Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00092
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00092

Full Text












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3M FOUNDATION








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
wiud a do4micaw oj jeuna.















This is the 18th Graduate Education Issue published by CEE.
It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested in
and qualified for graduate school. We include articles on
graduate courses, research at various universities and announce-
ments of departments on their graduate programs. In order for
you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also
those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years
follows. If you would like a copy of a previous Fall issue, please
write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida


AUTHOR


Bailey, Ollis
Belfort
Graham, Jutan
Soong
Van Zee
Radovic
Shah, Hayhurst
Bailie, Kono,
Henry
Kauffman
Felder



Lauffenburger
et al.
Marnell
Scamehorn
Shah
White

Zygourakis
Bartholomew,
Hecker
Converse, et al.
Fair
Edie
McConica
Duda



Davis
Sawin, Reif

Shaeiwitz

Takoudis
Valle-Riestra

Woods
Middleman
Serageldin


FALL 1986


TITLE

Fall 1985

Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
Separations & Recovery Processes
Teaching Time Series
Polymer Processing
Electrochemical & Corrosion Engineering
Coal Utilization & Conversion Processes
Molecular Sieve Technology

Fluidization
Is Grad School Worth It?
The Generic Quiz


Fall 1984


Applied Mathematics
Graduate Plant Design
Colloid & Surface Science
Transport Phenomena
Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-Based
Seminars
Linear Algebra

Research on Catalysis
Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Separations Research
Graduate Residency at Clemson
Semiconductor Processing
Misconceptions Concerning Grad School

Fall 1983

Numerical Methods and Modeling
Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit
Fabrication
Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass
Transfer
Chemical Reactor Design
Project Evaluation in the Chemical
Process Industries
Surface Phenomena
Research on Cleaning up in San Diego
Research on Combustion


Wankat, Oreovicz

Bird
Thomson,
Simmons



Hightower

Mesler
Weiland, Taylor
Dullien
Seapan
Skaates
Baird, Wilkes
Fenn


Abbott
Butt, Kung

Chen, et al.
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al.
Thomson
Bartholomew
Hassler
Miller
Wankat
Wolf



Bird
Edgar, Schecter
Hanratty
Kenney
Kerchenbaum,
Perkins, Pyle
Liu
Peppas
Rosner
Lees
Senkan, Vivian


Culberson
Davis
Frank
Morari, Ray

Ramkrishna
Russel, et al.
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen


Grad Student's Guide to Academic Job
Hunting
Book Writing and ChE Education

Grad Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry

Fall 1982

Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite
Catalysts
Nucleate Boiling
Mass Transfer
Funds. of Petroleum Production
Air Pollution for Engineers
Catalysis
Polymer Education and Research
Research is Engineering


Fall 1981

Classical Thermodynamics
Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction
Engineering
Parametric Pumping
Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer
Simulation
Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization
Oil Shale Char Reactions
Kinetics and Catalysis
ChE Analysis
Underground Processing
Separation Processes
Heterogeneous Catalysis

Fall 1980

Polymer Fluid Dynamics
In Situ Processing
Wall Turbulence
Chemical Reactors

Systems Modelling & Control
Process Synthesis
Polymerization Reaction Engineering
Combustion Science & Technology
Plant Engineering at Loughborough
MIT School of ChE Practice

Fall 1979

Doctoral Level ChE Economics
Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics
Courses in Polymer Science
Integration of Real-Time Computing Into
Process Control Teaching
Functional Analysis for ChE
Colloidal Phenomena
Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Mathematical Methods in ChE
Coal Liquefaction Processes
















































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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857

Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner

Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861

Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

Chairman:
Gary Poehlein
Georgia Institute of Technology

Past Chairmen:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Members
SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University

Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University

Donald R. Paul
University of Texas

James Fair
University of Texas

CENTRAL:
J. S. Dranoff
Northwestern University

WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
Alexis T. Bell
University of California, Berkeley

NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania

Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
Leslie W. Shemilt
McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XX NUMBER 4 FALL 1986


Award Lecture
202 Image Processing and Analysis for Turbulence Research,
Robert S. Brodkey

Views and Opinions
161 Hougen's Principles, R. Byron Bird
164 Graduate Studies: The Middle Way, J. L. Duda
178 Chemical Engineering: A Crisis of Maturity, Jacob Jorne

Lecture
168 Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers,
Neal R. Amundson

Courses in
174 Graduate Education in Chemical Engineering: A Workshop,
Donna G. Blackmond
188 Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering,
V. Venkatasubramanian

Research in
186 The Processing of Electronic Materials,
S. V. Babu, Peter C. Sukanek
194 Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology,
Murray Moo-Young
198 Characterization of Powders and Porous Materials,
Abhaya K. Datye, Douglas M. Smith, Frank L. Williams

A Program In
182 Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering,
George Stephanopoulos

160 In Memoriam : Olaf Andreas Hougen
163 Editorial: Olaf Hougen: Teacher, Researcher, Educator
167 Division Activities .
167 Letters to the Editor
177 Summer School '87
180 William H. Corcoran Outstanding Paper Award
181 Book Reviews
207 Positions Available
210 Index

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division,
American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Spings,
Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the adver-
tising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0.
Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and
Mexico is $20 per year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulk
subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies. Copyright 1986
Chemical Engineering Division of American Society for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions
expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the
ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the
identification of this periodical.


FALL 1986









eot. .



OLAF ANDREAS HOUGEN
(1893-1986)


R. BYRON BIRD
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706


Olaf Hougen, who died on January 7, 1986, was
one of the giants in chemical engineering: a brilliant
researcher, a formidable teacher, and a world-famous
author, whose books influenced the course of his pro-
fession.
He was born in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, on October
4, 1893; his father was a Lutheran clergyman. He re-
ceived his BS (cum laude) at the University of
Washington, and his ChE and PhD degrees in 1918
and 1925, respectively, at the University of Wiscon-
sin, all of his degrees being in chemical engineering.
In 1918 and 1919 he spent 18 months in the research
department of the Carborundum Company at Niagara
Falls, New York.
His teaching career covered a period of over 40
years, most of it at the University of Wisconsin; he
also held teaching appointments at the Illinois Insti-
tute of Technology, UCLA, the Norwegian Institute
of Technology (Trondheim), Kyoto University, and
Nagoya University. For three periods, totalling eight
years, he served as departmental chairman; even
when he was not chairman, he exercised considerable
influence and leadership.
Professor Hougen joined ASEE in 1930; he was
active in the organization of the Chemical Engineering
Division and served as its chairman in 1935-36. Some
of his papers on chemical engineering education were
published in the Journal of Engineering Education.
He felt strongly that his colleagues should participate
in ASEE activities and take advantage of that organi-
zation to exchange ideas with chemical engineering
teachers at other schools.
To many generations of students Professor
Hougen was known affectionately as "Big 0." And he
was big: big in stature (well over 6 feet tall), big in
his profession, and big in compassion and understand-
ing. He was a skilled teacher, with deep knowledge of
his subject material; he knew how to get his students
to think their way through difficult problems without


intimidating them. His insistence on high-quality per-
formance and his emphasis on high standards were
balanced by his kindly attitude and his spontaneous
sense of humor. He felt that serving the students by
helping them to master difficult technical material was
a most important assignment. It was well-known
among the students that Professor Hougen's ther-
modynamics course was the best one on the campus,
and students from the chemistry and physics depart-
ments regularly attended his lectures; his course dealt
with real materials (not just ideal gases and ideal solu-
tions) and the problems worked in the course dealt
with real processes and real chemical systems (not
just schoolbook exercises).
Students all over the world profited from Olaf
Hougen's teaching via his books: Industrial Chemical
Calculations (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, 1931,
1936); Chemical Process Principles, I, Material and
Energy Balances (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson,
1943; revised along with R. A. Ragatz, 1954); Chemi-
cal Process Principles, II, Thermodynamics, 1946;
revised along with R. A. Ragatz, 1959); Chemical
Process Principles, III, Kinetics and Catalysis (0.
A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, 1947); Chemical Pro-
cess Principles Charts (0. A. Hougen and K. M. Wat-
son, 1946); Reaction Kinetics in Chemical Engineer-
ing, CEP Monograph 1 (0. A. Hougen, 1951). The
"CPP" trilogy was immensely successful and influen-
tial because of its pedagogical soundness, clear scien-
tific basis, and excellent illustrative examples.
Perhaps less well known to chemical engineers was
Olaf Hougen's particular dedication to Norway, the
land of his forebears. He served the Organization for
American Relief to Norway as treasurer for Wisconsin
during the years 1940-1945 (for which he received a
citation from King Haakon). In Madison he was a
member of the Ygdrasil Literary Society and served
one year as its president. He was a member of the
committee for the selection of the first chemical en-
gineering professor in Norway in 1949. In 1951 he was
Fulbright Professor at the Norges Tekniske
Hogskole; during this time he prepared a comprehen-
sive plan for the organization of the Chemical En-
gineering Department at NTH. He actively promoted


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










scholarly exchanges between Norwegian and U.S.
academic personnel in chemical engineering. He
rounded off his professional career by serving as Sci-
entific Attach6 to Scandinavia while assigned to the
U.S. Embassy in Stockholm in 1961-1963. In 1960 he
received an honorary doctorate from NTH in recogni-
tion for his many outstanding contributions.
Olaf Hougen was given many other honors and
awards, including the Lamme Award of ASEE; the
Warren K. Lewis, William H. Walker, and Founders
Awards of AIChE; the I&EC Award of ACS; mem-
bership in the National Academy of Engineering; and
honorary memberships in the Society of Chemical En-
gineers Japan, the Venezuelan Institute of Chemical
Engineers, and the Indian Institute of Chemical En-
gineers. Typically he never talked about his numerous
awards, and, in fact, many of his colleagues, friends,


and family members did not even know about them.
Olaf and his wife Olga were often hosts for staff
members, TA's, and students. An evening at their
home was always comfortable and full of fun. Olga
was an animated story-teller and radiated good humor
and hospitality. Foreign visitors were welcomed with
open arms and made to feel a part of the group. Hav-
ing lived abroad themselves they were both sensitive
to the needs of visitors far from home.
Gentlemanly, considerate, thoughtful, kindly,
loyal, humble, genuine, professional, dedicated,
scholarly, responsible-these are the adjectives that
describe Olaf A. Hougen. Those of us who had the
opportunity to interact with him are indeed fortunate.
We now have the responsibility to try to live up to the
high standards set by this great man and good friend.


HOUGEN'S PRINCIPLES
Some Guideposts for Chemical Engineering Departments

R. BYRON BIRD
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI 53706

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin
Madison owes much of its success to certain guiding principles formulated by
Olaf A. Hougen. Listing these principles seems an appropriate way to pay tribute
to his memory. Many of the principles listed below were stated by him on many
occasions; some of them I heard from him in private conversations; and a few
of them were perhaps not enunciated explicitly, but I have inferred them from
many years of observing that extraordinary teacher. The twelfth and last guiding
principle on this list was found by Professor W. R. Marshall among some of
Professor Hougen's papers.

1. THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM SHOULD BE PRACTICAL AND CONSERVATIVE, WHEREAS
THE GRADUATE PROGRAM SHOULD BE IMAGINATIVE AND EXPLORATORY.


Professor Hougen clearly recognized that we have an
obligation to train most of our undergraduates so that
they can assume responsible jobs in industry. How-
ever, he also made it clear that at the graduate level


we must be boldly pioneering in new fields. He had a
knack for deciding what important new subject areas
were emerging and what kinds of new faculty mem-
bers were needed to develop them.


2. THERE SHOULD BE A SMOOTH FLOW OF INFORMATION FROM GRADUATE RESEARCH TO
GRADUATE TEACHING TO UNDERGRADUATE TEACHING.


We should not experiment on the undergraduates by
giving them untested material. Professor Hougen felt
that every undergraduate course should be backed up
by graduate course instruction and research, so that
the undergraduate program would always be under


pressure to be modernized. The modernization and
modification of undergraduate courses should, how-
ever, be done only after careful testing at the
graduate level.


FALL 1986










3. IF YOU CAN'T FIND RELEVANT PROBLEMS TO GIVE THE STUDENT, THEN YOU SHOULDN'T
BE TEACHING THE MATERIAL TO THE STUDENTS.


At the time of Professor Hougen's 85th birthday
party, Aksel Lydersen (of Trondheim, Norway) said
that this remark was something that he would never
forget. Professor Hougen felt very strongly that our
teaching should emphasize topics which are useful for


solving the industrial problems of the present and fu-
ture. He was very perceptive in recognizing the signif-
icant problems faced by chemical engineers in indus-
try and attempted to plan his courses and his
textbooks to address these key problems.


4. USE THE BEST AVAILABLE INFORMATION FROM THE MODERN SCIENCES.


Good engineering analysis and design must utilize the
most up-to-date material from chemistry, physics, and
mathematics. Professor Hougen certainly demon-
strated this idea in his own research, teaching, and


book writing. The Chemical Process Principles vol-
umes bear testimony to his thorough familiarity with
the best current thinking from the pure sciences.


5. WELL-FOUNDED AND WELL-TESTED EMPIRICISMS ARE TO BE PREFERRED OVER THEORIES
THAT HAVE ONLY A LIMITED RANGE OF APPLICABILITY.


Professor Hougen was always on the lookout for
clever, scientifically based correlations, backed up by
lots of experimental data, for use in chemical en-
gineering design. His own contributions to


"generalized charts" of all kinds are well known. He
felt very strongly that every effort should be made to
present results in a form that could be easily used by
practicing engineers.


6. IT IS VITAL FOR ENGINEERS TO KNOW HOW TO SOLVE PROBLEMS WITH LIMITED AND
INCOMPLETE DATA.


One time Professor Hougen gave a seminar entitled
"From Cork to Mollier." Everyone knew who Mr.
Mollier was, but all efforts to discover the identity of
Mr. Cork failed. The seminar dealt with the problem
of predicting the Mollier diagram by sniffing the cork


of the bottle containing the material! Professor
Hougen's students certainly came away from his ther-
modynamics course fully aware of many clever
methods for physical property estimation.


7. STUDENTS ARE IMPRESSIONABLE AND LEARN QUICKLY, AND THEREFORE A PROFESSOR
MUST MAKE CERTAIN THAT HE TEACHES IN A RESPONSIBLE WAY.


One time Professor Hougen called me on the carpet
because, in a graduate seminar introduction, I had
suggested that the speaker's new theoretical methods
would soon replace the tried-and-true engineering cor-


relations. He took issue with this, and said that I had
no right to make an unqualified statement of that sort
in front of the graduate students and that I had left
them with a totally incorrect impression.


8. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE STUDENTS HAVE A GOOD GROUNDING IN THE BASIC FUNDA-
MENTALS; THERE'S NOTHING WORSE THAN A STUDENT WHO HAS A THIN VENEER OF
HIGH-POWERED THEORY.


Whether or not students go into industry or on to
graduate school, they appreciate being well-grounded
in the elementary ideas of the undergraduate sub-
jects. A thin coating of unassimilated and poorly un-
derstood material is of little value, and Professor


Hougen was adamant that we should stress the basic
ideas. He did not hesitate to recommend remedial
course-work for incoming graduate students whose
backgrounds were weak.


9. WE MUST ALWAYS RECOGNIZE THAT OUR STUDENTS AND OUR TEACHING ASSISTANTS
ARE YOUNG PROFESSIONALS.


Students and young colleagues of Professor Hougen
always felt that he wanted them to share with him in
the responsibility for the development of chemical en-
gineering as a profession. He was always giving en-


couragement to colleagues and students to develop
their strong points and their professional interests; he
was also aware that everyone has limitations in his
talents, but he knew how to work around them.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








10. HE RECOGNIZED THAT FACULTY MEMBERS HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO ASSIST COLLEAGUES
IN OTHER INSTITUTIONS.


Professor Hougen was always willing to give help to
professors in other schools and in other countries. He
would go out of his way to take care of foreign visitors
and to assist them in achieving their goals of improv-
ing chemical engineering in their own nations. He rec-


ognized that the preparation of textbooks was a key
responsibility for professors in leading research de-
partments, and he made substantial contributions in
that area along with his colleagues Professor K. M.
Watson and Professor R. A. Ragatz.


11. WE HAVE, AS FACULTY MEMBERS IN A STATE-SUPPORTED INSTITUTION, A RESPONSIBILITY
TO SERVE THE TAXPAYERS BY PERFORMING OUR JOB WELL.


We all know that state-supported universities have
their ups and downs financially. Professor Hougen
often said that he felt that the citizens of the State of
Wisonsin had been very generous in supporting our


university and that we have a duty to perform our
assignments as well as we can with the limited re-
sources available.


12. DO NOT SHOW EMOTIONS OF BITTERNESS OR BERATEMENT OR BELITTLEMENT; ASCRIBE
THE BEST MOTIVES TO YOUR ASSOCIATES; SAY NOTHING DEROGATORY.


These words, written in a note to himself, are sterling
words of advice for the creation of a collegial atmos-
phere within a department. Professor Marshall quoted


the above words at the memorial service for Professor
Hougen, and as Professor Marshall said ". .. indeed,
Olaf lived by this creed."


The departmental staff members of my generation have grown up with these
principles because we were young faculty members when Olaf Hougen was in
his prime. If succeeding generations of professors can follow these guidelines,
our students will be assured of a high-quality education and the profession of
chemical engineering will be a dynamic and lively profession.


OLAF HOUGEN: Teacher, Researcher, Educator


In previous editorials (Vol. XX, 3, 100) we indi-
cated that the goal of a department or of an individual
professor should be to serve society (the profession,
university, department, students, etc.) rather than to
seek high ratings (in the case of the department) or
personal recognition (in the case of the professor). In
this issue we illustrate this principle through the
example of the late Olaf Hougen and the University
of Wisconsin.
When Professor Hougen and his colleagues began
their authorship of Chemical Process Principles, their
motivation was to demonstrate how scientific principles
could be used in practical situations to achieve a quan-
titative result of importance to industry (see Princi-
ples 4, 5 and 10). They did not write their pioneering
three-volume text with the prime goal of gaining rec-
ognition for their department or for themselves, but
instead did so with the goal of fulfilling a professional/
societal need. The consequence of their work, how-
ever, was that Wisconsin's PhD students became very
much in demand as they "seeded" various depart-
ments, spreading the Wisconsin attitude around the
nation and even the world. These missionaries in turn
had PhD students who became disciples of the Wiscon-


sin attitude themselves (see the Hougen "tree," CEE,
Summer 1968). As a consequence of this service to the
profession and society, Wisconsin continually ranked
first in the nation in surveys such as the Cartter re-
port and in subsequent reports of quality in chemical
engineering education. But the Wisconsin depart-
ment, in achieving this recognition, did not disregard
teaching in a zealous drive for ratings; instead it em-
phasized teaching and recognized that research is a
form of teaching. A reading of the above paper on
Hougen's principles, by Professor Bird, clearly indi-
cates that Olaf Hougen was at once a great teacher
and a great researcher who saw in both of these ac-
tivities an opportunity for service.
Later, Professor Hougen played an important role
in the development of transport phenomena when he
brought Professor Bird back to Wisconsin and charged
him with the responsibility of putting on a firm scien-
tific basis the computation of energy, mass, and
momentum transfer. Instead of an inane competition
for prestige, let us follow the example of service as
set by this great man.
Ray W. Fahien


FALL 1986


Ctdd44ia










A4 MeAiawe &o Aequ4W Q'adue Sor% 4...

At the beginning of every academic year, the head of the department of chemical engineering at Penn State
traditionally addresses the new graduate students. While the following paper was originally directed to those
students, it has general applicability and is meant to assist all students in making some important decisions
about their graduate work.


GRADUATE STUDIES

The Middle Way


J. L. DUDA
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802

THE TITLE AND format of this year's seminar were
based on one of the central concepts of Buddhism.
In my naive interpretation of Buddhism, the Buddha
experienced two extreme lifestyles. In his early man-
hood he emphasized pleasure in the worldly aspects of
life. Although he had every material thing that was
supposed to ensure happiness, he did not find fulfill-
ment. Consequently, he rejected material things and
assumed an austere lifestyle-but this did not seem to
fulfill him either. Finally, Buddha concluded that
neither of these extremes brought happiness-that it
could only be found in the middle way. He did not feel
that a person had to abandon worldly pleasures, but
on the other hand, he should also not be dominated by
them.
In thinking about approaches to different aspects
of graduate studies, I concluded that in many cases
the middle way is also the most appropriate path be-
tween two extremes. I have been able to identify eight
different aspects of graduate work where I feel the
appropriate approach lies between two extremes.
These may not be the only ones, but they do incorpo-
rate many important aspects of graduate work.

1. CHOICE OF PROJECT
Right now, you are in the process of choosing a
research topic for your MS or PhD program. I have
often observed that there are two extreme approaches
to this process. Some graduate students have their
mind fixed on a specific area of research and will not
.consider any project outside of that narrow area. On

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


J. L. Duda is professor and head of the chemical engineering de-
partment at The Pennsylvania State University. He received his BS in
chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology and his MS and
PhD at the University of Delaware. He joined the staff at Penn State
in 1971 after eight years in research with the Dow Chemical Company.

the other hand, some students become interested in a
specific research advisor and feel that it is imperative
that they work with him. To the first group, I want
to make it clear that your choice of a research topic in
graduate school does not predetermine the path you
will take after you have finished your degree. It would
be impossible for any of you to determine the areas of
my MS or PhD research from my research record and
the work that I am now conducting. The purpose of
research in graduate school is to learn how to conduct
research, and you should choose a combination of ad-
visor and topic which you feel is the optimum for
reaching that goal. Learning how to conduct research
in one area can easily be transferred to conducting
research in an unrelated area. Similarly, a faculty
member with an outstanding research record may not
be the most appropriate individual for you as an ad-
visor. It is very important that you find an individual
with whom you can communicate and whose personal-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








ity and mode of operation are compatible with yours.

2. AREA OF EMPHASIS
Up to this point, your academic career has been
straightforward. You took courses which fit into some
pre-prescribed course of study. Now you will en-
counter demands coming from two distinct areas-
from course work and from research. The tendency of
most new graduate students is to emphasize their
course work and neglect their research. This is a nat-
ural extreme since you are familiar and comfortable
with courses and have a proven record of success. But
it is not clear that your proven capabilities in struc-
tured courses can be transferred to an area of re-
search. It is extremely unusual for a graduate student
to not fulfill the requirements of a degree because of
poor performance in his courses. On the other hand,
do not over-react and- spend all of your time in your
research area. Again, the middle way is the obvious
appropriate procedure. You must find a way to budget
your time and effort in order to maintain progress in
both areas.
3. PLANNING OF RESEARCH
In planning a research program, there are two ex-
tremes which can dominate. At one extreme are the
individuals who are overly preoccupied with choosing
a problem which can be solved. The result is often an
overly conservative research plan which, even if 100%
successful, represents only a perturbation on previous
work. To these students, I point out that it is impor-
tant for research to uncover new knowledge or to an-
swer important questions. At the other extreme we
have a few individuals who are concerned only with
the impact that their research can have, but who do
not adequately consider the probability of attaining
their goal. It is desirable to think big and to have
confidence, but a cure for cancer is hardly an appropri-
ate goal for a novice researcher. One should work on
problems that matter, and there should be a group of
investigators who care about the results of your re-
search. Never conduct an experiment or work on a
theory if the results will not challenge the current
way of thinking about your subject. On the other
hand, you have to build on the existing and proven
work. The truth is that quantum jumps in the ad-
vancement of knowledge are really quite rare.

4. INITIATING RESEARCH
You have all been taught that the first step in ini-
tiating a research program is to search the literature
in order to become familiar with past work in the area.


I have been able to identify eight
different aspects of graduate work where I feel
the appropriate approach lies between two extremes.
These may not be the only ones, but they incorporate
many important aspects of graduate work.


There is no question-that is how one should start.
However, I have had graduate students who search
and search and read and read and still never get to
the point where they feel comfortable enough to do
something. Nothing will ever be done if you wait until
all possible objections are relnoved before taking the
first step. On. the other hand, I occasionally find an
individual who will start mixing things together or
start writing a computer program for the first idea
that enters his head. This kind of graduate student is
rather rare, however. Our educational process has a
tendency to suppress creativity and forces us to parrot
back what we have been taught. One of the most im-
portant aspects of conducting research is that you
must avoid sequential thinking and work habits. You
should start by looking at the past work in the litera-
ture, but do not expect to follow a well-defined se-
quential path. The initial literature will lead to labora-
tory or theoretical work whose results will lead you
back into the literature, and so forth and so forth. You
must keep many balls in the air at the same time.
Your literature search will be updated as your prob-
lem becomes more defined. At the same time, you will
be planning experiments and ordering equipment be-
cause of time lags involved in developing an experi-
mental program, and you will be working simultane-
ously on theoretical models which will be modified as
experimental results are produced. The inability to
lay out a well-defined path for a research project is
perhaps the most frustrating and maturing experience
that graduate students face in the early stages of their
career.

5-7. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH
My next three examples are all concerned with the
approaches to research problems in general. The first
case is the conflict between dependence on intution
versus dependence on theory or computations based
on models. At one extreme are the individuals who
proceed on their intution. If something feels right and
makes physical sense, they move ahead. It is unusual
to find a young, inexperienced researcher following
this approach. Most new graduate students fall into
the other category-they are dominated by the quan-
titative results of models. In an interview in Indus-


FALL 1986









trial and Engineering Chemistry, Dr. Eric Bloch,
who recently made a move from management in IBM
to direct the National Science Foundation, indicated
that engineers who were educated in his generation
probably had a better intuitive feel for problems than
the group of people coming out of school today. He
also feels that the popularity of the computer has con-
tributed to this shift, and I agree with him. Com-
puters can raise a barrier to intuition. Graduate stu-
dents will even trust a very weak model if the com-
puter is giving them results. Models and computations
based on models will become more and more dominant
as the cost of computing decreases. However, you
must always question the results of a computation and
remember that all models are approximations to re-

Neither experimentalistss or theoreticians] can
stand without the other, and even when your
emphasis is in one area, you must be cognizant of
the developments being made in the other.

ality. Never go on to the next step unless the results
make physical sense to you. In some cases your intui-
tion will be in error, but do not ignore that intuition
until you have thoroughly analyzed the quantitative
results and have been able to rectify the apparent dis-
continuity between it and the model.
The second area is concerned with the different
approaches of wild, unconstrained creativity versus
the prolonged process of following a long, hard
routine. I have seen some individuals who feel that
their creativity is constrained if they have to concen-
trate on understanding the previous accomplishments
in a given area. Remember, only lunatics can be com-
pletely original! You will always be building on past
work, or at least creating from analogies with other
areas. It is unfortunate, but true, that a scientist's
norm is about 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.
On the other hand, do not suppress your creativity so
much that you are afraid to deviate from the well-trod-
den path.
My third concern is the apparent dichotomy be-
tween an experimental approach versus a theoretical
approach. Hinselwood is credited with saying that,
"Fluid dynamicists were divided into hydraulic en-
gineers who observed what could not be explained and
mathematicians who explained things that could not
be observed." I am very disturbed by individuals who
say they are either experimentalists or theoreticians.
Neither can stand without the other, and even when
your emphasis is in one area, you must be cognizant
of the developments being made in the other. In one
of his early essays, Einstein noted that, "Knowledge
cannot spring from experience alone, but only from


the comparison of the inventions of the intellect with
observed facts." The inventions of the intellect are
models and theories, and progress can only be made
when these are compared with the observed experi-
mental facts. Even if your natural inclination is to be
drawn into one of these extremes, you must force
yourself to be at least knowledgeable (if not a con-
tributor) in the other area.

8. CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTAL WORK
The last area deals with the approach to designing
and conducting an experimental program. At one ex-
treme, we have individuals who are dominated by the
design aspects of the work. I have actually seen re-
searchers create a rigid experimental plan from which
they never deviate. An extreme case would be to de-
sign experiments on the grid pattern where data
would be taken at certain pre-specified temperatures,
concentrations, etc. You should have an overall plan,
but you should be flexible enough to change that plan
as results are produced. When the initial plan was
developed, your knowledge was limited-you should
continually optimize the path of your research based
on the very latest results. Some students conduct ex-
periments for months without analyzing any of the
results to see if they are even on the right path. The
other extreme is not very typical, but I have seen a
few individuals who are so anxious to see results that
they jump into the experimental work with essentially
no pre-planning or overall plan. They have infinite
flexibility and each new result can dictate a change in
the path of the work. At one extreme, we have a nice
grid pattern with every grid filled in and no deviation,
even though trends clearly have been established; at
the other extreme, we have a zig-zag string of exper-
iments where the direction of the next experiment is
dictated by the most recent results. Neither approach
is perfect. You should follow the middle way and have
a well-defined overall plan and goals, but at the same
time you must have the flexibility to modify the plan.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
From my presentation, you might conclude that
there is a middle way in every aspect of graduate work
that is the most appropriate approach. Although I
have attempted to illustrate that this is certainly true
in many instances, there is one very important excep-
tion. Some students say to themselves, "This is not
the best that I can do, but it's good enough." Well, it's
not good enough. Push yourself-take the time and
make the effort to perform at the very highest level
of which you are capable. There is no middle way
when it comes to the pursuit of excellence. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












130 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

DIVISION ACTIVITIES


TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD
TO ROBERT BRODKEY
The 1986 ASEE Chemical Engineering Division
Lecturer is Robert S. Brodkey of Ohio State Univer-
sity. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize
and encourage outstanding achievement in an impor-
tant field of fundamental chemical engineering theory
or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engineer-
ing educator wvho delivers the Annual Lecture of the
Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of
$1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were pre-
sented to Robert Brodkey at the annual Chemical En-
gineering Division Banquet in Cincinnati. The lecture
begins on page 202 of this issue of CEE
The Lectureship Award is made on an annual
basis, with nominations being received through Feb-
ruary 1, 1987. The full details for the award prepara-
tion are contained in the Awards Brochure published
by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1987 lectureship
are invited. They should be sent to Professor Jerry
Caskey, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre
Haute, IN 47803-3999.
NEW EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OFFICERS
The Chemical Engineering Division officers for
1986-87 are: Phil Wankat, Chairman; E. Dendy
Sloan, Past Chairman; John Sears, Chairman Elect;
William Beckwith, Secretary-Treasurer; and Gary
Poehlein, Jim Townsend, Conrad Burris, and Lewis
Derzansky, Directors.

AWARD WINNERS
A number of chemical engineering professors were
recognized for their outstanding achievements. Wil-
liam Thomas Brazelton (Northwestern University)
received the Vincent Bendix Minorities in Engineer-
ing Award for his effectiveness in increasing the
number of minority and women engineering under-
graduates without compromising academic excellence,
while the Curtis W. McGraw Research Award was
given to George Stephanopoulos (Massachusetts In-
stitute of Technology) in recognition of his exceptional
research accomplishments in advancing the fundamen-
tal understanding of basic process systems.
The new Engineering Educator Excellence Award


was presented to John Zondlo (West Virginia Univer-
sity) (Zone II) and Danny D. Reible (Louisiana State
University) (Zone III) to recognize and honor their
commitment to excellence in education, and the Dow
Outstanding Young Faculty Award was given to Gre-
gory R. Carmichael (University of Iowa), Wallace
Whiting (West Virginia University), and Annette
Loch Bunge (Colorado School of Mines).
Deran Hanesian (New Jersey Institute of
Technology) was honored as an outstanding teacher
with the AT&T Foundation Award, and the grade of
ASEE Fellow Member was conferred on Lee C.
Eagleton (Pennsylvania State University) in recogni-
tion of his outstanding achievements and important
contributions.

CORCORAN AWARD TO FIELDER
Richard Felder (North Carolina State University)
was the recipient of the first annual Corcoran Award,
given to recognize the most outstanding paper pub-
lished in Chemical Engineering Education in 1985.
His paper, "The Generic Quiz," appeared in the Fall
1985 issue of CEE.

4oj letters
S. .BATS TO DE. .'S
Editor:
Professor Barduhn's letter [CEE, XIX, No 4]
about the prefixes and Professor Levenspiel's "batic
exercises" [CEE. XX, No 1] are interesting. It may
be worth mentioning that prefixing 'a' to indicate
negative meaning is a classic rule in Sanskrit (I won-
der if this rule was adopted in English). Another pre-
fix which needs our attention is "de" (e.g., degrade,
debug, decode, dehumidify, dehydrogenate, denude,
etc.). Perhaps something should be done to frame a
set of rules to coin new words! One may wonder
whether liquid trickles or bed trickles in a Trickle Bed
Reactor.
H. Lekshmi-Narayana
University of Waterloo

KUDOS FOR EDITORIAL
Editor:
Well written editorial in the CEE Winter issue.
Not surprisingly, I agree with what you say.
Billy Crynes
Oklahoma State University
Editor:
Re: Your editorial. BRAVO!
Rich Felder
North Carolina State University


FALL 1986










[On lecture


RESEARCH LANDMARKS FOR

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS*


NEAL R. AMUNDSON
University of Houston
Houston, TX 77004

M ATHEMATICIANS AND PURE scientists, as con-
trasted with engineers, are normally much
more aware of the history of their disciplines and who
did what when. Engineers and, in particular, chemical
engineers (except those with a special interest in the
history of technology) appear to know little about the
roots of their profession. This is probably not a re-
markable fact since the research of the vast majority
of engineers is more related to problem solving than
to the elucidation of fundamental ideas and principles.
There are certainly great exceptions to this notion. It
is the purpose of this effort to mention papers which
have been landmarks for me personally since they are
things to which I have given a good deal of thought.
Their authors may not have been the first who consid-
ered the problems about which they wrote, but, in my
view, they are the ones who had the greatest impact
in their areas of the profession. Many of us are guilty
of the secondary reference, assuming that this author
gave due credit to the primary investigator. Soon the
name of the person who originated the idea (or even
the first to exploit it) is lost. In the engineering liter-
ature the same problem frequently arises in many dif-
ferent guises: for example, in heat transfer, mass
transport, potential theory, etc. It does cause some
consternation when attempting to give credit priority.
No attempt is made here to be exhaustive, and the
reader will probably find many omissions that are
more interesting and more important to him.

. . the purpose ... is to mention papers which have
been landmarks. . Their authors may not have been
the first who considered the problems about which
they wrote, but, in my view, they are the ones who
had the greatest impact in their areas ...

*This paper is a part of the lecture given as one of the Phillips
Petroleum Company Lecture Series on April 12, 1985, at Oklahoma
State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Portions were also given
at the Peter V. Danckwerts Memorial Lecture in London on May
12, 1986.


LANDMARK PAPERS
One of the problems I have been interested in for
some time is how char or carbon bums. In 1972, in a
fit of patriotism and good will, we embarked on a pro-
gram of coal gasification and combustion-at least,
that is what I thought we were doing. We soon discov-
ered that we did not know much about what happened
to single particles of char when exposed to an ambient
atmosphere containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, car-
bon monoxide, and perhaps water. If one forgets
about water, everyone knows that there are three
main reactions among carbon, carbon monoxide, oxy-
gen, and carbon dioxide. The simplest undergraduate
problem is to suppose that the carbon is impervious,
is spherical, and is surrounded by a stagnant boundary
layer or film. The question then involves what hap-
pens at the carbon surface and what happens in the
boundary layer itself. Stated with this degree of
simplicity many researchers have thought about the
problem and indeed there are three landmark publica-
tions from which all other research and engineering
on the subject derive.
Nusselt [1] in 1924 considered the simplest model
in which he assumed that carbon reacted with oxygen,
with the product CO diffusing through the boundary
layer without reacting. The heat generated was also
conducted through the film, and the whole process
occurred in a quasi-steady state, which is just another
way of saying that the lifetime of the particle is long
compared with other transient processes. This gives
a mathematical model which is essentially algebraic in
character. Clearly it is limited since it neglects two of
the reactions. Burke and Schumann [2] considered a
superficially similar model in which they assumed that
the only reaction which occurs is also between carbon
and oxygen but produces carbon dioxide which must
diffuse out. We say superficially, for this reaction is a
two-step one, the first being the production of carbon
monoxide and the second the oxidation of carbon
monoxide to carbon dioxide. In a later paper Burke
and Schumann [3] made the significant extension to
what has been called a two film model, in which the
OCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























Neal R. Amundson is the Cullen Professor of Chemical Engineering
and a professor of mathematics at the University of Houston. He re-
ceived his BChE (1937), his MS (1941), and his PhD (1945) from the
University of Minnesota, where he also served as a faculty member
from 1939-1977 and head of chemical engineering from 1949-1974.
He is the author of numerous papers and six books, including First
Order Partial Differential Equations, Vol II, still in press. He has been
the recipient of many awards.

carbon monoxide formed at the surface reacts with
oxygen as it diffuses to the ambient. In order to make
the problem simple, they assumed that the carbon
monoxide oxidation occurred at a sharp interface
where the reaction stoichiometry could be met.
Clearly this position is a parameter of the model de-
pending upon the other reaction and ambient parame-
ters, and, as these change, the position of the flame
front shifts.
Now these three models are extremely simple, but
their depth is deceptively obscure until more compli-
cated problems are investigated. Suppose these three
simple models are computed by varying only the am-
bient temperature but holding all other parameters
fixed. Then the particle temperature is determined by
the ambient temperature, and a locus in the plane of
particle temperature versus ambient temperature is
obtained. The result of the computation is that these
three loci confine and define a finite area with asymp-
totic regions at very high temperatures and at very
low temperatures. What makes these three papers im-
portant is the following: Suppose that one considers
the more rational model by assuming all three reac-
tions occur and that the carbon monoxide reaction is
distributed through the boundary layer-then the sys-
tem is a set of four non-linear differential equations
with non-linear boundary conditions for transport of
energy and mass. If these equations are solved hold-
ing all parameters fixed except the ambient tempera-
ture, one can show with ease that the solution for a
fixed ambient must lie inside the region defined above
by the three simple models and the whole locus of
solutions for variable ambient must lie inside the re-


gion, entering the region at the low temperature
asymptote and leaving at the high temperature
asymptote. Thus the three simple models are limiting
solutions in the real sense and define a feasible region
of solutions giving important bounds on the burning
behavior.
In the field of reactor engineering probably no ob-
ject has received as much attention as the continuous
stirred tank reactor. The reason for its popularity in
undergraduate courses is its simplicity. In the steady
state it is described by a simple algebraic equation or
equations, while its transient is described by an ordi-
nary differential equation or a system of equations.
Thus one can illustrate its behavior with relatively
simple machinery, and its pedagogical importance can-
not be overestimated. There are not many problems
involving reactors under varying temperatures that
can be studied without a good deal of pain.
Mathematicians have discovered the stirred pot,
and the pathology of the system has now been studied
in excruciating detail, and the methods of modern dif-
ferential topology, in particular, singularity theory,
have been employed to study the structure of the

Now these three models are extremely simple,
but their depth is deceptively obscure
until more complicated problems
are investigated.

steady state solution space. In very recent times the
problem for general reaction systems and reactor con-
figurations has been considered, and problems have
been solved which I never thought possible just a few
years ago. How did all of this come about?
In 1935 there appeared a paper by MacMullin and
Weber [4] in the old Transactions of the AlChE with
a long title but which started out as "The Theory of
Short Circuiting in. . ." This reference to short cir-
cuiting is the well-known fact that there is always a
non-zero probability that a molecule which enters the
reactor will leave without reacting unless the reac-
tions are instantaneous. This is a deficiency of the
reactor and is a result of the mathematical by-passing
because of the well-mixedness assumption. This was
the first instance, as far as I know, where the C* was
considered, and it is a strangely out-of-place paper for
the times. It is an extremely lucidly written theoreti-
cal paper which considers single continuous stirred
pots and staged pots for reaction systems of various
orders as well as for dissolution of solids. While the
content is certainly not 1986, the style and presenta-
tion would certainly be acceptable today as a theoret-
ical paper. This material is now standard under-
graduate fare, but I suggest that it was an eyebrow


FALL 1986









raiser in 1935. Recall that chemical engineering did
not become mathematically oriented until the 1960's.
This paper lay fallow for almost ten years when K.
G. Denbigh [8] (1944), while involved with Imperial
Chemicals Industries during the war, became in-
terested in chemical reactors, and in particular with
the comparison of yields in batch, stirred pots and
tubular systems. Denbigh was the first to my knowl-

Our aim here is not to review the
literature but to point out that it was
K.G. Denbigh who started it all by a casual remark
at the Campus Club lunch. There should be more
Campus Clubs and Denbighs to visit them.

edge to discuss in a rational way what became a favor-
ite pastime some years later and is now a part of al-
most every textbook on applied kinetics and reactor
engineering. This paper was followed by one in 1947
which extended the first but considered several differ-
ent kinds of polymerization mechanisms using various
polymer statistics. While the MacMullin and Weber
paper predated Denbigh's by ten years I think that
the world was ready for Denbigh, and his had substan-
tially more impact.
We should not leave Denbigh here, for it was
through his influence while a visiting professor at the
University of Minnesota in 1953-54 that he introduced
me to a certain optimization problem. At lunch one
day, Denbigh mentioned the possibility of applying a
temperature gradient along a tubular reactor in order
to improve the yield. There is no difficulty with a
single endothermic reaction, for then one should run
it at the highest temperature consistent with other
constraints. With an exothermic reaction, however,
the front end can be run hot to increase the forward
rate while the rear end must be run cold to suppress
the reverse rate. It is not difficult for this case to
compute, for a given length of reactor, what the tem-
perature profile should be in order to maximize the
yield of the product. This is almost a trivial problem
in the calculus of variations. However, for consecutive
and simultaneous complex reaction systems the prob-
lem is far from trivial and has been examined sub-
sequently by a host of researchers. Our aim here is
not to review the literature but to point out that it
was K. G. Denbigh who started it all by a casual re-
mark at the Campus Club lunch. There should be more
Campus Clubs and Denbighs to visit them.
One of the popular topics in chemical reactor en-
gineering is that of the study of intraparticle effects
in catalyst particles. Since the internal surface area
per unit of volume is so great, most of the reaction
takes place on the internal porous surface. This in a


sense slows things up since the internal surface is not
as readily accessible unless all of the surface can be
made available. Every chemical engineering student
knows that if he wants to determine how effective a
catalyst particle is, he must know the Thiele modulus.
From relatively simple plots resulting from not too
difficult equations he can determine the effectiveness
factor of the particle, which is the ratio of the actual
conversion to that obtained if all of the surface area
were available for reaction at the ambient condition.
This problem has probably generated more research
papers than any other single topic in the last twenty
years. Generalizations to complex reaction systems,
non-isothermal particles, effects of poisoning, op-
timum catalyst profiles in particles, etc., have oc-
cupied many, many researchers. This was all started
by E. W. Thiele [9] a long-time employee of Standard
Oil Company of Indiana, professor at Notre Dame,
retired, and very much alive at age 90. His birthday
anniversary was celebrated at the AlChE meeting in
November, 1985, in Chicago. Thiele published a paper
in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1939, on
the "Relation between Catalytic Activi& and Size of
Particle." This rather short paper had a remarkable
effect in the United States, although it must be said
that Damkohler [10] and Wagner [11] in Germany and
Zeldovich [12] in Russia worked on almost exactly the
same problem with similar results at almost exactly
the same time. Thiele not only considered the slab
catalyst but also the sphere and did the slab for a
second order reaction that leads to the use of elliptic
integrals. To his great prescience he also considered
the case in which the volume change on reaction is
large, still not an easy problem for most students al-
though this material is standard in course work.
The name of Thiele should be familiar to all under-
graduate chemical engineering students from their in-
troduction to the McCabe-Thiele [13] graphical
method for computing binary distillation in plate col-
umns. McCabe and Thiele developed this method
while they were graduate students! Thiele's name is
also associated with that of Geddes [14] in connection
with a method of calculation for multicomponent distil-
lation. Not many chemical engineers have their names
associated with three significant problems.
Of primary interest to chemical engineers is the
packed bed reactor, that is, a tube or large cylinder
packed with a solid packing material consisting of an
active catalyst on an inert carrier. Its widespread use
results from its simplicity of construction and opera-
tion, although for highly exothermic reactions the dis-
sipation of the heat generated may be troublesome.
The packed bed reactor is particularly interesting
from an educational point of view since there is a vast


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









This paper is sort of a quasi-history of chemical engineering research and it might be useful to
place it in proper context with the chemical industry and chemical engineering education. The latter
really began in the early nineteen twenties when most of the better known departments were founded.


hierarchy of models which may describe it, depending
upon the parameters of the system and the desires of
the engineer. The simplest model is the equilibrium
model in which it is assumed that the bed is in local
equilibrium at each point. This is not very realistic
but does give some valuable information about the
structure of the transient solution, although it has
been little considered in the literature.
The next simplest model is the one analogous to
heat transfer in an adiabatic bed neglecting every-
thing except the heat transfer resistance at the parti-
cle surface. This would conform to the reaction case
in which a first order reaction takes place inside a
porous particle with rapid intraparticle diffusion and
with a rate limiting mass transfer resistance at the
particle surface, certainly not a model with great
applicability, but non-trivial none the less. The ana-
logous heat transfer problem was solved by Schumann
[15], the same of single particle combustion fame, and
was hailed at the time as being of inestimable value
in the iron and steel industry. Schumann's solution
has been rediscovered and republished in other con-
texts several times for adsorption, ion exchange,
isotope exchange, and even in heat transfer.
The landmark for reactions in tubes, the tubular
reaction case, was a series of papers by Gerhard Dam-
kohler [16-20] which appeared in the Zeitschrift fur
Elektrochimie in 1936. There are five in all, and these
should have laid the foundation for the continuous dis-
tributed models for non-isothermal tubular and
packed bed chemical reactors. These papers were all
but ignored in the United States except by a few and
are still referenced only but slightly. They investi-
gated the various dimensionless groups involved and
the problems of obtaining similarity conditions in scale
up. Extensive computations and comparison with ex-
periments were made long before most in the U.S.
knew that there was such a field as chemical reaction
engineering. These are truly exceptional papers and
show, I think, the power of the German system pre-
W.W.II. Damkohler was in the Physikalische Chem-
isches Institute at the University of Goettingen, the
center of German and world scientific inquiry and ac-
tivity at the time.
Needed greatly in the use of models for fixed bed
reactors are the many parameters. We assume that in
catalytic reactors, packed (say) with spheres, that
each sphere is in a smooth homogeneous field-that
is, that the sphere sees the same homogeneous field


in all directions. This allows us to treat the sphere as
being radially symmetric. We treat the homogeneous
flow field as a continuum with constant average veloc-
ity, superimposed on which is a radial and axial mixing
process. Experiments have amply illustrated that
these mixing processes occur and they seem plausible
intuitively. The question which arises is, what is a
convenient mathematical formulation for the
mechanism of these dispersions. R. H. Wilhelm and
his graduate students, although there were some
others, essentially solved this problem in the early
1950's in a series of classic papers [21-23]. One consid-
ers for the packed bed that the spheres form a three
dimensional array. The intracellular spaces among the
spheres are considered as mixing cells connected by
narrower passages between and among spheres. Thus
the interstitial regions in a packed bed may be consid-
ered for high Reynolds' numbers as an array of well-
mixed vessels connected by conduits. A molecule en-
tering one cell must move laterally in order to move
forward to new cells as it moves through the bed since
a particle will always block its straight-through pas-
sage. Note here that we are considering cells con-
nected only axially, not directly radially. But since
the particle arrays are staggered there will be a net
radial movement as axial movement proceeds. Thus
the movement through the bed is a random walk, and
the probability that a molecule is in a given cell at a
given time can be computed. It is well known that in
the limit a random walk is a quasi-diffusion and so one
assumes that the radial dispersion is a Fickian
mechanism, although the dispersion itself is not con-
centration gradient driven. It is driven by the convec-
tive flow. Thus one should be able to define a radial
dispersion coefficient (one hesitates to say a diffusion
coefficient) for a Fickian model which depends only
upon the local geometry, particle size, and intersticial
velocity. Wilhelm carried this through in an elegant
way and showed theoretically as well as experimen-
tally that the radial Peclet number (ud/D) is about
eleven.
The analysis for axial dispersion can also be done
by probability arguments and the Poisson distribution
obtained becomes in the limit by the central limit
theorem a normal probability distribution superim-
posed on a mean convective flow. The normal proba-
bility distribution is similar to the fundamental solu-
tion for the diffusion equation, so we are back to a
Fickian formulation. This time the Fickian mechanism


FALL 1986








is not so clear since experiments done by Hiby [24]
show that there is no back mixing--clearly a flaw in
the logic, although the probability argument precludes
back mixing. Nonetheless, the axial Peclet number
can be shown to be about two for high Reynolds' num-
bers both experimentally and theoretically, certainly
a remarkable and, in my view, a fortuitous develop-
ment. This analysis is now a standard treatment in
reactor engineering courses, but the axial dispersion
part has these theoretical deficiencies which have
been refractory to improvement thus far.
Those of us who have taught chemical reaction en-
gineering or elementary partial differential equations
always get into a little trouble when discussing the
appropriate boundary conditions for the tubular reac-
tor, empty or packed. The flux condition at x = 0 and
the zero gradient at the exit are more or less force-fed
to the student. The appropriate formulation is dif-
ficult, and most of the time the formulation, discus-
sion, and solution are erroneous and not consistent
with the actual engineering geometry of the inlet and
outlet. Papers appear periodically and often but the
resolution is non-trivial for a rigorous treatment.
Nevertheless we use the conditions above, the so-cal-
led Danckwerts boundary conditions introduced to
chemical engineers by Peter Danckwerts [25]. The
parochiality of the chemical engineering profession is
probably no better illustrated than by the fact that
Irving Langmuir [26] in 1908 wrote a remarkably lucid
paper which appeared in the Journal of the American
Chemical Society (JACS to all) in which he considered
the empty tubular reactor with axial dispersion and
reactions of arbitrary order using the Danckwerts
boundary conditions, ten years or more before
Danckwerts was born!
We should not leave the name of Danckwerts on
that note for he was one of the greats in England from
1945 until his recent death. Most of his professional
career was spent at Cambridge and his papers [27-34]
are notable for their inventiveness. He was among
the first to consider problems in reaction and absorp-
tion, and these appeared in the Transactions of the
Faraday Society. In addition, a monograph which is
a classic on absorption and reaction appeared in 1970
and was called Gas-Liquid Reactions [34]. During his
whole career he was involved with the film and pene-
tration theories of absorption.
The paper mentioned above [25] contained one of
three ideas presented by Danckwerts in his celebrated
paper in 1953. In that paper he introduced the idea of
a residence time distribution for chemical reactors.
The use of the experimental residence time distribu-
tion when compared with the theoretical distribution
has become a standard diagnostic tool in industry


when a mal distribution of fluid flow is suspected as a
cause of poor yield.
The third idea in the paper was to compute the
residence time distribution in a packed bed reactor
using the standard axial dispersion model for the bed.
Results of these computations were compared with
experiments, and, using his numbers for the parame-
ters, one can show that the axial Peclet number, which
he does not mention, is equal to 2.4! This work is
referenced in a passing way by McHenry and Wilhelm
but it is clear that Danckwerts had the clue to the idea
that for high Reynolds number flows the axial Peclet
number is a constant.
One of the earliest papers in chemical engineering
in the old Transactions of the AIChE which caught
my fancy was that of T. B. Drew [35]. This is one of
a series of three papers on convective heat transfer.
The first appears under the name of Drew alone and
has the title "Mathematical Attacks on Forced Con-
vectional Problems: A Review." This treats for some
55 pages, as the title indicates, mathematical solutions
of heat transfer problems in streamline flow for vari-
ous geometries and is as out of place there as was the
one previously mentioned of MacMullin and Weber. It
is followed by two other papers with other authors in
addition to Drew, and the total extends through 132
pages-probably a record. The first is required read-
ing for anyone interested in applied mathematics and
convective heat transfer in streamline flow.
Most of us would not think of G. I. Taylor [36,37]
as a chemical engineer, but in his unique style he pub-
lished two magnificent papers that many people wish
they had written. Sir Geoffrey became interested, in
the late forties and early fifties, in how solute in a
tube dispersed and, as was his manner, made the typ-
ical simple analysis guided by a superb intuition and
validated by just the proper experiments. He was con-
cerned with finding a simple formalism for radial dis-
persion in a fluid flowing in a circular tube in both
streamline and turbulent flow. The key result, as
everyone knows, was to find an equivalent axial dis-
persion which would account for the radial dispersion.
With the kind of insight only he possessed, he did this
giving a simple formula for the dispersion coefficient
which depended only on known fluid parameters. This
paper was followed by a second in the Proceedings of
the Royal Society, on the same problem for turbulent
flow. The young researcher should read these as an
aid in learning the craft of model building and the
value of the simple experiment.
Every student in chemical engineering now takes
it as well known that there are analogies between fluid
friction in pipe flow, heat transfer to the wall, and
mass transfer. That this is a relatively modern idea


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








would come as a shock. A. P. Colburn [38], in a classic
paper in 1933, titled "A Method of Correlating Forced
Convectional Heat Transfer Data and a Comparison
with Fluid Friction," was the first to point out that
for high Reynolds' numbers a plot of the friction factor
versus Reynolds' numbers looked a lot like a plot of
the heat transfer coefficient versus the Reynolds'
number. The analogy between heat transfer and
momentum transfer was born in this paper in the form
now standard in all transport courses through the j
factors. In 1934 Colburn collaborated with T. H. Chil-
ton [39] while both were employed by the DuPont
Company and published a seminal paper on the
analogies among heat transfer, mass transfer, and
momentum transfer, again through the j factors. It is
impossible to overemphasize the importance of these
two papers and their effectiveness in aiding the design
engineer. Colburn was another one of the truly great
chaps of our profession, and after a long and successful
career at the DuPont Company, he initiated and or-
ganized the very successful chemical engineering pro-
gram at the University of Delaware.
Those of us who have had more than a casual in-
terest in the application of advanced mathematical
ideas to chemical engineering problems have always
decried the fact that while there is a plethora of books
on applied mathematics, none is really suitable for
courses for chemical engineering graduate students. I
mean this in no parochial sense, but any unbiased
examination of the extant books makes this abun-
dantly clear. What is not known is that the beginnings
of a beautiful text were made in 1947 by Robert W.
Marshall [40] (a PhD student of Olaf Hougen) and
Robert L. Pigford (whose mentor was A. P. Colburn),
based on an extension course given at the University
of Delaware in 1945 while both were employees of the
DuPont Company. The preface of The Application of
Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering
Problems says the book covered fifteen lectures, and
a very respectable course based on this book could be
offered today, almost exactly forty years later, since
the topics were well chosen and are still relevant.

EPILOGUE
This paper is sort of a quasi-history of chemical
engineering research and it might be useful to place
it in proper context with the chemical industry and
chemical engineering education. The latter really
began in the early nineteen twenties when most of the
better known departments were founded. At that
time there was little petroleum refining and the chem-
ical industry was Germanic in character. The bulk
chemicals were the inorganic acids, salts and alkalis,


dyes, explosives and the simple organic molecules
mostly derived from coal byproducts. There were no
plastics or polymers to speak of, no antibiotics, and no
synthetic rubber. There was little reason to do much
engineering as we know it now.
When the automobile exploded onto the scene and
catalytic processes were developed, it was essential
to do more engineering, and the continuous process
rather than the batch process became the sine que
non of chemical engineering (and still is). Now it was
necessary to do engineering. Heat exchangers had to
be designed, so chemical engineers took up heat trans-
fer since the design engineer required a heat transfer
coefficient. He certainly consulted McAdams' book on
Heat Transmission [41]. The need for separations in
the petroleum industry and the accompanying need
for vapor-liquid equilibria and thermodynamics of
light hydrocarbons were important and commanded
the attention of many in academic research. As men-
tioned earlier, up to W.W. II there were almost no
catalytic processes-contact sufuric acid, yes, and am-
monia synthesis and a few others. But these were not
designed-they were borrowed from the Germans.
The explosion in catalysis and polymer chemistry re-
sulting in synthetic fibers post-W.W. II changed the
whole outlook of the chemical and petroleum industry
and gave academic chemical engineering a quick fix,
and the problems requiring solution were interesting
and fun to work on. It was not difficult to be enthusias-
tic about chemical engineering. The new fields in the
fifties excited young people.
Catalysis, as well as polymer processing, in a sense
have almost been taken over by chemical engineers.
Reactor engineering is a mature subject now. Heat
transfer research has been appropriated by mechani-
cal engineers as a discipline. Little is done now in
conventional separation processes although it is neces-
sary that this field be rejuvenated and expanded, for
the new biological processes will require different
techniques. We are now at a new point when chemical
engineering as a discipline is faced with manifold prob-
lems instigated largely by the uncertain fate of the
petrochemical industry in the U.S. and Western
Europe and by the slow-down in the chemical indus-
try. The kinds of things which occupied us in the
past-transport, reaction engineering, separations
and the like-had direct and easy application in the
conventional chemical industry. The loss of control of
raw materials in the U.S. will undoubtedly force us to
shift our emplasis to other endeavors such as mater-
ials, biotechnology, exotic or specialty chemicals, etc.
The principles we have been brought up on are still
the ones which will be needed, although we will need
Continued on page 192.


FALL 1986










GRADUATE EDUCATION IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

A Workshop to Help Students Answer the Questions

What is it?

Why go?

What comes after?


DONNA G. BLACKMOND
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15261

YOU ARE A SENIOR chemical engineering student
and you're trying to decide what you want to do
when you graduate. On-campus interviews give you
some idea about the kinds of jobs you can have with
chemical and oil companies. Plant trips are better
yet-you get to meet and talk with people on the job
and find out for yourself what to expect. But while
you are considering a career as a design engineer or
jobs in manufacturing or management, you should
make sure that you are considering all your options.
And one option that many students do not take time
to consider is the variety of career paths which are
open to a student with an advanced degree in chemical
engineering.
It is easy to understand why many students don't
think about going on to graduate school. Representa-
tives from graduate programs at different schools
don't often come to the university placement center


Donna G. Blackmond is an assistant professor in the Department
of Chemical Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. She received
her BS and MS degrees at the University of Pittsburgh and her PhD at
Carnegie-Mellon University. Her research is in the areas of catalysis
and surface chemistry. She recently received a Presidential Young In-
vestigator Award from the National Science Foundation.


S. one of the most important outcomes ... was that
the students received a lot of first-hand information
about the kinds of careers for which a graduate
education prepares them. By meeting professors
from different schools they were able to learn
about the variety of programs offered.


the way company representatives do. While most stu-
dents have met chemical engineers with BS degrees,
or at least have heard about their careers, not many
have met PhD chemical engineers other than their
professors. And after spending four tough years in
chemical engineering courses, who wants to hear
about coming back for more?

PURPOSE OF THE WORKSHOP
There are some very good reasons why a student
might want to consider getting an advanced degree,
especially a good student who wants to continue being
challenged in his career. In order to give students a
chance to hear some of these reasons, as well as to
meet some chemical engineers with advanced degrees,
the Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineer-
ing at the University of Pittsburgh organized a work-
shop called "Graduate Education in Chemical En-
gineering."
The first workshop took place on the Pitt campus
in the fall of 1985, and its success ensured that it will
be an annual event. The one-day workshop was at-
tended by about fifty junior and senior chemical en-
gineering students from eight different schools. Most
of the students came from schools in our region, but
some participants came from as far away as Michigan
State to the north and Virginia Polytech to the south.
The workshop had two main purposes. The first
was to give the students some idea of the kinds of
careers that having an advanced degree opens up for
them. We invited a number of PhD chemical engineers
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









working in the Pittsburgh area to join a panel discus-
sion with the undergraduate participants. Hearing
first-hand from people who have been working in in-
dustry helped show how graduate education affects
career paths. This proved to be quite enlightening.
The second purpose of the workshop was to pro-
vide specific information about graduate programs at
different schools. Each school participating in the
workshop was invited to delegate one faculty member
to participate along with their interested junior and
senior students. Each school represented was as-
signed a different room in Benedum Hall, the en-
gineering building on the Pitt campus, and the after-
noon was set aside for students to visit the various
rooms and talk one-on-one with the professors about
their programs-a kind of graduate education version
of "Career Day."

AN INTRODUCTION TO ChE GRAD EDUCATION
After coffee and doughnuts and some free time for
the students from different schools to get to know one
another, the workshop began with a brief slide presen-
tation. The slides were meant to explain what
graduate education in chemical engineering involves.
Graduating BS chemical engineers must ask them-
selves whether their career goals make getting a
graduate degree something to consider. Students at
the workshop were asked to think about how they
would answer the following questions
Do you like to be challenged technically?
Do you enjoy intellectual stimulation?
Are you comfortable with open-ended problems?
Do you like being a pioneer?
Are you interested in being part of developments which
change the direction of technology
They are told that if the answer "yes" comes up
more often than not, then they are probably the type
of person who would enjoy a career in some aspect of
research or development, and that the tools needed
for such a career are learned in graduate school. A
graduate student researcher learns to think indepen-
dently and to design a logical approach to understand-
ing.
We explain to the students that research problems
are usually long-term, long-range problems and their
thesis work as a graduate student will differ from
their prior work in undergraduate labs because it will
involve a completely original problem that is theirs
and theirs alone. In undergraduate courses, next
year's class will work on the same labs as this year's
class, but next year's group of new graduate students
will not perform the same research being done by this
year's students. So individual creativity and original-


ity develops as the student completes a graduate de-
gree.
These aspects of graduate school in chemical en-
gineering, as well as many other important points,
were addressed very succinctly in a article by Profes-
sor J. L. Duda of the Pennsylvania State University
in this journal just two years ago.* That article makes
excellent reading for any student interested in going
to graduate school. In fact, in planning the slide pre-
sentation for the introductory session of the work-
shop, I drew on many of the points made by Professor
Duda.

THE PANEL DISCUSSION
Some of the most important insights into the value
of a graduate education in chemical engineering came


Virginia Polytech's Professor Mark Davis makes a point
about opportunities at VPI to two Pitt seniors.
from the panel discussion guests. These included Dr.
Ed Nemeth, Director of Research at USS Chemicals
and a University of Pittsburgh graduate; Dr. Dale
Keairns, manager of the Chemical and Process En-
gineering Department at Westinghouse Electric Cor-
poration and a graduate of Carnegie-Mellon Univer-
sity; Dr. Hubert Fleming, a technical supervisor in
the Alumina and Chemicals Division at Alcoa who
graduated from Cornell University; Dr. Mark
McDonald, a Stanford graduate working at the U.S.
Department of Energy as a research chemical en-
gineer; Professor Jim Goodwin from the Chemical &
Petroleum Engineering Department at the University
of Pittsburgh, who graduated from the University of
Michigan; and Mr. George Gallaher, a PhD student at
the University of Pittsburgh who spent five years
working for Proctor & Gamble as a line manager/tech-
*Chem. Eng. Ed., XVIII, 156 (1984). [Editor's Note: Also see arti-
cle by Professor Duda on page 164 of this issue.]


FALL 1986









mcal engineer before deciding to return to school for
a doctorate degree.
All of the panel guests have careers in chemical
engineering research in industry, government or
academia. Their experiences were especially interest-
ing because they spanned a wide range of career types
and career levels. Some of the topics they discussed
with the students at the workshop are outlined below.
How did having a Ph.D. affect your career path?
Most of the panelists said that they would not have
been able to proceed very far in the careers they chose
in chemical engineering research without a PhD. The
scientists and engineers who move upward on both
technical and management avenues in research within
a company usually have doctorate degrees.
Two of the panel guests, Dr. Nemeth and Dr.
Keairns, are very involved in management. Dr.
Nemeth is responsible for the direction of all research


Professor Dennis Miller from Michigan State University
talks with students about the graduate program there.

activity at USS Chemicals, including product and pro-
cess development as well as technical consultation to
the chemical plants. Dr. Keairns is in charge of new
process/systems development. In addition, both are
involved in marketing and strategic planning. It was
clear that their careers encompassed a broader range
of activities than most students think of when they
consider what a PhD chemical engineer does on the
job. Their advanced degrees gave these engineers the
technical expertise, as well as the problem-solving
capability, that is essential in research, development,
and technical management. As they gained experience
in these technical areas, their responsibilities broad-
ened to encompass some of the planning and market-
ing aspects of their work. Chemical engineers with
advanced degrees often get involved in both technical
and management activities within their companies.
Dr. Nemeth pointed out that he would not have been


Students participating in the workshop get a chance to
mingle and talk over a buffet lunch.

able to reach the level of management in research and
development that he has attained without a PhD.
Should I go straight to graduate school, or
should I work for a few years first? The answer to
this question probably always depends on the indi-
vidual. One of the panel members, George Gallaher,
went to work for Proctor & Gamble after completing
his BS. Now, five years later, he is back in graduate
school to get a PhD. A top student as an under-
graduate, George realized after working for some time
that his career interests and his strongest attributes
as an engineer were more suited to a career in re-
search-one that only a PhD would allow. It was
through working as a BS engineer that he was able to
find this out. His experience at P&G gave him a
broader view of chemical engineering than most stu-
dents have who enter graduate school directly from
the BS. But George also pointed out that the transi-
tion to being a student again after five years in indus-
try is not a move easily made by everyone. In fact,
many more students say they plan to go back for an
advanced degree than actually do.
Several of the panel members went straight from
the BS to the PhD degree. The decision to take that
approach depends on how sure the student is of his
interests and career goals. And it is a decision which
concerns personal as well as technical interests. Pro-
fessor Goodwin spent three years in the U.S. Peace
Corps between completing his MS and PhD degrees,
teaching in universities in Turkey and in Liberia. He
found that the experience was not only personally re-
warding but also that it had a significant influence on
his later career decisions and interests.
Does it make sense economically to get a
graduate degree? There are differing opinions on this
point. People have argued both ways-that the time
spent in graduate school will or will not be rewarded
by higher salaries for entry-level PhD positions. Actu-
ally, most panel members did not consider this an im-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










SUMMER SCHOOL '87


The next Summer School for chemical engineering
faculty, sponsored and'organized by the Chemical En-
gineering Division of the ASEE, will be held August
9-15, 1987, at Southeastern Massachusetts Univer-
sity, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts. Co-chairmen
for the conference are Glenn L. Schrader and Maurice
A. Larson (Department of Chemical Engineering,
Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011). Local ar-
rangements are being coordinated by L. Bryce Ander-
son (College of Engineering, Southeastern Mas-
sachusetts University, North Dartmouth, MA 02747)
and by Stanley M. Barnett (Department of Chemical
Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston,
RI 02881).
The 1987 Summer School will focus on the revitali-
zation of the chemical engineering curriculum in re-
sponse to the changing technological needs of Amer-
ican society. A series of plenary lectures will present
new perspectives on emerging technology for
semiconductors, biotechnology, and advanced mater-
ials. A group of four workshops is also being planned
to include 1) Emerging Technology, 2) Computers in
Chemical Engineering, 3) Applied Chemistry in
Chemical Engineering, and 4) Curricula, Courses, and
Laboratories. A poster session is also being planned.
In June 1985 proposals requesting donations to
support the 1987 Summer School were mailed to about
150 companies. The following companies or their as-
sociated foundations have pledged or contributed
$83,000 to the 1987 Summer School (as of August 1,
1986):
Amoco Oil Company
Chevron Corporation
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
Dow Corning Corporation


portant issue. They pointed out that being satisfied
with the type of career that you have chosen can often
add more to the overall quality of life than the realiza-
tion that over the span of a career you have made a
dollar more as a result of your choice. PhD chemical
engineers make very good salaries, and the job mar-
ket is less tied to daily ups and downs of the economy
than are BS entry-level positions. In addition, most
panelists agreed that the time they spent in graduate
school was an exciting, fulfilling, challenging, and
learning experience-an experience they would not
trade for dollars.

ASSESSING THE WORKSHOP
Probably one of the most important outcomes of


E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company
Exxon
Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Labs
PPG Industries
The Standard Oil Company
Shell Development Company
3M
Union Carbide Corporation
If you have any suggestions concerning key con-
tacts with other possible donors, please call Glenn
Schrader (515-294-0519) to discuss how these individu-
als and their organizations should be contacted.
The estimated budget accounts for: preliminary
operating expenses; travel and living expenses for
members of the organizing committee, plenary speak-
ers, block chairmen, workshop leaders; special events;
and partial travel and living subsidy for university
participants. There is no compensation for instruc-
tional services. Members of the organizing committee,
plenary speakers, block chairmen, leaders of work-
shops, and their institutions donate their services.
Each department of chemical engineering will be
offered partial subsidy for one faculty member to at-
tend the Summer School. Large departments will be
offered an opportunity for a second faculty member to
participate. Department heads will be asked to name
attendees from their department. Industrial sponsors
will also be invited to select one or two attendees from
their company.
At the end of 1986; a mailing will be sent to all
departments providing a preliminary program for the
Summer School. For more information concerning the
1987 Summer School, contact Glenn Schrader. De-
partment of Chemical Engineering, Iowa State Uni-
versity, Ames, IA 50011.E


the workshop was that the students received a lot of
first-hand information about the kinds of careers for
which a graduate education prepares them. By meet-
ing professors from different schools they were able
to learn about the variety of programs offered. By
discussing career options with working PhD chemical
engineers they learned of the excitement that such
careers promise. And by meeting and talking with stu-
dents from other chemical engineering programs who
had thoughts and concerns similar to their own, they
discovered that getting a graduate education is a via-
ble and exciting option for chemical engineers. [Note:
The next workshop will be held at the University of
Pittsburgh on Nov. 15, 1986. For more information
contact Professor Blackmond at (412) 624-2136.] D


FALL 1986


W ll mVVBI VH








views and opinions


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

A Crisis of Maturity


JACOB JORNE
University of Rochester
Rochester, NY 14627

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING is a field in a state of
transition. This is especially true for those of us
who are involved in chemical engineering education
and who wonder about the future and direction of our
discipline. Ours is a relatively young branch of en-
gineering and it seems to be in the midst of its first
major transition. The optimists among us tend to call
this transition "maturity," while the pessimists call it
a "crisis." The truth is probably at neither extreme. I
prefer to call it a crisis of maturity.
Chemical engineering is a mature field which
stands on the solid foundation of physical chemistry,
transport phenomena, kinetics, and reactor design. It
emerged fifty years ago from the traditional field of
industrial chemistry, and the consistent trend during
all these years has been toward generalities, unified
approaches, and fundamental studies. There are sev-
eral examples of this trend. The originally different
disciplines of fluid flow, heat transfer and mass trans-
fer merged together into the unified field of transport
phenomena. Unit operations such as distillation, ab-
sorption and extraction merged into stage operation.
Even chemical kinetics and reactor design are now
taught in a general form and rarely deviate from the
general notation A + B -- C. This general approach
was, and still is, very powerful. As a result chemical
engineers became, and still are, extremely effective
in solving problems and in designing plants. Twenty,
or even ten, years ago most graduate research was
devoted to topics such as diffusion, bubbles, falling
film, and fluidized bed. There was no necessity for
practical justification since it was considered basic
chemical engineering-something which had to be
done in order to establish the field. However, within
the last few years things have changed considerably.
The classical fundamentals are well established, and
the research now done within chemical engineering
departments is usually applied and is commonly
evaluated on its relevance to current problems and
needs.
The classical literature of chemical engineering is
marked primarily by its simplicity. Transport
Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


phenomena and reactor design are examples where
common sense, mathematics, and engineering are
combined to solve practical and real problems in a sim-
ple way. However, recent trends in the chemical en-
gineering literature suggest that there is a bias
against simplicity. W. K. Grasman [Interface, 16:2,
43-51, 1986] has pointed out a general trend, across
all disciplines, toward publishing unnecessarily com-
plex works. His "Joe's Theorem" can be applied to the
literature of chemical engineering:
Nothing is published in the area of chemical engineering sci-
ence unless it is mathematically interesting. Nothing is
applied in industry unless it is mathematically trivial. Since
trivial results are not interesting and since results that can-
not be applied are not useful, nothing useful will ever be
published in the field of chemical engineering science.
Though an exaggeration of the present state, this
"theorem" points out the need for simplicity and rele-
vance in academic research.
The direction of chemical engineering graduate re-
search is changing. Fundamental topics are no longer
appealing to the general population of graduate stu-
dents who are mostly attracted to fields where jobs
are currently available. Even in the academic job mar-


Jacob Jorne, professor of chemical engineering at the University of
Rochester, received his PhD in chemical engineering from the Univer-
sity of California, Berkeley (1972). A native of Israel, he obtained a
BSc and an MSc from the Technion-lsrael Institute of Technology in
1963 and 1967, respectively. His research interests include elec-
trochemical engineering, semiconductor processing, energy conversion
and storage, and the theoretical biology of ecosystems. He has consid-
erable industrial experience as a consultant. In 1979 he was named
Chemical Engineer of the Year by the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers, Detroit Section.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


|


hE









ket, the magic words of "biochemical engineering" and
"semiconductor processing" can land a choice teaching
job. It is interesting to note that these two attractive
areas are at the core of the current transition within
chemical engineering education.
MICROELECTRONICS-MISSED OPPORTUNITY
Chemical engineering missed the opportunity to
make prime contributions to the microelectronic in-
dustry. Microelectronic devices are produced by a
series of purely chemical processes such as chemical
vapor deposition and etching. Nevertheless, the elec-
tronic industry emerged and matured virtually with-
out the participation of chemical engineers. Though
many chemical engineers are employed in the semi-
conductor industry, the contribution of their field, as
a science and as a philosophy, is negligible. The amaz-
ing revolution toward miniaturization of devices and
processes has occurred over the last decade or two, yet
chemical engineering is just starting to catch up with
this trend. It might be too late. Had it been left to
chemical engineers, the microelectronic industry
would not be where it is now. The concept of carrying
chemical reactions on a micron-size level, on a huge
scale, and under absolutely clean conditions is foreign
to the traditional chemical engineer who is educated
to manufacture bulk chemicals within a profession
dominated by the oil and chemical industries.
Chemical engineers must develop new processes,
equipment, materials, and devices not currently en-
visioned. The possibility of packing chemical reactions
into smaller and smaller volumes will begin to emerge
through a better understanding of reaction mechan-
isms and networks, monolayer between phases, thin
films, micro-sensors and microreactors, to name just
a few. The trend should not be just an attempt to
catch up with the microelectronic industry, but rather
to develop a new field of microchemical engineering
where we can combine and implement our unique
knowledge and solid foundation and lead a new indus-
try based on fields like molecular electronics, sensors
and enzymes.

MICROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The idea of microchemical engineering is really not
new, but it deserves new focus as a commonly de-
nominating theme. Molecular thermodynamics is an
example of a microscale research with macroscale ap-
plications. Similarly, recent works on interfacial
phenomena, colloids, surface science, nucleation,
microcirculation, and cell phenomena are all examples
of chemical engineering science on a microscale.
There are some objective reasons why the chemi-
cal industry and chemical engineers are so late in


The idea of microchemical engineering
is really not new, but it deserves new focus as
a commonly denominating theme. Molecular
thermodynamics is an example of a microscale
research with macroscale applications.

adopting the trend toward microscale processes and
devices. Obviously, at the present time it is hard to
envision miniaturization of heat exchangers, chemical
reactors or distillation columns simply because heat
and mass transfer need large interfacial areas and
chemical reactions utilize space and time to achieve
appreciable conversion. However, chemical engineer-
ing deals with a wide range of dimensions. The phys-
ical extent can vary over eight orders of magnitude.
The megascopic systems are on the order of 1 meter
and up (> 1m). Macroscopic systems are usually
within 10- to 1m. The microscopic and the submicro-
scopic systems are within the 10- to 10- m range,
while the molecular scale is on the order of 10m.
Traditional chemical engineering deals mostly with
megascopic systems whose fundamental mechanisms
are within the macroscopic range. For example, heat
exchangers and distillation columns are megascopic
while heat and mass transfer boundary layers are
within the macroscopic level.
We can rival the momentum of the microelectronic
developments only by adopting new scientific dis-
coveries and using our skills to bring them to commer-
cial realization-a process we capitalized upon in the
past. Our chemistry and industrial chemistry roots
should be maintained as the most unique feature of
our discipline, while the future of our profession de-
pends entirely on the recent developments and ad-
vances made in chemistry, physics and, I must add,
biology.

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
In addition to a dependence upon advances made
in chemistry and physics, chemical engineering of the
future will be increasingly dependent upon new bio-
logical knowledge. There is a shared conviction that
biochemical engineering is destined to be a major force
and most chemical engineering departments are look-
ing for young faculty trained in this area. There is a
danger in thinking that having one or two professors
in each chemical engineering department who are
doing some biological experiments will take us into
the rosy future of genetic engineering and molecular
biology. The challenge is much too great for such an
approach. We must educate undergraduate students
in biology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biol-
ogy with the same intensity that we presently educate


FALL 1986








them in physical chemistry. For years we have been
educating students and training them with the overall
goal of preparing them to work for companies such as
duPont and Standard Oil. This approach was very ap-
propriate and extremely successful in the past. How-
ever, we must now prepare students for the unknown
future and for imaginary employers which may include
a genetic engineering company, space processing com-
panies, and, maybe, molecular computer manufactur-
ers. Courses such as distillation must be eliminated
and replaced. This does not mean that distillation is a
thing of the past. To the contrary, energy problems
will be staying with us for a long, long time. However,
teaching distillation is not a subject which increases
the student's innovative capabilities nor does it pro-
vide basic science for the unknown future.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
I was always proud of chemical engineering,
mainly because it was the only branch of engineering
where science played a major role. As the field ma-
tured I sensed a departure from the fundamentals of


science and the increasing reliance on applications. In
order to regain the enthusiasm of the early years, and
in order to establish new frontiers, we must rearrange
our educational priorities and teach basic biochemis-
try, microbiology, genetics, solid state physics, and
human factors engineering. We must undertake new
courses as well, which teach innovative problem-
solving and which encourage cross-disciplinary think-
ing. This is the only way we can preserve and re-
vitalize chemical engineering, and it is the best insur-
ance that we will establish new industries which prom-
ise to improve the quality of life.
The crisis of maturity confronting chemical en-
gineering can be resolved with energy, courage, and
foresight. The most important decisions will center on
which traditions to maintain and which new approach-
es to establish. The question of whether we are in the
midst of a crisis or are simply a matured profession is
a debate we don't have time for. The lack of risk-
taking, excitement and vision are the only relevant
problems to be confronted. I am confident that wise
deliberation will underscore our opportunities. O


THE WILLIAM H. CORCORAN OUTSTANDING PAPER AWARD


In the opinion of many, Bill Corcoran did more for
the advancement of chemical engineering education
and engineering education in general in the United
States than any other person in recent decades. He
shared his many talents selflessly, often working
quietly behind the scenes, but more frequently in im-
portant positions of leadership. Recognition of Bill's
many contributions through establishment of the Wil-
liam H. Corcoran Outstanding Paper Award allows
the ASEE Chemical Engineering Division to, in Bill's
own words, "pay back the debt we owe." Bill was
describing his own dedication to his profession as a
measure of his appreciation for the opportunities
given him early in his career.
Bill Corcoran's excellence in teaching and his
strong interest in students were recognized through
his selection to receive the ASEE Western Electric
Fund and Lamme Awards and the ABET L. E.
Grinter Award. His comprehensive research on the
nitrogen oxides predated the general recognition of
the key role these substances play in environmental
control. He pioneered the application of chemical en-
gineering principles to biomedical engineering.
Singling out one area most noteworthy from the
many in which Bill did so much is difficult, but many
would agree that the area should be the technical liter-
ature. His own extensive list of publications includes


three books and many widely read contributions to
the technical literature and to contemporary thought
about engineering education and practice. He was a
member of the publications Board of Chemical En-
gineering Education from 1966 until his death, serv-
ing as its chairman in 1967-68 and again in 1975-77. At
the national level in ASEE, he served on the Publica-
tions Policy Committee, Engineering Education
Editorial Committee and ECRC Publications Commit-
tee. He held similar assignments in the American
Chemical Society and in AIChE.
Bill is perhaps best known within ASEE for the
landmark report resulting from the 1975-77 study of
the Committee on Review of Engineering and En-
gineering Technology Studies which he chaired. His
extensive service to AIChE led to his election as pres-
ident in 1978; he was president-elect of ABET at the
time of his death in 1982. He was elected to the Na-
tional Academy of Engineering in 1980.
Through dedicated teaching, research, service and
publications, Bill Corcoran was a positive force in en-
gineering education. Just as Bill did throughout his
career, the Corcoran Award will grow in stature over
the years, beginning with its distinguished inaugura-
tion at the Cincinnati Annual Conference.
George Burnet
Iowa State University


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










book reviews

THE NEW ENGINEERING
RESEARCH CENTERS:
PURPOSES, GOALS AND EXPECTATIONS
National Academy Press, 2102 Constitution Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20418
Reviewed by
Wayne H. Chen
Dean, College of Engineering
University of Florida
This book is the outgrowth of a symposium, "The
New Engineering Research Centers: Factors Affect-
ing Their Thrusts," held on April 29-30, 1985, under
the auspices of the National Research Council's Com-
mission on Engineering and Technical Systems
(CETS).
The new Engineering Research Centers (ERCs)
program was initiated by the National Science Foun-
dation. Selected from 142 proposals, six Engineering
Research Centers (involving a total of eight univer-
sities) were announced in early April of 1985, and are
now in operation.
The papers published in this book were presented
at the symposium to introduce the new centers to the
engineering community at large and are grouped
under the captions: 1) The National Goal, 2) The
Center as a Reality-Plans, Mechanisms and Interac-
tions, and 4) The Future-Challenge and Expecta-
tions.
Dr. George A. Keyworth II, Science Advisor to
the President, described the "national goal" with this
statement: Improving the U.S. position in interna-
tional industrial competitiveness.
From several sections of the book the following
quotations will highlight the important concepts be-
hind the creation of the ERC program.
The ERC program is a result of the realization that our
engineering schools are becoming increasingly engineering-
science oriented, with greater and greater emphasis on
analysis of narrowly focused topics. While analysis in en-
gineering science is an important facet of engineering, it is
clear that we have neglected synthesis-oriented skills such as
design, optimization of engineering systems, and system inte-
gration. (p. 39)
We have to increase our effort in the kind of research that
bridges the gap between fundamental scientific research and
application. This kind of research is engineering research.
(p. 20)
We need more engineering research, and we need more
engineering graduates who understand how to do engineering
research. We need to put them to work in those areas where
economic competitiveness is at stake; and we need to make


sure that the knowledge they generate and the guidance they
provide permeate the whole engineering community, not just
the research community alone. We need wider and stronger
bridges between the people doing engineering in industry and
the people teaching engineering and doing research in univer-
sities. (pp. 22-24)
The Engineering Research Centers are to "Bridge Gaps"
(pp. 23-26): Bridging Gaps Between University and Industry;
Bridging Gaps Among Engineering Disciplines; Bridging
Gaps Within the Innovative Process.
The ERCs are required to have "industrial partici-
pation" and, in addition to research, must also have
an "education" component.
The six new Engineering Research Centers are
Systems Research Centers (University of Maryland, Harvard
University)
Center for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (Purdue Uni-
versity)
Center for Robotic Systems in Microelectronics (University-
of California, Santa Barbara)
Center for Composites Manufacturing Science and Engineer-
ing (University of Delaware)
Engineering Center for Telecommunications Research
(Columbia University)
Biotechnology Process Engineering Center (MIT)
The six ERCs are only the first contingent of what
the NSF expects eventually to grow to some twenty
centers, each with an average annual budget of $2-5
million. This book will be valuable to those schools
with the aspiration to apply for a new Engineering
Research Center. [

ENGINEERING GRADUATE EDUCATION AND
RESEARCH
Panel on Engineering Graduate Education and Re-
search, John D. Kemper, Chm., National Academy
Press, Washington, D.C., 1985. $14.95
Reviewed by
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado
This monograph is part of an overall study of en-
gineering education and practice in the United States
conducted under the auspices of the National Re-
search Council. As the title implies, the study
examines the present status of graduate engineering
education and its relationship to graduate research.
In the conduct of the study, the Committee reviewed
the data and conclusions of previous comprehensive
engineering studies including the Report on Evalua-
tion of Engineering Education (Grinter Report), the
President's Science Advisory Committee report enti-
tled Meeting Manpower Needs in Science and
Technology (PSAC Report), and the ASEE Goals of
Continued on page 193.


FALL 1986











A7 Reseach Aorwam On


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN


PROCESS ENGINEERING


GEORGE STEPHANOPOULOS
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139

THE REEMERGENCE of artificial intelligence as a
viable and utilitarian discipline offers the potential
of harvesting early promises on intelligent man-
machine interaction. For process engineering, these
promises have nurtured and disillusioned a generation
of engineers. Presently, the mood is cautiously op-
timistic. The "novelty" of the technology has taken
most by surprise and has found the large majority,
even among the early devotees in artificial intelli-
gence, unprepared for meaningful engineering appli-
cations. Nevertheless, idling skepticism has been re-
placed by a wide-spread activism, leading to a mul-
titude of exploratory prototypes. But, what we ob-
serve as a feverish research and development activity


George Stephanopoulos was an undergraduate at the National
Technical University of Athens, Greece, received his ME at McMaster
University, Canada, and did his doctoral studies in chemical engineer-
ing at the University of Florida. In 1974 he joined the faculty at the
University of Minnesota, and from 1980 to 1983 he taught at the
National Technical University of Athens. In 1984 he joined MIT, where
he is presently the J.R. Mares professor of chemical engineering. He is
the author of two books: Chemical Process Control; An Introduction to
Theory and Practice, and Synthesizing Networks of Heat Exchangers.
He has been a Dreyfus Scholar and he was awarded the Colburn
Award (1982) of AIChE and the C. McGraw Research Award (1986) of
ASEE. His research interests are in the area of process systems engineer-
ing, which he and his students have been recently interfacing with
methodologies from artificial intelligence and technology from LISP
computers.


in knowledge-based expert system is nothing else but
a very serious effort in self-education. We will have
to wait for the next phase of developments to see use-
ful and practical products for process systems en-
gineering purposes.
Existing prototypes of expert systems are in-
teresting examples, and some of them have had signif-
icant economic impact in areas other than those re-
lated to chemical and biochemical engineering. They
have provided certain paradigms which later efforts
have tried to imitate. But, are these prototypes appro-
priate for process engineering?
Can they "model" the human activity during the concep-
tion of a chemical process, the design of a product, the
development of a process flowsheet, or the synthesis of con-
trol configurations and operating procedures for complete
processing plants?
Can they support engineering activities, capitalizing on the
innate "intelligence" of expert technologists and designers,
as this intelligence is articulated within the context of the
problem being solved?
Do they provide high level, transparent communication be-
tween man and machine during the graphic generation of
process flowsheets, or control configurations, or the ana-
lytic development of process models, the introduction of
qualitative reasoning, or the formulation of design prob-
lems (assumptions, assertions, hypothesis testing, etc.)?
It is our view that the existing paradigms cannot
satisfy the above needs; after all, they were conceived
to solve different problems. New prototypes are
needed which should reflect the particularities of the
process systems engineering problems.

THE M.I.T.-LISPE
The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems for Pro-
cess Engineering (LISPE) at the Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology was recently established to ad-
vance the art of process engineering using current
technological advances in the areas of artificial intelli-
gence and LISP computers. It is the culmination of
intensive preparatory work during the last 2 1/2
years, including extensive investment in education,
hardware and software infrastructure, and communi-
eCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The Laboratory for Intelligent Systems for Process Engineering (LISPE) at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology was recently established to advance the art of process engineering using
current technological advance in the areas of artificial intelligence and LISP computers.


cation and collaboration with other research groups at
MIT or industrial concerns, all of which have interests
in artificial intelligence.
LISPE's present capabilities in research and edu-
cation are at the forefront of the field, and encompass
diversified expertise in various areas such as
Chemical or biochemical process development, design, con-
trol, or operations
Methods of artificial intelligence
Design and development of knowledge-based expert sys-
tems
Structure and character of object-oriented programming
In the remaining paragraphs of this section, we will
discuss in more detail the present infrastructure of
LISPE.
The MIT-LISPE is under the direction of Profes-
sor George Stephanopoulos and presently includes
twelve graduate students working toward their PhD
degree. It has also involved eight undergraduate re-
search assistants through MIT's Undergraduate Re-
search Opportunities Program (UROP).
The ability to amalgamate the most advanced
knowledge and methods from many diverse areas im-
portant to process engineering depends upon close in-
teraction with two important groups of people: 1)
Other faculty members and investigators at MIT, and
2) Industrial practitioners from the chemical and
biochemical industries as well as the computer indus-
try (hardware and' jftware).
Within MIT, the LISPE has established connec-
tions with groups such as the A.I. Laboratory, the
Knowledge Systems Program of the Laboratory for
Manufacturing and Productivity, the Intelligent En-
gineering Systems Laboratory in Civil Engineering,
and various other independent researchers with in-
terests in the fundamentals and applications of artifi-
cial intelligence.
Hardware Facilities. Present hardware facilities
include
Two 3640 and two 3650 SYMBOLICS LISP computers,
each equipped with 8 MB of memory and 280 or 360 Mb of
disk capacity
Two IBM PC AT (one with color and extended 2 Mb mem-
ory)
Two printers (one laser, and one high quality dot matrix)
Furthermore, we recently completed the networking
of all machines as well as their connection to MIT's
ATHENA system. Such networking capabilities allow
us to expand the scope of the research projects by


accessing a large multitude of databases, by com-
municating and reasoning with other intelligent sys-
tems, or by developing simulated environments of dis-
tributed, parallel intelligent systems.

Software Support. Current research develop-
ments in intelligent systems for process engineering
are enjoying wide support from a multitude of generic
and specific software facilities, such as
(a) The SYMBOLICS Zetalisp environment pro-
vides an extremely efficient medium for rapid pro-
totyping of intelligent databases and interfaces with
rudimentary natural language capabilities and exten-
sive graphics, including active multiple windows,
scrolling, menus, etc., and it allows an incremental
mode of program development.
(b) An integrated software package, such as the
Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE), has
been generously provided by IntelliCorp, and consti-
tutes the integrated environment for the development
of knowledge-based expert system support of our
various research projects.
(c) The availability of LISP-based compilers for
languages such as FORTRAN and PASCAL allows
us to access, in a transparent way, a large number of
software packages developed for various numerical
process engineering needs such as: algorithms for the
solution of equations, optimization algorithms, physi-
cal properties packages, simulators of process flow-
sheets, process design packages, packages for the de-
sign of control system, etc.
(d) The Lisp version of MACSYMA provides us
with a powerful mathematical symbolic manipulator,
which has found important applications on several pro-
jects.
(e) The GCLISP 286 Developer that we use in con-
junction with the IBM PC AT computers provides an
excellent environment for training in LISP. In addi-
tion, it provides an additional capability for the local
development of small-scale, dedicated natural lan-
guage interfaces, file editing in Common Lisp, and
remote evaluation of Zetalisp functions.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM
The historical boundaries of process engineering
activities are being pushed toward the "front-end" to


FALL 1986










include an important role in product design and de-
velopment, as well as contributions in conceiving
novel processing schemes and developing the appro-


New prototypes are needed
which should reflect the particularities
of the process systems engineering problems.


private technology, including the selection of mass
separating agents, heat pump fluids, catalysts, etc.
Within the scope of LISPE the following set com-
prises the process engineering activities of interest
Design of molecules (products, or processing fluids) with
desired physical or/and chemical properties
Development of novel processing schemes
Synthesis of process flowsheets for existing technologies
Design of control systems for complete chemical plants
Intelligent on-line controllers
Planning and scheduling of operational procedures
Development and design of biochemical processes
All of the above problems are characterized by a
series of common attributes which can be summarized
as follows:
Each problem is multi-objective in nature.
Thus, a new polymer should not only possess the de-
sired thermal and mechanical properties, but it should
also be easily processed while the production of the
constituent monomers is chemically feasible and
economic. The control structure of a complete chemi-
cal plant should not only provide good regulation, but
it should also allow for easy plant-wide optimization
and smooth start-up, change-over, or safe fall-back
operations. The optimum trade-off of conflicting objec-
tives has been the province of "experts," since a con-
crete formulation of such problems is very resistant
to analytic treatment.
They use knowledge from different domains.
This is a direct corollary of the multi-objective charac-
ter of the problems and indicates the need for diver-
sified expertise, which normally comes from different
people. At the same time it is clear that we need to
consult different data-bases with large amounts of di-
versified information. Coordinating the interaction of
different "experts," and/or rationally using extensive
data-bases with diverse scopes, is not a trivial prob-
lem. Current industrial practice is based on a rather
inefficient segmentation of domain-responsibilities,
where the control designer tries to make up for pro-
cess design weaknesses, or the process developer at-
tempts to conform the processing scheme to the
chemist's dictation.


Required expertise is not easily articulated. The
incisive knowledge that problems such as the above
need for their solution cannot be easily articulated by
the experts in the absence of a specific context. On
the contrary, experience has demonstrated that "ex-
pertise" becomes active within the context of the par-
ticular problem they attempt to solve.
Imply a disciplined use of assumptions. For
most of the above problems, the degree of success
depends on the amount of available knowledge and
the disciplined use of assumptions exercised by the
"experts." Thus, the expert resorts to a series of as-
sumptions, conjectures, hypotheses testing, reasoning
by analogy to previous problems, assertion of inter-
mediate goals, etc. The results of this procedure de-
termine the next steps in the evolving design.
Employ models and quantitative information.
In addition to expert qualitative knowledge, for the
solution of the above problems designers often resort
to quantitative information in the form of analytic
(based on first principles) or short-cut models, correla-
tions, tables of data from manuals or handbooks, etc.
Accessing such information is normally slow and could
be a serious inhibiting factor in their creative reason-
ing. Present day computing environments do not lend
themselves easily to support such an activity. They
require ad hoc programming by the experts, while
the communication is mostly realized through cryptic
text and command lines. Such an environment dis-
courages the use of computers by the experts for the
creative part of their work.

The existing prototypes of expert systems acquire
their knowledge by interviewing the experts, from
manuals and from handbooks, etc. But the interview
process reveals "bits" of knowledge, the so-called pro-
duction rules. These rules reflect the expert's heuris-
tic database, accumulated from past experience. Con-
sequently, the extracted knowledge is limited to that
which resides at the surface of the expert's cognitive
abilities. Thus, rules stemming from repetitive tasks
can be easily articulated. But, rules related to the syn-
thesis of processing schemes, process flowsheets, con-
trol systems for complete plants, design of operating
strategies, and other activities in process engineering,
are highly "contextual" and thus very difficult to ac-
cess and articulate.
Knowledge accumulated from interviews, hand-
books, or manuals is very poor in terms of the reason-
ing strategy that an expert employs to solve various
problems. Thus, the ill-defined formulations of the
various process engineering problems imply unstruc-
tured reasoning methodologies, which normally are
very inefficient and frustrating experiences. Within


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










the scope of the available expert system prototypes it
is extremely difficult to capture the reasoning proce-
dures used by the experts, which are quite complex
and highly contextual.

RESEARCH PROJECTS AND THE NEW
PROTOTYPE OF AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEM
The two deficiencies discussed above are very re-
strictive and imply that one needs a different pro-
totype in order to make artificial intelligence a viable
technology in process engineering. The following are
the principal characteristics of this prototype
Allows the designer to concentrate on the creative aspects
of his/her work
Facilitates the use of computers through rudimentary nat-
ural language interface, and intelligent databases and
graphic interfaces
Incorporates the features of standardized expert systems
(heuristic knowledge extracted from interviews, hand-
books, manuals, etc.)
Contains facilities which permit the designer to articulate
his/her knowledge within the context of the specific prob-
lem at hand, e.g. an on-line rule editor
Allows the expert to formulate, on-line, during the solution
of a particular problem, different reasoning strategies, ac-
tivated by an ad hoc articulation of the designer's own
"heuristics"
Table 1 lists the research projects currently under
way, all of which are implementing various forms of
the prototype intelligent system under development.
Unlike previous or parallel efforts in artificial intelli-
gence, as Table 1 indicates, our research emphasis is
on design-oriented intelligent systems. Let us now
discuss in some more detail the main components for
this new prototype:
Knowledge base: Knowledge is collected from
three sources: (i) lists of experiential heuristics, (ii)
quantitative models, and (iii) on-line heuristics acti-
vated and articulated by the designer within the con-
text of the specific problem being solved. Facilities to
capture the knowledge from the third source are abso-
lutely necessary because such knowledge is very inci-
sive and cannot be articulated out of context.
Reasoning strategies: The prototype intelligent
system, under development, should have a rich reper-
tory of reasoning strategies, which to a large extent
are driven by the designer and are defined adaptively
within the context of the problem being solved. Thus,
the designer will be able, during the solution of a spe-
cific problem, to perform the following tasks automat-
ically: test hypotheses; define conjectures; assert, on-
line defined, intermediate goals; create alternatives;
simultaneously carry several alternatives and
evaluate them.


TABLE 1.
Current Research Projects at the MIT-LISPE
1. "DESIGN-KIT": A System for Intelligent Engineering
Interfaces and Databases
2. Process Development by Analogy
3. Synthesis of Process Flowsheets
4. Synthesis of Control Structures for Complete Chemical
Plants
5. Planning and Scheduling Plant-Wide Process Control
Operations
6. Intelligent Controllers
7. Operability Considerations in the Design and Control of
Heat-Integrated Chemical Plants
8. Computer-Aided Modeling of Bacteria Cells for the Analysis
and Development of Biochemical Processes.
9. Synthesis of Separation Systems for the Recovery and Pur-
ification of Proteins
10. Design of Molecules with Desired Properties


Intelligent databases: The effective use of the
proposed new prototype will be heavily dependent on
the availability of an intelligent database which should
allow: innate reasoning during the search of the
database; conversational interaction with the designer
through answering the designer's queries, or accept-
ing new elements for the tables of data; easy expan-
sion through permanent or temporary new entries,
and identification of patterns among its elements. A
rich repertory of alternative representations of knowl-
edge and data is also indispensable.
Intelligent interfaces: The database system de-
scribed above should be supported by a simple and
transparent interface between the designer and the
computer. Thus, the new prototype includes
Graphic interface with easy manipulation of graphic ob-
jects (e.g., process flowsheets, control loop configura-
tions, molecular structures, biochemical pathways, routes
for operational procedures, etc.).
Interaction with the graphic interface is supported by data-
models describing the available knowledge regarding the
graphic objects. This is easily achievable through the
frame description of all objects (graphic, models, etc.).
Thus, the graphic objects are not empty of substance, but
carry a rich content of inherited knowledge.
The built-in "understanding" of the problem characteris-
tics by the graphic objects, which allows the graphic inter-
face to "draw" conclusions and to "provide" explanations,
and allows the designer to concentrate on the creative as-
pects of his/her work.
"Learning"-upgrade raw data: Process en-
gineering problems are often characterized by the
availability of large amounts of data accumulated from
past experience, experiments, extensive numerical
simulations, etc. The direct value of such information
is normally very low because it is simple declarative
Continued on page 192.


FALL 1986















THE PROCESSING OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS


S. V. BABU, PETER C. SUKANEK
Clarkson University
Potsdam, NY 13676

OR SEVERAL YEARS, the chemical engineering
department at Clarkson has been actively in-
volved in the area of materials processing. One of our
major areas is the processing of electronic materials:
the production of high purity bulk crystals, the fabri-
cation of integrated circuits, and the manufacturing of
printed circuit boards. Several of the faculty have
worked in the electronics industry, either during the
summer or on sabbatical leave, or as consultants. We
have also benefitted from a graduate "co-op" program
with industry in which graduate students spend six to
nine months doing their thesis research at an indus-
trial site. In this way, they can take full advantage of
a wide variety of modern equipment and qualified













Suryadevara V. Babu has been a professor of chemical engineering
at Clarkson since 1981. Prior to that he was on the faculty at Indian
Institute of Technology, Kanpur. He spent 1969-70 at the Niels Bohr
Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, and at the International Center for
Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, and was a post-doctoral fellow at
New York University from 1970 to 1972. His interest in electronics
manufacturing is of recent vintage, and grew out of several summers
spent with IBM. He has taught an undergraduate course, "Packaging
for Electronics," and a graduate course, "Integrated and Printed Circuit
Fabrication," several times at Clarkson. (L)
Peter Sukanek received his PhD from the University of Mas-
sachusetts. After four years with the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Labo-
ratory, he joined Clarkson's chemical engineering department in 1976.
He spent the summer of 1982 with IBM in Essex Junction, Vermont.
Together with Bill Wilcox, he has been teaching a short course on
integrated circuit fabrication. He is currently on a sabbatical with Phil-
lips Research Laboratory in Netherlands. (R)


technicians that is often not available at a university.
In this article, we will discuss some, but not all, of
the ongoing research. Other areas of research that
will not be described include Bill Wilcox's work on
crystal growth, both on the ground and in reduced
gravity environments, Don Rasmussen's work on
nucleation and chemical vapor deposition of refractory
materials for integrated circuit metallization, and
Sandra Harris's efforts to apply adaptive control
techniques to the electroless plating of printed circuit
boards.
The production of integrated circuits or printed
circuit boards involves the creation of successive
layers of different patterns in materials. These pat-
terns might be regions of semiconductor (such as sili-
con) doped with different materials (such as boron or
phosphorous) to form transistors, regions of conduc-
tors (such as aluminum or copper) to form electrical
connections, and regions of insulating material (such
as silicon dioxide or an organic polymer) to isolate the
conductor lines. Much of our research is involved with
the formation of these patterned regions. Below, we
discuss our efforts in the areas of resist materials,
etching and laser processing.

RESIST MATERIALS
The most common method of creating these pat-
terns is to coat the substrate with a radiation sensitive
organic material and then to illuminate the coating
with radiation of the appropriate wavelength through
a mask, as illustrated in Figure 1. If the illuminated
material is more soluble in a developer, it is referred
to as positive type, and if it is less soluble, as a nega-
tive type. The pattern is transferred to the underlying
layer in an etching step. Since the radiation sensitive
material is (ideally) unaffected by the etchant, it is
called a "resist."
In the production of integrated circuits, it is often
essential that the resist coating be both thin (on the
order of 1 [m) and uniform (on the order of + 100 A
or less). Otherwise, uniform patterns cannot be ob-
tained across the surface of the substrate. These films
are created by spin coating. A small amount of resist
QCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









solution is deposited onto the surface of the wafer,
which is then rotated at speeds of several thousand
rpm's. The coating thins by a combination of flow ac-
ross the surface of the substrate and by evaporation
of the solvent.
We have developed a mathematical model for the
coating to understand the parameters which control
the film thickness and to predict the conditions when
nonuniform films might be expected. The model as-
sumes a two component material, containing both vol-
atile and non-volatile species, which accounts for the
mass flux from the surface from evaporation of the
solvent [1]. The model correctly predicts the variation
of thickness with spin speed. In addition, the model is
in qualitative agreement with available data on the
effects of initial viscosity and solvent volatility. Uni-
form films can always be obtained except when the
surface mass transfer becomes turbulent or for certain
spin speeds with non-Newtonian fluids.
There are still a number of important items miss-
ing from the model. In particular, we have neglected
diffusion of the solvent within the resist film and the
dependence of the diffusivity on the solvent concentra-
tion. By including these factors, we hope to model the
conditions under which small irregularities in resist
height, called "orangepeel," occur. In addition, re-
sidual solvent also has an effect on subsequent resist
processing. Another factor to be added to the model
is the effect of substrate features, such as steps, on
the film uniformity.
Dry film negative photoresists are commonly used
in the manufacture of additively plated printed circuit
boards. The resist is crosslinked on exposure to UV-
radiation either by photo-polymerization or by nitrene
insertion into the carbon-carbon double bonds of the
polymer [2]. Crosslinked regions of the resist are in-
soluble.

-U i I 'Ra di' ; "
I V//A V//A I alsk
S-Resist


'P.Stfive
~iPoc di y


NEqafi.'e


FIGURE 1. Positive resists are less soluble after exposure;
negative resists are more soluble.


We have developed a mathematical
model for the coating to understand the
parameters which control the film thickness and
to predict the conditions when nonuniform
films might be expected.


Maintaining adequate adhesion to the substrate,
as well as preserving the line profiles in such resists,
demands crosslink uniformity in the exposed regions
and minimal solvent-induced swelling throughout the
resist film on development. Incident radiation is
strongly absorbed in the top layers of the thick resist
film, leading to a lower degree of crosslinking at the
resist-substrate interface. Solvent penetration along
this interface can cause undercutting and delamination
of the resist. Increasing the incident energy dosage,
on the other hand, will produce a brittle resist layer
at the top. Optimization of the exposure and develop-
ment processes has been investigated by measuring
the crosslink gradient using successive solvent extrac-
tions. The exposed resist-substrate adhesion corre-
lates inversely with the degree of crosslinking at the
interface [3]. A mathematical analysis of the polymeri-
zation kinetics has been carried out which showed
that, in a first approximation, the contrast of the re-
sist is inversely proportional to its optical density [4].
In the manufacture of VLSI devices, positive
photoresists are widely used. Exposure to radiation
converts a photoactive compound (PAC) to a car-
boxylic acid [5]. The exposed regions, containing the
resin and the acid, dissolve faster than the unexposed
regions in aqueous basic solvents.
As in the case of the negative resists, the radiation
intensity is not uniform in the resist film due to ab-
sorption. A pair of coupled nonlinear partial differen-
tial equations, one for the UV-intensity in the film
and the other for the concentration of the PAC, de-
scribe the kinetics [6]. A rigorous and complete
mathematical description is complicated because of in-
terference between the incident beam and its multiple
reflections from the resist-substrate and resist-air in-
terfaces causing a standing wave pattern [7]. How-
ever, there are instances of practical importance
where the substrate is strongly absorbing. The exact
solution has been obtained for such situations, and has
been used to determine the resist contrast in a closed
form [8].
The solution has been extended to the case of con-
trast enhanced lithography (CEL) [9]. In this method,
a thin dye or polysiloxane film on the resist improves
its contrast (i.e., gives steeper side wall angles). Fi-
nally, the model has also been applied to the image
Continued on page 208.


FALL 1986










47 comwe inf

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN

PROCESS ENGINEERING

Experiences From a Graduate Course



V. VENKATASUBRAMANIAN
Columbia University
New York, NY 10027


OVER THE RECENT past, notable advances have
been made in the field of artificial intelligence
(AI) that are poised to make important contributions
to various engineering disciplines [2]. Chemical en-
gineering, process engineering in particular, stands
to make significant gains by the application of the AI
methodology called "Knowledge-Based Expert Sys-
tems" (KBES). Briefly, AI is the study of understand-
ing human information processing with the aid of com-
puters and computational models. KBES is the first
attempt towards this goal by concentrating on nar-
row, restricted domains of knowledge (such as those
of experts), rather than tackling the entire spectrum
of human intelligence. Such an attempt has resulted
in some progress towards the understanding of the
different facets of human cognition [13]. In this paper
we discuss the organization and content of a new
course that has been specifically designed for chemical
engineers on the application of KBES methodology in
process engineering.

MOTIVATION
It is becoming increasingly clear that areas such
as process synthesis and design, process diagnosis and
safety, intelligent computer-aided instruction and
training, etc., will derive substantial benefits by in-
tegrating the KBES methodology into the existing
predominantly algorithmic approaches. We are then
faced with the question of how to go about doing this.
The current approach used in the application of
the KBES methodology is the so-called dialogue ap-

In this paper we discuss the organization and
content of a new course that has been specifically
designed for chemical engineers on the application of
KBES methodology in process engineering.

Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


Venkat Venkatasubramanian is an assistant professor in chemical
engineering at Columbia University. After receiving his doctoral de-
gree from Cornell University in 1983, he worked as a research as-
sociate in the Department of Computer Science at Carnegie-Mellon
University. At Columbia he is directing the research efforts in the "In-
telligent Process Engineering Laboratory," and is currently working on
developing knowledge-based expert systems for process diagnosis, de-
sign, and training.

proach, where one or more computer scientists
trained in AI (called the "knowledge engineers") in-
teract with one or more chemical engineers (called the
"domain experts"), and together they develop the
knowledge-based system for the given problem. This
approach has the drawback that the knowledge en-
gineer spends a considerable amount of time and effort
in learning the problem domain (say, a given problem
in process synthesis or diagnosis) in order to be able
to design an appropriate system. Similarly, the do-
main engineer spends considerable time and effort in
conveying the domain knowledge to the knowledge
engineer as well as learning something about AI and
KBES. It seems that a better approach would be to
train chemical engineers in AI, let them develop the
appropriate knowledge-based systems for their prob-
lems, and let the computer science expert (knowledge
engineer) be involved only as an occasional consultant
for some difficult AI related problems which are
beyond the scope of our artificially intelligent chemical
engineer. Such an approach is, in fact, similar in spirit
to what chemical engineers have been doing for a long


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









time. For example, the use of applied mathematics as
a tool in various areas such as fluid mechanics, heat
and mass transfer, thermodynamics, etc., springs to
mind. Another notable example is the use of tools from
operations research such as linear programming for
chemical engineering problems in process design, op-
timization, etc. These two examples are concerned
with the use of analytical and numeric tools for chem-
ical engineering problems. We are now at the stage of
using AI tools for the symbolic computational aspects
of the problems in chemical engineering. Also the
standard expert systems course offered in computer
science departments does not adequately fulfill the
needs of the students, as discussed in the next section.
With these motivations in mind, a course called
"Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering"
(AIPE), was developed at Columbia University to
teach graduate chemical engineering students about
AI and KBES. This paper discusses the various as-
pects of the course such as its organization and con-
tent, books and other material used, student projects,


The purpose of the course was
not to design full-scale systems, but to
teach the students about the KBES methodology by
making them develop prototypes.



and the overall results of the course.

COURSE ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT

The course structure and content were specifically
designed for chemical engineering students. Even
though it is possible to use this course for teaching
chemical engineering students with no prior back-
ground in AI (we had two such candidates who did
extremely well), it is advisable to have an introduc-
tory AI course offered by a computer science depart-
ment as a prerequisite. Such a course is normally of-
fered by a computer science department at the senior
or first-year graduate level, which often does not re-
quire difficult prerequisites of its own and thus can be


TABLE 1
Course Organization


LECT. TOPIC
NO.

1 Introduction
Overview of AI,AI and Process Engineering, overview of
LISP
Ref: Vol. 1 of AI Handbook [4], Ch. 1-3 from [14]
2 Overview of Knowledge Representation
Issues in knowledge representation, predicate calculus,
semantic networks and their relevance to engineering
problems
Ref: Notes, Ch. 5-7 from [11], Ch. 5-8 from [14]
3 Overview of Search
Forward and backward chaining, depth-first, breadth-
first etc. with their uses in engineering
Ref: Notes, Ch. 2-3 from [11]
4 Expert Systems and Process Engineering
Stages of KBES development, knowledge representation
and search issues, knowledge acquisition etc.
Ref: Ch. 1-6, 11-15 from [13], Notes
5 Expert System Development in Process Engineering I
Detailed example of an expert system development using
S CONPHYDE with an introduction to rule-based pro-
gramming and OPS5
Ref: Ch. 1-4 from [6], [3], Notes
6 Expert System Development in Process Engineering II
Topics include knowledge representation and control in
OPS5, more discussion on CONPHYDE
Ref: Ch. 5-8 from [6], [3], Notes
7 Dealing with Uncertainty
Reasoning with incomplete and uncertain information,
Bayesian approaches, Dempster-Shafer theory, and
Fuzzy Logic
Ref: Notes, Ch. 10-13 from [7]


8 Representation of Engineering Objects and Processes
Frames, Objects, Hybrid representation techniques for
process engineering problems
Ref: Notes, Ch. 21,23,24 from [7], [9]
9 Symbolic Computational Methods in Process Synthesis
Architecture of blackboards, applicability to process syn-
thesis
Ref: Notes, [10], [1]
10 Intelligent Process Engineering Workstations
Architectural issues, cooperating expert systems, intelli-
gent user-interfaces etc.
Ref: Notes, [12]
11 Qualitative Reasoning
Introduction to qualitative physics and modeling, model-
ing of objects and processes etc.
Ref: Notes, Ch. 1-3 from [5]
12 Process Plant Diagnosis and Safety
Model-based reasoning for process plant diagnosis and
safety analysis
Ref: Notes, Ch. 4,7 from [5]
13 Expert System Tools and Shells for Process Engineer-
ing
Critical evaluations of KBES tools such as KEE, ART,
LOOPS, KAS, EMYCIN etc. from the perspective of pro-
cess engineers
Ref: Notes, Ch. 8-10, 23-30 from [13], Ch. 9 from [6]
14 Projects presentation by students

REQUIRED TEXTBOOKS:
1. Waterman, D., A Guide to Expert Systems, Addison-Wesley
Pub., 1985
2. Brownston, L., et al, Programming Expert Systems in OPSS,
Addison-Wesley Pub., 1985.
3. Winston, P. H. and B. K. P. Horn, LISP, Second Edition, Addi-
son-Wesley Pub., 1984.


FALL 1986










handled by chemical engineering grad students fairly
well (this has been our experience). Courses that are
somewhat similar to our course are offered in com-
puter science departments in the country, often under
the title of "Knowledge-Based Expert Systems."
These courses, however, are typically aimed at com-
puter science students and do not discuss issues that
are of extreme importance to engineering students,
particularly chemical engineering students. By and
large the courses do not consider the developments
that have occurred in engineering disciplines, the dis-
cussion of which is more important and meaningful to
chemical engineers. Thus, such courses are not suit-
able from an engineering point of view. As the author
learned from this course, student understanding was
significantly facilitated through teaching with the aid
of examples from chemical engineering and exercises
involving typical process engineering problems. Such
a treatment is not, and cannot be, provided in a course
offered by a computer science department. The AIPE
course was offered for the first time in spring '86 to a
class of thirteen graduate students.
The organization of the lectures and the topics are
given in Table 1. Each lecture was 150 minutes long
(equivalent of three regular lecture hours) and was
delivered once a week. Since, at this time, there are
no books that appropriately address the contents of
this course, we relied heavily on lecture notes. The
three books listed as required texts at the end of the
table were used for about 50% of the course; the rest
of the course material was covered using relevant pa-
pers and lecture notes.

EXPERT SYSTEM PROJECTS

The students were instructed to develop a rule-
based expert system implemented in OPS5 for a pro-
cess engineering problem as a part of the course. The
development of the KBES was organized into six
phases, where in each phase the student tries to
achieve a small part of the complete system. The stu-
dents had about thirteen weeks (roughly a semester)
to perform this task. The phases are more or less syn-
chronous with the lecture materials, so that in at-
tempting to accomplish a particular phase the student
has been given the necessary background in the pre-
ceding lectures. Clearly these are not hard and fast
deadlines and requirements, and they can be relaxed
to some extent based on the individual's needs. How-
ever, we found them to be useful as they keep the
efforts somewhat focused and allow the system to be
developed in an incremental fashion, an important as-
pect of expert system development. These project
guidelines are given in Table 2.


TABLE 2
Project Guidelines
PHASE TIME SPAN
NO. IN WEEKS DESCRIPTION
1 2 Selection of a specific project with a
synopsis outlining what the expert sys-
tem is supposed to do (check with the
instructor before completing this
stage).
2 3 Classification and comparison of the
system with a similar system in the
literature. Sample rules, search
method, important details of the im-
plementation described.
3 3 Simple working prototype imple-
mented in OPS5. The report should
include a trace of the demo and the
code.
4 2 Medium scale working prototype in
OPS5 with search, inexact reasoning
method, roughly 50% of the knowledge
base implemented. Some rough form
of the explanation facility must also
be present.
5 2 Nearly finished working system;
mostly debugged. Only needs to be
fine tuned with improved user inter-
face and explanation facility, and
augmentation of the knowledge base.
6 1 Working, completed expert system.
Submit a full report describing the
system with its merits and demerits.
Include a copy of the code and a trace
of the demo.



SYNOPSES OF SOME OF THE PROJECTS

To give an idea about the content and the extent
of the student projects developed in this course, short
descriptions of some of them follow:
An expert system using model-based reasoning was de-
veloped by Steve Rich to troubleshoot prototypical chemi-
cal plants. The system uses concepts of qualitative physics
and reasons from first principles as opposed to most of the
typical diagnosis systems. Due to the model-based ap-
proach, the system has the flexibility to diagnose different
prototypical chemical plants that have the same processing
units but arranged in different flowsheet configurations.
The system has about 110 rules, and offers explanations at
four different levels of details.

A prototypical expert system that serves as a design consul-
tant for plastics selection, design and processing problems
was developed by C-F. Chen using the blackboard architec-
ture. The system has about 70 rules and 30 or so frames,
and uses a hybrid knowledge representation approach
using rules in OPS5 and frames in Framesmith [8].

An expert system for aiding pump selection was developed
by Ivan Salgo using a backward chaining inference engine.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The system has about 150 rules. It knows about 20 types of
pumps, 8 drive types and 40 different materials of construc-
tion.
Karen Zilora developed an expert system for troubleshoot-
ing a fluidized catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) that is in
operation in an Exxon plant. The knowledge base was con-
structed through interviews with a catalytic cracking pro-
cess engineer and from the Exxon FCCU Operations
Guide. The expert system has about 105 production rules,
of which 30 or so are concerned with the inference engine
and the explanation facilities. The system knows about 27
different faults, their symptoms and cures. The expert sys-
tem uses a backward reasoning approach.
Mike Hill developed an expert system that assists in es-
timating viscosities of gaseous mixtures by using appropri-
ate quantitative methods depending on the characteristics
of the mixture. This system has about 70 rules. The ap-
proach here is similar to that of CONPHYDE [3], which is
an expert system that recommends an appropriate equation
of state or an activity coefficient method depending on the
mixture properties and operating conditions.
A prototypical expert system for agitator selection for reac-
tors was developed by B-W. Yang using a combination of
forward and backward reasoning strategies. The system
has about 130 rules.

It must be remembered that most of these systems
are prototypes, limited in their performance due to
the relatively small amount of knowledge they pos-
sess-typically about 50-70 rules of domain knowl-
edge; the rest of the rules are for the inference engine
(about 25 rules) and for the help and explanation
facilities (about 20 rules or so). These are, of course,
only approximate figures. Within the extent of their
knowledge the systems perform well. The perfor-
mance can be improved substantially by providing the
systems with more knowledge, inexact reasoning
techniques, etc., which would lead to the development
of full-scale systems in their domains. This, of course,
would involve more time (typically one year or more)
and effort. The purpose of the course was not to de-
sign full-scale systems, but to teach the students
about the KBES methodology by making them
develop prototypes.

CONCLUSIONS
In the preceding sections I discussed the structure
and content of a new course that was taught to chem-
ical engineering graduate students at Columbia Uni-
versity in the spring of 1986. This course addresses
an emerging need to train chemical engineers in the
use of symbolic, knowledge-based programming
methodologies that will play a crucial role in process
engineering in the future. In the AIPE course chemi-
cal engineering students were taught the inter-disci-
plinary area of artificial intelligence and process en-


gineering using examples and exercises from process
engineering. This approach is more appropriate and
meaningful to chemical engineers than learning from
a computer science point of view. The students, as a
part of the requirement, developed prototypical ex-
pert systems in many areas of process engineering
using the rule-based programming language called
OPS5, which has been used in many important expert
systems such as XCON [13]. Many interesting and
competent prototypes were successfully developed.
The lack of an appropriate text in this area was felt
very much, and we had to improvise by using existing
texts and papers from the current literature. By and
large this experimental course turned out to be suc-
cessful and will be continued to be offered once a year.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The course would not have been a success without
the enthusiastic support of my colleagues, who also
skillfully managed the administrative and political is-
sues regarding this course. Specifically I would like to
thank Huk-Yuk Cheh, Jordan Spencer and Juan
Asenjo for their efforts. Another important group of
people who were also responsible for the course's suc-
cess is the set of chemical engineering graduate stu-
dents who took the course, served as experimental
subjects, asked interesting questions, energetically
developed the expert systems and made the course
truly enjoyable. I am grateful to them. Thanks are
also due to Mark Kennedy and Tom Chow of the Col-
umbia Computer Center who made computer related
administration a lot easier by their support. I would
also like to thank G. Prokopakis for his valuable com-
ments on the manuscript.
REFERENCES
1. Banares-Alcantara, Rene, "DECADE: Design Expert for
CAtalyst DEvelopment," PhD thesis, Chemical Engineering
Department. Carnegie-Mellon University, Feb, 1986.
2. Banares-Alcantara, R., D. Sriram, V. Venkatasubramanian,
A. Westerberg, M. Rychener, "Knowledge-Based Expert
Systems for CAD," Chemical Engineering Progress 81(9):25-
30, September, 1985.
3. Banares-Alcantara, Rene, W. Arthur Westerberg, D. Michael
Rychener, "Development of an Expert System for Physical
Property Predicitions," Computers & Chemical Engineering
9(2):127-142, 1985.
4. Barr, A. and E. A. Feigenbaum, Eds., The Handbook of Ar-
tificial Intelligence, Heuris Tech Press, Stanford, CA, 1983.
5. Bobrow, D. G., Ed., Qualitative Reasoning about Physical
Systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985
6. Brownston, L., R. Farrel, E. Kant, N. Martin, Programming
Expert Systems in OPS5. An Introduction to Rule-Based
Programming, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.,
Reading, MA, 1985.
7. Buchanan, B. G. and E. H. Shortliffe, Eds., Rule Based Ex-
pert Systems, Addison-Wesley Publishers, Reading, MA,
1984.


FALL 1986








8. Bushnell, Michael L., "The Framesmith Manual," Depart-
ment of Electrical Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University,
PA, 1985. Carnegie-Mellon limited distribution version.
9. Fikes, Richard and Tom Kehler, "The Role of Frame-Based
Representation in Reasoning," Communications of the ACM
28(9):904-920, September, 1985.
10. Hayes-Roth, Barbara. "The Blackboard Architecture: A Gen-
eral Framework for Problem Solving?", Heuristic Program-
ming Project Report No. HPP-83-30, Computer Science De-
partment, Stanford University, May, 1983.
11. Rich, E., Artificial Intelligence, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New
York, NY, 1983.
12. Venkatasubramanian, V. and C-F Chen, "A Blackboard Ap-
proach to Plastics Design," Technical Report No. IPEL-86-01,
Intelligent Process Engineering Laboratory, Department of
Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY
10027, 1986.
13. Waterman, D., A Guide to Expert Systems. Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Reading, MA, 1985.
14. Winston, P. H. and B. K. P. Horn, LISP. Addison-Wesley
Publishing Co., Reading, MA., 1984. 0]


RESEARCH: Artificial Intelligence
Continued from page 185.

information. Nevertheless, it can be upgraded and
used within the context of specific problems. Thus
Accumulated data from past process designs (implemented
in real life or not) can be upgraded to reveal the underlin-
ing patterns present in all similar flowsheets, as well as
the sources of difference among different flowsheets.
Analogous pattern recognition could reveal rules aiding
the synthesis of control structures for complete plants.
Extensive data on vapor-liquid, vapor-liquid-liquid equilib-
ria (e.g. DECHEMA series of experimental data) could
be used to identify patterns between molecular structure
and infinite dilution activity coefficients, etc.
Therefore, the new prototype of an intelligent system
should contain rudimentary capabilities of "learning"
through a pattern recognition facility among large sets
of accumulated data.

EPILOG
Artificial intelligence is expanding the scope of our
problems and is enriching our capabilities to deliver
viable solutions to otherwise hard and resistant prob-
lems. At the same time it is introducing new educa-
tional challenges that the research program at the
MIT-LISPE is attempting to address and which are
related to the computer-aided character of chemical
process engineering, the rationalization of the man-
machine interaction, and the role of fundamental sci-
ence in engineering. Our research so far has produced
more questions than it has answers, but the intellec-
tual excitement and practical relevance have just
started to permeate the programs of graduate re-
search in chemical engineering.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The research program described above is the work
of, and rests completely on the efforts of, my graduate
students: Kevin Joback, Charles Siletti, Michael Mav-
rovouniotis, Jim Johnston, Rama Lakshmanan, Theo-
dore Kritikos, Nikos Valkanas, Jarvis Cheung and
John Calandranis, whose dedication is making
"things" possible. [


RESEARCH LANDMARKS
Continued from page 173.
to become more expert in surface physics, continuum
mechanics, microbiology, biochemistry, large
molecule chemistry, and other things I wish I could
predict. We must change our educational perspective
to include new things. For years, ever since I was a
freshman in 1933, we have trained students as if they
all were going to work for the DuPont Company. This
was appropriate. The principles are no different for
the future than they were for the past but we must
find a new way to talk about chemical engineering if
students are to be re-excited. We in chemical en-
gineering have a marked advantage over all other en-
gineers-we are the only ones who know anything
about chemistry-an advantage we should work on
diligently to parlay into future success.
When I was a young chap at Minnesota there were
almost as large a number of students in the metallurgy
department as there were undergraduates in chemical
engineering. Not long after that, metallurgy disap-
peared as an undergraduate discipline and it took al-
most twenty-five years for materials science to
emerge from the metallurgy grave. We must be sure
that we do not allow a similar fate to befall chemical
engineers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. W.Z. Nusselt, Ver. Deut. Ing. 68, 124 (1924)
2. S. P. Burke and T. E. W. Schumann, Ind. and Eng. Che. 23,
406 (1931)
3. S. P. Burke and T. E. W. Schumann, Proc. International
Conf. on Bit. Coal 2, 485 (1932)
4. R. B. MacMullin and M. Weber, Jr., Trans. Am. Inst. Chem.
Eng. 31, 409 (1935)
5. Kenneth G. Denbigh, Trans. Far. Soc. 40, 352 (1944)
6. Kenneth G. Denbigh, Trans. Far. Soc. 43, 648 (1947)
7. K. G. Denbigh, Margaret Hecks, and F. M. Page, Trans.
Far. Soc. 43, 479 (1947)
8. K. G. Denbigh, J. Applied Chem. 1, 227 (1951)
9. E. W. Thiele, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 31, 916 (1939)
10. Gerhard Damkohler, Z. phys. Chem. A193, 16 (1943)
11. C. Wagner, Z. phys. Chem. A193, 1 (1943)
12. Y. B. Zeldovich, Acta Phys. chim. URSS 10, 583 (1939)
13. W. L. McCabe and E. W. Thiele, Ind. Eng. Chem. 17, 605
(1925)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










14. E. W. Thiele and R. L. Geddes, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 25, 289
(1933)
15. T. E. W. Schumann, J. Franklin Institute 208, 405 (1929)
16. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 42, 846 (1936)
17. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 43, 1 (1937)
18. Gerhard Damkohler, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 43, 8 (1937)
19. G. Damkohler and G. Delcher, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 44, 193
(1938)
20. G. Damkohler and G. Delcher, Zeit. fur Elektrochemie 44, 228
(1938)
21. R. H. Wilhelm and Robert A. Bernard, Chem. Eng. Prog. 46,
233 (1950)
22. R. H. Wilhelm and P. F. Deisler, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 45,
1219 (1953)
23. R. H. Wilhelm and Keith M. McHenry, AlChE J. 3, 83 (1957)
24. J. W. Hiby, Symposium on the Interaction between Fluids
and Particles, Paper C71, London, June 1962
25. P. V. Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 2, 1 (1953)
26. Irving Langmuir, Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. XXX, 55 (1908)
27. P. V. Danckwerts, Trans. Far. Soc. 46, 701 (1950)
28. P. V. Danckwerts, Ind. Eng. Chem. 43, 1460 (1951)
29. P.V. Danckwerts, Appl. Sci. Res. A3, 385 (1953)
30. D.Roberts and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 17, 961
(1962)
31. P. V. Danckwerts, A. M. Kennedy and D. Roberts, Chem.
Eng. Sci. 18, 63 (1963)
32. C. M. Richards, G. A. Ratcliff and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem.
Eng. Sci. 19, 325 (1964)
33. M. M. Sharma and P. V. Danckwerts, Chem. Eng. Sci. 18,
729 (1963)
34. P. V. Danckwerts, Gas-Liquid Reactions, McGraw Hill, 1970
35. Thomas B. Drew, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. 26, 26 (1931)
36. G. I. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. A219, 186 (1954)
37. G. I. Taylor, Proc. Roy. Soc. A219, 446 (1954)
38. A. P. Colburn, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. 29, 174 (1933)
39. T. H. Chilton and A. P. Colburn, Ind. Eng. Chem. 26 1183
(1934)
40. W. R. Marshall and R. L. Pigford, Application of Differential
Equations to Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Delaware
Press, 1947
41. Wm. H. McAdams, Heat Transmission, McGraw Hill (1942) D


REVIEW: Grad Education
Continued from page 181.

Engineering Education (Goals Study). The present
study summarizes the data from these reports and
updates this information to 1983 with many informa-
tive tables and graphs. For example, information in
this survey includes the BS, MS, and PhD degrees
awarded in engineering since 1950, the most recent
engineering degrees by field and level, the PhD em-
ployment of engineers since 1960, the number of
foreign born awarded advanced degrees in engineer-
ing since 1970, the changes in the student-to-faculty
ratios over the last decade, the average monthly
salaries offered to new engineering graduates by field
since 1965, the women and minorities obtaining de-
grees in engineering since 1978, the average research
investment per PhD degree for the top thirty ad-


FALL 1986


vanced degree granting institutions, and a comparison
of the weekly professional activity of engineering re-
search faculty with those of other disciplines. The
gathering of these data in one place makes the mono-
graph a valuable reference for all educational scholars
and policy makers.
The data in this study are used to predict the
number of PhDs that will be awarded in engineering
during the 1983-88 time period. The conclusion from
such a prediction is that on the average an additional
100 engineering PhDs will be awarded annually during
this period and that this will be insufficient to fill the
present faculty vacancies in engineering as well as re-
store the student-to-faculty ratio that existed back in
1976. The study argues that the latter is necessary if
the United States is to meet the increasing competi-
tion from those foreign nations where the productivity
growth has surpassed that of this nation during the
past decade. Additionally, the study notes that each
engineering discipline is facing many new challenges,
some of which will be difficult to meet with the present
number of overloaded faculty and deteriorating
facilities, particularly when interdisciplinary aspects
are involved.
Based on this premise, the study makes several
recommendations. Not surprisingly, these recommen-
dations are similar to ones voiced by many concerned
engineering educators for close to a decade. Many of
these individuals would agree that the number of U.S.
citizens pursuing doctorate work needs to be in-
creased (the study suggests 1000 additional students
per year), the graduate stipends need to be increased
to make graduate study more attractive, the facilities
and equipment for research need to be upgraded,
more minorities and women are needed in the
graduate engineering program, stronger ties need to
be developed between industry and engineering edu-
cation, and a stronger MS program needs to be avail-
able for part-time industrial students to aid in main-
taining their engineering competency. The study
suggests that the Federal government, universities,
and industry provide the necessary assistance where
most appropriate.
Sadly, no new mechanisms or strategies are of-
fered to make the needed inroads on these long-stand-
ing problems. There is little evidence provided to con-
vince policy makers that the solution of these prob-
lems will once again make the United States competi-
tive with other nations and reverse the present stag-
gering trade deficits. In short, the study is a good
summary of what has happened in engineering educa-
tion over the past three decades, but it presents very
few innovative ideas as to how the situation can be
improved and the required investments justified. D

193










IRBweaaol ia

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND

INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

MURRAY MOO-YOUNG
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING IS the application of
biological and chemical engineering principles in
the development and implementation of bio-process
systems [1]. As such, it is the handmaiden of industrial
biotechnology whereby these systems are put into
commercial practice for the production of goods and
services [2]. It is predicted that biotechnology will
trigger the next industrial revolution [3] and that,
within the next decade, more than 25% of new chem-
ical engineering graduates will be involved in
biotechnology-related activities [4]. These predictions
are based on the current use and future potential of
genetic manipulative techniques and biochemical en-
gineering in the development of new and improved
processes and products [5].
The following sketch of Waterloo's programs in
biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology
highlights its graduate courses, its research activities
and its technology transfer mechanism.

WATERLOO CONNECTIONS
For many years the University of Waterloo has
been a pioneer in high-tech areas including micro-elec-
tronics, computer software, robotics, CAD/CAM and
biotechnology. Last year, the Wall Street Journal fea-
tured it as the top computer school in North America,
ahead of MIT and Stanford. In biotechnology, Water-
loo has one of the oldest and largest programs in
North America [6,7]. Started in 1966, the graduate
program now involves 39 researchers, consisting of 7
of the 31 chemical engineering faculty members (see
Table 1), 17 graduate students, 5 technicians, and 10
TABLE 1
ChE Faculty Members Involved In
Biotech-Related Research
G. J. Farquhar, PhD (Wisconsin)
R. Y. M. Huang, PhD (Toronto)
R. L. Legge, PhD (Waterloo)
M. Moo-Young, PhD (London)
C. W. Robinson, PhD (UC Berkeley)
J. M. Scharer, PhD (Pennsylvania)
G. R. Sullivan, PhD (London)


Murray Moo-Young is a professor of chemical engineering and di-
rector of the Industrial Biotechnology Centre at Waterloo. He was edu-
cated at the universities of London (BSc, PhD), Toronto (MASc) and
Edinburgh (postdoctorate). An active consultant worldwide, he is the
chief editor of Comprehensive Biotechnology, a multi-volume refer-
ence treatise, and Biotechnology Advances, an international review
journal.

postdoctoral fellows, visiting scholars and research as-
sociates, in addition to collaborating faculty in the biol-
ogy and chemistry departments. Waterloo is the first
North American university to introduce a biotechnol-
ogy core course in its chemical engineering program,
which graduates about 100 students annually.
In order to encourage the development of appro-
priate multidisciplinary "critical masses" in our
biotech research, the activities have been incorpo-
rated into a research consortium, Guelph-Waterloo
Biotech (GWB), which combines the resources of
Waterloo with those at the neighboring University
of Guelph. At present, the consortium has 103 faculty
members who belong to one or more of four con-
stituent units: animal, industrial, microbial and plant
biotech centres. Biochemical engineering research is
under the general umbrella of the Industrial
Biotechnology Centre (IBC), which is administra-
tively located in the Waterloo chemical engineering
department. The synergistic co-operation between
several departments at the two universities has con-
siderably expanded the versatility and comprehen-
siveness of our programs.
IBC has about thirty faculty members represent-
OCopyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










S. to encourage the development of appropriate multidisciplinary "critical masses" in our biotech research,
the activities have been incorporated into a research consortium . .which combines the resources of
Waterloo with those at the . University of Guelph. At present, the consortium has 103 faculty members.


ing 20% biological, 20% chemical, and 60% engineer-
ing-base expertise, and a rough 75/25 split between
Waterloo and Guelph. Major aims of IBC include
promotion of collaborative research among its faculty
members and the provision of "windows" on biotech
advances to GWB industrial affiliate members. Within
its first year of operation, GWB has already signed up
two European and three North American companies:
Rhone-Poulenc, Drogocco, Liquid Air, Monsanto, and
Allelix.

COURSES
Various courses are offered in biotechnology/
biochemical engineering, and brief descriptions of
these courses are given below. Except for the last
course listed, all courses are given on a regular basis,
annually. Throughout these courses, students are con-
stantly reminded of the necessary multidisciplinary
nature of biotechnology. It is noteworthy that
graduates of honours non-chemical engineering tech-
nical programs are admitted to our programs provided
they successfully complete a "qualifying" program of
a pre-arranged set of courses usually lasting for one
to two years of study.
Introduction to Biotechnology Biological sys-
tems for the production of commercial goods and ser-
vices. Properties of microbial, plant and animal cells,
and of enzymes used in bioprocess applications. Class-
ification and characterization of biological agents and
materials. Quantification of metabolism, biokinetics,
bioenergetics. Elementary aspects of molecular biol-
ogy, genetic engineering, biochemistry, microbiology.
(The material is based on Reference 8.)
Fermentation Engineering Application of pro-
cess engineering principles to the design and opera-
tion of fermentation reactors which are widely used in
the pharmaceutical, food, brewing and waste treat-
ment industries. Aspects of mass transfer, heat trans-
fer, mixing and rheology with biochemical and biolog-
ical constraints. (The material is based on References
8,9.)
Food Process Engineering Applications of un-
steady and steady-state heat and/or mass transfer op-
erations to processing natural and texturized foods.
Design and analysis of sterilization, low-temperature
preservation, concentration, separation and purifica-
tion processes. Effects of formulation, additives and
processing on organoleptic and nutritional quality.


Gene Splicing? Cell Fusion? Mutation? Natural?
(Cell-Free Organelles?) Free? Imobilized?
(Whole-Cell Mtabolism?)
A Repression' Enzymes Inhibition? Po c
Induction? Activation?
SCell-Bound?
Soluble? Excreted?
Insoluble?

Upstream ioreactor Do Products
Materials Processin Medium Processin- ByProducts
Batch? Semi-Continuous? Continuous?
Well-Mixed? Dispersed Plug-Flow? Plug flow?
FIGURE 1. Bioreactor heart in industrial biotechnology:
Biology selects it, biochemical engineering determines
its performance.

(The material is based on Reference 10.)
Principles of Biochemical Engineering Aspects
of mass-transfer, heat-transfer, fluid flow, cell growth
and enzyme kinetics related to the design of biological
process equipment. Fermentations, sterilization
techniques, specialized extraction methods, im-
mobilized-enzyme reactor design. (The material is
based on Reference 11.)
Advances in Biochemical Engineering Design
and control of continuous-flow processes for biological
systems. Exploration of new methods of producing
materials for food and medicinal purposes and of treat-
ing effluents. (The material is based on the current
literature.)
Selected Topics in Biotechnology Various
courses deemed necessary at intervals. (The material
is based on References 12, 13 and the current litera-
ture.)
CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
A wide range of research projects is conducted in
bioprocess and bioproduct developments. As indicated
in Table 2 and Figure 1, we address problems involv-
ing principles and applications of a theoretical and ex-
perimental nature. In addition to the usual research
facilities, we are well equipped with computers and a
range of pilot-plants including a versatile 1,300-litre
fermentation unit (the largest of its kind at a North
American university) which is capable of various
modes of operation (batch, fed-batch, continuous; stir-
red tank, air-lift). These facilities are available for
graduate studies and contract research. Brief descrip-
tions of a representative sample of our current re-
search projects follow.


FALL 1986











Transport Processes in Bioreactors
In this ongoing megaproject, multiphase contact-
ing is used to promote transport processes for biocon-
version. Novel contacting devices (recirculation loops,
scraped tubes, packed beds) are being developed and
compared to conventional stirred tanks and bubble
columns for Newtonian and non-Newtonian systems.
Transport phenomena and process control are the key
elements of study.
Codeine Production
Medically important morphine alkaloids such as
codeine are normally obtained from opium poppy cul-
tivated in countries with fairly tenuous governments
from which Canada (and the USA) import virtually all
their supplies. Work is in progress on a bioreactor
battery of immobilized enzymes derived from micro-
bial and plant tissue cultures whereby readily avail-
able chemical feedstocks are converted into inter-
mediates which are then chemically transformed to
codeine.
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies
Animal cells in culture have the potential to be a
source of macromolecules for diagnostic, therapeutic
and processing applications. To address commercial
scale production concerns, we are designing fully in-
strumented, computer-controlled, robust bioreactors
for growing hybridomona cells in the production of
monoclonal antibodies. Initially, MAb's with specific-
ity against a cellulase complex enzyme antigen are
being used as a model test system.
MBP Production
Agricultural and forestry residues represent po-
tentially valuable renewable resources for fermenta-
tion processes which can be used to produce edible
protein-rich microbial biomass products (MBP) for


animal feed or human food. We are developing novel
MBP processes which are based on the aerobic mass
cultivation of yeasts and fungi. Computer process
simulations, pilot plant evaluations and animal feeding
trials are being used to test techno-economic scenarios
for both developed and developing countries.
Ethanol Production
A continuous-flow, packed-bed bioreactor based on
surface-immobilized yeasts attached to inexpensive
wood chips has been developed, modelled and tested
for the fermentation of hexose sugars. Stable opera-
tion has been achieved at productivities comparable
to or greater than any previously reported. A process
for fermenting enzymatically-transformed pentose
sugars, another component of cellulosics, using the
same yeasts is under investigation for possible process
integration.
Anaerobic Digestion
The use of organic wastes is being tested for the
production of energy (methane) and organic chemicals
(fatty acids) under both mesophilic and thermophilic
conditions. Bioreactor studies include continuous and
intermittently-stirred tanks and fixed-film trickle
beds. Performance is evaluated for retention time,
loading rate, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and several
physico-chemical parameters.

Biomass Pretreatment
A techno-economic comparison is made of existing
and potential chemical and biochemical strategies for
cellulosic biomass utilization in the production of fer-
mentation feedstocks suitable for replacing or supple-
menting traditional substrates, e.g., molasses, starch.
In particular, cellulosic materials generated as paper-
pulp mill sludge and wood remnants are being studied.


TABLE 2
Current Research Areas in Biotechnology/Biochemical Engineering
BIOREACTOR DESIGN PRODUCT TYPES BI
mass transfer SCP/MBP
heat transfer 0 alcohols
mixing methane
stirred tanks 0 organic acids
air lifts 0 enzymes
packed beds biopolymers
biokinetcs 0 monoclonal antibodies
bio-immobilization 0 morphinans


BIOCONVERSION AGENT
microbial cells
plant cells
Animal cells
rDNA cells
hybridoma cells
psychrophiles
thermophiles
& enzymes


FEI


INSTRUMENTATION
computer control
biosensors
data logging
modelling
product assays
economic analysis
CAD/CAM


PROCESSING TECHNIQUES
* hydrolysis
* sterilization
* membrane separations
* chromatography
* flotation
* drying
* cell disruption

EDSTOCK TYPES
* cellulosics
* starches
* sugars
* oils
* forestry biomass
* agricultural biomass
* biomass pulps
* xenobiotics


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Additional benefit in reduced disposal costs and en-
vironmental pollution control may be realized.
Desulphurization of Petroleum Crudes
Conventional physiochemical desulphurization
methods would add a prohibitive $10+ per barrel to
the cost of producing fuel oil from crudes containing
3% or more sulphur. We are evaluating the
technoeconomic potential of biotechnology processes
for upgrading bitumen and heavy oils in a Canadian
environment in terms of microbial desulphurization,
demetallization and viscosity reduction.
Delaying Fruit Ripening
This project is focused on increasing our under-
standing of the physiological mechanisms underlying
fruit ripening as well as chilling injury sustained dur-
ing low temperature storage. Using this information,
we wish to develop suitable treatment and/or contain-
ment strategies for extending the storage life of chil-
ling-sensitive fruits such as tomatoes.
Lignocellulosic Materials
Various approaches are being taken to scale up the
production of microbial cellulose and to alter its phys-
ical characteristics during the process in an attempt
to develop unique products. In addition, various white
rot fungi, which are capable of lignin degradation, are
being studied to produce ligninases. These are ear-
marked for use in the production of more fermentable
feedstocks and for biobleaching.
Disruption of Microbial Cells
Microbial products such as intracellular proteins
and hormones require cell wall disruption for recov-
ery. Little or no information is currently available to
allow rational design of large-scale cell disruption de-
vices. Cell wall disruption is being studied in a high-
pressure capillary-flow device producing stresses of
known type and magnitude. Various cell types (bac-
teria, yeast, algae) are being studied.
rDNA Downstream Processing
Studies are currently in progress to optimize an
integrated 8-step process involving fermentation, re-
covery and purification for the production of protein
gene products based on rDNA technology. Investiga-
tion of a unique continuous fermentation strategy
which, by operating at different temperatures in each
stage, will result in maximum expression of the pro-
teins, forms a key part of this study. It is expected
that the results will produce an overall optimized pro-
cess model which has general applicability.
Separation Membranes
In fermentation technology, improved down-
stream processing techniques are required for the re-
covery and purification of intracellular bioproducts.


We are synthesizing and testing a steam-sterilizable
polymeric thin-film composite-membrane micro-filtra-
tion system, conceptualized for the separation of
whole single cells (bacterial and yeast) and of cell de-
bris (after cell disruption) from fermentation broths
without undue damage of protein products left in the
liquid fraction required for further processing refine-
ment.
Biological Waste Management
This is a multi-faceted project. One aspect involves
examination of some unique microbial systems as po-
tentials for breaking down recalcitrant pollutants such
as polychlorinated compounds as found in landfills.
Another aspect deals with dynamic modelling of the
activated sludge process for handling inlet perturba-
tions of xenobiotics. Finally, a major aspect deals with
microbial regeneration of activated carbon often used
for the adsorptive removal of water contaminants in
industrial effluents, e.g. phenols, aromatics.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
The sheer size of the Waterloo programs allows us
to cover a full range of graduate interest in biochemi-
cal engineering and industrial biotechnology. This
comprehensive multidisciplinary mileau is rare in
chemical engineering departments. We hold an envi-
able record of technology transfer via the Waterloo
Centre for Process Development (WCPD) (also lo-
cated in our department) and through Waterloo-
trained personnel in virtually every major organiza-
tion involved in biotechnology in Canada, and in parts
of the USA, Europe and Japan.
REFERENCES
1. M. Moo-Young, "Biochemical Engineering" in Encyclopedia
of Science and Technology, McGraw-Hill (1986)
2. E. L. Gaden, "What is Biochemical Engineering?" in Ad-
vances in Biotechnology, Moo-Young, et al (Eds.), Vol I, Per-
gamon (1981)
3. J. Naisbitt, Megatrends, Warner (1984)
4. A. E. Humphrey, "Biotechnology in the Next Decade," CEP
(1984)
5. OTA/U.S. Congress, Commercial Biotechnology, Pergamon
(1984)
6. M. Moo-Young, "Biochemical Engineering Programs," CEE
(1978)
7. AIChE Faculty Directory (1985)
8. J. E. Bailey and D. F. Ollis, Biochemical Engineering Funda-
mentals, McGraw-Hill (1986)
9. S. Aiba, et al, Biochemical Engineering, Academic (1979)
10. C. W. Robinson, Personal Notes, Univ. of Waterloo
11. M. Moo-Young, et al (Eds.), Comprehensive Biotechnology,
Pergamon (1985)
12. Moo-Young, et al (Eds.), Advances in Biotechnology, Perga-
mon (1981)
13. D. I. C. Wang, et al, Fermentation and Enzyme Technology,
Wiley (1983) []


FALL 1986











Redeach oam


CHARACTERIZATION OF POWDERS AND

POROUS MATERIALS


ABHAYA K. DATYE, DOUGLAS M. SMITH,
FRANK L. WILLIAMS
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131

MANY RESEARCH opportunities for chemical en-
gineers in high technology materials center
around the relationships between the voids and the
solids that are an inevitable part of powders and
granular materials. Ceramics with a wide range of ap-
plications are formed by sintering a mixture of pow-
ders or porous particles. Creation of pores at the sur-
face of a single crystal of silicon and subsequent oxida-
tion can be used to provide vertical isolation for VLSI
devices. In heterogeneous catalysts, reactant
molecules must diffuse through the intricate pore
structure of an oxide material to reach the active sites.
The isolation of radioactive or chemical wastes de-
pends on the permeability of the geologic formation
and any near-field, man-made barriers. What is im-
portant to each of these applications are properties
such as pore shape, pore size distribution, particle
size, and structure of individual particles in the porous
matrix. It is interesting to note that these application
areas extend from traditional chemical engineering
areas to high-tech ceramics and microelectronics. The
Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory at the
University of New Mexico was created as an interdis-
ciplinary activity to support research efforts in a wide
range of areas for which powder and porous material
characterization is of interest. In addition to serving
as a central facility for characterization work, the lab-
oratory is expected to spur the development of new
characterization technologies.
A number of faculty at the University of New
Mexico have research interests in areas associated
with the application of porous materials technology.
In the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Mohsen Shahinpoor has an interest in characterizing
the contacts made by particles in a bed. This is impor-
tant to a number of engineering problems such as pow-
der storage, packing and flow. In the Department of
Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, A. Datye, R.
OCopyright ChE Dirision ASEE 1986


Although research has been conducted on
porous materials for a number of years by Professors
Mead, Nuttall and Williams, it was in 1984 that
S. Datye, Shahinpoor, and Smith joined the
UNM faculty.


Mead, E. Nuttall, D. Smith, and F. Williams have an
ongoing interest in areas such as catalysis, transport
phenomena, energy research and materials science. A
common requirement in each of these programs is to
characterize porous materials. Although no one re-
search effort is large enough to support the equipment
and manpower necessary to provide a complete
characterization facility, by pooling resources we have
been able to establish a state-of-the-art laboratory.
This provides a sufficient user base to fully utilize the
various characterization technologies and enables the
laboratory to have trained personnel for each instru-
ment. By training undergraduate students in their
junior year to operate the laboratory's equipment, we
can provide at least two-year continuity, help them to
fund their education, provide an exposure to research,
and motivate them to go on to graduate school. On the
other hand, this approach frees up the time of
graduate students which can then be devoted to their
individual research projects.
Although research has been conducted on porous
materials (primarily coal, oil shale, catalyst supports)
for a number of years by Professors Mead, Nuttall
and Williams, it was in 1984 that three new faculty
(Datye, Shahinpoor, Smith) joined the UNM faculty.
With the research projects and equipment that was
brought from their former schools, a critical mass was
in place with the resources (i.e., funding, equipment,
students) to operate a large central research labora-
tory.
After a short period of time, the need for this type
of facility became apparent to other people within the
university, local industry and the National
Laboratories in New Mexico (Sandia and Los
Alamos). This has led to a number of funded, col-
laborative research projects. It also furnishes an op-
portunity for our undergraduate and graduate stu-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











dents to benefit from exposure to a broader scientific
community. The broad experience that students are
exposed to provides more information that will aid in
future employment/career decisions. Students
graduating from our program have, in some cases,
continued their research by gaining employment with
the sponsoring agencies.
FACILITIES

During the first two years of the laboratory's for-
mal operation, equipment/instrumentation for fairly
complete state-of-the-art characterization was ob-
tained. Sources of this equipment include previous re-
search projects, funding from DOE and NSF, State
bond issues, and donated equipment from Sandia and
Los Alamos National Laboratories. Properties of pow-
ders and porous materials which we can study by a
variety of techniques include

Mean pore size and pore size distribution
Particle size, size distribution and shape analysis
Pore shape, tortuosity, formation factor, pore connectivity
Specific chemisorptionn) and total surface area
True and apparent density
Diffusivity (Knudsen, surface, etc.), permeability
Adsorption parameters
Coordination number, distribution of coordination number

A general listing of laboratory equipment is pre-
sented in Table 1. Also included is instrumentation
located in other departments on campus which we can
readily access. A complete range of sample pretreat-
ment and preparation equipment is available. In addi-
tion to characterization instrumentation, we have
facilities for powder synthesis (both vapor phase and
wet-chemistry), surface modification, and sintering.
Experiment control, data acquisition and data re-
duction in the laboratory is accomplished with a


TABLE 1
Laboratory Facilities and Equipment

Autoscan-33 mercury porosimeter (0-33,000 psia)
Quantasorb flow-type surface area analyzer
Quantector multiple station outgassing instrument
Spin-lock 20 MHz pulse NMR
Quantimet 720 image analyzer
Volumetric chemisorption apparatus
Dupont 990 thermal analyzer (TGA/DTA)
Micropycnometer for helium density determination
Flow permeation apparatus
Hydrodynamic chromatograph
Wicke-Kallenbach diffusion cell
Chromatographic determination of diffusion/adsorption
parameters
Cahn microbalance for sorption measurements
JEOL 100-B TEM'
Hitachi S-450 SEM'
JEOL 2000-FX TEM2
X-ray diffraction2
General Electric GN-300 300 MHz NMR3

'College of Engineering:
'Department of Geology:
3UNM Center for Non-Invasive Diagnosis:


number of computers including a IBM CS-9000, a
DEC PDP-11/03, and several HP-85's. Extensive cal-
culations may be conducted on the department's
Ridge-32 computer or the university's VAX-8650
super mini-computer. For very large scale calcula-
tions, access to the CRAY supercomputers at Sandia
and Los Alamos National Laboratories is possible. A
complete range of microcomputers, graphics terminals
and plotters is available for use by graduate students.

CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS
In the area of catalysis, the ability to determine
BET surface area, pore volumes and pore size distri-


Abhaya Datye received his
BTech degree from the Indian Insti-
tute of Technology, Bombay, and
spent three years in industry work-
ing in the areas of process design l
and development. He received his
MS and PhD degrees from the Uni- ,
versity of Cincinnati and the Uni-
versity of Michigan, respectively.
His research interests include
heterogeneous catalysis, materials
characterization and electron ,
microscopy of VLSI devices. (L)
Douglas'Smith is associate pro- rm '
fessor of chemical engineering and
co-director of the UNM Powders and Granular Materials Laboratory at
the University of New Mexico. He received his BS and MS degrees from
Clarkson College of Technology and his PhD from the University of
New Mexico. Current active research programs include porous mater-
ials characterization, microparticle synthesis, NMR imaging of porous
materials and transport phenomena in porous materials. (C)


Frank Williams is professor and chairman of chemical engineering
at the University of New Mexico. He received his BS degree from North
western University and his MS and PhD degrees from Stanford Univer
sity. His research interests are in the areas of shock wave induced
synthesis and enhanced catalytic activity of materials and the charac-
terization of the physical structure and diffusion in coal. (R)


FALL 1986









bution is very useful. One project under way in the
laboratory is in the area of metal-support interactions.
Professor Datye is using submicron-sized oxide parti-
cles as model supports for heterogeneous catalysts.
The surface structure and chemistry of these particles
is much easier to understand than that of conventional
supports used for heterogeneous catalysts [1]. An ad-
ditional advantage is that the metal crystallites can be
imaged "edge-on" so that the three-dimensional struc-
ture of these metal particles can be seen in unpre-
cedented detail. Figure 1 shows an electron micro-
graph of ruthenium metal crystallites supported on
model MgO support. The support in this case is
formed simply by burning Mg ribbon in air, and it
consists of almost perfect cubes with exposed {100}
surfaces. Another project that Professor Datye is
working on involves a study of pore size and structure
in porous silicon. This is important for device applica-
tions where one is interested in forming an island of
perfect Si on SiO2.
In addition to Professor Datye's interest in produc-
ing metal oxide particles for model catalyst supports,
Professor Smith's students have been fabricating uni-
form, sub-micron metal oxide spheres of very narrow
size distributions via wet chemistry methods. The
high degree of shape and size uniformity is illustrated
in Figure 2 for silica spheres with a mean diameter of
130 nm. By pelleting these spheres, a model porous
media is obtained with the same well-defined pore size
and shape as observed in random packing of uniform
spheres. This type of solid is of interest since many
agglomerated materials such as catalyst supports and
ceramic green-bodies have similar structure. Our


FIGURE 1. Burning magnesium wire in air produces
magnesium oxide with almost perfect crystal faces.
(Marker = 1Onm)


model porous solids are used for assessing pore size
measurement techniques, for the study of transport
phenomena in porous media and for the study of sin-
tering mechanisms.
Conventional analysis of mercury porosimetry
data for agglomerated materials may indicate a
bimodal pore size distribution even when the material
is formed from uniform particles. By taking the actual
structure of the solids into account, a correct descrip-
tion of mercury penetration into the pores and toroidal
regions (i.e., particle contacts) was developed [2]. A
similar analysis has been extended to the analogous
problem of gas adsorption and condensation in sphere
packing [3]. Many times, the rate of fluid transport
through porous media is what one is trying to predict
from given pore structure information. Conversely,
one may perform transport experiments to ascertain
pore structure information which may not be available
from conventional techniques. We have used Knudsen
diffusion measurements as a tool to study random
microsphere packing [4,5]. By studying surface
transport of adsorbed gases in these solids, we hope
to extract further information about particle-particle
contacts. Some pore size measurement techniques are
not successful for large pores (>l1Lm). Professor
Smith and colleagues at Sandia National Laboratory
are exploring the use of colloid tracers as a sensitive
tool for size analysis in large pores. The rate of colloid
migration through these large pores is a strong func-
tion of the colloid to pore size ratio. By studying the
change of the tortuosity factor with changing colloid
size, information concerning pore shape may be ex-
tracted [6,7].
The conventional pore size measurement
techniques of mercury porosimetry and nitrogen ad-
sorption/condensation suffer from several disadvan-
tages [8]. An assumption about the pore shape must
be made, the size of the smallest pore constriction is
often measured, sample size must be small, and the
porous solid must be completely dry. To avoid these
problems, Professor Smith and his students have
explored the possibility of using NMR techniques for
pore size analysis. In principle, protons of water con-
tained in pores will undergo spin-lattice relaxation at
rates related to the pore size. The smaller the pore
size, the faster the relaxation. No assumption con-
cerning pore shape is required as the actual pore vol-
ume to surface area ratio is obtained. By performing
180-7-90 relaxation measurements on a series of por-
ous solids with well-defined pore geometry and size,
the advantages, and some disadvantages, of NMR
analysis have been demonstrated. This project was
aided by close cooperation with scientists at Los
Alamos National Laboratory who arranged for the in-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




























FIGURE 2. Electron Micrograph of 130 nm silica spheres
that have been heat treated at 750C for three hours.
(Marker 100 nm)


definite loan of a 20 MHz pulse NMR for the investiga-
tion. Work continues on this project as we address
questions about the effects of pore shape, surface
chemistry and the lower pore size limit for this
technique.
In addition to characterization work and powder
synthesis, research is also being conducted on powder
modification techniques. Professor Williams has been
investigating the dynamics of shock treating inorganic
materials by exposing the powders to extremely large
shock waves. Four characteristic behaviors as a func-
tion of peak shock pressure have been observed for
shock induced changes in the specific surface area of
inorganic powders. Abrupt phase change, comminu-
tion of particles and interparticle bonding appear to
be the mechanisms producing the observed response.
The nature of morphological changes in powders is of
interest in understanding shock activated sintering,
shock-enhanced catalytic activity, dynamic compac-
tion, and shock-enhanced solid state reactivity. Re-
cently, classical BET surface area measurements
were reported for compacts of aluminum oxide, zinc
oxide, aluminum nitride, titanium carbide, and
titanium diboride after they were subjected to control-
led shock loading to a mean peak pressure from 4 to
27 GPa [9]. Extension to specific surface area mea-
surements of shock loaded hematite, magnetite, man-
ganese dioxide, and well-annealed alumina powders
has been accomplished [10]. Sampling from the edge,
center and the bulk of shock loaded compacts of these
powders reveals variation in the degree of modifica-
tion consistent with the calculated variation of the
pressure and temperature excursions.


Professor Mead is using chromatographic means
to explore gas diffusion and adsorption in various
coals. The pore structure of coal is difficult to probe
since sample compression effects dominate mercury
intrusion and nitrogen cannot access the coal micro-
pores at liquid nitrogen temperatures. By using a
number of inert and/or adsorbing tracers, a more com-
plete picture of the pore structure of coal will be ob-
tained. Professor Shahinpoor has been studying the
structure of random packing of uniform spheres with
the support of the National Science Foundation. By
passing a reactive gas through a random sphere pack-
ing, for which the surface of the spheres has been
coated, discoloration of the sphere surface will occur
in the region of sphere contacts. From image analysis
of the spheres, the coordination number, distribution
of particle contacts, and the spatial variation of sphere
contacts is determined. Professor Nuttall is interested
in relating the reactivity of various coals to the reac-
tivity and concentration of the different materials con-
tained in the coal. In addition, he is involved with a
collaborative research project with the Los Alamos
National Laboratory on colloid transport mechanisms
as applied to radionuclide release scenerios.
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
Graduate and advanced undergraduate students
may take advanced courses related to powders/porous
media characterization, including: transport
phenomena in porous media, powder technology, ca-
talysis and TEM/SEM techniques. In addition, a 3-day
short course on porous media characterization is pre-
sented at UNM by members of the Powders and
Granular Materials Laboartory and other national ex-
perts under the tutelage of the Materials Research
Society. A monthly seminar series features visits from
nationally recognized speakers with a wide range of
backgrounds in powder and porous materials technol-
ogy.
REFERENCES
1. Datye, A. K. and A. D. Logan, Proc. of EMSA, 772, (1986).
2. Smith, D. M. and D. L. Stermer, J. Colloid Interface Sci.,
111, 160, (1986).
3. Smith, D. M., J. Phys. Chem., 90, 2723, (1986).
4. Huizenga, D. G., and D. M. Smith, AIChEJ, 32:1, 1, (1986).
5. Smith, D. M., AIChEJ, 32:2, 329, (1986).
6. Smith, D. M. and D. G. Huizenga, J. Phys. Chem., 89:11,
2394, (1985).
7. Smith, D.M., AIChEJ, 32:6, 1039, (1986).
8. Dullien, F. A. L., Porous Media, Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure, Academic Press, NY, NY, (1979)
9. Williams, F.L., B. Morosin, and R. Graham, Explomet 85,
International Conf. on Metallurgical Applications of Shock-
wave and High-strain-rate Phenomena. Portland, OR, July,
1985.
10. Lee, Y. K., F. L. Williams, R. A. Graham, and B. Morosin,
J. Mat. Sci 20, 2488, (1985). O


FALL 1986










$waud 1.ecthae


IMAGE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS FOR

TURBULENCE RESEARCH


The ASEE Chemical
Engineering Division Lec-
turerfor 1986 is Robert S.
Brodkey of Ohio State Uni-
versity. The 3M Company
provides financial support
for this annual lectureship
award.
A California native,
Robert Brodkey earned an
AA degree in 1948 from
San Francisco City Col-
lege, a BS in chemistry
and chemical engineering
in 1950, and his MS in chemical engineering (also in
1950) from the University of California, Berkeley. At
the University of Wisconsin he received his PhD in
chemical engineering in 1952, doing a study in freeze
drying. He then spent five years with Standard Oil of
New Jersey in their Esso Research and Engineering
Company's research facility and with Esso Standard
Oil Company at their Bayway refinery. At Esso he
worked on diverse chemical and chemical engineering
problems, including chemical synthesis and chemical
process. In 1957 he joined The Ohio State University
as an assistant professor, became associate professor
in 1960, and professor in 1964.
His work has been primarily in the field of fluid
mechanics, with specialization in the areas of funda-
mental turbulent fluid flow, mixing, and rheology.
He is the coinventor often U.S. patents and has writ-
ten review chapters in four books. He is well-known
for his graduate text The Phenomena of Fluid Motions
and the review book on mixing, Turbulence in Mixing
Operations, which he edited. He has just completed
coauthoring an undergraduate transport phenomena
text which will be published by McGraw-Hill in their
chemical engineering series.
Professor Brodkey has won numerous university,
national, and international awards for his teaching
and research, and hcs held a number of national and
regional committee posts in technical societies. He is
also a member of a number of honorary professional
societies and is listed in many national and interna-
tional biographical references.


ROBERT S.BRODKEY
The Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210-1180

MAGE PROCESSING IS THE reduction of visual data
(in our case, usually data on 16mm films) to a form
that is convenient to manipulate on a computer. Image
analysis is further manipulation of the computer data
to extract quantitative information. The analysis de-
pends on the specific research problem and is a step
beyond image enhancement where the visual material
is modified for improved visual interpretation as is
done by NASA with space pictures.
In many research areas there are operations in
which understanding could be enhanced if simple
photos or multiple photographic records could be
analyzed easily. In the past, we have used films (both
normal speed and high speed) to gain qualitative un-
derstanding of what is occurring, but were unable to
extract additional quantitative information that would
be very useful. Unfortunately, one cannot just take
visual information, reduce it to digital form, and ex-
pect to obtain anything useful. One must first estab-
lish the type of digital information needed from the
visual record and then develop the software necessary
to extract that information in an efficient manner, rec-
ognizing that massive amounts of data are involved.

COHERENT STRUCTURES IN TURBULENT SHEAR FLOWS
In the field of mixing (either for blending of prod-
ucts or for the promotion of chemical reactions), the
turbulence generated by the mixing unit can have a
major effect on the time required and the degree of
mixing obtained. While our understanding of turbu-
lence in such mixing vessels is still relatively poor, the
approaches used for turbulence research have
changed drastically during the last fifteen years. The
concept of using overall averages for the mean and
fluctuating components has given way to a more fun-
damental view that turbulent shear flows are com-
posed of a sequence of complex coherent motions or
structures. Progress in turbulence research depends
on better understanding of the mechanism of turbu-
@Copyright ChE Division ASEE 1986


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









lent flows gained through the study of such motions
or structures. Indeed, improvements in processes in-
volving complex turbulent shear flows will require un-
derstanding the effect of coherent structures on the
processes.
For many years visual photographic methods have
been used to gain qualitative understanding of flow
fields. We have pioneered in developing visual
techniques suitable for studying turbulent structures,
e.g., utilizing stereoscopic, highspeed films of the
flow. For quantitative measurements, probe methods
have been the only techniques normally available.
There are, however, limitations to the turbulence
measurements made by conventional sensor
techniques such as hot wires, hot films, or laser Dop-
pler methods. This is especially true for complex mea-
surements such as vorticity which involve derivatives
of the velocity. Probes are good for time dependent
information at a few points in the flow, but one can
imagine the problem of probe interference that would
develop if one wanted to place probes in a three-di-
mensional array. With the advent of modern image
analysis, visual information can be converted into use-
ful quantitative information that will enhance under-
standing of these very complex processes.
The immediate goal of our current turbulence re-
search is to demonstrate that image processing and
analysis of stereoscopic films is a feasible means of
obtaining three-dimensional quantitative data to help
establish a mechanistic picture of coherent structures
in turbulent shear flows. This would help close the
gap between visual observations and anemometry
measurements. To accomplish this, the detailed na-
ture of visually observed coherent motions needs to
be converted into quantitative information. To obtain
the proper information involves determination of the
vector velocity field for individual events by high res-
olution image analysis and from this, establishing
the vorticity and strain fields. This is not an easy task:
recall that vorticity involves the difference between
the velocity gradients. But once accomplished, it will
be easier to identify coherent motions by alternate
visual methods and by more extensive anemometry
measurements. The former will provide the mechanis-
tic picture and the latter will provide the statistical
ensemble averages. The final step will be to incorpo-
rate the physical understanding obtained into an ana-
lytical model of the turbulent field and of the turbulent
production and dissipation mechanisms.
THE FIRST PHASE OF THE IMAGE EFFORT
Rather than use our complex large scale flow loop
to obtain new films of turbulent flows that would be
adequate for image analysis, we chose to use a small


The immediate goal ... is to demonstrate that
image processing and analysis of stereoscopic films
is a feasible means of obtaining three-dimensional
quantitative data to help establish a mechanistic
picture of coherent structures in turbulent shear flows.

fish tank and a simple mixer. This system was simple
enough to set up, modify, and use so that we did not
hesitate to make even small changes that would result
in improved visual images. With this simple system,
we could easily establish optimal lighting conditions,
particle marker sizes, color of particles to aid in their
identification, and other factors that might help in ob-
taining adequate films. We first tested any major
changes with a video system to help establish the light
levels and then recorded the flow for analysis with a
variable speed disk camera and a Bolex stereoscopic
lens. The camera could be adjusted between 16 and
400 fps and the lens was f2.8. The use of film was
necessitated because of the need for high resolution,
which cannot be obtained by video means. The neu-
trally buoyant particles (p = 1.024) were 20-35 micro-
meter Pliolite (trademark for polyvinyltoluene
butadiene made by Goodyear Chemicals) particles and
were the same as we had used in our previous visual
studies. It was considered important in this initial
work to determine if we could utilize color to help in
matching the particles in the two views of a stereo-
scopic pair. The dyes tested were standard clothing
dyes obtained at a local store. Some of these were
fine, but most would not dye the polymer particles.
This aspect of the research is continuing with the in-
vestigation of organic based dyes that can enhance
the color and light output from the particles.
A slightly modified Eikonix linear diode array cam-
era was used for the digitization. The camera was not
designed to digitize 16mm film and thus we modified
it by building a 14" extension tube that gave the de-
sired magnification. It was necessary to mount the
lens rigidly so that it would not vibrate and to make
sure the spatial relation between the camera, lens,
and picture being digitized did not move during the
period needed to complete the digitization. This latter
involved four passes: a neutral density filter, and red,
green, and blue filters to establish the particle color.
The particles could be easily identified in the raw data
since they were about 10 pixils in diameter at the mag-
nification used.
The data handling problem is difficult. The photo-
diode array is 2048 pixils wide and is mounted on an
accurate stepping motor that gives 2048 positions ac-
ross the image. The depth of digitization can be 8 or
12 bits. In this early work we used 12 bit depth simply


FALL 1986









because we did not know what would be necessary.
You can always go from 12 to 8, but not the other way
around. Since four filters were used at 12 bits each, a
total of 32 mbytes of information was generated for
each frame. This was a staggering amount of data
even for our VAX 11/780. If the data were filtered
and a binary output generated, there are known image
compression techniques that could cut the data bank
by a factor of two to four. But because of the binary
output (i.e., either black or white for each pixil), too
much information is lost and the use of color becomes
impossible. A better approach is to identify the parti-
cles in each of the stereoscopic views.
There are about 3000 particles (we counted them
once) in view and each particle has two positions (x
and y) in each view for the stereoscopic pair. There is
also a need to identify the color, which adds up to
about 30 kbytes of information, a considerable reduc-
tion from the 32 mbytes previously cited. If the stereo
particle pairs can be identified, then one needs only
the three positions and a particle identifier or about
21 kbytes of information. This is for an entire frame
and is a very modest computer storage requirement.

THE FIRST RESULTS AND THE PROBLEMS

With a new system (toy?) there are manifold unan-
ticipated problems. The first color images were view-
ed digitally on a Megatek color graphics terminal that
had 512 x 512 resolution and could provide up to 16
colors. The light balance was totally unsatisfactory
(very low levels of blue); thus, we had to develop
means of normalization of the light outputs from the
three filters to obtain a reasonable color balance. We
later learned that the unbalanced light problem was
with a jumper that had been mistakenly left in place
when the Eikonix system was installed. It was easily
removed and the problem resolved.
A more critical problem was the low level of light
available because of the 14" extension tube used be-
tween the sensor and the lens. The 12 bit digitization
depth helped here, but our accuracy was not great.
We have now rectified this problem by using a fiber
optic light source that was available for our visual
studies. Our images are for the most part 16mm films
and the physical size of the source need not be great.
The standard Eikonix light source is large in order to
accommodate a variety of subject formats. Once we
converted to the alternate light source, we found that
the 8 bit digitization was satisfactory and that we
could utilize the entire digitizing range. We have just
installed a modification to the Eikonix that allows
further versatility by allowing the integration (and
scanning) time to be adjusted as a function of the light


level available. The combination of a variable high in-
tensity fiber optic light source and a variable sampling
time now gives us complete control.
A final and most difficult problem was the discov-
ery of the limitations of digital terminals. Sixteen col-
ors sounded like a lot, but in actuality are quite limit-
ing when one wants to reconstruct an image in color.
Digitally, every color, shade, mixture, etc. is a differ-
ent color in the digital sense; thus, 16 colors do not go
far. We spent many hours in attempting (actually
more of value as a learning experience) to reconstruct
a simple 10 color image that was photographed from
the Megatek terminal after being constructed digi-
tally, processed by Kodak (Figure la), digitized by
the Eikonix, and reconstructed on the Megatek (Fig-
ure Ib). The results are not impressive and the lesson
to learn is that total digital image analysis is not the
best route. A workstation that provided a video out-
put can handle the full range of colors and will be
discussed later.

THE REAL PROBLEM

The real problem is a 16mm image pair that contain
some 3000 particles in various colors. The job to ac-
complish is to exactly match each particle that exists
in both pairs, determine from this information their
locations in space, and track them frame to frame in
time. Figure 2 is a picture of such a real frame. Figure
3 is a digitization through the red filter (as an exam-
ple) of such a frame.
The information contained in four pictures (the
neutral density image for the specific particle location


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FALL 198










We learned the limitations of the equipment
and how to improve or circumvent the problems
introduced by these limitations.

and the color filter images for the color) was processed
to determine the location and specific color of the par-
ticles in view. Forty (40) particles were selected di-
rectly from the 16mm film and were selected as repre-
sentative of several groups: bright, medium, and faint
particles that were not dyed (white) or were dyed red
or blue, or were unknown (only three colors were used
in this initial effort). This was the learning test for
automatic identification. These forty particles were
used as the control for making sure the computer pro-
gram could properly identify the particle location and
color. Once satisfied that these particles could indeed
be identified correctly, then the entire digital image
was processed. The processing of the digital image
involved using a simple cut-off filter for the back-
ground and a threshold level for edge enhancement.
If the level was set high, then only a few particles
were located. Figure 4 is an example for the brightest
group of particles (108). If the brightest 50% of the
particles were considered, the number rose to 619. It
should be understood that only the crudest of image
processing techniques were used in this initial effort.
Although not a major part of the initial effort, we
tracked a few particles frame by frame to make sure
that the filming speed was in the range where particle
tracking would not only be possible but relatively
easy; i.e., a range in which the particles do not travel
far from one frame to the next, so that there would
not be mistakes in following individual particles. Once
established as true, nothing further need be done with
this information until the time comes when the parti-
cles in a series of frames have all been identified.
By this initial effort we learned a great deal. We
learned the limitations of the equipment and how to
improve or circumvent the problems introduced by
these limitations. We learned that we could produce
high quality color films that could be adequately di-
gitized so that location and color could be established.
And very importantly we learned of a need for an
image analysis workstation that would avoid the need
of reconstruction of the images digitally and allow
most of the calculations to be done on it in a parallel
manner rather than directly on the VAX 11/780. This
latter conclusion resulted from the time estimates for
our various programs to run on a full (2048 x 2048)
color frame and the neutral density counterpart. For
example, about 12 minutes were needed to digitize
the full image, about 50 minutes to identify the parti-
cle positions, less than 5 minutes to classify the parti-


cles and assign their colors, and several hours to put
it all together into a displayed final reconstructed
image. Not very efficient.

THE DIPIX ARIES III IMAGE WORKSTATION
For a great deal of money, most of the proceeding
problems can be avoided and one can operate in near
real time by using one of several commercially availa-
ble workstation systems. After much debate and com-
parison, we chose the Dipix Aries III system. This
system, when used in conjunction with the Eikonix
camera, forms a powerful tool for the obtaining and
modification of visual information. It would be nice to
show a number of familiar images to demonstrate the
versatility; however, the cost of color reproduction
makes that impossible. The best way to see it is to
come to Columbus and see for yourself. But some
examples are necessary to illustrate the capability and
these will be taken from our particle identification
work.
Figure 5 is a stereo-pair taken at full resolution,
but compressed here by a factor of four in both the
horizontal and vertical direction so that it would fit.
Figure 6 is a color segment at full resolution of a small
part of the right hand stereo-view of Figure 5. The
sequence shown in Figure 7 are the individual filtered
pictures of Figure 6 and Figure 8 shows the applica-
tion of a simple cut off of the same data to enhance
the edges. Far better edge detection schemes are
available, such as maximum derivative detectors, and
we are in the process of investigating these. The en-
hanced images can be overlayed to give a false color
representation of the individual particles to aid iden-
tification. Rather than this we show Figure 9, which
is a four window composite of the same information.
Careful studies of these images show that it is easy,
even with this simple image processing, to identify
the individual particles and their color. There should
be no problem in doing this automatically with the
computer.
Beyond these simple techniques we have a full bag
of tricks to help us in the particle identification task.
One experimental effort that is under way is to im-
prove the dyes being used and the light source so that
the particles act as intense sources of light at any
selected color. The use of organic dyes (we would use
mixtures of red, blue, and green dyes to form any out-
put color desired) in conjunction with ultraviolet light
shows promise.
Spatial filter techniques can be used to process the
image to eliminate the background noise of particles
that are not in the field of view and the grain of the
film, etc. Gradient edge enhancement techniques can


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









be used to outline the particles more reliably. Warping
or rubber sheeting can be used to alter and match the
two views to a standard grid scale so they exactly
match each other and an easy to use reference grid.
Colors can be identified as we have done and then a
series of false colors can be assigned. Sizes can be
estimated as well as orientation, roundness, rough-
ness, etc., that subsequently can be used to help iden-
tify the corresponding particle in the other stereo-
view and thus set the stage of the three-dimensional
location of the particles. But all this is for the months
to come.

THE FUTURE
The three-dimensional location of each particle in
the field of view is in the future, but it is our im-
mediate goal and we fully expect to have this task
accomplished shortly. But where from there? For ac-
curate positioning, account will be taken of the bend-
ing of the light rays as a result of slight differences in
the viewing angle. This is a well known calculation
and can be taken into account when the position is
determined from the positions in the two stereo-
views.
For tracking we are working on careful and accu-
rate registration of the films frame to frame so that
the tracking will be accurate. An old 16mm film pro-
jector has been obtained from surplus and is being
modified into a frame registrar device. The old lens is
now the fiber optic light source and the Eikonix looks
at the film from the side of the old light source. During
tracking we must take into account the possibility of
particle overlap or blocking. This may involve an iter-
ation and backtracking in time so that we can accu-
rately estimate the particle location in the frame in
question. We have seen partial blocking in some of the
frames already, but we do not know the extent of the
problem. The velocity can be determined by standard
multipoint sloping techniques that give the best esti-
mate of a slope from five or seven points.. We will
look into the representation of the isovelocity contours
by three-dimensional mapping techniques. This would
be a better approach than trying to determine vortic-
ity directly from the particle path data. If the contours
can be established with the desired degree of accu-
racy, then derivative methods can give the velocity
gradients and thus the vorticity and strain fields. Fi-
nally, CAD graphic techniques will have to be utilized
to display the vast amount of information about the
flow field that will be obtained.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
There are two groups of very important people


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MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
Applications are invited for appointment to a tenure track posi-
tion in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Michigan
State University. This position is jointly supported by the Com-
posite Materials and Structures Center (CMSC) and provides an
excellent opportunity for an individual with research and teach-
ing interests in polymeric material science and engineering,
polymer processing and/or composite processing. Michigan State
has recently made a strong commitment to composite materials
with the establishment of the CMSC in the College of Engineer-
ing. This provides faculty with the opportunity to conduct indi-
vidual and joint research programs and to teach in an academ-
ically rich and well-supported environment containing state-of-
the-art research equipment and facilities. In addition Michigan
State is located in close proximity to a large number of
polymeric materials industrial concerns including automotive,
furniture, and agricultural research centers of the state provid-
ing many consulting and collaborative research opportunities.
Interested individuals should apply to Dr. L. T. Drzal, Chair-
person of Search and Selection Committee, Department of
Chemical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lans-
ing, Michigan 48824-1226. Salary and rank are commensurate
with experience and accomplishments. Michigan State Univer-
sity is an Affirmative Action-Equal Opportunity Employer and
welcomes applications from women and members of minority
groups.




that have made this work possible. Kris Lakshmanan
is the author of the preliminary studies and helped
evaluate and select the image workstation. My cur-
rent students involved with this project are L.
Economikos, K. Russ, and C. Shoemaker; the present
and the future are in their hands. The second group
are those who have helped support our effort. The
Erna and Victor Hasselblad Foundation of Sweden
provided the funds to obtain the Eikonix camera. The
Atlantic Richfield Foundation and The Ohio State
University have made obtaining the Dipix Aries III
system possible. The Dipix company made significant
contributions in the form of hardware and a coopera-
tive agreement to obtain source code material as
needed. The Megatek 1650 color graphic terminals
came to us through the generosity of the university,
the College of Engineering, our department, and the
Megatek Corp. The university has been a major factor
in the support of the previously cited students. Fi-
nally, the personnel of the Koffolt Computer Graphics
Laboratory, Jeff Hulse and Dave Jones, have been
most helpful both in managing the facility and in pro-
gramming the special needs as they develop. O


FALL 1986










ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
Continued from page 187.
reversal process [10], where an additive to a positive
acting resist converts it to a negative one without any
swelling-induced distortions.
Once images are formed in the resist, the pattern
is transferred to the underlying layer in an etching
step. In many dry etching operations, where the waf-
ers are exposed to a gas plasma, surface reactions and
ion bombardment cause the temperature to rise. If
the temperature is too high, the resist "reflows." Line
widths and angles change, changing the shape of the
etched region. In some gas environments, the combi-
nation of increased surface temperature, resist sur-
face reactions, and solvent evaporation cause the re-
sist to reticulatee." Under a microscope, the resist
appears to have changed from a smooth surface to one
which is severely wrinkled. In many cases the resist
becomes quite difficult to remove, even with very ag-
gressive solvents.
We have begun to investigate the cause of these
phenomena [11]. They are related to the chemical
make-up of the resist materials, the amount of solvent
still remaining in the resist, and the surface tension
induced flows in the resist images during heating and
etching. At sufficiently high temperatures, chemical
reactions in positive resist can cause crosslinking. In
many cases, before these crosslinking reactions make
the images immobile, the residual solvent lowers the
glass transition temperature sufficiently to cause
image deformation. Chemical modifications of the re-
sist surface during an etch of the underlying film
changes the surface properties and can alter the ex-
tent of the modification.
One way to avoid image deformation is to treat the
resist before it is subjected to high temperature. One
recently popular method is to use ultraviolet light at
a wavelength where the resist material strongly ab-
sorbs. In this way, the effect of the radiation is
localized to the resist-air interface. We have been
examining the relationship between processing condi-
tions and image size and shape, trying to optimize the
treatment for different applications [11]

ETCHING
To replicate the resist pattern in the underlying
layer, an etching step is used. Originally, a liquid sol-
vent was employed. For example, if silicon dioxide
were to be patterned, the resist coated wafers were
immersed in a hydrofluoric acid bath. The HF dissol-
ves the oxide, but leaves the resist and the silicon
untouched. As discussed below, such "wet" etching
methods are being replaced by dry or plasma etching.


Xso~rom~
1Ut"mie


eSust ftte



Ver?.cta
LiecI,


r/ U/.n ZLLLU / /ZV./
FIGURE 2. Wet etching is usually isotropic, and leads to
problems patterning small dimensions. Plasma etching
is often directional.

However, the method is still in widespread use.
We have studied the etching of silicon dioxide by
buffered HF solutions to determine the effect of pro-
cessing conditions on the etch rate. In some cases it
is possible that certain images, with sizes from 3 to 10
jm, will etch at a much slower rate than those of
other sizes. We have shown that this is due to air
bubbles trapped in the cavities. A thermodynamic
analysis of the stability of the bubbles as a function of
such variables as surface tension and resist sidewall
angle correctly predicts whether or not the images
will etch [12].
One of the reasons wet etching has declined in use
is that the etching is usually isotropic, proceeding at
the same rate in both the lateral and vertical direc-
tions. As illustrated in Figure 2, this limits the density
of images which can be reproduced on the surface. In
many instances, directional etching can be achieved
by etching in a reactive gas environment formed in a
glow discharge. This method is called plasma etching
or, when there is ion bombardment of the material to
be etched, reactive ion etching. The radicals and/or
ions in the plasma discharge react with the film to
form volatile species. The discharge consists of mostly
undissociated feed gas molecules, very energetic elec-
trons (with temperatures exceeding 20,000K), neutral
radicals, and negative and positive ions. The plasma
is not in thermal equilibrium, as the temperature of
the heavier species is only about 500K. Nevertheless,
the processes occurring in a plasma reactor are akin
to those in conventional gas-solid reactions: genera-
tion of reactive species in the gas phase, diffusion of
these species, adsorption on the solid surface, surface
reaction, product desorption, and product diffusion.
Different steps control the etch rate in different etch-
ing systems.
The discharge is sustained by an RF power supply.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The presence of associated electric fields significantly
complicates the chemical kinetic analysis of such sys-
tems. Modeling the electron, ion and radical transport
and the coupled chemical kinetics under these condi-
tions is an active area of current research at Clarkson.
A program available from the Joint Institute for Lab-
oratory Astrophysics in Boulder [13] has been mod-
ified and extended to calculate the electron energy
distribution functions and the associated rate con-
stants for a large number of simultaneous reactions
occurring in the plasma discharge. Polymer and silicon
etch rates in CF4 + 02 discharges have been modeled
under steady state conditions [14].
We have also been studying the reactive ion etch-
ing of silicon dioxide, and metals and metallic com-
pounds. Using a simple mechanism for oxide etching,
we have developed a model for the etch rate which
does an excellent job in correlating data from a
number of different reactor geometries [15]. The DC
bias of the oxide surface appears to be one of the most
important factors in determining the oxide etch rate.
For metal etching we are using a technique called
reactive ion beam etching.
Plasma processing was first used to remove or-
ganic polymeric materials. In the manufacture of
multi-level printed circuit boards (PCB's), plated
through-holes extending from the top to the bottom
of the board facilitate buried signal and power plane
interconnections. Under high speed drilling condi-
tions, the temperature of the dielectric organic mater-
ial between the conductors exceeds the glass transi-
tion temperature, and the conductors are covered by
a very thin layer of the dielectric. This smear consists
of the organic and fine pieces of the glass reinforcing
material present in the laminate. Desmearing of the
conductors before plating the through-holes can be
achieved in CF4 + 02 plasma disharges [16].
Considerable effort has been devoted to elucidate
the complex chemistry of the etching of organic
polymers in CF4 + 02 plasma discharges. At low
(<30%) CF4 concentrations in the feed gas, the steady
state etch rate of organic polymers is significantly en-
hanced over that in pure oxygen. An increase in the
gas phase concentration of atomic oxygen and the fas-
ter hydrogen abstraction by flourine atoms are
primarily responsible for this increase. At higher CF4
concentrations, however, inert fluorocarbon moeities
form on the polymer surface and inhibit the etching
process. We have studied the role of these competing
mechanisms in determining the etch rate [17]. It has
also been discovered that the etch rate of organic, as
measured by laser interferometry, increases "momen-
tarily" by several orders of magnitude before return-
ing to the normal steady state value when the feed


gas composition is switched from one that is rich in
CF4 to pure 02 [18]. Such a transient response is not
completely understood yet. Emission spectroscopy
and laser induced fluorescence are being used to mea-
sure the concentrations of the short-lived reactive
species in order to understand more about etch
mechanisms.

EXCIMER LASER PROCESSING
The use of lasers in electronics manufacturing is
widespread and is gathering momentum. Several in-
novative applications have been proposed. These in-
clude direct writing, maskless dry lithography, en-
hanced plating, metal deposition, repair of open con-
ductors, drilling, annealing ion implanted damage,
polysilicon recrystallization, oxide growth, etc. At
Clarkson an excimer laser operating at 194 and 245
nm has been employed for drilling polyimide, for cop-
per deposition, and for establishing the feasibility of
sub-micron etching of polysilicon with NF3.
Polyimide is used as innerlevel dielectric in multi-
chip VLSI packages [19]. Electrical contact between
signal planes can be established by drilling vias in
polyimide and plating them with copper. Intense (up
to 10 J/cm2 fluence) pulses have been employed in this
study and drill rates of about a micron per pulse have
been attained. Both a photochemical and a thermal
mechanism contribute to the polymer ablation [20].
Plating of copper films has been achieved in prelimi-
nary experiments in which spin coated films of copper
format are exposed to the excimer radiation [21].
Polysilicon is etched by F-atoms obtained by the laser
induced dissociation of NF3. The NF3 molecules are
adsorbed on the polysilicon surface at sites generated
by the incident laser pulse. The adsorbed molecules
dissociate on the surface, and the F-atoms generated
are highly reactive and etch the polysilicon locally. If
lateral diffusion of the F-atoms is indeed negligible
then direct writing of sub-micron lines on polysilicon
should be feasible [22].

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank IBM, Essex Junc-
tion and Endicott facilities, Honeywell and the Na-
tional Science Foundation (Grant No. CBT-8507068)
for support of the work summarized here.

REFERENCES
1. Sukanek, P. C., "Spin Coating," J Imaging Tech, 11, 184,
(1985)
2. L.F. Thompson, C. C. Willson and M. J. Bowden, editors,
"Introduction to Microlithography," ACS Symposium Series
219, Washington DC, (1983)


FALL 1986











3. R.L. Geary, S. V. Babu and J. Stephanie, in the Proceedings
of the Symposium on Surface and Colloid Science in Computer
Technology, K. L. Mittal, Editor, Potsdam, 1985 (in Press)
4. S.V. Babu and V. Srinivasan, IEEE Trans Electron Dev ED-
32, 1896 (1985) and J.Imaging Tech. 11, 168 (1985)
5. J. Pacansky and J. R. Lyerla, IBM J Res and Dev 23, 42,
(1979)
6. F. H. Dill, W. P. Hornberger, P. S. Hauge and J. M. Shaw,
IEEE Trans Electron Dev ED-22, 445 (1975)
7. F. H. Dill, A. R. Neureuther, J. A. Tuttle and E. J. Walker,
ibid, ED-22, 456 (1975)
8. S.V. Babu and E. Barouch, IEEE Electron Dev Lett EDL-7,
252 (1986)
9. S. V. Babu and E. Barouch and V. Srinivasan, Submitted to
IEEE Trans Electron Dev
10. S. V. Babu, IEEE Electron Dev Lett EDL-7, 250 (1986)
11. Sukanek, P. C., "Physical and Chemical Modifications of
Photoresist," in P. Stroeve (ed), Chemical and Physical Pro-
cessing of Integrated Circuits, ACS Symposium Series No.
290, 95, 1985
12. McAndrews, K. and P. C. Sukanek, "Nonuniform Wet Etch-
ing of Silicon Dioxide," submitted for publication.


13. W. L. Morgan, JILA Information center report No. 19, Boul-
der, Colorado, 1979
14. V. Srinivasan, M. S. Sivasubramanian, and S. V. Babu, Pro-
ceedings of the 7th International Plasma Chemistry Sym-
posium, p1405, C. J. Timmermans (Editor), Eindhoven, 1985;
and T. Daubenspeck and S. V. Babu (to be published)
15. Sullivan, G. and P. C. Sukanek, "A Simple Model for Reactive
Ion Etching of Silicon Dioxide," submitted for publication
16. R. D. Rust, R. J. Rhodes, and A. A. Parker, Solid State Tech
27(4), 270 (1984)
17. S. V. Babu, L. Tiemann, and R. E. Partch, Proceedings of the
7th International Plasma Chemistry Symposium, p1025, C. J.
Timmermans (Editor), Eindhoven, 1985
18. J. F. Rembetski, M.S. Thesis, Clarkson University (1985),
and J. F. Rembetski, W. E. Mlynko, J. G. Hoffarth, and S.
V. Babu, ibid, p1100
19. R. J. Jensen, J. P. Cummings, and H. Vora, IEEE Trans
Comp Hybrids and Manuf Tech CHMT-7, 384 (1984)
20. V. Srinivasan, M. Smrtic, and S. V. Babu, J App Phys 59,
3861 (1986)
21. M. Ritz and S. V. Babu, (unpublished)
22. M. Armacost, M.S. Thesis, Clarkson University (1986) [


AUTHOR INDEX


A
Abbott, Michael M. ----------- XVIII,50; XIX,62
Abd-El-Bary, M.F. --------- XVI,118; XVII,28
Abdul-Kareem, H.K. ------ ----- XVII,78
Abraham, W.H. -------------- XVII,103
Afacan, Artin ------------------- XVIII,132
Ahmed, Moin ------------------------------ XVII,46
Alonso, J. ----------------------------------- XVII,34
Amundson, Neal R. ---------- -------- XX,168
Andrews, Graham F. ------------- XVIII,112
Aris, Rutherford -- XVI,50; XVII,10,53; XX,77
Asfour, Abdul-Fattah A. --------- XIX,84
Azevedo, E.G. ----- ------------ XX,7
B
Baasel, William D. -------------- ------- XVI,26
Babu, S.V. -------------------------- XX,186
Baer, A.D. ------------------------------------ XVI,56
Bailey, J.E. ---------------------- XIX,168
Bailie, Richard C. ---------------------- XIX,182
Baird, Donald G. ----------- XVI,174; XVIII,73
Baldwin, L.B. ----------------- ---------- XVII,70
Barber, Martin S. ------------------------ XIX,2
Barduhn, Allen J. ------- XVIII,38,102; XIX,171
Barker, Dee H. --------------------- XVI,182
Bartholomew, Calvin H. ------------- XVIII,180
Beckmann, Robert B. --------- XVIII,37; XIX,6
Belfort, Georges --------------------------- XIX,172
Bell, Kenneth J. ---------------------------- XVI,108
Bethea, R.M. ------------------------------ XVI,167
Bird, R. Byron ------------ XVII,184; XX,160
Black, James H. ----------------------- XIX,118
Blackmond, Donna G. ---------------- XX,174
Bolles, William I. ------------------ XVII,137
Bonin, Hugues W. ----------------------- XVIII,60
Brainard, Alan J. --------------------- XVII,105
Brestovansky, D.F. ------------------------ XVI,76


Britten, Jerald A. ------------------------ XVIII,140
Brodkey, Robert S. ------------------- XX,202
Bungay, H.R. ----------------------- XX,122


Burnet, George----------------
Burnet, John --------------------------
Buxton, Brian --------------------------


- XX,101
XVII,112
XIX,144


CACHE Corporation ------------------------- XX,19
Cadman, T.W. -------------------------- XIX,6
Carberry, J.J. ----------------------------- XVI,107
Case, Stuart M. -------------- --------- XVI,98
Cassano, Alberto E. ---------- -------- XIX,35
Chao, K.C. ----------------------------------- XX,66
Chari, Sriram -------------------------- XVI,118
Charos, Georgios N. ------------------ XX,88
Chau, Pao C. ------------------------------ XIX,150
Chawla, Ramesh C. ---------------------- XVIII,30
Chen, W.H. ---------- -- XX,181
Chen, W.J. ---------------------------------- XX,82
Cilento, E.V. -------------------------------- XVII,110


Clancy, Paulette


--------- XIX,7


Clark, J. Peter ------------------
Clements, L.D. --------
Collins, E.V. -------------------------
Conger, William L. -----------------
Converse, Alvin -----------
Corripio, Armando B. -----------
Cosgrove, Stanley ------------------
Couey, Paul R. -----------------
Coughlin, Robert W. ---------------
Coulman, George A. -------------
Crosser, O.K.------------
Culberson, Oran L. ----------------
Cussler, E.L. --------
D
Dale, Dick -- -


8,132; XX,88
------ XVI,34
YVT I1 7


Datye, Abhaya K. ------------------------- XX,198
Daubert, Thomas E. ---------------- XVII,108
Davis, Mark E. --------- -------.---- XVII,144
Debelak, Kenneth A. --------- ------ XVI,72
Debenedetti, Pablo G. -------- --- XVIII,116
Delcamp, Robert ------------------------ XVI,6
Delgass, W. Nicholas -------------------- XX,60
De Nevers, Noel ----------- XVI,186; XVIII,128
Denn, Morton M. --------------------------- XX,18
Deshpande, Pradeep B. ---------- XIX,44; XX,43
Desrosiers, Ray E. ------------------------- XX,94
Dixon, A.G. -------------- ----------- XVII,138
Duda, J.L. ------------------ XVIII,156; XX,164
Dullien, F.A.L. ------------- XVI,164
Dussan V., Elizabeth -------------- XVIII,160
E
Edie, Dan D. ------------ XVII,2; XVIII,196
Elliott, David --------------------------- XVIII,136
Elorriaga, Javier Bilbao ------------ XVIII,74
Engel, Alfred J. ------------------------- XVII,77
Eubank, P.T. ----------------------------- XVII,124
F


SXIX,45 Fahidy, T.Z. -------------------- --- XX,77
XVII,98 Fahien, Ray W. ------------------ XX,3,100,163
XVIII,186 Fair, James R. -------------------------- XVIII,190
----- XVIII,14 Falconer, John L. XVIII,140
XVI,6 Falconer, John L. ------------------------ XVIII,109
--------- XV,61 Fan, L.T ----------------------------------- XV111,109
----------- XVI,6
XX,4 Farquhar, Brodie ----------------- XIX,110
XVI,98 Felder, Richard M. -------------- XIX,12, 176
--- XX,124 Fenn, John B. ----------------------------- XVI,190
X- X,68 Finlayson, Bruce A. ---------- XIX,35; XX,150
-- XVI205 Fogler, H.S. -------------------- XVIII,98
XVIII,124 Foord, A. ------------------------------ XIX,136
Frank, Curtis W. ---------------------- XVI,122
Frank, David V. -------------------------- XVII,117
--- XVII,94 Fredrickson, A.G. -------------------------- XVII,64



CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


_-












Friedly, John C. -----------------------
Furgason, Robert R. -----------------
G
Gallinger, Floyd H. -----------------
Gates, B.C.---- --------
Glandt, Eduardo D. ------- XVII
Golnaraghi, Maryam --------------
Gomez, Roman -------------------------
Gonzalez-Velasco, Juan Ramon ------
Goodrow, Carol A. ---------------------
Graham, B.P. ----------------------------
Green, Alex E.S. --------------------
Greenberg, David B. ---------- XVI,6;
Grethlein, Hans E. --------
Griffin, Ann -------------------------------
Grosschmid, P.P. ----------------------
Grulke, Eric A.-----------
Gubbins, Keith E. --------- XIX,78,132
Gupta, Santosh K. --------- -----
H


Hadley-Coates, Lyndon ---
Haile, J.M.-----------
Hall, K.R. --- ----------
Hallman, John R. ------
Halpern, Bret L. -----------


- XVII,
----------
---------
-----------


Hanesian, Deran --------------------- XVIII,56
Hanna, O.T. --------------------------------- XIX,82
Hanyak, Michael E. ------- ----------- XIX,26
Harpell, John L. ------------------------------- XX,92
Haseman, Jeffrey T. --------------------- XVII,112
Hassler, J.C. ------------------------------ XVII,24
Hau, Shau-Drang ----------------------- XVIII,10,64
Hayhurst, David T. ------------- XIX,198
Haynes, Jr., Henry W. -------------- XX,22
Hecker, William C. ------ ----------- XVIII,180
Heichelheim, H.R. -------------- XVI,167
Heist, Richard ------------- -- ------ XX,50
Henley, Ernest J. ------ XVII,32; XVIII,144
Henry, Jr., Joseph D. ------------- XIX,182
Herskowitz, M. ---------------------------- XIX,148
Hightower, Joe W. ---------------------- XVI,148
Hill, Jr., Charles G. ------------ XVIII,92
Hoflund, Gar B. -------------------------- XX,83
Holste, J.C. ------------------------------ XVII,124
Homsy, George M. ------------------------ XVI,122
Howard, William K. ------------ XX,36
Huckaba, Charles E. ------------------ XVII,74
Hudgins, R.R. ------------- XVIII,91; XIX,135
I
Illinois Colleagues ------------------------ XVIII,6
Isbin, Herbert S. --------------------- XVII,77
J
Jacquot, R.G. ------------------------- XVII,70
Jenkins, Daniel J. ------------- ------- XVI,110
Johnston, Keith P. ------------- XIX,203
Jolls, Kenneth R. ------------ XVII,72,112
Jones, Vickie ----------------- ---- XVI,56
Jorne, Jacob -------------------------- XX,178
Joseph, Babu ----------------- XVIII,136
Joye, Donald D. --------- ----------- XIX,30
Jutan, A. ------------------------- ---- XIX,186
K
Karim, M. Nazmul -------------------- XVIII,122
Kauffman, David ----------------- --- XIX,208
Kessler, D.P. ------------------------ XX,66
Kilcup, J. Elizabeth ------------------- XX,116


- XVII,27 Kim, Sangtae ------------------------------- XX,152
------ XX,58 King, C. Judson ------------------- XX,121
King, Franklin G. --------------- XVIII,30
Kono, Hisashi 0. ---------- --------- XIX,182
------ XX,28 Koppel, Lowell B. ------------ XVII,58; XX,70
XVII,16 Kummler, R.H. ------- ------- XVIII,98
,50; XX,110 Kuri, Carlos J. -------------------- XVIII,14
-- XIX,132 Kut, OM. ---------- -- -------- XIX,128
VI, 132,196
- XVIII,74 L
--- XVI,44 Lane, Michael S. -------- --- XX,92
-- XIX,186 Lauffenburger, Douglas A.
-- XIX,203 ------------------- XVII,50; XVIII,160; XX,110
; XVIII,199 Laukhuf, Walden L.S. ------- --------- XX,43
XVIII,186 Lawson, David W. -------------------------- XVI,44
SXVII,74 Lee, H.H. -------------------------- XVII,85
SXVIII,66 Lee, P.L. -------------------------------------- XIX,36
.- XX,128 Leise, Thomas H. ----------------- -- XVI,110
2: XX,77,88 Lemlich, Robert ------------------- XVI,6
-- XX,84 Lenzi, J. ----------------------- XVIII,88
Leung, L.S. -------------- XIX,36
Levenspiel, Octave ------------- XVI,24; XX,7
--- XX,69 Licht, William ------- ------------- XVI,6
2; XVIII,19 Lightfoot, E.N. -- --------- XIX,29
- XVII,124 Lin, Hsin-Ying --------------- --------- XX,78
-- XVI,29 Little, Julia E. ----------------- --------- XVII,54
-- XVII,86 Lomas. D. ------------------- XVII34


,
Luecke, Richard H. ------- -- XX,78
Luss, Dan --------- ---- XX,12


Mc
McAvoy, Thomas J. ----
McConica, Carol M. -----
McCullough, R.L. --------------
McGee, Jr., Henry A. -------
McGuinness, N. --------------
McKelvey, James M. ----------


---------- XVI,88,94
---------- XVIII,200
--------- XVI,76
------ XX,127
--------- XVII,6
----------- XIX,25


M
Mallinson, Richard G. --------- XVI,126
Malmary, G. ------------- -------- XVIII,88
Mankowski, G. ---------------------------- XVIII,88
Mansour, Ali H. ------------- --- ----- XX,92
Marnell, Paul ------------------------------ XVIII,164
Martin, Joseph H, ------------ XVII,119
Martinez, Enrico N. ------------- XVI,132,196
Masliyah, Jacob ------------------- XVIII,132
Mason, G. ------------------------------------ XIX,136
Matteson, Michael J. ------------- XVIII,110
Messier, Russell -------------------------- XVI,152
Mewis, Jan ------------------------ XVIII,82
Middleman, Stanley --------- XVII,170; XIX,150
Minderman, Peter A. ---------- XVI,114
Molinier, J. ---------------------- XVIII,88
Moo-Young, Murray -------------------- XX,194
Moser, William R. --------- -----. XIX,156
Mumme', K.I. ---------------------------- XVII,24
Myers, Alan L. -------------------------- XVI,18


N
Nagarajan, R. -------------------------------- XIX,193
Naik, Chandrashekhar D. ------------- XIX,78
Newell, R.B. ------------------ -------- XIX,36
Noble, Richard D. -- XVII,20,70,134; XIX,162
O


Obot, Nsima T.-----------
O'Connell, John----------
Ollis, D.F. -----------------------
Oreovicz, Frank S. --------


- XX,40
-XVII,94
- XIX,168
XVII,178


P
Pallai, I.M. ----- --------------- XVIII,66
Paterson, W.R. --------------------- -- XIX,124
Patterson, G.K. --------------------------- XVIII,203
Peppas, Nicholas A. ---------- XVI,126; XX,60
Pigford, R.L. ------------------------------- XVII,16
Prausnitz, J.M. ------------------- XIX,22; XX,7
Pritchard, Colin -------------------------- XX,132

Q
Queralt, R -------------------------------- XIX,128
R
Radovic, Ljubisa R. ------------------------ XIX,204
Ramanarayanan, Kuttanchery A. --------- XX,36
Ramkrishna, D. --------------------------- XVI,43,82
Rao, Y.K. ------------------------------------- XIX,40
Ravichandran, V. --------------------------- XIX,140
Rawling, Jr., F.L. ------------------------ XVIII,9
Reif, Rafael ---------------------------------- XVII,148
Ricker, N.L. ------------------------------ XVI,93
Robertson, Channing R. --------------- XVI,122
Rochefort, Skip ---------- XIX,150
Romeo, Ronald A. ------------------- XVI,44
Rose, L.M. ------------------------------- XIX,128
Rosner, Daniel E. ----------------------- XVII,141
Roth, John A. --------------------------------- XVI,72
Ruijter, Kees --------------------------- XVIII,34
Russell, T.W.F. -- -------- XVI,76; XIX,72
Ryan, Norman W. ---------- ------- XIX,114


S
Sandler, Stanley I. ---------------- XX,144
Sawin, Herbert H. --------------- XVII,148
Scamehorn, John F. --------------------- XVIII,166
Schrader, G.L. --------------------------- XVII,16
Schrodt, Verle N. ------------------ XX,135
Schruben, Dale L. -------------------- XX,48
Schultz, Jerome S. --------------------------- XVI,2
Seader, J.D. ----- XVII,139; XVIII,128; XIX,88
Seapan, Mayis ------------------------------ XVI,168
Sears, J.T. ----------------------------------- XVII,110
Seider, Warren D. ------------------ XVIII,26
Seinfeld, John H. ----------------------- XVI,121
Serageldin, Mohamed -------- ----- XVII,174
Shaeiwitz, Joseph A. ------------------ XVII,152
Shah, D.B. ------------- XVIII,170; XIX,198
Sherwood, T.K. ------------------------------ XIX,121
Siirola, J.J. ---------------------------- XVI,68,138
Silla, Harry ----------------------------------- XX,44
Silveston, P.L. ------------------------------- XVII,78
Simmons, George M. -------- ---- XVII,182
Skaates, J.M. ------------ XVI.178; XX,136
Slattery, John C. ------------- XVIII,2
Sloan, E. Dendy ------------- -------- XVI,38
Smith, Douglas M. -------- ----------- XX,198
Smith, Julian C. -------------------------- XIX,58
Snyder, William J. ---- ---------- XIX,26
Sommerfeld, Jude T.
----- -- XVI,114; XVIII,110; XX,138
Soong, David S. ------------ ---- XIX,190
Squires, R.G. ----------------- ---- XVII,104,117
Stainthorp, F.P. --------- --- XVII,34
Steen, Paul H. --------------------------------- XIX,58
Stephanopoulis, George ------------ XX,182
Stewart, Warren E. --------------------- XVIII,204
Stokes, Vijay Kumar ---------------------- XVI,82
Storvick, Truman S. ---------- XVIII,139; XX,21
Stroeve, Pieter --------------------------------- XX,8


FALL 1986













Sukanek, Peter -----
Sullivan, Gerald R. -------
Sullivan, Ralda M. -----
Sullivan, William G. --
Sussman, Martin V. --
T
Taber, Joyce ----------------
Takoudis, Christos G. -
Tarbell, John M. -----------
Tarrer, A. Ray ------------
Tavlarides, Lawrence L.
Taylor, Ross ----------------
Thomas, David G. ------
Thomson, William J. -
Timmerhaus, Klaus D. -
Tjahjadi, Mahari -- ---
U
Uhl, Vincent W. ----
Ungar, Lyle --------------


---------- --- XX,186
--------------------- XX,70
-------------- XX,32
-------------------- XVI,95
---------- XVII,128,161


------------------- XIX,54
----------- XVII,158
------------------ XVI,110
--------------------- XX,74
------------- XVIII,102
.--------------- XVI,158
---------------- XIX,17
----------------- XVII,182
------- XIX,83; XX,181
---- ------- XX,84


-------- XVI,30; XIX,10
------------- XVIII,160


Utomo, Tjipto ---
V
Valderrama, Jose O. --
Valle-Riestra, J. Frank
Van Ness, H.C. ---------
Van Zee, John ------------
Varma, Arvind -----------
Venkatasubramanian, V.
Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj
W
Walker, Charles A. -----
Wankat, Phillip C. ------
Watson, Keith R. -------
Wei, James -------------
Weiland, Ralph H.
Weir, Ronald D. -----
Westerberg, Arthur W.
Wheelock, T.D. ---
Whitaker, Stephen ------


----- XVII
---------------
--------- ------
----------------
----------------
------------
-------------


- XVI,102;
---- XVII,1




- XVI,12,62
---------- ----

---------------


---------------
--------------


--- XVIII,34 White, Mark G. -------------------------- XVIII,174
Whiting, Wallace B. ----------------------- XX,35
Whitmyre, Jr., George ------------- XX,144
1,70; XX,102 Wilkes, Garth L. ---------------------------- XVI,174
-- XVII,162 Williams, Dennis C. --------- XX,74
------ XIX,62 Williams, Frank L. ----------------------- XX,198
---- XIX,194 Williams, Joyce B. ----------------------------- XX,7
--- XVII,176 Willis, Max S. ----------------------------- XIX,185
----- XX,188 Wong, Julius P. -------------------------------- XIX,44
------- XX,40 Wood, Philip E. ------------------------------ XX,28

Woods, Donald R.
XVII,86,196 ------ XVI,44; XVII,166; XVIII,106; XX,28
78; XVIII,20
.- YTY AA Y


---- XIX,120
- XVI,158
--- XVIII,60
; XVIII,159
-XVIII,185
------ XIX,18


Yeow, Y.L. ----------
Z
Zabicky, Jacob ---
Zhang, Guo-Tai -----
Zygourakis, Kyriacos -


-------------- XVIII,78


----------- XX,148
---------- XVIII,10,64
-------- XVIII,176


TITLE INDEX


A
Accreditation: Plus or Minus --------------------------------------------- XX,58
Accreditation, and Computing Technology; Design ----------------- XX,18
Adjoint Variables and Their Role in Optimal Problems, The
Nature of ---------------------------------- XIX,68
Adjunct Position: One Way to Keep Up With Technology and
Education --------------------------------- XIX,162
Adsorption Methods, New --- ------------------------- XVIII,20
Aerosol Science, Introduction to* ---------------- -------- --- XIX,203
Air Pollution for Engineers --------- ------------------ ---- XVI,168
Algebra for Chemical Engineers, Linear ----------------- XVIII,176
Analysis and Design, Chemical Reactor* --------- -------- XVII,176
Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering ---------------- XVIII,160
Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering: Course ------------ XX,188
Artificial Intelligence in Process Engineering: Research ------------ XX,182
ASEE, Why I Belong To -------- .---------------------------- XX,121
Availability (Exergy) Analysis* ------------------------- ---------- XVII,139
Availability Functions, A Graphic Look at -------------------------- XVII,128
AWARD LECTURES
Design Research: Both Theory and Strategy ------------- XVI,12,62
Image Processing and Analysis For Turbulence Research ----- XX,202
Input Multiplicities in Process Control ------------------------ XVII,58
Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic
Unit Operations -------------------------- - -- XIX,72
Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal Collocation ------- XVIII,204
Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting
Systems ------------ --------------- --- ---- XX,12

B
Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass ------------------------------- XVIII,186
Biochemical Engineering: With Extensive Use of Personal
Computers --------------------------------------- XX,122
Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology ------------- XX,194
Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals ------------------------------ XIX,168
Biomass, Bio-Chemical Conversion of -------------------------------- XVIII,186
Biomedical Education, Trends in ------------------------------------- XVI,126
Boiler House, Exploiting the On-Campus ----------------------------------- XX,28
Book Writing and ChE Education ------------------------------------- XVII,184
Boundary Layer Theory for Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer,
Foundations of* --- ---------------------------------------- XIX,82

C
Calculations, Degrees of Freedom and Precedence Orders in
Engineering .-------------------------------------------------- XX,138


Calculator, Distillation Calculations With a Programmable ------ XVII,86
Career Planning and Motivation Through an Imaginary Company
Format -------------- -------------- --- XVI,44
Carnegie-Mellon University, The History of Chemical
Engineering at* ---------- ----------------------- -- XVIII,37
Catalysis -------------------------------------- --- XVIII,180
Catalysis, A Survey Course in ---------------------------------------- XVI,178
Catalysis Demonstrations, Kinetics and ----------- ---- XVIII,140
Catalysis Involving Video-Based Seminars, Heterogeneous ----- XVIII,174
Catalyst Manufacture: Laboratory and Commercial Preparations*
---------.--------------- ------------------ XVIII,92
Cheating-An Ounce of Prevention --- ---------------- XIX, 12
Chemical Engineering: A Crisis in Maturity -------------------- XX,178
Chemically Reacting Systems, Steady-State Multiplicity
Features of ----------------------------------- --------- -- -- XX,12
Chemicals in the Environment: Distribution-Transport-
Fate-Analysis* --------------------------------------- XVII,77
Coal Utilization and Conversion Processes, Fundamentals of ----- XIX,204
Collocation, Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal ----------- XVIII,204
Colloid and Surface Science -------------------------------------- XVIII,166
Combustion ------------------------------------------------------ XVII,174
Communication to Undergraduates, Teaching Technical ------------- XX,32
Communications Skills Through a Laboratory Course, The
Development of --------- ------------------------- XVI,122
Computational Methods for Turbulent, Transonic, and Viscous
Flows* --------------------------------------- XVIII,203
Computers, A New Approach to Teaching ChE Using --------- XVIII,66
Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations ----- ----------- XIX,26
Computer-Generated Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures ------ XVII,112
Computer Graphics, The Representation of Highly Non-Ideal Phase
Equilibria Using --------------- ----- --- --------- ------ -- XX,88
Computer Graphics Approach to the Use of the Integral Method in
Kinetics, A ---------------------------------------- XX,136
Computer Graphics to Teach Thermodynamic Phase Diagrams,
The Use of ------------------------------------ ---------- ----- XIX,78
Computer Process Control, A Microcomputer Based Laboratory
for Teaching ----------------------------------- XVIII,136
Computer Programs for Chemical Engineers, Selected Numerical
Methods and* --------------------- -------------- XVII,196
Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic
Evaluations of Chemical Processes, Two ------------------------ XVIII,14
Computer Usage in Design Courses: Survey -- ------------------ XVII,32
Computing Technology; Design, Accreditation, and- ------- ------- XX,18

*Book Review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Computing Technology, Expectations of the Competence of
ChE Graduates in the Use of -------- --------------------- XX,19
Controlled Processes With Dead-Time, Simulation of Simple ------- XIX,44
Corcoran, William H.; Oustandihg Paper Award ---- ---------- XX, 180
Corrosion, Teach -----'---,.- ..-..---------------- XX,69
Corrosion Engineering, Electrochemical and -------------- XIX,194
Cost Engineering, Applied* ---------.... .----------- --------- XIX,118
Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes,
Two Computer Programs for Equipment ------------------- XVIII,14
Creativity in Students, Toward Encouraging ------------------- XIX,22
Curriculum, An Integrated Approach to ---------------------- --- XX,92
Curriculum, The Chemical Engineering: 1985 ------------ -- XX,124
D
Dead-Time, Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes With -------- XIX,44
DEPARTMENTS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
California, University of: Davis ------------------------- XX,8
Cincinnati, University of ---------- --- -------------- XVI,6
Clemson University ----------------------------------- ------. XVII,2
Cornell University ---------------- ------------------------ XIX,58
Delft University of Technology -------- ----------------- XVII,54
Erevan Polytechnic Institute --------- --------- --- XVIII,56
Kentucky, University of -------------------------- ---- XVII,98
Maryland, University of ------------------------------- --- XIX,6
Minnesota, University of ------------------- -------------------------- XVI,50
Northwestern University ------------------------------ XVIII,2
Pennsylvania, University of .------------------------------ XX,110
Purdue University --------- -------- -------.-------. XX,60
Syracuse University ---------------------------------- XVIII,102
Utah, University of ------ ------------------------ ---- XIX,114
Yale University ---------------------- -------------------------- XVI,102
Design, Accreditation, and Computing Technology ----------- XX,18
Design, Chemical Process: An Integrated Teaching Approach ----- XVI,72
Design, Chemical Reactor ----------------------.------------------- XVII,158
Design, Chemical Reactor Analysis and* -------------------------- XVII,176
Design, Probabilistic Engineering: Principles and Applications*
-----.-.. ------- ------------- --- ----------------- XVIII,144
Design, Using Spreadsheets for Teaching -------- ------ -- XX, 128
Design Course, Development and Critique of the Contemporary
Senior -------------- ------------------------------------- XVI,30
Design Course in Groups, An Experiential ------------------ XVI,38
Design Courses, Computer Usage in: Survey ---- ------ XVII,32
Design Laboratory, Development of the --------------------- XX,44
Design Laboratory Experiment for Separating Particles by
Fluidization Principles, A Sequential ------------------------------- XIX,30
Design of Industrial Chemical Reactors From Laboratory Data* XVII,46
Design Problems, Thermodynamics With --------------------- XVII,110
Design Research: Both Theory and Strategy ----------------- XVI,12,62
Differential Equation Models by Polynomial Approximation,
Solution of* ----.---- .---- -- ------------- --- XVI,43
Diffusion in Liquids* --------------------------------------.- XIX,29
Diffusive Mass Transport, A Note on ------------------------------- XX,22
Digital Computer Application in Process Control -------------- XVI,118
Digital Control Liquid Level Experiment, Direct -------------- XVII,28
Dimensionless Education ----------------------------- XVIII,112
Discrete Processes in Undergraduate Process Control Courses ----- XX,78
Distillation, Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a --------- XVIII,38
Distillation Calculations With a Programmable Calculator ------ XVII,86
Distillation With Vapour Compression ---------------------- XX, 132
Division Activities XVI,67,176; XVII,97; XVIII,53,159; XIX,119; XX,167
Dolphin Problem, The --------------------------------- --- XVI,24
Drying of Solids, Tray ------------------------------------- ------ XVIII,132
E
Economic Decision Analysis, What Every Engineer Should
Know About* -------- .---- XVI,95
Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes, Two Computer
Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and ------------ XVIII,14
Economics, Introduction to Process* --------------------- ------ XIX,10
EDITORIALS
Olaf Hougen: Teacher, Researcher, Educator ------------- XX,163


Ratings, Race, The ---------------------------- ------- XX,3
Service or Ratings? ----------------- --------------- ----------- XX, 100
EDUCATORS, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Alkire, Richard C., of Illinois ------------------ ----------- XVIII,6
Bell, Ken, of Oklahoma State ---------------------------------- XX,4
Bennett, C.O., of Connecticut ------- ------------------ XVI,98
Greenkorn, Robert A., of Purdue -------------------------------- XX,66
Gulari, Esin and Erdogan, of Wayne State and Michigan ---- XVIII,98
Hightower, Joe, of Rice --------------------- ------------ XIX,54
Martin, Joe, of Michigan -------------------------------------- -- XVI,2
Quinn, John A., of Pennsylvania --------------- ------------ XVII,50
Schmitz, Roger A., of Notre Dame ------------ -------------- XX,116
Seader, J.D., of Utah --------------------------------------- XVI,56
Shah, Dinesh, of Florida -------------------------------- -- XVII,94
SSloan, Dendy, of Colorado School of Mines -------------------- XIX,110
Smith, J.M., of California-Davis ------------------------------- XVII,6
Timmerhaus, Klaus D., of Colorado ------------------- ----------- XIX,2
Van Ness, Hank, of Rensselaer --------------------------------- XVIII,50
Electrochemical and Corrosion Engineering ---------------------------- XIX,194
Electronic Materials, The Processing of -------------- -------------- XX,186
Elementary Chemical Engineering* ----------------- XIX,45
Energy Conservation Principles, The Integration of into a Course on
Staged Operations ----------------------------------- ---- XVI,88
Engineering Education and Practice in the United States* ---------- XX,101
Engineering Graduate Education and Research* ---------------------- XX,181
Engineering Research Centers, The New* ----- ------------- XX,181
Equilibrium-Stage Operations, The B.C. (Before Computers)
and A.D. of ---------------------------------- XIX,88
Ethics, Teaching Professional ---------------------------------------- XVIII,106
Exergy, The Thermodynamic Fundamentals of -------------------- XVIII,116
*Experiment, A Nonideal Flow --------------------------------- XVIII,74
Experiment, An Improved Design of a Simple Tubular Reactor --- XIX,84
Experiment for the Transient Response of a Stirred Vessel,
Laboratory ----------------------------------- -- -- XVII,70
Experiments in CRE, $12 for a Dozen --------------------------- XVIII,10
Extraction, Metals Separation by Liquid ------------------------- XVIII,88
Extraction, Transport Phenomena iA Liquid* --------------------- XVI,93
F
Film, Ripple in a Falling --------------------------------- --------- XX,48
Finite Elements: Mathematical Aspects* ----------------------------- XIX,35
First- and Second-Law Statement, The Two Lost-Work Statements
and the Combined -----------------.. ------- ------------ XVIII,128
Flow Curve Determination for Non-Newtonian Fluids -------------- XX,84
Fluid Flow, The Practical Use of Theory in* ------------------------ XIX,17
Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer* -------------------------------- --- XVI,108
Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory ------------- XX,40
Fluid Mechanics and Unit Operations* -------- ------------- XVIII,199
Fluid Properties and Phase Equilibria, Estimation of -------- XIX,148
Fluidization ------------------------------- ---- XIX,182
Fluidization Principles, A Sequential Design Laboratory Experiment for
Separating Particles by ----------- ------ ----- ----------- XIX,30
Fluidized-Bed Chemical Processes, Fundamentals of* ----------- XVIII,109
Fluxes in Continuous Media, Tensorial Nature of- ---------- XVI,82
Fuels, Alternative: Chemical Energy Resources* ------------ XVII,85
Fugacity, Residual Functions and ------------------------------- XVII,124
G
Gamma Distribution, A Physical Interpretation for the ----------- XX,36
Generic Quiz, The --------------------------------- XIX,176
Geometrical Derivation of the Spatial Averaging Theorem,
A Simple ---------------------------------------- XIX,18
Gibbs Phase Rule, Extended Form of the ---------------------------- XIX,40
Graduate Education in Chemical Engineering ------------------------- XX,174
Graduate Education in Mexico ------------------------ XVI,196
Graduate Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry --------- XVII,182
Graduate Residency at Clemson ------------------------------ XVIII,196
Graduate School, Common Misconceptions Concerning ----------- XVIII,156
Graduate School Worth It?, Is --------------------------------- XIX,208

*Book Review


FALL 1986













Graduate Studies: The Middle Way -------- --------- --------- XX,164

H
Heat, and Mass Transfer, Momentum* -------------------------- XIX, 193
Heat and Mass Transfer, Advanced Topics in ------------- XVII,152
Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow and* -------- --------------X-- XVI,108
Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving Video-Based Seminars ----- XVIII,174
Hotdog, Thermal Conductivity of a ----------------------------------- XVIII,110
Hougen's Principles ---------------------------- XX,161
Hydraulic Analog Methods to Develop Kinetic Rate Equations From
Laboratory Data, Using ------- ------- ---- XVIII,64
Hydraulic Conveying of Solids, Pneumatic and* ------- ------ XVIII,185
Hygiene Aspects of Plant Operations, Industrial ---------------- XIX,83
I
Ice Cubes Problem, Melting --------- -------------------- XVI,114
Ice Rink Problem -------------------------------------------- XVI,94
Image Processing and Analysis for Turbulence Research --------- XX,202
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry: Integrating Chemistry and
Engineering ---------------- -------------------- ------ XVII,16
Industrial Experimentation, Optimization and* ----------- XVI,167
Industry, The Chemical Engineer in the Chemical ------------- XX,148
Information Science Training for Chemical Engineers, Basic --- XIX,128
Input Multiplicities in Process Control --------------- ------- XVII,58
Integral Method in Kinetics, A Computer Graphics Approach to
the Use of the -- --------------- ----------------- XX,136
Interstate Rivalry, Graduate Education Wins in ----------- XVII,182


Job Hunting, The Graduate Student's Guide to Academic --------- XVII,178
K
Kinetic Rate Equations From Laboratory Data, Using Hydraulic Analog
Methods to Develop ------------------------------- XVIII,64
Kinetics, A Computer Graphics Approach to the Use of the Integral
Method in -------------------------------------- XX,136
Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations ---------------------- XVIII,140
L
Laboratory, A Junior Year ChE ------ ----------------- XIX,124
Laboratory Engineering and Manipulations* ---------------- ------- XVI,29
Letters to the Editor
---------- XVII,72,103,161; XVIII,73,109; XIX,35,135,171; XX,7,77,167
Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers ---- ------------- XVIII,176
Linear Operator Methods in ChE* ------------------------ ------- XX,152
Liquids and Liquid Mixtures* ------------------------------ ---- XX,77
Liquid Extraction, Metals Separation by ------------------------------ XVIII,88
Liquid Extraction, Transport Phenomena in* -------------- -XVI,93
Liquid Filtration* ------. --------------------------- XIX,185
Liquid Level Experiment, Direct Digital Control ------- ---- XVII,28
Lost-Work Statements and the Combined First- and Second-Law
Statement, The Two ---------------------------------------- ----- XVIII,128
M
Mass Transfer ---------------------------------- XVI,158
Mass Transfer, Advanced Topics in Heat and ---------------- XVII,152
Mass Transfer, Momentum, Heat, and* ------------------ ------- XIX,193
Mass Transfer in Engineering Practice* ------------ -- XVIII,9
Mass Transfer Seem Difficult, How We Make -------------- XVIII,124
Mathematical Understanding of ChE Systems, The: Selected Papers
of Neal R. Amundson* ---. ---------- -- -------------- XVI,121
MEMORIAL, IN
Corcoran, William H. --- ---------------------------------- XVI,157
Erbar, J.H. ------------------------------------ --- XVIII,19
Hougen, Olaf Andreas --------------- ---------------- XX,160
Martin, Joseph J. ------------------------------- XVII,73
Peck, Ralph E. ------------------------- --- ----- XVII,23
Peiffer, Charles -------------------------------------- XIX,211
Spellman, Lloyd A. ------------------ -------------------- XVI,125
Vermeulen, Ted -------------- ------------------------ --- XVIII,87
Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction ---------- ---- XVIII,88


Mexico, Graduate Education in --- --------------------- XVI,196
Mexico, Recent Development of ChE Education in- ---- --- XVI,132
Microcomputer, Pulse Testing With a ------------------------------- XVIII,78
Microcomputer, The Laboratory* ------------------------------ XX,50
Microcomputer Based Laboratory for Teaching Computer Process
Control, A ---------------------------------------- XVIII,136
Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem ------------------------------ XVI,186
Modular Instruction Under Restricted Conditions --- ------ XVIII,34
Modeling, Numerical Methods and ------------- ------------ XVII,144
Modeling for Chemical Engineers, Numerical Methods and* ---- XX,150
Modelling, An Exercise in: One Month Problem --------- XIX,140
Modelling at Royal Military College, Teaching Simulation and --- XVIII,60
Molecular Fluids, Theory of* ---------------------------------- XIX,203
Molecular Sieve Technology ----------------------------------- XIX,198
Molecular Structure and Reactivity, A Pictorial Approach to* --- XX,83
Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer* ---- ------- XIX,193
Multicomponent Distillation, Fundamentals of* ------- XVII,137
Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems, Steady-State
----------------------------------- XX,12
N
Non-Newtonian Fluids, Flow Curve Determination for ----- XX,84
Nonideal Flow Experiment, A ------------------- XVIII,74
Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical Engineering* ------------ XVII,138
Nuclear Chemical Engineering* --- ------------------------- XVII,77
Nucleate Boiling -------------------------------------- XVI,152
Numerical Methods and Computer Programs for Chemical Engineers,
Selected* ---------------------------------- XVII,196
Numerical Methods and Modeling ------------- -------- XVII,144
Numerical Methods and Modeling for ChE's* ------------------------ XX,150
0
Optimization, Engineering: Methods and Applications* ----- XVIII,159
Optimization and Industrial Experimentation* ------------ XVI,167
Orthogonal Collocation, Simulation and Estimation by -------- XVIII,204
Oscillating Sink, The -------------------------------- ----- XVI,110
Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts ----------- XVI,148
P
Participants or Victims?, Are We ------------- ----------- XIX,120
Petroleum Production, Fundamentals of ------------ -------------- XVI,164
Phase Diagrams, The Use of Computer Graphics to Teach
Thermodynamic ---------.--------------------------------- XIX,78
Phase Diagrams for Binary Mixtures, Computer-Generated ---- XVII,112
Phase Equilibria, Estimation of Fluid Properties and -------- XIX,148
Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering* ------- -------------- XX,35
Phase Equilibria Using Computer Graphics, The Representation
of Highly Non-Ideal -------------------------------- XX,88
Phase Rule, Extended Form of the Gibbs ------------- XIX,40
Photovoltaic Unit Operations, Semiconductor Chemical Reactor
Engineering and ------------------------------------- XIX,72
Plant Design, Graduate --------------------------------- --- XVIII,164
Plant Design and Economics for ChE's* -------------- -------------- XVI,205
Plant Design Course, Goals of an Undergraduate --------- XVI,26
Plant Operations, Industrial Hygiene Aspects of* --------- XIX,83
Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication ------- XVII,148
Pneumatic and Hydraulic Conveying of Solids* ---------------- XVIII,185
Polymers, Engineering With* ----------------------------------- XIX,25
Polymer Education and Research ----------- ------------ XVI,174
Polymer Processing ------------------ ------- XIX,190
Polymerization Engineering, Principles of* ---- ----------- XVIII,73
Polynomial Approximation, Solution of Differential Equation
Models By* ------------------------------------- XVI,43
Powders and Porous Materials, Characterization of --- ------ XX,198
PROBLEMS
Dolphin Problem, The ----------------- ------- XVI,24
Ice Rink Problem, The ------------------------------- XVI,94
Melting Ice Cube Problem -------------------------------------- XVI,114
Mine-Mouth Geyser Problem --------------------------- XVI,186

*Book Review


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











One Month Problem: An Exercise in Modeling ------------ XIX,140
Ripple in a Falling Film ---------------------------------- XX,48
Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation --- XVIII,38
Thermal Conductivity of a Hotdog ---------------- XVIII,110
Wine Problem, A ----------------------------- XVIII,70
Problem Solving to Use in the Classroom, Putting ---- --- XVII,134
Process Control, A Microcomputer Based Laboratory for Teaching
Computer -------------------------------------- XVIII,136
Process Control, A Useful Formula in ------------------------ XX,82
Process Control, Advanced* ------- ---- XVII,27
Process Control, Digital Computer Application in ----------- XVI,118
Process Control, Input Multiplicities in ------ ---- XVII,58
Process Control, Undergraduate ----------------- ----- XX,74
Process Control Courses, Discrete Processes in Undergraduate --- XX,78
Process Control Education, Use of IBM's Advanced Control
System in Undergraduate ---------------- ----- XX,70
Process Control on Chemical Engineering Education and Research,
Impact of Packaged Software for --------------------- XIX,144
Process Control Undergraduate Option, A -------------- XVII,24
Process Design, The Teaching of --------------------------- XIX,121
Process Design Courses at Pennsylvania, The: Impact of
Process Simulators -------------------------------------------- -- XVIII,26
Process Design in Process Control Education -----------. XVIII,122
Process Design Sequence at Virginia Tech --------------------- XVI,34
Process Economics, Introduction to* ---------------------- XIX,10
Process Laboratory, An Innovative ChE ------------ ----------- XIX,150
Process Synthesis, Chemical ----------------------------------- XVI,68,138
Processes, Fundamentals of Chemical ------------------------- XIX,156
Programmable Calculator, Distillation Calculations With a --- XVII,86
Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industries ------- XVII,162
Property Relation, The Fundamental --------------------------------XVII,119
Pulse Testing With a Microcomputer ---------------------------- XVIII,78
q
Quantum Mechanics, The Picture Book of* ----- ------------ XX,127
Quiz, The Generic -------------------------------------------- XIX,176
R
Reaction Engineering, R.H. Wilhelm's Influence on the Development of
Chemical ---------------------------- XVII,10
Reading Scientific Papers, Learning Through --------------- XX,102
Reactors From Laboratory Data, Design of Industrial Chemical*
.------------------------------------- XVII,46
Recovery Processes, Separations and --------------- XIX,172
Recycle With Heating ----- ------- ------ XIX,136
Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy,
Enthalpy, and Entropy ------------------ XVII,64
Refinery 5 (Lithograph) -- ----------------------- XVII,141
Regulatory Process into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum,
Introducing the -------- -------------- XVIII,30
Research is Engineering -------------------- XVI,190
Research Landmarks for Chemical Engineers ------------ XX,168
Residual Functions and Fugacity ---------------- -- XVII,124
Resource-Based Approach to ChE Education, A ----------- XIX,36
S
Safety Do We Need in ChE Education?,How Much -------- XVIII,82
Safety Program at Delaware, A Laboratory -------------- XX,144
San Diego, Cleaning Up in ---------------------------------- XVII,170
Scaleup of Chemical Processes* ------------------- XX,135
Self-Study Examples, Use of Slides and ---- ----------------- XVII,105
Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit
Operations -------------- ------------------- -- ------- XIX,72
Semiconductor Processing ---------- ----------- ---- XVIII,200
Separations and Recovery Processes ------- -- -------- XIX,172
Separations Research --------------------------------- XVIII,190
Sequential Design Laboratory Experiment for Separating Particles by
Fluidization Principles, A ------------------------------- XIX,30
Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal Collocation ------ XVIII,204
Simulation and Modelling at Royal Military College, Teaching -- XVIII,60
Simulation of the Manufacture of a Chemical Product in a Competitive


Environment ----------------------------------- XVI,76
Slides and Self-Study Examples, Use of ------------------ XVII,105
Socio-Humanistic Concepts into Engineering Courses, The
Infusion of ------------- XVII,74
Software for Process Control on ChE Education and Research,
Impact of Packaged ---------------------------- XIX,144
Solar Hot Water Heating by Natural Convection ----------- XVII,20
Solids, Tray Drying of ------------------------------------ XVIII,132
Spatial Averaging Theorem, A Simple Geometrical Derivation
of the ---------- XIX,18
Spreadsheets for Teaching Design, Using ------------------- XX,128
Staged Operations, Improvements in the Teaching of ---- ---- XIX,132
Staged Operations, The Integration of Energy Conservation
Principles into a Course on ---------------------------- XVI,88
Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems XX,12
STIRRED POTS
Lacey Lecturer: Hanratty, Tom ------ ------------------------- XX,77
Lacey Lecturer: Luss, Dan ---------- ----------------- XVII,97
Limerick Metric Applied to Thermodynamics -------------- XVIII,19
Mass Transfer Talkin' Blues -------------------------- XVIII,91
Weikart, Ballad of Jack ----------------------------------- XVII,53
Stirred Vessel, Laboratory Experiment for the Transient
Response of a -------- -------------------- ---- XVII,70
Summer School '87 ----------------- --------- XX,177
Surface Phenomena ------------------------------- XVII,166
Surface Science, Colloid and ---------------------------- -- XVIII,166
Survey, 1981 AIChE-EPC --------------------- -------- -- XVI,182
Symposium on Undergraduate ChE Thermodynamics ------------ XVII,104
T
Tensorial Nature of Fluxes in Continuous Media --------------------- XVI,82
Ternary Phase Diagram for VLLE, Generation of a ----- -------- XX,94
Thermal Conductivity of a Hotdog --------------------------------- XVIII,110
Thermodynamic Fundamentals of Exergy, The ---------- XVIII,116
Thermodynamics, An Integrated Approach to Teaching
Undergraduate --------------------------------- XVII,109
Thermodynamics, Chemical and Process* -------------------- XVIII,139
Thermodynamics, Chemical Engineering* ---------- ---------- XX,21
Thermodynamics, Classical Solution ---------------------------- XIX,62
Thermodynamics Instruction, Symposium on Undergraduate
ChE ---------------------------------------- XVII,104
Thermodynamics of Running ------------------------------ XVI,18
Thermodynamics With Design Problems ----------------- XVII,110
Third World, ChE Education in the: Two Views --- ------- XVII,78
Time Series to Chemical Engineers, Teaching ------------- XIX,186
Transient Response of a Stirred Vessel, Laboratory Experiment
for the --- ------------------------- XVII,70
Transport Phenomena ---------------------------- XVIII, 170
Transport Phenomena in Liquid Extraction* ----------- XVI,93
Tray Drying of Solids --- ------------------ XVIII,132
Tubular Reactor Experiment, An Improved Design of a Simple -- XIX,84
TUTCHE-A Program Package for Tutoring ChE's -------------- XVII,34
Tutor, The Chemistry* ----------------------------- XX,43
TV Taped Problems, Supplemental ---- ------------------ XVII,117
U
Unit Operations, Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and
Photovoltaic ---- ------------------- ---------- XIX,72
V
Vapour Compression, Distillation With ---- ----------------- XX,132
Video-Based Seminars, Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving ----- XVIII,174
W
Wilhelm's Influence on the Development of Chemical Reaction
Engineering, R.H. --------------------------------- ---- XVII,10
Wine Problem, A -------------------------------- XVIII,70
Y
Yale, Two Gentlemen From ------- ---- --------- -- XVI,107

*Book Review


FALL 1986



































FACULTY


THE UNIVERSITY OF flKRON I
I l8kron,OH 44325

DEPATMET O


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING




GRADUATE PROGRAM


RESEARCH INTERESTS


G.A. ATWOOD ........................................................................ Digital Control, Mass Transfer, Multicomponent Adsorption.
J.M BERTY ........................................................................... Reactor Design, Reaction Engineering, Syngas Proccesses.
H.M CHEUNG ....................................................................... .. ......................... Colloids, Light Scattering Techniques.
S.C. CHUANG ................................................................... Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Combustion.
J.R. ELLIOTT ................................................................................ Therm odynam ics, M material Properties.
*G. ESKAMANI ............................................................... ...... ................. Waste Water Treatment.
L.G FO CHT ........................................................................ ..... ........................... Fixed Bed Adsorption, Process Design.
H.L. G REENE ............................................................................................................ O xidative Catalysis, Reactor Design, M ixing.
S. LEE ....................................................................................................................... Synfuel Processing, Reaction Kinetics, Com puter A applications.
R.W RO BERTS .......................................................................................................... Plastics Processing, Polym er Film s, System Design.
R.F. SAVINELL .................................................................. .. ................................ Electrochem ical Engineering. (O n Leave)
M .S. W ILLIS ................................................................................. ....................... M ultiphase Transport Theory, Filtration, Interfacial Phenom ena.
*Adjunct professor




Graduate assistant stipends for teaching and research start at $6,000. Industrially sponsored fellowships available up to $13,000. These
awards include waiver of tuition and fees. Cooperative Graduate Education Program is also available. The deadline for assistantship
application is March 1.






ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE:
Dr. Howard L. Greene, Head
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Akron
Akron, Ohio 44325







:1:


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Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


K.T. CHUANG, Ph.D. (Alberta): Mass Transfer, Catalysis.

P.J. CRICKMORE, Ph.D. (Queen's): Applied Mathematics.

I.G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis.

D.G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications.

M.R. GRAY, Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors.

R.E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Numerical Analysis, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media.

D.T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Reactor Modelling and Design.

J.H. MASLIYAH Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics.

A.E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.

A.J. MORRIS, Ph.D. (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne): Process Control, Al
and Expert Systems.

For further information contact:


W.K. NADER Dr. Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics.

K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomena,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics.

F.D. OTTO Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Upgrading.

D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics.

D.B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics.

J.T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media:

S.L. SHAH Ph.D. (Alberta): Computer Process Control, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory.

S.E. WANKE Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN:
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Kinetics.

R.K. WOOD Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Simulation,
Identification and Modelling, Distillation Column Control.

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6










THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic
with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate pro-
grams. Financial support is available through government grants and contracts, teaching, and
research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full oppor-
tunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in
most of the research areas listed below.
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


MILAN BIER, Professor
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport
HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics
Polyelectrolyte Solutions
WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor, Assoc. Dean
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing
EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications
JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and
Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology
SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com-
bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation
Processes, Applied Mathematics
GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical
Modelling of Transport
ARNE J. PEARLSTEIN, Asst. Professor
(Joint with Aerospace and Mechanical)
Ph.D., UCLA, 1983
Boundary Layers, Stability, Mass and Heat Transport



Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.


For further information,
write to:
Dr. Farhang Shadman
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant
Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols
ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation,
Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion
JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide
Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phe-
nomena
DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial
and Enzymatic Processes
DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
D.Sc., Technion, 1962.
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing










Arizona State University

Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D.
Degrees in Chemical Engineering,
Biomedical Engineering, and
Materials Engineering
Research Specializations include:
ADSORPTION/SEPARATIONS CRYSTALLIZATION *
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOMECHANICS BIOCONTROLS
* BIOINSTRUMENTATION 0 BIOMATERIALS CARDIO-
VASCULAR SYSTEMS COMPOSITE/POLYMERIC MATERIALS *
CERAMIC/ELECTRONIC MATERIALS HIGH TEMPERATURE
MATERIALS CATALYSIS SOLID STATE SCIENCE SURFACE
PHENOMENA PHASE TRANSFORMATION CORROSION *
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENERGY CONSERVATION *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES *
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly respected faculty:
James R. Beckman (Arizona) Stephen J. Krause (Michigan)
Lynn Bellamy (Tulane) James L Kuester (Texas A&M)
Neil S. Berman (Texas) Vincent B. Pizziconi (ASU)*
David H. Beyda (Loyola)* Gregory B. Raupp (Wisconsin)
Llewellyn W. Bezanson (Clarkson) Castle 0. Reiser (Wisconsin)*
Roy D. Bloebaum (Western Australia)* Vernon E. Sater (IIT)
Veronica A. Burrows (Princeton) Milton C. Shaw (Cincinnati)
Timothy S. Cale (Houston) Kwang S. Shin (Northwestern)
Ray W. Carpenter (UC/Berkeley) James T. Stanley (Illinois)
William A. Coghlan (Stanford) Robert S. Torrest (Minnesota)
William J. Dorson (Cincinnati) Bruce C. Towe (Pennsylvania State)
R. Leighton Fisk (Alberta)* Thomas L Wachtel (St Louis University)*
Eric J. Guilbeau (Louisiana Tech) Bruce J. Wagner (Virginia)
David E. Haskins (Oklahoma)* Allan M. Weinstein (Brooklyn Polytech)*
Lester E. Hendrickson (Illinois) Jack M. Winters (UC/Berkeley)
Dean L. Jacobson (UCLA) Imre Zwiebel (Yale)
James B. Koeneman (Western Australia)* *Adjunct or Emeritus Professor

Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available
to qualified applicants.
ASU in Tempe, a city of 120,000, and is a part of the greater
Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 40,000 students are enrolled
in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 are in graduate study. Arizona's year-
round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and
recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Neil S. Berman, Graduate Program Coordinator
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287

Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action
and equal opportunity in its employment, activities and programs.
-------^jiML-















II


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- /


Ajburn

University


Auburn tv
Engineering


THE FACULTY


R. T. K. BAKER (University of Wales, 1978)
R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965)
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976)
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970)
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958)
A. KRISHNAGOPALAN (University of Maine, 1976)
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972)
R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973)
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978)
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973)
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981)
D. L. VIVES (Columbia University, 1949)
D. C. WILLIAMS (Princeton University, 1980)
FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


RESEARCH AREAS


Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Carbon Fibers and Composites
Coal Conversion
Controlled Atmosphere
Electron Microscopy
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Interfacial Phenomena
Microelectronics


Oil Processing
Process Design and Control
Process Simulation
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Separations
Surface Science
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena


THE PROGRAM
The Department is one of.the fastest growing in the Southeast and
offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes
both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national
interest, with modern research equipment available for most all
types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to
qualified students.


Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


FALL 1986




































Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

at BrighamYoung University, Provo, Utah


Programs ofstudy leading to the ME., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees on a
beautiful campus located at the base of the Rocky Mountains.


Faculty
Dee Barker, U of Utah, 1951
Calvin H. Bartholomew, Stanford, 1972
Merrill W. Beckstead, U. of Utah, 1965
Douglas N. Bennion, Berkeley, 1964
B. Scott Brewster, U of Utah, 1979
James J. Christensen, CarnegieMellon, 1957
Richard W. Hanks, U of Utah, 1960
William C.Hecker, Berkeley, 1982
Paul 0. Hedman, BYU 1973
John L. Oscarson, U ofMichigan, 1982
Richard L. Rowley, Michigan State, 1978
Philip J. Smith, BYU, 1979
L. Douglas Smoot, U of Washington, 1960
Kenneth A. Solen, U of Wisconsin, 1974


For additional information
and application, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
350 CB
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


ResearchAreas
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena
Calorimetry
Computer Simulation
Coal Combustion and Gasification
Kinetics and Catalysis
Biomedical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Chemical Propulsion
Mathematical Modeling
Electrochemistry
MembraneTransport
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics
Process Design and Control















uC

NMIll


THE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY


GRADUATE STUDIES IN
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING
The Department offers programs leading to the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M.
Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas:
Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
Environmental Engineering
Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
Enhanced Oil Recovery
In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
Computer Control and Optimization of
Engineering and Bio Processes
Biotechnology and Biorheology
Fellowships and Research Assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.


FACULTY


The University is located in the City of Calgary,
the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world
famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter
Olympics. The city combines the traditions of the
Old West with the sophistication of a modern
urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is
110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the
Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are
readily accessible.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. P. R. Bishnoi, Crairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng.
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada


R. A. HEIDEMANN,* Head (Wash. U.)
A. BADAKHSHAN (Birm. U.K.)
L. A. BEHIE (W. Ont.)
D. W. B. BENNION (Penn. State)
F. BERRUTI (Waterloo)
P. R. BISHNOI (Alberta)
R. M. BUTLER (Imp. Coll. U.K.)
M. FOGARASI (Alberta)
M. A. HASTAOGLU (SUNY)
J. HAVLENA (Czech.)
A. A. JEJE* (MIT)
N. E. KALOGERAKIS (Toronto)
A. K. MEHROTRA (Calgary)
M. F. MOHTADI (Birm. U.K.)
R. G. MOORE** (Alberta)
P. M. SIGMUND (Texas)
J. STANISLAV (Prague)
W. Y. SVRCEK (Alberta)
E. L. TOLLEFSON (Toronto)
M. A. TREBBLE (Calgary)
*On sabbatical leave during the 1986-87 academic year.
**Acting Head.


FALL 1986







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,


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RESEARCH INTERESTS


ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


TIMWMI

F: ,


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720


BERKELEY...



... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-
tains.




FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Douglas S. Clark
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soong
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams










UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interface Processes
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Control
Process Design
Rheology
Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Program
UC Davis, with 19,000 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering, electrical and computer engi-
neering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Faculty and Research Areas
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne
Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control
BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota
Fluid Mechanics of Thin Film Coating, Interfacial
Phenomena
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes, Kinetics
KAREN A. McDONALD, University of Maryland
Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
AHMET N. PALAZOGLU,, Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute
Process Design and Process Control
ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology, Fluid Mechanics, Aucoustics, Hazardous
Waste
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology, Thin Film
Technology
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.
For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Professor Pieter Stroeve
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY






ALIFORNIA






OS


NGELES


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
graduate programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities.
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research, adding to
the already wide spectrum of research
activities.

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
pf tuition and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village
Students have access to the highly regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on
campus.

CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, Ca 90024


FACULTY
D.T. Allen
Yorom Cohen
T.H.K. Frederking
S.K. Friedlonder
Robert F. Hicks
E.L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis


Ken Nobe
L.B. Robinson
0.1. Smith
W.D. Van Vorsl
V.L. Vilker
A.R. Wazzan
F.E. Yates


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering














UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA
-- ... ... .. . -r .... ::--:,: : :, o / {


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Chairman)
Two-Phase Flow, Chemical & Nuclear
Safety, Computational Fluid Dynamics,
Turbulence.
PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue)
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
Science
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor
Analysis, Transport Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford)
Adsorption and Heterogeneous
Catalysis
JACOB ISRAELACHVILI Ph.D.
(Cambridge)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Adhesion, Colloidal Systems, Surface
Forces.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D.
(Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.
FALL 1986


JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan)
Boiling Heat Transfer.
G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.
PHILIP ALAN PINCUS Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley)
Theory of Surfactant Aggregates,
Colloid Systems.
A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors,
Radiation Transport Analyses.
ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.
ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (U.C.
Berkeley) (Vice Chairman)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.
DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.
T. G. THEOFANOUS Ph.D. (Minnesota)
Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety,
Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics.
JOSEPH A. N. ZASADZINSKI Ph.D.
(Minnesota)
Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon,
Structure of Microemulsions.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY

One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 16,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106




































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one calendar year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature of the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.

JOHN F. BRADY, Associate Professor
PhD. (1981), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics; transport properties of
heterogeneous systems

GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; coal gasificatfon
L. GARY LEAL, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.

MANFRED MORARI, Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Minnesota
Process control; process design


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. Gary Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1987.


C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate
Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering;
process design and development.
JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental and safety related
problems.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Emeritus
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.













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The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in
SChemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY
Robert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Stevin Gehrke
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Sotiris Pratsinis
Neville Pinto
Stephen Thiel
Joel Weisman
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concentrated polymer
solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and
morphology of polymer blends.
AEROSOL ENGINEERING
Aerosol reactors for fine particles, dust explosions,
aerosol depositions
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas cleaning devices and
systems.
COAL RESEARCH
Demonstration of new technology for coal com-
bustion power plant. FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
TWO-PHASE FLOW Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Boiling. Stability and transport properties of Chemical Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
foam. Cincinnati, OH 45221
MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.





Study Chemical Engineering at one of the nation's
top chemical engineering research facilities


Specializations in:


* Electrochemical engineering
* Surfaces and colloids
* Laser applications


* Mixing and separations
* Process control


Faculty and specializations:


Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh
University
Particle separations, mixing, acid
gas recovery


John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University
of Michigan
Redox equilibria, thin carbon films,
modulated electroplating


Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962,
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multi-
variable control, coordination
algorithms


Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns
Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical
modelling, data acquisition


Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton
University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic
dispersions, fine-particle
processing


Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa
State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur
removal processes


Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of
California (Berkeley)
. Electrochemical engineering,
:current distributions,
"eleetrodeposition


Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968,.Case
Western Reserve'University
Electrochemical sensors, elec-
trochemical synthesis, elec-
trochemistry related to electronic
materials


J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1968, Iowa
State University
Surface phenomena, interfacial
dynamics, light scattering


Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983,
Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant systems, metal extrac-
tion, enhanced oil recovery


Robert F. Savinell, Ph.D. 1977,
University of Pittsburgh, Elec-
trochemical engineering, reactor
design, and simulation; electrode
processes


For more information contact:


Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
CLEVELAND, OHIO 44106













































Clarkson


O M.S. and Ph.D. programs 0 Friendly
atmosphere 0 Vigorous research programs
supported by government and industry
O Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa 0 Skiing,
canoeing, mountain climbing and other
recreation in the Adirondacks 0 Variety of
cultural activities with two liberal arts
colleges nearby 0 Twenty faculty working on
a broad spectrum of chemical engineering
research problems

Research Areas include:
O Chemical kinetics 0 Colloidal and
interfacial phenomena 0 Computer aided
design 0 Crystallization 0 Electrochemical
engineering and corrosionD Integrated
circuit fabrication 0 Laser-matter
interaction 0 Mass transfer 0 Materials
processing in space 0 Optimization
0 Particle separations 0 Phase
transformations and equilibria 0 Polymer
rheology and processing 0 Process
control 0 Turbulent flows 0 And more ...


Financial aid available in the form of:
O instructorships O fellowships 0 research
assistantships 0 teaching assistantships
O industrial co-op positions




For more details, please write to:

Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676







Graduate Study at


Clemson University

S In Chemical Engineering


Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking
4 in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving
to South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
SWith active research and teaching in polymer
processing, process automation, computer simu-
lation of fluids, thermodynamics, membrane
separation, pollution control, pulp and paper
Fr operations research, and rheology on non-
Newtonian fluids what more do you need?
The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 65 undergraduate and 58 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 12,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 1,700 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.
The Faculty
Forest C. Alley Dan D. Edie Joseph C. Mullins
William B. Barlage, Jr. Charles H. Gooding Amod A. Ogale
John N. Beard, Jr. James M. Haile Richard W. Rice
William F. Beckwith Stephen S. Melsheimer Mark C. Thies

Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
Clemson University m sER
Clemson, South Carolina 29634 College of Engineering










UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER

GRADUATE STUDY ,.
IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and- Ph.D. Programs


* FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0


DAVID E. CLOUGH, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1975), University of Colorado
Fluidization, Process Control

ROBERT H. DAVIS, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1983), Stanford University
Fluid Dynamics of Suspensions, Biotechnology

JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D. (1974), Stanford University
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science

R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Colorado
Biophysics, Bioengineering

PAUL G. GLUGLA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Illinois
Ionic Solutions, Thermodynamics,
Membrane Separations

R. CURTIS JOHNSON, Professor
Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University
Global Modeling

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1984), Purdue University
Biochemical Engineering, Biotechnology,
Mathematical Modeling


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1968), University of California, Berkeley
Membranes, Geophysical Fluid Mechanics, Coal
Gasification, Transport Processes in Permafrost
LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1982), Purdue University
Surface Science, Heterogeneous Catalysis,
Molecular Dynamics
MAX S. PETERS, Professor
Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University
Biomass Conversion, Economics
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1965), Tulane University
Optimal Control and Identification, Transport in
Porous Media
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of Minnesota
Numerical Techniques in Fluid Dynamics,
Membranes
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Chairman and
James M. and Catherine T. Patten Professor
Ph.D. (1951), University of Illinois
Economics, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of Michigan
Water Pollution Control, Solar Energy
Utilization


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












COLORADO OF


SCHOOL


OF ,
1874

MINES CoLRAO

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Themodynamic properties of gases and
liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria, cryogenic engineer-
*,. ing.
J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., Florida. Petroleum refinery
processing operations, heavy oil processing, thermal
cracking, visbreaking and solvent extraction.
V. F. Yesavage, Professor, Ph.D., Michigan;. Vapor liquid
equilibrium and enthalpy of polar associating fluids,
properties of coal-derived liquids, equations of state
for highly non-ideal systems.
E. D. Sloan, Jr., Professor; Ph.D., Clemson. Phase equip-
librium measurements of natural gas fluids and hy-
S. rates, thermal conductivity of coal derived fluids,
adsorption equilibria, stagewise processes, educa-
tion methods research.

i Mines. Mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics
of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochem-
istry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-
derived asphaltenes, supercritical extraction.
M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State. Heat
and mass transfer with a moving boundary, fluid
mechanics of solid-liquid suspensions, mathematical
methods in chemical engineering.
A. L. Bunge, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Mem-
brane transport and separations, mass transfer in
porous media, ion exchange and adsorption chroma-
tography.
P. F. Bryan, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., Berkeley. Com-
puter aided process design, computational thermo-
dynamics.
A. D. Shine, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., MIT. Polymer
rheology and processing, composites.
R. L. Miller, Research Assistant Professor, Ph.D. Colorado
school l of Mines, Liquefaction co-processing of coal
_. and heavy oil, low severity coal liquefaction, oil
shale processing, particulate removal with venturi
S, scrubbers, multiphase fluid mechanics.
.~ J. F. Ely, Adjunct Professor; Ph.D., Indiana. Molecular
thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids.
". For Applications and Further Information
- On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
-- Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining
,Colorado School of Mines
S a -l-. Golden, CO 80401
FALL 1986 235














Colorado State University



Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.



Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering


Faculty: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
S_ a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
Larry Belfiore, Ph. D.,
University of Wisconsin
Bruce Dale, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Jud Harper, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Naz Karim, Ph.D.,
University of Manchester
Terry Lenz, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Jim Linden, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Carol McConica, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Vince Murphy, Ph.D., :
University of
Massachusetts Research Areas:

Alternate Energy Sources
Biotechnology
Chemical Thermodynamics
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
SEnvironmental Engineering
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Hazardous Waste Treatment
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems


For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

















OUR FACULTY

THOMAS F. ANDERSON
Ph.D., U. of Cal., Berkeley
JAMES P. BELL
Sc.D., MIT
DOUGLAS J. COOPER
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ROBERT W. COUGHLIN
Ph.D., Comell
MICHAEL B. CUTLIP
Ph.D., U. of Colorado
ANTHONY T. DIBENEDETTO
Ph.D., U. of Wisconsin
JAMES M. FENTON
Ph.D., U. of Illinois
G. MICHAEL HOWARD
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
HERBERT E. KLEI
Ph.D., U. of Connecticut
JEFFREY T. KOBERSTEIN
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts
MONTGOMERY T. SHAW
Ph.D., Princeton
RICHARD M. STEPHENSON
Ph.D., Cornell
DONALD W. SUNDSTROM
Ph.D., U. of Michigan
ROBERT A. WEISS
Ph.D., U. of Massachusetts


STHE

UNIVERSITY OF

iCONNECTICUT



Graduate Study in

Chemical Engineering


~t~'' ''~
ti ;
-1:. .
i;r- i
-:-. ,
'; ~-


~ I iI WEr
Zfr.i' r-r
[i *Ft
-caA


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
for Engineers and Scientists


CHECK US OUT


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
EXPERT SYSTEMS
POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
REACTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
SURFACE SCIENCE
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
THERMODYNAMICS


Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
Box U-139
The University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06268
(203) 486-4019


FALL 1986


OUR RESEARCH







A diverse intellectual climate A distinguished faculty


Graduate

Study

in

Chemical

Engineering

at

Cornell

University



World-class research in ...
* biochemical engineering
* applied mathematics
* computer simulation
* environmental engineering
* kinetics and catalysis
* surface science
* heat and mass transfer
* polymer science and engineering
* fluid dynamics
* rheology and biorheology
* reactor design
* molecular thermodynamics
* statistical mechanics


Graduate students arrange indi-
vidual programs with a core of
chemical engineering courses sup-
plemented by work in other out-
standing Cornell departments,
including those in chemistry, bio-
logical sciences, physics, computer
science, food science, materials
science, mechanical engineering,
and business administration.

A scenic location
Situated in the scenic Finger Lakes
region of upstate New York, the
Cornell campus is one of the most
beautiful in the country.

A stimulating university commu
nity offers excellent recreational
and cultural opportunities in an at
tractive environment.


Brad Anton
Paulette Clancy
Claude Cohen
Robert K. Finn
Keith E. Gubbins
Daniel A. Hammer
Peter Harriott
Donald L. Koch
Robert P. Merrill
William L. Olbricht
Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos
Ferdinand Rodriguez
George F. Scheele
Michael L. Shuler
Julian C. Smith (Emeritus)
Paul H. Steen
William B. Street
Raymond G. Thorpe
Robert L. Von Berg
Herbert F. Wiegandt
John A. Zollweg


Graduate programs lead to the
degrees of master of engineering,
master of science, and doctor of
philosophy. Financial aid, including
- attractive fellowships, is available.

For further information
write to:
Professor Claude Cohen
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, NY 14853-5201








Chemical Engineerin at

The Faculty Del
Giovanni Astarita D e
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
C. Ernest Birchenall
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Henry C. Foley
Bruce C. Gates
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
Robert L. Pigford
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler
Jerold M. Schultz
Alvin B. Stiles
Andrew L. Zydney he University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.

degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

Ne% __rk For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Philadelphia Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
I, Newark, Delaware 19716

















engineering



U N I V E R S I T Y
UNIVERSITY


OF FLORIDA Gainesville,Florida


Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD


Faculty *Iin PIN.
Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor
Processing! Seymour S. Block Biotechnology
Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor
Design/ Arthur Fricke Polymer Processing, Ap- m
plied Rheology/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface m
Science/ Lew Johns Applied Mathematics/
Dale Kirmse Process Control, Computer Aided
Design, Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor
Design, Catalysis/ Gerasimos K. Lyberatos Op-
timization, Biochemical Processes/ Frank May
Separations/ Ranga Narayanan Transport Phe-
nomena/ John O'Connell Statistical Mechanics,
Thermodynamics/ Dinesh O. Shah Enhanced
Oil Recovery, Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros For more information please write:
Svoronos Process Control/ Robert D. Walker Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Surface Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/
Gerald Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering
Transport Phenomena University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











GEORGIA TECH
A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia


Graduate Studies

in Chemical

Engineering


Atlanta
All major professional sports
Ballet
Centers for Disease Control
Commercial center of the South
Emory University
Georgia State University
High Museum of Art
Major recording studios
Pleasant climate
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow skiing within two hours
Atlanta Symphony Orchestra
Theater
White water canoeing within one hour


Programs in
Chemical Engineering
Biochemical engineering
Catalysis
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Electrochemical engineering
Fine particle technology
Interfacial phenomena
Kinetics
Medical implants
Mining and mineral engineering
Polymer science and engineering
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor design
Separation processes
Supercritical extraction
Thermodynamics and transport
properties
Transport phenomena
Waste management


Faculty
A.S. Abhiraman
RK. Agrawal
Y. Arkun
E.J. Clayfield
W.R. Ernst
L. Forney
C.W. Gorton
J.S. Hsieh
M.J. Matteson
J.D. Muzzy
G.W. Poehlein


R.S. Roberts
R.J. Samuels
F.J. Schork
A.H.R Skelland
J.T. Sommerfeld
D.W. Tedder
A.S. Teja
M.G. White
J. Winnick
A. Yoganathan


For more information write:

Dr. Gary W. Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100


---









Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston



The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston has developed research strength in a broad
range of areas:
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis
Biochemical Engineering
Electrochemical Systems
Semiconductor Processing
Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology
Process Dynamics and Control
Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation
Solid-liquid Separation
Reliability Theory
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
The department occupies over 75,000 square feet and has over $3
million worth of experimental apparatus.
Financial support is available to full-time graduate students through re-
search assistantships and special industrial fellowships.
The faculty:

N. R. Amundson
V. Balakotaiah
H.-C. Chang
E. L. Claridge
,- J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
D. J. Economou
C. F. Goochee
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
R. Rajagopalan
J. T. Richardson
For more information or application forms write to: F. M. Tiller
Director, Graduate Admissions F. L. Worley, Jr.


Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)
242


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










GRADUATE STUDY
AND RESEARCH

The Department of

Chemical Engineering
Graduate Programs in
The Department of
Chemical Engineering
leading to the degrees of
MASTER OF SCIENCE and
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

ILLINOIS




CHICAGO


FACULTY AND
Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965
Professor
T. S. Jiang
PhD., Northwestern University, 1981
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan
Professor and Head
Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachsetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor
David Wilcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry,
catalysis by supported metals, subseabed radioactive
waste disposal studies, clay chemistry
Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
laser diagnostics

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy.
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics
of liquids and liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion,and indirect coal liquefaction
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.
Lipid microencapsulation; Adorption and
surface reactions; Membrane transport.
Synthesis of blood
Reaction engineering with primary focus
on the pyrolysis of oil shale and coal.
Energy technology, environmental controls.
Mechanistic aspects of the carbon monoxide-
hydrogen reaction with emphasis on the
synthesis of methanol over oxide catalysts.


For more information, write: Director of Graduate Studies, Dept. of Chemical
Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, II, 60680, (312)996-3424






UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


The chemical engineering department
_Y... .-- offers graduate programs leading to the
Sc.c, MM.S. and Ph.D. degrees

I ED The combination of distinguished faculty,
outstanding facilities and a diversity of
FD research interests results in exceptional
-T XCHE a., opportunities for graduate education.


_T -

I 9300
940
I
500 6290 I
Faculty 579
Richard C. Alkire I
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Walter G. May
Richard I. Masel
Edmund G. Seebauer
Anthony J. McHugh
Mark A. Stadtherr
James W. Westwater |
Charles F. Zukoski, IV


Fe+2

2e- H+



For Information and Application Forms Write

1O Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 W. California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801









GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT




Illinois Institute of Technology




THE FACULTY

HAMID ARASTOOPOUR
(Ph.D., IIT)
Multi-Phase flow, flow in porous media, gas technology
RICHARD A. BEISSINGER
(D.E.Sc., Columbia)
Transport processes in chemical and biological systems,
rheology of polymeric and biological fluids
ALl CINAR
(Ph.D., Texas A & M)
Chemical process control, distributed parameter systems,
expert systems
DIMITRI GIDASPOW
(Ph.D., IIT)
Hydrodynamics of fluidization, multi-phase flow, separation
processes


THE UNIVERSITY

* Private, coeducational university
* 3000 undergraduate students
* 2400 graduate students
* 3 miles from downtown Chicago and 1 mile west
of Lake Michign
* Campus recognized as an architectural landmark


THE CITY

* One of the largest cities in the world
* National and international center of business
and industry
* Enormous variety of cultural resources
* Excellent recreational facilities
* Industrial collaboration and job opportunities


THE DEPARTMENT


* JUAN HONG
(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, separation processes
* FREDERICKA. KELLER, JR.
(Visiting-Ph.D., Rutgers)
Bioreoctor design, separation processes
* SATISH J. PARULEKAR
(Ph.D., Purdue)
Biochemical engineering, chemical reaction engineering
* J. ROBERT SELMAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Electrochemistry and electrochemical energy storage
* SELIM M. SENKAN
(Sc.D., MIT)
Combustion, high-temperature chemical reaction engineering
* DARSH T. WASAN
(Ph.D., California-Berkeley)
Interfacial phenomena, separation processes, enhanced oil recovery
* WILLIAM A. WEIGAND
(Ph.D., IIT)
Biochemical engineering, process optimization and control


o One of the oldest in the nation
o Approximately 60 full-time and 50 part-time
graduate students
* M.Ch.E., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees
* Financially attractive fellowships and
assistantships available to outstanding
students.




APPLICATIONS *

Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, IL 60616










THE INSTITUTE OF
PAPER CHEMISTRY

is an independent graduate
school. It has an
interdisciplinary degree
program designed for B.S.
chemical engineering
graduates.
Fellowships and full tuition
scholarships are available
to qualified U.S. and
Canadian Citizens. Our
students receive minimum w
$9,000.00 fellowships each
calendar year.
Our research activities span
the papermaking process
including:
process engineering
simulation and control
heat and mass transfer
separation science
reaction engineering
fluid mechanics
material science
surface and colloid
science
plant tissue culture
For further information contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone: 414/734-9251

92.4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

















ullllllllll










Graduate Program for
M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in
SChemical and Materials Engineering

Research Areas
E U Kinetics and Catalysis
Biomass Conversion
Membrane Separations
Particle Morphological Analysis
Air Pollution
S*-- MassTronsfer Operations
Numerical Modeling
Particle Technology
S* Atmospheric Transport
Bloseparatlons and Biotechnology
Process Design
-, "* SurfaceScience
- I Transportin PorousMedia I


SFor additional Informotion and application write to:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242
319/353-6237
I I




THE UNIVERSITY OF ---------- WA

THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA


I










IOWA STATE



UNIVERSITY


William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process,
ceramic processing
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes, high
temperature ceramics
John M. Eggebrecht
Thermodynamics and structure of liquids and
liquid mixtures
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology, carbohydrate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Solid-gas reactions, process modeling
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
fluidization
Gordon R. Youngquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011


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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


RESEARCH AREAS
Fluid Mechanics
Phase Equilibria
Biotechnology
Nucleation and Crystallization
Electrochemical Engineering
Rheology
Acoustics


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THE JOHNS
HOPKINS
UNIVERSITY
BALTIMORE
FACULTY
Timothy Barbari, Ph.D.
Texas, Austin
Marc Donohue, Ph.D.
Berkeley
Joseph Katz, Ph.D.
Chicago
Robert Kelly, Ph.D.
North Carolina State
Mark McHugh, Ph.D.
Delaware
Geoffrey Prentice, Ph.D.
Berkeley
William Schwarz, Dr. Eng.
Johns Hopkins


Please contact:


Mass and Heat Transfer
Process Modeling and Control
Reaction Engineering
Membrane Separations
Supercritical Phenomena
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Professor Ge offrcy Printice, Dc p:):rtient of Cle mici:al Elii icring
The Johns llop,k;ns University. l atilor c, Maryland 2121S
Telephone: (301) 338-7006


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STHE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering




> offers graduate study

leading to the

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

For further information, write to
Professor George W. Swift
Chairman and Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
The University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas 66045-2223


Faculty and Areas of Specialization *


Kenneth A. Bishop, Professor (Ph.D., Oklahoma); reser-
voir simulation, interactive computer graphics,
optimization
John C. Davis, Professor and chief of geology research
section, Kansas Geological Survey (Ph.D., Wyoming);
probabilistic techniques for oil exploration, geologic
computer mapping
Kenneth J. Himmelstein, Adjunct Associate Professor
(Ph.D., Maryland); pharmacokinetics, mathematical
modeling of biological processes, cell kinetics,
diffusion and mass transfer
Colin S. Howat, III, Associate Professor (Ph.D., Kansas);
applied equilibrium thermodynamics, process de-
sign
Don W. Green, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Oklahoma); enhanced oil
recovery, hydrological modeling
James O. Maloney, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn
State); technology and society
Russell B. Mesler, Professor (Ph.D., Michigan); nucleate
and film boiling, bubble and drop phenomena
Floyd W. Preston, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State); geo-
logic pore structure


Harold F. Rosson, Professor (Phd., Rice); production of
alternate fuels from agricultural materials
Bala Subramaniam, Assistant Professor (Ph.D., Notre
Dame); kinetics and catalysis, insitu characterization
of catalyst systems
George W. Swift, Professor and Chairman (Ph.D.,
Kansas); thermodynamics of petroleum and petro-
chemical systems, natural gas reservoirs analysis,
fractured well analysis, petrochemical plant design
John L. Thiele, Assistant Professor (Sc.D., MIT); struc-
ture/property relationships of polymers, polymer
chemistry and physics, polymer viscoelasticity
Shapour Vossoughi, Associate Professor (Ph.D., U. of
Alberta); enhanced oil recovery, thermal analysis,
applied rheology and computer modeling

Stanley M. Walas, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan);
combined chemical and phase equilibrium
G. Paul Willhite, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Northwestern); enhanced
oil recovery, transport processes in porous media,
mathematical modeling


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food


Science, and Environmental
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506


Engi-


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
ENERGY ENGINEERING
COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION
THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS
PROCESS SYSTEM ENGINEERING
AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL
FLUIDIZATION AND SOLID MIXING
HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT









UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY


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DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs


THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS
J. Berman, Ph.D., Northwestern E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State
Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular Dynamics of Electrochemical Processes; Computer
Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation Measurement Techniques and Modeling
D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh
Illinois Institute of Technology Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena
Novel Separation Processes; Membranes;K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Water Pollution Control A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Water Pollution Control Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen
G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia Regime; Transport Phenomena
Computer-Aided Process Design; Coal Liquefaction. ..
J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville
C. E. Hamrin, Jr., Ph.D., Northwestern Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer;
Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Three-phase Reactors Fuel Gas Desulfurization
R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern T. T. Tsang, Ph.D., Texas-Austin
Process Control and Economics Aerosol Dynamics in Uniform and Non-Uniform Systems


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants
In Addition, Outstanding Students May Qualify for a McAdams Fellowship
For details write to:
R. I. Kermode
Director for Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


252


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L ouistana


University


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL


THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major
state institution for higher education-LSU. Situated in
the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main
chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests
heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The
great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities
year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans
provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.

THE DEPARTMENT
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Approximately 70 Graduate Students
DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
IBM 434 I with more than 50 color graphics terminals
Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR,
LC's, GC's...
Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis,
thermodynamics, supercritical processing
Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories
Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility
Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities

TO APPLY, CONTACT:
EDWARD McLAUGHLIN, CHAIRMAN
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


FACULTY
A. B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU)
Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design
K. M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering
F. R. GROVES (Ph.D., Wisconsin)
Control, Modeling, Separation Processes
D. P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas)
Fluid- Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes
A. E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida)
Distillation, Control, Modeling
M. HJORTSO (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston)
Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics
F. C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Univ. of Purdue)
Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing
E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc., Univ. of London)
Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties
R. W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech)
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization
J. A. POLACK (Sc.D., MIT)
Sugar Technology, Separation Processes
G. L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces
D. D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech)
Transport Phenomena, Environmental Engineering
R. G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Mass Transfer, Separation Processes
D. L. RISTROPH (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Biochemical Engineering
C. B. SMITH (Ph. D., Univ. of Houston)
Non-linear Dynamics, Control
A. M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington)
Biomedical Engineering, Transport Properties, Combustion
L. J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., LSU)
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste
D. M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware)
Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes
FINANCIAL AID
Tax-free fellowships and assistantships with tuition
waivers available
Special industrial and alumni fellowships with higher
stipends for outstanding students
Some part-time teaching positions for graduate students
in high standing


State









University of Maine


DOUGLAS BOUSFELD Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley)
Fluid Mechanics, Rheology, Biochemical
Engineering.
WILLIAM H. CECKLER Sc.D. M.I.T.)
Heat Transfer, Pressing & Drying Operations,
Energy from Low BTU Fuels, Process Simula-
tion & Modeling.
ALBERT CO Ph.D. (Wisconsin)
Polymeric Fluid Dynamics, Rheology, Transport
Phenomena, Numerical Methods.
JOSEPH M. GENCO Ph.D. (Ohio State)
Process Engineering, Pulp and Paper Tech-
nology, Wood Delignification.
JOHN C. HASSLER Ph.D. (Kansas State)
Process Control, Numerical Methods, Instru-
mentation and Real Time Computer Appli-
cations.
MARQUITA K. HILL Ph.D. (U.C. Davis)
Separation Processes, Pulping Chemistry,
Ultrofiltration.
JOHN J. HWALEK Ph.D. (Illinois)
Liquid Metal Natural Convection, Electronics
Cooling, Process Control Systems.
ERDOGAN KIRAN Ph.D. (Princeton)
Polymer Physics & Chemistry, Supercritical
Fluids, Thermal Analysis & Pyrolysis, Pulp &
Paper Science.

JAMES D. LISIUS Ph.D. (Illinois)
Electrochemical Engineering, Composite
Materials, Coupled Mass Transfer.


KENNETH I. MUMME Ph.D. (Maine)
Process Simulation and Control, System
Identification & Optimization.
HEMANT PENDSE Ph.D. (Syracuse)
Colloidal Phenomena, Particulate & Multi-
phase Processes, Porous Media Modeling.
IVAR H. STOCKEL Sc.D. (M.I.T.)
(Chairman)
Droplet Formation, Fluidization, Pulp & Paper
Technology.
EDWARD V. THOMPSON Ph.D. (Polytechnic
Institute of Brooklyn)
Thermal & Mechanical Properties of Polymers,
Membrane Separation Processes, Paper-
making and Fiber Physics.
DOUGLAS L. WOERNER Ph.D. (Washington)
Membrane Separations, Polymer Solutions,
Colloid & Emulsion Technology,



Programs and
Financial Support

Eighteen research groups attack fundamental
problems leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Industrial fellowships, university fellowships,
research assistantships and teaching assis-
tantships are available. President's Fellow-
ships provide $4,000 per year in addition to
the regular stipend and free tuition.


-7





The University

The spacious campus is situated on 1,200
acres overlooking the Penobscot and Still-
water Rivers. Student enrollment of 12,000
offers the diversity of a large school, while
preserving close personal contacts between
peers and faculty. The University's Maine
Center for the Arts, the Hauck Auditorium,
and Pavilion Theatre provide many cultural
opportunities, in addition to those in the
nearby city of Bangor. Less than an hour
away from campus are: the beautiful Maine
coast and Acadia National Park, alpine
and cross-country ski resorts, and northern
wilderness areas of Baxter State Park and
Mount Katahdin.
Enjoy life, work hard and earn your graduate
degree in one of the most beautiful spots in
the world.



Call Collect or Write:

James D. Lisius
University of Maine
Department of Chemical Engineering
Jenness Hall, Box A
Orono, Maine 04469-0135
(207) 581-2292


Faculty and Research Interests




Full Text