Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00088

Full Text









chemical engineering education


VOLUME XIX


NUMBER 4


FALL 1985


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE


Co4ans in...

BIOCHEMICAL ENGINERINNG UNDAMENTALS . . Bleiloyw

SEPARATIONS AND RECOVERY PROCESSES ... Befrt

TEACHING TIME SERIES TO CHI'S . . . Gra, Juan

POLYMER PROCESSING . . . . . oong

':ECTROCHEMICA AND CORROSION ENGINEERING . . Vn

COAL UTILIZATION: AND CONVERSION PROCESSES . Rdov


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THE GENERIC QUIZ . . . .. der

IS GRADUATE SCHOOL WORTH IT? . . .Kriffmail


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MOLECULAR SIEVE TECHNOLOGY

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CHEMICAL ENGINEENG EDUCATION
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Cdedn's Afote


This is the 17th Graduate Education Issue published by
CEE. It is distributed to chemical engineering seniors in-
terested in and qualified for graduate school. We include
articles on graduate courses, research at various univer-
sities and announcements of departments on their grad-
uate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of
the nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not
only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous
issues. A list of the papers from recent years follows. If
you would like a copy of a previous Fall issue, please
write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida


AUTHOR


Lauffenburger
et al
Marnell
Scamehorn
Shah
White

Zygourakis
Bartholomew,
Hecker
Converse, et al
Fair
Edie
McConica
Duda


Davis
Sawin, Reif

Shaeiwitz

Takoudis
Valle-Riestra

Woods
Middleman

Serageldin
Wankat, Oreovicz

Bird
Thomson,
Simmons


Hightower

Mesler
Weiland, Taylor
Dullien
Seapan
Skaates
Baird, Wilkes
Fenn


TITLE
Fall 1984


Applied Mathematics
Graduate Plant Design
Colloid & Surface Science
Transport Phenomena
Heterogeneous Catalysis with Video-
Based Seminars
Linear Algebra
Research on Catalysis

Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass
Separations Research
Graduate Residency at Clemson
Semiconductor Processing
Misconceptions Concerning Grad School
Fall 1983
"Numerical Methods and Modeling"
"Plasma Processing in Integrated
Circuit Fabrication"
"Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass
Transfer"
"Chemical Reactor Design"
"Project Evaluation in the Chemical
Process Industries"
"Surface Phenomena"
"Research on Cleaning up in San
Diego"
"Research on Combustion"
"Grad Student's Guide to Academic
Job Hunting"
"Book Writing and ChE Education"
"Grad Education Wins in Interstate
Rivalry"
Fall 1982
"Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over
Ferrite Catalysts"
"Nucleate Boiling"
"Mass Transfer"
"Funds. of Petroleum Production"
"Air Pollution for Engineers"
"Catalysis"
"Polymer Education and Research"
"Research is Engineering"


Abbott
Butt, Kung

Chen, et al
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al
Thomson
Bartholomew
Hassler
Miller
Wankat
Wolf



Bird
Edgar, Schecter
Hanratty
Kenney
Kerchenbaum,
Perkins, Pyle
Liu
Peppas
Rosner
Lees
Senkan, Vivian



Culberson
Davis
Frank
Morari, Ray

Ramkrishna
Russel, et al.
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen



Aris

Butt & Peterson
Kabel

Middleman

Perlmutter

Rajagopalan

Wheelock
Carbonell &
Whitaker


Fall 1981
"Classical Thermodynamics"
"Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction
Engineering"
"Parametric Pumping"
"Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation"
"Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization"
"Oil Shale Char Reactions"
"Kinetics and Catalysis"
"ChE Analysis"
"Underground Processing"
"Separation Processes"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"


Fall 1980


"Polymer Fluid Dynamics"
"In Situ Processing"
"Wall Turbulence"
"Chemical Reactors"
"Systems Modelling & Control"

"Process Synthesis"
"Polymerization Reaction Engineering"
"Combustion Science & Technology"
"Plant Engineering at Loughborough"
"MIT School of ChE Practice"

Fall 1979
"Doctoral Level ChE Economics"
"Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics"
"Courses in Polymer Science"
"Integration of Real-Time Computing
Into Process Control Teaching"
"Functional Analysis for ChE"
"Colloidal Phenomena"
"Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Mathematical Methods in ChE"
"Coal Liquefaction Processes"

Fall 1978
"Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes
on Seminars in a ChE Department"
"Chemical Reactor Engineering"
"Influential Papers in Chemical Re-
action Engineering"
"A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro-
cessing"
"Reactor Design From a Stability
Viewpoint"
"The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal
Systems"
"Coal Science and Technology"
"Transport Phnomena in Multicom-
ponent, Multiphase, Reacting
Systems'


FALL 1985





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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner
Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University
Past Chairman:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

SOUTH:
Richard Felder
North Carolina State University
Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University
James Fair
University of Texas
Gary Poehlem
Georgia Tech

CENTRAL:
Robert F. Anderson
UOP Process Division
Lowell B. Koppel
Purdue University

WEST:
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
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M.I.T.
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LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
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Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XIX NUMBER 4 FALL 1985

Courses in

168 Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals
(Revisited)
J. E. Bailey, D. F. Ollis

172 Separations and Recovery Processes,
Georges Belfort
186 Teaching Time Series to Chemical
Engineers, B. P. Graham, A. Jutan


190
194


Polymer Processing, David S. Soong
Electrochemical and Corrosion
Engineering, John Van Zee


204 Fundamentals of Coal Utilization and
Conversion Processes,
Ljubisa R. Radovic

Research on
198 Molecular Sieve Technology,
Dhananjai B. Shah, David T. Hayhurst
182 Fluidization
Richard C. Bailie, Hisashi O. Kono,
Joseph D. Henry, Jr.

Features

176 The Generic Quiz: A Device to Stimulate
Creativity and Higher-Level Thinking
Skills, Richard M. Felder
208 Is Graduate School Worth It? A Cost-
Benefit Analysis with Some Second-
Order Twists, David Kauffman

171 Letter to the Editor

185, 193, 203 Book Reviews

203 Positions Available

211 In Memoriam Charles Peiffer


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per
year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1985 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


FALL 1985












I4 Gsae in


BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS


(revisited)


J. E. BAILEY
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125
D. F. OLLIS
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7905

B IOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING CONCERNS the re-
actors and separation systems associated with
microbial cells, their enzymes and other products,
and with plant and animal cells which can be
propagated in an appropriate reactor outside of
the whole plant or animal. In 1976, we reported
on a biochemical engineering course [1] with an
outline which appeared in 1977 as a textbook, Bio-
chemical Engineering Fundamentals.
Spectacular changes have occurred in this do-
main over the last ten years. Many of these
changes concern methods for fusing two cells to-
gether, to produce a hybrid cell, and for "cutting
and pasting" strands of genetic material (DNA)
together to form recombinant DNA (rDNA)
coding for a desired set of instructions. With the
commercialization of processes using these two
"new" biotechnology techniques, a number of new
words have appeared in the biological and biopro-
cess literature. For the biochemical engineering
teacher and practitioner, the most central vocabu-
lary includes the following [2]
genetic engineering: technologies used at the laboratory
level to alter the hereditary apparatus of the living cell
so that the cell can produce more or different chemicals,
or perform completely new functions.
DNA: the genetic material found in all living organisms.
clone: a group of genetically identical cells or organisms
produced asexually from a common ancestor.
cloning: the amplification of segments of DNA, usually
genes.
rDNA (recombinant DNA): the hybrid DNA produced by
(enzymatically and extracellularly) joining together
pieces of DNA from different sources.
(DNA) vector: a self-replicating DNA molecule plasmidd,
virus) that transfers a piece of DNA from one cell
host to another.


transformation: the transfer of genetic information into
a cell using DNA separated from the cell as a vector.
plasmid: circular, self-replicating non-chromosomal DNA.
(Because the plasmid is small [vs. the major chromo-
somal DNA] it is a useful "shuttle" or vector for
moving rDNA into a new cell.)
virus: an infectious agent that requires a host cell in
order for it to replicate. It is composed of DNA (or
RNA) wrapped in a protein coat.
protoplast: a cell (plant, animal, microbial) without a
(structural) wall (cell has "soap bubble" or plasma
membrane only).
protoplast fusion: a means of achieving genetic transforma-
tion by joining two protoplasts in the laboratory to
achieve a viable hybrid cell with desirable traits.
myeloma: tumor (immortal) cells of the antibody-pro-
ducing system.
lymphocytes: specialized white blood cells involved in the
immune response; each B lymphocyte produces a single
kind of specific antibody.
hybridoma: a viable cell hybrid resulting from cell fusion
of a lymphocyte (specific antibody-producing) and a
myeloma ("immortal" or easily propagated cell, result-
ing in a cell which can be conveniently cultured (like















Jay Bailey is a professor in the chemical engineering department
at Caltech. His research interests include the study of structural and
functional effects of immobilization on proteins, altered metabolism
and multiple product bioconversion in immobilized bacteria and yeast,
production of biological polymers by microbial fermentation, and
several aspects of kinetics and reactor design for recombinant micro-
organisms. (L)
David F. Ollis received his BS from Caltech in 1963, his MS from
Northwestern in 1964, and his PhD from Stanford in 1969. He is
currently Distinguished Professor of chemical engineering at North
Carolina State University, where he is engaged in research, teaching,
and biotechnology facility development. His hobbies include music
and raising (mostly redheaded) boys. (R)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985










The potential impact appears to be endless: virtually any biochemical . or economically
desirable defense mechanism can be produced or incorporated, respectively, in appropriate plant, animal, or
microbial cells which can be grown in biological reactors of one sort or another.


microbes) and which produces specific antibodies.
monoclonal antibodies (MAb): Homogeneous (all alike)
antibodies derived from a single clone of cells; MAb's
recognize only one kind of antigen (very high specifici-
ty).

Growth over the last ten years of both new
and established commercial efforts in biotechnol-
ogy has been astonishing. This rate of change is
nicely chronicled by the following sequence [2]

1973 First gene cloned.
1974 First expression (production of genetically coded
product) of a gene cloned from a different species
in bacteria.
rDNA experiments first discussed in a public forum.
1975 Science conference at Asilomar, Calif. held; support
for guidelines for recombinant DNA research
voted.
First hybrid cell created by the fusion of two animal
cells.
1976 First recombinant DNA-based company founded:
Genentech.
1980 New life forms are patentable: Diamond vs. Chakra-
barty.
Wall Street selling record set: Genenetch goes
public, stock price moves from $20 to $89/share
in 20 minutes.
United Kingdom, West Germany target biotechnol-
ogy for development
Patent (Cohen-Boyer) issued for rDNA methodology
1981 First monoclonal antibody test kit marketed
First automated gene synthesizer marketed
Japan, France target biotechnology R and D
Cetus Corp. raises record $115 million on first public
offering
DuPont dedicates $120 million to life sciences R & D
80 new biotechnology companies founded
1982 First rDNA animal vaccine (colibacillosis) marketed
(Europe)
First rDNA pharmaceutical (human insulin/Lilly)
marketed (England)
1983 First plant gene transferred to different species of
plant
$500 million raised (total) by new U.S. biotechnol-
ogy companies
1984 First plant cells genetically modified to be resistant
to a broad spectrum herbicide (glyphosate).

Additional developments include both the
"new" and the 'old' biotechnologies:

Renewable resources engineering has demonstrated
a number of biological (enzymatic, microbial) and
non-enzymatic means of converting cellulosic ma-
terials into fermentable feedstocks.
Ethanol production, largely through strain and pro-


cess fermentation/separation improvements, has be-
come commercial for gasohol (<10% ethanol in gaso-
line) production and is now competitive with ethanol
from ethylene on a new plant basis.
Single cell (microbial) protein has been produced
on a mammoth scale (Imperial Chemical Industries)
using a novel (airlift) bioreactor configuration and
a major petrochemical (rather than agricultural)
feedstock: methanol.
Bovine growth hormone has been produced by cul-
tured rDNA bacteria (E. coli): this product could
enhance milk production in dairy cows and growth
rates in beef cattle.
A soil microbe (Pseudomonas) has been genetically
engineered to contain bacterial genes coding for a
toxin against a nematode root predator, indicating
potential for a perpetual biocide-generating soil in-
oculant.
Wholly synthetic genes have been constructed by wet
biochemical techniques, inserted into a bacterium and
the newly coded product obtained, thus verifying the
ability to "type" any biochemical production instruc-
tion, by wet chemistry, into the genes of bacteria.
Plant cells (tobacco) have been manipulated to con-
tain microbial (non-plant) genes for a toxin against
a specific pest (not commercially useful example, but
importantly suggestive for engineering plant pest
resistance).

The potential impact appears to be endless:
virtually any biochemical (enzyme, antibody, hor-
mone, vitamin, growth factor) or economically
desirable defense mechanism can be produced or
incorporated, respectively, in appropriate plant,
animal, or microbial cells which can be grown in
biological reactors of one sort or another. Different
cell types will be preferred for different products;
each will impose specific requirements on biopro-
cess reaction and separation systems. As new
products and new organisms for current products
multiply, the biochemical engineer must provide
more systematic, predictive guidance to select
among available options and bring optimized or-
ganism-process systems into timely and efficient
production.
In our view, these new opportunities and chal-
lenges in biotechnology will require biochemical
engineering to move beyond the empirical, macro-
scopic approaches which were adequate in the past.
We believe that biochemical engineers must under-
stand, model, and productively exploit the funda-
mental biological, chemical, and physical mechan-
isms which interact to determine process perform-


FALL 1985









ance. Previously, we have often viewed cells only
from a "black-box", "input-output" perspective,
and seen aeration primarily in terms of an overall
volumetric mass transfer coefficient. For the fu-
ture, we need to apply known features of cellular
pathways and their regulation to improve reactor
design, and to include detailed studies of hydro-
dynamics and interfacial phenomena to enhance
mass transfer rates with minimal damage to cells
and products. Armed with quantitative methods
for reaction engineering and description of multi-
component partitioning, the biochemical engineer
should seek an increasing role earlier in the pro-
cess research and development sequence, aiding in
definition of organisms and product forms which
have the characteristics needed to enable or to
facilitate large-scale manufacture.
The current biochemical engineering lecture
course additions and alterations, summarized be-
low, are driven by our firm conviction that a
major refinement and refocusing of biochemical
engineering education (and research, but that is
another story) is needed to meet the technical
challenges ahead and to achieve the most produc-
tive role for the biochemical engineer in future
commercial biotechnology enterprises.
We have, consequently, restructured our course
and our text (second edition in press) to include
the following emphases in the topic sequence indi-
cated

1. Microbiology becomes Microbiology and Cell (plant,
animal) Biology.
2. Biochemistry includes additional sections on DNA
structure, plasmids, and enzymes need for DNA
manipulation via rDNA techniques.
3. Enzyme kinetics includes reversible reactions (e.g., for
high fructose syrup via glucose isomerase) and more
detailed treatment of enzyme deactivation mechan-
isms and kinetics.
4. Enzyme applications include new immobilized enzyme
processes, and preparation methods, materials, cata-
lyst characteristics including deactivation and mass
transport-reaction interactions.
5. Bioenergetics and metabolism is restructured to show
clearly how energy balances work to give biosyn-
thetic engine efficiencies and microbial heat release,
and how stoichiometries of microbial conversions
are deducible directly from understanding the major
metabolic flow routes.
6. Genetics and (microbial) control systems altered
enormously to indicate techniques of the "new" bio-
technology: recombinant DNA manipulations and
cell fusion approaches for hybridomas. This section
also emphasizes the need to understand lower (pro-
caryotic) and higher (eucaryotic) life form bio-
chemical control systems and cell cycles to allow
proper rDNA catalyst preparation and to provide


a basis for kinetic models.
7. Cell kinetics is enlarged to include not only unstruc-
tured models (constant biomass composition) but
structured (multicomponent) models which allow in-
clusion of known internal metabolic details which
vary with cell environment or culture growth stage.
Segregated models for kinetics, incorporating cell-
to-cell heterogeneity (population balances) are also
included. Similarly, product formation kinetics can
be empirically or metabolically modeled.
8. Transport phenomena (aeration, agitation, power in-
put, mixing) is modified to include transport cor-
relations for recent configurations (air-lift reactor),
and materials (viscous fluids) as well as data for
CO2 gas-liquid transfer (coupled to fermentation
broth pH). Aeration bubble coalescence is discussed,
and both Weber number and Kolmogoroff theories
presented as determinants of bubble size and thus
interfacial area/vol, a, of the mass transfer conduct-
ance, kla.
9. Reactor design for pure cultures is revised to include a
number of non-ideal reactors (including circulation
in imperfectly mixed batch reactors). Formulation,
characterization, and application of immobilized cell
catalysts are examined. Multiphase reactors, in-
cluding packed beds, fluidized beds, and trickle re-
actors are treated, and an entire section is devoted
to reactors for plant and animal cell propagation.
10. Instrumentation and Control is an entirely new topic,
encompassing process sensors for dissolved oxygen,
substrates, temperature, pH, etc., and biological
parameters needed for on-line data acquisition and
calculation of instantaneous mass and energy bal-
ances. This discussion leads naturally to application
of state estimation and process control.
11. Separation and purification processes are also isolated
in a new, unified treatment, beginning with the
fermentation broth or biological product source, and
surveying techniques for cell and particle removal
(filtration, sedimentation, coagulation, centrifuga-
tion), product concentration (solvent extraction,
aqueous 2-phase extraction, precipitation, adsorp-
tion, ultrafiltration, etc.) and product purification
(large scale chromatographies, fractional thermal
and salt-driven precipitations, electrophoresis,
affinity chromatography and immunosorbent
columns, reverse osmosis). Examples of bulk chemi-
cal (ethanol), enzyme, antibiotic, polysaccharide and
organic acid recovery are discussed.
12. Bioprocess economics is introduced as a new subject.
A complete case study due to Bartholomew and
Reisman is first covered, including process inception,
flow sheets, equipment sizing, capital equipment,
operating, utility, labor, and raw materials costs,
and return-on-investment and sensitivity determina-
tions. Subsequent examples include a number of
major bioproducts (antibiotics, ethanol, enzymes,
proteins from recombinant cells, organic acids, poly-
saccharides, single-cell protein, monoclonal anti-
bodies, vaccines).
13. Mixed populations discussion has been enlarged to in-
clude mixed cultures arising naturally from propa-
gation of unstable recombinant microbial strains.
14. Biological waste treatment continues to be taught be-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









cause: (i) it represents (still) the largest, success-
fully operating microbial reactor systems in exist-
ence, (ii) it provides, in the aerated (activated)
sludge process, a clearly studied, mixed population
system (iii) it illustrates beautifully, with an
anaerobic reactor simulation, the enormous sensi-
tivity of actual mixed culture systems to process
upsets of flow rate and feed composition.
15. Homework problems for every topic have been ex-
tensively revised, especially to add a number of brief
calculational essays and to edit or remove some un-
duly long problems.

In spite of the apparent burden of covering
an increasing number of topics in increasing depth,
the biochemical engineering course has actually
been strengthened and streamlined by two peda-
gogical approaches: (a) the topics build on the
preceding topics, thus the early material contains
primarily those key items needed in latter chap-
ters, and (b) the nomenclature has been shifted
and recodified into a vocabulary most familiar to
chemical engineers. For example, metabolism
leads to stoichiometry and energy balances, bio-
logical products are recovered in separation unit
operations, and bioprocess economics is based on
standard chemical plant cost estimating termin-
ology.
Throughout, original presentations of biologi-
cal background have been pruned and revised to
present major concepts as clearly and concisely as
possible. Introductory summaries are provided for
all of the less familiar topics (e.g., microbiology
and cell biology, biochemistry, enzyme kinetics
and structure, metabolism, genetics and DNA, bio-
chemical control systems). As before, no chemical
engineering material not already available to the
chemical engineer by the end of the junior year
(stoichiometry, energy balances, transport phe-
nomena, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics) is
assumed. Our experience indicates that eager stu-
dents, willing to undertake new vocabularies in
short order and to absorb the considerable amount
of qualitative material prior to "comfortable
quantitation" in equation form, will find the sub-
ject and its organization fascinating and exciting.

REFERENCES
1. J. E. Bailey and D. F. Ollis, "Biochemical Engineer-
ing Fundamentals," Chem. Eng. Education, Fall, 1976.
2. "Commercial Biotechnology; An International An-
alysis" (OTA-BA-214) Office of Technology Assess-
ment, Washington, D.C. 20510 (January, 1984). A
larger glossary appears on pages 586-597. (For sale
by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov't. Print-
ing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402.)


Letters

"NONADIABATIC" A MISNOMER?

Dear Editor:
I noted in a recent issue of the AIChE Journal
(April '85) an article with the word "Nonadia-
batic" in the title.
I have always (for the past 25 years) called
such a term simply diabeticc." The term non-
adiabatic is redundant since the a prefix in adia-
batic means nonadiabatic, i.e. without heat
transfer.
The prefixes a, ab, or an in English all infer
a negative connotation as in:


aneroid
ascorbic acid
anhydrous
anesthesia
asymmetrical
anisotropic
agnostic
atheist
abnormal
etc.


without fluid (in a barometer)
anti-scorbutic (Vitamin C)
without water
without feeling
not symmetrical
not isotropic
without knowledge (of God)
does not believe in God
not normal


Thus to use the term non-adiabatic, literally
means non-non-diabatic and the two negatives
cancel each other to yield the simpler term dia-
batic. No one would think of using non-abnormal
to replace the word normal, or non-anisotropic for
isotropic, so why not diabetic for non-adiabatic?
I would appreciate your publishing this letter
and maybe someone will know the answer to these
questions:

1. Have you ever heard of a reactor or a proc-
ess with heat transferred to or from it be-
ing called diabeticc"?
2. Any references in books or journals to a
diabetic reaction or other process?

In any case, I propose that Chemical Engi-
neers use the simple term diabeticc" to replace
this awkward, redundant and more complex ex-
pression non-adiabatic, at least for chemical re-
actors.
I have not coined a new word since Merriam-
Webster's Unabridged Dictionary lists diabetic
and defines it as involving the transfer of heat
(opposed to adiabatic).
Allen J. Barduhn
Syracuse University


FALL 1985












SEPARATIONS AND RECOVERY PROCESSES*


SEPARATIONS AND RECOVERY PROCESSES*


GEORGES BELFORT
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY 12180

T HERE ARE MANY INGENIOUS methods which can
be used to "demix," or separate, feed streams
into two or more streams of different composition.
Historically, separation and recovery processes
have played a major role in chemical engineering
practice. Industrial methods for producing the re-
quired quantity of a particular product, of the de-
sired quality, have often depended on the eco-
nomics of the reactor as well as the separation and
recovery processes. These latter costs, which in
many cases dominate the overall costs, depend
critically on the value of the particular substance
and its concentration in the feed mixture.


Georges Belfort is Professor of Chemical Engineering and En-
vironmental Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Head of
the Separations and Recovery Engineering Research Group, Director
of the short course entitled "Biochemical Engineering, Separations,
Fermentation and Genetics," and an international engineering con-
sultant in separations technology. His research interests include the
study of both the fundamentals and new applications of synthetic
membrane and sorption processes, including membrane fouling, bio-
separations, novel membrane bioreactors, and the separation of
solutes by adsorption. He joined RPI 7 years ago after 5 years on
the faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. His under-
graduate degree in chemical engineering was completed at the Uni-
versity of Cape Town, and his graduate degrees in engineering were
obtained at the University of California at Irvine.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985


Until a few years ago, typical courses in sepa-
ration processes usually covered the traditional
processes of distillation, absorption and extraction.
Many of these courses were based on C. Judson
King's text, Separation Processes [1]. More recent-
ly, such courses have begun to introduce the rela-
tively newer separation processes such as adsorp-
tion, chromatography, and ion-exchange [2], and
membrane processes such as hyperfiltration and
ultrafiltration [3]. The goals of the particular
course described here are several: (1) to use the
approaches developed in the study of transport
phenomena [4, 5] as a unifying foundation; (2)
to provide the student with an understanding of
the design and operation of these processes; and
(3) to review the particular advantages and limi-
tations of the various processes being studied.
Since graduate students with environmental (e.g.,
water and wastewater treatment), chemical, and
biochemical engineering interests attend this
course, examples and applications from these areas
are used.

PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH
Philosophy and Scope
Separation and recovery processes provide a
fertile ground for applying the principles and tools
which the students have learned in transport phe-
nomena courses. In general, as is well-known, the
transport of mass in many processes can be di-
vided into several serial steps, each of which can
be described by a characteristic velocity and
length. Often the mass transport occurs simul-
taneously with momentum and/or energy trans-
port, complicating the analysis. In addition to the
differences in the dynamical aspects of these pro-
cesses, they can also be differentiated by the ex-
tent to which equilibrium is attained. The separa-
tion processes covered in this course are classified
in these ways; this classification is presented in

*Presented at AIChE 1984 Annual Meeting, Symposium
on Teaching Separation Processes, paper 25e, San Fran-
cisco, November 25-30, 1984.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The goals of the course .. are ... to use the approaches developed in the study of transport phenomena
as a unifying foundation, to provide the student with an understanding of the design and operation of these
processes, and to review the particular advantages and limitations of the processes being studied.


Table 1, in which mechanical (differential density
and size), equilibrium sorptionn), and rate-
governed (differential pressure) processes are
shown. One of the primary reasons for choosing
these three types of processes is that they are
among the major separation operations used in
water and wastewater treatment. Moreover, they
are currently being considered and, in some cases,
already being used for separations in the newly-
evolving biotechnology industry. (This is due, in
part, to the fact that many of these processes
operate under isothermal conditions without re-
quiring a phase-change for separation, an attrac-
tive advantage in many instances.)

Lectures and In-Class Discussion
The structure of the course is outlined in Table
2. Initially, some basic fundamental definitions and
necessary concepts are reviewed. Following this


brief review, the lectures are organized into three
main categories: differential migration, filtration,
and sorption. With the exception of the course
project, the subject matter is presented in the
order indicated in Table 2. With respect to the
project, however, the status report and the final
presentation are given at the midpoint and at the
end of the schedule, respectively.
The various indices which are used to measure
performance and to compare different separation
processes are defined at the outset of the course.
Separation factors and fluxes are evaluated in
terms of the operating variables in order to
identify the dominant process variables with re-
spect to separation efficiency and rate. In many
processes, reaction continues after the process
stream leaves the reactor and enters the separa-
tor; in addition, solute dispersion in the separator
often can directly effect the separator efficiency.


TABLE 1
Classification of Separation Processes [1]


Type
Mechanical
(heterogeneous
feed)


Driving Force

a. Density difference


b. Size difference

c. Surface interfaciall)
d. Magnetic gradient
e. Inertial gradient
hydrodynamicc)


Example

Settling, centrifugation, flotation


Filtration, hydrodynamic,
chromatography, membrane
Flotation, gel filtration
High gradient magnetic filtration
Membrane, filtration


Diffusional a. Energy separatory agent Distillation, drying no
(equilibrium,
homogeneous feed) b. Mass separatory agent Absorption no
-Gas
-Solid, liquid Sorption (absorption, ion exchange, yes
affinity)
Stripping, extraction, precipitation no
c. Gradient equilibration Isoelectric focusing no

Rate governed a. Pressure gradient Gaseous diffusion yes
(non-equilibration, membrane filtration
homo/heterogenous)
b. Osmotic gradient Dialysis no
c. Electrical field gradient Electrodialysis, electrophoresis, no
electrolysis
d. Magnetic field gradient Mass spectroscopy no
e. Chemical potential gradient Facilitated transport no


FALL 1985 173


Covered

yes


yes

no
no
yes









Hence, a review of selected concepts of mixing
in reactors and reactor models in (separator)
vessels is presented [6]. In particular, this is rele-
vant and useful to environmental engineering
students who may have a weak background in
chemical reaction engineering.
Since the separation of multiphase or hetero-
geneous feeds is considered in this course, it is im-
portant to review the fundamental bases of col-
loidal destabilization [7-10] and of flocculation
[11, 12]. A critical factor influencing flocculation
is the effect of mechanically or hydrodynamically-
induced shear; hence, this topic is also briefly
considered [13, 14].
As an introduction to the material on differ-
ential migration processes, some simple analysis


Hence, the Carman-Kozeny
equation is derived from fundamental
principals in this course. Further, the analogy
with pipe flow is extended...


TABLE 2
Course Outline: Separations and Recovery Processes
1. Review (2 weeks)
Definitions for flux and separation factor
Models for ideal and non-ideal flow in vessels [6]
Destabilization and transport of colloids [7-12]
Mixing [13, 14]
2. Differential Migration (2 weeks)
Motion of particles in a fluid [15]
Sedimentation [16]
Centrifugation [14, 15]
Flotation [17]
3. Filtration (3 weeks)
Flow through porous media [15]
Deep bed [18-24]
Cake [20]
Hyperfiltration, ultrifiltration and microfiltration
[26]
Equipment [25]
4. Sorption (4 weeks)
Types-adsorption, ion exchange, and affinity
Nature of sorbents [33-35]
Equilibrium processes-gas/liquid [44-46]
Rate processes (kinetics)-batch, fixed and ex-
panded bed [45, 46]
Modes of operation [45]
5. Selection of a Separation Process [1] (1 week)
Energy requirements
Factors for process selection
6. Project (1 1/2 weeks)
Interim status report (10 minutes)
Final presentation (40 minutes)


of the motion of particles in a fluid is presented
[15]. For example, equating the Stokes drag force
for a sphere (37Trdu) with the buoyant force, the
terminal velocity for each process is derived. Fol-
lowing this basic general discussion, each of the
various processes is considered in detail. Some
of the topics covered include, for example, develop-
ment and comparison of design equations for bowl
and tubular centrifuges, and analysis of velocity
theory for types 1-4 settling. Also, sludge with-
drawal theory is presented, using the solids flux
versus concentration approach [17]. Finally, mass
balances are made around various flotation
systems (with and without recycle) in order to
obtain expressions for the air to solids ratio [17].
Various types of filtration processes, all of
which involve the movement of fluid through a
porous media (e.g., flow past the grains in a depth
filter or flow through a synthetic septa or mem-
brane) are presented in this class. Hence, the
Carman-Kozeny equation is derived from funda-
mental principals [15] in this course. Further, the
analogy with pipe flow is extended and Carman's
results for modified friction factors versus modi-
fied Reynolds numbers are presented for laminar
and turbulent flow conditions. The mechanisms im-
portant to filtration are presented; e.g., the classi-
cal capture mechanisms including capture result-
ing from Brownian diffusion, interception, in-
ertial impaction and lift, and gravitational deposi-
tion are presented and used in a dimensional an-
alysis with Iwasaki's filtration equation. The con-
cepts and use of particle trajectory calculations
are introduced using Spielman's [18] and Rajago-
palan and Tien's [19] analyses. Application of these
principles to water and wastewater filtration is
then considered [20-22] in order to illustrate the
concepts, etc., discussed. Transient behavior in
deep bed filters and the effects of polymers on
particle adhesion mechanisms are discussed next
[23, 24]. The effects of precoats and body-feeds
(e.g., diatomaceous earth) and how their con-
centration affects dynamic pressure drops and
other variables are discussed. Lastly, selected
examples of typical flow sheets for deep bed and
cake filtration are discussed [25].
Membrane processes are covered in another
graduate course, "Advanced Membrane Con-
cepts"; hence these are not discussed in detail in
this separations course [26]. Instead, they are
mentioned briefly, and general concepts and over-
view are given here. Membrane processes can be
characterized by their driving forces (pressure,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








concentration, and electrical gradient) or by the
species removed from the feed stream (solvent,
neutral, or charged solutes). Examples of pres-
sure-driven membranes processes include hyper-
filtration (also called reverse osmosis), ultrafiltra-
tion, and microfiltration. One example of a con-
centration-driven process is dialysis, and one
example of an electrically-driven process is electro-
dialysis. However, only the pressure-driven pro-
cesses are covered here.
The major advantages of these pressure-driven
membrane processes, e.g., that they operate with-
out a phase-change at relatively constant tempera-
ture and that they are relatively less expensive
to operate (for such applications as seawater de-
salination) when compared to other processes such
as distillation [27], are emphasized. In addition, a
summary of membrane formation from different
commercial materials is presented. The physico-
chemical bases of membrane formation and mor-
phological structure are then discussed using ter-
nary diagrams to distinguish between hyperfiltra-
tion and ultrafiltration membranes [28]. A general
formalism for membrane transport of solvent and
solute is presented using the framework of ir-
reversible thermodynamics, and well-known trans-
port models such as the Spiegler-Kedem model, the
solution-diffusion model, and the finely-porous
model are compared [29]. Other concepts developed
are those of concentration polarization and mem-
brane fouling, where osmotic pressure or gel-
limitation of the wall solute concentration is com-
pared [30]. Correlations for mass transfer of pro-
teins and cells to the membrane-solution interface
are analyzed and selected models are contrasted
and compared. For example, the discussion here
emphasizes that the gel-polarization model of
Michaels [31] is most appropriate for macro-
molecular solutions while the gel-polarization-
lateral-migration model of Belfort, et al [26] is
useful for colloidal suspensions and mixed feeds
which contain macromolecules or colloids. The
final discussions on membranes focus on different
membrane module designs; these are compared on
the basis of such variables as permeation area/
volume ratio, cross-flow fluid mechanics, and scale-
up potential. The importance of fluid mechanics
and momentum and mass transfer are illustrated
in Fig. 1 and show the various velocity and con-
centration profiles for cross-flow filtration.
The third and final group of separation
methods covered in this course consists of the
equilibrium or sorption processes. The introduc-


The third and final group of
separation methods covered in this course
consists of the equilibrium or sorption process.


r'- diol permneation elocity ( PROOUCT)
on backside of membrane
(SUCTION
FIGURE 1. Mass transfer in porous ducts with suction.
tion to this portion of the course is a review of a
range of applications. After this, the dominant
forces and interactions between solute and sorbent
are discussed. The roles of these in different pro-
cesses are described and contrasted; for example,
it is noted that the London dispersion forces are
important during the adsorption of organic from
aqueous solution onto microporous activated
carbon [32], electrostatic interactions are im-
portant in ion-exchange, and hydrophobic inter-
actions may be significant in certain bio-affinity
sorption processes. Properties used to characterize
the nature of sorbents, e.g., mechanical and sorp-
tive properties such as specificity (selectivity)
and capacity, are discussed. Some of the relevant
material presented includes a brief overview of
preparation, properties, and applications of sor-
bents used in adsorption, ion-exchange, and
affinity processes [33-35].
The mass transfer principles (e.g., solute
transport and attachment) needed in analysis of
these processes are discussed first, qualitatively.
Following this, the relevant quantitative princi-
ples, etc., are given. For example, the Gibbs-
Duhem equation (for equilibrium cases) and the
Gibbs adsorption isotherm (for constant tempera-
ture cases) are derived [36, 37]. Subsequently,
theoretical expressions for two-dimensional sur-
faces are derived (for systems satisfying certain
diluteness' assumptions) in order to obtain an
equation for the spreading pressure [38]. This
leads easily to the next topic, which is a discussion
of experimental methods to obtain the spreading
pressure as a function of coverage. Concepts rele-
vant to competitive adsorption, using both ideal
Continued on page 215.


FALL 1985













THE GENERIC QUIZ


A Device to Stimulate Creativity and Higher-Level Thinking Skills


RICHARD M. FIELDER
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695

Several troubling questions occasionally in-
trude on the thoughts of some engineering pro-
fessors.
1. The standard format for all classes from first grade
through graduate school is lectures (teacher presents
information to students), homework (students demon-
strate that they can repeat and perhaps apply this in-
formation), and quizzes (students demonstrate again
that they can repeat and perhaps apply the same in-
formation).
Question: What do students learn from this approach?
More to the point, what don't they learn from it?
Question: Are the skills required to succeed in the
lecture-homework-quiz routine the same as the skills
required to be an excellent engineer, or even a good
one?
Question: Are less rigid alternative teaching ap-
proaches feasible, given the amount of material that
must be covered in the. engineering curriculum?
2. Most engineering course time is spent teaching students
to solve well-defined problems that have (so we believe)
one correct answer. However, most real nontrivial
















Richard M. Felder is a Professor of ChE at N. C. State, where he
has been since 1969. He received his BChE at City College of
C.U.N.Y., and his Ph.D. from Princeton. He has worked at the
A.E.R.E., Harwell, Exxon Corporation, and Brookhaven National Labo-
ratory, and has presented courses on chemical engineering principles,
reactor design, process optimization, and radioisotope applications
to various American and foreign industries and institutions. He is
coauthor of the text, Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes
(Wiley, 1978, 1986).


problems don't fit this description: the questions are
vaguely defined, and the "correct" answer usually
begins with "It depends."
Moreover, all of our courses are based on well-
defined compartmentalized bodies of knowledge: we
teach thermodynamics in the thermodynamics course,
fluid mechanics in the fluid mechanics course, and
rarely do the twain meet in the minds of the students
who take these courses. Show me a professor who has
not been greeted by blank looks and mumbled denials
when he has asked about material from other courses,
and I will show you a professor in his first week of
teaching.
Question: If open-ended and poorly defined problems
are the norm in the world, why don't they show up in
our courses? Is it possible to introduce such problems
and give students training in the thinking skills need-
ed to solve them, given the number and variety of well-
defined convergent problems we must teach them to
solve?
Question: Since most serious problems facing technol-
ogy and society require for their solution techniques
from several disciplines, shouldn't we regularly expose
our students to interdisciplinary material in our
courses? Can we do so, given the amount of straight
disciplinary material we have to cover?

It was time for me to make up the third
quiz in a recent graduate course on chemical re-
action engineering. Wishing to do something
different from the usual "Given this and this,
calculate that," I decided to give a take-home quiz
in which the students would make up a final
examination for the course. It was not an original
idea, and in fact I had done several things like it
in previous courses; however, as I thought about
how to structure the quiz it occurred to me that I
could use it to deal with all of the questions raised
above-questions that have concerned me to an
increasing extent since I first got into the teaching
business [1].
I announced the quiz in the eighth week of the
course, and set a due date five weeks later, a week
before the last day of class. The quiz (see Table 1)
turned out to be an extremely interesting experi-
ment-both for me and, as it turned out, for the
students. In this paper I discuss what I did, what
the students did, what we all learned from the


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










It was time for me to make up the third quiz in a recent graduate course on chemical
reaction engineering. Wishing to do something different from the usual "Given this and this, calculate that,"
I decided to give a take-home quiz in which the students would make up a final examination. It
was not an original idea, and in fact I had done several things like it in previous courses.


experience, and how the technique might be profit-
ably adapted to any course on any subject.


PRE-QUIZ PREPARATION

Shortly after I announced the quiz, I decided
that the students would benefit-and would make
up much better tests-if they knew a little about
the thinking skills I was trying to exercise in
them and which I wanted them to exercise in the
hypothetical takers of their examinations. I there-
fore devoted about 20 minutes of a lecture to
Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives [2]:
1. Knowledge (memorization)
2. Comprehension (understanding)
3. Application (using)
4. Analysis (taking apart)
5. Synthesis (putting together)
6. Evaluation (making value judgments)
I noted that the last three of these categories
are collectively referred to as the higher-level
thinking skills, and told the class that one of their
objectives was to have all three of these skills


represented on their examinations, although not
to equal extents. I gave several illustrative prob-
lems of different types, got the students to specu-
late on which skills would be required to solve
them, and then gave my own opinions.
I next gave the students a warm-up exercise for
the quiz, both to let them do some of their initial
floundering in a relatively safe (non-graded)
setting and to help solidify their understanding
of the thinking skills. I told them that as part of
their next homework assignment, they were each
to make up a single problem related to the assign-
ment topic (diffusion of gases in porous catalysts)
that involved higher-level thinking skills. They
were not required to provide solutions to these
problems.
As would be expected, the problems they creat-
ed were very uneven in quality, although on the
whole not bad for a first effort. Most emphasized
primarily the lower-level skill of application and
quite a few incorporated analysis, but there was
little synthesis and almost no evaluation. I com-
piled the problems, made up one of my own to


TABLE 1
The Quiz


Make up an open-book final examination for this course.
Submit the examination, including a statement of the test-
ing conditions for which it is designed (3-hour in-class, or
take-home due after a specified period between one day
and one week), and a fully worked-out solution, on April
19. The ground rules are as follows:
1. The test must have something to do with chemical re-
actor design and analysis. You don't have to hit every
topic we've covered this semester, but try for a reason-
able balance.
2. The questions must be original. You can look at any
references you want and talk to anyone you want, in-
cluding one another, in search of ideas, but your final
result should be entirely the product of your own
creative efforts.
3. A straight plug-in test (A->B, given a rate law, calcu-
late the reactor volume) which is internally consistent
and error-free will receive a minimal passing grade.
Extra points will be given for questions that do some
of the following things:
Require analytical skills. For example, ask the
students to derive formulas used in class for which
derivations are not presented in the notes or text-
book, or ask them to provide theoretical and/or
physical explanations of observed phenomena.
Require synthetic (creative) skills. For example,
FALL 1985


give problems with solutions that require putting
outside material (e.g. from chemistry, mathe-
matics, or other engineering courses) together with
material from this course. Or, give problems that
require using methods presented in the course in
new ways. Or, give problems that seem to have
nothing to do with chemical reaction engineering,
but whose solutions require techniques used to
analyze reactors. You may use humor, but not too
much, and only if you feel comfortable doing so.
Require evaluative skills-call for value judgments.
Ask the students how they would judge the "good-
ness" of, say, a reactor design. (It may work, but is
it a good design?) Call on them to speculate about
possible environmental or social or ethical conse-
quences of something. Test the breadth and depth
of their thinking. In short, do unto them what I'm
trying to do unto you in this test.
That's all there is to it. Be aware, however, that you're
likely to find this a tough assignment. My advice is to get
started right away, so that you can see early what kind
of problems you're going to run into and get help with
them. Trust me-this is not something you're going to be
able to do if you start on April 18. Have fun. You may
use humor, but not much, and only if you feel comfortable
doing so.









better illustrate evaluation, ran off copies, and
handed them out in the next class period. Several
of the problems are given in Table 2, along with
my opinions of the thinking skills likely to be
exercised in solving them.
The class and I reviewed all the problems, and
for each one collectively formulated answers to
two questions: (1) What thinking skills does the
problem require for its solution? (2) How could
the problem be improved? Several students who
had written relatively weak problems came up
with good ideas for their improvement as the dis-
cussion proceeded, which led me to infer that
something useful was being accomplished.
At this point, I felt reasonably confident that
I had done all that needed to be done by way of
preparation, and that to do much more would be
counterproductive. The only other thing I did to
help the class was to give relatively light home-
work assignments in the two weeks before the
quiz was due. I had warned them to begin early,


but I have been teaching long enough to know
when the work would really get done.

THE EXAMINATIONS
Fifteen examinations were submitted, which
ranged in quality from acceptable to spectacular,
surpassing anything I had expected to see in a
trial run of an experiment. Most were reasonably
balanced and would have been suitable as one- or
two-day take-home exams. (No one succeeded in
making up an examination that could be complet-
ed in three hours, even though about half the class
claimed to have done so.) Most of the tests ap-
propriately involved primarily straightforward
application and analysis, and all but two or three
of them contained at least some of the desired
creativity and evocation of higher-level thinking
skills.
Not surprisingly, the scopes and levels of the
examinations wandered all over the map. There
were easy questions, hard questions, and killer


TABLE 2
Illustrative Problems


1. The pore diffusion model derived in class was for a
cylindrical pore. Suppose the pore were approximated
by a cone of base radius R, altitude h, and side length
s (distance from the outer edge of the base to the
peak). (V, = 7rR2h/3, lateral surface area A, =
7Rs.) The catalyst particle volume is V, and the
particle surface area is W. Assume that s-h (i.e.,
that the cone is long and skinny), and that all diffusion
is Fickian.
(a) Derive the differential equation for one-dimension-
al diffusion in the pore, and solve it to obtain an
expression for the concentration of reactant for
the reaction A-+B. Include all assumptions and
discuss them. (Analysis, possibly synthesis, de-
pending on the level of the mathematics needed
to solve the problem.)
(b) Write the conical equivalent of the Thiele
modulus, d, and plot the conical effectiveness
factor, E, as a function of 4. (Analysis)
2. In an experimental packed-bed reactor (capacity W =
2 kg) using very large recycle of product we obtain
the following data:
A- R, CAo = 10 mol/ms
CA(mol/ms) [ 1 2 3 6 9
r(mol/m3-s) ] 5 20 65 133 540
The process is to be scaled up to a larger packed bed
reactor, also with a very high recycle ratio. What will
be the amount of catalyst needed for 90% conversion
for a flow rate of 1000 mol A/h if CAo = 8 mol/m3?
(Comprehension: this is a straight plug-in problem.)
3. Chain reactions involving free radicals can terminate
homogeneously by combining with other free radicals.
Frequently, they are also said to terminate homo-


geneously on surfaces. This is usually written
R- + surface -> ?
I find such a step unpalatable. What might be happen-
ing and what implications might this have for chain
reactions in the presence of a catalyst? (Synthesis:
Much more material from physical chemistry is in-
volved here than we covered in the course.)
4. You are the process engineer in charge of the design
and construction of a large fixed-bed catalytic re-
actor. The design was performed by a recently gradu-
ated chemical engineer with an M.S. degree, using
published rate data for the same reaction with the
same catalyst. You checked the design, found it sound,
and approved it. The reactor construction is currently
about 2/3 complete.
Today a project engineer who will be in charge of
startup on the project came into your office with a
copy of the design, which he had been given to review,
and informed you with some concern that nowhere in
the design had possible pore diffusion effects been
taken into account. You realize immediately that he is
right, and proceed to do the necessary calculations.
(a) What questions would you ask, and what calcula-
lations would you perform to determine the
answers? (Application, analysis)
(b) What might you do if you determine that pore
diffusion will lower the rate of reaction significant-
ly, so that the reactor will be seriously underde-
signed? Consider as many realistic options as you
can think of. (Analysis, evaluation)
(c) Who should be held principally responsible if the
omission turns out to have serious consequences,
and what action should be taken? (Evaluation)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










questions. There were problems whose solutions
required applications of principles from transport
phenomena, thermodynamics, biotechnology,
physical chemistry, applied mathematics, and eco-
nomics. There were applications of reaction engi-
neering principles to biotechnology, process
control, environmental science, on-line process
optimization, plant safety, male-female relation-
ship formation (there were two of these), the re-
lationship between predators and their prey, and
a mathematical model of human accomplishment.
There was also humor, some of it quite good.
The students tended to go to their strengths,
also appropriately. The food science major in the
class managed to find food science contexts for a
broad spectrum of the course material and framed
his questions in these contexts; the wood and paper
science major did the same in his field, and like-
wise the chemistry major. The mathematically in-
clined students put together examinations heavily
oriented toward analysis, and the experimentalists
came up with more phenomenological questions.
Following are outlines of some of the more
noteworthy examination problems.


1. A mechanism is given for a polymerization reaction,
and an approximate rate law is also given. In succes-
sive parts of the problem, the student is asked to (a)
determine whether the mechanism could possibly be
compatible with the rate law; (b) choose a reactor type,
discussing reasonable alternatives and justifying the
final choice; (c) design the reactor; (d) examine heat
transfer data for the reactor and comment on possible
reactor stability problems; (e) comment on how the
use of a chemical initiator might alter the reactor de-
sign; (f) propose possible explanations for a dramatic
drop in yield two months after the reactor is started
up; (g) propose methods to deal with new EPA waste
standards that make current levels of unreacted
monomer in a waste discharge stream unacceptably
high, considering both technical and nontechnical
aspects of the problem.
2. A brief outline of evolutionary operations (EVOP), a
statistically-based on-line process optimization tech-
nique, is given, followed by data for an antiquated
process used to produce a specialty chemical. The
student is asked to select variables which, if adjusted,
would be likely to yield significant process changes;
to summarize the probable and possible effects of the
adjustments; and to describe the probable outcome of
an EVOP run performed on the process.
3. Joe Dolt has purchased a B.S. degree in chemical engi-
neering for $2500 from an obscure university in the
Bahamas, and has gone into business for himself since
no company would hire him. He finds data for a re-
action that yields a valuable product, designs and sets
up a pipe reactor, runs the reaction at the conditions


he finds in a published paper, and gets a product yield
10% higher than the paper indicates he should have
gotten. The student is asked to (a) suggest possible
reasons for the discrepancy; (b) critique the reactor
design; (c) outline possible hazards associated with
the operation; (d) use Dolt's experience as a basis
for discussing the notion that "the piece of paper is
all that matters because you never use what you learn
in school anyway." (The student's problem solution
contains a pretty good refutation of this philosophy.)
4. A quote from an F. Scott Fitzgerald story is given in
which it is suggested that a woman who succeeds in
making herself attractive to any one man becomes
more attractive to all others, including the one she
wants, and so is more likely to form a relationship
than is her less attractive counterpart. The student is
then asked to (a) translate this observation into a
mechanistic model for the pairing of couples at a


Fifteen examinations were
submitted, which ranged in quality from
acceptable to spectacular, surpassing anything
I had expected to see in a trial
run of an experiment.


social gathering with equal numbers of males and fe-
males; (b) solve the model equations to determine
the pairing rate; (c) discuss the defects in the model,
and indicate the difficulties one might run into verifying
it experimentally.
In another problem, the same student came up
with two creations I am particularly fond of: "Von
Uberheit's Auto Radiator Boutique," and an artist
who bills herself "Butterfly Troppe-Roth: Creations
in Welded Boiler Plate."
5. A solid catalyst particle in the shape of a cylindrical
shell is proposed, and the student is asked to derive
expressions for the effects of diffusion in the catalyst
pores on the performance of the catalyst.
Solving this problem involves deriving a differential
equation, obtaining the solution in terms of Bessel
functions, and then performing several mathematical
operations on the solution to achieve the desired result
-an excellent problem in applied mathematical
analysis. Its only flaw is that it was only worth 20
out of 100 points on an in-class examination designed
to be completed in three hours I mentioned this and
several similar problems to the class, and let them
deduce the moral regarding the difficulty of making
up tests to fit within tight time limits. (As their sub-
sequent evaluations disclosed, many of them got the
point.)
6. A sheep rancher has been troubled by marauding
coyotes, and is trying to decide whether or not to
undertake an expensive trapping operation. The student
is given an outline of the Lotke-Volterra model of
predator-prey interactions (which has important ap-
plications to the analysis of biochemical reactors), and
is asked to (a) use the model (with specified values of
the model parameters) to determine whether the


FALL 1985










It was apparent to me as I reviewed the examinations that the students had put in an
extraordinary amount of time and energy in constructing and solving them. In a sense, each examination
represented a personal statement: the students were playing their own game rather than the teacher's.


trapping operation can be justified; (b) comment on
the assumptions integral to the analysis that might
affect the validity of the model, and (c) to propose
modifications that might make the model more applic-
able to the given situation.
The student's solution, which involves the com-
puter generation of phase-plane plots that asympto-
tically approach stable limit cycles, is a beautiful il-
lustration of an important phenomenon in chemical
reactor dynamics. I hope to persuade him to publish it.
7. A model of human accomplishment is proposed,
wherein something called "motivation" is converted
to something called "achievement" by a first-order
rate process occurring in the brain. The proportionality
constant, I, is called "intelligence." Motivation is said
to originate in infinite supply at a concentration M,
in a small region centrally located in the brain, and
diffuses to all regions of the brain at a rate pro-
portional to the negative of its concentration gradient.
The diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to D,
the brain density, and S, the "sloth factor." The pa-
rameters I and D are immutable (hereditary traits),
while M, and S can be influenced by human will (en-
vironmental traits). The student is asked to (a) de-
rive an expression for the concentration of motivation
at any point in brain space; (b) determine how the
value of the sloth factor determines the extent to
which individuals reach their personal potential for
achievement; (c) comment on the weaknesses of the
model and suggest improvements. (In the course of
the solution, the student makes some nice points re-
garding the nature versus nurture dichotomy, and
suggests that Bloom's taxonomy might well be aug-
mented by an additional category to cover creative
leaps in knowledge.)
8. The last examination to be considered here was a total
pleasure to read. The introduction follows in its
entirety.
"Graduating with a strong background in chemical
reaction engineering and kinetics, you have taken a job
with an established paper company and will be work-
ing at a pulp mill. Your mind is frothing with fantasies
about working with high-performance PFR's, packed-
bed catalysis, and reactor optimization studies. How-
ever, nothing is as expected in the pulp and paper
industry. Much to your chagrin, you have been assigned
to a position as an engineer in the mill's waste treat-
ment plant. How pagan! There's not even much to call
a proper reactor-just a bunch of ditches and ponds.
"You have a lot to learn, buddy. The problems you
are going to encounter in waste treatment, while not
standard, require a great deal of knowledge in the
area of kinetics and reactor design. In addition, you
will need far more common sense and consideration
of the issues than in a lot of 'standard' reactor design
domains.


"It's a great job. Good luck."
The examination goes on to pose an outstanding
series of problems involving biological waste treat-
ment kinetics, treatment system evaluation, environ-
mental impact evaluation, and deduction of the mechan-
ism of a reaction when faced with incomplete data
and a management unwilling to release needed in-
formation. Along the way we meet such characters as
"Phyllis Smugley, Yuppie-in-Charge of environmental
operations," and "Marvin Spite, your assistant and
the man passed over in order to hire you straight from
school." (You are horrified to discover that the dis-
solved oxygen levels in the river are drastically lower
than normal, whereupon Marvin giggles impishly. "No-
thing is wrong," he sneers. "Trust me.")

EVALUATION

It was apparent to me as I reviewed the
examinations that the students had put in an
extraordinary amount of time and energy in con-
structing and solving them. In a sense, each
examination represented a personal statement:
the students were playing their own game rather
than the teacher's (they couldn't play the teacher's
game, since they weren't sure what it was), and
most of them put everything they had into it. It
was also clear that in taking the quiz they had
learned a great deal about many things, including
but not limited to chemical reaction engineering.
What I think they learned and what they think
they learned are summarized in the next section.
Grading the examinations was an interesting
exercise. First, it was the one and only time in my
16 years of teaching that I ever enjoyed reading
test papers; this alone was almost enough to make
the exercise worthwhile from my point of view. I
also found that it was impossible to define an ob-
jective grading scale since there were no precisely
defined requirements, and even the students who
made up relatively pedestrian examinations put
a great deal of effort into them and demonstrated
a good grasp of a broad spectrum of material. I
ended up giving nine grades between 90 and 100,
four between 80 and 89, and a 75 to a student who
had constructed a reasonable test but whose solu-
tions contained a number of rather serious errors.
While I was delighted with what the students
did and felt that the quiz had done everything I
wanted it to do (and then some), I was aware
that some of the students were uncomfortable


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









about the fuzziness of the requirements and the
time it took them to make up their examinations.
To assess how they regarded the experience after
the fact, I prepared and distributed an evaluation
form and asked them to fill it out after the quizzes
were handed in but before they were graded and
returned. On the form I asked them to rate their
agreement or disagreement with seven statements
regarding the difficulty, instructiveness, and en-
joyability of the quiz, and the level of effort re-
quired to take it. I then asked them to furnish
comments regarding what they liked and disliked
about the quiz.
I got responses from 14 of the 15 who took the
quiz. The unabridged and unedited responses are
as follows.

Attitudes toward the test
The choices were agree strongly (AS), agree (A),
neutral (N), disagree (D), disagree strongly (DS).
1. The test was easy.
AS-0%; A-0%; N-7%; D-21%; DS-71%
2. The test was more difficult than the usual type of quiz.
AS-29%; A-64%; N-7%; D-O%; DS-0%
3. The test was enjoyable.
AS-29%; A-50%; N-21%; D-0%; DS-0%
4. The test was instructive.
AS-71%; A-29%; N-0%; D-0%; DS-0%
5. The test was more trouble than it was worth.
AS-0%; A-7%; N-21%; D-57%; DS-14%
6. I think I am good at this sort of thing.
AS-O%; A-14%; N-57%; D-29%; DS-0%
7. I hope I never have to do anything like this again.
AS-0%; A-0%; N-21%; D-29%; DS-50%

Things liked about the test
Allowed exercise of creativity and allowed us to
learn more in the specific areas which interested us
the most.
The option of thinking about all or many problems
that you can solve and to find out about what you
can do, or what you know.
To do the test, you had to have a very good grasp
of the material in the course. It was a very good way
to tie the material together and excellent prepara-
tion for the final.
1. Allowed one enough time to do a thorough job, un-
like class period quizzes. 2. Caused one to really ex-
plore the subject material.
That's a new experience I've never had before. But
it supports a new way to organize all the stuff you
learn from the book and lectures, and most important,
it can give you ideas how to use those practically.
Challenge of evaluating one's own efforts, which is
a necessary step in making a good test.
Forces one to think deeper than just memorization,
helps one be able to see interconnections between


this course and others.
I liked it! I've always felt like the weakling or under-
dog when it comes to battles with exams or tests, but
this exercise made me feel strong. I feel that this
type of test is one of the few that allows both the
pragmatist and theoretician to show their stuff.
The most important thing for this test was it made
me do outside research, in my case in my own work
at food science.
For once, I was able to use my strength-my ability
to apply what I know to realistic situations-rather


I distributed an evaluation form and asked
them to fill it out after the quizzes were handed in
but before they were graded and returned.


than have my weaknesses-time-limited proofs, un-
realistic (to me) problem-solving-played upon.
I liked having to encompass everything on the test.
It made me study over everything, and end up with
a better feel for the whole class as well as an in
depth look at different aspects about it.
Two things: 1. Forced a review of the course material
(and beyond) in an integrated fashion. 2. Gave in-
sight into what professors have been up against
when making out all those tests that I've taken over
the years.
I liked the freedom to look at the material without
having to worry about missing some detail that
would hurt me on a more conventional test.
It gave me a chance to take a chemical engineering
situation and explore everything I could think of
concerning this situation.

Things not liked about the test
Trying to turn ideas into questions which were neith-
er impossible nor trivial.
Precisely that I could ask many questions and it was
so difficult to answer them that some times it is
frustrating, but actually it was constructive.
It took a lot of time.
Criterion for writing questions was too general, too
much time was spent deciding what questions which
I wrote were appropriate.
Since it is the first time, a little bit of confusion
and difficulties with it. But I believe the more difficult
you find a test, the more you learn from it.
I wasn't sure, despite all the class time spent on it,
exactly what was expected.
It took too long for me to do it.
The fact that I've never done this sort of test, and
also not being too sure of what problems are the
most suitable.
It was difficult to come up with a good image or
theme-perhaps some mild limitations on subject
or style would force us to go down one vein or an-
other. I'm not advocating the suppressing of creativi-
ty-merely suggesting narrowing down the wide
range of possibilities.
Continued on page 213.


FALL 1985











ReaeIAXU ow


FLUIDIZATION


RICHARD C. BAILIE, HISASHI O. KONO,
AND JOSEPH D. HENRY, JR.
West Virginia University
Morgantown, WV 26506-6101

T HE NATIONAL SCIENCE Foundation, during re-
cent years, has moved to support closer ties be-
tween the academic/research institutions and in-
dustry. This was done to improve the nation's
technological innovation and to decrease the time
taken to move from fundamental discoveries to
application in the market place. The NSF/Uni-
versity/Industry Cooperative Centers Research
programs represents one of the National Science
Foundation initiatives.
West Virginia University was designated by
the National Science Foundation as the NSF Uni-
versity/Industry Fluidization and Fluid Particle
Cooperative Research Center. The area of fluidiza-
tion was designated as one area where a better
understanding of the fundamentals could lead to a
significant increase in the technological applica-
tions in a wide number of industrial areas. West
Virginia University received this designation be-
cause of its wide experience and long-term re-
search in fluidization. The National Science Foun-
dation provided the catalyst that brought in-
dustry and West Virginia University together to
form the Cooperative Fluidization Center.
As a result of the financial support given by the
National Science Foundation, West Virginia Uni-
versity and industry, the Fluidization Center has
developed a laboratory that will provide for a
better understanding of the problems associated
with the scale-up of fluidized bed systems. This
has been shown to be the major deterent to
wider applications of fluidized bed technology in
areas where a significant contribution to improved
products and production could be made.
A second and equally important purpose of the
Center is to provide for the development of young


Students from the Center have an easy
transition to industry. Four times a year they
will discuss their research activities with industrial
research personnel at regular meetings. They have
the opportunity to learn first-hand. ..

scientists/engineers in the area of fluidization and
fluid particle science.

BACKGROUND
There are a number of NSF Cooperative Re-
search Centers in addition to the Fluidization
Center. These Centers cover a wide range of sub-
jects. There are a number of differences between
Centers, depending upon the goals of the Center
as well as the industrial membership. They all
have some elements in common.
National Science Foundation contributes funding at
a decreasing rate and their support ends by the fifth
year.
All require multi-industrial member support on the
continuing basis.
All require a high level of cooperation between uni-
versity, industry, and the National Science Founda-
tion.

The companies identified as Charter Members
of the Fluidization Center were
Aluminum Company of America
AISReactivation, Inc.
Arco Chemical Company
E.I. DuPont De Nemours & Company, Inc.
Monsanto Intermediates Company
The Standard Oil Company of Ohio
Union Carbide Corporation
Not all of these companies ultimately became
members, while several more have recently
suggested they will join.

DISCUSSION
The success of the Center rests upon the bene-
fits received from all participants. The National


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985









Science Foundation, as a result of the equipment
and seed monies provided, has established a re-
search center supported by industry that will re-
main well after its support is terminated. Industry
obtains leverage on research funds by pooling re-
sources with other companies to support long term
fundamental research and to have a pool of young
scientists/engineers being developed to fill person-
nel needs. The University obtains recognition and
support for research programs.
The graduate student is a primary recipient of
the benefits from Center activity. As a result of
the Center, research facilities are state-of-the-art
and in many respects may be superior to those in
industry. The technical support for each graduate
student is enhanced. The Center has resulted in a
critical mass of engineers and scientists with a
common purpose.
The Center program, while administrated
through the Department of Chemical Engineer-
ing, is housed in a separate research building.
Over 50% of the programs supported are within
the chemical engineering department.
Students from the Center have an easy tran-
sition to industry. Four times a year they will
discuss their research activities with industrial
research personnel at regular meetings. They have
the opportunity to learn first-hand how a wide
variety of industrial research personnel respond
and interact. On occasion they will visit the spon-
sor's labs and work together with industrial
personnel. Industry will have the opportunity to


follow the student's progress and to review his
work periodically. What better way is there to
evaluate a potential employee/employer?

RESEARCH PROGRAM

The Center focuses on fundamental problems
of reacting systems at elevated temperatures with
important discoveries confirmed in a large-scale
system. Fluid particle systems studied include
prototypical systems which simulate commercial-
ly significant reactions from the following major
classifications
Particles undergoing no chemical change while in
the bed.
Particles that will undergo little change in the bed,
but effect chemical reactions; catalytic reactions are
a primary example.
Particles that change from one solid species to an-
other in the bed.
Particles that grow in size while in the bed: for
example, granulation.
Particles that shrink in size while in the bed.

Fundamental studies are carried out on a bench
scale, basic studies in a fifteen to twenty centi-
meter bed, and confirmation studies in a sixty
centimeter fluidized-bed system. Many of the
fundamental studies will deal with aspects of
fluidization science: for example, particle ad-
hesion. Particle adhesion effects have largely been
ignored in previous investigations of fluidized beds
and may often dominate the behavior of particles
that are undergoing chemical reactions in fluidized


Richard C. Bailie has been a
member of the West Virginia Uni-
versity College of Engineering
faculty for the past 18 years. He
has over 25 years of academic and
industrial experience, primarily in
fluidized-bed systems. He has done
considerable work in fluidized-bed
uniformity and stability, axial solid
distribution, solid density distribu-
tion, particle movement, power-law
fluids flow, oxidation, incineration,
gasification of carbonaceous ma-
terials, conversion to substitute
fuels, efficiency of energy resource
recovery systems, fuel converters, impact of energy farming on food
production, and waste treatment. (L)
Hisashi Kono joined the West Virginia University chemical engi-
neering faculty in 1983 as full professor and was appointed as
technical director of the University/Industrial Cooperative Fluidized
Bed Research Center. Dr. Kono's major interests are fundamental and
applied fluidization engineering, reacting systems and powder tech-
nology granulationn), particularly with respect to the application of


fluidization. His research studies involve bench-scale, pilot plant, semi-
commercial and commercial units. (C)
Joseph D. Henry's primary research interest is in the field of
novel separation processes. He is editor of major sections of the 5th
and 6th editions of Chemical Engineers' Handbook on Novel Separa-
tion Processes. He is coeditor of Separation and Purification Methods
and is a member of the editorial boards of the AIChE Journal and
Separation Science and Technology. (R)


FALL 1985









beds. A major effort is devoted to developing in-
struments and probes to monitor fluidized-bed per-
formance at elevated temperatures in reacting
species.
The centerpiece of the laboratories will be the
large "test cell" that provides for a process gas
stream for the fluidized bed and the gas cleaning
system for the effluent from the bed and a compre-
hensive detection, data logging and data analysis
computer system. The "test cell" can accommodate
fluidized beds up to seventy-five centimeters in
diameter and six hundred centimeters in height.
The bed can be operated at temperatures as high
as 10000C. The "test cell" will interface a variety


FIGURE 1. Initial experiments begin in small experi-
mental laboratory.

of configurations, ranging from single staged un-
baffled beds to fully staged beds with internal re-
cycle.
The physical facilities are divided into bench
scale laboratories, a small scale laboratory and a
large scale facility. Fig. 1 shows the developing
small scale facility. The centerpiece of the Center
is the hot verification facility. Fig. 2 shows the
major components of the hot fluidized bed verifica-
tion facility which consists of four major units:
the process gas generator unit, the gas cleanup
unit, the signal highway data logger signal an-
alyzer unit, and fluid bed units.

CAPABILITIES OF FACILITY
Temperatures to 10000C
Bed size to 75 cm/diameter
Velocities to 25 cm/second in 75 cm/diameter bed
Carrier gas combinations of
steam
air
N2


reducing gas (without air)
Bed height of 600 cm
Reactor configurations
single bubble bed
circulating bed
multi-stage bed with/without internals
The Fluidization Center was established on
August 15, 1984, and at the present time the
staff consists of eight professionals (with PhD.s)
that work on an average 50% of the time for the
Fluidization Center. In addition, there are eight
graduate students on half-time appointments.

FUTURE
The initial efforts in the Center have been di-
rected at the study of fluidization fundamentals,
but as it matures it will progress toward a wider
program in particle science. It will become in-
volved with a series of other programs being de-
veloped at the University that will involve close
cooperation with industry. These programs in-
clude
Catalysis
Biochemical Separations
Powder Technology
The ultimate success of the Center will depend
upon the growth and competence of the students
that pass through the Center. If they leave the
Center for responsible positions and provide for
the implementation and placing into practice the


FLUID-BED HIGH TEMPERATURE
TEST FACILITY


STACK


FIGURE 2.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








fundamentals studied through the Center, the
National Science Foundation will have achieved
its goal of improvement of technological innova-
tions, industry will have benefited with new pro-
ducts or improved systems, the student will clear-
ly have benefited, and the Center will benefit as
all parties will continue to support the Center.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We wish to acknowledge the National Science
Foundation for financial support of this Center
under Grant No. ISI-8411918. O


SP book reviews
- -*t--~- -- --- .

LIQUID FILTRATION
by Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff and David S. Azbel
Ann Arbor Science Publishers
Woburn, MA (1983) $49.95.
Reviewed by
Max S. Willis
University of Akron
Most modern curricula in chemical engineer-
ing are dominated by attention to the process de-
sign applications of momentum, heat, and mass
transfer with an increasing emphasis on comput-
ers. Many topics are superficially covered, and
there is a significant probability that one or more
of these topics can be of major concern after
graduation. Liquid filtration is such a topic. For
the engineer who encounters a solid fluid separa-
tion problem in the chemical, polymer, drug and
cosmetic, steel, food and beverage, petroleum, or
paper industries, this book on Liquid Filtration
can provide a state-of-the-art review that can
amplify the superficial coverage obtained as an
undergraduate.
This industrially oriented review of liquid
filtration in the chemical process and allied in-
dustries has chapters on the hydrodynamics of
flow in porous media, cake filtration, media filtra-
tion, filter aids, filter media, cake washing, cake
dewatering, optimizing filter design, and selection
of filter equipment. Chapters written by specialists
on ultra filtration (C. Gelman and R. E. Wil-
liams), membrane filtration (C. Gelman, H.
Greene, and T. H. Meltzer), and reverse osmosis
(P. N. Cheremisinoff and A. R. LaMendola), ex-


pand the coverage to liquid filtration of particu-
lates from 1A to 100 microns. The final chapter
is devoted exclusively to example problems; for
example, the comparison of filtration times for
cylindrical and flat media, and the calculation of
the filtration time for a specified quantity of fil-
trate. Under one cover, the reader gets a con-
sistent set of notation and the essentials features
of liquid filtration from a wide variety of sources.
The writing is clear and reflects the authors'
industrial experience and approach to problem
solving. The emphasis is on correlations and calcu-
lation procedures rather than mechanisms and
analytical solutions. The mathematics is, at most,
ordinary differential equations in time, but the
major portion of the presentation uses relatively
simple algebraic equations. Most of the references
are prior to 1970 and a significant number are
from the German and Russian literature. Some of
these references may be inaccessible or, at least,
difficult to obtain.
The introductory material on volume averag-
ing is incongruous for this type of book and is
inadequately presented. Many of the graphical
correlations do not have references and this pre-
Continued on page 193.


FALL 1985










EAC G TE Se inT



TEACHING TIME SERIES TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


B. P. GRAHAM AND A. JUTAN
University of Queensland
St. Lucia, Qld. Australia 4067

A GRADUATE COURSE on time series analysis is
offered in the department of chemical engi-
neering at the University of Queensland. The
course is based on an interactive graphics time ser-
ies identification and modelling computer package
(TSIM). This package is an enhanced version of
a similar package obtained from the process
control group in the department of chemical engi-
neering at McMaster University in Hamilton,
Canada.
The course takes one month (intensive) and
is divided into three sections. The first section in-
volves classical identification methods such as im-
pulse testing, frequency methods, and fourier
methods. It is followed by an identification project.
The second section involves the graduates' attend-
ance at an intensive three-day industrial workshop
on time series analysis and its applications. In this
workshop the basic theory of time series identifi-
cation and modelling is presented. The topics
covered include data generation, identification,
parameter estimation, and diagnostic model
checking. The theory is augmented by extensive
hands-on experience with the TSIM computer
package. As an introduction to time series appli-
cations, topics in process control are presented.
This includes a unit on minimum variance control.
Normally, this second section would be spread out
over one semester, but the concurrent industrial
workshop with attendees from outside the uni-
versity make this format more efficient.
The final section of the course, following the
industrial workshop, is an extensive project which

The course takes one month
(intensive) and is divided into three sections.
The first section involves classical identification
methods such as impulse testing, frequency
methods, and fourier methods.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985


forms the course assessment. The project requires
that the students generate data and then identify
and fit a model to it. Optimal input sequences,
forecasting using leading indicators, and statisti-
cal diagnostic tests for model adequacy are
covered. Finally, the students are required to de-
sign a minimum variance controller using their
model and to develop a simulation to test out the
improved control. The graduates are encouraged to
use their own experimental data in addition to
data from a simulation.
Throughout the course a basic familiarity with
statistics is assumed. Most of the graduates have
either attended, or are concurrently attending, a
course in applied statistics which is also offered
in the department.
In this paper we will briefly describe the TSIM
computer package and demonstrate how it is used
to identify a transfer function plus noise model.
The example given is that of the gas furnace data
of Box and Jenkins.

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
It is often necessary to gain a better under-
standing of the dynamic behaviour of a process if



F ->Design of experiments and collection of data

Identification of Model structure
(dynamic and disturbance)

Estimation of model parameters

Diagnostic model checking

No I
Model adequate?


t Yes
CONGRATULATIONS!
FIGURE 1. Time series identification procedure.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























Bruce P. Graham graduated from Flinders University of South
Australia in 1980 with an honours degree in applied mathematics.
From 1981 to 1982 he worked on real-time computing systems for
THORN-E.M.I. Electronics (Australia). He joined the Department of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Queensland in 1983 as a
PhD student and is currently completing his PhD on fuzzy identifica-
tion and control. (L)
Arthur Jutan is a temporary lecturer in the Department of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Queensland. He is currently on leave
from Xerox Research Centre of Canada. He obtained his BSc (Eng)
from University of Witwatersrand in South Africa in 1970, and his
MEng and PhD degrees from McMaster University in 1976. He is a
registered professional engineer in Ontario and a member of
AIChE. (R)

one is to make improvements in its design, opera-
tion, or control. One approach that could be taken
would be to develop a process model from the theo-
retical unsteady-state mass, energy, and momen-
tum balances for the process. However, the time
and effort necessary to develop such a model for
anything but a rather simple unit operation is
often not economically justifiable. Furthermore,
many of the parameters in the mechanistic model
would often be unknown and have to be estimated
from process and laboratory data. Therefore, a
useful alternative in many cases is to obtain the
necessary dynamic information directly from data
collected from the process. It is this approach, of
empirically identifying the dynamic character-
istics of a system directly from data collected from
it, that constitutes the field of time series analysis.
The time series identification procedure consists
of a series of steps as shown in Fig. 1.
The procedure aims to identify and estimate
values for the parameters of a transfer function
plus noise model relating values of the input, xt,
to values of the output, y,. The model has a de-
terministic and a stochastic part, shown in block
diagram form in Fig. 2.
The transfer function is a deterministic re-
lationship between the input and the output. The


noise term is stochastic, and describes random
fluctuations that cannot be explained by the trans-
fer function. Noise may be due to such things as
measurement errors, catalyst fluctuations, etc. The
model is of the form


8 (B)
where xt and yt are the input to and output from
the process at time t, respectively (B = backward
shift operator).

THE TSIM COMPUTER PACKAGE
The TSIM computer package consists of five
interactive computer programs which, when used
in sequence, largely automate the identification
and model estimation procedure outlined above.
The individual programs are
TSIDENT-identification of a stochastic model for a
single time series
TSUNIFIT-parameter estimation for a stochastic
model
TSTRANS-transforming and seasonal differencing of
a time series pair to generate a new data set
TSXFERID-identification of the transfer function
model and generation of noise residuals
TSXFERFIT-simultaneous parameter estimation for
the transfer function and noise models, plus diagnos-
tic model checking
Each program in the package is user inter-
active, asking the user, via questions on the
terminal screen, to enter the required data. Most
program data is entered directly from the key-
board. The time series are stored in a file in column
format.
The results of each program are displayed on
the terminal screen and are stored in a file for
subsequent perusal or printing by the user. The
programs also maintain an optional graphics fa-
cility which is available if the user is using a
graphics terminal. This facility enables the graphi-


FIGURE 2. Transfer function plus noise model.


FALL 1985









cal representation of many of the results from the
programs. All subsequent figures in this paper
were produced by the computer package.

TRANSFER FUNCTION MODEL IDENTIFICATION
OF GAS FURNACE DATA

1. The Gas Furnace Data

It is desired to obtain a transfer function plus
noise model relating methane gas feedrate to
carbon dioxide concentration in a gas furnace. In
the furnace, air and methane combined to form a
mixture of gases containing carbon dioxide. The
air feed was kept constant but the methane feed-
rate was varied, and the resulting carbon dioxide
concentration in the off-gases was measured. A
particular experiment resulted in a time series
containing 296 successive pairs of observations
(xt = coded methane feedrate, yt = carbon dioxide




.7
.6
.S -
.4 -



-2i ..-------..-.-- ------------------
-.3
-.2






FIGURE 3. Autocorrelations of input time series.

concentration) which were readings at 9 second
intervals. This example is from Box and Jenkins
(1970).

2. Stochastic Model of the Methane Feedrate, xt

The first step in the identification procedure
is to identify a stochastic ARIMA model for xt.
The model is of the form

S(B)
Vdxt (B) at

where at is white noise (V = difference operator).
The program TSIDENT is used to generate
the first 20 autocorrelations and partial autocor-
relations of the methane feedrate data. These cor-
relations are used to identify the structure of sto-
chastic variations by comparing their patterns


-. ------ ......- ........-.20-- .-
-.2
-.3
-.4
-.s
-.7
-.8
I

FIGURE 4. Partial autocorrelations of input time series.


(Figs. 3 and 4) with patterns from theoretical
stochastic models. Figs. 3 and 4 show that the
autocorrelations tail off, and the partial autocor-
relations cut off after 3 or 4 points (the fourth
point is close to the 95 percent confidence limit).
From the theory we can show that the poly-
nomial 0 is simply the unit constant, and the
polynomial 0 is of third or fourth order. Also, the
input series is stationary, i.e. it has a constant
mean, hence the degree of differencing required
(d) is zero.
Assuming that ) is third order, initial estimates
for the parameters (A to a, are obtained from the
values of the autocorrelations via the Yule-Walk-
er equations (see Box and Jenkins). These initial
estimates are refined using a non-linear least
squares algorithm by running the program
TSUNIFIT. The final stochastic model for xt is

1
xt -1 1.94B + 1.32B2 0.31B3 at

The residuals, at, produced when using this


FIGURE 5. Impulse response function.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









stochastic model appear to be a good approxima-
tion to white noise, since their autocorrelations
are small and the chi-squared statistic is well
within its allowable range. Hence it is a sta-
tistically significant model. We will use this as
our stochastic model of the xt for simplicity
(minimum number of parameters).

3. Transfer Function Identification
The program TSXFERID is used to generate
the impulse response function for 20 past values
of the input xt. This function gives a model of
the form
A A A
y't = V(B)Xt = VoXt + ViXt-1 + + V20Xt-20
A
The coefficients of this model (vi), and the step
response of the model, are shown in Fig. 5 and
6, respectively.
By comparing these impulse response weights
with those from known model orders we can tenta-
tively identify our transfer function model order.


FIGURE 6. Step response function.


In this example the impulse response (Fig. 5) con-
tains a dead-time of three, followed by two odd
points, and then an exponential decay. This indi-
cates that the transfer function model has the
following form

= w coB ,)B2
ylt -- Xt-3
1 8,B xt
Initial estimates for the model parameters are
obtained by equating coefficients between the im-
pulse response function and the transfer function.
The noise residuals, Nt, are generated as the
difference between the impulse response function
output and the actual carbon dioxide concentra-
tion, i.e. Nt = yt y't.


LI..
FIGURE 7. Transfer function plus noise model.

4. Stochastic Model of the Noise Nt
Repeating the procedure of section 2 for the
noise, Nt, we obtain the stochastic model
1
Nt = 1-1.62B + 0.66B2 at

Examination of the autocorrelations of the re-
siduals and the chi-squared statistic shows that
the noise model is adequate.

5. Transfer Function Plus Noise Model Parameter
Estimation
By running the program TSXFERFIT we
simultaneously refine the initial parameter esti-
mates for the transfer function and the noise
models. The resulting final transfer function plus
noise model is

S(0.52 + 0.4B + 0.51B) + N
Yt (1- 0.55B)
1
t (1-1.53B + 0.63B2) at

That is
yt-0.55yt- = -(0.52xt-3 + 0.4xt-4+ 0.51xt-s) + Nt
Nt- 1.53Nt-1 + 0.63Nt-2 = at
Statistical diagnostic tests are applied to the
model. These checks show that the above model
fits the gas furnace data adequately. A plot of the
model-generated yet's versus the actual carbon
dioxide concentration data is shown in Fig. 7.

REFERENCES
Box, G. E. P. and G. M. Jenkins (1970) Time Series
Analysis: forecasting and control. Holden Day.
MacGregor, J. F. (1983) Course Notes for Industrial
Workshop in Process Control. Mc Master University,
Hamilton Canada. E


FALL 1985











4 o44e iun


POLYMER PROCESSING


DAVID S. SOONG
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720


A SHORT PAPER describing a new course in poly-
mer processing at Berkeley was written four
years ago [1]. Since then this special-topics course
has acquired a regular course stature and Berke-
ley has changed from a quarter to a semester
system. With the additional five weeks of instruc-
tion and the accumulated experience of past offer-
ings, this course has evolved significantly to em-
body new features and emphases.
The original goal was to introduce the basic
concepts in polymer rheology and processing to
entering graduate students. Much effort was de-
voted to developing a full appreciation of the be-
havior of polymers as a special class of material
and to nurture the ability to set up equations of
continuity as well as motion to describe the various
processes under consideration. Classic textbooks
by Middleman [2], Bird et al [3, 4]), and Dealy [5],
remained as major references. The course, how-
ever, was re-structured to accommodate both the
original and the newly emerged objectives. It be-
gan with an introduction to the fundamentals,
where general transport equations, kinematics and
dynamics, boundary and initial conditions, and
simple and combined model flows were analyzed.
Descriptions of polymer theological properties by
constitutive equations followed the introduction,
enabling predictions by these transport equations
for materials with increasing degrees of rheologi-
cal complexity. Both the kinetic network and rep-
tation theories were discussed to provide the class
with some familiarity of contemporary models.


The overall aim was to dispel a certain
mystique surrounding polymers, viscoelasticity,
and the related processes. In addition, the students
were given a first-hand opportunity to observe
and practice the development of systematic
approaches to process modeling.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985


David S. Soong received his BS in chemistry from the National
Taiwan University in 1973. He began graduate study in chemical engi-
neering at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1975, and re-
ceived his MS in 1977 and his PhD in 1978. Since 1979 he has been
a member of the chemical engineering faculty at Berkeley. In 1984 he
received the Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award in recognition of his
performance and promise in teaching and research. His current re-
search interests lie in polymer rheology and processing, polymer
applications in microelectronics and microsensors, thermodynamics
and kinetics of polymer phase separation, and polymerization re-
action engineering.


Rheometrical techniques and theological measure-
ments were also included in recent versions. The
bulk of the course dealt with traditional processes
such as extrusion, calendering, fiber spinning, in-
jection molding, and polymerization reaction engi-
neering. Hence, much of the original content was
retained. The lengthened instructional period al-
lowed examination of coating and mixing as well.
The overall aim was to dispel a certain mystique
;surrounding polymers, viscoelasticity, and the re-
lated processes. In addition, the students were
given a first-hand opportunity to observe and
practice the development of systematic approaches
to process modeling.

NEW DEVELOPMENTS
Knowledge accumulated in the first two-thirds
of the course became invaluable in the undertaking
of new subjects in emerging technology: polymer
applications in microelectronics. The decision to
incorporate this new segment was based partly on


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









the geographical proximity of the Berkeley campus
to the Silicon Valley. Berkeley graduates constitute
a significant portion of the manpower resources
for this industry. In addition, polymers play a
major role in achieving our current state-of-the-
art in microelectronics. They are not only found
in final products such as housing of components,
packaging of integrated circuits and intermetallic
dielectric layers, but are also employed extensive-
ly in critical processing steps, exemplified by re-
sists in microlithography. Comprehension of the
salient and the subtle issues of such a plethora
of usages dictates a firm grasp of the basic princi-
ples of polymers, which the' students were expect-
ed to have already acquired, at least partially, by
this point in the course.
Integration of this new segment seemed super-
ficially difficult since few students were adequately
prepared and therefore had to learn the rudiments
of the field rapidly. My experience suggested that
our students possessed an amazing ability to as-
similate the information presented once they were
sufficiently motivated. The effort was great. None-
theless, they were rewarded by the realization that
most established rules, equations, and correlations
remained valid in the miniature world of micro-
electronics. Furthermore, the students emerged
from this course having gained a certain familiari-
ty with the current status, future trends, and
central issues of polymer applications in micro-
electronics.
Subsequent to a brief survey, a few topics were
selected for detailed examination (Table 1). These
represented areas where a chemical engineer is
expected to make the most contributions. They
also dovetailed the rest of the course naturally.
We began with resist processing. Spin-coating of
resist films on semi-conductor substrates is ac-


TABLE 1
Selected Topics of Polymer Processing In
Microelectronics Fabrication
MICROLITHOGRAPHY
Spin-coating
Exposure
Film dissolution (resist development)
Baking
PACKAGING (Encapsulation of Integrated Circuits)
Reaction Injection Molding
Diffusion in Polymers
Heat Conduction
Stress Field Due to Mismatched Thermal Expansion
SInterfacial Adhesion


complished by dispensing a fixed amount of a
polymer solution onto a wafer. The wafer is then
rotationally accelerated to a pre-set speed. Centri-
fugal force causes the fluid to flow radially out-
ward, reducing the thickness of the layer. Simul-
taneously, evaporation of the solvent continually
changes the fluid composition, and thereby its
theological properties. Clearly, coupled momentum
and mass transport are essential for the accurate
description of this process. Exposure of the de-
posited film to photons or energetic particles in-
duces chemical modifications and/or structural
alterations. The energy absorption profiles are
then translated into iso-structural contours. Such
knowledge provides a starting point for the pre-


The course, however, was
re-structured to accommodate both
the original and the newly emerged objectives.


diction of the outcome of resist dissolution (wet
development). To this end, a model for polymer
dissolution is given. The glassy film is first con-
verted into a swollen gel by the incoming solvent,
whereupon entangled coils disengage from the net-
work into the developer. The problem is thus de-
scribed by two moving boundaries. Stress-induced
Case II diffusion governs the kinetics of glass-
gel interface, whereas polymer dissociation at the
gel solvent interface is characteristic of a repta-
tion type process. Only through this sort of syste-
matic examination of the resist development can
the process dependence on the developer strength,
system temperature, molecular weights of both
the exposed and unexposed areas, and the thermo-
mechanical history (e.g., in the baking or the an-
nealing period prior to the development) be under-
stood.
Polymers have also found increased uses as
intermetallic dielectrics and encapsulants for inte-
grated circuits and their hybrids. Here, a variety
of engineering considerations are relevant. First,
reaction injection molding of mixtures such as
epoxy with a high solid loading is employed for
chip packaging. This process epitomized the range
of rheology, transport, and reaction problems dis-
cussed in the course. Constitutive equations for
suspensions, heat transfer through composites, re-
active fluid flow, and highly non-linear reaction
kinetics were mere examples of the complexity of
this process. Next, the packaging material must


FALL 1985









possess adequate barrier properties against mois-
ture penetration. This necessity entailed a review
of mass transfer in polymer composites. Efficient
thermal management to dissipate the great power
consumed by the encapsulated chips required a
good understanding of heat conduction in com-
posites. Approaches to analyze stress fields in-
duced by mismatched thermal expansion coeffi-
cients of the polymers and the substrates were yet
another subject for discussion. Finally, interfacial
adhesion between polymers and dissimilar sur-
faces stimulated much classroom interaction.

SELECTED TERM PROBLEMS
A list of open-ended term problems was given
at the beginning of the class, from which every
member chose one for an in-depth study. Through
weekly lectures and office visits, the students had
ample opportunities to interact with the instruc-
tor and to receive guidance in a literature search
and theoretical analysis of these problems. Time
was set aside at the end for students to present
their work to the class. This proved to be an effec-
tive incentive for diligent learning, which led (in
some cases) to innovative ideas. The problems
covered a wide range of topics, both in convention-
al polymer processing and microelectronics ap-
plications. A central theme was followed in each
development; any reasonable attempt at the solu-
tion required the judicious use of conservation
equations and polymer principles. Some example
problems are discussed in the following para-
graphs.
Recently, a sliding cylinder rheometer (SCR)
was constructed for use with an existing materials
test system (MTS) in my laboratory to measure
fast transient and steady-state responses of visco-
elastic fluids [6]. This MTS-SCR combination ex-
ploited the versatility and capability of the MTS
programmable drive and its stiff load train. The
sample confining surfaces of the SCR were as-
sumed to be perfectly concentric in order for ideal
simple shearing to be obeyed. Effects of axis tilt-
ing and eccentricity on the time-dependent as well
as the steady-state theological properties were in-
vestigated by a student with the use of a constitu-
tive equation based on the kinetic network ap-
proach [7]. This project generated useful sensi-
tivity plots, allowing the tolerance level for instru-
ment misalignment to be delineated.
A second problem was modeling fiber spinning
of viscoelastic fluids, in particular those described
by the classic Maxwell model and some recent


kinetic network theories. Heat transfer into the
surrounding cross-flow air caused a notable spin-
line temperature variation. Hence, temperature-
dependent parameters were used in modeling
fluid flow in the momentum conservation equation.
Air drag, inertia, gravity, and draw-down were
all considered. This exercise highlighted the
differences between continuum and structured-
fluid models.
Another problem where simultaneous transport
equations must be invoked to find the solution
was the process of microsphere formation. These
miniature containers are designed for use as laser
fusion targets when filled with mixtures of deuter-
ium and tritium. Two important steps occur here.
Volatile-containing droplets emerging from a
nozzle with imposed oscillation first undergo a
spontaneous blowing process, driven by the evapo-
ration of volatile solvent which pushes the poly-
meric shell outward. These hollow particles then
enter a refinement zone where a centering process
takes place to eliminate eccentricity between the
shell internal and external surfaces. The confined
vapor partially permeates to the surroundings, al-
lowing shrinkage of the microspheres in this zone
to the desired final dimensions and sphericity. Bi-
axial extensional flow dominates the rheology of
microsphere expansion, whereas detailed dy-
namics of radial flow results in improved con-
centricity and sphericity. The effects of visco-
elasticity on the rate and stress associated with
microsphere expansion have been studied using
the Newtonian and Maxwell constitutive equations.
Simple analytic results to describe microsphere
refinement have been obtained for conditions
representative of the centering process where
Newtonian behavior prevails. A manuscript based
on this effort has been drafted for future publica-
tion.
Several term papers eventually inspired the
development of full-scale research programs. One
such project was the wafer spin-coating process.
Predictions for both Newtonian and nonNewtoni-
an fluids were made, and later compared with ex-
perimental data. Resist dissolutions was the sub-
ject of another fruitful term project. Here, nu-
merical techniques were established to monitor
the movement of two boundaries. Realistic con-
stitutive equations for both solvent diffusion and
polymer reputation were employed in the simula-
tion. The model qualitatively predicted the antici-
pated trends, when the polymer molecular weight,
its glass transition temperature, solvent size, and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









polymer-solvent compatibility were individually
adjusted. In addition, the effect of the rate of cool-
ing following annealing (baking) was carefully
examined. The analysis was based on the varying
free volume fraction trapped in the glassy film
upon cooling. Effects of physical aging below glass
transition were also included. An ongoing experi-
mental and theoretical project originated out of
this effort. Non-isothermal polymerization in tubu-
lar reactors and CSTR's in series, rheology of fiber
suspensions in polymeric matrices, and transient
temperature profiles of local spots irradiated with
laser pulses were additional examples, which led
to certain past as well as current research activi-
ties.
Besides maturing into full-fledged research
projects, major results of previous class efforts
were disseminated in later offerings. Some prob-
lem statements were modified so that current
students could build upon earlier findings and
study unexplored features. Hence, although succes-
sive classes were handed revised sets of problems,
the basic theme remained the same. One thing is
certain. The course in polymer processing at
Berkeley continues to evolve and yet remains a
rewarding experience for the instructor.

REFERENCES

1. D. S. Soong, Chem. Eng. Ed., 15:4, 204 (1981).
2. S. Middleman, Fundamentals of Polymer Processing,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.
3. R. B. Bird, R. C. Armstrong, and 0. Hassager, Dy-
namics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 1: Fluid Mechanics,
Wiley and Sons, New York, 1977.
4. R. B. Bird, O. Hassager, R. C. Armstrong, and C. F.
Curtiss, Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, Vol. 2:
Kinetic Theory, Wiley and Sons, New York, 1977.
5. J. M. Dealy, Rheometers for Molten Plastics, van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1982.
6. A. T. Tsai and D. S. Soong, J. Rheol., 29, 1 (1985).
7. T. Y. Liu, D. S. Soong, and M. C. Williams, Polym.
Eng. Sci., 21, 675 (1981). EO



REVIEW: Liquid Filtration
Continued from page 185.

eludes examining them in more detail by referring
to the original work.
After reading the book and observing the
number of papers that have been written, it ap-
pears that a coherent filtration theory that con-
nects the very practical aspects of filter media se-
lection, predictive rather than reproductive filter


design, and optimal operation has eluded this sig-
nificant research effort on a unit operation that is
common to a wide segment of the chemical pro-
cess industries. L


SP book reviews |

MOMENTUM, HEAT, AND MASS TRANSFER
by C. O. Bennett and J. E. Myers
Third Edition, McGraw Hill, Inc. (1982), pp. 832
Reviewed by
R. Nagarajan
Pennsylvania State University
How should transfer operations be taught?
The answer to this question determines the choice
of textbooks for such a course. The unit opera-
tions approach was effectively advocated in a
number of textbooks which appeared in the 1950s.
This was in line with the earlier evolution of the
subject area. The development of a unified trans-
port theory profoundly affected the teaching of
transport phenomena at the graduate level and
also led to a critical evaluation of how transfer
operations were being taught to undergraduates.
As a consequence, textbooks emphasizing the
fundamentals and providing a connection between
transport theory and unit operations were con-
ceived. One of the prominent outcomes was Mo-
mentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer by Bennett and
Myers, first published in 1962.
The publication of the Third Edition of Mo-
mentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer is a measure of
the favorable reception the book has received,
since its first appearance, for its approach to
teaching transport processes. The Third Edition
of the book is essentially identical to the Second
Edition. The principal change is the introduction
of SI units in a larger number of problems. Furth-
er, in each chapter, two or three additional exer-
cise problems have been introduced. However, the
added problems are similar to those already
existing and they provide an instructor with a
larger quantity rather than a larger variety of
problems to choose from.
Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer by
Bennett and Myers is written primarily as a text-
book. The material is arranged in three main
sections dealing with the three transfer opera-
tions. The early chapters in each section deal with
fundamental transport theory. Each section in-
cludes a discussion of relevant design equations
Continued on page 212.


FALL 1985










ReMOeaLEC onT



MOLECULAR SIEVE TECHNOLOGY


DHANANJAI B. SHAH AND
DAVID T. HAYHURST
Cleveland State University
Cleveland, OH 44115

F FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH ON adsorption is im-
portant to scientists and engineers as adsorp-
tion is one of the most commonly used separation
processes in the chemical industry. It is employed
in such diverse applications as drying for the re-
moval of moisture from gases, water treatment
processes for the removal of pollutants, petroleum
processing for the separation of hydrocarbons, and
the separation of nitrogen and oxygen from air by
pressure swing adsorption. Recently it is also
being investigated for uses in the pharmaceutical
industry where antibodies are immobilized on
inert supports to form biospecific adsorbents that
selectively separate proteins from various biologi-
cal sources [1]. Adsorptive storage of gases in
highly porous adsorbents is also being explored.
The potential for the use of adsorption in novel
applications has considerably increased with the
discovery of zeolites as a new class of adsorbent
materials. These materials are characterized by
pores of uniform size and of molecular scale. Zeo-
lites, therefore, provide an opportunity to devise
a separation scheme or for use as catalysts with
selectivity features based on the differences in
molecular sizes and/or the rates of diffusion. A
number of instances where these differences can
be exploited to advantage have been detailed
[2, 3, 4]. The Mobil process for converting methanol
to gasoline in a single step is based on a new
synthetic zeolite, ZSM-5, whose pore structure al-
lows only the gasoline range hydrocarbons to
diffuse in and out of the pores [5].


Zeolites, therefore, provide an
opportunity to devise a separation scheme
or for use as catalysts with selectivity features
based on the differences in molecular sizes
and/or the rates of diffusion.

Copyright ChE Division. ASEE, 1985


The novel selectivity features and the sieving
effects attributed to zeolites arise from its crystal-
line structural framework, the pore size, and the
pore channel geometry. To understand the relation-
ship between the zeolite structure and its proper-
ties, it is important to carry out fundamental re-
search on the various aspects of zeolite synthesis,
characterization, and their adsorptive and diffu-
sive properties. We have, over a period of time,
developed such a research program at Cleveland
State University (CSU). The research on various
aspects of adsorption in general and zeolites in
particular started here when one of the authors
(DTH) joined the faculty nine years ago. Now the
research program involves three faculty members,
two post doctoral fellows and a number of students
in various stages of their MS and PhD programs.

PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the research program at CSU
are twofold
To develop an expertise in the area of zeolite syn-
thesis and modification. The ultimate aim is to be
able to synthesize a zeolite with the required adsorp-
tive, diffusive, and catalytic properties for a spe-
cific application.
To characterize the newly synthesized zeolites in
terms of their crystallinity, pore size, and pore
volume; to carry out the fundamental studies on ad-
sorption by measurements of adsorption equilibria
and the rates of diffusion of various molecules
through the pore system of the zeolites. The logical
extension of these studies is to correlate the changes
in zeolite structure to the changes in zeolite proper-
ties such as the adsorption capacity and the rates
of diffusion.
In our adsorption research program, we place
considerable emphasis on the fundamentals. How-
ever, we believe the university research labora-
tories should also contribute to the solution of in-
dustrial problems. Toward this end, we do con-
siderable contract research sponsored by industrial
organizations. Most of this activity is focused on
synthesizing different zeolites in search of the one
with appropriate adsorptive, diffusive, and cata-
lytic properties for a specific industrial applica-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






















.
Dhananjai B. Shah has a BChE from the Department of Technology,
University of Bombay, and MS and PhD from Michigan State Uni-
versity. Since 1982, he has been an assistant professor of chemical
engineering at Cleveland State University. His research and teaching
interests include simulation and modelling of unsteady processes, ad-
sorption, diffusion and reactions in zeolites. (L)
David T. Hayhurst is an associate professor and acting chairman of
the department of chemical engineering at Cleveland State University.
He has a BS from WPI, MS from MIT, and PhD from WPI, all in
chemical engineering. His research interests are in zeolite synthesis,
and their characterization in terms of their adsorptive, diffusive, and
catalytic properties. (R)

tion. We have ongoing research activities in both
the areas defined above. They are summarized
below.

ZEOLITE SYNTHESIS
One of the unique aspects of the adsorbent re-
search program in chemical engineering at CSU
is our molecular sieve synthesis effort. There are
well over 100 different varieties of molecular sieve
zeolites which have been reported in the patent
and open literature. Each has a different frame-
work with channels of varying dimensions and
geometries; therefore, each of these materials will
have different adsorptive, diffusive, and catalytic
properties based on the differences in framework
topologies. In addition, the adsorptive and cata-
lytic properties of the zeolites can be altered great-
ly by varying the chemical composition of a zeo-
lite. Despite this tremendous degree of flexibility
of choice offered by using zeolites with differing
structure-type and chemistry, very few academic
research facilities have the ability to synthesize
or modify any of the non-commercial molecular
sieves. They must rely on a limited variety of test
materials supplied by a few commercial zeolite
suppliers. Researchers at CSU have the unique op-
portunity to study a much wider variety of molecu-
lar sieves.
The synthesis of a zeolite requires the forma-


tion of a reactive silicate or alumino-silicate gel
in the presence of a strong base. Most often a
structure-directing organic template is added to
this reactive mixture. The chemicals are loaded
into teflon-lined high-pressure autoclaves and re-
acted at temperatures between 100C to 200C
for periods ranging from several hours to several
weeks. Reaction products are washed and tested
for crystallinity using powder x-ray diffractome-
try. The free pore volume of the synthesized zeo-
lite is then tested using a gravimetric BET an-
alysis and measuring the pore volume available
by liquid oxygen adsorption. These tests provide
data on sample crystallinity and purity so that
subsequent adsorptive or catalytic tests are con-
sidered quite reliable.


Our most important research contribution
over the past several years has been our ability to
synthesize zeolite crystals of several hundred
microns or larger in size.


In addition to synthesis, the molecular sieves
may also be modified by post-synthesis treatments.
Such modifications typically include ion-exchange
and dealumination. Such changes can subtly alter
adsorptive, diffusive, and catalytic properties of
zeolites and often will enhance these properties.
These types of molecular sieve modification are
also a part of the zeolite research program at CSU.
To perform the synthesis and modification
tasks outlined, we have accrued a substantial in-
ventory of research equipment dedicated to this
program. Our equipment includes 130 small high-
pressure autoclaves for exploratory synthesis
runs, several large autoclaves for producing large
batches of materials, a powder x-ray diffractomet-
er for phase identification and a scanning electron
microscope for examination of zeolite crystal
morphology. The use of an atomic absorption
spectrometer is available from the chemistry de-
partment for chemical analysis. In total, we have
the ability to synthesize, modify, and completely
characterize the zeolites required for our adsorp-
tion, diffusion, and catalyst research programs.
Our most important research contribution over
the past several years has been our ability to
synthesize zeolite crystals of several hundred
microns or larger in size. This success has resulted
from a careful study of the effect of compositional
changes on rates of nucleation and crystallization.
Hayhurst et al. have presented results on how


FALL 1985








variations in reactant composition affect crystal
growth for the ZSM-5 zeolite series [6]. The effect
of ammonium and vanadium addition on growth
of large silicalite crystals has been presented by
Paravar and Hayhurst [7]. More currently, Lee
and Hayhurst have discussed the application of
optimization techniques to zeolite crystal growth
[8]. Our ability to synthesize large crystals has
helped us greatly in our studies of the adsorptive
and diffusive properties of zeolites. Two such
examples will be cited later in the article.

ADSORPTION ON ZEOLITES


Most of the
sorption involve
on a cyclic basis


industrial applications of ad-
the use of fixed beds operated
with adsorption and desorption


FIGURE 1. Gravimetric high pressure adsorption unit.

as the two main stages of the cycle. For the de-
sign of such systems, it is important to determine
both the capacities of the adsorbents and the
kinetics of adsorption. The two commonly used
methods to determine the adsorption capacities
are the gravimetric and the chromatographic
methods.


The gravimetric method uses a sophisticated
high vacuum Cahn microbalance to monitor in-
crease in the weight of an adsorbent when sub-
jected to a step change in the adsorbate partial
pressure. The amount of adsorbate on the solid at
equilibrium defines its adsorption capacity at the
prevailing adsorbate partial pressure. Details of
the experimental technique have been described
elsewhere [9]. At CSU, we have constructed such
an experimental setup for adsorption studies at
low pressures.
To date, most of the work reported in the liter-
ature on absorption equilibria measurements has
been carried out at low pressures [10, 11]. In-
dustrial application of adsorption, however,
generally involves high pressures. At CSU, we
have constructed two novel high pressure gravi-
metric apparatus for generating capacity data at
pressures as high as 100 atm. We have used these
setups successfully to measure adsorption iso-
therms of argon, nitrogen and oxygen on morden-
ite, and methane on different zeolites up to pres-
sures of 80 atm. The data for argon, nitrogen, and
oxygen were correlated successfully using a
generalized equation of the Dubinin-Astakhov ad-
sorption model [12].
The second method of determining the adsorp-
tion capacity is chromatographic in nature. It uses
the response of a packed adsorption column to a
pulse of an absorbate. The retention time of the
pulse in the column is related to the strength of
adsorption and this information is readily con-
verted to determine adsorption equilibria for a
single component or a binary system [13, 14]. The
availability of a chromatographic setup at CSU
allows us to do quick screening studies on ad-
sorption capacities or a detailed determination of
adsorption isotherms.
In both the gravimetric and chromatographic
methods, the adsorbent "sees" a varying adsorbate
concentration in the gas phase. Ideally one would
like to maintain the external concentration con-
stant. To accomplish this objective, one of our
faculty members, Gregory P. Wotzak has con-
structed a new "dynamic-balance" reactor under
the sponsorship of National Science Foundation.
In this equipment, after the adsorbate is quickly
introduced in the sample chamber, a sensor deter-
mines the gas phase concentration at preset time
intervals. A small amount of pure adsorbate
species is introduced that is proportional to the
deviation from the set point. The total amount of
adsorbate introduced until equilibrium is reached


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























FIGURE 2. Dr. Wotzak's "dynamic-balance" adsorption
unit.

after the run begins provides the adsorption ca-
pacity. The method, in principle, can also be used
to determine the binary adsorption equilibria.
Another potential application of zeolites is for
adsorptive storage of gases. Last year, Future
Fuels, Inc. of Detroit, Michigan, funded a project
at CSU for developing a zeolite with high adsorp-
tion capacity for methane at relatively low pres-
sures. The use of natural gas as a transportation
fuel is limited because of the high pressure re-
quired to store enough gas for a reasonable driving
range. The aim of the research project was to re-
duce the storage pressures required by an order of
magnitude by adsorbing large amounts of methane
in a zeolite. The project involved synthesizing
different zeolites in the laboratory and measuring
their adsorption capacities. To date, a first genera-
tion zeolite adsorbent has been identified and the
appropriate patent applications have been made.

KINETICS OF ADSORPTION
The rate of diffusion of an adsorbate through
the zeolite pore system is important as it deter-
mines the adsorption and desorption cycle times
in the operation of a fixed bed adsorption unit.
Both the gravimetric and the chromatographic
methods have been used to determine the diffusion
coefficients.
In the gravimetric method, the uptake curve is
compared with the solution of an appropriate
diffusion equation and the diffusion coefficient is
determined that gives the best fit between theory
and experiment. Details of the technique and its
application to various systems have been given by
Ruthven [10, 11]. Alternatively, the chroma-
tographic method has been used to determine


many process parameters [15]. In general, the
second moment of the response peak is dependent
on the various mass transfer resistances present
in the system. If all the parameters characterizing
mass transfer resistances are known or can be
estimated except one, then it is possible to calcu-
late the unknown parameter. The details of this
method, the experimental procedure and data an-
alysis, have been discussed in the literature [16].
Recently, Oey at CSU has used this technique to
study those adsorbate-adsorbent systems that give
highly skewed response peaks [17]. He used differ-
ent methods to analyze the peaks and showed that
moments method of analysis works reasonably
well even for peaks with a high degree of tailing.
Both the gravimetric and the chromatographic
methods are somewhat limited in their usefulness
due to assumptions that have to be made to analyze
the data obtained. Many of the assumptions re-
quired for the analysis of diffusion data can be
eliminated by measuring the rate of transport
through a single zeolite crystal. Such an experi-
mental system has been prepared at CSU. A zeolite
membrane was fabricated by embedding a single
large silicalite crystal into epoxy. The rate of mass
transfer through the crystal was measured di-
rectly by exposing one side of the membrane to the
diffusing gas and determining the pressure differ-
ence across the membrane. The method was used
to determine butane diffusivities in silicalite [18].
Karger and his coworkers in East Germany
have developed a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
(NMR) method to monitor translational jumps of
molecules within the zeolite lattice. This informa-
tion is then converted into zeolitic self-diffusivity.
However, the values of diffusivity derived by
NMR are found to be three to four orders of
magnitude larger than the ones obtained by gravi-
metric and chromatographic methods. Attempts
to reconcile these differences have not been totally
successful [19]. In an attempt to resolve this dis-
crepancy, Evanina has used a series of zeolites of
differing crystal size and has studied their
diffusive properties [20]. It is expected that his
results will provide an insight into the nature of
controlling mass transfer resistance in sorption
uptake experiments. If the controlling mass trans-
fer resistance is the micropore diffusional re-
sistance, the zeolitic diffusivities should be inde-
pendent of the crystal size. If, however, the con-
trolling resistance is a surface barrier as has been
suggested [21], the apparent diffusivities will de-
pend on the crystal radius.


FALL 1985










TABLE 1
Facilities and Equipment at CSU for Adsorption
Research

Department Facilities
1. High vacuum gravimetric Cahn microbalance
2. High vacuum McBain-Bakr balance for simul-
taneous measurements on multiple samples
3. High pressure gravimetric adsorption system, uses
large sample size
4. High pressure microgravimetric adsorption sys-
tem
5. Chromatographic flow adsorption system
6. Dynamic-balance reactor
7. ATGA Unit
8. X-ray diffraction unit
9. Scanning electron microscope
10. High pressure Berty reactor
University Facilities
1. IBM Computer
2. HP 1000-F real time minicomputer system
3. Three VAX 11-750 computers

ZEOLITE CATALYSIS

In addition to the ongoing research activities
in the above areas, we have also worked co-
operatively with the Pittsburgh Energy Technolo-
gy Center to evaluate the effect of chemical modi-
fication on the catalytic properties of zeolites used
for indirect coal liquefaction. Work on the modi-
fication of acid site strength of ZSM-5 and Nu-1
zeolite catalysts by cobalt impregnation has been
presented by Hayhurst [22]. This work has proved
to be useful in determining a mechanism for pro-
ducing gasoline from synthesis gas by a single
step process over ZSM-5. Other research has in-
cluded studying the use of a three phase reactor
for coal conversion using zeolite catalysts.

RESEARCH FACILITIES

Table 1 outlines the research equipment avail-
able to us in our research program. The equipment
is housed in six laboratories occupying about
2500 ft2 area. As can be seen from the table, we
have excellent facilities for studying zeolite syn-
thesis and their adsorptive and diffusive proper-
ties.

SUMMARY

The zeolite synthesis and modification program
at CSU has allowed researchers here to study zeo-
lite properties in a manner not usually available
to the university researcher. We feel that our
group is able to tackle new and unique research
problems which should enhance our fundamental
understanding of adsorptive and diffusive proper-


ties of zeolites.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Financial support from the following organi-
zations is gratefully acknowledged: The Anaconda
Company, SOHIO, Future Fuels, Inc., Department
of Energy, Autoclave Engineers, Inc., National
Science Foundation, United Engineering Founda-
tion, and the Cleveland State University.

REFERENCES
1. H. A. Chase, Chem. Eng. Sci., 39, 1099 (1984).
2. S. M. Csicsery, "Shape Selectivity Catalysis," Chap-
ter 12, "Zeolite Chemistry and Catalysis," Am. Chem.
Soc. Monograph 171, J. A. Rabo, Editor (1976).
3. E. G. Deroune, in Catalysis by Zeolites, B. Imelik
et al (Editors), Elsevier Scientific Publishing
Company, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 5-18 (1980).
4. P. B. Weisz, Pure Appl. Chem, 52, 2091 (1980).
5. S. L. Meisel, J. P. McCullough, C. H. Lechthaler, and
P. B. Weisz, Chemetch, 6, 86 (1976).
6. D. T. Hayhurst, A. Paravar, G. Evanina, F. Huang
and J. Rossin, "The Effect of Compositional Changes
on ZSM-5 Crystallization," Paper presented to 23rd
Annual Spring Symposium of Pittsburgh-Cleveland
Catalysis Society Meeting, May 1984.
7. A. Paravar and D. T. Hayhurst, "The Effect of
Aluminum and Vanadium on Synthesizing Large
Silicalite Crystals," Poster Session, Sixth Int'l. Zeo-
lite Conf., Reno (1983).
8. J. C. Lee and D. T. Hayhurst, in preparation for
submission to ZEOLITES.
9. D. T. Hayhurst, Chem. Eng. Commun., 4, 729 (1980).
10. D. M. Ruthven, Separation and Purification Methods,
5, 189 (1976).
11. D. M. Ruthven, Principles of Adsorption and Adsorp-
tion Processes, John Wiley and Sons, New York
(1984).
12. D. T. Hayhurst and J. C. Lee, AIChE Symp. Ser. No.
230, 79, 67 (1983).
13. D. M. Ruthven and R. Kumar, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fundam, 19, 27 (1980).
14. D. M. Ruthven and F. Wong, Ind. Eng., Chem.
Fundam., 24, 27 (1985).
15. P. A. Ramchandran and J. M. Smith, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fundam., 17, 148 (1978).
16. D. B. Shah and D. M. Ruthven, AIChE J., 23, 804
(1977).
17. N. K. Oey, M.S. Thesis, Department of Chemical
Engineering, Cleveland State University (1985).
18. A. Paravar and D. T. Hayhurst, Proc. of Sixth Int'l.
Zeolite Conf., Butterworths Press, 217 (1984).
19. J. Karger and D. M. Ruthven, J. C. S. Faraday 1,
77, 1485 (1981).
20. G. Evanina, M.S. Thesis, Department of Chemical
Engineering, Cleveland State University (1985).
21. J. Karger and J. Caro, J. C. S. Faraday 1, 73, 1363
(1977).
22. D. T. Hayhurst, "Correlation of Zeolites Nu-1 and
ZSM-5 Acid Site Strength with Catalytic Activity
and Selectivity," Technical Report to Department of
Energy, Contract #DE-AC22-80PC30187. E

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











SEECTCHCe inA



ELECTROCHEMICAL AND CORROSION ENGINEERING


JOHN VAN ZEE
University of South Carolina
Columbia, SC 29208

T HE NEED TO EDUCATE chemical engineering
students in the principles of electrochemical
and corrosion engineering is still as important as
when Alkire [1], Jorne [2], and Locke and Daniels
[3] described their courses in these disciplines.
Electrochemical industries are energy intensive,
and engineering of new membrane reactors for
the chlorine/caustic industry, for example, could
lead to significant savings in operating costs [4].
Familiarity of chemical engineering graduates
with the principles of corrosion engineering would
be particularly beneficial to the speciality chemi-
cals industry.
Graduate students frequently view electro-
chemical and corrosion engineering as dichoto-
mous disciplines. This may be the case because
corrosion engineering is often taught at the under-
graduate level in terms of material selection or
environmental conditions, whereas electrochemi-


John Van Zee obtained his BSChE in 1975 from the University of
California (Berkeley) where he studied porous electrodes under the
direction of John Newman. He worked in Chiapas, Mexico, building
potable water systems for 3 years before obtaining his MS in 1982 and
his PhD in 1984, both under the direction of Ralph White at Texas
A&M University. He joined the chemical engineering department at
the University of South Carolina in 1984 where he continues his re-
search interest in the modeling of electrochemical and corroding
systems.


cal engineering may be taught as an extrapolation
of reactor engineering to fuels cells and batteries.
For graduate students this division is arbitrary
and unnecessary because each discipline is actual-
ly built from the same constitutive equations
which have a basis in the fundamentals of thermo-
dynamics, kinetics, mass transfer, and potential
theory.
The course discussed here was designed to
show the similarities between the two disciplines
and to demonstrate to graduate students that
electrochemical and corrosion engineering can be
accomplished by extending their knowledge of
chemical engineering models. That is, once the con-
stitutive equations relevant to electrochemical sys-
tems are mastered, students can apply their under-
standing of transport phenomena and differential
continuum mechanics to obtain the set of govern-
ing equations for a problem. The solution of these
equations can be accomplished by using the an-
alytical and numerical mathematical techniques
which are familiar to second-semester graduate
students. Then, quantitative engineering pre-
dictions for design in each discipline can be made
with the solutions of these models. Obviously, in
trying to synthesize two disciplines it is not
possible to consider a large number of examples of
each. Nevertheless, for an introductory course the
students have a chance to work a great number of
advanced problems which are significant to electro-
chemical reactor design and corrosion prevention.

TEXTBOOK SELECTION
Two textbooks are used for the course. Electro-
chemical Systems, by Newman [5], is used to pro-
vide the theory and fundamentals of the constitu-
tive equations. Appendix C of his text also pro-
vides the student with a listing of computer codes
for the solution of coupled nonlinear differential
equations. Corrosion Engineering, by Fontana and
Greene [6], is used for the qualitative description
of the behavior of corroding systems. Two papers
by Newman [7, 8] are used to provide an over-
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









view of model formulation in the two disciplines.
Homework and example problems are formulated
from these four references and from texts by
Pickett [9], Pletcher [10], and Selley [11].
Numerous handouts and additional references are
used as described below.

COURSE DESCRIPTION
As seen in Table 1, the course is divided into
four sections. The first section considers the
fundamentals of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass
transfer, and potential theory. It concentrates on
the development of constitutive equations for
electrochemical systems. The second section deals
with steady state applications in which these four
fundamental topics interact. The third section is
concerned with time-dependent applications of the
fundamentals. Selected readings in both texts are
used in all three of these sections as discussed be-
low. The fourth section of the course deals with
the application of statistics for the development
of new models, constitutive equations, and better
parameter estimates for electrochemical systems.
The first topic in the fundamentals section is
the thermodynamics of electrolytic solutions. The
historical difference between reduction and oxida-
tion half-cell potentials is presented. The sign
difference between electrolyzers (i.e., cells which


Graduate students frequently view
electrochemical and corrosion engineering as
dichotomous disciplines .... The course discussed here
was designed to show the similarities...


require energy) and spontaneous or galvanic cor-
rosion cells is discussed and a large number of
back-of-the-envelope homework problems are as-
signed. The objective of these problems is for the
student to obtain the ability to determine the
initial direction of the total cell reaction, the
thermodynamic conversion of the reactor, the
minimum decomposition voltage of the reactor,
and the tendency for a system to corrode. It is ob-
served that even though these calculations are
typically required in an undergraduate physical
chemistry course, the majority of the students do
not have a consistent methodology for proceeding
with the calculations. Hence, they make numerous
sign errors on the first homework problem set,
even though a large number of example problems
are presented in the lectures. Initially students
tend to try shortcuts and it presents a problem
when the shortcuts do not work, because the di-
rection of the reaction and the current is the key
to understanding and modeling electrochemical
systems. Fortunately, Newman provides a con-


TABLE 1
Course Outline


I. Fundamentals
A. Thermodynamics of Electrochemical Systems
1. Driven electrolyzers
2. Galvanic/Corrosion cells
3. Solubility products
4. Pourbaix diagrams
B. Electrochemical Kinetics
1. Butler-Volmer expression for elementary
step reactions
2. Analogies with thermal kinetic expressions
3. Multiple step reaction expressions
C. Mass Transfer
1. The rotating disk electrode (RDE)
2. The Graetz and Leveque problems
D. Potential Theory
1. Primary current distributions
2. Secondary current distributions
3. Tertiary current distributions
II. Analysis of Steady-State Behavior
A. Mixed Potential Graphs for Corroding Systems
1. Mass transfer effects
2. Passivation phenomena
3. Cathodic protection schemes
B. Coupled Behavior at a RDE
1. Effect of ionic migration


2. Potential dependent reaction rates
3. Simultaneous reactions
4. Effect of homogeneous reactions
C. Electrolyzers
1. Diaphragm-type chlorine/caustic cells
2. Parallel plate reactors
D. Porous Electrodes
1. Zinc/bromine batteries
2. Dilute metal-ion recovery reactors

III. Analysis of Time-Dependent Behavior
A. Diaphragm-type electrolyzers
B. Porous electrodes
C. Stress corrosion
D. Oxide film formation

IV. Applications of Statistics
A. Statistical Experimental Designs
1. Factorial designs
2. Nonlinear sequential designs
B. Interpretation of Experimental Data
1. Parameter estimation
2. Confidence intervals
C. Use of Experimental Data for Reactor Design
1. Confidence limits on predictions
2. Model discrimination


FALL 1985








sistent methodology for these calculations in
Chapter 2. Solubility products and the phase be-
havior inherent in Pourbaix diagrams are also
discussed.
The basic constitutive kinetic expressions are
studied by considering Chapter 8 in Newman. The
differences between homogeneous thermally-driven
chemical reaction rate expressions and hetero-
geneous voltage-driven electrochemical kinetics
are emphasized. Analogies are made between
heterogeneous reaction rates and the current
density. The concentration-independent and con-
centration-dependent forms of the Butler-Volmer
rate expression are discussed for elementary step
reactions. Linear and logarithmic rate expressions
are shown to be subsets of this expression. Multi-
ple step reactions are analyzed in this funda-
mental section by considering the typical physical


. once the constitutive equations relevant
to electrochemical systems are mastered, they can
apply their understanding of transport phenomena and
differential continuum mechanics to obtain the set
of governing equations for a problem.


chemistry concepts of rate determining steps and
dynamic equilibrium. Simultaneous reactions are
discussed in the next section of the course and sta-
tistical interpretation of kinetic data is discussed
in the fourth section of the course.
The fundamentals of mass transfer in electro-
chemical and corroding systems are analyzed by
first neglecting the effect of ionic migration. As
discussed in Chapter 17 of Newman, this assump-
tion results in the convective diffusion equation,
which should be familiar to chemical engineering
graduate students. For homework, the students
derive the analytical solutions for the problems of
mass transfer to a rotating disk electrode (RDE)
and to a wall of a tube in which Poiseuille flow pre-
vails. An example of the use of these solutions in
the design of electrowinning cells is used to il-
lustrate the usefulness of the analysis.
The last fundamental to be considered is po-
tential theory. Graduate chemical engineering
students are familiar with the governing differ-
ential equations of the primary and secondary po-
tential distributions because of their experience
with the Laplace equation for heat conduction.
The differences between the primary and
secondary current distributions are discussed in
terms of changes in the boundary conditions.
Students are quick to draw their own analogies


between thermally and electrically insulated sur-
faces. Homework problems concerning analytical
solutions to these current distributions are as-
signed. The tertiary current distribution is the
students' first exposure to the coupled nature of
electrochemical systems. That is, since the effect
of ionic migration is now included and since the
potential distribution is nonlinear, neither the
governing material balances nor the boundary
conditions are linear. The approach in this funda-
mental section is to write the equations and bound-
ary conditions only. The solution of these equa-
tions is postponed until the next part of the course.
The second part of the course considers the
steady-state interactions of the four fundamentals.
Predictions of corrosion currents (i.e., rates) are
emphasized first. A 45-minute film, "Corrosion in
Action," produced by the International Nickel
Company, is shown to present an overview of
corrosion phenomena. Students find that the film
supplements Chapters 2 and 3 in Fontana and
Greene. Chapters 9 and 10 in Fontana and Greene
provide background for quantitative predictions
which can be made from mixed potential graphs.
The basis for these graphs is that the anodic and
cathodic currents are equal and opposite in sign
at the corrosion potential. The graphs show the
interactions of thermodynamics, kinetics, and
mass transfer and their effects on the corrosion
potential and corrosion currents. These graphs are
also used to predict the effect of passivation (i.e.,
the decrease in corrosion rate as the potential is
increased). Finally, cathodic protection schemes
are studied from Chapter 6 in Fontana and
Greene.
In the next section of the second part of the
course, the interactions of the four fundamentals
are illustrated by considering a RDE system. The
governing equations for mass transfer with the
effect of ionic migration are developed by consider-
ing Chapter 19 of Newman. The MIGR computer
code found in Appendix C of Newman is used for
the simultaneous numerical integration of the
coupled nonlinear differential equations. The ex-
planation of Newman's technique and the sub-
routine BAND (J) of Appendix C by White [12]
is helpful for the students. It should be noted that
BAND(J) solves the boundary value problem by
a multiple variable Newton-Rhapson technique
and that students are familiar with the technique
from their distillation courses. In one homework
problem, the students use MIGR to calculate the
increase in the limiting current due to ionic migra-
tion for copper deposition at a RDE. The comput-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








er code is given to the students and they modify
it to solve the problem. The next homework prob-
lem is to extend MIGR to include the nonlinear
Butler-Volmer kinetic expression at the RDE; this
expression and modification allows the prediction
of potential-dependent currents at a RDE. Then,
the next week, the program is extended to include
simultaneous potential-dependent reactions such
as simultaneous hydrogen evolution and copper
deposition. A handout on references 13 and 14 is
used to explain the required modifications. The
last assigned problem in this section is the pre-
diction of the effect of homogeneous reactions on
the potential dependent simultaneous reactions.
This extension follows the treatment in reference
15.
Other lectures on the steady-state behavior in-
clude the analysis of diaphragm-type chlorine/
caustic electrolyzers, parallel-plate reactors, po-
rous electrodes for zinc/bromine batteries, and
flow-through porous electrodes for the recovery
of metal ions from dilute solutions. The lectures
concentrate on the modeling of these systems by
writing the differential material balances, includ-
ing the constitutive equations, and specifying the
boundary conditions. Homework problems are as-
signed which give students practice in setting up
the problems for numerical solution by programs
similar to MIGR.
The lectures in the third part of the course
focus on time-dependent behavior. The lectures
emphasize the minor extensions of MIGR-type
programs which are required to allow integration
of the time-dependent equations. Implicit stepping
in time is used with BAND(J) to integrate the
resulting parabolic partial differential equations.
Examples for the analysis of diaphragm-type cells
and porous electrodes are shown. With respect to
corrosion, constitutive equations for stress cor-
rosion cracking and oxide film formation are pro-
posed and discussed. The qualitative discussions
in Fontana and Greene are useful in the develop-
ment of these equations.
The last topic of the course is the application of
statistics to electrochemical and corrosion engi-
neering. The reduction of experimental effort
which can be achieved by using factorial experi-
mental design is discussed. These lectures are pre-
pared with the aid of reference 16. Examples of
designs which helped identify measurable proper-
ties for the diaphragm in chlorine/caustic cells
[17] are discussed. The estimation of electrochemi-
cal kinetic parameters and their confidence inter-


The lectures concentrate on the modeling
of these systems by writing the differential material
balances, including the constitutive equations, and
specifying the boundary conditions.

vals is illustrated with experimental data from ref-
erences 18 and 19. A computer code for these non-
linear regressions is given to the students, and
homework problems which use this code are as-
signed. These problems illustrate the use of ex-
perimental data with simple models of chlorine/
caustic cells to predict reactor behavior. Con-
fidence limits on the predictions are discussed and
used to determine the need for additional data
and new models. Thus, the statistics can point to
the need for a better description of the funda-
mental constitutive equations. These better de-
scriptions may, for example, take the form of a
concentrated solution expression for the flux for
use in the differential material balances. These
better descriptions are left for more advanced,
separate courses in electrochemical reactor engi-
neering or corrosion engineering which are cur-
rently under development.

CONCLUSIONS
Electrochemical and corrosion engineering
need not be viewed as separate disciplines for an
introductory course for chemical engineering
graduate students. Each discipline is based on
the same set of fundamentals, and students wel-
come the chance to draw analogies between stand-
ard chemical engineering concepts and those of
electrochemical and corrosion engineering. The
students can successfully solve the advanced
differential equation models for quantitative pre-
dictions of the behavior of electrochemical
systems. This success builds confidence in their
ability to analyze chemical engineering problems
in general. In addition, the familiarity of chemical
engineering graduate students with both electro-
chemical reactor design and corrosion engineering
concepts will aid the chemical industry in the
future.

REFERENCES
1. Alkire, R., "Electrochemical Engineering," Chem.
Eng. Ed., 10, 158 (1976).
2. Jorne, J., "Electrochemical Engineering," Chem. Eng.
Ed., 11, 164 (1977).
3. Locke, C. E., and R. D. Daniels, "Corrosion Control,"
Chem. Eng. Ed., 7, 164 (1973).
Continued on page 213.


FALL 1985










book reviews

INTRODUCTION TO AEROSOL SCIENCE
by P. C. Reist, Macmillan Publishing Co.,
New York, ISBN 0-02-949600-4, 1983
Reviewed by
Alex E. S. Green
University of Florida
This book is an introduction to aerosol science
and is intended for practitioners in air pollution,
public health, and industrial hygiene. It is timely
in that aerosol science, which was at the forefront
of 19th century science, has fallen somewhat into
the gap between physics and physical chemistry.
However, because of its importance to health and
to environmental sciences it is beginning to re-
ceive the attention it deserves.
This book is an attempt to present introduc-
tory information on aerosol properties and be-
havior in a rigorous but illustrative manner. The
text evolved from long experience of the author
in teaching an introductory course on aerosol
science at the first year graduate level. The
numerous and helpful illustrative problems reflect
this valuable experience.
The breadth of the book is very impressive
and the author attempts to introduce every topic
in a simple fashion, yet in forms immediately use-
ful. The major topical headings after an intro-
ductory chapter are: 2. Particle Size Distribu-
tions; 3. Fluid Properties; 4. Microscopic Fluid
Properties; 5. Viscous Motion; 6. Particle Kine-
tics: setting, acceleration, deceleration; 7. Par-
ticle Kinetics Impaction, Respirable Sampling,
Isokinetic Sampling; 8. Brownian Motion; 9.
Particle Diffusion; 10. Aerosol Charging Mechan-
isms; 11. Electrostatic Controlled Aerosol Kine-
tics; 12. Condensation and Evaporation Pheno-
mena; 3. Evaporation and Growth; 14. Optical
Properties: extinction; 15. Optical Properties:
angular scattering; 16. Coagulation of Particles.
The author pays meticulous attention to his read-
er and each chapter starts with an introduction,
definitions or historical review and ends with a
problem set. There are also seven appendices con-
taining useful information.
The reference list is not very extensive and
appears to be only updated to 1979. A guide to the
current aerosol literature also appears lacking.


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Despite this relatively minor weakness the review-
er highly recommends the book as a comprehen-
sive and well organized introduction to aerosol
science. This reviewer was particularly impressed
with the author's efforts to achieve clarity, as
evidenced by numerous solved practical problems
and graphical and tabular illustrations. O


THEORY OF MOLECULAR FLUIDS,
VOLUME 1: FUNDAMENTALS
By C. G. Gray and K. E. Gubbins
Clarendon Press, Oxford, $79.00 (1985)
Reviewed by
Keith P. Johnston
University of Texas
John Prausnitz said that for today's genera-
tion statistical mechanics is an esoteric luxury,
but for tomorrow's generation it will become a
vital necessity. It was stated a number of years
ago, so that the new generation has already ar-
Continued on page 211.


FALL 1985










4 Qbaaie iw.


FUNDAMENTALS OF COAL UTILIZATION AND

CONVERSION PROCESSES

LJUBISA R. RADOVIC*
University of Concepci6n
Concepci6n, Chile


T IS DIFFICULT TO think of a more interdisciplin-
ary science than that of coal utilization (com-
bustion) and conversion pyrolysiss, liquefaction,
gasification). For decades combustion has been of
equal interest to chemists as well as chemical, me-
chanical, and aerospace engineers. The recent
world-wide renewal of interest in coal conversion
technology has resulted in even greater hetero-
geneity of backgrounds among coal experts. Re-
cent economic evaluations show that the com-
mercialization of many conversion processes will
only be feasible when significant reductions in
their complexity are achieved. These, in turn, can
be achieved only if significant advances are made
in the fundamental understanding of coal chemis-
try. Coal structure, for example, is an elusive con-
cept whose elucidation still represents a major re-
search challenge to many organic chemists. In
many cases, the determination of physical and
chemical properties of coal and coal products,
which is of equal interest to chemists, materials
scientists, and engineers, is not a straight-forward
application of classical techniques. Major im-
provements in instrumental methods of analysis
(e.g., cross-polarization, magic angle spinning
NMR; Fourier transform IR; small-angle X-ray
scattering) in the past decade are already con-
tirbuting to a qualitative increase in understand-
ing some of the above mentioned topics.


Recent economic evaluations
show that the commercialization of many
conversion processes will only be feasible when
significant reductions in their complexity
are achieved.


*Present Address: Department of Chemical Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
16802.


Ljubisa Radovic is a visiting assistant professor of chemical engi-
neering at the University of Concepcion, Chile (1983-1984). He re-
ceived his BSChE degree (1977) from the University of Belgrade, Yugo-
slavia, and his PhD degree in fuel science (1982) from the Pennsylvania
State University. His research and teaching interests are in the general
area of heterogenous kinetics and catalysis, particularly as applied
to coal and carbon utilization and conversion.

This situation is responsible for the difficulties
in bridging the gap between coal science and tech-
nology. It is, for example, quite common to find
metallurgical-coke makers who are not familiar
with the concept of mesophase. On the other hand,
many coal scientists without "hands-on" ex-
perience (author not excluded) may have practical
problems which can be as trivial as, for example,
the "optimization of operation" of a barbecue "re-
actor." The design of a graduate course on coal
utilization and conversion should attempt to con-
tribute to alleviate some of these difficulties. It
should also, of course, present a more or less criti-
cal review of the recent literature and indicate the
major areas in which further research is most de-
sirable and/or expected. The lack of textbooks
with this orientation and the abundance of coal-
related research publications (of widely varying
value) appearing since the 1973 energy crisis, do
not make this (in itself ambitious) task any easier.

COURSE STRUCTURE AND CONTENTS
Table 1 presents the outline of the one-semester
(30 two-hour sessions) course that the author has
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1985


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 1
Course Outline
INTRODUCTION: STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF
COAL [G1-G4] (4 sessions)
Origin, traditional properties, and classifications
Petrographic and mineralogical composition
Structure [1, 2]
Porosity and surface area [3-5]
COAL PYROLYSIS AND CARBONIZATION [G1-G4]
(6 sessions)
Fundamentals [6, 7]
Product yield and distribution
Kinetics [8-13]
Hydropyrolysis
Processes of pyrolysis (COED, Rockwell, Occidental,
etc.)
Processes of carbonization (coke making)
COAL LIQUEFACTION [G1-G4, 1] (6 sessions)
Fundamentals
Solubility
Product yield and distribution [14, 15]
Kinetics [16-18]
Catalysis [19-23]
Processes (SRC, EDS, H-Coal, etc.)
COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION [G1-G4, 24]
(12 sessions)
Fundamentals
Thermodynamics
Kinetics [25-28]
Catalysis [29-31]
Combustion processes (grate, fluidized-bed, pulver-
ized-coal) [32, 33]
Gasification processes (Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek,
Winkler, Texaco, etc.)
SUMMARY: ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSIDERATIONS [G1-G4] (2 sessions)

developed and taught to engineering graduate
students at the University of Concepci6n, Chile.
As stated in the title and seen in Table 1, the
emphasis is on fundamentals. The processes are
discussed rather briefly, with the primary pur-
poses of illustrating how the fundamental con-
cepts are applied in practice on pilot-plant, demon-
stration, or commercial scale.
In the first session I present an overview and
the philosophy of the course, together with the
highlights of every topic. I consider this very im-
portant because it minimizes the danger of
students "not seeing the forest for the trees"
when some topics are subsequently dealt with in
considerable depth. The introductory chapter ex-
poses the students to basic coal terminology. The
importance of both rank and petrographic com-
position in determining chemical and physical
properties of coal is emphasized. The structure of


coal is introduced with the help of Given's and
Wiser's models and is discussed in terms of basic
aromatic and hydroaromatic units, cross-links, and
functional groups. The typical structures and com-
position of these are discussed in turn as functions
of coal rank. The origin and nature of mineral
matter in coals of different rank are briefly re-
viewed. In the section on porosity, the molecular-
sieve microporous structure of coal and chars
(cokes) is presented. The often misunderstood
implications of the presence of micropores for the
measurement of surface areas are discussed.
Dubinin's theory of volume filling of micropores is
complemented (and contrasted) with the classical
BET approach.
The following chapters on coal pyrolysis and
carbonization, liquefaction, and gasification and


The processes are discussed briefly,
with the primary purposes of illustrating how
the fundamental concepts are applied in practice on
pilot-plant, demonstration, or commercial scale.

combustion all have the same basic structure. The
fundamentals are presented first in terms of
thermodynamics, kinetics, and catalysis, and the
most important processes are subsequently de-
scribed and briefly discussed.
In the chapter on pyrolysis (fluids, primary
products) and carbonization (solid, primary
product), the necessity of empirical determina-
tion of product yields and distribution is empha-
sized. The effects of the principal process variables
(bed density, temperature-time history, pressure,
etc.) are discussed and the importance of second-
ary reactions of the primary volatiles is pointed
out. The transformation of coal to coke is de-
scribed and the importance of understanding meso-
phase formation and growth for controlling coke
strength and reactivity is briefly discussed. The
various levels of sophistication in the treatment
of the kinetics of rapid pyrolysis are discussed.
The experimental techniques are presented and
the difficulties in defining with precision the
temperature-time histories of the devolatizing
coal particles are emphasized. In hydropyrolysis
the role of hydrogen in stabilizing the free radi-
cals is discussed and the concept of nascent active
sites is introduced to explain the enhanced yields
of methane. The flow diagrams, reactor schemes,
and typical operating conditions are discussed for
representative processes.
Liquefaction fundamentals are introduced with


FALL 1985








a brief analysis of coal solubility and a discussion
of the problems associated with liquid product
characterization and the definition of conversion.
The classical preasphaltene-asphaltene-oil scheme
as well as Mobil's SESC (sequential elution by
specific solvents chromatography) technique is
presented. The effects of solvent properties, coal
rank, and reaction conditions on product yield and
distribution are analyzed. The importance of hy-
drogen transfer and balance is emphasized. The
various levels of kinetic treatment and modeling
existent in the literature are discussed. As in py-
rolysis, the difference between simple curve-fitting
approaches and models which are based on
knowledge of the actual chemistry is pointed out.
The discussion on catalysis is limited primarily to
the effect of inherent mineral matter, pyrite in
particular. Flowsheets, typical operating con-
ditions and product yields of representative direct
liquefaction processes are briefly reviewed. The
complexities involved are emphasized. The con-
cept of indirect liquefaction is then introduced and
briefly discussed as an alternative and also in
order to bring up the importance of coal gasifica-
tion, which is discussed extensively in the follow-
ing chapter.
Coal combustion (in 02) and gasification (in
H20, CO2, H2) are treated together because their
fundamentals are, of course, essentially the same.
In contrast to pyrolysis and liquefaction, the yield
and distribution of products are discussed using
thermodynamics. The consequences of the under-
lying assumption that char activity is equal to that
of graphite are briefly analyzed. The kinetics of
coal char gasification are introduced as a more
or less straightforward application of the general
gas/solid reaction theory. The difficulties in de-
termining intrinsic (mass-transport-control-free)
kinetic parameters for reactions of microporous
chars are thoroughly analyzed. The surface
mechanisms of adsorption, reaction, and de-
sorption are also discussed. The concept of carbon
active sites is introduced and the similarities and
differences among carbonaceous solids of varying
degree of crystallinity, from lignite chars to
graphite, are emphasized. The effects of coal rank
and pyrolysis conditions on char gasification re-
activity are discussed in terms of variation of
total and active surface area. A critical review of
the recent kinetic models is presented. Catalysis
of coal gasification is discussed as both inevitable
(inherent) and desirable (induced). The inherent
catalytic role of calcium in low-rank coals is point-


ed out. The mechanisms of catalysis are briefly dis-
cussed. The importance of, and difficulties in,
measuring catalyst dispersion and determining
turnover frequencies (necessary for meaningful
comparison of catalysts) are analyzed. Both com-
bustion and gasification processes are discussed in
terms of conceptual differences between fixed-bed,
fluidized-bed and entrained-flow reactors. In par-
ticular, the design of pulverized-coal combustors is
discussed using two extreme simplifying ap-
proaches: plug-flow-reactor theory (Rosin equa-
tion) and perfectly-stirred-reactor theory. Repre-
sentative gasification processes of first, second, and
third generation (commercial, demonstration, and
pilot scale, respectively) are described with par-
ticular emphasis on reactor type, gasifying medi-
um and method of supplying heat. The effect of
these characteristics on the composition and calori-
fic value of the product gas is analyzed.
The final chapter on economic and environ-
mental aspects addresses the fact that the selection
of a coal conversion or utilization process is not
based solely on the characteristics of the reactor.
The main issues are presented with the objective
of developing a feeling for the orders of magni-
tude of costs and environmental impact. Avail-
able economic evaluations from some of the most
recent publications are briefly analyzed.

COURSE OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS
The topics included in the course cannot, of
course, be presented and discussed all with the
same depth. This is partly due to the time con-
straint and the extensiveness and dispersed na-
ture of the literature available, but also to the
instructor's own limitations. The presentation of
the main issues in each area, rather than depth of
analysis, is the primary goal. The fact that there
exists only qualitative knowledge of many aspects
of coal conversion is made clear and the importance
of carefully designed experimental work is
stressed. It is thought that this approach helps
the students to appreciate in which direction the
mainstream research efforts should be oriented.
A point is made also of the necessity to combine
experimental work, mostly performed by chemists
and fuel scientists, with the process modeling
efforts of chemical engineers. It is my conviction
that by bridging this (yet another) interdisciplin-
ary gap, many synergistic effects can be achieved.
The course has no formal prerequisites and no
previous knowledge of coal is assumed. It can be
taught, in a somewhat scaled-down version, at the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









undergraduate level after the students have com-
pleted the courses on thermodynamics and chemi-
cal reaction engineering (or physical chemistry,
for non-chemical engineering majors). Ideally, it
is intended as an introductory graduate course for
students interested in doing research in coal con-
version or utilization.
The list of references in Table 1 is, of course,
meant to be representative rather than compre-
hensive. The general references are used through-
out the course. (Only selected chapters of G1 are
discussed in some detail, namely chapters 3, 12, 19
and 23.) The material on (and the fate of) the
various conversion processes is constantly up-
dated on the basis of information published in
Chem. Eng. Progress, C&E News, and similar
journals.
The work requirements include rather ex-
tensive regular reading assignments, occasional
homework problems, and a 20-minute seminar on
a selected important research paper in the
student's area of interest. The mid-term and final
exam have the form of short essays. Five or six
topics are given and the student is expected to
address the basic issues of four or five of them in
a concise but all-inclusive manner.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I appreciate the comments of Alfredo Gordon
on the contents of this paper.

GENERAL REFERENCES
G1 Elliott, M. A. (Ed.), Chemistry of Coal Utilization,
2nd Suppl. Vol., Wiley, New York, 1981.
G2 Grainger, L. and J. Gibson, Coal Utilization: Tech-
nology Economics and Policy, Halsted Press/Wiley,
New York, 1981.
G3 Probstein, R. F. and R. E. Hicks, Synthetic Fuels,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982.
G4 Wen, C. Y. and E. S. Lee (Eds.), Coal Conversion
Technology, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1979.
SPECIFIC REFERENCES
1. Whitehurst, D. D., T. O. Mitchell, and M. Farcasiu,
Coal Liquefaction: The Chemistry and Technology of
Thermal Processes, Academic Press, New York, 1980.
2. Meyers, R. A. (Ed.), Coal Structure, Academic Press,
New York, 1982.
3. Mahajan, 0. P. and P. L. Walker, Jr., "Porosity of
Coal and Coal Products," in Analytical Methods for
Coal and Coal Products, Vol. I (C. Karr, Ed.), Aca-
demic Press, New York, 1978, p. 125.
4. Gregg, S. J. and K. S. W. Sing, Adsorption, Surface
Area and Porosity, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, London,
1982.
5. Dubinin, M. M., Carbon 18, 355 (1980); 19, 321
(1981).
6. Anthony, D. B. and J. B. Howard, AIChE J. 22, 625
(1976).


7. Marsh, H. and P. L. Walker, Jr., "The Formation of
Graphitizable Carbons via Mesophase: Chemical and
Kinetic Considerations," in Chemistry and Physics
of Carbon, Vol. 15 (P. L. Walker, Jr. and P. A.
Thrower, Eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1979, p.
229.
8. Badzioch, S. and P. G. W. Hawksley, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Process Des. Dev. 9, 521 (1970).
9. Scaroni, A. W., P. L. Walker, Jr., and R. H. Essen-
high, Fuel 60, 71 (1981).
10. Nsakala, N. Y., R. H. Essenhigh, and P. L. Walker,
Jr., Combust. Sci. Technol. 16, 153 (1977).
11. Solomon, P. R. and M. B. Colket, 17th Symposium
(International) on Combustion, The Combustion
Institute, Pittsburgh, 1979, p. 131.
12. Golikeri, S. V. and D. Luss, AIChE J. 18, 277 (1972).
13. Gavalas, G. R., R. Jain, and P. H. K. Cheong, Ind.
Eng. Chem. Fundam. 20, 122 (1981).
14. Neavel, R. C., Fuel 55, 237 (1976).
15. Yarzab, R. F., P. H. Given, W. Spackman, and A.
Davis, Fuel 59, 81 (1980).
16. Curran, G. P., R. T. Struck, and E. Gorin, Ind. Eng.
Chem. Process Des. Dev. 6, 166 (1967).
17. Cronauer, D. C., Y. T. Shah, and R. G. Ruberto, Ind.
Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 17, 281 (1978).
18. Szladow, A. J. and P. H. Given, Ind. Eng. Chem. Pro-
cess Des. Dev., 20, 27 (1981).
19. Guin, J. A., A. R. Tarrer, J. W. Prather, D. R. John-
son, and J. M. Lee, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev.
17, 118 (1978).
20. Guin, J. A., A. R. Tarrer, J. M. Lee, L. Lo, and C. W.
Curtis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 18, 371
(1979).
21. Guin, J. A., A. R. Tarrer, J. M. Lee, H. F. Van
Brackle, and C. W. Curtis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process
Des. Dev. 18, 631 (1979).
22. Brooks, D. G., J. A. Guin, C. W. Curtis, and T. D.
Placek, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 22, 343
(1983).
23. Garg, D. and E. N. Givens, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process
Des. Dev. 21, 113 (1982).
24. Laurendau, N. M., Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 4,
221 (1978).
25. Smith, I. W., Fuel 57, 409 (1978).
26. Lewis, P. F. and G. A. Simons, Combust. Sci. Technol.
20, 117 (1979).
27. Mahajan, O. P., R. F. Yarzab, and P. L. Walker, Jr.,
Fuel 57, 643 (1978).
28. Radovic, L. R., P. L. Walker, Jr. and R. G. Jenkins,
Fuel 62, 849 (1983).
29. McKee, D. W., "The Catalyzed Gasification Reactions
of Carbon," in Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Vol.
16 (P. L. Walker, Jr. and P. A. Thrower, Eds.),
Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981, p. 1.
30. "Proceedings, Int. Symposium, Fundamentals of
Catalytic Coal and Carbon Gasification," Amsterdam,
The Netherlands, September 1982.
31. Radovic, L. R., P. L. Walker, Jr. and R. G. Jenkins,
J. Catal. 82, 382 (1983).
32. Palmer, H. B. and J. M. Beer (Eds.), Combustion
Technology: Some Modern Developments, Academic
Press, New York, 1974.
33. Singer, J. G. (Ed.), "Combustion: Fossil Power Sys-
tems," Combustion Eng., Windsor, CT, 1981. E


FALL 1985












IS GRADUATE SCHOOL WORTH IT?


A Cost-Benefit Analysis with Some Second-Order Twists


DAVID KAUFFMAN
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131


LAST SUMMER WHILE sitting on a bench on the
Plaza in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I noticed
someone wearing a tee-shirt with the interesting
slogan, "Whoever has the most stuff when he dies
wins" [1]. This is a rather crass statement of a
philosophy of life, but it clearly and cleverly ex-
presses the economic aspects of our culture. Not
all decisions are made primarily for economic
reasons, but the economics of any major decision
should be considered. Let's take a look at the
economics of a chemical engineer getting an ad-
vanced degree. Specifically, what is the benefit, or
loss, to a BS chemical engineer for staying in
school to earn a master's or doctor's degree?

A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
Each year AIChE publishes an economic sur-
vey which includes, among other things, data on
median salaries of AIChE members, tabulated by
highest degree earned and years since obtaining
the BS degree [2]. These data are based on a well-
planned survey with over 4,500 responses, a good
representative sample. There is some scatter in
the data due to small numbers of chemical engi-
neers in some categories (e.g., PhD chemical engi-
neers who obtained their BS degree in 1946). I
have smoothed out the data to obtain median
salary curves. I have also included typical gradu-
ate assistant stipends for chemical engineers in
graduate school. The results are plotted in Fig. 1.
Without question, the higher the degree the higher
the median salary for engineers on the job.


Let's take a look at
the economics of a chemical
engineer getting an advanced degree.
Specifically, what is the benefit, or loss, to a
BS chemical engineer for staying in school to earn
a master's or doctor's degree?

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1985


100 -


I 5 10 31 20 25 3 0 4
Years after B.S.


Highest Degree
8.s.
PhD.


FIGURE 1. Median chemical engineering salaries for
three degree-levels.

But how meaningful are median values? Is the
difference among degrees really significant? The
AIChE survey doesn't publish salary distributions
for each year and degree. A survey published by
the American Chemical Society in 1982, however,
does include such data [3]. This survey gives 90th,
75th, 50th and 25th percentile data for salaries of
non-academic chemists and chemical engineers,
lumped together, by degree level and years since
receiving the BS degree. In general, chemical
engineers' salaries are higher than chemists'
salaries. It is reasonable to assume, however, that


100-] --- *- *-----------------



60s


-I-
-0 / -
,o- ...


0


ears after ..25
Years after B.S.


B.S. Range
90th Percentile

25th P-ercntle.


So 35 40 45


FIGURE 2. Distribution of BS chemical engineering
salaries.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 1
Present Values of Career-Long ChE Salaries
Thousands of Dollars


David Kauffman is an associate professor in the Chemical and
Nuclear Engineering Department at the University of New Mexico.
Prior to teaching he worked seven years for Shell Oil Company and
served four years in the U.S. Air Force. He has his doctorate from
the University of Colorado and his earlier degrees from Caltech. His
research interests are in process plant safety and reliability and in
non-ideal chemical reactor analysis.


the distribution curves are similar; i.e., in any
year and at any degree level, the ratio of the 90th
percentile to the median should be the same for
chemists and chemical engineers. I calculated the
distributions from the ACS data and applied them
to the 1984 AIChE medians. Results are plotted
in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 for bachelor's, master's and
doctor's degrees. (Note that the master's degree
data combine MS and MBA figures. The AIChE
data indicate that these two degrees have almost
identical median curves.)
There is a wide range of variation within each
degree. The 90th percentile group at any degree
level is likely populated by chief executive officers,
general managers, and those who have been
successful in building their own businesses. In-
dividual achievement makes a lot of difference.


/o






,, 0
2 0-





0 5 10 5 20 25 30 35 40 45


Highest
Degree
BS




MS or
MBA



PhD


..--- Discount Rate ....
0% 5% 10%


90th Percentile
75th Percentile
Median
25th Percentale
90th Percentile
75th Percentile
Median
25th Percentile
90th Percentile
75th Percentile
Median
25th Percentile


3015
2515
2099
1757
3239
2682
2227
1898
3170
2699
2324
2013


1037
881
750
634
1073
909
770
660
1020
882
778
688


What are the total lifetime earnings for the
various degree levels, however, and is there a pay-
off for advanced degrees? I summed the yearly
salaries for the various categories, applying dis-
count factors of 0, 5 and 10 percent, assuming the
chemical engineer has 44 years of work or school
after receiving his or her BS degree. Results are
summarized in Table 1. If we look at median salary
levels, advanced degrees pay off at 0 and 5 percent,
but not at 10 percent. The actual rate of return,
again based on medians, for investing in a master's
degree is 8.6 percent. For getting a doctorate, it is
7.1 percent. The incremental rate for going from
a master's to a doctor's degree is 6.1 percent. These
are not spectacular rates of return, but they are
certainly reasonable, and they are most certainly
non-negative.


M.S. Range
90th PerMntill
75th PerotntlI.
Median__
25th Pereentllt
5 -


Years after B.S.

FIGURE 3. Distribution of MS/MBA chemical engineer-
ing salaries.


Ph.D. Range
90th Percentll
Median _
25th PyeF.,tlI


Years after B.S.

FIGURE 4. Distribution of PhD chemical engineering
salaries.


FALL 1985










First, there is the ego factor. The advanced degree is an other challenge to meet, and
many of us enjoy meeting challenges. The graduate degree is like the proverbial mountain-it's there
And the person who conquers it has a rightful claim to a major accomplishment.


To see whether these results applied to 1984
data only or were more generally valid, I repeated
the analysis using 1983 data [4]. The results were
qualitatively similar. The rates of return were 11.0
percent for a master's degree, 6.8 percent for a
doctorate, and 5.3 percent incremental, doctor's
over master's degree. The numbers are a little
different but the conclusion remains valid.
But what about taxes? Anyone who has had a
good chemical engineering economics course knows
that taxes can have a significant impact on an
economic analysis. Taxes depend on a great many
factors: number of dependents, lifestyle, location,
etc. In general, though, the rates are higher for
higher salaries. Let's look at just one typical case.
Use the 1984 income tax rates and social security
rates. Assume the chemical engineer has two de-
pendents, including himself or herself, in years 1,
2 and 30 through 44; three dependents in years 3,
4, 28 and 29; and four dependents in years 5
through 27. Assume that various other tax de-
ductions amount to 10 percent of total salary, and
that state income tax is 5 percent of federal in-
come tax. Having made all these assumptions, we
can now calculate after-tax income. I did this just
for the median values and plotted the results in
Fig. 5. Qualitatively, trends are the same. Natural-
ly, all the curves are shifted downward from those
in Fig. 1. Summed after-tax present values are
given in Table 2 for median incomes at the three
degree levels. Calculated rates of return are now
slightly lower, as expected: 8.3 percent for a
master's degree, 6.9 percent for a doctorate, and
5.9 percent incremental, doctor's over master's de-
gree. The values are still quite reasonable, how-
ever, for after-tax income, and they are obviously
non-negative.
This is by no means a complete economic an-
alysis. There are other questions which could be

TABLE 2
After-Tax Present Values of Median ChE Salaries
Thousands of Dollars


Highest Degree
BS
MS or MBA
PhD


------.... Discount Rate
0% 5%
1616 586
1699 598
1762 602


10%
297
294
283


4-
4-'


S 1 ears after 20 2B..5 30
Years after B.S.


35 4


Highest Degree
M.S.
Ph.D.


FIGURE 5. Median after-tax chemical engineering
salaries for three degree-levels.


considered: What is the proper interest rate to
use? What about those who go back to graduate
school after working in industry several years?
Would it be fairer to compare 75th percentile BS
salaries to median PhD salaries? What about those
getting advanced degrees in chemical engineering
who have undergraduate degrees in other fields?
Or vice versa? I'll leave these questions to others.
What is shown here, however, is that there is a
reasonable, positive rate of return for a chemical
engineer obtaining an advanced degree.

A QUALITATIVE ADDITION
Graduate degrees for chemical engineers have
a 5 to 10 percent rate of return for lifetime earn-
ings. Is that sufficient reason for pursuing gradu-
ate studies? Not really. It's one factor, but not an
overwhelming one, and the choice has to include
other factors. There are five principal ones that I
have observed over the years.
First, there is the ego factor. The advanced
degree is another challenge to meet, and many of
us enjoy meeting challenges. The graduate degree
is like the proverbial mountain-it's there! And
the person who conquers it has a rightful claim
to a major accomplishment. The same factor prob-
ably influenced most of us in choosing chemical
engineering as an undergraduate major; it's
recognized as a tough challenge.
Second, there is the job market. Some jobs, re-
search and teaching in particular, require ad-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









vanced degrees in today's market. The advanced
degree-MS, MBA, or PhD-will open up some
new doors. John Mulroney, a vice president of
Rohm and Haas, said it very well recently [5].
"The PhD degree in chemical engineering seems
much more relevant to the current needs of special-
ty chemical companies than it did ten or fifteen
years ago. Probably the greater scientific content
of the doctoral education is more valuable today."
Third is the opportunity to change fields easi-
ly. Some chemical engineers find their first job
isn't as satisfactory as they had hoped. They
want to get into a new, growing, area or shift
to a new location. Going back to graduate school is
a good way to make a clean break from one job and
start fresh elsewhere.
Fourth is the experience of graduate school and
graduate level education itself. It's a great life,
much different from undergraduate education.
J. L. Duda described it very well [6]. There are
unlimited opportunities for pursuing knowledge at
the very edge of what is known. The work can
be tough, but it is also exciting and challenging.
Last, there are a number of extraneous factors,
ones which apply to one or a few people due to
special circumstances. For instance, the spouse, or
spouse-to-be, is still in school. The company is
willing to pay the bill, plus pay full or part salary.
The kids are in school and it's boring sitting at
home; it's time for a refresher course before
getting back into the job market. It's a good place
to look for a girlfriend or boyfriend. It sure beats
8:00 to 5:00 hours-or shift work.
There are many things to consider in deciding
whether to go to graduate school. Consider them
all. Contrary to popular belief, the economics of
getting advanced degrees in chemical engineering
are favorable.

REFERENCES
1. Shirt, Red T., Santa Fe, August 1984.
2. Forman, J. C., C. E. Burke and L. C. Bell, "AIChE
Economic Survey Report-1984," American Institute
of Chemical Engineers, New York, July 1984.
3. American Chemical Society, "Salary Survey," Chemi-
cal and Engineering News, Vol. 60, No. 27, p. 22, 1982.
4. Forman, J. C., G. M. Lambson, and L. C. Bell,
"AIChE Economic Survey Report-1983," American
Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, August
1983.
5. Mulroney, J. P., "Divergent Pathways: Chemical
Engineering and the Industry," Chemical Engineer-
ing Progress, Vol. 80, No. 12, p. 29, 1984.
6. Duda, J. L., "Common Misconceptions Concerning
Graduate School," Chemical Engineering Education,
Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 156, 1984. [


Memowiam


CHARLES PEIFFER

Charles Calvin Peiffer, 55, associate professor
of chemical engineering at the Pennsylvania State
University, passed away on June 18, 1985. He
conducted research in the Penn State Petroleum
Laboratory and was well known for his studies
on co-current absorption and vapor-liquid equi-
librium. For many years he was an outstanding
advisor to the Student Chapter of AIChE at Penn
State and in 1980 he received the Outstanding
Advising Award for AIChE. He was an ex-
ceptional instructor and received several teach-
ing awards. The unit operations laboratory in
chemical engineering at Penn State will be
modernized and renamed the Charles C. Peiffer
Unit Operations Laboratory. He is survived by
his wife, Norma, and two children, Charles and
Elizabeth.


REVIEW: Molecular Fluids
Continued from page 203.

rived. While the vast majority of existing books
on statistical mechanics is limited to atomic fluids,
this comprehensive monograph treats molecular
fluids with an emphasis on anisotropic forces. It
requires an undergraduate knowledge of statisti-
cal mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetic
theory, vector analysis, and quantum mechanics,
and is aimed at graduate students and researchers
in chemistry, physics, and engineering.
The chapter on intermolecular forces reviews
thoroughly many advances that have occurred
since 1970, especially for small relatively rigid
molecules, for example N2, HC1, C02, CH4 and
H20. Given the complicated nature of anisotropic
intermolecular interactions, it is not surprising
that the appendices account for over one-third of
the book. The fourth chapter develops statistical
mechanical perturbation theories which are power-
ful tools in chemical engineering thermodynamics.
The effects of various short and long range forces
are included conveniently in an expansion about a
spherical reference fluid. The theories are tested
systematically using computer simulation data.
Throughout the book, symmetry and invariance
Continued on next page.


FALL 1985








arguments play a key role. The calculations are
simplified using the rotational transformation
properties of tensors.
The second volume discusses applications, in-
cluding the thermodynamics of mixtures, surface
properties, dielectric properties, and spectroscopic
properties. These two volumes provide a compre-
hensive description of the types of theories of equi-
librium fluids which eventually will become
dominant in chemical engineering practice. L





REVIEW: Momentum,Heat,Mass
Continued from page 193.

and considers the unit operations as applications.
Under fluid dynamics various concepts are first
introduced, including a brief presentation on
theological models. In the next three chapters the
conservation of mass, energy and momentum
principles are formulated for a macroscopic
control volume. An immediate application is pro-
vided by techniques for flow measurements in
Chapter 6. The differential mass, energy and mo-
mentum balance equations are then derived and
some examples showing the use of Navier-Stokes
equations are presented. Chapters 11 and 12 deal
with boundary layer flow and turbulent flow. The
complexities in their analytical treatment lead
into the approach of dimensional analysis in
Chapter 13. The design equations are presented
in terms of non-dimensional groups for flow in
closed conduits and for flow around solid objects
in Chapter 14. The section closes with a discus-
sion of filtration as a unit operation. The empha-
sis throughout is on incompressible fluids.
The section on heat transfer starts by intro-
ducing the various mechanisms of heat trans-
mission. Steady and unsteady state heat conduc-
tion are then discussed and the student is intro-
duced briefly to the role of numerical, graphical
and analog techniques for solving conduction heat
transfer problems. The convection heat transfer
under laminar and turbulent flow conditions is
considered in Chapters 22 and 23, followed by a
review of correlations in terms of dimensionless
groups for the convective heat transfer co-
efficients. Heat transfer accompanied by phase
change during boiling and condensation is con-
sidered in a separate chapter. Chapter 26 pro-
vides a concise introduction to the radiant mode


of heat transfer. The application of heat trans-
port theory to the design of heat exchange equip-
ment concludes the section on heat transfer.
The last section on mass transfer follows
along similar lines. The section begins with an
introduction to molecular diffusion and diffusivity.
Molecular diffusion in binary mixtures is then de-
scribed. Convective mass transfer under laminar
and turbulent flow conditions is considered in
Chapters 32 and 33. Relevant design equations
for mass transfer coefficients are detailed in the
following three chapters. The remaining six
chapters are devoted to mass transfer operations.
They are organized as follows: continuous con-
tacting of immiscible phases; simultaneous mass,
momentum and energy transfer; equilibrium stage
separations; contacting of partially miscible
phases; distillation of binary mixtures; and
multicomponent separations.
The material is organized in all three sections
in such a way as to make the connection between
transport theory and unit operations more visible.
This connection is demonstrated with different de-
grees of success in fluid dynamics, heat transfer
and mass transfer. The emphasis of a first course
in transfer operations is on the macroscopic ap-
proach. At the same time, it is desirable to intro-
duce the student (at least in a limited way) to
the differential approach. Such a goal is achieved
by this book. The solutions to various problems
require the use of a variety of correlations. The
separate chapter on dimensional analysis and the
chapters on design equations in each of the three
sections allow the student to appreciate how the
correlations are developed on a rational basis and
how they can be meaningfully used. Since the aim
of the book is to expose the student to transport
theory and to present the three transfer opera-
tions in a unified way, the book had to limit the
extent of details presented on various unit opera-
tions, particularly in mass transfer. I do not con-
sider this to be a disadvantage because this is a
conscious choice an instructor has to make if he
or she subscribes to the outlook of this book.
From the point of view of students, I would
have liked to see some "real" changes in the
Third Edition, especially relating to example and
exercise problems. First, the number of example
problems solved in the text should have been in-
creased. This is especially needed for the chapters
on differential balances. While the theological
models are briefly introduced in Chapter 2, their
integration into the equation of motion is not


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









adequately illustrated through examples. The
number, and more importantly the variety, of
exercise problems in many chapters should have
been increased. Use of experimental data as the
basis for problem formulation is rarely attempted
in the book. A refreshing exception is provided
by the example problem under dimensional an-
alysis dealing with the formation of bubbles of
one phase in another. I also wish that the prob-
lem statements were more interesting than they
presently are throughout the book in order to
capture the students' interest. One would have ex-
pected to see in the Third Edition examples and
problems illustrating the application of transport
theory to modern chemical engineering problems
-those that have become important in the years
since the Second Edition of the book.
Overall, Momentum, Heat, and Mass Trans-
fer by Bennett and Myers has firmly established
itself as a textbook for those choosing to study
unit operations guided by transport theory. While
one or another feature of the book may be found
less than satisfactory by different instructors, they
could easily be improved by the use of supple-
mentary material prepared by instructors. Until
a more appealing approach to teaching transfer
operations emerges, the book by Bennett and
Myers will remain prominently in many students'
bookshelves. O


12. White, R. E., "On Newman's Numerical Technique for
Solving Boundary Value Problems," Ind. Eng. Chem.
Fundam., 17, 367 (1978).
13. White, R. E., S. L. Lorimer, and R. Darby, "Pre-
diction of the Current Density at an Electrode at
Which Multiple Electrode Reactions Occur under Po-
tentiostatic Control," J. of the Electrochem. Soc., 180,
1123 (1983).
14. White, R. E., and J. Newman, "Simultaneous Re-
actions on a Rotating-Disk Electrode," J. Electroanal.
Chem., 2, 173 (1977).
15. Hsueh, L., and J. Newman, "The Role of Bisulfate Ions
in Ionic Migration Effects," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam.,
10, 615 (1971).
16. Box, G. E. P., W. G. Hunter, and J. S. Hunter, Sta-
tistics for Experimenters, John Wiley and Sons, NY
(1978).
17. Poush, K. A., D. L. Caldwell, J. W. Van Zee, and
R. E. White, "Characterization of Asbestos Dia-
phragms for Chlor-Alkali Electrolysis," Modern Chlor-
Alkali Technology: Vol. 2, C. Jackson, Ed., Ellis Hor-
wood Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, England (1983).
18. Van Zee, J., and R. E. White, "Using Parameter
Estimation Techniques with a Simple Model of a
Diaphragm-type Electrolyzer to Predict the Electrical
Energy Cost of NaOH Production," J. Electrochem.
Soc., 132, 818 (1985).
19. Van Zee, J., and R. E. White, "An Analysis of a
Back-Fed Porous Electrode for the Bromine/Bromide
Redox Reaction," J. Electrochem. Soc., 130, 2004
(1983). D


GENERIC QUIZ
Continued from page 181.


CORROSION ENGINEERING
Continued from page 197.


4. Caldwell, D. L., "Production of Chlorine," in Compre-
hensive Treatise of Electrochemistry, Vol. 2, J.O'M.
Bockris, B. E. Conway, E. Yeager, and R. E. White,
Eds., 105, Plenum Press, NY (1981).
5. Newman, J. S., Electrochemical Systems, Prentice-
Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1973).
6. Fontana, M. G., and N. G. Greene, Corrosion Engineer-
ing, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York (1978).
7. Newman, J., "Engineering Design of Electrochemical
Systems," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 60, 12 (1968).
8. Newman, J., "Mass Transport and Potential Distribu-
tion in Geometries of Localized Corrosion," Localized
Corrosion, National Association of Corrosion Engi-
neers, NACE-3, 45 (1974).
9. Pickett, D. J., Electrochemical Reactor Design, Else-
vier Scientific Publishing Co., New York (1979).
10. Pletcher, D., Industrial Electrochemistry, Chapman
and Hall, NY (1984).
11. Selley, N. J., Experimental Approach to Electro-
chemistry, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY (1977).


I think the only thing about it that makes me feel
uncomfortable is the grading. While in some cases it
may be pretty obvious the person didn't work hard it
seems to me that in others a person might come up
with a good comprehensive test, but just not be in
the type of format the grader may be looking for.
This feeling would be hard to verify, though.
If it had a drawback it was in the time required to
do a decent job. Clearly, this was an assignment
which could absorb as much time as one was willing
to give to it.
I think it is very difficult to be creative and yet pro-
duce reasonable questions. This made the exercise
somewhat frustrating and time consuming.
Nothing. I couldn't wait to work on it.

Things gained from the experience

Students also volunteered comments on what
they had gained from the experience. Many re-
peated points they made in the "Things liked"
category regarding the depth of study required
to make up a good examination. One comment I


FALL 1985








particularly appreciated was: "I know what you
go through now. I also understand some of the
puzzling questions put on tests in my undergrad
classes in ChE-when you're preparing the test
yourself, even unfair questions seem reasonable."
If a few students who go on to join faculties get
this message, the exercise will have served a use-
ful purpose indeed!


CONCLUSIONS
I was planning to summarize here what I think
the students got out of the experience, but in read-
ing over their comments I realize that they've
said it all.
I will conclude, then, by restating the chal-
lenges with which I began this paper. First, in the
straight lecture-homework-test format, the in-
structor can cover a much larger body of material
than can be covered in any other manner, but
there is a real question of how much of the ma-
terial is actually learned this way (as opposed to
being temporarily stuffed into short-term memory
and then forgotten). Second, instructors can make
life relatively easy for themselves by sticking to
convergent (single-answer) questions, but then
they are not preparing students to deal with the
really important problems they will be called
upon to solve in their careers-problems usually
open-ended and poorly defined. Third, it's difficult
to find the time for interdisciplinary material in
content-heavy engineering courses, but inter-
disciplinary thinking is necessary to solve the
toughest of society's problems-and if we don't
train our students in it when they're with us,
they're not likely to be able to use it when they
leave us.
I suggest that the do-it-yourself examination
represents an easily implemented step toward
meeting each of these challenges within the frame-
work of the standard engineering course. The quiz
took very little time to construct and administer,
and if you look over the version given in this paper,
you will see that with only minor changes it fits
every course in every engineering curriculum
(hence its label in the title of this paper). It forces
the students to assimilate course material on their
own, to a much greater extent (I believe) than is
required by the usual lecture-quiz format. It re-
quires them to deal with open-ended questions; to
engage in divergent thinking; to exercise their
own creativity in seeking ways to exercise the
creativities of those who would take their examina-


tions. It encourages them to seek out and synthe-
size material from several disciplines, and so pre-
pares them to deal with the most serious and diffi-
cult problems they are likely to encounter in their
professional careers. And, it does all this without
taking much from the in-class time the instructor
needs to cover his or her syllabus.
Clearly, one wouldn't want to make every test
in a course like this. Also, the approach and ex-
pectations might have to be scaled down for most
undergraduate classes. Instead of requiring a com-
plete final examination, for example, you might get
the students to make up and solve individual prob-
lems, homework assignments, or quizzes. Alterna-
tively, you might assign "creativity exercises,"
in which they are given open-ended problems
and asked to brainstorm as many possible solu-
tions as they can, without regard (at least on the
first round) to technical feasibility or practicality
[3]. In any case, I am convinced that introducing
variations of this device into engineering courses
could lead to substantial positive changes in the
way students view both the courses and them-
selves. After all, if you can do something in a class
that the students almost unanimously agree is
challenging, instructive, AND enjoyable, some-
thing good is bound to result.

POSTSCRIPT
For the final examination in the course, I gave
a straight-down-the-middle, comprehensive, and
(in my opinion) quite difficult test, covering al-
most every topic treated in the course. For what-
ever reason, the students ate it up-the average
was 80, fifteen or more points higher than the
averages on previous tests other than the infamous
third quiz. I don't know how much, if anything,
the quiz had to do with the students' apparent
mastery of the course material. Obviously, though,
it didn't hurt.

REFERENCES
1. R. M. Felder, "Does Engineering Education Have
Anything to Do with Either One?" R. J. Reynolds
Industries Award Distinguished Lecture Series, N.C.
State University, Raleigh, NC, October 1982, 44pp.
A condensed version of this monograph appears in
Engineering Education, 75(2), 95-99, November 1984.
2. B. S. Bloom, Ed., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.
Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York, David
McKay (1967).
3. R. M. Felder and R. W. Rousseau, Elementary Princi-
ples of Chemical Processes, 2nd Edition, New York,
John Wiley & Sons. F


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









SEPARATION PROCESSES
Continued from page 175.
adsorbed solution theory [39, 40] and non-ideal ad-
sorbed solution theory [41], are described. The
thermodynamics of adsorption are presented based
on the 'surface excess' approach, and applications
(for example, formulation of a consistency cri-
terion for the adsorption of three mutually-
miscible liquid pairs, e.g., adsorption of benzene,
cyclohexane and n-hexane on graphitized carbon
[42, 43]) are covered in detail. A comprehensive
thermodynamic formalism is then developed, using
the solvophobic approach for the association re-
action between solute and sorbent in the presence
of the solvent. Applications of the results of this
are then used to correlate the change in calculated
free energy of adsorption (which depends on
chemical structure) with amount adsorbed [32, 44].
The utility of this approach, e.g., determination
of which one of a benign or toxic isomer would
preferentially sorb during activated carbon ad-
sorption is illustrated. Students are shown several
useful isotherm models, including the Langmuir,
BET and Freundlich expressions. Finally, the
kinetics and rate processes of fixed bed sorption
are presented in detail [45, 46]. Diffusion and sorp-
tion phenomena inside a porous sorbent are used
to explain the sorption kinetics in a homogeneous
granule (e.g., as a function of effectiveness factor)
[4]. Break-through curves and solutions to mass
transfer problems in sorption columns using
orthogonal collocation methods are described and
compared [47]. This portion of class discussion
concludes with a short description of chromato-
graphic separations [48, 49].
The final subjects covered in this course are
the energy requirements for separation and the
factors significant in process selection. The student
is referred to Chapters 13 and 14 of King's text
[1] for an overview of these topics.
Assigned Readings
Approximately every two weeks, a paper from
the engineering or science literature, which is
relevant to the subject matter under discussion
in class, is assigned. The students are given one
week to study the paper; then, an in-class session
(approximately 15 to 30 minutes) is devoted to
discussion, critique, and evaluation of the assigned
paper. Review papers and specific research papers
are chosen to supplement the formal lecture in this
manner. Students are expected to lead the dis-
cussion-however, guidance and encouragement


TABLE 3
Suggested Topics for Project (Term Paper)
1. Affinity separation methods: scale-up and new develop-
ments.
2. Cross-flow microfiltration: new developments for cell
harvesting.
3. Removal of pathogens for potable water.
4. Dispersion analysis: uses in separation and recovery
processes.
5. Membrane processes in municipal water treatment:
review of problems.
6. Gel-filtration: scale-up potential.
7. Organics separation by reverse osmosis.
8. Lamellar settlers: recent developments.
9. Treatment of the leachate from the Love Canal (or
other chemical waste dumps).
10. Breakthrough dynamics in sorption systems: models
and limitations.
11. Fluidized carriers for separations.
12. Disruption of cells: a comparison of different methods.
13. Comparison between centrifugation and cross-flow
filtration for downstream processing of bio-reactors
fermentorss).
14. Recent developments in large scale fractionation by
chromatography.
15. Recent developments in immobilized reactors.
16. Design an interactive graphics instructional unit rele-
vant to course.
17. Student's suggestion, with instructor's approval.

from the instructor is often needed. One purpose
of these critical review sessions is to expose the
student to the current engineering and science
literature, especially to those journals relevant to
the separation field.

Report and Homework Assignments
A term paper or report (maximum length of
thirty typed pages) is required from each student
at the end of the course. The students may choose
any topic (in consultation with the instructor)
related to separation and recovery processes (see
Table 3 for a sample list of suggested topics).
Four steps are involved in preparing this report.
The first step is the selection and approval of the
subject of the report. Secondly, the student pre-
pares a title and one-page outline of the proposed
report; this is given to the instructor three weeks
after classes begin. (The time scale permits the in-
structor to suggest changes, if necessary.) Third,
the following instructions are then given to the
student: "The student should (1) use the current
literature to review and analyze the chosen topic,
in order to present a state-of-the-art overview of
the subject; (2) not reproduce ideas of others
verbatim unless placed in quotes; (3) try to give
his/her own views on the subject; and (4) the


FALL 1985








term paper should be written in the format accept-
able for publication for a (specified) journal."
Approximately mid-way through the course, each
student is expected to present a 10-minute interim
presentation reviewing the status and future plans
for his/her report. Fourth, the student is graded
on the term paper (15% of the final course grade),
the 10-minute interim presentation (3%), and the
formal 20-minute final presentation (7%). The
term paper is due before the student gives the
final presentation, near the end of the course. The
final presentation is graded with respect to both
the quality of the presentation itself as well as that
of the content.
Homework assignments, which consist of
several problems per assignment, are assigned
every two weeks (these are one-week out-of-phase
with the literature critique sessions). For each
assignment, one or two students are each asked to
set a problem and to provide its solution. Twenty-
five percent of the final grade is determined by
performances on homework assignments and
literature critiques in class.

Exams
Two exams (worth a total of 50% of the final
grade) are given. One exam covers the first half of
the course ( usually this corresponds to material up
to and including cake filtration) while the second
exam covers the subject matter from the second
half of the course only [see Table 2]. The exams
are either open- or closed-book for a duration of
about two hours. Occasionally a take-home exam
has also been assigned.

Text and Readings
Currently, there is no suitable text which in-
cludes all the subject matter covered in this
course; hence, an assortment of several recent
texts and review papers, each of which covers ma-
terial relevant to different referenced parts of the
course, is used. These texts and papers are
referenced in Table 2.

CONCLUSIONS
Many new and cost-effective separation and
recovery processes have been developed during
the past twenty years. Current and future
students must learn about these processes in order
to understand the fundamental nature of these
(and other) processes, the associated limitations
and advantages, and operation and design con-


siderations. In the course described herein, the
author has developed a unifying approach to me-
chanical (differential density), equilibration
sorptionn), and rate-governed (differential pres-
sure) processes. Traditional lecture format and
in-class discussions of assigned papers from the
separation literature are used in this course. Other
components of the course include required biweek-
ly problem sets and regular readings to supple-
ment the lecture notes. One major component of
the course is the report (this includes the associ-
ated interim and final report presentations). One
innovation introduced in this course is the require-
ment that students prepare (with guidance if
necessary) a problem, complete with its solution,
for the biweekly homework sets.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgments and thanks are due to all
the students who have offered constructive advice
and have helped make the course what it is. Carl
Berger and K. Sam Spiegler are acknowledged for
introducing the author to modern separation pro-
cesses and Cynthia Hirtzel is thanked for review-
ing the manuscript.

DEDICATION

This paper is dedicated to the late David
Hansen who during his tenure as Chairman en-
couraged intellectual exploration and allowed the
author to develop the course described here.

REFERENCES

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Topics from Colloid and Surface Science, Chapter 2,
(eds. H. van Olphen and K. J. Mysels), Thorex, La
Jolla, CA (1975).
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10. Napper, D. H., Polymer Stabilization of Colloidal
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Sciences No. 27, Sijthoff and Noordhof, Alpen Aan
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12. O'Melia, C. R., "Coagulation and Flocculation,"
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19. Rajagopolan, R. and C. Tien, "The Theory of Deep
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chemical Processes for Water Quality Control, (ed.
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21. Ives, K. J., (editor), The Scientific Basis of Filtration,
Nordhof, Leyden (1975).
22. Yao K-M, M. T. Habibian and C. R. O'Melia, Env.
Sci. and Tech. 5, 1105-12 (1971).
23. Chiang, H-W and C. Tien, "Transient Behavior of
Deep Bed Filters" in Solid-Liquid Separations, (ed. J.
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Particle Adhesion Mechanisms in Deep Bed Filtera-
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tration," Notes from Filterex Institute, 9/11-12/82,
Downingtown, PA (1982).
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Fundamentals and Water Applications, Chapters 1, 5
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Academic Press, NY (1984).
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Ferrick, Jr., and K. L. Woodfield, AIChE Journal 80
(2), 197 (1984).
33. Treybal, R. E., Mass Transfer Operations, McGraw-
Hill, NY (1955).
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chemical Processes for Water Quality Control, (ed.
W. J. Weber, Jr.) Wiley-Interscience (1972).
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230 in Separations and Purifications Methods (ed.
E. S. Perry, C. J. Van Oss, and E. Grushka) 2 Marcel
Dekker, Inc. NY (1974).
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121-132, in Chemistry and Physics of Interfaces II,
ACS, Washington (1971).
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Solution", pp. 1-22 in Fundamentals of Adsorption
(ed. A. L. Meyers and G. Belfort), Engineering
Foundation, NY (1984).
38. Abbott, M., personal class notes, Department of
Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineer-
ing, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY
(1984).
39. Myers, A. L. M., and J. M. Prausnitz, AIChE J. 11
121 (1965).
40. Radke, C. J. and J. M. Prausnitz, AIChE J. 18 (4) 761
(1972).
41. Lee, C-S and G. Belfort, "Thermodynamics of Multi-
Solute Adsorption," from Dilute Liquid Solution: I
The Use of an Equation of State," submitted for
Publication.
42. Everett, D. H., J. Phys. Chem. 85 3263-65 (1981).
43. Ash, S. G. et al, J. Chem. Soc., T 71 123 (1975).
44. Belfort, G., G. L. Altshuler, K. K. Thallam, C. P.
Feerick, Jr., and K. L. Woodfield, "Selective Adsorp-
tion of Organic Homologues onto Activated Carbon
from Dilute Aqueous Solutions Solvophobic Inter-
action Approach-V The Effect of Simple Structural
Modifications with Aromatics," pp. 77-94 in Funda-
mentals of Adsorption (eds. A. L. Meyers and G.
Belfort) Engineering Foundation, NY (1984).
45. Sherwood, T. K., R. L. Pigford, and C. R. Wilke,
Chapter 10 in Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill, NY
(1975).
46. Ruthven, D. M. Principles of Adsorption and Ad-
sorption Processes, J. Wiley and Sons, NY (1984).
47. Raghavan, N. S. and D. M. Ruthven, AIChE J 29
922 (1983).
48. Conder, J. R. and C. L. Young, Physicochemical
Measurement by Gas Chromatography, Wiley, NY
(1979).
49. Snyder, L. R., and J. J. Kirkland, Introduction to
Modern Liquid Chromatography, 2nd Edition, Wiley,
NY (1979). O


FALL 1985




























i A *
GRDUTEPRGRM
cn nna nrau


l I I :






Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


I.G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis.

D.G. FISHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications.

M.R. GRAY Ph.D. (Caltech): Chemical Kinetics, Characterization
of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioreactors.

R.E. HAYES, Ph.D. (Bath): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling.

D.T. LYNCH Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Computer-Aided Design.

J. MARTIN-SANCHEZ, Ph.D. (Barcelona): Process Control,
Adaptive-Predictive Control, Systems Theory.

J.H. MASLIYAH Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics.

A.E. MATHER Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.

A.J. MORRIS, Ph.D. (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne): Process Control,
Real Time Use of Microcomputers, Process Simulation.

K. NANDAKUMAR Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomena,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics.


W.K. NADER Dr. Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics.

F.D. OTTO Ph.D. (Michigan), DEAN OF ENGINEERING: Mass
Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil
Upgrading.

D. QUON, Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics.

D.B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics.

J.T. RYAN, Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media.

S.L. SHAH Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear Systems Theory, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory, Stochastic Control.

S.E. WANKE, Ph.D. (California-Davis), CHAIRMAN: Catalysis,
Kinetics.

R.K. WOOD Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics and
Identification, Control of Distillation Columns, Computer-Aided
Design.

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6











THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ



The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The
faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered
in most of the research areas listed below.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


MILAN BIER, Professor
Ph.D., Fordham University, 1950
Protein Separation, Electrophoresis, Membrane Transport
HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics
Polyelectrolyte Solutions
WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing
EDWARD J. FREEH, Adjunct Professor
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1958
Process Control, Computer Applications
JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor


Ph.D., Purdue University, Y956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetic
Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, B
SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professo
Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Hetero
bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutan
Processes, Applied Mathematics
GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor an
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Tra
Modelling of Transport



Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.


For further information,
write to:
Dr. Farhang Shadman
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant
Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols
ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms
THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation,
Computer Aided Design
FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion


JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
s, Fluid Mechanics and Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
iorheology Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide
r Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phe-
, 1982 nomena
generouss Systems, Com- DON H. WHITE, Professor
t Emissions, Separation Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial
d Head and Enzymatic Processes
966 DAVID WOLF, Visiting Professor
nsport, Numerical D.Sc., Technion, 1962.
Energy, Fermentation, Mixing










ARIZONA STATE


UNIVERSITY

Graduate Programs
for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
in Chemical and Bio Engineering

Research Specializations Include:
ENERGY CONSERVATION ADSORPTION/SEPARATION *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA *
SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
CATALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL MATERIALS *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *

Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly-respected faculty:
James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976
Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966
Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962
Llewellyn W. Bezanson, Clarkson College, 1983
Veronica A. Burrows, Princeton University, 1985
Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston, 1980
William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct)
William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967
R. Leighton Fisk, MD, University of Alberta, Canada, 1972 (Adjunct)
David E. Haskins, University of Oklahoma, 1964 (Adjunct)
James B. Koeneman, University of Western Australia, 1981 (Adjunct)
James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970
Gregory Raupp, University of Wisconsin, 1984
Castle O. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus)
Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963
Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967
Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
Allan M. Weinstein, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, 1972 (Adjunct)
Jack M. Winters, University of California, Berkeley, 1985
Imre Zwlebel, Yale University, 1961
Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.
ASU in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix
metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in
ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study.
Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's
own cultural and recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Imre Zwiebel, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287

Arizona State University vigorously pursues affirmative action
and equal opportunity in its employment, activities and programs.
--- 111i -



























Ajburn

University


Auburn t
Engineering


THE FACULTY


RESEARCH AREAS


R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965)
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976)
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970)
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958)
A. C. T. HSU (University of Pennsylvania, 1953)
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972)
R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973)
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978)
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973)
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981)
D. L. VIVES (Columbia University, 1949)
D. C. WILLIAMS (Princeton University, 1980)
FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE
Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Coal Conversion
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Oil Processing
Process Design and Control
Interfacial Phenomena
THE PROGRAM


Process Simulation
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Separations
Surface Science
Transport Phenomena
Thermodynamics
Pulp and Paper Engineering


The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and
offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes
both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national
interest, with modern research equipment available for most all
types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to
qualified students.


Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


II


GRADUATE


STUDIES

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING






































Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering

at BrighamYoung University, Provo, Utah


Programs ofstudy leading to the M.E., M.S and Ph.D. degrees on a
beautiful campus located at the base of the Rocky Mountains.


Faculty
Dee Barker, U of Utah, 1951
Calvin H. Bartholomew, Stanford, 1972
Merrill W Beckstead, U. of Utah, 1965
Douglas N. Bennion, Berkeley, 1964
B. Scott Brewster, U. of Utah, 1979
James J. Christensen, Carnegie Mellon, 1957
Richard W. Hanks, U. of Utah, 1960
William C. Hecker, Berkeley, 1982
Paul O. Hedman, BYU, 1973
John L. Oscarson, U ofMichigan, 1982
Richard L. Rowley, Michigan State, 1978
Philip J. Smith, BYU, 1979
L.Douglas Smoot, U. of Washington, 1960
Kenneth A. Solen, U of Wisconsin, 1974


For additional information
and application, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
350 CB
Brigham Young University
Provo, Utah 84602


ResearchAreas
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena
Calorimetry
Computer Simulation
Coal Combustion and Gasification
Kinetics and Catalysis
Biomedical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Chemical Propulsion
Mathematical Modeling
Electrochemistry
Membrane Transport
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics
Process Design and Control













THE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY


GRADUATE STUDIES IN
CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING


The Department offers programs leading to the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M.
Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas:

Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics and Combustion
Multiphase Flow in Pipelines
Fluid Bed Reaction Systems
Environmental Engineering
Petroleum Engineering and Reservoir Simulation
Enhanced Oil Recovery
In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Computer Simulation of Separation Processes
Computer Control and Optimization of
Engineering and Bio Processes
Biotechnology and Biorheology


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.


FACULTY


The University is located in the City of Calgary,
the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world
famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter
Olympics. The city combines the traditions of the
Old West with the sophistication of a modern
urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is
110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the
Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are
readily accessible.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. R. G. Moore, Chairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng.
The University of Calgary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada


R. A. HEIDEMANN, Head
A. BADAKHSHAN
L. A. BEHIE
D. W. B. BENNION
P. R. BISHNOI
R. M. BUTLER
M. FOGARASI
M. A. HASTAOGLU
J. HAVLENA
A. A. JEJE
N. E. KALOGERAKIS
A. K. MEHROTRA
M. F. MOHTADI
R. G. MOORE
P. M. SIGMUND
J. STANISLAV
W. Y. SVRCEK
E. L. TOLLEFSON


(Wash. U.)
(Birm. U.K.)
(W. Ont.)
(Penn. State)
(Alberta)
(Imp. Coll. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(SUNY)
(Czech.)
(MIT)
(Toronto)
(Calgary)
(Birm. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(Texas)
(Prague)
(Alberta)
(Toronto)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


L~J~I
I \V/ 1


224


_e ~111
I







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,


RESEARCH INTERESTS

ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


BERKELEY...



... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-
tains.




FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
David B. Graves
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soong
Doros N. Theodorou
Charles W. Tobias
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720










UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interface Processes
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Control
Process Design
Rheology
Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Program
UC Davis, with 19,000 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Faculty
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne
Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control
BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota
Fluid Mechanics of Thin Film Coating, Interfacial
Phenomena
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Process, Kinetics
KAREN A. McDONALD, University of Maryland
Process Control, Biochemical Engineering
AHMET N. PALAZOGLU, Rennsselaer Polytechnic
Institute
Process Design and Process Control
ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology, Fluid Mechanics, Aucoustics, Hazardous
Waste
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology, Thin Film
Technology
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.
For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Graduate Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY






ALIFORNIA






OS


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
graduate programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research, adding to
the already wide spectrum of research
activities

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
of tuition and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on
campus.


CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
NGELES 5531 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, Ca 90024


FACULTY
D.T. Allen
Yorom Cohen
T.H.K. Frederking
S.K. Friedlonder
Robert F. Hicks
E.L. Knuth
V. Manousiouthakis


Ken Nobe
L.B. Robinson
O.1.. Smith
W.D. Van Vorsr
V.L. Vilker
A.R. Wazzan
F.E. Yates


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA
. ,, %"' 7.., _&e:q3* . ..C Aa,., ".,


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE
Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Chairman)
Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis
and Wastes
PRAMOD AGRAWAL
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
Science
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical
Reactor Analysis, Transport
Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA
Ph.D. (Stanford)
Adsorption and Heterogeneous
Catalysis
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Dean of Engineering)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.

A. EDWARD PROFIO
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion
Reactors, Radiation Transport
Analyses.

ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.

ORVILLE C. SANDALL
Ph.D. (U.C. Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.

DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.

THEOFANIS G. THEOFANOUS
Ph.D. (Minnesota)
Nuclear and Chemical Plant Safety,
Multiphase Flow, Thermalhydraulics


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one calendar year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature of the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
JOHN F. BRADY, Associate Professor
PhD. (1981), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics; transport properties of
heterogeneous systems

GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.
MANFRED MORARI, Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Minnesota
Process control; process design


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. Gary Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1986.


C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate
Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering;
process design and development.
JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics; tracer studies
of various environmental and safety related
problems.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.






Dh **' 1Stereo

SETPROFESSORS!
A New Release from Pittsburgh's High Performance Group


-1*





Study Chemical Engineering ....
At one of the nation's top chemical engineering research facilities

Case Western Reserve University



Specializations in:







Electrochemical engineering
Surfaces and colloids
Laser applications
Mixing and separations
Process control






Faculty and specializations:


Robert J. Adler, Ph.D. 1959, Lehigh University
Particle separations, mixing, acid gas recovery
John C. Angus, Ph.D. 1960, University of Michigan
Redox equilibria, thin carbon films, modulated
electroplating
Coleman B. Brosilow, Ph.D. 1962, Polytechnic Institute
of Brooklyn
Adaptive inferential control, multivariable control,
coordination algorithms
Robert V. Edwards, Ph.D. 1968, Johns Hopkins University
Laser anemometry, mathematical modelling, data
acquisition
Donald L. Feke, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University
Colloidal phenomena, ceramic dispersions, fine-
particle processing


Nelson C. Gardner, Ph.D. 1966, Iowa State University
High-gravity separations, sulfur removal processes
Uziel Landau, Ph.D. 1975, University of California (Berkeley)
Electrochemical engineering, current distributions,
electrodeposition
Chung-Chiun Liu, Ph.D. 1968, Case Western Reserve
University
Electrochemical sensors, electrochemical synthesis,
electrochemistry related to electronic materials
J. Adin Mann, Jr., Ph.D. 1968, Iowa State University
Surface phenomena, interfacial dynamics, light scattering
Syed Qutubuddin, Ph.D. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon University
Surfactant systems, metal extraction, enhanced oil
recovery


For more information contact:
Graduate Coordinator, Department of Chemical Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106


L










VERSITY


NNAT


GRADUATE STUDY in

Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


CHrMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow
equipment. Laser induced effects.


POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concen-
trated polymer solutions.
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis
and morphology of polymer blends.

AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas clean-
ing devices and systems.

TWO-PHASE FLOW
Boiling. Stability and transport
properties of foam.

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS


FACULTY
Robert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Sotiris Pratsinis
Neville Pinto
Stephen Thiel
Joel Weisman


pattern and mixing in chemical


process unit


FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221


Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.
232 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


The

UN


OF

CINC


PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns,
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.





















O M.S. and Ph.D. programs
O Friendly atmosphere
O Vigorous research programs supported by
government and industry
O Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa
o Skiing, canoeing, mountain climbing and other
recreation in the Adirondacks
O Variety of cultural activities with two liberal arts
colleges nearby
O Twenty faculty working on a broad spectrum
of chemical engineering research problems

Research Areas include:
A ]0 Chemical kinetics
O Colloidal and interfacial phenomena
O Computer aided design
O Crystallization
O Electrochemical engineering and corrosion
O Integrated circuit fabrication
O Laser-matter interaction
O Mass transfer
O Materials processing in space
O Optimization
O Particle separations
o Phase transformations and equilibria
o Polymer rheology and processing
O Process control
O Turbulent flows
O And more...

Financial aid available in the form of:
O instructorships
[O fellowships
O research assistantships
O teaching assistantships
O industrial co-op positions

.. For more details, please write to:

T I Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676


FALL 1985








Graduate Study at


Clemson University

In Chemical Engineering


Coming Up for Air
No matter where you do your graduate work,
your nose will be in your books and your mind on
your research. But at Clemson University, there's
something for you when you can stretch out for a
break.
_7 Like breathing good air. Or swimming, fishing,
sailing and water skiing in the clean lakes. Or hiking
in the nearby Blue Ridge Mountains. Or driving
Sto South Carolina's famous beaches for a weekend.
w C Something that can really relax you.
All this and a top-notch Chemical Engineering
Department, too.
With active research and teaching in polymer
processing, process automation, computer simu-
lation of fluids, thermodynamics, membrane
separation, pollution control, pulp and paper
operations research, and rheology on non-
Newtonian fluids what more do you need?
The University
Clemson, the land-grant university of South Carolina, offers 65 undergraduate and 58 graduate
fields of study in its nine academic colleges. Present on-campus enrollment is about 12,000 students,
one-third of whom are in the College of Engineering. There are about 1,700 graduate students. The
1,400-acre campus is located on the shores of Lake Hartwell in South Carolina's Piedmont, and is
midway between Charlotte, N.C., and Atlanta, Ga.
The Faculty


Forest C. Alley
William B. Barlage, Jr.
John N. Beard, Jr.
William Beckwith


Dan D. Edie
Charles H. Gooding
James M. Haile
Steven S. Melsheimer


Joseph C. Mullins
Richard W. Rice
Mark C. Thies


Programs lead to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
Financial aid, including fellowships and assistantships, is available.
For Further Information
For further information and a descriptive brochure, write:
Graduate Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
Earle Hall
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina 29631


CLeof ESOng
College of Engineering











UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, BOULDER

GRADUATE STUDY
IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs


* FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS *


DAVID E. CLOUGH, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1975), University of Colorado
Fluidization, Process Control

ROBERT H. DAVIS, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1983), Stanford University
Fluid Dynamics of Suspensions, Biotechnology

JOHN L. FALCONER, Professor
Ph.D. (1974), Stanford University
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surface Science

R. IGOR GAMOW, Associate Professor
Ph.D. (1967), University of Colorado
Biophysics, Bioengineering

PAUL G. GLUGLA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Illinois
Ionic Solutions, Thermodynamics,
Membrane Separations

R. CURTIS JOHNSON, Professor
Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University
Global Modeling

DHINAKAR S. KOMPALA, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1984), Purdue University
Biochemical Engineering, Biotechnology,
Mathematical Modeling


WILLIAM B. KRANTZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1968), University of California, Berkeley
Membranes, Geophysical Fluid Mechanics, Coal
Gasification, Transport Processes in Permafrost
LEE L. LAUDERBACK, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1982), Purdue University
Surface Science, Heterogeneous Catalysis,
Molecular Dynamics
MAX S. PETERS, Professor
Ph.D. (1951), Pennsylvania State University
Biomass Conversion, Economics
W. FRED RAMIREZ, Professor
Ph.D. (1965), Tulane University
Optimal Control and Identification, Transport in
Porous Media
ROBERT L. SANI, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of Minnesota
Numerical Techniques in Fluid Dynamics,
Membranes
KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, Chairman and
James M. and Catherine T. Patten Professor
Ph.D. (1951), University of Illinois
Economics, Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer
RONALD E. WEST, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of Michigan
Water Pollution Control, Solar Energy
Utilization


FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE TO
Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424


FALL 1985


235











COLORADO OF


SCHOOL /


OF
1874

MINES COoRoo

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived
liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems,
Scryogenic engineering.
J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up-
grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re-
finery processing operations, heavy oil processing.

E. D. Sloan, Jr., Professor; Ph.D., Clemson University.
SPhase equilibrium thermodynamics measurements of
natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates, thermal
conductivity measurements for coal derived fluids,
.7 adsorption equilibria measurements, stagewise pro-
cesses, education methods research.
V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan.
Thermodynamic properties of fluids, especially re-
lating to synthetic fuels. Oil shale and shale oil
processing; numerical methods.
R. M. Baldwin, Professor, Ph.D., Colorado School of
Mines. Mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics
of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochem-
istry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-
derived asphaltenes, supercritical gas extraction of
oil shale and heavy oil.

M. S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro-
cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of
coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading.

M. C. Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Heat transfer and fluid me-
chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer
in porous media, free convection in porous media.

M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State
University. Flow of concentrated fine particulate
tion of multisized, mixed density particle suspensions.

4 l A. L. Bunge, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
S'California at Berkeley. Chromatographic processes,
S I1 enhanced oil recovery, minerals leaching, liquid
membrane separations, ion exchange equilibria.

tl For Applications and Further Information
k., On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
'- .Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
'":... Golden, CO 80401
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Colorado State University



Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.



.... 1 Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:

Faculty: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
r a monthly stipend plus tu:tion reimbursement.
Larry Belfiore, Ph. D.,
University of Wisconsin
Bruce Dale, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Jud Harper, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Naz Karim, Ph.D.,
University of Manchester
Terry Lenz, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Jim Linden, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Carol McConica, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Vince Murphy, Ph.D.,
University of
Massachusetts Research Areas:
Alternate Energy Sources
Biochemical Engineering
i. Catalysis
.- Chemical Thermodynamics
? Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
Environmental Engineering
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems


For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


FALL 1985








Chemical Engineering at


CORNELL

UNIVERSITY


A place to grow...


with active research in

biochemical engineering
applied mathematics/computer simulation
energy technology
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science and engineering
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
reactor design
molecular thermodynamics/statistical mechanics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange
individual programs with a core of chemical engineering
courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell
departments including

chemistry
biological sciences
physics
computer science
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
business administration
and others

with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one
of the most scenic regions of the United States.

Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering
(the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program).
Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
Brad Anton, Paulette Clancy, Douglas S. Clark, Claude
Cohen, Robert K. Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott,
Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodriguez,
George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, Paul
H. Steen, William B. Street, Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L.
Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt, John A. Zollweg

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to
Professor Claude Cohen
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853








Chemical En ineerin at

The Faculty -iel R
Giovanni Astarita
Mark A. Barteau
Antony N. Beris
C. Ernest Birchenall
Kenneth B. Bischoff
Costel D. Denson
Prasad S. Dhurjati
Bruce C. Gates
Michael T. Klein
Abraham M. Lenhoff
Roy L. McCullough
Arthur B. Metzner
Jon H. Olson
Michael E. Paulaitis
Robert L. Pigford
T. W. Fraser Russell
Stanley I. Sandler (Chairman)
Jerold M. Schultz
Alvin B. Stiles
Andrew L. Zydney

The University of Delaware offers M.ChE and Ph.D.
degrees in Chemical Engineering. Both degrees involve research and course work
in engineering and related sciences. The Delaware tradition is one of strongly
interdisciplinary research on both fundamental and applied problems. Current
fields include Thermodynamics, Separation Processes, Polymer Science
and Engineering, Fluid Mechanics and Rheology, Transport Phenomena,
Materials Science and Metallurgy, Catalysis and Surface Science, Reaction
Kinetics, Reactor Engineering, Process Control, Semiconductor and Photo-
voltaic Processing, Biomedical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering.

New York For more information and application materials, write:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
aNewark, Delaware 19716
Washington lThe University of
Delaware
















ngneeri


V


E


R


T


Y


OF FLORIDA


Gainesville, Florida


Graduate Study leading to ME, MS & PhD


For more information please write:
Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


U


N


Faculty
Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor
Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology
Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor
Design/ Arthur Fricke Polymer Processing, Ap-
plied Rheology/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface
Science/ Lew Johns Applied Mathematics/
Dale Kirmse Process Control, Computer Aided
Design, Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor
Design, Catalysis/ Gerasimos K. Lyberatos Op-
timization, Biochemical Processes/ Frank May
Separations/ Ranga Narayanan Transport Phe-
nomena/ John O'Connell Statistical Mechanics,
Thermodynamics/ Dinesh O. Shah Enhanced
Oil Recovery, Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros
Svoronos Process Control/ Robert D. Walker
Surface Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/
Gerald Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry,
Transport Phenomena












GEORGIA TECH
A Unit of
the University System
of Georgia


Graduate Studies

in Chemical

Engineering


U


Atlanta
All major professional sports
Ballet
Centers for Disease Control
Commercial center of the South
Emory University
Georgia State University
High Museum of Art
Major recording studios
Pleasant climate
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow skiing within two hours
Atlanta Symphony Orchestra
Theater
White water canoeing within one hour


Programs in
Chemical Engineering
Biochemical engineering
Catalysis
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Electrochemical engineering
Fine particle technology
Interfacial phenomena
Kinetics
Medical implants
Mining and mineral engineering
Polymer science and engineering
Process control and dynamics
Process synthesis
Pulp and paper engineering
Reactor design
Separation processes
Supercritical extraction
Thermodynamics and transport
properties
Transport phenomena
Waste management


Faculty
A.S. Abhiraman
RK. Agrawal
Y. Arkun
E.J. Clayfield
WR. Ernst
L. Forney
C.W Gorton
J.S. Hsieh
M.J. Matteson
J.D. Muzzy
G.W. Poehlein


R.S. Roberts
R.J. Samuels
F.J. Schork
A.H.R Skelland
J.T. Sommerfeld
D.W Tedder
A.S. Teja
H.C. Ward
M.G. White
J. Winnick
A. Yoganathan


For more information write:

Dr. Gary W. Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0100


U


_


"
" '"
"'













Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston


The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston has developed research strength in a broad
range of areas:
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis
Biochemical Engineering
Electrochemical Systems
Semiconductor Processing
Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology
Process Dynamics and Control
Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation
Solid-liquid Separation
Reliability Theory
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
The department occupies over 75,000 square feet and has over $3
million worth of experimental apparatus.
Financial support is available to full-time graduate students through re-
search assistantships and special industrial fellowships.


For more information or application forms write to:
Director, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)


The faculty:

N. R. Amundson
O. A. Asbjornsen
V. Balakotaiah
H.-C. Chang
E. L. Claridge
J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
D. J. Economou
C. F. Goochee
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
J. T. Richardson
F. M. Tiller
F. L. Worley, Jr.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


242







Graduate Studies in
Chemical Engineering


FACULTY
H. Arastoopour
R.L. Beissinger
A. Cinar
D. Gidaspow
J. Hong
S. Parulekar
J.R. Selman
S.M. Senkan
D.T. Wasan
W.A. Weigand


Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois


I



$^^SM ill B^


RESEARCH AREAS
Biotechnology
Biomedical Engineering
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Combustion
Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemical Engineering
Environmental Engineering -
Fluidization
Interfacial and Colloidal Phenomena
Multi-Phase Flow
Process Dynamics and Control
Transport Phenomena


LillI


I7


For More Information Write toi
Chemical Engineering Department
Graduate Admissions Committee
Illinois Institute of Technology-
I.I.T. Center
Chicago, Illinois 60616.
U.S.A.


I,


L ^ I 7 S...i. 1-U __-


~a~8~9


I


- - -- . ........... :


I


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........... .......J











GRADUATE STUDY
AND RESEARCH

The Department of
Chemical Engineering
Graduate Programs in
The Department of
Chemical Engineering
leading to the degrees of
MASTER OF SCIENCE and
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

ILLINOIS

AT

CHICAGO


FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Richard D. Gonzalez
Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1965
Professor and Head
T. S. Jiang
PhD., Northwestern University, 1981
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor
Irving F. Miller
Ph.D., University of Michigan
Professor
Joachim Floess
Ph.D., Massachsetts Inst. of Tech., 1985
Assistant Professor
David Wilcox
Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985
Assistant Professor


Heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry,
catalysis by supported metals, subseabed radioactive
waste disposal studies, clay chemistry
Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
laser diagnostics

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy.
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics
of liquids and liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion,and indirect coal liquefaction
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.
Lipid microencapsulation; Adorption and
surface reactions; Membrane transport.
Synthesis of blood.
Reaction engineering with primary focus
on the pyrolysis of oil shale and coal.
Energy technology, environmental controls.
Mechanistic aspects of the carbon monoxide-
hydrogen reaction with emphasis on the
synthesis of methanol over oxide catalysts.


For more information, write: Director of Graduate Studies, Dept. of Chemical
Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, II, 60680, (312)996-3424









UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


The chemical engineering department
-- offers graduate programs leading to the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

--- D O The combination of distinguished faculty,
outstanding facilities and a diversity of
research interests results in exceptional
opportunities for graduate education.





I 9300
940


Faculty i 629
Richard C. Alkire i i I I I I
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty 0L
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Walter G. May
Richard I. Masel
Anthony J. McHugh
Mark A. Stadtherr
James W. Westwater
Charles F. Zukoski, IV


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2e H+



For Information and Application Forms Write

0 Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 W. California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801









THE INSTITUTE OF
PAPER CHEMISTRY


is an independent
graduate school. It has
an interdisciplinary
degree program de-
signed for B.S. chemical
"-"- engineering graduates.
Fellowships and full
tuition scholarships are
available to qualified
U.S. and Canadian
Citizens. Our students
receive $9,000.00
fellowship each
calendar year.
Our research activities
span the papermaking
process including:
process engineering
simulation and control
heat and mass transfer
separation science
reaction engineering
fluid mechanics
polymer engineering
environmental
engineering
surface and colloid
science
plant tissue culture
For further information contact:
Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039 Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone: 414/734-9251



























l _N Graduate Program for
-M.S. and Ph.D. Degreesin
III Chemical and Materials Engineering


SKinetics and Catalysis
Blomass Conversion
Membrane Separations
Particle Morphological Analysis
Air Pollution
S*M Mass Transfer Operations
Numerical Modeling
Particle Technology
AtmosphericTransport
Bloseparations and Biotechnology
Process Design
-, Surface Science
I TransportinPorousMedia I

For additional information and application write to:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, iowa 52242
319/353-6237
II
THE UNIVERSITY OF 0 WA




THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA


. i 1 i _ _










IOWA STATE



UNIVERSITY

William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process, process
control
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes,high
temperature ceramics
John M. Eggabrecht
Thermodynamics and structure of liquids and
liouirl mix'lires
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Applied electrochemistry, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport
phenomena, aerosols
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation, computer graphics
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme
technology, carrohyarate chromatography
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Solid-gas reactions, process modeling
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
fluidization
Gordon R. Younquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization
For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011


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S'THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering




0 offers graduate study

leading to the

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

For further information, write to
Professor George W. Swift
Chairman and Graduate Advisor
SDepartment of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
The University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas 66045

Faculty and Areas of Specialization *


Kenneth A. Bishop, Professor (Ph.D., Oklahoma); reser-
voir simulation, interactive computer graphics,
optimization
John C. Davis, Professor and chief of geology research
section, Kansas Geological Survey (Ph.D., Wyoming);
probabilistic techniques for oil exploration, geologic
computer mapping
Kenneth J. Himmelstein, Adjunct Associate Professor
(Ph.D., Maryland); pharmacokinetics, mathematical
modeling of biological processes, cell kinetics,
diffusion and mass transfer
Colin S. Howat, III, Assistant Professor (Ph.D., Kansas);
applied equilibrium thermodynamics, process de-
sign
Don W. Green, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Oklahoma); enhanced oil
recovery, hydrological modeling
James O. Ma!oney, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Penn
State); technology and society
Russell B. Mesler, Professor (Ph.D., Michigan); nucleate
and film boiling, bubble and drop phenomena
Floyd W. Preston, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State); geo-
logic pore structure


Harold F. Rosson, Professor (Phd., Rice); production of
alternate fuels from agricultural materials
Bala Subramaniam, Assistant Professor (Ph.D., Notre
Dame); kinetics and catalysis, insitu characterization
of catalyst systems
George W. Swift, Professor and Chairman (Ph.D.,
Kansas); thermodynamics of petroleum and petro
chemical systems, natural gas reservoirs analysis,
fractured well analysis, petrochemical plant design
John E. Thiele, Assistant Professor (Sc.D., MIT); struc-
ture/property relationships of polymers, polymer
chemistry and physics, polymer viscoelasticity
Shapour Vossoughi, Associate Professor (Ph.D., U. of
Alberta); enhanced oil recovery, thermal analysis,
applied rheology and computer modeling

Stanley M. Walas, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan);
combined chemical and phase equilibrium
G. Paul Willhite, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Northwestern); enhanced
oil recovery, transport processes in porous media,
mathematical modeling


FALL 1985









Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
ENERGY ENGINEERING
COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION
THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SOLIDS MIXING
CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS
OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM
ENGINEERING
FLUIDIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL










UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY


i* w*g~wu~ I
i-s-~ ~rn


DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS


J. Berman, Ph.D., Northwestern
Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular
Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation
D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D.
Illinois Institute of Technology
Novel Separation Processes; Membranes;
Water Pollution Control
G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia
Computer-aided process design; Coal Liquefaction
C. E. Hamrin, Jr., Ph.D., Northwestern
Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Three-phase Reactors
R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern
Process Control and Economics


E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State
Dynamics of Electrochemical Processes; Computer
Measurement Techniques and Modeling
L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh
Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena
A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen
Regime; Transport Phenomena
J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville
Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer;
Fuel Gas Desulfurization
T. T. Tsang, Ph.D., Texas-Austin
Aerosol Dynamics in Uniform and Non-Uniform Systems


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants
For details write to:
R. 1. Kermode
Director for Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046


FALL 1985


4D>












L ousitana


University


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL


THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major
state institution for higher education-LSU. Situated in
the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main
chemical shipping point, and the city's economy rests
heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The
great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities
year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans
provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.

THE DEPARTMENT
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Approximately 70 Graduate Students
DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
IBM 434 1 with more than 50 color graphics terminals
Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR,
LC's, GC's...
Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis,
thermodynamics, supercritical processing
Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories
Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility
Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities

TO APPLY, CONTACT:
EDWARD McLAUGHLIN, CHAIRMAN
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


FACULTY
A. B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU)
Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design
K. M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering
F. R. GROVES (Ph.D., Wisconsin)
Control, Modeling, Separation Processes
D. P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas)
Fluid- Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes
A. E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida)
Distillation, Control, Modeling
M. HJORTSO (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston)
Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics
F. C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Univ. of Purdue)
Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing
E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc., Univ. of London)
Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties
R. W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech)
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization
J. A. POLACK (Sc.D., MIT)
Sugar Technology, Separation Processes
G. L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces
D. D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech)
Transport Phenomena, Environmental Engineering
R. G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Mass Transfer, Separation Processes
D. L. RISTROPH (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Biochemical Engineering
C. B. SMITH (Ph. D., Univ. of Houston)
Non-linear Dynamics, Control
A. M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington)
Biomedical Engineering, Transport Properties, Combustion
L. J. THIBODEAUX (Ph.D., LSU)
Chemodynamics, Hazardous Waste
D. M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware)
Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes
FINANCIAL AID
Tax-free fellowships and assistantships with tuition
waivers available
Special industrial and alumni fellowships with higher
stipends for outstanding students
Some part-time teaching positions for graduate students
in high standing


State









0 University of Maine at Orono


M.S. AND PH.D.
PROGRAMS IN
CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING


* Sponsored projects val-
ued at$1 million per year
are in progress.
* Faculty is supported by
extensive state-of-the-art
facilities.
* Relevancy of the Depart-
ment's research is in-
sured by continuous liai-
son with engineers and
scientists from industry
who help guide the fac-
ulty concerning emerg-
ing needs and activities
of other laboratories.
* Research and teaching
assistantships are avail-
able.
* Outstanding candidates
(GPA between 3.75 and
4.00) wishing to pursue
the Ph.D. are invited to
apply for President's Fel-
lowships which provide
$4000 per year in addi-
tion to regular stipend
and free tuition.


THE GRADUATE
FACULTY AND
THEIR RESEARCH

William H. Ceckler
Sc.D., MIT, 1960
* .Heat Transfer
* Pressing & Drying
Operations
* Energy from Low Btu
Fuels
* Process Simulation

Albert Co
Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1979
* Transport phenomena
* Polymeric Fluid
Dynamics
* Rheology

Joseph M. Genco
Ph.D., Ohio State, 1965
* Process Engineering
* Pulp & Paper
Technology
* Wood Delignification

Marqueta K. Hill
Ph.D., University of
California, 1966
* Black Liquor Chemistry
* Pulping Chemistry
* Ultrafiltration


John C. Hassler
Ph.D., Kansas State, 1966
* Process Analysis and
Numerical Methods
* Instrumentation and
Real-Time Computer
Applications

John J. Hwalek
Ph.D., University of
Illinois, 1982
* Heat Transfer
* Process Control Systems

Erdogan Kiran
Ph.D., Princeton, 1974
* Polymer Physics and
Chemistry
* Thermal Analysis and
Pyrolysis
* Supercritical Fluids

James D. Lisius
Ph.D., University of Illinois,
1985
* Transport Phenomena
* Electrochemical
Engineering
* Mass Transfer

Kenneth I. Mumm6
Ph.D., Maine, 1970
* Process Modeling and
Control
* System Identification &
Optimization


Hemant Pendse
Ph.D., Syracuse, 1980
* Colloidal Phenomena
* Particulate Systems
* Porous Media Modeling

Ivar H. Stockel
Sc.D., MIT, 1959
* Pulp & Paper
Technology
Droplet Formation
Fluidization

Edward V. Thompson
Ph.D., Polytechnic Institute
of Brooklyn, 1962
Polymer Material Prop-
erties
Membrane Separation
Processes
Pressing & Drying
Operations

Douglas L. Woerner
Ph.D., University of
Washington, 1983
Concentration Polariza-
tion
Ultrafilter Operation
Light Scattering






















^ I\-^/


----~-









University of Maryland


Location:
The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles from
the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent public
transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the
Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House, Arlington
Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces
some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities
on the east coast. An even shorter drive east brings one to the
historic Chesapeake Bay.


Degrees Offered.
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering.

Financial Aid Available:
Teaching and Research
Assistantships at $10,400/yr.


Faculty:
Robert B. Beckmann
Theodore W. Cadman
Richard V. Calabrese
Kyu Y. Choi
Stowell Davison
Larry L. Gasner
James W. Gentry
Albert Gomezplata
Yih-Yun Hsu
Thomas J. McAvoy
Thomas M. Regan
Wilburn C. Schroeder
Theodore G. Smith


i .- ,Z




Research Areas:
Aerosol Mechanics
Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
Fermentation
Laser Anemometry
Mass Transfer
Polymer Processing
Process Control
Risk Assessment
Separation Processes
Simulation


For Applications and Further Information, Write:
Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies
Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, Md. 20742


7ta; sa5 I













UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS


Amherst
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs
leading to M.S. and PhD. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer
engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research
in polymers which can be conducted in either the C.'emical Engineering Department or the Polymer
Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid, in the form of research assistantships and teaching
assistantships, is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING *

M. A. BURNS Biochemical engineering, Chromatographic separations
W. C. CONNER Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion
M. F. DOHERTY Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design
J. M. DOUGLAS Process design and control, Reactor engineering
J. W. ELDRIDGE Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria
V. HAENSEL Catalysis, Kinetics
M. P. HAROLD Kinetics and Reactor Engineering
R. S. KIRK Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors
R. L. LAURENCE* Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics
R. W. LENZ* Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization
M. F. MALONE Rheology, Polymer processing, Design
P. A. MONSON Statistical mechanics of gases
K. M. NG Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows
J. M. OTTINO* Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering
M. VANPEE Combustion, Spectroscopy
H. H. WINTER* Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer
B. E. YDSTIE Process control


For further details, please write to

Prof. M. F. Doherty
Graduate Program Director
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0593


Prof. S. L. Hsu
Graduate Program Director
Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0433


POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

J. C. W. CHIEN Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers, Polymer
degradation
R. J. FARRIS Polymer composites, Mechanical properties, Elastomers
D. A. HOAGLAND* Hydrodynamic chromatography separations
S. L. HSU Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis
F. E. KARASZ Polymer transitions, Polymer blends, Conducting
polymers
W. J. MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of
polymers
T. J. McCARTHY Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces
M. MUTHUKUMAR Statistical mechanics of polymer solutions, gels,
and melts
R. S. PORTER Polymer rheology, Polymer processing
R. S. STEIN Polymer crystallinity and morphology, Characterization
D. A. TIRRELL Polymer synthesis and membranes
E. L. THOMAS* Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology, x-Ray
scattering


*Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering


FALL 1985














CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT

FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS


J. Wei, Department Head
R. C. Armstrong
R. F. Baddour
J. M. Beer
H. Brenner
R. A. Brown
R. E. Cohen
C. K. Colton
C. Cooney
W. M. Deen
L. B. Evans
C. Guzy
T. A. Hatton
J. B. Howard
M. Kramer


J. P. Longwell
E. W. Merrill
C. M. Mohr
R. C. Reid
A. F. Sarofim
C. N. Satterfield
H. H. Sawin
K. A. Smith
Robert D. Sproull
G. Stephanopoulos
G. N. Stephanopoulos
U. W. Suter
J. W. Tester
P. S. Virk
D. I. C. Wang


Biomedical Engineering
Biotechnology
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Combustion
Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemistry
Energy Conversion
Environmental
Fluid Mechanics
Electronic Materials Processing
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Polymers
Process Dynamics and Control
Surfaces and Colloids
Transport Phenomena


Photo by James Wei


MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in
Albany, New York, the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and
Brookhaven National Lab at Long Island, New York.

For Information
Chemical Engineering Headquarters
Room 66-350
MIT
Cambridge, MA 02139


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Chemical Engineering at

The University of Michigan


Research Areas
Biotechnology. Control of fermentation processes, in-situ
separation techniques, biosensors, synthetic membranes, self-
assembly of proteins, models of cell metabolism.
Catalysis. Atomic metallic clusters, catalyst support interactions.
kinetic mechanisms of hydrocarbon synthesis, preparation of
catalytic metal colloids, electroless plating, periodic operation of
catalytic reactors.
Colloidal Science. Structure of microemulsions and micelles,
colloidal interactions in liquefied coal, stability and hydrodynamic
theory for emulsions, coagulation kinetics.


Environmental Control. Waste treatment in natural waters,
hazardous waste recovery methods, adsorption processes in pollutant
removal.
Petroleum Engineering. Enhanced production of oil and gas, catalytic stimulation of
formation porosity, colloidal properties of minerals, interfacial adsorption of surfactants. two-
phase flow through porous media.
Polymers. Polymer processing, structural properties relations, rheology of polymers.
kinetics of polymerization and gelation.
Real-time Computation and Process Simulation. Dynamic simulation of processes,
computer modeling of transport phenomena, parameter identification, computer-aided
design with personal workstations.


Faculty
Dale E. Briggs
Brice Carnahan
Rane L. Curl
Francis M. Donahue
H. Scott Fogler
Erdogan Gulari
Robert H. Kadlec
Donald L. Katz
Lloyd L. Kempe
Costas Kravaris
Bernhard Palsson
Anastasios C. Papanastasiou
John E. Powers
Jerome S. Schultz
Johannes Schwank
Maurice J. Sinnott
M. Rasin Tek
Henry Y. Wang
James O. Wilkes
Brymer Williams
Gregory S.Y. Yeh
Edwin H, Young
Robert M. Ziff


le College of Engineering
For information, write:
Dept, of Chemical Engineering
The University of Michigan
Dow Building
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109
or call collect: (313) 763-1148.


--


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E 1 3









GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT






MICHIGAN STATE



UNIVERSITY M
S FOUNDEDt

The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State k
University has assistantships and fellowships available for F
students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these
appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain
the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two to three
additional years.

ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pa $880.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S.
de-ree and approximately $950.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the
subject covered by the research assistantship. Non-resident tuition is waived.

FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $16,000 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year.


CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0


D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman
Ph.D., University of Washington
Transport Phenomena, Cardiovascular Physiology,
Diffusion in Polymer Solutions
K. A. BERGLUND
Ph.D., iowa State Univesity
Crystallization and Precipitation from Solution, Food
Engineeiing, Applications of Raman Spectroscopy
D. BRIEDIS
Ph.D., iowa State University
Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living
Systems, Biological Mineralization, Immobilized En-
zyme Technology
R. E. BUXBAUM
Ph.D., Princeton University
Chemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion,
Diffusivities and Separation Rates from Theory and
Experiment, Nerve Growth
C. M. COOPER. Professor Emeritus
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of
Transport Processes
L. T. DRZAL
Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University
Su face and Interfacial Phenomena, Adhesion, Com-
posite Materials, Suiface Characterization, Gas-Solid
and Liquid-Solid Adsorption


E. A. GRULKE
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Mass Transport Phenomena, Polymer Devolatilization,
Biochemical Engineering, Food Engineering
M. C. HAWLEY
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas, and Reaction
Engineering
K. JAYARAMAN
Ph.D., Princeton University
Rheology of Suspensions and Polymers, Permeation
through Packaging Plastics
D. J. MILLER
Ph.D., University of Florida
Fundamentals of Catalyzed Carbon Gasification.
Thermal Conversion of Cellulose and Biomass
C. A. PETTY
Ph.D., University of Florida
Fluid Mech-nics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena,
Solid-Fluid Separations
B. W. WILKINSON
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear
Reactor, and Radioisotope Applications


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
173 Engineerina Buildinq, Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1226

MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







University of Minnesota

Chemical Engineering and Materials Science


Chemical Engineering
Program


Process Control
Synthesis,Design


Fluid Thermodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer


Catalysis
Heterogeneous Reactions

I
Colloid and Interface Science
Surfactancy
Capillary Hydrodynamics
Adhesion and Surface Forces
Coating Flows


Bioengineering
Biochemical, Biomedical


Polymer Science
Polymer Processes


Materials Science
Program
_ I I


Physical Metallurgy
Mechanical Metallurgy



Thermodynamics of Solids
Diffusion and Kinetics


Sols, Gels Ceramics
Dispersions Interfacial Cohesion
Sol-Gel Films Fracture Micromechanics
Ceramic Microstructures

Dental Materials
Biomedical Artifical Organ
Materials Materials


R. Aris
F.H. Arnold
R.W. Carr, Jr
E.L. Cussler
J.S. Dahler
H.T. Davis
C.G. Economou
D.F. Evans
A. Franciosi
A.G. Fredrickson


"he Faculty

C.J. Geankoplis
W.W. Gerberich
G.L. Griffin
W-S. Hu
K.F. Jensen
K.H. Keller
C.W. Macosko
M.L. Mecartney
R.A. Oriani


W.E. Ranz
L.D. Schmidt
L.E. Scriven
D.A. Shores
J.M. Sivertsen
W.H. Smyrl
R.W. Staehle
M.V. Tirrell
J.H. Weaver
H.S. White


For information and application forms,
write:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science
University of Minnesota
421 Washington Ave. S.E.
Minneapolis, MN 55455


Surface Science
Microelectronics
Preparation Processes
Polymer Films


Microelectronic Materials
Metal/Semiconductor
Interfaces, Thin Films
Magnetic Materials


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Reaction Engineering Electrochemical Corrosion
Kinetics I Processes Materials Failure

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Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI


ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401


Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman


Day Programs


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado)-Computer Aided
Process Design, Bioconversion.

O. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice)-Transport Properties,
Kinetics, Catalysis.

M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida)-Biochemical
Studies, Biomass Utilization

J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. Illinois-Chicago)-Chemical
kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo-
dynamics.

J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode Re-
actions, Corrosion.

A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich)-Adsorption,
Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor
Design.

J. M. D. MAC ELROY (Ph.D., University College
Dublin)-Transport Phenomena, Heterogeneous
Catalysis, Drying, Statistical Mechanics.


D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics,
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium.

P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-Interfacial
Phenomena

B. E. POLING (Ph.D., Illinois)-Kinetcis, Energy
Storage, Catalysis.

X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota)-Fluid Me-
chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena,
Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure.

O. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Bioengineer-
ing

R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M)-Multi-
stage Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Ex-
traction, Process Control.

H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse)-
Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech-
nology, Plasma Polymerization, Biomedical Ma-
terials.


R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue)-Rheology of
Polymer Solutions, Chemical Reaction Kinetics.




Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
| is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


- ROLLA








Advanced Studies in

Chemical Engineering

at NJIT


NJIT, the public technological university
of New Jersey, offering the Master of
Science in Chemical Engineering, Master
of Science, Degree of Engineer, and
Doctor of Engineering Science.
AT NJIT YOU'LL FIND:
Outstanding relationships with major
petrochemical and pharmaceutical -
corporations, yielding significant support for -
research efforts
The National Science Foundation
university/industry cooperative center for
research in hazardous and toxic substances
Graduate and undergraduate enrollment in chemical
engineering among the largest in the country
Financial support available to qualified, full-time graduate
students
Faculty: Chemical Engineering Division
M. F. Abd-EI-Bary (Lehigh) i P. Armenante (Virginia)
[ B. Baltzis (Minnesota) O E. Bart (NYU) O T. Greenstein
(NYU) D D. Hanesian (Cornell) L C. R. Huang (Michigan)
D D. Knox (RPI) ] G. Lewandowski (Columbia) O C. C. Lin
(Technische Universitat Munchen) L J. E. McCormick (Cincin-
nati) O T. Petroulas (Minnesota) [ A. J. Perna (Connecticut)
O E. C. Roche, Jr. (Stevens) [ D. Tassios (Texas)
D W. T. Wong (Princeton)
Faculty: Chemistry Division
J. Bozzelli (Princeton) O V. Cagnati (Stevens) D L. Dauerman
(Rutgers) O D. Getzin (Columbia) L A. Greenberg (Princeton)
O J. Grow (Oregon State) O T. Gund (Princeton) D B. Kebbekus
(Penn State) O H. Kimmel (CUNY) O D. S. Kristol (NYU)
O D. Lambert (Oklahoma State) O G. Lei (PINY) O R. Parker
(Washington) L H. Perlmutter (NYU) O A. Shilman (PINY)
l L. Suchow (PINY) O R. Tomkins (London) O R. Trattner
(CUNY) O C. Venanzi (UC at Santa Barbara)

CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Air pollutant analysis and transport of organic compounds
O Biological and chemical detoxification L Design of air
pollution control equipment l Toxicology
REACTION KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN
Fixed and fluidized bed reactors D Free radical and global
reaction kinetics O Biochemical reactors O Reactor modeling
and transport mechanisms
THERMODYNAMICS
Vapor-liquid equilibria LI Calorimetry L Equations of state
L Solute/solvent systems
APPLIED CHEMISTRY
Electrochemistry O Trace analysis and instrument development
L Strained molecules O Inorganic solid state and material


-, 9 science L Heterocyclic and synthetic organic
compounds L Drug receptor interaction
S modeling O Enzyme/substrate geometrics
POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Rheology of polymer melts O Synthesis of
dental adhesive El Photo initiated polymeriza-
tion L Size distribution of emulsion
polymerization L Fire resistance fibers
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
Thixotropic property of human blood
E Modified glucose tolerance test
O Mathematical modeling of metabolic processes
PROCESS SIMULATION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES
Distillation L Parametric pumping L Protein separation
O Liquid membranes

New Jersey Institute of Technology is a publicly supported
university with 7,000 students enrolled in baccalaureate
through doctoral programs, within three colleges: Newark
College of Engineering, the School of Architecture, and
Third College, the school of sciences, humanities, and
management.

We invite you to explore academic opportunities at NJIT


For further information call (201) 596-3460
or write:
Director of Graduate Studies
NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Newark, New Jersey 07102
AA/EO Institution


















IS


There's no formula for it.
It's a decision that depends, in
the end, on your own instincts
and judgment.
It's also a decision you
shouldn't make until you look
at North Carolina State.
Because something is
happening here that's begun to
surprise a lot of people.
Weve established the
highest matriculation standard
in a university system already
known for excellence.
And that means brighter,
more talented undergraduates
The faculty, as a result,
are constantly challenged. A
very healthy state of affairs that
reflects, in turn, on the quality
of the graduate program.
And "quality" is the word


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$1,250,000. And it comes from try a simple exp
the most competitive sources Write to ou
for research support. head, Harold B.
Currently active research for more inform
projects run the gamut of him at (919)73;
classical areas, including multi- After all, w
faculty collaboration in coal trying to make;
gasification, polymer science a graduate schc
and biotechnology, pays to do youi

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Hopfenberg,
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72318.
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Department of Chemical Engineering. Box 7905, North Carolina State Uniemsity. Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905.




Full Text