• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Lee C. Eagleton of Penn State
 Book reviews
 Manhattan College
 Chemical engineering in the...
 The industrialization of a graduate:...
 Simplifying chemical reactor design...
 Chemical reaction experiment for...
 Book reviews
 Microcomputer-aided control systems...
 Book reviews
 A problem with coyotes
 Chemical engineering education...
 Book reviews
 Book received
 ChE in the future (Continued from...
 Back Cover






Chemical engineering education
http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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 Material Information
Title: Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title: CEE
Abbreviated Title: Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher: Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication: Storrs, Conn
Publication Date: Winter 1987
Frequency: quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Citation/Reference: Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form: Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities: Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-
 Record Information
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Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
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ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID: AA00000383:00093

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Lee C. Eagleton of Penn State
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Book reviews
        Page 5
    Manhattan College
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Chemical engineering in the future
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    The industrialization of a graduate: The business arena
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Simplifying chemical reactor design by using molar quantities instead of fractional conversion
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Chemical reaction experiment for the undergraduate laboratory
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Book reviews
        Page 33
    Microcomputer-aided control systems design
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Book reviews
        Page 39
    A problem with coyotes
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Chemical engineering education and problems in Nigeria
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Book reviews
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Book received
        Page 49
    ChE in the future (Continued from page 17)
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text















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3M FOUNDATION








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner
Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology
Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Members
SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University
Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University
Donald R. Paul
University of Texas
James Fair
University of Texas
CENTRAL:
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University
WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XXI NUMBER 1 WINTER 1987




Educator
2 Lee C. Eagleton of Penn State, Robert L. Kabel

Department
6 Manhattan College, Conrad T. Burris

Lecture
12 Chemical Engineering in the Future, C. T. Science.
18 The Industrialization of a Graduate: The Business
Arena, R. Russell Rhinehart

Classroom
24 Simplifying Chemical Reactor Design by Using
Molar Quantities Instead of Fractional
Conversion, Lee F. Brown, John L. Falconer
34 Microcomputer-Aided Control Systems Design,
S. D. Roat, S. S. Melsheimer

Laboratory
30 Chemical Reaction Experiment for the
Undergraduate Laboratory,
K. C. Kwon, N. Vahdat, W. R. Ayers

Class and Home Problems
40 A Problem With Coyotes, Mark A. Young

International
44 Chemical Engineering Education and Problems in
Nigeria, O. C. Okorafor

5 Letter to the Editor

49 Books Received

5, 33, 39, 46, 47, 48 Book Reviews


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division,
American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs,
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the adver-
tising representatives. Other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing
Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per
year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk subscription rates
to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright C 1987 Chemical Engineer-
ing Division of American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this
periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body
assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the
identification of this periodical.


WINTER 1987









P educator


Lee C.


Eagleton


of Penn State


ROBERT L. KABEL
Pennsylvania State
University
University Park, PA 16802


T HIS ARTICLE SHOULD be
titled "Tennis, Chemical
Engineering, and Tropical
Fish (In That Order)," but
these articles don't have ti-
tles.
Lee Eagleton had just ar-
rived as the new department
head at Penn State, and to
get acquainted he scheduled
in-depth interviews with all
the members of the chemical
engineering faculty. One
senior professor felt that his
interview was going well. He
was providing profound in-
sights, and Lee seemed re-
ceptive. The interview was
nearing its climax when Lee said, "I have to play ten-
nis in five minutes." The professor was stunned ...
and Lee was gone. Lee explained sometime later that
if you don't put tennis first, it ends up last.
In 1978, John Tarbell wrote in CEE that "when
Dr. Eagleton first arrived on campus in 1970, he was
shocked to find that no one on the faculty played ten-
nis (Lee was seventh man on the tennis team at MIT
one year, but never won a match). As a perceptive
administrator, he quickly recognized this deficiency
and soon convinced Dr. Danner (an assistant professor
at the time) that tennis might be an important compo-
nent of his professional development. Ron was oblig-
ing and served admirably as a partner until he re-
ceived tenure, at which point his tennis enthusiasm
suddenly waned. This situation was alarming and an


exhaustive search for new
ttalent was undertaken. For-
tunately, Dr. Duda (whose
background in polymer sci-
ence was surpassed only by
his twenty years of tennis ex-
perience) was looking for an
academic position at that
Time. Larry and his wife were
conveniently lured away from
Dow Chemical Company to
complete a formidable mixed
doubles opponent for the
Eagletons."
Eagleton earned bache-
lor's and master's degrees
from M.I.T. and the DEng
from Yale, where he per-
formed his doctoral research
under the supervision of
Harding Bliss. The article re-
sulting from his thesis was
cited by George Burnet as a
landmark publication. After
five years as a development engineer with Rohm &
Haas, Lee joined the faculty of the University of
Pennsylvania and was there for fifteen years until his
move to Penn State. His research at Penn focused on
vaporization of liquids, kinetics of catalytic processes,
and reactor design, for which he was cited in being
named AIChE Fellow. He was an acknowledged ex-
pert on the effect of mixing on chemical reactions and
regularly lectured and chaired sessions in this area.
Stuart Churchill credits Lee as being one of those who
was primarily responsible for the upward turn in qual-
ity and reputation of their university's chemical en-
gineering program. Stu writes, "Indeed, we have
never really accepted his departure, and have always
treated him as an unofficial member of our depart-
ment."


�Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









... to get acquainted [Lee] scheduled in-depth interviews with all [faculty members] ... The
interview was nearing its climax when Lee said, "I have to play tennis in five minutes." The professor was
stunned-and Lee was gone. Lee explained . . . that if you don't put tennis first, it ends up last.
I II I II


Thus it was that Lee Eagleton brought his "Ivy
League" outlook to this Central Pennsylvania outpost
in 1970. We needed him. His unique, urbane style
made a difference in issues broad and small. An exam-
ple of the small occurred when electronic calculators
became available. The College of Engineering Execu-
tive Committee was stampeding toward banning them
from use in examinations when Lee mused aloud as to
whether the college should establish such an anti-
technological policy. The stampede was headed off and
a ludicrous action was avoided.
A broad issue greeted Lee when he arrived at Penn
State. Chemical engineering was perceived externally
as being totally focused on petroleum processing and
irrelevant in modern times. The perception was
exaggerated, but it is true that at that time one-half
of the faculty of fourteen did no teaching. Within two
years, two of those seven had retired at age sixty-five,
and the rest were in the classroom. Lee encouraged
the research programs of the young faculty who had
been carrying the bulk of the teaching load, and he
supported the enhancement of the best of the hydro-
carbon related research. He carried out this trans-
formation, which could have led to rebellion, with dip-
lomacy and savoirfaire.
One of Lee's great pleasures is mingling with the
leaders of any discipline. He turned this inclination to
our great advantage by bringing in many of the
biggest names in chemical engineering from around
the country and the world, as much to expose the
Penn State faculty to their perspectives as to acquaint
the visitors with the departmental renaissance. Those
visitors and our faculty were regularly invited to his
home. Lee's style was to direct the actions of his wife,
Mary, and his children, Bill, Jim, and Beth, this way
and that for the benefit of his guests. His generalship,
and their good-natured acceptance of it, was really
part of the entertainment.
The real stars of his show were two, almost wall-
sized, salt-water aquaria. Lee caught the tropical fish
himself in the Caribbean waters near his vacation
home on St. John. The fish would grow to several
inches in length and often lived to ripe old ages under
his care. Lee used his reaction kinetics expertise to
develop an ultraviolet sterilization technique for the
circulating salt water, to protect the fish from fungi
and other problems. In every major city (after playing
tennis and attending the AIChE meeting) Lee would
seek out the curator of the local aquarium to share


information on the care of salt-water tropical fish. He
even published an article on his UV sterilization
method. His very famous coauthor was Earl Herald,
curator of the Steinhart Aquarium.
Lee's fascination with highly talented people was
also crucial as he initiated a faculty recruiting program
which was to achieve great success. To illustrate, he
attracted Larry Duda, Jim Vrentas, Al Vannice, and
Fred Helfferich to Penn State. All of them had signif-
icant industrial experience, obvious creativity, and an
inclination to fundamental research, factors which


Lee and Mary relaxing over breakfast in the Caribbean.

have since led each of them to national awards.
At the same time as Lee's departmental research
revolution was coming into its own, the enrollment
explosion struck. He saw it as an opportunity for
growth and as a way to gain increased faculty and
financial resources for the department. He encour-
aged creative responses to the problems of advising
and teaching of vastly larger numbers of students.
His research on faculty workload measurement, pub-
lished in 1977 in CEE, was crucial in balancing respon-
sibilities during that stressful time.
The thirteen years (1970-1983) that he led our de-
partment were difficult years for the whole university
and especially so for the College of Engineering. For
chemical engineering to have experienced such
growth and improvement in quality during an era of
retrenchment and deterioration elsewhere on campus
must be attributed to Lee's leadership.
Beyond leadership, Lee Eagleton has perfected
the art of procrastination. The scientific foundation


WINTER 1987










He has been heavily involved in the Summer Schools and has held all offices in the ChE Division. He
volunteered to serve on the CEE Publication Board and was Secretary of the Division when CEE was moved to the
University of Florida. He was elected Publication Board Chairman in 1981, where he served through 1985.


nized Lee Eagleton's contributions to the section and
beyond by giving him the AIChE Diamond Jubilee
Award. At the national level he served a three-year
term as director and was chairman of the committee
on AIChE Dynamic Objective 4. This was the objec-
tive that outlined changes in educational programs
which would prepare chemical engineers for the in-
creasing complexity and diversity of the profession
and which reemphasized the applications of chemistry
as the distinguishing feature of chemical engineering.
Lee was also active on the Education and Accredita-
tion Committee. His work on Dynamic Objective 4 led
the E&A committee to consider the liberalization of
accreditation requirements for chemical engineering
programs. This evolution continues today. An E&A


Lee and Mary pose with friend and primary tennis
partner at Penn, Stu Churchill.
for his practice is, "If you put something off long
enough, the need for it may disappear." The result is
that those things which don't disappear receive his
attention after the last minute. Thus, procrastination
has led him to idiosyncratic efficiencies. Those of us
who have traveled with Lee to local AIChE meetings
recall him dictating responses to a backlog of corre-
spondence in the din of a crowded automobile. One
faculty member in the know says that Lee's adminis-
trative assistant would have candidates for depart-
ment secretarial positions transcribe such dictation to
see if they were immune to discouragement.
Another such example of Lee's "efficiency" is his
use of his HP-41C programmable calculator. Lee,
Larry Duda, and Bill Steele, of Chemistry, were walk-
ing over to the tennis courts a few hours before Lee
was to meet his class. When they were almost there,
Lee reached into his pocket, pulled out the calculator
which had been working a problem the whole time,
wrote down the answer, and went on to play tennis.
Lee is an active member of AIChE at all levels.
Students have always found him to be an enthusiastic
supporter of their organization, and his good nature
has made him the perfect foil for their humor at ban-
quets and other gatherings through the years. He
could always be counted on for an extemporaneous
Jack Benny-type monologue at graduate seminars, re-
tirement parties, or other functions. What could not
be anticipated was his topic or the perspective he
would bring to it. In any lineup of speakers, no one
ever wanted to follow Eagleton's act.
In 1983 the Central Pennsylvania Section recog-


Lee at 1981 graduation, sharing a final word with one
of his students.

colleague, Dee Barker, pointed out that of the large
AIChE membership, only fifteen people comprise this
important body. Of those only three or four are mem-
bers of the ABET Engineering Accreditation Com-
mission. The fact that Lee serves on the ABET EAC
is indicative of the high degree of confidence chemical
engineering people have in him.
One might wonder what special talent makes Lee
invaluable in such roles. Consider that he is the all-
time memo champ. The successive energy shocks of
the middle 1970's brought about widespread and ap-
propriate attention to conservation, as well as some
overzealous if well-intended efforts. Penn State was
no exception, and its energy czar was Ralph E. Zilly,
who inundated us with energy bulletins. Some of them
were inane, and Lee referred to them as "silly Zillies."


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










-sI


A bit of dictation before heading for the courts.
In a memo of March 4, 1975, Zilly banned the use of
portable electric heaters by secretaries. This aroused
the competitive fire and wit of Eagleton and led to
his masterpiece of March 14, 1975, which was termed
a "Zilly dilly" by our appreciative secretaries.
Nevertheless the battle between these two persistent
memo-masters (REZ humorless, LCE wry) raged on
for almost two years until, on January 4, 1977, Zilly
caved in with, "Your point is well taken." Space re-
quirements preclude the inclusion of their memorable
correspondence in this article; however, copies of key
memos will be provided by the author upon request.
This anecdote may seem frivolous, but it illustrates
Lee's determination, his disarming wit, and his toler-
ance of diverse opinions, all of which make him so
effective in deliberative bodies.
Although he had numerous opportunities (Dean-
ships, National ASEE, etc) to expand his field of influ-
ence, Lee consistently chose to focus his energies on
his professional discipline. For example, he was re-
cently elected to the select group of ASEE Fellows.
His election was, however, almost entirely because of
his activity in the Chemical Engineering Division. He
has been heavily involved in the Summer Schools and
has held all offices in the ChE Division. He volun-
teered to serve on the CEE Publication Board and
was Secretary of the Division when CEE was moved
to the University of Florida. He was elected as Publi-
cation Board Chairman in 1981, where he served
through 1985. Klaus Timmerhaus credits Lee with
pushing hard to make CEE the quality publication
that it is and for helping to set up the mechanism for
adequately financing its operation.
All three of Lee and Mary's children followed his
example by studying engineering. Beth is an indus-
trial engineer with Rockwell International in Los
Angeles. Jim most closely fits the mold with chemical
engineering degrees from Michigan and MIT, a job


with Rohm & Haas in Philadelphia, and involvement
in a recent AIChE contest problem. Bill's current pos-
ition as a cook for Stouffer's Restaurant in King of
Prussia seems to go back more to his catering service
at his father's receptions than to his college education.
When you see Mary, ask her about Lee's devotion
to the evening tennis doubles group. The group was
surprised one night when a substitute, Jack Purnell,
showed up for the 8 o'clock game. Jack (who still plays
with the group) is an anesthesiologist at the local hos-
pital where Lee was preparing for minor surgery. Lee
was on the table, ready for the mask, being wheeled
by the anesthesiologist-to the operating room, when
he said, "Wait a minute, I have to play tennis to-
night." ]

letters

HOUGEN MEMORIAL

Editor:
I just wanted to drop you a note and thank you for
initiating the tribute to the memory of Olaf Hougen
in your journal. I think that the finished product is
quite fine, and I have already heard a number of favor-
able comments. I hope that some of the material in
the summary will be interesting to many of your read-
ers and that through the "Hougen Principles" his in-
fluence will spread still further.
R. B. Bird
University of Wisconsin


S book reviews


ECONOMIC EVALUATION IN THE
CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
by Oliver Axtell, James M. Robertson
Wiley-Interscience, Somerset, NJ 08873 (1986),
241 pages, $44.95.
Reviewed by
Max S. Peters
University of Colorado
This short book presents a general treatment of
methods used for economic evaluation in the chemical
process industries with primary emphasis on keeping
the presentation as simple as possible. There are es-
sentially no mathematical equations in the entire
book, and quantitative analysis is limited td examples
Continued on page 33.


WINTER 1987





































mN department


Overview of the Manhattan College campus.


MANHATTAN COLLEGE


CONRAD T. BURRIS
Manhattan College
Bronx, NY 10471

THE YEAR 1987 marks the one hundred thirty-
fourth anniversary of the founding of Manhattan
College as a private independent college under the
sponsorship of the Brothers of the Christian Schools
(Christian Brothers). Although originally a commuter
school for New York City students, the college's 4500
students now come from 17 states and 53 foreign coun-
tries. The largest division, the School of Engineering
with 1500 students, was established in 1896 with pro-
grams in civil engineering and electrical engineering.
Curricula in mechanical engineering and chemical en-
gineering were introduced in 1957 and in 1958, respec-
tively.
Although possessing the name "Manhattan," the
college is located in Riverdale, an attractive residen-
� Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


tial section of New York City in the northwest corner
of the Bronx on the heights overlooking Van Cortlandt
Park. The campus was previously located on the island
of Manhattan where the name originated, but moved
to its present location in the Bronx in 1924. Since it
already had an established reputation at the time of
the move there was no effort to change the name along
with the location.
Chemical engineering was introduced along with
mechanical engineering at a time when a new en-
gineering building was planned for the campus. As
part of the planning process, advisory groups of indus-
trial consultors were organized to meet with adminis-
trative officers to provide input so that the new de-
partments would reflect the latest thinking of the en-
gineering profession. With the assistance of the mem-
bers of the Chemical Engineering Consultor Commit-
tee, a program was initiated at the sophomore level
in 1958. The first enrollees were chemistry majors
who decided to take advantage of the new opportunity
presented to them. The first class graduated in 1961.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM
The program began with very little in the way of
equipment although a recently acquired building near
the campus was available for its use. The industrial
advisors who provided the incentive to get the pro-
gram underway now came to the rescue. The chairman
of the Consultor Committee, who was then a vice
president of a major corporation but who had previ-
ously served as chairman of a chemical engineering
department in an academic institution, realizing the
needs of a new department with limited resources and
knowing how industry could help, provided the neces-
sary assistance. He assigned an engineer from his
company to visit several chemical engineering schools
to determine what experiments were needed for a
modern unit operations laboratory and then au-
thorized him to visit the company's storage locations
to select appropriate surplus equipment which could
be used in an academic environment. A laboratory
manual was prepared based on the donated equipment
so that a full set of experiments was ready for the first
senior class.
Since that time the department has continued to
expand, with modern laboratory equipment having re-
placed the donated surplus equipment. Today's unit
operations laboratory is in excellent condition, thanks
to grants from several companies and government
agencies. Recent equipment grants from the National
Science Foundation are providing opportunities for
further updating of our undergraduate laboratories.
Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, along with exper-
iments in biotechnology, will now become an integral
part of our undergraduate laboratory offerings.
The department has had three chairmen during its
short history. Brother Conrad Burris served as chair-
man during the early years of the program. He was
succeeded by Jack Famularo who served for four
years and Joe Reynolds who served as chairman for
seven years. Brother Burris, after serving ten years
as Dean of Engineering, returned to the chemical en-
gineering department and was again appointed chair-
man.
Close faculty-student interaction characterizes the
Manhattan College program in chemical engineering.
Small class size and excellent library and computer
facilities in the Engineering Building and a newly con-
structed Research and Learning Center provide an
excellent environment for the learning process. A spe-
cial feature of our program is the involvement of un-
dergraduate students in the research activities of the
faculty. Among the research projects involving under-
graduate student participation are the following:
fluidized bed studies; analysis of air pollution control


systems; hazardous waste incineration; paint and col-
loid surface phenomena; protein separation and purifi-
cation processes; industrial wastewater treatment and
membrane mass transfer studies. Many of these stu-
dents are co-authors of published papers and papers
presented at professional society meetings. In the last
five years twelve papers involving student authors
have been presented at meetings or conferences and
nine journal articles have been published or accepted
for publication.


Computer terminal room in the new Research and Learn-
ing Center.

Although primarily an undergraduate institution,
Manhattan College has a chapter of Sigma Xi, which
is somewhat unique since chapters of this prestigious
research honor society are usually associated with
doctoral granting institutions. Over the past five
years, seventeen undergraduate students from the
chemical engineering department have been inducted
into the Manhattan College chapter.
Chemical engineering graduates from the Manhat-
tan College program have done well in both graduate
schools and in industry. In the past five years, 27 of
the department's graduates have obtained or are in
the process of obtaining their doctorate degrees from
a variety of prestigious graduate schools. In addition,
82 graduates have obtained master's degrees. Several
graduates each year also enter medical, dental and
law schools. Chemical engineers from Manhattan Col-
lege are highly regarded professionals in industry,
with many achieving high-level positions in major
chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical and design com-
panies.

DESIGN-ORIENTED MASTER'S PROGRAM
Once the undergraduate program was established
and accredited, consideration was given to developing


WINTER 1987










. . . Manhattan College, following the advice of its industrial advisors, decided to introduce a
design-oriented master's degree program as an alternative for those students whose career objectives
were directed toward design, production, and management rather than to teaching or research.


a graduate level program. At the time this was being
considered in the mid-sixties, circumstances were
such that there was no need for another doctoral
granting institution in the New York City area. The
college's industrial advisors were of the opinion that
there were more than enough research-trained en-
gineers with masters and doctorate degrees. Much of
the graduate research done during that period was
highly theoretical and geared to the programs being
supported with federal funds. The needs of the more
traditional chemical industries for engineers with
some application-oriented work at the graduate level
was becoming increasingly evident.
At that time it was noted that there were many
talented students who desired advanced training in en-
gineering, but who had little interest in research.
These students were entering research-oriented pro-
grams because there were no alternatives available to
them. The conclusion was that a need existed for a
graduate program in engineering practice. This pro-
gram was planned with the objective of training and
motivating students toward productive careers in in-
dustry, and terminating at the master's degree level.
New York City already had several engineering
schools with excellent research-oriented graduate pro-
grams in chemical engineering, so Manhattan College,
following the advice of its industrial advisors, decided
to introduce a design-oriented master's degree pro-
gram as an alternative for those students whose
career objectives were directed toward design, pro-
duction, and management rather than to teaching or
research. The program was termed "design-oriented"
because process and plant design project work is em-
ployed in place of a research thesis. The projects re-
quire exercise of judgment, creativity, and sound
economic reasoning, and thus prepare a student for a
wide spectrum of engineering assignments in indus-
try. Although design had become an integral part of
undergraduate chemical engineering education, its
role at the graduate level had been minimal.
Several approaches to the program were consid-
ered by the faculty in consultation with their indus-
trial advisors. It was generally agreed that some
meaningful involvement by industry should be an in-
tegral part of the program. The MIT Practice School
model was considered but discarded as being too ex-
pensive and impractical for an institution such as Man-
hattan College. In addition, industry appeared reluc-
tant to support additional programs of that type. It


was finally agreed that a three month "Summer
Phase" should precede a nine month "Academic
Phase." The summer phase would be under the direc-
tion of a "participating company" which supported the
program. The company agreed to provide a work ex-
perience in the design office, laboratory, or plant
which would be relevant to the overall objectives of
the program. During this period a faculty representa-
tive from the chemical engineering department would
monitor the progress of the student by visits to the
industrial site. Selection of the student for specific
summer jobs would be handled cooperatively by the
college and the company involved, and salary, work-
ing conditions, and related matters would be handled
by the company. Because of the proprietary nature of
much of the work done during the summer months, it
was agreed that the summer project should not be
continued during the academic phase as part of the
process and plant design project.
Required courses during the academic phase in-
clude applied process thermodynamics, distillation,
design of thermal systems, and chemical reactor de-
sign. Included among the available elective courses
are advanced chemical engineering economics, en-
gineering statistics, numerical methods and computer
methodology, optimization techniques, and computer
methods in process simulation. In general, graduate
courses are taught by faculty members whose back-
ground includes appropriate industrial experience.
Adjunct faculty are also utilized to take advantage of
their particular specialties. The many industries in the
New York metropolitan area provide an excellent
source of part-time teachers.
The specific objectives of the process and plant de-
sign project are to develop the capabilities of the stu-
dent in the area of process synthesis, technical and
economic evaluation of alternatives, process optimiza-
tion and communication skills. Overall, student reac-
tion to the project has been extremely favorable. Stu-
dents have found it to be the unifying element within
their graduate education. This is not as much due to
the fact that the project represents the culmination of
the program as it is to the fact that it serves to bring
together much of the knowledge previously held to be
unique and isolated.
Industry involvement continues during the aca-
demic phase of the program. A steering committee
made up of members of the faculty and a representa-
tive from each of the participating companies meets


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









once or twice during the year to review the program
and to make recommendations for its improvement.
In addition, the participating companies provide semi-
nar speakers who give appropriate up-to-date infor-
mation on industrial topics. Recent seminar topics
have been: Three Dimensional Plant Design on a CAD
System; Application of Unit Operations in Cryogenic
Air Separation; Hazard and Risk Analysis of Process
Systems; and Hazardous Waste Management in the
Petroleum Refining Industry.
This program has been in operation since 1967 with
the participation and support of such companies as
Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Celanese Plastics
Company, Lummus Crest Inc., Exxon Corporation,
FMC Corporation, Mobil Oil Corporation, Stauffer
Chemical Company, Texaco Inc., Pfizer Inc., Consoli-
dated Edison Company of New York, and Union Car-
bide Corporation. Reports from those companies em-
ploying graduates from the program indicate that it
has been particularly effective in improving the com-
petence of young engineers by affording them an in-
tensive, guided experience in developing their
capabilities in handling industrial problems. Over 450
master's degrees have been granted since the pro-
gram began twenty years ago.

EXTENSION TO LATIN AMERICA
Once the program became successfully established
in the United States, it was expanded to include appli-
cants from Latin America. It was believed that this
type of educational opportunity would be of greater
benefit to many Latin American students seeking an
advanced degree in chemical engineering than the
more traditional "research-oriented" program. This is
particularly true if the student's career objectives are
directed towards production and management. In gen-
eral, programs of this type are not yet available in
Latin America.
On the advice of Manhattan College's committee of
chemical engineering advisors from industry, contact
was made with representatives of government agen-
cies, industry, and educational institutions in several
Latin American countries. There was general agree-
ment with the objectives of the program, and an effort
was made to cooperate with industries and academic
institutions in those countries by providing interested
students from a cooperating engineering school with
summer employment in the plant, design office, or
laboratory of a participating company in the Latin
American country in which the program was to be-
come operative. After completion of the summer in-
dustrial phase, the student would spend the academic
year at Manhattan College before returning to the


Students comparing notes in the unit operations lab.

country of origin. It was hoped that industry would
provide financial assistance for those participating in
the program.
Although there was general agreement with the
value of the program, the format found to be success-
ful in the United States was not viable in Latin
America. Cooperation between industry and educa-
tion in Latin America appears to be less than it is in
the United States, and where it does exist there is
little enthusiasm on the part of academic institutions
involved to use industry support to provide scholar-
ship assistance for local students to study abroad.
They believe that local industry support should be for
local academic institutions. So, while there was some
willingness on the part of industry to provide suitable
employment to satisfy the "summer phase" of the pro-
gram, complications associated with the selection of a
student acceptable to the company and monitoring his
performance made this procedure impractical.
Since the "summer phase," or prior industrial ex-
perience, was felt to be important, a more suitable
model for students from developing countries was
sought. Fortunately, close cooperation with Bufete
Industrial, a Mexican owned design and construction
company, helped provide a suitable model for


WINTER 1987









maximizing the advantages which the program pro-
vides. The "summer phase" has been replaced for the
Bufete candidates with six months to two years of
industrial experience as employees of the company.
They are then, in general, better prepared to ap-
preciate the opportunities which the program pro-
vides than their United States counterparts. Students
accepted for the program are employees of the Pro-
cess Development Department of Bufete Industrial,
so have been exposed to an appropriate industrial en-
vironment.
The Latin American extension of the program has
been particularly successful in Mexico, with over 50


Collecting data for the distillation experiment.


students completing the program. An additional 25
students from several other Latin American countries
have completed the program and returned to their
countries. The recent decline in the price of oil, which
has had an adverse effect on the economies of several
Latin American countries, has resulted in a decrease
in applicants from that part of the world.


OTHER GRADUATE PROGRAM OPTIONS
Although the original "Design-Oriented" Master's
Degree Program was planned for full-time students,
it became apparent that young engineers working in
the chemical industry in the New York metropolitan
area could also benefit from this type of program.
Since they were already engaged in engineering work,
the need for a design project as part of their degree
requirement was considered unnecessary, so a part-
time evening program consisting of the four required
courses and six elective courses was established.
During the period when chemical engineers were

10


in short supply, many chemists wished to work for the
master's degree in chemical engineering. In order to
accommodate these potential applicants, a "Chemist's
Program" was established leading to the Master's De-
gree. Although they had a strong background in
chemistry, these candidates lacked a background in
chemical engineering. As a result, they were required
to take and successfully complete twelve credits in
undergraduate chemical engineering courses before
being allowed to matriculate in the graduate program.
Over 65 chemists have successfully completed this
program in the nine years that it has been in opera-
tion.
PARTICULATE SOLID RESEARCH, INC. (PSRI)
Although not formally a part of the chemical en-
gineering department, this organization (established
in 1970) provides an opportunity for faculty and stu-
dent involvement in applied research of benefit to the
industrial community. The laboratories of PSRI are
adjacent to the Manhattan College campus. The Tech-
nical Director, Fred Zenz, was originally attracted to
Manhattan College because of its "Design-Oriented"
graduate program. His recognized competence in the
area of fluid-particle technology led to an institute de-
voted to the development of design data for use by
industry. PSRI is modeled after the two older re-
search institutes, Heat Transfer Research Institute
(HTRI) and Fractionation Research Institute (FRI).
A wide variety of useful information has been gener-
ated by this organization under Fred Zenz's leader-
ship. Current investigations by this group include di-
lute phase conveying, dense phase conveying, cyclone
efficiency and particle attrition. These studies have
led to the development of basic formulations de-
monstrating that the properties of fluid-solids systems
are analogous to liquid-vapor systems and obey the
same quantitative relationships.
FACULTY ACTIVITIES
Continuing the tradition of excellence in teaching
chemical engineering, the faculty is constantly up-
grading course offerings to keep pace with advances
in technology. Several of the faculty have been instru-
mental in developing new courses. Helen Hollein has
introduced courses in biochemical engineering at both
the undergraduate and graduate levels. Stewart Sla-
ter's contribution includes two new courses; one in
separation techniques for resource recovery and a sec-
ond in membrane process technology. Louis Theo-
dore, who has been teaching graduate courses in air
pollution control for many years, has recently de-
veloped a new course in hazardous waste incineration.
Although the department's Master's Degree Pro-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








gram is still "design-oriented," some experimental
work involving the newer technologies is underway.
A recent NSF equipment grant has enabled Stewart
Slater to develop a laboratory devoted to modern sep-
aration techniques such as reverse osmosis and ul-
trafiltration. Helen Hollein, also with the assistance
of a NSF equipment grant, is establishing a laboratory
in biotechnology. Both of these laboratories will be
devoted to undergraduate instruction, undergraduate
and graduate research participation, and faculty re-
search.
Jack Famularo has been actively involved in updat-
ing our unit operations laboratory by incorporating
computers into several experiments. These include a
computer-controlled heat exchanger experiment and
experiments in unsteady-state conduction and distilla-
tion. In addition he is currently doing research involv-
ing studies of adsorption processes in water treatment
systems.
Helen Hollein is currently conducting research in-
volving experimental studies and mathematical mod-
els for protein adsorption and desorption in ion-ex-
change chromatography. She is also working on the
development of new resins for preparative separation
of biological molecules by high-performance liquid
chromatography. Stewart Slater's research in reverse


osmosis is directed at process modeling and industrial
wastewater treatment. He has developed models to
simulate different processing modes based on mass
transfer and operational parameters and is currently
modeling the effects of concentration polarization.
Helen Hollein and Stewart Slater have joint research
projects on the purification and concentration of
biological mixtures by ultrafiltration processes.
Louis Theodore and Joseph Reynolds are currently
working in the area of air pollution and hazardous
waste disposal by incineration. Their activities nicely
complement the water pollution emphasis of Manhat-
tan College's well-established environmental en-
gineering program.
In addition to his work as Technical Director of
Particulate Solid Research, Inc., Fred Zenz handles
the design component of the undergraduate program
as well as several of the graduate courses in the "de-
sign-oriented" master's degree program. Paul Mar-
nell, who had many years of industrial experience,
handles the graduate program design projects.
The recent opening of a Research and Learning
Center on the Manhattan College campus is providing
the much needed space for the expanding interests of
the chemical engineering department. The future
looks promising. O


-AMOCO"


Making Significant Advances In Technology

The Amoco Research Center represents continued advancement in Amoco Corporation's support of
research and development. Petroleum products and processes, chemicals, additives, polymers and
plastics, synthetic fuels, and alternative sources of energy are only a few of the areas in which the
Amoco Research Center has made important contributions.
Located on 178 acres of spacious landscaped grounds in Naperville, Illinois, just 30 miles west of
Downtown Chicago, the Center employs over 1500 people. We are currently in need of enthusiastic
researchers who have received their degree in chemical, mechanical, or electrical engineering, to help us
improve the products and services we provide. You'll be part of a team that continually pushes back the
parameters of known technology.
Amoco is proud of its dedicated personnel and furnishes them an environment that encourages
creativity and is conducive to professional advancement. If you have the desire and proven ability to
work on mind-stimulating projects, we are prepared to offer a very attractive benefits package and
salary that reflects your expertise.
The research field provides a backbone for modern development-guiding industry through the future.
And you can be part of this.


Please send your resume to:
Amoco Research Center
Professional Recruiting Coordinator
Dept. CEE/12
P.O. Box 400
Naperville, Illinois 60566


I 6


S An equal opportunity employer M/F/H/V


WINTER 1987









nPlecture


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING IN THE FUTURE*


C. T. SCIENCE
E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
Wilmington, DE 19898

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND its future direction
are important and interesting subjects to those
of us in the profession. There is much to talk about.
In this paper we discuss three aspects of the future of
chemical engineering. The first concerns change:
What evidence is there that the profession of chemical
engineering needs to evolve? And why are these
changes taking place?
The second part addresses the needs and expecta-
tions of industry, or at least that segment of it which
is likely to employ chemical engineers: What do we
need and expect from our new engineers? What role
do we expect chemical engineers to play, and what
could that role be if their training were different?
The perspective presented is largely a personal
one. Each company, and each division or even each
individual within a company, sees things differently.
But since each of you know many people from indus-


C. Thomas Sciance received his BS (1960), his MChE (1964) and his
PhD (1966) from the University of Oklahoma. He served in the U.S.
Army during 1961-62 and joined Du Pont in 1966 as a research en-
gineer. Since November 1983, he has been Director of Engineering
Research in Du Pont's Engineering Research and Development Division.
He is responsible for research done by Du Pont's Engineering Physics
and Engineering Technology Laboratories, both located at the Experi-
mental Station near Wilmington, DE.

*"Tutorial Lecture" for ASEE Chemical Engineering Division:
June 23, 1986; Cincinnati, OH.


The first concerns change: What
evidence is there that the profession of chemical
engineering needs to evolve? And why are
these changes taking place?

try, you can judge these opinions in the larger con-
text. Certainly the members of the Septenary Com-
mittee on the Future of Chemical Engineering, spon-
sored by the University of Texas at Austin, rep-
resented a wide spectrum of companies employing
chemical engineers; yet they were in remarkable
agreement about many issues.
The third part suggests possible courses of action.
Some would involve only the academic community.
Others would require the participation of professional
societies such as the ASEE or AIChE; organizations
such as the Chemical Research Council that bring to-
gether academic, government, and industry represen-
tatives; government funding agencies such as the Na-
tional Science Foundation; textbook publishing
houses; or individual firms that employ chemical en-
gineers.
The real issue is cohesive leadership. There are
signs that the need for change is recognized, and at
least some elements of the matrix are willing to be
persuaded to change. Leadership involves setting di-
rections and priorities and providing incentives for
movement in the desired direction.

SIGNS OF CHANGE
The Du Pont Company is a large employer of en-
gineers, especially chemical engineers. Surveys have
shown that chemical engineering students think of Du
Pont as one of the best places to work. Therefore,
changes taking place in Du Pont should be of interest
to suppliers of chemical engineering students. Allow
me, then, to cite several examples that impact upon
the recruitment and careers of chemical engineers.
The Engineering Technology Laboratory, estab-
lished in 1929 in the Chemical Engineering Group of
Du Pont's Central Chemical Department, has been a
continuing major influence in the field of chemical en-
gineering research. It was a thrill for me as a chemical
0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 1
Engineers in Du Pont
Final Degrees as of 1/1/86
BS MS PhD Total %
Chemical 2911 768 504 4183 45
Mechanical 2066 361 82 2509 27
Electrical 898 127 21 1046 11
Other 1057 353 105 1515 16

Total 6932 1609 712 9253
Percent 75 17 8

engineer to lead a research organization founded by
Thomas Chilton.
The Chemical Engineering Group grew from two
people in 1929 to 37 in 1953. Many employees such as
James Carberry, Allan Colburn, Thomas Drew,
Robert Marshall, and Robert Pigford have become
well-known in the field. The chemical engineering sec-
tion of the lab has traditionally been a leader in indus-
trial chemical engineering.
Since May 1 of 1986, however, there is no longer
a Chemical Engineering Section per se in the En-
gineering Technology Laboratory. The groups have
been renamed to reflect a focus on technologies of cor-
porate strategic significance. The new names? Bioen-
gineering. Electronics Materials Engineering. Struc-
tural Ceramics. Electronics Ceramics. Polymer Pro-
cessing and Compounding. Composites and Applied
Mechanics. Membranes Engineering.
In the meantime, the tiny Applied Physics Section,
founded in 1945, has become the Engineering Physics
Laboratory, equal in size to its sister Engineering
Technology Laboratory. It is divided into two main
sections (Applied Physics, and Electronics and Optics)
but within those areas there is a substantial and grow-
ing emphasis on materials science. Development of
electro-optic devices, characterization of composites,
work on optical-disk storage devices, and the modifi-
cation of materials by microwave radiation are all
fields that might have a chemical engineering aspect
but are presently the province of solid state physicists
and materials scientists.
What's in a name? A lot. Names help focus direc-
tion. Names inspire loyalty and esprit de corps. If you
are looking for signs of change, do not ignore changes
in the names of organizations, groups, or functions.
You should find this alarming. A shift of emphasis
in industrial research indicates a trend in future jobs
in manufacturing and marketing. To industry, it mat-
ters little whether applied physicists or chemical en-
gineers are doing the work. If chemical engineers
are to be hired, they must receive the training that
will make their expected contributions greater than


those expected from other disciplines.


Recruitment Trends
Another clear indication of change for the field of
chemical engineering can be seen in Du Pont's recruit-
ment trends. Du Pont is a highly diversified company
that employs a great many chemical engineers. As
shown in Table 1, Du Pont (minus Conoco) employs
about 16,000 people with college technical degrees,
out of a total exempt force of 22,000. More than 9,000
of these are engineers, of whom 45% are chemical en-
gineers. In all, 25% of the engineers hold advanced

Since [last] May . . . there is no longer
a Chemical Engineering Section per se in the
Engineering Technology Laboratory. The groups
have been renamed to reflect a focus on technologies
of corporate strategic significance.


degrees, as do 30% of the chemical engineers.
During the past ten years, we have hired 2,242
chemical engineers, half of the total number of en-
gineers hired. Although individual years vary a great
deal, some trends are clear. Figure 1 shows that the
relative percentage of chemical engineers hired has
dropped.
Specific figures are listed in Table 2. In the three-
year period 1976-79, Du Pont hired 746 chemical en-
gineers, 52% of the total number of engineers hired.
Of these, 5% of the chemical engineers had PhD's. In
the three-year period 1983-86, seven years later, 373
chemical engineers were hired, 43% of the total. Of


20


10 -


0 I I I I I I I I I J
76/77 78/79 80/81 82/83 84/85
77/78 79/80 81/82 83/84
ACADEMIC YEARS
FIGURE 1. Ten-Year history: Du Pont engineering hiring
for Bachelors and Masters degrees


WINTER 1987


ELECTRICAL ..'" ... . .........
OTHER....... ** "'
OTHER


50 -









these, 21% had the PhD. In this seven-year period,
the total number of chemical engineers hired dropped
by half, and the percentage of PhD's among them
quadrupled. The absolute number of PhD hires in
chemical engineering increased by 114 in the face of a
58% decline in BS/MS hires. The trend toward hiring
fewer chemical engineers who individually know more
seems unmistakable.
Other types of engineers are faring relatively bet-
ter. Subtracting these figures will show that, although

TABLE 2
Chemical Engineering Recruitment
CHEMICAL ALL
ENGINEERS ENGINEERS
B-M PhD Total B-M PhD Total
1976-79 710 36 746 1383 60 1443
1983-86 296 77 373 763 102 865
Change, % -58 +114 -50 -45 +70 -40


the total number of BS/MS hired dropped 45%, this
figure represents a 58% reduction in chemical en-
gineers combined with a 31% reduction in all other
types of engineers.
Consider electrical engineers, not shown specifi-
cally in Table 2. We employ over 1,000, 11% of our
total engineering employment. Comparing the same
periods, Du Pont went from 172 hired to 182, a 6%
rise in the face of a drop of 40% in the total number
of engineers hired. The very small number of PhD's
doubled from 4 to 8, but the latter figure would have
been higher had we been more successful in recruiting
them. One of our problems in recruiting is that, as a
chemical company, we are not yet perceived by re-
search-oriented EE's to offer outstanding oppor-
tunities for them. We are trying to combat this er-
roneous perception.
A number of our R&D positions are being filled
with applied physicists and materials science and
ceramics majors. Again, we are pleased with the qual-
ity of these people, but to the field of chemical en-
gineering such hires may represent lost opportunities.
Unless something is done to change the trend, the
role of chemical engineers in industry will diminish.
Also, it seems that the part of industry which hires
chemical engineers will gradually move away from
having the BS as the terminal degree. This happened
with chemistry, biology and mathematics long ago.
These trends have major implications for those who
teach chemical engineers.


Market Orientation
Everyone pays lip service to market and customer
orientation. In fact, since the publication of In Search
of Excellence [1], not to do so would be heresy. Those
who have seen such trends come and go develop a
certain degree of cynicism about them. However, we
believe that the movement toward better customer
orientation, both in Du Pont and the chemical industry
in general, is truly significant and has long-term impli-
cations for the field of chemical engineering.
We compete in an international market where
other countries have equivalent technical skills and
infrastructure, plus advantages such as labor cost.
Where formerly we might have expected a sustainable
cost and hence price advantage through technology
alone, now we must focus on providing value to the
customer not merely by lower price but in every way
that the customer sees value. Examples of change in
Du Pont include not only formation of new, customer-
oriented entities but also new ways of thinking about
existing organizations. Consider the new organization
chart for our Biomedical Products Department, shown
in Figure 2.
Instead of the traditional triangle with the Group
Vice President at the top, here you see the various
divisions clustered like flower petals about the health-


FIGURE 2. Organization chart


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









care customer. Note also that the names of the divi-
sions-pharmaceuticals, diagnostic imaging, biotech-
nology systems, specialty diagnostics, etc-differ con-
siderably from such traditional areas as nylon, poly-
ethylene, and industrial chemicals.
Although our Engineering Research organization
has no outside customers, we do have a well-defined
internal market. Our clients are Du Pont's other de-
partments. We receive about one-third of our funds
from the corporation for long-range and discretionary
R&D, and must get the other two-thirds by convinc-
ing our clients that we can serve them better than
someone else can. They are free to go elsewhere.
Table 3 lists some of the ways in which recent
trends affect the practice of chemical engineering.

TABLE 3
Recent Trends Affecting ChE's
* MOVE OF BASIC INDUSTRIES OFF-SHORE
* FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING
Automation
Batch Processes
Small Scale / Small Lots
Rapid Changes
* PRIMARY EMPHASIS ON QUALITY, SERVICE, VALUE-
IN-USE RATHER THAN PRODUCTION PROCESS AND
TECHNOLOGY

While this change in emphasis is relatively recent for
much of the chemical industry, the focus on customer
needs is well-established in the electronics industry,
which is now hiring more chemical engineers.
Traditionally, chemical engineers have found posi-
tions in the chemical and petroleum industries in jobs
emphasizing the scaleup of processes. The six-tenths
power factor "proved" that technical work oriented
towards ever-increasing scale would be rewarded
many times over. After all, half again as much invest-
ment would build a plant producing twice as much.
Not many people noticed that in some cases the 0.6
factor was becoming 0.7, 0.8 or even higher, and that
the effort and expense directed toward keeping huge
plants on-line were beginning to outweigh the vaunted
advantage of scale. Technical efforts were directed to-
ward ever-increasing reliability to counter the ex-
tremely high cost incurred when the unit was shut
down for any reason.
Next, problems arising from cyclical swings in the
economy were found to be accentuated by the enor-
mous single-line plants whose breakeven rates were
70% of design or higher. During an economic down-
turn, a producer with two small plants could shut one
down, doing relatively well by running the remaining


Also, it seems that the part of industry
which hires ChE's will gradually move away from
having the BS as the terminal degree. This
happened with chemistry, biology
and mathematics long ago.


unit efficiently. To the large producer, the laws of
economic thermodynamics (you can't win-you can't
break even-you can't quit playing) were not so
funny, as they found themselves forced by contracts
and internal needs to continue playing a losing game.
Another blow to the concept of unalloyed benefits
from ever-larger scale came with the realization that
real value to the customer might lie in small amounts
of material tailored to the customer's needs, as op-
posed to huge amounts tailored to the producer's de-
sires. Considerable technical effort was devoted to
"product wheels" or other schemes to make large
plants behave more like small ones. The effort to be
flexible and maintain high quality while tailoring prod-
ucts to each customer is a dominant theme in process
work today.
Finally, as mentioned earlier, the United States
and Western Europe lost their virtual monopoly on
technical capability and the infrastructure needed to
support large plants. Developing countries could ob-
tain and operate comparable facilities close to the
source of supply. These countries could then price
downstream products to support their internal social
programs, undercutting our industries, which de-
pended upon scale for their economics. Unfortunately
for us, the rules of economics as applied in the United
States are not necessarily those of a nation that owns
raw materials and abundant unemployed labor but
must fuel any real growth with foreign exchange.
The response by industries in the industrialized
nations must be to emphasize flexibility, quality, and
service rather than scale. The need for technical talent
still exists, perhaps more so than in the past, but the
emphasis is different. Educational programs should
be adapted to produce graduates prepared to function
in this new environment.

Organizational Effectiveness
As stated earlier, Du Pont has been hiring fewer
engineers lately. Why is that? The need to become
more competitive, felt by all American industry and
especially in recent years by the chemical and pet-
roleum industries, has resulted in a marked change in
organizational structure and attitude. These changes
are much more fundamental and significant than indi-


WINTER 1987









cated by the mere change in numbers; the kind of
work and the degree of training and expertise needed
are profoundly affected.
In Du Pont, we talk about "organizational effec-
tiveness." In practice, this means doing more with
fewer people, cutting out whole layers of supervision,
depending more upon nontechnically trained people,
and reducing services and administrative support.
Figure 3 shows the change in a hypothetical R&D or
technical support organization. The total size has been
reduced 12%. The number of supervisory or manage-


OLD


JI;CTORn


NEW


10 10 10 10
OLD
SUPERVISORS /MGRS 13
AT BENCH 63
TOTAL 76
RATIO BENCH / MGRS 4.8


10 10
NEW REDUCTION
7 46%
60 5%
67 12%
8.6


FIGURE 3. Example of change in a typical technical or
R&D organization.

rial slots, however, has been reduced by 46%. The
ratio of total people doing technical work to those
supervising or managing it in some capacity has in-
creased from about 5 to about 9.
Notice the change in the kind of work that this
new structure implies. Only half as many engineers
will advance into R&D or technical supervision. The
first supervisory opportunity will be at a higher level
than before and normally will occur later in one's
career. Since there are fewer managerial personnel in
the organization, the individuals at the bench will re-
ceive less direction. This change in effect upgrades
those jobs also, which means that to function effec-
tively those doing technical work will need greater
expertise.


Young people ought not to study a field that they
do not want to practice and do not enjoy. This advice
might sound... ridiculous, but many engineering students
view the field as a stepping-stone into management.

Similar changes in manufacturing have resulted in
fewer supervisory jobs for engineers, a higher barrier
to entry into management, and a longer time spent
doing technical work before having an opportunity to
try management.
This change in the culture of a company-trying to
eliminate all nonessential work and focus on the real
business needs-has even greater effects on the staff
functions than on line organizations. Most staff jobs
are filled by technical people. The result of all this
change is more reliance upon the individual and a con-
sequent premium on knowledge and experience. Since
training people on the job is much more risky and less
affordable now than before, rotational moves are less
frequent. When vacancies created by transfer or other
reasons are filled, there are no excess people to carry
the new person while he learns the new job. Demands
upon the replacement to produce quickly are therefore
very great.
This development will gradually force a search for
more knowledge in the people we hire, manifesting
itself in a premium for the master's degree and an
increased number of experienced hires. Both trends
represent breaks in our tradition. It will also place a
greater premium on continuing education of the volun-
tary, after-hours sort.
Young people ought not to study a field that they
do not want to practice and do not enjoy. This advice
might sound so apparent as to be ridiculous, but in
fact many engineering students view the field as a
stepping-stone into management. In the past, it was
often possible to move into supervisory jobs within a
year or two, and never really learn the practice of
engineering at the bench or in the plant. In the future
the norm, even for managers, will be to practice en-
gineering for several years before the first supervi-
sory opportunity arises, and so they should be well
prepared and motivated to do so. After all, the main
criterion for promotion is nearly always to be out-
standing at the job one has.
This, then, completes the first part of this paper.
Chemical engineers in the future will need to know
more and different things than they did in the past
and be able to operate more independently at the start
of their careers. The typical career path in the chem-
ical industry will be different.
The possibility of employment in other industries
and in even greater numbers exists, but only if the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


cr4E7+i~~~~








graduate fits their needs. Let us turn now to what
those needs might be.


INDUSTRY NEEDS
We have considered the ramifications of industry's
renewed commitment to providing value to the cus-
tomer-value as the user sees it, not as the producer
might see it. Many commercial blunders and even dis-
asters can be traced back to the sincere but naive
belief that the customer would have to be crazy not to
want the producer's wonderful product. Producers
spent their energy trying to change the customer's
perception of value rather than to satisfy his desires.
The academic community has products, too-an
array of them. Probably most of all you enjoy produc-
ing and marketing your premium products-the fruits
of your own research and the PhD's you have person-
ally trained. However, your fixed costs are largely
covered by the lower end of your product line-the
BS and MS recipients-and you ignore their salability
at your peril.
Continuing this analogy, consider what your cus-
tomers are saying and how their message is being con-
veyed; only about half the graduates in many chemical
engineering schools are getting jobs in the field. If
this situation continues, many of your businesses will
fold, the smaller and weaker ones first. The problem
is more than one of economic cycles. It would not be
a good idea to dig in and wait this one out, because
there are long-term changes in American industry
that will require engineers to have different training
in the future than most of them get now. To enjoy a
continued expanding demand for your products, you
must try two approaches-first, to get your existing
customers to buy more, and second, to develop new
customers. The approach to either is the same; try to
analyze value as they see it, develop a product that
provides that value, and then convince potential cus-
tomers that your product will fill their needs better
than any other.
There are potential customers outside the tradi-
tional chemical and petroleum industries. Our en-
gineering research organization works with a number
of industrial segments involving such diverse
technologies as packaging of food products, compos-
ites for aerospace and automotive applications, artifi-
cial ligaments and diagnostic devices for the health
services industry, optical disks, opto-electronic de-
vices and ceramics for the electronics industry, and
many others. Opportunities for chemical engineers in
those fields are as great as those in the traditional
industries hiring chemical engineers. And the general


educational requirements are also similar. Therefore,
let us consider what industry in general expects from
the engineers they hire. We are potentially your cus-
tomers, but we'll seek value where we find it-from
chemical engineers or others.
The first point shown in Table 4 is essential. In


TABLE 4
What Industry Expects from ChE Grads
* Maintain traditional strengths such as ability to deal with
complex, real-world problems.
* Be able to function productively without extensive additional
training.
* Be technically oriented.
* Have the tools, motivation and ability to continue to learn.
* Be able to communicate effectively.


the discussions held by the Septenary Committee in
Austin, the unanimous opinion held by representa-
tives of the electronics, chemical, and petroleum in-
dustries represented on that panel was this: Chemical
engineers are uniquely trained to apply fundamentals
to complex, unstructured problems of the kind indus-
try faces. When those problems involve molecular
change or the separation of chemical species, the pres-
ent curriculum provides a great deal of additional
knowledge that may be brought to bear. We want to
enhance those capabilities, not lose them. The asser-
tion that "chemical engineers can do anything" has
some evidence to support it, and that reputation is
invaluable to those wanting to broaden the employ-
ment spectrum of chemical engineers.

Special Knowledge
Unfortunately, they cannot do anything well with-
out some specialized knowledge. The traditional cur-
riculum provided that knowledge for the traditional
customer. If you wish to broaden your customer base,
a way of providing the special tools needed to serve
those customers must be devised, which brings up the
subject of curriculum.
In a discussion of the undergraduate curriculum,
the first question that comes to mind is: "So what?
What difference does it make whether a few courses
are added or subtracted from the curriculum, or the
teaching methods and texts are changed a little? Can't
that difference be erased during the first year or so
on the job?"
Of course it can-at a price. Many options are
available. For example, the new hire can be sent back
to school for a master's degree or for supplementary
Continued on page 50.


WINTER 1987














THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF A GRADUATE

THE BUSINESS ARENA


R. RUSSELL RHINEHART
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, TX 79409

W E HIRE ENGINEERS to effect change, to make
things work or work better-but it requires
more than technology to be an effective engineer. It
requires people skills and a "make-it-happen" mental-
ity. I think that such skills should and can be included
in the style of a technical education and that colleges
which do so will be recognized by industry as produc-
ing faster-starting, more effective graduates.
Throughout my 13-year industrial experience, I
found the technical training of engineering graduates
to be sufficiently grounded in fundamental principles
and concepts to allow the engineer to learn a specific
process technology and successfully guide technical
decisions. Schools teach technology well. However,
humans are involved in the chemical process either as
operators or as policy makers and, more often than
not, a technical process change simultaneously re-
quires a change in attitudes and perspectives. Techni-
cal change, the engineer's job, takes place within a
human environment and requires an adeptness with
human nature as well as with technology. Unless man-
agers and operators accept it, a technical change will
not happen: the engineer will be ineffective. The
human awareness required for technical effectiveness
is not, but can be, incorporated in the education ex-
perience. Because this is a time in which the market
demand for new chemical engineers is low, I think
that departments which develop industrial savvy in
their graduates will have a competitive edge.
For the first twenty years of an individual's life,
schools train him/her to be a learner and to work inde-

By analogy to the socialization
process in kindergarten, which prepares children
for the teacher/student and peer social structure
of school, there is an industrialization
process for a new graduate.


� Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


R. Russell Rhinehart is an assistant professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Texas Tech University. He received his PhD from North Carolina
State University after a 13-year industrial career as an engineer and
group leader which included development of reaction systems, process
control, solvent recovery, and process safety and reliability. His interest
in the special aspects of industrial process modeling, optimization, and
control techniques led to his pursuit of an academic career.



pendently. By contrast, an engineer must become a
doer and work within a team environment. In growing
from student to engineer, an employee must inter-
nalize a new understanding of the objective and
change his/her approach to the tasks. No business
wants an engineer to stop with the statement, "I un-
derstand the process now," or "If only they'd accept
my idea we could save . . . dollars." Business wants
the engineer to "make-it-happen." Performance ap-
proaches that make a good student are not necessarily
those that make an effective engineer.
By analogy to the socialization process in kinder-
garten, which prepares children for the teacher/stu-
dent and peer social structure of school, there is an
industrialization process for a new graduate. This in-
dustrialization process takes about two years, in-
volves several aspects, and has been widely acknow-
ledged [1-5]. With new names for the players, I will
draw upon my industrial experiences to provide some
examples of the industrialization process.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Although sometimes mathematical analysis is useful, in this instance I missed taking ownership of
business need. I appropriated the problem in pursuit of my own personal need which, I think, was to exhibit
technical competence. I would like to make two points from my story. The first is to contrast the
make-it-happen motive of business in comparison to the "develop skills" motive of the classroom.


In this article I'll describe some of the characteris-
tics of the corporate industrial arena which are both
important to business and which constitute major
changes from academia. In a subsequent article I'll
offer teaching methods which incorporate industrial
experience within formal engineering education. Such
experiences can accelerate the industrialization pro-
cess without displacing topics from an already over-
crowded curriculum.

MAKE IT HAPPEN
In a competitive business, the fundamental reason
for hiring employees is to do a job or to realize a bus-
iness opportunity, and the profit motive calls for
someone who can "make-it-happen." Wanted are ac-
tive, goal-oriented people who take ownership (inter-
nalize responsibility) of the end result and who do
whatever task is necessary to make it happen. For
example, in business the end result is not an academic
task, such as the calculation of an optimum reactor
operating temperature; rather, it may be a reduction
in operating cost that results after management
agrees to a temperature change, after operators are
trained in an associated new process procedure, and
after a process is smoothly operating at the new tem-
perature without unforeseen hitches (control stability,
heater element life, thermal degradation, etc). There
is an extra-technical perspective required to be effec-
tive in industry. Here is a personal example.
I enjoyed engineering math as a student and have
the general view that if I can model a process, I can
understand it, and I can intelligently optimize it. My
confession is important: I enjoy math. In an early pro-
ject of mine, we were developing a dry-spinning pro-
cess to extrude a new fiber. Polymer was dissolved in
a solvent, the solution was extruded through tiny
holes, and as the resulting liquid streams fell, they
dried. The continuous filaments of polymer were
wound in a criss-cross fashion on a tube to build a
wheel-like bobbin. The polymer structure within the
filaments was essentially amorphous, and subsequent
hot stretching oriented the polymer and strengthened
the fiber. The bobbin-wound filament, however, was
not totally dry; some residual solvent remained and
evaporated from the bobbin surfaces as the yarn
waited for subsequent stretching. The bobbin fiber
did not dry uniformly. Fiber at the surface dried be-
fore the internal bobbin fiber dried; and, since it was


wound in a criss-cross manner, the residual solvent
level changed every six inches along the length of the
continuous filament. The residual solvent acted as a
plasticizer and, consequently, the post-stretching pro-
cess (and resulting fiber properties) changed periodi-
cally along the fiber length. Customers don't want
such variability.
I saw an application for my training. If I could
model the bobbin residual solvent evaporation
phenomena, I could determine the length of time one
had to wait for the inside-to-surface residual solvent
difference to be so low as to not create drawing differ-
ences. After several days refreshing my math, diffu-
sion, and evaporation principles and making simplify-
ing assumptions, I was left with one unknown parame-
ter: an effective diffusivity of the solvent through the
yarn/air matrix. I then asked the lab to do some effec-
tive diffusivity measurements, and about a week later
I began to question the validity of the lab-proposed
test procedure to simulate the on-bobbin mechanisms.
Meanwhile, the fiber draw nonuniformity still existed.
Within the business priority list, nothing has hap-
pened.
Also meanwhile, two of my co-workers, Ted and
"Mr. Clean," saw that we just needed to dry the fiber
completely in the first place. So they tried this and
that and finally found a way to wind-up with dry yarn.
Within about six days all extrusion lines had been
modified, the draw uniformity was as desired, and Ted
and "Mr. Clean" went out for a beer.
The business goal was to fix the draw uniformity,
not to determine the required inventory time through
fancy modeling. Although sometimes mathematical
analysis is useful, in this instance I missed taking own-
ership of business need. I appropriated the problem
in pursuit of my own personal need which, I think,
was to exhibit technical competence.
I would like to make two points from my story.
The first is to contrast the make-it-happen motive of
business in comparison to the "develop skills" motive
of the classroom. The second is to indicate that indi-
vidual human needs can interfere with a rational view
of the objective. Extremely rare is the person who is
not driven by personal needs, who does not attempt
to exploit situations to get promoted, to exhibit com-
petence, to gain approval, to gain power. . . . To be
maximally effective as an engineer (and as a person)
one needs to recognize his/her own personal needs and


WINTER 1987









to allow their expression only when they complement
the true goal.

Does engineering education train students
to make-things-happen? Do students
graduate understanding the hidden motives
behind human behavior?

CHANGE AND CREDIBILITY
On an average, during my engineering career I
had a new supervisor every fifteen months and
switched projects every two years. Those changes

The engineer must convince management of
his/her proper overall perspective, and because of
the constant personnel flux, the engineer must
constantly reestablish his credibility.

were in part due to promotions and in part due to
transfers in response to business needs. I believe that
such change is the rule rather than the exception, and
such change has several implications for the em-
ployee-one being the engineer's credibility.
In order to be effective in convincing management
to take a particular action, an engineer's recommenda-
tions must be considered credible within a broad inter-
disciplinary scope. Further, these recommendations
must be consistent with the business's traditions, with
national values, and with the business's long-term goal
and contingency plans. The scope of topics which en-
ters into a business decision is immense, and the re-
quired perspective is much greater than the usually
myopic, one-technology experience indicated in tech-
nical courses.
The engineer must convince management of his/
her proper overall perspective, and because of the
constant personnel flux, the engineer must constantly
reestablish his credibility. Credibility is an image. It
is a belief within others that one's work can be ac-
cepted. An engineer projects credibility by presenting
information from a technical and non-technical per-
spective which coincides with the listener's priorities
and concerns.
Managers are busy people. To make an engineer's
work easily accessible to them, the initial sentences of
oral and written communication should incorporate
the topics which are important to the manager in
terms that he understands. The initial statements
should also summarize non-technical issues and
critique the work. I'll use Neil as an incredible exam-
ple. He was as technically able and eager to produce
as anyone I have seen. His reports were technically


complete with assumptions acknowledged and de-
fended and with conclusions analyzed. However, his
work came from his own point of view. It did not incor-
porate the views of production and was not compatible
with long-term business goals. It was therefore devoid
of some important non-technical business issues, obvi-
ously incomplete, and required more analysis before
it could add business direction. Technical correctness
was his pursuit, and only after pages and pages of
development were business consequences addressed
(as though they were secondary issues). Neil's exclu-
sively technical approach and the inevitable manage-
ment frustration are characterized by this anecdote.
Neil and a manager were on a trip and the man-
ager, who was driving, noticed a sign "Highway ends
2 miles." He asked Neil to look at the map and decide
whether to turn left or right at the exit.
Neil observed red, blue, and black lines, towns be-
tween here and there, and mileage markers on the
map. He began to organize his approach to the prob-
lem. Then he asked, "What is the most important
criteria: to minimize probable time-to-destination, or
probable trip-cost?"
"Neil, there's only a mile and a half left. Which is
the best way?" Realizing "best" was a fuzzy word the
manager asked, "How would you go?"
Wishing to offer a thorough analysis, Neil com-
puted the mileage each way, estimated the toll cost
one way, mentally juggled the time delay through a
small town, but also considered the advantage of being
able to buy cheaper gas in that town. Then there was
the possibility of a ticket, which Neil wouldn't get if
he were driving, but his manager usually speeds ....
"One mile left, Neil," as he eased off the gas.
Finally, Neil gave his report in the familiar techni-
cal style of title, abstract, background ...
"You asked me which way I'd go," Neil started;
and recognizing no quick answer was coming, the
manager slowed down a bit more. "The criteria which
would guide my choice have been classified, and
weighed against them are the possible events which
might happen on either route. Additionally, my
analysis indicates a third possibility."
"We've only a half mile left, Neil. Left or right?"
"Before I recommend a direction to you, you need
to understand the criteria which I used and the as-
sumptions which I made so that you can accept or
reject their validity and decide on the appropriateness
of the decision. As Dr. X pointed out, these criteria
are subjective. For instance, if. .. ."
"NEIL!!" GIVE ME THE MAP!"
Once again, Neil is ineffective in adding direction
to his company.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Let's switch Neil for Al in that trip story, and suppose that Al were working for a
middle-of-the-road, striped-suit management. The closest Al will come to conforming to that
management style is by pedaling his bicycle down the middle of the road with his striped racing tights.


The manager would prefer to hear something like,
"Turn left. You can get there either way but the left
road promises easier driving. Want more details?"

Does an engineering education teach effec-
tive interpersonal communication skills?
Does it address professional credibility? Does
it foster multidisciplinary thinking? Do we
train people to seek and incorporate the con-
cerns of others, or do we train them to work
independently?

THE TEAM UNIFORM
Let's switch Neil for Al in that trip story, and sup-
pose that Al were working for a middle-of-the-road,
striped-suit management. The closest Al will come to
conforming to that management style is by pedaling
his bicycle down the middle of the road with his
striped racing tights. Al says to his manager, "Turn
left . . . easier driving. . . ." The manager may likely
glance at Al and scowl to himself, "What's he mean by
'easier' driving? Can I trust someone whose value sys-
tem and style are so obviously misplaced to guide my
decisions? Can Al consider data rationally? After all,
look how he wears his hair. Whatever could be guiding
his choices?" Then, out loud, he might say "Yes, I
want more information. What are the distances either
way? Is there an interstate we can take?" Because of
the personal image Al presents, and in spite of his
competence and business sense, Al causes others to
question the propriety of his analysis. Al's profes-
sional credibility is questioned, and he is reduced to
the position of a technician. How long would you pay
an engineer's salary to a technician?
Perhaps it is unfair that personal eccentricities in-
fluence our impression of professional competence.
But they do. And it is a factor in having power and
being effective within a human environment. To make
it happen, it is important to "fit in"-to be in harmony
with the organization. To be accepted as a leader, one
needs to present oneself as part of the team. Although
playing well is important, one must also wear the uni-
form.

Does an engineering education address the
irrationalities of human thinking or foster
personal adaptability? Does college teach the


importance of community or does it reinforce
individualism?

NOVICE PROFESSIONALS
Management mobility requires engineers to con-
sciously present a credible professional image, but by
contrast, project mobility keeps them in a relatively
novice technical state. With moderate technical exper-
tise in the specific technologies of a job, and with pres-
sure to get results, it is commonplace to prematurely
accept an apparently successful result.
Margaret, for example, was running a pilot-scale
liquid-phase batch reactor with an objective to gener-
ate a kinetic expression for a plant reactor design.
She postulated a homogeneous phase, first order in
each reactant, Arrhenius form of the kinetic expres-
sion; and, with experiments which held the initial
reactant concentration constant, she measured the in-
itial reaction rate for several temperatures. Paying
attention to experimental design practices recently
learned in an in-house statistics course, she chose the
temperatures randomly. The Arrhenius plot of the
data [In(rate) vs (T)-1] was a straight line, as beautiful
as any encountered in a kinetics and reactor design
class, and just had to reflect her proper grasp of the
technology. From the plot she got the activation
energy and the pre-exponential and proudly reported
the results. Her boss, a mechanical engineer, viewed
the graphs, listened to her story, and was impressed
with her experimental facility. Subsequent trials at a
different concentration curiously gave a new slope to
another beautiful Arrhenius plot. Thinking it due to
uncontrolled experimental conditions, she responsibly
revised her kinetic expression-by reporting average
values. In her novice state, she did not recognize the
possibility that surface phenomena could explain the
slope differences and that her data neither confirmed
nor rejected the first order assumption. Inexperience
accepted a superficially "good" analysis. A year later
the startup crew would wrestle for months before the
reactor would be operable.

Does engineering education train people
to critique their own work, or to view the fal-
libility of their "knowledge"? What are en-
gineers likely to think of their own ability
when they receive good grades in school?


WINTER 1987









LOCAL TECHNICAL FOLKLORE
With a primary business style of make-it-happen
and move-on-to-the-next-project (the Edison ap-
proach), there is often little effort at confirming why
something worked and why it didn't. Often a technical
explanation is postulated tentatively, given as a possi-
ble cause, accepted as logical, and, as time proceeds,
such hearsay becomes generally established in the
local information data base. A tentative position is
strengthened as the postulate is subsequently refer-
enced. Technical folklore is indistinguishable from
valid technology which also resides in the oral tradi-
tion of the operators and long-term plant profession-
als. It can misguide the work of an engineer and can
be a formidable institutional mind-set to change.
As an example, years ago a polymer solution con-
centration limit of 20% was "established" as the
maximum that would still permit extrusion stability
of a fiber manufacturing plant. However, increases in
concentration promised a significant operating cost re-
duction. Jim was one of several engineers who inter-
preted R&D trials to mean that the improved
spinerette design and solution purity of the day would
allow a concentration increase up to 30%. He knew
that temperature adjustments would be necessary to
maintain viscosity at the higher concentration. The
risks of a plant-wide concentration change were high.
Realizing that the factors which affect fiber dyeability
are not well quantified, the marketing department
saw the possibility of monetary claims if a change in
fiber performance on some customer's obscure textile
process occurred. The production department feared
the havoc that an unstable plant could create. After
vice-presidential discussions, it was decided to in-
crease the concentration in 0.1% increments each
week over a two-year period. To guide the tempera-
ture compensation, Jim would monitor extrusion sta-
bility and dye properties. As it happened though,
after several months Jim was moved, his projects
were distributed among others, and an extrusion
upset occurred. Now, a ruptured filter or a crosslink
event in polymerization is a normal occurrence which
temporarily causes such an upset, but the cause was
never identified by those left "in charge." The "too
high" concentration was blamed, the plant returned
to 20%, and that bit of self-proclaiming folklore was
reinforced. Many people within the company now ac-
cept the 20% maximum as a given.

Does engineering education train students
to unquestionably accept that which they are
taught? Could it encourage students to evoke
critical thinking?


WHAT WENT WRONG
When quality or productivity is upset, the plant
and staff personnel mobilize to determine the causes)
and to take corrective action. Often the cause is not
obvious and, in fact, may be the interaction of several
effects. Sometimes a crisis is not even real. I'm re-
minded of the time a flowmeter calibration error made
it appear that we were leaking 200,000 lb/month of
solvent. Such a mobilization you never saw when that
hit the monthly production reports!
Even in research and development, where we
want things to change, I was faced with "Why didn't
that work?" more often than "How do I design this?"
An efficient engineer can systematically rule out in-
consistent hypotheses and find and fix the reason for
unexpected behavior.
Does engineering education prepare
graduates for systematic diagnostic thinking?

CLOSING
Initially, I stated that colleges do a good job in
teaching technology. It must be obvious though, that
I also think graduates are ill-prepared for some of the
non-technical aspects of an engineering profession.
We could easily do a better job in training students to
be professionals; and, in a subsequent article, I will
suggest some approaches in classroom lecture and
homework style, roles of the laboratory, directions for
humanity electives, and activities for student profes-
sional societies. I find the approaches fun as well as
effective.

EDITOR'S NOTE: The second part of Professor
Rhinehart's lecture, "Methods for Engineering
Education," will appear in the next issue of CEE.

REFERENCES
1. Felder, R. M., "Does Engineering Education Have Anything
To Do With Either One?," R. J. Reynolds Industries, Inc.
Award, Distinguished Lecture Series, School of Engineering,
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, October, 1982. En-
gineering Education, 75(2), 95 (1984).
2. Thompson, A. L., Letter to the Editor in the October, 1985,
The Stanford Observer, the Stanford University Alumni News-
letter.
3. Roberts, W. J., "Problems at the Interface," American Chem-
ical Society Meeting, Operation Interface, University of North
Carolina, Charlotte, NC, August, 1971.
4. Editorial, "Methods of Teaching Chemistry Students Writing
Skills Aired," Chemical & Engineering News, pp. 32-33, Sep-
tember 23, 1985.
5. Garry, F. W., "What Does Industry Need? A Business Look
at Engineering Education," Engineering Education, pp. 203-
205, January, 1986. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION


congratulates


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


in its twenty-first year

of publication


WINTER 1987










classroom


SIMPLIFYING CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN

BY USING MOLAR QUANTITIES INSTEAD OF

FRACTIONAL CONVERSION*


LEE F. BROWN
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Los Alamos, NM 87545
JOHN L. FALCONER
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0424

MOST CHEMICAL REACTORS are nonisothermal,
involve multiple reactions, have mole changes
due to reaction, or have reactions with complicated
rate expressions. In teaching reactor analysis, it is
important that the techniques we present can be
applied to these realistic situations; current ap-
proaches violate this principle.
In the textbooks on chemical reaction engineering,






---








Lee F. Brown is a staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
He has degrees from the Universities of Notre Dame and Delaware
and has had experience (and a lot of fun) in chemical engineering
research, development, design, production, reservoir engineering, and
teaching. (L)
John L. Falconer is professor of chemical engineering at the Univer-
sity of Colorado. He has a BES from the Johns Hopkins University and
a PhD from Stanford University. His research interests are in
heterogeneous catalysis on supported metals and on model catalysts,
and the application of surface analysis techniques to the study of
catalytic and gas-solid reactions. (R)

*This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Depart-
ment of Energy.


TABLE 1
Chemical Reaction Engineering Texts Using
Fractional Conversion as the Dependent Variable
Butt, 1980 Chen, 1983
Cooper, Jeffreys, 1971 Denbigh, Turner, 1981
Fogler, 1974; 1986 Froment, Bischoff, 1979
Hill, 1977 Holland, Anthony, 1979
Levenspiel, 1962, 1972 Levenspiel, 1979
Peters, Timmerhaus, 1980 Rase, 1977
Smith, 1956, 1972, 1980 Tarhan, 1983

authors use a variety of dependent variables in reactor
mass balances (see Tables 1, 2). The tables show that
fractional conversion is employed by a significant
majority of authors. We argue here that using frac-
tional conversion in these mass balances is extremely
awkward and can lead to serious confusion. Molar
quantities as dependent variables in reactor-analysis
equations make instruction much easier and chemical
reactor design more straightforward. We show this
by comparing the use of molar quantities with using
fractional conversion for different situations. We also
discuss the advantages of using differential versions
of reactor mass balances rather than the integrated
forms.

GAS-PHASE SYSTEMS
We begin with the steady-state, gas-phase, plug-
flow reactor; extension of the principles to other situ-
ations is direct. Consider a gaseous reaction, A - prod-
ucts. The reaction rate rA is a function of the compo-
nent concentrations; carrying out a molar balance on
substance A over a differential control volume results


dV rA = f(CACB- C )


in which FA is the molar flow rate of substance A at
a point in the tube, and the Ci's are concentrations at


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


tIlhEjY










The tables show that fractional conversion is employed by a significant majority of authors. We
argue here that using fractional conversion in these mass balances is extremely awkward and can lead to
serious confusion. Molar quantities as dependent variables in reactor-analysis equations make
instruction much easier and chemical reactor design more straightforward.


this point. To solve this equation, both FA and rA (and
therefore the Ci's) must be expressed in terms of a
common dependent variable. Tables 1 and 2 show that
the most common dependent variable is fractional con-
version. This is the fraction of a substance's entering
molar flow rate which has been converted. For a sub-
stance A,


FA FAO(1 - X)


or XA= 1-


(2)


able. In Eq. (1), the concentrations can be expressed
in terms of the molar flow rates and the ideal gas law,


= _F,[T]


and the various Fi's can be related to the dependent
variable, FA, by reaction stoichiometry. This ap-
proach offers a simple means for solving Eq. (1).


Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1) yields

FA0 = - f(CA CB ..) (3)

To solve Eq. (3), the Ci's must be expressed in terms
of the fractional conversion. It will be shown that
using fractional conversion in this way frequently
leads to extremely awkward formulations of Eq. (1).
In other situations, fractional conversion cannot be
used at all as a dependent variable in reactor mass
balances.
The molar flow rate of the principal component,
FA in Eq. (1), also can be used as the dependent vari-



TABLE 2
Chemical Reaction Engineering Texts Using
Dependent Variables Other Than Fractional Conversion


Text
Aris, 1969
Carberry, 1976
Denbigh, 1966;
Denbigh, Turner, 1971,1981
Hougen, Watson, 1947
Hill, 1977**
Kramer, Westerterp, 1963

Petersen, 1965

Walas, 1959


Variable Used
extent of reaction, e = (Fi- Fio)/ci
*
moles product/unit mass

moles converted/unit mass feed
extent of reaction
mass fraction formed or
converted
moles/amt. mass numerically
equal to MW of feed
moles converted/unit mass feed


*A single dependent variable is not used. A variable is chosen ap-
propriate to the situation being considered.
**Fractional conversion is used in reactor equations (cf. Table 1),
but extent of reaction is used in other contexts.


DIFFERENTIAL OR INTEGRAL FORMS OF EQUATIONS?

For most realistic cases, reactor-analysis equa-
tions cannot be solved to give analytic closed-form sol-
utions, and numerical techniques must be used. A
method such as a Runge-Kutta technique can be used
to solve the differential equation or equations directly.
In many cases, an alternative attack is possible; the
variables can be separated and the integrals evaluated
using Simpson's rule or some other scheme.
We prefer the first approach, because separation
of variables merely adds an unnecessary step which
gives no advantage in solution technique. Moreover,
direct solution of the differential equations yields the
flow rates, concentrations, temperature, and pressure
as functions of location or time in the reactor. This
enables the analyst to establish the location or point
in time of hot spots, critical concentrations, or danger-
ous pressures. This is not possible when the separated
variables are integrated numerically; to obtain an
equivalent result, separate integration would have
to be carried out for each location or time desired.
Most important, though, the approach involving
direct solution of the differential equations is better
because it can be extended to situations where the
variables are not separable, such as nonisothermal
reactors with heat exchange, many multiple-reaction
systems, and most unsteady-state flow systems. For
these reasons, we consider only the differential equa-
tions in our comparisons.

CONSTANT-DENSITY SYSTEMS

Constant mass-density reactor systems make a
significant class that merits consideration. For exam-
ple, most liquid-phase systems do not change density
much during a chemical reaction. Thus the volumetric


C Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


WINTER 1987









flow rate q in liquid-flow reactors is usually not altered
signifitahtly, and the molar concentration CA can be
set equal to FA/q. For this reason, either concentra-
tions or molar flow rates are useful variables in a flow
reactor with a constant-density process. However, for
an unsteady-state flow system, the numbers of moles
of substances in the reactor are the only acceptable
dependent variables. This is shown below in the sec-
ond example.


EXAMPLES
Case 1: Isothermal multiple-reaction system
Reactor system: A gas-phase, steady-state, plug-flow
reactor.
k, k2
Reactions: A + 2B - C - D + E
+k3
F + -G

Rate laws: rA = - k CACB - k CAY
rB = - 2klCACB
rc = k CAaCBSB -k2Cc
rD = E = k2 C 6; rF = 2rG = k C

Reactor design equations using molar flow rates:


dF a+ )
dV I F kA+FB+F +FG E G I F




dF - Fk 1 i (F ) (F
dV 1 FA+F+F+F j [RTJ A B


dFC f 1 1rP
= k A B E G I (FA ) F)





dFF , ff 1 1f lir
dF dF
dV dV - 1F+F +F+FjiRTJI c


=_ 2Il -= k f 1 I (F )
dV dV 3 F +FB F + IRTJ A
LAO B E j


Reactor design equations using fractional conversions:


S. I a+
dXA k Fa+r -1 F 1F[
dV 1 AO [FA0O-XA+ (FB/FA)-XA+1.5X

S (1 - xA)( a - 2XACj
F AO
Y
+ k F-1jiF -X (i, 1 *-rP (X
A3 AOAOAOXA(F/F c1)5X J+FJ [RT A)

(10)

FrAC 1 a+- l 1 ) a+P
dV = 0 -XA( BO/F A)- AC+l.5X ]+F RT

l A] y AO AyC
* 1 - X - 2XAC]


- k2F1 (FAoL-X(F B/FAO -AC+l .5XJ+F (XAC
(11)

kd 2A F FS- A(BO AC! XACIf*X ]+AC
dV F =kF- [A-XA+(F O/F -XA+1.5X i+F R (XAC
(12)

dX AF Y-k 1-P
- = kFAO [FAoLl-XA+(F BO/FAo -XAC+l .5X J+F TJ(1 XA)


Comments: Using the fractional conversion in mul-
tiple-reaction systems requires the definition and use
of several subsidiary fractional conversions. In this
(5) example, XAC is the fraction of A converted only to
C, not to D, E, F, or G; XAD is the fraction of A
converted only to D; XAF is the fraction of A con-
verted only to F, and XA = XAC + XAD +XAF. Not
(6) only are the mass balances much simpler when molar
flow rates are used, but they do not require the tor-
tured mental convolutions necessary for implementa-
tion of the subsidiary fractional conversions. The de-
nominators in the mass balances are especially dif-
ficult for students to create correctly. As shown
above, the molar flow rates are straightforward to
define and use, even in complicated, multiple-reaction
systems.
Of the differential equations presented for each ap-
(8) proach, only three are necessary, since only three in-
dependent reactions occur. Stoichiometric equiva-
lences can determine the other flow rates, e.g., FF =
FAO - (FA + FC + FD)
(9)


Case 2: Isothermal stirred tank with outflow
Reactor system: A tank reactor with a steady out-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









flow starting at t = 0. Initial charge contains reactant
A and inerts; the outflow volumetric flow rate is qf.
This might describe a leaking nuclear waste site.
k
Reaction: A - B
Rate law: rA = - kCA

Reactor design equations using molar quantities:
dN N.
d= - kNA - qf( V (14)

V = V0 - qft (15)


Reactor design equation using fractional conversion:
None possible.

Comments: Using molar quantities, the mass bal-
ance can be integrated analytically; the solution is

N A =NAe-kt1 - (qft/V0)] (16)

This is one of the simplest unsteady-state reactor sys-
tems, yet it appears impossible to express the mass
balance in terms of fractional conversion without also
including at least one molar quantity as a variable.
Because A reacts, leaves, or remains in the reactor,
t
NA(t) = NA0[ - XA(t)] - qf J [NA(B)/V(B)]dB (17)
0
and NA must also be included as a variable. Hill [11,
p. 301] has noted this difficulty. In contrast, the sub-
stance A in a batch reactor is restricted to either
reacting or remaining in the reactor, and NA can be
expressed as NAO(1-XA). Similarly, in a steady-state,
stirred-tank flow reactor, A either reacts or leaves,
and FA can be expressed as FAO(1-XA). For unsteady-
state systems with an outflow stream, too many pos-
sibilities are present, and fractional conversions can-
not be used.
Case 3: Reactor with an entering side stream
Reactor system: Steady-state, isothermal, plug-
flow reactor with entering side stream FA10. Feed
contains A and inerts; the side stream entering the
reactor at point V1 is pure A. This configuration
avoids a high initial concentration of A in order to
reduce production of undesired product C.
kl k2
Reactions: A + B (desired); 2A + C (undesired)

Rate laws: rA = - k CA - 2k2CA2

rB = klCA; r = k2CA2
r =k *r s C 2A


Reactor design equations using molar flow rates:

FA = FAO - F - 2Fc 18)

B = k - FATF - F (19)


dFc 1 F 2 (20)
dV F - F + F A

B.C.: At V = 0: FA = FAO; FATo FA
At V = Vl: F A FA + FAl0; FATO =FA + F10 (21)

Reactor design equations using fractional conversions:

X XA + XAC (22)

X - A k f ((1 - XA) (23)
dV _ ATO AC) + F) (9T) A)

dXA 2 2T( 1 -I FATO(1 -XA)2 (24)
dV AT1 X )+ F I[RTATO A

B.C.:
At V = 0: FATU= F A; XA = 0; XAC = 0

At V = V : FT= F 0 + FAlO; XABI+ (F oX )/(FAD + F10)
XA+ = (FAoXACl-)/(F A + FA10) (25)


Comments: Here, use of fractional conversions not
only makes the mass balances more involved, but se-
verely complicates the boundary conditions.

Case 4: Energy balance for reactor with heat transfer.

Reactor system: Nonisothermal, gas-phase, plug-
flow reactor with heat transfer (catalytic oxidation of
o-xylene to produce phthalic anhydride).


kl
Reactions: A + 3B -* C + 3D
k2
C + 7.5B - 2D + 8E
k3
A + 10.5B k- 5D + 8E

Rate laws [11]:
r = - klCA - k3CA
A A 3A


(A is o-xylene,
B is oxygen,
C is phthalic anhydride,
0 is water,
E is carbon dioxide)



[ki = Ai exp(-Ei/RT)]
1 2.


r, = - 3k CA - 7.5k2Cc - 10.5k CA

rc = kCA - k2Cc
rD = 3k CA + 2k2 C - 5k3 C
rE = 8k2CC + 8k3 C


Energy balance equation using molar flow rates:


WINTER 1987










Another benefit to using the differential equations occurs because students tend to memorize
the integrated forms for particular cases. They then use the integrated forms even when the variables
are not separable. This happens much less frequently when the differential-equation approach is taught.


dT 1 I
TV F CPA +F PB C PC+F D +PD F E I P
APA EPE CPC DP Li+ I PT

S= +FA+F C +F +FE +F I

A e-E1/RT FA)(-H ) + A e-E2/RT(FC)(-AH r2
(26)
+ A3e-E3/RT(F )(-AAH3) - (4U/D)(T-T)exJ

Energy balance equation using fractional conversions:

dT 1
ddV F{(-X)CpA [( /FAo)-(3XAc+10.5XA )ICp-
+XAC CPC+(3XA +5XAE )CPD+8XAEC PE}+F I C

1fr
SF A(1-XA +X AC+2.5X )+F +F T
tAD A AC AEXO~ E I

FAOLAle-El/RT(-XA)(-AHrl + A2e-2/RT(XAC )(- r2)

+ A3e-3/RT(1-X)(-AHr3)] - (4U/D)(T-Tx)
(27)

Comments: Only the energy balance is presented
here; the superiority of the molar quantity approach
in multiple-reaction mass balances was illustrated in
Case 1. In energy balances as in mass balances, the
molar-quantity approach is invariably more
straightforward for all but the simplest systems. If
fractional conversions are used, the denominators,
especially in energy balances, become extremely com-
plex and are difficult to derive and explain.


ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES TO MOLAR QUANTITIES
When fractional conversion is used as a dependent
variable in mass and energy balances, additional
parameters are sometimes introduced to simplify the
forms of the equations. For example, parameters have
been defined for molar ratios of feeds and for volume
change upon reaction [15, 11, 8]. Introduction of these
parameters is not necessary when molar quantities
are used; rather, retention of the molar quantities in
the numerical algorithm makes these parameters un-
necessary.
Earlier, we presented several advantages of using
differential equations instead of using the integrated
forms. Another benefit to using the differential equa-


tions occurs because students tend to memorize the
integrated forms for particular cases. They then use
the integrated forms even when the variables are not
separable. This happens much less frequently when
the differential-equation approach is taught.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Teaching of undergraduate reactor design can be
improved by using molar quantities as variables in the
differential equations for the mass and energy bal-
ances. This approach has several advantages over the
more common approach of using fractional conversion
in the integrated versions of the balances:
1) Most industrial reactor systems contain multi-
ple reactions, nonisothermal reactors, pressure drop,
complicated rate expressions, and reactions with mole
changes. The equations must be solved numerically,
and this approach can be directly applied to these sys-
tems. If students are taught other methods, they must
still learn this approach to do practical calculations
since fractional conversions are unsuitable as a design
variable for complicated systems.
2) For semibatch reactors, unsteady-state
CSTR's, and systems with side streams, fractional
conversion cannot be defined easily. The use of molar
quantities in these systems is straightforward.
3) Separate parameters are not needed to handle
mole changes in gas-phase reactions.
4) By solving the differential equations instead of
separating the variables and integrating the balances,
the flow rates and temperatures are obtained at points
along the reactor length (or molar amounts are ob-
tained as functions of time in a batch reactor) instead
of only at the end point.
5) Molar quantities are physically more interpret-
able variables in many cases. For example, the molar
flow rate does not change when the temperature or
pressure changes, or when inerts are added. On the
other hand, the concentration changes when tempera-
ture, pressure, or amount of inerts is changed, and
the parameter accounting for volume variation
changes when inerts are added. The molar flow rate
will change only due to chemical reaction when no
material is removed or added before the reactor exit.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The seminal contribution of Dr. Jack K. Nyquist


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










of E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. is acknowledged.
While a graduate student at the University of Col-
orado in the 1960's, he convinced one of the authors
(LFB) of the superiority of the molar-quantities ap-
proach. The use of a form of the molar-quantities ap-
proach in the book by Franks [9] also contributed to
the authors' formulation of ideas in this area. Discus-
sions with other Boulder faculty members, especially
with Professor David E. Clough, have been very help-
ful.


REFERENCES

1. R. Aris, Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis. Prentice-
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1969.
2. J. Butt, Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design. Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.
3. J. J. Carberry, Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineer-
ing. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976.
4. N. H. Chen, Process Reactor Design. Allyn and Bacon, Bos-
ton, 1983.
5. A. R. Cooper and G. V. Jeffreys, Chemical Kinetics and Reac-
tor Design. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1971.
6. K. G. Denbigh; K. G. Denbigh and J. C. R. Turner, Chemical
Reactor Theory-An Introduction. Cambridge University
Press, London, 1966, 1971, 1981.
7. H. S. Fogler, The Elements of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor
Calculations: A Self-Paced Approach. Prentice-Hall, En-
glewood Cliffs, NJ, 1974.
8. H. S. Fogler, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering.
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986.
9. R. G. E. Franks, Mathematical Modeling in Chemical En-
gineering. Wiley, New York, 1967.
10. G. F. Froment and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analysis
and Design. Wiley, New York, 1979.
11. C. G. Hill, Jr., An Introduction to Chemical Engineering
Kinetics and Reactor Design. Wiley, New York, 1977.
12. C. D. Holland and R. G. Anthony, Fundamentals of Chemical
Reaction Engineering. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
1979.
13. O. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, Chemical Process Princi-
ples. Part Three-Kinetics and Catalysis. Wiley, New York,
1947.
14. H. Kramer and K. R. Westerterp, Elements of Chemical
Reactor Design and Operation. Academic Press, New York,
1963.
15. O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering. Wiley, New
York, 1962, 1972.
16. 0. Levenspiel, The Chemical Reactor Omnibook. Oregon
State University Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis, OR, 1979.
17. M. S. Peters and K. D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design and
Economics for Chemical Engineers, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1980.
18. E. E. Petersen, Chemical Reaction Analysis. Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1965.
19. H. F. Rase, Chemical Reactor Designfor Process Plants. Vol.
1. Principles and Techniques; Vol. 2. Case Studies and Design
Data. Wiley, New York, 1977.
20. J. M. Smith, Chemical Engineering Kinetics. McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1956, 1970, 1980.


21. M. 0. Tarhan, Catalytic Reactor Design. McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1983.
22. S. M. Walas, Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engineers.
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959.


NOMENCLATURE

Roman
A pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius expression
for reaction-rate "constant," various units
C concentration, mol/m3
Cp molar heat capacity, J/(mol)(K)
D diameter of tubular reactor, m
E activation energy of reaction, J/mol
F molar flow rate, mol/s
AHr change in enthalpy upon reaction, J/mol
k reaction-rate "constant," various units
N number of moles in reactor, mol
P total pressure in reactor, Pa
q volumetric flow rate, m3/s
R universal gas constant, (Pa)(ms)/(mol)(K) or
J/(mol)(K)
r reaction rate, mol created/(m8)(s)
T temperature, K; without subscript, the temper-
ature of the reacting fluid, K
t time, s
U overall heat transfer coefficient between react-
ing fluid and external heating or cooling
medium, J/(s)(m2)(K)
V reactor volume or volume of reacting mixture,
m3
X fractional conversion, dimensionless
y mole fraction, dimensionless

Greek
a stoichiometric coefficient, dimensionless
p dummy variable in Eq. (17), s
E extent of reaction, mol/s

Subscripts
A, B, C, D, E,F,G of substances A, B,C,D,E,F, or G
ex of external heating or cooling medium
f final value or relating to the effluent stream
I of inert components
i of the i'th component or of the input stream
0 at the entrance to the reactor or at time zero
T total amount
1 referring to point 1 in reactor
1,2,3 referring to Reaction 1,2, or 3

Superscripts
Superscripts indicate order of reaction with respect to
the superscripted term. D


WINTER 1987









tj - 2 laboratory


CHEMICAL REACTION EXPERIMENT FOR


THE UNDERGRADUATE LABORATORY


K. C. KWON, N. VAHDAT and W. R. AYERS
Tuskegee University
Tuskegee, AL 36088

USKEGEE'S CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Depart-
ment was founded in 1977 and was accredited by
the EAC/ABET in 1983. There are approximately
eighty students presently enrolled. Three chemical
engineering laboratory classes are taught; one for
junior students and two for senior students. The first
laboratory class consists mainly of fluid mechanics and
heat transfer experiments. The second laboratory con-
sists mainly of mass transfer, thermodynamics and
chemical reaction experiments, as shown in Table 1.
Approximately twelve of the experiments are done in
any one semester with the choice being made by the
instructor. The third chemical engineering laboratory
consists of process control experiments. The labora-
tory classes are offered twice a year with an average
class size of ten students, usually divided into three
groups. Each student must analyze the data, make

K. C. Kwon is an associate
professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Tuskegee University. He
received his BS from Hanyang
University, Seoul, Korea, his MS
from the University of Denver,
and his PhD from Colorado r
School of Mines. His industrial
experience includes five years
as a process engineer at the
synthetic fuel division of Gulf
Oil Company, Tacoma, Wash-
ington. His research interests in-
clude reaction kinetics, coal con-
version, fuels from renewable
bio-mass and transport properties. (L)
N. Vahdat is Coordinator of the Chemical Engineering Department
at Tuskegee University. He received his BS from Abadan Institute of
Technology, Iran, his MS from the University of California, and his PhD
from the University of Manchester, England. His research interests in-
clude thermodynamics of solutions and transport properties of polymer
systems. (C)


the necessary calculations and submit a written report
conforming to acceptable standards.

CHEMICAL REACTION EXPERIMENT
For Experiment 16, anthracene is hydrogenated
with molecular hydrogen in the absence of catalyst in
a batch-type microreactor to identify the reaction
order, the reaction rate constant, the frequency factor
and the activation energy for the anthracene-hydro-
gen reaction system shown in Eq. 1.


= + H2
anthracene


9,10-di hydroanthracene


EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION
The 316 stainless steel microreactor assembly con-
sists of a 1/2 inch tee, an 11-inch piece of high pressure
3/8" O.D. tubing and a shut-off valve. The tee is the


,a~-,

W. R. Ayers is a visiting faculty member at Tuskegee University.
He received his BChE (1952) from Clarkson University. He was a field
engineer with DuPont's engineering department from 1951 to 1959, a
process engineer with Thiokol Corporation from 1959 to 1960 and a
process engineer/senior research engineer with DuPont's Pigments De-
partment (now C&P Department) from 1960 to 1981 when he retired.
His research interests are primarily related to DuPont's chloride process
for the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigment. (R)


0 Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Three laboratory classes are taught; one for
juniors and two for seniors. The first consists mainly
of fluid mechanics and heat transfer experiments. The
second consists mainly of mass transfer, thermodynamics
and chemical reaction experiments.


CONTROL PANEL


3/8" high pressure
tubing


1/2" Union tee
microreactor


FIGURE 1. Microreactor Assembly


actual microreactor and is connected to the shut-off
valve by the 3/8" tubing (see Figure 1). A ther-
mocouple extends through the tubing and into the
microreactor, allowing temperature monitoring of the
reactants throughout the experiment. A quick-con-
nect is attached to the shut-off valve in order to intro-
duce hydrogen into the microreactor assembly during
charging and to release excess hydrogen from the


TABLE 1
List of Experiments for the ChE LAB II

EXP. NO. DESCRIPTION
1 Continuous Distillation with Total Reflux
2 Continuous Distillation with Feed at Bubble
Point
3 Batch Distillation in a Packed Column
4 Fluid Flow Through a Packed Column
5 Flow Through a Fluidized Bed
6 Filtration
7 Gas Chromatograph
8 Evaporation
9 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria
10 Liquid-Liquid Equilibria
11 Liquid Extraction
12 Hydrodynamics of a Packed Column
13 Absorption of CO2 in Water/Analysis of Gas
Streams
14 Absorption of COz in Water/Analysis of Liquid
Solutions
15 Heats of Solution
16 Reaction Kinetics of the Anthracene-Hydrogen
System
17 Spray Drying


FIGURE 2. Fluidized Sand Bath


microreactor after an experimental run is completed.
The total internal volume of the microreactor is
roughly 13 cc. The microreactor assembly is sub-
merged and heated in a fluidized sand bath (see Figure
2) and is shaken throughout the experimental run in
order to eliminate the mass transfer effects. The sand
bath temperature is adjusted using a thermocouple
and temperature controller.


EXPERIMENT DETAILS

A series of anthracene hydrogenation experiments
is conducted at 375�C, 400'C, and 4250C. The micro-
reactor is charged with 0.1 g anthracene, 2.0 g 1-
methylnaphthalene as a physical solvent and 1200 psig
hydrogen at room temperature. After being charged
with the reactants, the reactor is attached to the
shaker mechanism and is submerged in the preheated
fluidized sand bath.
Following hydrogenation of anthracene at the de-
sired reaction time and temperature, the reactor is
quenched in cold water and the excess hydrogen is
released. The liquid products, consisting of an-
thracene, 9-10 dihydroanthracene and 1-methyl-
naphthalene, are injected into a gas chromatograph,


WINTER 1987


Thermocouple


Quick- connect
for pressurizing
microreactor
















1.0





-ln(l- X )
0.5


0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Reaction Times (Minutes)
FIGURE 3. Conversions of Anthracene vs. Reaction Times


equipped with a flame-ionization detector, an inte-
grator-plotter and an 8 ft. long, 1/8 inch O.D., SP 2100
packed column, to analyze conversions of anthracene
to 9,10-dihydroanthracene.

DATA ANALYSIS
The reaction data, anthracene conversions vs reac-
tion times, are plotted on semi-logarithmic paper to
identify the reaction order for the anthracene-hydro-


5





4
-Ink


1.45 1.50


RECIPROCAL REACTION TEMPERATURE X 103, K-'
FIGURE 4. Reaction Rate Constants vs. Reaction Temper-
atures


gen system. A typical plot is shown in Figure 3 and
produces a straight line through the origin, indicating
that the anthracene-hydrogen reaction system is first
order. Reaction rate constants are calculated by ap-
plying conversion vs. reaction time data to the first-
order reaction equation, as shown in Eq. 2.


-kn (1 - XA) = kt
A


where XA = fractional conversion of anthracene
k = reaction rate constant, min-
t = reaction time, minutes
The activation energy and the frequency factor for
the anthracene-hydrogen reaction system were found
to be 2.699 x 107 cal/gmole and 1.215 x 104 min-1, re-
spectively, by applying reaction rate constant vs reac-
tion temperature data to the Arrhenius' Law, as
shown in Equation 3 and Figure 4.

k = k exp(- AE/RT) (3)

where k = reaction rate constant, min-'
ko = frequency factor, min-
AE = activation energy, cal/gmole
R = ideal gas constant, cal/gmole-K
T = reaction temperature, K

CONCLUSION
A series of reaction samples is obtained by per-
forming reaction runs at the desired hydrogenation
temperatures and times. These samples are analyzed
using a gas chromatograph.
This batch-type microreactor has several advan-
tages over other type reactors in carrying out reaction
experiments for undergraduate laboratory classes:

* It takes a short time (1 minute) to increase reac-
tor temperatures from an ambient temperature
to a desired reaction temperature in comparison
with conventional autoclave reactors. Therefore,
several experimental runs can be conducted dur-
ing the 3-hour class.
* It is easy to clean a reactor after finishing a reac-
tion experiment and then to prepare another ex-
perimental setup.
* Reactants such as anthracene, 1-methyl-
naphthalene and hydrogen are needed in small
quantities, in comparison with other conven-
tional autoclave reactors.
* There are fewer leakage problems with micro-
reactors during reaction experiments at high
temperatures and pressures, in comparison with
conventional autoclave reactors which utilize
stirring systems. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


AN: O.lg
I-MN 2g
H2 1200 psig (cold)









REVIEW: Economic Evaluation
Continued from page 5.
of process applications.
The book is broken down into six chapters with
the first chapter giving a very simple survey of the
principles of economic evaluation with many generali-
zations. The second chapter is on the subject of capital
and is an adequate survey for providing overall infor-
mation with few details. Chapter Three on production
costs and Chapter Four on capacity economics are pre-
sented in the same general survey form as Chapter
Two, with a very simplified description, a few illustra-
tions, and definition of terms. Probably the most use-
ful chapter in the book is the fifth chapter which deals
with year-by-year economics. It is almost completely
a word discussion, with no base equations being given
for the relationships which are presented in the
numerous examples. This chapter gives the general
ideas of discounted cash flow, net present value, and
year-by-year accounting, but very little useful quan-
titative information on the various methods is given.
There is nothing included on income taxes or modern
depreciation based on recent Federal laws.
The final chapter on computer processes is a very
simplified presentation based on flow diagrams and
block schedules. No examples and no problems are
included. The book concludes with a seven-page glos-
sary of terms and a twelve-page index.
The book can serve as a useful over-view for
economic evaluation in the chemical process indus-
tries, but it would not serve as a teaching text because
of the lack of quantitative information. The material
it presents is given in easy-to-understand language
with very little mathematics background required. It
would be of use as an introduction to the subject for
someone who needed to get an overall picture of the
methods and basis of economic evaluation for indus-
trial processes without getting into technical de-
tails. E[


PRINCIPLES OF POLYMER SYSTEMS,
2ND EDITION
by Ferdinand Rodriguez; McGraw-Hill Book Com-
pany,
New York, 1982; pages xvi, 575, $29.95
Reviewed by
D. R. Paul
University of Texas at Austin
The first edition of this book appeared in 1970 as
a text for polymer courses primarily in chemical en-
gineering departments, although at that time not


many departments taught such courses. The second
edition is part of the well-known and respected
McGraw-Hill Chemical Engineering Series. This fact
may be taken as one indication of the degree to which
instruction in polymers has been incorporated into
chemical engineering departments since 1970.
The second edition follows the same format as the
first and is essentially an updated version of that book.
While substantial progress has occurred in the science
and technology of polymers during the years between
the appearance of the first and second editions, the
goal of the book is to present to the beginning student
basic principles of the subject which largely remain
timeless; however, all of the dated content of the first
edition, such as production statistics, has been ap-
propriately made current. The lengths of both editions
are approximately the same so about the same amount
of material was removed as was added. The main
strengths of the new version are more problems at
the end of various chapters, plus greatly expanded
lists of specific and general references which should
help introduce the student to the modern literature.
The first three chapters deal with basic issues of
polymer molecular and physical structure to give a
framework for understanding properties. The next
three chapters are devoted to polymerization reac-
tions and processes and the closely linked issue of the
description and measurement of molecular weight and
its distribution. The following three chapters deal
with theological behavior ranging from laminar flow
of solutions and melts, to viscoelasticity at small defor-
mations and finally ultimate failure properties of
polymers under use-type conditions. The next chapter
introduces the reader to other types of properties than
mechanical ones with a strong, and appropriate, em-
phasis on electrical behavior. The following chapter
deals with types and mechanisms of polymer degrada-
tion with equal focus on how these problems can be
avoided or solved by the use of various additives. This
is a feature unique to this textbook and is one of its
really strong points. The reader is then introduced
qualitatively to some of the common processing and
fabricating techniques. The entire book could be made
stronger at this point by more detailed analyses of
some of these operations to show how theological
data, introduced earlier, can be used in practice and
how molecular weight and its distribution is a power-
ful way of tailoring polymers for these specific proces-
sing methods. In turn, an excellent opportunity could
have been provided to show the chemical engineering
student how the latter ties to the polymerization
mechanism, conditions, and process to give a glimpse
of the strong interrelationship between each of these
Continued on page 46.


WINTER 1987









S classroom


MICROCOMPUTER-AIDED

CONTROL SYSTEMS DESIGN


S. D. ROAT AND
S. S. MELSHEIMER
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0909

THE LOW PRICE and interactive nature of personal
microcomputers have led to their widespread use
in chemical engineering education in a variety of appli-
cations. Several universities now require students to
own PC's, and at most others personal computer
laboratories are readily available to students. Micro-
computer software is rapidly being developed to dem-
onstrate and teach various aspects of chemical en-
gineering [1,2]. Chemical engineering process
dynamics and control is a course particularly well
suited for microcomputer application.
This paper describes a single input/single output
feedback control systems design program for IBM PC
and compatible microcomputers. Menu-driven, in-
teractive, and user-friendly, it displays control sys-
tems in terms of block diagrams and uses the graphics
capability of the computer in presenting results. The
scope of exercises that can be given using this pro-
gram may be inferred from the main menu shown in
Figure 1.
The program is limited to those systems which can
be described in terms of first order transfer functions


A I b

Stephen S. Melsheimer received his BS at Louisiana State Univer-
sity, and his PhD at Tulane University. He is currently professor of
chemical engineering at Clemson University. His research interests in-
clude automatic process control and applied numerical methods. (L)
Suzanne D. Roat received her BS in chemical engineering at Clem-
son University in 1985. She is currently working toward a PhD in
chemical engineering at the University of Tennessee in their Measure-
ments and Control Center. (R)

and pure time delays, but the open loop system can
have an overall order of up to four. Thus, the control
loop to be studied can be rather complex and challeng-
ing, but open loop underdamped systems are
excluded, as are non self-regulating processes.
A heat exchanger temperature control loop used
for a number of examples in the textbook by Smith
and Corripio [3] will be used to illustrate the various
applications of the program. A schematic depiction
and a block diagram for this system (page 177, 179 of
Smith and Corripio) are shown in Figure 2. The trans-
fer functions are as follows


G = 0.016/(3s + 1)
Gs = 50/(30s + 1)


FIGURE 1. Main Menu Screen


GF = -3.33/(30s + 1)
GT = 1/(30s + 1)


H = 1/(10s + 1)
where Gv is the final control element (valve), and H
is the measuring element (sensor-transmitter). Gs is
� Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















Process tluic
F(i, kg/s
T, It, C


Heat exchanger




TCor..oler Vve

m�A mA A kg/s


Sensor transmtter

FIGURE 2. Schematic and Block Diagrams for Heat Ex-
changer Control Loop (Reprinted from Principles and
Practice of Automatic Process Control, Smith and Cor-
ripio; John Wiley, 1985)

the process transfer function for the manipulated
input (steam), and GT and GF are the process transfer
functions for disturbances in the input temperature
and flow rate respectively. The controller, G,, is to be
designed by the student.

OPEN LOOP SIMULATION
The loop is first configured as shown in Figure 3.
Note that deadtime (transportation delay) is permit-
ted in both Process 2 and the Measuring Element.
The open loop system response to either a servo (ma-


FIGURE 3. Block Diagram Setup Screen


This paper describes a single input/single output
feedback control systems design program for IBM PC
and compatible microcomputers. Menu-driven,
interactive, and user-friendly, it displays control
systems in terms of block diagrams and uses the
graphics capability in presenting results.


nipulated input) or load (disturbance) forcing may be
computed with either step or pulse input functions.
For a disturbance forcing in the example problem,
Process 3 would be used to represent either GT or GF
as appropriate. The "actual response" in Figure 4
shows a step response plot obtained for a manipulated
input forcing for the heat exchanger control system.
This plot can be easily recorded on a dot-matrix
printer, and a printed listing of the system response
can be obtained as well.
One simple exercise with the program is to have
the student simulate a first order process (e.g., Gs in
this system), and then sequentially add additional lags
and/or deadtimes to the system. The effect of lags on
the system response can thus be seen very graphi-
cally.


SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION

In practice, analytic models for the elements in a
control loop are often not available, and experimental
testing must be used to identify a model for the pro-
cess. This may be done either directly from time do-
main response data, or by tranforming the data into
the frequency domain to get a system Bode plot. The
control system design package provides for both time
domain analysis of step response data ("process reac-
tion curve" modeling) and frequency domain analysis
of pulse test data. The program is designed so that


















FIGURE 4. Open Loop Response and First-Order Plus
Deadtime Model


WINTER 1987








the data to be analyzed is read from a file on disk.
Exercises may thus be given where the data is ob-
tained from an open loop simulation as described
above, but the program may also be used to analyze
data obtained from a different computer simulation,
or from laboratory experiments.

STEP TEST MODELING
The first-order plus deadtime (FOPDT) model is
commonly used to fit step response data from over-
damped systems [3]. It is easily and reliably fit, and
a number of feedback controller tuning formulas are
based on it. The FOPDT transfer function is

=C G(s) Ke-ts = Process output (
m(s) T s + 1 Process input

where K, T, and to are the gain, time constant, and
apparent deadtime to be determined. The time domain
solution for a step forcing of magnitude A is

c(t) = KA[ - e(tto)/) u(t - to) (2)

where u is the unit step function. The actual response
curve in Figure 4 is a "typical" step response, or "pro-
cess reaction curve."
The process gain, K, is obviously
C
K ss (3)

where Cs, is the final value of the process output.
There are numerous methods of determining the
values of to and T to fit the model to the curve [3]. In
the earliest method developed, a line is drawn tangent
to the curve at the point of maximum slope. The dead-
time, to, is then the time at which the tangent line
intersects the abscissa, and the time constant is given
by

A (4)
S

where S is the slope of the tangent line. Another
method fits the model through the actual step re-
sponse curve at two points. Recommended values [4]
are where the response reaches 28.3% and 63.2% of
the final value. In Eq. (2), this is at tl = (to + T/3) and
t2 = (to + T) respectively. Thus,

1 = (t2 ) (5)

to = t2 - (6)

Other variations on these schemes are discussed in


introductory control texts [3,5,6,7,8]. The curve fit-
ting method used in the program is similar to the sec-
ond method described above. However, it fits the
FOPDT model to the process reaction curve in a least
squares sense over the range of 20% to 80% response.
For accurate, non-noisy data, the results are very
close to Eqs. (5) and (6). However, the least squares
fit would be less susceptable to error should the data
be noisy. The program displays the FOPDT model
response on the same screen as the actual response
curve for comparison. Figure 4 shows the results for
the example system described earlier. Students can
be assigned to compare the FOPDT models obtained
from the computer curve-fit to those from one or more
hand calculated fits.

FREQUENCY DOMAIN MODELING
If frequency response data on a system can be ob-
tained, it is possible to fit a transfer function that is
more complex than the FOPDT model discussed
above. In addition, well-established controller tuning
criteria [9] are available which are based on the open-
loop system frequency response data. The most com-
mon method of obtaining such data in chemical process
applications is by Fourier analysis of pulse-test data.
Direct sinusoidal forcing could be used in principle,
but is usually impractical in chemical process systems
[3].
The relevent equations are readily derived. The
system transfer function is defined by

Sy(t)e-stdt
G(s) = '()= 0 (7)
X(s) x(t)e-stdt

0
where x(t) and y(t) are the input and output functions,
respectively. If the Laplace variable s is replaced by
j( one obtains

o y(t)e-Jetdt
G(jw) = 0 (8)
F x(t)e-jwtdt
0
Now, if the system input is a pulse, the integral be-
comes


o y(t)e-jwtdt
G(jw) = 0 x(t
f 1 x(t)e-jwtdt
0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









since the values of y(t) and x(t) are zero after some
finite time (To and Ti respectively). Expanding the
complex exponential by the Euler relation makes it
clear that the integrals are readily evaluated with
standard quadrature methods (e.g., trapezoidal rule)
T T
Soy(t)cos(wt)dt - j y(t)sin(Tt)dt
G(jw) = 0 0 (10)
, i , i
x(t)cos(wt)dt - j x(t)sin(wt)dt
0 0
Specialized quadrature methods are available [6] that
give more accuracy at high frequencies. At each fre-
quency of interest, the integrals are evaluated to ob-
tain the complex number G(jw), from which the
amplitude ratio and phase angle of the system are ob-
tained

AR = IG(jw)I (11)
S= 4G(jw) (12)
































FIGURE 5. Amplitude Ratio and Phase Angle Plots of
Bode' Diagram.
Bode iagram.ur


Note that this involves a lot of calculation. Hand calcu-
lation of frequency response data from pulse test re-
sults is not practical, so any exercises involving pulse
testing must involve computer data analysis.
The pulse test data analysis routine provided in
the control systems design package may be used
either with pulse test data generated by the open loop
simulator, or data supplied from an external source
(another simulation, or actual experimental data). The
numerical integration method used combines trapezoi-
dal rule at low frequencies, and piecewise linear ap-
proximation [6] at high frequencies. The output is pre-
sented on the screen in the form of a Bode' plot, and
can also be printed in tabular form. Figure 5 shows
the Bode' plot for the example system. It compares.
closely with the analytic results presented in Smith
and Corripio. It should be noted that the time re-
quired for the analysis may be several minutes even
in compiled BASIC.

CONTROLLER DESIGN: FOPDT CORRELATIONS
A large number of studies, beginning with the
classic works of Ziegler and Nichols [9] and Cohen and
Coon [10], have investigated control of systems de-
scribed by the FOPDT model. In each case, the qual-
ity of feedback control with various controller parame-
ter values was determined. The earlier workers used
quarter-decay ratio as their definition of good dynamic
response, while more recent studies have used integ-
ral performance criteria as objective functions in de-
termining the best parameter values [11]. In all cases,
the ultimate result is a set of formulas that relate the
gain (K,), integral time (T1), and derivative time (rd)
for proportional, proportional-integral, or propor-
tional-integral-derivative controllers to the FOPDT
model parameters (K, T, and to). The premise is then
that these optimum controller settings for a FOPDT
process will yield similarly good control when applied
to a process which can be appoximated by the FOPDT
model.
The time domain controller tuning portion of the
design package computes the values of the controller
parameters for either P-only, PI, or PID controllers.
Three correlations are reported: the classic Ziegler-
Nichols and Cohen-Coon settings, and the settings of
Lopez et al [11] based on the integral absolute error
(IAE) performance index. Since the calculation of the
controller settings from the FOPDT model paramet-
ers is rather trivial, students can readily be assigned
to hand-calculate settings from any of the numerous
other tuning formulae [3]. Further, it is instructive to
compare the results for a specific tuning correlation,
but based on alternative FOPDT model fits. Figure 6


WINTER 1987
























FIGURE 6. Closed Loop Block Diagram and PI Controller
Settings Display.

shows the PI controller settings for the example sys-
tem.
CONTROLLER DESIGN: FREQUENCY DOMAIN
The frequency response for the open loop system
can be used directly to compute controller settings.
Ziegler and Nichols [9] related the "optimum" control-
ler settings to a pair of parameters readily obtained
from the system Bode' plot: the crossover frequency
(the frequency at which the phase angle reaches -180
degrees), and the "ultimate gain" (the inverse of the
open loop gain at the crossover frequency). Stability
considerations in the frequency domain indicate that
if the loop were closed with a proportional controller,
the closed loop system would become unstable for any
controller gain greater than the ultimate gain [5]. The
Ziegler-Nichols controller settings give controller
gains which are roughly half the critical value, and
integral and derivative times correlated to the cross-
over frequency. These relations are presented in vir-
tually all introductory control texts [3,5,6,7,8]. The
control system design program finds the crossover
frequency and ultimate gain from the system Bode'
plot, and reports the controller parameters.

CLOSED LOOP SIMULATION
In order to evaluate the actual performance of a
control system, a controller must be added to the open
loop system, and the closed loop system simulated.
Figure 6 shows the resulting block diagram. The stu-
dent is prompted to specify a controller type, and is
permitted to choose one of the controller design
methods incorporated in the design package (if the
necessary open loop tests and data analysis have been
carried out), or to specify values for the individual
controller parameters. The latter option allows use of


qther design methods. It also permits empirical op-
timization of the controller for the particular system
under investigation.
Either set point or disturbance inputs can be per-
turbed, and the user is allowed to specify either a
pulse or step input. The resulting response is plotted
on the screen, and the value of the integral absolute
error (IAE) performance criterion is displayed to pro-
vide an objective measure of performance. Figure 7
shows the results obtained with the example system
with P only, PI, and PID controllers based on the
Ziegler-Nichols FOPDT design procedure.
A typical assignment using the closed loop
simulator is to compare the performance obtained
with various controllers and various controller tuning
formulae, and then to investigate the effect of varying
the controller parameters from the values determined
by the best tuning correlation. This emphasizes the
point that the various empirical correlations are nor-
mally good starting points in tuning a controller, but
will only by chance be optimal.

CONCLUSIONS
The control systems design package described
herein has proved to be quite effective in conveying
basic feedback control concepts to undergraduate stu-
dents. Furthermore, the students have responded
very positively, both because of the opportunity to
work with the computer, and because the program
eliminates a great deal of tedium compared to hand
calculations of controller design and performance.
Enhancements of the program are being planned.
One will permit the student to be provided with a
"black box" process rather than one specified in terms
of loop transfer functions. The student can then be
assigned to identify the unknown process by step and/
or pulse testing and use the results to design a control

hIS'I - 313 InteW1 Tim













FIGURE 7. Proportional, PI, and PID Controller Perfor-
mance Comparison.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









system. Optional "noise" on the measured output may
also be added to improve realism. The addition of an
optional feedforward controller for the disturbance is
also being considered.
Copies of the program (on 5 1/4 inch MS-DOS for-
matted diskette) and user documentation are available
for $15 to cover duplication and postage. The program
is supplied as executable files (compiled using the IBM
BASCOM compiler), but BASIC source files are in-
cluded as well.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The financial support of the Olin Charitable Trust
in the form of a Summer Research Grant for one of
the authors is gratefully appreciated.

REFERENCES

1. Carnahan, Brice, MicroCACHE Software for Computer-
Assisted Instruction, CACHE Corporation, Ann Arbor, 1985.
2. Fogler, H. Scott, "Interactive Computing in a Chemical Reac-
tion Engineering Course," 1985 AIChE Annual Meeting,
Chicago, No. 1986.
3. Smith, Carlos A. and Armando B. Corripio, Principles and
Practice of Automatic Process Control, John Wiley, New
York, 1985.
4. Smith, Cecil L., Digital Control of Processes, Intext Educa-
tional Publishers, Scranton, 1972.
5. Coughanowr, Donald R., and Lowell B. Koppel, Process Sys-
tems Analysis and Control, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965.
6. Luyben, W. L., Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control
for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973.
7. Murrill, Paul W., Automatic Control of Processes, Interna-
tional Textbooks, Scranton, 1967.
8. Stephanopoulas, George, Chemical Process Control, Prentice-
Hall, NJ, 1984.
9. Ziegler, J. G., and N. B. Nichols, "Optimum Settings for
Automatic Controllers," Transactions ASME, 64, 759, 1942.
10. Cohen, G. H., and G. A. Coon, Transactions ASME, 75, 827,
1953.
11. Lopez, A. M., P. W. Murrill, and C. L. Smith, "Controller
Tuning Relationships Based on Integral Performance
Criteria," Instrumentation Technology, 14, 11, 57, 1967. [1



ton book reviews


NUMERICAL HEAT TRANSFER
by Tien-Mo Shih
Hemisphere Publishing, NY; 563 pages (1984)
Reviewed by
Michael F. Malone
University of Massachusetts
This is a lengthy book consisting of fifteen chap-
ters in four parts. Part I is entitled "Preliminaries"


and consists of the four chapters: 1. "Numerical
Methods Used in Heat Transfer (I)," where finite dif-
ference and the finite element are introduced, 2.
"Numerical Methods Used in Heat Transfer (II),"
where a more extensive discussion of the Galerkin and
Collocation methods appears, 3. "Numerical Methods
Used in Heat Transfer (III)," that discusses higher-
order finite elements, integral method and perturba-
tion solutions, and 4. "Numerical Properties of Vari-
ous Discretization Schemes."
Part 2 describes "Fundamental Heat Transfer
Modes" in the chapters: 5. "Heat Conduction," 6.
"Laminar Forced Convection: Hydrodynamic Bound-
ary Layer (I)," 7. "Laminar Forced Convection: Hy-
drodynamic Boundary Layer (II)," 8. "Streamwise
Diffusive Flows," 9. "Transport of Energy and
Species," and 10. "Radiation."
Part 3 consists of three chapters on "Important
Heat Transfer Phenomena": 11. "Laminar Free Con-
vection and Mixed Convection," 12. "Introduction to
Turbulent Flows," and 13. "Introduction to Combus-
tion Phenomena."
"Numerical Analyses" is the fourth and final part
made up of two chapters: 14. "Spaces and Error
Bounds," and 15. "Comparison of Finite-Difference
Method and Finite-Element Method."
There are also three appendices.
This book is detailed in its coverage of numerical
method and examples; the literature references are
concentrated largely in the 1970's and early 1980's. In
some areas, such as the coverage of stiff, coupled,
convective-diffusion models in Chapter 8, the material
provides a welcome addition and summary of
techniques such as upwinding in the Galerkin finite
element method. However, there is a less than
adequate treatment of transient problems using mod-
ern integration packages such as Gear's method to
solve the evolution problem, although there is a dis-
cussion of the well-understood numerical instabilities
and/or inconsistencies introduced by traditional
explicit or explicit-implicit schemes for the initial-
boundary value problem in Chapter 4.
This book could be used as a source of examples in
a course in heat transfer or numerical methods. It
would seem unsuitable as a textbook for either how-
ever, because of its restricted treatment of numerical
methods on the one hand and because of its lack of the
necessary perspective on the role of analytical
methods and physical property measurements in heat
transfer on the other.
The individual sections of the book are clearly writ-
ten, but are heavy in detail at the expense of perspec-
tive. The printing is carefully done and the book seems
to be relatively free of typographical errors. O


WINTER 1987










class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in chemical
engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle
in class, or in a new light, or that can be assigned as a novel home problem, are requested as well as those that
are more traditional in nature, which elucidate difficult concepts. Please submit them to Professor H. Scott
Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.



A PROBLEM WITH COYOTES


MARK A. YOUNG
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695

AS A student in a graduate reaction engineering
course, I was assigned the task of creating and
taking a final examination for the course.* In our class
discussion of reactor stability we had briefly address-
ed limit cycle behavior and its representation using
phase-plane plots. This was the third instance in a
matter of months that I had heard reference made to
limit cycle behavior. The topic had also been broached
in a departmental seminar and in another class. How-
ever, in each case the speaker did not have time to
elaborate on this intuitively puzzling phenomenon.
Hence, it seemed that a problem involving this stabil-
ity concept would be interesting to the imaginary stu-
dent taking my test.
A microbial predator-prey interaction model that
I had been exposed to in a biotechnology course pro-
vided an attractive starting point, mostly due to its
simplicity. However, I chose to apply the microbial
model to a mammalian system, with the thought that
such a macroscopic system would be easier to vis-
ualize. In an ancillary question, I observed that I had
applied a simple model to a complex system and called
upon the student to critique the model's construction
and to propose possibilities for its improvement. The
question and its solution follow.

PROBLEM


Mark A. Young is currently a graduate student at North Carolina
State University. He earned a liberal arts degree from Duke University
in 1975 and a BS in chemical engineering from N.C. State in 1984.
His research interests include biochemical engineering and transport
phenomena. Any of his time not devoted to his wife or to engineering
is generally spent listening to (and learning to play) traditional Amer-
ican and British music.

have been lost to coyotes that his flock is decreasing
in size, a situation resulting in significant economic
hardship. An acquaintance of his at the FCX has of-
fered to trap and destroy coyotes in his region. The
fee, however, is exorbitant. Nevertheless, the
rancher is tempted to try the measure in hopes of
expanding the sheep population.
You vaguely recall reading about the Lotka-Vol-
terra model of predator-prey interactions during your
university days. Leafing through an old book*, you
find the following equations for the model


While working in Arizona as a petroleum engineer, dn1
you are befriended by a sheep rancher who lives down dt = anl - kn1n2
the road. One afternoon the rancher seeks your advice
on a problem. Recently his flock has been plagued by dn2 bn +kn
coyote attacks. In fact, in recent years so many lambs dt 2 1 kn2
*For a discussion of this assignment, see Felder, R. M., "The
Generic Quiz: A Device To Stimulate Creativity and Higher-Level *Bailey, J. E. and Ollis, D. F., Biochemical Engineering Funda-
Thinking Skills," Chemical Engineering Education, 19, 176 (1985). mental, [2nd Ed.] New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1986.
�Copyrighl ChE Division ASEE 1987


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


[ChEJr









where nI = prey population
n2 = predator population
a,b = specific growth rate constants for prey
and predator respectively (time-')
njn2 = product of predator-prey populations;
proportional to the frequency of
predator-prey encounters
k = proportionality constant; represents
both the fraction of predator-prey
encounters resulting in death of the
prey and the rate of decrease in
prey population per kill (time-'
coyote-')
q = proportionality constant; represents
the amount by which predator pop-
ulation increases per kill (coyote
sheep-1)

The book also states that the model may be expressed
as

expy exp(y = exp(c)

where


=integration
constant


and the steady state solutions, nl, and n2s, are

n =s =ik n22s =

1. Derive the second form of the model beginning
with the first.
2. The trapper estimates that his operation could


0. 2000. 4000. 6000.
Number of Sheep

FIGURE 1. Predator/Prey Population Cycles


A microbial predator-prey interaction
model that I had been exposed to in a biotechnology
course provided an attractive starting point,
mostly due to its simplicity.

provide a 38% reduction in the coyote population. As-
suming the following values for model parameters,
would you recommend the trapping operation based
upon the Lotka-Volterra model? In your analysis con-
sider the time dependence of the sheep population
both before and after the proposed trapping opera-
tion. Summarize your findings using phase-plane
plots.

Data: a = 5 x 103 day-1
b = 5 x 10- day-1
k = 10- day-' coyote-'
q = .002 coyote sheep-1
nI (initial) = 2350 sheep
n2 (initial) = 53 coyotes

3. What assumptions have been integral to your
analysis which might affect the validity of your re-
sults? How might you modify the model to increase its
applicability for this situation?


SOLUTION
1. The derivation is easily performed and is briefly
outlined by Bailey and Ollis (p. 872).
2. The behavior of the two populations over time
may be represented in a phase-plane plot, which could
be generated by either of two means: The second form
of the model could be solved for Y2 for a selected yl,
or the coupled equations could be solved directly via
a numerical technique. The highly nonlinear nature of
the second model expression makes determination of
its roots via conventional numerical techniques quite
difficult. An additional disadvantage to this approach
is that one cannot associate a time with a given posi-
tion on the plot, which might be helpful in an applica-
tion such as this. Consequently, the coupled equations
were solved using a Runge-Kutta routine. The output
appears in Table 1 (next page).
The phase-plane plot appears in Figure 1. Shown
are the predicted population cycles for the situations
with and without the decrease in coyote population.
The stable population of 2500 sheep and 50 coyotes is
indicated. From the graph and the data one would
deduce that the sheep population is currently about
halfway through the declining phase of its cycle, which
correlates with the rancher's account of dwindling
numbers of sheep in recent years. Although the popu-


WINTER 1987


n 2
YI (is 2 (2�












lation is cyclic, it is relatively close to the stable popu-
lation. On the other hand, after the elimination of 20
coyotes, the range of the cycle becomes enormous. If
this cycle were followed, the sheep population would
soar to over 6500 for a period but then plummet to
below 1000 for over three years. To determine
whether the trapping operation would lead to a net
increase in the average sheep population, one can
time-average the data for both situations:
T

average number of sheep = 1
year T n dt
0

where T = the cycle period
Taking this average using the trapezoid rule yields

average population without trapping = 2500 sheep
average population with trapping = 2500 sheep

Thus, in either case the population oscillates
around the same value. Consequently, the rancher
would be unwise to pay for trapping the coyotes. Re-
duction of the coyote population would not increase


his average flock size but would introduce huge cyclic
extremes in population, which would exacerbate his
economic difficulties.
3. Clearly, many changes could be made to the
model which would improve its applicability to this
situation. Several suggestions are listed below.
a) The model assumes that predators have only
one food source (the prey species), which is not realis-
tic in this situation. A term could be added to repre-
sent the lumped effects of alternative food sources.
b) The model assumes that prey die only due to
predation. A term could be added to represent the
lumped effects of other means of death, e.g. disease,
old age, and severe weather.

c) The model bases reproduction rate upon the
number of individuals present. This is reasonable for
species subject to asexual reproduction, but for mam-
mals growth would more logically be proportional to
the number of pairs , n1/2. Even better, reproduction
could be modeled as being proportional to the number
of interactions between members of the opposite sex,
(ni/2)2. The model would then become


TABLE 1


Population

TIME (years)
0.0
0.7
1.4
2.1
2.7
3.4
4. 1
4.8
5.5
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.2
8.9
9.6
10.3
11.0
11.6
12.3
13.0
13.7
14.4
15 .1
15.8
16.4
17.1
'7.8
18.5
19.2
19.9
20.5
21.2
21 .9
22.6
23.3
24.0


Dynamics With Trapping


SHEEP
2350.0
3578.1
5193.9
6641.0
6780.3
5226.8
3246.9
1880.3
1144.7
779. 2
606. 1
539.7
545.6
618.9
776.4
1059.3
1541.8
2335.6
3557. 1
5169.5
6626.6
6791.7
5256.2
3272. 1
1894.9
1152. 1
782.8
607.8
540. 1
545. 1
617.3
773.3
1054.0
1532.9
2321.3
3536.2


COYOTES
33.0
33.7
37.0
44.0
54.8
65.6
71.4
71.4
67.9
62.8
57.3
52.0
47.2
42.8
39.1
36.1
34.0
33.0
33.7
36.9
43.9
54.6
65.5
71.4
71.5
67.9
62.9
57.4
52.1
47.2
42.9
39.2
36.2
34.0
33.0
33.7


Population Dynamics Without Trapping


TIME (years)
0.0
0.7
1.4
2.1
2.7
3.4
4.1
4.8
5.5
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.2
8.9
9.6
10.3
11.0
11.6
12.3
13.0
13.7
14.4
15 .1
15.8
16.4
17 .1
17.8
18.5
19.2
19.9
20.5
21.2
21.9
22.6
23.3
z4.0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


SHEEP
2350.0
2195.0
2091.0
2044.3
2056.1
2124.7
2245.2
2408.3
2596.8
2784.2
2935.6
3015.8
3002.2
2896.3
2724.2
2525.2
2336.6
2185.1
2085.3
2043.1
2059.4
2132.2
2256.4
2422. 1
2611.6
2797.6
2944.7
3018.2
2997.2
2885.0
2709.4
2509.9
2323.4
2175.5
2080.0
2042.3


COYOTES
53.0
52.4
51.5
50.3
49.2
48.2
47.4
47.0
47.0
47.5
48.4
49.5
50.8
52.0
52.8
53.2
53.0
52.3
51.4
50.3
49.1
48. 1
47.4
47.0
47.0
47.5
48.4
49.6
50.9
52.1
52.9
53.2
52.9
52.3
51.3
50.2










dn fn 2
- _a 1 -knn
dt a 2 - knln2
d) The model assumes an environment shielded
from external intervention, e.g. urban growth displac-
ing coyotes from an adjacent region into your region.
Such factors would be difficult to incorporate into the
model explicitly, but their existence adds to the uncer-
tainty of the results.
e) The model predicts unbounded prey growth in
the absence of the predator. This is clearly unrealistic
as other limits to growth exist, e.g. food supply and
land area. The specific growth rate term could be mod-
ified to approach zero when the population reaches
the maximum number which the environment can
maintain. For example, if the food supply (F) were
taken to be the limiting factor in the absence of pre-
dators, the model might become:


dn1- - c b
-dt c + F "1


where C = a


An additional equation for how F changes with n, and
n2 would also be required.
f) The parameter estimates are clearly a large
source of uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis could be
done on the parameters, and improved estimates
could be sought for those having the greatest impact.
For example, the parameters of most interest are
those determining the steady state sheep population,
i.e., b, q and k. A 20% increase in the estimate of b
results in a comparable increase in the steady state
population, but the average coyote population is un-
changed. Similarly, decreases in q elevate the prey
population without affecting the predator population.
If the estimates for k and q were increased and de-
creased by 20% respectively, the prey population
would increase by 25.0%, while the predator popu-
lation would decrease by 16.6%. However, these
rather modest changes in parameter and steady state
values are accompanied by drastically different be-
havior in the phase plane representation of population
dynamics. As seen in Figure 2, a totally different vis-
ion of the effects of trapping emerges when these
parameter changes are made. Indeed, even the qual-
itative trends are inverted, with the larger oscillations
in population occurring before the trapping operation.
CONCLUSION
Counterparts to the undamped oscillation
examined here in a biological context are readily found
in chemical engineering applications. In both cases
competing effects may be identified as the underlying
cause of the oscillation. In the biological example, the
rate of increase in prey population is enhanced by en-
larged population size and decreased by encounters


0. 2000. 4000. 6000.
Number of Sheep
FIGURE 2. Predator/Prey Population Cycles


8000.


with the predator species. Conversely, the growth
rate of the predator population is negatively affected
by increases in its magnitude and benefited by in-
creased encounters with the prey.
Conceptually similar phenomena may be identified
in a temperature-controlled CSTR in which an
exothermic decomposition reaction occurs. The rate
of heating is elevated by increases in reactant concen-
tration and reactor temperature. Heat exchange coils
in the reactor constantly remove heat at a rate propor-
tional to the difference between the reactor and cool-
ing-water temperatures. In a simple control scheme,
additional cooling capacity would be engaged
whenever the reactor temperature exceeds the set-
point temperature. The rate of the added cooling
would be proportional to the deviation from the de-
sired temperature.
Hence, for such a reactor, high temperatures in-
voke a high cooling rate with concomitant decreases
in the reaction (heating) rate, and the temperature
falls. In contrast, low temperatures result in low cool-
ing rates and low reaction rate constants. Resulting
increases in reactant concentration raise the reaction
(heating) rate, and the temperature rises. For certain
combinations of system parameters, these competing
effects generate limit cycles very similar to those dis-
played by the predator-prey example. However, a
noteworthy distinction may be made between the two
types of oscillations: The position of the predator-prey
population cycle in the phase plane depends upon the
initial population sizes, but for the chemical reactor,
the location of the cycle is independent of initial reac-
tor temperature.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes to thank Prof. R. M. Felder for
his numerous helpful suggestions. D


WINTER 1987


OUTER CURVE: WITHOUT TRAPPING
OUTER CURVE: WITHOUT TRAPPING
INNER CURVE: WITH TRAPPING









I I I I I










U international


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

AND PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA


0. C. OKORAFOR
University of Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt, Nigeria

T HE PROBLEMS OF chemical engineering education
in Nigeria, as in other developing countries, are
closely tied to economic conditions and its state of in-
dustrialization. Since it emerged as a sovereign state,
Nigeria has experienced a "pre-austerity" period, fol-
lowed by an "austerity" (1982 till present) period. The
second period is when the government realized it had
a limited and fast-dwindling foreign exchange, and it
imposed stringent measures to protect it. However,
problems with chemical engineering education re-
mained identical in both periods. For example, in the
pre-austerity time the government had a sufficient
budget to establish modern chemical engineering de-
partments and to obtain laboratory equipment.
Nonetheless, maintenance and efficient use of these
facilities was not achieved, as Abdul Kareem [1] and
Silveston [5] discussed. On the other hand, educa-
tional institutions that introduced chemical engineer-
ing programs during the present austerity period do
not have laboratory equipment and other facilities due
to a shortage of funds.

PRESENT STATE OF ChE EDUCATION
In Nigeria there are two types of undergraduate
programs, although they are essentially the same in
actual chemical engineering course content. The four-
year program is mainly for students with the General
Certificate of Education (G.C.E.) A-level diploma in
the three foundation subjects (chemistry, physics, and
mathematics). The G.C.E. A-level is probably equiva-
lent to a two-year post-high school study in a commu-

In Nigeria there are two types
of undergraduate programs, although they are
essentially the same in actual chemical
engineering course content.

� Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1987


Ogbonnaya Charles Okorafor graduated with BSc (1977) in chem-
ical engineering at the University of Lagos. After graduation he worked
for two years as a research engineer with the Federal Institute of Indus-
trial Research, Oshodi Lagos. He received his MASc (1980) and his PhD
(1982) from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, and re-
turned to Nigeria as a Lecturer at the department of chemical engineer-
ing, University of Port Harcourt. His present research interests include
crystallization and process engineering.

nity college as found in U.S. and Canada. The other
is a five-year program for candidates with a high
school diploma (West African School Certificate or
G.C.E. O-level passes in five subjects, including the
foundation subjects). Candidates with G.C.E. A-level
are exempted from the matriculation examination and
are expected to enroll in the second year of the five-
year engineering program. Students with G.C.E. O-
level sit for the matriculation examination organized
by the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board
(J.A.M.B) for all the accredited universities in the
country, held every year on the last Saturday of April.
Successful candidates are placed in the schools of their
choice by JAMB and enter the first year of the five-
year program.
There are presently twenty-four universities
accredited by JAMB in the country. Sixteen of them
belong to the Federal Government, while the remain-
ing eight are owned by various state governments. Of
these, only nine institutions have chemical engineer-
ing departments (JAMB Brochure 1985-86). Just four


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









of the nine institutions have begun the graduate pro-
grams.
The chemical engineering courses are introduced
in the second year of the five-year undergraduate edu-
cation. From the second year to the fourth year, inclu-
sive, emphasis is placed on understanding the follow-
ing transport phenomena (heat transfer, mass trans-
fer, and fluid mechanics), thermodynamics, particu-
late systems, separation processes, chemical en-
gineering kinetics and catalysis, chemical reaction en-
gineering, industrial chemistry, polymer science and
technology, principles of plant design, chemical en-
gineering laboratory and chemical engineering
analysis. Subjects like electrical technology, strength
of materials, metallurgy, science of materials, com-
puter programming, mathematics, chemistry,
physics, and humanities are taken from other units of
the institutions. Only a few courses, such as process
dynamics and control, process modeling and optimiza-
tion, introduction to biochemical engineering, man-
agement and law, are taken in the fifth year in order
to provide ample time for the student to tackle the
two important final year projects. The projects are
the chemical engineering research (an individually
supervised research on any chemical engineering topic
of national interest chosen by the student), lecturer
group, and the chemical engineering design project
(the design of an integrated process by a group of
students).
Few institutions in Nigeria (and only the pre-au-
sterity ones) have well-equipped, well-maintained and
up-to-date chemical engineering laboratories that in-
clude unit operations, reaction engineering, and
biochemical engineering laboratories. Even these in-
stitutions do not have process control laboratories.
Computers (digital, analog, and hybrid) are effectively
exploited in just a few chemical engineering depart-
ments.
Another important feature of the undergraduate
curriculum is the compulsory nine months industrial
attachment for the students. This is one of the re-
quirements for a department's accreditation by the
Council of Registered Engineers of Nigeria
(COREN). Some institutions operate a straight aca-
demic year industrial attachment while others split
the nine months into three and attach the students to
industries during the three months summer vacation
of the second, third and fourth years.

DIFFICULTIES IN ChE EDUCATION
Nigeria's problems include: a shortage of technical
know-how (including a shortage of faculty, inadequacy
or lack of support services, shortage of teaching and


research equipment, inadequate or non-existent re-
search funding, lack of administrative experience,
negative attitude towards work, and isolation from
centers of technical activities), insufficient funds, and
lack of supporting industries. The first problem has
been detailed and possible solutions advanced by
Abdul-Kareen [1] and Silveston [5].
The funding problem is an old one in Nigeria. Even
in the "boom" years the percentage of the national
budget allocated to education at all levels should have
been higher than it was. The present severe under-
funding is compounded by the political decision that
students should have a tuition-free university educa-
tion.
A lack of supporting industries means that many
services which promote the quality of engineering
education, such as regular maintenance of laboratory
equipment, consulting opportunities for the engineer-
ing faculty members, training of laboratory techni-
cians and students, are missing.

Few institutions in Nigeria have
well-equipped, well-maintained and up-to-date
chemical engineering laboratories that include unit
operations, reaction engineering, and biochemical
engineering laboratories.

During the boom period, Nigeria imported indus-
tries with the hope that some modern technology
would be transferred to her. This, however, has not
happened. These industries have been "import sub-
stitution"; that is, raw materials, spare parts and
other things are imported. The duty of the imported
industry then reduces to mixing, assembling and pack-
aging. Foreign industries have not been willing to
transfer their up-to-date technical know-how. The
technical people assigned to absorb the modern
technology that is made available are often not know-
ledgeable or competent enough to do so effectively
because their selection may have been carried out for
reasons of political expediency or even through chican-
ery.
The lack of supporting industries causes additional
burdens with respect to training. All students are re-
quired to spend at least nine months at some factory
for training. Unfortunately, many students return
with little or no practical experience. Either they are
not received properly by the industrial organization
through the assignment of challenging and responsible
duties, or the students discover that their chemical
engineering background does not coincide with what
they are presumably being trained for. Some students
lose interest in pursuing an industrial career after
graduation. Instead they choose non-technical, office-


WINTER 1987









type work, or go on to graduate studies, provided that
sufficient interest, a good first degree and funds are
available to them. Furthermore, when the few indus-
tries we do have run into technical problems which
require research and/or development, authorities in
both government and industry turn to the more ex-
pensive foreign experts for help. They hesitate to
make use of the talents of their own researchers and
scholars (who are in most cases educated in the very
same countries from which the technical assistance is
sought).
Student population problems also seem to origi-
nate from a lack of healthy industries as well as a lack
of technical training centers. High school graduates
turn to colleges and universities as their only route to
success and a rewarding future. However, the size
and facilities of the institutions are limited and in most
cases can accommodate a mere 5-10 percent of the
applicants. The demand for higher education tends to
overcrowd all institutions and especially the engineer-
ing schools, which are among the most popular ones.
Faculty-student ratio is reduced and this causes de-
terioration of the quality of engineering education, as
Murti and Murray-Lasso [3] pointed out. Another
problem which places more of a burden on faculty
members is the relatively weak foundation of entering
students in chemistry, mathematics and physics. Al-
though this problem could be solved if only the best
students at the matriculation examination are selected
for admission, a government policy requires preferen-
tial admission for candidates from the so-called "edu-
cationally less developed" areas. The result is poorly
prepared students in our classes.


FUTURE PROSPECTS AND SUGGESTIONS

Even though the government has recognized the
technological education problem, the present ap-
proach does not offer relief. Proliferation of ill-equip-
ped institutions is not a solution. What is needed is:

* Improved technical training along the lines proposed by
Abdul-Kareem and Silveston [1]. In addition, governments
should discontinue the 'federal-character' or 'state
character' policy in staff recruiting. A situation where a
foreigner is preferred over a more-qualified fellow citizen,
even one from a different section of the country, is an
anathema.
* Improved relations between university communities and
industrial centers. This would make industrial adminis-
trators and government policy makers aware of the poten-
tial talents available in Nigeria's own institutions. It
would permit faculty members to gain practical experi-
ence through short-term or long-term industrial leaves-of-
absence. The lecturers would also become conscious of
chemical engineering problems which industries are fac-


ing and could, in turn, modify the contents of their
courses and their educational programs accordingly. A
closer relationship would open new avenues for chemical
engineering students to get worth-while, on-the-job tech-
nical training during their years at the university. Since
most industries in Nigeria are transnationals with chemi-
cal engineers active in the top echelons of management,
perhaps they can help by urging branch plants to set up
research and development departments and encouraging
these departments to work together with universities.
* Effective research institutes and centres which can coop-
erate with our academic institutions and assist our indus-
tries with problems such as alternative raw materials for
industries, energy resources planning, utilization and
management, design and construction of industrial
plants, pollution abatement, greater agricultural produc-
tivity, and food storage, to name the most obvious ones.
Effective research institutions could make proper use of
experts from other countries and attract Nigerian re-
searchers and scientists who are living abroad towards
solving problems of their country without having to re-
turn home. Funds for industrial research centers could
come from government or from some of our own men of
wealth, who now seem to squander their riches on
frivolities.
* Foreign Support: Grants now offered for faculty fellow-
ships by the U.S., Canada and Great Britain need to be
redirected towards more urgent needs such as teaching
and research equipment and books for our libraries.

REFERENCES

1. Abdul-Kareen, H. K. (1983) "ChE Education in the Third
World-Need for International Cooperation," CEE, Spring
1983, p. 79-82.
2. J.A.M.B. Brochure 1985-86 Session (Guidelines for Admission
to First Degree Courses in Nigerian Universities).
3. Murray-Lasso, M. A. (1972) "Engineering Education in
Mexico," IEEE Trans. Educ. E-15 (4), 214-219.
4. Murti, (1972) Ibid.
5. Silveston, P. L. (1983) "ChE Eduation in the Third World-
North American Assistance," CEE, Spring 1983, p. 78. O


REVIEW: Polymer Systems
Continued from page 33.
steps in the development of a final product.
After the general treatment outlined above, the
student is introduced to specific polymers, their
characteristics, and their uses in a chapter devoted to
addition type polymers and another chapter on con-
densation type polymers. The final chapter deals with
various analytical methods used in polymer charac-
terization and identification. This serves as a brief in-
troduction for the chemical engineer to some of the
most common techniques likely to be encountered dur-
ing making or using polymers.
The appendices are an especially useful feature of
this book as they give literature sources, a number of
laboratory exercises, and finally, an index of proper-
ties for the most common polymers. The latter may


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









be a convenient reference for the student after gradu-
ation.
While the number of textbooks in this area is much
greater than it was in 1970, the second edition of Rod-
riguez should be given careful consideration when
selecting a text. Its price is reasonable at $29.95. F



ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL
PROCESSES, 2nd Edition
by R. M. Felder and R. W. Rousseau
John Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NJ $43.95 (1986)
Reviewed by
Dady B. Dadyburjor
West Virginia University
Since this is the second edition of one of the more
popular books for an introductory course in chemical
engineering for sophomores, this review will try to
address two audiences-those who are familiar with
the first edition and who wish to know how it differs
from the present one, and those who wish to compare
this text with others on the same topic. At the start,
it is fair to point out that at this university the text
probably receives a more rigorous workout than at
many other places since it is the basis for the major
portion of two semester-long courses; consequently,
many of the points of discussion may not even be
noticed by those moving through the text at a more
hurried pace.
For those unfamiliar with the book, it starts out
with a few preliminaries, reminders of topics covered
in previous courses, then moves to the fundamentals
of material balances. The treatment is extremely
thorough and step-by-step, from non-reacting, single
species, single units to multiple reactions, multiple
units with recycle, bypass, and (new to this edition)
purge. Then follow the constitutive equations for rela-
tions in one or more phases, with examples showing
their use in solving balances with data that is easier
to obtain. The section on energy balances builds on
material covered previously, and first shows how the
simple forms of the general equation can be derived.
This is followed by the constitutive relations defining
specific heats, heats of reaction, heats of phase
change, and heats of mixing, and their use in energy
balances. Then come general chapters on computer-
aided calculations (new) and transient processes. Fi-
nally, there is a set of case studies, different from
those in the first edition. Each case study is a good
example of a set of problems which can be either
treated after all of the book material is covered or in
discrete increments during the course. Either way, in


each case study there are one or two open-ended prob-
lems which serve as capstoness" for all of the material
covered. At the end of every chapter there are numer-
ous problems, with a good mix of calculator- and com-
puter-type solutions. Liberally sprinkled throughout
the chapter are a set of "Test Yourself' exercises with
solutions, verifying that the student has understood
the concepts, and a set of "Creativity Exercises"
(new) to challenge budding engineers. Each chapter
also contains a good number of worked examples of a
wide range of difficulty.
In my mind, there were only a few, minor, nega-
tives in the first edition, and many of these have been
improved upon in this work. A notable example is the
section on bubble and dew points, which has been
greatly expanded and improved. The more formal
treatment of the degrees of freedom and its relation
to the number of unknowns and the number of equa-
tions in a given system is most appropriate. There is
also a much better treatment of the concepts of frac-
tional conversion and stoichiometric coefficient. How-
ever, the treatment of the heat of solution with refer-
ence to an infinitely dilute standard state would be a
good candidate for further expansion together with,
perhaps, a worked example of significant difficulty.
More significantly, in the treatment of material bal-
ances there is a new section on thermodynamic
equilibrium that I believe the book could have done
without. The parameter defined is not the Equilibrium
Constant and will almost certainly lead to confusion in
subsequent courses in thermodynamics, particularly
with respect to equilibrium in multiple phases.
Further, in the treatment of energy balances I am not
particularly in favor of the Table format used, where
component amounts and enthalpies in the inlet and
outlet streams are listed. This is useful only after the
numbers are obtained and does little to explain how
this is done. I would rather see more extensive use of
the diagrams of hypothetical steps in going from inlet
to outlet conditions. Finally, in the treatment of trans-
ient balances, I would have liked to have seen a
greater emphasis on problems requiring the solution
of (simple) differential equations-for instance with
semibatch operations-instead of a rehashing of inte-
gral batch analysis. I would also have liked to have
seen more continuity between material balances and
energy balance transient problems-for instance, the
chemical reactor and batch distillation treated from
the energy balance point of view.
These drawbacks are more than compensated by
the many advantages of both editions of the book. It
is written in a clear, direct, almost conversational
style; a wide range of material is covered in relatively
Continued on next page.


WINTER 1987









few pages; and the coverage is systematic in its prog-
ression from simple systems to more complicated
ones. Almost certainly, this book will maintain its
leading role among its fellows. 0


UNIT OPERATIONS OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING, 4TH EDITION
by Warren L. McCabe, Julian C. Smith and Peter
Harriot, McGraw Hill (1985), 960 pages, $53.95.
Reviewed by
A. H. Peter Skelland
Georgia Institute of Technology

Thirty years have passed since the publication of
the first edition of this durable text, and its influence
on the profession through succeeding editions and
three decades of graduating seniors must have been
profound. The second edition, published in 1967, reor-
ganized the material in the first version into four main
sections, e.g., fluid mechanics, heat transfer, equilib-
rium stages and mass transfer, and operations involv-
ing particulate solids. This format, which has become
one of the hallmarks of the book, has been retained
through the third and fourth editions, published in
1976 and 1985, respectively.
Peter Harriott, mentioned in the preface to the
first edition as one who reviewed a portion of that
early manuscript, now becomes the third author of
the revised fourth edition.
The authors have commendably resisted the temp-
tation to expand the book further by merely adding
new material; instead they have actually achieved a
6.6% reduction in pages to a total of 960. This has
been accomplished by deletions which include most of
the previous material on mass and energy balances
(normally covered elsewhere in the chemical engineer-
ing curriculum), the entire chapter on phase equilibria
(usually treated in thermodynamics courses), and, in-
terestingly, the Ponchon-Savarit method of analysis
for binary distillation, leaching, and liquid-liquid ex-
traction processes. This involves elimination of the
triangular diagram-delta point method and of the Pon-
chon (Janecke) diagrams in extraction. This, the au-
thors contend, is because the procedure "is rarely if
ever used in practice; for simple separations the
McCabe-Thiele method is entirely adequate and for
more complex separations computer methods are
used." A bold move!
These deletions are countered by several addi-
tions, which include (for the first time) an excellent
21-page chapter on adsorption, expanded treatments
of fluidization, packed bed heat transfer, and mul-


ticomponent distillation (which by now has reached a
level of presentation that would probably enable
superior students to perform plate-to-plate calcula-
tions). Further revision and reorganization are appar-
ent in many areas of this familiar work.
An argument might be made for treating packed
distillation columns in the chapter on distillation, in-
stead of in the one on gas absorption. This would be
on the grounds that distillation is characterized by es-
sentially equimolal countertransfer, in contrast to gas
absorption, which is an example of one-component
mass transfer (one-way diffusion). This necessitates
differences in rigorous formulation of the transfer unit
expressions in the two cases, particularly for non-di-
lute systems.
The time has perhaps come to correct an important
error that has curiously persisted through the second,
third, and fourth editions; this occurs in citing the
Friend and Metzner equation for heat transfer in tur-
bulent flow in a smooth tube. The expression is Equ-
ation (12-62) on page 315, where a factor of 11.8 has
been omitted from the second term in the de-
nominator. Offered as a "more accurate analogy equa-
tion" for h, heat exchangers designed using the uncor-
rected equation would be seriously undersized.
Much of the current clamor for writing in SI units
tends to overlook the fact that a great body of en-
gineering literature already exists in either cgs or En-
glish units. Engineers must therefore retain facility
with traditional unit-systems for easy access to the
older literature, while becoming conversant with SI
units for best use of the newer material and for pres-
ent application. This dual need is well accomodated by
the authors' decision to emphasize both SI and English
units throughout the book.
The text is well stocked with problems for practice
solution, 36% of which are new with this edition. The
Appendices have been expanded by two, compared to
the third edition, by the inclusion of the DePriester
charts giving distribution coefficients in light hydro-
carbon systems for low- and high-temperature ranges.
The present reviewer believes that the book would
have been enhanced by the inclusion of an author
index, but a good 16-page subject index has been pro-
vided.
The drawings, printing, and binding all conform to
the high standards we have come to expect in this
series and, at $53.95, the text gives better value than
most others in the field-certainly it should help more
engineers get more jobs done than will most of its
competitors.
When one includes the precursor of this text, Ele-
ments of Chemical Engineering, by W. L. Badger
and W. L. McCabe, first published by McGraw-Hill in


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










1931, it is realized that Warren L. McCabe has pro-
vided textbook guidance to chemical engineers in a
continuous and ongoing manner for more than half a
century. The latest edition of this book constitutes a
fitting memorial to his outstanding contributions to
the profession. EO


PROCESS REACTOR DESIGN
by Ning Hsing Chen
Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Publishers,
Boston, MA (1983) 545 pages
Reviewed by
Arland H. Johannes
Oklahoma State University
Textbooks on chemical engineering kinetics and
reactor design have changed significantly in the past
three decades as the Hougen and Watson approach
shifted to a Levenspiel approach. This evolutionary
change continues in this book by introducing numeri-
cal methods and computer solutions to complex chem-
ical reactor design equations and problems. We expect
that future texts in this area will follow this trend and
use many of the more modern ideas and techniques
presented in this book to solve industrial reactor de-
sign problems.
The text is suitable for a first undergraduate
course in reactor design. The content is divided into
eleven chapters with mathematical techniques re-
viewed briefly in the ten appendices. The author uses
the molar extent of reaction (reaction coordinate
method) as a bookkeeping and computational tool
throughout the text. This method is introduced in the
first two chapters on Fundamentals and Process Ther-
modynamics and is used extensively in the evaluation
of kinetic data presented in Chapter 3.
After introducing the basic transport equations in
Chapter 4, the author covers homogeneous systems
by devoting a chapter to each of the four ideal reac-
tors. In each chapter, isothermal, nonisothermal and
multiple reactions are covered for each ideal reactor
type. This is a particularly refreshing and logical pre-
sentation of the material.
The last three chapters cover heterogeneous reac-
tor systems, nonideal reactors and design considera-
tions. The heterogeneous reactor chapter covers each
heterogeneous system including catalytic and fluidized
bed reactors. Although this chapter is not written in
great detail, it provides a good overview of these sys-
tems and a fairly good presentation of the design equa-
tions and mathematical techniques needed for model-
ing these systems. The nonideal chapter is very brief
and barely covers problems typically encountered in


industrial applications. The material in this chapter
must be externally supplemented to provide coverage
of nonideal systems.
The final chapter covers some of the major design
and economic considerations in reactor sizing. This
chapter also compares combination reactor systems
and looks at selectivity and productivity.
In general, the material throughout the book is
presented using vigorous mathematical development
followed by numerous numerical example problems.
Fourteen short computer programs are included in the
text and are used frequently to solve the more com-
plex problems. Some background in computer pro-
gramming would be helpful to the student using this
text but a solid mathematics background is absolutely
required. Notation is straightforward and is consis-
tent throughout the text. The end-of-chapter prob-
lems cover the material well and are suitable for
homework, but the total number of these problems is
fairly limited. The book is well written and the En-
glish is good, but at times a more general description
would be more helpful than the step-by-step
mathematical development.
In summary, this book is a useful teaching and
reference text on modern reactor design. O


n books received

Microcomputers in the Process Industry, E. R. Robinson. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ 08873; 349 pages, $78.95, (1985).
Instrumentation and Control for the Process Industries, John
Borer; Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, 52 Vanderbilt Avenue,
New York 10017; 301 pages (1985).
Industrial Environmental Control: Pulp and Paper Industry,
Allan M. Springer; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ 08873;
430 pages, $75 (1986).
Heat Transfer of a Cylinder in Crossflow, by A. Zukauskas and J.
Ziugzda, Edited by G. F. Hewitt; Hemisphere Publishing Co., 79
Madison Ave., New York 10016; 208 pages, $59.50 (1985).
Radiation Heat Transfer Notes, by D. K. Edwards; Hemisphere
Publishing Co., 370 pages (1981).
Industrial Hygiene Aspects of Plant Operations, Volume 3, Edited
by L. V. Cralley, L. J. Cralley, K. J. Caplan; Macmillan Publishing
Company, 866 Third Ave., New York 10022; 785 pages, $65.00 (1985).
Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Vol. 12, by Mary Fieser; Wiley
Interscience, Somerset, NJ 08873; 643 pages, $47.50 (1986),
Basic Corrosion and Oxidation, Second Edition, by John M. West;
Halstead Press, Somerset, NJ 08873; 264 pages, $44.95 (1986).
Modern Control Techniques for the Processing Industries, by T.
H. Tsai, J. W. Lane, C. S. Lin; Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison
Avenue, New York, NY 10016; 296 pages, $59.75 (1986).
Quality Management Handbook, edited by Loren Walsh, Ralph
Wurster, Raymond J. Kimber; Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison
Avenue, New York 10016; 1016 pages, $75.00 (1986).


WINTER 1987










ChE IN THE FUTURE
Continued from page 17.
training. Or one can establish an internal school, like
MacDonalds' Burger Tech. The company can offer
short courses, either taught by employees or con-
ducted by outside firms or local universities. Even
courses for degree credit can be arranged, locally or
by television. All of these things are being done-it is
a big business.
But should this be necessary? A technical degree
is supposed to certify competence to practice in the
field and provide the necessary background for the
recipient to function in a useful capacity while extend-
ing the knowledge into specialized areas on-the-job.
No business would flourish by selling a product that
the buyer had to modify extensively before being able
to use it, even though sophisticated buyers often do
add proprietary touches.
It is inefficient and costly for industry to try to
substitute for the university. Including overhead and
support personnel such as technicians, it costs about
$200,000 per year to support a technical person in an
industrial R&D organization. The lost-opportunity
cost when these people either take instruction or pro-
vide it is even higher. We should expect a return of
nearly $600,000 per year to result from their contribu-
tions. The net present value is even higher-one year
of R&D work by a knowledgeable person working on
new products or major product and process improve-
ments is worth about $2 million. Looked at that way-
and we do-it costs over $2 million per man-year for
a research professional to do nonproductive work.
Let me hasten to add that we do believe in the
value of continuing education to sharpen skills and en-
hance breadth of knowledge. We are willing to pay for
an appropriate amount of it. We have no desire,
though, to pay for remedial education, just as you do
not want to teach students to read or count.
Hence the last three items in Table 4. Engineers
should be taught to use fundamentals to solve prob-
lems and to be mentally prepared and motivated to
use them. They should be prepared to reason effec-
tively and draw logical conclusions using a quantita-
tive approach. They should then be able to communi-
cate well enough to explain their conclusions and
reasoning effectively and to convince management or
customers to act in accordance with the recommenda-
tions. And, of course, engineers should be willing and
eager to learn.

ACTION ITEMS
Assuming that our goal is to expand the market-
ability of chemical engineers, we must ask several


questions: What might be done to provide this kind of
product? What kind of changes are possible, and who
will make them? Why should they make them?
Table 5 lists six areas in which changes might be
made. Each will be discussed in turn.


TABLE 5
Possible Actions
* CURRICULUM CHANGES
* STRUCTURED OPTIONS
* IMPROVED USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY
* FORWARD-LOOKING TEXTBOOKS
* MORE EMPHASIS ON ADVANCED DEGREES
* CONTINUING EDUCATION


Curriculum
Howard Rase, in preparing the report of the
Septenary Committee [2,3], devoted considerable
space to recommendations on the curriculum. Some of
them are listed in Table 6. We urge you to read that
report if you have not already done so. The last four
issues in the table deal with providing room in the
curriculum without sacrificing the most important
subjects or lengthening the undergraduate program.
Minor changes, where two or three courses are
altered or eliminated in favor of others, will have little
if any effect. If the product is to be a chemical en-
gineer able to function in industry and adapt to a con-
tinually changing environment, that engineer must
have not only a broad knowledge of scientific princi-
ples and techniques, but also some specialized knowl-
edge about the particular technology in which he will
be employed-biology, electronics, materials, chemi-
cal separations, statistics, and computer program-
ming, to name a few.
The term "learning curve" has become such a
cliche in the context of pricing strategy, project man-
agement and the like, that sometimes we forget its
original use as a description of an individual's learning
process. Acquiring and using new knowledge depends
upon a host of connections among bits of information
and also upon attitudes and concepts derived from ex-
perience. In four or five years of training, it is impos-
sible to provide every student with every knowledge
segment that will be useful. So what can be done?
First, eliminate duplication. Start with high school
prerequisites. If you require calculus or chemistry,
then expect the student to know it. If it has to be
made up, since not all high schools are equally profi-
cient and not all high school students are as studious
as one might wish, then by all means teach remedial
courses-but don't give credit toward the degree for
them.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The next element of duplication that should be
eliminated is the repetition between different depart-
ments of the university. Reinforcement is certainly
needed for many subjects, but teaching ther-
modynamics in both chemistry and chemical engineer-
ing is really unnecessary. The remedy may require
the faculties of different departments or colleges to
work together to offer sections of, say, physical or
organic chemistry that are slanted toward chemical
engineers. I realize that this area is a problem in most
universities, but it should be addressed.
The second point is to use computers more effec-
tively-and I do not mean requiring more program-
ming! A survey of our own engineers who have
graduated within the last five years or so indicates
that in many cases they feel they got too much of that.
The real need, they think, is to integrate the computer
into the course to such a degree that the added capa-
bility is channelled toward improving their judgment.
All of the tedious hand calculations and shortcut
techniques that used to play such a major role in chem-
ical engineering courses should be abandoned. Instead


TABLE 6
Recommended Curriculum Changes*
* Prepare for continual change with a broad range of fundamen-
tal knowledge.
* Provide some flexibility for a limited degree of specialization
* Provide room by
Eliminating duplication
Using computers more effectively
Combining courses
* Switch some organic chemistry to biochemistry and change
physics to emphasize the solid state.
* Require modern biology, materials science, modern elec-
tronics, economics.
* Use specialized liberal arts courses.
*From report of the Septenary Committee on the future of Chem-
ical Engineering

students should learn to use problem-solving software
to try cases and to clarify the fundamentals. This ap-
proach will require major investments in time, equip-
ment, text writing, problem construction, and nearly
every other phase of teaching. Not only would it make
better engineers, but it could also allow some time to
be cut from the curriculum to make room for other
subjects.
The third and fourth points are different aspects
of the same idea. By judicious selection of problems,
experiments, and special requirements, a single
course can cover several objectives. For example, oral
presentations of results and review by English
teachers of written reports can be part of laboratory


The second possible action, then,
is the use of structured options. Many
schools do this already, to a limited extent.

or unit operations courses. History could cover the
history of science, government might discuss the need
for a national science policy and the workings of gov-
ernment-sponsored research, language can feature
original scientific papers, and philosophy can cover the
development of scientific reasoning and thought.
There is some disagreement about how much of
the curriculum should be devoted to distributional
courses and the kind that should be required. Our sur-
vey revealed a divided opinion. The general consensus
seemed to be that the cafeteria style involving elec-
tives from several categories was not effective, and
that it would be better to provide some focus. I know
that Rice University is considering a "coherent minor"
for all students, in which the liberal arts students
must minor in a scientific discipline and all science and
engineering students must select a liberal arts minor
in which courses from several departments are struc-
tured to reinforce each other. This idea could be car-
ried one step further and the courses themselves re-
structured, rather than using a menu selected from
existing offerings.
Structured Options
Even though some room in the curriculum may be
provided by the measures discussed, it will probably
be too little to provide the range of abilities needed.
The second possible action, then, is the use of struc-
tured options. Many schools do this already, to a lim-
ited extent. The idea is to offer, say, three courses
designed to provide some additional expertise in an
area such as bioengineering, materials science,
polymer science, separations, applied mathematics,
electronics, or chemistry. Completing such an option,
which might require a slight increase in total hours
for that student, should be recognized by designating
it on the diploma. Such an action would be intended
to increase the marketability of students by increasing
their ability to function effectively during their first
job, and to make it easier for them to extend their
education in these areas after leaving school. This ad-
ditional qualification may or may not command a pre-
mium price, but it should make it easier for the
graduates to get jobs.
Improved Use of New Technology
In 1959, I studied chemical process design under
the late Bob Perry. Our university had an IBM 650,
a marvelous machine with 2,000 words of storage on
a rotating drum that used punched cards as input.


WINTER 1987









The compiler required three passes with cards to pro-
duce a machine language program. There was no ap-
plications software available at all-if you wanted to
solve a bubble-point calculation, then first you had to
write a program to do it. Even then, though, the
enormous possibilities to aid process design were evi-
dent. We used that computer, hands on at night, to
improve our understanding of process design. Each
time we wrote a program, we would think, "Never
again will I have to do that iteration. Never again will
I do a tedious, approximate graphical solution to this
problem because now an exact solution is no more
trouble." It was relatively easy to try different config-
urations of equipment, as in multiple-column separa-
tion systems.
Now it is possible to do "what-if" calculations on
whole processes and to even get theoretical, a priori
estimates of the best possible separation schemes in-
volving all known separation methods. Expert sys-
tems programs can be constructed to help guide the
novice engineer through the reasoning process that
was once the province of experienced consultants.
Complex problems in structural analysis, heat trans-
fer, and fluid flow are routinely solved numerically.
In the past 20 years, the evolution in computer
technology has done far more than make repetitive
calculations faster and more accurate. One can now do
things differently, not just faster. Talks with new em-
ployees and others seem to indicate that the univer-
sities are far from exploiting this capability. It is now
possible to concentrate on improving the students'
judgment, assuming that calculations can and should
be made to the accuracy and degree of complexity
warranted by the problem and available data. The stu-
dent can be taught to consider what other data might
be needed, assess the cost and time needed to obtain
them, and evaluate the probable outcome of experi-
ments. Experimental design and economic analysis
can become a routine part of all evaluations, because
complicated statistical inference or discounted cash
flow analyses become relatively easy to do.
Computers are now a ubiquitous tool. Electronic
communication is becoming routine. Word processing,
spreadsheet programs, relational data bases, desktop
publishing, and computer-aided design are now ordi-
nary tools, just as the slide rule was in the 1950's. The
university must teach the student to use these tools
effectively-not just to manipulate them but to under-
stand how they can contribute to technical productiv-
ity in all ways.
Any hardware that is made commonly available,
such as terminal facilities, must be available in suffi-
cient quantity and be well maintained. At many
schools the inconvenience to the students of inade-


quate ways to access required computer equipment is
staggering. You know about the kind of graffiti that is
started by one student, then added to by another. At
one university, the first student posted a sign on the
computer-room door with Dante's words marking the
gate to hell [4]:
Beyond me lies the way into the woeful city.
Beyond me lies the way into eternal woe.
Beyond me lies the way among the lost people.
to which another student had added, "And beyond
that lies a three-day wait for a terminal!"
To integrate computer technology into the under-
graduate curriculum will require a major commitment
of funds and time by the university, the faculty, and
the students. But it must be done. Not only should
adequate common facilities be provided, but every
student should be required to have a relatively power-
ful personal computer that will run engineering
software. All will also need standard commercial
software for word processing and the like. These tools
will be an inevitable part of the cost of an engineering
education.
Forward-Looking Textbooks
Another major point by the Septenary Committee
was that texts will have to be rewritten and courses
completely revised to implement the first three poten-
tial action areas listed in Table 5.
After reading the report, Professor Byron Bird
wrote each of the committee members [5], expressing
his endorsement of the report and particularly of the
recommendation that new textbooks be written. He
enclosed a copy of his 1983 article in Chemical En-
gineering Education on the subject [6], and added the
following comment:
... Ch.E. has suffered in the past decade or so because of a
noticeable lack of exciting, sparkling, and responsible mod-
ern textbooks. Our professors are too busy getting money for
research grants and accounting for it, and the sad result is
that our most prominent and brilliant researchers and
teachers are being actively discouraged from taking time out
(for) text-book writing!!
He went on to make several points about the role
of textbooks in a changing chemical engineering field:
* In a very real sense, good books bring about change.
* The very boundaries of what we mean by chemical en-
gineering are determined to a significant extent by its
textbooks.
* The field of chemical engineering will inevitably be known
and measured by its journals and books.
Professor Bird's article suggested that "book-writ-
ing" ought to be included as a third principal activity
of a university teacher, in addition to teaching and
research, since it is concerned directly with the pro-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









duction, organization and dissemination of new knowl-
edge. How the writing of forward-looking texts might
be encouraged will be discussed later.
More Emphasis on Advanced Degrees
The first four possible actions in Table 5 relate to
the undergraduate curriculum and to teaching
methods and tools. The last two are concerned with
education beyond that.
References to "terminal" masters degrees are
often made with a sneer. Why should there be some
sort of stigma attached to wanting more than an un-
dergraduate education, but less than a PhD? If we did
not all believe that technical knowledge and excellence
translate into better job performance, we would not
be here. We should encourage students to learn more,
even beyond the undergraduate level, before entering
industry. I would much rather hire an MS degree hol-
der than a BS, because the percentage of technical
courses taken is far higher. Much of the under-
graduate program is devoted to humanities and other
broadening courses, as it should be, but graduate
work is almost exclusively technical.
It is surprising that this trend is not already appar-
ent. Part of the reason it is not may be that many of
those responsible for hiring in industry do not realize
the impact of curriculum changes during the past 20
years. They have a mental image of those 145-hour
BS requirements with virtually no electives common
then, rather than the 128-hour programs heavily laced
with electives and distributive requirements common
now. Also, as enrollments decline, the tendency at
some schools is to lighten the workload to keep as
many students as possible in the program. These same
people who remember the 145-hour curricula also re-
member being torqued to the breaking point because
chemical engineering was the premier, prestigious
subject to take-those who wanted the label had to be
ready to pay the price. Today, the electrical engineer-
ing schools are employing the same Draconian meas-
ures to reduce enrollment to the dedicated core.
Whether you accept this reasoning or not, you may
agree that the natural process in a buyer's market is
to be more and more demanding of the quality of the
product. I believe that the natural result of this pro-
cess will be to move toward the MS as the typical final
degree in chemical engineering, rather than the BS.
There may not be so much of a price premium paid,
but the MS recipients will have first call on the avail-
able jobs. Remember the earlier point that engineers
in the future will do more technical work for a longer
period of time than may have been the case in the
past.
In the present academic system, where most


graduate students are paid, the MS candidate can rep-
resent a drain out of proportion to his contribution.
This problem causes some schools to discourage MS
candidates. However, with a good program there is
no reason to have to pay students to attend. Consider,
for example, the better business schools. People fight
for the privilege of re-entering school at an average
age of 25 or 26, to pay $20,000 in tuition and spend
two years getting a master's degree. Why? Because
the buyers are willing to pay for a premium product.
The press is full of articles about how MBA's from the
big schools are not as good as they think they are;
nevertheless, the firms hiring them are willing to pay
a premium of perhaps $10,000 per year for that differ-
ential. The number of them getting jobs is also virtu-
ally 100%.
Continuing Education
Continual change and the need to adapt are
synonymous with continuing, lifelong education (Table
5). A professor once told me that one of the goals of
the formal educational process is to prepare students
and motivate them to continue their education them-
selves, without the need for spoon-feeding. That is a
laudable goal, but most people either continue to need
spoon feeding or retrogress to that stage after a few
years of using only a subset of their hard-won skills.
One aspect of emerging technology will have a
dramatic effect on continuing education. Videotape
combined with teleconferencing and electronic mail is
making it possible to extend the classroom over the
entire country. Several regional efforts have been suc-
cessful, such as Stanford University's programs in
electronics and electrical engineering. Others are
planned. At least one national capability exists, the
National Technological University (NTU).
The NTU has leased microwave channels and has
become an advanced degree-granting institution.
They do no instruction themselves, but rather con-
tract with universities to do it. Although many of the
offerings are short courses, it is possible to enroll in
a masters degree program in electrical engineering,
computer engineering, or manufacturing systems en-
gineering. The students may participate in actual
classroom instruction, in real time, by videoconferenc-
ing or telephone, or in delayed time by videotape
relay. They actually enroll in the university giving the
instruction. The professor receives additional compen-
sation through consulting fees, and the university re-
ceives a negotiated tuition.
For the student, the courses are expensive
(perhaps $1,000 per course) and the company must
pay a hefty one-time subscription fee, and set up a
microwave receiver, provide a "classroom," and fur-


WINTER 1987










After reading the report, Professor
Byron Bird wrote each of the committee
members, expressing his endorsement of the
report and particularly the recommendation
that new textbooks be written.

nish proctors for examinations. In many cases, how-
ever, this arrangement is much cheaper than in-house
instruction, and almost infinite variety is possible. It
also potentially can provide continuity even though
the student may be transferred to a distant or remote
location. Because the programs can be recorded,
people who travel extensively in their jobs can make
up lost work. These latter two issues are major prob-
lems to the continuing education of engineers in indus-
try.
This kind of capability has the potential for great
change in the way instruction is provided, at any de-
gree level. For example, honors students in high
school might begin university courses without the so-
cial penalty of leaving their age group. Under-
graduates could take complex interdisciplinary pro-
grams involving selected courses not available locally.
Perhaps most important of all, it could revitalize em-
phasis on teaching instead of research.
Think about it. You have surely heard comedians
on television bemoaning the departure of the Catskill
circuit . . . and musicians, the virtual disappearance
of the community band. These sources of entertain-
ment fell victim to the ready availability in every
home of outstanding entertainment, so that amateur
efforts in comparison seemed paltry and inadequate.
Now, who do you think will get the extra pay and
prestige for national televised instruction? Once
people see how much easier it is to learn from truly
outstanding, well-prepared teachers who emerge to
prominence as teachers rather than researchers, some
schools that continue to neglect teaching may find
themselves on the educational Catskill circuit.
Another example is instruction in the military.
Years ago in the Artillery and Guided Missile School
at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, I was amazed to see the
amount of technical information that could be im-
parted to a relatively unsophisticated audience within
a few weeks. The secret was preparation. Every lec-
ture was planned, rehearsed, and revised, and no ef-
fort was spared to design and prepare audio-visual
and mechanical aids to instruction. There is little in-
centive for this approach in many universities, but
there will be when national video participative in-
struction becomes widely available.
The best defense being a good attack, we should
examine this new technology to see how it can be used


to advantage in the production of chemical engineers
who will be in wide demand in many industries.
LEADERSHIP
The real issue for the chemical engineering profes-
sion is leadership-who should provide it? A year or
so ago I attended a week-long course in Washington
sponsored by the Brookings Institute on "Under-
standing Federal Government Operations." It fea-
tured presentations by many officials, both elected
and appointed, from all branches of government. A
repeated theme was that the congress views itself as
a reactive body. Its members do not believe that their
job is to lead, or to anticipate change, but rather to
sense the desires of the populace and react-a spirit-
less point of view, I thought. Doesn't possession of
great knowledge and power carry with it an obligation
to lead?
There seems to be a reluctance on the part of the
academic community to lead change in the profession
of chemical engineering, as well as a reactionary force
to resist change. There are no doubt many contribut-
ing factors. For example, some of the better schools
still find themselves to be in a seller's market; their
graduates are easily placed, partly because they can
still impose high selectivity on incoming talent. They
also have the financial flexibility to enter any new field
with additional faculty and facilities, so that change
occurs through a comfortable growth process without
the necessity for major sacrifices. In a shrinking field,
though, those options are not open to most.
As an example of reactionary influences, consider
one of the barriers that Professor Bird cited concern-
ing writing texts. Neither young professors on the
tenure track nor active researchers needing a continu-
ing series of research publications believe that they
can afford to take the time to write books.
Each school will have to address most of the
foregoing issues, taking into account its own financial
and personnel resources, state regulations, and the
like. The ASEE and AIChE have a stake in the out-
come and should consider how some degree of national
coordination might be achieved. There is one impor-
tant issue, though, that might benefit from active in-
volvement of industry and government, as well as the
academic community, and that is to encourage the
preparation of outstanding textbooks.
Providing Forward-Looking Textbooks
As a student of Jack Powers at the University of
Oklahoma in 1959, I was one of the first under-
graduate guinea pigs for the "Notes on Transport
Phenomena." That volume was John Wiley and Sons'
preliminary edition of Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot's


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










famous book that accomplished for that period of time
all of the things for the field of chemical engineering
that Professor Bird urges others to do today. The field
of chemical engineering underwent a dramatic change
between 1955 and 1965, and their book was a powerful
force for that change.
Bird cited two other quotes:
The true University ... is a collection of books.
-Carlyle
There must be more books, for engineering data and interpre-
tation of results are fundamental needs.
-Chilton

But Bird's point about textbooks "determining the
boundaries of the field" may mean either to expand or
to circumscribe them. Unfortunately, because of the
pressures disfavoring time spent in pi- ,ait of writing
books, many are far from revolutionary. As Robert
Burton said in the early 17th century, "they lard their
lean books with the fat of others' works" [7].
Some of the disincentives to writing texts are that
the task
* Is time consuming.
* Distracts from portions of the job considered critical to
professional success-research and funding.
* Is not financially rewarding.
These items would have to be addressed just to
generate more books. But what is needed is not
merely more books, but novel and different ones, writ-
ten with a coherent goal to allow compaction of the
curriculum through sharper focus-books that will use
the new tools of today to impart information needed
for tomorrow.
The Septenary Committee recommended that the
content of every course in the chemical engineering
curriculum be examined and changed where necessary
to meet a number of criteria and urged that textbooks
be rewritten in major ways. But how can incentives


TABLE 7
Leadership
* PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES SHOULD LEAD
* SUPPORT SHOULD EMERGE FROM
- Government
- Industry
- Universities
- Publishers
- Authors
* FUNCTIONS OF LEADERSHIP
- Establish Goals
- Focus Activities
- Communicate
- Remove Obstacles
- Provide Incentives


be furnished, and who will provide the needed focus
over several years?
Leadership to change the field through improved
texts is not likely to emerge spontaneously from the
academic community, nor to spring from present mar-
ket forces acting upon prospective authors. The re-
maining possibilities would seem to be government,
industry, publishers, and professional societies. How
might all six groups combine their efforts toward im-

Once people see how much
easier it is to learn from truly outstanding,
well-prepared teachers who emerge to prominence
as teachers rather than researchers, some schools
that continue to neglect teaching may find
themselves on the educational
Catskill circuit.


proving the supply of well-prepared chemical en-
gineers, capable of contributing to the needs of gov-
ernment and industry in a way that rewards the au-
thors and their employers appropriately to the degree
of effort and accomplishment involved.
Let us suppose that the goal is to persuade young,
active research professors, already tenured, to devote
the effort and time needed to write really good
textbooks in chemical engineering. Furthermore, we
want these books to incorporate examples in the
newest technologies and to build computer applica-
tions into their core. If possible, we should like to
encourage co-authorship, preferably by those repre-
senting more than one academic discipline or by a
blend of perspectives from industry and academia.
As stated in the first item of Table 7, leadership
should be provided by the societies, whose stake is in
the preservation and enhancement of the profession.
The Chemical Engineering Division of the ASEE, the
AIChE, and the Chemical Research Council are exam-
ples of organizations whose fortunes rise and fall with
that of the profession itself. There are, of course,
other possibilities. For example, the "National Elec-
trical Engineering Department Heads Association,"
which I am told has received NSF funding, meets an-
nually to discuss issues important to that group.
Let us assume for a moment that some society
would take on the role of setting goals, defining re-
quirements for a series of texts that would achieve
these goals, and reviewing the competing proposals
that would be submitted if suitable incentives were
provided. The society could establish a prize, say
$100,000, split one-third upon selection of the winning
prospectus and two-thirds upon acceptance of the final
text by the society's reviewing committee and a pub-
lisher.


WINTER 1987











Financial support could come from both govern-
ment and industry, and the universities could contrib-
ute faculty-release time for course preparation and
text review as well as sabbatical leaves. A number of
universities might agree to help evaluate draft texts
and use the new texts for at least a trial period.
The next essential element is the publisher, who
might agree to establish a series for these books and
provide a standard set of rewards for the authors,
over and above the initial prize.
The final element is the author. Another Robert
Burton remark [8], is that philosophers advise you to
spurn glory, yet they will put their names to their
books. Prestige is a powerful motivating force, but
this plan would allow the author to gain not only in
reputation as an author and prizewinner but also to
minimize the financial penalty.
Who would gain? Everybody. These thoughts have
been discussed with a number of people in industry
and academia. Most agree that money spent on
stimulating the writing of really good textbooks would
do more than an equivalent amount of money spent
directly in support of research.


SUMMARY

When the future of chemical engineering is the
subject, there is indeed much to talk about. First,
some of the signs of change facing the chemical en-
gineering profession were described and the underly-
ing reasons for them were proposed.
Next, you were urged, as members of the aca-
demic community, to adopt a market-oriented attitude
in addressing the needs of your traditional customers,
the industries who have long employed chemical en-
gineers. But also you were encouraged to include the
electronics, food, health-care, aerospace, and other in-
dustries whose need for chemical engineers might be
expected to grow in an increasingly technological soci-
ety oriented toward high-value-in-use specialty prod-
ucts.
We then reviewed six areas of action to address
the needs of industry by expanding the capabilities
and improving the training of chemical engineers.
Finally, the problem of leadership was raised and
the need for cooperative action in several areas was
stressed. A way was suggested by which your society
or other professional groups might enlist the aid of
industry and government, as well as focus and coordi-
nate your own efforts, to define goals and stimulate
the creation of outstanding texts. Cohesive leadership
must form the cornerstone of any effort directed to-
ward stimulating evolution in the field of chemical en-
gineering.


REFERENCES

1. In search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best Com-
panies, Peters, Thomas J., and Waterman, Jr., Robert H.,
1982.
2. "Chemical Engineering Education for the Future," report by
the Septenary Committee on Chemical Engineering Education
for the Future, sponsored by the University of Texas at Austin.
Mr. Henry Groppe, Chairman. Edited by James R. Brock and
Howard F. Rase. 1985.
3. Chemical Engineering Progress, Vol. 81, No. 10, "Chemical
Engineering Education for the Future," pp. 9-14. A report by
the Septenary Committee sponsored by the Dept. of Chemical
Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
4. Inferno, Canto III, Dante.
5. Bird, R. B., Vilas Research Professor and John D. MacArthur
Professor, Dept. of Cemical Engineering, University of Wis-
consin, personal communication (letter).
6. "Writing and Chemical Engineering Education," Chemical En-
gineering Education, Fall 1983, pp. 184-193. R. Byron Bird,
University of Wisconsin-Madison. Presented for the Phillips
Petroleum Company Chemical Engineering Lectureship
Award, Oklahoma State University, December 6, 1982.
7. Anatomy of Melancholy, Robert Burton, Ed. by Joan R. Pet-
ers, 1980.
8. Ibid. O




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