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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
AA00000383_00092 ( sobekcm )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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3M FOUNDATION








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
wiud a do4micaw oj jeuna.















This is the 18th Graduate Education Issue published by CEE.
It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested in
and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on
graduate courses, research at various universities and announce-
ments of departments on their graduate programs. In order for
you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also
those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years
follows. If you would like a copy of a previous Fall issue, please
write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida


AUTHOR


Bailey, Ollis
Belfort
Graham, Jutan
Soong
Van Zee
Radovic
Shah, Hayhurst
Bailie, Kono,
Henry
Kauffman
Felder



Lauffenburger
et al.
Marnell
Scamehorn
Shah
White

Zygourakis
Bartholomew,
Hecker
Converse, et al.
Fair
Edie
McConica
Duda



Davis
Sawin, Reif

Shaeiwitz

Takoudis
Valle-Riestra

Woods
Middleman
Serageldin


FALL 1986


TITLE

Fall 1985

Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Separations & Recovery Processes
Teaching Time Series
Polymer Processing
Electrochemical & Corrosion Engineering
Coal Utilization & Conversion Processes
Molecular Sieve Technology

Fluidization
Is Grad School Worth It?
The Generic Quiz


Fall 1984


Applied Mathematics
Graduate Plant Design
Colloid & Surface Science
Transport Phenomena
Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based
Seminars
Linear Algebra

Research on Catalysis
Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Separations Research
Graduate Residency at Clemson
Semiconductor Processing
Misconceptions Concerning Grad School

Fall 1983

Numerical Methods and Modeling
Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit
Fabrication
Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass
Transfer
Chemical Reactor Design
Project Evaluation in the Chemical
Process Industries
Surface Phenomena
Research on Cleaning up in San Diego
Research on Combustion


Wankat, Oreovicz

Bird
Thomson,
Simmons



Hightower

Mesler
Weiland, Taylor
Dullien
Seapan
Skaates
Baird, Wilkes
Fenn


Abbott
Butt, Kung

Chen, et al.
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al.
Thomson
Bartholomew
Hassler
Miller
Wankat
Wolf



Bird
Edgar, Schecter
Hanratty
Kenney
Kerchenbaum,
Perkins, Pyle
Liu
Peppas
Rosner
Lees
Senkan, Vivian


Culberson
Davis
Frank
Morari, Ray

Ramkrishna
Russel, et al.
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen


Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job
Hunting
Book Writing and ChE Education

Grad Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry

Fall 1982

Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite
Catalysts
Nucleate Boiling
Mass Transfer
Funds. of Petroleum Production
Air Pollution for Engineers
Catalysis
Polymer Education and Research
Research is Engineering


Fall 1981

Classical Thermodynamics
Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction
Engineering
Parametric Pumping
Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer
Simulation
Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization
Oil Shale Char Reactions
Kinetics and Catalysis
ChE Analysis
Underground Processing
Separation Processes
Heterogeneous Catalysis

Fall 1980

Polymer Fluid Dynamics
In Situ Processing
Wall Turbulence
Chemical Reactors

Systems Modelling & Control
Process Synthesis
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Combustion Science & Technology
Plant Engineering at Loughborough
MIT School of ChE Practice

Fall 1979

Doctoral Level ChE Economics
Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics
Courses in Polymer Science
Integration of Real-Time Computing Into
Process Control Teaching
Functional Analysis for ChE
Colloidal Phenomena
Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Mathematical Methods in ChE
Coal Liquefaction Processes
















































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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857

Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner

Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

Chairman:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Members
SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

CENTRAL:
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley

NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XX NUMBER 4 FALL 1986


Award Lecture
202 Image Processing and Analysis for Turbulence Research,
Robert S. Brodkey

Views and Opinions
161 Hougen's Principles, R. Byron Bird
164 Graduate Studies: The Middle Way, J. L. Duda
178 Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity, Jacob Jorne

Lecture
168 Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers,
Neal R. Amundson

Courses in
174 Graduate Education in Chemical Engineering: A Workshop,
Donna G. Blackmond
188 Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering,
V. Venkatasubramanian

Research in
186 The Processing of Electronic Materials,
S. V. Babu, Peter C. Sukanek
194 Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology,
Murray Moo-Young
198 Characterization of Powders and Porous Materials,
Abhaya K. Datye, Douglas M. Smith, Frank L. Williams

A Program In
182 Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering,
George Stephanopoulos

160 In Memoriam : Olaf Andreas Hougen
163 Editorial: Olaf Hougen: Teacher, Researcher, Educator
167 Division Activities .
167 Letters to the Editor
177 Summer School '87
180 William H. Corcoran Outstanding Paper Award
181 Book Reviews
207 Positions Available
210 Index

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division,
American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Spings,
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the adver-
tising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0.
Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and
Mexico is $20 per year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk
subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright 1986
Chemical Engineering Division of American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the
ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the
identification of this periodical.


FALL 1986









eot. .



OLAF ANDREAS HOUGEN
(1893-1986)


R. BYRON BIRD
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706


Olaf Hougen, who died on January 7, 1986, was
one of the giants in chemical engineering: a brilliant
researcher, a formidable teacher, and a world-famous
author, whose books influenced the course of his pro-
fession.
He was born in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, on October
4, 1893; his father was a Lutheran clergyman. He re-
ceived his BS (cum laude) at the University of
Washington, and his ChE and PhD degrees in 1918
and 1925, respectively, at the University of Wiscon-
sin, all of his degrees being in chemical engineering.
In 1918 and 1919 he spent 18 months in the research
department of the Carborundum Company at Niagara
Falls, New York.
His teaching career covered a period of over 40
years, most of it at the University of Wisconsin; he
also held teaching appointments at the Illinois Insti-
tute of Technology, UCLA, the Norwegian Institute
of Technology (Trondheim), Kyoto University, and
Nagoya University. For three periods, totalling eight
years, he served as departmental chairman; even
when he was not chairman, he exercised considerable
influence and leadership.
Professor Hougen joined ASEE in 1930; he was
active in the organization of the Chemical Engineering
Division and served as its chairman in 1935-36. Some
of his papers on chemical engineering education were
published in the Journal of Engineering Education.
He felt strongly that his colleagues should participate
in ASEE activities and take advantage of that organi-
zation to exchange ideas with chemical engineering
teachers at other schools.
To many generations of students Professor
Hougen was known affectionately as "Big 0." And he
was big: big in stature (well over 6 feet tall), big in
his profession, and big in compassion and understand-
ing. He was a skilled teacher, with deep knowledge of
his subject material; he knew how to get his students
to think their way through difficult problems without


intimidating them. His insistence on high-quality per-
formance and his emphasis on high standards were
balanced by his kindly attitude and his spontaneous
sense of humor. He felt that serving the students by
helping them to master difficult technical material was
a most important assignment. It was well-known
among the students that Professor Hougen's ther-
modynamics course was the best one on the campus,
and students from the chemistry and physics depart-
ments regularly attended his lectures; his course dealt
with real materials (not just ideal gases and ideal solu-
tions) and the problems worked in the course dealt
with real processes and real chemical systems (not
just schoolbook exercises).
Students all over the world profited from Olaf
Hougen's teaching via his books: Industrial Chemical
Calculations (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, 1931,
1936); Chemical Process Principles, I, Material and
Energy Balances (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson,
1943; revised along with R. A. Ragatz, 1954); Chemi-
cal Process Principles, II, Thermodynamics, 1946;
revised along with R. A. Ragatz, 1959); Chemical
Process Principles, III, Kinetics and Catalysis (0.
A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, 1947); Chemical Pro-
cess Principles Charts (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Wat-
son, 1946); Reaction Kinetics in Chemical Engineer-
ing, CEP Monograph 1 (0. A. Hougen, 1951). The
"CPP" trilogy was immensely successful and influen-
tial because of its pedagogical soundness, clear scien-
tific basis, and excellent illustrative examples.
Perhaps less well known to chemical engineers was
Olaf Hougen's particular dedication to Norway, the
land of his forebears. He served the Organization for
American Relief to Norway as treasurer for Wisconsin
during the years 1940-1945 (for which he received a
citation from King Haakon). In Madison he was a
member of the Ygdrasil Literary Society and served
one year as its president. He was a member of the
committee for the selection of the first chemical en-
gineering professor in Norway in 1949. In 1951 he was
Fulbright Professor at the Norges Tekniske
Hogskole; during this time he prepared a comprehen-
sive plan for the organization of the Chemical En-
gineering Department at NTH. He actively promoted


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










scholarly exchanges between Norwegian and U.S.
academic personnel in chemical engineering. He
rounded off his professional career by serving as Sci-
entific Attach6 to Scandinavia while assigned to the
U.S. Embassy in Stockholm in 1961-1963. In 1960 he
received an honorary doctorate from NTH in recogni-
tion for his many outstanding contributions.
Olaf Hougen was given many other honors and
awards, including the Lamme Award of ASEE; the
Warren K. Lewis, William H. Walker, and Founders
Awards of AIChE; the I&EC Award of ACS; mem-
bership in the National Academy of Engineering; and
honorary memberships in the Society of Chemical En-
gineers Japan, the Venezuelan Institute of Chemical
Engineers, and the Indian Institute of Chemical En-
gineers. Typically he never talked about his numerous
awards, and, in fact, many of his colleagues, friends,


and family members did not even know about them.
Olaf and his wife Olga were often hosts for staff
members, TA's, and students. An evening at their
home was always comfortable and full of fun. Olga
was an animated story-teller and radiated good humor
and hospitality. Foreign visitors were welcomed with
open arms and made to feel a part of the group. Hav-
ing lived abroad themselves they were both sensitive
to the needs of visitors far from home.
Gentlemanly, considerate, thoughtful, kindly,
loyal, humble, genuine, professional, dedicated,
scholarly, responsible-these are the adjectives that
describe Olaf A. Hougen. Those of us who had the
opportunity to interact with him are indeed fortunate.
We now have the responsibility to try to live up to the
high standards set by this great man and good friend.


HOUGEN'S PRINCIPLES
Some Guideposts for Chemical Engineering Departments

R. BYRON BIRD
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin
Madison owes much of its success to certain guiding principles formulated by
Olaf A. Hougen. Listing these principles seems an appropriate way to pay tribute
to his memory. Many of the principles listed below were stated by him on many
occasions; some of them I heard from him in private conversations; and a few
of them were perhaps not enunciated explicitly, but I have inferred them from
many years of observing that extraordinary teacher. The twelfth and last guiding
principle on this list was found by Professor W. R. Marshall among some of
Professor Hougen's papers.

1. THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM SHOULD BE PRACTICAL AND CONSERVATIVE, WHEREAS
THE GRADUATE PROGRAM SHOULD BE IMAGINATIVE AND EXPLORATORY.


Professor Hougen clearly recognized that we have an
obligation to train most of our undergraduates so that
they can assume responsible jobs in industry. How-
ever, he also made it clear that at the graduate level


we must be boldly pioneering in new fields. He had a
knack for deciding what important new subject areas
were emerging and what kinds of new faculty mem-
bers were needed to develop them.


2. THERE SHOULD BE A SMOOTH FLOW OF INFORMATION FROM GRADUATE RESEARCH TO
GRADUATE TEACHING TO UNDERGRADUATE TEACHING.


We should not experiment on the undergraduates by
giving them untested material. Professor Hougen felt
that every undergraduate course should be backed up
by graduate course instruction and research, so that
the undergraduate program would always be under


pressure to be modernized. The modernization and
modification of undergraduate courses should, how-
ever, be done only after careful testing at the
graduate level.


FALL 1986










3. IF YOU CAN'T FIND RELEVANT PROBLEMS TO GIVE THE STUDENT, THEN YOU SHOULDN'T
BE TEACHING THE MATERIAL TO THE STUDENTS.


At the time of Professor Hougen's 85th birthday
party, Aksel Lydersen (of Trondheim, Norway) said
that this remark was something that he would never
forget. Professor Hougen felt very strongly that our
teaching should emphasize topics which are useful for


solving the industrial problems of the present and fu-
ture. He was very perceptive in recognizing the signif-
icant problems faced by chemical engineers in indus-
try and attempted to plan his courses and his
textbooks to address these key problems.


4. USE THE BEST AVAILABLE INFORMATION FROM THE MODERN SCIENCES.


Good engineering analysis and design must utilize the
most up-to-date material from chemistry, physics, and
mathematics. Professor Hougen certainly demon-
strated this idea in his own research, teaching, and


book writing. The Chemical Process Principles vol-
umes bear testimony to his thorough familiarity with
the best current thinking from the pure sciences.


5. WELL-FOUNDED AND WELL-TESTED EMPIRICISMS ARE TO BE PREFERRED OVER THEORIES
THAT HAVE ONLY A LIMITED RANGE OF APPLICABILITY.


Professor Hougen was always on the lookout for
clever, scientifically based correlations, backed up by
lots of experimental data, for use in chemical en-
gineering design. His own contributions to


"generalized charts" of all kinds are well known. He
felt very strongly that every effort should be made to
present results in a form that could be easily used by
practicing engineers.


6. IT IS VITAL FOR ENGINEERS TO KNOW HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS WITH LIMITED AND
INCOMPLETE DATA.


One time Professor Hougen gave a seminar entitled
"From Cork to Mollier." Everyone knew who Mr.
Mollier was, but all efforts to discover the identity of
Mr. Cork failed. The seminar dealt with the problem
of predicting the Mollier diagram by sniffing the cork


of the bottle containing the material! Professor
Hougen's students certainly came away from his ther-
modynamics course fully aware of many clever
methods for physical property estimation.


7. STUDENTS ARE IMPRESSIONABLE AND LEARN QUICKLY, AND THEREFORE A PROFESSOR
MUST MAKE CERTAIN THAT HE TEACHES IN A RESPONSIBLE WAY.


One time Professor Hougen called me on the carpet
because, in a graduate seminar introduction, I had
suggested that the speaker's new theoretical methods
would soon replace the tried-and-true engineering cor-


relations. He took issue with this, and said that I had
no right to make an unqualified statement of that sort
in front of the graduate students and that I had left
them with a totally incorrect impression.


8. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE STUDENTS HAVE A GOOD GROUNDING IN THE BASIC FUNDA-
MENTALS; THERE'S NOTHING WORSE THAN A STUDENT WHO HAS A THIN VENEER OF
HIGH-POWERED THEORY.


Whether or not students go into industry or on to
graduate school, they appreciate being well-grounded
in the elementary ideas of the undergraduate sub-
jects. A thin coating of unassimilated and poorly un-
derstood material is of little value, and Professor


Hougen was adamant that we should stress the basic
ideas. He did not hesitate to recommend remedial
course-work for incoming graduate students whose
backgrounds were weak.


9. WE MUST ALWAYS RECOGNIZE THAT OUR STUDENTS AND OUR TEACHING ASSISTANTS
ARE YOUNG PROFESSIONALS.


Students and young colleagues of Professor Hougen
always felt that he wanted them to share with him in
the responsibility for the development of chemical en-
gineering as a profession. He was always giving en-


couragement to colleagues and students to develop
their strong points and their professional interests; he
was also aware that everyone has limitations in his
talents, but he knew how to work around them.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








10. HE RECOGNIZED THAT FACULTY MEMBERS HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO ASSIST COLLEAGUES
IN OTHER INSTITUTIONS.


Professor Hougen was always willing to give help to
professors in other schools and in other countries. He
would go out of his way to take care of foreign visitors
and to assist them in achieving their goals of improv-
ing chemical engineering in their own nations. He rec-


ognized that the preparation of textbooks was a key
responsibility for professors in leading research de-
partments, and he made substantial contributions in
that area along with his colleagues Professor K. M.
Watson and Professor R. A. Ragatz.


11. WE HAVE, AS FACULTY MEMBERS IN A STATE-SUPPORTED INSTITUTION, A RESPONSIBILITY
TO SERVE THE TAXPAYERS BY PERFORMING OUR JOB WELL.


We all know that state-supported universities have
their ups and downs financially. Professor Hougen
often said that he felt that the citizens of the State of
Wisonsin had been very generous in supporting our


university and that we have a duty to perform our
assignments as well as we can with the limited re-
sources available.


12. DO NOT SHOW EMOTIONS OF BITTERNESS OR BERATEMENT OR BELITTLEMENT; ASCRIBE
THE BEST MOTIVES TO YOUR ASSOCIATES; SAY NOTHING DEROGATORY.


These words, written in a note to himself, are sterling
words of advice for the creation of a collegial atmos-
phere within a department. Professor Marshall quoted


the above words at the memorial service for Professor
Hougen, and as Professor Marshall said ". .. indeed,
Olaf lived by this creed."


The departmental staff members of my generation have grown up with these
principles because we were young faculty members when Olaf Hougen was in
his prime. If succeeding generations of professors can follow these guidelines,
our students will be assured of a high-quality education and the profession of
chemical engineering will be a dynamic and lively profession.


OLAF HOUGEN: Teacher, Researcher, Educator


In previous editorials (Vol. XX, 3, 100) we indi-
cated that the goal of a department or of an individual
professor should be to serve society (the profession,
university, department, students, etc.) rather than to
seek high ratings (in the case of the department) or
personal recognition (in the case of the professor). In
this issue we illustrate this principle through the
example of the late Olaf Hougen and the University
of Wisconsin.
When Professor Hougen and his colleagues began
their authorship of Chemical Process Principles, their
motivation was to demonstrate how scientific principles
could be used in practical situations to achieve a quan-
titative result of importance to industry (see Princi-
ples 4, 5 and 10). They did not write their pioneering
three-volume text with the prime goal of gaining rec-
ognition for their department or for themselves, but
instead did so with the goal of fulfilling a professional/
societal need. The consequence of their work, how-
ever, was that Wisconsin's PhD students became very
much in demand as they "seeded" various depart-
ments, spreading the Wisconsin attitude around the
nation and even the world. These missionaries in turn
had PhD students who became disciples of the Wiscon-


sin attitude themselves (see the Hougen "tree," CEE,
Summer 1968). As a consequence of this service to the
profession and society, Wisconsin continually ranked
first in the nation in surveys such as the Cartter re-
port and in subsequent reports of quality in chemical
engineering education. But the Wisconsin depart-
ment, in achieving this recognition, did not disregard
teaching in a zealous drive for ratings; instead it em-
phasized teaching and recognized that research is a
form of teaching. A reading of the above paper on
Hougen's principles, by Professor Bird, clearly indi-
cates that Olaf Hougen was at once a great teacher
and a great researcher who saw in both of these ac-
tivities an opportunity for service.
Later, Professor Hougen played an important role
in the development of transport phenomena when he
brought Professor Bird back to Wisconsin and charged
him with the responsibility of putting on a firm scien-
tific basis the computation of energy, mass, and
momentum transfer. Instead of an inane competition
for prestige, let us follow the example of service as
set by this great man.
Ray W. Fahien


FALL 1986


Ctdd44ia










A4 MeAiawe &o Aequ4W Q'adue Sor% 4...

At the beginning of every academic year, the head of the department of chemical engineering at Penn State
traditionally addresses the new graduate students. While the following paper was originally directed to those
students, it has general applicability and is meant to assist all students in making some important decisions
about their graduate work.


GRADUATE STUDIES

The Middle Way


J. L. DUDA
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

THE TITLE AND format of this year's seminar were
based on one of the central concepts of Buddhism.
In my naive interpretation of Buddhism, the Buddha
experienced two extreme lifestyles. In his early man-
hood he emphasized pleasure in the worldly aspects of
life. Although he had every material thing that was
supposed to ensure happiness, he did not find fulfill-
ment. Consequently, he rejected material things and
assumed an austere lifestyle-but this did not seem to
fulfill him either. Finally, Buddha concluded that
neither of these extremes brought happiness-that it
could only be found in the middle way. He did not feel
that a person had to abandon worldly pleasures, but
on the other hand, he should also not be dominated by
them.
In thinking about approaches to different aspects
of graduate studies, I concluded that in many cases
the middle way is also the most appropriate path be-
tween two extremes. I have been able to identify eight
different aspects of graduate work where I feel the
appropriate approach lies between two extremes.
These may not be the only ones, but they do incorpo-
rate many important aspects of graduate work.

1. CHOICE OF PROJECT
Right now, you are in the process of choosing a
research topic for your MS or PhD program. I have
often observed that there are two extreme approaches
to this process. Some graduate students have their
mind fixed on a specific area of research and will not
.consider any project outside of that narrow area. On

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


J. L. Duda is professor and head of the chemical engineering de-
partment at The Pennsylvania State University. He received his BS in
chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology and his MS and
PhD at the University of Delaware. He joined the staff at Penn State
in 1971 after eight years in research with the Dow Chemical Company.

the other hand, some students become interested in a
specific research advisor and feel that it is imperative
that they work with him. To the first group, I want
to make it clear that your choice of a research topic in
graduate school does not predetermine the path you
will take after you have finished your degree. It would
be impossible for any of you to determine the areas of
my MS or PhD research from my research record and
the work that I am now conducting. The purpose of
research in graduate school is to learn how to conduct
research, and you should choose a combination of ad-
visor and topic which you feel is the optimum for
reaching that goal. Learning how to conduct research
in one area can easily be transferred to conducting
research in an unrelated area. Similarly, a faculty
member with an outstanding research record may not
be the most appropriate individual for you as an ad-
visor. It is very important that you find an individual
with whom you can communicate and whose personal-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








ity and mode of operation are compatible with yours.

2. AREA OF EMPHASIS
Up to this point, your academic career has been
straightforward. You took courses which fit into some
pre-prescribed course of study. Now you will en-
counter demands coming from two distinct areas-
from course work and from research. The tendency of
most new graduate students is to emphasize their
course work and neglect their research. This is a nat-
ural extreme since you are familiar and comfortable
with courses and have a proven record of success. But
it is not clear that your proven capabilities in struc-
tured courses can be transferred to an area of re-
search. It is extremely unusual for a graduate student
to not fulfill the requirements of a degree because of
poor performance in his courses. On the other hand,
do not over-react and- spend all of your time in your
research area. Again, the middle way is the obvious
appropriate procedure. You must find a way to budget
your time and effort in order to maintain progress in
both areas.
3. PLANNING OF RESEARCH
In planning a research program, there are two ex-
tremes which can dominate. At one extreme are the
individuals who are overly preoccupied with choosing
a problem which can be solved. The result is often an
overly conservative research plan which, even if 100%
successful, represents only a perturbation on previous
work. To these students, I point out that it is impor-
tant for research to uncover new knowledge or to an-
swer important questions. At the other extreme we
have a few individuals who are concerned only with
the impact that their research can have, but who do
not adequately consider the probability of attaining
their goal. It is desirable to think big and to have
confidence, but a cure for cancer is hardly an appropri-
ate goal for a novice researcher. One should work on
problems that matter, and there should be a group of
investigators who care about the results of your re-
search. Never conduct an experiment or work on a
theory if the results will not challenge the current
way of thinking about your subject. On the other
hand, you have to build on the existing and proven
work. The truth is that quantum jumps in the ad-
vancement of knowledge are really quite rare.

4. INITIATING RESEARCH
You have all been taught that the first step in ini-
tiating a research program is to search the literature
in order to become familiar with past work in the area.


I have been able to identify eight
different aspects of graduate work where I feel
the appropriate approach lies between two extremes.
These may not be the only ones, but they incorporate
many important aspects of graduate work.


There is no question-that is how one should start.
However, I have had graduate students who search
and search and read and read and still never get to
the point where they feel comfortable enough to do
something. Nothing will ever be done if you wait until
all possible objections are relnoved before taking the
first step. On. the other hand, I occasionally find an
individual who will start mixing things together or
start writing a computer program for the first idea
that enters his head. This kind of graduate student is
rather rare, however. Our educational process has a
tendency to suppress creativity and forces us to parrot
back what we have been taught. One of the most im-
portant aspects of conducting research is that you
must avoid sequential thinking and work habits. You
should start by looking at the past work in the litera-
ture, but do not expect to follow a well-defined se-
quential path. The initial literature will lead to labora-
tory or theoretical work whose results will lead you
back into the literature, and so forth and so forth. You
must keep many balls in the air at the same time.
Your literature search will be updated as your prob-
lem becomes more defined. At the same time, you will
be planning experiments and ordering equipment be-
cause of time lags involved in developing an experi-
mental program, and you will be working simultane-
ously on theoretical models which will be modified as
experimental results are produced. The inability to
lay out a well-defined path for a research project is
perhaps the most frustrating and maturing experience
that graduate students face in the early stages of their
career.

5-7. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH
My next three examples are all concerned with the
approaches to research problems in general. The first
case is the conflict between dependence on intution
versus dependence on theory or computations based
on models. At one extreme are the individuals who
proceed on their intution. If something feels right and
makes physical sense, they move ahead. It is unusual
to find a young, inexperienced researcher following
this approach. Most new graduate students fall into
the other category-they are dominated by the quan-
titative results of models. In an interview in Indus-


FALL 1986









trial and Engineering Chemistry, Dr. Eric Bloch,
who recently made a move from management in IBM
to direct the National Science Foundation, indicated
that engineers who were educated in his generation
probably had a better intuitive feel for problems than
the group of people coming out of school today. He
also feels that the popularity of the computer has con-
tributed to this shift, and I agree with him. Com-
puters can raise a barrier to intuition. Graduate stu-
dents will even trust a very weak model if the com-
puter is giving them results. Models and computations
based on models will become more and more dominant
as the cost of computing decreases. However, you
must always question the results of a computation and
remember that all models are approximations to re-

Neither experimentalistss or theoreticians] can
stand without the other, and even when your
emphasis is in one area, you must be cognizant of
the developments being made in the other.

ality. Never go on to the next step unless the results
make physical sense to you. In some cases your intui-
tion will be in error, but do not ignore that intuition
until you have thoroughly analyzed the quantitative
results and have been able to rectify the apparent dis-
continuity between it and the model.
The second area is concerned with the different
approaches of wild, unconstrained creativity versus
the prolonged process of following a long, hard
routine. I have seen some individuals who feel that
their creativity is constrained if they have to concen-
trate on understanding the previous accomplishments
in a given area. Remember, only lunatics can be com-
pletely original! You will always be building on past
work, or at least creating from analogies with other
areas. It is unfortunate, but true, that a scientist's
norm is about 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.
On the other hand, do not suppress your creativity so
much that you are afraid to deviate from the well-trod-
den path.
My third concern is the apparent dichotomy be-
tween an experimental approach versus a theoretical
approach. Hinselwood is credited with saying that,
"Fluid dynamicists were divided into hydraulic en-
gineers who observed what could not be explained and
mathematicians who explained things that could not
be observed." I am very disturbed by individuals who
say they are either experimentalists or theoreticians.
Neither can stand without the other, and even when
your emphasis is in one area, you must be cognizant
of the developments being made in the other. In one
of his early essays, Einstein noted that, "Knowledge
cannot spring from experience alone, but only from


the comparison of the inventions of the intellect with
observed facts." The inventions of the intellect are
models and theories, and progress can only be made
when these are compared with the observed experi-
mental facts. Even if your natural inclination is to be
drawn into one of these extremes, you must force
yourself to be at least knowledgeable (if not a con-
tributor) in the other area.

8. CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTAL WORK
The last area deals with the approach to designing
and conducting an experimental program. At one ex-
treme, we have individuals who are dominated by the
design aspects of the work. I have actually seen re-
searchers create a rigid experimental plan from which
they never deviate. An extreme case would be to de-
sign experiments on the grid pattern where data
would be taken at certain pre-specified temperatures,
concentrations, etc. You should have an overall plan,
but you should be flexible enough to change that plan
as results are produced. When the initial plan was
developed, your knowledge was limited-you should
continually optimize the path of your research based
on the very latest results. Some students conduct ex-
periments for months without analyzing any of the
results to see if they are even on the right path. The
other extreme is not very typical, but I have seen a
few individuals who are so anxious to see results that
they jump into the experimental work with essentially
no pre-planning or overall plan. They have infinite
flexibility and each new result can dictate a change in
the path of the work. At one extreme, we have a nice
grid pattern with every grid filled in and no deviation,
even though trends clearly have been established; at
the other extreme, we have a zig-zag string of exper-
iments where the direction of the next experiment is
dictated by the most recent results. Neither approach
is perfect. You should follow the middle way and have
a well-defined overall plan and goals, but at the same
time you must have the flexibility to modify the plan.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
From my presentation, you might conclude that
there is a middle way in every aspect of graduate work
that is the most appropriate approach. Although I
have attempted to illustrate that this is certainly true
in many instances, there is one very important excep-
tion. Some students say to themselves, "This is not
the best that I can do, but it's good enough." Well, it's
not good enough. Push yourself-take the time and
make the effort to perform at the very highest level
of which you are capable. There is no middle way
when it comes to the pursuit of excellence. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












130 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DIVISION ACTIVITIES


TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD
TO ROBERT BRODKEY
The 1986 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer is Robert S. Brodkey of Ohio State Univer-
sity. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize
and encourage outstanding achievement in an impor-
tant field of fundamental chemical engineering theory
or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineer-
ing educator wvho delivers the Annual Lecture of the
Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of
$1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were pre-
sented to Robert Brodkey at the annual Chemical En-
gineering Division Banquet in Cincinnati. The lecture
begins on page 202 of this issue of CEE
The Lectureship Award is made on an annual
basis, with nominations being received through Feb-
ruary 1, 1987. The full details for the award prepara-
tion are contained in the Awards Brochure published
by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1987 lectureship
are invited. They should be sent to Professor Jerry
Caskey, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre
Haute, IN 47803-3999.
NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS
The Chemical Engineering Division officers for
1986-87 are: Phil Wankat, Chairman; E. Dendy
Sloan, Past Chairman; John Sears, Chairman Elect;
William Beckwith, Secretary-Treasurer; and Gary
Poehlein, Jim Townsend, Conrad Burris, and Lewis
Derzansky, Directors.

AWARD WINNERS
A number of chemical engineering professors were
recognized for their outstanding achievements. Wil-
liam Thomas Brazelton (Northwestern University)
received the Vincent Bendix Minorities in Engineer-
ing Award for his effectiveness in increasing the
number of minority and women engineering under-
graduates without compromising academic excellence,
while the Curtis W. McGraw Research Award was
given to George Stephanopoulos (Massachusetts In-
stitute of Technology) in recognition of his exceptional
research accomplishments in advancing the fundamen-
tal understanding of basic process systems.
The new Engineering Educator Excellence Award


was presented to John Zondlo (West Virginia Univer-
sity) (Zone II) and Danny D. Reible (Louisiana State
University) (Zone III) to recognize and honor their
commitment to excellence in education, and the Dow
Outstanding Young Faculty Award was given to Gre-
gory R. Carmichael (University of Iowa), Wallace
Whiting (West Virginia University), and Annette
Loch Bunge (Colorado School of Mines).
Deran Hanesian (New Jersey Institute of
Technology) was honored as an outstanding teacher
with the AT&T Foundation Award, and the grade of
ASEE Fellow Member was conferred on Lee C.
Eagleton (Pennsylvania State University) in recogni-
tion of his outstanding achievements and important
contributions.

CORCORAN AWARD TO FIELDER
Richard Felder (North Carolina State University)
was the recipient of the first annual Corcoran Award,
given to recognize the most outstanding paper pub-
lished in Chemical Engineering Education in 1985.
His paper, "The Generic Quiz," appeared in the Fall
1985 issue of CEE.

4oj letters
S. .BATS TO DE. .'S
Editor:
Professor Barduhn's letter [CEE, XIX, No 4]
about the prefixes and Professor Levenspiel's "batic
exercises" [CEE. XX, No 1] are interesting. It may
be worth mentioning that prefixing 'a' to indicate
negative meaning is a classic rule in Sanskrit (I won-
der if this rule was adopted in English). Another pre-
fix which needs our attention is "de" (e.g., degrade,
debug, decode, dehumidify, dehydrogenate, denude,
etc.). Perhaps something should be done to frame a
set of rules to coin new words! One may wonder
whether liquid trickles or bed trickles in a Trickle Bed
Reactor.
H. Lekshmi-Narayana
University of Waterloo

KUDOS FOR EDITORIAL
Editor:
Well written editorial in the CEE Winter issue.
Not surprisingly, I agree with what you say.
Billy Crynes
Oklahoma State University
Editor:
Re: Your editorial. BRAVO!
Rich Felder
North Carolina State University


FALL 1986










[On lecture


RESEARCH LANDMARKS FOR

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS*


NEAL R. AMUNDSON
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77004

M ATHEMATICIANS AND PURE scientists, as con-
trasted with engineers, are normally much
more aware of the history of their disciplines and who
did what when. Engineers and, in particular, chemical
engineers (except those with a special interest in the
history of technology) appear to know little about the
roots of their profession. This is probably not a re-
markable fact since the research of the vast majority
of engineers is more related to problem solving than
to the elucidation of fundamental ideas and principles.
There are certainly great exceptions to this notion. It
is the purpose of this effort to mention papers which
have been landmarks for me personally since they are
things to which I have given a good deal of thought.
Their authors may not have been the first who consid-
ered the problems about which they wrote, but, in my
view, they are the ones who had the greatest impact
in their areas of the profession. Many of us are guilty
of the secondary reference, assuming that this author
gave due credit to the primary investigator. Soon the
name of the person who originated the idea (or even
the first to exploit it) is lost. In the engineering liter-
ature the same problem frequently arises in many dif-
ferent guises: for example, in heat transfer, mass
transport, potential theory, etc. It does cause some
consternation when attempting to give credit priority.
No attempt is made here to be exhaustive, and the
reader will probably find many omissions that are
more interesting and more important to him.

. the purpose ... is to mention papers which have
been landmarks. Their authors may not have been
the first who considered the problems about which
they wrote, but, in my view, they are the ones who
had the greatest impact in their areas ...

*This paper is a part of the lecture given as one of the Phillips
Petroleum Company Lecture Series on April 12, 1985, at Oklahoma
State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Portions were also given
at the Peter V. Danckwerts Memorial Lecture in London on May
12, 1986.


LANDMARK PAPERS
One of the problems I have been interested in for
some time is how char or carbon bums. In 1972, in a
fit of patriotism and good will, we embarked on a pro-
gram of coal gasification and combustion-at least,
that is what I thought we were doing. We soon discov-
ered that we did not know much about what happened
to single particles of char when exposed to an ambient
atmosphere containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, car-
bon monoxide, and perhaps water. If one forgets
about water, everyone knows that there are three
main reactions among carbon, carbon monoxide, oxy-
gen, and carbon dioxide. The simplest undergraduate
problem is to suppose that the carbon is impervious,
is spherical, and is surrounded by a stagnant boundary
layer or film. The question then involves what hap-
pens at the carbon surface and what happens in the
boundary layer itself. Stated with this degree of
simplicity many researchers have thought about the
problem and indeed there are three landmark publica-
tions from which all other research and engineering
on the subject derive.
Nusselt [1] in 1924 considered the simplest model
in which he assumed that carbon reacted with oxygen,
with the product CO diffusing through the boundary
layer without reacting. The heat generated was also
conducted through the film, and the whole process
occurred in a quasi-steady state, which is just another
way of saying that the lifetime of the particle is long
compared with other transient processes. This gives
a mathematical model which is essentially algebraic in
character. Clearly it is limited since it neglects two of
the reactions. Burke and Schumann [2] considered a
superficially similar model in which they assumed that
the only reaction which occurs is also between carbon
and oxygen but produces carbon dioxide which must
diffuse out. We say superficially, for this reaction is a
two-step one, the first being the production of carbon
monoxide and the second the oxidation of carbon
monoxide to carbon dioxide. In a later paper Burke
and Schumann [3] made the significant extension to
what has been called a two film model, in which the
OCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























Neal R. Amundson is the Cullen Professor of Chemical Engineering
and a professor of mathematics at the University of Houston. He re-
ceived his BChE (1937), his MS (1941), and his PhD (1945) from the
University of Minnesota, where he also served as a faculty member
from 1939-1977 and head of chemical engineering from 1949-1974.
He is the author of numerous papers and six books, including First
Order Partial Differential Equations, Vol II, still in press. He has been
the recipient of many awards.

carbon monoxide formed at the surface reacts with
oxygen as it diffuses to the ambient. In order to make
the problem simple, they assumed that the carbon
monoxide oxidation occurred at a sharp interface
where the reaction stoichiometry could be met.
Clearly this position is a parameter of the model de-
pending upon the other reaction and ambient parame-
ters, and, as these change, the position of the flame
front shifts.
Now these three models are extremely simple, but
their depth is deceptively obscure until more compli-
cated problems are investigated. Suppose these three
simple models are computed by varying only the am-
bient temperature but holding all other parameters
fixed. Then the particle temperature is determined by
the ambient temperature, and a locus in the plane of
particle temperature versus ambient temperature is
obtained. The result of the computation is that these
three loci confine and define a finite area with asymp-
totic regions at very high temperatures and at very
low temperatures. What makes these three papers im-
portant is the following: Suppose that one considers
the more rational model by assuming all three reac-
tions occur and that the carbon monoxide reaction is
distributed through the boundary layer-then the sys-
tem is a set of four non-linear differential equations
with non-linear boundary conditions for transport of
energy and mass. If these equations are solved hold-
ing all parameters fixed except the ambient tempera-
ture, one can show with ease that the solution for a
fixed ambient must lie inside the region defined above
by the three simple models and the whole locus of
solutions for variable ambient must lie inside the re-


gion, entering the region at the low temperature
asymptote and leaving at the high temperature
asymptote. Thus the three simple models are limiting
solutions in the real sense and define a feasible region
of solutions giving important bounds on the burning
behavior.
In the field of reactor engineering probably no ob-
ject has received as much attention as the continuous
stirred tank reactor. The reason for its popularity in
undergraduate courses is its simplicity. In the steady
state it is described by a simple algebraic equation or
equations, while its transient is described by an ordi-
nary differential equation or a system of equations.
Thus one can illustrate its behavior with relatively
simple machinery, and its pedagogical importance can-
not be overestimated. There are not many problems
involving reactors under varying temperatures that
can be studied without a good deal of pain.
Mathematicians have discovered the stirred pot,
and the pathology of the system has now been studied
in excruciating detail, and the methods of modern dif-
ferential topology, in particular, singularity theory,
have been employed to study the structure of the

Now these three models are extremely simple,
but their depth is deceptively obscure
until more complicated problems
are investigated.

steady state solution space. In very recent times the
problem for general reaction systems and reactor con-
figurations has been considered, and problems have
been solved which I never thought possible just a few
years ago. How did all of this come about?
In 1935 there appeared a paper by MacMullin and
Weber [4] in the old Transactions of the AlChE with
a long title but which started out as "The Theory of
Short Circuiting in. ." This reference to short cir-
cuiting is the well-known fact that there is always a
non-zero probability that a molecule which enters the
reactor will leave without reacting unless the reac-
tions are instantaneous. This is a deficiency of the
reactor and is a result of the mathematical by-passing
because of the well-mixedness assumption. This was
the first instance, as far as I know, where the C* was
considered, and it is a strangely out-of-place paper for
the times. It is an extremely lucidly written theoreti-
cal paper which considers single continuous stirred
pots and staged pots for reaction systems of various
orders as well as for dissolution of solids. While the
content is certainly not 1986, the style and presenta-
tion would certainly be acceptable today as a theoret-
ical paper. This material is now standard under-
graduate fare, but I suggest that it was an eyebrow


FALL 1986









raiser in 1935. Recall that chemical engineering did
not become mathematically oriented until the 1960's.
This paper lay fallow for almost ten years when K.
G. Denbigh [8] (1944), while involved with Imperial
Chemicals Industries during the war, became in-
terested in chemical reactors, and in particular with
the comparison of yields in batch, stirred pots and
tubular systems. Denbigh was the first to my knowl-

Our aim here is not to review the
literature but to point out that it was
K.G. Denbigh who started it all by a casual remark
at the Campus Club lunch. There should be more
Campus Clubs and Denbighs to visit them.

edge to discuss in a rational way what became a favor-
ite pastime some years later and is now a part of al-
most every textbook on applied kinetics and reactor
engineering. This paper was followed by one in 1947
which extended the first but considered several differ-
ent kinds of polymerization mechanisms using various
polymer statistics. While the MacMullin and Weber
paper predated Denbigh's by ten years I think that
the world was ready for Denbigh, and his had substan-
tially more impact.
We should not leave Denbigh here, for it was
through his influence while a visiting professor at the
University of Minnesota in 1953-54 that he introduced
me to a certain optimization problem. At lunch one
day, Denbigh mentioned the possibility of applying a
temperature gradient along a tubular reactor in order
to improve the yield. There is no difficulty with a
single endothermic reaction, for then one should run
it at the highest temperature consistent with other
constraints. With an exothermic reaction, however,
the front end can be run hot to increase the forward
rate while the rear end must be run cold to suppress
the reverse rate. It is not difficult for this case to
compute, for a given length of reactor, what the tem-
perature profile should be in order to maximize the
yield of the product. This is almost a trivial problem
in the calculus of variations. However, for consecutive
and simultaneous complex reaction systems the prob-
lem is far from trivial and has been examined sub-
sequently by a host of researchers. Our aim here is
not to review the literature but to point out that it
was K. G. Denbigh who started it all by a casual re-
mark at the Campus Club lunch. There should be more
Campus Clubs and Denbighs to visit them.
One of the popular topics in chemical reactor en-
gineering is that of the study of intraparticle effects
in catalyst particles. Since the internal surface area
per unit of volume is so great, most of the reaction
takes place on the internal porous surface. This in a


sense slows things up since the internal surface is not
as readily accessible unless all of the surface can be
made available. Every chemical engineering student
knows that if he wants to determine how effective a
catalyst particle is, he must know the Thiele modulus.
From relatively simple plots resulting from not too
difficult equations he can determine the effectiveness
factor of the particle, which is the ratio of the actual
conversion to that obtained if all of the surface area
were available for reaction at the ambient condition.
This problem has probably generated more research
papers than any other single topic in the last twenty
years. Generalizations to complex reaction systems,
non-isothermal particles, effects of poisoning, op-
timum catalyst profiles in particles, etc., have oc-
cupied many, many researchers. This was all started
by E. W. Thiele [9] a long-time employee of Standard
Oil Company of Indiana, professor at Notre Dame,
retired, and very much alive at age 90. His birthday
anniversary was celebrated at the AlChE meeting in
November, 1985, in Chicago. Thiele published a paper
in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1939, on
the "Relation between Catalytic Activi& and Size of
Particle." This rather short paper had a remarkable
effect in the United States, although it must be said
that Damkohler [10] and Wagner [11] in Germany and
Zeldovich [12] in Russia worked on almost exactly the
same problem with similar results at almost exactly
the same time. Thiele not only considered the slab
catalyst but also the sphere and did the slab for a
second order reaction that leads to the use of elliptic
integrals. To his great prescience he also considered
the case in which the volume change on reaction is
large, still not an easy problem for most students al-
though this material is standard in course work.
The name of Thiele should be familiar to all under-
graduate chemical engineering students from their in-
troduction to the McCabe-Thiele [13] graphical
method for computing binary distillation in plate col-
umns. McCabe and Thiele developed this method
while they were graduate students! Thiele's name is
also associated with that of Geddes [14] in connection
with a method of calculation for multicomponent distil-
lation. Not many chemical engineers have their names
associated with three significant problems.
Of primary interest to chemical engineers is the
packed bed reactor, that is, a tube or large cylinder
packed with a solid packing material consisting of an
active catalyst on an inert carrier. Its widespread use
results from its simplicity of construction and opera-
tion, although for highly exothermic reactions the dis-
sipation of the heat generated may be troublesome.
The packed bed reactor is particularly interesting
from an educational point of view since there is a vast


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









This paper is sort of a quasi-history of chemical engineering research and it might be useful to
place it in proper context with the chemical industry and chemical engineering education. The latter
really began in the early nineteen twenties when most of the better known departments were founded.


hierarchy of models which may describe it, depending
upon the parameters of the system and the desires of
the engineer. The simplest model is the equilibrium
model in which it is assumed that the bed is in local
equilibrium at each point. This is not very realistic
but does give some valuable information about the
structure of the transient solution, although it has
been little considered in the literature.
The next simplest model is the one analogous to
heat transfer in an adiabatic bed neglecting every-
thing except the heat transfer resistance at the parti-
cle surface. This would conform to the reaction case
in which a first order reaction takes place inside a
porous particle with rapid intraparticle diffusion and
with a rate limiting mass transfer resistance at the
particle surface, certainly not a model with great
applicability, but non-trivial none the less. The ana-
logous heat transfer problem was solved by Schumann
[15], the same of single particle combustion fame, and
was hailed at the time as being of inestimable value
in the iron and steel industry. Schumann's solution
has been rediscovered and republished in other con-
texts several times for adsorption, ion exchange,
isotope exchange, and even in heat transfer.
The landmark for reactions in tubes, the tubular
reaction case, was a series of papers by Gerhard Dam-
kohler [16-20] which appeared in the Zeitschrift fur
Elektrochimie in 1936. There are five in all, and these
should have laid the foundation for the continuous dis-
tributed models for non-isothermal tubular and
packed bed chemical reactors. These papers were all
but ignored in the United States except by a few and
are still referenced only but slightly. They investi-
gated the various dimensionless groups involved and
the problems of obtaining similarity conditions in scale
up. Extensive computations and comparison with ex-
periments were made long before most in the U.S.
knew that there was such a field as chemical reaction
engineering. These are truly exceptional papers and
show, I think, the power of the German system pre-
W.W.II. Damkohler was in the Physikalische Chem-
isches Institute at the University of Goettingen, the
center of German and world scientific inquiry and ac-
tivity at the time.
Needed greatly in the use of models for fixed bed
reactors are the many parameters. We assume that in
catalytic reactors, packed (say) with spheres, that
each sphere is in a smooth homogeneous field-that
is, that the sphere sees the same homogeneous field


in all directions. This allows us to treat the sphere as
being radially symmetric. We treat the homogeneous
flow field as a continuum with constant average veloc-
ity, superimposed on which is a radial and axial mixing
process. Experiments have amply illustrated that
these mixing processes occur and they seem plausible
intuitively. The question which arises is, what is a
convenient mathematical formulation for the
mechanism of these dispersions. R. H. Wilhelm and
his graduate students, although there were some
others, essentially solved this problem in the early
1950's in a series of classic papers [21-23]. One consid-
ers for the packed bed that the spheres form a three
dimensional array. The intracellular spaces among the
spheres are considered as mixing cells connected by
narrower passages between and among spheres. Thus
the interstitial regions in a packed bed may be consid-
ered for high Reynolds' numbers as an array of well-
mixed vessels connected by conduits. A molecule en-
tering one cell must move laterally in order to move
forward to new cells as it moves through the bed since
a particle will always block its straight-through pas-
sage. Note here that we are considering cells con-
nected only axially, not directly radially. But since
the particle arrays are staggered there will be a net
radial movement as axial movement proceeds. Thus
the movement through the bed is a random walk, and
the probability that a molecule is in a given cell at a
given time can be computed. It is well known that in
the limit a random walk is a quasi-diffusion and so one
assumes that the radial dispersion is a Fickian
mechanism, although the dispersion itself is not con-
centration gradient driven. It is driven by the convec-
tive flow. Thus one should be able to define a radial
dispersion coefficient (one hesitates to say a diffusion
coefficient) for a Fickian model which depends only
upon the local geometry, particle size, and intersticial
velocity. Wilhelm carried this through in an elegant
way and showed theoretically as well as experimen-
tally that the radial Peclet number (ud/D) is about
eleven.
The analysis for axial dispersion can also be done
by probability arguments and the Poisson distribution
obtained becomes in the limit by the central limit
theorem a normal probability distribution superim-
posed on a mean convective flow. The normal proba-
bility distribution is similar to the fundamental solu-
tion for the diffusion equation, so we are back to a
Fickian formulation. This time the Fickian mechanism


FALL 1986








is not so clear since experiments done by Hiby [24]
show that there is no back mixing--clearly a flaw in
the logic, although the probability argument precludes
back mixing. Nonetheless, the axial Peclet number
can be shown to be about two for high Reynolds' num-
bers both experimentally and theoretically, certainly
a remarkable and, in my view, a fortuitous develop-
ment. This analysis is now a standard treatment in
reactor engineering courses, but the axial dispersion
part has these theoretical deficiencies which have
been refractory to improvement thus far.
Those of us who have taught chemical reaction en-
gineering or elementary partial differential equations
always get into a little trouble when discussing the
appropriate boundary conditions for the tubular reac-
tor, empty or packed. The flux condition at x = 0 and
the zero gradient at the exit are more or less force-fed
to the student. The appropriate formulation is dif-
ficult, and most of the time the formulation, discus-
sion, and solution are erroneous and not consistent
with the actual engineering geometry of the inlet and
outlet. Papers appear periodically and often but the
resolution is non-trivial for a rigorous treatment.
Nevertheless we use the conditions above, the so-cal-
led Danckwerts boundary conditions introduced to
chemical engineers by Peter Danckwerts [25]. The
parochiality of the chemical engineering profession is
probably no better illustrated than by the fact that
Irving Langmuir [26] in 1908 wrote a remarkably lucid
paper which appeared in the Journal of the American
Chemical Society (JACS to all) in which he considered
the empty tubular reactor with axial dispersion and
reactions of arbitrary order using the Danckwerts
boundary conditions, ten years or more before
Danckwerts was born!
We should not leave the name of Danckwerts on
that note for he was one of the greats in England from
1945 until his recent death. Most of his professional
career was spent at Cambridge and his papers [27-34]
are notable for their inventiveness. He was among
the first to consider problems in reaction and absorp-
tion, and these appeared in the Transactions of the
Faraday Society. In addition, a monograph which is
a classic on absorption and reaction appeared in 1970
and was called Gas-Liquid Reactions [34]. During his
whole career he was involved with the film and pene-
tration theories of absorption.
The paper mentioned above [25] contained one of
three ideas presented by Danckwerts in his celebrated
paper in 1953. In that paper he introduced the idea of
a residence time distribution for chemical reactors.
The use of the experimental residence time distribu-
tion when compared with the theoretical distribution
has become a standard diagnostic tool in industry


when a mal distribution of fluid flow is suspected as a
cause of poor yield.
The third idea in the paper was to compute the
residence time distribution in a packed bed reactor
using the standard axial dispersion model for the bed.
Results of these computations were compared with
experiments, and, using his numbers for the parame-
ters, one can show that the axial Peclet number, which
he does not mention, is equal to 2.4! This work is
referenced in a passing way by McHenry and Wilhelm
but it is clear that Danckwerts had the clue to the idea
that for high Reynolds number flows the axial Peclet
number is a constant.
One of the earliest papers in chemical engineering
in the old Transactions of the AIChE which caught
my fancy was that of T. B. Drew [35]. This is one of
a series of three papers on convective heat transfer.
The first appears under the name of Drew alone and
has the title "Mathematical Attacks on Forced Con-
vectional Problems: A Review." This treats for some
55 pages, as the title indicates, mathematical solutions
of heat transfer problems in streamline flow for vari-
ous geometries and is as out of place there as was the
one previously mentioned of MacMullin and Weber. It
is followed by two other papers with other authors in
addition to Drew, and the total extends through 132
pages-probably a record. The first is required read-
ing for anyone interested in applied mathematics and
convective heat transfer in streamline flow.
Most of us would not think of G. I. Taylor [36,37]
as a chemical engineer, but in his unique style he pub-
lished two magnificent papers that many people wish
they had written. Sir Geoffrey became interested, in
the late forties and early fifties, in how solute in a
tube dispersed and, as was his manner, made the typ-
ical simple analysis guided by a superb intuition and
validated by just the proper experiments. He was con-
cerned with finding a simple formalism for radial dis-
persion in a fluid flowing in a circular tube in both
streamline and turbulent flow. The key result, as
everyone knows, was to find an equivalent axial dis-
persion which would account for the radial dispersion.
With the kind of insight only he possessed, he did this
giving a simple formula for the dispersion coefficient
which depended only on known fluid parameters. This
paper was followed by a second in the Proceedings of
the Royal Society, on the same problem for turbulent
flow. The young researcher should read these as an
aid in learning the craft of model building and the
value of the simple experiment.
Every student in chemical engineering now takes
it as well known that there are analogies between fluid
friction in pipe flow, heat transfer to the wall, and
mass transfer. That this is a relatively modern idea


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








would come as a shock. A. P. Colburn [38], in a classic
paper in 1933, titled "A Method of Correlating Forced
Convectional Heat Transfer Data and a Comparison
with Fluid Friction," was the first to point out that
for high Reynolds' numbers a plot of the friction factor
versus Reynolds' numbers looked a lot like a plot of
the heat transfer coefficient versus the Reynolds'
number. The analogy between heat transfer and
momentum transfer was born in this paper in the form
now standard in all transport courses through the j
factors. In 1934 Colburn collaborated with T. H. Chil-
ton [39] while both were employed by the DuPont
Company and published a seminal paper on the
analogies among heat transfer, mass transfer, and
momentum transfer, again through the j factors. It is
impossible to overemphasize the importance of these
two papers and their effectiveness in aiding the design
engineer. Colburn was another one of the truly great
chaps of our profession, and after a long and successful
career at the DuPont Company, he initiated and or-
ganized the very successful chemical engineering pro-
gram at the University of Delaware.
Those of us who have had more than a casual in-
terest in the application of advanced mathematical
ideas to chemical engineering problems have always
decried the fact that while there is a plethora of books
on applied mathematics, none is really suitable for
courses for chemical engineering graduate students. I
mean this in no parochial sense, but any unbiased
examination of the extant books makes this abun-
dantly clear. What is not known is that the beginnings
of a beautiful text were made in 1947 by Robert W.
Marshall [40] (a PhD student of Olaf Hougen) and
Robert L. Pigford (whose mentor was A. P. Colburn),
based on an extension course given at the University
of Delaware in 1945 while both were employees of the
DuPont Company. The preface of The Application of
Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering
Problems says the book covered fifteen lectures, and
a very respectable course based on this book could be
offered today, almost exactly forty years later, since
the topics were well chosen and are still relevant.

EPILOGUE
This paper is sort of a quasi-history of chemical
engineering research and it might be useful to place
it in proper context with the chemical industry and
chemical engineering education. The latter really
began in the early nineteen twenties when most of the
better known departments were founded. At that
time there was little petroleum refining and the chem-
ical industry was Germanic in character. The bulk
chemicals were the inorganic acids, salts and alkalis,


dyes, explosives and the simple organic molecules
mostly derived from coal byproducts. There were no
plastics or polymers to speak of, no antibiotics, and no
synthetic rubber. There was little reason to do much
engineering as we know it now.
When the automobile exploded onto the scene and
catalytic processes were developed, it was essential
to do more engineering, and the continuous process
rather than the batch process became the sine que
non of chemical engineering (and still is). Now it was
necessary to do engineering. Heat exchangers had to
be designed, so chemical engineers took up heat trans-
fer since the design engineer required a heat transfer
coefficient. He certainly consulted McAdams' book on
Heat Transmission [41]. The need for separations in
the petroleum industry and the accompanying need
for vapor-liquid equilibria and thermodynamics of
light hydrocarbons were important and commanded
the attention of many in academic research. As men-
tioned earlier, up to W.W. II there were almost no
catalytic processes-contact sufuric acid, yes, and am-
monia synthesis and a few others. But these were not
designed-they were borrowed from the Germans.
The explosion in catalysis and polymer chemistry re-
sulting in synthetic fibers post-W.W. II changed the
whole outlook of the chemical and petroleum industry
and gave academic chemical engineering a quick fix,
and the problems requiring solution were interesting
and fun to work on. It was not difficult to be enthusias-
tic about chemical engineering. The new fields in the
fifties excited young people.
Catalysis, as well as polymer processing, in a sense
have almost been taken over by chemical engineers.
Reactor engineering is a mature subject now. Heat
transfer research has been appropriated by mechani-
cal engineers as a discipline. Little is done now in
conventional separation processes although it is neces-
sary that this field be rejuvenated and expanded, for
the new biological processes will require different
techniques. We are now at a new point when chemical
engineering as a discipline is faced with manifold prob-
lems instigated largely by the uncertain fate of the
petrochemical industry in the U.S. and Western
Europe and by the slow-down in the chemical indus-
try. The kinds of things which occupied us in the
past-transport, reaction engineering, separations
and the like-had direct and easy application in the
conventional chemical industry. The loss of control of
raw materials in the U.S. will undoubtedly force us to
shift our emplasis to other endeavors such as mater-
ials, biotechnology, exotic or specialty chemicals, etc.
The principles we have been brought up on are still
the ones which will be needed, although we will need
Continued on page 192.


FALL 1986










GRADUATE EDUCATION IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

A Workshop to Help Students Answer the Questions

What is it?

Why go?

What comes after?


DONNA G. BLACKMOND
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15261

YOU ARE A SENIOR chemical engineering student
and you're trying to decide what you want to do
when you graduate. On-campus interviews give you
some idea about the kinds of jobs you can have with
chemical and oil companies. Plant trips are better
yet-you get to meet and talk with people on the job
and find out for yourself what to expect. But while
you are considering a career as a design engineer or
jobs in manufacturing or management, you should
make sure that you are considering all your options.
And one option that many students do not take time
to consider is the variety of career paths which are
open to a student with an advanced degree in chemical
engineering.
It is easy to understand why many students don't
think about going on to graduate school. Representa-
tives from graduate programs at different schools
don't often come to the university placement center


Donna G. Blackmond is an assistant professor in the Department
of Chemical Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. She received
her BS and MS degrees at the University of Pittsburgh and her PhD at
Carnegie-Mellon University. Her research is in the areas of catalysis
and surface chemistry. She recently received a Presidential Young In-
vestigator Award from the National Science Foundation.


S. one of the most important outcomes ... was that
the students received a lot of first-hand information
about the kinds of careers for which a graduate
education prepares them. By meeting professors
from different schools they were able to learn
about the variety of programs offered.


the way company representatives do. While most stu-
dents have met chemical engineers with BS degrees,
or at least have heard about their careers, not many
have met PhD chemical engineers other than their
professors. And after spending four tough years in
chemical engineering courses, who wants to hear
about coming back for more?

PURPOSE OF THE WORKSHOP
There are some very good reasons why a student
might want to consider getting an advanced degree,
especially a good student who wants to continue being
challenged in his career. In order to give students a
chance to hear some of these reasons, as well as to
meet some chemical engineers with advanced degrees,
the Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineer-
ing at the University of Pittsburgh organized a work-
shop called "Graduate Education in Chemical En-
gineering."
The first workshop took place on the Pitt campus
in the fall of 1985, and its success ensured that it will
be an annual event. The one-day workshop was at-
tended by about fifty junior and senior chemical en-
gineering students from eight different schools. Most
of the students came from schools in our region, but
some participants came from as far away as Michigan
State to the north and Virginia Polytech to the south.
The workshop had two main purposes. The first
was to give the students some idea of the kinds of
careers that having an advanced degree opens up for
them. We invited a number of PhD chemical engineers
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









working in the Pittsburgh area to join a panel discus-
sion with the undergraduate participants. Hearing
first-hand from people who have been working in in-
dustry helped show how graduate education affects
career paths. This proved to be quite enlightening.
The second purpose of the workshop was to pro-
vide specific information about graduate programs at
different schools. Each school participating in the
workshop was invited to delegate one faculty member
to participate along with their interested junior and
senior students. Each school represented was as-
signed a different room in Benedum Hall, the en-
gineering building on the Pitt campus, and the after-
noon was set aside for students to visit the various
rooms and talk one-on-one with the professors about
their programs-a kind of graduate education version
of "Career Day."

AN INTRODUCTION TO ChE GRAD EDUCATION
After coffee and doughnuts and some free time for
the students from different schools to get to know one
another, the workshop began with a brief slide presen-
tation. The slides were meant to explain what
graduate education in chemical engineering involves.
Graduating BS chemical engineers must ask them-
selves whether their career goals make getting a
graduate degree something to consider. Students at
the workshop were asked to think about how they
would answer the following questions
Do you like to be challenged technically?
Do you enjoy intellectual stimulation?
Are you comfortable with open-ended problems?
Do you like being a pioneer?
Are you interested in being part of developments which
change the direction of technology
They are told that if the answer "yes" comes up
more often than not, then they are probably the type
of person who would enjoy a career in some aspect of
research or development, and that the tools needed
for such a career are learned in graduate school. A
graduate student researcher learns to think indepen-
dently and to design a logical approach to understand-
ing.
We explain to the students that research problems
are usually long-term, long-range problems and their
thesis work as a graduate student will differ from
their prior work in undergraduate labs because it will
involve a completely original problem that is theirs
and theirs alone. In undergraduate courses, next
year's class will work on the same labs as this year's
class, but next year's group of new graduate students
will not perform the same research being done by this
year's students. So individual creativity and original-


ity develops as the student completes a graduate de-
gree.
These aspects of graduate school in chemical en-
gineering, as well as many other important points,
were addressed very succinctly in a article by Profes-
sor J. L. Duda of the Pennsylvania State University
in this journal just two years ago.* That article makes
excellent reading for any student interested in going
to graduate school. In fact, in planning the slide pre-
sentation for the introductory session of the work-
shop, I drew on many of the points made by Professor
Duda.

THE PANEL DISCUSSION
Some of the most important insights into the value
of a graduate education in chemical engineering came


Virginia Polytech's Professor Mark Davis makes a point
about opportunities at VPI to two Pitt seniors.
from the panel discussion guests. These included Dr.
Ed Nemeth, Director of Research at USS Chemicals
and a University of Pittsburgh graduate; Dr. Dale
Keairns, manager of the Chemical and Process En-
gineering Department at Westinghouse Electric Cor-
poration and a graduate of Carnegie-Mellon Univer-
sity; Dr. Hubert Fleming, a technical supervisor in
the Alumina and Chemicals Division at Alcoa who
graduated from Cornell University; Dr. Mark
McDonald, a Stanford graduate working at the U.S.
Department of Energy as a research chemical en-
gineer; Professor Jim Goodwin from the Chemical &
Petroleum Engineering Department at the University
of Pittsburgh, who graduated from the University of
Michigan; and Mr. George Gallaher, a PhD student at
the University of Pittsburgh who spent five years
working for Proctor & Gamble as a line manager/tech-
*Chem. Eng. Ed., XVIII, 156 (1984). [Editor's Note: Also see arti-
cle by Professor Duda on page 164 of this issue.]


FALL 1986









mcal engineer before deciding to return to school for
a doctorate degree.
All of the panel guests have careers in chemical
engineering research in industry, government or
academia. Their experiences were especially interest-
ing because they spanned a wide range of career types
and career levels. Some of the topics they discussed
with the students at the workshop are outlined below.
How did having a Ph.D. affect your career path?
Most of the panelists said that they would not have
been able to proceed very far in the careers they chose
in chemical engineering research without a PhD. The
scientists and engineers who move upward on both
technical and management avenues in research within
a company usually have doctorate degrees.
Two of the panel guests, Dr. Nemeth and Dr.
Keairns, are very involved in management. Dr.
Nemeth is responsible for the direction of all research


Professor Dennis Miller from Michigan State University
talks with students about the graduate program there.

activity at USS Chemicals, including product and pro-
cess development as well as technical consultation to
the chemical plants. Dr. Keairns is in charge of new
process/systems development. In addition, both are
involved in marketing and strategic planning. It was
clear that their careers encompassed a broader range
of activities than most students think of when they
consider what a PhD chemical engineer does on the
job. Their advanced degrees gave these engineers the
technical expertise, as well as the problem-solving
capability, that is essential in research, development,
and technical management. As they gained experience
in these technical areas, their responsibilities broad-
ened to encompass some of the planning and market-
ing aspects of their work. Chemical engineers with
advanced degrees often get involved in both technical
and management activities within their companies.
Dr. Nemeth pointed out that he would not have been


Students participating in the workshop get a chance to
mingle and talk over a buffet lunch.

able to reach the level of management in research and
development that he has attained without a PhD.
Should I go straight to graduate school, or
should I work for a few years first? The answer to
this question probably always depends on the indi-
vidual. One of the panel members, George Gallaher,
went to work for Proctor & Gamble after completing
his BS. Now, five years later, he is back in graduate
school to get a PhD. A top student as an under-
graduate, George realized after working for some time
that his career interests and his strongest attributes
as an engineer were more suited to a career in re-
search-one that only a PhD would allow. It was
through working as a BS engineer that he was able to
find this out. His experience at P&G gave him a
broader view of chemical engineering than most stu-
dents have who enter graduate school directly from
the BS. But George also pointed out that the transi-
tion to being a student again after five years in indus-
try is not a move easily made by everyone. In fact,
many more students say they plan to go back for an
advanced degree than actually do.
Several of the panel members went straight from
the BS to the PhD degree. The decision to take that
approach depends on how sure the student is of his
interests and career goals. And it is a decision which
concerns personal as well as technical interests. Pro-
fessor Goodwin spent three years in the U.S. Peace
Corps between completing his MS and PhD degrees,
teaching in universities in Turkey and in Liberia. He
found that the experience was not only personally re-
warding but also that it had a significant influence on
his later career decisions and interests.
Does it make sense economically to get a
graduate degree? There are differing opinions on this
point. People have argued both ways-that the time
spent in graduate school will or will not be rewarded
by higher salaries for entry-level PhD positions. Actu-
ally, most panel members did not consider this an im-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










SUMMER SCHOOL '87


The next Summer School for chemical engineering
faculty, sponsored and'organized by the Chemical En-
gineering Division of the ASEE, will be held August
9-15, 1987, at Southeastern Massachusetts Univer-
sity, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts. Co-chairmen
for the conference are Glenn L. Schrader and Maurice
A. Larson (Department of Chemical Engineering,
Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011). Local ar-
rangements are being coordinated by L. Bryce Ander-
son (College of Engineering, Southeastern Mas-
sachusetts University, North Dartmouth, MA 02747)
and by Stanley M. Barnett (Department of Chemical
Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston,
RI 02881).
The 1987 Summer School will focus on the revitali-
zation of the chemical engineering curriculum in re-
sponse to the changing technological needs of Amer-
ican society. A series of plenary lectures will present
new perspectives on emerging technology for
semiconductors, biotechnology, and advanced mater-
ials. A group of four workshops is also being planned
to include 1) Emerging Technology, 2) Computers in
Chemical Engineering, 3) Applied Chemistry in
Chemical Engineering, and 4) Curricula, Courses, and
Laboratories. A poster session is also being planned.
In June 1985 proposals requesting donations to
support the 1987 Summer School were mailed to about
150 companies. The following companies or their as-
sociated foundations have pledged or contributed
$83,000 to the 1987 Summer School (as of August 1,
1986):
Amoco Oil Company
Chevron Corporation
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
Dow Corning Corporation


portant issue. They pointed out that being satisfied
with the type of career that you have chosen can often
add more to the overall quality of life than the realiza-
tion that over the span of a career you have made a
dollar more as a result of your choice. PhD chemical
engineers make very good salaries, and the job mar-
ket is less tied to daily ups and downs of the economy
than are BS entry-level positions. In addition, most
panelists agreed that the time they spent in graduate
school was an exciting, fulfilling, challenging, and
learning experience-an experience they would not
trade for dollars.

ASSESSING THE WORKSHOP
Probably one of the most important outcomes of


E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company
Exxon
Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Labs
PPG Industries
The Standard Oil Company
Shell Development Company
3M
Union Carbide Corporation
If you have any suggestions concerning key con-
tacts with other possible donors, please call Glenn
Schrader (515-294-0519) to discuss how these individu-
als and their organizations should be contacted.
The estimated budget accounts for: preliminary
operating expenses; travel and living expenses for
members of the organizing committee, plenary speak-
ers, block chairmen, workshop leaders; special events;
and partial travel and living subsidy for university
participants. There is no compensation for instruc-
tional services. Members of the organizing committee,
plenary speakers, block chairmen, leaders of work-
shops, and their institutions donate their services.
Each department of chemical engineering will be
offered partial subsidy for one faculty member to at-
tend the Summer School. Large departments will be
offered an opportunity for a second faculty member to
participate. Department heads will be asked to name
attendees from their department. Industrial sponsors
will also be invited to select one or two attendees from
their company.
At the end of 1986; a mailing will be sent to all
departments providing a preliminary program for the
Summer School. For more information concerning the
1987 Summer School, contact Glenn Schrader. De-
partment of Chemical Engineering, Iowa State Uni-
versity, Ames, IA 50011.E


the workshop was that the students received a lot of
first-hand information about the kinds of careers for
which a graduate education prepares them. By meet-
ing professors from different schools they were able
to learn about the variety of programs offered. By
discussing career options with working PhD chemical
engineers they learned of the excitement that such
careers promise. And by meeting and talking with stu-
dents from other chemical engineering programs who
had thoughts and concerns similar to their own, they
discovered that getting a graduate education is a via-
ble and exciting option for chemical engineers. [Note:
The next workshop will be held at the University of
Pittsburgh on Nov. 15, 1986. For more information
contact Professor Blackmond at (412) 624-2136.] D


FALL 1986


W ll mVVBI VH








views and opinions


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

A Crisis of Maturity


JACOB JORNE
University of Rochester
Rochester, NY 14627

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING is a field in a state of
transition. This is especially true for those of us
who are involved in chemical engineering education
and who wonder about the future and direction of our
discipline. Ours is a relatively young branch of en-
gineering and it seems to be in the midst of its first
major transition. The optimists among us tend to call
this transition "maturity," while the pessimists call it
a "crisis." The truth is probably at neither extreme. I
prefer to call it a crisis of maturity.
Chemical engineering is a mature field which
stands on the solid foundation of physical chemistry,
transport phenomena, kinetics, and reactor design. It
emerged fifty years ago from the traditional field of
industrial chemistry, and the consistent trend during
all these years has been toward generalities, unified
approaches, and fundamental studies. There are sev-
eral examples of this trend. The originally different
disciplines of fluid flow, heat transfer and mass trans-
fer merged together into the unified field of transport
phenomena. Unit operations such as distillation, ab-
sorption and extraction merged into stage operation.
Even chemical kinetics and reactor design are now
taught in a general form and rarely deviate from the
general notation A + B -- C. This general approach
was, and still is, very powerful. As a result chemical
engineers became, and still are, extremely effective
in solving problems and in designing plants. Twenty,
or even ten, years ago most graduate research was
devoted to topics such as diffusion, bubbles, falling
film, and fluidized bed. There was no necessity for
practical justification since it was considered basic
chemical engineering-something which had to be
done in order to establish the field. However, within
the last few years things have changed considerably.
The classical fundamentals are well established, and
the research now done within chemical engineering
departments is usually applied and is commonly
evaluated on its relevance to current problems and
needs.
The classical literature of chemical engineering is
marked primarily by its simplicity. Transport
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


phenomena and reactor design are examples where
common sense, mathematics, and engineering are
combined to solve practical and real problems in a sim-
ple way. However, recent trends in the chemical en-
gineering literature suggest that there is a bias
against simplicity. W. K. Grasman [Interface, 16:2,
43-51, 1986] has pointed out a general trend, across
all disciplines, toward publishing unnecessarily com-
plex works. His "Joe's Theorem" can be applied to the
literature of chemical engineering:
Nothing is published in the area of chemical engineering sci-
ence unless it is mathematically interesting. Nothing is
applied in industry unless it is mathematically trivial. Since
trivial results are not interesting and since results that can-
not be applied are not useful, nothing useful will ever be
published in the field of chemical engineering science.
Though an exaggeration of the present state, this
"theorem" points out the need for simplicity and rele-
vance in academic research.
The direction of chemical engineering graduate re-
search is changing. Fundamental topics are no longer
appealing to the general population of graduate stu-
dents who are mostly attracted to fields where jobs
are currently available. Even in the academic job mar-


Jacob Jorne, professor of chemical engineering at the University of
Rochester, received his PhD in chemical engineering from the Univer-
sity of California, Berkeley (1972). A native of Israel, he obtained a
BSc and an MSc from the Technion-lsrael Institute of Technology in
1963 and 1967, respectively. His research interests include elec-
trochemical engineering, semiconductor processing, energy conversion
and storage, and the theoretical biology of ecosystems. He has consid-
erable industrial experience as a consultant. In 1979 he was named
Chemical Engineer of the Year by the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, Detroit Section.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


|


hE









ket, the magic words of "biochemical engineering" and
"semiconductor processing" can land a choice teaching
job. It is interesting to note that these two attractive
areas are at the core of the current transition within
chemical engineering education.
MICROELECTRONICS-MISSED OPPORTUNITY
Chemical engineering missed the opportunity to
make prime contributions to the microelectronic in-
dustry. Microelectronic devices are produced by a
series of purely chemical processes such as chemical
vapor deposition and etching. Nevertheless, the elec-
tronic industry emerged and matured virtually with-
out the participation of chemical engineers. Though
many chemical engineers are employed in the semi-
conductor industry, the contribution of their field, as
a science and as a philosophy, is negligible. The amaz-
ing revolution toward miniaturization of devices and
processes has occurred over the last decade or two, yet
chemical engineering is just starting to catch up with
this trend. It might be too late. Had it been left to
chemical engineers, the microelectronic industry
would not be where it is now. The concept of carrying
chemical reactions on a micron-size level, on a huge
scale, and under absolutely clean conditions is foreign
to the traditional chemical engineer who is educated
to manufacture bulk chemicals within a profession
dominated by the oil and chemical industries.
Chemical engineers must develop new processes,
equipment, materials, and devices not currently en-
visioned. The possibility of packing chemical reactions
into smaller and smaller volumes will begin to emerge
through a better understanding of reaction mechan-
isms and networks, monolayer between phases, thin
films, micro-sensors and microreactors, to name just
a few. The trend should not be just an attempt to
catch up with the microelectronic industry, but rather
to develop a new field of microchemical engineering
where we can combine and implement our unique
knowledge and solid foundation and lead a new indus-
try based on fields like molecular electronics, sensors
and enzymes.

MICROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The idea of microchemical engineering is really not
new, but it deserves new focus as a commonly de-
nominating theme. Molecular thermodynamics is an
example of a microscale research with macroscale ap-
plications. Similarly, recent works on interfacial
phenomena, colloids, surface science, nucleation,
microcirculation, and cell phenomena are all examples
of chemical engineering science on a microscale.
There are some objective reasons why the chemi-
cal industry and chemical engineers are so late in


The idea of microchemical engineering
is really not new, but it deserves new focus as
a commonly denominating theme. Molecular
thermodynamics is an example of a microscale
research with macroscale applications.

adopting the trend toward microscale processes and
devices. Obviously, at the present time it is hard to
envision miniaturization of heat exchangers, chemical
reactors or distillation columns simply because heat
and mass transfer need large interfacial areas and
chemical reactions utilize space and time to achieve
appreciable conversion. However, chemical engineer-
ing deals with a wide range of dimensions. The phys-
ical extent can vary over eight orders of magnitude.
The megascopic systems are on the order of 1 meter
and up (> 1m). Macroscopic systems are usually
within 10- to 1m. The microscopic and the submicro-
scopic systems are within the 10- to 10- m range,
while the molecular scale is on the order of 10m.
Traditional chemical engineering deals mostly with
megascopic systems whose fundamental mechanisms
are within the macroscopic range. For example, heat
exchangers and distillation columns are megascopic
while heat and mass transfer boundary layers are
within the macroscopic level.
We can rival the momentum of the microelectronic
developments only by adopting new scientific dis-
coveries and using our skills to bring them to commer-
cial realization-a process we capitalized upon in the
past. Our chemistry and industrial chemistry roots
should be maintained as the most unique feature of
our discipline, while the future of our profession de-
pends entirely on the recent developments and ad-
vances made in chemistry, physics and, I must add,
biology.

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
In addition to a dependence upon advances made
in chemistry and physics, chemical engineering of the
future will be increasingly dependent upon new bio-
logical knowledge. There is a shared conviction that
biochemical engineering is destined to be a major force
and most chemical engineering departments are look-
ing for young faculty trained in this area. There is a
danger in thinking that having one or two professors
in each chemical engineering department who are
doing some biological experiments will take us into
the rosy future of genetic engineering and molecular
biology. The challenge is much too great for such an
approach. We must educate undergraduate students
in biology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biol-
ogy with the same intensity that we presently educate


FALL 1986








them in physical chemistry. For years we have been
educating students and training them with the overall
goal of preparing them to work for companies such as
duPont and Standard Oil. This approach was very ap-
propriate and extremely successful in the past. How-
ever, we must now prepare students for the unknown
future and for imaginary employers which may include
a genetic engineering company, space processing com-
panies, and, maybe, molecular computer manufactur-
ers. Courses such as distillation must be eliminated
and replaced. This does not mean that distillation is a
thing of the past. To the contrary, energy problems
will be staying with us for a long, long time. However,
teaching distillation is not a subject which increases
the student's innovative capabilities nor does it pro-
vide basic science for the unknown future.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
I was always proud of chemical engineering,
mainly because it was the only branch of engineering
where science played a major role. As the field ma-
tured I sensed a departure from the fundamentals of


science and the increasing reliance on applications. In
order to regain the enthusiasm of the early years, and
in order to establish new frontiers, we must rearrange
our educational priorities and teach basic biochemis-
try, microbiology, genetics, solid state physics, and
human factors engineering. We must undertake new
courses as well, which teach innovative problem-
solving and which encourage cross-disciplinary think-
ing. This is the only way we can preserve and re-
vitalize chemical engineering, and it is the best insur-
ance that we will establish new industries which prom-
ise to improve the quality of life.
The crisis of maturity confronting chemical en-
gineering can be resolved with energy, courage, and
foresight. The most important decisions will center on
which traditions to maintain and which new approach-
es to establish. The question of whether we are in the
midst of a crisis or are simply a matured profession is
a debate we don't have time for. The lack of risk-
taking, excitement and vision are the only relevant
problems to be confronted. I am confident that wise
deliberation will underscore our opportunities. O


THE WILLIAM H. CORCORAN OUTSTANDING PAPER AWARD


In the opinion of many, Bill Corcoran did more for
the advancement of chemical engineering education
and engineering education in general in the United
States than any other person in recent decades. He
shared his many talents selflessly, often working
quietly behind the scenes, but more frequently in im-
portant positions of leadership. Recognition of Bill's
many contributions through establishment of the Wil-
liam H. Corcoran Outstanding Paper Award allows
the ASEE Chemical Engineering Division to, in Bill's
own words, "pay back the debt we owe." Bill was
describing his own dedication to his profession as a
measure of his appreciation for the opportunities
given him early in his career.
Bill Corcoran's excellence in teaching and his
strong interest in students were recognized through
his selection to receive the ASEE Western Electric
Fund and Lamme Awards and the ABET L. E.
Grinter Award. His comprehensive research on the
nitrogen oxides predated the general recognition of
the key role these substances play in environmental
control. He pioneered the application of chemical en-
gineering principles to biomedical engineering.
Singling out one area most noteworthy from the
many in which Bill did so much is difficult, but many
would agree that the area should be the technical liter-
ature. His own extensive list of publications includes


three books and many widely read contributions to
the technical literature and to contemporary thought
about engineering education and practice. He was a
member of the publications Board of Chemical En-
gineering Education from 1966 until his death, serv-
ing as its chairman in 1967-68 and again in 1975-77. At
the national level in ASEE, he served on the Publica-
tions Policy Committee, Engineering Education
Editorial Committee and ECRC Publications Commit-
tee. He held similar assignments in the American
Chemical Society and in AIChE.
Bill is perhaps best known within ASEE for the
landmark report resulting from the 1975-77 study of
the Committee on Review of Engineering and En-
gineering Technology Studies which he chaired. His
extensive service to AIChE led to his election as pres-
ident in 1978; he was president-elect of ABET at the
time of his death in 1982. He was elected to the Na-
tional Academy of Engineering in 1980.
Through dedicated teaching, research, service and
publications, Bill Corcoran was a positive force in en-
gineering education. Just as Bill did throughout his
career, the Corcoran Award will grow in stature over
the years, beginning with its distinguished inaugura-
tion at the Cincinnati Annual Conference.
George Burnet
Iowa State University


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










book reviews

THE NEW ENGINEERING
RESEARCH CENTERS:
PURPOSES, GOALS AND EXPECTATIONS
National Academy Press, 2102 Constitution Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20418
Reviewed by
Wayne H. Chen
Dean, College of Engineering
University of Florida
This book is the outgrowth of a symposium, "The
New Engineering Research Centers: Factors Affect-
ing Their Thrusts," held on April 29-30, 1985, under
the auspices of the National Research Council's Com-
mission on Engineering and Technical Systems
(CETS).
The new Engineering Research Centers (ERCs)
program was initiated by the National Science Foun-
dation. Selected from 142 proposals, six Engineering
Research Centers (involving a total of eight univer-
sities) were announced in early April of 1985, and are
now in operation.
The papers published in this book were presented
at the symposium to introduce the new centers to the
engineering community at large and are grouped
under the captions: 1) The National Goal, 2) The
Center as a Reality-Plans, Mechanisms and Interac-
tions, and 4) The Future-Challenge and Expecta-
tions.
Dr. George A. Keyworth II, Science Advisor to
the President, described the "national goal" with this
statement: Improving the U.S. position in interna-
tional industrial competitiveness.
From several sections of the book the following
quotations will highlight the important concepts be-
hind the creation of the ERC program.
The ERC program is a result of the realization that our
engineering schools are becoming increasingly engineering-
science oriented, with greater and greater emphasis on
analysis of narrowly focused topics. While analysis in en-
gineering science is an important facet of engineering, it is
clear that we have neglected synthesis-oriented skills such as
design, optimization of engineering systems, and system inte-
gration. (p. 39)
We have to increase our effort in the kind of research that
bridges the gap between fundamental scientific research and
application. This kind of research is engineering research.
(p. 20)
We need more engineering research, and we need more
engineering graduates who understand how to do engineering
research. We need to put them to work in those areas where
economic competitiveness is at stake; and we need to make


sure that the knowledge they generate and the guidance they
provide permeate the whole engineering community, not just
the research community alone. We need wider and stronger
bridges between the people doing engineering in industry and
the people teaching engineering and doing research in univer-
sities. (pp. 22-24)
The Engineering Research Centers are to "Bridge Gaps"
(pp. 23-26): Bridging Gaps Between University and Industry;
Bridging Gaps Among Engineering Disciplines; Bridging
Gaps Within the Innovative Process.
The ERCs are required to have "industrial partici-
pation" and, in addition to research, must also have
an "education" component.
The six new Engineering Research Centers are
Systems Research Centers (University of Maryland, Harvard
University)
Center for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (Purdue Uni-
versity)
Center for Robotic Systems in Microelectronics (University-
of California, Santa Barbara)
Center for Composites Manufacturing Science and Engineer-
ing (University of Delaware)
Engineering Center for Telecommunications Research
(Columbia University)
Biotechnology Process Engineering Center (MIT)
The six ERCs are only the first contingent of what
the NSF expects eventually to grow to some twenty
centers, each with an average annual budget of $2-5
million. This book will be valuable to those schools
with the aspiration to apply for a new Engineering
Research Center. [

ENGINEERING GRADUATE EDUCATION AND
RESEARCH
Panel on Engineering Graduate Education and Re-
search, John D. Kemper, Chm., National Academy
Press, Washington, D.C., 1985. $14.95
Reviewed by
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
This monograph is part of an overall study of en-
gineering education and practice in the United States
conducted under the auspices of the National Re-
search Council. As the title implies, the study
examines the present status of graduate engineering
education and its relationship to graduate research.
In the conduct of the study, the Committee reviewed
the data and conclusions of previous comprehensive
engineering studies including the Report on Evalua-
tion of Engineering Education (Grinter Report), the
President's Science Advisory Committee report enti-
tled Meeting Manpower Needs in Science and
Technology (PSAC Report), and the ASEE Goals of
Continued on page 193.


FALL 1986











A7 Reseach Aorwam On


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN


PROCESS ENGINEERING


GEORGE STEPHANOPOULOS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139

THE REEMERGENCE of artificial intelligence as a
viable and utilitarian discipline offers the potential
of harvesting early promises on intelligent man-
machine interaction. For process engineering, these
promises have nurtured and disillusioned a generation
of engineers. Presently, the mood is cautiously op-
timistic. The "novelty" of the technology has taken
most by surprise and has found the large majority,
even among the early devotees in artificial intelli-
gence, unprepared for meaningful engineering appli-
cations. Nevertheless, idling skepticism has been re-
placed by a wide-spread activism, leading to a mul-
titude of exploratory prototypes. But, what we ob-
serve as a feverish research and development activity


George Stephanopoulos was an undergraduate at the National
Technical University of Athens, Greece, received his ME at McMaster
University, Canada, and did his doctoral studies in chemical engineer-
ing at the University of Florida. In 1974 he joined the faculty at the
University of Minnesota, and from 1980 to 1983 he taught at the
National Technical University of Athens. In 1984 he joined MIT, where
he is presently the J.R. Mares professor of chemical engineering. He is
the author of two books: Chemical Process Control; An Introduction to
Theory and Practice, and Synthesizing Networks of Heat Exchangers.
He has been a Dreyfus Scholar and he was awarded the Colburn
Award (1982) of AIChE and the C. McGraw Research Award (1986) of
ASEE. His research interests are in the area of process systems engineer-
ing, which he and his students have been recently interfacing with
methodologies from artificial intelligence and technology from LISP
computers.


in knowledge-based expert system is nothing else but
a very serious effort in self-education. We will have
to wait for the next phase of developments to see use-
ful and practical products for process systems en-
gineering purposes.
Existing prototypes of expert systems are in-
teresting examples, and some of them have had signif-
icant economic impact in areas other than those re-
lated to chemical and biochemical engineering. They
have provided certain paradigms which later efforts
have tried to imitate. But, are these prototypes appro-
priate for process engineering?
Can they "model" the human activity during the concep-
tion of a chemical process, the design of a product, the
development of a process flowsheet, or the synthesis of con-
trol configurations and operating procedures for complete
processing plants?
Can they support engineering activities, capitalizing on the
innate "intelligence" of expert technologists and designers,
as this intelligence is articulated within the context of the
problem being solved?
Do they provide high level, transparent communication be-
tween man and machine during the graphic generation of
process flowsheets, or control configurations, or the ana-
lytic development of process models, the introduction of
qualitative reasoning, or the formulation of design prob-
lems (assumptions, assertions, hypothesis testing, etc.)?
It is our view that the existing paradigms cannot
satisfy the above needs; after all, they were conceived
to solve different problems. New prototypes are
needed which should reflect the particularities of the
process systems engineering problems.

THE M.I.T.-LISPE
The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems for Pro-
cess Engineering (LISPE) at the Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology was recently established to ad-
vance the art of process engineering using current
technological advances in the areas of artificial intelli-
gence and LISP computers. It is the culmination of
intensive preparatory work during the last 2 1/2
years, including extensive investment in education,
hardware and software infrastructure, and communi-
eCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems for Process Engineering (LISPE) at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology was recently established to advance the art of process engineering using
current technological advance in the areas of artificial intelligence and LISP computers.


cation and collaboration with other research groups at
MIT or industrial concerns, all of which have interests
in artificial intelligence.
LISPE's present capabilities in research and edu-
cation are at the forefront of the field, and encompass
diversified expertise in various areas such as
Chemical or biochemical process development, design, con-
trol, or operations
Methods of artificial intelligence
Design and development of knowledge-based expert sys-
tems
Structure and character of object-oriented programming
In the remaining paragraphs of this section, we will
discuss in more detail the present infrastructure of
LISPE.
The MIT-LISPE is under the direction of Profes-
sor George Stephanopoulos and presently includes
twelve graduate students working toward their PhD
degree. It has also involved eight undergraduate re-
search assistants through MIT's Undergraduate Re-
search Opportunities Program (UROP).
The ability to amalgamate the most advanced
knowledge and methods from many diverse areas im-
portant to process engineering depends upon close in-
teraction with two important groups of people: 1)
Other faculty members and investigators at MIT, and
2) Industrial practitioners from the chemical and
biochemical industries as well as the computer indus-
try (hardware and' jftware).
Within MIT, the LISPE has established connec-
tions with groups such as the A.I. Laboratory, the
Knowledge Systems Program of the Laboratory for
Manufacturing and Productivity, the Intelligent En-
gineering Systems Laboratory in Civil Engineering,
and various other independent researchers with in-
terests in the fundamentals and applications of artifi-
cial intelligence.
Hardware Facilities. Present hardware facilities
include
Two 3640 and two 3650 SYMBOLICS LISP computers,
each equipped with 8 MB of memory and 280 or 360 Mb of
disk capacity
Two IBM PC AT (one with color and extended 2 Mb mem-
ory)
Two printers (one laser, and one high quality dot matrix)
Furthermore, we recently completed the networking
of all machines as well as their connection to MIT's
ATHENA system. Such networking capabilities allow
us to expand the scope of the research projects by


accessing a large multitude of databases, by com-
municating and reasoning with other intelligent sys-
tems, or by developing simulated environments of dis-
tributed, parallel intelligent systems.

Software Support. Current research develop-
ments in intelligent systems for process engineering
are enjoying wide support from a multitude of generic
and specific software facilities, such as
(a) The SYMBOLICS Zetalisp environment pro-
vides an extremely efficient medium for rapid pro-
totyping of intelligent databases and interfaces with
rudimentary natural language capabilities and exten-
sive graphics, including active multiple windows,
scrolling, menus, etc., and it allows an incremental
mode of program development.
(b) An integrated software package, such as the
Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE), has
been generously provided by IntelliCorp, and consti-
tutes the integrated environment for the development
of knowledge-based expert system support of our
various research projects.
(c) The availability of LISP-based compilers for
languages such as FORTRAN and PASCAL allows
us to access, in a transparent way, a large number of
software packages developed for various numerical
process engineering needs such as: algorithms for the
solution of equations, optimization algorithms, physi-
cal properties packages, simulators of process flow-
sheets, process design packages, packages for the de-
sign of control system, etc.
(d) The Lisp version of MACSYMA provides us
with a powerful mathematical symbolic manipulator,
which has found important applications on several pro-
jects.
(e) The GCLISP 286 Developer that we use in con-
junction with the IBM PC AT computers provides an
excellent environment for training in LISP. In addi-
tion, it provides an additional capability for the local
development of small-scale, dedicated natural lan-
guage interfaces, file editing in Common Lisp, and
remote evaluation of Zetalisp functions.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM
The historical boundaries of process engineering
activities are being pushed toward the "front-end" to


FALL 1986










include an important role in product design and de-
velopment, as well as contributions in conceiving
novel processing schemes and developing the appro-


New prototypes are needed
which should reflect the particularities
of the process systems engineering problems.


private technology, including the selection of mass
separating agents, heat pump fluids, catalysts, etc.
Within the scope of LISPE the following set com-
prises the process engineering activities of interest
Design of molecules (products, or processing fluids) with
desired physical or/and chemical properties
Development of novel processing schemes
Synthesis of process flowsheets for existing technologies
Design of control systems for complete chemical plants
Intelligent on-line controllers
Planning and scheduling of operational procedures
Development and design of biochemical processes
All of the above problems are characterized by a
series of common attributes which can be summarized
as follows:
Each problem is multi-objective in nature.
Thus, a new polymer should not only possess the de-
sired thermal and mechanical properties, but it should
also be easily processed while the production of the
constituent monomers is chemically feasible and
economic. The control structure of a complete chemi-
cal plant should not only provide good regulation, but
it should also allow for easy plant-wide optimization
and smooth start-up, change-over, or safe fall-back
operations. The optimum trade-off of conflicting objec-
tives has been the province of "experts," since a con-
crete formulation of such problems is very resistant
to analytic treatment.
They use knowledge from different domains.
This is a direct corollary of the multi-objective charac-
ter of the problems and indicates the need for diver-
sified expertise, which normally comes from different
people. At the same time it is clear that we need to
consult different data-bases with large amounts of di-
versified information. Coordinating the interaction of
different "experts," and/or rationally using extensive
data-bases with diverse scopes, is not a trivial prob-
lem. Current industrial practice is based on a rather
inefficient segmentation of domain-responsibilities,
where the control designer tries to make up for pro-
cess design weaknesses, or the process developer at-
tempts to conform the processing scheme to the
chemist's dictation.


Required expertise is not easily articulated. The
incisive knowledge that problems such as the above
need for their solution cannot be easily articulated by
the experts in the absence of a specific context. On
the contrary, experience has demonstrated that "ex-
pertise" becomes active within the context of the par-
ticular problem they attempt to solve.
Imply a disciplined use of assumptions. For
most of the above problems, the degree of success
depends on the amount of available knowledge and
the disciplined use of assumptions exercised by the
"experts." Thus, the expert resorts to a series of as-
sumptions, conjectures, hypotheses testing, reasoning
by analogy to previous problems, assertion of inter-
mediate goals, etc. The results of this procedure de-
termine the next steps in the evolving design.
Employ models and quantitative information.
In addition to expert qualitative knowledge, for the
solution of the above problems designers often resort
to quantitative information in the form of analytic
(based on first principles) or short-cut models, correla-
tions, tables of data from manuals or handbooks, etc.
Accessing such information is normally slow and could
be a serious inhibiting factor in their creative reason-
ing. Present day computing environments do not lend
themselves easily to support such an activity. They
require ad hoc programming by the experts, while
the communication is mostly realized through cryptic
text and command lines. Such an environment dis-
courages the use of computers by the experts for the
creative part of their work.

The existing prototypes of expert systems acquire
their knowledge by interviewing the experts, from
manuals and from handbooks, etc. But the interview
process reveals "bits" of knowledge, the so-called pro-
duction rules. These rules reflect the expert's heuris-
tic database, accumulated from past experience. Con-
sequently, the extracted knowledge is limited to that
which resides at the surface of the expert's cognitive
abilities. Thus, rules stemming from repetitive tasks
can be easily articulated. But, rules related to the syn-
thesis of processing schemes, process flowsheets, con-
trol systems for complete plants, design of operating
strategies, and other activities in process engineering,
are highly "contextual" and thus very difficult to ac-
cess and articulate.
Knowledge accumulated from interviews, hand-
books, or manuals is very poor in terms of the reason-
ing strategy that an expert employs to solve various
problems. Thus, the ill-defined formulations of the
various process engineering problems imply unstruc-
tured reasoning methodologies, which normally are
very inefficient and frustrating experiences. Within


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










the scope of the available expert system prototypes it
is extremely difficult to capture the reasoning proce-
dures used by the experts, which are quite complex
and highly contextual.

RESEARCH PROJECTS AND THE NEW
PROTOTYPE OF AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEM
The two deficiencies discussed above are very re-
strictive and imply that one needs a different pro-
totype in order to make artificial intelligence a viable
technology in process engineering. The following are
the principal characteristics of this prototype
Allows the designer to concentrate on the creative aspects
of his/her work
Facilitates the use of computers through rudimentary nat-
ural language interface, and intelligent databases and
graphic interfaces
Incorporates the features of standardized expert systems
(heuristic knowledge extracted from interviews, hand-
books, manuals, etc.)
Contains facilities which permit the designer to articulate
his/her knowledge within the context of the specific prob-
lem at hand, e.g. an on-line rule editor
Allows the expert to formulate, on-line, during the solution
of a particular problem, different reasoning strategies, ac-
tivated by an ad hoc articulation of the designer's own
"heuristics"
Table 1 lists the research projects currently under
way, all of which are implementing various forms of
the prototype intelligent system under development.
Unlike previous or parallel efforts in artificial intelli-
gence, as Table 1 indicates, our research emphasis is
on design-oriented intelligent systems. Let us now
discuss in some more detail the main components for
this new prototype:
Knowledge base: Knowledge is collected from
three sources: (i) lists of experiential heuristics, (ii)
quantitative models, and (iii) on-line heuristics acti-
vated and articulated by the designer within the con-
text of the specific problem being solved. Facilities to
capture the knowledge from the third source are abso-
lutely necessary because such knowledge is very inci-
sive and cannot be articulated out of context.
Reasoning strategies: The prototype intelligent
system, under development, should have a rich reper-
tory of reasoning strategies, which to a large extent
are driven by the designer and are defined adaptively
within the context of the problem being solved. Thus,
the designer will be able, during the solution of a spe-
cific problem, to perform the following tasks automat-
ically: test hypotheses; define conjectures; assert, on-
line defined, intermediate goals; create alternatives;
simultaneously carry several alternatives and
evaluate them.


TABLE 1.
Current Research Projects at the MIT-LISPE
1. "DESIGN-KIT": A System for Intelligent Engineering
Interfaces and Databases
2. Process Development by Analogy
3. Synthesis of Process Flowsheets
4. Synthesis of Control Structures for Complete Chemical
Plants
5. Planning and Scheduling Plant-Wide Process Control
Operations
6. Intelligent Controllers
7. Operability Considerations in the Design and Control of
Heat-Integrated Chemical Plants
8. Computer-Aided Modeling of Bacteria Cells for the Analysis
and Development of Biochemical Processes.
9. Synthesis of Separation Systems for the Recovery and Pur-
ification of Proteins
10. Design of Molecules with Desired Properties


Intelligent databases: The effective use of the
proposed new prototype will be heavily dependent on
the availability of an intelligent database which should
allow: innate reasoning during the search of the
database; conversational interaction with the designer
through answering the designer's queries, or accept-
ing new elements for the tables of data; easy expan-
sion through permanent or temporary new entries,
and identification of patterns among its elements. A
rich repertory of alternative representations of knowl-
edge and data is also indispensable.
Intelligent interfaces: The database system de-
scribed above should be supported by a simple and
transparent interface between the designer and the
computer. Thus, the new prototype includes
Graphic interface with easy manipulation of graphic ob-
jects (e.g., process flowsheets, control loop configura-
tions, molecular structures, biochemical pathways, routes
for operational procedures, etc.).
Interaction with the graphic interface is supported by data-
models describing the available knowledge regarding the
graphic objects. This is easily achievable through the
frame description of all objects (graphic, models, etc.).
Thus, the graphic objects are not empty of substance, but
carry a rich content of inherited knowledge.
The built-in "understanding" of the problem characteris-
tics by the graphic objects, which allows the graphic inter-
face to "draw" conclusions and to "provide" explanations,
and allows the designer to concentrate on the creative as-
pects of his/her work.
"Learning"-upgrade raw data: Process en-
gineering problems are often characterized by the
availability of large amounts of data accumulated from
past experience, experiments, extensive numerical
simulations, etc. The direct value of such information
is normally very low because it is simple declarative
Continued on page 192.


FALL 1986















THE PROCESSING OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS


S. V. BABU, PETER C. SUKANEK
Clarkson University
Potsdam, NY 13676

OR SEVERAL YEARS, the chemical engineering
department at Clarkson has been actively in-
volved in the area of materials processing. One of our
major areas is the processing of electronic materials:
the production of high purity bulk crystals, the fabri-
cation of integrated circuits, and the manufacturing of
printed circuit boards. Several of the faculty have
worked in the electronics industry, either during the
summer or on sabbatical leave, or as consultants. We
have also benefitted from a graduate "co-op" program
with industry in which graduate students spend six to
nine months doing their thesis research at an indus-
trial site. In this way, they can take full advantage of
a wide variety of modern equipment and qualified













Suryadevara V. Babu has been a professor of chemical engineering
at Clarkson since 1981. Prior to that he was on the faculty at Indian
Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He spent 1969-70 at the Niels Bohr
Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, and at the International Center for
Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, and was a post-doctoral fellow at
New York University from 1970 to 1972. His interest in electronics
manufacturing is of recent vintage, and grew out of several summers
spent with IBM. He has taught an undergraduate course, "Packaging
for Electronics," and a graduate course, "Integrated and Printed Circuit
Fabrication," several times at Clarkson. (L)
Peter Sukanek received his PhD from the University of Mas-
sachusetts. After four years with the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Labo-
ratory, he joined Clarkson's chemical engineering department in 1976.
He spent the summer of 1982 with IBM in Essex Junction, Vermont.
Together with Bill Wilcox, he has been teaching a short course on
integrated circuit fabrication. He is currently on a sabbatical with Phil-
lips Research Laboratory in Netherlands. (R)


technicians that is often not available at a university.
In this article, we will discuss some, but not all, of
the ongoing research. Other areas of research that
will not be described include Bill Wilcox's work on
crystal growth, both on the ground and in reduced
gravity environments, Don Rasmussen's work on
nucleation and chemical vapor deposition of refractory
materials for integrated circuit metallization, and
Sandra Harris's efforts to apply adaptive control
techniques to the electroless plating of printed circuit
boards.
The production of integrated circuits or printed
circuit boards involves the creation of successive
layers of different patterns in materials. These pat-
terns might be regions of semiconductor (such as sili-
con) doped with different materials (such as boron or
phosphorous) to form transistors, regions of conduc-
tors (such as aluminum or copper) to form electrical
connections, and regions of insulating material (such
as silicon dioxide or an organic polymer) to isolate the
conductor lines. Much of our research is involved with
the formation of these patterned regions. Below, we
discuss our efforts in the areas of resist materials,
etching and laser processing.

RESIST MATERIALS
The most common method of creating these pat-
terns is to coat the substrate with a radiation sensitive
organic material and then to illuminate the coating
with radiation of the appropriate wavelength through
a mask, as illustrated in Figure 1. If the illuminated
material is more soluble in a developer, it is referred
to as positive type, and if it is less soluble, as a nega-
tive type. The pattern is transferred to the underlying
layer in an etching step. Since the radiation sensitive
material is (ideally) unaffected by the etchant, it is
called a "resist."
In the production of integrated circuits, it is often
essential that the resist coating be both thin (on the
order of 1 [m) and uniform (on the order of + 100 A
or less). Otherwise, uniform patterns cannot be ob-
tained across the surface of the substrate. These films
are created by spin coating. A small amount of resist
QCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









solution is deposited onto the surface of the wafer,
which is then rotated at speeds of several thousand
rpm's. The coating thins by a combination of flow ac-
ross the surface of the substrate and by evaporation
of the solvent.
We have developed a mathematical model for the
coating to understand the parameters which control
the film thickness and to predict the conditions when
nonuniform films might be expected. The model as-
sumes a two component material, containing both vol-
atile and non-volatile species, which accounts for the
mass flux from the surface from evaporation of the
solvent [1]. The model correctly predicts the variation
of thickness with spin speed. In addition, the model is
in qualitative agreement with available data on the
effects of initial viscosity and solvent volatility. Uni-
form films can always be obtained except when the
surface mass transfer becomes turbulent or for certain
spin speeds with non-Newtonian fluids.
There are still a number of important items miss-
ing from the model. In particular, we have neglected
diffusion of the solvent within the resist film and the
dependence of the diffusivity on the solvent concentra-
tion. By including these factors, we hope to model the
conditions under which small irregularities in resist
height, called "orangepeel," occur. In addition, re-
sidual solvent also has an effect on subsequent resist
processing. Another factor to be added to the model
is the effect of substrate features, such as steps, on
the film uniformity.
Dry film negative photoresists are commonly used
in the manufacture of additively plated printed circuit
boards. The resist is crosslinked on exposure to UV-
radiation either by photo-polymerization or by nitrene
insertion into the carbon-carbon double bonds of the
polymer [2]. Crosslinked regions of the resist are in-
soluble.

-U i I 'Ra di' ; "
I V//A V//A I alsk
S-Resist


'P.Stfive
~iPoc di y


NEqafi.'e


FIGURE 1. Positive resists are less soluble after exposure;
negative resists are more soluble.


We have developed a mathematical
model for the coating to understand the
parameters which control the film thickness and
to predict the conditions when nonuniform
films might be expected.


Maintaining adequate adhesion to the substrate,
as well as preserving the line profiles in such resists,
demands crosslink uniformity in the exposed regions
and minimal solvent-induced swelling throughout the
resist film on development. Incident radiation is
strongly absorbed in the top layers of the thick resist
film, leading to a lower degree of crosslinking at the
resist-substrate interface. Solvent penetration along
this interface can cause undercutting and delamination
of the resist. Increasing the incident energy dosage,
on the other hand, will produce a brittle resist layer
at the top. Optimization of the exposure and develop-
ment processes has been investigated by measuring
the crosslink gradient using successive solvent extrac-
tions. The exposed resist-substrate adhesion corre-
lates inversely with the degree of crosslinking at the
interface [3]. A mathematical analysis of the polymeri-
zation kinetics has been carried out which showed
that, in a first approximation, the contrast of the re-
sist is inversely proportional to its optical density [4].
In the manufacture of VLSI devices, positive
photoresists are widely used. Exposure to radiation
converts a photoactive compound (PAC) to a car-
boxylic acid [5]. The exposed regions, containing the
resin and the acid, dissolve faster than the unexposed
regions in aqueous basic solvents.
As in the case of the negative resists, the radiation
intensity is not uniform in the resist film due to ab-
sorption. A pair of coupled nonlinear partial differen-
tial equations, one for the UV-intensity in the film
and the other for the concentration of the PAC, de-
scribe the kinetics [6]. A rigorous and complete
mathematical description is complicated because of in-
terference between the incident beam and its multiple
reflections from the resist-substrate and resist-air in-
terfaces causing a standing wave pattern [7]. How-
ever, there are instances of practical importance
where the substrate is strongly absorbing. The exact
solution has been obtained for such situations, and has
been used to determine the resist contrast in a closed
form [8].
The solution has been extended to the case of con-
trast enhanced lithography (CEL) [9]. In this method,
a thin dye or polysiloxane film on the resist improves
its contrast (i.e., gives steeper side wall angles). Fi-
nally, the model has also been applied to the image
Continued on page 208.


FALL 1986










47 comwe inf

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Experiences From a Graduate Course



V. VENKATASUBRAMANIAN
Columbia University
New York, NY 10027


OVER THE RECENT past, notable advances have
been made in the field of artificial intelligence
(AI) that are poised to make important contributions
to various engineering disciplines [2]. Chemical en-
gineering, process engineering in particular, stands
to make significant gains by the application of the AI
methodology called "Knowledge-Based Expert Sys-
tems" (KBES). Briefly, AI is the study of understand-
ing human information processing with the aid of com-
puters and computational models. KBES is the first
attempt towards this goal by concentrating on nar-
row, restricted domains of knowledge (such as those
of experts), rather than tackling the entire spectrum
of human intelligence. Such an attempt has resulted
in some progress towards the understanding of the
different facets of human cognition [13]. In this paper
we discuss the organization and content of a new
course that has been specifically designed for chemical
engineers on the application of KBES methodology in
process engineering.

MOTIVATION
It is becoming increasingly clear that areas such
as process synthesis and design, process diagnosis and
safety, intelligent computer-aided instruction and
training, etc., will derive substantial benefits by in-
tegrating the KBES methodology into the existing
predominantly algorithmic approaches. We are then
faced with the question of how to go about doing this.
The current approach used in the application of
the KBES methodology is the so-called dialogue ap-

In this paper we discuss the organization and
content of a new course that has been specifically
designed for chemical engineers on the application of
KBES methodology in process engineering.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


Venkat Venkatasubramanian is an assistant professor in chemical
engineering at Columbia University. After receiving his doctoral de-
gree from Cornell University in 1983, he worked as a research as-
sociate in the Department of Computer Science at Carnegie-Mellon
University. At Columbia he is directing the research efforts in the "In-
telligent Process Engineering Laboratory," and is currently working on
developing knowledge-based expert systems for process diagnosis, de-
sign, and training.

proach, where one or more computer scientists
trained in AI (called the "knowledge engineers") in-
teract with one or more chemical engineers (called the
"domain experts"), and together they develop the
knowledge-based system for the given problem. This
approach has the drawback that the knowledge en-
gineer spends a considerable amount of time and effort
in learning the problem domain (say, a given problem
in process synthesis or diagnosis) in order to be able
to design an appropriate system. Similarly, the do-
main engineer spends considerable time and effort in
conveying the domain knowledge to the knowledge
engineer as well as learning something about AI and
KBES. It seems that a better approach would be to
train chemical engineers in AI, let them develop the
appropriate knowledge-based systems for their prob-
lems, and let the computer science expert (knowledge
engineer) be involved only as an occasional consultant
for some difficult AI related problems which are
beyond the scope of our artificially intelligent chemical
engineer. Such an approach is, in fact, similar in spirit
to what chemical engineers have been doing for a long


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









time. For example, the use of applied mathematics as
a tool in various areas such as fluid mechanics, heat
and mass transfer, thermodynamics, etc., springs to
mind. Another notable example is the use of tools from
operations research such as linear programming for
chemical engineering problems in process design, op-
timization, etc. These two examples are concerned
with the use of analytical and numeric tools for chem-
ical engineering problems. We are now at the stage of
using AI tools for the symbolic computational aspects
of the problems in chemical engineering. Also the
standard expert systems course offered in computer
science departments does not adequately fulfill the
needs of the students, as discussed in the next section.
With these motivations in mind, a course called
"Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering"
(AIPE), was developed at Columbia University to
teach graduate chemical engineering students about
AI and KBES. This paper discusses the various as-
pects of the course such as its organization and con-
tent, books and other material used, student projects,


The purpose of the course was
not to design full-scale systems, but to
teach the students about the KBES methodology by
making them develop prototypes.



and the overall results of the course.

COURSE ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT

The course structure and content were specifically
designed for chemical engineering students. Even
though it is possible to use this course for teaching
chemical engineering students with no prior back-
ground in AI (we had two such candidates who did
extremely well), it is advisable to have an introduc-
tory AI course offered by a computer science depart-
ment as a prerequisite. Such a course is normally of-
fered by a computer science department at the senior
or first-year graduate level, which often does not re-
quire difficult prerequisites of its own and thus can be


TABLE 1
Course Organization


LECT. TOPIC
NO.

1 Introduction
Overview of AI,AI and Process Engineering, overview of
LISP
Ref: Vol. 1 of AI Handbook [4], Ch. 1-3 from [14]
2 Overview of Knowledge Representation
Issues in knowledge representation, predicate calculus,
semantic networks and their relevance to engineering
problems
Ref: Notes, Ch. 5-7 from [11], Ch. 5-8 from [14]
3 Overview of Search
Forward and backward chaining, depth-first, breadth-
first etc. with their uses in engineering
Ref: Notes, Ch. 2-3 from [11]
4 Expert Systems and Process Engineering
Stages of KBES development, knowledge representation
and search issues, knowledge acquisition etc.
Ref: Ch. 1-6, 11-15 from [13], Notes
5 Expert System Development in Process Engineering I
Detailed example of an expert system development using
S CONPHYDE with an introduction to rule-based pro-
gramming and OPS5
Ref: Ch. 1-4 from [6], [3], Notes
6 Expert System Development in Process Engineering II
Topics include knowledge representation and control in
OPS5, more discussion on CONPHYDE
Ref: Ch. 5-8 from [6], [3], Notes
7 Dealing with Uncertainty
Reasoning with incomplete and uncertain information,
Bayesian approaches, Dempster-Shafer theory, and
Fuzzy Logic
Ref: Notes, Ch. 10-13 from [7]


8 Representation of Engineering Objects and Processes
Frames, Objects, Hybrid representation techniques for
process engineering problems
Ref: Notes, Ch. 21,23,24 from [7], [9]
9 Symbolic Computational Methods in Process Synthesis
Architecture of blackboards, applicability to process syn-
thesis
Ref: Notes, [10], [1]
10 Intelligent Process Engineering Workstations
Architectural issues, cooperating expert systems, intelli-
gent user-interfaces etc.
Ref: Notes, [12]
11 Qualitative Reasoning
Introduction to qualitative physics and modeling, model-
ing of objects and processes etc.
Ref: Notes, Ch. 1-3 from [5]
12 Process Plant Diagnosis and Safety
Model-based reasoning for process plant diagnosis and
safety analysis
Ref: Notes, Ch. 4,7 from [5]
13 Expert System Tools and Shells for Process Engineer-
ing
Critical evaluations of KBES tools such as KEE, ART,
LOOPS, KAS, EMYCIN etc. from the perspective of pro-
cess engineers
Ref: Notes, Ch. 8-10, 23-30 from [13], Ch. 9 from [6]
14 Projects presentation by students

REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS:
1. Waterman, D., A Guide to Expert Systems, Addison-Wesley
Pub., 1985
2. Brownston, L., et al, Programming Expert Systems in OPSS,
Addison-Wesley Pub., 1985.
3. Winston, P. H. and B. K. P. Horn, LISP, Second Edition, Addi-
son-Wesley Pub., 1984.


FALL 1986










handled by chemical engineering grad students fairly
well (this has been our experience). Courses that are
somewhat similar to our course are offered in com-
puter science departments in the country, often under
the title of "Knowledge-Based Expert Systems."
These courses, however, are typically aimed at com-
puter science students and do not discuss issues that
are of extreme importance to engineering students,
particularly chemical engineering students. By and
large the courses do not consider the developments
that have occurred in engineering disciplines, the dis-
cussion of which is more important and meaningful to
chemical engineers. Thus, such courses are not suit-
able from an engineering point of view. As the author
learned from this course, student understanding was
significantly facilitated through teaching with the aid
of examples from chemical engineering and exercises
involving typical process engineering problems. Such
a treatment is not, and cannot be, provided in a course
offered by a computer science department. The AIPE
course was offered for the first time in spring '86 to a
class of thirteen graduate students.
The organization of the lectures and the topics are
given in Table 1. Each lecture was 150 minutes long
(equivalent of three regular lecture hours) and was
delivered once a week. Since, at this time, there are
no books that appropriately address the contents of
this course, we relied heavily on lecture notes. The
three books listed as required texts at the end of the
table were used for about 50% of the course; the rest
of the course material was covered using relevant pa-
pers and lecture notes.

EXPERT SYSTEM PROJECTS

The students were instructed to develop a rule-
based expert system implemented in OPS5 for a pro-
cess engineering problem as a part of the course. The
development of the KBES was organized into six
phases, where in each phase the student tries to
achieve a small part of the complete system. The stu-
dents had about thirteen weeks (roughly a semester)
to perform this task. The phases are more or less syn-
chronous with the lecture materials, so that in at-
tempting to accomplish a particular phase the student
has been given the necessary background in the pre-
ceding lectures. Clearly these are not hard and fast
deadlines and requirements, and they can be relaxed
to some extent based on the individual's needs. How-
ever, we found them to be useful as they keep the
efforts somewhat focused and allow the system to be
developed in an incremental fashion, an important as-
pect of expert system development. These project
guidelines are given in Table 2.


TABLE 2
Project Guidelines
PHASE TIME SPAN
NO. IN WEEKS DESCRIPTION
1 2 Selection of a specific project with a
synopsis outlining what the expert sys-
tem is supposed to do (check with the
instructor before completing this
stage).
2 3 Classification and comparison of the
system with a similar system in the
literature. Sample rules, search
method, important details of the im-
plementation described.
3 3 Simple working prototype imple-
mented in OPS5. The report should
include a trace of the demo and the
code.
4 2 Medium scale working prototype in
OPS5 with search, inexact reasoning
method, roughly 50% of the knowledge
base implemented. Some rough form
of the explanation facility must also
be present.
5 2 Nearly finished working system;
mostly debugged. Only needs to be
fine tuned with improved user inter-
face and explanation facility, and
augmentation of the knowledge base.
6 1 Working, completed expert system.
Submit a full report describing the
system with its merits and demerits.
Include a copy of the code and a trace
of the demo.



SYNOPSES OF SOME OF THE PROJECTS

To give an idea about the content and the extent
of the student projects developed in this course, short
descriptions of some of them follow:
An expert system using model-based reasoning was de-
veloped by Steve Rich to troubleshoot prototypical chemi-
cal plants. The system uses concepts of qualitative physics
and reasons from first principles as opposed to most of the
typical diagnosis systems. Due to the model-based ap-
proach, the system has the flexibility to diagnose different
prototypical chemical plants that have the same processing
units but arranged in different flowsheet configurations.
The system has about 110 rules, and offers explanations at
four different levels of details.

A prototypical expert system that serves as a design consul-
tant for plastics selection, design and processing problems
was developed by C-F. Chen using the blackboard architec-
ture. The system has about 70 rules and 30 or so frames,
and uses a hybrid knowledge representation approach
using rules in OPS5 and frames in Framesmith [8].

An expert system for aiding pump selection was developed
by Ivan Salgo using a backward chaining inference engine.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The system has about 150 rules. It knows about 20 types of
pumps, 8 drive types and 40 different materials of construc-
tion.
Karen Zilora developed an expert system for troubleshoot-
ing a fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) that is in
operation in an Exxon plant. The knowledge base was con-
structed through interviews with a catalytic cracking pro-
cess engineer and from the Exxon FCCU Operations
Guide. The expert system has about 105 production rules,
of which 30 or so are concerned with the inference engine
and the explanation facilities. The system knows about 27
different faults, their symptoms and cures. The expert sys-
tem uses a backward reasoning approach.
Mike Hill developed an expert system that assists in es-
timating viscosities of gaseous mixtures by using appropri-
ate quantitative methods depending on the characteristics
of the mixture. This system has about 70 rules. The ap-
proach here is similar to that of CONPHYDE [3], which is
an expert system that recommends an appropriate equation
of state or an activity coefficient method depending on the
mixture properties and operating conditions.
A prototypical expert system for agitator selection for reac-
tors was developed by B-W. Yang using a combination of
forward and backward reasoning strategies. The system
has about 130 rules.

It must be remembered that most of these systems
are prototypes, limited in their performance due to
the relatively small amount of knowledge they pos-
sess-typically about 50-70 rules of domain knowl-
edge; the rest of the rules are for the inference engine
(about 25 rules) and for the help and explanation
facilities (about 20 rules or so). These are, of course,
only approximate figures. Within the extent of their
knowledge the systems perform well. The perfor-
mance can be improved substantially by providing the
systems with more knowledge, inexact reasoning
techniques, etc., which would lead to the development
of full-scale systems in their domains. This, of course,
would involve more time (typically one year or more)
and effort. The purpose of the course was not to de-
sign full-scale systems, but to teach the students
about the KBES methodology by making them
develop prototypes.

CONCLUSIONS
In the preceding sections I discussed the structure
and content of a new course that was taught to chem-
ical engineering graduate students at Columbia Uni-
versity in the spring of 1986. This course addresses
an emerging need to train chemical engineers in the
use of symbolic, knowledge-based programming
methodologies that will play a crucial role in process
engineering in the future. In the AIPE course chemi-
cal engineering students were taught the inter-disci-
plinary area of artificial intelligence and process en-


gineering using examples and exercises from process
engineering. This approach is more appropriate and
meaningful to chemical engineers than learning from
a computer science point of view. The students, as a
part of the requirement, developed prototypical ex-
pert systems in many areas of process engineering
using the rule-based programming language called
OPS5, which has been used in many important expert
systems such as XCON [13]. Many interesting and
competent prototypes were successfully developed.
The lack of an appropriate text in this area was felt
very much, and we had to improvise by using existing
texts and papers from the current literature. By and
large this experimental course turned out to be suc-
cessful and will be continued to be offered once a year.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The course would not have been a success without
the enthusiastic support of my colleagues, who also
skillfully managed the administrative and political is-
sues regarding this course. Specifically I would like to
thank Huk-Yuk Cheh, Jordan Spencer and Juan
Asenjo for their efforts. Another important group of
people who were also responsible for the course's suc-
cess is the set of chemical engineering graduate stu-
dents who took the course, served as experimental
subjects, asked interesting questions, energetically
developed the expert systems and made the course
truly enjoyable. I am grateful to them. Thanks are
also due to Mark Kennedy and Tom Chow of the Col-
umbia Computer Center who made computer related
administration a lot easier by their support. I would
also like to thank G. Prokopakis for his valuable com-
ments on the manuscript.
REFERENCES
1. Banares-Alcantara, Rene, "DECADE: Design Expert for
CAtalyst DEvelopment," PhD thesis, Chemical Engineering
Department. Carnegie-Mellon University, Feb, 1986.
2. Banares-Alcantara, R., D. Sriram, V. Venkatasubramanian,
A. Westerberg, M. Rychener, "Knowledge-Based Expert
Systems for CAD," Chemical Engineering Progress 81(9):25-
30, September, 1985.
3. Banares-Alcantara, Rene, W. Arthur Westerberg, D. Michael
Rychener, "Development of an Expert System for Physical
Property Predicitions," Computers & Chemical Engineering
9(2):127-142, 1985.
4. Barr, A. and E. A. Feigenbaum, Eds., The Handbook of Ar-
tificial Intelligence, Heuris Tech Press, Stanford, CA, 1983.
5. Bobrow, D. G., Ed., Qualitative Reasoning about Physical
Systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985
6. Brownston, L., R. Farrel, E. Kant, N. Martin, Programming
Expert Systems in OPS5. An Introduction to Rule-Based
Programming, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.,
Reading, MA, 1985.
7. Buchanan, B. G. and E. H. Shortliffe, Eds., Rule Based Ex-
pert Systems, Addison-Wesley Publishers, Reading, MA,
1984.


FALL 1986








8. Bushnell, Michael L., "The Framesmith Manual," Depart-
ment of Electrical Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University,
PA, 1985. Carnegie-Mellon limited distribution version.
9. Fikes, Richard and Tom Kehler, "The Role of Frame-Based
Representation in Reasoning," Communications of the ACM
28(9):904-920, September, 1985.
10. Hayes-Roth, Barbara. "The Blackboard Architecture: A Gen-
eral Framework for Problem Solving?", Heuristic Program-
ming Project Report No. HPP-83-30, Computer Science De-
partment, Stanford University, May, 1983.
11. Rich, E., Artificial Intelligence, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New
York, NY, 1983.
12. Venkatasubramanian, V. and C-F Chen, "A Blackboard Ap-
proach to Plastics Design," Technical Report No. IPEL-86-01,
Intelligent Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of
Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY
10027, 1986.
13. Waterman, D., A Guide to Expert Systems. Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Reading, MA, 1985.
14. Winston, P. H. and B. K. P. Horn, LISP. Addison-Wesley
Publishing Co., Reading, MA., 1984. 0]


RESEARCH: Artificial Intelligence
Continued from page 185.

information. Nevertheless, it can be upgraded and
used within the context of specific problems. Thus
Accumulated data from past process designs (implemented
in real life or not) can be upgraded to reveal the underlin-
ing patterns present in all similar flowsheets, as well as
the sources of difference among different flowsheets.
Analogous pattern recognition could reveal rules aiding
the synthesis of control structures for complete plants.
Extensive data on vapor-liquid, vapor-liquid-liquid equilib-
ria (e.g. DECHEMA series of experimental data) could
be used to identify patterns between molecular structure
and infinite dilution activity coefficients, etc.
Therefore, the new prototype of an intelligent system
should contain rudimentary capabilities of "learning"
through a pattern recognition facility among large sets
of accumulated data.

EPILOG
Artificial intelligence is expanding the scope of our
problems and is enriching our capabilities to deliver
viable solutions to otherwise hard and resistant prob-
lems. At the same time it is introducing new educa-
tional challenges that the research program at the
MIT-LISPE is attempting to address and which are
related to the computer-aided character of chemical
process engineering, the rationalization of the man-
machine interaction, and the role of fundamental sci-
ence in engineering. Our research so far has produced
more questions than it has answers, but the intellec-
tual excitement and practical relevance have just
started to permeate the programs of graduate re-
search in chemical engineering.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The research program described above is the work
of, and rests completely on the efforts of, my graduate
students: Kevin Joback, Charles Siletti, Michael Mav-
rovouniotis, Jim Johnston, Rama Lakshmanan, Theo-
dore Kritikos, Nikos Valkanas, Jarvis Cheung and
John Calandranis, whose dedication is making
"things" possible. [


RESEARCH LANDMARKS
Continued from page 173.
to become more expert in surface physics, continuum
mechanics, microbiology, biochemistry, large
molecule chemistry, and other things I wish I could
predict. We must change our educational perspective
to include new things. For years, ever since I was a
freshman in 1933, we have trained students as if they
all were going to work for the DuPont Company. This
was appropriate. The principles are no different for
the future than they were for the past but we must
find a new way to talk about chemical engineering if
students are to be re-excited. We in chemical en-
gineering have a marked advantage over all other en-
gineers-we are the only ones who know anything
about chemistry-an advantage we should work on
diligently to parlay into future success.
When I was a young chap at Minnesota there were
almost as large a number of students in the metallurgy
department as there were undergraduates in chemical
engineering. Not long after that, metallurgy disap-
peared as an undergraduate discipline and it took al-
most twenty-five years for materials science to
emerge from the metallurgy grave. We must be sure
that we do not allow a similar fate to befall chemical
engineers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. W.Z. Nusselt, Ver. Deut. Ing. 68, 124 (1924)
2. S. P. Burke and T. E. W. Schumann, Ind. and Eng. Che. 23,
406 (1931)
3. S. P. Burke and T. E. W. Schumann, Proc. International
Conf. on Bit. Coal 2, 485 (1932)
4. R. B. MacMullin and M. Weber, Jr., Trans. Am. Inst. Chem.
Eng. 31, 409 (1935)
5. Kenneth G. Denbigh, Trans. Far. Soc. 40, 352 (1944)
6. Kenneth G. Denbigh, Trans. Far. Soc. 43, 648 (1947)
7. K. G. Denbigh, Margaret Hecks, and F. M. Page, Trans.
Far. Soc. 43, 479 (1947)
8. K. G. Denbigh, J. Applied Chem. 1, 227 (1951)
9. E. W. Thiele, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 31, 916 (1939)
10. Gerhard Damkohler, Z. phys. Chem. A193, 16 (1943)
11. C. Wagner, Z. phys. Chem. A193, 1 (1943)
12. Y. B. Zeldovich, Acta Phys. chim. URSS 10, 583 (1939)
13. W. L. McCabe and E. W. Thiele, Ind. Eng. Chem. 17, 605
(1925)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










14. E. W. Thiele and R. L. Geddes, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 25, 289
(1933)
15. T. E. W. Schumann, J. Franklin Institute 208, 405 (1929)
16. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 42, 846 (1936)
17. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 43, 1 (1937)
18. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 43, 8 (1937)
19. G. Damkohler and G. Delcher, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 44, 193
(1938)
20. G. Damkohler and G. Delcher, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 44, 228
(1938)
21. R. H. Wilhelm and Robert A. Bernard, Chem. Eng. Prog. 46,
233 (1950)
22. R. H. Wilhelm and P. F. Deisler, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 45,
1219 (1953)
23. R. H. Wilhelm and Keith M. McHenry, AlChE J. 3, 83 (1957)
24. J. W. Hiby, Symposium on the Interaction between Fluids
and Particles, Paper C71, London, June 1962
25. P. V. Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 1 (1953)
26. Irving Langmuir, Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. XXX, 55 (1908)
27. P. V. Danckwerts, Trans. Far. Soc. 46, 701 (1950)
28. P. V. Danckwerts, Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 1460 (1951)
29. P.V. Danckwerts, Appl. Sci. Res. A3, 385 (1953)
30. D.Roberts and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 961
(1962)
31. P. V. Danckwerts, A. M. Kennedy and D. Roberts, Chem.
Eng. Sci. 18, 63 (1963)
32. C. M. Richards, G. A. Ratcliff and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem.
Eng. Sci. 19, 325 (1964)
33. M. M. Sharma and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 18,
729 (1963)
34. P. V. Danckwerts, Gas-Liquid Reactions, McGraw Hill, 1970
35. Thomas B. Drew, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. 26, 26 (1931)
36. G. I. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. A219, 186 (1954)
37. G. I. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. A219, 446 (1954)
38. A. P. Colburn, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. 29, 174 (1933)
39. T. H. Chilton and A. P. Colburn, Ind. Eng. Chem. 26 1183
(1934)
40. W. R. Marshall and R. L. Pigford, Application of Differential
Equations to Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Delaware
Press, 1947
41. Wm. H. McAdams, Heat Transmission, McGraw Hill (1942) D


REVIEW: Grad Education
Continued from page 181.

Engineering Education (Goals Study). The present
study summarizes the data from these reports and
updates this information to 1983 with many informa-
tive tables and graphs. For example, information in
this survey includes the BS, MS, and PhD degrees
awarded in engineering since 1950, the most recent
engineering degrees by field and level, the PhD em-
ployment of engineers since 1960, the number of
foreign born awarded advanced degrees in engineer-
ing since 1970, the changes in the student-to-faculty
ratios over the last decade, the average monthly
salaries offered to new engineering graduates by field
since 1965, the women and minorities obtaining de-
grees in engineering since 1978, the average research
investment per PhD degree for the top thirty ad-


FALL 1986


vanced degree granting institutions, and a comparison
of the weekly professional activity of engineering re-
search faculty with those of other disciplines. The
gathering of these data in one place makes the mono-
graph a valuable reference for all educational scholars
and policy makers.
The data in this study are used to predict the
number of PhDs that will be awarded in engineering
during the 1983-88 time period. The conclusion from
such a prediction is that on the average an additional
100 engineering PhDs will be awarded annually during
this period and that this will be insufficient to fill the
present faculty vacancies in engineering as well as re-
store the student-to-faculty ratio that existed back in
1976. The study argues that the latter is necessary if
the United States is to meet the increasing competi-
tion from those foreign nations where the productivity
growth has surpassed that of this nation during the
past decade. Additionally, the study notes that each
engineering discipline is facing many new challenges,
some of which will be difficult to meet with the present
number of overloaded faculty and deteriorating
facilities, particularly when interdisciplinary aspects
are involved.
Based on this premise, the study makes several
recommendations. Not surprisingly, these recommen-
dations are similar to ones voiced by many concerned
engineering educators for close to a decade. Many of
these individuals would agree that the number of U.S.
citizens pursuing doctorate work needs to be in-
creased (the study suggests 1000 additional students
per year), the graduate stipends need to be increased
to make graduate study more attractive, the facilities
and equipment for research need to be upgraded,
more minorities and women are needed in the
graduate engineering program, stronger ties need to
be developed between industry and engineering edu-
cation, and a stronger MS program needs to be avail-
able for part-time industrial students to aid in main-
taining their engineering competency. The study
suggests that the Federal government, universities,
and industry provide the necessary assistance where
most appropriate.
Sadly, no new mechanisms or strategies are of-
fered to make the needed inroads on these long-stand-
ing problems. There is little evidence provided to con-
vince policy makers that the solution of these prob-
lems will once again make the United States competi-
tive with other nations and reverse the present stag-
gering trade deficits. In short, the study is a good
summary of what has happened in engineering educa-
tion over the past three decades, but it presents very
few innovative ideas as to how the situation can be
improved and the required investments justified. D

193










IRBweaaol ia

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND

INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

MURRAY MOO-YOUNG
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING IS the application of
biological and chemical engineering principles in
the development and implementation of bio-process
systems [1]. As such, it is the handmaiden of industrial
biotechnology whereby these systems are put into
commercial practice for the production of goods and
services [2]. It is predicted that biotechnology will
trigger the next industrial revolution [3] and that,
within the next decade, more than 25% of new chem-
ical engineering graduates will be involved in
biotechnology-related activities [4]. These predictions
are based on the current use and future potential of
genetic manipulative techniques and biochemical en-
gineering in the development of new and improved
processes and products [5].
The following sketch of Waterloo's programs in
biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology
highlights its graduate courses, its research activities
and its technology transfer mechanism.

WATERLOO CONNECTIONS
For many years the University of Waterloo has
been a pioneer in high-tech areas including micro-elec-
tronics, computer software, robotics, CAD/CAM and
biotechnology. Last year, the Wall Street Journal fea-
tured it as the top computer school in North America,
ahead of MIT and Stanford. In biotechnology, Water-
loo has one of the oldest and largest programs in
North America [6,7]. Started in 1966, the graduate
program now involves 39 researchers, consisting of 7
of the 31 chemical engineering faculty members (see
Table 1), 17 graduate students, 5 technicians, and 10
TABLE 1
ChE Faculty Members Involved In
Biotech-Related Research
G. J. Farquhar, PhD (Wisconsin)
R. Y. M. Huang, PhD (Toronto)
R. L. Legge, PhD (Waterloo)
M. Moo-Young, PhD (London)
C. W. Robinson, PhD (UC Berkeley)
J. M. Scharer, PhD (Pennsylvania)
G. R. Sullivan, PhD (London)


Murray Moo-Young is a professor of chemical engineering and di-
rector of the Industrial Biotechnology Centre at Waterloo. He was edu-
cated at the universities of London (BSc, PhD), Toronto (MASc) and
Edinburgh (postdoctorate). An active consultant worldwide, he is the
chief editor of Comprehensive Biotechnology, a multi-volume refer-
ence treatise, and Biotechnology Advances, an international review
journal.

postdoctoral fellows, visiting scholars and research as-
sociates, in addition to collaborating faculty in the biol-
ogy and chemistry departments. Waterloo is the first
North American university to introduce a biotechnol-
ogy core course in its chemical engineering program,
which graduates about 100 students annually.
In order to encourage the development of appro-
priate multidisciplinary "critical masses" in our
biotech research, the activities have been incorpo-
rated into a research consortium, Guelph-Waterloo
Biotech (GWB), which combines the resources of
Waterloo with those at the neighboring University
of Guelph. At present, the consortium has 103 faculty
members who belong to one or more of four con-
stituent units: animal, industrial, microbial and plant
biotech centres. Biochemical engineering research is
under the general umbrella of the Industrial
Biotechnology Centre (IBC), which is administra-
tively located in the Waterloo chemical engineering
department. The synergistic co-operation between
several departments at the two universities has con-
siderably expanded the versatility and comprehen-
siveness of our programs.
IBC has about thirty faculty members represent-
OCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










S. to encourage the development of appropriate multidisciplinary "critical masses" in our biotech research,
the activities have been incorporated into a research consortium .which combines the resources of
Waterloo with those at the University of Guelph. At present, the consortium has 103 faculty members.


ing 20% biological, 20% chemical, and 60% engineer-
ing-base expertise, and a rough 75/25 split between
Waterloo and Guelph. Major aims of IBC include
promotion of collaborative research among its faculty
members and the provision of "windows" on biotech
advances to GWB industrial affiliate members. Within
its first year of operation, GWB has already signed up
two European and three North American companies:
Rhone-Poulenc, Drogocco, Liquid Air, Monsanto, and
Allelix.

COURSES
Various courses are offered in biotechnology/
biochemical engineering, and brief descriptions of
these courses are given below. Except for the last
course listed, all courses are given on a regular basis,
annually. Throughout these courses, students are con-
stantly reminded of the necessary multidisciplinary
nature of biotechnology. It is noteworthy that
graduates of honours non-chemical engineering tech-
nical programs are admitted to our programs provided
they successfully complete a "qualifying" program of
a pre-arranged set of courses usually lasting for one
to two years of study.
Introduction to Biotechnology Biological sys-
tems for the production of commercial goods and ser-
vices. Properties of microbial, plant and animal cells,
and of enzymes used in bioprocess applications. Class-
ification and characterization of biological agents and
materials. Quantification of metabolism, biokinetics,
bioenergetics. Elementary aspects of molecular biol-
ogy, genetic engineering, biochemistry, microbiology.
(The material is based on Reference 8.)
Fermentation Engineering Application of pro-
cess engineering principles to the design and opera-
tion of fermentation reactors which are widely used in
the pharmaceutical, food, brewing and waste treat-
ment industries. Aspects of mass transfer, heat trans-
fer, mixing and rheology with biochemical and biolog-
ical constraints. (The material is based on References
8,9.)
Food Process Engineering Applications of un-
steady and steady-state heat and/or mass transfer op-
erations to processing natural and texturized foods.
Design and analysis of sterilization, low-temperature
preservation, concentration, separation and purifica-
tion processes. Effects of formulation, additives and
processing on organoleptic and nutritional quality.


Gene Splicing? Cell Fusion? Mutation? Natural?
(Cell-Free Organelles?) Free? Imobilized?
(Whole-Cell Mtabolism?)
A Repression' Enzymes Inhibition? Po c
Induction? Activation?
SCell-Bound?
Soluble? Excreted?
Insoluble?

Upstream ioreactor Do Products
Materials Processin Medium Processin- ByProducts
Batch? Semi-Continuous? Continuous?
Well-Mixed? Dispersed Plug-Flow? Plug flow?
FIGURE 1. Bioreactor heart in industrial biotechnology:
Biology selects it, biochemical engineering determines
its performance.

(The material is based on Reference 10.)
Principles of Biochemical Engineering Aspects
of mass-transfer, heat-transfer, fluid flow, cell growth
and enzyme kinetics related to the design of biological
process equipment. Fermentations, sterilization
techniques, specialized extraction methods, im-
mobilized-enzyme reactor design. (The material is
based on Reference 11.)
Advances in Biochemical Engineering Design
and control of continuous-flow processes for biological
systems. Exploration of new methods of producing
materials for food and medicinal purposes and of treat-
ing effluents. (The material is based on the current
literature.)
Selected Topics in Biotechnology Various
courses deemed necessary at intervals. (The material
is based on References 12, 13 and the current litera-
ture.)
CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
A wide range of research projects is conducted in
bioprocess and bioproduct developments. As indicated
in Table 2 and Figure 1, we address problems involv-
ing principles and applications of a theoretical and ex-
perimental nature. In addition to the usual research
facilities, we are well equipped with computers and a
range of pilot-plants including a versatile 1,300-litre
fermentation unit (the largest of its kind at a North
American university) which is capable of various
modes of operation (batch, fed-batch, continuous; stir-
red tank, air-lift). These facilities are available for
graduate studies and contract research. Brief descrip-
tions of a representative sample of our current re-
search projects follow.


FALL 1986











Transport Processes in Bioreactors
In this ongoing megaproject, multiphase contact-
ing is used to promote transport processes for biocon-
version. Novel contacting devices (recirculation loops,
scraped tubes, packed beds) are being developed and
compared to conventional stirred tanks and bubble
columns for Newtonian and non-Newtonian systems.
Transport phenomena and process control are the key
elements of study.
Codeine Production
Medically important morphine alkaloids such as
codeine are normally obtained from opium poppy cul-
tivated in countries with fairly tenuous governments
from which Canada (and the USA) import virtually all
their supplies. Work is in progress on a bioreactor
battery of immobilized enzymes derived from micro-
bial and plant tissue cultures whereby readily avail-
able chemical feedstocks are converted into inter-
mediates which are then chemically transformed to
codeine.
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
Animal cells in culture have the potential to be a
source of macromolecules for diagnostic, therapeutic
and processing applications. To address commercial
scale production concerns, we are designing fully in-
strumented, computer-controlled, robust bioreactors
for growing hybridomona cells in the production of
monoclonal antibodies. Initially, MAb's with specific-
ity against a cellulase complex enzyme antigen are
being used as a model test system.
MBP Production
Agricultural and forestry residues represent po-
tentially valuable renewable resources for fermenta-
tion processes which can be used to produce edible
protein-rich microbial biomass products (MBP) for


animal feed or human food. We are developing novel
MBP processes which are based on the aerobic mass
cultivation of yeasts and fungi. Computer process
simulations, pilot plant evaluations and animal feeding
trials are being used to test techno-economic scenarios
for both developed and developing countries.
Ethanol Production
A continuous-flow, packed-bed bioreactor based on
surface-immobilized yeasts attached to inexpensive
wood chips has been developed, modelled and tested
for the fermentation of hexose sugars. Stable opera-
tion has been achieved at productivities comparable
to or greater than any previously reported. A process
for fermenting enzymatically-transformed pentose
sugars, another component of cellulosics, using the
same yeasts is under investigation for possible process
integration.
Anaerobic Digestion
The use of organic wastes is being tested for the
production of energy (methane) and organic chemicals
(fatty acids) under both mesophilic and thermophilic
conditions. Bioreactor studies include continuous and
intermittently-stirred tanks and fixed-film trickle
beds. Performance is evaluated for retention time,
loading rate, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and several
physico-chemical parameters.

Biomass Pretreatment
A techno-economic comparison is made of existing
and potential chemical and biochemical strategies for
cellulosic biomass utilization in the production of fer-
mentation feedstocks suitable for replacing or supple-
menting traditional substrates, e.g., molasses, starch.
In particular, cellulosic materials generated as paper-
pulp mill sludge and wood remnants are being studied.


TABLE 2
Current Research Areas in Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering
BIOREACTOR DESIGN PRODUCT TYPES BI
mass transfer SCP/MBP
heat transfer 0 alcohols
mixing methane
stirred tanks 0 organic acids
air lifts 0 enzymes
packed beds biopolymers
biokinetcs 0 monoclonal antibodies
bio-immobilization 0 morphinans


BIOCONVERSION AGENT
microbial cells
plant cells
Animal cells
rDNA cells
hybridoma cells
psychrophiles
thermophiles
& enzymes


FEI


INSTRUMENTATION
computer control
biosensors
data logging
modelling
product assays
economic analysis
CAD/CAM


PROCESSING TECHNIQUES
* hydrolysis
* sterilization
* membrane separations
* chromatography
* flotation
* drying
* cell disruption

EDSTOCK TYPES
* cellulosics
* starches
* sugars
* oils
* forestry biomass
* agricultural biomass
* biomass pulps
* xenobiotics


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Additional benefit in reduced disposal costs and en-
vironmental pollution control may be realized.
Desulphurization of Petroleum Crudes
Conventional physiochemical desulphurization
methods would add a prohibitive $10+ per barrel to
the cost of producing fuel oil from crudes containing
3% or more sulphur. We are evaluating the
technoeconomic potential of biotechnology processes
for upgrading bitumen and heavy oils in a Canadian
environment in terms of microbial desulphurization,
demetallization and viscosity reduction.
Delaying Fruit Ripening
This project is focused on increasing our under-
standing of the physiological mechanisms underlying
fruit ripening as well as chilling injury sustained dur-
ing low temperature storage. Using this information,
we wish to develop suitable treatment and/or contain-
ment strategies for extending the storage life of chil-
ling-sensitive fruits such as tomatoes.
Lignocellulosic Materials
Various approaches are being taken to scale up the
production of microbial cellulose and to alter its phys-
ical characteristics during the process in an attempt
to develop unique products. In addition, various white
rot fungi, which are capable of lignin degradation, are
being studied to produce ligninases. These are ear-
marked for use in the production of more fermentable
feedstocks and for biobleaching.
Disruption of Microbial Cells
Microbial products such as intracellular proteins
and hormones require cell wall disruption for recov-
ery. Little or no information is currently available to
allow rational design of large-scale cell disruption de-
vices. Cell wall disruption is being studied in a high-
pressure capillary-flow device producing stresses of
known type and magnitude. Various cell types (bac-
teria, yeast, algae) are being studied.
rDNA Downstream Processing
Studies are currently in progress to optimize an
integrated 8-step process involving fermentation, re-
covery and purification for the production of protein
gene products based on rDNA technology. Investiga-
tion of a unique continuous fermentation strategy
which, by operating at different temperatures in each
stage, will result in maximum expression of the pro-
teins, forms a key part of this study. It is expected
that the results will produce an overall optimized pro-
cess model which has general applicability.
Separation Membranes
In fermentation technology, improved down-
stream processing techniques are required for the re-
covery and purification of intracellular bioproducts.


We are synthesizing and testing a steam-sterilizable
polymeric thin-film composite-membrane micro-filtra-
tion system, conceptualized for the separation of
whole single cells (bacterial and yeast) and of cell de-
bris (after cell disruption) from fermentation broths
without undue damage of protein products left in the
liquid fraction required for further processing refine-
ment.
Biological Waste Management
This is a multi-faceted project. One aspect involves
examination of some unique microbial systems as po-
tentials for breaking down recalcitrant pollutants such
as polychlorinated compounds as found in landfills.
Another aspect deals with dynamic modelling of the
activated sludge process for handling inlet perturba-
tions of xenobiotics. Finally, a major aspect deals with
microbial regeneration of activated carbon often used
for the adsorptive removal of water contaminants in
industrial effluents, e.g. phenols, aromatics.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
The sheer size of the Waterloo programs allows us
to cover a full range of graduate interest in biochemi-
cal engineering and industrial biotechnology. This
comprehensive multidisciplinary mileau is rare in
chemical engineering departments. We hold an envi-
able record of technology transfer via the Waterloo
Centre for Process Development (WCPD) (also lo-
cated in our department) and through Waterloo-
trained personnel in virtually every major organiza-
tion involved in biotechnology in Canada, and in parts
of the USA, Europe and Japan.
REFERENCES
1. M. Moo-Young, "Biochemical Engineering" in Encyclopedia
of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill (1986)
2. E. L. Gaden, "What is Biochemical Engineering?" in Ad-
vances in Biotechnology, Moo-Young, et al (Eds.), Vol I, Per-
gamon (1981)
3. J. Naisbitt, Megatrends, Warner (1984)
4. A. E. Humphrey, "Biotechnology in the Next Decade," CEP
(1984)
5. OTA/U.S. Congress, Commercial Biotechnology, Pergamon
(1984)
6. M. Moo-Young, "Biochemical Engineering Programs," CEE
(1978)
7. AIChE Faculty Directory (1985)
8. J. E. Bailey and D. F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Funda-
mentals, McGraw-Hill (1986)
9. S. Aiba, et al, Biochemical Engineering, Academic (1979)
10. C. W. Robinson, Personal Notes, Univ. of Waterloo
11. M. Moo-Young, et al (Eds.), Comprehensive Biotechnology,
Pergamon (1985)
12. Moo-Young, et al (Eds.), Advances in Biotechnology, Perga-
mon (1981)
13. D. I. C. Wang, et al, Fermentation and Enzyme Technology,
Wiley (1983) []


FALL 1986











Redeach oam


CHARACTERIZATION OF POWDERS AND

POROUS MATERIALS


ABHAYA K. DATYE, DOUGLAS M. SMITH,
FRANK L. WILLIAMS
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131

MANY RESEARCH opportunities for chemical en-
gineers in high technology materials center
around the relationships between the voids and the
solids that are an inevitable part of powders and
granular materials. Ceramics with a wide range of ap-
plications are formed by sintering a mixture of pow-
ders or porous particles. Creation of pores at the sur-
face of a single crystal of silicon and subsequent oxida-
tion can be used to provide vertical isolation for VLSI
devices. In heterogeneous catalysts, reactant
molecules must diffuse through the intricate pore
structure of an oxide material to reach the active sites.
The isolation of radioactive or chemical wastes de-
pends on the permeability of the geologic formation
and any near-field, man-made barriers. What is im-
portant to each of these applications are properties
such as pore shape, pore size distribution, particle
size, and structure of individual particles in the porous
matrix. It is interesting to note that these application
areas extend from traditional chemical engineering
areas to high-tech ceramics and microelectronics. The
Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory at the
University of New Mexico was created as an interdis-
ciplinary activity to support research efforts in a wide
range of areas for which powder and porous material
characterization is of interest. In addition to serving
as a central facility for characterization work, the lab-
oratory is expected to spur the development of new
characterization technologies.
A number of faculty at the University of New
Mexico have research interests in areas associated
with the application of porous materials technology.
In the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mohsen Shahinpoor has an interest in characterizing
the contacts made by particles in a bed. This is impor-
tant to a number of engineering problems such as pow-
der storage, packing and flow. In the Department of
Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, A. Datye, R.
OCopyright ChE Dirision ASEE 1986


Although research has been conducted on
porous materials for a number of years by Professors
Mead, Nuttall and Williams, it was in 1984 that
S. Datye, Shahinpoor, and Smith joined the
UNM faculty.


Mead, E. Nuttall, D. Smith, and F. Williams have an
ongoing interest in areas such as catalysis, transport
phenomena, energy research and materials science. A
common requirement in each of these programs is to
characterize porous materials. Although no one re-
search effort is large enough to support the equipment
and manpower necessary to provide a complete
characterization facility, by pooling resources we have
been able to establish a state-of-the-art laboratory.
This provides a sufficient user base to fully utilize the
various characterization technologies and enables the
laboratory to have trained personnel for each instru-
ment. By training undergraduate students in their
junior year to operate the laboratory's equipment, we
can provide at least two-year continuity, help them to
fund their education, provide an exposure to research,
and motivate them to go on to graduate school. On the
other hand, this approach frees up the time of
graduate students which can then be devoted to their
individual research projects.
Although research has been conducted on porous
materials (primarily coal, oil shale, catalyst supports)
for a number of years by Professors Mead, Nuttall
and Williams, it was in 1984 that three new faculty
(Datye, Shahinpoor, Smith) joined the UNM faculty.
With the research projects and equipment that was
brought from their former schools, a critical mass was
in place with the resources (i.e., funding, equipment,
students) to operate a large central research labora-
tory.
After a short period of time, the need for this type
of facility became apparent to other people within the
university, local industry and the National
Laboratories in New Mexico (Sandia and Los
Alamos). This has led to a number of funded, col-
laborative research projects. It also furnishes an op-
portunity for our undergraduate and graduate stu-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











dents to benefit from exposure to a broader scientific
community. The broad experience that students are
exposed to provides more information that will aid in
future employment/career decisions. Students
graduating from our program have, in some cases,
continued their research by gaining employment with
the sponsoring agencies.
FACILITIES

During the first two years of the laboratory's for-
mal operation, equipment/instrumentation for fairly
complete state-of-the-art characterization was ob-
tained. Sources of this equipment include previous re-
search projects, funding from DOE and NSF, State
bond issues, and donated equipment from Sandia and
Los Alamos National Laboratories. Properties of pow-
ders and porous materials which we can study by a
variety of techniques include

Mean pore size and pore size distribution
Particle size, size distribution and shape analysis
Pore shape, tortuosity, formation factor, pore connectivity
Specific chemisorptionn) and total surface area
True and apparent density
Diffusivity (Knudsen, surface, etc.), permeability
Adsorption parameters
Coordination number, distribution of coordination number

A general listing of laboratory equipment is pre-
sented in Table 1. Also included is instrumentation
located in other departments on campus which we can
readily access. A complete range of sample pretreat-
ment and preparation equipment is available. In addi-
tion to characterization instrumentation, we have
facilities for powder synthesis (both vapor phase and
wet-chemistry), surface modification, and sintering.
Experiment control, data acquisition and data re-
duction in the laboratory is accomplished with a


TABLE 1
Laboratory Facilities and Equipment

Autoscan-33 mercury porosimeter (0-33,000 psia)
Quantasorb flow-type surface area analyzer
Quantector multiple station outgassing instrument
Spin-lock 20 MHz pulse NMR
Quantimet 720 image analyzer
Volumetric chemisorption apparatus
Dupont 990 thermal analyzer (TGA/DTA)
Micropycnometer for helium density determination
Flow permeation apparatus
Hydrodynamic chromatograph
Wicke-Kallenbach diffusion cell
Chromatographic determination of diffusion/adsorption
parameters
Cahn microbalance for sorption measurements
JEOL 100-B TEM'
Hitachi S-450 SEM'
JEOL 2000-FX TEM2
X-ray diffraction2
General Electric GN-300 300 MHz NMR3

'College of Engineering:
'Department of Geology:
3UNM Center for Non-Invasive Diagnosis:


number of computers including a IBM CS-9000, a
DEC PDP-11/03, and several HP-85's. Extensive cal-
culations may be conducted on the department's
Ridge-32 computer or the university's VAX-8650
super mini-computer. For very large scale calcula-
tions, access to the CRAY supercomputers at Sandia
and Los Alamos National Laboratories is possible. A
complete range of microcomputers, graphics terminals
and plotters is available for use by graduate students.

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS
In the area of catalysis, the ability to determine
BET surface area, pore volumes and pore size distri-


Abhaya Datye received his
BTech degree from the Indian Insti-
tute of Technology, Bombay, and
spent three years in industry work-
ing in the areas of process design l
and development. He received his
MS and PhD degrees from the Uni- ,
versity of Cincinnati and the Uni-
versity of Michigan, respectively.
His research interests include
heterogeneous catalysis, materials
characterization and electron ,
microscopy of VLSI devices. (L)
Douglas'Smith is associate pro- rm '
fessor of chemical engineering and
co-director of the UNM Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory at
the University of New Mexico. He received his BS and MS degrees from
Clarkson College of Technology and his PhD from the University of
New Mexico. Current active research programs include porous mater-
ials characterization, microparticle synthesis, NMR imaging of porous
materials and transport phenomena in porous materials. (C)


Frank Williams is professor and chairman of chemical engineering
at the University of New Mexico. He received his BS degree from North
western University and his MS and PhD degrees from Stanford Univer
sity. His research interests are in the areas of shock wave induced
synthesis and enhanced catalytic activity of materials and the charac-
terization of the physical structure and diffusion in coal. (R)


FALL 1986









bution is very useful. One project under way in the
laboratory is in the area of metal-support interactions.
Professor Datye is using submicron-sized oxide parti-
cles as model supports for heterogeneous catalysts.
The surface structure and chemistry of these particles
is much easier to understand than that of conventional
supports used for heterogeneous catalysts [1]. An ad-
ditional advantage is that the metal crystallites can be
imaged "edge-on" so that the three-dimensional struc-
ture of these metal particles can be seen in unpre-
cedented detail. Figure 1 shows an electron micro-
graph of ruthenium metal crystallites supported on
model MgO support. The support in this case is
formed simply by burning Mg ribbon in air, and it
consists of almost perfect cubes with exposed {100}
surfaces. Another project that Professor Datye is
working on involves a study of pore size and structure
in porous silicon. This is important for device applica-
tions where one is interested in forming an island of
perfect Si on SiO2.
In addition to Professor Datye's interest in produc-
ing metal oxide particles for model catalyst supports,
Professor Smith's students have been fabricating uni-
form, sub-micron metal oxide spheres of very narrow
size distributions via wet chemistry methods. The
high degree of shape and size uniformity is illustrated
in Figure 2 for silica spheres with a mean diameter of
130 nm. By pelleting these spheres, a model porous
media is obtained with the same well-defined pore size
and shape as observed in random packing of uniform
spheres. This type of solid is of interest since many
agglomerated materials such as catalyst supports and
ceramic green-bodies have similar structure. Our


FIGURE 1. Burning magnesium wire in air produces
magnesium oxide with almost perfect crystal faces.
(Marker = 1Onm)


model porous solids are used for assessing pore size
measurement techniques, for the study of transport
phenomena in porous media and for the study of sin-
tering mechanisms.
Conventional analysis of mercury porosimetry
data for agglomerated materials may indicate a
bimodal pore size distribution even when the material
is formed from uniform particles. By taking the actual
structure of the solids into account, a correct descrip-
tion of mercury penetration into the pores and toroidal
regions (i.e., particle contacts) was developed [2]. A
similar analysis has been extended to the analogous
problem of gas adsorption and condensation in sphere
packing [3]. Many times, the rate of fluid transport
through porous media is what one is trying to predict
from given pore structure information. Conversely,
one may perform transport experiments to ascertain
pore structure information which may not be available
from conventional techniques. We have used Knudsen
diffusion measurements as a tool to study random
microsphere packing [4,5]. By studying surface
transport of adsorbed gases in these solids, we hope
to extract further information about particle-particle
contacts. Some pore size measurement techniques are
not successful for large pores (>l1Lm). Professor
Smith and colleagues at Sandia National Laboratory
are exploring the use of colloid tracers as a sensitive
tool for size analysis in large pores. The rate of colloid
migration through these large pores is a strong func-
tion of the colloid to pore size ratio. By studying the
change of the tortuosity factor with changing colloid
size, information concerning pore shape may be ex-
tracted [6,7].
The conventional pore size measurement
techniques of mercury porosimetry and nitrogen ad-
sorption/condensation suffer from several disadvan-
tages [8]. An assumption about the pore shape must
be made, the size of the smallest pore constriction is
often measured, sample size must be small, and the
porous solid must be completely dry. To avoid these
problems, Professor Smith and his students have
explored the possibility of using NMR techniques for
pore size analysis. In principle, protons of water con-
tained in pores will undergo spin-lattice relaxation at
rates related to the pore size. The smaller the pore
size, the faster the relaxation. No assumption con-
cerning pore shape is required as the actual pore vol-
ume to surface area ratio is obtained. By performing
180-7-90 relaxation measurements on a series of por-
ous solids with well-defined pore geometry and size,
the advantages, and some disadvantages, of NMR
analysis have been demonstrated. This project was
aided by close cooperation with scientists at Los
Alamos National Laboratory who arranged for the in-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




























FIGURE 2. Electron Micrograph of 130 nm silica spheres
that have been heat treated at 750C for three hours.
(Marker 100 nm)


definite loan of a 20 MHz pulse NMR for the investiga-
tion. Work continues on this project as we address
questions about the effects of pore shape, surface
chemistry and the lower pore size limit for this
technique.
In addition to characterization work and powder
synthesis, research is also being conducted on powder
modification techniques. Professor Williams has been
investigating the dynamics of shock treating inorganic
materials by exposing the powders to extremely large
shock waves. Four characteristic behaviors as a func-
tion of peak shock pressure have been observed for
shock induced changes in the specific surface area of
inorganic powders. Abrupt phase change, comminu-
tion of particles and interparticle bonding appear to
be the mechanisms producing the observed response.
The nature of morphological changes in powders is of
interest in understanding shock activated sintering,
shock-enhanced catalytic activity, dynamic compac-
tion, and shock-enhanced solid state reactivity. Re-
cently, classical BET surface area measurements
were reported for compacts of aluminum oxide, zinc
oxide, aluminum nitride, titanium carbide, and
titanium diboride after they were subjected to control-
led shock loading to a mean peak pressure from 4 to
27 GPa [9]. Extension to specific surface area mea-
surements of shock loaded hematite, magnetite, man-
ganese dioxide, and well-annealed alumina powders
has been accomplished [10]. Sampling from the edge,
center and the bulk of shock loaded compacts of these
powders reveals variation in the degree of modifica-
tion consistent with the calculated variation of the
pressure and temperature excursions.


Professor Mead is using chromatographic means
to explore gas diffusion and adsorption in various
coals. The pore structure of coal is difficult to probe
since sample compression effects dominate mercury
intrusion and nitrogen cannot access the coal micro-
pores at liquid nitrogen temperatures. By using a
number of inert and/or adsorbing tracers, a more com-
plete picture of the pore structure of coal will be ob-
tained. Professor Shahinpoor has been studying the
structure of random packing of uniform spheres with
the support of the National Science Foundation. By
passing a reactive gas through a random sphere pack-
ing, for which the surface of the spheres has been
coated, discoloration of the sphere surface will occur
in the region of sphere contacts. From image analysis
of the spheres, the coordination number, distribution
of particle contacts, and the spatial variation of sphere
contacts is determined. Professor Nuttall is interested
in relating the reactivity of various coals to the reac-
tivity and concentration of the different materials con-
tained in the coal. In addition, he is involved with a
collaborative research project with the Los Alamos
National Laboratory on colloid transport mechanisms
as applied to radionuclide release scenerios.
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
Graduate and advanced undergraduate students
may take advanced courses related to powders/porous
media characterization, including: transport
phenomena in porous media, powder technology, ca-
talysis and TEM/SEM techniques. In addition, a 3-day
short course on porous media characterization is pre-
sented at UNM by members of the Powders and
Granular Materials Laboartory and other national ex-
perts under the tutelage of the Materials Research
Society. A monthly seminar series features visits from
nationally recognized speakers with a wide range of
backgrounds in powder and porous materials technol-
ogy.
REFERENCES
1. Datye, A. K. and A. D. Logan, Proc. of EMSA, 772, (1986).
2. Smith, D. M. and D. L. Stermer, J. Colloid Interface Sci.,
111, 160, (1986).
3. Smith, D. M., J. Phys. Chem., 90, 2723, (1986).
4. Huizenga, D. G., and D. M. Smith, AIChEJ, 32:1, 1, (1986).
5. Smith, D. M., AIChEJ, 32:2, 329, (1986).
6. Smith, D. M. and D. G. Huizenga, J. Phys. Chem., 89:11,
2394, (1985).
7. Smith, D.M., AIChEJ, 32:6, 1039, (1986).
8. Dullien, F. A. L., Porous Media, Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure, Academic Press, NY, NY, (1979)
9. Williams, F.L., B. Morosin, and R. Graham, Explomet 85,
International Conf. on Metallurgical Applications of Shock-
wave and High-strain-rate Phenomena. Portland, OR, July,
1985.
10. Lee, Y. K., F. L. Williams, R. A. Graham, and B. Morosin,
J. Mat. Sci 20, 2488, (1985). O


FALL 1986










$waud 1.ecthae


IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS FOR

TURBULENCE RESEARCH


The ASEE Chemical
Engineering Division Lec-
turerfor 1986 is Robert S.
Brodkey of Ohio State Uni-
versity. The 3M Company
provides financial support
for this annual lectureship
award.
A California native,
Robert Brodkey earned an
AA degree in 1948 from
San Francisco City Col-
lege, a BS in chemistry
and chemical engineering
in 1950, and his MS in chemical engineering (also in
1950) from the University of California, Berkeley. At
the University of Wisconsin he received his PhD in
chemical engineering in 1952, doing a study in freeze
drying. He then spent five years with Standard Oil of
New Jersey in their Esso Research and Engineering
Company's research facility and with Esso Standard
Oil Company at their Bayway refinery. At Esso he
worked on diverse chemical and chemical engineering
problems, including chemical synthesis and chemical
process. In 1957 he joined The Ohio State University
as an assistant professor, became associate professor
in 1960, and professor in 1964.
His work has been primarily in the field of fluid
mechanics, with specialization in the areas of funda-
mental turbulent fluid flow, mixing, and rheology.
He is the coinventor often U.S. patents and has writ-
ten review chapters in four books. He is well-known
for his graduate text The Phenomena of Fluid Motions
and the review book on mixing, Turbulence in Mixing
Operations, which he edited. He has just completed
coauthoring an undergraduate transport phenomena
text which will be published by McGraw-Hill in their
chemical engineering series.
Professor Brodkey has won numerous university,
national, and international awards for his teaching
and research, and hcs held a number of national and
regional committee posts in technical societies. He is
also a member of a number of honorary professional
societies and is listed in many national and interna-
tional biographical references.


ROBERT S.BRODKEY
The Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210-1180

MAGE PROCESSING IS THE reduction of visual data
(in our case, usually data on 16mm films) to a form
that is convenient to manipulate on a computer. Image
analysis is further manipulation of the computer data
to extract quantitative information. The analysis de-
pends on the specific research problem and is a step
beyond image enhancement where the visual material
is modified for improved visual interpretation as is
done by NASA with space pictures.
In many research areas there are operations in
which understanding could be enhanced if simple
photos or multiple photographic records could be
analyzed easily. In the past, we have used films (both
normal speed and high speed) to gain qualitative un-
derstanding of what is occurring, but were unable to
extract additional quantitative information that would
be very useful. Unfortunately, one cannot just take
visual information, reduce it to digital form, and ex-
pect to obtain anything useful. One must first estab-
lish the type of digital information needed from the
visual record and then develop the software necessary
to extract that information in an efficient manner, rec-
ognizing that massive amounts of data are involved.

COHERENT STRUCTURES IN TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS
In the field of mixing (either for blending of prod-
ucts or for the promotion of chemical reactions), the
turbulence generated by the mixing unit can have a
major effect on the time required and the degree of
mixing obtained. While our understanding of turbu-
lence in such mixing vessels is still relatively poor, the
approaches used for turbulence research have
changed drastically during the last fifteen years. The
concept of using overall averages for the mean and
fluctuating components has given way to a more fun-
damental view that turbulent shear flows are com-
posed of a sequence of complex coherent motions or
structures. Progress in turbulence research depends
on better understanding of the mechanism of turbu-
@Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









lent flows gained through the study of such motions
or structures. Indeed, improvements in processes in-
volving complex turbulent shear flows will require un-
derstanding the effect of coherent structures on the
processes.
For many years visual photographic methods have
been used to gain qualitative understanding of flow
fields. We have pioneered in developing visual
techniques suitable for studying turbulent structures,
e.g., utilizing stereoscopic, highspeed films of the
flow. For quantitative measurements, probe methods
have been the only techniques normally available.
There are, however, limitations to the turbulence
measurements made by conventional sensor
techniques such as hot wires, hot films, or laser Dop-
pler methods. This is especially true for complex mea-
surements such as vorticity which involve derivatives
of the velocity. Probes are good for time dependent
information at a few points in the flow, but one can
imagine the problem of probe interference that would
develop if one wanted to place probes in a three-di-
mensional array. With the advent of modern image
analysis, visual information can be converted into use-
ful quantitative information that will enhance under-
standing of these very complex processes.
The immediate goal of our current turbulence re-
search is to demonstrate that image processing and
analysis of stereoscopic films is a feasible means of
obtaining three-dimensional quantitative data to help
establish a mechanistic picture of coherent structures
in turbulent shear flows. This would help close the
gap between visual observations and anemometry
measurements. To accomplish this, the detailed na-
ture of visually observed coherent motions needs to
be converted into quantitative information. To obtain
the proper information involves determination of the
vector velocity field for individual events by high res-
olution image analysis and from this, establishing
the vorticity and strain fields. This is not an easy task:
recall that vorticity involves the difference between
the velocity gradients. But once accomplished, it will
be easier to identify coherent motions by alternate
visual methods and by more extensive anemometry
measurements. The former will provide the mechanis-
tic picture and the latter will provide the statistical
ensemble averages. The final step will be to incorpo-
rate the physical understanding obtained into an ana-
lytical model of the turbulent field and of the turbulent
production and dissipation mechanisms.
THE FIRST PHASE OF THE IMAGE EFFORT
Rather than use our complex large scale flow loop
to obtain new films of turbulent flows that would be
adequate for image analysis, we chose to use a small


The immediate goal ... is to demonstrate that
image processing and analysis of stereoscopic films
is a feasible means of obtaining three-dimensional
quantitative data to help establish a mechanistic
picture of coherent structures in turbulent shear flows.

fish tank and a simple mixer. This system was simple
enough to set up, modify, and use so that we did not
hesitate to make even small changes that would result
in improved visual images. With this simple system,
we could easily establish optimal lighting conditions,
particle marker sizes, color of particles to aid in their
identification, and other factors that might help in ob-
taining adequate films. We first tested any major
changes with a video system to help establish the light
levels and then recorded the flow for analysis with a
variable speed disk camera and a Bolex stereoscopic
lens. The camera could be adjusted between 16 and
400 fps and the lens was f2.8. The use of film was
necessitated because of the need for high resolution,
which cannot be obtained by video means. The neu-
trally buoyant particles (p = 1.024) were 20-35 micro-
meter Pliolite (trademark for polyvinyltoluene
butadiene made by Goodyear Chemicals) particles and
were the same as we had used in our previous visual
studies. It was considered important in this initial
work to determine if we could utilize color to help in
matching the particles in the two views of a stereo-
scopic pair. The dyes tested were standard clothing
dyes obtained at a local store. Some of these were
fine, but most would not dye the polymer particles.
This aspect of the research is continuing with the in-
vestigation of organic based dyes that can enhance
the color and light output from the particles.
A slightly modified Eikonix linear diode array cam-
era was used for the digitization. The camera was not
designed to digitize 16mm film and thus we modified
it by building a 14" extension tube that gave the de-
sired magnification. It was necessary to mount the
lens rigidly so that it would not vibrate and to make
sure the spatial relation between the camera, lens,
and picture being digitized did not move during the
period needed to complete the digitization. This latter
involved four passes: a neutral density filter, and red,
green, and blue filters to establish the particle color.
The particles could be easily identified in the raw data
since they were about 10 pixils in diameter at the mag-
nification used.
The data handling problem is difficult. The photo-
diode array is 2048 pixils wide and is mounted on an
accurate stepping motor that gives 2048 positions ac-
ross the image. The depth of digitization can be 8 or
12 bits. In this early work we used 12 bit depth simply


FALL 1986









because we did not know what would be necessary.
You can always go from 12 to 8, but not the other way
around. Since four filters were used at 12 bits each, a
total of 32 mbytes of information was generated for
each frame. This was a staggering amount of data
even for our VAX 11/780. If the data were filtered
and a binary output generated, there are known image
compression techniques that could cut the data bank
by a factor of two to four. But because of the binary
output (i.e., either black or white for each pixil), too
much information is lost and the use of color becomes
impossible. A better approach is to identify the parti-
cles in each of the stereoscopic views.
There are about 3000 particles (we counted them
once) in view and each particle has two positions (x
and y) in each view for the stereoscopic pair. There is
also a need to identify the color, which adds up to
about 30 kbytes of information, a considerable reduc-
tion from the 32 mbytes previously cited. If the stereo
particle pairs can be identified, then one needs only
the three positions and a particle identifier or about
21 kbytes of information. This is for an entire frame
and is a very modest computer storage requirement.

THE FIRST RESULTS AND THE PROBLEMS

With a new system (toy?) there are manifold unan-
ticipated problems. The first color images were view-
ed digitally on a Megatek color graphics terminal that
had 512 x 512 resolution and could provide up to 16
colors. The light balance was totally unsatisfactory
(very low levels of blue); thus, we had to develop
means of normalization of the light outputs from the
three filters to obtain a reasonable color balance. We
later learned that the unbalanced light problem was
with a jumper that had been mistakenly left in place
when the Eikonix system was installed. It was easily
removed and the problem resolved.
A more critical problem was the low level of light
available because of the 14" extension tube used be-
tween the sensor and the lens. The 12 bit digitization
depth helped here, but our accuracy was not great.
We have now rectified this problem by using a fiber
optic light source that was available for our visual
studies. Our images are for the most part 16mm films
and the physical size of the source need not be great.
The standard Eikonix light source is large in order to
accommodate a variety of subject formats. Once we
converted to the alternate light source, we found that
the 8 bit digitization was satisfactory and that we
could utilize the entire digitizing range. We have just
installed a modification to the Eikonix that allows
further versatility by allowing the integration (and
scanning) time to be adjusted as a function of the light


level available. The combination of a variable high in-
tensity fiber optic light source and a variable sampling
time now gives us complete control.
A final and most difficult problem was the discov-
ery of the limitations of digital terminals. Sixteen col-
ors sounded like a lot, but in actuality are quite limit-
ing when one wants to reconstruct an image in color.
Digitally, every color, shade, mixture, etc. is a differ-
ent color in the digital sense; thus, 16 colors do not go
far. We spent many hours in attempting (actually
more of value as a learning experience) to reconstruct
a simple 10 color image that was photographed from
the Megatek terminal after being constructed digi-
tally, processed by Kodak (Figure la), digitized by
the Eikonix, and reconstructed on the Megatek (Fig-
ure Ib). The results are not impressive and the lesson
to learn is that total digital image analysis is not the
best route. A workstation that provided a video out-
put can handle the full range of colors and will be
discussed later.

THE REAL PROBLEM

The real problem is a 16mm image pair that contain
some 3000 particles in various colors. The job to ac-
complish is to exactly match each particle that exists
in both pairs, determine from this information their
locations in space, and track them frame to frame in
time. Figure 2 is a picture of such a real frame. Figure
3 is a digitization through the red filter (as an exam-
ple) of such a frame.
The information contained in four pictures (the
neutral density image for the specific particle location


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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















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FALL 198










We learned the limitations of the equipment
and how to improve or circumvent the problems
introduced by these limitations.

and the color filter images for the color) was processed
to determine the location and specific color of the par-
ticles in view. Forty (40) particles were selected di-
rectly from the 16mm film and were selected as repre-
sentative of several groups: bright, medium, and faint
particles that were not dyed (white) or were dyed red
or blue, or were unknown (only three colors were used
in this initial effort). This was the learning test for
automatic identification. These forty particles were
used as the control for making sure the computer pro-
gram could properly identify the particle location and
color. Once satisfied that these particles could indeed
be identified correctly, then the entire digital image
was processed. The processing of the digital image
involved using a simple cut-off filter for the back-
ground and a threshold level for edge enhancement.
If the level was set high, then only a few particles
were located. Figure 4 is an example for the brightest
group of particles (108). If the brightest 50% of the
particles were considered, the number rose to 619. It
should be understood that only the crudest of image
processing techniques were used in this initial effort.
Although not a major part of the initial effort, we
tracked a few particles frame by frame to make sure
that the filming speed was in the range where particle
tracking would not only be possible but relatively
easy; i.e., a range in which the particles do not travel
far from one frame to the next, so that there would
not be mistakes in following individual particles. Once
established as true, nothing further need be done with
this information until the time comes when the parti-
cles in a series of frames have all been identified.
By this initial effort we learned a great deal. We
learned the limitations of the equipment and how to
improve or circumvent the problems introduced by
these limitations. We learned that we could produce
high quality color films that could be adequately di-
gitized so that location and color could be established.
And very importantly we learned of a need for an
image analysis workstation that would avoid the need
of reconstruction of the images digitally and allow
most of the calculations to be done on it in a parallel
manner rather than directly on the VAX 11/780. This
latter conclusion resulted from the time estimates for
our various programs to run on a full (2048 x 2048)
color frame and the neutral density counterpart. For
example, about 12 minutes were needed to digitize
the full image, about 50 minutes to identify the parti-
cle positions, less than 5 minutes to classify the parti-


cles and assign their colors, and several hours to put
it all together into a displayed final reconstructed
image. Not very efficient.

THE DIPIX ARIES III IMAGE WORKSTATION
For a great deal of money, most of the proceeding
problems can be avoided and one can operate in near
real time by using one of several commercially availa-
ble workstation systems. After much debate and com-
parison, we chose the Dipix Aries III system. This
system, when used in conjunction with the Eikonix
camera, forms a powerful tool for the obtaining and
modification of visual information. It would be nice to
show a number of familiar images to demonstrate the
versatility; however, the cost of color reproduction
makes that impossible. The best way to see it is to
come to Columbus and see for yourself. But some
examples are necessary to illustrate the capability and
these will be taken from our particle identification
work.
Figure 5 is a stereo-pair taken at full resolution,
but compressed here by a factor of four in both the
horizontal and vertical direction so that it would fit.
Figure 6 is a color segment at full resolution of a small
part of the right hand stereo-view of Figure 5. The
sequence shown in Figure 7 are the individual filtered
pictures of Figure 6 and Figure 8 shows the applica-
tion of a simple cut off of the same data to enhance
the edges. Far better edge detection schemes are
available, such as maximum derivative detectors, and
we are in the process of investigating these. The en-
hanced images can be overlayed to give a false color
representation of the individual particles to aid iden-
tification. Rather than this we show Figure 9, which
is a four window composite of the same information.
Careful studies of these images show that it is easy,
even with this simple image processing, to identify
the individual particles and their color. There should
be no problem in doing this automatically with the
computer.
Beyond these simple techniques we have a full bag
of tricks to help us in the particle identification task.
One experimental effort that is under way is to im-
prove the dyes being used and the light source so that
the particles act as intense sources of light at any
selected color. The use of organic dyes (we would use
mixtures of red, blue, and green dyes to form any out-
put color desired) in conjunction with ultraviolet light
shows promise.
Spatial filter techniques can be used to process the
image to eliminate the background noise of particles
that are not in the field of view and the grain of the
film, etc. Gradient edge enhancement techniques can


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









be used to outline the particles more reliably. Warping
or rubber sheeting can be used to alter and match the
two views to a standard grid scale so they exactly
match each other and an easy to use reference grid.
Colors can be identified as we have done and then a
series of false colors can be assigned. Sizes can be
estimated as well as orientation, roundness, rough-
ness, etc., that subsequently can be used to help iden-
tify the corresponding particle in the other stereo-
view and thus set the stage of the three-dimensional
location of the particles. But all this is for the months
to come.

THE FUTURE
The three-dimensional location of each particle in
the field of view is in the future, but it is our im-
mediate goal and we fully expect to have this task
accomplished shortly. But where from there? For ac-
curate positioning, account will be taken of the bend-
ing of the light rays as a result of slight differences in
the viewing angle. This is a well known calculation
and can be taken into account when the position is
determined from the positions in the two stereo-
views.
For tracking we are working on careful and accu-
rate registration of the films frame to frame so that
the tracking will be accurate. An old 16mm film pro-
jector has been obtained from surplus and is being
modified into a frame registrar device. The old lens is
now the fiber optic light source and the Eikonix looks
at the film from the side of the old light source. During
tracking we must take into account the possibility of
particle overlap or blocking. This may involve an iter-
ation and backtracking in time so that we can accu-
rately estimate the particle location in the frame in
question. We have seen partial blocking in some of the
frames already, but we do not know the extent of the
problem. The velocity can be determined by standard
multipoint sloping techniques that give the best esti-
mate of a slope from five or seven points.. We will
look into the representation of the isovelocity contours
by three-dimensional mapping techniques. This would
be a better approach than trying to determine vortic-
ity directly from the particle path data. If the contours
can be established with the desired degree of accu-
racy, then derivative methods can give the velocity
gradients and thus the vorticity and strain fields. Fi-
nally, CAD graphic techniques will have to be utilized
to display the vast amount of information about the
flow field that will be obtained.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There are two groups of very important people


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MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
Applications are invited for appointment to a tenure track posi-
tion in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Michigan
State University. This position is jointly supported by the Com-
posite Materials and Structures Center (CMSC) and provides an
excellent opportunity for an individual with research and teach-
ing interests in polymeric material science and engineering,
polymer processing and/or composite processing. Michigan State
has recently made a strong commitment to composite materials
with the establishment of the CMSC in the College of Engineer-
ing. This provides faculty with the opportunity to conduct indi-
vidual and joint research programs and to teach in an academ-
ically rich and well-supported environment containing state-of-
the-art research equipment and facilities. In addition Michigan
State is located in close proximity to a large number of
polymeric materials industrial concerns including automotive,
furniture, and agricultural research centers of the state provid-
ing many consulting and collaborative research opportunities.
Interested individuals should apply to Dr. L. T. Drzal, Chair-
person of Search and Selection Committee, Department of
Chemical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lans-
ing, Michigan 48824-1226. Salary and rank are commensurate
with experience and accomplishments. Michigan State Univer-
sity is an Affirmative Action-Equal Opportunity Employer and
welcomes applications from women and members of minority
groups.




that have made this work possible. Kris Lakshmanan
is the author of the preliminary studies and helped
evaluate and select the image workstation. My cur-
rent students involved with this project are L.
Economikos, K. Russ, and C. Shoemaker; the present
and the future are in their hands. The second group
are those who have helped support our effort. The
Erna and Victor Hasselblad Foundation of Sweden
provided the funds to obtain the Eikonix camera. The
Atlantic Richfield Foundation and The Ohio State
University have made obtaining the Dipix Aries III
system possible. The Dipix company made significant
contributions in the form of hardware and a coopera-
tive agreement to obtain source code material as
needed. The Megatek 1650 color graphic terminals
came to us through the generosity of the university,
the College of Engineering, our department, and the
Megatek Corp. The university has been a major factor
in the support of the previously cited students. Fi-
nally, the personnel of the Koffolt Computer Graphics
Laboratory, Jeff Hulse and Dave Jones, have been
most helpful both in managing the facility and in pro-
gramming the special needs as they develop. O


FALL 1986










ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
Continued from page 187.
reversal process [10], where an additive to a positive
acting resist converts it to a negative one without any
swelling-induced distortions.
Once images are formed in the resist, the pattern
is transferred to the underlying layer in an etching
step. In many dry etching operations, where the waf-
ers are exposed to a gas plasma, surface reactions and
ion bombardment cause the temperature to rise. If
the temperature is too high, the resist "reflows." Line
widths and angles change, changing the shape of the
etched region. In some gas environments, the combi-
nation of increased surface temperature, resist sur-
face reactions, and solvent evaporation cause the re-
sist to reticulatee." Under a microscope, the resist
appears to have changed from a smooth surface to one
which is severely wrinkled. In many cases the resist
becomes quite difficult to remove, even with very ag-
gressive solvents.
We have begun to investigate the cause of these
phenomena [11]. They are related to the chemical
make-up of the resist materials, the amount of solvent
still remaining in the resist, and the surface tension
induced flows in the resist images during heating and
etching. At sufficiently high temperatures, chemical
reactions in positive resist can cause crosslinking. In
many cases, before these crosslinking reactions make
the images immobile, the residual solvent lowers the
glass transition temperature sufficiently to cause
image deformation. Chemical modifications of the re-
sist surface during an etch of the underlying film
changes the surface properties and can alter the ex-
tent of the modification.
One way to avoid image deformation is to treat the
resist before it is subjected to high temperature. One
recently popular method is to use ultraviolet light at
a wavelength where the resist material strongly ab-
sorbs. In this way, the effect of the radiation is
localized to the resist-air interface. We have been
examining the relationship between processing condi-
tions and image size and shape, trying to optimize the
treatment for different applications [11]

ETCHING
To replicate the resist pattern in the underlying
layer, an etching step is used. Originally, a liquid sol-
vent was employed. For example, if silicon dioxide
were to be patterned, the resist coated wafers were
immersed in a hydrofluoric acid bath. The HF dissol-
ves the oxide, but leaves the resist and the silicon
untouched. As discussed below, such "wet" etching
methods are being replaced by dry or plasma etching.


Xso~rom~
1Ut"mie


eSust ftte



Ver?.cta
LiecI,


r/ U/.n ZLLLU / /ZV./
FIGURE 2. Wet etching is usually isotropic, and leads to
problems patterning small dimensions. Plasma etching
is often directional.

However, the method is still in widespread use.
We have studied the etching of silicon dioxide by
buffered HF solutions to determine the effect of pro-
cessing conditions on the etch rate. In some cases it
is possible that certain images, with sizes from 3 to 10
jm, will etch at a much slower rate than those of
other sizes. We have shown that this is due to air
bubbles trapped in the cavities. A thermodynamic
analysis of the stability of the bubbles as a function of
such variables as surface tension and resist sidewall
angle correctly predicts whether or not the images
will etch [12].
One of the reasons wet etching has declined in use
is that the etching is usually isotropic, proceeding at
the same rate in both the lateral and vertical direc-
tions. As illustrated in Figure 2, this limits the density
of images which can be reproduced on the surface. In
many instances, directional etching can be achieved
by etching in a reactive gas environment formed in a
glow discharge. This method is called plasma etching
or, when there is ion bombardment of the material to
be etched, reactive ion etching. The radicals and/or
ions in the plasma discharge react with the film to
form volatile species. The discharge consists of mostly
undissociated feed gas molecules, very energetic elec-
trons (with temperatures exceeding 20,000K), neutral
radicals, and negative and positive ions. The plasma
is not in thermal equilibrium, as the temperature of
the heavier species is only about 500K. Nevertheless,
the processes occurring in a plasma reactor are akin
to those in conventional gas-solid reactions: genera-
tion of reactive species in the gas phase, diffusion of
these species, adsorption on the solid surface, surface
reaction, product desorption, and product diffusion.
Different steps control the etch rate in different etch-
ing systems.
The discharge is sustained by an RF power supply.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The presence of associated electric fields significantly
complicates the chemical kinetic analysis of such sys-
tems. Modeling the electron, ion and radical transport
and the coupled chemical kinetics under these condi-
tions is an active area of current research at Clarkson.
A program available from the Joint Institute for Lab-
oratory Astrophysics in Boulder [13] has been mod-
ified and extended to calculate the electron energy
distribution functions and the associated rate con-
stants for a large number of simultaneous reactions
occurring in the plasma discharge. Polymer and silicon
etch rates in CF4 + 02 discharges have been modeled
under steady state conditions [14].
We have also been studying the reactive ion etch-
ing of silicon dioxide, and metals and metallic com-
pounds. Using a simple mechanism for oxide etching,
we have developed a model for the etch rate which
does an excellent job in correlating data from a
number of different reactor geometries [15]. The DC
bias of the oxide surface appears to be one of the most
important factors in determining the oxide etch rate.
For metal etching we are using a technique called
reactive ion beam etching.
Plasma processing was first used to remove or-
ganic polymeric materials. In the manufacture of
multi-level printed circuit boards (PCB's), plated
through-holes extending from the top to the bottom
of the board facilitate buried signal and power plane
interconnections. Under high speed drilling condi-
tions, the temperature of the dielectric organic mater-
ial between the conductors exceeds the glass transi-
tion temperature, and the conductors are covered by
a very thin layer of the dielectric. This smear consists
of the organic and fine pieces of the glass reinforcing
material present in the laminate. Desmearing of the
conductors before plating the through-holes can be
achieved in CF4 + 02 plasma disharges [16].
Considerable effort has been devoted to elucidate
the complex chemistry of the etching of organic
polymers in CF4 + 02 plasma discharges. At low
(<30%) CF4 concentrations in the feed gas, the steady
state etch rate of organic polymers is significantly en-
hanced over that in pure oxygen. An increase in the
gas phase concentration of atomic oxygen and the fas-
ter hydrogen abstraction by flourine atoms are
primarily responsible for this increase. At higher CF4
concentrations, however, inert fluorocarbon moeities
form on the polymer surface and inhibit the etching
process. We have studied the role of these competing
mechanisms in determining the etch rate [17]. It has
also been discovered that the etch rate of organic, as
measured by laser interferometry, increases "momen-
tarily" by several orders of magnitude before return-
ing to the normal steady state value when the feed


gas composition is switched from one that is rich in
CF4 to pure 02 [18]. Such a transient response is not
completely understood yet. Emission spectroscopy
and laser induced fluorescence are being used to mea-
sure the concentrations of the short-lived reactive
species in order to understand more about etch
mechanisms.

EXCIMER LASER PROCESSING
The use of lasers in electronics manufacturing is
widespread and is gathering momentum. Several in-
novative applications have been proposed. These in-
clude direct writing, maskless dry lithography, en-
hanced plating, metal deposition, repair of open con-
ductors, drilling, annealing ion implanted damage,
polysilicon recrystallization, oxide growth, etc. At
Clarkson an excimer laser operating at 194 and 245
nm has been employed for drilling polyimide, for cop-
per deposition, and for establishing the feasibility of
sub-micron etching of polysilicon with NF3.
Polyimide is used as innerlevel dielectric in multi-
chip VLSI packages [19]. Electrical contact between
signal planes can be established by drilling vias in
polyimide and plating them with copper. Intense (up
to 10 J/cm2 fluence) pulses have been employed in this
study and drill rates of about a micron per pulse have
been attained. Both a photochemical and a thermal
mechanism contribute to the polymer ablation [20].
Plating of copper films has been achieved in prelimi-
nary experiments in which spin coated films of copper
format are exposed to the excimer radiation [21].
Polysilicon is etched by F-atoms obtained by the laser
induced dissociation of NF3. The NF3 molecules are
adsorbed on the polysilicon surface at sites generated
by the incident laser pulse. The adsorbed molecules
dissociate on the surface, and the F-atoms generated
are highly reactive and etch the polysilicon locally. If
lateral diffusion of the F-atoms is indeed negligible
then direct writing of sub-micron lines on polysilicon
should be feasible [22].

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank IBM, Essex Junc-
tion and Endicott facilities, Honeywell and the Na-
tional Science Foundation (Grant No. CBT-8507068)
for support of the work summarized here.

REFERENCES
1. Sukanek, P. C., "Spin Coating," J Imaging Tech, 11, 184,
(1985)
2. L.F. Thompson, C. C. Willson and M. J. Bowden, editors,
"Introduction to Microlithography," ACS Symposium Series
219, Washington DC, (1983)


FALL 1986











3. R.L. Geary, S. V. Babu and J. Stephanie, in the Proceedings
of the Symposium on Surface and Colloid Science in Computer
Technology, K. L. Mittal, Editor, Potsdam, 1985 (in Press)
4. S.V. Babu and V. Srinivasan, IEEE Trans Electron Dev ED-
32, 1896 (1985) and J.Imaging Tech. 11, 168 (1985)
5. J. Pacansky and J. R. Lyerla, IBM J Res and Dev 23, 42,
(1979)
6. F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge and J. M. Shaw,
IEEE Trans Electron Dev ED-22, 445 (1975)
7. F. H. Dill, A. R. Neureuther, J. A. Tuttle and E. J. Walker,
ibid, ED-22, 456 (1975)
8. S.V. Babu and E. Barouch, IEEE Electron Dev Lett EDL-7,
252 (1986)
9. S. V. Babu and E. Barouch and V. Srinivasan, Submitted to
IEEE Trans Electron Dev
10. S. V. Babu, IEEE Electron Dev Lett EDL-7, 250 (1986)
11. Sukanek, P. C., "Physical and Chemical Modifications of
Photoresist," in P. Stroeve (ed), Chemical and Physical Pro-
cessing of Integrated Circuits, ACS Symposium Series No.
290, 95, 1985
12. McAndrews, K. and P. C. Sukanek, "Nonuniform Wet Etch-
ing of Silicon Dioxide," submitted for publication.


13. W. L. Morgan, JILA Information center report No. 19, Boul-
der, Colorado, 1979
14. V. Srinivasan, M. S. Sivasubramanian, and S. V. Babu, Pro-
ceedings of the 7th International Plasma Chemistry Sym-
posium, p1405, C. J. Timmermans (Editor), Eindhoven, 1985;
and T. Daubenspeck and S. V. Babu (to be published)
15. Sullivan, G. and P. C. Sukanek, "A Simple Model for Reactive
Ion Etching of Silicon Dioxide," submitted for publication
16. R. D. Rust, R. J. Rhodes, and A. A. Parker, Solid State Tech
27(4), 270 (1984)
17. S. V. Babu, L. Tiemann, and R. E. Partch, Proceedings of the
7th International Plasma Chemistry Symposium, p1025, C. J.
Timmermans (Editor), Eindhoven, 1985
18. J. F. Rembetski, M.S. Thesis, Clarkson University (1985),
and J. F. Rembetski, W. E. Mlynko, J. G. Hoffarth, and S.
V. Babu, ibid, p1100
19. R. J. Jensen, J. P. Cummings, and H. Vora, IEEE Trans
Comp Hybrids and Manuf Tech CHMT-7, 384 (1984)
20. V. Srinivasan, M. Smrtic, and S. V. Babu, J App Phys 59,
3861 (1986)
21. M. Ritz and S. V. Babu, (unpublished)
22. M. Armacost, M.S. Thesis, Clarkson University (1986) [


AUTHOR INDEX


A
Abbott, Michael M. ----------- XVIII,50; XIX,62
Abd-El-Bary, M.F. --------- XVI,118; XVII,28
Abdul-Kareem, H.K. ------ ----- XVII,78
Abraham, W.H. -------------- XVII,103
Afacan, Artin ------------------- XVIII,132
Ahmed, Moin ------------------------------ XVII,46
Alonso, J. ----------------------------------- XVII,34
Amundson, Neal R. ---------- -------- XX,168
Andrews, Graham F. ------------- XVIII,112
Aris, Rutherford -- XVI,50; XVII,10,53; XX,77
Asfour, Abdul-Fattah A. --------- XIX,84
Azevedo, E.G. ----- ------------ XX,7
B
Baasel, William D. -------------- ------- XVI,26
Babu, S.V. -------------------------- XX,186
Baer, A.D. ------------------------------------ XVI,56
Bailey, J.E. ---------------------- XIX,168
Bailie, Richard C. ---------------------- XIX,182
Baird, Donald G. ----------- XVI,174; XVIII,73
Baldwin, L.B. ----------------- ---------- XVII,70
Barber, Martin S. ------------------------ XIX,2
Barduhn, Allen J. ------- XVIII,38,102; XIX,171
Barker, Dee H. --------------------- XVI,182
Bartholomew, Calvin H. ------------- XVIII,180
Beckmann, Robert B. --------- XVIII,37; XIX,6
Belfort, Georges --------------------------- XIX,172
Bell, Kenneth J. ---------------------------- XVI,108
Bethea, R.M. ------------------------------ XVI,167
Bird, R. Byron ------------ XVII,184; XX,160
Black, James H. ----------------------- XIX,118
Blackmond, Donna G. ---------------- XX,174
Bolles, William I. ------------------ XVII,137
Bonin, Hugues W. ----------------------- XVIII,60
Brainard, Alan J. --------------------- XVII,105
Brestovansky, D.F. ------------------------ XVI,76


Britten, Jerald A. ------------------------ XVIII,140
Brodkey, Robert S. ------------------- XX,202
Bungay, H.R. ----------------------- XX,122


Burnet, George----------------
Burnet, John --------------------------
Buxton, Brian --------------------------


- XX,101
XVII,112
XIX,144


CACHE Corporation ------------------------- XX,19
Cadman, T.W. -------------------------- XIX,6
Carberry, J.J. ----------------------------- XVI,107
Case, Stuart M. -------------- --------- XVI,98
Cassano, Alberto E. ---------- -------- XIX,35
Chao, K.C. ----------------------------------- XX,66
Chari, Sriram -------------------------- XVI,118
Charos, Georgios N. ------------------ XX,88
Chau, Pao C. ------------------------------ XIX,150
Chawla, Ramesh C. ---------------------- XVIII,30
Chen, W.H. ---------- -- XX,181
Chen, W.J. ---------------------------------- XX,82
Cilento, E.V. -------------------------------- XVII,110


Clancy, Paulette


--------- XIX,7


Clark, J. Peter ------------------
Clements, L.D. --------
Collins, E.V. -------------------------
Conger, William L. -----------------
Converse, Alvin -----------
Corripio, Armando B. -----------
Cosgrove, Stanley ------------------
Couey, Paul R. -----------------
Coughlin, Robert W. ---------------
Coulman, George A. -------------
Crosser, O.K.------------
Culberson, Oran L. ----------------
Cussler, E.L. --------
D
Dale, Dick -- -


8,132; XX,88
------ XVI,34
YVT I1 7


Datye, Abhaya K. ------------------------- XX,198
Daubert, Thomas E. ---------------- XVII,108
Davis, Mark E. --------- -------.---- XVII,144
Debelak, Kenneth A. --------- ------ XVI,72
Debenedetti, Pablo G. -------- --- XVIII,116
Delcamp, Robert ------------------------ XVI,6
Delgass, W. Nicholas -------------------- XX,60
De Nevers, Noel ----------- XVI,186; XVIII,128
Denn, Morton M. --------------------------- XX,18
Deshpande, Pradeep B. ---------- XIX,44; XX,43
Desrosiers, Ray E. ------------------------- XX,94
Dixon, A.G. -------------- ----------- XVII,138
Duda, J.L. ------------------ XVIII,156; XX,164
Dullien, F.A.L. ------------- XVI,164
Dussan V., Elizabeth -------------- XVIII,160
E
Edie, Dan D. ------------ XVII,2; XVIII,196
Elliott, David --------------------------- XVIII,136
Elorriaga, Javier Bilbao ------------ XVIII,74
Engel, Alfred J. ------------------------- XVII,77
Eubank, P.T. ----------------------------- XVII,124
F


SXIX,45 Fahidy, T.Z. -------------------- --- XX,77
XVII,98 Fahien, Ray W. ------------------ XX,3,100,163
XVIII,186 Fair, James R. -------------------------- XVIII,190
----- XVIII,14 Falconer, John L. XVIII,140
XVI,6 Falconer, John L. ------------------------ XVIII,109
--------- XV,61 Fan, L.T ----------------------------------- XV111,109
----------- XVI,6
XX,4 Farquhar, Brodie ----------------- XIX,110
XVI,98 Felder, Richard M. -------------- XIX,12, 176
--- XX,124 Fenn, John B. ----------------------------- XVI,190
X- X,68 Finlayson, Bruce A. ---------- XIX,35; XX,150
-- XVI205 Fogler, H.S. -------------------- XVIII,98
XVIII,124 Foord, A. ------------------------------ XIX,136
Frank, Curtis W. ---------------------- XVI,122
Frank, David V. -------------------------- XVII,117
--- XVII,94 Fredrickson, A.G. -------------------------- XVII,64



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


_-












Friedly, John C. -----------------------
Furgason, Robert R. -----------------
G
Gallinger, Floyd H. -----------------
Gates, B.C.---- --------
Glandt, Eduardo D. ------- XVII
Golnaraghi, Maryam --------------
Gomez, Roman -------------------------
Gonzalez-Velasco, Juan Ramon ------
Goodrow, Carol A. ---------------------
Graham, B.P. ----------------------------
Green, Alex E.S. --------------------
Greenberg, David B. ---------- XVI,6;
Grethlein, Hans E. --------
Griffin, Ann -------------------------------
Grosschmid, P.P. ----------------------
Grulke, Eric A.-----------
Gubbins, Keith E. --------- XIX,78,132
Gupta, Santosh K. --------- -----
H


Hadley-Coates, Lyndon ---
Haile, J.M.-----------
Hall, K.R. --- ----------
Hallman, John R. ------
Halpern, Bret L. -----------


- XVII,
----------
---------
-----------


Hanesian, Deran --------------------- XVIII,56
Hanna, O.T. --------------------------------- XIX,82
Hanyak, Michael E. ------- ----------- XIX,26
Harpell, John L. ------------------------------- XX,92
Haseman, Jeffrey T. --------------------- XVII,112
Hassler, J.C. ------------------------------ XVII,24
Hau, Shau-Drang ----------------------- XVIII,10,64
Hayhurst, David T. ------------- XIX,198
Haynes, Jr., Henry W. -------------- XX,22
Hecker, William C. ------ ----------- XVIII,180
Heichelheim, H.R. -------------- XVI,167
Heist, Richard ------------- -- ------ XX,50
Henley, Ernest J. ------ XVII,32; XVIII,144
Henry, Jr., Joseph D. ------------- XIX,182
Herskowitz, M. ---------------------------- XIX,148
Hightower, Joe W. ---------------------- XVI,148
Hill, Jr., Charles G. ------------ XVIII,92
Hoflund, Gar B. -------------------------- XX,83
Holste, J.C. ------------------------------ XVII,124
Homsy, George M. ------------------------ XVI,122
Howard, William K. ------------ XX,36
Huckaba, Charles E. ------------------ XVII,74
Hudgins, R.R. ------------- XVIII,91; XIX,135
I
Illinois Colleagues ------------------------ XVIII,6
Isbin, Herbert S. --------------------- XVII,77
J
Jacquot, R.G. ------------------------- XVII,70
Jenkins, Daniel J. ------------- ------- XVI,110
Johnston, Keith P. ------------- XIX,203
Jolls, Kenneth R. ------------ XVII,72,112
Jones, Vickie ----------------- ---- XVI,56
Jorne, Jacob -------------------------- XX,178
Joseph, Babu ----------------- XVIII,136
Joye, Donald D. --------- ----------- XIX,30
Jutan, A. ------------------------- ---- XIX,186
K
Karim, M. Nazmul -------------------- XVIII,122
Kauffman, David ----------------- --- XIX,208
Kessler, D.P. ------------------------ XX,66
Kilcup, J. Elizabeth ------------------- XX,116


- XVII,27 Kim, Sangtae ------------------------------- XX,152
------ XX,58 King, C. Judson ------------------- XX,121
King, Franklin G. --------------- XVIII,30
Kono, Hisashi 0. ---------- --------- XIX,182
------ XX,28 Koppel, Lowell B. ------------ XVII,58; XX,70
XVII,16 Kummler, R.H. ------- ------- XVIII,98
,50; XX,110 Kuri, Carlos J. -------------------- XVIII,14
-- XIX,132 Kut, OM. ---------- -- -------- XIX,128
VI, 132,196
- XVIII,74 L
--- XVI,44 Lane, Michael S. -------- --- XX,92
-- XIX,186 Lauffenburger, Douglas A.
-- XIX,203 ------------------- XVII,50; XVIII,160; XX,110
; XVIII,199 Laukhuf, Walden L.S. ------- --------- XX,43
XVIII,186 Lawson, David W. -------------------------- XVI,44
SXVII,74 Lee, H.H. -------------------------- XVII,85
SXVIII,66 Lee, P.L. -------------------------------------- XIX,36
.- XX,128 Leise, Thomas H. ----------------- -- XVI,110
2: XX,77,88 Lemlich, Robert ------------------- XVI,6
-- XX,84 Lenzi, J. ----------------------- XVIII,88
Leung, L.S. -------------- XIX,36
Levenspiel, Octave ------------- XVI,24; XX,7
--- XX,69 Licht, William ------- ------------- XVI,6
2; XVIII,19 Lightfoot, E.N. -- --------- XIX,29
- XVII,124 Lin, Hsin-Ying --------------- --------- XX,78
-- XVI,29 Little, Julia E. ----------------- --------- XVII,54
-- XVII,86 Lomas. D. ------------------- XVII34


,
Luecke, Richard H. ------- -- XX,78
Luss, Dan --------- ---- XX,12


Mc
McAvoy, Thomas J. ----
McConica, Carol M. -----
McCullough, R.L. --------------
McGee, Jr., Henry A. -------
McGuinness, N. --------------
McKelvey, James M. ----------


---------- XVI,88,94
---------- XVIII,200
--------- XVI,76
------ XX,127
--------- XVII,6
----------- XIX,25


M
Mallinson, Richard G. --------- XVI,126
Malmary, G. ------------- -------- XVIII,88
Mankowski, G. ---------------------------- XVIII,88
Mansour, Ali H. ------------- --- ----- XX,92
Marnell, Paul ------------------------------ XVIII,164
Martin, Joseph H, ------------ XVII,119
Martinez, Enrico N. ------------- XVI,132,196
Masliyah, Jacob ------------------- XVIII,132
Mason, G. ------------------------------------ XIX,136
Matteson, Michael J. ------------- XVIII,110
Messier, Russell -------------------------- XVI,152
Mewis, Jan ------------------------ XVIII,82
Middleman, Stanley --------- XVII,170; XIX,150
Minderman, Peter A. ---------- XVI,114
Molinier, J. ---------------------- XVIII,88
Moo-Young, Murray -------------------- XX,194
Moser, William R. --------- -----. XIX,156
Mumme', K.I. ---------------------------- XVII,24
Myers, Alan L. -------------------------- XVI,18


N
Nagarajan, R. -------------------------------- XIX,193
Naik, Chandrashekhar D. ------------- XIX,78
Newell, R.B. ------------------ -------- XIX,36
Noble, Richard D. -- XVII,20,70,134; XIX,162
O


Obot, Nsima T.-----------
O'Connell, John----------
Ollis, D.F. -----------------------
Oreovicz, Frank S. --------


- XX,40
-XVII,94
- XIX,168
XVII,178


P
Pallai, I.M. ----- --------------- XVIII,66
Paterson, W.R. --------------------- -- XIX,124
Patterson, G.K. --------------------------- XVIII,203
Peppas, Nicholas A. ---------- XVI,126; XX,60
Pigford, R.L. ------------------------------- XVII,16
Prausnitz, J.M. ------------------- XIX,22; XX,7
Pritchard, Colin -------------------------- XX,132

Q
Queralt, R -------------------------------- XIX,128
R
Radovic, Ljubisa R. ------------------------ XIX,204
Ramanarayanan, Kuttanchery A. --------- XX,36
Ramkrishna, D. --------------------------- XVI,43,82
Rao, Y.K. ------------------------------------- XIX,40
Ravichandran, V. --------------------------- XIX,140
Rawling, Jr., F.L. ------------------------ XVIII,9
Reif, Rafael ---------------------------------- XVII,148
Ricker, N.L. ------------------------------ XVI,93
Robertson, Channing R. --------------- XVI,122
Rochefort, Skip ---------- XIX,150
Romeo, Ronald A. ------------------- XVI,44
Rose, L.M. ------------------------------- XIX,128
Rosner, Daniel E. ----------------------- XVII,141
Roth, John A. --------------------------------- XVI,72
Ruijter, Kees --------------------------- XVIII,34
Russell, T.W.F. -- -------- XVI,76; XIX,72
Ryan, Norman W. ---------- ------- XIX,114


S
Sandler, Stanley I. ---------------- XX,144
Sawin, Herbert H. --------------- XVII,148
Scamehorn, John F. --------------------- XVIII,166
Schrader, G.L. --------------------------- XVII,16
Schrodt, Verle N. ------------------ XX,135
Schruben, Dale L. -------------------- XX,48
Schultz, Jerome S. --------------------------- XVI,2
Seader, J.D. ----- XVII,139; XVIII,128; XIX,88
Seapan, Mayis ------------------------------ XVI,168
Sears, J.T. ----------------------------------- XVII,110
Seider, Warren D. ------------------ XVIII,26
Seinfeld, John H. ----------------------- XVI,121
Serageldin, Mohamed -------- ----- XVII,174
Shaeiwitz, Joseph A. ------------------ XVII,152
Shah, D.B. ------------- XVIII,170; XIX,198
Sherwood, T.K. ------------------------------ XIX,121
Siirola, J.J. ---------------------------- XVI,68,138
Silla, Harry ----------------------------------- XX,44
Silveston, P.L. ------------------------------- XVII,78
Simmons, George M. -------- ---- XVII,182
Skaates, J.M. ------------ XVI.178; XX,136
Slattery, John C. ------------- XVIII,2
Sloan, E. Dendy ------------- -------- XVI,38
Smith, Douglas M. -------- ----------- XX,198
Smith, Julian C. -------------------------- XIX,58
Snyder, William J. ---- ---------- XIX,26
Sommerfeld, Jude T.
----- -- XVI,114; XVIII,110; XX,138
Soong, David S. ------------ ---- XIX,190
Squires, R.G. ----------------- ---- XVII,104,117
Stainthorp, F.P. --------- --- XVII,34
Steen, Paul H. --------------------------------- XIX,58
Stephanopoulis, George ------------ XX,182
Stewart, Warren E. --------------------- XVIII,204
Stokes, Vijay Kumar ---------------------- XVI,82
Storvick, Truman S. ---------- XVIII,139; XX,21
Stroeve, Pieter --------------------------------- XX,8


FALL 1986













Sukanek, Peter -----
Sullivan, Gerald R. -------
Sullivan, Ralda M. -----
Sullivan, William G. --
Sussman, Martin V. --
T
Taber, Joyce ----------------
Takoudis, Christos G. -
Tarbell, John M. -----------
Tarrer, A. Ray ------------
Tavlarides, Lawrence L.
Taylor, Ross ----------------
Thomas, David G. ------
Thomson, William J. -
Timmerhaus, Klaus D. -
Tjahjadi, Mahari -- ---
U
Uhl, Vincent W. ----
Ungar, Lyle --------------


---------- --- XX,186
--------------------- XX,70
-------------- XX,32
-------------------- XVI,95
---------- XVII,128,161


------------------- XIX,54
----------- XVII,158
------------------ XVI,110
--------------------- XX,74
------------- XVIII,102
.--------------- XVI,158
---------------- XIX,17
----------------- XVII,182
------- XIX,83; XX,181
---- ------- XX,84


-------- XVI,30; XIX,10
------------- XVIII,160


Utomo, Tjipto ---
V
Valderrama, Jose O. --
Valle-Riestra, J. Frank
Van Ness, H.C. ---------
Van Zee, John ------------
Varma, Arvind -----------
Venkatasubramanian, V.
Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj
W
Walker, Charles A. -----
Wankat, Phillip C. ------
Watson, Keith R. -------
Wei, James -------------
Weiland, Ralph H.
Weir, Ronald D. -----
Westerberg, Arthur W.
Wheelock, T.D. ---
Whitaker, Stephen ------


----- XVII
---------------
--------- ------
----------------
----------------
------------
-------------


- XVI,102;
---- XVII,1




- XVI,12,62
---------- ----

---------------


---------------
--------------


--- XVIII,34 White, Mark G. -------------------------- XVIII,174
Whiting, Wallace B. ----------------------- XX,35
Whitmyre, Jr., George ------------- XX,144
1,70; XX,102 Wilkes, Garth L. ---------------------------- XVI,174
-- XVII,162 Williams, Dennis C. --------- XX,74
------ XIX,62 Williams, Frank L. ----------------------- XX,198
---- XIX,194 Williams, Joyce B. ----------------------------- XX,7
--- XVII,176 Willis, Max S. ----------------------------- XIX,185
----- XX,188 Wong, Julius P. -------------------------------- XIX,44
------- XX,40 Wood, Philip E. ------------------------------ XX,28

Woods, Donald R.
XVII,86,196 ------ XVI,44; XVII,166; XVIII,106; XX,28
78; XVIII,20
.- YTY AA Y


---- XIX,120
- XVI,158
--- XVIII,60
; XVIII,159
-XVIII,185
------ XIX,18


Yeow, Y.L. ----------
Z
Zabicky, Jacob ---
Zhang, Guo-Tai -----
Zygourakis, Kyriacos -


-------------- XVIII,78


----------- XX,148
---------- XVIII,10,64
-------- XVIII,176


TITLE INDEX


A
Accreditation: Plus or Minus --------------------------------------------- XX,58
Accreditation, and Computing Technology; Design ----------------- XX,18
Adjoint Variables and Their Role in Optimal Problems, The
Nature of ---------------------------------- XIX,68
Adjunct Position: One Way to Keep Up With Technology and
Education --------------------------------- XIX,162
Adsorption Methods, New --- ------------------------- XVIII,20
Aerosol Science, Introduction to* ---------------- -------- --- XIX,203
Air Pollution for Engineers --------- ------------------ ---- XVI,168
Algebra for Chemical Engineers, Linear ----------------- XVIII,176
Analysis and Design, Chemical Reactor* --------- -------- XVII,176
Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering ---------------- XVIII,160
Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering: Course ------------ XX,188
Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering: Research ------------ XX,182
ASEE, Why I Belong To -------- .---------------------------- XX,121
Availability (Exergy) Analysis* ------------------------- ---------- XVII,139
Availability Functions, A Graphic Look at -------------------------- XVII,128
AWARD LECTURES
Design Research: Both Theory and Strategy ------------- XVI,12,62
Image Processing and Analysis For Turbulence Research ----- XX,202
Input Multiplicities in Process Control ------------------------ XVII,58
Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic
Unit Operations -------------------------- -- XIX,72
Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal Collocation ------- XVIII,204
Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting
Systems ------------ --------------- --- ---- XX,12

B
Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass ------------------------------- XVIII,186
Biochemical Engineering: With Extensive Use of Personal
Computers --------------------------------------- XX,122
Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology ------------- XX,194
Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals ------------------------------ XIX,168
Biomass, Bio-Chemical Conversion of -------------------------------- XVIII,186
Biomedical Education, Trends in ------------------------------------- XVI,126
Boiler House, Exploiting the On-Campus ----------------------------------- XX,28
Book Writing and ChE Education ------------------------------------- XVII,184
Boundary Layer Theory for Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer,
Foundations of* --- ---------------------------------------- XIX,82

C
Calculations, Degrees of Freedom and Precedence Orders in
Engineering .-------------------------------------------------- XX,138


Calculator, Distillation Calculations With a Programmable ------ XVII,86
Career Planning and Motivation Through an Imaginary Company
Format -------------- -------------- --- XVI,44
Carnegie-Mellon University, The History of Chemical
Engineering at* ---------- ----------------------- -- XVIII,37
Catalysis -------------------------------------- --- XVIII,180
Catalysis, A Survey Course in ---------------------------------------- XVI,178
Catalysis Demonstrations, Kinetics and ----------- ---- XVIII,140
Catalysis Involving Video-Based Seminars, Heterogeneous ----- XVIII,174
Catalyst Manufacture: Laboratory and Commercial Preparations*
---------.--------------- ------------------ XVIII,92
Cheating-An Ounce of Prevention --- ---------------- XIX, 12
Chemical Engineering: A Crisis in Maturity -------------------- XX,178
Chemically Reacting Systems, Steady-State Multiplicity
Features of ----------------------------------- --------- -- -- XX,12
Chemicals in the Environment: Distribution-Transport-
Fate-Analysis* --------------------------------------- XVII,77
Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes, Fundamentals of ----- XIX,204
Collocation, Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal ----------- XVIII,204
Colloid and Surface Science -------------------------------------- XVIII,166
Combustion ------------------------------------------------------ XVII,174
Communication to Undergraduates, Teaching Technical ------------- XX,32
Communications Skills Through a Laboratory Course, The
Development of --------- ------------------------- XVI,122
Computational Methods for Turbulent, Transonic, and Viscous
Flows* --------------------------------------- XVIII,203
Computers, A New Approach to Teaching ChE Using --------- XVIII,66
Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations ----- ----------- XIX,26
Computer-Generated Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures ------ XVII,112
Computer Graphics, The Representation of Highly Non-Ideal Phase
Equilibria Using --------------- ----- --- --------- ------ -- XX,88
Computer Graphics Approach to the Use of the Integral Method in
Kinetics, A ---------------------------------------- XX,136
Computer Graphics to Teach Thermodynamic Phase Diagrams,
The Use of ------------------------------------ ---------- ----- XIX,78
Computer Process Control, A Microcomputer Based Laboratory
for Teaching ----------------------------------- XVIII,136
Computer Programs for Chemical Engineers, Selected Numerical
Methods and* --------------------- -------------- XVII,196
Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic
Evaluations of Chemical Processes, Two ------------------------ XVIII,14
Computer Usage in Design Courses: Survey -- ------------------ XVII,32
Computing Technology; Design, Accreditation, and- ------- ------- XX,18

*Book Review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Computing Technology, Expectations of the Competence of
ChE Graduates in the Use of -------- --------------------- XX,19
Controlled Processes With Dead-Time, Simulation of Simple ------- XIX,44
Corcoran, William H.; Oustandihg Paper Award ---- ---------- XX, 180
Corrosion, Teach -----'---,.- ..-..---------------- XX,69
Corrosion Engineering, Electrochemical and -------------- XIX,194
Cost Engineering, Applied* ---------.... .----------- --------- XIX,118
Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes,
Two Computer Programs for Equipment ------------------- XVIII,14
Creativity in Students, Toward Encouraging ------------------- XIX,22
Curriculum, An Integrated Approach to ---------------------- --- XX,92
Curriculum, The Chemical Engineering: 1985 ------------ -- XX,124
D
Dead-Time, Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes With -------- XIX,44
DEPARTMENTS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
California, University of: Davis ------------------------- XX,8
Cincinnati, University of ---------- --- -------------- XVI,6
Clemson University ----------------------------------- ------. XVII,2
Cornell University ---------------- ------------------------ XIX,58
Delft University of Technology -------- ----------------- XVII,54
Erevan Polytechnic Institute --------- --------- --- XVIII,56
Kentucky, University of -------------------------- ---- XVII,98
Maryland, University of ------------------------------- --- XIX,6
Minnesota, University of ------------------- -------------------------- XVI,50
Northwestern University ------------------------------ XVIII,2
Pennsylvania, University of .------------------------------ XX,110
Purdue University --------- -------- -------.-------. XX,60
Syracuse University ---------------------------------- XVIII,102
Utah, University of ------ ------------------------ ---- XIX,114
Yale University ---------------------- -------------------------- XVI,102
Design, Accreditation, and Computing Technology ----------- XX,18
Design, Chemical Process: An Integrated Teaching Approach ----- XVI,72
Design, Chemical Reactor ----------------------.------------------- XVII,158
Design, Chemical Reactor Analysis and* -------------------------- XVII,176
Design, Probabilistic Engineering: Principles and Applications*
-----.-.. ------- ------------- --- ----------------- XVIII,144
Design, Using Spreadsheets for Teaching -------- ------ -- XX, 128
Design Course, Development and Critique of the Contemporary
Senior -------------- ------------------------------------- XVI,30
Design Course in Groups, An Experiential ------------------ XVI,38
Design Courses, Computer Usage in: Survey ---- ------ XVII,32
Design Laboratory, Development of the --------------------- XX,44
Design Laboratory Experiment for Separating Particles by
Fluidization Principles, A Sequential ------------------------------- XIX,30
Design of Industrial Chemical Reactors From Laboratory Data* XVII,46
Design Problems, Thermodynamics With --------------------- XVII,110
Design Research: Both Theory and Strategy ----------------- XVI,12,62
Differential Equation Models by Polynomial Approximation,
Solution of* ----.---- .---- -- ------------- --- XVI,43
Diffusion in Liquids* --------------------------------------.- XIX,29
Diffusive Mass Transport, A Note on ------------------------------- XX,22
Digital Computer Application in Process Control -------------- XVI,118
Digital Control Liquid Level Experiment, Direct -------------- XVII,28
Dimensionless Education ----------------------------- XVIII,112
Discrete Processes in Undergraduate Process Control Courses ----- XX,78
Distillation, Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a --------- XVIII,38
Distillation Calculations With a Programmable Calculator ------ XVII,86
Distillation With Vapour Compression ---------------------- XX, 132
Division Activities XVI,67,176; XVII,97; XVIII,53,159; XIX,119; XX,167
Dolphin Problem, The --------------------------------- --- XVI,24
Drying of Solids, Tray ------------------------------------- ------ XVIII,132
E
Economic Decision Analysis, What Every Engineer Should
Know About* -------- .---- XVI,95
Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes, Two Computer
Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and ------------ XVIII,14
Economics, Introduction to Process* --------------------- ------ XIX,10
EDITORIALS
Olaf Hougen: Teacher, Researcher, Educator ------------- XX,163


Ratings, Race, The ---------------------------- ------- XX,3
Service or Ratings? ----------------- --------------- ----------- XX, 100
EDUCATORS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Alkire, Richard C., of Illinois ------------------ ----------- XVIII,6
Bell, Ken, of Oklahoma State ---------------------------------- XX,4
Bennett, C.O., of Connecticut ------- ------------------ XVI,98
Greenkorn, Robert A., of Purdue -------------------------------- XX,66
Gulari, Esin and Erdogan, of Wayne State and Michigan ---- XVIII,98
Hightower, Joe, of Rice --------------------- ------------ XIX,54
Martin, Joe, of Michigan -------------------------------------- -- XVI,2
Quinn, John A., of Pennsylvania --------------- ------------ XVII,50
Schmitz, Roger A., of Notre Dame ------------ -------------- XX,116
Seader, J.D., of Utah --------------------------------------- XVI,56
Shah, Dinesh, of Florida -------------------------------- -- XVII,94
SSloan, Dendy, of Colorado School of Mines -------------------- XIX,110
Smith, J.M., of California-Davis ------------------------------- XVII,6
Timmerhaus, Klaus D., of Colorado ------------------- ----------- XIX,2
Van Ness, Hank, of Rensselaer --------------------------------- XVIII,50
Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering ---------------------------- XIX,194
Electronic Materials, The Processing of -------------- -------------- XX,186
Elementary Chemical Engineering* ----------------- XIX,45
Energy Conservation Principles, The Integration of into a Course on
Staged Operations ----------------------------------- ---- XVI,88
Engineering Education and Practice in the United States* ---------- XX,101
Engineering Graduate Education and Research* ---------------------- XX,181
Engineering Research Centers, The New* ----- ------------- XX,181
Equilibrium-Stage Operations, The B.C. (Before Computers)
and A.D. of ---------------------------------- XIX,88
Ethics, Teaching Professional ---------------------------------------- XVIII,106
Exergy, The Thermodynamic Fundamentals of -------------------- XVIII,116
*Experiment, A Nonideal Flow --------------------------------- XVIII,74
Experiment, An Improved Design of a Simple Tubular Reactor --- XIX,84
Experiment for the Transient Response of a Stirred Vessel,
Laboratory ----------------------------------- -- -- XVII,70
Experiments in CRE, $12 for a Dozen --------------------------- XVIII,10
Extraction, Metals Separation by Liquid ------------------------- XVIII,88
Extraction, Transport Phenomena iA Liquid* --------------------- XVI,93
F
Film, Ripple in a Falling --------------------------------- --------- XX,48
Finite Elements: Mathematical Aspects* ----------------------------- XIX,35
First- and Second-Law Statement, The Two Lost-Work Statements
and the Combined -----------------.. ------- ------------ XVIII,128
Flow Curve Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids -------------- XX,84
Fluid Flow, The Practical Use of Theory in* ------------------------ XIX,17
Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer* -------------------------------- --- XVI,108
Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory ------------- XX,40
Fluid Mechanics and Unit Operations* -------- ------------- XVIII,199
Fluid Properties and Phase Equilibria, Estimation of -------- XIX,148
Fluidization ------------------------------- ---- XIX,182
Fluidization Principles, A Sequential Design Laboratory Experiment for
Separating Particles by ----------- ------ ----- ----------- XIX,30
Fluidized-Bed Chemical Processes, Fundamentals of* ----------- XVIII,109
Fluxes in Continuous Media, Tensorial Nature of- ---------- XVI,82
Fuels, Alternative: Chemical Energy Resources* ------------ XVII,85
Fugacity, Residual Functions and ------------------------------- XVII,124
G
Gamma Distribution, A Physical Interpretation for the ----------- XX,36
Generic Quiz, The --------------------------------- XIX,176
Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Averaging Theorem,
A Simple ---------------------------------------- XIX,18
Gibbs Phase Rule, Extended Form of the ---------------------------- XIX,40
Graduate Education in Chemical Engineering ------------------------- XX,174
Graduate Education in Mexico ------------------------ XVI,196
Graduate Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry --------- XVII,182
Graduate Residency at Clemson ------------------------------ XVIII,196
Graduate School, Common Misconceptions Concerning ----------- XVIII,156
Graduate School Worth It?, Is --------------------------------- XIX,208

*Book Review


FALL 1986













Graduate Studies: The Middle Way -------- --------- --------- XX,164

H
Heat, and Mass Transfer, Momentum* -------------------------- XIX, 193
Heat and Mass Transfer, Advanced Topics in ------------- XVII,152
Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow and* -------- --------------X-- XVI,108
Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving Video-Based Seminars ----- XVIII,174
Hotdog, Thermal Conductivity of a ----------------------------------- XVIII,110
Hougen's Principles ---------------------------- XX,161
Hydraulic Analog Methods to Develop Kinetic Rate Equations From
Laboratory Data, Using ------- ------- ---- XVIII,64
Hydraulic Conveying of Solids, Pneumatic and* ------- ------ XVIII,185
Hygiene Aspects of Plant Operations, Industrial ---------------- XIX,83
I
Ice Cubes Problem, Melting --------- -------------------- XVI,114
Ice Rink Problem -------------------------------------------- XVI,94
Image Processing and Analysis for Turbulence Research --------- XX,202
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry: Integrating Chemistry and
Engineering ---------------- -------------------- ------ XVII,16
Industrial Experimentation, Optimization and* ----------- XVI,167
Industry, The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical ------------- XX,148
Information Science Training for Chemical Engineers, Basic --- XIX,128
Input Multiplicities in Process Control --------------- ------- XVII,58
Integral Method in Kinetics, A Computer Graphics Approach to
the Use of the -- --------------- ----------------- XX,136
Interstate Rivalry, Graduate Education Wins in ----------- XVII,182


Job Hunting, The Graduate Student's Guide to Academic --------- XVII,178
K
Kinetic Rate Equations From Laboratory Data, Using Hydraulic Analog
Methods to Develop ------------------------------- XVIII,64
Kinetics, A Computer Graphics Approach to the Use of the Integral
Method in -------------------------------------- XX,136
Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations ---------------------- XVIII,140
L
Laboratory, A Junior Year ChE ------ ----------------- XIX,124
Laboratory Engineering and Manipulations* ---------------- ------- XVI,29
Letters to the Editor
---------- XVII,72,103,161; XVIII,73,109; XIX,35,135,171; XX,7,77,167
Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers ---- ------------- XVIII,176
Linear Operator Methods in ChE* ------------------------ ------- XX,152
Liquids and Liquid Mixtures* ------------------------------ ---- XX,77
Liquid Extraction, Metals Separation by ------------------------------ XVIII,88
Liquid Extraction, Transport Phenomena in* -------------- -XVI,93
Liquid Filtration* ------. --------------------------- XIX,185
Liquid Level Experiment, Direct Digital Control ------- ---- XVII,28
Lost-Work Statements and the Combined First- and Second-Law
Statement, The Two ---------------------------------------- ----- XVIII,128
M
Mass Transfer ---------------------------------- XVI,158
Mass Transfer, Advanced Topics in Heat and ---------------- XVII,152
Mass Transfer, Momentum, Heat, and* ------------------ ------- XIX,193
Mass Transfer in Engineering Practice* ------------ -- XVIII,9
Mass Transfer Seem Difficult, How We Make -------------- XVIII,124
Mathematical Understanding of ChE Systems, The: Selected Papers
of Neal R. Amundson* ---. ---------- -- -------------- XVI,121
MEMORIAL, IN
Corcoran, William H. --- ---------------------------------- XVI,157
Erbar, J.H. ------------------------------------ --- XVIII,19
Hougen, Olaf Andreas --------------- ---------------- XX,160
Martin, Joseph J. ------------------------------- XVII,73
Peck, Ralph E. ------------------------- --- ----- XVII,23
Peiffer, Charles -------------------------------------- XIX,211
Spellman, Lloyd A. ------------------ -------------------- XVI,125
Vermeulen, Ted -------------- ------------------------ --- XVIII,87
Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction ---------- ---- XVIII,88


Mexico, Graduate Education in --- --------------------- XVI,196
Mexico, Recent Development of ChE Education in- ---- --- XVI,132
Microcomputer, Pulse Testing With a ------------------------------- XVIII,78
Microcomputer, The Laboratory* ------------------------------ XX,50
Microcomputer Based Laboratory for Teaching Computer Process
Control, A ---------------------------------------- XVIII,136
Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem ------------------------------ XVI,186
Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions --- ------ XVIII,34
Modeling, Numerical Methods and ------------- ------------ XVII,144
Modeling for Chemical Engineers, Numerical Methods and* ---- XX,150
Modelling, An Exercise in: One Month Problem --------- XIX,140
Modelling at Royal Military College, Teaching Simulation and --- XVIII,60
Molecular Fluids, Theory of* ---------------------------------- XIX,203
Molecular Sieve Technology ----------------------------------- XIX,198
Molecular Structure and Reactivity, A Pictorial Approach to* --- XX,83
Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer* ---- ------- XIX,193
Multicomponent Distillation, Fundamentals of* ------- XVII,137
Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems, Steady-State
----------------------------------- XX,12
N
Non-Newtonian Fluids, Flow Curve Determination for ----- XX,84
Nonideal Flow Experiment, A ------------------- XVIII,74
Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical Engineering* ------------ XVII,138
Nuclear Chemical Engineering* --- ------------------------- XVII,77
Nucleate Boiling -------------------------------------- XVI,152
Numerical Methods and Computer Programs for Chemical Engineers,
Selected* ---------------------------------- XVII,196
Numerical Methods and Modeling ------------- -------- XVII,144
Numerical Methods and Modeling for ChE's* ------------------------ XX,150
0
Optimization, Engineering: Methods and Applications* ----- XVIII,159
Optimization and Industrial Experimentation* ------------ XVI,167
Orthogonal Collocation, Simulation and Estimation by -------- XVIII,204
Oscillating Sink, The -------------------------------- ----- XVI,110
Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts ----------- XVI,148
P
Participants or Victims?, Are We ------------- ----------- XIX,120
Petroleum Production, Fundamentals of ------------ -------------- XVI,164
Phase Diagrams, The Use of Computer Graphics to Teach
Thermodynamic ---------.--------------------------------- XIX,78
Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures, Computer-Generated ---- XVII,112
Phase Equilibria, Estimation of Fluid Properties and -------- XIX,148
Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering* ------- -------------- XX,35
Phase Equilibria Using Computer Graphics, The Representation
of Highly Non-Ideal -------------------------------- XX,88
Phase Rule, Extended Form of the Gibbs ------------- XIX,40
Photovoltaic Unit Operations, Semiconductor Chemical Reactor
Engineering and ------------------------------------- XIX,72
Plant Design, Graduate --------------------------------- --- XVIII,164
Plant Design and Economics for ChE's* -------------- -------------- XVI,205
Plant Design Course, Goals of an Undergraduate --------- XVI,26
Plant Operations, Industrial Hygiene Aspects of* --------- XIX,83
Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication ------- XVII,148
Pneumatic and Hydraulic Conveying of Solids* ---------------- XVIII,185
Polymers, Engineering With* ----------------------------------- XIX,25
Polymer Education and Research ----------- ------------ XVI,174
Polymer Processing ------------------ ------- XIX,190
Polymerization Engineering, Principles of* ---- ----------- XVIII,73
Polynomial Approximation, Solution of Differential Equation
Models By* ------------------------------------- XVI,43
Powders and Porous Materials, Characterization of --- ------ XX,198
PROBLEMS
Dolphin Problem, The ----------------- ------- XVI,24
Ice Rink Problem, The ------------------------------- XVI,94
Melting Ice Cube Problem -------------------------------------- XVI,114
Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem --------------------------- XVI,186

*Book Review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











One Month Problem: An Exercise in Modeling ------------ XIX,140
Ripple in a Falling Film ---------------------------------- XX,48
Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation --- XVIII,38
Thermal Conductivity of a Hotdog ---------------- XVIII,110
Wine Problem, A ----------------------------- XVIII,70
Problem Solving to Use in the Classroom, Putting ---- --- XVII,134
Process Control, A Microcomputer Based Laboratory for Teaching
Computer -------------------------------------- XVIII,136
Process Control, A Useful Formula in ------------------------ XX,82
Process Control, Advanced* ------- ---- XVII,27
Process Control, Digital Computer Application in ----------- XVI,118
Process Control, Input Multiplicities in ------ ---- XVII,58
Process Control, Undergraduate ----------------- ----- XX,74
Process Control Courses, Discrete Processes in Undergraduate --- XX,78
Process Control Education, Use of IBM's Advanced Control
System in Undergraduate ---------------- ----- XX,70
Process Control on Chemical Engineering Education and Research,
Impact of Packaged Software for --------------------- XIX,144
Process Control Undergraduate Option, A -------------- XVII,24
Process Design, The Teaching of --------------------------- XIX,121
Process Design Courses at Pennsylvania, The: Impact of
Process Simulators -------------------------------------------- -- XVIII,26
Process Design in Process Control Education -----------. XVIII,122
Process Design Sequence at Virginia Tech --------------------- XVI,34
Process Economics, Introduction to* ---------------------- XIX,10
Process Laboratory, An Innovative ChE ------------ ----------- XIX,150
Process Synthesis, Chemical ----------------------------------- XVI,68,138
Processes, Fundamentals of Chemical ------------------------- XIX,156
Programmable Calculator, Distillation Calculations With a --- XVII,86
Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries ------- XVII,162
Property Relation, The Fundamental --------------------------------XVII,119
Pulse Testing With a Microcomputer ---------------------------- XVIII,78
q
Quantum Mechanics, The Picture Book of* ----- ------------ XX,127
Quiz, The Generic -------------------------------------------- XIX,176
R
Reaction Engineering, R.H. Wilhelm's Influence on the Development of
Chemical ---------------------------- XVII,10
Reading Scientific Papers, Learning Through --------------- XX,102
Reactors From Laboratory Data, Design of Industrial Chemical*
.------------------------------------- XVII,46
Recovery Processes, Separations and --------------- XIX,172
Recycle With Heating ----- ------- ------ XIX,136
Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy,
Enthalpy, and Entropy ------------------ XVII,64
Refinery 5 (Lithograph) -- ----------------------- XVII,141
Regulatory Process into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum,
Introducing the -------- -------------- XVIII,30
Research is Engineering -------------------- XVI,190
Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers ------------ XX,168
Residual Functions and Fugacity ---------------- -- XVII,124
Resource-Based Approach to ChE Education, A ----------- XIX,36
S
Safety Do We Need in ChE Education?,How Much -------- XVIII,82
Safety Program at Delaware, A Laboratory -------------- XX,144
San Diego, Cleaning Up in ---------------------------------- XVII,170
Scaleup of Chemical Processes* ------------------- XX,135
Self-Study Examples, Use of Slides and ---- ----------------- XVII,105
Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit
Operations -------------- ------------------- -- ------- XIX,72
Semiconductor Processing ---------- ----------- ---- XVIII,200
Separations and Recovery Processes ------- -- -------- XIX,172
Separations Research --------------------------------- XVIII,190
Sequential Design Laboratory Experiment for Separating Particles by
Fluidization Principles, A ------------------------------- XIX,30
Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal Collocation ------ XVIII,204
Simulation and Modelling at Royal Military College, Teaching -- XVIII,60
Simulation of the Manufacture of a Chemical Product in a Competitive


Environment ----------------------------------- XVI,76
Slides and Self-Study Examples, Use of ------------------ XVII,105
Socio-Humanistic Concepts into Engineering Courses, The
Infusion of ------------- XVII,74
Software for Process Control on ChE Education and Research,
Impact of Packaged ---------------------------- XIX,144
Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection ----------- XVII,20
Solids, Tray Drying of ------------------------------------ XVIII,132
Spatial Averaging Theorem, A Simple Geometrical Derivation
of the ---------- XIX,18
Spreadsheets for Teaching Design, Using ------------------- XX,128
Staged Operations, Improvements in the Teaching of ---- ---- XIX,132
Staged Operations, The Integration of Energy Conservation
Principles into a Course on ---------------------------- XVI,88
Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems XX,12
STIRRED POTS
Lacey Lecturer: Hanratty, Tom ------ ------------------------- XX,77
Lacey Lecturer: Luss, Dan ---------- ----------------- XVII,97
Limerick Metric Applied to Thermodynamics -------------- XVIII,19
Mass Transfer Talkin' Blues -------------------------- XVIII,91
Weikart, Ballad of Jack ----------------------------------- XVII,53
Stirred Vessel, Laboratory Experiment for the Transient
Response of a -------- -------------------- ---- XVII,70
Summer School '87 ----------------- --------- XX,177
Surface Phenomena ------------------------------- XVII,166
Surface Science, Colloid and ---------------------------- -- XVIII,166
Survey, 1981 AIChE-EPC --------------------- -------- -- XVI,182
Symposium on Undergraduate ChE Thermodynamics ------------ XVII,104
T
Tensorial Nature of Fluxes in Continuous Media --------------------- XVI,82
Ternary Phase Diagram for VLLE, Generation of a ----- -------- XX,94
Thermal Conductivity of a Hotdog --------------------------------- XVIII,110
Thermodynamic Fundamentals of Exergy, The ---------- XVIII,116
Thermodynamics, An Integrated Approach to Teaching
Undergraduate --------------------------------- XVII,109
Thermodynamics, Chemical and Process* -------------------- XVIII,139
Thermodynamics, Chemical Engineering* ---------- ---------- XX,21
Thermodynamics, Classical Solution ---------------------------- XIX,62
Thermodynamics Instruction, Symposium on Undergraduate
ChE ---------------------------------------- XVII,104
Thermodynamics of Running ------------------------------ XVI,18
Thermodynamics With Design Problems ----------------- XVII,110
Third World, ChE Education in the: Two Views --- ------- XVII,78
Time Series to Chemical Engineers, Teaching ------------- XIX,186
Transient Response of a Stirred Vessel, Laboratory Experiment
for the --- ------------------------- XVII,70
Transport Phenomena ---------------------------- XVIII, 170
Transport Phenomena in Liquid Extraction* ----------- XVI,93
Tray Drying of Solids --- ------------------ XVIII,132
Tubular Reactor Experiment, An Improved Design of a Simple -- XIX,84
TUTCHE-A Program Package for Tutoring ChE's -------------- XVII,34
Tutor, The Chemistry* ----------------------------- XX,43
TV Taped Problems, Supplemental ---- ------------------ XVII,117
U
Unit Operations, Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and
Photovoltaic ---- ------------------- ---------- XIX,72
V
Vapour Compression, Distillation With ---- ----------------- XX,132
Video-Based Seminars, Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving ----- XVIII,174
W
Wilhelm's Influence on the Development of Chemical Reaction
Engineering, R.H. --------------------------------- ---- XVII,10
Wine Problem, A -------------------------------- XVIII,70
Y
Yale, Two Gentlemen From ------- ---- --------- -- XVI,107

*Book Review


FALL 1986



































FACULTY


THE UNIVERSITY OF flKRON I
I l8kron,OH 44325

DEPATMET O


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




GRADUATE PROGRAM


RESEARCH INTERESTS


G.A. ATWOOD ........................................................................ Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption.
J.M BERTY ........................................................................... Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Proccesses.
H.M CHEUNG ....................................................................... .. ......................... Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques.
S.C. CHUANG ................................................................... Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion.
J.R. ELLIOTT ................................................................................ Therm odynam ics, M material Properties.
*G. ESKAMANI ............................................................... ...... ................. Waste Water Treatment.
L.G FO CHT ........................................................................ ..... ........................... Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design.
H.L. G REENE ............................................................................................................ O xidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, M ixing.
S. LEE ....................................................................................................................... Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Com puter A applications.
R.W RO BERTS .......................................................................................................... Plastics Processing, Polym er Film s, System Design.
R.F. SAVINELL .................................................................. .. ................................ Electrochem ical Engineering. (O n Leave)
M .S. W ILLIS ................................................................................. ....................... M ultiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenom ena.
*Adjunct professor




Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $6,000. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $13,000. These
awards include waiver of tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship
application is March 1.






ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
Dr. Howard L. Greene, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Akron
Akron, Ohio 44325







:1:


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Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K.T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis.

P.J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics.

I.G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis.

D.G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications.

M.R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors.

R.E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media.

D.T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design.

J.H. MASLIYAH Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics.

A.E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.

A.J. MORRIS, Ph.D. (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne): Process Control, Al
and Expert Systems.

For further information contact:


W.K. NADER Dr. Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics.

K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomena,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics.

F.D. OTTO Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Upgrading.

D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics.

D.B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics.

J.T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media:

S.L. SHAH Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory.

S.E. WANKE Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics.

R.K. WOOD Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control.

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic
with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate pro-
grams. Financial support is available through government grants and contracts, teaching, and
research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full oppor-
tunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in
most of the research areas listed below.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


MILAN BIER, Professor
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport
HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics
Polyelectrolyte Solutions
WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing
EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications
JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and
Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology
SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com-
bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation
Processes, Applied Mathematics
GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical
Modelling of Transport
ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor
(Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical)
Ph.D., UCLA, 1983
Boundary Layers, Stability, Mass and Heat Transport



Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.


For further information,
write to:
Dr. Farhang Shadman
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant
Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols
ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation,
Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion
JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide
Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phe-
nomena
DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial
and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962.
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing










Arizona State University

Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D.
Degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biomedical Engineering, and
Materials Engineering
Research Specializations include:
ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION *
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS
* BIOINSTRUMENTATION 0 BIOMATERIALS CARDIO-
VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS *
CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE
MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE
PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION *
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES *
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly respected faculty:
James R. Beckman (Arizona) Stephen J. Krause (Michigan)
Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) James L Kuester (Texas A&M)
Neil S. Berman (Texas) Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)*
David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin)
Llewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)*
Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Vernon E. Sater (IIT)
Veronica A. Burrows (Princeton) Milton C. Shaw (Cincinnati)
Timothy S. Cale (Houston) Kwang S. Shin (Northwestern)
Ray W. Carpenter (UC/Berkeley) James T. Stanley (Illinois)
William A. Coghlan (Stanford) Robert S. Torrest (Minnesota)
William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) Bruce C. Towe (Pennsylvania State)
R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Thomas L Wachtel (St Louis University)*
Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech) Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia)
David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech)*
Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley)
Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) Imre Zwiebel (Yale)
James B. Koeneman (Western Australia)* *Adjunct or Emeritus Professor

Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.
ASU in Tempe, a city of 120,000, and is a part of the greater
Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled
in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 are in graduate study. Arizona's year-
round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and
recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287

Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action
and equal opportunity in its employment, activities and programs.
-------^jiML-















II


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/


Ajburn

University


Auburn tv
Engineering


THE FACULTY


R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1978)
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965)
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976)
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970)
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958)
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976)
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972)
R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973)
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978)
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973)
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981)
D. L. VIVES (Columbia University, 1949)
D. C. WILLIAMS (Princeton University, 1980)
FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


RESEARCH AREAS


Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Carbon Fibers and Composites
Coal Conversion
Controlled Atmosphere
Electron Microscopy
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Interfacial Phenomena
Microelectronics


Oil Processing
Process Design and Control
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Separations
Surface Science
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena


THE PROGRAM
The Department is one of.the fastest growing in the Southeast and
offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes
both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national
interest, with modern research equipment available for most all
types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to
qualified students.


Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


FALL 1986




































Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

at BrighamYoung University, Provo, Utah


Programs ofstudy leading to the ME., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees on a
beautiful campus located at the base of the Rocky Mountains.


Faculty
Dee Barker, U of Utah, 1951
Calvin H. Bartholomew, Stanford, 1972
Merrill W. Beckstead, U. of Utah, 1965
Douglas N. Bennion, Berkeley, 1964
B. Scott Brewster, U of Utah, 1979
James J. Christensen, CarnegieMellon, 1957
Richard W. Hanks, U of Utah, 1960
William C.Hecker, Berkeley, 1982
Paul 0. Hedman, BYU 1973
John L. Oscarson, U ofMichigan, 1982
Richard L. Rowley, Michigan State, 1978
Philip J. Smith, BYU, 1979
L. Douglas Smoot, U of Washington, 1960
Kenneth A. Solen, U of Wisconsin, 1974


For additional information
and application, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
350 CB
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


ResearchAreas
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena
Calorimetry
Computer Simulation
Coal Combustion and Gasification
Kinetics and Catalysis
Biomedical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Chemical Propulsion
Mathematical Modeling
Electrochemistry
MembraneTransport
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics
Process Design and Control















uC

NMIll


THE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY


GRADUATE STUDIES IN
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
The Department offers programs leading to the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M.
Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas:
Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
Environmental Engineering
Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
Enhanced Oil Recovery
In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
Computer Control and Optimization of
Engineering and Bio Processes
Biotechnology and Biorheology
Fellowships and Research Assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.


FACULTY


The University is located in the City of Calgary,
the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world
famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter
Olympics. The city combines the traditions of the
Old West with the sophistication of a modern
urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is
110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the
Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are
readily accessible.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. P. R. Bishnoi, Crairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng.
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada


R. A. HEIDEMANN,* Head (Wash. U.)
A. BADAKHSHAN (Birm. U.K.)
L. A. BEHIE (W. Ont.)
D. W. B. BENNION (Penn. State)
F. BERRUTI (Waterloo)
P. R. BISHNOI (Alberta)
R. M. BUTLER (Imp. Coll. U.K.)
M. FOGARASI (Alberta)
M. A. HASTAOGLU (SUNY)
J. HAVLENA (Czech.)
A. A. JEJE* (MIT)
N. E. KALOGERAKIS (Toronto)
A. K. MEHROTRA (Calgary)
M. F. MOHTADI (Birm. U.K.)
R. G. MOORE** (Alberta)
P. M. SIGMUND (Texas)
J. STANISLAV (Prague)
W. Y. SVRCEK (Alberta)
E. L. TOLLEFSON (Toronto)
M. A. TREBBLE (Calgary)
*On sabbatical leave during the 1986-87 academic year.
**Acting Head.


FALL 1986







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,


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RESEARCH INTERESTS


ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


TIMWMI

F: ,


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720


BERKELEY...



... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-
tains.




FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soong
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams










UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interface Processes
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Control
Process Design
Rheology
Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Program
UC Davis, with 19,000 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering, electrical and computer engi-
neering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Faculty and Research Areas
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne
Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control
BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota
Fluid Mechanics of Thin Film Coating, Interfacial
Phenomena
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes, Kinetics
KAREN A. McDONALD, University of Maryland
Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
AHMET N. PALAZOGLU,, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute
Process Design and Process Control
ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology, Fluid Mechanics, Aucoustics, Hazardous
Waste
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology, Thin Film
Technology
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.
For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Professor Pieter Stroeve
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY






ALIFORNIA






OS


NGELES


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
graduate programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities.
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research, adding to
the already wide spectrum of research
activities.

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
pf tuition and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village
Students have access to the highly regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on
campus.

CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, Ca 90024


FACULTY
D.T. Allen
Yorom Cohen
T.H.K. Frederking
S.K. Friedlonder
Robert F. Hicks
E.L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis


Ken Nobe
L.B. Robinson
0.1. Smith
W.D. Van Vorsl
V.L. Vilker
A.R. Wazzan
F.E. Yates


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering














UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA
-- ... ... .. -r .... ::--:,: : :, o / {


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Chairman)
Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear
Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue)
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
Science
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor
Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford)
Adsorption and Heterogeneous
Catalysis
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D.
(Cambridge)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
Forces.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D.
(Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
FALL 1986


JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan)
Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley)
Theory of Surfactant Aggregates,
Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors,
Radiation Transport Analyses.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley) (Vice Chairman)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota)
Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety,
Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D.
(Minnesota)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Structure of Microemulsions.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106




































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one calendar year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature of the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.

JOHN F. BRADY, Associate Professor
PhD. (1981), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics; transport properties of
heterogeneous systems

GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; coal gasificatfon
L. GARY LEAL, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.

MANFRED MORARI, Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Minnesota
Process control; process design


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. Gary Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1987.


C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate
Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering;
process design and development.
JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental and safety related
problems.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.













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The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in
SChemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY
Robert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Sotiris Pratsinis
Neville Pinto
Stephen Thiel
Joel Weisman
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
AEROSOL ENGINEERING
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
systems.
COAL RESEARCH
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
TWO-PHASE FLOW Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Boiling. Stability and transport properties of Chemical Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
foam. Cincinnati, OH 45221
MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.





Study Chemical Engineering at one of the nation's
top chemical engineering research facilities


Specializations in:


* Electrochemical engineering
* Surfaces and colloids
* Laser applications


* Mixing and separations
* Process control


Faculty and specializations:


Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh
University
Particle separations, mixing, acid
gas recovery


John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University
of Michigan
Redox equilibria, thin carbon films,
modulated electroplating


Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962,
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-
variable control, coordination
algorithms


Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns
Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical
modelling, data acquisition


Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton
University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic
dispersions, fine-particle
processing


Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa
State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur
removal processes


Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of
California (Berkeley)
. Electrochemical engineering,
:current distributions,
"eleetrodeposition


Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968,.Case
Western Reserve'University
Electrochemical sensors, elec-
trochemical synthesis, elec-
trochemistry related to electronic
materials


J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1968, Iowa
State University
Surface phenomena, interfacial
dynamics, light scattering


Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983,
Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant systems, metal extrac-
tion, enhanced oil recovery


Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977,
University of Pittsburgh, Elec-
trochemical engineering, reactor
design, and simulation; electrode
processes


For more information contact:


Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
CLEVELAND, OHIO 44106













































Clarkson


O M.S. and Ph.D. programs 0 Friendly
atmosphere 0 Vigorous research programs
supported by government and industry
O Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa 0 Skiing,
canoeing, mountain climbing and other
recreation in the Adirondacks 0 Variety of
cultural activities with two liberal arts
colleges nearby 0 Twenty faculty working on
a broad spectrum of chemical engineering
research problems

Research Areas include:
O Chemical kinetics 0 Colloidal and
interfacial phenomena 0 Computer aided
design 0 Crystallization 0 Electrochemical
engineering and corrosionD Integrated
circuit fabrication 0 Laser-matter
interaction 0 Mass transfer 0 Materials
processing in space 0 Optimization
0 Particle separations 0 Phase
transformations and equilibria 0 Polymer
rheology and processing 0 Process
control 0 Turbulent flows 0 And more ...


Financial aid available in the form of:
O instructorships O fellowships 0 research
assistantships 0 teaching assistantships
O industrial co-op positions




For more details, please write to:

Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676







Graduate Study at


Clemson University

S In Chemical Engineering


Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking
4 in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving
to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
SWith active research and teaching in polymer
processing, process automation, computer simu-
lation of fluids, thermodynamics, membrane
separation, pollution control, pulp and paper
Fr operations research, and rheology on non-
Newtonian fluids what more do you need?
The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 65 undergraduate and 58 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 12,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 1,700 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.
The Faculty
Forest C. Alley Dan D. Edie Joseph C. Mullins
William B. Barlage, Jr. Charles H. Gooding Amod A. Ogale
John N. Beard, Jr. James M. Haile Richard W. Rice
William F. Beckwith Stephen S. Melsheimer Mark C. Thies

Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
Clemson University m sER
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER

GRADUATE STUDY ,.
IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and- Ph.D. Programs


* FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0


DAVID E. CLOUGH, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1975), University of Colorado
Fluidization, Process Control

ROBERT H. DAVIS, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1983), Stanford University
Fluid Dynamics of Suspensions, Biotechnology

JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D. (1974), Stanford University
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science

R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Colorado
Biophysics, Bioengineering

PAUL G. GLUGLA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Illinois
Ionic Solutions, Thermodynamics,
Membrane Separations

R. CURTIS JOHNSON, Professor
Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University
Global Modeling

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1984), Purdue University
Biochemical Engineering, Biotechnology,
Mathematical Modeling


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1968), University of California, Berkeley
Membranes, Geophysical Fluid Mechanics, Coal
Gasification, Transport Processes in Permafrost
LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1982), Purdue University
Surface Science, Heterogeneous Catalysis,
Molecular Dynamics
MAX S. PETERS, Professor
Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University
Biomass Conversion, Economics
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1965), Tulane University
Optimal Control and Identification, Transport in
Porous Media
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of Minnesota
Numerical Techniques in Fluid Dynamics,
Membranes
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Chairman and
James M. and Catherine T. Patten Professor
Ph.D. (1951), University of Illinois
Economics, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of Michigan
Water Pollution Control, Solar Energy
Utilization


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












COLORADO OF


SCHOOL


OF ,
1874

MINES CoLRAO

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Themodynamic properties of gases and
liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineer-
*,. ing.
J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery
processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal
cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. Yesavage, Professor, Ph.D., Michigan;. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids,
properties of coal-derived liquids, equations of state
for highly non-ideal systems.
E. D. Sloan, Jr., Professor; Ph.D., Clemson. Phase equip-
librium measurements of natural gas fluids and hy-
S. rates, thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids,
adsorption equilibria, stagewise processes, educa-
tion methods research.

i Mines. Mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics
of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochem-
istry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-
derived asphaltenes, supercritical extraction.
M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat
and mass transfer with a moving boundary, fluid
mechanics of solid-liquid suspensions, mathematical
methods in chemical engineering.
A. L. Bunge, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Mem-
brane transport and separations, mass transfer in
porous media, ion exchange and adsorption chroma-
tography.
P. F. Bryan, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Com-
puter aided process design, computational thermo-
dynamics.
A. D. Shine, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., MIT. Polymer
rheology and processing, composites.
R. L. Miller, Research Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Colorado
school l of Mines, Liquefaction co-processing of coal
_. and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil
shale processing, particulate removal with venturi
S, scrubbers, multiphase fluid mechanics.
.~ J. F. Ely, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.
". For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
-- Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
,Colorado School of Mines
S a -l-. Golden, CO 80401
FALL 1986 235














Colorado State University



Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.



Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering


Faculty: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
S_ a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
Larry Belfiore, Ph. D.,
University of Wisconsin
Bruce Dale, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Jud Harper, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Naz Karim, Ph.D.,
University of Manchester
Terry Lenz, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Jim Linden, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Carol McConica, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Vince Murphy, Ph.D., :
University of
Massachusetts Research Areas:

Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
SEnvironmental Engineering
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems


For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

















OUR FACULTY

THOMAS F. ANDERSON
Ph.D., U. of Cal., Berkeley
JAMES P. BELL
Sc.D., MIT
DOUGLAS J. COOPER
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN
Ph.D., Comell
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO
Ph.D., U. of Wisconsin
JAMES M. FENTON
Ph.D., U. of Illinois
G. MICHAEL HOWARD
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
HERBERT E. KLEI
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts
MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
Ph.D., Princeton
RICHARD M. STEPHENSON
Ph.D., Cornell
DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
Ph.D., U. of Michigan
ROBERT A. WEISS
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts


STHE

UNIVERSITY OF

iCONNECTICUT



Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering


~t~'' ''~
ti ;
-1:. .
i;r- i
-:-. ,
'; ~-


~ I iI WEr
Zfr.i' r-r
[i *Ft
-caA


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
for Engineers and Scientists


CHECK US OUT


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
EXPERT SYSTEMS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
SURFACE SCIENCE
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
THERMODYNAMICS


Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
Box U-139
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019


FALL 1986


OUR RESEARCH







A diverse intellectual climate A distinguished faculty


Graduate

Study

in

Chemical

Engineering

at

Cornell

University



World-class research in ...
* biochemical engineering
* applied mathematics
* computer simulation
* environmental engineering
* kinetics and catalysis
* surface science
* heat and mass transfer
* polymer science and engineering
* fluid dynamics
* rheology and biorheology
* reactor design
* molecular thermodynamics
* statistical mechanics


Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses sup-
plemented by work in other out-
standing Cornell departments,
including those in chemistry, bio-
logical sciences, physics, computer
science, food science, materials
science, mechanical engineering,
and business administration.

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes
region of upstate New York, the
Cornell campus is one of the most
beautiful in the country.

A stimulating university commu
nity offers excellent recreational
and cultural opportunities in an at
tractive environment.


Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Claude Cohen
Robert K. Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe
Robert L. Von Berg
Herbert F. Wiegandt
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
- attractive fellowships, is available.

For further information
write to:
Professor Claude Cohen
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201








Chemical Engineerin at

The Faculty Del
Giovanni Astarita D e
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
C. Ernest Birchenall
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
Robert L. Pigford
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Alvin B. Stiles
Andrew L. Zydney he University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.

degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

Ne% __rk For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Philadelphia Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
I, Newark, Delaware 19716

















engineering



U N I V E R S I T Y
UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA Gainesville,Florida


Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD


Faculty *Iin PIN.
Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor
Processing! Seymour S. Block Biotechnology
Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor
Design/ Arthur Fricke Polymer Processing, Ap- m
plied Rheology/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface m
Science/ Lew Johns Applied Mathematics/
Dale Kirmse Process Control, Computer Aided
Design, Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor
Design, Catalysis/ Gerasimos K. Lyberatos Op-
timization, Biochemical Processes/ Frank May
Separations/ Ranga Narayanan Transport Phe-
nomena/ John O'Connell Statistical Mechanics,
Thermodynamics/ Dinesh O. Shah Enhanced
Oil Recovery, Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros For more information please write:
Svoronos Process Control/ Robert D. Walker Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Surface Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/
Gerald Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering
Transport Phenomena University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











GEORGIA TECH
A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia


Graduate Studies

in Chemical

Engineering


Atlanta
All major professional sports
Ballet
Centers for Disease Control
Commercial center of the South
Emory University
Georgia State University
High Museum of Art
Major recording studios
Pleasant climate
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow skiing within two hours
Atlanta Symphony Orchestra
Theater
White water canoeing within one hour


Programs in
Chemical Engineering
Biochemical engineering
Catalysis
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Electrochemical engineering
Fine particle technology
Interfacial phenomena
Kinetics
Medical implants
Mining and mineral engineering
Polymer science and engineering
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor design
Separation processes
Supercritical extraction
Thermodynamics and transport
properties
Transport phenomena
Waste management


Faculty
A.S. Abhiraman
RK. Agrawal
Y. Arkun
E.J. Clayfield
W.R. Ernst
L. Forney
C.W. Gorton
J.S. Hsieh
M.J. Matteson
J.D. Muzzy
G.W. Poehlein


R.S. Roberts
R.J. Samuels
F.J. Schork
A.H.R Skelland
J.T. Sommerfeld
D.W. Tedder
A.S. Teja
M.G. White
J. Winnick
A. Yoganathan


For more information write:

Dr. Gary W. Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100


---









Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston



The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston has developed research strength in a broad
range of areas:
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis
Biochemical Engineering
Electrochemical Systems
Semiconductor Processing
Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology
Process Dynamics and Control
Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation
Solid-liquid Separation
Reliability Theory
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
The department occupies over 75,000 square feet and has over $3
million worth of experimental apparatus.
Financial support is available to full-time graduate students through re-
search assistantships and special industrial fellowships.
The faculty:

N. R. Amundson
V. Balakotaiah
H.-C. Chang
E. L. Claridge
,- J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
D. J. Economou
C. F. Goochee
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
R. Rajagopalan
J. T. Richardson
For more information or application forms write to: F. M. Tiller
Director, Graduate Admissions F. L. Worley, Jr.


Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)
242


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










GRADUATE STUDY
AND RESEARCH

The Department of

Chemical Engineering
Graduate Programs in
The Department of
Chemical Engineering
leading to the degrees of
MASTER OF SCIENCE and
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

ILLINOIS




CHICAGO


FACULTY AND
Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965
Professor
T. S. Jiang
PhD., Northwestern University, 1981
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan
Professor and Head
Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachsetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor
David Wilcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry,
catalysis by supported metals, subseabed radioactive
waste disposal studies, clay chemistry
Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
laser diagnostics

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy.
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics
of liquids and liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion,and indirect coal liquefaction
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.
Lipid microencapsulation; Adorption and
surface reactions; Membrane transport.
Synthesis of blood
Reaction engineering with primary focus
on the pyrolysis of oil shale and coal.
Energy technology, environmental controls.
Mechanistic aspects of the carbon monoxide-
hydrogen reaction with emphasis on the
synthesis of methanol over oxide catalysts.


For more information, write: Director of Graduate Studies, Dept. of Chemical
Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, II, 60680, (312)996-3424






UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


The chemical engineering department
_Y... .-- offers graduate programs leading to the
Sc.c, MM.S. and Ph.D. degrees

I ED The combination of distinguished faculty,
outstanding facilities and a diversity of
FD research interests results in exceptional
-T XCHE a., opportunities for graduate education.


_T -

I 9300
940
I
500 6290 I
Faculty 579
Richard C. Alkire I
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Walter G. May
Richard I. Masel
Edmund G. Seebauer
Anthony J. McHugh
Mark A. Stadtherr
James W. Westwater |
Charles F. Zukoski, IV


Fe+2

2e- H+



For Information and Application Forms Write

1O Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 W. California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801









GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT




Illinois Institute of Technology




THE FACULTY

HAMID ARASTOOPOUR
(Ph.D., IIT)
Multi-Phase flow, flow in porous media, gas technology
RICHARD A. BEISSINGER
(D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological systems,
rheology of polymeric and biological fluids
ALl CINAR
(Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter systems,
expert systems
DIMITRI GIDASPOW
(Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow, separation
processes


THE UNIVERSITY

* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west
of Lake Michign
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY

* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business
and industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT


* JUAN HONG
(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, separation processes
* FREDERICKA. KELLER, JR.
(Visiting-Ph.D., Rutgers)
Bioreoctor design, separation processes
* SATISH J. PARULEKAR
(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering
* J. ROBERT SELMAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemistry and electrochemical energy storage
* SELIM M. SENKAN
(Sc.D., MIT)
Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction engineering
* DARSH T. WASAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes, enhanced oil recovery
* WILLIAM A. WEIGAND
(Ph.D., IIT)
Biochemical engineering, process optimization and control


o One of the oldest in the nation
o Approximately 60 full-time and 50 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and
assistantships available to outstanding
students.




APPLICATIONS *

Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616










THE INSTITUTE OF
PAPER CHEMISTRY

is an independent graduate
school. It has an
interdisciplinary degree
program designed for B.S.
chemical engineering
graduates.
Fellowships and full tuition
scholarships are available
to qualified U.S. and
Canadian Citizens. Our
students receive minimum w
$9,000.00 fellowships each
calendar year.
Our research activities span
the papermaking process
including:
process engineering
simulation and control
heat and mass transfer
separation science
reaction engineering
fluid mechanics
material science
surface and colloid
science
plant tissue culture
For further information contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone: 414/734-9251

92.4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

















ullllllllll










Graduate Program for
M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in
SChemical and Materials Engineering

Research Areas
E U Kinetics and Catalysis
Biomass Conversion
Membrane Separations
Particle Morphological Analysis
Air Pollution
S*-- MassTronsfer Operations
Numerical Modeling
Particle Technology
S* Atmospheric Transport
Bloseparatlons and Biotechnology
Process Design
-, "* SurfaceScience
I Transportin PorousMedia I


SFor additional Informotion and application write to:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319/353-6237
I I




THE UNIVERSITY OF ---------- WA

THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA


I










IOWA STATE



UNIVERSITY


William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes, high
temperature ceramics
John M. Eggebrecht
Thermodynamics and structure of liquids and
liquid mixtures
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology, carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Solid-gas reactions, process modeling
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
fluidization
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011


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-i .-~









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


RESEARCH AREAS
Fluid Mechanics
Phase Equilibria
Biotechnology
Nucleation and Crystallization
Electrochemical Engineering
Rheology
Acoustics


C,,
-i U


THE JOHNS
HOPKINS
UNIVERSITY
BALTIMORE
FACULTY
Timothy Barbari, Ph.D.
Texas, Austin
Marc Donohue, Ph.D.
Berkeley
Joseph Katz, Ph.D.
Chicago
Robert Kelly, Ph.D.
North Carolina State
Mark McHugh, Ph.D.
Delaware
Geoffrey Prentice, Ph.D.
Berkeley
William Schwarz, Dr. Eng.
Johns Hopkins


Please contact:


Mass and Heat Transfer
Process Modeling and Control
Reaction Engineering
Membrane Separations
Supercritical Phenomena
k I


JIL
4


5 -,At

fi l e


VA


Professor Ge offrcy Printice, Dc p:):rtient of Cle mici:al Elii icring
The Johns llop,k;ns University. l atilor c, Maryland 2121S
Telephone: (301) 338-7006


.I


FALL 1986


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STHE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering




> offers graduate study

leading to the

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

For further information, write to
Professor George W. Swift
Chairman and Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
The University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas 66045-2223


Faculty and Areas of Specialization *


Kenneth A. Bishop, Professor (Ph.D., Oklahoma); reser-
voir simulation, interactive computer graphics,
optimization
John C. Davis, Professor and chief of geology research
section, Kansas Geological Survey (Ph.D., Wyoming);
probabilistic techniques for oil exploration, geologic
computer mapping
Kenneth J. Himmelstein, Adjunct Associate Professor
(Ph.D., Maryland); pharmacokinetics, mathematical
modeling of biological processes, cell kinetics,
diffusion and mass transfer
Colin S. Howat, III, Associate Professor (Ph.D., Kansas);
applied equilibrium thermodynamics, process de-
sign
Don W. Green, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Oklahoma); enhanced oil
recovery, hydrological modeling
James O. Maloney, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn
State); technology and society
Russell B. Mesler, Professor (Ph.D., Michigan); nucleate
and film boiling, bubble and drop phenomena
Floyd W. Preston, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State); geo-
logic pore structure


Harold F. Rosson, Professor (Phd., Rice); production of
alternate fuels from agricultural materials
Bala Subramaniam, Assistant Professor (Ph.D., Notre
Dame); kinetics and catalysis, insitu characterization
of catalyst systems
George W. Swift, Professor and Chairman (Ph.D.,
Kansas); thermodynamics of petroleum and petro-
chemical systems, natural gas reservoirs analysis,
fractured well analysis, petrochemical plant design
John L. Thiele, Assistant Professor (Sc.D., MIT); struc-
ture/property relationships of polymers, polymer
chemistry and physics, polymer viscoelasticity
Shapour Vossoughi, Associate Professor (Ph.D., U. of
Alberta); enhanced oil recovery, thermal analysis,
applied rheology and computer modeling

Stanley M. Walas, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan);
combined chemical and phase equilibrium
G. Paul Willhite, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Northwestern); enhanced
oil recovery, transport processes in porous media,
mathematical modeling


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food


Science, and Environmental
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506


Engi-


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
ENERGY ENGINEERING
COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION
THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS
PROCESS SYSTEM ENGINEERING
AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL
FLUIDIZATION AND SOLID MIXING
HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT









UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY


&tw* 'Waw


DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs


THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS
J. Berman, Ph.D., Northwestern E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State
Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular Dynamics of Electrochemical Processes; Computer
Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation Measurement Techniques and Modeling
D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh
Illinois Institute of Technology Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena
Novel Separation Processes; Membranes;K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Water Pollution Control A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Water Pollution Control Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen
G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia Regime; Transport Phenomena
Computer-Aided Process Design; Coal Liquefaction. ..
J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville
C. E. Hamrin, Jr., Ph.D., Northwestern Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer;
Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Three-phase Reactors Fuel Gas Desulfurization
R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern T. T. Tsang, Ph.D., Texas-Austin
Process Control and Economics Aerosol Dynamics in Uniform and Non-Uniform Systems


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants
In Addition, Outstanding Students May Qualify for a McAdams Fellowship
For details write to:
R. I. Kermode
Director for Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


252


0











L ouistana


University


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL


THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major
state institution for higher education-LSU. Situated in
the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main
chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests
heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The
great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities
year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans
provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.

THE DEPARTMENT
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Approximately 70 Graduate Students
DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
IBM 434 I with more than 50 color graphics terminals
Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR,
LC's, GC's...
Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis,
thermodynamics, supercritical processing
Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories
Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility
Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities

TO APPLY, CONTACT:
EDWARD McLAUGHLIN, CHAIRMAN
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


FACULTY
A. B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU)
Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design
K. M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering
F. R. GROVES (Ph.D., Wisconsin)
Control, Modeling, Separation Processes
D. P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas)
Fluid- Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes
A. E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida)
Distillation, Control, Modeling
M. HJORTSO (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston)
Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics
F. C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Univ. of Purdue)
Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing
E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc., Univ. of London)
Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties
R. W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech)
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization
J. A. POLACK (Sc.D., MIT)
Sugar Technology, Separation Processes
G. L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces
D. D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech)
Transport Phenomena, Environmental Engineering
R. G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Mass Transfer, Separation Processes
D. L. RISTROPH (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Biochemical Engineering
C. B. SMITH (Ph. D., Univ. of Houston)
Non-linear Dynamics, Control
A. M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington)
Biomedical Engineering, Transport Properties, Combustion
L. J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., LSU)
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste
D. M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware)
Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes
FINANCIAL AID
Tax-free fellowships and assistantships with tuition
waivers available
Special industrial and alumni fellowships with higher
stipends for outstanding students
Some part-time teaching positions for graduate students
in high standing


State









University of Maine


DOUGLAS BOUSFELD Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley)
Fluid Mechanics, Rheology, Biochemical
Engineering.
WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc.D. M.I.T.)
Heat Transfer, Pressing & Drying Operations,
Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simula-
tion & Modeling.
ALBERT CO Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
Polymeric Fluid Dynamics, Rheology, Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Methods.
JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph.D. (Ohio State)
Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Tech-
nology, Wood Delignification.
JOHN C. HASSLER Ph.D. (Kansas State)
Process Control, Numerical Methods, Instru-
mentation and Real Time Computer Appli-
cations.
MARQUITA K. HILL Ph.D. (U.C. Davis)
Separation Processes, Pulping Chemistry,
Ultrofiltration.
JOHN J. HWALEK Ph.D. (Illinois)
Liquid Metal Natural Convection, Electronics
Cooling, Process Control Systems.
ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph.D. (Princeton)
Polymer Physics & Chemistry, Supercritical
Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis, Pulp &
Paper Science.

JAMES D. LISIUS Ph.D. (Illinois)
Electrochemical Engineering, Composite
Materials, Coupled Mass Transfer.


KENNETH I. MUMME Ph.D. (Maine)
Process Simulation and Control, System
Identification & Optimization.
HEMANT PENDSE Ph.D. (Syracuse)
Colloidal Phenomena, Particulate & Multi-
phase Processes, Porous Media Modeling.
IVAR H. STOCKEL Sc.D. (M.I.T.)
(Chairman)
Droplet Formation, Fluidization, Pulp & Paper
Technology.
EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph.D. (Polytechnic
Institute of Brooklyn)
Thermal & Mechanical Properties of Polymers,
Membrane Separation Processes, Paper-
making and Fiber Physics.
DOUGLAS L. WOERNER Ph.D. (Washington)
Membrane Separations, Polymer Solutions,
Colloid & Emulsion Technology,



Programs and
Financial Support

Eighteen research groups attack fundamental
problems leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Industrial fellowships, university fellowships,
research assistantships and teaching assis-
tantships are available. President's Fellow-
ships provide $4,000 per year in addition to
the regular stipend and free tuition.


-7





The University

The spacious campus is situated on 1,200
acres overlooking the Penobscot and Still-
water Rivers. Student enrollment of 12,000
offers the diversity of a large school, while
preserving close personal contacts between
peers and faculty. The University's Maine
Center for the Arts, the Hauck Auditorium,
and Pavilion Theatre provide many cultural
opportunities, in addition to those in the
nearby city of Bangor. Less than an hour
away from campus are: the beautiful Maine
coast and Acadia National Park, alpine
and cross-country ski resorts, and northern
wilderness areas of Baxter State Park and
Mount Katahdin.
Enjoy life, work hard and earn your graduate
degree in one of the most beautiful spots in
the world.



Call Collect or Write:

James D. Lisius
University of Maine
Department of Chemical Engineering
Jenness Hall, Box A
Orono, Maine 04469-0135
(207) 581-2292


Faculty and Research Interests




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PAGE 1

CEE chemica l enginee r.in education z 0 .::: < u :::, 0 w C) z ii w w z 5 z w ei:: 0 u. u z < u ii w < u. 0 z 0 V) > 0 C) z ii w w z C) z w _, < u w ::c u VOLUME XX NUMBER 4 GRA UATE EDUCATION ISSUE IN MEMORIAM OLAF ANDREAS HOUGEN with HOUGEN'S PRINCIPLES R. Byron Bird RESEARCH LANDMARKS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS AMUNDSON GRADUATE STUDIES: THE MIDDLE WAY DUDA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: A CRISIS OF MATURITY JORNE Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering A Research Program . A Course . . Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology The Processing of Electronic Materials Characterization of Porous Materials and Powders A Workshop in Graduate Education GEORGE STEPHANOPOULIS VENKATASUBRAMANIAN MOO-YOUNG BABU, SUKANEK DATYE, SMITH, WILLIAMS BLACKMOND 3M A WARD LECTURE Image Processing and Analysis for Turbulence Research Robert S. Brodkey FALL 1986

PAGE 2

3M FOUNDATION ... lfu~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION a o/ /uncl4.

PAGE 3

This is the 18th Graduate Education Issue published by CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested in and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on graduate courses, research at various universities and announce ments of departments on their graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a previous Fall issue, please write CEE. AUTHOR Bailey, Ollis Belfort Graham, Jutan Soong Van Zee Radovic Shah, Hayhurst Bailie, Kono, Henry Kauffman Felder Lauffenburger et al. Marnell Scamehorn Shah White Zygourakis Bartholomew, Hecker Converse et al. Fair Edie McConica Duda Davis Sawin, Reif Shaeiwitz Takoudis Valle-Riestra Woods Middleman Serageldin FALL 1986 TITLE Fall 1985 Ray Fabien, Editor, CEE University of Florida Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals Separations & Recovery Processes Teaching Time Series Polymer Processing Electrochemical & Corrosion Engineering Coal Utilization & Conversion Processes Molecular Sieve Technology Fluidization Is Grad School Worth It? The Generic Quiz Fall 1984 Applied Mathematics Graduate Plant Design Colloid & Surface Science Transport Phenomena Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based Seminars Linear Algebra Research on Catalysis Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass Separations Research Graduate Residency at Clemson Semiconductor Processing Misconceptions Concerning Grad School Fall 1983 Numerical Methods and Modeling Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer Chemical Reactor Design Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries Surface Phenomena Research on Cleaning up in San Diego Research on Combustion W ankat, Oreovicz Bird Thomson, Simmons Hightower Mesler Weiland, Taylor Dullien Seapan Skaates Baird, Wilkes Fenn Abbott Butt, Kung Chen, et al. Gubbins, Street Guin, et al. Thomson Bartholomew Hassler Miller Wankat Wolf Bird Edgar, Schecter Hanratty Kenney Kerchenbaum, Perkins, Pyle Liu Peppas Rosner Lees Senkan, Vivian Culberson Davis' Frank Morari,Ray Ramkrishna Russel, et al. Russell Vannice Varma Yen Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job Hunting Book Writing and ChE Education Grad Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry Fall 1982 Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts Nucleate Boiling Mass Transfer Funds. of Petroleum Production Air Pollution for Engineers Catalysis Polymer Education and Research Research is Engineering Fall 1981 Classical Thermodynamics Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction Engineering Parametric Pumping Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer Simulation Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization Oil Shale Char Reactions Kinetics and Catalysis ChE Analysis Underground Processing Separation Processes Heterogeneous Catalysis Fall 1980 Polymer Fluid Dynamics In Situ Processing Wall Turbulence Chemical Reactors Systems Modelling & Control Process Synthesis Polymerization Reaction Engineering Combustion Science & Technology Plant Engineering at Loughborough MIT School of ChE Practice Fall 1979 Doctoral Level ChE Economics Molecular Theory ofTherniodynamics Courses in Polymer Science Integration of Real-Time Computing Into Process Control Teaching Functional Analysis for ChE Colloidal Phenomena Structure of the Chemical Processing Industries Heterogeneo11s Catalysis Mathematical Methods in ChE Coal Liquefaction Processes l57

PAGE 4

. Growth Through Responsibility YOUR CAREER WITH ROHM AND HAAS If you're the kind of person who can ta e the initiative and aggres5_ively reach for increasing responsibility, consider a career with R9hm and Haas. We are a highly diversified .major chemi cal compan~ producing over 2,500 products used in industry and agriculture. Because our employees are a critical ingredient in our con tinuing success, we place great emphasis on their development and growth. When you join Rohm and Haas, you'll receive a position with substantial initial responsibility and plenty of room for growth. And we'll provide the oppor tunities to acquire the necessary techrii cal and managerial skills to insure your personal and professional development. Our openings are in Engineering, Manufacturing. Research, Technical Sales and Finance. For more infor mation, visit your College Placement Office, or write: Rohm and Haas Company t Recruit ing and Placement #786,Phila., PA 19105.

PAGE 5

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857 Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner Managing Editor: Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman : Gary Poehl e in Georgia Institute of Technology Past Chairmen: Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado Lee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University Members SOUTH: Richard Felder North Carolina State University Jack R. Hopper Lamar University Donald R. Paul University of Texas James Fair University of Texas CENTRAL: J S. Dranoff Northwestern University WEST: Frederick H. Shair California Institute of Technology Ale x is T. Bell University of California, Berkeley NORTHEAST: Angelo J. Perna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Raymond Baddour M I.T. NORTHWEST : Charles Sleicher University of Washington CANADA: Leslie W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W. Weber State University of New York FALL 1986 Chemical VOLUME XX A ward Lecture Engineering NUMBER 4 Education FALL 1986 202 Image Processing and Analysis for Turbulence Research, Robert S. Brodkey Views and Opinions 161 Hougen's Principles, R. Byron Bird 164 Graduate Studies: The Middle Way, J. L Duda 178 Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity, Jacob Jome Lecture 168 Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers, Neal R. Amundson Courses in 174 Graduate Education in Chemical Engineering: A Workshop, Donna G. Blackmond 188 Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering, V. Venkatasubramanian Research in 186 The Processing of Electronic Materials, S. V Babu, Peter C. Sukanek 194 Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology, Murray Moo-Young 198 Characterization of Powder& and Porous Materials Abhaya K. Datye, Douglas M Smith, Frank L. Williams A Program In 182 Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering, George Stephanopoulos 160 In Memoriam : Olaf Andreas Hougen 163 Editorial : Olaf Hougen: Teacher, Researcher, Educator 167 Division Activities 167 Letters to the Editor 177 Summer School '87 180 William H. Corcoran Outstanding Paper Award 181 Book Reviews 207 Positions Available 210 Index CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chem i cal Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Depart ment, University of Florida. Second-class postage i s paid at Gainesville, F lorida and at DeLeon Spnngs 1 Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the adver tising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0 Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877, DeLeon Springs Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S Canada and Mexico is $20 per year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright 1986 Chemical Engineering Division of American Societ y for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not n e ce s sarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days The International Organization for Standardization has as s igned the code US ISSN 0009 2479 for the identification of this periodical. 159

PAGE 6

OLAF ANDREAS HOUGEN (1893-1986) R. BYRON BIRD University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706 Olaf Hougen, who died on January 7, 1986, was one of the giants in chemical engineering: a brilliant researcher, a formidable teacher, and a world-famous author, whose books influenced the course of his pro fession. He was born in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, on October 4, 1893; his father was a Lutheran clergyman. He re ceived his BS (cum laude) at the University of Washington, and his ChE and PhD degrees in 1918 and 1925, respectively, at the University of Wiscon sin, all of his degrees being in chemical engineering. In 1918 and 1919 he spent 18 months in the research department of the Carborundum Company at Niagara Falls, New York. His teaching career covered a period of over 40 years, most of it at the University of Wisconsin; he also held teaching appointments at the Illinois Insti tute of Technology, UCLA, the Norwegian Institute of Technology (Trondheim), Kyoto University, and Nagoya University. For three periods, totalling eight years, he served as departmental chairman; even when he was not chairman, he exercised considerable influence and leadership. Professor Hougen joined ASEE in 1930; he was active in the organization of the Chemical Engineering Division and served as its chairman in 1935-36. Some of his papers on chemical engineering education were published in the Journal of Engineering Education. He felt strongly that his colleagues should participate in ASEE activities and take advantage of that organi zation to exchange ideas with chemical engineering teachers at other schools. To many generations of students Professor Hougen was known affectionately as "Big O." And he was big: big in stature (well over 6 feet tall), big in his profession, and big in compassion and understand ing. He was a skilled teacher, with deep knowledge of his subject material; he knew how to get his students to think their way through difficult problems without 160 intimidating them. His insistence on high-quality per formance and his emphasis on high standards were balanced by his kindly attitude and his spontaneous sense of humor. He felt that serving the students by helping them to master difficult technical material was a most important assignment. It was well-known among the students that Professor Hougen's ther modynamics course was the best one on the campus, and students from the chemistry and physics depart ments regularly attended his lectures; his course dealt with real materials (not just ideal gases and ideal solu tions) and the problems worked in the course dealt with real processes and real chemical systems (not just schoolbook exercises). Students all over the world profited from Olaf Hougen's teaching via his books: Industrial Chemical Calculations (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, 1931, 1936); Chemical Process Principles, I, Material and Energy Balances (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, 1943; revised along with R. A. Ragatz, 1954); Chemi cal Process Principles, II, Thermodynamics, 1946; revised along with R. A. Ragatz, 1959); Chemical Process Principles, III, Kinetics and Catalysis (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, 1947); Chemical Pro cess Principles Charts (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Wat son, 1946); Reaction Kinetics in Chemical Engineer ing, CEP Monograph 1 (0. A. Hougen, 1951). The "CPP" trilogy was immensely successful and influen tial because of its pedagogical soundness, clear scien tific basis, and excellent illustrative examples. Perhaps less well known to chemical engineers was Olaf Hougen's particular dedication to Norway, the land of his forebears. He served the Organization for American Relief to Norway as treasurer for Wisconsin during the years 1940-1945 (for which he received a citation from King Haakon). In Madison he was a member of the Y gdrasil Literary Society and served one year as its president. He was a member of the committee for the selection of the first chemical en gineering professor in Norway in 1949. In 1951 he was Fulbright Professor at the N orges Tekniske Hi,1gskole; during this time he prepared a comprehen sive plan for the organization of the Chemical En gineering Department at NTH. He actively promoted CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 7

scholarly exchanges between Norwegian and U.S. academic personnel in chemical engineering He rounded off his profe ssio nal career by serving as Sci entific Attache to Scandinavia while assigned to the U .S Embassy in Stockholm in 1961-1963. In 1960 h e received an honorary doctorate from NTH in recogni tion for his many outstanding contributions. Olaf Hougen was given man y other honors and awards, including the Lamme Award of ASEE; the Warren K. Lewi s, William H. Walker and Founders Awards of AIChE; the I&EC Award of ACS; mem bership in the National Academy of Engineering; and hon orary memberships in the Society of Chemical En gineers Japan, the Venezuelan Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the Indian In stitute of Chemical En gineers. Typically he never talked about his numerous awards, and, in fact, many of his colleagues, friends, and family members did not even know about them. Olaf and h is wife Olga were often hosts for staff members, TA's, and students An evening at their home was always comfortab le and full of fun. Olga was an animated story-te ller and radiated good humor and hospitality. Foreign visitors were welcomed with open arms and made to feel a part of the group. Hav ing lived abroad themselves they were both sensitive to the needs of visitors far from home. Gentlemanly, considerate, thoughtful, kindly, loyal, humble, genuine, professiona l dedicated, scholarly, responsible-these are the adjectives that describe Olaf A. Hougen. Those of us who had the opportunity to interact with him are indeed fortunate. We now have the responsibility to try to live up to the high standards set by this great man and good friend. HOUGEN'S PRINCIPLES Some Guideposts for Chemical Eng ine ering Departments R. BYRON BIRD University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706 The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin Madison owes much of its success to certain guiding principles formulated by Olaf A. Hougen Listing these principles seems an appropriate way to pay tribute to his memory. Many of the principles listed below were stated by him on many occasions; some of them I heard from him in private conversations; and a few of them were perhaps not enunciated explicitly, but I have inferred them from many years of observing that extraordinary teacher. The twelfth and last guiding principle on this list was found by Professor W. R. Marshall among some of Professor Ha ugen's papers 1. THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM SHOULD BE PRACTICAL AND CONSERVATIVE, WHEREAS THE GRADUATE PROGRAM SHOULD BE IMAGINATIVE AND EXPLORATORY Profes so r Hougen clearly recognized that we have an obligation to train most of our undergraduates so that they can assume responsible jobs in industry. How ever, he also made it clear that at the graduate level we must be boldly pioneering in new field s He had a knack for deciding what import ant new subject areas were emerging and what kinds of new faculty mem bers were needed to develop them. 2 THERE SHOULD BE A SMOOTH FLOW OF INFORMATION FROM GRADUATE RESEARCH TO GRADUATE TEACHING TO UNDERGRADUATE TEACHING We shou ld not experiment on the undergraduates by giving them unte sted material. Professor Hougen felt that every undergraduate course shou ld be backed up by graduate course instruction and research, so that the undergraduate program would always be under FALL 19 86 pressure to be modernized. The modernization and modification of undergraduate courses should, how ever, be done only after careful testin g at the graduate level. 161

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3. IF YOU CAN'T FIND RELEVANT PROBLEMS TO GIVE THE STUDENT, THEN YOU SHOULDN7 BE TEACHING THE MATERIAL TO THE STUDENTS. At the time of Professor Hougen's 85th birthday party, Aksel Lydersen (of Trondheim, Norway) said that this remark was something that he would never forget. Professor Hougen felt very strongly that our teaching should emphasize topics which are useful for solving the industrial problems of the present and fu ture. He was very perceptive in recognizing the signif icant problems faced by chemical engineers in indus try and attempted to plan his courses and his textbooks to address these key problems. 4. USE THE BEST AVAILABLE INFORMATION FROM THE MODERN SCIENCES. Good engineering analysis and design must utilize the most up-to-date material from chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Professor Hougen certainly demon strated this idea in his own research, teaching, and book writing. The Chemical Process Principles vol umes bear testimony to his thorough familiarity with the best current thinking from the pure sciences. 5. WELL-FOUNDED AND WELL-TESTED EMPIRICISMS ARE TO BE PREFERRED OVER THEORIES THAT HAVE ONLY A LIMITED RANGE OF APPLICABILITY. Professor Hougen was always on the lookout for clever, scientifically based correlations, backed up by lots of experimental data for use in chemical en gineering design. His own contributions to "generalized charts" of all kinds are well known. He felt very strongly that every effort should be made to present results in a form that could be easily used by practicing engineers. 6. IT IS VITAL FOR ENGINEERS TO KNOW HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS WITH LIMITED AND INCOMPLETE DATA. One time Professor Hougen gave a seminar entitled "From Cork to Mollier." Everyone knew who Mr. Mollier was, but all efforts to discover the identity of Mr. Cork failed. The seminar dealt with the problem of predicting the Mollier diagram by sniffing the cork of the bottle containing the material! Professor Hougen s students certainly came away from his ther modynamics course fully aware of many clever methods for physical property estimation. 7. STUDENTS ARE IMPRESSIONABLE AND LEARN QUICKLY, AND THEREFORE A PROFESSOR MUST MAKE CERTAIN THAT HE TEACHES IN A RESPONSIBLE WAY. One time Professor Hougen called me on the carpet because, in a graduate seminar introduction, I had suggested that the speaker's new theoretical methods would soon replace the tried-and-true engineering correlations. He took issue with this, and said that I had no right to make an unqualified statement of that sort in front of the graduate students and that I had left them with a totally incorrect impression. 8. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE STUDENTS HAVE A GOOD GROUNDING IN THE BASIC FUNDA MENTALS; THERE'S NOTHING WORSE THAN A STUDENT WHO HAS A THIN VENEER OF HIGH-POWERED THEORY. Whether or not students go into industry or on to graduate school, they appreciate being well-grounded in the elementary ideas of the undergraduate sub jects. A thin coating of unassimilated and poorly un derstood material is of little value, and Professor Hougen was adamant that we should stress the basic ideas He did not hesitate to recommend remedial course-work for incoming graduate students whose backgrounds were weak. 9. WE MUST ALWAYS RECOGNIZE THAT OUR STUDENTS AND OUR TEACHING ASSISTANTS ARE YOUNG PROFESSIONALS. Students and young colleagues of Professor Hougen always felt that he wanted them to share with him in the responsibility for the development of chemical en gineering as a profession. He was always giving en162 couragement to colleagues and students to develop their strong points and their professional interests; he was also aware that everyone has limitations in his talents, but he knew how to work around them. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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10. HE RECOGNIZED THAT FACULTY MEMBERS HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO ASSIST COLLEAGUES IN OTHER INSTITUTl,ONS. Professor Hougen was always willing to give help to professors in other schools and in other countries. He would go out of his way to take care of foreign visitors and to assist them in achieving their goals of improv ing chemical engineering in their own nations. He recognized that the preparation of textbooks was a key responsibility for professors in leading research de partments, and he made substantial contributions in that area along with his colleagues Professor K. M. Watson and Professor R. A. Ragatz. 11. WE HAVE, AS FACULTY MEMBERS IN A STATE-SUPPORTED INSTITUTION, A RESPONSIBILITY TO SERVE THE TAXPAYERS BY PERFORMING OUR JOB WELL. We all know that state-supported universities have their ups and downs financially. Professor Hougen often said that he felt that the citizens of the State of Wisonsin had been very generous in supporting our university and that we have a duty to perform our assignments as well as we can with the limited re sources available. 12. DO NOT SHOW EMOTIONS OF BITTERNESS OR BERATEMENT OR BELITTLEMENT; ASCRIBE THE BEST MOTIVES TO YOUR ASSOCIATES; SAY NOTHING DEROGATORY. These words, written in a note to himself, are sterling words of advice for the creation of a collegial atmos phere within a department. Professor Marshall quoted the above words at the memorial service for Professor Hougen, and as Professor Marshall said" ... indeed, Olaf lived by this creed." The departmental staff members of my generation have grown up with these principles because we were young faculty members when Olaf Hougen was in his prime. If succeeding generations of professors can follow these guidelines, our students will be assured of a high-quality education and the profession of chemical engineering will be a dynamic and lively profession. OLAF HOUGEN: Teacher, Researcher, Educator In previous editorials (Vol. XX, 3, 100) we indi cated that the goal of a department or of an individual professor should be to serve society (the profession, university, department, students, etc.) rather than to seek high ratings (in the case of the department) or personal recognition (in the case of the professor). In this issue we illustrate this principle through the example of the late Olaf Hougen and the University of Wisconsin. When Professor Hougen and his colleagues began their authorship of Chemical Process Principles, their motivation was to demostrate how scientific principles could be used in practical situations to achieve a quan titative result of importance to industry (see Princi ples 4, 5 and 10). They did not write their pioneering three-volume text with the prime goal of gaining rec ognition for their department or for themselves, but instead did so with the goal of fulfilling a professional/ societal need. The consequence of their work, how ever, was that Wisconsin's PhD students became very much in demand as they "seeded" various depart ments, spreading the Wisconsin attitude around the nation and even the world. These missionaries in turn had PhD students who became disciples of the WisconF ALL 1986 sin attitude themselves (see the Hougen "tree," GEE, Summer 1968). As a consequence of this service to the profession and society, Wisconsin continually ranked first in the nation in surveys such as the Cartter re port and in subsequent repo~s of quillity in ch~mical 1 engineerlng education. But the Wi sconsin d~part; ment, in achieving this recognition, did not disregard teaching in a zealous drive for ratings; instead it em phasized teaching and recognized that research is a form of teaching. A reading of the above paper on Hougen's principles, by Professor Bird, clearly indi cates that Olaf Hougen was at once a great teacher and a great researcher who saw in both of these ac tivities an opportunity for service. Later, Professor Hougen played an important role in the development of transport phenomena when he brought Professor Bird back to Wisconsin and charged him with the responsibility of putting on a firm scien tific basis the computation of energy, mass, and momentum transfer. Instead of an inane competition for prestige, let us follow the example of service as set by this great man. Ray W. Fahien 163

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At the beginning of every academic year, the head of the department of ch e mical engineering at Penn State traditionally addresses the new graduate students. While the following paper was originally directed to those students, it has general applicability and is meant to assist all students in making some important decisions about their graduate work. GRADUATE STUDIES The Middle Way J. L. DUDA Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 T HE TITLE AND format of this year's seminar were based on one of the central concepts of Buddhism. In my naive interpretation of Buddhism, the Buddha experienced two extreme lifestyles. In his early man hood he emphasized pleasure in the worldly aspects of life. Although he had every material thing that was supposed to ensure happiness, he did not find fulfill ment. Consequently, he rejected material things and assumed an austere lifestyle-but this did not seem to fulfill him either. Finally, Buddha concluded that neither of these extremes brought happiness-that it could only be found in the middle way. He did not feel that a person had to abandon worldly pleasures, but on the other hand, he should also not be dominated by them. In thinking about approaches to different aspects of graduate studies, I concluded that in many cases the middle way is also the most appropriate path be tween two extremes. I have been able to identify eight different aspects of graduate work where I feel the appropriate approach lies between two extremes. These may not be the only ones, but they do incorpo rate many important aspects of graduate work. 1. CHOICE OF PROJECT Right now, you are in the process of choosing a research topic for your MS or PhD program. I have often observed that there are two extreme approaches to this process. Some graduate students have their mind fixed on a specific area of research and will not consider any project outside of that narrow area. On Co pyright C hE Di vision ASEE 1 986 164 J. L. Duda is professor and head of the chemical engineering de portment at The Pennsylvonio State University He received his BS i n chemical engineering at Cose Inst i tute of Technology and his MS and Ph[? at the University of Delaware He joined the staff at Penn State in 1971 ofter eight years i n research with the Dow Chemical Company the other hand, some students become interested in a specific research advisor and feel that it is imperative that they work with him. To the first group, I want to make it clear that your choice of a research topic in graduate school does not predetermine the path you will take after you have finished your degree. It would be impossible for any of you to determine the areas of my MS or PhD research from my research record and the work that I am now conducting. The purpose of research in graduate school is to learn how to conduct research, and you should choose a combination of ad visor and topic which you feel is the optimum for reaching that goal. Learning how to conduct research in one area can easily be transferred to conducting research in an unrelated area. Similarly, a faculty member with an outstanding research record may not be the most appropriate individual for you as an ad visor. It is very important that you find an individual with whom you can communicate and whose personalCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ity and mode of operation are compatible with yours. 2. AREA OF EMPHASIS Up to this point, your academic career has been straightforward. You took courses which fit into some pre-prescribed course of study. Now you will en counter demands coming from two distinct areas from course work and from research. The tendency of most new graduate students is to emphasize their course work and neglect their research. This is a nat ural extreme since you are familiar and comfortable with courses and have a proven record of success. But it is not clear that your proven capabilities in struc tured courses can be transferred to an area of re search. It is extremely unusual for a graduate student to not fulfill the requirements of a degree because of poor performance in his courses. On the other hand, do not over-react and spend all of your time in your rese.:irch area. Again, the middle way is the obvious appropriate procedure. You must find a way to budget your time and effort in order to maintain progress in both areas. 3. PLANNING OF RESEARCH In planning a research program, there are two ex tremes which can dominate. At one extreme are the individuals who are overly preoccupied with choosing a problem which can be solved. The result is often an overly conservative research plan which even if 100 % successful, represents only a perturbation on previous work. To these students, I point out that it is impor tant for research to uncover new knowledge or to an swer important questions. At the other extreme we have a few individuals who are concerned only with the impact that their research can have, but who do not adequately consider the probability of attaining their goal. It is desirable to think big and to have confidence, but a cure for cancer is hardly an appropri ate goal for a novice researcher. One s hould work on problems that matter, and there should be a group of investigators who care about the results of your re search. Never conduct an experiment or work on a theory if the results will not challenge the current way of thinking about your subject. On the other hand, you have to build on the existing and proven work. The truth is that quantum jumps in the ad vancement of knowledge are really quite rare. 4. INITIATING RESEARCH You have all been taught that the first step in ini tiating a research program is to search the literature in order to become familiar with past work in the area. FALL 1986 I have been able to identify eight different aspects of graduate work where I feel the appropriate approach lies between two extremes. These may not be the only ones, but they incorporate many important aspects of graduate work. There is no question-that i s how one should start. However I have had graduate s tudents who search and search and read and read and still never get to the point where they feel comfortable enough to do som e thing. Nothing will ever be done if you wait until all po ss ible objections are re'moved before taking the first s tep. O~ the other hand, I occasionally find an individual wh9 will start mixing things together or start writing a computer program for the first idea that enters his head. This kind of graduate student is rather rare, however Our educational process has a tendency to suppress creativity and forces us to parrot back what we have been taught. One of the most im portant aspects of conducting research is that you must avoid sequential thinking and work habits. You should s tart by looking at the pa s t work in the litera ture, but do not e x pect to follow a well-defined se quential path. The initial literature will lead to labora tory or theoretical work whose results will lead you back into the literature, and so forth and so forth You must keep many balls in the air at the same time. Your literature s earch will be updated as your prob lem becomes more defined. At the same time, you will be planning experiments and ordering equipment be cause of time lags involved in developing an experi mental program, and you will be working simultane ously on theoretical models which will be modified as experimental results are produced. The inability to lay out a well-defined path for a research project is perhaps the most fru s trating and maturing experience that graduate student s face in the early stages of their career. 5-7. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH My next three examples are all concerned with the approaches to research problems in general. The first case is the conflict between dependence on intution versus dependence on theory or computations based on models. At one extreme are the individuals who proceed on their intution. If som e thing feels right and makes physical s en s e they move ahead. It is unusual to find a young inexperienced researcher following this approach. Mo s t new graduate students fall into the other category-they are dominated by the quan titative results of models. In an interview in Indus165

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trial and Engineering Chemistry, Dr. Eric Bloch, who recently made a move from management in IBM to direct the National Science Foundation, indicated that engineers who were educated in his generation probably had a better intuitive feel for problems than the group of people coming out of school today. He also feels that the popularity of the computer has con tributed to this shift, and I agree with him. Com puters can raise a barrier to intuition. Graduate stu dents will even trust a very weak model if the com puter is giving them results. Models and computations based on models will become more and more dominant as the cost of computing decreases. However, you must always question the results of a computation and remember that all models are approximations to reNeither [experimentalists or theoreticians] can stand without the other, and even when your emphasis is in one area, you must be cognizant of the developments being made in the other. ality. Never go on to the next step unless the results make physical sense to you. In some cases your intui tion will be in error, but do not ignore that intuition until you have thoroughly analyzed the quantitative results and have been able to rectify the apparent dis continuity between it and the model. The second area is concerned with the different approaches of wild, unconstrained creativity versus the prolonged process of following a long, hard routine. I have seen some individuals who feel that their creativity is constrained if they have to concen trate on understanding the previous accomplishments in a given area. Remember, only lunatics can be com pletely original! You will always be building on past work, or at least creating from analogies with other areas. It is unfortunate, but true, that a scientist's norm is about 1 % inspiration and 99% perspiration. On the other hand, do not suppress your creativity so much that you are afraid to deviate from the well-trod den path. My third concern is the apparent dichotomy be tween an experimental approach versus a theoretical approach. Hinselwood is credited with saying that, "Fluid dynamicists were divided into hydraulic en gineers who observed what could not be explained and mathematicians who explained things that could not be observed." I am very disturbed by individuals who say they are either experimentalists or theoreticians. Neither can stand without the other, and even when your emphasis is in one area, you must be cognizant of the developments being made in the other. In one of his early essays, Einstein noted that, "Knowledge cannot spring from experience alone, but only from 166 the comparison of the inventions of the intellect with observed facts." The inventions of the intellect are models and theories, and progress can only be made when these are compared with the observed experi mental facts. Even if your natural inclination is to be drawn into one of these extremes, you must force yourself to be at least knowledgeable (if not a con tributor) in the other area. 8. CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTAL WORK The last area deals with the approach to designing and conducting an experimental program. At one ex treme, we have individuals who are dominated by the design aspects of the work. I have actually seen re searchers create a rigid experimental plan from which they never deviate. An extreme case would be to de sign experiments on the grid pattern where data would be taken at certain pre-specified temperatures, concentrations, etc. You should have an overall plan, but you should be flexible enough to change that plan as results are produced. When the initial plan was developed, your knowledge was limited-you should continually optimize the path of your research based on the very latest results. Some students conduct ex periments for months without analyzing any of the results to see if they are even on the right path. The other extreme is not very typical, but I have seen a few individuals who are so anxious to see results that they jump into the experimental work with essentially no pre-planning or overall plan. They have infinite flexibility and each new result can dictate a change in the path of the work. At one extreme, we have a nice grid pattern with every grid filled in and no deviation, even though trends clearly have been established; at the other extreme, we have a zig-zag string of exper iments where the direction of the next experiment is dictated by the most recent results. Neither approach is perfect. You should follow the middle way and have a well-defined overall plan and goals, but at the same time you must have the flexibility to modify the plan. CONCLUDING REMARKS From my presentation, you might conclude that there is a middle way in every aspect of graduate work that is the most appropriate approach. Although I have attempted to illustrate that this is certainly true in many instances, there is one very important excep tion. Some students say to themselves, "This is not the best that I can do, but it's good enough." Well, it's not good enough. Push yourself-take the time and make the effort to perform at the very highest level of which you are capable. There is no middle way when it comes to the pursuit of excellence. D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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... DJE:I CHEMICAL ENGINEERING [][] DIVISION ACTIVITIES TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO ROBERT BRODKEY The 1986 ASEE Chemica l Engineering Division Lecturer is Robert S. Brodkey of Ohio State Univer sity. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and encourage outstanding achievement in an impor tant field of fundamental chemical engineering theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial support for this annual lecture award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineer ing educator .vho delivers the Annual Lecture of the Chemica l Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were pre sented to Robert Brodkey at the annual Chemical En gineering Division Banquet in Cincinnati The l ecture begins on page 202 of this issue of CEE The Lectureship Award is made on an annual basis, with nominations being received through Feb ruary 1, 1987. The full details for the award prepara tion are contained in the Awards Brochure published by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1987 lectureship are invited. They should be sent to Professor Jerry Caskey, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803-3999. NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS The Chemical Engineering Division officers for 1986-87 are: Phil Wankat, Chairman; E. Dendy Sloan, Past Chairman, John Sears Chairman Elect William Beckwith, Secretary-Treasurer; and Gary Poehlein, Jim Townsend Conrad Burris, and Lewis Derzansky, Directors. AWARD WINNERS A number of chemical engineering professors were recognized for their outstanding achievements. Wil liam Thomas Brazelton (Northwestern University) received the Vincent Bendix Minorities in Engineer ing Award for his effectiveness in increasing the number of minority and women engineering under graduates without compromising academic exce ll ence, while the Curtis W. McGraw Research Award was given to George Stephanopoulos (Massachusetts In stitute of Technology) in recognition of his exceptional research accomplishments in advancing the fundamen tal understanding of basic process systems. The new Engineering Educator Excellence Award FALL 1986 was presented to John Zondlo (West Virginia Univer sity) (Zone II) and Danny D. Reible (Louisiana State University) (Zone III) to recognize and honor their committment to excellence in education, and the Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award was given to Gre gory R. Carmichael (University of Iowa), Wallace Whiting (West Virginia University), and Annette Loch Bunge (Colorado School of Mines) Deran Hanesian (New Jersey Institute of Technology) was honored as an outstanding teacher with the AT&T Foundation Award and the grade of ASEE Fellow Member was conferred on Lee C. Eagleton (Pennsylvania State University) in recogni tion of his outstanding achievements and important contributions. CORCORAN AWARD TO FELDER Richard Felder (North Carolina State University) was the recipient of the first annual Corcoran Award, given to recognize the most outstanding paper pub lished in Chemical Engineering Education in 1985. His paper, "The Generic Quiz," appeared in the Fall 1985 i ssue of GEE. [eJn?I letters .. BATS TO DE .'S Editor: Professor Barduhn's letter [GEE, XIX, No 4) about the prefixes and Professor Levenspiel's "batic exercises" [GEE. XX, No 1) are interesting. It may be worth mentioning that prefixing 'a' to indicate negative meaning is a classic rule in Sanskrit (I won der if this rule was adopted in English) Another pre fix which needs our attention is "de" (e.g degrade, debug, decode, dehumidify, dehydrogenate, denude, etc.). Perhaps something should be done to frame a set of rules to coin new words! One may wonder whether liquid trickles or bed trickles in a Trickle Bed Reactor. H. Lekshmi-Narayana University of Waterloo KUDOS FOR EDITORIAL Editor: Well written editoria l in the GEE Winter issue. Not surprisingly, I agree with what you say Billy Crynes Oklahoma State University Editor: Re: Your editorial. BRAVO! Rich Felder North Carolina State University 167

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li Na lecture RESEARCH LANDMARKS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS* NEAL R. AMUNDSON Uni v e r sity of Ho u ston Houston TX 77 004 M ATHEMATI C IANS AND PURE scientists, a s con trasted with engineers are normally much more aware of the history of their disciplines and who did what when. Engineers and, in particular, chemical engineers (except those with a special interest in the history of technology) appear to know little about the roots of their profession. This is probably not a re markable fact since the research of the vast majority of engineers is more related to problem solving than to the elucidation of fundamental ideas and principles. There are certainly great exceptions to this notion. It is the purpose of this effort to mention papers which have been landmarks for me personally since they are thin?s to which I have given a good deal of thought. Their authors may not have been the first who consid e:ed the problems about which they wrote but in my ~1ew, _they are the ones who had the greatest impact m their areas of the profession. Many of us are guilty of the secondary reference assuming that this author gave due credit to the primary investigator. Soon the name of the person who originated the idea (or even the first to exploit it) is lost. In the engineering liter ature the same problem frequently arises in many dif ferent guises: for example in heat transfer, mas s transport potential theory, etc. It does cause some consternation when attempting to give credit priority. No attempt is made here to be exhaustive, and the reader will probably find many omissions that are more interesting and more important to him the purpose ... is to mention papers which have been landmarks .. Their authors may not have been the first who considered the problems about which they wrote, but, in my view, they are the ones who had the greatest impact in their areas ... This paper i s a part of the le c ture giv e n a s one of the Phillips Petroleum Company Lecture Series on April 12, 1985 at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma Portions w~re also given at the Peter V. Danckwert s Memorial Lecture in London o n May 12 1986 168 LANDMARK PAPERS One of the problems I have been interested in for some time is how char or carbon burns. In 1972, in a fit of patriotism and good will, we embarked on a pro gram of coal gasification and combustion-at least that is what I thought we were doing. We soon discov~ ered that we did not know much about what happened to single particles of char when exposed to an ambient atmosphere containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, car bon monoxide, and perhaps water. If one forgets about water, everyone knows that there are three main reactions among carbon, carbon monoxide, oxy gen, and carbon dioxide. The simplest undergraduate problem is to suppose that the carbon is impervious is spherical, and is surrounded by a stagnant boundai; layer or film. The question then involves what hap pens at the carbon surface and what happens in the boundary layer itself. Stated with this degree of simplicity many researchers have thought about the problem and indeed there are three landmark publica tions from which all other research and engineering on the subject derive. Nusselt [1] in 1924 considered the simplest model in_ which he assumed that carbon reacted with oxygen, with the product CO diffusing through the boundary layer without reacting. The heat generated was also conducted through the film, and the whole process occurred in a quasi-steady state which is just another way of saying that the lifetime of the particle is long compared with other transient processes. This gives a mathematical model which is essentially algebraic in character. Clearly it is limited since it neglects two of the reactions. Burke and Schumann [2] considered a superficially similar model in which they assumed that the only reaction which occurs is also between carbon and oxygen but produces carbon dioxide which must diffuse out. We say superficially for this reaction is a two-step one the first being th e production of carbon monoxide and the second the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. In a later paper Burke and Schumann [3] made the significant extension to what has been called a two film model, in which the Copyrig h t ChE D ivision AS EE 1986 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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Neal R. Amundson is the Cullen Professor of Chemical Engineering and a professor of mathematics at the University of Houston. He re ceived his BChE (7937), his MS (7941), and his PhD (7945) from the University of Minnesota where he also served as a faculty member from 1939-1977 and head of chemical engineering from l 949l 974 He is the author of numerous papers and six books including First Order Partial Differential Equations Vol 11, still in press. He has been the recipient of many awards carbon monoxide formed at the surface reacts with oxygen as it diffuses to the ambient. In order to make the problem simple, they assumed that the carbon monoxide oxidation occurred at a sharp interface where the reaction stoichiometry could be met Clearly this position is a parameter of the model de pending upon the other reaction and ambient parame ters, and, as these change, the position of the flame front shifts. Now these three models are extremely simple, but their depth is deceptively obscure until more compli cated problems are investigated. Suppose these three simple models are computed by varying only the am bient temperature but holding all other parameters fixed. Then thPparticle temperature is determined by the ambient temperature, and a locus in the plane of particle t~mperature versus ambient temperature is obtained. The result of the computation is that these three loci confine and define a finite area with asymp totic regions at very high temperatures and at very low temperatures. What makes these three papers im portant is the following: Suppose that one considers the more rational model by assuming all three reac tions occur and that the carbon monoxide reaction is distributed through the boundary layer-then the sys tem is a set of four non-linear differential equations with non-linear boundary conditions for transport of energy and mass. If these equations are solved hold ing all parameters fixed except the ambient tempera ture, one can show with ease that the solution for a fixed ambient must lie inside the region defined above by the three simple models and the whole locus of solutions for variable ambient must lie inside the reFALL 1986 gion, entering the region at the low temperature asymptote and leaving at the high temperature asymptote. Thus the three simple models are limiting solutions in the real sense and define a feasible region of solutions giving important bounds on the burning behavior. In the field of reactor engineering probably no ob ject has received as much attention as the continuous stirred tank reactor. The reason for its popularity in undergraduate courses is its simplicity. In the steady state it is described by a simple algebraic equation or equations, while its transient is described by an ordi nary differential equation or a system of equations. Thus one can illustrate its behavior with relatively simple machinery, and its pedagogical importance can not be overestimated. There are not many problems involving reactors under varying temperatures that can be studied without a good deal of pain. Mathematicians have discovered the stirred pot, and the pathology of the system has now been studied in excruciating detail, and the methods of modern dif ferential topology, in particular, singularity theory, have been employed to study the structure of the Now these three models are extremely simple, but their depth is deceptively obscure until more complicated problems are investigated. steady state solution space. In very recent times the problem for general reaction systems and reactor con figurations has been considered, and problems have been solved which I never thought possible just a few years ago. How did all of this come about? In 1935 there appeared a paper by MacMullin and Weber [4] in the old Transactions of the AlChE with a long title but which started out as "The Theory of Short Circuiting in. This reference to short cir cuiting is the well-known fact that there is always a non-zero probability that a molecule which enters the reactor will leave without reacting unless the reac tions are instantaneous. This is a deficiency of the reactor and is a result of the mathematical by-passing because of the well-mixedness assumption. This was the first instance, as far as I know, where the C* was considered, and it is a strangely out-of-place paper for the times. It is an extremely lucidly written theoreti cal paper which considers single continuous stirred pots and staged pots for reaction systems of various orders as well as for dissolution of solids. While the content is certainly not 1986, the style and presenta tion would certainly be acceptable today as a theoret ical paper. This material is now standard under graduate fare, but I suggest that it was an eyebrow 169

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raiser in 1935. Recall that chemical engineering did not become mathematically oriented until the 1960's. This paper lay fallow for almost ten years when K. G. Denbigh [8] (1944), w hile involved with Imperial Chemicals Industries during the war, became in terested in chemical reactors, and in particular with the comparison of yields in batch, stirred pots and tubular systems. Denbigh was the first to my knowlOur aim here is not to review the literature but to point out that it was K.G. Denbigh who started it all by a casual remark at the Campus Club lunch There should be more Campus Clubs and Denbighs to visit them. edge to discuss in a rational way what became a favor ite pastime some years later and is now a part of al most every textbook on applied kinetics and reactor engineering. This paper was followed by one in 1947 which extended the first but considered several differ ent kinds of polymerization mechanisms usin g various polymer statistics. While the MacMullin and Weber paper predated Denbigh 's by ten years I think that the world was ready for Denbigh, and his had substan tially more impact We should not leave Denbigh here, for it was through his influence while a visiting professor at the University of Minne so ta in 1953-54 that he introduced me to a certain optimization problem. At lunch one day, Denbigh mentioned the possibility of applying a temperature gradient along a tubular reactor in order to impro ve the yield. There is no difficulty with a single endothermic reaction, for then one should run it at the highest temperature consistent with other constraints. With an exothermic reaction, however, the front end can be run hot to increase the forward rate while the rear end must be run cold to suppress the reverse rate It is not difficult for this case to compute, for a given l e ngth of reactor, what the tem perature profile should be in order to maximize the yield of the product. This is almost a trivial problem in the calculus of variations However, for consecutive and simultaneous complex reaction systems the prob lem is far from trivi a l and has been examined s ub sequently by a ho st of researchers. Our aim here is not to review the lit erat ure but to point out that it was K. G. Denbigh who started it all by a casual re mark at the Campus C lub lunch. There should be more Campus Clubs and Denbighs to visit them. One of the popul ar topics in chemical reactor en gineering is that of the study of intraparticle effects in catalyst particle s Since the internal surface area per unit of volume i s so gTeat, most of the reaction takes place on the internal porous surface. This in a 170 sense s lows things up since the internal surface is not as readily accessible unles s all of the surface can be made available. Every chemical engineering student knows that if he wants to determine how effective a catalyst particle is, he must know the Thiele modulus. From relatively simple plots resulting from not too difficult equations he can determine the effectiveness factor of the particle, which is the ratio of the actual conversion to that obtained if all of the surface area were available for reaction at the ambient condition. This problem has probably generated more research papers than any other single topic in the last twenty years. Generalizations to complex reaction systems, non-isothermal particles, effects of poisoning, op timum catalyst profiles in particles, etc ., have oc cupied many, many researchers. This was all started by E. W. Thiele [9] a long-time employee of Standard Oil Company of Indiana, professor at Notre Dame, retired, and very much alive at age 90. His birthday anniversary was celebrated at the AlChE meeting in November, 1985, in Chicago. Thiele published a paper in Industrial and Engine ering Chemistry, 1 93 9, on the "Relation between Catalytic Act iv i~ .Y and Size of Particle ." This rather short pap er had a remarkable effect in the United States, although it must be said that Damkohler [10] and Wagner [11] in Germany and Zeldovich [12] in Russia worked on almost exactly the same problem with simi l ar results at almost exactly the same time Thiele not only considered the slab catalyst but also the sphere and did the slab for a second order reaction that leads to the us e of elliptic integrals. To his great prescience he also considered the case in which the volume change on reaction is large, still not an easy problem for most students al though this material is standard in course work. The name of Thiele should be familiar to all under graduate chemical engineering students from their in troduction to the McCabe-Thiele [13] graphical method for computing binary distillation in plate col umns. McCabe and Thiele developed this method while they were graduate students! Thiele 's name is also associated with that of Geddes [14] in connection with a method of calculation for multicomponent distil lation. Not many chemical engineers have their names associated with three significant problems. Of primary intere s t to chemical engineers is the packed bed reactor, that is, a tube or la rge cylinder packed with a solid packing material consisting of an active catalyst on an inert carrier. Its widespread use results from its simplicity of construction and opera tion, although for highly exothermic reactions the dis sipation of the heat generated may be troublesome. The packed bed reactor is particularly interesting from an educational point of view s ince there is a vast C H EM I CAL ENGINEERING EDUCA TION

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This paper is sort of a quasi-history of chemical engineering research and it might be useful to place it in proper context with the chemical industry and chemical engineering education. The latter really began in the early nineteen twenties when most of the better known departments were founded. hierarchy of models which may describe it, depending upon the parameters of the system and the desires of the engineer. The simplest model is the equilibrium model in which it is assumed that the bed is in local equilibrium at each point. This is not very realistic but does give some valuable information about the structure of the transient solution, although it has been little considered in the literature. The next simplest model is the one analogous to heat transfer in an adiabatic bed neglecting every thing except the heat transfer resistance at the parti cle surface. This would conform to the reaction case in which a first order reaction takes place inside a porous particle with rapid intraparticle diffusion and with a rate limiting mass transfer resistance at the particle surface, certainly not a model with great applicability, but non-trivial none the less. The analogous heat transfer problem was solved by Schumann [15), the same of single particle combustion fame, and was hailed at the time as being of inestimable value in the iron and steel industry. Schumann's solution has been rediscovered and republished in other con texts several times for adsorption, ion exchange isotope exchange, and even in heat transfer. The landmark for reactions in tubes, the tubular reaction case, was a series of papers by Gerhard Dam kohler [16-20) which appeared in the Zeitschrift fur Elektrochimie in 1936. There are five in all, and these should have laid the foundation for the continuous dis tributed models for non-isothermal tubular and packed bed chemical reactors. These papers were all but ignored in the United States except by a few and are still referenced only but slightly. They investi gated the various dimensionless gro up s involved and the problems of obtaining similarity conditions in scale up. Extensive computations and comparison with ex periments were made long before most in the U.S. knew that there was such a field as chemical reaction engineering. These are truly exceptional papers and show, I think, the power of the German system pre W. W.11. Damkohler was in the Physikalische Chem isches Institute at the University of Goettingen, the center of German and world scientific inquiry and ac tivity at the time. Needed greatly in the use of models for fixed bed reactors are the many parameters. We assume that in catalytic reactors, packed (say) with spheres, that each sphere is in a smooth homogeneous field-that is, that the sphere sees the same homogeneous field FALL 1986 in all directions. This allows us to treat the sphere as being radially symmetric. We treat the homogeneous flow field as a continuum with constant average veloc ity, superimposed on which is a radial and axial mixing process. Experiments have amply illustrated that these mixing processes occur and they seem plausible intuitively. The question which arises is, what is a convenient mathematical formulation for the mechanism of these dispersions. R. H. Wilhelm and his graduate students, although there were some others, essentially solved this problem in the early 1950's in a series of classic papers [21-23). One consid ers for the packed bed that the spheres form a three dimensional array. The intracellular spaces among the spheres are considered as mixing cells connected by narrower passages between and among spheres. Thus the interstitial regions in a packed bed may be consid ered for high Reynolds' numbers as an array of well mixed vessels connected by conduits. A molecule en tering one cell must move laterally in order to move forward to new cells as it moves through the bed since a particle will always block its straig ht-through pas sage Note here that we are considering cells con nected only axially, not directly radially But since the particle arrays are staggered there will be a net radial movement as axial movement proceeds. Thus the movement through the bed is a random walk, and the probability that a molecule is in a given cell at a given time can be computed. It is well known that in the limit a random walk is a quasi-diffusion and so one assumes that the radial dispersion is a Fickian mechanism, although the dispersion itself is not con centration gradient driven. It is driven by the convec tive flow. Thus one should be able to define a radial dispersion coefficient (one hesitates to say a diffusion coefficient) for a Fickian model which depends only upon the local geometry, particle size, and inter sticia l velocity. Wilhelm carried this through in an elegant way and showed theoretically as well as experimen tally that the radial Peclet number (ud/D) is about eleven. The analysis for axial dispersion can also be done by probability arguments and the Poisson distribution obtained becomes in the limit by the central limit theorem a normal probability distribution superim posed on a mean convective flow. The normal proba bility distribution is similar to the fundamental solu tion for the diffusion equation, so we are back to a Fickian formulation. This time the Fickian mechanism 171

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is not so clear since experiments done by Hiby (24] show that there is no back mixing-clearly a flaw in the logic, although the probability argument precludes back mixing. Nonetheless, the axial Peclet number can be shown to be about two for high Reynolds' num bers both experimentally and theoretically, certainly a remarkable and, in my view, a fortuitous develop ment This analysis is now a standard treatment in reactor engineering courses, but the axial dispersion part has these theoretical deficiencies which have been refractory to improvement thus far. Those of us who have taught chemical reaction en gineering or elementary partial differential equations a l ways get into a little trouble when discussing the appropriate boundary conditions for the tubular reac tor, empty or packed. The flux condition at x = 0 and the zero grad i ent at the exit are more or less force-fed to the student The appropriate formulation is dif ficult, and most of the time the formulation, discus sion, and solution are erroneous and not consistent with the actual engineering geometry of the inlet and outlet. Papers appear periodically and often but the resolution is non-trivial for a rigorous treatment. Nevertheless we use the conditions above, the so-cal led Danckwerts boundary conditions introduced to chemical engineers by Peter J:?anckwerts (25]. The parochiality of the chemical engineering profession is probably no better illustrated than by the fact that Irving Langmuir (26] in 1908 wrote a remarkably lucid paper which appeared in the Journal of the Am e rica n Chemical Society (JAGS to all) in which he considered the empty tubular reactor with axial dispersion and reactions of arbitrary order using the Danckwerts boundary conditions, ten years or more before Danckwerts was born! We should not leave the name of Danckwerts on that note for he was one of the greats in England from 1945 until his recent death Most of his professional career was spent at Cambridge and his papers (27-34] are notable for their inventiveness. He was among the first to consider problems in reaction and absorp tion, and these appeared in the Transactions of th e Faraday Society In addition, a monograph which is a classic on absorption and reaction appeared in 1970 and was called Gas-Liqu i d Reactio ns (34] During his whole career he was involved with the film and pene tration theories of absorption The paper mentioned above (25] contained one of three ideas presented by Danckwerts in his celebrated paper in 1953 In that paper he introduced the idea of a residence time distribution for chemical reactors. The use of the experimental residence time distribu tion when compared with the theoretical distribution has become a standard diagnostic tool in industry 172 when a mal distribution of fluid flow is suspected as a cause of poor yield The third idea in the paper was to compute the residence time distribution in a packed bed reactor using the standard axial dispersion model for the bed. Results of these computations were compared with experiments, and, using his numbers for the parame ters, one can show that the axial Peclet number, which he does not mention, is equal to 2.4! This work is referenced in a passing way by McHenry and Wilhelm but it is clear that Danckwerts had the clue to the idea that for high Reynolds number flows the axial Peclet number is a constant. One of the earliest papers in chemical engineering in the old Transa c tio n s of th e AIChE which caught my fancy was that of T. B. Drew (35]. This is one of a series of three papers on convective heat transfer. The first appears under the name of Drew alone and has the title "Mathematical Attacks on Forced Con vectional Problems: A Review." This treats for some 55 pages as the title indicates, mathematical solutions of heat transfer problems in streamline flow for vari ou s geometries and is as out of place there as was the one previously mentioned of MacMullin and Weber. It is followed by two other papers with other authors in addition to Drew, and the total extends through 132 pages-probably a record The first is required read ing for anyone interested in applied mathematics and convective heat transfer in streamline flow. Most of us would not think of G I. Taylor (36,37] as a chemical engineer, but in his unique style he pub lished two magnificent papers that many people wish they had written. Sir Geoffrey became interested in the late forties and early fiftie s in how solute in a tube dispersed and, as was his manner, made the typ ical simple analysis guided by a superb intuition and validated by just the proper experiments. He was con cerned with finding a simple formalism for radial dis persion in a fluid flowing in a circular tube in both streamline and turbulent flow. The key result, as everyone knows, was to find an equivalent axial dis persion which would account for the radial dispersion With the kind of insight only he possessed, he did this giving a simple formula for the dispersion coefficient which depended only on known fluid parameters. This paper was followed by a second in the Proceedings of th e Royal Society, on the same problem for turbulent flow. The young researcher should read these as an aid in learning the craft of model building and the value of the simple experiment. Every student in chemical engineering now takes it as well known that there are analogies between fluid friction in pipe flow, heat transfer to the wall, and mass transfer That this is a relatively modern idea C HEMI CA L ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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would come as a shock. A. P. Colburn [38], in a classic paper in 1933, titled "A Method of Correlating Forced Convectional Heat Transfer Data and a Comparison with Fluid Friction," was the first to point out that for high Reynolds' numbers a plot of the friction factor versus Reynolds' numbers looked a lot like a plot of the heat transfer coefficient versus the Reynolds' number. The analogy between heat transfer and momentum transfer was born in this paper in the form now st;mdard in all transport courses through the j factors. In 1934 Colburn collaborated with T. H. Chil ton [39] while both were employed by the DuPont Company and published a seminal paper on the analogies among heat transfer, mass transfer, and momentum transfer, again through the j factors. It is impossible to overemphasize the importance of these two papers and their effectiveness in aiding the design engineer. Colburn was another one of the truly great chaps of our profession, and after a long and successful career at the DuPont Company, he initiated and or ganized the very successful chemical engineering pro gram at the University of Delaware. Those of us who have had more than a casual in terest in the application of advanced mathematical ideas to chemical engineering problems have always decried the fact that while there is a plethora of books on applied mathematics, none is really suitable for courses for chemical engineering graduate students. I mean this in no parochial sense, but any unbiased examination of the extant books makes this abun dantly clear. What is not known is that the beginnings of a beautiful text were made in 1947 by Robert W. Marshall [ 40] (a PhD student of Olaf Hougen) and Robert L. Pigford (whose mentor was A. P. Colburn), based on an extension course given at the University of Delaware in 1945 while both were employees of the DuPont Company. The preface of The Application of Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering Problems says the book covered fifteen lectures, and a very respectable course based on this book could be offered today, almost exactly forty years later, since the topics were well chosen and are still relevant. EPILOGUE This paper is sort of a quasi-history of chemical engineering research and it might be useful to place it in proper context with the chemical industry and chemical engineering education. The latter really began in the early nineteen twenties when most of the better known departments were founded. At that time there was little petroleum refining and the chem ical industry was Germanic in character. The bulk chemicals were the inorganic acids, salts and alkalis, FALL 1986 dyes, explosives and the simple organic molecules mostly derived from coal byproducts. There were no plastics or polymers to speak of, no antibiotics, and no synthetic rubber. There was little reason to do much engineering as we know it now. When the automobile exploded onto the scene and catalytic processes were developed, it was essential to do more engineering, and the continuous process rather than the batch process became the sine que non of chemical engineering (and still is). Now it was necessary to do engineering. Heat exchangers had to be designed, so chemical engineers took up heat trans fer since the design engineer required a heat transfer coefficient. He certainly consulted McAdams' book on Heat Transmission [41]. The need for separations in the petroleum industry and the accompanying need for vapor-liquid equilibria and thermodynamics of light hydrocarbons were important and commanded the attention of many in academic research. As men tioned earlier, up to W.W. II there were almost no catalytic processes-contact sufuric acid, yes, and am monia synthesis and a few others. But these were not designed-they were borrowed from the Germans. The explosion in catalysis and polymer chemistry re sulting in synthetic fibers post-W.W. II changed the whole outlook of the chemical and petroleum industry and gave academic chemical engineering a quick fix, and the problems requiring solution were interesting and fun to work on. It was not difficult to be enthusias tic about chemical engineering. The new fields in the fifties excited young people. Catalysis, as well as polymer processing, in a sense have almost been taken over by chemical engineers. Reactor engineering is a mature subject now. Heat transfer research has been appropriated by mechani cal engineers as a discipline. Little is done now in conventional separation processes although it is neces sary that this field be rejuvenated and expanded, for the new biological processes will require different techniques. We are now at a new point when chemical engineering as a discipline is faced with manifold prob lems instigated largely by the uncertain fate of the petrochemical industry in the U.S. and Western Europe and by the slow-down in the chemical indus try. The kinds of things which occupied us in the past-transport, reaction engineering, separations and the like-had direct and easy application in the conventional chemical industry. The loss of control of raw materials in the U.S. will undoubtedly force us to shift our emplasis to other endeavors such as mater ials, biotechnology, exotic or specialty chemicals, etc. The principles we have been brought up on are still the ones which will be needed, although we will need Continued on page 192. 173

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GRADUATE EDUCATION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING A Workshop to Help Students Answer the Questions What is it? Why go? What comes after? DONNA G. BLACKMOND University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 Y o u ARE A SENIOR chemical engineering student and you're trying to decide what you want to do when you graduate. On-campus interviews give you some idea about the kinds of jobs you can have with chemical and oil companies. Plant trips are better yet-you get to meet and talk with people on the job and find out for yourself what to expect. But while you are considering a career as a design engineer or jobs in manufacturing or management, you should make sure that you are considering all your options. And one option that many st udents do not take time to consider is the variety of career paths which are open to a st udent with an advanced degree in chemical engineeri ng. It is easy to understand why many students don't think about going on to graduate sc hool. Representa tives from graduate programs at different schools don't often come to the university placement center Donna G. Blackmond is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Pitt s burgh She rec eived her BS and MS degrees at the University of Pittsburgh and her PhD at Carnegie-Mellon University. H er re search is in the areas of catalysis and surface chemistry She recently received a Presidential Young In v estigator Award from the National Science Foundation 174 ... one of the most important outcomes ... was that the students received a lot of first-hand information about the kinds of careers for which a graduate education prepares them. By meeting professors from different schools they were able to learn about the variety of programs offered. the way company representatives do. While most stu dents have met chemical engineers with BS degrees, or at least have heard about their careers, not many have met PhD chemical engineers other than their professors. And after spending four tough years in chemical engineering courses, who wants to hear about coming back for more? PURPOSE OF THE WORKSHOP There are some very good reasons why a st udent might want to consider getting an advanced degree, especially a good student who wants to continue being challenged in his career. In order to give students a chance to hear some of these reasons, as well as to meet some chemical engineers with advanced degrees, the Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineer ing at the University of Pittsburgh organized a work shop called "Graduate Education in Chemical En gineering." The first workshop took place on the Pitt campus in the fall of 1985 and its success ensured that it will be an annual event. The one-day workshop was at tended by about fifty junior and senior chemical en gineering students from eight different schools. Most of the students came from schools in our region, but some participants came from as far away as Michigan State to the north and Virginia Polytech to the south. The workshop had two main purposes. The first was to give the students some idea of the kinds of careers that having an advanced degree opens up for them. We invited a number of PhD chemical engineers Copy.-ig lt t C ltE D ivision A S EE 1 986 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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working in the Pittsburgh area to join a panel discus sion with the undergraduate participants. Hearing first-hand from people who have been working in in dustry helped show how graduate education affects career paths. This proved to be quite enlightening. The second purpose of the workshop was to pro vide specific information about graduate programs at different schools. Each school participating in the workshop was invited to delegate one faculty member to participate along with their interested junior and senior students. Each school represented was as signed a different room in Benedum Hall, the en gineering building on the Pitt campus and the after noon was set aside for students to visit the various rooms and talk one-on-one with the professors about their programs-a kind of graduate education version of "Career Day." AN INTRODUCTION TO ChE GRAD EDUCATION After coffee and doughnuts and some free time for the students from different schools to get to know one another, the workshop began with a brief slide presen tation. The slides were meant to explain what graduate education in chemical engineering involves. Graduating BS chemical engineers must ask them selves whether their career goals make getting a graduate degree something to consider. Students at the workshop were asked to think about how they would answer the following questions Do you like to be challenged technically? Do you enjoy intellectual stimulation? Are you comfortable with open-ended problems? Do you like being a pioneer? Are you interested in being part of developments which change the direction of technology They are told that if the answer "yes" comes up more often than not then they are probably the type of person who would enjoy a career in some aspect of research or development, and that the tools needed for such a career are learned in graduate school. A graduate student researcher learns to think indepen dently and to design a logical approach to understand ing. We explain to the students that research problems are usually long-term, long-range problems and their thesis work as a graduate student will differ from their prior work in undergraduate labs because it will involve a co mpletely original problem that is theirs and their s alone. In undergraduate courses, next year's clas s will work on the same labs as this year's class, but next year's group of new graduate students will not perform the same research being done by this year's students. So individual creativity and originalFALL 19 86 ity develops as the student completes a graduate de gree. These aspects of graduate sc hool in chemical en gineering, as well as many other important points, were addressed very succinctly in a article by Profes sor J. L. Duda of the Pennsylvania State University in this journal just two years ago.* That article makes excellent reading for any student interested in going to graduate school. In fact, in planning the slide pre sentation for the introductory session of the work shop, I drew on many of the points made by Professor Duda THE PANEL DISCUSSION Some of the most important insights into the value of a graduate education in chemical engineering came Virginia Polytech's Professor Mark Davis makes a point about opportunities at VP/ to two Pitt seniors. from the panel discussion guests These included Dr. Ed Nemeth, Director of Research at USS Chemicals and a University of Pittsburgh graduate; Dr. Dale Keairns, manager of the Chemical and Process En gineering Department at Westinghouse Electric Cor poration and a graduate of Carnegie-Mellon Univer sity; Dr. Hubert Fleming, a technical supervisor in the Alumina and Chemicals Division at Alcoa who graduated from Cornell University; Dr. Mark McDonald, a Stanford graduate working at the U.S. Department of Energy as a research chemical en gineer; Professor Jim Goodwin from the Che~ical & Petroleum Engineering Department at the University of Pittsburgh who graduated from the University of Michigan; and Mr. George Gallaher, a PhD student at the University of Pittsburgh who spent five years working for Proctor & Gamble as a line manager / tech*Chem Eng. Ed., XVIII, 1 56 (1984). [Editor's Note: Also see arti cle by Professor Duda on page 164 of this issue.] 175

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nical engineer before deciding to return to school for a doctorate degree. All of the panel guests have careers in chemical engineering research in industry, government or academia. Their experiences were especially interest ing because they spanned a wide range of career types and career levels. Some of the topics they discussed with the students at the workshop are outlined below. How did having a Ph.D. affect your career path? Most of the panelists said that they would not have been able to proceed very far in the careers they chose in chemical engineering research without a PhD. The scientists and engineers who move upward on both technical and management avenues in research within a company usually have doctorate degrees. Two of the panel guests, Dr. Nemeth and Dr. Keairns, are very involved in management. Dr. Nemeth is responsible for the direction of all research Professor Dennis Miller from Michigan State University talks with students about the graduate program there. activity at USS Chemicals, including product and pro cess development as well as technical consultation to the chemical plants. Dr. Keairns is in charge of new process / systems development. In addition, both are involved in marketing and strategic planning. It was clear that their careers encompassed a broader range of activities than most students think of when they consider what a PhD chemical engineer does on the job. Their advanced degrees gave these engineers the technical expertise, as well as the problem-solving capability, that is essential in research, development, and technical management. As they gained experience in these technical areas, their responsibilities broad ened to encompass some of the planning and market ing aspects of their work. Chemical engineers with advanced degrees often get involved in both technical and management activities within their companies. Dr. Nemeth pointed out that he would not have been 176 Students participating in the workshop get a chance to mingle and talk over a buffet lunch. able to reach the level of management in research and development that he has attained without a PhD. Should I go straight to graduate school, or should I work for a few years first? The answer to this question probably always depends on the indi vidual. One of the panel members, George Gallaher, went to work for Proctor & Gamble after completing his BS. Now, five years later, he is back in graduate school to get a PhD. A top student as an under graduate, George realized after working for some time that his career interests and his strongest attributes as an engineer were more suited to a career in re search-one that only a PhD would allow. It was through working as a BS engineer that he was able to find this out. His experience at P&G gave him a broader view of chemical engineering than most stu dents have who enter graduate school directly from the BS. But George also pointed out that the transi tion to being a student again after five years in indus try is not a move easily made by everyone. In fact, many more students say they plan to go back for an advanced degree than actually do. Several of the panel members went straight from the BS to the PhD degree. The decision to take that approach depends on how sure the student is of his interests and career goals. And it is a decision which concerns personal as well as technical interests. Pro fessor Goodwin spent three years in the U.S. Peace Corps between completing his MS and PhD degrees, teaching in universities in Turkey and in Liberia. He found that the experience was not only personally re warding but also that it had a significant influence on his later career decisions and interests. Does it make sense economically to get a graduate degree? There are differing opinions on this point. People have argued both ways-that the time spent in graduate school will or will not be rewarded by higher salaries for entry-level PhD positions. Actu ally, most panel members did not consider this an imCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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----------SUMMERSCHOOL~7-----------. The next Summer School for chemical engineering faculty, sponsored andorganized by the Chemical En gineering Division of the ASEE, will be held August 9-15, 1987, at Southeastern Massachusetts Univer sity, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts. Co-chairmen for the conference are Glenn L. Schrader and Maurice A. Larson (Department of Chemical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011). Local ar rangements are being coordinated by L. Bryce Ander son (College of Engineering Southeastern Mas sachusetts University, North Dartmouth, MA 02747) and by Stanley M. Barnett (Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881). The 1987 Summer School will focus on the revitali zation of the chemical engineering curriculum in re sponse to the changing technological needs of Amer ican society. A series of plenary lectures will present new perspectives on emerging technology for semiconductors, biotechnology, and advanced mater ials. A group of four workshops is also being planned to include 1) Emerging Technology, 2) Computers in Chemical Engineering, 3) Applied Chemistry in Chemical Engineering, and 4) Curricula, Courses, and Laboratories. A poster session is also being planned. In June 1985 proposals requesting donations to support the 1987 Summer School were mailed to about 150 companies. The following companies or their as sociated foundations have pledged or contributed $83,000 to the 1987 Summer School (as of August 1, 1986): Amoco Oil Com pany Chevron Corporation Dow Chemical U.S.A. Dow Corning Corporation portant issue. They pointed out that being satisfied with the type of career that you have chosen can often add more to the overall quality of life than the realiza tion that over the span of a career you have made a dollar more as a result of your choice. PhD chemical engineers make very good salaries, and the job mar ket is less tied to daily ups and downs of the economy than are BS entry-level positions. In addition, most panelists agreed that the time they spent in graduate school was an exciting, fulfilling, challenging, and learning experience-an experience they would not trade for dollars. ASSESSING THE WORKSHOP Probably one of the most important outcomes of FALL 1986 E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company Exxon Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Labs PPG Industries The Standard Oil Company Shell Development Company 3M Union Carbide Corporation If you have any suggestions concerning key con tacts with other possible donors, please call Glenn Schrader (515-294-0519) to discuss how these individu als and their organizations should be contacted. The estimated budget accounts for: preliminary operating expenses; travel and living expenses for members of the organizing committee, plenary speak ers, block chairmen, workshop leaders; special events; and partial travel and living subsidy for university participants. There is no compensation for instruc tional services. Members of the organizing committee, plenary speakers, block chairmen, leaders of work shops, and their institutions donate their services. Each department of chemical engineering will be offered partial subsidy for one faculty member to at tend the Summer School. Large departments will be offered an opportunity for a second faculty member to participate. Department heads will be asked to name attendees from their department. Industrial sponsors will also be invited to select one or two attendees from their company At the end of 1986; a mailing will be sent to all departments providing a preliminary program for the Summer School. For more information concerning the 1987 Summer School, contact Glenn Schrader. De partment of Chemical Engineering, Iowa State Uni versity, Ames, IA 50011.D the workshop was that the students received a lot of first-hand information about the kinds of careers for which a graduate education prepares them. By meet ing professors from different schools they were able to learn about the variety of programs offered. By discussing career options with working PhD chemical engineers they learned of the excitement that such careers promise. And by meeting and talking with stu dents from other chemical engineering programs who had thoughts and concerns similar to their own, they discovered that getting a graduate education is a via ble and exciting option for chemical engineers. [Note : The ne x t workshop will be held at the University of Pittsburgh on Nov. 15, 1986. For more information contact Professor Blackmond at (412) 6 2 42 136.] 177

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lil;j;lviews and opinions CHEMICAL ENGINEERING A Crisis of Maturity JACOB JORNE Un i v e rsity of Rochest e r Roch e ster, NY 146 2 7 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING is a field in a state of transition. This is especially true for those of us who are involved in chemical engineering education and who wonder about the future and direction of our discipline. Ours is a relatively young branch of en gineering and it seems to be in the midst of its first major transition. The optimists among us tend to call this transition "maturity," while the pessimists call it a "crisis." The truth is probably at neither extreme. I prefer to call it a crisis of maturity. Chemical engineering is a mature field which stands on the solid foundation of physical chemistry, transport phenomena, kinetics, and reactor design. It emerged fifty years ago from the traditional field of industrial chemistry, and the consistent trend during all these years has been toward generalities, unified approaches, and fundamental studies. There are sev eral examples of this trend. The originally different disciplines of fluid flow, heat transfer and mass trans fer merged together into the unified field of transport phenomena. Unit operations such as distillation, ab sorption and extraction merged into stage operation. Even chemical kinetics and reactor design are now taught in a general form and rarely deviate from the general notation A + B C. This general approach was, and still is, very powerful. As a result chemical engineers became, and still are, extremely effective in solving problems and in designing plants. Twenty, or even ten, years ago most graduate research was devoted to topics such as diffusion, bubbles, falling film, and fluidized bed. There was no necessity for practical justification since it was considered basic chemical engineering-something which had to be done in order to establish the field. However, within the last few years things have changed considerably. The classical fundamentals are well established, and the research now done within chemical engineering departments is usually applied and is commonly evaluated on its relevance to current problems and needs. The classical literature of chemical engineering is marked primarily by its simplicity. Transport Copyii gh t C h E D i vis ion AS EE 19 86 178 phenomena and reactor design are examples where common sense, mathematics, and engineering are combined to solve practical and real problems in a sim ple way. However, recent trends in the chemical en gineering literature suggest that there is a bias against simplicity. W. K. Grasman [I n t e rfac e 16:2, 43-51, 1986] has pointed out a general trend across all disciplines, toward publishing unnecessarily com plex works. His "Joe's Theorem" can be applied to the literature of chemical engineering: Nothing is published in the area of chemical engineering sci ence unless it is mathematically interesting. Nothing is applied in industry unless it is mathematically trivial. Since trivial results are not interesting and since results that can not be applied are not useful, nothing useful will ever be published in the field of chemical engineering science. Though an exaggeration of the present state, this "theorem" points out the need for simplicity and rele vance in academic research. The direction of chemical engineering graduate re search is changing. Fundamental topics are no longer appealing to the general population of graduate stu dents who are mostly attracted to fields where jobs are currently available. Even in the academic job marJacob Jorne, profe s sor of chemical engineering at the University ot Rochester received his PhD in chemical engineering from the Univer s i ty of California Berkele y (1972) A nat ive of Israel h e obtained a BSc and an MSc from the Technion Israel In s titute of Technol o g y in 1963 and 1967, respectively Hi s research interests i nclude elec trochemical engineering, semiconductor processing, energy conversion and storage and the theoretical biology of ecosystems He has consid erable industrial experience as a consultant In 1979 he was named Chemical Engineer of the Year by the American Institute af Chemical Engineers Detroit S e ction CHEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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ket, the magic words of "biochemical engineering" and "semiconductor processing" can land a choice teaching job. It is interesting to note that these two attractive areas are at the core of the current transition within chemical engineering education. MICROELECTRONICS-MISSED OPPORTUNITY Chemical engineering missed the opportunity to make prime contributions to the microelectronic in dustry. Microelectronic devices are produced by a series of purely chemical processes such as chemical vapor deposition and etching. Nevertheless the elec tronic industry emerged and matured virtually with out the participation of chemical engineers. Though many chemical engineers are employed in the semi conductor industry, the contribution of their field as a science and as a philosophy, is negligible. The a~az ing revolution toward miniaturization of devices and processes has occured over the last decade or two, yet chemical engineering is just starting to catch up with this trend It might be too late Had it been left to chemical engineers, the microelectronic industry would not be where it is now. The concept of carrying chemical reactions on a micron-size level, on a huge scale, and under absolutely clean conditions is foreign to the traditional chemical engineer who is educated to manufacture bulk chemicals within a profession dominated by the oil and chemical industries. ?hemical engineers must develop new processes, eqmpment, materials, and devices not currently en visioned. The possibility of packing chemical reactions into smaller and smaller volumes will begin to emerge through a better understanding of reaction mechan isms and networks, monolayer between phases thin films, micro-sensors and microreactors, to nam~ just a few. The trend should not be just an attempt to catch up with the microelectronic industry, but rather to develop a new field of microchemical engineering where we can combine and implement our unique knowledge and solid foundation and lead a new indu s try based on fields like molecular electronics, sensors and enzymes. MICROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING The idea of microchemical engineering is really not new'. bu_t it deserves new focus as a commonly de nommatmg theme. Molecular thermodynamics is an e~am~le of a ~i~roscale research with macroscale ap phcat10ns. Similarly, recent works on interfacial phenomena colloids, surface science, nucleation microcirculation, and cell phenomena are all example~ of chemical engineering science on a microscale. There are some objective reasons why the chemi cal industry and chemical engineers are so late in FALL 1986 The idea of microchemical engineering is really not new, but it deserves new focus as a commonly denominating theme. Molecular thermodynamics is an example of a microscale research with macroscale applications. adopting the trend toward microscale processes and devices. Obviously at the present time it is hard to envision miniaturization of heat exchangers, chemical reactors or distillation columns s imply because heat and mass transfer need large interfacial areas and chemical reactions utilize space and time to achieve appreciable conversion. Howe v er, chemical engineer ~ng deals with a wide range of dimensions. The phys ical extent can vary over eight orders of magnitude. The megascopic systems are on the order of 1 meter and up ( > lm). Macroscopic s ystems are usually within 1()-,'l to lm. The microscopic and the submicro sco?ic systems are within the 1 0"-6 to 10"-4 m range, while the molecular scale is on the order of 1 0---S m Traditional chemical engineering deals mostly with megascopic systems whose fundamental mechanisms are within the macroscopic range. For example, heat exchangers and distillation columns are megascopic while heat and mass transfer boundary layers are within the macroscopic level. We can rival the momentum of the microelectronic developments only b y adopting new scientific dis coverie s and using our skills to bring them to commer cial realization-a process we capitalized upon in the past. Our chemistry and industrial chemistry roots should be maintained as the mo s t unique feature of our discipline, while the future of our profession de pends entirely on the recent developments and ad v~nces made in chemistry, physic s and, I must add b10logy. BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING In addition to a dependence upon advance s made in chemistry and physics chemical engineering of the future will be increasingly dependent upon new bio logical knowledge. There is a shared conviction that biochemical engineering is destined to be a major force and most chemical engineering departments are look ing for young faculty trained in this area. There is a ?anger in thinking that having one or two professors m each chemical engineering department who are doing some biological experiments will take us into the rosy future of genetic engineering and molecular biology. The challenge is much too great for such an approach. We must educate undergraduate students in biology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biol ogy with the same intensity that we presently educate 179

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them in physical chemistry. For years we have been educating students and training them with the overall goal of preparing them to work for companies such as duPont and Standard Oil. This approach was very ap propriate and extremely successful in the past. How ever, we must now prepare students for the unknown future and for imaginary employers which may include a genetic engineering company, space processing com panies, and, maybe, molecular computer manufactur ers Courses such as distillation must be eliminated and replaced This does not mean that distillation is a thing of the past. To the contrary, energy problems will be staying with us for a long, long time However, teaching distillation is not a subject which increases the student's innovative capabilities nor does it pro vide basic science for the unknown future C ONCLUDING REMARKS I was always proud of chemical engineering, mainly because it was the only branch of engineering where science played a major role. As the field ma tured I sensed a departure from the fundamentals of science and the increasing reliance on applications. In order to regain the enthusiasm of the early years, and in order to establish new frontiers we must rearrange our educational priorities and teach basic biochemis try, microbiology, genetics, solid state physics and human factors engineering. We must undertake new courses as well, which teach innovative problem solving and which encourage cross-disciplinary think ing. This is the only way we can preserve and re vitalize chemical engineering, and it is the best insur ance that we will establish new industries which prom ise to improve the quality of life. The crisis of maturity confronting chemical en gineering can be resolved with energy courage, and foresight. The most important decisions will center on which traditions to maintain and which new approach es to establish. The question of whether we are in the midst of a crisis or are simply a matured profession is a debate we don't have time for. The lack of risk taking, excitement and vision are the only relevant problems to be confronted. I am confident that wise deliberation will underscore our opportunities. D --T HE WILL I AM H. CORCORA N OUTSTANDIN G PA PER AWA R D --In the opinion of many, Bill Corcoran did more for the advancement of chemical engineering education and engineering education in general in the United States than any other person in recent decades. He shared his many talents selflessly often working quietly behind the scenes, but more frequently in im portant positions of leadership. Recognition of Bill's many contributions through establishment of the Wil liam H. Corcoran Outstanding Paper Award allows the ASEE Chemical Engineering Division to, in Bill's own words, "pay back the debt we owe Bill was describing his own dedication to his profession as a measure of his appreciation for the opportunities given him early in his career. Bill Corcoran's excellence in teaching and his strong interest in students were recognized through his selection to receive the ASEE Western Electric Fund and Lamme Awards and the ABET L. E. Grinter Award His comprehensive research on the nitrogen oxides predated the general recognition of the key role these substances play in environmental control. He pioneered the application of chemical en gineering principles to biomedical engineering Singling out one area most noteworthy from the many in which Bill did so much is difficult, but many would agree that the area should be the technical liter ature His own extensive list of publications includes 180 three books and many widely read contributions to the technica l literature and to contemporary thought about engineering education and practice. He was a member of the publications Board of Ch e mical E g in eering Ed u catio n from 1966 until his death, serv ing as its chairman in 1967-68 and again in 1975-77. At the national level in ASEE he s erved on the Publica tions Policy Committee Engineering Education Editorial Committee and ECRC Publications Commit tee. He held similar assignments in the American Chemical Society and in AIChE. Bill is perhaps best known within ASEE for the landmark report resulting from the 197577 study of the Committee on Review of Engineering and En gineering Technology Studie s which he chaired. Hi s extensive service to AIChE led to his election a s pres ident in 1978; he was president-elect of ABET at the time of his death in 1982. He wa s elected to the Na tional Academy of Engineering in 1980. Through dedicated teaching, research, service and publications, Bill Corcoran was a positive force in en gineering education. Just as Bill did throughout his career, the Corcoran Award will grow in stature over the years beginning with its distinguished inaugura tion at the Cincinnati Annual Conference George Burnet Iowa State University CHEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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kift:loook reviews THE NEW ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTERS: PURPOSES, GOALS AND EXPECTATIONS National Academy Press, 2 10 2 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20418 Reviewed by Wayne H. Chen Dean, College of Engineering University of Florida This book is the outgrowth of a symposium, "The New Engineering Research Centers: Factors Affect ing Their Thrusts," held on April 29-30, 1985, under the auspices of the National Research Council's Com mission on Engineering and Technical Systems (CETS). The new Engineering Research Centers (ERCs) program was initiated by the National Science Foun dation. Selected from 142 proposals, six Engineering Research Centers (involving a total of eight univer sities) were announced in early April of 1985, and are now in operation. The papers published in this book were presented at the symposium to introduce the new centers to the engineering community at large and are grouped under the captions: 1) The National Goal, 2) The Center as a Reality-Plans, Mechanisms and Interac tions, and 4) The Future-Challenge and Expecta tions. Dr. George A. Keyworth II, Science Advisor to the President, described the "national goal" with this statement: Improving the U.S. position in interna tional industrial competitiveness. From several sections of the book the following quotations will highlight the important concepts be hind the creation of the ERC program. The ERC program is a result of the realization that our engineering schools are becoming increasingly engineering science oriented, with greater and greater emphasis on analysis of narrowly focused topics. While analysis in en gineering science is an important facet of engineering, it is clear that we have neglected synthesis-oriented skills such as design, optimization of engineering systems, and system inte gration. (p. 39) We have to increase our effort in the kind of research that bridges the gap between fundamental scientific research and application. This kind of research is engineering research. (p. 20) We need more engineering research, and we need more engineering graduates who understand how to do engineering research. We need to put them to work in those areas where economic competitiveness is at stake; and we need to make FALL 1986 sure that the knowledge they generate and the guidance they provide permeate the whole engineering community, not just the research community alone. We need wider and stronger bridges between the people doing engineering in industry and the people teaching engineering and doing research in univer sities. (pp. 22-24) The Engineering Research Centers are to "Bridge Gaps" (pp. 23-26): Bridging Gaps Between University and Industry; Bridging Gaps Among Engineering Disciplines; Bridging Gaps Within the Innovative Process. The ERCs are required to have "industrial partici pation" and, in addition to research, must also have an "education" component. The six new Engineering Research Centers are Systems Research Centers (University of Maryland, Harvard University) Center for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (Purdue Uni versity) Center for Robotic Systems in Microelectronics (University of California, Santa Barbara) Center for Composites Manufacturing Science and Engineer ing (University of Delaware) Engineering Center for Telecommunications Research (Columbia University) Biotechnology Process Engineering Center (MIT) The six ERCs are only the first contingent of what the NSF expects eventually to grow to some twenty centers, each with an average annual budget of $2-5 million. This book will be valuable to those schools with the aspiration to apply for a new Engineering Research Center. D ENGINEERING GRADUATE EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Panel on Engineenng Graduate Education and Re search, John D. Kemper, Chm., National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1985. $14.95 Reviewed by Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado This monograph is part of an overall study of en gineering education and practice in the United States conducted under the auspices of the National Re search Council. As the title implies, the study examines the present status of graduate engineering education and its relationship to graduate research. In the conduct of the study, the Committee reviewed the data and conclusions of previous comprehensive engineering studies including the Report on Evalua tion _of E~in~ering Ed7:cation (Grinter Report), the Presidents Science Advisory Committee report enti tled Meeting Manpower Needs in Science and Technology (PSAC Report), and the ASEE Goals of Continued on page 193. 181

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PROCESS ENGINEERING GEORGE STEPHANOPOULOS Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 T HE REEMERGENCE of artificial intelligence as a viable and utilitarian discipline offers the potential of harvesting early promises on intelligent man machine interaction. For process engineering, these promises have nurtured and disillusioned a generation of engineers. Presently, the mood is cautiously op timistic. The "novelty" of the technology has taken most by surprise and has found the large majority, even among the early devotees in artificial intelli gence, unprepared for meaningful engineering appli cations. Nevertheless, idling skepticism has been re placed by a wide-spread activism, leading to a mul titude of exploratory prototypes. But, what we ob serve as a feverish research and development activity George Stephanopoulos was on undergraduate at the Notional Technical University of Athens Greece, received his ME at McMoster University, Canada, and did his doctoral studies in chemical engineer ing at the University of Florido In 197 4 he joined the faculty at the University of Minnesota, and from 1980 to 1983 he taught at the Notional Technical University of Athens In 1984 he joined MIT, where he is presently the J.R Mores professor of chemical engineering. He is the author of two books: Chemical Process Control ; An Introduction to Theory and Practice, and Synthesizing Networks of Heat Exchangers. He hos been a Dreyfus Scholar and he was awarded the Colburn Award (1982) of AIChE and the C. McGraw Research Award (1986) of ASEE His research interests ore in the area of process systems engineer ing, which he and his students hove been recently interfacing with methodologies from artificial intelligence and technology from LISP computers. 182 in knowledge based expert system is nothing else but a very serious effort in self-education. We will have to wait for the next phase of developments to see use ful and practical products for process systems en gineering purposes. Existing prototypes of expert systems are in teresting examples, and some of them have had signif icant economic impact in areas other than those re lated to chemical and biochemical engineering. They have provided certain paradigms which later efforts have tried to imitate. But, are these prototypes appro priate for process engineering? Can they "model" the human activity during the concep tion of a chemical process, the design of a product, the development of a process flowsheet, or the synthesis of con trol configurations and operating procedures for complete processing plants? Can they support engineering activities, capitalizing on the innate "intelligence" of expert technologists and designers, as this intelligence is articulated within the context of the problem being solved? Do they provide high level, transparent communication be tween man and machine during the graphic generation of process flowsheets, or control configurations, or the ana lytic development of process models, the introduction of qualitative reasoning, or the formulation of design prob lems (assumptions, assertions, hypothesis testing, etc.)? It is our view that the existing paradigms cannot satisfy the above needs; after all, they were conceived to solve different problems. New prototypes are needed which should reflect the particularities of the process systems engineering problems. THE M.I.T.-LISPE The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems for Pro cess Engineering (LISPE) at the Massachusetts Insti tute of Technology was recently established to ad vance the art of process engineering using current technological advances in the areas of artificial intelli gence and LISP computers. It is the culmination of intensive preparatory work during the last 2 1/2 years, including extensive investment in education, hardware and software infrastructure, and communiCo 'PYright C hE D ivi s ion ASEE 19 8 6 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems for Process Engineering (LISPE) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was recently established to advance the art of process engineering using current technological advance in the areas of artificial intelligence and LISP computers. cation and collaboration with other research groups at MIT or industrial concerns, all of which have interests in artificial intelligence. LISPE's present capabilities in research and edu cation are at the forefront of the field, and encompass diversified expertise in various areas such as Chemical or biochemical process development design, con trol, or operations Methods of artificial intelligence Design and development of knowledge-based expert sys tems Structure and character of object-oriented programming In the remaining paragraphs of this section, we will discuss in more detail the present infrastructure of LISPE. The MIT-LISPE is under the direction of Profes sor George Stephanopoulos and presently includes twelve graduate students working toward their PhD degree. It has also involved eight undergraduate re search assistants through MIT's Undergraduate Re search Opportunities Program (UROP). The ability to amalgamate the most advanced knowledge and methods from many diverse areas im portant to process engineering depends upon close in teraction with two important groups of people: 1) Other faculty members and investigators at MIT, and 2) Industrial practitioners from the chemical and biochemical industres as well as the computer indus try (hardware and Jftware). Within MIT, the LISPE has established connec tions with groups such as the A.I. Laboratory, the Knowledge Systems Program of the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, the Intelligent En gineering Systems Laboratory in Civil Engineering, and various other independent researchers with in terests in the fundamentals and applications of artifi cial intelligence. Hardware FaciJities. Present hardware facilities include Two 3640 and two 3650 SYMBOLICS LISP computers, each equipped with 8 MB of memory and 280 or 360 Mb of disk capacity Two IBM PC AT (one with color and extended 2 Mb mem ory) Two printers (one laser, and one high quality dot matrix) Furthermore, we recently completed the networking of all machines as well as their connection to MIT's ATHENA system. Such networking capabilities allow us to expand the scope of the research projects by FALL 1986 accessing a large multitude of databases, by com municating and reasoning with other intelligent sys tems, or by developing simulated environments of dis tributed, parallel intelligent systems. Software Support. Current research develop ments in intelligent systems for process engineering are enjoying wide support from a multitude of generic and specific software facilities such as (a) The SYMBOLICS Zetalisp environment pro vides an extremely efficient medium for rapid pro totyping of intelligent databases and interfaces with rudimentary natural language c pabilities and exten sive graphics, including active multiple windows, scrolling, menus, etc., and it allows an incremental mode of program development. (b) An integrated software package, such as the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE), has been generously provided by lntelliCorp, and consti tutes the integrated environment for the development of knowledge-based expert system support of our various research projects. (c) The availability of LISP based compilers for languages such as FORTRAN and PASCAL allows us to access, in a transparent way, a large number of software packages developed for various numerical process engineering needs such as: algorithms for the solution of equations, optimization algorithms, physi cal properties packages, simulators of process flow sheets, process design packages packages for the de sign of control system, etc. (d) The Lisp version of MACSYMA provides us with a powerful mathematical symbolic manipulator, which has found important applications on several pro jects. (e) The GCLISP 286 Developer that we use in con junction with the IBM PC AT computers provides an excellent environment for training in LISP. In addi tion, it provides an additional capability for the local development of small-scale, dedicated natural lan guage interfaces, file editing in Common Lisp and remote evaluation of Zetalisp functions. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM The historical boundaries of process engineering activities are being pushed toward the "front-end" to 183

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include an important role in product design and de velopment, as well as contributions in conceiving novel processing schemes and developing the approNew prototypes are needed which should reflect the particularities of the process systems engineering problems. priate technology, including the se lection of mass separating agents, heat pump fluids, catalysts, etc. Within the scope of LISPE the following set com prises the process engineering activities of interest Design of molecules (products, or processing fluids) with desired physical or/and chemical propertie s Development of novel processing schemes Synthesis of process flowsheets for existing technologies Design of control systems for complete chemical plant s Intelligent on-line controllers Planning and scheduling of operational procedures Development and design of biochemical processes All of the above problems are characterized by a series of common attributes which can be summarized as follows: Each problem is multi-objective in nature. Thus, a new polymer should not only possess the de sired thermal and mechanical properties, but it should also be easily processed while the production of the constituent monomers is chemically feasible and economic. The control structure of a complete chemi cal plant should not only provide good regulation, but it should also allow for easy plant-wide optimization and smooth start-up, change-over, or safe fall-back operations. The optimum trade-off of conflicting objec tives has been the province of "experts," since a con crete formulation of such problems is very resistant to analytic treatment. They use knowledge from different domains. This is a direct corollary of the multi-objective charac ter of the problems and indicates the need for diver sified expertise, which normally comes from different people. At the same time it is clear that we need to consult different data-bases with large amounts of di versified information. Coordinating the interaction of different "experts," and/or rationally using extensive data-bases with diverse scopes, is not a trivial prob lem. Current industrial practice is based on a rather inefficient segmentation of domain-responsibilities, where the control designer tries to make up for pro cess design weaknesses, or the process developer at tempts to conform the processing scheme to the chemist's dictation. 184 Required expertise is not easily articulated. The incisive knowledge that problems such as the above need for their solution cannot be easily articulated by the experts in the absence of a specific context. On the contrary, experience has demonstrated that "ex pertise" becomes active within the context of the par ticular problem they attempt to solve. Imply a disciplined use of assumptions. For most of the above problems, the degree of success depends on the amount of available knowledge and the disciplined use of assumptions exercised by the "experts." Thus, the expert resorts to a series of as sumptions, conjectures, hypotheses testing, reasoning by analogy to previous problems, assertion of inter mediate goals, etc. The results of this procedure de termine the next steps in the evolving design. Employ model s and quantitative information. In addition to expert qualitative knowledge, for the solution of the above problems designers often resort to quantitative information in the form of analytic (based on first principles) or short-cut models, correla tions tables of data from manuals or handbooks, etc. Accessing such information is normally slow and could be a serious inhibiting factor in their creative reason ing. Present day computing environments do not lend themselves easily to support such an activity. They require ad hoc programming by the experts, while the communication is mostly realized through cryptic text and command lines. Such an environment dis courages the use of computers by the experts for the creative part of their work. The existing prototypes of expert systems acquire their knowledge by interviewing the experts, from manuals and from handbooks, etc. But the interview process reveals "bits" of knowledge, the so-called pro duction rules. These rules reflect the expert's heuris tic database, accumulated from past experience. Con sequently, the extracted knowledge is limited to that which resides at the surface of the expert's cognitive abilities. Thus, rules stemming from repetitive tasks can be easily articulated. But, rules related to the syn thesis of processing schemes, process flowsheets con trol systems for complete plants, design of operating strategies, and other activities in process engineering, are highly "contextual" and thus very difficult to ac cess and articulate. Knowledge accumulated from interviews, hand books, or manuals is very poor in terms of the reason ing strategy that an expert employs to solve various problems. Thus, the ill-defined formulations of the various process engineering problems imply unstruc tured reasoning methodologies, which normally are very inefficient and frustrating experiences. Within CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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the scope of the available expert system prototypes it is extremely difficult to capture the reasoning proce dures used by the experts, which are quite complex and highly contextual. RESEARCH PROJECTS AND THE NEW PROTOTYPE OF AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEM The two deficiencies discussed above are very re strictive and imply that one needs a different pro totype in order to make artificial intelligence a viable technology in process engineering. The following are the principal characteristics of this prototype Allows the designer to concentrate on the creative aspects of his/her work Facilitates the use of computers through rudimentary nat ural language interface, and intelligent databases and graphic interfaces Incorporates the features of standardized expert systems (heuristic knowledge extracted from interviews, hand books, manuals, etc.) Contains facilities which permit the designer to articulate his/her knowledge within the context of the specific prob lem at hand, e.g. an on-line rule editor Allows the expert to formulate, on-line, during the solution of a particular problem, different reasoning strategies, ac tivated by an ad hoc articulation of the designer's own "heuristics" Table 1 lists the research projects currently under way, all of which are implementing various forms of the prototype intelligent system under development. Unlike previous or parallel efforts in artificial intelli gence, as Table 1 indicates, our research emphasis is on design-oriented intelligent systems. Let us now discuss in some more detail the main components for this new prototype: Knowledge base: Knowledge is collected from three sources: (i) lists of experiential heuristics, (ii) quantitative models, and (iii) on-line heuristics acti vated and articulated by the designer within the con text of the specific problem being solved. Facilities to capture the knowledge from the third source are abso lutely necessary because such knowledge is very inci sive and cannot be articulated out of context. Reasoning strategies: The prototype intelligent system, under development, should have a rich reper tory of reasoning strategies, which to a large extent are driven by the designer and are defined adaptively within the context of the problem being solved. Thus, the designer will be able, during the solution of a spe cific problem, to perform the following tasks automat ically: test hypotheses; define conjectures; assert, on line defined, intermediate goals; create alternatives; simultaneously carry several alternatives and evaluate them. FALL 1986 TABLE 1. Current Research Projects at the MIT-LISPE 1. "DESIGN-KIT": A System for Intelligent Engineering Interfaces and Databases 2. Process Development by Analogy 3. Synthesis of Process Flowsheets 4. Synthesis of Control Structures for Complete Chemical Plants 5. Planning and Scheduling Plant-Wide Process Control Operations 6. Intelligent Controllers 7. Operability Considerations in the Design and Control of Heat-Integrated Chemical Plants 8. Computer-Aided Modeling of Bacteria Cells for the Analysis and Development of Biochemical Processes. 9. Synthesis of Separation Systems for the Recovery and Pur ification of Proteins 10. Design of Molecules with Desired Properties Intelligent databases: The effective use of the proposed new prototype will be heavily dependent on the availability of an intelligent database which should allow: innate reasoning during the search of the database; conversational interaction with the designer through answering the designer's queries, or accept ing new elements for the tables of data; easy expan sion through permanent or temporary new entries, and identification of patterns among its elements. A rich repertory of alternative representations of knowl edge and data is also indispenable. Intelligent interfaces: The database system de scribed above should be supported by a simple and transparent interface between the designer and the computer. Thus, the new prototype includes Graphic interface with easy manipulation of graphic ob jects (e.g., process flowsheets, control loop configura tions, molecular structures, biochemical pathways, routes for operational procedures, etc.). Interaction with the graphic interface is supported by data models describing the available knowledge regarding the graphic objects. This is easily achievable through the frame description of all objects (graphic, models, etc.). Thus, the graphic objects are not empty of substance, but carry a rich content of inherited knowledge. The built-in "understanding" of the problem characteris tics by the graphic objects, which allows the graphic inter face to "draw" conclusions and to "provide" explanations, and allows the designer to concentrate on the creative as pects of his/her work. "Learning"-upgrade raw data: Process en gineering problems are often characterized by the availability of large amounts of data accumulated from past experience, experiments, extensive numerical simulations, etc. The direct value of such information is normally very low because it is simple declarative Continued on page 192. 185

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THE PROCESSING OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS S. V. BABU, PETER C. SUKANEK Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 1 3 676 F OR SEVERAL YEARS, the chemical engineering department at Clarkson has been actively in volved in the area of materials processing. One of our major areas is the processing of electronic materials: the production of high purity bulk crystals, the fabri cation of integrated circuits, and the manufacturing of printed circuit boards. Several of the faculty have worked in the electronics industry, either during the summer or on sabbatical leave, or as consultants. We have also benefitted from a graduate "co-op" program with industry in which graduate students spend six to nine months doing their thesis research at an indus trial site. In this way, they can take full advantage of a wide variety of modern equipment and qualified Suryadevara V. Babu has been a professor of chemical engineering at Clarkson since 1981 Prior to that he was on the faculty at Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur. He spent 1969-70 at the Niels Bohr Institut e in Copenhagen Denmark and at the International Center for Theoretical Physics Trieste Italy and was a post-doctoral fellow at N ew York University from 1970 to 1972. His interest in electronics manufacturing is of recent vintage and grew out of severa l summers spent with IBM H e has taught an undergraduate course, Packaging for Ele c troni cs," and a graduate course, Integrated and Printed Circuit Fabrication, severa l time s at Clarkson. {L) Peter Sukanek recei ve d his PhD from the Uni versity of Mas sachusetts. After four years with the Air Farce Rocket Propulsion Laba rotory, he joined Clarkson 's c hemical engineering department in 1976. He spent the summer of 1982 with IBM in Essex Junction, Vermont. Together with Bill Wilcox he has been tea c hing a short course on integrated circuit fabrication. He is currently on a sabbatical with Phil lips Research Laboratory in Netherlands. {R) 1 86 technicians that is often not available at a university. In this article, we will discuss some, but not all, of the ongoing research. Other areas of research that will not be described include Bill Wilcox's work on crystal growth, both on the ground and in reduced gravity environments, Don Rasmussen's work on nucleation and chemical vapor deposition of refractory materials for integrated circuit metallization, and Sandra Harri s's efforts to apply adaptive control techniques to the electroless plating of printed circuit boards. The production of integrated circuits or printed circuit boards involves the creation of successive layer s of different patterns in materials. These pat terns might be regions of semiconductor (such as sili con) doped with different materials (such as boron or phosphorous) to form transistors, regions of conduc tors (such as aluminum or copper) to form electrical connections, and regions of insulating material (such as silicon dioxide or an organic polymer) to isolate the conductor line s. Much of our research is involved with the formation of these patterned regions. Below, we discuss our efforts in the areas of resist materials, etching and laser processing. RESIST MATERIALS The most common method of creating these pat terns is to coat the substrate with a radiation sensitive organic material and then to illuminate the coating with radiation of the appropriate wavelength through a mask, as illustrated in Figure 1. If the illuminated material is more solub le in a developer, it is referred to as positive type, and if it is less sol uble, as a nega tive type. The pattern is transferred to the underlying layer in an etching step. Since the radiation sensitive material is (ideally) unaffected by the etchant, it is called a "resist." In the production of integrated circuits, it is often essential that the resist coating be both thin (on the order of 1 m) and uniform (on the order of 100 A or less). Otherwise, uniform patterns cannot be ob tained across the surface of the substrate. These films are created by spin coating. A small amount of resist Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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solution is deposited onto the surface of the wafer, which is then rotated at speeds of several thousand rpm's. The coating thins by a combination of flow ac ross the surface of the substrate and by evaporation of the solvent. We have developed a mathematical model for the coating to understand the parameters which control the film thickness and to predict the conditions when nonuniform films might be expected. The model as sumes a two component material, containing both vol atile and non-volatile species, which accounts for the mass flux from the surface from evaporation of the solvent [1]. The model correctly predicts the variation of thickness with spin speed. In addition, the model is in qualitative agreement with available data on the effects of initial viscosity and solvent volatility. Uni form films can always be obtained except when the surface mass transfer becomes turbulent or for certain spin speeds with non-Newtonian fluids. There are still a number of important items miss ing from the model. In particular, we have neglected diffusion of the solvent within the resist film and the dependence of the diffusivity on the so lvent concentra tion. By including these factors, we hope to model the conditions under which small irregularities in resist height, called "orangepeel," occur. In addition, re sidual solvent also has an effect on subsequent resist processing. Another factor to be added to the model is the effect of substrate features, such as steps, on the film uniformity. Dry film negative photoresists are commonly used in the manufacture of additively plated printed circuit boards. The resist is crosslinked on exposure to UV radiation either by photo-polymerization or by nitrene insertion into the carbon-carbon double bonds of the polymer [2]. Crosslinked regions of the resist are in soluble. CJ Yosifie ~~St D ViA W 1-rhsk H HtH Ht I 1-~estst ... _____ _J-S.,b~tr~te p 9 FIGURE 1. Positive resists are less soluble after exposure; negative resists are more soluble FALL 1986 We have developed a mathematical model for the coating to understand the parameters which control the film thickness and to predict the conditions when nonuniform films might be expected. Maintaining adequate adhesion to the substrate, as well as preserving the line profiles in such resists, demands crosslink uniformity in the exposed regions and minimal solvent-induced swelling throughout the resist film on development. Incident radiation is strongly absorbed in the top layers of the thick resist film, leading to a lower degree of crosslinking at the resist-substrate interface. Solvent penetration along this interface can cause undercutting and delamination of the resist. Increasing the incident energy dosage, on the other hand, will produce a brittle resist layer at the top. Optimization of the exposure and develop ment processes has been investigated by measuring the crosslink gradient using successive solvent extrac tions. The exposed resist-substrate adhesion corre lates inversely with the degree of crosslinking at the interface [3]. A mathematical analysis of the polymeri zation kinetics has been carried out which showed that, in a first approximation, the contrast of the re sist is inversely proportional to its optical density [ 4]. In the manufacture of VLSI devices, positive photoresists are widely used. Exposure to radiation converts a photoactive compound (PAC) to a car boxylic acid [5]. The exposed regions, containing the resin and the acid, dissolve faster than the unexposed regions in aqueous basic solvents. As in the case of the negative resists, the radiation intensity is not uniform in the resist film due to ab sorption. A pair of coupled nonlinear partial differen tial equations, one for the UV-intensity in the film and the other for the concentration of the PAC, de scribe the kinetics [6]. A rigorous and complete mathematical description is complicated because of in terference between the incident beam and its multiple reflections from the resist-substrate and resist-air in terfaces causing a standing wave pattern [7]. How ever, there are instances of practical importance where the substrate is strongly absorbing. The exact sol ution has been obtained for such situations, and has been used to determine the resist contrast in a closed form [8]. The solution has been extended to the case of con trast enhanced lithography (CEL) [9]. In this method, a thin dye or polysiloxane film on the resist improves its contrast (i.e., gives steeper side wall angles). Fi nally, the model has also been applied to the image Continued on page 208. 187

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.,(/ ctUtlue UI, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN PROCESS ENGINEERING Experiences From a Graduate Course V. VENKATASUBRAMANIAN Columbia University New York, NY 10027 O VER THE RE_CENT past, notab~e ~dv_ance~ have been made m the field of artificial mtelligence (Al) that are poised to make important contributions to various engineering disciplines [2]. Chemical en gineering, process engineering in particular, stands to make significant gains by the application of the AI methodology called "Knowledge-Based Expert Sys tems" (KEES). Briefly, AI is the study of understand ing human information processing with the aid of com puters and computational models. KEES is the first attempt towards this goal by concentrating on nar row, restricted domains of knowledge (such as those of experts), rather than tackling the entire spectrum of human intelligence. Such an attempt has resulted in some progress towards the understanding of the different facets of human cognition [13]. In this paper we discuss the organization and content of a new course that has been specifically designed for chemical engineers on the application of KEES methodology in process engineering. MOTIVATION It is becoming increasingly clear that areas such as process synthesis and design, process diagnosis and safety, intelligent computer-aided instruction and training, etc., will derive substantial benefits by in tegrating the KEES methodology into the existing predominantly algorithmic approaches. We are then faced with the question of how to go about doing this. The current approach used in the application of the KEES methodology is the so-called dialogue apIn this paper we discuss the organization and con!ent of a new course that has been specifically designed for chemical engineers on the application of KBES methodology in process engineering. Copyright ChE Di u isio11 ASEE 1986 188 Venkat Venkatasubramanian is an ass i stant professor in chemical engineering at Columbia University. After receiving his doctoral de gree from Cornell University in 1983, he worked as a research as sociate in the Department of Computer Science at Carnegie-Mellon Unive rsity At Columbia he is directing the research efforts in the "In telligent Process Engineering Laboratory," and is currently working on developing knowledge-based expert systems for process diagnosis, de sign, and training proach, where one or more computer scientists trained in AI (called the "knowledge engineers") in teract with one or more chemical engineers (called the "domain experts"), and together they develop the knowledge-based system for the given problem. This approach has the drawback that the knowledge en gineer spends a considerable amount of time and effort in learning the problem domain (say, a given problem in process synthesis or diagnosis) in order to be able to design an appropriate system. Similarly, the do main engineer spends considerable time and effort in conveying the domain knowledge to the knowledge engineer as well as learning something about AI and KEES. It seems that a better approach would be to train chemical engineers in AI, let them develop the appropriate knowledge-based systems for their prob lems, and let the computer science expert (knowledge engineer) be involved only as an occasional consultant for some difficult AI related problems which are beyond the scope of our artificially intelligent chemical engineer. Such an approach is, in fact, similar in spirit to what chemical engineers have been doing for a long CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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time. For example, the use of applied mathematics as a tool in various areas such as fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics, etc., springs to mind. Another notable example is the use of tools from operations research such as linear programming for chemical engineering problems in process design, op timization, etc. These two examples are concerned with the use of analytical and numeric tools for chem ical engineering problems. We are now at the stage of using AI tools for the symbolic computational aspects of the problems in chemical engineering. Also the standard expert systems course offered in computer science departments does not adequately fulfill the needs of the students, as discussed in the next section. With these motivations in mind, a course called "Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering" (AIPE), was developed at Columbia University to teach graduate chemical engineering students about AI and KBES. This paper discusses the various as pects of the course such as its organization and con tent, books and other material used, student projects, The purpose of the course was not to design full-scale systems, but to teach the students about the KBES methodology by making them develop prototypes. and the overall results of the course. COURSE ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT The course structure and content were specifically designed for chemical engineering students. Even though it is possible to use this course for teaching chemical engineering students with no prior back ground in AI (we had two such candidates who did extremely well), it is advisable to have an introduc tory AI course offered by a computer science depart ment as a prerequisite. Such a course is normally of fered by a computer science department at the senior or first-year graduate level, which often does not re quire difficult prerequisites of its own and thus can be TABLE 1 Course Organization LECT. TOPIC NO. 1 Introduction Overv iew of Al,AI and Process Engin eeri ng overview of LISP Ref: Vol. 1 of AI Handbook [4], Ch. 1-3 from [14] 2 Overview of Knowledge Representation Issues in knowledge representation, pedicate calculus, semantic networks and their relevance to engineering poblems Ref: Notes Ch. 5-7 from [11], Ch. 5-8 from [14] 3 Overview of Search Forward and backward chaining, depth-first, breadth first etc. with their uses in engineering Ref: Notes, Ch. 2-3 from [11] 4 Expert Systems and Process Engineering 5 6 7 Stages of KEES development, knowledge repesentation and search issues, knowledge acquisition etc Ref: Ch 1-6, 11-15 from [13], Notes Expert System Development in Process Engineering I Detailed example of an expert system development using CONPHYDE with an introdu ction to rule-based po gramming and OPS5 Ref: Ch. 1-4 from [6], [3], Notes Expert System Development in Process Engineering II Topics include knowledge representation and control in OPS5, more discussion on CONPHYDE Ref: Ch. 5-8 from [6], [3], Notes Dealing with Uncertainty Reasoning with incomplete and uncertain information, Bayesian appoaches, Dempster-Shafer theory, and Fuzzy Logic Ref: Notes, Ch. 10-13 from [7] FALL 1986 8 9 10 11 12 13 Representation of Engineering Objects and Processes Frames, Objects, Hybrid repesentation techniques for pocess engineering poblems Ref: Notes, Ch. 21,23,24 from [7], [9] Symbolic Computational Methods in Process Synthesis Architecture of blackboards, applicability to pocess synthesis Ref: Notes, [10], [1] Intelligent Process Engineering Workstations Architectural issues, cooperating expert systems, intelligent user-interfaces etc. Ref: Notes, [12] Qualitative Reasoning Introduction to qualitative physics and modeling, modeling of objects and processes etc. Ref: Notes, Ch. 1-3 from [5] Process Plant Diagnosis and Safety Model-based reasoning for pocess plant diagnosis and safety analysis Ref: Notes, Ch. 4,7 from [5] Expert System Tools and Shells for Process Engineer ing Critical evaluations of KEES tools such as KEE, ART, LOOPS, KAS, EMYCIN etc. from the perspective ofpo cess engineers Ref: Notes, Ch. 8-10, 23-30 from [13], Ch 9 from [6] 14 Projects presentation by students REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS: 1. Waterman, D., A Guide to Expert Systems, Addison-Wesley Pub., 1985 2. Brownston, L., et al, Programming Expert Sy s tems in OPS5, Addison-Wesley Pub., 1985. 3. Winston P. H. and B. K P. Horn, LISP, Second Edition, Addi son-Wesley Pub 1984. 189

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handled by chemical engineering grad students fairly well (this has been our experience). Courses that are somewhat similar to our course are offered in com puter science departments in the country, often under the title of "KnowledgeBased Expert Systems." These courses, however, are typically aimed at com puter science students and do not discuss issues that are of extreme importance to engineering students, particularly chemical engineering students. By and large the courses do not consider the developments that have occurred in engineering disciplines, the dis cussion of which is more important and meaningful to chemical engineers. Thus such courses are not suit able from an engineering point of view. As the author learned from this course, student understanding was significantly facilitated through teaching with the aid of examples from chemical engineering and exercises involving typical process engineering problems. Such a treatment is not, and cannot be, provided in a course offered by a computer science department. The AIPE course was offered for the first time in spring '86 to a class of thirteen graduate students. The organization of the lectures and the topics are given in Table 1. Each lecture was 150 minutes long (equivalent of three regular lecture hours) and was delivered once a week. Since, at this time, there are no books that appropriately address the contents of this course, we relied heavily on lecture notes. The three books listed as required texts at the end of the table were used for about 50 % of the course; the rest of the course material was covered using relevant pa pers and lecture notes. EXPERT SYSTEM PROJECTS The students were instructed to develop a rule based expert system implemented in OPS5 for a pro cess engineering problem as a part of the course. The development of the KBES was organized into six phases, where in each phase the student tries to achieve a small part of the complete system. The stu dents had about thirteen weeks (roughly a semester) to perform this task. The phases are more or less syn chronous with the lecture materials, so that in at tempting to accomplish a particular phase the student has been given the necessary background in the pre ceding lectures. Clearly these are not hard and fast deadlines and requirements, and they can be relaxed to some extent based on the individual's needs. How ever, we found them to be useful as they keep the efforts somewhat focused and allow the system to be developed in an incremental fashion, an important as pect of expert system development. These project guidelines are given in Table 2. 190 PHASE NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 TABLE 2 Project Guidelines TIMESPAN INWEEKS DESCRIPTION 2 Selection of a specific project with a synopsis outlining what the expert systern is supposed to do (check with the instructor before completing this stage). 3 Classification and comparison of the system with a similar system in the literature. Sample rules, search method, important details of the irnplernentation described. 3 Simple working prototype irnplernented in OPS5. The report should include a trace of the demo and the code. 2 Medium scale working prototype in OPS5 with search, inexact reasoning method, roughly 50% of the knowledge base implemented. Some rough form of the explanation facility must also be present. 2 Nearly finished working system; mostly debugged. Only needs to be fine tuned with improved user interface and explanation facility and augmentation of the knowledge base. 1 Working, completed expert system. Submit a full report describing the system with its merits and demerits. Include a copy of the code and a trace of the demo SYNOPSES OF SOME OF THE PROJECTS To give an idea about the content and the extent of the student projects developed in this course, short descriptions of some of them follow: An expert system using model-based reasoning was de veloped by Steve Rich to troubleshoot prototypical chemi cal plants. The system uses concepts of qualitative physics and reasons from first principles as opposed to most of the typical diagnosis systems. Due to the model-based ap proach, the system has the flexibility to diagnose different prototypical chemical plants that have the same processing units but arranged in different flowsheet configurations. The system has about 110 rules, and offers explanations at four different levels of details. A prototypical expert system that serves as a design consul tant for plastics selection, design and processing problems was developed by C-F. Chen using the blackboard architec ture. The system has about 70 rules and 30 or so frames, and uses a hybrid knowledge representation approach using rules in OPS5 and frames in Frarnesrnith [8]. An expert system for aiding pump selection was developed by Ivan Salgo using a backward chaining inference engine. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The system has about 150 rules. It knows about 20 types of pumps, 8 drive types and 40 different materials of construc tion. Karen Zilora developed an expert system for troubleshoot ing a fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) that is in operation in an Exxon plant. The knowledge base was con structed through interviews with a catalytic cracking pro cess engineer and from the Exxon FCCU Operations Guide. The expert system has about 105 production rules, of which 30 or so are concerned with the inference engine and the explanation facilities. The system knows about 27 different faults, their symptoms and cures. The expert sys tem uses a backward reasoning approach. Mike Hill developed an expert system that assists in es timating viscosities of gaseous mixtures by using appropri ate quantitative methods depending on the characteristics of the mixture. This system has about 70 rules. The ap proach here is similar to that of CONPHYDE [3], which is an expert system that recommends an appropriate equation of state or an activity coefficient method depending on the mixture properties and operating conditions. A prototypical expert system for agitator selection for reac tors was developed by B-W. Yang using a combination of forward and backward reasoning strategies The system has about 130 rules. It must be remembered that most of these systems are prototypes, limited in their performance due to the relatively small amount of knowledge they pos sess-typically about 50-70 rules of domain knowl edge; the rest of the rules are for the inference engine (about 25 rules) and for the help and explanation facilities (about 20 rules or so). These are, of course, only approximate figures. Within the extent of their knowledge the systems perform well. The perfor mance can be improved substantially by providing the systems with more knowledge, inexact reasoning techniques, etc., which would lead to the development of full-scale systems in their domains. This of course, would involve more time (typically one year or more) and effort. The purpose of the course was not to de sign full-scale systems, but to teach the students about the KBES methodology by making them develop prototypes CONCLUSIONS In the preceding sections I discussed the structure and content of a new course that was taught to chem ical engineering graduate students at Columbia Uni versity in the spring of 1986. This course addresses an emerging need to train chemical engineers in the use of symbolic, knowledge-based programming methodologies that will play a crucial role in process engineering in the future. In the AIPE course chemi cal engineering students were taught the inter-disci plinary area of artificial intelligence and process enFALL 1986 gineering using examples and exercises from process engineering. This approach is more appropriate and meaningful to chemical engineers than learning from a computer science point of view. The students, as a part of the requirement, developed prototypical ex pert systems in many areas of process engineering using the rule-based programming language called OPS5, which has been used in many important expert systems such as XCON [13). Many interesting and competent prototypes were successfully developed. The lack of an appropriate text in this area was felt very much, and we had to improvise by using existing texts and papers from the current literature. By and large this experimental course turned out to be suc cessful and will be continued to be offered once a year. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The course would not have been a success without the enthusiastic support of my colleagues, who also skillfully managed the administrative and political is sues regarding this course. Specifically I would like to thank Huk-Yuk Cheh, Jordan Spencer and Juan Asenjo for their efforts. Another important group of people who were also responsible for the course's suc cess is the set of chemical engineering graduate stu dents who took the course, served as experimental subjects, asked interesting questions, energetically developed the expert systems and made the course truly enjoyable I am grateful to them. Thanks are also due to Mark Kennedy and Tom Chow of the Col umbia Computer Center who made computer related administration a lot easier by their support. I would also like to thank G. Prokopakis for his valuable com ments on the manuscript. REFERENCES 1. Banares-Alcantara Rene "DECADE: D esign Expert for CAtalyst DE ve lopm ent," PhD thesis, Chemical Engineering Department. Carnegie -M ellon University, Feb, 1986. 2. Banares-Alcantara, R., D. Sriram, V. Venkatasubramanian, A Westerberg, M Rychener "Knowledge-Based Expert Systems for CAD," Chemical E n gi neerin g Progr ess 81(9):2530, September, 1985 3. Banares-Alcantara, Rene, W. Arthur Westerberg, D Michael Rychener "Development of an Expert System for Physical Property Predicition s," Comput ers & Chemical Engineering 9(2):127-142, 1~85. 4. Barr, A. and E. A. Feigenbaum, Eds. Th e Ha nd book of Ar: tificial Intellig ence, Heuris Tech Press, Stanford, CA, 1983. 5. Bobrow, D. G., Ed., Qualitative Reasoning about Physi cal Systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985 6. Brownston L ., R. Farrel, E. Kant, N Martin, Programming E xpert Systems in OPS5. An Introduction to Rule-Based Programm ing, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc ., Reading, MA., 1985 7. Buchanan, B. G. and E. H. Shortliffe, Eds., Rul e Based E x pert Systems, Addison-Wesley Publishers, Reading, MA 1984. 191

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8. Bushnell, Michael L., "The Framesmith Manual," Depart ment of Electrical Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, PA, 1985. Carnegie-Mellon limited distribution version. 9. Fikes, Richard and Tom Kehler, "The Role of Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning," Communications of the ACM 28(9):904-920, September, 1985. 10. Hayes-Roth, Barbara. "The Blackboard Architecture : A Gen eral Framework for Problem Solving?", Heuristic Program ming Project Report No. HPP-83-30, Computer Science De partment, Stanford University, May, 1983. 11. Rich, E., Artificial Intelligence, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, NY, 1983. 12 Venkatasubramanian V. and C-F Chen, "A Blackboard Ap proach to Plastics Design," Technical Report No. IPEL-86-01, Intelligent Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, 1986. 13. Waterman, D., A Guid e to Expert Systems. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA, 1985. 14. Winston P. H. and B. K. P. Horn LISP. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co ., Reading, MA 1984. 0 RESEARCH: Artificial Intelligence Continued from page 185. information. Nevertheless, it can be upgraded and used within the context of specific problems. Thus Accumulated data from past process designs (implemented in real life or not) can be upgraded to reveal the underlin ing patterns present in all similar flowsheets, as well as the sources of difference among different flowsheets. Analogous pattern recognition could reveal rules aiding the synthesis of control structures for complete plants. Extensive data on vapor-liquid, vapor-liquid-liquid equilib ria (e.g. DECHEMA series of experimental data) could be used to identify patterns between molecular structure and infinite dilution activity coefficients, etc. Therefore, the new prototype of an intelligent system should contain rudimentary capabilities of "learning" through a pattern recognition facility among large sets of accumulated data. EPILOG Artificial intelligence is expanding the scope of our problems and is enriching our capabilities to deliver viable solutions to otherwise hard and resistant prob lems. At the same time it is introducing new educa tional challenges that the research program at the MIT-LISPE is attempting to address and which are related to the computer-aided character of chemical process engineering, the rationalization of the man machine interaction, and the role of fundamental sci ence in engineering. Our research so far has produced more questions than it has answers, but the intellec tual excitement and practical relevance have just started to permeate the programs of graduate re search in chemical engineering. 192 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The research program described above is the work of, and rests completely on the efforts of, my graduate students: Kevin Joback, Charles Siletti, Michael Mav rovouniotis, Jim Johnston, Rama Lakshmanan, Theo dore Kritikos, Nikos Valkanas, Jarvis Cheung and John Calandranis, whose dedication is making "things" possible. D RESEARCH LANDMARKS Continued from page 173. to become more expert in surface physics, continuum mechanics, microbiology, biochemistry, large molecule chemistry, and other things I wish I could predict. We must change our educational perspective to include new things. For years, ever since I was a freshman in 1933, we have trained students as if they all were going to work for the DuPont Company. This was appropriate. The principles are no different for the future than they were for the past but we must find a new way to talk about chemical engineering if students are to be re-excited. We in chemical en gineering have a marked advantage over all other en gineers-we are the only ones who know anything about chemistry-an advantage we should work on diligently to parlay into future success. When I was a young chap at Minnesota there were almost as large a number of students in the metallurgy department as there were undergraduates in chemical engineering. Not long after that, metallurgy disap peared as an undergraduate discipline and it took al most twenty-five years for materials science to emerge from the metallurgy grave. We must be sure that we do not allow a similar fate to befall chemical engineers. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. W.Z. Nusselt, Ver Deut. Ing 68, 124 (1924) 2. S. P. Burke and T E.W. Schumann, Ind. and Eng Che 23, 406 (1931) 3. S. P. Burke and T. E. W. Schumann, Proc International Conj. on Bit. Coal 2, 485 (1932) 4. R. B. MacMullin and M. Weber, Jr., Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. 31, 409 (1935) 5. Kenneth G. Denbigh, Trans Far. Soc. 40, 352 (1944) 6. Kenneth G. Denbigh, Trans Far. Soc. 43, 648 (1947) 7. K. G. Denbigh, Margaret Hecks, and F. M. Page, Trans. Far Soc 43, 479 (1947) 8. K. G Denbigh, J. Applied Chem. I, 227 (1951) 9. E. W. Thiele, Ind. and Eng. Chem 31, 916 (1939) 10. Gerhard Damkohler, Z. phys Chem. A193, 16 (1943) 11. C. Wagner, Z. phys Chem. A193 1 (1943) 12. Y. B. Zeldovich, Acta Phys. chim. URSS 10, 583 (1939) 13. W. L. McCabe and E. W. Thiele, Ind. Eng. Chem 17, 605 (1925) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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14. E. W. Thiele and R. L. Geddes, Ind. and Eng. Chem 25, 289 (1933) 15. T. E. W. Schumann, J. Franklin Institute 208, 405 (1929) 16. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 42, 846 (1936) 17. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 43, 1 (1937) 18. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 43, 8 (1937) 19. G. Damkohler and G. Delcher, Zeit fur Elektrochemie 44, 193 (1938) 20. G. Damkohler and G. Delcher, Zeit fur Elektrochemie 44, 228 (1938) 21. R. H. Wilhelm and Robert A. Bernard, Chem. Eng. Prog. 46, 233 (1950) 22. R H. Wilhelm and P. F. Deisler, Ind. and Eng Chem. 45, 1219 (1953) 23. R. H. Wilhelm and Keith M. McHenry, AlChE J 3, 83 (1957) 24. J. W. Hiby, Symposium on the Interaction between Fluids and Particles, Paper C71 London, June 1962 25. P. V. Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 1(1953) 26. Irving Langmuir, Jour Amer Chem. Soc. XXX, 55 (1908) 27. P. V. Danckwerts, Trans Far. Soc. 46, 701 (1950) 28. P. V. Danckwerts, Ind. Eng Chem 43, 1460 (1951) 29. P.V. Danckwerts, Appl. Sci. Res. A3, 385 (1953) 30. D.Roberts and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem Eng. Sci 17, 961 (1962) 31. P. V. Danckwerts, A. M. Kennedy and D. Roberts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 18, 63 (1963) 32. C. M. Richards G A. Ratcliff and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem Eng. Sci. 19, 325 (1964) 33. M. M. Sharma and P. V Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 18, 729 (1963) 34. P. V Danckwerts, Gas-Liquid Reactions, McGraw Hill, 1970 35. Thomas B Drew, Trans. Am Inst. Chem. Eng. 26, 26 (1931) 36. G. I. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. A219, 186 (1954) 37. G. I. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc A219, 446 (1954) 38. A. P. Colburn, Trans Am. Inst Chem. Eng 29 174 (1933) 39. T. H Chilton and A. P. Colburn, Ind. Eng. Chem. 26 1183 (1934) 40. W. R. Marshall and R. L. Pigford, Appl i cation of Differential Equations to Ch e mical Engineering, Univ. of Delaware Press, 1947 41. Wm. H. McAdams, H e at Transmission McGraw Hill (1942) D REVIEW: Grad Education Continued from page 181. Engineering Education (Goals Study). The present study summarizes the data from these reports and updates this information to 1983 with many informa tive tables and graphs. For example, information in this survey includes the BS, MS, and PhD degrees awarded in engineering since 1950, the most recent engineering degrees by field and level, the PhD em ployment of engineers since 1960, the number of foreign born awarded advanced degrees in engineer ing since 1970, the changes in the student-to-faculty ratios over the last decade, the average monthly salaries offered to new engineering graduates by field since 1965, the women and minorities obtaining de grees in engineering since 1978, the average research investment per PhD degree for the top thirty adF ALL 1986 vanced degree granting institutions, and a comparison of the weekly professional activity of engineering re search faculty with those of other disciplines. The gathering of these data in one place makes the mono graph a valuable reference for all educational scholars and policy makers. The data in this study are used to predict the number of PhDs that will be awarded in engineering during the 1983-88 time period. The conclusion from such a prediction is that on the average an additional 100 engineering PhDs will be awarded annually during this period and that this will be insufficient to fill the present faculty vacancies in engineering as well as re store the student-to-faculty ratio that existed back in 1976. The study argues that the latter is necessary if the United States is to meet the increasing competi tion from those foreign nations where the productivity growth has surpassed that of this nation during the past decade. Additionally, the study notes that each engineering discipline is facing many new challenges, some of which will be difficult to meet with the present number of overloaded faculty and deteriorating facilities, particularly when interdisciplinary aspects are involved. Based on this premise, the study makes several recommendations. Not surprisingly, these recommen dations are similar to ones voiced by many concerned engineering educators for close to a decade. Many of these individuals would agree that the number of U.S. citizens pursuing doctorate work needs to be in creased (the study suggests 1000 additional students per year), the graduate stipends need to be increased to make graduate study more attractive, the facilities and equipment for research need to be upgraded, more minorities and women are needed in the graduate engineering program, stronger ties need to be developed between industry and engineering edu cation, and a stronger MS program needs to be avail able for part-time industrial students to aid in main taining their engineering competency. The study suggests that the Federal government, universities, and industry provide the necessary assistance where most appropriate. Sadly, no new mechanisms or strategies are of fered to make the needed inroads on these long-stand ing problems. There is little evidence provided to con vince policy makers that the solution of these prob lems will once again make the United States competi tive with other nations and reverse the present stag gering trade deficits. In short, the study is a good summary of what has happened in engineering educa tion over the past three decades, but it presents very few innovative ideas as to how the situation can be improved and the required investments justified. D 193

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U1, BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY MURRAY MOO-YOUNG University of Wat e rloo Waterloo, Ontario N 2 L 3 G1, Canada B IOCHEMI C AL ENGINEERING IS the application of biological and chemical engineering principles in the development and implementation of bio-process systems [1]. As such, it is the handmaiden of industrial biotechnology whereby these systems are put into commercial practice for the production of goods and services [2]. It is predicted that biotechnology will trigger the next industrial revolution [3] and that, within the next decade, more than 25 % of new chem ical engineering graduates will be involved in biotechnology-related activites [ 4]. These predictions are based on the current use and future potential of genetic manipulative techniques and biochemical en gineering in the development of new and improved processes and product s [5]. The following sketch of Waterloo s programs in biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology highlights its graduate courses, its research activities and its technology transfer mechanism. WATERLOO CONNECTIONS For many years the University of Waterloo has been a pioneer in high tech areas including micro-elec tronics, computer software, robotics, CAD / CAM and biotechnology. Last year, the Wall Street Journal fea tured it as the top computer school in North America ahead of MIT and Stanford. In biotechnology, Water loo has one of the oldest and largest programs in North America [6,7]. Started in 1966, the graduate program now involves "39 researchers, consisting of 7 of the 31 chemical engineering faculty members (see Table 1), 17 graduate students, 5 technicians, and 10 194 TABLE 1 ChE Faculty Members Involved In Biotech-Related Research G. J. Farquhar PhD (Wisconsin) R Y M. Huang, PhD (Toronto) R. L. Legge, PhD (Waterloo) M. Moo-Young, PhD (London) C W Robinson, PhD (UC Berkeley) J M. Scharer, PhD (Pennsylvania) G. R. Sullivan, PhD (London) Murray Moo-Young i s a professor of chemical eng i neer i ng and di rector of the Industrial Biotechnology Centre at Waterloo He was edu cated at the universit i es of London (BSc, PhD), Toronto (MASc) and Edinburgh {postdoctorote) An acti v e consultant worldwide he is the chief editor of Comprehensive Biotechnology a multi-volume refer ence treatise and B i otechnology Advan c es, on i nternational review journal. postdoctoral fellows visiting scholars and research as sociates, in addition to collaborating faculty in the biol ogy and chemistry departments. Waterloo is the first North American university to introduce a biotechnol ogy core course in its chemical engineering program, which graduates about 100 students annually In order to encourage the development of appro priate multidisciplinary "critical masses" in our biotech research, the activities have been incorpo rated into a research consortium, Guelph-Waterloo Biotech (GWB), which combines the resources of Waterloo with those at the neighbouring University of Guelph. At present, the consortium has 103 faculty members who belong to one or more of four con stituent units: animal, industrial, microbial and plant biotech centres. Biochemical engineering research is under the general umbrella of the Industrial Biotechnology Centre (IBC), which is administra tively located in the Waterloo chemical engineering department. The synergistic co-operation between several departments at the two universities has con siderably expanded the versatility and comprehen siveness of our programs. IBC has about thirty faculty members representCopyri gh t CltE D ivi sion ASE E 19 8 6 C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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... to encourage the development of appropriate multidisciplinary "critical masses" in our biotech research, the activities have been incorporated into a research consortium ... which combines the resources of Waterloo with those at the ... University of Guelph. At present, the consortium has 103 faculty members. ing 20% biological, 20% chemical, and 60% engineer ing-base expertise, and a rough 75/25 split between Waterloo and Guelph. Major aims of IBC include promotion of collaborative research among its faculty members and the provision of "windows" on biotech advances to GWB industrial affiliate members. Within its first year of operation, GWB has already signed up two European and three North American companies: Rhone-Poulenc, Drogocco, Liquid Air, Monsanto, and Allelix. COURSES Various courses are offered in biotechnology / biochemical engineering, and brief descriptions of these courses are given below. Except for the last course listed, all courses are given on a regular basis, annually. Throughout these courses, students are con stantly reminded of the necessary multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. It is noteworthy that graduates of honours non-chemical engineering tech nical programs are admitted to our programs provided they successfully complete a "qualifying" program of a pre-arranged set of courses usually lasting for one to two years of st udy. Introduction to Biotechnology Biological sys tems for the production of commercial goods and ser vices. Properties of microbial, plant and animal cells, and of enzymes used in bioprocess applications. Class ification and characterization of biological agents and materials. Quantification of metabolism, biokinetics, bioenergetics. Elementary aspects of molecular biol ogy, genetic engineering, biochemistry, microbiology. (The material is based on Reference 8.) Fermentation Engineering Application of pro cess engineering principles to the design and opera tion of fermentation reactors which are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, brewing and waste treat ment industries. Aspects of mass transfer, heat trans fer, mixing and rheology with biochemical and biolog ical constraints. (The material is based on References 8,9.) Food Process Engineering Applications of un steady and steady-state heat and/or mass transfer op erations to processing natural and texturized foods. Design and analysis of sterilization, low-temperature preservation, concentration, separation and purifica tion processes. Effects of formulation, additives and processing on organoleptic and nutritional quality. FALL 1986 Gene Splicing? Cell Fu si on ? Mutation? Natural? I I (Cell Free Organel l es?) Free ? lrm1obilized? ~------,------, \ Upstream Materials Proces si n P roducts Processin ByProducts Batch? Semi-Continuous? Continuous? Well-Mixed? Dispersed Plug-Flow? Plug flow? I FIGURE 1. Bioreactor heart in industrial biotechnology: Biology selects it, biochemical engineering determines its performance. (The material is based on Reference 10.) Principles of Biochemical Engineering Aspects of mass-transfer, heat-transfer fluid flow, cell growth and enzyme kinetics related to the design of biological process equipment. Fermentations, sterilization techniques, specialized extraction methods, im mobilized-enzyme reactor design. (The material is based on Reference 11.) Advances in Biochemical Engineering Design and control of continuous-flow processes for biological systems. Exploration of new methods of producing materials for food and medicinal purposes and of treat ing effluents. (The material is based on the current literature.) Selected Topics in Biotechnology Various courses deemed necessary at intervals. (The material is based on References 12 13 and the current litera ture.) CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES A wide range of research projects is conducted in bioprocess and bioproduct developments. As indicated in Table 2 and Figure 1, we address problems involv ing principles and applications of a theoretical and ex perimental nature. In addition to the usual research facilities, we are well equipped with computers and a range of pilot-plants including a versatile 1 ,300litre fermentation unit (the largest of its kind at a North American university) which is capable of various modes of operation (batch, fed-batch, continuous; stir red tank, air-lift). These facilities are available for graduate studies and contract research. Brief descrip tions of a representative samp le of our current re search projects follow. 195

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Transport Processes in Bioreactors In this ongoing megaproject, multiphase contact ing is used to promote transport processes for biocon version. Novel contacting devices (recirculation loops, scraped tubes packed beds) are being developed and compared to conventional stirred tanks and bubble columns for Newtonian and non-Newtonian systems. Transport phenomena and process control are the key elements of study. Codeine Production Medically important morphine alkaloid s such a s codeine are normally obtained from opium poppy cul tivated in countries with fairly tenuous governments from which Canada (and the USA) import virtually all their supplies. Work is in progress on a bioreactor battery of immobilized enzymes derived from m i cro bial and plant tissue cultures whereby readily avail able chemical feedstocks are converted into inter mediates which are then chemically transformed to codeine. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Animal cells in culture have the potential to be a source of macromolecules for diagnostic, therapeutic and processing applications. To address commercial scale production concerns, we are designing fully in strumented, computer-controlled, robust bioreactors for growing hybridomona cells in the production of monoclonal antibodies. Initially, MAb's with specific ity against a cellulase complex enzyme antigen are being used as a model test system. MBP Production Agricultural and forestry residues represent po tentially valuable renewable resources for fermenta tion processes which can be used to produce edible protein rich microbial biomass products (MBP) for animal feed or human food. We are developing novel MBP processes which are based on the aerobic mass cultivation of yeasts and fungi. Computer process simulations, pilot plant evaluations and animal feeding trials are being used to test techno-economic scenarios for both developed and developing countries. Ethanol Production A continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor based on surface-immobilized yeasts attached to inexpensive wood chips has been developed, modelled and tested for the fermentation of hexose sugars. Stable op e ra tion has been achieved at productivities comparable to or greater than any previously reported. A process for fermenting enzymatically-tran s formed pentose sugars, another component of cellulosic s u s ing the same yeasts i s under in v estigation for po ss ible process integration. Anaerobic Digestion The use of organic wastes is being tested for the production of energy (methane) and organic chemicals (fatty acids) under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Bioreactor studies include continuous and intermittently-stirred tanks and fi x ed-film trickle beds. Performance is evaluated for retention time, loading rate, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and several physico-chemical parameters Biomass Pretreatment A techno-economic comparison is made of existing and potential chemical and biochemical strategies for cellulosic biomass utilization in the production of fer mentation feedstocks s uitable for replacing or supple menting traditional substrates e. g., molasse s, starch, In particular, cellulosic material s generated a s paper pulp mill sludge and wood remnant s are being studied. TABLE 2 Current Research Areas in Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering BIOREACTOR DESIGN PRODUCT TYPES BIOPROCESSING TECHNIQUES mass transfer SCP/MBP hydrolysis heat transfer alcohols sterilization mixing methane membrane separations stirred tanks organic acids chromatography air lifts enzymes flotation packed beds biopolymers drying biokinetcs monoclonal antibodies cell disruption bio-immobilization morphinans BIOCONVERSION AGENT FEEDSTOCK TYPES m i crobial cells INSTRUMENTATION cellulosics plant cells computer control starches animal cells biosensors sugars rDNA cells data logging oils hybridoma cells modelling forestry biomass psychrophiles product assays agr i cultural biomass thermophiles economic analysis biomass pulps enzymes CAD/CAM xenobiotics 196 CHEMICAL ENGINEERIN G EDU C ATION

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Additional benefit in reduced disposal costs and en vironmental pollution control may be realized. Desulphurizatfon of Petroleum Crudes Conventional physiochemical desulphurization methods would add a prohibitive $10+ per barrel to the cost of producing fuel oil from crudes containing 3% or more sulphur. We are evaluating the technoeconomic potential of biotechnology processes for upgrading bitumen and heavy oils in a Canadian environment in terms of microbial desulphurization, demetallization and viscosity reduction. Delaying Fruit Ripening This project is focussed on increasing our under stand ing of the physiological mechanisms underlying fruit ripening as well as chilling injury s ustained dur ing low temperature storage. Using this information, we wish to develop suitab le treatment and/or contain ment strategies for extending the storage life of chil ling-sensitive fruits suc h as tomatoes. Lignocellulosic Materials Various approaches are being taken to scale up the production of microbial cellulose and to alter its phys ical characteristics during the process in an attempt to develop unique products. In addition, various white rot fungi, which are capable of lignin degradation, are being studied to produce ligninases. These are ear marked for use in the production of more fermentable feedstocks and for biobleaching. Disruption of Microbial Cells Microbial products such as intracellular proteins and hormones require cell wall disruption for recov ery. Little or no information is currently available to allow rational design of large-scale cell disruption de vices. Cell wall disruption is being studied in a high pressure capillary-flow device producing stresses of known type and magnitude. Various cell types (bac teria, yeast, algae) are being studied. rDNA Downstream Processing Studies are currently in progress to optimize an integrated 8-step process involving fermentation, re covery and purification for the production of protein gene products based on rDNA technology. Investiga tion of a unique continuous fermentation strategy which, by operating at different temperatures in each stage, will result in maximum expression of the pro teins, forms a key part of this study. It is expected that the results will produce an overall optimized pro cess model which has general applicability. Separation Membranes In fermentation technology, improved down stream processing techniques are required for the re covery and purification of intracellular bioproducts. FALL 1986 We are synt hesizing and testing a steam-sterilizable polymeric thin-film composite-membrane micro-filtra tion system, conceptualized for the separation of whole single cells (bacterial and yeast) and of cell de bris (after cell disruption) from fermentation broths without undu e damage of protein products left in the liquid fraction required for further processing refine ment. Biological Waste Management This is a multi-faceted project. One aspect involves examination of some unique microbial systems as po tentials for breaking down recalcitrant pollutants such as polychlorinated compounds as found in landfills. Another aspect deals with dynamic modelling of the activated sludge process for handling inlet perturba tions of xenobiotics. Finally, a major aspect deals with microbial regeneration of activated carbon often used for the adsorptive removal of water contaminants in industrial effluents, e.g phenols, aromatics. CONCLUDING REMARKS The sheer size of the Waterloo programs allows us to cover a full range of graduate interest in biochemi cal engineering and industrial biotechnology. This comprehensive multidisciplinary mileau is rare in chemical engineering departments. We hold an envi able record of technology transfer via the Waterloo Centre for Process Development (WCPD) (also lo cated in our department) and through Waterloo trained personnel in virtually every major organiza tion involved in biotechnology in Canada, and in parts of the USA, Europe and Japan. REFERENCES 1. M. Moo-Young, "Biochemica l Engineering'' in Encyclop e dia of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill (1986) 2. E. L. Gaden, "What is Biochemical Engineering?" in Ad vances in Biotechnology, Moo-Young, e t al (Eds.), Vol I Per gamon (1981) 3. J. Naisbitt, Megatrends, Warner (1984) 4 A. E. Humphrey, "Biotechno lo gy in the Next Decade," CEP (1984) 5. OTA/U S. Congress, Commercial Biotechnology Pergamon (1984) 6. M. Moo-Young "Biochemical Engineering Programs," GEE (1978) 7. AIChE Faculty Directory (1985) 8 J E. Bailey and D F Ollis, Biochemical Engine erin g Funda mentals, McGraw-Hill (1986) 9. S. Aiba et al, Biochemical Engin eering, Academic (1979) 10 C. W. Robinson, Personal Notes, Univ. of Waterloo 11. M Moo-Young et al (Eds.), Comprehensive Biotechnology, Pergamon (1985) 12. Moo-Young, et al (Eds.), Advances in Biotechnology, Perga mon (1981) 13. D I. C. Wang et al, F ermentation and Enzyme Technology, Wiley (1983) 197

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CHARACTERIZATION OF POWDERS AND POROUS MATERIALS ABHAYA K. DATYE, DOUGLAS M. SMITH, FRANK L. WILLIAMS University of New Me x ico Albuquerque, NM 871 3 1 M ANY RESEARCH opportunities for chemical en gineers in high technology materials center around the relationships between the voids and the solids that are an inevitable part of powders and granular materials. Ceramics with a wide range of ap plications are formed by s intering a mixture of pow ders or porous particles. Creation of pores at the sur face of a single crystal of silicon and subsequent oxida tion can be used to provide vertical isolation for VLSI devices. In heterogeneou s catalysts, reactant molecules must diffuse through the intricate pore struct ure of an oxide material to reach the active sites. The isolation of radioactive or chemical wastes de pends on the permeability of the geologic formation and any near-field man-made barriers. What is im portant to each of these applications are properties suc h as pore shape, pore size distribution, particle size, and structure of individual particles in the porous matrix. It is interesting to note that these application areas extend from traditional chemical engineering areas to high-tech ceramics and microelectronics The Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory at the University of New Mexico was created as an interdis ciplinary activity to support research efforts in a wide range of areas for which powder and porous material characterization is of interest. In addition to serving as a central facility for characterization work, the lab oratory is expected to spur the development of new characterization technologies. A number of faculty at the University of New Mexico have research interests in areas associated with the application of porous materials technology. In the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mohsen Shahinpoor has an interest in characterizing the contacts made by particles in a bed. This is impor tant to a 1;umber of engineering problems such as pow der storage, packing and flow. In the Department of Chemica l and Nuclear Engineering, A. Datye, R. Co py.i ght C hE D ivis i o n AS EE 19 8 6 198 Although research has been conducted on porous materials for a number of years by Professors Mead, Nuttall and Williams, it was in 1984 that ... Datye, Shahinpoor, and Smith joined the UNM faculty. Mead, E Nuttall, D. Smith, and F. Williams have an ongoing interest in areas such as cata l ysis, transport phenomena, energy research and materials science. A common requirement in each of these programs is to characterize porous materials. Although no one re search effort is large enough to support the equipment and manpower necessary to provide a complete characterization facility, by pooling resources we have been able to establish a state-of -the-art laboratory. This provides a sufficient user base to fully utilize the various characterization technologies and enables the laboratory to have trained personnel for each instru ment. By training undergraduate students in their junior year to operate the laboratory's equipment, we can provide at lea st two-year continuity, help them to fund their education, provide an exposure to research, and motivate them to go on to graduate school. On the other hand, this approach frees up the time of graduate students which can then be devoted to their individual research projects Although research has been conducted on porous materials (primarily coal, oil shale, catalyst supports) for a number of years by Professors Mead, Nuttall and Williams, it was in 1984 that three new faculty (Datye, Shahinpoor, Smith) joined the UNM faculty. With the research projects and equipment that was brought from their former schools, a critical mass was in place with the resources (i.e., funding, equipment, st udents) to operate a large central research labora tory. After a short period of time, the need for this type of facility became apparent to other people within the university, local industry and the National Laboratories in New Mexico (Sandia and Los Alamos). This has led to a number of funded, col laborative research projects. It also furnishes an op portunity for our undergraduate and graduate stuCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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dents to benefit from exposure to a broader scientific community. The broad experience that students are exposed to provides more information that will aid in future employment/career decisions. Students graduating from our program have, in some cases, continued their research by gaining employment with the sponsoring agencies. FACILITIES During the first two years of the laboratory 's for mal operation, equipment/instrumentation for fairly complete state-of-the-art characterization was ob tained. Sources of this equipment include previous re search projects, funding from DOE and NSF, State bond issues, and donated equipment from Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. Properties of pow ders and porous materials which we can study by a variety of techniques include Mean pore size and pore size distribution Particle size, size distribution and shape analysis Pore shape, tortuosity, formation factor, pore connectivity Specific (chemisorption) and total surface area True and apparent density Diffusivity (Knudsen, surface, etc.), permeability Adsorption parameters Coordination number, distribution of coordination number A general listing of laboratory equipment is pre sented in Table 1. Also included is instrumentation located in other departments on campus which we can readily access. A complete range of sample pretreat ment and preparation equipment is available. In addi tion to characterization instrumentation, we have facilities for powder synthesis (both vapor phase and wet-chemistry), surface modification, and sintering. Experiment control, data acquisition and data re duction in the laboratory is accomplished with a Abhaya Datye received his BTech degree from the ln dion Insti tute of Technology, Bomboy, ond spent three yeors in industry work ing in the oreos of process design ond development. H e received his MS and PhD degrees from the Uni versity of Cincinnati and the Uni versity of Michigan, respectively. His reseorch interests include heterogeneous catalysis, materials choracterization and electron microscopy of VLS I devices. (L) Douglas Smith is associate pro fessor of chem i cal engineering and co-director of the UNM Powders and Gronulor Materials Laboratory at the University of New Mexico. He received his BS and MS degrees from Clarkson College of Technology and his PhD from the University of New Mexico. Current active research progroms include porous mater ials c haracterization, microparticle synthesis, NMR imaging of porous materials and transport phenomena in porous materials. (C) FALL 1986 TABLE 1 Laboratory Facilities and Equipment Autoscan-33 mercury porosimeter (0-33,000 psia) Quantasorb flow-type surface area analyzer Quantector multiple station outgassing instrument Spin-lock 20 MHz pulse NMR Quantimet 720 image analyzer Volumetric chemisorption apparatus Dupont 990 thermal analyzer (TGA/DTA) Micropycnometer for helium density determination Flow permeation apparatus Hydrodynamic chromatograph Wicke-Kallenbach diffusion cell Chromatographic determination of diffusion /a dsorption parameters Cahn microbalance for sorption measurements JEOL 100-B TEM 1 Hitachi S-450 SEM 1 JEOL 2000-FX TEM' X-ray diffraction General Electric GN-300 300 MHz NMR' 'College of Engineering: Department of Geology: 1 UNM Center for Non-Invasive Diagnosis: number of computers including a IBM CS-9000, a DEC PDP-11/03, and several HP-85's. Extensive cal culations may be conducted on the department's Ridge-32 computer or the university's V AX-8650 super mini-computer. For very large scale calcula tions, access to the CRAY supercomputers at Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories is possible. A complete range of microcomputers, graphics terminals and plotters is available for use by graduate students. CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS In the area of catalysis, the ability to determine BET surface area, pore volumes and pore size distriFrank Williams is professor and c hairman of chemical engineering at the University of New Mexico He received his BS degree from North western University and his MS and PhD degrees from Stanford Univer sity. His research interests are in the oreas of shock wave induced synthesis and enhanced catalytic activity of materials and the c h aroc terization of the physical structure and diffusion in coal. (R) 199

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bution is very useful. One project under way in the laboratory is in the area of metal-support interactions. Professor Datye is using submicron-sized oxide parti cles as model supports for heterogeneous catalysts. The surface structure and chemistry of these particle s is much easier to understand than that of conventional supports used for heterogeneous catalysts [1]. An ad ditional advantage is that the metal crystallites can be imaged "edge-on" so that the three-dimensional struc ture of these metal particles can be seen in unpre cedented detail. Figure 1 shows an electron micro graph of ruthenium metal crystallites supported on model MgO support. The support in this case is formed simply by burning Mg ribbon in air, and it consists of almost perfect cubes with exposed {100} surfaces. Another project that Professor Datye is working on involves a study of pore size and structure in porous silicon. This is important for device applica tions where one is interested in forming an island of perfect Si on SiO 2 In addition to Professor Datye's interest in produc ing metal oxide particles for model catalyst supports, Professor Smith's students have been fabricating uni form sub-micron metal oxide spheres of very narrow size distributions via wet chemistry methods. The high degree of shape and size uniformity is illustrated in Figure 2 for silica spheres with a mean diameter of 130 nm. By pelleting these spheres, a model porous media is obtained with the same well-defined pore size and shape as observed in random packings of uniform spheres This type of solid is of interest since many agglomerated materials such as catalyst supports and ceramic green bodies have similar structure Our FIGURE 1 Burning magnesium wire in air produ c e s magnesium ox i de w i th a l mo s t perfe c t crystal fa c e s. (Mar k er = 10nm ) 200 model porous solids are used for assessing pore size measurement techniques for the study of transport phenomena in porous media and for the study of sin tering mechanisms. Conventional analysis of mercury porosimetr y data for agglomerated materials may indicate a bimodal pore size distribution even when the material is formed from uniform particles. By taking the actual structure of the solids into account, a correct descrip tion of mercury penetration into the pores and toroidal regions ( i .e particle contacts) was developed [2]. A similar analysis has been extended to the analogous problem of gas adsorption and condensation in sphere packings [3] Many times the rate of fluid transport through porous media is what one is trying to predict from given pore structure information. Conversel y one may perform transport experiments to ascertain pore structure information which may not be available from conventional techniques. We have used Knudsen diffusion measurements as a tool to study random microsphere packings [4,5]. B y studying surface transport of adsorbed gases in these solids, we hope to extract further information about particle-particle contacts Some pore size measurement techniques are not successful for large pores ( > lm). Professor Smith and collegues at Sandia National Laboratory are exploring the use of colloid tracers as a sensitive tool for size analysis in large pores. The rate of colloid migration through these large pores is a strong func tion of the colloid to pore size ratio. By studing the change of the tortuosity factor with changing colloid size, information concerning pore shape may be ex tracted [6 7] The conventional pore size measurement techniques of mercury porosimetry and nitrogen ad sorption / condensation suffer from several disadvan tages [8]. An assumption about the pore shape must be made the size of the smallest pore constriction is often measured, sample size must be small, and the porous solid must be completely dry. To avoid these problems Professor Smith and his students have explored the possibility of using NMR techniques for pore size analysis. In principle protons of water con tained in pores will undergo spin-lattice relaxation at rates related to the pore size. The smaller the pore size, the faster the relaxation. No assumption con cerning pore shape is required as the actual pore vol ume to surface area ratio is obtained. By performing 180 -T-90 relaxation measurements on a series of por ous solids with well-defined pore geometry and size the advantages and some disadvantages, of NMR analysis have been demonstrated. This project was aided by close cooperation with scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory who arranged for the inCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FIGURE 2. Electron Micrograph of 130 nm silica spheres that have been heat treated at 750C For three hours. (Marker 100 nm) definite loan of a 20 MHz pulse NJY.[R for the investiga tion. Work continues on this project as we address questions about the effects of pore shape, surface chemistry and the lower pore size limit for this technique. In addition to characterization work and powder synthesis, research is also being conducted on powder modification techniques. Professor Williams has been investigating the dynamics of shock treating inorganic materials by exposing the powders to extremely large shock waves. Four characteristic behaviors as a func tion of peak shock pressure have been observed for shock induced changes in the specific surface area of inorganic powders. Abrupt phase change, comminu tion of particles and interparticle bonding appear to be the mechanisms producing the observed response. The nature of morphological changes in powders is of interest in understanding shock activated sintering, shock-enhanced catalytic activity, dynamic compac tion, and shock-enhanced solid state reactivity. Re cently, classical BET surface area measurements were reported for compacts of aluminum oxide, zinc oxide, aluminum nitride, titanium carbide, and titanium diboride after they were subjected to control led shock loading to a mean peak pressure from 4 to 27 GPa [9]. Extension to specific surface area mea surements of shock loaded hematite, magnetite, man ganese dioxide, and well-annealed alumina powders has been accomplished [10]. Sampling from the edge, center and the bulk of shock loaded compacts of these powders reveals variation in the degree of modifica tion consistent with the calculated variation of the pressure and temperature excursions. FALL 1986 Professor Mead is using chromatographic means to explore gas diffusion and adsorption in various coals. The pore structure of coal is difficult to probe since sample compression effects dominate mercury intrusion and nitrogen cannot access the coal micro pores at liquid nitrogen temperatures. By using a number of inert and / or adsorbing tracers, a more com plete picture of the pore structure of coal will be ob tained. Professor Shahinpoor has been studying the structure of random packings of uniform spheres with the support of the National Science Foundation. By passing a reactive gas through a random sphere pack ing, for which the surface of the spheres has been coated, discoloration of the sphere surface will occur in the region of sphere contacts. From image analysis of the spheres, the coordination number, distribution of particle contacts, and the spatial variation of sphere contacts is determined. Professor Nuttall is interested in relating the reactivity of various coals to the reac tivity and concentration of the different materials con tained in the coal. In addition, he is involved with a collaborative research project with the Los Alamos National Laboratory on colloid transport mechanisms as applied to radionuclide release scenerios. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES Graduate and advanced undergraduate students may take advanced courses related to powders / porous media characterization, including: transport phenomena in porous media, powder technology, ca talysis and TEM / SEM techniques. In addition, a 3-day s hort course on porous media characterization is pre sented at UNM by members of the Powders and Granular Materials Laboartory and other national ex perts under the tutelage of the Materials Research Society. A monthly seminar series features visits from nationally recognized speakers with a wide range of backgrounds in powder and porous materials technol ogy. REFERENCES 1. Datye, A K. and A. D. Logan, P roc of EMSA, 772, (1986). 2. Smith, D. M. and D L. Stermer, J Colloid I n t erface Sci., 111, 160, (1986). 3. Smith, D M. J. Phys. Chem., 90, 2723, (1986). 4. Huizenga, D. G., and D. M Smith, AIChEJ, 32 : 1, 1, (1986) 5. Smith, D. M. AIChEJ, 32:2, 329, (1986). 6. Smith, D. M and D G. Huizenga, J. Phy s Chem., 89:11 2394, (1985). 7. Smith, D M ., AIChEJ, 32 :6 10 3 9 (1986). 8. Dulli e n, F. A. L., Poro us Media, Fluid Transport and Por e Structure, Academic Press, NY, NY, (1979) 9. William s F.L., B. Morosin, and R. Graham, Explomet 85, International Conf. on Metallurgical Applications of Shock wave and Highs train-rate Phenomena. Portland, OR, July, 1985 10 Le e Y K., F. L Williams, R. A. Graham, and B Morosin, J. Mat. Sci 20, 2488, (1985). D 201

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IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS FOR TURBULENCE RESEARCH The ASEE Chemical Engineering Division Lec turer for 1986 is Robert S. Brodkey of Ohio State Uni versity. The 3M Company provides financial support for this annual lectureship award. A California native, Robert Brodkey earned an AA degree in 1948 from San Francisco City Col lege, a BS in chemistry and chemical engineering in 1950, and his MS in chemical engineering (also in 1950)from the University of California, Berkeley. At the University of Wisconsin he received his PhD in chemical engineering in 195 2, doing a study in freeze drying. He then spent five years with Standard Oil of New Jersey in their Essa Research and Engineering Company's research facility and with Essa Standard Oil Company at their Bayway refinery. At Essa h e worked on diverse chemical and chemical engineering problems, including chemical synthesis and chemical process. In 1957 he joined The Ohio State University as an assistant professor, became associate professor in 1960, and professor in 1964. His work has be en primarily in the field of fluid mec hanics, with specialization in the areas of funda mental turbulent fluid flow, mixing, and rheology. He is the coinventor often U S patents and has writ ten review chapters in four books. He is well-known for his graduate te xt The Phenomena of Fluid Motions and th e review book on mixing, Turbulence in Mixing Operations, which he edited He has just completed coau thoring an undergraduate transport ph en omena te xt whfrh will b e published by McGraw-Hill in the ir chemical engineering series. Professor Brodkey has won numerous university, national, and international awards for his teaching and research, and hes held a number of national and regional committee posts in technical societies. He is also a member of a number of honorary prof essi onal societies and is list e d in many national and interna tional biographical references. 202 ROBERT S. BRODKEY The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1180 I MAGE PRO CESS IN G IS THE reduction of visual data (in our case, usually data on 16mm films) to a form that is convenient to manipulate on a computer Image analysis is further manipulation of the computer data to extract quantitative information. The analysis de pends on the specific research problem and is a step beyond image enhancement where the visual material is modified for improved visual interpretation as is done by NASA with space pictures. In many research areas there are operations in which understanding could be enhanced if simple photos or multiple photographic records could be analyzed easily. In the past, we have used films (both normal speed and high speed) to gain qualitative un derstanding of what is occurring, but were unable to extract additional quantitative information that would be very useful. Unfortunately, one cannot just take visual information, reduce it to digital form, and ex pect to obtain anything useful. One must first estab l ish the type of digital information needed from the visual record and then develop the software necessary to extract that information in an efficient manner, rec ognizing that massive amounts of data are involved. COHERENT S TRUC T URE S IN T URBULENT S HEAR FLOW S In the field of mixing (either for blending of prod ucts or for the promotion of chemical reactions), the turbulence generated by the mixing unit can have a major effect on the time required and the degree of m i xing obtained. While our understanding of turbu lence in such mixing vessels is still relatively poor, the approaches used for turbulence research have changed drastically during the last fifteen years. The concept of using overall averages for the mea~ and fluctuating components has given way to a more fun damental view that turbulent shear flows are com posed of a sequence of complex coherent motions or structures. Progress in turbu l ence research depends on better understanding of the mechanism of turbuCopyright C ltE Division ASEE 1986 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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lent flows gained through the study of such motions or structures. Indeed, improvements in processes in volving complex turbulent shear flows will require un_ derstanding the effect of coherent structures on the processes For many years visual photographic methods have been used to gain qualitative understanding of flow fields. We have pioneered in developing visual techniques suitab l e for studying turbulent structures, e .g utilizing stereoscopic, highspeed films of the flow. For quantitative measurements, probe methods have been the only techniques normally available. There are, however, limitations to the turbulence measurements made by conventional sensor techniques such as hot wires, hot films, or laser Dop pler methods. This is especially true for complex mea surements such as vorticity which involve derivatives of the velocity. Probes are good for time dependent information at a few points in the flow, but one can imagine the problem of probe interference that would develop if one wanted to place probes in a three-di mensional array. With the advent of modern image analysis, visual information can be converted into use ful quantitative information that will enhance under standing of these very complex processes. The immediate goal of our current turbulence re search is to demonstrate that image processing and analysis of stereoscopic films is a feasible means of obtaining three-dimensional quantitative data to help establish a mechanistic picture of coherent structures in turbulent shear flows. This would help close the gap between visual observations and anemometry measurements. To accomplish this, the detailed na ture of visually observed coherent motions needs to be converted into quantitative information. To obtain the proper information involves determination of the vector velocity field for individual events by high res olution image analysis and from this, establishing the vorticity and strain fields. This is not an easy task: recall that vorticity involves the difference between the velocity gradients. But once accomplished, it will be easier to identify coherent motions by alternate visual methods and by more extensive anemometry measurements. The former will provide the mechanis tic picture and the latter will provide the statistical ensemble averages. The final step will be to incorpo rate the physical understanding obtained into an ana lytical model of the turbulent field and of the turbulent production and dissipation mechanisms. THE FIRST PHASE OF THE IMAGE EFFORT Rather than use our complex large scale flow loop to obtain new films of turbulent flows that would be adequate for image analysis, we chose to use a small FALL 1986 The immediate goal ... is to demonstrate that image processing and analysis of stereoscopic films is a feasible means of obtaining three-dimensional quantitative data to help establish a mechanistic picture of coherent structures in turbulent shear flows. fish tank and a simple mixer. This system was simple enough to set up, modify, and use so that we did not hesitate to make even small changes that would result in improved visual images With this simple system we could easily establish optimal lighting conditions particle marker sizes, color of particles to aid in theh identification, and other factors that might help in ob taining adequate films. We first tested any major changes with a video system to help establish the light levels and then recorded the flow for analysis with a variab le speed disk camera and a Bolex stereoscopic lens. The camera could be adjusted between 16 and 400 fps and the lens was f2.8. The use of film was necessitated because of the need for high resolution which cannot be obtained by video means. The neu~ trally buoyant particles (p = 1.024) were 20-35 micro meter Pliolite (trademark for polyvinyltoluene butadiene made by Goodyear Chemica ls ) particles and were the same as we had used in our previous visual studies It was considered important in this initial work to determine if we could utilize color to help in matching the particles in the two views of a stereo scopic pair. The dyes tested were standard clothing dyes obtained at a local store. Some of these were fine but most would not dye the polymer particles. This aspect of the research is continuing with the in vestigation of organic based dyes that can enhance the color and light output from the particles. A slightly modified Eikonix linear diode array cam era was used for the digitization. The camera was not designed to digitize 16mm film and thus we modified it by building a 14" extension tube that gave the de sired magnification. It was necessary to mount the lens rigidly so that it would not vibrate and to make sure the spatial relation between the camera lens and_ picture being digitized did not move duri~g th~ per10d needed to complete the digitization. This latter involved four passes: a neutral density filter, and red, green, and blue filters to establish the particle color. The particles could be easily identified in the raw data since they were about 10 pixils in diameter at the mag nification used. The data handling problem is difficult The photo diode array is 2048 pixils wide and is mounted on an accurate stepping motor that gives 2048 positions ac ross the image. The depth of digitization can be 8 or 12 bits. In this early work we used 12 bit depth simply 203

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because we did not know what would be necessary. You can always go from 12 to 8, but not the other way around Since four filters were used at 12 bits each, a total of 32 mbytes of information was generated for each frame. This was a staggering amount of data even for our VAX 11/780. If the data were filtered and a binary output generated there are known image compression techniques that could cut the data bank by a factor of two to four. But because of the binary output (i.e., either black or white for each pixil), too much information is lost and the use of color becomes impossible. A better approach is to identify the parti cles in each of the stereoscopic views. There are about 3000 particles (we counted them once) in view and each particle has two positions (x and y) in each view for the stereoscopic pair. There is also a need to identify the color, which adds up to about 30 kbytes of information, a considerable reduc tion from the 32 mbytes previously cited. If the stereo particle pairs can be identified, then one needs only the three positions and a particle identifier or about 21 kbytes of information This is for an entire frame and is a very modest computer storage requirement. THE FIRST RESULTS AND THE PROBLEMS With a new system (toy?) there are manifold unan ticipated problems. The first color images were view ed digitally on a Megatek color graphics terminal that had 512 x 512 resolution and could provide up to 16 colors. The light balance was totally unsatisfactory (very low levels of blue); thus, we had to develop means of normalization of the light outputs from the three filters to obtain a reasonable color balance. We later learned that the unbalanced light problem was with a jumper that had been mistakenly left in place when the Eikonix system was installed. It was easily removed and the problem resolved. A more critical problem was the low level of light available because of the 14" extension tube used be tween the sensor and the lens. The 12 bit digitization depth helped here, but our accuracy was not great. We have now rectified this problem by using a fiber optic light source that was available for our visual studies. Our images are for the most part 16mm films and the physical size of the source need not be great. The standard Eikonix light source is large in order to accommodate a variety of subject formats. Once we converted to the alternate light source, we found that the 8 bit digitization was satisfactory and that we could utilize the entire digitizing range. We have just installed a modification to the Eikonix that allows further versatility by allowing the integration (and scanning) time to be adjusted as a function of the light 204 level available. The combination of a variable high in tensity fiber optic light source and a variable sampling time now gives us complete control. A final and most difficult problem was the discov ery of the limitations of digital terminals Sixteen col ors sounded like a lot but in actuality are quite limit ing when one wants to reconstruct an image in color. Digitally, every color, shade, mi x ture etc is a differ ent color in the digital sense; thus, 16 colors do not go far. We spent many hours in attempting (actually more of value as a learning experience) to reconstruct a simple 10 color image that was photographed from the Megatek terminal after being constructed digi tally, processed by Kodak (Figure la), digitized by the Eikonix and reconstructed on the Megatek (Fig ure lb). The results are not impressive and the lesson to learn is that total digital image analysis is not the best route. A workstation that provided a video out put can handle the full range of colors and will be discussed later. THE REAL PROBLEM The real problem is a 16mm image pair that contain some 3000 particle s in various colors. The job to ac complish is to exactly match each particle that exi s ts in both pairs, determine from this information their locations in space, and track them frame to frame in time. Figure 2 is a picture of such a real frame Figure 3 is a digitization through the red filter (as an exam ple) of such a frame The information contained in four pictures (the neutral density image for the specific particle location "ii C ~ f ('I Ill )( ('I Ill 0 E l ,, 4' .t:. 0. e Ol 0 0 .t:. 0. C 2 ti C 8 0 0 u ci 4' E 4' -= C 0 ,, 4' >, 0 'ii ,, C 0 ,, 2 ti C 8 2! ,,-~ 'ii o ci, ii: :o DO:.!: ::, E C) 4' u. 0 E l ,, ::, ,, e 0. 2! 0 ... 0 0 .t:. Ol ::, e -= ('I ci, ii: 0 t 0 0. "ii 5 0 ... 0 C !! 0 -~ c ..; w DO: ::, C) ii: ... 0 0. ::, e Ol .f M ci, ii: 0 "' ;;; >, "ii C 0 "' w 4' DO: u ::, C) t il: g_ 4' E _g u a. 0 :;: 0 2! 4' ti 4' C 0 0 2! a. C !! 1 2! ,, ; 2! 0. E 0 u .,; w DO: ::> C) ii: 0 0 0 8 ci, ii: ... 0 I!! 0 C 4' ::, IT :l: 4' ::, Ji ,, C 0 c 4' 2! Ol ,,4' DO: .; .a o w DO: ::, C) ii: :t 0 il 4' a. E ;;; 0 :l: ::, >, .D. ci, ii: ... 0 c 4' E C 0 .t:. C 4' 4' Ol ,, w .; A a CII) w DO: ::, C) ii: CII) ,, C 0 .; Ol ii: ... 0 f ;;; 0 0. E 8 ,, C .i C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDU C ATION

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"Tj t'" t'" ...... &i m 0 Ol FIGURE la FIGURE Sa FIGURE 1 b FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7a FIGURE Sb FIGURE 2 -r,. ,:. ;'_. : :: ~; : c., ~ . L 3 13 p 2'!!16 ROA" u,., FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7b FIGURE Sc FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 1 \. ; t S! E: P 1 e49 Re o e1 3 D T' ---. FIGURE 7 c FIGURE 9

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We learned the limitations of the equipment ~nd how to improve or circumvent the problems introduced by these limitations. and the color filter images for the color) was processed t? det~rm~e the location and specific color of the par ticles m view. Forty (40) particles were selected di rectly !rom the 16mm film and were selected as repre sentative of several groups: bright, medium, and faint particles that were not dyed (white) or were dyed red or blue, or were unknown (only three colors were used in this initial effort). This was the learning test for automatic identification. These forty particles were used as the control for making sure the computer pro gram could properly identify the particle location and color. Once satisfied that these particles could indeed be identified correctly, then the entire digital image :,vas proces~ed. The processing of the digital image mvolved usmg a simple cut-off filter for the back ground and a threshold level for edge enhancement If the level was set high, then only a few particles were located. Figure 4 is an example for the brightest group of particles (108) If the brightest 50 % of the particles were considered, the number rose to 619. It should be understood that only the crudest of image processing techniques were used in this initial effort. Although not a major part of the initial effort, we tracked a few particles frame by frame to make sure that the filming speed was in the range where particle tracking would not only be possible but relatively easy; i.e ., a range in which the particles do not travel far from one frame to the next so that there would not be mistakes in following individual particles. Once established as true, nothing further need be done with this information until the time comes when the parti cles in a series of frames have all been identifi ed. By this initial effort we learned a great deal. We l earned the limit ations of the equipment and how to improve or circumvent the problems introduced by these limitations. We learn ed that we could produc e h~~h quality color films that could be adequately di gitized so that location and co lor could be established. And very importantly we learned of a need for an image analysis workstation that wou ld avoid the need of reconstruction of the images digitally and a ll ow most of the calculations to be done on it in a parallel manner rather than directly on the VAX 11/780. This latter conclusion resulted from the time estimates for our various programs to run on a full (2048 x 2048) color frame and the neutral density counterpart For example, about 12 minutes were needed to digitize the full image, about 50 minutes to identify the parti cle positions, less than 5 minutes to classify the parti206 cles and assign their colors, and sev eral hours to put it all together into a displayed final reconstructed image. Not very efficient. THE DIPIX ARIES Ill IMAGE WORKSTATION For a great deal of money, mo s t of the preceeding problems can be avoided and one can operate in near real time by using one of several commercially avai l ble workstation systems After much debate and com parison, we chose the Dipix Aries III system. Thi s system, when used in conjunction with the Eikonix camera, forms a powerful tool for the obtaining and modification of visual information. It would be nice to show a number of familiar images to demonstrate the versatility; however, the cost of color reproduction makes that impossible. The best way to see it is to come to Columbus and see for yourself. But some examples are necessary to illustrate the capability and these will be taken from our particle identification work. Figure 5 is a stereo-pair taken at full resolution but compressed here by a factor of four in both the horizontal and vertical direction so that it would fit. Figure 6 is a color segment at full resolution of a small part of the right hand stereo-view of Figure 5. The sequence shown in Figure 7 are the individual filtered pictures of Figure 6 and Figure 8 shows the applica tion of a simple cut off of the same data to enhance the edges. Far better edge detection schemes are available, such as maximum derivative detectors and we are in the process of investigating these. Th~ en hanced images can be overlayed to give a false color representation of the individual particles to aid iden ~ification. Rather than this we show Figure 9, which is a four window composite of the same information Careful studies of these images show that it is easy, even with this simple image processing, to identify the individual particles and their color. There should be no problem in doing this automatically with the computer. B_eyond these simple techniques we have a full bag of tricks to help us in the particle identification task. One experimental effort that is under way is to im prove the dyes being used and the light source so that the particles act as intense sources of light at any selected color. The use of organic dyes (we would use mixtures of red blue, and green dyes to form any out put color desired) in conjunction with ultraviolet light shows promise. Spatial filter techniques can be used to process the image to eliminate the background noise of particles that are not in the field of view and the grain of the film, etc. Gradient edge enhancement techniques can C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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be used to outline the particles more re liabl y Warping or rubber sheeting can be used to alter and match the two views to a standard grid scale so they exactly match each other and an easy to use reference grid Colors can be identified as we have done and then a ser ie s of false colors can be assigned. Sizes can be estimated as well as orientation, roundness, rough ness, etc., that subsequently can be used to help iden tify the corresponding particle in the other stereo view and thus set the stage of the three-dimensional location of the particles. But all this is for the months to come. THE FUTURE The three-dimensional location of each particle in the field of view is in the future, but it is our im mediate goal and we fully expect to have this task accomplished shortly. But where from there? For ac curate positioning, account will be taken of the bend ing of the light rays as a result of slight differences in the viewing angle. This is a well known calculation and can be taken into account when the position is determined from the positions in the two stereo views. For tracking we are working on careful and accu rate registration of the films frame to frame so that the tracking will be accurate. An old 16mm film pro jector has been obtained from surplus and is being modified into a frame registrar device The old lens is now the fiber optic light source and the Eikonix looks at the film from the side of the old light source. During tracking we must take into account the possibility of particle overlap or blocking. This may involve an iter ation and backtracking in time so that we can accu rately estimate the particle location in the frame in question. We have seen partial blocking in some of the frames already, but we do not know the extent of the problem. The velocity can be determined by standard multipoint sloping techniques that give the best esti mate of a slope from five or seven points We will look into the representation of the isovelocity contours by three-dimensional mapping techniques This would be a better approach than trying to determine vortic ity directly from the particle path data. If the contours can be established with the desired degree of accu racy, then derivative methods can give the velocity gradients and thus the vorticity and strain fields. Fi nally, CAD graphic techniques will have to be utilized to display the vast amount of information about the flow field that will be obtained. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are two groups of very important people FALL 1986 POSITIONS AVAILABLE l se CEE's r eas onable rates to advertise. Minimum ratP 1 1x page 550; each additional t"Olumn inch $20. MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY Applications are invited for appointment to a tenure track posi tion in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Michigan State University. This position is jointly supported by the Com posite Materials an d Structures Center (CMSC) and provides an excellent opportunity for an individual with research and teach ing interests in polymeric material science and engineering, polymer processing and/or composite processing. Michigan State has recently made a strong commitment to composite materials with the establishment of the CMSC in the College of Engineer ing. This provides faculty with the opportunity to conduct indi vidual and joint research program s and to teach in an academ ically rich and well-supported environment containing state-of the-art research equipment and facilities. In addition Michigan State is located in close proximity to a large number of polymeric materials industrial concerns including automotive, furniture, and agricultural research centers of the state provid ing many consulting and collaborative research opportunities. Interested individuals should apply to Dr. L. T. Drzal, Chair person of Search and Selection Committee, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lans ing Michigan 48824-1226. Salary and rank are commensurate with experience and accomplishments. Michigan State Univer sity is an Affirmative Action-Equal Opportunity Employer and welcomes applications from women and members of minority groups that have made this work possible. Kris Lakshmanan is the author of the preliminary studies and helped evaluate and select the image workstation. My cur rent students involved with this project are L. Economikos, K. Russ, and C. Shoemaker; the present and the future are in their hands. The second group are those who have helped support our effort. The Erna and Victor Hasselblad Foundation of Sweden provided the funds to obtain the Eikonix camera. The Atlantic Richfield Foundation and The Ohio State University have made obtaining the Dipix Aries III system possible. The Dipix company made significant contributions in the form of hardware and a coopera tive agreement to obtain source code material as needed. The Megatek 1650 color graphic terminals came to us through the generosity of the university, the Co lleg e of Engineering, our department, and the Megatek Corp. The university has been a major factor in the support of the previously cited students. Fi nally, the personnel of the Koffolt Computer Graphics Laboratory, Jeff Hulse and Dave Jones, have been most helpful both in managing the facility and in pro gramming the special needs as they develop. 0 207

PAGE 54

ELECTRONIC MATERIALS Continued from page 187. reversal process [10], where an additive to a positive acting resist converts it to a negative one without any swe lling-induced distortions. Once images are formed in the resist, the pattern is transferred to the underlying layer in an etching step. In many dry etching operations, where the waf ers are exposed to a gas plasma, surface reactions and ion bombardment cause the temperature to rise If the temperature is too high the resist "reflows." Line widths and angles change, changing the shape of the etched region. In some gas environments, the combi nation of increased surface temperature, resist sur face reactions, and solvent evaporation cause the re sist to "reticulate." Under a microscope, the resist appears to have changed from a smooth s urfac e to one which is severely wrinkled. In many cases the resist becomes quite difficult to remove, even with very ag gressive solvents We have begun to investigate the cause of these phenomena [11]. They are related to the chemical make-up of the resist materials, the amount of solvent still remaining in the resist, and the surface tension induced flows in the resist images during heating and etching At sufficiently high temperatures, chemical reactions in positive resist can cause crosslinking. In many cases, before these crosslinking reactions make the images immobile, the residual so lvent lower s the glass transition temperature sufficient l y to cause image deformation. Chemical modifications of the re sist surface during an etch of the underlying film changes the surface properties and can alter the ex tent of the modification. One way to avoid ima ge deformation is to treat the resist before it is subjected to high temperature. One recently popular method is to use ultraviolet light at a wavelength where the resist material strong l y ab sorbs. In this way, the effect of the radiation is localized to the resist-air interface. We have been examining the relationship between processing condi tions and image size and shape, trying to optimize th e treatment for different applications [11] ETCHING To replicate the resist pattern in the underlyin g layer, an etching step is used. Originally, a liquid sol vent was employed. For example, if silicon dioxide were to be patterned, the resist coated wafers were immersed in a hydrofluoric acid bath. The HF dissol ves the oxide, but l eaves the resist and the silicon untouched. As discussed below, such "wet" etching methods are being replaced by dry or plasma etching. 208 fies,~t Mtl<-,n Fi/,.. t. be: ckJ .S 0 bdute FIGURE 2. Wet etching is usually isotropic, and leads to problems patterning small dimensions. Plasma etching is often directional However the method i s still in widespread use. We have studied the etching of s ilicon dioxide by buffered HF solutions to determine the effect of pro cessing conditions on the etch rate. In some cases it is possible that certain images, with sizes from 3 to 10 m, will etch at a much slower rate than those of other sizes. We have shown that this is due to air bubbles trapped in the cavities. A thermodynamic analysis of the stability of the bubbles as a function of such variables as surface tension and resist sidewall angle correctly predicts whether or not the images will etch [12]. One of the reasons wet etching has declined in use is that the etching is usually isotropic, proceeding at the same rate in both the lateral and vertical direc tions. As illustrated in Figure 2 thi s limits the density of images which can be reproduced on the surface In many instances, directional etching can be achieved by etching in a reactive gas environment formed in a glow discharge This method is called plasma etching or, when there is ion bombardment of the material to be etched, reactive ion etching. The radicals and / or ions in the plasma discharge react with the film to form vo latile species. The discharge consists of mostly undissociated feed gas molecule s, very energetic elec trons (with temperatures exceeding 20,000K), neutral radicals, and negative and positive ions. The plasma is not in thermal equilibrium, as the temperature of the heavier species is only about 500K. Nevertheless, the processes occurring in a plasma reactor are akin to those in conventional gas-solid reactions: genera tion of reactive species in the gas phase, diffusion of these sp ecies, adsorption on the so lid surface, surface reaction, product desorption, and product diffusion. Different steps control the etch rate in different etch ing syste m s. The discharge is sustained by an RF power s upply. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The presence of associated electric fields significantly complicates the chemical kinetic analysis of such sys tems. Modeling the electron, ion and radical transport and the coupled chemical kinetics under these condi tions is an active area of current research at Clarkson. A program available from the Joint Institute for Lab oratory Astrophysics in Boulder [13) has been mod ified and extended to calculate the electron energy distribution functions and the associated rate con stants for a large number of simultaneous reactions occuring in the plasma discharge Polymer and silicon etch rates in CF 4 + 0 2 discharges have been modeled under steady state conditions [14). We have also been studying the reactive ion etch ing of silicon dioxide, and metals and metallic com pounds. Using a simple mechanism for oxide etching, we have developed a model for the etch rate which does an excellent job in correlating data from a number of different reactor geometries [15). The DC bias of the oxide surface appears to be one of the most important factors in determining the oxide etch rate. For metal etching we are using a technique called reactive ion beam etching Plasma processing was first used to remove or ganic polymeric materials. In the manufacture of multi-level printed circuit boards (PCB's) plated through-holes extending from the top to the bottom of the board facilitate buried signal and power plane interconnections. Under high speed drilling condi tions, the temperature of the dielectric organic mate~ ial between the conductors exceeds the glass transi tion temperature, and the conductors are covered by a very thin layer of the dielectric. This smear consists of the organic and fine pieces of the glass reinforcing material present in the laminate. Desmearing of the conductors before plating the through-holes can be achieved in CF 4 + 0 2 plasma disharges [16). Considerable effort has been devoted to elucidate the complex chemistry of the etching of organic polymers in CF 4 + 0 2 plasma discharges. At low ( <3 0%) CF 4 concentrations in the feed gas, the steady state etch rate of organic polymers is significantly en hanced over that in pure oxygen. An increase in the gas phase concentration of atomic oxygen and the fas ter hydrogen abstraction by flourine atoms are primarily responsible for this increase At higher ~! 4 concentrations, however inert fluorocarbon moe1t1es form on the polymer surface and inhibit the etching process. We have studied the role of these competing mechanisms in determining the etch rate [17). It has also been discovered that the etch rate of organics, as measured by laser interferometry, increases "momen tarily" by several orders of magnitude before return ing to the normal steady state value when the feed FALL 1986 gas composition is switched from one that is rich in CF 4 to pure 0 2 [18). Such a transient response is not completely understood yet. Emission spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence are being used to mea sure the concentrations of the short-lived reactive species in order to understand more about etch mechanisms. EXCIMER LASER PROCESSING The use of lasers in electronics manufacturing is widespread and is gathering momentum. Several ~n novative applications have been proposed. These clude direct writing maskless dry lithography, en hanced plating, metal deposition repair of open con ductors, drilling, annealing ion implanted damage, polysilicon recrystallization, oxide growth, etc. At Clarkson an excimer laser operating at 194 and 245 nm has been employed for drilling polyimide, for cop per deposition and for establishin gt he feasibility of sub-micron etching of polysilicon with NF 3 Polyimide is used as innerlevel dielectric in multi chip VLSI packages [19). Electrical contact between signal planes can be established by drilling vias in polyimide and plating them with copper. Intense (up to 10 J / cm 2 fluence) pulses have been employed in this study and drill rates of about a micron per pulse have been attained. Both a photochemical and a thermal mechanism contribute to the polymer ablation [20). Plating of copper films has been achieved in prelimi nary experiments in which spin coated films of copper formate are exposed to the excimer radiation [21). Polysilicon is etched by F-atoms obta~ed by the la ser induced dissociation of NF 3 The NF 3 molecules are adsorbed on the polysilicon surface at sites generated by the incident laser pulse. The adsorbed molecules dissociate on the surface, and the F-atoms generated are highly reactive and etch the polysilicon locally If lateral diffusion of the F -atoms is indeed negligible then direct writing of sub-micron lines on polysilicon should be feasible [22). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank IBM, Essex Junc tion and Endicott facilities, Honeywell and the Na tional Science Foundation (Grant No. CBT-8507068) for support of the work summarized here. REFERENCES 1. Sukanek, P. C., "Spin Coating," J Imag ing T ech, 11, 184, (1985) 2. L F. Thompson, C. C. Willson and M. J Bowden, editors, "Introduction to Microlithography," ACS Symposium Series 219, Washington D C, (1983) 209

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3. R.L. Geary, S V. Babu and J. Stephanie, in the Proceedings of the Symposium on Surface and Colloid Science in Computer Technology, K. L. Mittal, Editor, Potsdam, 19 85 (in Press) 13. W. L. Morgan, JILA Information center report No. 19 Boul der, Colorado, 1979 14. V. Srinivasan, M S. Sivasubramanian, and S. V. Babu, Pro ceedings of the 7 th International Plasma Chemistry Sym posium, p1405, C. J. Timmermans (Editor), Eindhoven, 1985; and T. Daubenspeck and S. V. Babu (to be published) 4 S.V. Babu and V. Srinivasan, IEEE Trans Electron Dev ED32, 1896 (1985) and J.J,rnaging T ec h. 11, 168 (1985) 5. J. Pacansky and J R. Lyerla, IBM J Res and D ev 23, 42, (1979) 6 F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P S Hauge and J. M. Shaw, IEEE Trans Electron Dev ED-22, 445 (1975) 15. Sullivan, G. and P. C. Sukanek, "A Simple Model for Reactive Ion Etching of Silicon Dioxide," submitted for publication 7. F. H. Dill, A. R. Neureuther, J. A. Tuttle and E. J. Walker, ibid, ED-22, 456 (1975) 16. R. D. Rust, R. J. Rhodes, and A A. Parker, Solid State Tech 27(4), 270 (1984) 17 S. V. Babu, L. Tiemann, and R. E. Partch, Proceedings of the 7 th International Plasma Chem i stry Symposium, p1025, C. J. Timmermans (Editor), Eindhoven, 1985 8. S. V Babu and E. Barouch, IEEE Electron Dev Lett EDL-7, 252 (1986) 9. S. V. Babu and E. Barouch and V. Srinivasan, Submitted to IEEE Trans Electron De v 10 S. V Babu, IEEE Electron Dev Lett EDL-7, 250 (1986) 18. J F. Rembetski M.S. Thesis, Clarkson University (1985) and J. F. Rembetski, W E. Mlynko J. G. Hoffarth, and S. V Babu ibid, pll00 11. Sukanek, P. C., "P hysical and C hemical Modifications of Photoresist," in P. Stroeve (ed), Chemica l and Physical Pro cess in g of Integrated Circuits, ACS Symposium Series No. 290, 95, 19 85 19. R. J. Jensen, J. P. Cummings, and H. Vora, IEEE Trans Comp Hybrids and ManufTech CHMT-7, 384 (1984) 20. V. Srinivasan, M. Smrtic, and S. V. Babu, J App Phys 59, 3861 (1986) 12 McAndrews, K. and P. C. S ukan ek, "Nonuniform Wet Etch ing of Silicon Dioxide ," submitted for publication. 21. M Ritz and S. V. Babu, (unpublished) 22. M. Armacost, M.S. Thesis, Clarkson University (1986) D A Abbott Michael M. ---------XVIIl,50; XIX,62 Abd-El-Bary, M.F. ----------XVl,118; XVIl,28 Abdul-Kareem, H.K. ----XVII,78 Abraham, W H. ------XVIl 10 3 Afacan Artin -------XVIIl,132 Ahmed Moin -------XVIl 46 Alonso, J. -------XVII,34 Amundson Neal R. -----XX,168 Andrews, Graham F ----XVIIl,112 Aris, Rutlierford -XVI,50 ; XVIl 10,53; XX,77 Asfour Abdul-Fattah A. --XIX,84 Azevedo, E.G. --------XX,7 B Baa se l, William D. ------XVI,26 Babu, S.V. --------XX,186 Baer A D. --------XVl 56 Bailey J.E. ----------------------XIX,16 8 Baili e, Richard C ------XIX 1 82 Baird, Donald G. ---XVl 174; XVIII,73 Baldwin L.B -----XVII,70 Barber Martin S. ------XIX,2 Barduhn, Allen J. ------XVIIl ,38, 102; XIX,171 Bark e r De e H. ------XVI,1 8 2 Bartholomew, Ca l vi n H ---XVIIl,180 Beckmann, Robert B. ---------XVIII 37; XIX 6 Belfort, Georges --------------------------XIX, 172 Bell Kenneth J ---XVI,108 Bethea, R.M ---------XVl 167 Bird R. Byron -----XVII 184 ; XX 160 Bla ck, James H ------XIX 11 8 Blackmond, Donna G -----XX,174 Bolles, William I. ----XVIl,137 Bonin, Hugu es W ----XVIIl 60 Brainard Alan J ------XVIl,105 Brestovansk_y, D.F. --XVI,76 210 AUTHOR INDEX Britten, Jerald A. XVIIl,140 Brodkey Robert S. XX,202 Bungay H.R. XX 122 Burnet, George XX,101 Burnet John XVIl,112 Buxton Brian ------------XIX,144 C CACHE Corporat ion -XX 19 Cadman, T. W. ---------XIX,6 Carberry, J.J ------XVI 107 Case, Stuart M -------XVI,98 Cassano Alberto E. ------XIX,35 Chao, K.C. -------XX,66 Chari Sriram -------XVl 11 8 Charos Georgios N. ------XX,88 Chau, Pao C. --------XIX,150 Chawla, R a m es h C. -----XVIII ,3 0 C h e n W.H. -------XX,181 Chen W.J. ------XX ,82 C il ento, E V -------XVll,110 Clancy Paul e tt e -------------XIX, 7 8, 1 3 2; XX ,88 C lark J. Pet er -------XVl ,3 4 C l ements, L.D. -----XVl,167 Collins E.V. --------XIX,45 Conger, William L. -----XVIl 9 8 Conv e rse, Alvin 0. --------------------XVIII,1 8 6 Cor ripi o, Armando B. ----------------XVIII 14 Cosg ro ve, Stan l ey ------------------------XVI,6 Couey, Paul R. --------XX 4 Coug hlin, Robert W -----XVl,9 8 Co ulman, George A ---XX 124 Crosser, O.K ------XIX 6 8 Cu lb e r s on, Oran L. -----XVl,205 Cus s l e r E.L ----XVIII,124 D Dal e Dick ------XVIl,94 Datye Abhaya K. ------XX,198 Daubert, Thomas E -----XVII,108 Davis, Mark E. ------XVIl,144 Debelak K e nneth A. -----XVI,72 Debenedetti, Pablo G ----XVIIl,116 Delcamp Robert -------XVl 6 Delgass, W. Nichola s -----XX,60 De Never s, Noel -------XVl 1 8 6; XVIIl,128 D enn, Morton M. ---------------XX, 1 8 Deshpande, Pradeep B ---------X IX,44 ; XX,43 Desrosiers, Ray E. ------XX,94 Dixon, A G. --------XVII,138 Duda, J.L. ----XVIIl,156; XX,164 Dullien, F.A.L. ------XVl 164 Dus s an V., Elizabeth ----XVIIl,160 E Edi e Dan D. -----XVII,2; XVIIl 196 Elliott, David XVIII, 1 3 6 Elorriaga, Javier Bilb ao ----XVIII 74 Eng e l Alfr e d J. -----XV II 77 Eubank, P T. ------XVIl,124 F Fahid y, T.Z. XX,77 Fahi e n, Ray W. XX,3,100,163 Fair, James R. XVIII,190 Falcon e r, John L. ------XVIII,140 Fan L. T. -------------------------------XVIII,109 F a rquhar, Brodie --------XIX, 110 F e ld e r Richard M. XIX,12, 17 6 F e nn John B. XVl,190 Finla yso n, Bruce A XIX ,35; XX,150 Fogl e r H.S XVIII 9 8 Foord A XIX,1 3 6 Frank Ctutis W. XVl,122 Frank Da vid V ------XVII 117 Fredrickson A.G. XVIl 64 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Friedly, John C. XVII,27 Kim, Sa ngta e XX,152 p Furgason, Rob ert R. XX,58 Kin g, C. Judson XX 121 P a llai, I.M XVIII,66 G Kin g, Franklin G. XVIIl,30 Paterson, W R XIX,124 Kono Hi sashi 0. XIX,182 Patterson, G.K. XVIIl ,2 03 Gallinger, Floyd H XX,28 Kopp e l L owe ll B. XVII,58; XX 70 Peppas, Nicholas A. XVI,126 ; XX,60 Gates, B.C. XVII 16 Kummler, R.H. XVIIl,98 Pigford R.L. XV II 1 6 Glandt Eduardo D XVII,50; XX 110 Ku r i Ca rlo s J. XVIII,14 Prausnitz J.M. XIX,22; XX,7 Golnaraghi, Mar ya m X IX 1 32 Kut O.M. XIX,128 Pritchard Co lin XX, 13 2 Go m ez, Roman XV I 1 32, 19 6 L Q Gonzalez-Velasco, Juan Ramon -------XVIII 74 Queralt, R XIX 12 8 Goodrow, Ca rol A XVI,44 La n e, Michael S. XX,92 Graham B .P. XIX,186 Lauff e nbur ger, Douglas A. R Green, A l ex E.S. XIX,203 XVII,50; XVIIl 160 ; XX,110 Radovic, Ljubi sa R XIX,204 Greenberg, D av id B. ---------XVI,6; XVIIl 199 Laukhuf Wald e n L S. XX 43 Ramanara ya nan Kuttanch e ry A. --------XX,36 Grethlein, H ans E. XVIIl,186 Lawson David W XVI,44 Ramkrishna D XVI 43,82 Griffin, Ann XVII,74 L ee, H H. XV II ,85 Rao Y K. XIX,40 Gros sc hmid, P P. XV IIl ,66 Lee P.L XIX,36 Ravichandran, V. XIX,140 Gr ulk e, Eric A. XX, 1 28 Leise Thomas H. XVI, 11 0 Rawling Jr., F L. XVIII,9 Gubb in s, K e ith E. --------X IX 78 1 32; XX,77 ,88 Lemlich, Robert XVI ,6 Reif, Rafa e l XVII,148 Gupta, Sa nt os h K. XX ,84 L enz i J. XV III ,88 Ricker, N.L. XVI 9 3 H Leung, L. S X I X,36 Robert so n C h anning R. XVl,122 L eve nspiel Octave XV I ,24; XX,7 Rochefort Skip XIX 1 50 Had l ey Coates, Lyndon XX,69 Licht Willi a m XVI,6 Romeo, Ronald A. XVI 44 Hail e, J M. XVII,2; XVIIl,19 Lightfo ot, E.N XIX,29 Rose, L.M. XIX,128 Hall K R. XVII 124 Lin, H s in Yin g XX,78 Rosner, Daniel E. XVII 141 Ha ll man John R. XVI 29 Littl e, Julia E. XVII ,54 R ot h John A. XVI,72 Halp e rn, Br et L. XVII,86 Loma s, D. XVIl ,34 Ruijter, K ees XVIII,34 Hanesian D era n XVIII,56 Lu ec k e, Richard H XX,78 Russell, T W.F XVI 76 ; XIX,72 H a nn a, O.T. XIX ,8 2 Lu ss, Dan XX 12 R ya n Norman W XIX,114 H a ny ak, Michae l E. XIX,26 Mc H ar p e ll John L. XX,92 Ha se man Jeffr ey T. XVII,112 McAvoy, Th omas J. XVI,88,94 s H ass l er, J. C. XVII,24 McConica Ca r o l M. XVIII,200 Sand l er, Stanley I. XX,144 H a u Shau-Orang XVIII 10 ,64 McCullough, R.L. XVI,76 Sawin H er b e rt H XVIl, 1 4 8 Hayhurst, David T XIX,198 McGee Jr ., H e n ry A. XX,127 Sca mehorn John F. XVIII,166 Hayn es, Jr ., Henry W. XX,22 McGuinness, N. XVII,6 Schrader, G.L. XVIl,16 Hecker William C XVIII,1 8 0 M c Kelve y, James M. XIX,25 Schrodt Verle N. XX,1 35 H e iche l heim H R XVI 167 M Sc hrub e n D a l e L XX,48 H e ist Richard XX,50 Mallin so n Richard G. XVI,126 Schultz, Jerom e S. XVI,2 H e nl ey, Ernest J. -------XVIl,32; XVIII,144 Malm a ry G. XVIII,88 Sea d er, J D ----XVII,139; XVIII,128 ; XIX ,88 H e nry Jr ., Joseph D. XIX 1 82 XVI,168 Mankowski, G. XVIII,88 Sea pan Mayis H e r s k owitz, M XIX,148 Man so ur Ali H. XX,92 Sears J.T. XVII,110 Hi g htow e r Joe W XVI 1 48 Marnell, Paul XVIIl,164 Se id e r W an-e n D. XVIIl,26 Hill Jr ., C harl es G. XVIIl,92 XVl 121 Martin, Joseph H XVII,119 Sei nf el d, John H Hoflund Gar B. XX ,83 M art in ez, Enrico N. XVI, 1 32, 19 6 Serage ldin, Moham ed XVII 174 H o l ste, J .C. XVIl,124 Masliyah, Jacob XVIIl,132 Shaeiwitz, Jo sep h A. XVIl,152 Homsy George M. XVI 122 XVIII,170; XIX 19 8 Mason G. XIX,1 36 Shah, D.B. Howard, William K. XX,36 XIX,121 Matte so n, Mi c ha e l J XVIIl,110 Sherwood, T .K. Hu c kaba, Charles E. XVII,74 Mes s l er, Rus se ll XVI,152 Siiro la, J J. XVI,68 1 38 Hudgin s, R .R. XVIIl,91; XIX,13 5 M ew i s, Jan XVIIl 82 Silla, H an-y XX 44 I Middl e man Sta nl ey XVII,170; XIX,150 S ilv esto n P. L. XVII,78 Illinois Co ll ea gue s XVIIl,6 Mind er man Peter A XVl,114 Simmons George M. XVII,182 S k aates, J M XVI 17 8; XX,136 I s bin H er b ert S. XVII,77 Molinier, J. XVIIl,88 S lat tery, J o hn C. XVIIl 2 Moo-Young, Mun-ay XX,194 J M oser, William R. XIX,156 S loan E. D e nd y XVl,38 Jacquot, R G. XVII,70 Mumme ', K.I. XVII,24 S mi t h, Dougla s M XX,198 Jenkin s, Dani e l J. XVI,110 M yers, A l an L. XVl,18 S mith Julian C. XIX,58 Johnston, Keith P XIX ,2 03 Snyder, Willi a m J XIX,26 Joll s, Kenneth R XVII, 72,112 Sommerfeld, Jud e T Jone s, Vickie XVI,56 N XVI,114; XVIIl,110; XX,138 Jorne, Jacob XX,178 Nag a r a j a n, R XIX,193 Soong, David S. XIX 190 Joseph, Babu XVIII,136 Naik C h andras h e kh a r D. XIX,78 Squires, R.G. XVII,104,117 Joye, Dona l d D XIX,30 N e w e ll R.B. XIX,36 Stai nth o rp F. P. XVII,34 Jutan, A XIX,186 Nobl e, Richard D. XVII,20 70,134; XIX,162 Steen, Paul H. XIX,58 K 0 S t e phanop o ulis, George XX,182 Stewart, W a nen E. XVIII,204 Karim M. Nazmu l XVIIl,122 Obot, Nsima T XX,40 Stokes, Vijay Kum ar XVI,82 Kauffman, David XIX,208 O'Connell, John XVII,94 Storvick, Trum an S. ----------XVIIl,139; XX ,2 1 Kessler, D.P XX 66 Ollis, D.F XIX,168 Stroeve, Pieter XX ,8 Kilcup J. Elizabet h XX,116 Oreo v icz Frank S. XVII,178 FALL 1 9 86 2 11

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Utomo, Tjipto V XVIII,34 Sukanek, Peter XX, 186 Sullivan, Gerald R. -------XX,70 Sullivan, Ralda M. -------XX,32 Sullivan, William G. XVI,95 Sussman, Martin V XVII 1 28,161 T Taber, Joyce --------XIX,54 Takoudis Christos G XVIl,158 Tarbell, John M. XVI,110 Valderrama, Jose 0. -------XVIII,70; XX,102 Valle-Riestra, J. Frank ----XVIl,162 Van Ness H.C. -------XIX,62 Van Zee, John --------XIX,194 Varma, Arvind -------XVIl,176 Venkatasubramanian, V. ----XX,188 Vilimpochapornkul Viroj ----XX,40 White, Mark G. XVIII,174 Whiting, Wallace B. ----XX,35 Whitmyre, Jr George XX 144 Wilkes, Gaith L. ------XVI,174 Williams, Dennis C. XX,74 Williams, Frank L. XX,198 Williams, Joyce B. XX,7 Willis, Max S. XIX,185 Wong, Julius P. XIX,44 Wood, Philip E XX,28 Tarr er, A Ray --------XX,74 w Woods, Donald R. Tavlarides, Lawrence L XVIII, 102 Taylor, Ross XVI,158 Walker, C h ar l es A. XVI 102; XVIl,86,196 XVI 44 ; XVII 166 ; XVIII 10 6; XX,28 Thomas, David G. XIX,17 Wankat, Phillip C XVII,178; XVIII,20 Thomson William J. XVIl,182 Timmerhaus, Klaus D ---------XIX,83; XX,181 Tjahjadi Mahari XX,84 Watson, Keith R. -------XIX,44 Wei, Jam es ---------XIX,120 y Yeow, Y.L. z -------XVIII,78 Weiland, Ralph H XVl,158 u Weir, Ronald D. XVIII,60 Uhl, Vincent W. Ungar, Lyle ----XVI,30; XIX,10 XVIIl,160 Westerberg, Arthur W. XVI 12,62; XVIIl,159 Zabicky, Jacob XX,148 Zhang Guo-Tai -----XVIIl,10,64 Zygourakis Kyriacos XVIII,176 Wheelock, T.D. XV IIl 185 Whitaker, Stephen XIX,18 TITLE INDEX A Accreditation: Plus or Minu s XX,58 XX,18 Accreditation, and Computing T echno logy; Design Adjoint Variables and Their Role in Optimal Problems, The Nature of ----------------XIX,68 Adjun c t Position: One Way to Keep Up With Technology and Education XIX,162 Adsorption Methods, New XVIII,20 Aerosol Science, Introduction to* XIX,203 Air Pollution for Engineers ------------XVI 16 8 Algebra for Chemical Engineers, Linear XV III, 176 Analysis and Design, C hemical Reactor* XVIl,176 Applied Mathematics in Chemica l Engineering XVIIl,160 Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering: Co ur se XX,188 Artificial Int e lligenc e in Process Engineering: Research XX,182 ASEE, Why I Belong To XX,121 Availability (Exergy) Analysis* XVIl,139 Availability Functions, A Graphic Look at XVIl,128 AWARD LECTURES B Design Research: Both Theory and Strategy ----XVI,12,62 Image Processing and Analysis For Turbul ence Research ----XX ,2 02 Input Multiplicities in Process Co ntrol ------XVII,58 Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations --------------XIX 72 S imulation and Estimation by Orthogonal Co llo cation ------XVIII 204 Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems-----------------XX,12 Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass ---------XVIIl,186 Biochemical Engineering: With Extensive Use of Personal Comp uter s ------------------XX,122 Biochemical Engineering and Indu str ial Biotechnology ---XX,194 Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals --------XIX 168 Biomass, Bio-Chemical Conve r sion of --------XVIIl 1 86 Biomedica l Education, Trends in -----------XVI,126 Boiler Hou se, Exploiting the On-Campus --------XX 28 Book Writing and C hE Education ----------XVIl,184 Boundary Layer Theory for Momentum, Heat and Ma ss Transfer, Foundations of* ----------------XIX,82 C Calc ulations, Degrees of Freedom and Precedence Orders in Engineering ---------------XX,138 212 Calcu l ator, Distillation Calc ul ations With a Programmable XV Il ,86 Career Planning and Motivation Through an Imaginary Company Format -------------------XVI,44 Carnegie-Me llon University The History of Chemical Engineering at* -------------XVIII 37 Cata lysi s -----------------XVIII,180 Catalysis, A Survey Course in -----------XVI,178 Cata l ys i s Demonstrations Kinetics and --------XVIII,140 Cata l ysis In vo lving Video-Based Seminars, Heterogeneous ----XVIII,174 Catalyst Manufacture: Laboratory and Commerc ial Preparations* XVIII 92 Cheat in g-An Ounce of Prevention ----------XIX 12 Che mi ca l Engineering: A Cr i sis in Maturity XX 178 Chemically Reacting Systems, Steady -Stat e Multiplicity Feat ur es of XX,12 Chemica l s in the Environment: Distribution-TransportFate-Analysis*---------------XVII,77 Coal Utilization and Convers i on Processe s Fundamentals of XIX,204 Co llocation, Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal ----------XVIII,204 Co lloid and Surface Science ------------XVIII,166 Combustion ----------------XVII,174 Communicat i on to Undergraduates, Teaching Technical ---XX,32 Comm unication s Skills Through a Laboratory Course, The Development of ----------------XVI,122 Comp utation a l Methods for Turbulent Transonic and Viscou s F low s* -----------------XVIIl,203 Comp ut e r s, A New Approach to Teaching C hE Using ------------XVIII,66 Computer-Ass i sted Laboratory Stat i ons --------XIX,26 Computer-Generated Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures ------XVII, 112 Comp uter Graphics, The Representation of Highly Non-Ideal Phase Equilibria Using ----------------XX ,88 Computer Graphics Approach to the Use of the Integral Method in Kinetics A ------------------XX 136 Computer Graphics to Teach Thermodynamic Phase Diagrams The Use of -----------------XIX 78 Computer Process Control, A Microcomputer Ba sed Laboratory for Teaching ----------------XVIII 136 Comp uter Programs for C hemi cal Engineers Selected Numerical Methods and* ---------------XVIl,196 Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluations of Chemical Processes, Two ------XVIII,14 Computer Usage in Design Courses: Survey ------XVIl ,3 2 Comp utin g Technology; Design, Accreditation, and----XX,18 *Book Review CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Computing Technology Expectati ons of the Competence of ChE Graduates in the Use of ----------XX,19 Controlled Processes With Dead-Time Simulation of Simple -------XIX 44 Corcoran, William H.; O!fStanding Paper Award XX,180 Corrosion, Teach -----". ''--' --------------XX,69 Corrosion Engineering Electrochemical and XIX,194 Cost Engineering, Applied* XIX,118 Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Proces ses, Two Computer Programs for Equipment ------XVIIl,14 Creativity in Students, Toward Encouraging ------XIX 22 Curriculum, An Integrated Approach to ---------XX,92 Curriculum, The Chemical Engineering : 1985 -------XX,124 D Dead-Time, Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes With ------XIX,44 DEPARTMENTS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING California, University of: Davis XX,8 Cincinnati, University of XVl 6 Clemson University --------------XVll,2 Cornell University XIX,58 Delft University of Technology XVII,54 Erevan Polytechnic Institute XVIII ,56 Kentucky, University of XVll,98 Maryland, University of XIX 6 Minnesota, University of XVl,50 Northwestern University XVIll,2 Pennsylvania, University of XX,110 Purdue University XX,60 Syracuse University XVIIl,102 Utah, University of XIX,114 Yale University XVI,102 Design Accreditation, and Computing T echnology XX,18 Design Chemical Process : An Int egra ted Teaching Approach ----XVI, 72 Design, Chemical Reactor XVII,158 Design Chemical Reactor Anal ysis and* XVII, 176 Design, Probabilistic Engineering: Principles and Applications* Design, Using Spreadsheets for Teaching XVIII,144 -------XX,128 Design Course, Development and Critique of the Contemporary Senior XVI,30 Design Course in Groups, An Experiential --------XVI,38 Design Courses, Computer Usage in: Survey XVll,32 Design Laboratory Development of the XX,44 Design Laboratory Experiment for Separating Particles by Fluidization Principles, A Sequential -------XIX,30 Design of Industrial Chemical Reactors From Laboratory_ Data* XVll,46 XVIl,110 -----XVl,12,62 Design Problems, Thermodynamics With Design Research: Both Theory and Strategy Differential Equation Models b y Polynomial Approximation Solution of* _______ _..:. ____________ XVI,43 Diffu sio n in Liquids ----------------XIX,29 Diffusive Mass Transport, A Note on ----------XX,22 Digital Computer Application in Process Control -----XVI,118 Digital Control Liquid Level Experiment Direct -----XVll,28 Dimensionless Education -------------XVIII,112 Discrete Processes in Undergraduate Proc ess Control Courses ----XX, 78 Distillation, Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a ---------XVIII,38 Distillation Calculations With a Programmable Calculator -----XVll,86 Distillation With Vapour Compression --------XX,132 Division Activities XVI,67,176 ; XVll 97; XVIII,53,159; XIX,119; XX,167 Dolphin Problem, The --------------XVI,24 Drying of Solids, Tray ------------XVIII,132 E Economic Decision Analysis, What Every Engineer Should Know About* -----------,---XVI,95 Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes, Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economics, Introduction to Process* EDITORIALS Olaf Hougen: Teacher, Researcher, Educator FALL 1986 XVIII,14 XIX,10 XX,163 Ratings, Race, The Service or Ratings? XX,3 XX,100 EDUCATORS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Alkire, Richard C., of Illinoi s ----------XVIIl,6 Bell, Ken, of Oklahoma State ------------XX,4 Bennett, C.O., of Connecticut -----------XVI,98 Greenkorn, Robert A. of Purdue ---------XX,66 Gulari, Esin and Erdogan of Wayne State and Michigan XVIII,98 Hightow er, Joe, of Rice -----------XIX,54 Martin, Joe, of Michigan --------------XVI,2 Quinn, John A., of Pennsylvania ----------XVIl,50 Schmitz Roger A. of Notre Dame --------XX, 11 6 Seader, J.D. of Utah ------------------XVI ,56 Shah, Dinesh of Florida -------------XVII,94 Sloan, Dendy, of Colorado $choo l of Mines ------XIX,110 Smith J.M. of California-Davis -----------XVII,6 Timmerhaus, Klau s D. of Co lorado ---------XIX,2 Van Ness, Hank, of Rensselaer ----------XVIII,50 Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering -------XIX,194 Electronic Materials, Th e Processing of ---------XX,186 Elementary Chemical Engineering* ---------XIX 45 Energy Conservation Principles The Integration of into a Course on Staged Operations -------------XVI,88 Engineering Education and Practice in the United States* ---------XX,101 Engineering Graduate Education and Research* ------XX,181 Engineering Research Centers, The New ---------XX,181 Equilibrium-Stage Operations The B.C (Before Computers) and A.O. of -------------XIX,88 Ethics, Teaching Professional -----------XVIII,106 Exergy, The Thermodynamic Fundamentals of -----XVIII 116 Experiment, A Nonideal Flow ---------XVIII 74 Experiment An Impro ved Design of a Simple Tubular Reactor -XIX,84 Experiment for the Transient Response of a Stirred Vessel, Laborator y Experiments in CRE, $12 for a Dozen Extraction Metals Separation by Liqu!d Extraction Transport Phenomena in Liqu id F XVII,70 XVIII,10 XVIII ,88 XVI,93 Film, Ripple in a Falling Finite Elements: Mathematical AsJlects XX,48 ------XIX,35 Firstand Second-Law Statement, The Two Lost-Work Statements and the Co mbined -------------XVIII 12 8 Flow Cu rv e Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids ----XX,84 Fluid Flow The Pra,cbcal Use of Theory in -------XIX,17 Fluid Flow a nd H ealTransfer* -----------XVI,108 Fluid Flow Experiment for Unde rgradua te Laboratory ---XX,40 Fluid Mechanics and Unit Operations --------XVIII, 199 Fluid Properties and Pha se Equilibria, E s timation of ---XIX,148 Fluidization ----------------XIX,182 Fluidization Principles, A Sequential Design Laboratory Experiment for Separating Particles by -------------XIX,30 Fluidized-Bed Che mical Processes Fundamentals of* ---------XVIII 109 Fluxes in Continuous Media, Tensorial Nature of-------XVI ,8 2 Fuels, Alternative: Chem ical Energy Resources -----XVII ,85 Fugacity, Residual Functions and ----------XVII 124 G Gamma Distribution A Phy s i cal Int erpretation for the Generic Quiz The Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Av e raging Theorem XX,36 XIX,176 A Simple -------------------XIX,18 Gibbs Phase Rule, Extended Form of the XIX,40 Graduate Education in Chemical Engine e ring XX, 174 Graduate Education in Mexico XVI,196 Graduate Education Win s in Interstate Rivalry XVII, 1 82 Graduate Residency at C l emson XVIII, 19 6 Graduate School Common Misconception s Concerning ----------XVIII 1 56 Graduate School Worth It?, Is XIX,208 Book Review 213

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Graduate Studies: The Middle Way H __________ XX,164 Heat and Mass Transfer, Momentum* XIX,193 Heat and Mass Transfer, Advanced Topics i n ------XVII,152 Heat Transfer Fluid Flow and* -----------XVI,108 Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving Video-Based Seminars -----XVIIl 174 Hotdog, Therma l Conductivity of a ---------XVIII,110 Hougen's Principles ----------------XX,161 Hydraulic Analog Methods to Develop Kinetic Rate Equations From Laboratory Data, Using -----------XVIII,64 Hydraulic Conveying of Solids, Pneumatic and* -----XVIII,185 Hygiene Aspects of Plant Operations, Industrial -----XIX,83 Ice Cubes Problem Melting ------------XVl,114 Ice Rink Problem ----------------XVI 94 Image Processing and Analysis for Turbulence Research ------------XX,202 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry: Integrating Chemistry and Engineering Industrial Experimentation, Optimization and* XVII,16 XVl,167 ----XX,148 Industry, The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical Information Science Training for Chemical Engineers Basic Input Multiplicities in Process Control XIX,128 XVII,58 Integral Method in Kinetics A Computer Graphics Approach to the Use of the ---------------XX,136 Interstate Rivalry, Graduate Education Wins in J ----XVII,182 Job Hunting, The Graduate Student's Guide to Academic --------XVII,178 K Kinetic Rate Equations From Laboratory Data Using Hydraulic Analog Methods to Develop -------------XVIII 64 Kinetics, A Computer Graphics Approach to the Use of the Integral Method in -----------------XX,136 Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations --------XVIIl,140 L Laboratory, A Junior Year ChE XIX,124 ------XVI 29 Laboratory Engineering and Manipulations* Letters to the Editor XVII 72,103,161; XVIII,73,109; XIX,35,135,171; XX,7,77,167 Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers --------XVIII 176 Linear Operator M e thods in ChE* -----------XX,152 Liquids and Liquid Mixtures* ------------XX,77 Liquid Extraction, Metals Separation by -------XVIII,88 Liquid Extraction, Transport Phenomena in* -------XVI,93 Liquid Filtration* ----------------XIX,185 Liquid Level Experiment, Direct Digital Control -----XVII,28 Lost-Work Statements and the Combined Firstand Second-Law Statement The Two ------------XVIII,128 M Mass Transfer -----------------XVI,158 Mass Transfer, Advanced Topics in Heat and ------XVIl,152 Mass Transfer, Momentum, Heat, and* --------XIX,193 Mass Transfer in Engine er ing Practice* --------XVIII,9 Mass Transfer Seem Difficult, How We Make -----XVIII,124 Mathematical Understanding of ChE Systems, The: Selected Papers of Neal R Amundson* -------------XVI 121 MEMORIAM, IN Cmcoran, William H. -------------XVI,157 Erbar, J.H. ---------------XVIII 19 Hougen Olaf Andreas XX,160 Martin Joseph J. XVII,73 P ec k Ralph E. XVIl 23 Peiffer, Charles XIX,211 Spellman, Lloyd A. XVI 125 V er meulen, Ted XVIIl,87 Metals Separation b y Liquid Extraction XVIII,88 214 Mexico, Graduate Education in -----------XVI,196 Mexico Recent Development of ChE Education in XVI,132 Microcomputer, Pu l se Testing With a XVIII,78 Microcomputer, The Laboratory* XX,50 Microcomputer Based Laboratory for Teaching Computer Process Control, A ----------------XVIII,136 Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem ------------XVl,186 Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions ----XVIII,34 Modeling, Numerical Methods and ----------XVIl,144 Modeling for Chemical Engineers Numerical Methods and ----XX,150 Modelling An Exercise in: One Month Problem -----XIX,140 Modelling at Royal Military College, Teaching Simulation and --XVIIl,60 Molecular Fluids, Theory of* ------------XIX,203 Molecu l ar Sieve Technology ------------XIX,198 Molecular Structure and Reactivity, A Pictorial Approach to* ---XX,83 Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer* --------XIX,193 Multicomponent Distillation Fundamentals of* -----XVIl 137 Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems, Steady-State XX,12 N Non-Newtonian F l uids, Flow Curve Determination for ---XX,84 Nonideal Flow Experiment, A ----------XVIIl,74 Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical Engineering* ------XVll 138 Nuclear Chemical Engineering* ----------XVII,77 Nucleate Boiling ----------------XVl 152 Numerical Methods and Computer Programs for Chemical Engineers, Selected* ----------------XVII,196 Numerical Methods and Modeling ----------XVII,144 Numerical Methods and Modeling for ChE's* ------XX,150 0 Optimization, Engineering: Methods and Applications* ----XVIII,159 Optimization and Industrial Experimentation* ------XVI,167 Orthogonal Collocation, Simulation and Estimation by -----------XVIII,204 Oscillating Sink The XVl,110 Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts XVl,148 p Participants or Victims?, Are We Petroleum Production, Fundamentals of Phase Diagrams The Use of Computer Graphics to Teach XIX,120 XVI 164 Thermodynamic ----------------XIX,78 Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures, Computer-Generated ---XVIl,112 Phase Equilibria, Estimation of Fluid Properties and XIX 148 Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering* --------XX,35 Phase Equilibria Using Computer Graphics, The Representation of Highly Non-Ideal -------------XX,88 Phase Rule, Extended Form of the Gibbs -------XIX,40 Photovoltaic Unit Operations, Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and ----------------XIX,72 Plant Design, Graduate -------------XVIII,164 Plant Design and Economic s for ChE's* XVI,205 Plant Design Course, Goals of an Undergraduate XVI 26 Plant Operations Industrial Hygiene Aspects of* XIX,83 Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication XVII,148 Pneumatic and Hydraulic Conveying of Solids* XVIII 185 Polymers, Engineering With* XIX,25 Polymer Education and Research XVI,174 Polymer Processing XIX,190 Polymerization Engineering, Principles of* XVIII, 73 Polynomial Approximation, Solution of Differential Equation Models By* ----------------XVI,43 Powders and Porous Material s, Characterization of ----XX,198 PROBLEMS Dolphin Problem The --------------XVI,24 Ice Rink Problem, The XVI ,94 Melting Ice Cube Problem XVI 114 Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem XVI,186 *Book Review CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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One Month Problem: An Exercise in Modeling ----XIX,140 Ripple in a Falling Film ------------XX,48 Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation ---XVIII,38 Thermal Conductivity of a Hotdog -------XVIII,110 Wine Problem, A --------------XVIII, 70 Problem Solving to Use in the Classroom, Putting ----XVII 134 Process Control, A Microcomputer Based Laboratory for Teaching Computer ----------------XVIII,136 Process Control, A Useful Formula in ---------XX ,8 2 Process Control Advanced ------------XVII,27 Process Control Digital Computer Application in ----XVI 118 Process Control, Input Multiplicities in --------XVII,58 Process Control, Undergraduate -----------XX,74 Process Control Courses, Discrete Processes in Undergraduate ---XX, 78 Proce ss Control Education, Use of IBM's Advanced Control System in Undergraduate ------------XX, 70 Process Control on Chemical Engineering Education and Research Impact of Packaged Software for ---------XIX,144 Process Control Undergraduate Option A -------XVII,24 Process Design, The Teaching of ---------XIX,121 Process Design Courses at Pennsylvania, The: Impact of Process Simulators --------------XVIII,26 Process Design in Process Control Education -----XVIII,122 Process Design Sequence at Virginia Tech --------XVI,34 Process Economics, Introduction to* ---------XIX,10 Process Laboratory, An Innovative ChE --------XIX,150 Process Synthesis, Chemical -----------XVI,68 138 Processes, Fundamentals of Chemical ---------XIX,156 Programmable Calculator, Distillation Calculations With a ------XVII,86 Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries ----------XVII,162 Property Relation, The Fundamental ---------XVII,119 Pulse Testing With a Microcomputer ---------XVIII,78 Q Quantum Mechanics, The Picture Book of* Quiz, The Generic R -------XX 127 XIX,176 Reaction Engineering, R.H. Wilhelm 's Influence on the Development of Chemical -----------------XVII,10 Reading Scientific Papers, Learning Through ------XX,102 Reactors From Laboratory Data, Design oflndustrial Chemical* XVII,46 Recovery Processes Separations and ---------XIX,172 Recycle With Heating --------------XIX 136 Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy Enthalpy, and Entropy XVII ,64 Refinery 5 (Lithograph) ------------XVII,141 Regulatory Process into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum, Introducing the XVIII,30 Research is Engineering --------------XVI,190 Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers XX,168 Residual Functions and Fugacity XVII 124 Re so urce Based Approach to ChE Education, A XIX ,3 6 s Safety Do We Need in ChE Education? How Much ----XVIII ,82 Safety Program at Delaware A Laboratory ------XX 144 San Diego Cleaning Up in ------------XVII,170 Scaleup of Chemical Processes -----------XX 135 Self-Study Examples, Use of Slides and -------XVII 105 Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations ------------------XIX 72 Semiconductor Processing ------------XVIII,200 Separations and Recovery Processes ---------XIX,172 Separations Research --------------XVIII,190 Sequential Design Laboratory Experiment for Separating Particles by Fluidization Principles, A ------------XIX ,3 0 Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal Collocation -----------XVIII ,2 04 Simulation and Modelling at Royal Military College, Teaching -XVIII 60 Simulation of the Manufacture of a Chemical Product in a Competitive FALL 1986 Environment XVI 76 Slides and Self-Study Examples, Use of -------XVII,105 Socio-Humanistic Concepts into Engineering Courses, The Infusion of ----------------Software for Process Control on ChE Education and Research, XVII,74 Impact of Packaged XIX 144 Solar Hot Water Heating b y Natural Convection -----XVII,20 Solids, Tray Drying of XVIII,132 Spatial Averaging Theorem A Simple Geometrical Derivation of the XIX,18 Spreadsheets for Teaching Design, Using --------XX,128 Staged Operations Improvements in the Teaching of XIX,132 Staged Operations, The Integration of Energy Conservation Principles into a Course on ------------XVI,88 Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems XX 12 STIRRED POTS Lacey Lecturer: Hanratty, T o m Lacey Lecturer: Luss, Dan ---------XX,77 Limerick Metric Applied to Thermodynamics XVII,97 ----XVIII,19 Mass Transfer Talkin' Blues Weikart Ballad of Jack ---------XVIII,91 XVII,53 Stirred Vessel, Laboratory Experiment for the Transient Response of a XVII, 70 Summer School '87 ---------------XX,177 Surface Phenomena XVII,166 Surface Science, Colloid and XVIII,166 Survey, 1981 AIChE-EPC XVI,182 Symposium on Undergraduate ChE Thermodynamic s XVII,104 T Tensorial Nature of Fluxes in Continuous Media -----XVI 82 Ternary Phase Diagram for VLLE, Generation of a XX,94 Thermal Conductivity of a Hotdog XVIII,110 Thermodynamic Fundamentals of Exergy, The XVIII,116 Thermodynamics, An Integrated Approach to Teaching Undergraduate --------------XVII,109 Thermodynamics, Chemical and Process XVIII, 139 Thermodynamics, Chemical Engineering XX,21 Thermodynamics, Classical Solution XIX,62 Thermodynamics Instruction, Symposium on Undergraduate ChE ----------------XVII,104 Thermodynamics of Running ------------XVI,18 Thermodynamics With Design Problems XVII,110 Third World, ChE Education in the: Two View s XVII, 78 Time Series to Chemical Engineers, Teaching XIX, 186 Transient Response of a Stirred Vessel, Laboratory Experiment for the XVII, 70 Transport Phenomena --------------XVIII, 170 Transport Phenomena in Liquid Extraction* XVI 93 Tray Drying of Solids XVIII,132 Tubular Reactor Experiment, An Improved Design of a Simple -XIX,84 TUTCHE-A Program Package for Tutoring ChE's XVII,34 Tutor The Chemistry* XX,43 TV Taped Problems Supplemental XVII,117 u Unit Operations, Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic -----------------XIX, 72 V Vapour Compression, Distillation With ---------XX,132 Video-Based Seminars, Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving ----XVIIl,174 w Wilhelm's Influence on the Development of Chemical Reaction Engineering, R.H. Wine Problem, A y Yale, Two Gentlemen From *Book Review XVIl,10 XVIIl,70 XVl,107 215

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FACULTY THE UNIUERSITY Of ff KRON ff kron, OH 44325 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGi NEERiNG GRADUATE PROGRAM RESEARCH INTERESTS G A. ATWOOD .. ........ ......... .... ...................... .. .. ..... ... .... ...... .. ...... ... . ...... .. .. ..... Digital Control M ass Transfer Multi compo n ent Adsorption J.M. BERTY .. ... ... ... ...... ... ... ... .. .. ... ... ..... .... .. ... .. .. .... .. ... .. ..... .. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. ...... R eacto r Design Reaction En ginee r ing, Syngas Pro ccesses H M. CHEUNG .. ... ...... .. .. .. ... .. .. ... .. .. .................... ... ........ .. ... .. .. ... .. ........ ...... Colloids Light Scattering Techniques. S C. CHUANG .. .. .. ..... .. ..... .. ...... .... .. .. .. ..... ... . ........ .. .. .. .. .. .. ..... ... .. ... .. .. .. ...... Catalysis, Reaction Eng ineering, Combustion J R ELLIOTT ....... ... .. ......... .. .. .. .. ............ ... ... . ... .... .. .......... ........ .. .. .. ... .. .. Th e rmodynamic s, Material Properties G ESKAMANI .. ... .... .. .. ... ... .. .... ... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. ...... .. .. .... .. ... . ... .. .. Wa ste Wat e r Treatment L.G FOCHT .. .. ... ... .. .. ... ... ....... .. ... ... . ... .. ..... .. ....... ... ...... .... .. .. .. ..... ... .. ..... F ixe d Bed Adsorption P rocess Des ign H L. GREENE ......... ................... ... ... .. .. .. .. .. ... ...... ..... .............. .. .. ... ...... ... ... ...... Oxidative Catalys i s, Reactor Des ign, Mi x ing. S LEE .. .. ...... ... .. ... ..... .. ........ ...... ...... .. ......... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... ... ... .... .. ... .. .. .. ... .. ... ... Synfuel Pr ocessing, Reaction Kinetics Computer Applications R W. ROBERTS .. ................ ... ... ... .. ..... .... .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ...... .. .. .. ... ...... Pla s t ics P rocessing, P o l yme r F ilms System D esign. R F SAVINELL .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. .. ... ... .. .... .............. ...... ... .. .. .. . ... .. ... .. ....... El ec trochemi ca l Engin ee ring. (On L eave) M S WILLIS ... .. ... .. ..... ... .. .. .. ... ... ... .. ................... ...... .. ... ... .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... Multipha se Tran sport Th eory F iltration ln terfacia l Phen omena. Adj u net professor Gra duat e assistant stipends for teac hing and research start at $6,000. Indu st rially sponsored fellow s hips available up to $ 13,000. These awards include waiver of tuition and fees. Cooperative Gra dua te Education Program i s also available. The deadline for assistantship application is March 1. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE: Dr. Howard l. Greene, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Akron Akron, Ohio 44325

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... .. ,~: ... .., f THE .. UNIVERSITY ., OF ALABAMA I . : \\'l'l'?k' .-,.. ., I ..... ~.. A ,A-.... .. 4 "" : r ,, -. ;t .. ,.tt ; lilt: : ..._..,,. :.v~ \~TTY-, .. .. ._. :... : .,.. GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Alabama, enrolling approximately 14,000 undergraduate anc 3,000 graduate students per year, is located in Tuscaloosa, a town of some 70,00( population in west central Alabama. Since the climate is warm, outdoor activitie are possible most of the year. The Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering has an annua enrollment of approximately 200 undergraduate and 25 graduate students. Fo information concerning available graduate fellowships and assistantships, con tact: Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical and Metallurgica Engineering, P.O Box G, University, AL 35486. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST G.C. April, Ph.D (Louisiana State): Biomass Conver sion, Modeling, Transport Proce sses D.W. Arnold, Ph.D. (Purdue): Thermodynamics, Ph ysica l Properties, Phas e Equilibrium A.M Lane, Ph.D (Massac hu setts): Catalysis, Safety Health and En vironment W.C. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbi It): Pro cess Dynamics and Control, Micro-computer Hardware W.J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph .D. (Louisiana State): Catalysis, Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kinetics I.A. Jefcoat, Ph .D. (Clemson University): Synfuels En viron men ta I, Alternate Chem ica I Feed stocks E.K. Landis, Ph.D. (Carnegie Institute of Technol ogy): Metallurgical Processe s, Solid-liquid Separa tions, Thermodynamics M.D. McKinley, Ph .D (Florida): Coal and Oil Shale Mas s Transfer, Separation Processes L.Y. Sadler, Ill, Ph .D. (Alabama): Energy Conversio1 Processes Rhe o logy Lignite Technology

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Chemical Engineering at UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A EDMONTON,CANADA p DD DD DDDD t:JD DDOODDDDODO FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS K.T. CHUANG, Ph.D (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis. P.J. CRICKMORE, Ph D (Queen's) : Applied Mathematics I.G. DALLA LANA Ph D (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis D.G. FISHER Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real Time Computer Applications M.R. GRAY Ph D (Caltech) : Chemical Kinetics, Characterization of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors R.E. HAYES Ph.D (Bath) : Numerical Analysis, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media. D.T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling, Numerical Methods Reactor Modelling and Design J.H. MASLIYAH, Ph.D. (British Columbia) : Transport Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics A.E. MATHER Ph.D (Michigan) : Phase Equilibria Fluid Properties at High Pressures Thermodynamics A.J. MORRIS, Ph D (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne) : Process Control, Al and Expert Systems For further information contact: W.K. NADER, Dr. Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media Applied Mathematics K. NANDAKUMAR Ph D. (Princeton) : Transport Phenomena, Process Simulation Computational Fluid Dynamics F.D. OTTO, Ph D (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING : Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid React i ons Separation Processes, Heavy Oil Upgrading D. QUON, Sc.D (M I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS : Energy Modelling and Economics D.B. ROBINSON Ph D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS : Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equ i libria, Thermodynamics. J.T. RYAN, Ph.D (Missouri) : Energy Economics and Supply, Porous Media S.L. SHAH Ph.D (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive Control, Stability Theory. S.E. WANKE, Ph D. (California-Davis) CHAIRMAN : Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics R.K. WOOD Ph D (Northwestern) : Process Simulation, Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control. CHAIRMAN, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON, AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate pro grams. Financial support is available through government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full oppor tunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in most of the research areas listed below. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: MILAN BIER, Professor Ph.D Fordham University, 1950 Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984 Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics Polyelectrolyte Solutions WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973 Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Professor Ph.D Ohio State University, 1958 Process Control, Computer Applications JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982 Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation Processes, Applied Mathematics GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966 Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical Modelling of Transport ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor (Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical) Ph.D., UCLA, 1983 Boundary Layers Stability, Mass and Heat Transport Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing, modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere For further information, write to: Dr. Farhang Shadman Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/ equal opportunity employer THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena Particulate Processes Explosives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation Packed Column Distillation Computer Aided Des i gn FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972 Reaction Engineering Kinetics, Catalysis Coal Conversion JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor Ph D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement Chemical Kinetics Thermodynamics lnterfacial Phe nomena DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy M i crobial and Enzymatic Processes DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor D.Sc., Technion, 1962. Energy Fermentation Mixing

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Arizona State University Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Materials Engineering Research Specializations include: ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS BIOINSTRUMENTATION BIOMATERIALS CARDIO VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented by a highly respected faculty: James R. Beckman (Arizona) Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) 1 Neil S. Berman (Texas) David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Uewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Veronica A. Bu r rows (Princeton) Timothy S. Cale (Houston) Ray W. Carpenter (UC/Berkeley) William A. Coghlan (Stanford) William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech) David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) James B. Koeneman (Western Australia)* Stephen J. Krause (Michigan) James L. Kuester (Texas A&M) Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)* Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin) Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)* Vernon E. Sater (IIT) Mitton C. Shaw (Cincinnati) Kwang S. Shin (Northwestern) James T. Stanley (Illinois) Robert S. Torres! (Minnesota) Bruce C. Towe (Pennsylvania State) Thomas L Wachtel (St Louis University)* Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia) Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech)* Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley) lmre Zwiebel (Yale) Adjunct or Emeritus Professor Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to qualified applicants. :i0\ ASU in Tempe, a city of 120,000, and is a part of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 are in graduate study. Arizona's year round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and recreational facilities. FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT: Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 and equal opportunity In Its employment activities and programs '-= I Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action r. rJ -----~~~

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GRADUATE STUDIES CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE FACULTY A.lburn University R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1978) R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965) C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) J A GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) L J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976 ) Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973) T D PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951) A. R. TARRER (Purdue Un iversity, 1973) 8. J TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) D. L. VIVES (Columbia University, 1949) D. C WILLIAMS (Princeton University, 1980) FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head Chemical Engineering Auburn University, AL 36849 Auburn a! Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical / Biochemical Engineering Biomass Conversion Carbon Fibers and Composites Coal Conversion Controlled Atmosphere Electron Microscopy Environmental Pollution Heterogeneous Catalysis lnterfacial Phenomena Microelectronics THE PROGRAM Oil Processing Process Design and Control Process Simulation Pulp and Paper Engineering Reaction Engineering Reaction Kinetics Separations Surface Science Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S and Ph D levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to qualified students Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution FALL 1986 221

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah Programs of study leading to the ME. ) MS. and Ph.D. degrees on a beautiful campus located at the base of the Rocky Mountains. Faculty Dee Barker lJ. of Utah 1951 Calvin H. Bartholomew Stanford, 1972 Merrill W. Beckstead U. 0f Utah 1965 Douglas N. Bennion Berkeley, 1964 B. Scott Brewster U. of Utah 1979 James ].Christensen Carnegie Mellon 1957 Richard W. Hanks lJ. of Utah 1960 William C Hecker Berkeley, 1982 Paul 0 Hedman BY U, 1973 John L. Oscarson lJ. of Michigan, 1982 Richard L Rowle y, Michigan State 1978 Philip J. Smith BY U, 1979 L Douglas Smoot lJ. of Washington 1960 Kenneth A. Solen lJ. of Wisconsin 19 74 For additional information and application, write: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering 350CB Brigham Young University Provo Utah 84602 Research Areas Thermodynamics Transport Phenomen a Ca lorimetr y Co mputer Simulation Coa l Combustion and Gasification K inetics and Catalysis Biomedical Engineering F luid Mechanics Che mical Propulsion Ma thematical Modeling Elec trochemistr y Membra ne Transport Noneq uilibrium Thermodynamics Process Design and Control

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THE UNIVERSllY OF CALGARY The University is located in the City of Calgary, the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter Olympics. The city combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are readily accessible. FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE Dr. P. R. Bishnoi, Crairman Graduate Studies Committee Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng. The Univer!lity of Calgary Calgary, Alberta T2N 1 N4 Canada FALL 1986 GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING The Department offers programs leading to the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M. Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas: Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria Heat Transfer and Cryogenics Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion Multiphase Flow in Pipelines Fluid Bed Reaction Systems Environmental Engineering Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation Enhanced Oil Recovery In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Computer Simulation of Separation Processes Computer Control and Optimization of Engineering and Bio Processes Biotechnology and Biorheology Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available to qualified applicants. FACULTY R. A. HEIDEMANN, Head (Wash. U.) A. BADAKHSHAN (Birm. U.K.) L. A. BEHIE (W. Ont.) D. W. B. BENNION (Penn. State) F. BERRUTI (Waterloo) P. R. BISHNOI (Alberta) R. M. BUTLER (Imp. Coll. U.K.) M. FOGARASI (Alberta) M.A. HASTAOGLU (SUNY) J. HAVLENA (Czech.) A. A. JEJE* (MIT) N. E. KALOGERAKIS (Toronto) A. K. MEHROTRA (Calgary) M. F. MOHTADI (Birm. U.K.) R. G. MOORE** (Alberta) P. M. SIGMUND (Texas) J. STANISLAV (Prague) W. Y. SVRCEK (Alberta) E. L. TOLLEFSON (Toronto) M.A. TREBBLE (Calgary) *On sabbatical leave during the 1986-87 academic year ** Acting Head 223

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RESEARCH INTERESTS ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRON MENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING BERKELEY ... offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro grams involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within and outside the department. Students have the opportunity to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and moun tains. FACULTY Alex i s T Bell (Cha i rman ) Harvey W Blanch Elton J. Ca i rns Douglas S. Clark Morton M Denn Alan S Foss Simon L. Goren Dav i d B Graves Edward A. Grens Donald N Hanson Dennis W Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N Michaels John S Newman Eugene E Petersen John M Prausnitz Clayton J Radke Jeffrey A. Rei mer David S Soong Doros N Theodorou Charles W Tobias Charles R Wilke Mi c hael C. W i lliam s PLEASE WRITE: Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied Ma thematics Biotechnology Colloid and Interface Processes Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Control Process Design Rheology Semiconductor Device Fabrication Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Processes in Porous Media Program UC Davis, with 19,000 students, is one of the major campuses of the University of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition, the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio chemical engineering, electrical and computer engi neering. Excellent laboratories, computation center and electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants. Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Faculty and Research Areas RICHARD L. BELL; University of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne Enology, Fermentation Filtration, Process Control BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota Fluid Mechanics of Thin Film Coating, lnterfadal Phenomena ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena BEN J McCOY, University of Minnesota Separation and Transport Processes, Kinetics KAREN A. McDONALD, University of MarylaAd Process Control, Biochemical Engineering AHMET N. PALAZOGLU,, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Process Design and Process Control ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University Rheology, Fluid Mechanics Aucoustics, Hazardous Waste DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology, Thin Film Technology STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware Fluid Mechanics, lnterfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes in Porous Media Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just over an hour away from the San Francisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec reational opportunities combine with the friendly in formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished oneand two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance. For further details on graduate study at Davis, please write to: Professor Pieter Stroeve Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-0400

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACU ~-1"~ D T. Allen Yoram Cohen T H K Frederki ng S K. Friedlander Robert F Hicks E L. Knuth V Manousiouthakis

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA fACIJLlY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT SANJOY BANERJEE Ph D (Waterloo) (Chairman) Two-Phase Flow Chemical & Nuclear Safety Computational Fluid Dynamics Turbulence PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D ( Purdu e) Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science HENRI FENECH Ph D (M I.T ) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer. OWEN T. HANNA Ph D. (Pu rdue ) Theoretical Methods Chemical Reactor Analysis Transport Phenomena. SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph D (St anford ) Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph D. (Cambridge) Surface and lnterfacial Phenomenon Adhesion, Colloidal Systems Surface Forces GLENN E LUCAS Ph D (M I.T. ) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials. DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph D (Purdue) Computer Control Process Dynamics, Real Time Computing FALL 1986 JOHN E. MYERS Ph D. (Michigan) Boiling Heat Transfer. G ROBERT ODETTE Ph D. ( M.I.T. ) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Develop ment. PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph D (U.C. Berkeley ) Theor y of Surfactant Aggregates, Colloid Systems A EDWARD PROFIO Ph D ( M.I.T .) B i onuclear Engine e r i ng Fus i on Reactors Radiation Transport Anal yse s ROBERT G RINKER Ph D ( Caltech ) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis Energy Conversion, Air Pollution ORVILLE C SANDALL Ph D. ( U C. Berkeley ) ( V ice Chairman) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes. DALE E. SEBORG Ph D. (Princeton ) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D ( M i nnesota ) Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics. JOSEPH A N ZASADZINSKI Ph.D (Mi nnesota ) Surface and lnterfacial Phenomenon Structure of Microemuls i ons. The Department offers M.S and Ph.D. de gree programs. Financial aid, including fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re search assistantships, is available. Some awards provide limited moving expenses. THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast l 00 miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330 miles south of San Francisco. The student enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 227

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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student can properly prepare for a productive career of research, development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex panding tchnological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one calendar year and a thesis is not required. A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte gr.a ted design project, is a feature of the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study. JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor Ph.D. (1969), Rice University Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction engineering. JOHN F. BRADY, Associate Professor PhD. (1981), Stanford University Fluid mechanics; transport properties of heterogeneous systems GEORGE R. GAV ALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; coal gasification L. GARY LEAL, Chevron Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. MANFRED MORAR!, Professor Ph.D. (1977), University of Minnesota Process control; process design FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup, ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Professor L. Gary Leal Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It is advisable to submit applications before February 15, 1987 C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering; process design and development. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Air pollution; control and estimation theory. FRED H. SHAIR, Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies of various environmental and safety related problems. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Emeritus Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure property relations in polymers. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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It's Your Move. Department of Chemical Engineering John L Anderson Membrane and Colloid Transport Phenomena Lorenz T. Biegler Process Simuration and Optimization Ethel Z. Casassa Colloids and Polymers Michael M. Domach Biochemical Engineering Paul L. Frattini Colloid Dynamics Using Optical Methods lgnaclo E. Grossmann Process Synthesis and Optimization Rakesh K. Jain Biomedical Engineering Tumor Microcirculation Myung S. Jhon Polymer Science and Engineering Edmond I Ko Catalysis and Solid State Chemistry Kun LI Gas Solid Reaction Kinetics Gregory J. McRae Mathematical Modeling and Environmental Engineering Gary J. Powers Process Synthesis and Design Dennis C. Prleve Transport Phenomena in Colloids Paul J. Sides Electrochemical Engineering and Semiconductor Processing Herbert L. Toor Heat and Mass Transfer Arthur W. Westerberg Design Research

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The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDYin Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY Robert Delcamr Joel Fried Stevin Gehrke Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Sotiris Pratsinis Neville Pinto Stephen Thiel Joel Weisman CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCESS SYNTHESIS Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns process unit operations. Prediction of reaction by-products. POLYMERS Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer solutions. The rmodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AEROSOL ENGINEERING Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions, aerosol depositions AIR POLLUTION Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and systems. COAL RESEARCH Demonstration of new technology for coal com bustion power plant. TWO-PHASE FLOW Boiling. Stability and transport properties of foam. MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 45221 Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.

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Study Chemical Engineering at one of the nation's top chemical engineering research facilities Case Western Reserve University Specializations in: Electrochemical engineering Mixing and separations Surfaces and colloids Process control Laser applications Faculty and specializations: Robert J. Adler Ph.D 1959, Lehigh University Particle separations mixing acid gas recovery John C Angus Ph.D 1960 University of Michigan Redox equilibria, thin carbon films, modulated electroplating Coleman B. Brosilow Ph.D 1962 Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn Adaptive inferential control, multi variable control, coordination algorithms Robert V. Edwards Ph.D 1968, Johns Hopkins University Laser anemometry mathematical modelling data acquisition Donald L. Feke, Ph.D 1981 Princeton University Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-particle processing Nelson C Gardner, Ph.D 1966, Iowa State University High-gravity separations sulfur removal processes ~ ~'l!....:: : Uziel Landau, Ph.D 1975 University of California (Berkeley) ;;, Electrochemical engineering : .'. current distributions ,; ~ el ; ~ctrog ~position ~ :;. "' -~' Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D 1968 Case Western 8e,,seryEf( J n iversity Etedroch~mical sensors, elec,; t roc hemical synthesis, elec troq.hemistry related to electronic materials J. Adin Mann, Jr.,Pt:i.D 1968 Iowa -.,: State University Surface phenomena, interfacial dynamics light scattering Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D 1983 Carnegie Mellon University Surfactant systems, metal extrac tion enhanced oil recovery Robert F Savinell Ph.D 1977, University of Pittsburgh, Elec trochemical engineering reactor design and simulation ; electrode processes For more information contact: Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 44106 86 419 .,,,, CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY CLEVELAND OHIO 44106

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Clarkson M S and Ph.D programs Friendly atmosphere Vigorous research programs supported by government and industry Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa Skiing canoeing mountain climbing and other recreation in the Adirondacks Variety of cultural activities with two liberal arts colleges nearby D Twenty faculty working on a broad spectrum of chemical engineering research problems Research Areas include: Chemical kinetics Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Computer aided design Crystallization Electroch:-emical engineering and corrosion, Integrated circuit fabrication Laser-matter interaction Mass transfer Materials processing in space D Optimi:tation Particle separations Phase transformations and equilibria Polymer rheology and processing D Process control Turbulent flows D And more ... Financial aid available in the form of : instructorships D fellowships research assistantships teaching assistantships industrial co-op positions For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson University Potsdam, New York 13676

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Graduate Study at Clemson University The University In Chemical Engineering Coming Up for Air No matter where you do your graduate work, your nose will be in your books and your mind on your research. But at Clemson University, there's something for you when you can stretch out for a break. Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing, sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend. Something that can really relax you. All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering Department, too With active research and teaching in polymer processing, process automation, computer simu lation of fluids, thermodynamics, membrane separation, pollution control, pulp and paper operations research, and rheology on non Newtonian fluids what more do you need? Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 65 undergraduate and 58 graduate fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 12,000 students, one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 1,700 graduate students. The 1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is midway between Charlotte, N.C. and Atlanta, Ga The Faculty Forest C. Alley William B. Barlage, Jr. John N. Beard, Jr. William F Beckwith Dan D. ~die Charles H. Gooding James M. Haile Stephen S. Melsheimer Programs lead to the M.S and Ph.D. degrees. Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available. For Further Information For further information and a descriptive brochure, write: Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Earle Hall Clemson University Clemson, South Carolina 29634 Joseph C. Mullins Amod A. Ogale Richard W. Rice Mark C. Thies CLEMSON UNJ:VERSJ:TY College of Engineering

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UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS DAVIDE. CLOUGH, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1975), University of Colorado Fluidization, Process Control ROBERT H. DA VIS, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1983), Stanford University Fluid Dynamics of Suspensions, Biotechnology JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor Ph.D. (1974), Stanford University H eterogene ous Catalysis, Surface Science R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor Ph.D. (1967), University of Colorado Biophysics, Bioengineering PAUL G. GLUGLA, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1977) University of Illinois Io nic Solutions, Thermodynamics Membrane Separations R. CURTIS JOHNSON, Professor Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University Global Modeling DHINAKAR S. KOMP ALA, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1984), Purdue University Biochemical Engin eering, Biotechnology Mathematical Mode ling WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor Ph D. (1968), University of California, Berkeley Membranes, Geophysical Fluid Mechanics, Coal Gasification, Transport Processes in Permafrost LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1982), Purdue University Surface Science, H eterogeneous Catalysis, Molecular Dy namics MAX S. PETERS, Professor Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University B i omass Conversion, Economics W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor Ph D. (1965) Tulane University OpUmal Control and Id en tification Transpo rt in Porous Media ROBERT L. SANI, Profe ssor Ph.D. (1963), University of Minnesota Numerical Tech niques in Fluid Dynamics, Membranes KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS Chairman and James M. and Catherine T. Patten Professor Ph.D. (1951), University of Illinois Econom ics, Th ermodynamics, H eat Tr(1IYl,Sfer RONALD E. WEST, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of Michigan Water Pollution Control, Solar Energy Utilization FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 234 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FALL 1986 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc. Colorado School of Mines. Themodynamic properties of gases and l i qu i ds vapor l i quid equilibria cryogenic engineer ing. J. H. Gary, Professor ; Ph D ., Florida Petroleum refinery process i ng operat i ons heavy oil processing thermal cracking, visbreak i ng and solvent extraction. V. F. Yesavage, Professor, Ph D. M ic higan ; Vapor liquid equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids, properties of coal-derived liquids, equations of state for highly non-ideal systems E D. Sloan, Jr., Professor ; Ph D Clemson Phase equip librium measurements of natural gas fluids and hy drates, thermal conduc ti vity of coal derived fluids adsorption e qu i libria stagewise processes, educa tion methods research R M Baldwin, Professor, Ph D Colorado School of Mines. Mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geoch em istry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal der ive d asphaltenes, supercritical extraction M. S. Selim, Associate Profe s sor; Ph D ., Iowa State. Heat and mass transfer w it h a moving boundary fluid mechanics of solid-liquid suspensions mathematical methods in chemical engineering. A. L Bunge, Associate Professor; Ph.D ., Berkeley. Mem brane transport and separations, mass transfer in porous media ion e x change and adsorption chroma tography P F. Bryan, Assistant Professor; Ph.D. Berkeley. Com puter aided process design, computational thermo dynamics A D Shine, Ass is tant Professor ; Ph D ., MIT Polymer rheology and pr ocess i ng composites. R L Miller, R ese arch Assistant Professor, Ph.D Colorado School of Mines, Liquefaction co-processing of coal and heavy oil low severity coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, particulate removal w i th venturi scrubbers, multiphase fluid mechanics. J F Ely, Adjun ct Professor ; Ph D., Indiana. Molecular thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids. For Applications and Further Information On M.S., and Ph.D Programs, Yl(rite Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 235

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Colorado State University Faculty: Larry Belfiore, Ph. D., University of Wisconsin Bruce Dale, Ph.D. Purdue University Jud Harper, Ph.D., Iowa State University Naz Karim, Ph.D., University of Manchester Terry Lenz, Ph.D., Iowa State University Jim Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State University Carol McConica, Ph.D. Stanford University Vince Murphy, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts 236 Location: CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000 people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new Center for the Performing Arts. Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement. Research Areas: Alternate Energy Sources Biotechnology Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Vapor Deposition Computer Simulation and Control Environmental Engineering Fermentation Food Engineering Hazardous Waste Treatment Polymeric Materials Porous Media Phenomena Rheology Semiconductor Processing Solar Cooling Systems For Applications and Further Information, write: Professor Vincent G. Murphy Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 CHEM ICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE CNIVERSITrr ()I CONNECTICUT OUR FACULTY THOMAS F. ANDERSON Ph.D., U of Cal ., Berkeley JAMES P. BELL Sc.D., MIT DOUGLAS J COOPER Ph.D ., U of Colorado Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering ROBERT W COUGHLIN Ph D., Cornell MICHAEL B. CUTLIP Ph.D., U of Colorado ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO Ph.D., U of Wisconsin JAMES M. FENTON Ph.D., U. of Illinois G MICHAEL HOWARD Ph D ., U. of Connecticut HERBERT E. KLEI Ph.I)., U of Connecticut JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN Ph.D., U of Massachusetts MONTGOMERY T. SHAW Ph.D., Princeton RICHARD M STEPHENSON Ph.D., Cornell DONALD W SUNDSTROM Ph.D., U of Michigan ROBERT A WEISS Ph D ., U. of Massachusetts OUR RESEARCH BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPOSITE MATERIALS ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING EXPERT SYSTEMS FALL 1986 POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS SURFACE SCIENCE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL THERMODYNAMICS ---M.S. and Ph.D. Programs for Engineers and Scientists CHECK US OUT Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering Box U-139 The University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06268 (203) 486-4019 237

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Graduate Study 1n Chemical Engineering at Cornell University World-class research in ... bioc h emica l e ngin ee ring app li ed math e mat i cs computer simu l ation environmental engineering kinetics and cata l ysis surface science heat and mass transf e r polymer sc i ence and engineering fl u id dynamics rheo l ogy and biorheology reactor des i gn mo l ecu l ar th e rmodynamics stat i stical mechanics !;ffe"' v A diverse intellectual climate Graduate students arrange indi vidual programs with a core of c hemical engineering co urs es sup plemented by work in other out standing Cornell departments including those in chemistry, bio logical sciences, physics, co mput er science, food science, material s science me c hani ca l ngineering and business administration. A scenic location Situated in the scenic Fing e r Lak es r eg ion of upstat e New York, the Cornell ca mpus is one of the most beautifu l in th e co untry A stimulating university co mmu nity offers excellent r ecreat iona l and cu l tural opportunities in a n at tractive e nvironment. A distinguished faculty Brad Anton Paul e tte Clancy Claude Cohen Rob e rt K. Finn Keith E. Gubbins Dani e l A Hamm er Pet er Harriott Donald L. Ko c h Robert P. M err ill William L. Olbricht Athanassios Z Panagiotopou l os Ferdinand Rodrigu ez George F. Scheele Mi c h ae l L. Shuler Julian C. Smith (Emeritus) Paul H Steen William B. Streett Raymond G. Thorp e Rob e rt L. Von Berg H erbe rt F. Wiegandt John A Zo ll w eg Graduate programs l ead to the degrees of mast e r of e ngin ee ring mast er of science, and doctor of philosophy. Financial aid including attractive fellowships is available. For further information write to: Professor Claude Cohen Cornell University O l in H a ll of Chemical Engineering "s. Itha ca, NY 148 53-520 1 -~ ~.,. !!'1 "':? 'i\ s

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Chemital En The Faculrr. __ Giovanni Astarita Mark A. Barteau Antony N. Beris C. Ernest Birchenall Kenneth B. Bischoff Costel D. Denson Prasad S. Dhurjati Henry C. Foley Bruce C. Gates Michael T. Klein Abraham M. Lenhoff Roy L. McCullough Arthur B. Metzner Jon H. Olson Michael E. Paulaiti s Robert L. Pigford T. W. Fraser Russell Stanley I. Sandler Jerold M. Schultz Alvin B. Stiles Andrew L. Zydney The University ofDelaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena, Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering. ________ For more information and application materials write: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716 The University of Delaware ______

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240 u N I V E R s I T y OF FLORIDA Gainesville, Florida Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD Faculty Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design/ Arthur Fricke Polymer P rocessing, Ap plied Rheology/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface Science/ Lew John s Applied Mathematics/ Dale Kirmse Process Control, Computer Aided Design, Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor Design, Catalysis/ Gerasimos K. Lyberatos Op timization, Biochemical Processes/ Frank May Separations/ Ranga Narayanan Transport Phe n omena/ John O'Connell Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics/ Dinesh 0. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery, Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros Svoronos Process Control/ Robert D. Walker Surface Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery / Gerald West ermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Transport Phenomena For more information please write: Graduate Admissions Coor din ator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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I I I I I GEORGIA TECH A Unit of the University System ofGeorgio Atlanta All major professional sports Ballet Centers for Disease Control Commercial center of the South Emory University Georgia State University High Museum of Art Major recording studios Pleasant climate Sailing on Lake Lanier Snow skiing within two hours Atlanta Symphony Orchestra Theater White water canoeing within one hour Programs in Chemical Engineering Biochemical engineering Catalysis Computer-Aided Design (CAD ) Electrochemical engineering Fine particle technology lnterfacial phenomena Kinetics Medical i mplants Mining and mineral engineering Polymer science and engineering Process control and dynarni cs Process synthesis Pulp and paper engineering Reactor design Separation processes Supercritical extraction Thermodynam i cs and transport properties Transport phenomena Waste management Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Faculty AS Abhiraman P.K Agrawal Y Arkun E J. Clayfield W.R Ernst L. Forney C.W. Gorton J.S. Hsieh M J. Matteson J.D. Mutty G W Poehlein R S Roberts R.J. Samuels F.J Schork AH. P. Skelland J. T. Sommerfeld D W. Tedder AS Teja M G White J. Winnick A Yoganathan For more Information write: Dr. Gary W. Poehlein School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100

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Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering University of Houston The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston has developed research strength in a broad range of areas: Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis Biochemical Engineering Electrochemical Systems Semiconductor Processing lnterfacial Phenomena, Rheology Process Dynamics and Control Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation Solid-liquid Separation Reliability Theory Petroleum Reservoir Engineering The department occupies over 75,000 square feet and has over $3 million worth of experimental apparatus. Financial support is available to full-time graduate students through re search assistantships and special industrial fellowships. For more information or application forms write to: Director, Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Houston Houston, Texas 77004 (Phone 713/749-4407) 242 The faculty: N. R. Amundson V. Balakotaiah H.-C. Chang E. L. Claridge J. R. Crump H. A. Deans A. E. Dukler D. J. Economou C. F. Goochee E. J. Henley D. Luss R. Pollard H. W. Prengle, Jr. R. Rajagopalan J. T. Richardson F. M. Tiller F. L. Worley, Jr. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH The Department of Chemica 1 Engineering Graduate Programs in The Department of Chemical Engineering leading to the degrees of MASTER OF SCIENCE and DOCTOR OF PHILOSPHY THE UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS AT CfflCAGO FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Richard D. Gonzalez Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins U ni versity, 1965 Professor T. S. Jiang PhD., Northwestern University, 1981 Assista nt Professor John H. Kiefer Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Sohail Murad Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Ass ociate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor Irving F. Miller Ph.D., University of Michigan Professor and Head .l oachim Floess Ph.D. Massachsetts Inst. of Tech., 1985 Assista nt Professor Da v id Wilcox Ph.D. N orthwestern University, 1985 Assista nt Professor Heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry catalysis by s upported metals, subseabed radioactive waste di sp osal st udie s, clay chemistry Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through porous media, suspension rheology Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids so lids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions, s olar energy. Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics of liquid s and liquid mixtures Tran s port properties of fluids and solids, heat and mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized bed combustion,and indirect coal liquefaction Catalys is chemical reaction engineering energy transmission, modeling and optimization Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow and heat transfer, porous media processes mathematical analysis and approximation. Lipid microencapsulation; Adorption and surface reactions; Membrane transport. Synthesis of blood Reaction engineering with primary focu s on the pyrolysi s of oil shale and coal. Energy technolog y, environmental controls. Mechani s tic aspects of the carbon monoxide hydrogen reaction with emphasis on the synthesis of methanol over oxide catalysts. For more information, write: Director of Graduate Studies, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, II, 60680 (312)996-3424

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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN r t r o HE ATERS P0L YM E A 12ATION REACTORS Faculty Richard C. Alkire Harry G Drickamer Charles A. Eckert Thomas J Hanratty Jonathan J. L. Higdon Walter G. May Richard I. Mosel Edmund G Seebauer Anthony J McH ugh Mark A. Stadtherr James W. Westwater Charles F. Zukoski, IV OE P ROPANIZEA c .s,, c. T O XBUT At UZER The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading to the M S and Ph.D degrees D The comb i nation of distingu i shed faculty outstanding facilities and a diversity of research interests resu l ts in exceptional opportunities for graduate educat i on For Information and Application Fo-rms Write Department of Chemical Engfrmer i n g University of Illinois Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 W California Street Urbana Illinois 61801 ;;; ~ ,. \, 1:Ji! : -~ -.

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT Illinois Institute of Technology TH E UNIVERSIT Y Private, coeducational unive rsity 3000 undergraduate students 2400 graduate students 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west of Lake Michign Campus recognized as an architectural landmark THE CITY One of the largest cities in the world National and international center of busin ess and industry Enormous variety of cultural resources E x cel l ent recreational facil i ties Industrial collaboration and job opportunities T HE DEPARTMENT o One of the oldest in the nat i on 0 Approximately 60 full-time and 50 part-tim e graduate students e M Ch E ., M S and P h D degrees o Financia ll y attract i ve fellowships and assistantsh i ps available to outstanding s tudents T HE FACULTY HAMID ARASTOOPOUR ( Ph D ., I I T ) Multi P hase flow flow in porous media gos te ch nol ogy RICHARD A. BEISSINGER (D. E .Sc., Co lu mbia) Transport processes in c hemi cal and b i o l o gi ca l sys t ems, rheo l ogy of po l ymeric and bio l o gi cal flu ids ALI CINAR (Ph D ., T exas A & M) Chemica l process control distribu t ed p,orometer systems, expert systems DIMITRI GIDASPOW ( P h D ., II T ) H ydrodynamics of fluidizotion multi-phase fl ow, separation processes JUAN HONG (Ph D ., Purdu e) Bi ochemical engineering, separation pr ocesses FREDERI CK A. KELLER JR (Vis iti ng Ph D ., Rutg e r s) B ioreoctor design, se paration processes SA TI S H J PARULEKAR ( P h D ., P urdue) B iochemical engineering chemical reaction engineering J ROBERT SELMAN ( Ph D ., Ca liforn iaB e r ke l ey) Ele c tr ochem istr y and electrochemical energy s t orage SELIM M. SENKAN (Sc. D ., MIT) Combustion high-temperature c hem ica l reaction enginee r ing DARSH T WASAN ( Ph D ., Ca li forniaB erke l ey) lnterfo cial phenomena, separation processes enhanced oil recovery WILLIAM A. WEIGAND ( P h.D., IIT ) Bi ochemica l engineering, process optimiza tion and control APPLICATIONS Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering I l linois I nstitute of Techr.iology 1 1.T. Center Chicago IL 60 6 16

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THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY is an independent graduate school. It has an interdisciplinary degree program designed for B.S. chemical engineering graduates. Fellowships and full tuition scholarships are avai I able to qualified U.S. and Canadian Citizens. Our students receive minimum $9,000.00 fellowships each calendar year. Our research activities span the papermaking process including: process engineering simulation and control heat and mass transfer separation science reaction engineering fluid mechanics material science surface and colloid science plant tissue culture For further information contact: Director of Admissions The Institute of Paper Chemistry P O. Box 1039 Appleton WI 54912 Telephone : 414/734-9251 246 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Program for M.S. and Ph.D. Degreesin Chemical and Materials Engineering Research Areas Kinetics and Catalysis Biomass Conversion Membrane Separations Particle Morphological Analysis Air Pollution Moss Transfer Operations Numerical Modeling Particle Technology AtmospherlcTransport Bloseparatlons and Biotechnology Process Design SurfaceSclence Transport In PorousMedlo For addltlonal lnformaMon and application write to : Graduate Admissions Chemltal and Materials Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 319/353-6237 0 L-----------___ ___ J '-THE UNIVERSITY Of IOWA

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\, IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY William H. Abraham Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport, process modeling Lawrence E. Burkhart Fluid mechanics, separation process, ceramic processing George Burnet Coal technology, separation processes, high tBmperature ceramics John M. Eggebrecht Thermodynamics and structure of liquids and liauid mix ~ ures Charles E. Glatz Biochemical engineering, processing of biological materials Kurt R. Hebert Applied electrochemistry corrosion James C. Hill Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport phenomena, aerosols Kenneth R. Jolls Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics Terry S. King Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications Maurice A. Larson Crystallization, process dynamics Peter J. Reilly Biochemical engineering, enzyme technology, carbohydrate chromatography Glenn L. Schrader Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics processing Richard C. Seagrave Biological transport phenomena, biothermo dynamics, reactor analysis Dean L. Ulrichson Solid-gas reactions, process modeling Thomas D. Wheelock Chemical reactor design, coal technology, fluidization Gordon R. Youngquist Crystallization, chemical reactor design, polymerization For additional information, please write: Graduate Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 i: / ~ \ ~ ~ ~: ~ \ --, :: .... -\ .. '\

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'IHEJOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY BALTIMORE FACULTY Timothy Barbari, Ph.D Texas, Austin Marc Donohue, Ph.D. Berkeley Joseph Katz, Ph.D. Chicago Robert Kelly, Ph.D. North Carolina State Mark McHugh, Ph.D. Delaware G eo ffrey Prentic e, Ph.D. Berkel ey \,Villi am Schwarz, Dr. Eng. Johns Hopkins Plt-as e contact: CHa.flCAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS Fluid Mechanics Phase Equilibria Biotechnology Nucleation and Crystallization Electrochemical Engineering Rheology Acoustics Mass and Heat Transfer Process Modeling and Contro l Reaction Engineering Membrane Separations Professor Ccoff r cy Pr ntic e, D e p :1 rt111eul of C h em i ca l E11 ~ i1i l'''ri 11 g Th e Joh u s l lopk;ns U niver s it.y, Balti111ore, l\laryl and 2 J 21 Telcphon(': (301) 338-700G FALL 1986 249

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THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering offers graduate study leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees For further information, write to Professor George W. Swift Chairman and Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering 4006 Learned Hall The University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66045-2223 Faculty and Areas of Specialization Kenneth A. Bishop, Professor (Ph.D., Oklahoma); reser voir simulation, interactive computer graphics, optimization John C. Davis, Professor and chief of geology research section, Kansas Geological Survey (Ph.D., Wyoming); probabilistic techniques for oil exploration, geologic computer mapping Kenneth J. Himmelstein, Adjunct Associate Professor (Ph.D., Maryland); pharmacokinetics, mathematical modeling of biological processes, cell kinetics, diffusion and mass transfer Colin S. Howat, Ill, Associate Professor (Ph.D., Kansas); applied equilibrium thermodynamics, process de sign Don W. Green, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (Ph.D., Oklahoma); enhanced oil recovery, hydrological modeling James 0. Maloney, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn State); technology and society Russell B. Mesler, Professor (Ph.D., Michigan); nucleate and film boiling, bubble and drop phenomena Floyd W. Preston, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State); geo logic pore structure 250 Harold F. Rosson, Professor (Phd., Rice); production of alternate fuels from agricultural materials Bala Subramaniam, Assistant Professor (Ph.D., Notre Dame); kinetics and catalysis, insitu characterization of catalyst systems George W. Swift, Professor and Chairman (Ph D., Kansas); thermodynamics of petroleum and petro chemical systems, natural gas reservoirs analysis, fractured well analysis, petrochemical plant design John L. Thiele, Assistant Professor (Sc.D., MID; struc ture/property relationships of polymers, polymer chemistry and physics, polymer viscoelasticity Shapour Vossoughi, Associate Professor (Ph.D., U. of Alberta); enhanced oil recovery, thermal analysis, applied rheology and computer modeling Stanley M. Walas, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan); combined chemical and phase equilibrium G. Paul Willhite, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (Ph.D., Northwestern); enhanced oil recovery, transport processes in porous media, mathematical modeling C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Up to $12,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas 66506 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ENERGY ENGINEERING COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS PROCESS SYSTEM ENGINEERING AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL FLUIDIZATION AND SOLID MIXING HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS J. Berman, Ph D., Northwestern Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation D Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology Novel Separation Processes; Membranes ; Water Pollution Control G F. Crewe, Ph D., West Virginia Computer-Aided Process Design ; Coal Liquefaction C. E. Hamrin, Jr., Ph.D ., Northwestern Coi!I Liquefaction; Catalysis; Three-phase Reactors R. I. Kermode, Ph.D. Northwestern Process Control and Economics E. D. Moorhead, Ph D., Ohio State Dynamics of Electrochemical Processes ; Computer Measurement Techniques and Modeling L. K. Peters, Ph D., Pittsburgh Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena A. K. Ray, Ph D., Clarkson Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen Regime ; Transport Phenomena J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer; Fuel Gas Desulfurization T. T. Tsang, Ph.D ., Texas-Austin Aerosol Dynam i cs in Uniform and Non Uniform Systems Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants In Addition, Outstanding Students May Qualify for a McAdams Fellowship 252 For details write to: R I. Kermode Director for Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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(Qtstana Stat~ Untv~rstt~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CITY Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major state institution for higher education-LSU. Situated in the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras. THE DEPARTMENT M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Approximately 70 Graduate Students DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES IBM 434 I with more than 50 color graphics terminals Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR, LC's, GC's Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities TO APPLY, CONTACT: EDWARD McLAUGHLIN, CHAIRMAN Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 FACULTY A. B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU) Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design K. M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering F. R. GROVES (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Control, Modeling, Separation Processes D. P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas) FluidSolid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes A. E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida) Distillation, Control, Modeling M. HJORTS0 (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics F. C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Univ. of Purdue) Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing E. McLAUGHLIN CD.Sc., Univ. of London) Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties R. W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech) Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization J. A. POLACK (Sc.D., MIT) Sugar Technology, Separation Processes G. L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces D. D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech) Transport Phenomena, Environmental Engineering R. G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, Separation Processes D. L. RISTROPH (Ph.D., Pennsylvania) Biochemical Engineering C. B. SMITH (Ph. D., Univ. of Houston) Non-linear Dynamics, Control A. M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington) Biomedical Engineering, Transport Properties, Combustion L. J. THIBODEAUX ( Ph.D., LSU) Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste D. M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware) Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes FINANCIAL AID Tax-free fellowships and assistantships with tuition waivers available Special industrial and alumni fellowships with higher stipends for outstanding students Some part-time teaching positions for graduate students in high standing

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Faculty and Research Interests DOUGLAS BOUSFELD Ph D. (U.C. B e rk e le y) Fluid Mechanics, Rheology Bio c hemical -: Engineering WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc.D .1 MH .) H ea t Transfer Pressing & Drying Op erc:;i ti ons, En ergy f ram Law BTU Fuels Pr ocess Simula tion & Modeling ALBERT CO Ph D. (Wisconsin) Polymeric Flu id Dynamics Rh eo logy Transport Phenomena Numerical Methods JOSEPH M GENCO Ph .D (Ohio State) Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Te c h nology Wood Delignification JOHN C. HASSLER Ph D (Kansas State) Process Control Nurn erical Method s, In stru mentation and Real Tim e Computer Appli cations MARQUITA K. HILL Ph D (U C. Da t is ) Separation Processes Pulping .Chemistry Ultrafiltration JOHN J. HWALEK Ph D ( Illin ois) Liquid Metal Natural Convection Ele c troni cs Cooling 1 Process Control Systems ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph D (Princeton) Polymer Physics & Chemistry Supercritical Fluid s, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis Pulp & Paper Science JAMES D. LISIUS Ph D (Illinoi s) Electroch e mical Engineering Comp os it e Materials, Coupled Mass Transf er. KENNETH I. MUMME Ph.D (Maine) Pro cess Simulation and Control System Id entification & Optimization HEMANT PENDSE Ph.D (Syracuse) Colloidal Ph enome na Particulate & Multi phase Processes P oro u s Media Modeling IVAR H STOCKEL Sc.D (M. I.T .) (Chairman) Droplet F ormation Fluidization Pulp & Paper T ec hnology EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph D (Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn) Thermal & Mechanical Properti es of Polym e r s Membrane Separation Pro cesses, Pap ermaking and Fiber Ph ys ics DOUGLAS L. WOERNER Ph.D. (Was hington ) Membrane Separations Polymer Solutions Colloid & Emulsi o n Technolog Programs and Financial Support Eighteen research groups attack fundamental problenis l eading to M .S. and Ph.D degree s. Indu strial fe ll owships, university fellowships research assistantships and teaching assis tantships are 9vailab le President's F ellow ships provide $4 000 per year in addition to th e r e gular s tip e nd and free tuition The University Th e spac ious campus is situated on 1 200 a c r es overlooking the Penobscot and Still wa ter Ri ve rs Student enrollment of 12 000 o ff e rs the diversit y of a large school w hile preserving close personal contacts between peers and faculty The University s Maine Center for the Arts the Hauck Auditorium and Pavilion Th eat r e provide many cultural o pportunities, in addition to those in t~e nearby city of Bangor L ess than an hour away from campus are : the beautiful Maine coas t and Acadia National Park alpine and cross-country ski resorts and northern w ilderness areas of Baxter State Park and Mount Katahdin Enioy life work hard and earn your graduate degre e in one of the most beautiful spots in th e world Ca ll Collect or Write: James D. Lisius University of Maine Department of Chemical Engineering Jenness Hall, Box A Orono, Maine 04469-0135 (207) 581-2292

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University of Maryland Faculty: Odd A. Asbjornsen Robert B. Beckmann Theodore W. Cadman Richard V. Calabrese Kyu Y. Choi Stowell Davison Larry L. Gasner James W Gentry Albert Gomezplata Keshava P Halemane Yih Yun Hsu Thomas J. McAvoy Thomas M. Regan Theodore G Smith NamS. Wang Evanghelos Zafiriou College Park Location: The University of Maryland College Park is located approximately l O miles from the heart of the nation, Washiington, D.C. Excellent public transportion permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House Arlington Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay. Degrees Offered. M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering F i nancial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships at $11, 150 / yr. Research Areas: Aerosol Meehan ics Air Pollution Control Biochemical Engineering Fermentation Laser Anemometry Mass Transfer Polymer Processing Process Control Risk Assessment Separation Processes Simulation For Applications and Further Information, Write: Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of Maryland C ollege Park Md 20742

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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS Amherst The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and PhD. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Acti ve research areas include polymer engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or the Pol ymer Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid, in the form of research assistantships and teaching assistantships, is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed belo w or 256 For further details, please write to Prof. M. F. Doherty Graduate Program Director Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass. 01003 Prof. D. A. Tirrell Graduate Program Director Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass. 01003 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M. A. BURNS Bioch emica l engi n ee r ing, Chromatographic separations W. C. CONNER Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion M F DOHERTY D istfllati on Thermodynamics, Design J M. DOUGLAS Process design and control, Reactor engineering J W. ELDRIDGE Kinetics, Ca talysis, Phase equilibria V. HAENSEL Catalysis, Kinetics M. P HAROLD Kinetics and Reactor Engineering R S. KIRK KinetiCll, Ebullient bed reactors R L. LAURENCE Pol ymerizati on reactors, Fluid mechanics M. F. MALONE Rheolog y, Polymer processing, D esi gn P A. MONSON Statistical mec h a n ics K M. NG Enhanced o i l recovery Two phase flows J. M OTTINO* M ixi ng, Fluid mechanics Polymer engineering M VANPEE Combust ion, Spectroscopy P R WESTMORELAND Combustion Pla sma processi ng H H WINTER Po lymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer B E. YDSTIE Process control POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING J C W CHIEN Polymerization catalysts, B i opolymers, Polymer degradation R J FARRIS Polymer composites M ed ,an ical properties, Elastomer s D. A. HOAGLAND Hydrodynamic chroma t ography separations S. L HSU Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis F. E KARASZ Polymer transitions, Po lymer blends, Conducting polymers R. W LENZ Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization W J MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers T J McCARTHY Polymer synthesis, Poly mer s urface s M MUTHUKUMAR Statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, gels, and melts R S. PORTER Polymer rheology, Polymer processing R. S STEIN Pol ymer crysta llin ity and morphology Character izati on D. A TIRRELL Polymer synthesis a nd membranes E. L. THOMAS* Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology, x-Ray scattering *Joint appointm ents in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT J. Wei, Department Head R. C. Armstrong R. F Baddour J.M. Beer E. D. Blankschtein H. Brenner R.A. Brown R. E. Cohen C. K. Colton C. Cooney W.M.Deen L.B. Evans T.A. Hatton J.B Howard M.Kramer FACULTY J.P. Longwell E. W. Merrill C. M. Mohr R. C. Reid A. F. Sarofim C. N. Satterfield H. H. Sawin K. A. Smith G. Stephanopoulos G. N. Stephanopoulos U. W. Suter J. W. Tester P. S. Virk D. I. C. Wang RESEARCH AREAS Art ificial Intelligence Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Fluid Mechanics Electronic Materials Processing Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena Photo by James Wei MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice with field stations at the General Electric Company in A lbany New York, the Brookheaven National Lab at Long Island, New York, and the Dow Chemical C ompan y in Midland, Michigan. FALL 1986 For Information Chemical Engineering Headquarters Room 66-350 MIT Cambridge, MA 02139 257

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Where Reputations AreMade "Our goal Is to have each Ph.D. studitnt leave-Arin Arbor with a reputation as a seholar who has.added some significant contribution to the world's knowledge." H. Scott Fogler, Chairman Michigan has been a leac;ier since it established one of the country s first Chemical Engineering programs in 1901. From a position of strength in our classical research areas including transport phenomena, reaction engineering, catalysis, electrochemical engipeertng, pr~ss control, computing, a d coal processes, the department has already built momentum in new r:esearch directions. Biotechnology and Biomedical ngineering Continuous Processing of High Performance Materials Microelectronics and Sensor Colloid and Surface Science Microseparations, Ecosystems Supercomputer-Aided Analysis You can begin building your professional reputation at Michigan under one of the country's most generous student aid programs for full financial support. F,or more information contact: Professor J. W. Schwank Graduate Program Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering The University pf Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 313-763-1148 D E. Briggs B Camahan R.L. Cur l F M Donahue H S Fogler Cha i rman E Gular i R.H Kadlec C Kravaris B Palsson A.C Pcll)anastasiou P.E.Savage J S Schultz J Schwank H Y.Wang J O Wilkes G S.Y Yeh E H Young RM Ziff (Emeritus: D L Katz LL.Kempe. J E. Powers M J Sinnott R. Tek B Will i ams .)

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN ST ATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineer i ng offers Graduate Programs lead ing to M S and Ph D degrees in Chemical Engineering. The faculty con duct fundamental and applied research in a variety of Chemical Engineer ing disciplines The Michigan Biotechnology Institute and the Center for Composite Materials and Structures provide a forum for i nterdisciplinary work i n current high technology fields ASSISTANTSHIPS : Teaching and research assistantships pay $930.00 per month to a student studying for the M S. degree and approximately $1000.00 per month for a Ph D candidate FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $16 000 per year plus out-of-state tuition : The stipend i ncludes a waiver of non resident tuition FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDE R SON, C h ai rm a n Ph D ., 1960 University of Wa s hin gto n Transport Phenomena, D i ffu s i on i n Polyme 1 So luti o n K.A.BE R GLUND P h D ., 19 8 1, Iowa State Universit y Crysta lli zat ion and Precipitation from So luti o n, Food Engine e r ing, Application s of Raman Spectroscopy D M B R IEDIS P h D. 19 8 1 Iowa State U niv e r s it y Biomedical Engineering, Thermod y namic s of Livin g Systems. Biological Mineralization Biochemical Engineering R .E.BUXBAUM Ph.D ., 19 8'1, Princeton Unive r s it y C hemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion, Diffu s iviti es and Separation Rates from Theory and Exp e rim e nt, Nerve Growth C M. COOPE R P r ofessor E m e r it u s Sc.D., 1949, Massachusetts In st itut e gfTechno l ogy Th er modynamic s and Phase Eq uilibri a, Mod e lin g of Tran s por t Processe s L T. D RZ A L Ph.D., 1974 Case Western Reserve University Surface and Interfacial Phenom ena, Adhesion Compos it e Ma teria l s, S u rfac e C har acterizat ion Gas-So lid a nd Liquid-Solid Adsorption E A.G R U LK E P h .D 1 975, O hi o State University Mas s Transpo r t Pheno m ena, Po l ymer Devolatilization Bio c h e mical Engineering Food Engineerin g M C. HAWLEY P h D., 1964, Michigan State U ni vers it y Kin e tic s, Cata l ys i s Reaction s in P l asma s, Po l ymerizat i on Reac tion s, Co mpo s ite Proce ss ing R eac tion Engineering K. JAYA R AMAN Ph D. 1 975, Princeton Univers i ty Polymer Rh eo logy M e l t Bl e ndin g of Polym e r s, App l i e d Aco u s t i cs C T L IR A Ph D. 19 85, U niver s ity of Illin ois a t U rban a-C hampaign Thermodynamic s and Pha se Equilibr i a of Complex Systems S upercritical Fluid Studies D I. MILLER Ph.D., 1982 Unive r s ity of F l orida Kjn e tic s and Cata l ysis, Carbon Ga s ifi cation, Thermal and C h e i cal Co nv e r s i on of Bioma ss C A PETTY Ph D ., 1970 University of Florida F lui d M ec hani cs, Turbul e nt Tran spo 1 t Phenomena Solid-F l u i d Sepa ration s B W. W I LK I NSON Ph.D ., 1 958, Ohio State Univer s it y Energy Systems and Environm e ntal Control, Nuclear Reactor, Radioi so top e App li cat ion s R M. WO R DEN Ph.D., 1986, Univers i ty of T e nness ee Biochemical Engineering Immobilized Ce ll Tec h no l ogy, B i oreactor Dynamic s a nd Contro l FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE Dr. Dennis J. Miller, Coordinator of Graduate Recruiting Department of Chemical Engineering 173 Engineer i ng Building Michigan State Un i vers i ty East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1 226 MSU i s a n Affi rm a ti ve Act ion / E qu a l O pp o r t unit y In st itution

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University of Minnesota Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Chemical Engineering Program I I Process Control Synthesis, Design I Fluid Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Statistical Mechanics I Reaction Engineering Kinetics I Heterogeneous Catalysis Catalyst Design New Cataly$t Materials Surface Reaction Kinetics I Colloid and Interface Science Su rfactancy Capillary Hydrodynamics Adhesion and Surface Forces Coating Flows I Bioengineering Biochemical, Biomedical R. Aris F H Arnold R.W. Carr Jr E.L Gussler J.S Dahler H T. Davis D F Evans A. Franciosi The Faculty W W Gerberich G.L. Grttf i n W-S. Hu K F Jensen K.H Keller C W Macosko M.L. Mecartney A G Fredrickson C J Geankoplis R.A. Oriani W E. Ranz L.D. Schmidt Materials Science Program Polymer Science Polymer Processes Physical Metallurgy Mechanical Metallurgy Thermodynamics Thermodynamics of Solids Transport Diffusion and Kinet i cs Rheology Electrochemical Corrosion Processes Materials Failure Surface Science Microelectronic Materials Microelectronics Metal/Semiconductor Preparation Processes Interfaces, Thin F i lms Polymer Films Magnetic Materials Sols, Gels Suspension Processing Ceramics Porous Media Science lnterfacial Cohesion Sol-Gel Films Fracture Micromechanics Ceramic Microstructures Dental Mater i als Biomedical Artifical Organ Materials Materials L E Scriven D A. Shores J.M. Sivertsen W H Smyrl For information and application forms write : F Srienc R.W Staehle M V Tirrell R. Tranquillo J H. Weaver H.S White Graduate Admissions Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Minnesota 421 Washington Ave. S E. Minneapolis MN 55455

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Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado} -Co mputer Aided Process Design, Bioconversion 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice} -Transp ort Properties, Kinetics Catalysis. M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida} Biochemical Studies, Biomass Utilization J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. lllinois-Chicago} -Chemical kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo dynamics. J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri} -E lectrode Re actions, Corrosion. A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich} Adsorption, Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optim i zation, Reactor Design. J. M. D. MAC ELROY (Ph.D., University College Dublin}-Transport Phenomena, Heterogeneous Catalysis, Drying, Statistical Mechanics. D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas} Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium. P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon}-lnterfacial Phenomena B. E. POLING (Ph.D., lllinois} Kinetcis, Energy Storage Catalysis. X. B. REED, JR (Ph.D., Minnesota} -Fluid Me chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena, Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure 0 C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla} Bioengineer ing R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M} Multi stage Mass Transfer Operations. Distillation, Ex traction, Process Control. H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse} Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech nology, Plasma Polymerization, Biomedical Ma terials. R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue} Rheology of Polymer Solutions, Chemical Reaction Kinetics. Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. FALL 1986 261

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Advanced studies in Chen,ical Engineering at NJIT NJIT, the public technological university of New Jersey, offering the Master of Science in Chemical Engineering, Master of Science, Degree of Engineer, and Doctor of Engineering Science. AT NJIT YOU'LL FIND : Outstanding relationships with major petrochemical and pharmaceutical corporations, yielding significant support for research efforts The National Science Foundation university / industry cooperative center for research in hazardous and toxic substances Graduate and undergraduate enrollment in chemical engineering among the largest in the country Financial support available to qualified full-time graduate students Faculty: Chemical Engineering Division P Armenante (Virginia) B Baltzis (Minnesota) E Bart (NYU) T. Greenstein (NYU) D Hanesian (Cornell) C R Huang (Michigan) D Knox (RPI) G. Lewandowski (Colum bia) C C. Lin (Technische Universitat Munchen) J E McCormick (Cincinnati) T. Petroulas (Minnesota) A J Perna (Connecticut) E. C Roche Jr (Stevens) D Tassios (Texas) W T. Wong (Princeton) Faculty: Chemistry Division J Bozzelli (Princeton) V. Cagnati (Stevens) L. Dauerman (Rutgers) D Getzin (Columbia) A Greenberg (Princeton ) J Grow (Oregon State) T Gund (Princeton) B Kebbekus (Penn State) H Kimmel (CUNY) D S. Kristel (NYU) D Lambert (Oklahoma State) G Lei (PINY) R Parker (Washington) H Perlmutter (NYU) A. Shilman (PINY) L. Suchow (PINY) R Tomkins (London) R Trattner (CUNY) C Venanzi (UC at Santa Barbara) CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Air pollutant analysis and transport of organic compounds Biological and chemical detoxification Design of air pollution control equipment Toxicology REACTION KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Fixed and fluidized bed reactors Free radical and global reaction kinetics Biochemical reactors Reactor modeling and transport mechanisms THERMODYNAMICS Vapor-liquid equilibria Calorimetry Equations of state Solute / solvent systems APPLIED CHEMISTRY Electrochemistry Trace analysis and instrument development Strained molecules Inorganic solid state and material science Heterocyclic and synthetic organic compounds Drug receptor interaction modeling Enzyme / substrate geometrics POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Rheology of polymer melts Synthesis of dental adhesive Photo initiated polymeriza tion Size distribution of emulsion polymerization Fire resistance fibers BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Thixotropic property of human blood Modified glucose tolerance test Mathematical modeling of metabolic processes PROCESS SIMULATION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES Distillation Parametric pumping Protein separation Liquid membranes New Jersey Institute of Technology is a publicly supported university with 7 500 students enrolled in baccalaureate through doctoral programs within three colleges : Newark College of Engineering, the School of Architecture and the College of Science and Liberal Arts We invite you to explore academic opportunities at NJIT For further information call (201) 596-3460 or write : Director of Graduate Studies NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Newark, New Jersey 07102 AA/EO Institution fil t1lf

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There s no formula for it. ~ 7 -~ (/ ]'\ It s a decision that depends in 1 L / theend,onyourowninstinct s v,~~-=:~ ('' ,. and judgment / J-oIt s also a decision y ou /.!::, t_ ,-------"{i\ shouldn t make until you look L 11 1 1 ::-::z l I \ \, .....__/ at North Carolina State f \ 1,7, f; Because something i s --------D l } happening here that s begun to { { 1 U'L,f surprise a lot of people. We've established the __ ...,____ ---------~ highest matriculation standard Research \ funding in a If all this is ----'-.. in a university system already typical year comes to over beginning to intrigue you, known for excellence $1 250 000. And it comes from try a simple experiment: And that means brighter the most competitive sources Write to our department more talented undergraduates. for research support. head, Harold B. Hopfenberg, The faculty, as a result Currently active research for more information. Or call are constantly challenged.A projects run the gamut of him at (919) 737-2318. very healthy state of affairs that classical areas, including multi After all, when you're reflects in tum on the quality faculty collaboration in coal trying to make a decision on of the graduate program. gasification, polymer science a graduate school, it always And quality is the word. and biotechnolog y. pays to do your homework. CHEMICAL ENIINEEIINI 1111H CAlllllASTATE IIIVEISIIY Deparlmenl qf Chemical Engineering Box 7 905 NOrlh wrolina State U niwrsity. Raleigh NOrlh Q:lrQl(na ~769J-79()5

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Chen1ical Engineering at Northwestern University S. George Banko Two-phase heat transfer, fluid mechanics John B. Butt Chemical reaction engineering Stephen H. Carr Solid state properties of polymers William C. Cohen Control and measurement of distributed parameter systems Buckley Crist Jr. Polymer science Joshua S. Drano Chemical reaction engineering chromatographic separations Thomas K. Goldstick Biomedical engineering, oxygen transport in the human body Hugh M. Hulburt Chemical and physical process fundamentals Iftekhar Karimi Computer-aided design, scheduling of noncontinuous processes Harold H. Kung Kinetics, heterogeneous catalysis Richard S.H. Mah Computer-aided process planning design and analysis distillation systems Gregory Ryskin Fluid mechanics computational methods, polymeric liquids Wolfgang M.H. Sachtler Heterogeneous catalysis John C. Slattery Interfacial transport phenomena, multiphase flow s William F. Stevens Process control and optimization computer applications John M. Torkelson Polymer science For information and application to the graduate program, write Harold H. Kung Chairperson of Graduate Program Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston Illinois 60201

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THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY Relevant Graduate Education Excellence in Research Close Relationships Between Graduate Students and Their Faculty Advisors WRITE OR CALL COLLECT Professor Jacques L. Zakin, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19th Avenue Coulmbus, Ohio 43210 (614) 422-6986 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W E HAVE state-of-the-art research facilities for all of tbe areas mentioned below. In addition, the Department has DEC VAX 8550 and Microvax II computer systems with auxiliary equipment for color graphics, real-time data acquisition and con trol, and image processing and analysis. The University and surrounding community provide a stimulating setting for our Department. There are several major chemical companies and a variety of high-technology firms in the vicinity. For example, Battelle Memorial Institute is adjacent to our campus, and we enjoy technical interaction on many levels. Columbus is a cultural center with many musical, artistic, and dramatic offerings. There are also a wide variety of recreational opportunities-nearly every sport from archery to skiing is avail able. Financial support is available ranging from $8,500 to $15,000 annually. Robert S. Brodkey Wisconsin 1952 Turbulence, Mixing, Image Analysis Reactor Design Rheology James F. Davis Northwestern 1982 Artificial Intelligence Computer Aided Design Mass Transfer and Heat Transfer L.S.Fan West Virginia 1975 Fluidization, Chemical & Biochemical Reaction Engineering, and Mathematical Modeling Edwin R. Haering Ohio State 1966 Reaction Engineering, Catalys is, and Adsorption Harry C. Hershey Missouri-Rolla 1965 Thermodynamics, and Drag Reduction Kent S. Knaebel Delaware 1980 Mass Transfer, Separations, Computer-Aided Design and Power Conversion Cycles L. James Lee Minnesota 1979 Polymer Processing Heat Transfer and Rheology Won-Kyoo Lee Missouri-Columbia 1972 Process Control, Computer Control and Computer Aided Design UmitOzkan Iowa State 1984 Heterogeneous Catalysis and Reaction Kinetics Duane R. Skidmore Fordham 1960 Coal Processing and Biochemical Engineering Edwin E. Smith Ohio State 1949 Combust i on and Environmental Engineering Thomas L. Sweeney Case 1962 Air Pollution Control, Heat Transfer, and Legal Aspects of Engineering Shang-Tian Yang Purdue 1984 Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Fermentation Process and Kinetics Jacques L. Zakin New York 1959 Drag Reduction Rheology, and Emulsions OSU is an equal opportunity / affirmative action institution

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~A"fl' /awt ''-' ~ ~ M.S. and Ph.D .. in :; t < 1 "\:'"~ : Chemical Engineering 'lz I ~ for c hemical_ engi neering and .,., :: non c hemical engmeermg students ;_,' : r~ Dr. John R Collier i'; I ~: -. 'iiH~~ EUNI~:IiSITY )J{ \ ~( '. '." \ t,{ : Athens Oh10 45701 266

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FALL 1986 UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering and Materials Science ~t~:.7 Areas Of Research Interest: SURFACTANTS CORROSION THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING STATISTICAL MECHANICS SYNTHETIC FUELS REACTION ENGINEERING METALLURGY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY ULTRA THIN FILMS NOVEL SEPARATION PROCESSES BASE STIPEND: $800 / MO. For the application materials and further information, write to Graduate Program Coordinator School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sc i ence University of Oklahoma 100 East Boyd Norman, Oklahoma 73019 267

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OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY /.i} rj :: ,~ ... Where People Are Important /~ ,,,. i ~ ;.,, .... .,, Dr B L. Crune& Dr Kenneth J Bell Dr Anthonv L. Hines Dr Robert Maddox Dr R Robinson. Jr Dr. Jan waan Thermodynamics Design Separations Hydrology Wastewater Biomedical Hazard W astes Dr Catalysis Air Pollution Kinetics Heat Transfer Fluid Flow Equations of State Modeling Gas Processing Physical Properties Diffusion Adsorption Pyrolysis Biochemical D D D D :; ~ !;' Address inquiries to: Billy L. Crynes School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078

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university of pennsylvania chemical eng1neer1ng RESEARCH AREAS Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Chemical Reactor Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Crystal Growth Electrochemistry Fluid Mechanics Heterogeneous Catalysis lnterfacial Phenomena Membrane Transport Numerical Analys is Polymer Science Reaction Kinetics Separation Techniques Solar Energy Surface Phenomena Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Pennsylvania's chemical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research areas of the depart ment. The full resources of this I vy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. FALL 1986 FACULTY Stuart W. Churchill, PhD Michigan (1952) Gregory C. Farrington, PhD Harvard ( 1 972) William C Forsman, PhD, Pennsylvania (1961) Eduardo D Glandt PhD Pennsylvania (l 977) Raymond J. Gorte, PhD Minnesota (1981) David J Graves, ScD, MIT (1967) Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Ph D., Minnesota {l 979) Mitchell Litt D Eng Sci., Columbia {l 96 l) Alan L Myers PhD California (1964) Daniel D. Perlmutter PhD Yale {l 956) John A Quinn, Ph D. Princeton (1959) Warren D. Seider PhD Michigan (1966) Lyle H Ungar PhD MIT ( 1984 ) Paul B. Weisz ScD, Zurich (1965) PHILADELPHIA: Th e cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University. Enthusiasts wi ll find a variet y of college and professional sports at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the Atlantic shore are within a two-hour drive. For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chem i cal Engineering School of Engineering and Appl i ed Science 311A Towne B uilding/D3 University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia Pennsylvania 19104 6393 269

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FACULTY PAUL BARTON {Penn State) ALFRED CARLSON {Wisconsin) RONALD P. DANNER (Lehigh) THOMAS E. DAUBERT {Penn State) J. LARRY DUDA {Delaware) ALFRED J. ENGEL {Wisconsin) JOHN R. McWHIRTER (Penn State) FRIEDRICH G. HELFFERICH {Gottingen) ROBERT L. KABEL (Washington) RICHARD D. La.ROCHE {Illinois) JOHN R. McWHIRTER (Penn State) R. NAGARAJAN {SUNY Buffalo) JONATHAN PHILLIPS (Wisconsin) JOHN M. TARBELL (Delaware) JAMES S. ULTMAN {Delaware) M. ALBERT VANNICE {Stanforcij JAMES S. VRENTAS ,Delaware) DANIEL WHITE {Florida) For application form s and further information, write to: Chairman, Graduate Admi ~ sions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering 133 Fenske Laboratory The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Individuals holding the B.S. in Chemistry or other related areas are encouraged to apply. 270 We've Made Our Choice! PENN STATE APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS Compilation Correlation, Prediction of Thermodynamic, Transport, Physical Properties API Technical Data Book Petroleum Refining AIChE-DIPPR Data Prediction Manual Equation of State Models Phase Equilibria in Mixtures Critical Property, Vapor Pressure Measurements BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Flow and Mixing in Lung A ir ways Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics Me c hanical Origin of Atherosclerosis Thermal Regulation of Newborn Infants Transport Phenomena on Arterial Wall BIOTECHNOLOGY Affinity Based Purification Processes Protein-Separation Media Interaction and Modeling Growth of Recombinant Microorganisms Mutation Kinetics and Plasmid Stability CATALYSIS AND SURFACE PHENOMENA Metal-Support Interactions CO / Hydrogen Synthesis Reactions Sulfur Poisoning of Catalysts Carbon-Supported Metal Cluster Catalysts Sintering of Silver Oxidation Catalysts Noble Metal Reconstruction Characterization of Iron-Carbon Catalysts Catalytic Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics Thermodynamics and Kinet i cs of Adsorption POLYMERS AND COLLOIDS Diffusion in Polymers Rheology and Flow Behav ior Enhanced Oil Recovery Micelles, Vesicles, Microemulsions Separation of Biopolymers TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Flow Through Porous Media Mixing and Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flows Mathematical Analysis of Free Convection Perturbation Analysis of Free Convect i on Perturbation Approach to Moving Boundar y Problems Laminar Flow in Complex Systems Gas liquid and Gas Solid Reactors Multicomponent Ionic Transport Propagation Phenomena in Multicomponent Systems Atmospheric Modelling Semiconductor Processing TRIBOLOGY Lubricant Rheology Tribology at Elevated Temperatures Oxidation of Lubricants Vapor Deposited Lubricants Tribology and Lubrication of Ceramics CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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GRADUATE PROGRAMS M.S. in Chemical Engineering M.S. in Petroleum Engineering Dual M.S. in Chemical/Petroleum Engineering Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering University of FALL 1986 RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Surface Chemistry Reactor Engineering lnterphase Transport Particulate Systems Thermodynamics Super Critical Extraction Gas Hydrates Reservoir Mechanics Secondary Oil Recovery ,/ ., ,,Ii I I J FACULTY Charles S. Beroes Paul Biloen Alfred A. Bishop Donna G. Blackmond Alan J. Brainard Shiao-Hung Chiang James T. Cobb, Jr. Robert F. Enick Paul F Fulton James G. Goodwin, Jr. Gerald D. Holder George E. Klinzing Joseph H. Magill George Marcelin Badie Morsi Albert J. Post Alan A. Reznik Yatish T. Shah John W. Tierney Irving Wender FOR MORE INFORMATION Graduate Coordinator Chemical/Petroleum Engineering School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 Pittsburgh 271

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? .., :-~ .. ........ ....._ _,,. : .-m. I-:-: ~: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg M. M. Ataai J R Battler R. F. Benenati J. J. Conti C. D. Han J. S. Mijovic A. S Myerson E. M. Pearce L. I. Stiel E. N. Ziegler Polytechnic University Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of Brookl yn and New York University School of Engineer i ng and Science. Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's and Doctor's degrees. Areas of Study and research : chemical engineering polymer scien c e and e ngineering RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Engineering Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Computer Aided Process Design Energy Conversion Engineering Properties of Polymers Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Polymer Processing Polymer Morphology Polymer Synthesis and Modification Polymerization Reaction Engineering Rheology Separation Sciences Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available. For further information contact Professor A. S. Myerson Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic University 333 Jay Street Brooklyn New York 11201

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1911-1986 75 Years of Excellence in Chemical Engineering Research Areas: Aerosols Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Chemical Process Research and Development Coal Science Colloid and Interface Science Environmental Science Kinetics and Catalysis Polymer Science and Engineering Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Systems Engineering and Computer Aided Design Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics Transport Phenomena Contact Us Today: Graduate Information School of Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 4 7907 Faculty: L. F. Albright R.P.Andres J.M. Caruthers K.C.Chao W N. Delgass R.E.Eckert A.H Emery E.I.Franses R A Greenkorn R E. Hannemann R N Houze D P. Kessler LB Koppel H.C.Lim N.A.Peppas D Ramkrishna G V. Reklaitis R G Squires C. G Takoudis G T.Tsao N H L. Wang P C.Wankat An Equal Access/Equal Opportunity University

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University of Queensland POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships Available Return Airfare Included STAFF L. S. LEUNG (Cambridge) P. R. BELL (N.S.W.) I. T. CAMERON (Imperial College) D. D. DO (Queensland) P. F. GREENFIELD (N.S.W.) P. L. LEE (Monash) R. B. NEWELL (Alberta) D. J. NICKLIN (Cambridge) D. RANDERSON (N.S.W.) V. RUDOLPH (Natal) E. T. WHITE (Imperial College) R. J. WILES (Queensland) T wo Vacancies THE DEPARTMENT I -: r r RESEARCH AREAS Two Phase Flow Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Electrochemistry Corrosion Fermentation Tissue Culture Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics Mineral Processing Adsorption Membrane Processes Hybridoma Technology Numerical Analysis The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an ex tensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M.Eng. Studies, M.Eng.Science and Ph.D.degrees. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY The University is one of the largest in Australia with more than 18 000 students. Brisbane, with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef. For further information write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, Univenity of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4067 AUSTRALIA. 274 CH EMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Advanced Study and Research Areas Air pollution control Biochemical engineering Combustion D Fluid-particle systems D Heat transfer lnterfacial phenomena D Multiphase flow Polymer reaction engineering D Separation engineering D Simultaneous diffusion and chemical reaction D Thermodynamics D Water resources For full details write Dr. P.K. Lashmet, Executive Officer RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE Ph.D. and M.S. Programs in Chemical Engineering The Faculty Michael M. Abbott Ph.D., Rensselaer Elmar R. Altwicker Ph.D., Ohio State Donald B. Aulenbach Ph.D., Rutgers Georges Belfort Ph.D ., California-Irvine Henry R. Bungay Ill Ph.D. Syracuse Chan I. Chung Ph.D. Rutgers Nicholas L. Clesceri Ph.D. Wisconsin Steven M. Cramer Ph.D., Yale Arthur Fontijn O.Sc ., Amsterdam Richard T. Lahey, Jr. Ph.D. Stanford Peter K. Lashmet Ph.D., Delaware Howard Littman Ph.D. Yale Morris H. Morgan Ill Ph.D., Rensselaer Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D ., Wisconsin E. Bruce Nauman Ph.D., Leeds Michael H. Peters Ph.D ., Ohio State Sanford S. Sternstein Ph.D ., Rensselaer Hendrick C. Van Ness D.Eng., Yale Peter C. Wayner, Jr. Ph.D., Northwestern Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York 12180-3590

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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY Privately endowed coeducational school 2600 undergraduate students 1200 graduate students Quiet and beautiful 300 acre tree shaded campus 3 miles from downtown Houston Architecturally uniform and aesthetic campus THE CITY Large metropolitan and cultural center Petrochemical capital of the world Industrial collaboration and job opportunities World renowned research and treatment medical center Professional sports Close to recreational areas THE DEPARTMENT M ChE., M S., and Ph.D degrees Approximately 80 graduate students (predominately PhD.) 14 full-time faculty 276 Tax-free stipends and tu i tion waivers for full-time students Special fellowships with higher stipends for outstanding candidates THE FACULTY WILLIAM W. AKERS (Michigan 1 950 ) V i ce president for administration CONSTANTINE D ARMENIADES (Ca s e Western Reserve 1969) Polymers and composites, biomaterials. SAM H. DAVIS JR. (MIT, 1957) Dynamics of chemical systems optim i zation and proces s con t rol. DEREK C. DYSON (London 1966) lnterfacial phenomena, hydrodynamic stability and enhanced oil recovery. J. DAVID HELLUMS (Michigan 1961) Fluid mechanics and biomedical engineer i ng JOE W HIGHTOWER (Johns Hopkins, 1963) K i netics and he t erogeneous catalysis. RIKI KOBAYASHI (Michigan 1951) Thermodynamics and transport properties chromatography, coal liquefaction and high-pressure properties. THOMAS W. LELAND, JR (Texas, 1954 ) Thermodynamic properties. LARRY V. MclNTIRE (Princetc;n 1970) Rheology, fluid mechanics, and biomedical engineering CLARENCE A. MILLER (Minnesota, 1969) lnterfacial phenomena, enhanced oil recovery, detergency E. TERRY PAPOUTSAKIS (Purdue, 1979) Biochemical engineering and applied mathemat i c s. MARK A ROBER T ( Sw i ss Fed Institute of Technology 1980) Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics KA YIU SAN (CalTech, 1 983) Biochemical engineer ing, and process control KYRIACOS ZYGOURAKIS (Minnesota, 1981) Chemical reaction engineering computer applications for control and data acquisition APPLICATIONS Chairman Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineer i ng P.O. Box 1892 Rice Un i versity Houston TX 77251 C HEMICAL E NGINEERING EDUCATIO N

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Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY of ROCHESTER ~~ ----~-"" ,. <' .,.,,.. ... '. ._ ...... ,,,.. ~...,. <'. ~ Vo .. J l Mc; ~JiJgt t Ad .. 1illhlli11 -~ ~ :1 rJ,IFJ:c::J;1 1 1n ~~ ,~ 1 -; 7 .?f '!llU" ;; t < : ip~, '_ .. ;. ,-:,_ -1\ .~ ,~ --~.:::-==--: ~-~-~ Graduate study and research leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Fellowships to $11,000 Summer Research Program available for entering students. For further information and applications, contact : Professor John C. Friedly Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627 Phone: (716) 275-4042 Faculty and Research Areas S. H. CHEN, Ph.D.1981, Minnesota Polymer Science and Engineering, Transport Phenomena, Solution Thermodynamics E. H. CHIMOWITZ, Ph.D. 1982, Connecticut Computer-Aided Design, Super-Critical Extraction, Control G. R. COKELET, Sc.D. 1963, M.I.T. Microcirculatory Transport Processes, Biomedical Engineering M. R. FEINBERG, Ph.D. 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems, Applied Mathematics J. R. FERRON, Ph.D. 1958, Wisconsi:r;i Molecular Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics J.C. FRIEDLY, Ph.D. 1965, California (Berkeley) Process Dynamics, Control, Heat Transfer FALL 1986 R. H. HEIST, Ph.D. 1972, Purdue Nucleation, Aerosols, Atmospheric Chemistry J. JORNE, Ph.D. 1972, California (Berkeley) Electrochemical Engineeriing, Microelectronic Processing, Theoretical Biology R.H. NOTTER, M.D., Ph.D. 1969, Washington (Seattle) Biomedical Engineering, Lung Surfactants and Lung Disease, Aerosols H.J. PALMER, Ph.D. 1971, Washington (Seattle) InterfacialPhenomena, Mass Transfer H. SALTSBURG, Ph.D. 1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering S. V. SOTIRCHOS, Ph.D.1982, Houston Reaction Engineering, Combustion and Gasification of Coal, Gas-Solid Reactions 277

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~(\~ RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY College of Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AND CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY, COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED BIOCATALYSIS BIOMATERIALS ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING CONTROL OF FERMENTATION FOOD PROCESSING GENETIC ENGINEERING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE 278 COAL DESULFURIZATION HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE TREATMENT ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS POLYMER PROCESSING WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND REUSE SOLID STATE CATALYSIS INCINERATION & RESOURCE RECOVERY STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS For Application Forms and Further Information Write To: Director of Graduate Program Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Rutgen, The State Univenity New Brunswick, N J. 0B903 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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I I I UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA The Chemical Engineering Department offers M.S., M.E., and Ph.D. degrees. Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely with the faculty on re search projects. Research and teaching stipends are available. The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of 23,800 on the Columbia campus, offers a variety of cultural and recreational activities. Columbia is part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country. The Chemical Engineering Faculty B.L. Baker, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process design, environment problems ion transport) M.W. Davis, Jr., Weisiger Chair Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treatment). F.A. Gadala-Maria, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Stanford University, 1979 (Fluid mechanics rhe ology). J.H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer fluid mechanics) E.L. Hanzevack, Jr Associate Professor, Ph.D Northwestern University 1974 (Two-phase flow turbulence). F.P. Pike, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid-liq uid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria) T.G. Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., The University of Michigan, 1977 (Chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems, process design, thermodynamics). V. Van Brunt, Associate Professor, Ph.D ., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass transfer, com puter modeling, liquid extraction) J.W. Van Zee, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Texas A & M University, 1984 (Electrochemical sys tems, mathematical modeling statistical applications). R.W. Wenig, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1986 (Catalysi s, reaction kineti cs, surface science) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT Prof. J.H. Gibbons Chairman, Chemical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29208

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FACULTY H. Assadipour (PhD, Michigan Tech. U.) J.A. Biesenberger (PhD, Princeton U.) G.B. Delancey (PhD, Pittsburgh U.) C.G. Gogos (PhD, Princeton U.) D.M. Kalyon (PhD, McGill U.) S. Kovenklioglu (PhD, Stevens) D.H. Sebastian (PhD, Stevens) H. Silla (PhD, Stevens) K.K. Sirkar (PhD, Illinois U.) C. Tsenoglou (PhD, Northwestern U.) For application, contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5234 For additional information, contact: Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 201-420-5546 Financial aid is available to qualified students STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Beautiful campus on the Hudson River overlooking metropolitan New York City Close to the world's center of science and culture At the hub of major highways, air, rail, and bus lines At the center of the country's largest concentration of research laboratories and chemical, petroleum and pharmaceutical companies Excellent facilities and instrumentation Close collaboration with other disciplines, especially chemistry and biology One of the leaders in chemical engineering computing GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Full and part-time day and evening programs MASTERS CHEMICAL ENGINEER PH.D. RESEARCH IN Membrane Technology Separation Processes Biochemical Reaction Engineering Polymer Reaction Engineering Polymer Rheology & Processing Polymer Characterization Catalysis Physical Property Estimation Process Design & Development S teven s In s titut e of Techn o logy doc s not di s criminate against am pi:rson hc,ause .,f race. ,recd. c olnr nat illnal llri~in. s ,x .ig, 111.u ital ~tutus. handk a p, liability for s ervice in the armed force s or status as a disahlcd nr \"ietnam era veteran

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY THE DEPARTMENT THE UNIVERSITY Close relationship between faculty and graduate students Comprehensive-over 100 distinct graduate degree programs; all major fields of engineering, science, mathematics, and man agement Full participation of the faculty in the graduate program Programs designed to meet in dividual student needs 15,000 students including 4,200 graduate students THE FACULTY Allen J. Barduhn John C. Heydweiller Cynthia S. Hirtzel George C. Martin Philip A. Rice Ashok Sangani Klaus Schroder James A. Schwarz S. Alexander Stern Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien FALL 1986 Desalination Computational Methods, Simulation Colloidal Science and Environmental Modelling Polymer Properties and Applications Biotransport Phenomena Theoretical Fluid Mechanics Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Materials Catalysis, Surface Phenomena Membrane Processes Multiphase Reaction Systems Adsorption and Fluid Particle Separation THE SYRACUSE AREA The Syracuse Symphony, the Syra cuse Stage, and many other cul tural e v ent s Big East Basketball and other major college sports Skiing within 30 minutes Easy access to the Thousand Islands and the Adirondack Forest Preserve FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILAELE For Information write: Ph ilip A. Rice, Chdrmcn Departmen t of Chemical Enginee1i11g and Materials Science Syracuse University 320 H in d s Hall Syracuse, New York, 13244 281

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'< RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Physics & Chemistry Air Pollution Science Artificial Internal Organs Aqueous Mass Transfer Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Blood-Contacting Biomaterials Catalysis Chemical Engineering Education Coal Desulfurization Coal Gasification & Combustion Computer Applications Computer-Based Education Colloid Science Crystal Structure & Properties Enhanced Oil Recovery Enzyme Production Heat Transfer Materials Science Membrane Science Microelectronics Device Processing Multi-phase Systems Optimization Polymer Applicat i ons Polymer Process i ng Polymer Properties CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY J. W. BARLOW (University of Wisconsin) J. R. BROCK (University of Wisconsin) T. F'. E[)G~R (Pr i nceton University) J ; G. EJCERDT (University of Califomia). J. R. FAIR (University of Texas) G. GEORGIO~ (CornellUni~er~ity) D. M. HIMMELBLAU (University of\,\/ashington) J. A, HUBBELL (Rice University) .. K. P. JOHNSTON (University of lllinqi i ) W. J. KOROS (University of Texas) D. R. LLOYD (University of WaterlO<:>) J.J. Mc.KETT A (University of Michigan) D. ~. ,, PAUL (University of Wiscons i n) R. P. POPOVICH (University of Washington) H. f. RASE (University o(~isconsin) J. B : RAWLINGS (University of Wisconsin) G. T. ROCHELLE (~niversity 9f&al i fqrnia) R. S. SCHECHTER (University of Mi n nesota) H. STEINFINK (Polytechnic In ~ J. E. STICE (Illinois lnstit .. h I. TRACHTENBERG (Lo E. H. WISSLER (Univei:s

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Texas A &M University THE UNIVERSITY THE DEPARTMENT Texas A&M is a land-grant and sea-grant university, and the oldest public institution of higher learning i n Texas The current enrollment is about 36,000. The uni versity location is Bryan / College Station, Texas twin cities with a combined population of 122 000 (including students). The surrounding country is deciduous forest Houston is 95 miles Southeast and Dallas is 180 miles North The ChE department has an enrollment of about 500 undergraduates and l 00 graduates ChE has excellent facil i t i es in the Zachry Engineering Center All gradu ate students have desk space Graduate stipends are currently up to $ 1 050 / month for teaching assistant ships and fello w ships Research assistantships are $824 / month for M Sc. students and $989 / month for Ph.D. students. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS C. D. Holland (department head) distillation A Akgerman-kinetics reaction engineering R. G. Anthony catalysis, reaction engineering D. B. Bukur reaction engineering J. A. Bullin gas sweetening, air pollution R. Darby-rheology, polymers R. R. Davison-methanol fuel L. D. Durbin process control P T. Eubank thermodynamics A. M. Gadalla materials, catalysis C. J Glover polymer solutions K. R. Hall thermodynamics D T. S Hanson biochemical J.C. Holste-thermodynamics M. T. Holtzapple b i ochemical engineering H. A. Preisig-process control A. T. Watson porous media R. E. White electrochem i cal applications FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Dept. Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 409 / 845-3361 Admission to The Texas A&M University System and any of its sponsored programs is open to qualified individuals regardless of race, color, age, religion, sex, national origin or educationally unrelated handicaps. FALL 1986 28 3

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J .,, TUFTS UNIVERSITY .... ,.B .._; \\ l S//1 ; ( ,, ,n ,. ) 85 YEARS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and PhD Programs in Chemical and Biochemical Engineering CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS SEPARATION PROCESSES: Crystallization Membrane Processes Chromatography MATERIALS AND INTERFACES: Polymers and Fiber Science, Composite Materials, Adhesion at Interfaces, Stability and Rheology of Suspensions, Coal Slurries, VLSI Fabrication BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Fermentation Tech no logy, Mammalian Cell Bioreactors Separation of Biomolecules KINETICS AND CATALYSIS: Heterogeneous Catalysis, Electrocata lytic Processes ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEER/NG THERMODYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF GREGORY D BOTSARIS, CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD MA 02155 IN METROPOLITAN BOSTON

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An aerial view of the campus located on ci plateciu between the Allegheny and Blue Ridge Mountains. Chemical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University At Virginia Tech, we apply chemistry to the needs of man! Study with outstanding professors in the land of Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Lee ... where Chemical Engineering i s an exciting art. Some current areas of major activity are: Renewable Resources chemical and microbiological processing, chemicals from renewable resources Catalysis homogeneous, heterogeneous, spectroscopy, novel immobilizations of homogeneous systems, zeolite synthesis Coal Science and Process Chemistry chemistry of prompt intermediates, reaction paths .in coal liquefaction, fate of trace elements, fluidized beds Surface Chemistry semiconductors, model catalysis, metal oxides, gas sensors, combined high pressure UHV surface analysis Microcomputers, Digital Electronics, and Control digital process measurements, microcomputer inter facing, remote data acquisition, digital controls Polymer Science and Engineering processing, morphology, synthesis, surface science, biopolymers Biochemical Engineering synthetic foods, antibiotics, fermentation process design and instrumentation, environmental engineering Surface Activity use of bubbles and other interfaces for separations, water purification, trace e l ements, concentration, understanding living systems VPI&SU is the state university of Virginia with 20,000 students and over 5,000 engineering students located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern Virginia. White-water canoeing, skiing, backpacking, and the like are all nearby, as are Washington, D.C. and historic Williamsburg. Initial Stipends to $12,000 per year. Write to: Graduate Committee, Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061

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Th e University of Washington, on a distractingly beautiful ca mpu s, h as about 28,000 full-time students. A tal en t ed faculty, exce ll e nt phy s i ca l fa c iliti es, and well-supported research programs provide a s timulatin g and s upporti ve research e nvir o nm e nt. The department h as about six t y -fi ve grad uat e s tud e nt s, of whom t y pi c all y t e n to tw e lv e are foreign s tud e nt s and th e remainder are from about thirt y univ e r s iti es in over tw e nt y s tat es. ALI full tim e g raduat e s tud e nt s are s upp or t ed, and th e r e is a fin e esp rit d e corps among th e graduate s tudent s and fa c ult y. Sea ttl e i s a b ea utiful c it y with outstanding c ultural a c tiviti es and unparall e l ed outdoor activities throu g h o ut th e year. We welcome yo ur inquiry For further information pl ease write: C hairman Department o f C h e mi ca l E ngineerin g, BF -10 U ni versi t y of Washington Seatt l ~, WA 98195 University of Washington Regular Faculty John C. B e r g, Ph D., Ca lifornia (Ber k eley) J. Ra y Bow e n Ph.D., S tanford ( D ea n Co ll ege of E n gi n eer in g) E. J a m es Davis, Ph.D., Washington Bruce A. Finlay so n, Ph.D., M inn eso t a Rod R Fisher, Ph.D. Iowa State W illiam J. Heideger Ph.D. Prin ce ton Bradley R Holt, Ph.D., Wiscon s in Eric W. Kal er, Ph.D. M inn eso t a Barbara B. Krieger Ph.D. Wayne S tat e N. Lawr e n ce Ri c k e r, Ph.D. Ca liforni a ( Berk e l ey) Jam es C. Sefer i s, Ph.D., Delaware C harl es A. S l e i c h e r Ph.D ., Michigan Er i c M. S tuv e, Ph D. S t a nfor d Re se arch Fa c ulty Thomas A. H orbe tt Ph.D. Was hin gto n Adjunct and Joint F ac ult y Active in Departm e nt Re se ar c h G. Graham A llan Ph.D. G la sgow A llan S. Hoffman Sc .D. M.I.T. William T. McKean, Ph.D. Washington Michael J Pil a t Ph D. Wa s hin gton Department of Chemical Engineering Buddy D Ratn e r Ph D. Brooklyn Polytechni c Kyo s ti V. Sarkane n Ph.D ., S t a t e U ni vers it y of New York Research Areas Aeroso l s Applied Ma th e matic s Bio c h emica l Separa ti o n s Biomat e rial s Biomedi ca l Engi n eering Cata l yt i c a n d E l ec tr oc h e mi ca l S urfa ce Sc i e n ce Co ll oids a nd Microemu l s i o n s E l ectrochemica l Engi n eer in g H ea t Transfer ln t e rfa c ial Phenomena Ma th e mati ca l Modeling Micropart i cle Chemical Phy s i cs Po l y mer Scie n ce Pol y m e ric Co mp osi t es P r ocess D es ign, Co nt rol, a nd Opt imizati on Reaction Engineering S urfa ce am l Co ll oid Scie n ce

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I I WAS HINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering Department Here at Washington State University, we are proud of our graduate program, and of our students. The program has been grow ing quickly in size and quality but is still small and informal. For a department of this size, the range of faculty research interests is very broad Students choose research projects of inFACUL TY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS J. M. Lee (Ph D. University of Kentucky) : plant tissue cultivation genetic engineering enzymatic hydrolysis mixing K. C. Liddell (Ph.D Iowa State University) : semiconductor electrochemistry reactions on fractal surfaces separa tions dynamic X-ray diffraction radioactive waste management. R. Mahalingam (Ph D University of Newcastle-upon Tyne): multiphase systems physical and chemical separa tions, particulate phoretic phenomena electronic materials and polymers, synfuels and environment. R. C. Miller (Ph D University of California-Berkeley) : chemical/phase equilibria thermodynamic properties cryogenics chemical process engineering I\ I I \' terest to them, then have the opportunity and the responsibility-to make an individ ual contribution. Through a combination of core courses and many electives, students can gain a thorough understanding of the basics of chemical engineering. J N Petersen (Ph D ., lov,a State University) : adaptive on-line optimization of biochemical processes adaptive control, drying of food products J.C. Sheppard (Ph D Washington University): radioac tive wastes, actinide element chemistry atmospheric chemistry, radiocarbon dating W. J. Thomson (Ph D University of Idaho): kinetics of solid state reactions chemical reaction engineering. B. J. Van Wie (Ph D University of Oklahoma) : kinetics of mammalian tissue cultivation, bio-reactor design cen trifugal blood cellular separations development of biochemical sensors R. L. Zollars (Ph.D. University of Colorado) : multiphase reactor design, polymer reactor des i gn colloidal phenomena in-situ fossil fuel recovery, chemical vapor deposition reactor design GRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS AT WSU M S. in Chemical Engineering Twelve credits in graduate chemical engineering courses nine credits i n supporting courses and a thesis are required Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering Eighteen credits in graduate chemical engineering courses six teen credits in supporting courses and a dissertation are re quired Upon successful completion of the coursework and the Ph D preliminary e x amination a student is admitted to can di d acy for the degree The dissertation must represent a signifi c a nt original contribution to the research literature. Conversion Program Students with B S degrees in the physical or life sciences 1. may apply for admission to the conversion program Normally J a small number of undergraduate courses must be taken in ad1: dit i on to the regular requirements for the M S or Ph D FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE I -----------------Research or teaching assistantships partial tuition waivers and fellowships are available and nearly all of our students receive financial assistance Living costs are quite low. WANT TO APPLY? Contact : Dr. K.C. Liddell Graduate Coor dinator Department of Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2710, 509/335 4332 or 509/335-3710.

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Washington University ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI Washington Universi ty encourages and gives full consideration to application for admission and financial aid without respect to sex race, handicap color cree
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L Chemical Engineering Faculty Richard C. Bailie (Iowa State Univ.) Eugene V. Cilento (Univ. of Cincinnati) Dady B. Dadyburjor (Univ. of Delaware) Joseph D. Henry, Jr., Chair. (Univ. of Michigan) Hisashi 0. Kono (Kyushu Univ.) Joseph A. Shaeiwih: (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.) Alfred H. Stiller (Univ. of Cincinnati) R. Turton (Oregon State) Wallace B. Whiting {Univ. California, Berkeley) Ray Y. K Yang (Princeton Univ.) John W. Zondlo (Carnegie Mellon Univ.) West Vlrg1n1a Un1vers1ty Topics Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Phase Equilibria Fluidization Biomedical Engineering Solution Chemistry Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Biological Separations M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write: Graduate Admission Committee Department of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 6101 West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 265Q~-610l

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Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering Faculty Research Interests R. Byron Bird Transport phenomena, polymer fluid dynamics polymer kinetic theory Thomas W. Chapman Electrochemistry mass transfer Camden A Coberly Director, Engineering Experiment Station Stuart L. Cooper (Chmn.) Polymer science, biomaterials E. Johansen Crosby Spray and suspended particle processing John A. Duffie Solar energy James A. Dumesic Kinetics and catalysis surfac e c hemistry Charles G. Hill, Jr. Kinetics and catalysis membrane processes Sangtae Kim Fluid mechanics applied mathematics James A. Koutsky Polymer science, adhes ives, composites Stanley H. Langer Kinetics, catalysis, electro chemistry, chr omatograph y hydrometallurg y E. N. Lightfoot, Jr. Mass transport and separations processes, biochemical engineering W. Robert Marshall Director, Un iversity-In dustr y Research Program Patrick D. McMahon Statistical therm odynam ics, renormalization group th e or y .: .. ,y:1:-.:-:; ,.'> }: W. Harmon Ray Proc ess dynamics and control reactor engineering Thatcher W. Root Heterogeneous catalysis su rfac e science Dale F. Rudd Process design and industrial development Glenn A. Sather Development of instructional program Warren E. Stewart Reactor modeling, transport phenomena appl ie d mathemat ics Ross E. Swaney Design research, computer a i ded design For further information about graduate study in chemical eng in eering write : THE GRADUATE COMMITTEE Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison 1415 Johnson Drive Madison, Wisconsin 53706

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DUC BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering MS W E. KING, Jr Chairman (Ph.D., Un iversity of Pennsyl vania). Mathematical modeling of biomedical systems, applied mathematics. M E Hanyak Jr. (Ph.D., University of P e nnsylvania ). Computer-aided design and instruction, problem-oriented languages, numerical analysis. F. W Koko, Jr (Ph. D ., Lehigh University) Optimization algorithms, fluid mechanics and rheology, direct digital cont rol. J M. Pommersheim (Ph.D ., University of Pittsburgh ). Catalyst deactivation reaction anal ys i s, methematica\ modeling and diffusion with reaction and phase change cement hydration R. E Slonaker, Jr ( Ph D ., Iowa State). Growth and properties of single c r ystals, high-tempera ture calorimetry, vapo liquid equi l ib ria in ternary systems. W J Snyder (Ph D ., Pennsyl v ania State University ). Catalysis, polymer iz ation thermal analysis, development of specific ion electrodes, microprocessors, and instrumentation. Bucknell is a smal l private highly selective university with strong programs in engineering, busine;s and the l ibe ral arts. Th e College of Engin eering is locat ed in the newly renovated Charles A Dan a Engineering Build ing and operates a state-of the-art computer-aided engineering and design laboratory equipped with 1 5 Apollo super microcomputer workstations available to all engi n eeri ng students. In addition a DEC VA X 11 / 780 and PDP 11 / 44 minicomputers and a Honeywell DPS 8 / C mainframe computer a r e available Graduate students have a uniqu e opportunity to work very closely with a faculty research adviso r Lew,sb<;~g, located in the center of Pennsylvania, provides the a tt ract i on of a rural setting while conveni ently located within 200 miles of New York Philadelph ia, Washington D C .. and Pittsburgh For further information, write or phone : Dr William E King, Jr Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Bucknell Uni versity Lewisburg PA 17837 717 524 1114 ---------' UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Lake Huron University of Waterloo London Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De partment offers regular and co-operative M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-doctoral programs in: *Biochemical and Food Engineering Industrial Biotechnology *Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Reactor Design *Environmental and Pollution Control *Extractive and Process Metallurgy *Polymer Science and Engineering *Mathematical Analysis, Statistics and Control *Transport Phenomena, Multiphase Flow, Petroleum Recovery *Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling, Microwave Heating Financial Aid: Minimum $13,200 per annum (research option) Academic Staff: E Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester), Chair man; G. L. Rempel, Ph.D. (UBC), Associate Chairman (Graduate) ; C. M. Burns, Ph.D. (Polytech. Inst. Brooklyn), Associate Chairman (Undergraduate); L. E. Bodnar, Ph.D. (McMaster); J. J. Byerley Ph D. (UBC); K S. Chang, Ph.D. (Northwestern); I. Chatzis, Ph D (Waterloo); P. L. Douglas Ph D. (Waterloo); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (UBC); K. E. Enns, Ph.D. (Toronto); T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (Illinois); G. J. Farquhar, Ph.D. (Wisconsin); J. D. Ford, Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E. Gall, Ph.D. (Minn.); D. A. Holden, Ph.D. (Toronto); R. Y. M. Huang, Ph.D. (Toronto); R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D. (Princeton); R. L. Legge, Ph.D. (Water loo); I. F. Macdonald, Ph.D. (Wisconsin); M. Moo-Young, Ph.D. (London); G. S. Mueller, Ph.D. (Manchester); K. F O'Driscoll Ph.D. (Princeton); D. C.T. Pei, Ph.D. (McGill); A Penlid is, Ph.D. (McMaster); P. M. Reilly Ph.D. (Lon don); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (Berkeley) ; A. Rudin, Ph.D. (Northwestern); J. M. Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania); D. S. Scott Ph.D. (Illinois); P. L. Silveston Dr. Ing. (Munich); D. R. Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State); G. R. Sullivan, Ph.D. (Imperial College); J. R. Wynnyckyj, Ph.D. (Toronto). To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies} Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G1

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Graduate Study and Research Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION JIM L. TURPIN Fluid Mechanics, Biomass ConverROBERT E BABCOCK Water Resources, Fluid sion, Process Design Mechanics, Thermodynamic Propertie s Enhanced J. REED WELKER Risk Analysis, Fire and Oil Recovery Explosion Behavior and Control EDGAR C. CLAUSEN Conversion of Biomass FINANCIAL AID into Chemicals and Energy, Biochemical Engineering JAMES R. COUPER Process Design and Economics, Graduate Research and Teaching As s istantships, Fellow ships. Polymers R. BRUCE ELDRIDGE e Separation Processes, Bio LOCATION logical Separations JAMES L. GADDY Biochemical Engineering, Process The U of A campus is located in beautiful Northwest Arkansas in the heart of the Ozark mountains. This tranquil setting provides an invigorating climate with excellent outdoor recreation including hunting, fishing, ca mping, hiking, skiing, sailing, and canoeing. Technical and cultural opportunities are available within the e ight-college consortium for higher education. Optimization JERRY A. HAVENS e Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazard Assessment WILLIAM A. MYERS e Natural and Artificial Radio activity, Nuclear Engineering, CHARLES SPRINGER e Mass Transfer, Diffusional For Further Details Contact: Processes THOMAS 0.. SPICER e Computer Simulation, D e ns e Dr James L. Gaddy Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering Gas Dispersion CHARLES M. THATCHER e Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation 227 Engineering Building, University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 292 Brown University Faculty Joseph M Ca l o Ph.D. ( Prin ~e t on ) Bruce Caswel l Ph D. ( Stanford ) J ose ph H Clarke P h .D. ( P o l y te c hni c In stitute of New York ) Richard A Dobbins Ph.D. ( Prin ce t on ) Stu r e K.F. Karl sson, Ph.D. (Jo hn s H o pkin s ) J osep h D. Ke s tin D Sc ( Universi t y of L o nd o n ) Joseph T C L iu, Ph.D ( Californ'ia I nstitu t e o f Technolog y ) Pau l F. Ma ede r, Ph.D ( B rown ) Edward A Ma so n Ph.D. ( M assachuset t s In s titut e of T ech n o l ogy ) T.F. M o r se, Ph D. ( N o rthw estern ) Peter D. Richardson Ph.D. D.Sc. Eng ( University of Lond o n ) Merwin Sibulkin, A E. ( Ca li fornia I n s titut e of T ec hn o l ogy ) Eric M Su1Jberg Sc D. ( M assac hu se tt s I n s titut e of Technolog y ) Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering Chemic a l kin e tics com bu stio n two phase flows, fluidized b e ds se par ation proc esses, num e rical si mulation, vor t ex methods, turbulen ce, hydrodynamic sta b ility coa l c h emistry, coa l gasification h ea t and mas s transf e r aerosol condensation transport proc esses, irreversib l e th e rmod y namics, membranes particulate deposition, ph ys iological fluid mechanics, rheology. A program of graduate study in Che111ical Eng in eering l eads t o ward th e M.Sc. or Ph.D. Degree. Teachi n g and Research Assistantships as well as Industrial a nd University Fellowships are avai l a bl e. For further information write: Professor J. Ca l o Coo rdi11ator Chemical Engin ee ring Program Division of Engin ee ring Brow n University Providence, Rhode Isl and 02912 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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BIOENGINEERING/CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT CARNEGIE MELLON MICROCIRCULATION: blood flow regulation transcapillary exchange and interstitial transport in normal and tumor microcirculation; interaction of blood cells and cancer cells with vasculature; neovascularization; intravital fluorescent microscopy BIOPHYSICS OF CELLULAR PROCESSES: membrane transport and hindered diffusion; particle (cell) motion and adhesion; metabolic model s; rheological properties of cells; metabolic models; fluorescent spectroscopy PHYSIOLOGICAL MODELING: control mechanisms; sensory perception; metabolic networks and transformation; pharmacokinetics; pulmonary and circulatory models of transport processes; bio heat transfer (hyperthermia) For graduate app lications and infomation write to CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY Biomedical Engineering Program Graduate Admissions, DH 2313 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Chemica l Engineering Bi oengineering grad ua t e s tudent in the Cancer Research Labor a tory quantifies differences between the micro circulation of normal ond tumor tissues using intravital microscopy CLEVELAND ST A TE UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.Sc. and D.Eng. Programs RESEARCH AREAS: Adsorption and Diffusion in Zeolite s Cata l ysis, Kinetics and Reactor Design Materials Sc i ence and Engineering Mathematical Mode llin g S imul ation and Contro l Separation Proc ess de s Surface Phenomena and Mass Transfer Thermodynamic s a nd F luid Pha se Equi libri a Transport Phenomena Zeolite Synthesis FACULTY: G .A Cou lm an (Case Western) R. Elliott (Illinois) B. G hora s hi (O hi o State) E.E. Graham (Northwestern) D.T. Hayhurst (WPI) J.C Le e (C l eve l and State) A.B. Ponter (Manchester) D.B. S h a h (M i chigan State) 0. Talu (Arizona State) S.N. Tewari (Pu rdu e) G. Wotzak (Princeton) Cleveland S tate University h as 18,000 st ud e nt s enro ll ed in its academic programs. It is lo ca t ed in the center of the city of Cleveland with man y ou t s tandin g cultural a nd r ec reational op portunitie s nearb y. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE TO: Chairman Department of Chemical Engineerin g Cleveland State University Cleveland, Ohio 44115 c SU Cl~velal)dState Un1vers1ty

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2 9 4 J. A ASEN J O H. Y C H E H C J. D U R NING H.P. G RE G OR C C G R YTE E. F LEO NA R D COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs i n Chemical Eng i neering Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS : Biochemic a l E ngineerin g Chemical T hermo d ynamics an d K inetics, E l ectrochemica l E ngineering P olymer P hysical Chemistry P o l yme1 Science, Membrane P r o cesses, Environmental E n g ineering P olymer Science, Separation P r o cesses G. J. P RO K O P A KI S J. L S P ENCE R Biomedica l Engineering, Transport P hen o mena Process Analysis, Simulation an d Desi g n App l ie d Mathematics, Chemical Reactor E ngineerin g Electrochemistry U S TI MM I NG V. VENK A T A S U BR A M A NI A N For Further Informat i on, Write : Financial assistance i s available Artificial I ntelligence, Statistical Mechanics C ha i rman, Graduate Conmittee D epa rt men t of C hemical Eng i neer i ng and App l ied C hemistry Columbia Un i vers i ty New York, New York 10027 (2 1 2 ) 2 80-445 3 THAYER SCHOOL OF ENGINEER ING AT DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Masters and Doctoral Programs in Engineering with a concentration in Bio / Chemical Engineering Courses available from The Thayer School of Engineering, The Dartmouth Medical School, The Dartmouth College Biochemistry Program RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS : FERMENTATION ENZYME KINETICS HYPERTHERMIA CANCER THERAPY BIOMASS CONVERSION HIP AND KNEE PROTHESES PHYSIOLOGY SEPARATION OPERATIONS WASTE WATER TREATMENT IMMOBILIZED HYBRIDOMA CELL REACTOR DEVELOPMENT For further information and application forms, write: Director of Admission s, Bio / Chem i cal Eng i neering Program Thayer School of Eng i neer i ng Dartmouth College Hanover NH 03755 CH EMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering Faculty D. R. Coughanowr E. D. Grossmann Y. H. Lee S. P Meyer R. Mutharasan J. A. Tallmadge J. R. Thygeson X. E. Verykios C. B. Weinberger Consider: High faculty/student ratio Excellent faciliities Research Areas Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Reactor Engineering Microcomputer Applications o Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Semiconductor Processing o Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Drying Processes Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options Write to: Dr. C. B. Weinberger Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering MS Degree Faculty/Research Areas M. E. ALUKO, Ph.D., UC (Santa Barbara) J. N. CANNON, Ph.D., Colorado Dynamics of Reacting Systems, Applied Mathematics Fluid and Thermal Sciences (Experimental, R. C. CHAWLA, Ph.D., Wayne State H. M. KATZ, Ph.D., Cincinnati F. G. KING, D.Sc., Stevens Institute Computational) Air and Water Pollution Control, Reaction Kinetics Environmental Engineering Biochemical Engineering, Process Control, Pharmacokinetics M. G. RAO, Ph.D., Washington (Seattle) Process Synthesis and Design, Ion Exchange Separations FALL 1986 For Information Write Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University Washington, DC 20059 295

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Universityot Idaho CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS T. E. CARLESON D. C. DROWN L L. EDWARDS M. L. JACKSON R. A. KORUS T J. MORIN J. Y. PARK J. J. SCHELDORF G. M. SIMMONS FACU~TY Mass Transfer Enhanc e ment Chemical Reproc essing of Nuclear Wast e s Bio s eparation -Proces s Des i gn Computer Applications Mod e l i ng Proc e ss Economics and Optim i zation with Emphasis on Food Proce s s i ng -Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp / Paper Engineering Numerical Methods and Optimization Mass Transfer in Biological Systems, Particulate Control Technology -Polymers, Biochemical Engineering -Chemical Reaction Engineering Transport ph e nomena, Thermophysics of Nonequiilibrum Sy tems Ch e mical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis Lab oratory R e actor Development, The r mal Plasma Systems Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics -Geothermal Energy Engineering, Pyrolysis K inetics Process Control, Supercritical Flu i d Ex traction The department ha s a highly active research program cover i ng a wide range of interests With Wash i ngton State Un i vers i ty just 8 miles away, the t wo departments jointly schedule an e x panded list of graduate courses for both MS and PhD candidates g i ving the graduate student dire c t a c ces s to a combin e d graduate facult y of e ighteen The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities including hiking white water rafting, skiing and camping FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho 83843 ~ill lliil ill oo oo rn w oo@mrw 296 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Doctor of Engineering FACULTY: D. H. CHEN (Ph.D., Oklahoma State Univ ) J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State Univ.) T. C. HO (Ph.D Kansas State Univ.) K. Y. LI (Ph D. Mississippi State Univ.) R. E. WALKER (Ph.D., Iowa State Univ.) C. L. YAWS (Ph D Univ. of Houston) 0. R. SHAVER (Ph.D. Univ of Houston) RESEARCH AREAS: Computer Simulation Process Dynamics and Control Heterogeneous Catalysis Reaction Engineering Fluidization and Mass Transfer Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Rheology of Drilling Fluids, Computer-Aided Design Thermodynamic Properties, Cost Engineering, Photovoltaics FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE : Graduate Adml .. lons Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Lamar University P. 0. Box 10053 Beaumon,, TX 77710 An equal opportunlty/afflrmaHve action unlveralty CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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I FACULTY Philip A. Blythe Hugo S. Caram Marvin Charles John C. Chen Curtis W. Clump Mohamed EI-Aasser Christos Georgakis James T Hsu Arthur E. Humphrey Andrew Klein William L. Luyben Janice Phillips Matthew J. Reilly Eric P Salathe William E Schiesser Cesar Silebi Leslie H. Sperling Fred P. Stein Harvey Stenger Leonard A. Wenzel LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS Polymer Science & Engineering Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering, Biochemical Engineering Process Simulation & Control Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Thermodynamic Property Research Energy Conversion Technology Applied Hea,t & Mass Transfer Multiphase Processing DEGREE PROGRAMS M S. and Ph.D. in Ch.E. AA.Eng. Program in Design M S. and Ph D. in Polymer Science & Engineering FINANCIAL AID Of course. WRITE US FOR DETAILS LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY For information, write Dr. Houston K. Huckabay Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana Tech University Ruston Louisiana 71272 (318) 257-2483 FALL 1986 Master of Science and Doctor of Engineering Programs The Department of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech Uni versity offers a well-balanced graduate program for either the Master's or Doctor of Engineering degree. T wenty -th ree full-time students ( eleven doctoral candidates) and seventeen part -t ime students are pursuing re search in Artificial I ntelligence and Adapti ve Control, Biotechnology of Natural Pol ymers, Chemical H azard and Fire Safety, Energy Use Mod els, Lignite Utili za tion, Nuclear Energy, O z onation, Process Simulation, and Two-Phase H eat Transfer wi th major c oncentration in Energy, En vir onment, and Control Studies. FACULTY Brace H. Boyden, Arkansas Joseph B. Fernandes, UDCT, Bombay Houston K. Huckabay, LSU David H. Knoebel, Oklahoma State Norman F. Marsolan, LSU Ronald H. Thompson, Arkansas 297

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Manhattan College Design-Oriented Master's Degree Program Chemical Engineering 1n This well established graduate program emphasizes the application of basic principles to the solution of process engineering problems Financial aid is available, including industrial fellowships in a one-year program involving participation of the following companies: Exxon Corp. Pfizer Inc. Con Edison Stauffer Chemical Co., Inc. Mobil Oil Corp. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Manhattan College is located in Riverdale, an attractive area in the northwest section of New York City. R. B Anderson Ph.D (lowa) / Emeritus Fischer Tropsck Synthesis, Catalysis M. H. I. Baird Ph.D. (Ca mbridge) Mass Transfer, Solvent Extraction J. L. Brash Ph D. {Glas gow ) B i omedical Engineering, Polymers C. M. Crowe Ph.D (Cambridge) Data Reconciliation, Optimization, Simulation J. M Dickson Ph D. (Virginia Tech) Membrane Transport Phenomena, Reverse Osmosis A E. Hamielec Ph.D. (Toronto) Polyme r Reaction Engineering Director McMaster Institute for Polymer Production Technology A. N. Hrymak, Ph D (Carnegie-Mellon) Computer A i ded Design Numerical Methods 298 For brochure and application form, write to CHAIRMAN, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MANHATTAN COLLEGE RIVERDALE NY 10471 McMASTER UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Polymer Reaction Engineering Computer Process Control and Much More! I A. Feuerstein Ph.D. ( Massachusetts ) Biomedical Engineering Transport Phenomena J, F. MacGregor Ph.D (Wisconsin) Computer Process Control, Polymer Reaction Engineering L W. Shemilt Ph.D (Tor onto ) Electrochemical Mass Transfer, Corrosion, Thermodynamics P. A. Taylor Ph .D. (Wales) Computer Process Control M. Tsezos, Ph.D (McGill) Wastewater Treatment Biosorptive Recovery J. Vlachopoulos D Sc (Washington U.) Polymer Processing, Rheology, Nume rical Methods P .E. Wood, Ph.D. (Caltech) Turbulence Modeling, Mixing D. R. Woods Ph D. (Wisconsin) Surface Phenomena, Cost Est i mation, Problem Solving J. D. Wright, Ph D (Cambridge)/Part Time Computer Process Control Process Dynamics and Modeling M.Eng. and Ph.D Programs Research Scholarships and Teaching Assistantships are available For further information please contact Professor P. E. Wood Department of Chemical Engineering McMaster University Hamilton Ontario Canada LBS 4l7 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: The department offers a broad range of traditional and interdisciplinary programs leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Program areas include the traditional areas of chemistry and chemical engineer ing wiith particular emphasis in polymer and composite materials; process design, control, and improvement; free radical chemistry; bioorganic chemistry ; and surface Raman spectroscopy. COST OF TUITION: Full-time in-state graduate tuition is $564 / quarter. Tuition is normally included as part of the student's financial support. THE COMMUNITY: MTU is located in Houghton on the beautiful Keweenaw Peninsula overlooking Lake Superior. The region surrounding MTU is a virtual wilderness of interconnected lakes, rivers, and forest lands. Outdoor activities abound all year with superb fishing, boating, hiking, camping, and skiing available within minutes of campus. FINANCIAL AID: Financial support in the form of fellowships, reser1rch assistantships, and graduate teaching assis tantships is available. Starting stipends are $6600 per academic year in addition to tuition. For more information write : Graduate Studies Chairman Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 Michigan Technological University is an equal opportunity educational institution / equal opportunity employer UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D Degrees Research Areas Air Pollution Monitoring and Control Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Energy Sources and Systems Environmental Control Engineering Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Process Control and Modelling of Processes Single-Cell Protein Research Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids Transport in Biological Systems WRITE: Dr. Marc de Chazal, Chairman, Deptartment of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg. University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 FALL 1986 299

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300 Melbourne, Australia Research Degrees: Ph.D., M.Eng.Sc. FACULTY: 0. E. POTTER (Chairman) J. R. G. ANDREWS R. J. DRY G. A. HOLDER F. LAWSON I. H. LEHRER J. F. MATHEWS W. E. OLBRICH I. G. PRINCE T. SRIDHAR C. TIU P. H. T. UHLHERR RESEARCH AREAS: Gas-Solid Fluidisation Brown Coal-Hydroliquefaction, Gasification, Oxygen Removal, Fluidised Bed Drying Chemical Reaction Engineering Gas-Liquid, Gas-Solid, Three Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis Catalyst Design Transport Phenomena Heat and Mass Transfer, Transport Properties Extractive Metallurgy and Mineral Processing Rheology-Suspensions, Polymers, Foods Biochemical Engineering Cont i nuous Culture Waste Treatment and Water Purification FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE : Graduate Studies Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering Monash University, : Clayton Victoria, 3168, Australia M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical Engineering Montana State University I For more information and application : Dr J.T. Sears Head Chemical Engineering Department Montana State University Bozeman Montana 59717 I Special master s program for students with undergraduat e preparati o n in chemistry o r other s cientific area s The department currently has acti v e research programs in a number of areas including Separations: super critical extraction extractive distilla tion membranes continuous chrom atography ; Biotechnology: biomass conversion biofouling ; Catalysis/ Materials: surface science. catalyst poisoning mass transfer heavy oil upgrading While pursuing yo ur graduate degree in chemical engineering at MSU y ou can enjoy unlimited opportunities for outdoor activities in the Rocky Mountains including skiing back packing fishing Yellowstone Na tional Park i s onl y 90 miles from Bozeman Financial support is available CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN: Bio-mass Conversion Reaction Kinetics Real-time Computing Computer-aided Process Design and Process Synthesis Polymer Engineering Separation Processes Surface Science Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria For Application and Information: Chairman of Chemical Engineering 236 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0126 UNM THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO For further i nformation write : -M S. and PH D GRADUATE STUDIE S IN CHEMICAL EN GINEERIN G H ANDERSON : microelectronics process technology ; discharge plasma s cience ; lose r / plasma in t e ra c t ions; transport modeling. C.Y C HENG : desolinotion; eutectic freezi ng ; superp ur if i co t ion A.K. DATYE : heterogeneou s co t olys is electron mi croscopy o f VLS I devices; materials characterization D KAUFFMAN: design; environmental; safety analysis R.W MEAD: process a n alysis ; hydrometc,llurgy ; fossil energy H.E NUTTALL : foss i l energy research; radio -c olloid transport ; process con tr o l ; geo-process modeling D M. SMITH : characte r ization of powders / porous media ; t r a nsp or t phenomena in porous media E S WILKINS : rene w abl e energy sources ; biomedical instrumentation F L.WILLIAMS: ca taly sis ; s h oc k enha n ced r eactivity of so lid s and v a c uum te c hnolog y Dr Douglas Smith Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of New Me x ico Albuquerque New Me xico 8713 l (505) 277-5431 The Land of Enchantment FALL 1986 301

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Graduate study ~~){ICo ~~emical engineering i :4~~ G,~ 1,'ve~s~ Major energy research center : solar petroleum bioconversion geothermal Financial assistance available Special programs for students w it h B.S. degrees in other fields. F O R APP LIC ATIO N S AN D IN FO RMAT IO N: Dr. J ohn T Pa t ton Hea d D ep ar t m e n t of C hem i ca l Engineer i ng Bo x 38 05 N ew Me x i co Sta te U n iversity La s Cr u ces, New Mexico 88003 -3 80 5 New Mex ic o State Un i ver s it y is an Equal Oppor tu n i t y Affirmat i ve Act i o n e mplo y er THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES SYDNE Y, AUS TRALI A POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHE M ICAL ENGINEER I NG AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH AREAS Air pollution control Catalyst and reactor design Characterisation and optimisation in minerals processing Computer aided design and process synthesis for energy conservation Co r rosion Electrochemistry Flow phenomena in moss transfer equipment Fuel technology Glass technology High temperature mater i ols Membrane technology Particle technology Petroleum engineering Polymer science and engineering Particle t echnology P rocess control and microprocessor oppl i cat i ons Pyrome t allurgical reactor modelling Two phase flow 302 THE DEPARTMENT This is the lorgest Chemical Engineering School in Australia with 2S academic staff over 400 undergraduates and about 80 post graduates The School is well supplied with equipment and is sup ported by research grants from Government and Industry The four main departments of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry Petroleum Engineering and Fuel Technology offer course work and research work leading to M Sc ., M E and Ph D degrees The breadth and depth of experience available leads to the production of well rounded graduates with excellent job potential. International recog nition is only one of the many benefits of a degree from UNSW T HE UNIVERSITY The Un i vers i ty i s the largest in Austral i a and is located between the centre of Sydney and the beaches The cosmopolitan city and the wide range of outdoor activities make life very pleasant for student s and people from America Europe, Africa and the East feel welcome from their f i rst arrival. For further information concern i ng specif i c re se ar c h ar e a s, fac i litie s and financial assistance, wr i te to P rofessor D .L. Trimm Sc h ool of Chemical Engineering & Industria l C h emistry, Un iversi t y o f N ew So u th Wa l es, P O B ox I Kensington NSW 2033 Australia CHEMICAL ENGINEE RI NG E D UCAT IO N

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North Carolina A&T State University GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS Tevfik Bardakci, Ph D ., Uni ve rs i ty of Mar y l a n d Biochemical Engineering Vinayak Kabadi, Ph D P e nns y l v ania State Un iversi t y Franklin King, D Sc., Ste ve ns I n st i tute of Te c hn o l ogy Catalysis Coal Research Li Ting, Ph D Illino i s In s titute of Technolo gy Thermodynamics Supercritical Extraction RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Reaction Engineering Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Energy Conversion Applied Mathematics Process Dynamics and Control Modeling and Simulation Transport Phenomena FACULTY A. Varma, Chairman J. T. Banchero J. J. Carberry C. F. Ivory J.C. Kantor J P.Kohn D. T. Leighton, Jr. M. J. McCready R. A. Schmitz W C. Strieder E. E. Wolf FAL L 1986 Composite Materials lnterfacial Phenomena Process Control FOR FULL DETAILS WRITE TO: Graduate I nformation D epar tm e n t of C hemica l E n g inee r ing N o rth C aro lin a A & T St a t e Un iv e r sit y Green s bor o, North C aro lin a 2741 1 eltemical 811gi11eeri11g at ;Notre :Dame The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master' s degree are normall y completed in twelve to fourteen months. The doctoral program usually requires three to four y ears of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships are available to outstanding students pursuing either program. For further information, write to Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Dame Indiana 46556 3 0 3

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,------------------------------304 OREGON ST A TE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY W. J. Frederick, Jr. -Heat Transfer, Pulp and Paper J. G. Knudsen 0 Levenspiel K L. Levien R. V Mrazek R. Sproull C. E. Wicks Technology -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two-Phase Flow -Reactor Design, Fluidization -Process Simulation and Control -Thermodynamics, Applied Mathematics -Biomass Conversion, Plant Design -Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment Our current programs reflect not o nly traditional chemical engineering fields but also new techrwlogies important to the Northwest's industries, such as electronic device manufacturing, forest products, food science and ocean products. Oregon State is located only a short drive from the P acific Ocean, white water ri v ers and hiking / skiing / climbing in the Cascade Mountains. For further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 M A.Sc and Ph.D. programs in : energy engineering extraction ... process control enhanced oil recovery .. reverse osmos i s ... kinetics and catalysis ... porous media ... non Newtonian flow ... thermodynamics solar energy ... experimental design and modeling ... polymer modification ... pulp & paper ... phase equilibria .. biochemical engineering ... polymer process and rheology ... finite element methods UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OTTAWA, ONTARIO, CANADA KlN 9B4 phone (613)564-3476 G. Andre K T.Chuang Z. Duvnjak J. A. Golding W. Hayduk V Hornof, Chairman W. Kozicki B C -Y. Lu FACULTY R. S. Mann D D. McLean E. Mitsoulis S. Sourirajan F. D. F. Talbot M Ternan G. H. Neale, Professor in charge of Graduate Stud i es, who should be contacted for further in formation COME AND JOIN US IN THE EXCITING ENVIRONMENT OF CANADA'S NATIONAL CAPITAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Princeton University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS Bioengineering; Catalysis; Chemical Reactor / Reaction Engineering; Energy Conversion and Fusion Reactor Technology; Colloidal Phenomena; Computer aided Design; Fluid Mechanics and Rheology; Mass and Momentum Transport; Polymer Materials Science and Rheology; Process Control; Flow of Granular Media; Statistical Mechanics; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria. FACULTY Robert C. Axtmann, Jay B. Benziger, Pablo G. Debenedetti, Christodoulos A. Floudas, John K. Gill ham, William W. Graessley, Roy Jackson, Steven F. Karel, Yannis G. Kevrekidis, Morton D. Kostin, Robert G. Mills, Robert K. Prud'homme, LudwigRebenfeld, William B. Russel, Dudley A. Saville, Wil liam R. Schowalter (Chairman), Sankaran Sundaresan. WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemical En11inHri1111 Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 ~eenrs University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs J. ABBOT PhD (McGill) D. W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H. A. Becker ScD (MID D. H. Bone PhD (London) S. H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R. H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) R. K. Code PhD (Cornell) A. J. Daugulis PhD (Queen's) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) M. F. A. Goosen PhD (Toronto) E.W. Grandmaison Ph.D. (Queen's) T. J. Harris PhD (McMaster) C. C. Hsu PhD (Texas) B. W. Wojdechowski PhD (Ottawa) Catalysis & Reaction catalyst aging & decay catalytic oxidation gas adsorption in catalysis Ziegler-Natta polymerization reaction network analysis Physical Processing air clean i ng & quality control dryforming technology drying of cereal grains turbulent mixing & flow Bioreaction & Processing bioreactor modelling, design and scaleup extractive fermentation fermentation using genetically engineered organisms utilization of biowastes controlled release delivery systems Fuels and Energy catalytic crack i ng Fischer-Tropsch synthesis fluidized bed combustion fuel alcohol production gas flames & furnaces petroleum reservoir engineering wood gasification Process Control & Simulation batch reactor control multivariable control systems nonlinear control systems on line optimization statistical identification of process dynamics Write: Dr Henry A. Becker Department of Chemical Engineerinig Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Canada K7L 3N6

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3 06 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Biochemical Engineering Corrosion Crystallization Processes Energy Engineering Food Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer Metallurgy and Ceramics Mixing APPLICATIONS Multiphase Flow Phase Change Kinetics Separation P r ocesses Surface Phenomena APPLY TO: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Applications for financial aid should be received not later than Feb. 16 OF RESEARCH AREAS Kinetics and Catalysis Energy Resources and Conversion Process Control Polymers Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Biomedical Transport and Control TECHNOLOGY FACULTY C. F. Abegg, Ph.D., Iowa State R. S. Artigue, D.E Tulane W.W. Bowden, Ph.D., Purdue J. A. Caskey, Ph.D., Clemson S. C. Hite, Ph.D., Purdue S. Leipziger, Ph.D., I.I.T. N. E. Moore, Ph.D., Purdue For Information Write: Dr. Stuart Leipziger Dept. Graduate Advisor Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute, IN 47803 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING University of Saskatchewan DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERIN G FACUlTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST N. N. Bakhshi W. J. DeCouney M. N. Esmail G. Hill D. Macdonald D.-Y. Peng S. Rohani J. Postlethwaite C A. Shook Fischer-Tropsah synthesis, Reaction Engineering Absorption with chemical reaction, Mass transfer Fluid mechanics, Applied Mathematics Petroleum Recovery, Numerical Modelling Biochemical Engineering Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbons and Petroleum Mixing with fast chemical reactions, Mathematical Modelling Corrosion Engineering Transport Phenomena Slurry Pipelines For Information, Write M. N. Esmail, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Sasketchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W0 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees For further information contact: Graduate Program Coordinator Chemical Engineering University of South Florida Tampa, Rorida 33620 (813) 974-2581 FALL 1986 Faculty J.C. Busot L. H. Garcia-Rubio R. A. Gilbert W. E. Lee J. A. Llewellyn K. A Ramanarayanan C. A. Smith A. K. Sunol Research Areas Applications of Artificial Intelligence Coal Liquefaction Computer Aided Process Design Crystallization from Solution Direct Digital Control Electrolytic Solutions Food Science and Engineering Irreversible Thermodynamics Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction Membrane Transport Properties Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Identification Process Monitoring and Analysis Sensors and Instrumentation Supercritical Extraction Surface Analysis Thermodynamic Analysis of Living Systems 307

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3 0 8 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY Pl ease write for further i nformation about the program financial support and appl cation forms to : Gra du a t e A dmi ssio n s D e p a r t m e n t of C h e mi ca l E n g in eer in g U ni ve r s it y o f So u t h e rn Ca li fo rni a U ni ve r s it y Pa rk L os A n ge l es, C A 9 00 89 -1 2 11 W VICTOR CHANG ( Ph D ., Ch E ., Caltech 1976) Rheological propertie s of polymers and composites ; adhe s io n; p o lyme r processing JOE D GODDARD ( Ph D ., Ch E ., U C. Berkeley, 1962 ) Rheol ogy and mechanics of non-Newto nian fluids and compost it e ma t eria l s ; transport processes FRANK J LOCKHART ( P h.D Ch.E ., U o f Mich ., 1943) Distil lotion ; air polluti o n ; design of c hemi cal plants (Emeritus) CORNELIUS J PINGS ( P h D. Ch E ., Caltech, 1955 ) Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and liquid s t ate physics (Provost and Senior Vice Pres., Academic Affairs) M SAHIMI ( Ph D Ch E ., U. of Minnesota 1984) Transport and mechanical properties of disordered systems. P erco l at i on theory and non-equi li brium growt h processes RONALD SALOVEY (Ph D ., Phys Chem ., Harvard 1958) Phys ica l chem i stry and i r r adiation o f p o lymers ; c horo c terizotion o f e lost o mer s. KATHERINE S SHING ( Ph D ., Ch.E Cornell U. 198 2 ) Thermodynamics and statistical mechan ics ; supercri ti cal extraction THEODORE T TSOTSIS ( P h D Ch E U o f 111. Urban o 1978) Chemical reaction engineering ; process dynami c s and control JAMES M WHELAN (Ph D. Chem ., U C. B erkeley 1952) Thin F ilms 111 V ; heterogenous catalys i s ; sinter i ng processes Y ANIS C YORTSOS ( Ph D. Ch E Calt ech 1978) Mothemoticol mode ll i ng on tr anspo rt pro cesses; f l ow in por ous media and therm al oil recovery methods. Chemical Engineering at Stanford Stanford University offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering with a number of financially attractive fellowships and assistantships avauable to outstanding students For further information and application blanks write to : Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford California 94305 5025 Closing date for applications is January 1, 1987 Faculty: Andreu Acrlvos (Ph.D ., 1954 M i nnesota ) Flu i d Mechan ics Michel Boudart (Ph.D ., 1 950 Pr i nceton ) K i net i cs and Catal y s is Curtis W. Frank ( Ph.D ., 1972 Illino i s ) Polymer Physics Gerald G. Fuller (Ph.D ., 1980 Ca l Tech ) Fluid Dynamics of Polymer ic and Collodial Uqu i ds Allee P. Gast (Ph D ., 1 984 Pr i nce t on ) Physics o f D i sper s ed System s George M. Homey ( Ph.D 1969 Ill i no i s) Flu i d Mechan i cs and Stab i l i ty RollertJ.Madlx (Ph.D ., 1964 U Ca lBerkeley ) 3 u rface React i v i ty David M. Mason (Emer i tus ) (Ph.D ., 1949 Cal Tech ) AP_plied Thermodynam i c s and Chem i cal K i netic s Channing R. Robertson ( Ph.D 1969 Stanford ) B i oeng i neer i ng John Ross (Ph.D ., 1951 MIT) Chemical Instabilities Professor of Chem i stry and ( by courtesy) Chem i cal Engineer i ng C HE M I CA L ENGINEERIN G ED UCA TION

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G.F. Andrews D.R. Brutvan P. Ehrlich W N. Gill R J. Good R. Gupta V. Hlavacek C.S. Ho CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Faculty K.M Kiser Carl R F. Lund E Ruckenstein M.E. Ryan J A Tsamopoulos C.J. van Oss T.W Weber S.W. Weller R.T Yang Research Areas Adhesion Adsorption Applied Mathematics Biochemical & Biomedical Catalysis, Kinetics, & Reactor Design Coa I Conversion Desalination & Reverse Osmos is Des ign and Economics Fluid Mechanics Polymer Process in g & Rheology Process Control Reaction Eng ineering Separation Processes Surface Phenomena Tertiary O il Recovery Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemical engineering fundamentals while preserving the flexibility needed to develop special areas of interest. The Depart ment also draws on the strengths of being part of a large and diverse university center This environ ment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research. The new departmental facilities offer an exceptional opportunity for students to develop their research skills and capabilities. These features, combined with year-round recreational activities afforded by the Western New York country side and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo make SUNY/Buffalo an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studies For Information and applications write to : Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 0 Come to Tennessee for your graduate education! Tennessee-where we've struck a balance between theory and practice. If you're interested in one or more of the following: Career in industrial R&D FALL 1986 Production management Process innovation and design Academic career (teaching and research) Founding and managing your own company Write to: Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 309

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CHEMICAL EN GI NEERING AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Earn a MS or PhD Degree with Research Opportunities in Biotechnology Equations of State and VLE Process Simulation and Control Multi-Phase Fluid Flow and Fluidization Environmental Control Polymer Science and Technology Energy-Coal, Biomass and Enhanced Oil Recovery Texas Tech Has An Established Record Of Supplying Engineers To Research And Process F irms In The Sunbelt BECOME ONE OF THEM For information, brochure and application materials, write Dr. H. W. Parker Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M S. and M.E Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. FACULTY F. T. AL-SAADOON, Chairman Ph D ., University of Pittsburgh P .E. Reservo ir Engin eering and Production RICHARD A NEVILL B S. Texas A&I Uni ve r sity, P E Natural Gas Engine eri ng F. H DOTTERWEICH Ph.D ., John Hop kins University, P E Distribution and Transmission R N FINCH Ph.D. Univers ity of Texas, P E. Phase Equilibria and Environmental Engineering W. A HEENAN D .Ch.E., University o f De tr oi t, P.E Process Control and Thermodynamics C V. MOONEY P. W PRITCHETT Ph.D ., Un i v ersity of Delaware, P E. P etrochemical Development and Granular Solids C RAI Ph D., Illinois Institute of Technology P .E Reservoir Engineering and Gasification DALE L SCHRUBEN Ph D ., Carnegie-Mellon University Transport Phenom e na & Poly mers R. W SERTH M.E. Oklahoma University, P.E Ph D ., SUNY at Buffalo P .E. Gas Me~urement and Rheology and Applied P roduction Mathematics RESEARCH and TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE 310 Texas A&I University is located in Tropical South Texas, 40 miles south of the Urban Center of Corpus Christi, and 30 miles west of Pad re Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: W. A. HEENAN GRADUATE ADVISOR Department of Chemical & Natural Gas Engineering Texas A&I University Kingsville, Texas 78363 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Assistantships and, Fellowships Available Chemical Engineering Faculty Bennett, Gary F., Ph D ., Un iv ersity of Michigan. Professor ; Air and Water Pollution Control, Biochemical Engineering Lahti, Leslie E ., Dean of Engineer i ng Ph D ., Carnegie-Mellon Uni versit y. Professor; Adductive Crystallization, Flue-gas Desulfuri zation. DeWitt, Kenneth J., Ph D ., Northwestern University Professor ; Transport Phenomena and Applied Math e matic s. LeBlanc, Steven E ., Ph D ., Univers i ty of Michigan. Assistant Pro fessor; Solution Metallurgy, Flow in Porous Media Fournier, Ronald L., Ph.D. The University of Toledo Assistant Pro fessor ; Transport Phenomena, Thermodynam ics, Mathematical Modelling and Combustion Rosen, Stephen L., Chairman Ph.D ., Cornell University. Professor ; Polymeric Mater i als Polymerization Kinetics, Rheology Jones, Millard L., Jr. Ph.D ., University of Michigan. Professor; Process Dynamics and Control, Mathematical Modelling and Heat Transfer Varanasi, Sasidhar, Ph.D ., State University of New York at Buffalo Assistant Professor; Colloidal and lnterfacial Phenomena, B i chemical Engineering Membrane Transport. Lacksonen, James W., Ph D Ohio State University. Associate Pro fessor; Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design THE FACULTY For d etai l s write D r. S. L. Rosen, D epartment of Chemical Engineering The University of Tol e do, Tol e do, Oh i o 43606 GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Tulsa M.S. (Thesis and Non-Thesis) and Ph.D. Programs M.A. Abraham Reaction kinetics supercritical flu i ds R. L. Cerro Capillary hydrodynamics, unit operations, computerPeter Clark R. W. Flumerfelt K. D. Luks F. S. Manning Kerry L. Sublette N. D. Sylvester R. E Thompson A. J. Wilson K D. Wisecarver aided des i gn Hydraulic fractur i ng, rheology of gels and suspensions Fluid mechanics, interfacial and colloidal phenomena, rheology Thermodynamics phase equilibria Industrial pollution control, surface processing of petroleum Fermentation, biocatalysis Enhanced oil recovery environmental protection, fluid mechanics, reaction engineering Oil and gas processing, computer-aided process design Environmental engineering, water treatment processes, process simulation Fluidization bioreactor modeling, mass transfer and adsorption in porous solids FURTHER INFORMATION If you would like addit i onal i nformat i on concerning specific research area s, facilities, curriculum, and financial assistanc e, contact Prof Luks the Director of Graduate Programs The University of Tulsa The University of Tulsa has an 600 S. College Equal Opportunity/ Affirmative Tulsa, OK 74104 Action Program for students (918) 592-6000, Ex 2226 and employees FALL 1 986 311

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3 12 This rocket will never get off the ground! No t s urp ris in g s in ce it s a rotary kiln n o t a roc k e t But it will help d ete rmin e th e fa t e o f t oxic a ir p o llut a nts in a ro t ary kiln e n v i ro nm e nt l ea din g-edge t ec h no l ogy be in g a ppli e d to th e disposal of t oxic was t es thr o u gho ut th e indu s tri alize d w orl d If yo u r e int e r es t ed in p ar ti c ip a ting in r esearc h o n thi s o r o th e r dow n -to-ea rth p ro bl e m s w ith int e r es tin g th eory c hall e n g in g ex p e rim e n ts an d r ea l -wo rld co n se qu e n ces writ e f o r o ur g r ad u a t e pr ogra m bull e tin Department of Chemical Engineering Noel de Nevers, Director of Graduate Studies University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Offers Graduate Study Leading To The M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY: RESEARCH AREAS: K.A. DEBELAK (Ph.D ., Univ of Kentucky) Atmospheric Diffusion Analys i s T.M GODBOLD (Ph.D ., North Carolina State Univ ) Biological Transport Processes K.A. OVERHOLSER (Ph.D. P E., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison) Biomedical Applications R J ROSELLI (Ph.D ., Univ of California Berkeley) Chemical Process Simulation J.A. ROTH (Ph.D P E. Univ of Louisville) Cool Convers i on Technology K B. SCHNELLE, JR (Ph.D P E. Camegie-Mel/on Univ.) Cool Surface and Pore Structure Studies R D TANNER (Ph.D ., Case Western ReseNe Univ.) Enzyme Kinetics and Fermentation Processes W.D THREADGILL (Ph.D. Univ. of Missouri Columbia) Physica l and Chemical Processes in Wastewater Treatment VANDERBILT ENGINEERING F u rth e r Informa t io n : R o b e rt D To nn er .... -~ D irec t o r o f Gradua t e St ud ie s C h em i ca l En g i neer i ng De p artm ent B a x 6 1 73 Stat i on B Van d er b ilt U n iv ers i ty Nashv i ll e Tennessee 37235 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING ED U CATIO N

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UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Virginia offers M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Major research interests of the faculty are Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics-intermolecular association, physical properties of fluids, hindered diffusion. Transport processes and operations-heat and mass transfer, low Reynolds number and surface tension driven flow, crystalliza tion, fixed bed adsorption Chemical reactor analysis and engineering. Separations technology Chemical and energy technology-electrochemical processes, pollution control, catalysis, solar and alternative energy utilization. Biochemical technology and engineering-enzyme engineering, transport processes in biological systems, microbial processes. At "Mr. J efjerson's university," both teaching and research are emphasized in a physical environment of exceptional beauty. WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY FALL 1986 For admission and financial aid information Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D. A. Crowl, PhD H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. Gulari, PhD R H Kummler, PhD C. B Leffert, PhD R. Marriott, PhD J. H. McMicking, PhD R. Mickelson, PhD S. Ng, PhD P. K Roi, PhD E. W Rothe, PhD S. Salley, PhD S. K. Stynes, PhD Contact: combustion-process control thermodynamics-process design transport-laser light scattering environmental engr.-kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr. process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes polymer science-catalysis molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments biosystems modelling-kinetics multi-phase flows-environmental engr. Dr. Ralph H. Kummler Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 313

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UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. programs are available RESEARCH INTERESTS Environmental Engineering Three-Phase Fluidization Rheology Membrane Separation Processes Computer Aided Process Design Fluid Dynamics in Two-Phase Systems Coal Benefi,ciation Transport Processes Quenching Systems in Plasma Reactors 314 For further information contact Dr. A. A. Asfour, Chairman Graduate Studies Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Windsor Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Graduate study and research leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Research Areas Adsorption and diffusion in porous solids Biopolymers Catalytic properties of s urface s Chemical reactor modelling Coal and syngas technology Complex reaction kinetics Fermentation engineering and control Homogeneous catalysis Zeolite synthesis and catalysis Faculty D. DiBiasio (Purdue) W. M. Clark (Rice) A.G. Dixon (Edinburgh) Y. H. Ma (M.I.T.) J. W. Meader (M I. T.) W.R. Moser (M. I. T.) J.E. Rollings (Purdue) A. Sacco (M.I.T.) R. W. Thompson (Iowa State) R. E. Wagner (Princeton) A.H. Weiss (U. Penn.) WPI is located in central Massachusetts in New England's second largest c it y. Extensive cultural activities are available as well as easy access to the vast summer and winter recreational activities well known to the New England area. Attractive assistantships are available. Address inquiries to: Dr. Y H Ma Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Massachusetts 01609 (617) 793-5250 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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i 1 UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING We offer exciting opportunitie s for research in many energy related area s In recent year s re s earch has been conducted in the areas of kinetics a nd cataly s i s ad s orption combustion, extraction, water and air pollution, multipha s e flow computer modeling, coal liquefaction, and i n-situ coal ga s ification EUROPEAN PROGR AM. A n energy research e x ch a nge program with We s t Germany i s a va ilabl e. S tudent s can s pend up to 1 5 month s w orkin g in Europe a s part of their degree program. F o r m o re i nforma ti on contact: Dr. David 0 Cooney, Head Dept of Chemical Engineering Universit y of Wyoming P.O. Box 3295 University Station Laramie, Wyoming 82071 Graduates of any accredited chemical engineering program are eligible for admission, a nd the department offer s both an M.S. and a Ph.D pro gram. Financial aid i s avail a ble and all recipients recei v e full fee wai v er s. Adm is sion e m p loym e nt, and proora"'a of t h e Un ; ve r si ty of Wy om i ng ar e offered to all e l i o i bl peapl without r e oanl to """" co l or, n a tio na l or i g i n a e z rel i gion, or po li t ica l b e li e f Department of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING YALE UNIVERSITY F C + 2 Josiah ,vmard Gibbs PhD-Engineering 1863 OBTAIN A NEW DEGREE OF FREEDOM FALL 1986 315

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THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Department of Chemical Engin eer ing invites applications for graduate study from candidates who wish to proceed to the M lng ., M.Eng. (Pulp & Paper ), M A .Sc. or Ph.u degree. For the latter two degrees, Assistantships or F ellowships are avail able AREAS OF RESEARCH Air Pollution Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Coal, Natural Gas and Oil Processing Electrochemical Engineering Electrokinetic and Fouling Phenomena Fluid Dynamics Fluidization Heat Transfer Kinetics Liquid Extraction Magnet ic Effects Mass Transfer Modelling and Optimization Particle Dynamics Pro cess Dynam ics Pulp & Paper Rheology Rotary Kilns Separat i on Processes Spouted Beds Sulphur Thermodynamics Water Pollution Inquiries should be addressed to: 316 Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver, B C ., Canada V6T 1W5 Florida Institute of Technology GRADUATE STUDIES Graduate Student Assistantships A vail,able Includes Tax Free Tuition Remission M.S. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Faculty R G. Barile P. A Jennings J. N Linsley D.R Mason M. U. Wiggins M.S. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Faculty T V. Belanger F. E D ierberg H H Heck P. A Jennings N. T. Stephens FOR INFOtATION CONTACT Dr R. G. Barile, Chm Chemical Engineering F.I.T 150 W University Blvd. Melbourne FL 32901-6988 (305) 768-8046 Dr. N. T Stephens, Head Environmental Engineering F I T 150 W. University Blvd. Melbourne FL 32901-6988 (305) 768-8068 ECOLE POL YTECHNIQUE AFFILIEE A L UNIVERSITE DE MONTREAL GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Research assistantships are available in the following areas : RHEOLOGY AND POLYMER ENGINEERING SOLAR ENGERY, ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY CONSERVATION FLUIDISATION AND REACTION KINETICS PROCESS CONTROL, SIMULATION AND DESIGN INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD ENGINEERING BIOTECHNOLOGY FILTRATION AND MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROFITEZ DE CETTE OCCASION POUR PARFAIRE VOS CONNAISSANCES DU FRANCAIS! VIVE LA DIFFERENCE! Some knowledge of the French language is required. For information, write to: C laud e C havari e Department du Genie Chimique, Ecole Polytechnique C P. 6079, Station A Montreal H3C 3A7, CANADA UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies PROGRAMS: The5is and non-thesis opt i ons available for MS degree; substantial design component required for M Engr program A full time student w ith BSChE can complete pro gram in 9-12 months. Students with degree in chemistry will require two calendar years to complete MS degree. RESEARCH PROJECTS : Most funded research projects are energy related with the full spectrum of basic to applied projects available Students participate in project related thesis problems as project participants ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER: A cooperative program of study/ research with research projects related to low-rank coal con version and utilization sponsored by U S. Department of Energy and private industry is available to limited number of students FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (701-777-4244) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WEST VIRGINIA TECH That's what we usually are called. Our full name is West Virginia Institute of Technology. We're in a small state full of friendly people, and we are small enough to keep your personal goals in mind. Our forte is high quality undergraduate instruction, but we are seeking high-grade students for our new graduate program for the M.S. If you are a superior student with an interest in helping us while we help you, we may have funding for you. Write: Dr. E. H. CRUM Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia Inst. of Technology Montgomery, WV 25136 VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering The Department has offered the M.Ch E. for more than thirty years to both full-time and part time employed students. You may select from over twenty graduate courses in Ch.E. (five offered each semester in a two year cycle) plus more in other departments. Thesis is available and encouraged, a concentration in process control is offered and many environmental engi neering courses are available. The Department oc c upies excellent build i ngs on a pleasant campus in the western suburbs of Philadelphia. Com puter faci l ities on campus and in the depart ment are excellent. The most active research projects recently have been in heat transfer, process control, re verse osmos i s, and surface phenomena. Other top i cs are avai I able. There is a full time faculty cf eight Teaching assistantships are available For more informat i on, wr i te Robert F. Sweeny, Chairman Dept. of Chemical EnginHring Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION the I 57 ui~r; wk. ~eJ o.wi ui 1986 Hnrujh the I 31 ~SHU~ tJuwi ~uillu4Uute

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Chemical Engineering A new range of 'hands-on' teaching equipment Yesterday, laboratory teaching rigs had to be large expensive and difficult to set up. Today, smaller scale, easy-to-use, self-contained cheaper apparatus is available with greater educational value. Technovate offers a full range: Mass Transfer Reaction Engineering Unit Operations Ask us for more details of our equipment CEK Liquid Mixing GET Tubular Reactor GEL Fixed & Fluidised Beds CEV Multi-stage Mixer / Settler GEM Liquid Phase Chemical UOP1 Climbing Film Evaporator Stirred Tank Reactor UOP2 Double Effect Evaporator ,.. GEN Solids Handling Bench UOP4 Solid-Liquid Extraction CEP Dynamics of Stirred Tanks UOPS Liquid-Liquid Extraction CERa Gaseous Diffusion UOP7 Gas Absorption Column CERb Liquid Diffusion UOPB Tray Drier CES Wetted Wall Column ~ ~r~~:: s~r~ ~ s~i; ful l range In F luid Mechanics 910 SW 12TH AVENUE POMPANO BEACH FL 33060 USA ( 305) 946-4470 TECHNOVA.Tll