community to lead change in the profession of chemical engineering as well as a reactionary force to resist change There are no doubt many contribut ing factors For example some of the better schools still find themselves to be in a se ller 's market; their graduates are easily placed partly because they can still impose high selectivity on incoming talent. They a l so have the financial flexibility to enter any new field with additional faculty and facilities, so that change occurs through a comfortable growth process without the necessity for major sacrifices. In a shrinking field, though, those options are not open to most. As an example of reactionary influences consider one of the barriers that Professor Bird cited concern ing writing texts. Neither young professors on the tenure track nor active researchers needing a continu ing series of research publications believe that they can afford to take the time to write books. Each school will have to address most of the foregoing issues, taking into account its own financial and personnel resources state regulations, and the like. The ASEE and AIChE have a stake in the out come and should consider how some degree of national coordination might be achieved. There is one impor tant issue, though, that might benefit from active in volvement of industry and government, as well as the academic community, and that is to encourage the preparation of outstanding textbooks. Providing Forward-Looking Textbooks As a student of Jack Power s at the University of Oklahoma in 1959, I was one of the first under graduate guinea pigs for the "Notes on Transport Phenomena." That volume was John Wiley and Sons' preliminary edition of Bird Stewart and Lightfoot 's C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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famous book that accomplished for that period of time all of the things for the field of chemical engineering that Professor Bird urges others to do today. The field of chemical engineering underwent a dramatic change between 1955 and 1965, and their book was a powerful force for that change. Bird cited two other quotes: The true University ... is a collection of books. -Carlyle There must be more books, for engineering data and interpre tation of results are fundamental needs. -Chilton But Bird's point about textbooks "determining the boundaries of the field" may mean either to expand or to circumscribe them. Unfortunately, because of the pressures disfavoring time spent in pt... .., 11it of writing books, many are far from revolutionary. As Robert Burton said in the early 17th century, "they lard their lean books with the fat of others' works" [7]. Some of the disincentives to writing texts are that the task Is time consuming. Distracts from portions of the job considered critical to professional success-research and funding. Is not financially rewarding. These items would have to be addressed just to generate more books. But what is needed is not merely more books, but novel and different ones, writ ten with a coherent goal to allow compaction of the curriculum through sharper focus-books that will use the new tools of today to impart information needed for tomorrow. The Septenary Committee recommended that the content of every course in the chemical engineering curriculum be examined and changed where necessary to meet a number of criteria and urged that textbooks be rewritten in major ways. But how can incentives TABLE 7 Leadership PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES SHOULD LEAD SUPPORT SHOULD EMERGE FROM Government Industry Universities Publishers -Authors FUNCTIONS OF LEADERSHIP Establish Goals Focus Activities Communicate Remove Obstacles Provide Incentives WINTER 1987 be furnished, and who will provide the needed focus over several years? Leadership to change the field through improved texts is not likely to emerge spontaneously from the academic community, nor to spring from present mar ket forces acting upon prospective authors. The re maining possibilities would seem to be government, industry, publishers, and professional societies. How might all six groups combine their efforts toward imOnce people see how much easier it is to learn from truly outstanding, well-prepared teachers who emerge to prominence as teachers rather than researchers, some schools that continue to neglect teaching may find themselves on the educational Catskill circuit. proving the supply of well-prepared chemical en gineers, capable of contributing to the needs of gov ernment and industry in a way that rewards the au thors and their employers appropriately to the degree of effort and accomplishment involved. Let us suppose that the goal is to persuade young, active research professors, already tenured, to devote the effort and time needed to write really good textbooks in chemical engineering. Furthermore, we want these books to incorporate examples in the newest technologies and to build computer applica tions into their core. If possible, we should like to encourage co-authorship, preferably by those repre senting more than one academic discipline or by a blend of perspectives from industry and academia. As stated in the first item of Table 7, leadership should be provided by the societies, whose stake is in the preservation and enhancement of the profession. The Chemical Engineering Division of the ASEE, the AIChE, and the Chemical Research Council are exam ples of organizations whose fortunes rise and fall with that of the profession itself. There are, of course, other possibilities For example, the "National Elec trical Engineering Department Heads Association," which I am told has received NSF funding, meets an nually to discuss issues important to that group. Let us assume for a moment that some society wou ld take on the role of setting goals, defining re quirements for a series of texts that would achieve these goals, and reviewing the competing proposals that would be submitted if suitable incentives were provided. The society could establish a prize, say $100,000, split one-third upon selection of the winning prospectus and two-thirds upon acceptance of the final text by the society's reviewing committee and a pub lisher. 55

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Financial support could come from both govern ment and industry, and the universities could contrib ute faculty-release time for course preparation and text review as well as sabbatical leaves. A number of universities might agree to help evaluate draft texts and use the new texts for at least a trial period. The next essential element is the publisher, who might agree to establish a series for these books and provide a standard set of rewards for the authors, over and above the initial prize. The final element is the author Another Robert Burton remark [8], is that philosophers advise you to spurn glory, yet they will put their names to their books. Prestige is a powerful motivating force, but this plan would allow the author to gain not only in reputation as an author and prizewinner but also to minimize the financial penalty. Who would gain? Everybody. These thoughts have been discussed with a number of people in industry and academia. Most agree that money spent on stimulating the writing of really good textbooks would do more than an equivalent amount of money spent directly in support of research. SUMMARY When the future of chemical engineering is the subject, there is indeed much to talk about. First, some of the signs of change facing the chemical en gineering profession were described and the underly ing reasons for them were proposed. Next, you were urged, as members of the aca demic community, to adopt a market-oriented attitude in addressing the needs of your traditional customers, the industries who have long employed chemical en gineers. But also you were encouraged to include the electronics, food, health-care, aerospace, and other in dustries whose need for chemical engineers might be expected to grow in an increasingly technological soci ety oriented toward high-value-in-use specialty prod ucts. We then reviewed six areas of action to address the needs of industry by expanding the capabilities and improving the training of chemical engineers. Finally, the problem of leadership was raised and the need for cooperative action in several areas was stressed. A way was suggested by which your society or other professional groups might enlist the aid of industry and government, as well as focus and coordi nate your own efforts, to define goals and stimulate the creation of outstanding texts. Cohesive leadership must form the cornerstone of any effort directed to ward stimulating evolution in the field of chemical en gineering. 56 REFERENCES 1. In search of E xce ll ence: L essons from Am e rica's Best Com panies, Peters, Thomas J., and Waterman, Jr., Robert H., 1982 2. "Chemical Engineering Education for the Future ," report by the Septenary Committee on Chemical Engineering Education for the Future, sponsored by the University of Texas at Austin. Mr. Henry Groppe, Chairman Edited by James R. Brock and Howard F. Rase. 1985 3 Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 81, No. 10, "Chemical Engineering Education for the Future," pp. 9-14. A report by the Septenary Committee sponsored by the Dept of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texa s at Austin Austin, TX. 4 Inferno, Canto III, Dante. 5. Bird, R B., Vilas Research Professor and John D MacArthur Professor, Dept. of Cemical Engineering University of Wis consin, personal communication (letter). 6. "Writing and Chemical Engineering Education," Chemical En gineering Education Fall 1983, pp. 184-193. R Byron Bird, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Presented for the Phillips Petroleum Company Chemical Engineering Lectureship Award, Oklahoma State University December 6, 1982. 7 Anatomy of M el ancholy Robert Burton, Ed. by Joan R. Pet ers, 1980. 8. Ibid. STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT AND CIRCULATION R,qwml h .?~ L'.5 C Jo8J CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION I ,: FAEOUENCY OF I SS.JE Quarterly COMPLEH M.0. I LING ADDRESS Of THE HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL BUSINESS OFFICES OF THE PUBLISHER /1'<>r I'"~"' I E~{~~i::i D~ef6g;o Society for Engineering duca t ion. 1 6 FULL NAMES AN~ COMPLETE.MAILING ADD~~ OF PUBLISHER EDITOR AND MANAGING. EDITOR r7>, u ,,,.., M UST /1.'0Tb bldn4 PUBLISHER rliomlru, c; 1< '"'" u n,ni "' ~a.ldm 1> t rc-tn1 ,,, "'"" o ''"' .,,,.,~,. o{J1<'<4 /{nor o .. -..,d o <<>rl>D"'""" ,,., """''' ond d r,n, n d,.,duol ~,.., ,,, mu,r :/ "'"~ut;~;,~ ~,b) ::::, !t ::.::,;~~~:"::;~ ''";':~,mn~ct,.m,uiol ~,i o y u1,onM1nttum1>l 11u, le Foor<1 ,nco,.,,r,o ""'"'"' 'C ""' j lO EXTENT AN Q NATUAf Qi' CIRCULAT I ON 15u,ns"'"""'"""''' "''''"' I :. TOTAL N O COPIESrr,.,,-,,_,,Rw" I C TOTAL PAID ANOIOR AE OUESTEO CIACULl,TION f / Swm oj/(18/ ond/UBJ 1 i O FREE DISTRIBUTION B\' MAIL CARR I EA QA OTHER MEANS I SAMPLES CO M PLIMENT AA\' AND OTHER fREE COPIES j E TOTAL DISTRIBUTION /$ um uJCond V F COPIES NOT DISTRIBUHD 1, Qt! oou,e lrhcor unacc<>un10 '. ,.,_, mu,:~ AVERAGE NO COPIES EACH ISSUE DURING PRECEOING 11MONTHS 2395 02211 2211 73 2284 Ill -0I ,,,o -0184 1 1841 70 1911 59 -0 G TOTAL 1 .~" '" "/ F/.i_'"""f
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Departmental Sponsors The following 154 departments contributed to the support of CEE in 1987 with bulk subscriptions. Un iv ers ity of Akron University of Alabama University of A lberta University of Arizona U niversity of Arkansas University of Aston in Birmingham Auburn University Brigham Young University U niver sity of British Columbia Brown University Bucknell University University of Calgary California State University, Long Beach California Institute of Technology University of California (Berkeley) University of California (Davis) University of California (Los Angeles) University of California (Santa Barbara) University of California at San Diego Carnegie-Mellon University Case-Western Reserve University University of Cincinnati Clarkson University Clemson University Cleveland State University University of Colorado Colorado School of Mines Colorado State University Columbia University University of Connecticut Cornell University Dartmouth College University of Delaware Drexel University University of Florida Florida State University Florida Institute of Techftology Georgia Institute of Technology University of Houston Howard University University of Idaho Un iver s ity of Illinois (C hicago) University of Illinois (U rbana) Illinois In s titute of Technology Institute of Paper Chemistry University of Iowa Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University University of Kansas Kansas State University University of Kentucky Lafayette Co lleg e Lakehead U niver sity Lamar University Lehigh University Loughborough Univers it y of Technology Louisiana State University Louisiana Tech. U niver sity University of Louisville University of Lowell University of Maine Manhattan College University of Maryland U niversity of Massachusetts Massachusetts Institute of Technology McMaster Univers it y McNeese State University University of Michigan Michigan State University Michigan Tech. University University of Minnesota, Duluth University of Minnesota, Minneapolis University of Missouri (Columbia) University of Missouri (Rolla) Monash U niver sity Montana State Un iversit y University of Nebraska U niversit y of New Hampshire University of New Haven University of New South Wales New Jersey Institute of Tech. University of New Mexico New Mexico State University City University of New York Polytechnic Institute of New York State University of N Y at Buffalo North Carolina A&T State University North Carolina State University University of North Dakota Northeastern University University of Notre Dame Nova Scotia Technical College Ohio State University Ohio University University of Oklahoma Oklahoma State University Oregon State University University of Ottawa University of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University University of Pittsburgh Princeton University Purdue University Queen's U niver sity Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute U niv ersity o f Rhode Island Rice University Un iversity of Rochester Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Rutgers University University of South Alabama Un iversit y of South Carolina University of Saskatchewan South Dakota School of Mines University of Southern Californ ia Stanford University Stevens Institute of Technology University of Surrey University of Sydney Syrac use University Teesside Polytechnic Institute Tennessee Technological University University of Tennessee Texas A&I University Texas A&M University University of Texas at Austin Texas Technological Unive rsit y Un iversit y of Toledo Tri-State University Tufts University Tulane University Tuskegee Institute University of Tulsa University of Utah Vanderbilt U niversit y Villanova University University of Virginia Virginia Polytechnic Institute Washington State University University of Washington Washington U niversity U niversit y of Waterloo Wayne State University West Virginia Col. of Grad Studies West Virginia Inst Technology West Virginia University University of Western Ontario Widener U niversity University of Windsor University of Wisconsin (Ma di so n ) Worcester Polytechnic Institute University of Wyoming Yale University Youngstown State University If your department is not a contributor, )llfrite to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611, for information on bulk subscriptions.