Citation
Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
AA00000383_00084 ( sobekcm )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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chemical engineering education


VOLUME XVIII


NUMBER 4


FALL 1984


4d-


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE



APPLIED MATHEMATICS IN ChE Lauffenburger, Dusan V., Ungar
ChE PRACTICE: GRADUATE PLANT DESIGN Mamell
COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE Scamehorn
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Shah
HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS WITH VIDEO-BASED SEMINARS White
LINEAR ALGEBRA FOR ChEs Zygourakis


Reddach aw ..


CATALYSIS .
BIO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS



SEPARATIONS RESEARCH .
GRADUATE RESIDENCY AT CLEMSON .
SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING .


Bartholomew, Hecker
Converse, Grethlein



. Fair
. Edle
McConica


Gad a a


COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING GRAD SCHOOL .

4wa0d .,mc *
SIMULATION AND ESTIMATION BY ORTHOGONAL COLLOCATION
Warren E. Stewart


Duda





eCC
achanawledesa wand tlhans....





3M FOUNDATION








CHEMICAL INGININEG EDUCATION










Cddo.,s Il At

This is the 16th Graduate Issue to be published by CEE
and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous
issues, we include articles on graduate courses and re-
search at various universities and announcements of de-
partments on their graduate programs. In order for you to
obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue,
but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from
recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a pre-
vious Fall issue, please write CEE.


AUTHOR


Davis
Sawin, Reif

Shaeiwitz

Takoudis
Valle-Riestra

Woods
Middleman

Serageldin
Wankat, Oreovicz

Bird
Thomson,
Simmons


Hightower

Mesler
Weiland, Taylor
Dullien
Seapan
Skaates
Baird, Wilkes
Fenn


Abbott
Butt, Kung

Chen, et al
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al
Thomson
Bartholomew
Hassler
Miller
Wankat
Wolf


Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida

TITLE


Fall 1983

"Numerical Methods and Modeling"
"Plasma Processing in Integrated
Circuit Fabrication"
"Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass
Transfer"
"Chemical Reactor Design"
"Project Evaluation in the Chemical
Process Industries"
"Surface Phenomena"
"Research on Cleaning up in San
Diego"
"Research on Combustion"
"Grad Student's Guide to Academic
Job Hunting"
"Book Writing and ChE Education"
"Grad Education Wins in Interstate
Rivalry"
Fall 1982

"Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over
Ferrite Catalysts"
"Nucleate Boiling"
"Mass Transfer"
"Funds. of Petroleum Production"
"Air Pollution for Engineers"
"Catalysis"
"Polymer Education and Research"
"Research is Engineering"

Fall 1981

"Classical Thermodynamics"
"Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction
Engineering"
"Parametric Pumping"
"Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation"
"Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization"
"Oil Shale Char Reactions"
"Kinetics and Catalysis"
"ChE Analysis"
"Underground Processing"
"Separation Processes"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"


Bird
Edgar, Schecter
Hanratty
Kenney
Kerchenbaum,
Perkins, Pyle
Liu
Peppas
Rosner
Lees
Senkan, Vivian


Culberson
Davis
Frank
Morari, Ray

Ramkrishna
Russel, et al.
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen


Aris

Butt & Peterson
Kabel

Middleman

Perlmutter

Rajagopalan

Wheelock
Carbonell &
Whitaker



Dumesic

Jorne
Retzloff

Blanch, Russell
Chartoff


Alkire
Bailey & Ollis
DeKee
Deshpande
Johnson
Klinzing
Lemlich
Koutsky
Reynolds
Rosner


Fall 1980
"Polymer Fluid Dynamics"
"In Situ Processing"
"Wall Turbulence"
"Chemical Reactors"
"Systems Modelling & Control"

"Process Synthesis"
"Polymerization Reaction Engineering"
"Combustion Science & Technology"
"Plant Engineering at Loughborough"
"MIT School of ChE Practice"
Fall 1979
"Doctoral Level ChE Economics"
"Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics"
"Courses in Polymer Science"
"Integration of Real-Time Computing
Into Process Control Teaching"
"Functional Analysis for ChE"
"Colloidal Phenomena"
"Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Mathematical Methods in ChE"
"Coal Liquefaction Processes"
Fall 1978
"Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes
on Seminars in a ChE Department"
"Chemical Reactor Engineering"
"Influential Papers in Chemical Re-
action Engineering"
"A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro-
cessing"
"Reactor Design From a Stability
Viewpoint"
"The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal
Systems"
"Coal Science and Technology"
"Transport Phnomena in Multicom-
ponent, Multiphase, Reacting
Systems'
Fall 1977
"Fundamental Concepts in Surface In-
teractions"
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Chemical Reaction Engineering
Science"
"Biochemical Engineering"
"Polymer Science and Engineering"

Fall 1976
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum
Transport"


FALL 1984





.2 'iv


Growth Through

Responsibility

YOUR CAREER WITH ROHM AND HAAS

If you're the kind of person who can take the
initiative and aggressively reach for increasing
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u sed in industry and agriculture. Because our
employees are a critical ingredient in our con-
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their development and growth. When you join
S Rohm and Haas, you'll receive a position with

; : substantial initial responsibility and plenty of
.room for growth. And we'll provide the oppor-
tunities to acquire the necessary technical and
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;_mation, visit your College Placement Office,
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ROHMN M

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.1 `--i -- 'i.r
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, LV










EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner
Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:
Chairman:
Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Past Chairman:
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
University of Colorado

SOUTH:
Homer F. Johnson
University of Tennessee
Jack R. Hopper
Lamar University
James Fair
University of Texas
Gary Poehlesn
Georgia Tech
CENTRAL:
Robert F. Anderson
UOP Process Division
Lowell B. Koppel
Purdue University
WEST:
William B. Krantz
University of Colorado
C. Judson King
University of California Berkeley
Frederick H. Shair
California Institute of Technology
NORTHEAST:
Angelo J. Perna
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
Raymond Baddour
M.I.T.
A. W. Westerberg
Carnegie-Mellon University

NORTHWEST:
Charles Sleicher
University of Washington
CANADA:
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McMaster University
LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
Thomas W. Weber
State University of New York


Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XVIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1984


Views and Opinions
156 Common Misconceptions Concerning Graduate
School, J. L. Duda

Courses in
160 Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering,
Douglas Lauffenburger, Elizabeth Dusan V.,
Lyle Ungar

164 Chemical Engineering Practice: Graduate Plant
Design, Paul Marnell

166 Colloid and Surface Science, John F. Scamehorn
170 Transport Phenomena, D. B. Shah
174 Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving Video-Based
Seminars, Mark G. White

176 Linear Algebra for Chemical Engineers,
Kyriacos Zygourakis

Research on
180 Catalysis, Calvin H. Bartholomew, William C.
Hecker

186 Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass,
Alvin O. Converse, Hans E. Grethlein

A Program in
190 Separations Research, James R. Fair
196 Graduate Residency at Clemson: A Real World
MS Degree, Dan D. Edie

200 Semiconductor Processing, Carol McConica

Award Lecture
204 Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal
Collocation, Warren E. Stewart

153 Editorial
159 Division Activities
159, 185, 199,203 Book Reviews
195 Books Received

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per
year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1984 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical. USPS 101900


FALL 1984









-NM


views and opinions I


COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING

GRADUATE SCHOOL


J. L. DUDA
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA 16802
*
Twenty-five years ago, I started graduate school at the
University of Delaware. Looking back on that time, I can
see that I was a typical graduate student in that I was
both excited and terrified, confident and anxious, sure of
success one day and afraid of failure the next. I did,
however, harbor certain basic misconceptions about the
experiences which lay ahead of me. In talking to our
graduate students here at Penn State, I found that those
same misconceptions are still common, and this insight
prompted me to give the following introductory address
to our incoming graduate students.



SIKE YOU TODAY, I was also entering graduate
-school twenty-five years ago. My mind was
also filled with questions and concerns. It was also
cluttered with certain misconceptions, which are
still popular today. I would like to look back on
that time with you and try to tell you how my
views on graduate school have changed.

The first misconception I had was that gradu-
ate school would be a continuation of my experience
as an undergraduate.

This was probably my greatest misconception.
First of all, graduate courses and undergraduate
courses are, in general, somewhat different. You
are an elite group since we only accept one out of
every fifteen applicants to our graduate program.
Consequently, there is no doubt in our minds that
you can perform well in graduate courses since
your ability in chemical engineering courses has
been demonstrated by your undergraduate record.
Therefore, graduate courses tend to be more re-
laxed, with less emphasis on evaluation and
certainly no hint of being a weeding-out process.
We feel that you are in these courses because you

Copyright ChE Division. ASEE. 1984


The key to graduate research is problem
solving, not the acquisition of specific information.
You will learn to solve problems by actually
performing this task under the
direction of an expert...

want to learn, and therefore our main emphasis
is on enhancing your technical expertise. You are
now engineers, not just high school graduates.
The main difference between undergraduate
and graduate education is related to the research
aspect of graduate studies. Very few of our gradu-
ate students fail to receive their graduate degree
because of their performance in courses. The main
hurdle is the ability to do independent research.
Up to now, in my opinion, your educational ex-
periences have been somewhat artificial. You have
studied in order to pass exams which cover very
specific and limited areas. In the past, you worked
certain problems on examinations. You knew
there was an answer. You also knew you had
enough data to reach that answer. Conducting
research in graduate school, on the other hand,
does not involve an artificial environment. You
will be working on problems where no one
knows the answer, and the problem itself might
not even be clear. Graduate research is similar to
an apprenticeship. You will be working directly
with an expert and will learn by doing and ob-
serving how this expert approaches problems.
The key to graduate research is problem solving,
not the acquisition of specific information. You
will learn how to solve problems by actually per-
forming this task under the direction of an expert,
not by studying the philosophy or idealized ap-
proach to problem solving.
What happened to me may also happen to some
of you. I slowly began to realize that research
was unlike anything that I had been exposed to
previously. There is a natural tendency to exagger-
ate the difference and come to the counter-mis-
conception that research has nothing to do with
your undergraduate work. This is not true either.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






















J. L. Duda is Professor and Head of the Department of Chemical
Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University. He received his BS
in chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology and his MS and
PhD at the University of Delaware. He joined the staff at Penn State
in 1971 after eight years in research with The Dow Chemical Company.

Research is a natural extension of your learning
career to date, but it is also more than that. You
have been learning and obtaining information
from teachers, textbooks, and independent study
in libraries. But what do you do when the knowl-
edge you desire is not available in any book or
article, or when no individual exists who knows the
answer? Research in the physical sciences and
engineering is the process of learning by asking
nature questions. In a sense, nature becomes your
ultimate teacher. When you design experiments,
you are really formulating your questions for
nature. Unlike your previous teachers, nature does
not anticipate your question. You will get a direct
and honest answer to your question as it was
formulated. If you are misled or have difficulties,
it will not be because nature failed to answer your
question. It will be due to your failure in formulat-
ing the question or in interpreting the results. The
best researchers are the ones who ask what appear
to be very simple questions and receive earth-
shaking replies.
At this point, one might ask how theory fits
into all this if the basis of research is asking nature
questions through experimentation. As J. Willard
Gibbs said, "The purpose of theory is to find that
viewpoint from which experimental observa-
tions appear to fit the simplest pattern." You
want to determine this pattern so that you can
generalize your experimental observations and
minimize the number of experiments that have to
be conducted.

My second misconception concerning graduate
school was that the choice of a research topic was
one of the most important decisions of my life


since it would determine what area I would work
in for the rest of my career.
New graduate students continually forget that
the main purpose of research at the graduate level
is to learn how to do research and to solve prob-
lems. The acquisition of knowledge in a particular
area is of secondary importance. If you have
learned how to do research in area A, it is a rela-
tively minor step to acquire the facts and back-
ground needed to conduct research in area B.
Consequently, when choosing a research topic,
your main concern should not be whether you like
the research area, but whether this particular re-
search project and the director of this research
have the best chance of teaching you how to con-
duct research.
My third misconception was that my research
work would follow the idealized method of scientific
inquiry which involves a literature search, develop-
ment of a theory, design of the experiments, and
interpretation of results that tested the theory.
One quickly learns that research is often more
like a random walk than an idealized textbook ap-


... when choosing a research
topic, your main concern should not be
whether you like the research area, but whether
this particular research project and the director of
this research have the best chance of teaching
you how to conduct research.


proach. The young researcher is often quite upset
when discovering this fact. At first it is difficult
to accept this basic truth. It is much easier to
arrive at one of the following conclusions:
My thesis advisor is incompetent.
My research topic is a real lemon; I don't know how
anyone talked me into doing this.
My research has nothing to do with what I have
learned in the classroom.
No one else has problems like me; my project is
unique in its difficulty.
What the young researcher fails to realize is
that the way research results are presented in a
paper or a seminar has nothing to do with the
process that was followed in obtaining those re-
sults. Research cannot be planned like many other
human endeavors. It is, in fact, a form of art. If
you knew beforehand what your results were
going to be and the path you would have to take
to obtain them, it simply would not be research.


FALL 1984










No matter how badly things
are going, or how tortuous your route,
you should always maintain a clear
idea of your objective.

One frustration which all faculty members face
is that many funding organizations also do not
realize this. As a graduate student, you must be
careful not to confuse the formal presentation of
results in papers or seminars with the actual pro-
cess. A related misconception is that the results
you obtain in research should be in proportion to
the time and effort you have spent. The most
difficult aspect of research is that you do not
usually see a steady progression of results. Instead,
results come in bursts or surges. It takes tre-
mendous tenacity to hang in there and keep
plugging away when you are not aware of any
progress.
Many young researchers also feel that their
problem is so complex that it really cannot be ex-
plained to anyone else in a reasonable period of
time. No matter how badly things are going, or
how tortuous your route, you should always main-
tain a clear idea of your objective. If you cannot
give a clear overview of your research project in
a few short sentences, you have a good indication
that part of your problem is your inability to keep
things clearly defined in your own mind.
My fourth misconception was that the study of
chemical engineering had nothing to do with
human values, ethics, morals, etc.
When I started my graduate studies, I con-
sidered science to be ethically or morally neutral.
However, as Bronowski has pointed out, this is
confusing the results or findings of science with
the activity of conducting science. There is no
question that the results of your research will be
ethically neutral; however, at the center of scien-
tific inquiry is the standard that facts or truth, not
dogma, must dominate your research. By conduct-
ing research, you will be training yourself to avoid
and resist every form of persuasion but the facts.
The most difficult part will be to avoid deceiving
yourself. In everyone's career, there comes a time
when experimental observations are inconsistent
with a pet theory. It will be a true test of your ma-
turity as a researcher to unbiasedly look at the
facts and to determine if the experimental observa-
tions are consistent or inconsistent with the
theory, independent of your personal feelings. As


T. H. Huxley said, "The great tragedy of science
is the slaying of a beautiful theory by an ugly
fact." There is a natural tendency to formulate
vague theories which cannot be proven wrong, but
all good theories will eventually lead to their own
demise since they will finally predict something
which is inconsistent with experimental observa-
tion.
Science does not have a Hippocratic oath or any
other professionally induced ethical rule. How-
ever, you can be untruthful and still be a success-
ful doctor or lawyer. This is not a viable possibility
for the scientific researcher. As you develop into
a good researcher, you will develop the capability
of making judgments based solely on the facts. I
feel this training can have a very significant posi-
tive influence on the moral and ethical aspect of
your life since it tends to minimize self-deception
and rationalization.

My fifth and final misconception was that
graduate study was all hard work and the rewards
would come later when I had an interesting job
and was making a lot of money.
After I received my advanced degrees, I
realized that some of the best years of my life
were those I spent in graduate school. I found that
the pleasure and sense of accomplishment that
came with learning and creating far outweighed
the other pleasures in life. As graduate students,
you are among the fortunate few who will not
have to spend all of your time for the next few
years working to meet the material needs of your
life. Until this century, the great majority of
people had to spend 100% of their time just to feed
their bodies. A few privileged individuals, such as
the Brahmins, Mandarins, aristocrats, etc. had the
opportunity to simultaneously feed their bodies
and their minds. We have made great advances,
but today most people still spend a major part of
their lives working to fill their material needs. No
matter how difficult you find the days ahead, I am
confident that you will look back on these years
and be grateful that you had this opportunity to
devote all of your effort to learning and creating.
If you are very lucky, you might, after much
hard work, devotion, and frustration, be fortunate
enough to be the first person to see one of those
patterns to which Gibbs referred. That will be the
most rewarding time of your graduate studies,
not the moment you receive a piece of paper which
declares that you have now earned a specific de-
gree or that first pay check. E


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










4EQ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

O E DIVISION ACTIVITIES

TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD
TO T. W. FRASER RUSSELL
The 1984 ASEE Chemical Engineering Di-
vision Lecturer was T. W. Fraser Russell of the
University of Delaware. The purpose of this
award lecture is to recognize and encourage out-
standing achievement in an important field of
fundamental chemical engineering theory of
practice. The 3M Company provides the financial
support for this annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate.
These were presented to this year's Lecturer at
the Annual Chemical Engineering Division Ban-
quet, held at the University of Utah on June 26,
1984.
NOMINATIONS FOR 1984 AWARD SOLICITED
The award is made on an annual basis with
nominations being received through February 1,


1985. The full details for the award preparation
are contained in the Awards Brochure published
by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1985 lecture-
ship are invited. They should be sent to Professor
E. Dendy Sloan, Colorado School of Mines, Golden,
CO 80401.

NEW DIVISION OFFICERS ELECTED
The newly elected ChE Division officers are:
Deran Hanesian, Chairman; D. Barker, Past
Chairman; Dendy Sloan, Chairman Elect; Bill
Beckwith, Secretary-Treasurer; and Lamont
Tyler, Director.

ChE's RECEIVE HONORS
Four chemical engineering professors have
recently been recognized for their outstanding
achievements. Phillip C. Wankat received the
George Westinghouse Award for early achieve-
ment as a teacher and a scholar; James E. Stice
was presented with the Chester F. Carlson Award
for improving instructional techniques; Peter R.
Rony was the recipient of the Delos Award for
excellence in laboratory instruction; and Chung
King Law received the Curtis W. McGraw Re-
search Award for outstanding early achievement
in research.


book reviews

ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION:
METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

By G. V. Reklaitis, A. Ravindran,
K. M. Ragsdell: John Wiley and Sons,
NY (1983) 14 Chapters, 648 pages,
$39.95
Reviewed by
A. W. Westerberg
Carnegie-Mellon University

This is an excellent text from which to teach
optimization techniques to engineering students.
It can be used at either the senior or graduate
level. All of the most important methods are pre-
sented that have appeared in the literature. The
level of detail given on each method should allow
one to see how and where to apply it to small up


to moderate-sized practical problems.
The book concentrates on methods for solving
well behaved, continuous variable optimization
problems. The methods included are unconstrain-
ed single and multivariable optimization, linear
programming, and a host of methods for equality
and inequality constrained nonlinear problems.
Not considered are methods directly applicable
for models containing ordinary and partial differ-
ential equations, nor is there very much on solving
problems where some or most of the variables can
take on only discrete values. Also the book does
not consider decomposition techniques, sparse
matrix techniques and the like, concepts usually
needed to allow the techniques covered to be ap-
plied to really large problems. The book is already
lengthy so it is completely reasonable that it
limits its coverage to the topics that it does.
The style of presentation is generally excel-
lent. The authors have concentrated on appealing
Continued on page 185,


FALL 1984










4 o4ae iet


APPLIED MATHEMATICS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


DOUGLAS LAUFFENBURGER,
ELIZABETH DUSSAN V., and
LYLE UNGAR
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

A ALTHOUGH APPLIED MATHEMATICS has become
increasingly important in chemical engineer-
ing research over the past three decades, it is still
eyed with great trepidation by the typical first-
year graduate student. The nature of mathematics
is viewed as something alien to real engineering,
having little or no substance nor, curiously, logic.
A prevailing opinion among first-year students
is that mathematics is more closely related to
magic than it is to science. It has been presented
to them during their undergraduate years mainly
as a mere assortment of techniques, a "bag of
tricks," from which the right method for the spe-
cific problem at hand must be plucked. Because the
"why" of mathematics has not been learned,
students lack confidence in the "how" as well.
At Penn we believe that this situation must be
corrected if our graduate students are to be able
to productively use applied mathematics in their
research careers. Therefore, our set of six core
graduate courses includes a two-semester sequence
("Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineer-
ing") which is required of every first-year student.
In addition, we now offer a strongly recommended
elective course as a third semester in that se-
quence. However, it is not only the formal empha-
sis on mathematics, but also the content and es-
pecially the approach of the courses that convey
our message to the students.
In order to gain confidence in using mathe-
matics in research, a student needs to know not
only how to apply some technique to solve a prob-
lem, but also when that technique is guaranteed to
work and why, what other alternatives exist, and
what methods are certain to be futile. Thus, our
courses are taught with what might be termed a
rather fundamental approach. That is, we empha-
size the internal logic and structure of mathe-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


In order to gain confidence in
using mathematics in research, a student
needs to know not only how to apply some technique
to solve a problem, but also when that technique
is guaranteed to work and why, what other
alternatives exist, and what methods
are certain to be futile.

matics, showing that equations can possess in-
trinsic, inviolable properties in themselves, by
providing rigorous definitions and stating and pro-
viding relevant theorems. It is these theorems
which guarantee that certain techniques will pro-
vide solutions for particular problems and that
others will not. Further, we show how the in-
trinsic properties of equations correspond inti-
mately with the natural behavior of the physical,
chemical, or biological system being modeled
mathematically by the equations. Once these
properties are understood, it becomes a straight-
forward matter to derive a large number of solu-
tion techniques, both familiar and new, to the
students' satisfaction. It is at this point that the
students finally appreciate the power of the ab-
stract approach, for they now have learned why
the tricks in their bag sometimes worked and
sometimes did not. And they realize that they are
now capable of reading applied mathematics re-
search literature to learn new techniques, since
they have a grasp of the necessary underlying
theoretical foundations. This is, of course, the
ultimate aim of a graduate course in any subject-
not to pretend to teach the entirety of knowledge
in the area but to enable the students to learn
whatever is of interest to them.
So, what at first may appear to be a rather im-
practical approach to engineering applied mathe-
matics turns out, in fact, to be of great utility. We
make the analogy to mastery of a musical instru-
ment; it might seem much more practical to
memorize a few songs that can readily be played
at parties instead of learning to read music and
practicing scales and arpeggios, but which ap-
proach will allow a new concerto to be faced with
confidence?


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








CONTENT

The basis of our approach consists of teaching
as much as possible from a linear operator point
of view. The first semester course concentrates on
establishing the formal structure of linear, or
vector, spaces, with an emphasis on spaces of
finite dimension. This allows development of
solution procedures for systems of linear algebraic
equations and systems of linear ordinary differ-
ential equations. We also establish the formal
structure of nonlinear metric spaces, which leads
to techniques for approximate solution of non-
linear equations of both algebraic and ordinary
differential types. The second semester course
then focuses on linear spaces of infinite dimension.
Understanding of these spaces permits develop-
ment of solution procedures for partial differential
equations. Finally, the third (elective) semester
deals exclusively with nonlinear systems of
ordinary and partial differential equations, utiliz-
ing perturbation methods and bifurcation theory.
The underlying theme running throughout all
three semesters is one of considering problems
from within an operator framework. We stress
linear theory because, simply, only linear problems
can really be solved (excepting special cases).
Even approximate solution techniques for non-
linear problems, whether analytical or numerical,
can be shown to be based on transforming the non-
linear problem into a system of linear sub-
problems. (It might be noted that this point helps
to disabuse the notion that the computer has made


the understanding of mathematics less important
to the engineer.) Thus, if a student has a firm
grasp of the theory of linear problems, he or she
will be able to understand how nonlinear problems
may be approached. When this lesson is taken to
heart, the student acquires confidence from the
fact that he or she possesses sufficient mathe-
matical skill to attack theoretical or computa-
tional research problems without anxiety.
In the next few paragraphs we will attempt
to provide a brief summary of the course content.
The first lecture is devoted to defining linear
spaces rigorously, with a vector being simply an
element in such a space. It is pointed out that
these spaces are of importance essentially because
the desired solutions to systems of equations will,
in fact, be vectors in appropriately defined spaces.
We then show how spaces may be comprised of
linear subspaces, yielding the possibility of ob-
taining solution vectors as a combination of
vectors from different subspaces, using the con-
cept of direct sums. Convenient ways of develop-
ing such combinations are allowed by introducing
the idea of linear independence of vectors. The
number of terms needed for such a combination
is specified, using the notion of the dimension of
a space, leading to the crucial definition of a basis
for a linear space with finite dimension. Linear
transformations are then defined, and it is shown
that all systems of linear equations, no matter
what type, can be cast as a linear transformation
of a vector in one space to a vector in another.


Douglas Lauffenburger is
currently associate professor of
chemical engineering, having
arrived at Penn in 1979 after
receiving his BS degree at II- '
linois and his PhD at Minne-
sota. He spent the summer of
1980 as a Visiting Scientist at
the Institute for Applied Mathe-
matics at Heidelberg. His re-





havior. (L)
Elizabeth Dussan V. is presently on leave as a Guggenheim Fellow
at Cambridge University, holding the position of associate professor
at Penn. She received her BS degree at SUNY Stony Brook and her
PhD at Johns Hopkins, coming to Penn in 1973 following a post-
doctoral position at Minnesota. Among her areas of investigation
are included fluid mechanics and interfacial phenomena. (C)
are included fluid mechanics and interfacial phenomena. (C)


Lyle Ungar joined the faculty at Penn in 1984 as assistant professor,
having received his BS degree at Stanford and his PhD at MIT. His
research interests include application of perturbation methods, bi-
furcation theory, and finite element analysis to kinetic and transport
problems in continuum physics. Topics of current focus include crystal
growth and rapid solidification materials processing. (R)


FALL 1984









The first lecture is devoted to defining linear spaces rigorously with a
vector being simply an element in such a space. It is pointed out that these spaces are
of importance essentially because the desired solutions to systems of equations
will, in fact, be vectors in appropriately defined spaces.


Thus, the solution to any linear problem can be
understood in terms of solution of the general
linear transformation equation
Lx = y
where y is the "data" vector in the range space,
x is the "solution" vector in the domain space, and
L is the linear transformation. Regardless of
whether the problem is of algebraic, differential,
or integral type, the vectors and the transforma-
tion can be written in component form in terms
of basis vectors for the range and domain spaces,
so that all problems involving finite-dimensional
spaces are equivalent to matrix equations. In-
verse transformations are now defined, fore-
shadowing a number of solution techniques for
specific problems. This permits the uniqueness of
solutions, if they exist, to be determined.
Norms and inner products are introduced
next in order to add geometric structure to the
already present algebraic structure of linear
spaces. This allows formulation of orthogonal
basis vectors, which will be useful for generating
the most convenient solution combinations. Ad-
joints can now also be discussed, leading to the
Fredholm Alternative Theorem and the determina-
tion of existence of solutions. Finally, the concept
of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is presented, and
a Spectral Theorem is proved to demonstrate how
orthogonal basis solution expansions can be ob-
tained using the eigenvectors of a self-adjoint
operator. At this point, it is helpful to pull back
from abstract theory and apply the principles
learned so far to the solution of matrix equations.
As mentioned earlier, it is stressed that such
equations are actually involved in all finite-
dimensional problems. Given the theoretical back-
ground, a large number of alternative solution
techniques can be derived very quickly and easily,
and the student now understands the justification
for, as well as the limits of, these techniques.
We then step back into the realm of theory
and, in fact, temporarily remove all the algebraic
structure we have learned about linear spaces.
This leaves us with only geometric structure; that
is, the notions of size and distance generated by
the presence of norms in linear spaces. In non-


linear spaces, the function that measures the size
of an element, or the distance of it from another, is
called a metric. Thus, we present an introduction
to metric spaces, of which solutions to nonlinear
problems may be elements. We can rigorously de-
termine whether a sequence of elements converges
to a distinct element, a property crucial to the de-
velopment of approximate solution techniques (as
well as analytical solution methods for infinite-
dimensional space problems). It takes relatively
little time to move to the surprisingly powerful
Fixed Point Theorem. This can be used to delineate
circumstances under which an iterative approach
will converge to a solution, leading to development
of numerical methods for systems of nonlinear as
well as linear algebraic equations. It also can be
used to find regions of uniqueness and multi-
plicity of solutions to nonlinear equations. Finally,
we can use it as a bridge to ordinary differential
equations, since it is required in a simple and
direct proof of Picard's Theorem for existence
and uniqueness of solutions to initial-value prob-
lems. Iterative schemes for obtaining approxi-
mate solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential
equations can also be developed from the Fixed
Point Theorem at this time.
With the reintroduction of linear spaces, the
theory of linear ordinary differential equations
follows directly, because all the necessary back-
ground is in place. The general solution to a system
of such equations can quickly be developed in
terms of the fundamental matrix for the differ-
ential transformation. Students are pleased to see
the apparently disparate variety of solution
techniques they might have encountered previous-
ly fall out very easily from the general solution
expression and development. Methods for de-
termining the form of the fundamental matrix
are discussed next, primarily utilizing eigenvector
basis expansions for constant-coefficient problems
(thus explaining the "sum of exponentials" type
solutions commonly seen) and for variable-co-
efficient problems as well. The mystery is thus
taken out of the use of special functions (Bessel
functions, Legendre functions, etc.) for the latter
types of equations, as their forms are seen to be
derived in a consistent and rigorous way. The last


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








few days of the first semester are used to intro-
duce the ideas of asymptotic expansions and per-
turbation theory as means to solve nonlinear
problems by turning them into a sequence of
linear ones. Linearized stability theory and a quick
preview of bifurcation theory are also accessible
at this point.
The second semester begins with linear ordin-
ary differential equations of boundary-value type.
The solution procedure for these follows directly
from the fundamental matrix approach previously
developed for initial value problems. The fact that
solution properties are not completely specified at
one value of the independent variable (providing
"initial" conditions) but rather some are specified
at another value (yielding "boundary" conditions)
causes no breakdown of the approach. Unspecified
initial conditions can be assumed to be constants
as yet unknown, and the fundamental matrix pro-
cedure can be followed. The unknown constants
can then be determined by requiring the remain-
ing boundary conditions to be satisfied. At this
point it is useful to show how common solution
techniques are related to this approach. Of prime
interest is a presentation of Green's function
techniques, with the Green's function for a linear
differential operator demonstrated to be analogous
to the fundamental matrix.
We then move on to an extension of linear
operator theory to linear spaces of infinite dimen-
sion. The most significant change is in the defini-
tion of a basis for an infinite-dimensional space.
An infinite number of vectors is now required for
expansion of a solution vector, and the determina-
tion of the coefficients is greatly complicated. It
is here that the property of self-adjointness of a
linear operator becomes crucially important. For
such operators the expansion coefficients can be
determined individually in a straightforward
manner. Thus, it is worth taking some time at this
point to show how problems of unusual form can
sometimes be cast as self-adjoint problems by ap-
propriate definition of the inner product.
Linear partial differential equations can now
be approached as linear operator equations on in-
finite dimensional spaces. Thus, solutions to these
can be obtained as series expansions in terms of
the infinite set of basis vectors, which will be
orthogonal if the differential operator is self-ad-
joint. For non-self adjoint operators the eigen-
vectors will form a biorthogonal set with the
eigenvectors of the adjoint operators, although in
this case the eigenvalues will be more difficult to


find because they can be complex. The well-known
Sturm-Liouville problem is seen to be a special
case of a linear self-adjoint differential eigenvalue
equation, which allows eigenfunction expansion
solution.
Now that a foundation for series expansion
techniques for solution of linear partial differential
equations has been laid, we can go on to examine
a series of problems of increasing complexity and
subtlety. Examples include the Laplace and
Poisson equations, and the diffusion and wave
equations, in rectangular Cartesian, cylindrical,
and spherical coordinate systems on finite and
semi-infinite domains, with a variety of boundary
conditions. Problems involving non-self-adjoint
operators are also investigated, since the essential
concepts have previously been established.

... it is useful to show how
common solution techniques are related to
this approach. Of prime interest is a presentation
of Green's function techniques ...

Examples of these include combined convection-
diffusion equations and the biharmonic equation.
Again, we stress the development of the solution
procedures from the linear operator theory frame-
work, emphasizing the unifying logic present
despite the apparent variety of problems found.
The second semester is, in a sense, more of a
"techniques" oriented course than the first semest-
er in that there is a great emphasis on how to
solve problems from a general linear operator
point of view rather than primarily proving
theorems. For example, proof of theorems relevant
to infinite dimensional vector spaces such as the
Spectral Theorem are neglected in favor of a de-
tailed discussion of the subtle differences between
finite and infinite dimensional spaces. We revisit
many of the topics developed during the first se-
mester with an almost exclusive focus on differ-
ential operators. We look at adjoint operators
and examine how their form intimately depends
on the choice of the inner product. We apply
Fredholm's Alternative to examine the conditions
under which solutions exist to Lx = y, where L
is a Fredholm operator. The students are sur-
prised to see that the existence of a solution to a
particular problem is very sensitive to the form
of the boundary conditions, and that the initial-
value problem can be thought of as a specific
type of boundary-value problem. The students
Continued on page 214.


FALL 1984









4 oa4e" ia


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE:

GRADUATE PLANT DESIGN


PAUL MARNELL
Manhattan College
Riverdale, NY 10471

T HE OBJECTIVE OF this year long graduate plant
design course [1, 2] is to provide the students
with
A fundamental appreciation of the profit motive that
drives business activity, and the role of the chemical
engineer in achieving this fundamental goal
Historical and contemporary perspectives on chemical
engineering practice
Confidence to tackle the wide variety of problems that
confront the chemical engineer
The emphasis throughout the course is on why
things are done the way they are. The "how to"
aspects of design are implemented only after their
needs have been established by a critical evalua-
tion of the various problems in process invention,
process development, and ultimately, detailed pro-
cess design. The spectrum of design tools, i.e., ball
park estimates, preliminary design techniques, and
detailed design procedures, is integrated with the
various phases in a process plant project.
The rapidly changing technological and social
climates demand that we produce generalists who
have been schooled in the basic aspects of the de-
sign methodologies and who can learn fast and
quickly bring themselves up to speed for a
particular application. Obviously, it is not possible
to teach all of the design and economic methods
that practicing chemical engineers use, so a
collection of procedures that will suffice for many
situations is emphasized. The students are also
trained to critically study the literature, including

The recent recession and its
disastrous effect on employment clearly
illustrated the fact, which is often missed by
students, that engineers provide services
to companies to help them achieve the
primary goal of an adequate profit.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


E t
Paul Marnell is an associate professor in the Manhattan College
chemical engineering department. He initiated and helped direct
the coal-water fuel technology research at Brookhaven National
Laboratory from 1980-83. Prior to joining Manhattan in 1976, he was
Director of Environmental Projects for the U.S. operations of the
Lurgi Company and also held engineering positions with the Stone
and Webster and Foster Wheeler Corporations. He obtained his BChE
from City College, his MS (nuclear engineering) from Union College,
and an EngScD (mechanical engineering) from Columbia University
in 1972.

patents, so that they may uncover or develop new
procedures and analogies which they can use with
confidence in situations that are new to them.
The rationale for and some of the methods used
to attain the course goals are discussed in the
following.

"The Chemical plant is a dollar factory."
-William C. Reid [3]
The recent recession and its disastrous effect
on employment clearly illustrated the fact, which
is often missed by students, that engineers pro-
vide services to companies to help them achieve
the primary goal of an adequate profit. Thus,
technical expertise combined with engineering
economic analysis is the bedrock upon which engi-
neering judgments are made.
Engineers create devices by applying the laws
of nature and mathematics and using empiricism
and intuition where needed. Analysis to provide


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









basic knowledge is the province of the scientist
or mathematician. Analysis to provide insight on
the performance of a device is a valuable part of
the design process and one which can reduce the
cost of empiricism. However, often empiricism
must be used to create things within a reasonable
period of time. Thus, piping systems are designed
on the basis of the empirical friction factor cor-
relations for turbulent flow, and it will probably
be many years before a truly fundamental re-
lationship for turbulent pressure drop in pipelines
will be achieved. Similar considerations hold for
mass and heat transfer correlations and reaction
rate expressions. Nevertheless, chemical plants
have been built and will continue to be built by the
judicious blending of analysis, intuition, and em-
piricism.
This brief essay is not the place to expand on
the various aspects of engineering economic
analysis that are considered in the course. How-
ever, two elements of critical importance are:
1. Multiple alternatives are generally available to
achieve a goal, and the engineer is constantly screen-
ing alternatives of increasing detail with tools of
increasing accuracy. The observation is valid at all
levels of decision making, from the selection of a
project to fund to the choice of a vendor for, say,
concrete reinforcing bars. Thus, several years ago
the Mobil Oil Corporation felt that buying Mont-
gomery Ward was an attractive venture to help
maximize profits, and currently the United States
Steel Corporation is shutting down more of its steel
plants while increasing its real estate holdings.*
Similarly, examples within the chemical process
industry form a hierarchy which ranges from the
general to the very specific. Which product should
be made to achieve a desired result, and which re-
action path should be used to produce it? Given the
reaction path, which separation technologies would
be best, and given that distillation might be desire-
able, should it be done in a plate or packed tower?
What type of plate tower should be used, and who
should the vendor be? Alternatives abound, from
broad strategic questions to very specific hardware
items, and usually one is more attractive than its
competitors.
2. As with engineering analysis, the tools for economic
analysis range from crude to sophisticated, and the
choice represents a compromise between expediency
and accuracy that yields a result which is acceptable
for the circumstances.
"Nevertheless, it would be a mistake to
suppose that the present generation can


*While they are only noted here, the social and economic
implications of these transactions, especially the latter,
are explored in the course.


The first car built did not look like today's
Ferrari. Similarly, many current chemical plants are
much more complicated than their predecessors.

afford to ignore the labours of its predeces-
sors."
-Lord Rayleigh [4]
The first car built did not look like today's
Ferrari. Similarly, many current chemical plants
are much more complicated than their predeces-
sors. Modern ethylene, ammonia, and sulfuric
acid plants represent the evolution and refinement
of their underlying processes. All too often, study
of these highly integrated technologies can intimi-
date a student. It is essential to stress the fact
that they represent thousands of man-years of
engineering effort and decades of operating ex-
perience, and in no way, shape, or form were con-
ceived, developed, and built this way on the first
try. Engineers should recognize that technological
progress usually represents an evolution of pain-
staking improvements built upon a singular
revolutionary concept.
Engineers, like other creative people, design,
analyze, redesign, build, and refine their artifacts.
Hence, it is important to inculcate the philosophy
of not reinventing the wheel. Learn from what
has gone before. Minimize mistakes by learning
from those of others. Understand the logic of the
past to help guide the developments of the present
and the future.

". the authors .... not include in their
books anything they themselves do not
understand."
-Linus Pauling [5]
The vast majority of what a chemical engineer
does is included in the categories of process de-
velopment, process design, and process improve-
ment. In these activities, analysis is the hand-
maiden of synthesis. How does the item that has
been created perform? Can it be improved?
During the sixties and seventies the "hand-
book" engineer was criticized [6]. He is a person
who presumably does not understand the basis of
his system, and who can use solutions in books but
cannot generate new ones for new situations.
In the eighties, the handbook engineer is being
replaced by the "black box" engineer, i.e., one who
is adept at filling out computer input forms, but
who has little understanding of the underlying
Continued on page 215,


FALL 1984










4CD AD SE in




COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE


JOHN F. SCAMEHORN
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73019

APPLICATIONS OF COLLOID and surface phe-
nomena in chemical engineering are becoming
increasingly abundant. In the search for new
technologies to solve pressing problems, such
techniques as enhanced oil recovery by surfactant
flooding, micellar catalysis, and surfactant-based
separation techniques have emerged. Traditional
technologies using surface and colloid science
have aroused new research interest: examples
are adsorption, detergency, and flotation.
The course discussed here was designed to
cover a wide range of some of the more important
topics in colloid and surface science (see Table 1).
Obviously, in covering this many topics, a great
deal of depth could not be attained, but when the
students finish the course they have a working
familiarity with a wide range of phenomena and a
quantitative knowledge of the more important
mathematical relationships in the field. Since tra-
ditional chemical engineering courses essentially
ignore surface and colloid phenomena, the in-
structor has to assume he is starting from ground-
level in almost all of these topics.
This course was designed for chemical engi-
neers, chemists, and petroleum engineers. A typi-
cal breakdown of enrollment by the three cate-
gories is 70%, 20%, and 10%, respectively. The
only prerequisite is chemical thermodynamics
(either physical chemistry or chemical engineer-
ing thermodynamics). The mixture of students
from different disciplines brings breadth to class-
room discussions and forces the instructor to
search for examples of applications which are out-
side of his immediate interests.

TEXTBOOK SELECTION
Unfortunately, there is no single textbook
which covers both surface and colloid science

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


sufficiently well to be a basis for this course.
Therefore, required texts for the course are
Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, by Adamson [1],
for surface science, and Surfactants and Inter-
facial Phenomena, by Rosen [2], for colloid science.
Numerous handouts and references are also used.

COURSE DESCRIPTION
As seen in Table 1, the first four major topics
are related to surface phenomena. Adamson [1]
is used in this part of the course, more as a refer-
ence than as a textbook.
First, considerable effort is expended in ex-
plaining the physical causes of surface tension,
since this is critical to future topics. One useful
example is to consider the creation of a vapor-
liquid interface as the reduction of the number of
nearest neighbors to a surface molecule in the
liquid from six to five. The surface tension per


John F. Scamehorn received his BSChE in 1973 and his MS in
chemical engineering in 1974, both from the University of Nebraska,
and worked for the Chemical Research Division of Conoco Inc. for
three years before returning to graduate school. He received his PhD
in chemical engineering from the University of Texas in 1980. He
then spent a year and a half in Corporate Research with Shell De-
velopment Co. before joining the chemical engineering and ma-
terials science department at the University of Oklahoma in 1981.
His research interests focus on applications of surface and colloid
science and of membrane science. He is specifically interested in
enhanced oil recovery, ultrafiltration, adsorption, electrodialysis, and
interactions between dissimilar surfactants in various phenomena.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









unit area is then approximated as one-sixth of
the heat of vaporization of the surface molecules
occupying a unit area. Viewing the creation of
a surface as "fractional vaporization" provides
physical insight to the reason surface tensions
exist, and the crude calculation actually gives
values for surface tension within a factor of two
of the correct value. Demonstration of the actual
measurement of surface tension in the instructor's
lab also reinforces the concept that it takes work
or energy to create a surface. Using a Du-Noiiy
ring tensiometer, the students can see the surface
stretch under stress before breaking.
One of the greatest weaknesses of Adamson
[1] is the treatment of surface thermodynamics.
The derivations are generally not rigorous and
are often obscure. Therefore, the instructor
basically needs to derive fundamental thermo-
dynamic relationships (like the Kelvin equation
and the Gibbs equation) from scratch. The power
of the Gibbs equation and the importance of the
definition of the dividing surface can be illustrated
by a calculation of monolayer coverage of a sur-
factant from dilute solution from surface tension


... when the students finish the
course they have a working familiarity
with a wide range of phenomena and a quantitative
knowledge of the more important mathematical
relationships in the field.


data.
When covering the third major topic, adsorp-
tion, the basic difference between localized and
mobile adsorption must be emphasized. Inter-
converting 2-D equations of state and mobile ad-
sorption isotherms using the Gibbs equation il-
lustrates this point. Hiemenz [3] is a useful refer-
ence concerning the electrical double layer.
At this point in the course (about half-way
through), the student has seen mostly theory and
is wondering about the usefulness of the material.
Even though applications are in a separate section
at the end of the course, to complete the ad-
sorption topic, adsorber design is discussed. First,
practical guidelines for selection of industrial ad-
sorbents for various applications are given. Then
some complications of adsorber design are touched


TABLE 1
Course Outline


1. CAPILLARITY
Definition and Reason for the Existence of Surface
Tensions
Laplace Equation
Capillary Rise Phenomena
Measurement of Surface Tension
2. SURFACE THERMODYNAMICS
Surface Thermodynamic Properties
Kelvin Equation
Criterion of Equilibrium in Systems with Interfaces
Dividing Surface
Definition of Adsorption or Surface Excess
Gibbs Equation
Monolayer Coverage at the Air-Water Interface
3. ADSORPTION
Localized vs. Mobile Adsorption
Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm
BET Adsorption Isotherm
2-D Equations of State
Potential Theory
Adsorption from Solution
Electrical Diffuse Double Layer
Debye-Hiickel Theory and Debye Length
Stern Layer
Practical Applications and Adsorber Design
4. CONTACT ANGLE
Young Equation
Measurement of Contact Angle


5. MICELLE FORMATION
Classes of Surfactants
Micelle Structure
CMC Determination
Mass-Action Model
Pseudo-Phase Separation Model
Shinoda Equation
6. SOLUBILIZATION IN MICELLES
Locations of Solubilizate in Micelles
Driving Forces for Solubilization
Measurement of Solubilization
7. EMULSIONS
Mechanisms of Stabilization
Bancroft Rule
HLB Number
Breaking Emulsions

8. FOAMS
Gibbs Triangle
Mechanisms of Film Elasticity
Mechanisms of Foam Drainage
Foam Breaking and Inhibiting

9. APPLICATIONS
Enhanced Oil Recovery by Surfactant Flooding
Detergency
Marangoni Effects
Novel Separation Techniques Using Surfactants


FALL 1984








on: the mass-transfer zone, bed heat-up due to
heat of adsorption, and bed regeneration.
Examples of applications using activated carbon,
silica gel, and ion-exchange resin are given.
Handouts and suggested reading material supple-
ment lectures on design of adsorbers [4-7].
In covering the topic of contact angles, the
reasons that advancing and receding contact
angles may differ are explored. The physical mean-
ing of the Young equation in terms of the surface
tensions involved is emphasized.
Topics 5-7 are in the area of colloid science.
Rosen [2] is used as the text. It is easy to read and
is well organized, and the text is followed much
more closely in this section of the course than in
the surface science section.
In the consideration of micelle formation, the
variety of surfactants available is discussed, and
the value of McCutcheons' [8] in finding suppliers
of a certain type of detergent is stressed. The
various methods of CMC determination help il-
lustrate the properties of solutions containing
micelles and lead naturally into a discussion of
the mass-action and pseudo-phase separation
models of micelle formation. The fact that these
models coincide for large enough micellar aggre-
gation numbers is stressed. The iceberg structure
of water around hydrocarbon chains in solution
causing the micelle formation to be entropy-
driven and the subsequent concept of hydrophobic
bonds is then considered in the context of micellar
thermodynamics. The effect of electrolyte con-
centration and hydrocarbon chain length on the
CMC is shown to be described by the Shinoda
equation [9]. The value of Mukerjee and Mysels
[10] as the standard reference for literature CMC
values is useful to point out. Krafft temperature,
cloud point, and liquid crystals are briefly dis-
cussed to show that there are limits to conditions
resulting in the isotropic regions where micelles
form in surfactant solutions.
Under the topic of solubilization, the wide-
spread use of Henry's law to extrapolate solubiliza-
tions measured at unit activity using the maxi-
mum additivity method is discussed. This is
followed by consideration of deviations from
Henry's law and methods of measurement of
solubilization (vapor pressure, osmometry, vapor
phase UV, vapor phase GC, ultrafiltration) over
the entire concentration range. The importance of
solubilization in such applications as detergency
is worth mentioning.
In discussions of emulsions, the origins of


barriers to emulsion breaking are described. The
guidelines for the selection of surfactant by HLB
Number and tabulations of this value in Mc-
Cutcheons' [8] for commercial surfactants are em-
phasized. The importance of emulsions to chemical
and petroleum engineering operations is illustrated
by examples such as the severe problem of separat-
ing oils recovered by tertiary methods from pro-
duced water in the field because of emulsion for-
mation. The existence of emulsions in everyday
life in products such as milk and paint helps the
student feel more comfortable with the phe-
nomena. The fact that emulsions are not thermo-
dynamically stable is heavily emphasized. How-
ever, it must be mentioned that the so-called
"microemulsions" used in surfactant flooding can
be considered as a thermodynamic phase.
The fact that foams are not thermodynamically
stable is also stressed: that foams are sometimes
desirable (detergents) and sometimes undesirable
(causing entrainment in distillation columns) is
important to note. New applications of foams,
such as in enhanced oil recovery for mobility
control or foam fractionation, point out their im-
portance.
The applications portion of the course is de-
signed to show how important the phenomena
discussed are and to illustrate that many of them
can be occurring at the same time and have com-
plex interactions. The various methods of EOR
are first outlined (aided by a handout from
Exxon [11]), and the mechanisms by which they
function are discussed. Then surfactant flooding
is focused on. Theories to explain the ultralow
interfacial tensions present in these systems pro-
vide an opportunity to explore some subtleties of
interfacial tension, surface thermodynamics,
solubilization, and emulsion stability. Adsorption
of surfactants on minerals and precipitation
neatly show the tie between surface science and
colloid science. A discussion of the state-of-the-art
and the major remaining problems to be solved
in this technology are complimented by an outline
of the instructor's approach to solving these prob-
lems. A tour of the instructor's research lab where
the students can observe such things as middle
phases, surfactant precipitate, and cloud points
brings home the applications of the course to
EOR.
Detergency also involves both surface science
(surfactant adsorption on fabrics) and colloid
science (solubilization). In addition, the rollback
mechanism of oil removal from fabrics provides


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









a practical example of contact angles and wetting.
Until this point in the course, equilibrium phe-
nomena have been almost exclusively considered.
A discussion of Marangoni effects demonstrates
non-equilibrium surface tension effects. A non-
mathematical article on tears which form on the
inside of a glass of wine [12] is supplemented by
passing around a wine glass containing vodka so
the student can see the tears form. The reduction
in liquid level in the glass after being passed
around the class can not always be accounted for
solely by evaporation. This practical demonstra-
tion of Marangoni effects is always popular.
The course is completed by discussion of a
favorite research topic of the lecturer: separation
techniques using surfactants. Among those dis-
cussed are foam fractionation and micellar en-
hanced ultrafiltration. Since the majority of the
class is composed of chemical engineers, these
novel applications of colloid science to replace
classical separation techniques illustrate the value
of colloid science.
STUDENT COMMENTS
In general, the students liked the relatively
high fraction of course content dedicated to
practical applications. They also liked the constant
emphasis on the physical significance of the ma-
terial. They appreciated the fact that the mathe-
matical content of the course was kept to a level
such that physical reality was not obscured.
The students had two main complaints: they
did not like Adamson as a text, and they found sur-
face thermodynamics to be less interesting than
the rest of the course. However, most of them
recognized the future value of Adamson as a
reference book and also realized the necessity of
a firm grounding in surface thermodynamics for
the later topics covered.
GENERAL COMMENTS
Teaching both surface and colloid science in
a single course is a challenging task. Some de-
partments choose to cover surface science in detail
with a more mathematical orientation and a
mention of colloidal phenomena in passing. In
order to learn surfactant science, another course
is needed. The dedication of two courses to this
area is not always possible or desirable (par-
ticularly for the MS student). This course was
developed as an attempt to integrate the basics
from both surface science and colloid science into
one course. Response from former students in in-
dustry concerning the value of the material learned


indicates that the course fulfills a need. O
REFERENCES
1. Adamson, A. W., Physical Chemistry of Surfaces,
Fourth Edition, Wiley, New York (1982).
2. Rosen, M. J., Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena,
Wiley, New York (1978).
3. Hiemenz, P. C., Principles of Colloid and Surface
Chemistry, Ch. 9, Marcel Dekker, New York (1977).
4. Kovach, J. L., in Handbook of Separation Techniques
for Chemical Engineers, Ch. 3.1, P.A. Schweitzer,
Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1979).
5. Calgon Corporation, Pamphlet on "Basic Concepts of
Adsorption on Activated Carbon," Calgon, Pitts-
burgh.
6. Scamehorn, J. F., Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev.,
18, 210 (1979).
7. Vatavuk, W. M., and Neveril, R. B., Chem. Eng., 90,
131 (Jan. 24, 1983).
8. McCutcheons' Emulsifiers & Detergents, North
American Division, McCutcheon, Glen Rock, N.J.
(1983).
9. Shinoda, K., in Colloidal Surfactants, Ch. 1, K.
Shinoda, T. Nakagawa, B. Tamamushi, and T. Ise-
mura, Eds., Academic Press, New York (1963).
10. Mukerjee, P., and Mysels, K. J., Critical Micelle Con-
centrations of Aqueous Surfactant Systems, National
Bureau of Standards, Washington (1971).
11. "Improved Oil Recovery," a pamphlet by Exxon
Corporation, Exxon, New York, 1982.
12. Walker, J., Scientific American, 248, 163 (May, 1983).


FALL 1984


FORTRAN CALLABLE

REAL TIME

SUBROUTINES

FOR

APPLE II COMPUTER

APPLE II can be made to function as
a data acquisition and control system
for under $3000.

FOR MORE INFORMATION
PLEASE CONTACT

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Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Louisville
Louisville, KY 40292










A CQe44eM irz


TRANSPORT PHENOMENA


D. B. SHAH
Cleveland State University
Cleveland, OH 44115

T HE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE in a course on transport
phenomena is to analyze physical problems in
heat, mass, and momentum transfer. The steps
involved in this process are understanding the
physical aspects of the problem, making appropri-
ate assumptions, deriving the necessary differ-
ential equations, and developing analytical solu-
tions. In this endeavor applied mathematics plays
a secondary, but a very powerful, role. Of course,
many problems of interest and practical im-
portance are quite complex, and it is not possible
to obtain analytical solutions for these cases. This
does not diminish the importance of finding exact
or approximate analytical solutions to the develop-
ed differential equations. Sometimes it is neces-
sary to obtain a closed form of the solution
in limiting cases. Such solutions under asymptotic
conditions are needed to validate the numerical
solution of the differential equations. A gradu-


Dhananjai B. Shah has a BChE from the Department of Chemical
Technology, University of Bombay, and MS and PhD (1975) from
Michigan State University, both in chemical engineering. He spent
two years at the University of New Brunswick, one year at McMaster
University, and three years at the Indiana Institute of Technology.
Since 1982, he has been an assistant professor of chemical engineering
at Cleveland State University. His research interests include simulation
and modelling of unsteady processes, adsorption and diffusion in
zeolites and catalysis.


ate course in transport phenomena, therefore,
should place considerable emphasis on common
methods of solution of differential equations, how
they are applied, and why they work.

BACKGROUND
Every fall, we offer a graduate course in
transport phenomena. The course meets four hours
a week for ten weeks, and it is one of the three
required of every master's student. It is the only
course a terminal master's degree candidate will
have that integrates the three transport processes.
Most students take this course in the first quarter
of their graduate program.
We have a relatively large percentage of part-
time graduate students. Some have come back to
school after a lapse of few years, and some have
had their baccalaureate degree in chemistry. They
need considerable help in solving the differential
equations. However, because of their practical ex-
perience, they have a good feel for physical situ-
ations and are good at making approximations
and engineering judgments. The full time students
are only slightly better prepared in solving the
differential equations. Many of them have not
had any undergraduate course in partial differ-
ential equations, and they tend to be overwhelmed
by the equations they come across in transport
phenomena. The course strives to achieve a bal-
ance between exposing the students to 1) ad-
vanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing
out similarities and differences between the three
transfer processes, and 2) common methods of
solving differential equations. The best way to
accomplish these objectives is to solve a large
number of problems. Daily homework assignments
are made throughout the duration of the course.
Textbooks by Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot
(BSL) and by Slattery (S) are used repeatedly.
Both the books abound with challenging problems
which are used extensively for classroom discus-
sion and for homework assignments. All of the
students coming into the course are expected to
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









have been exposed to the first three chapters in
each of the three sections in BSL. At the end of
the course, it is hoped that the students will be
able to comprehend almost all the material in
BSL. In addition, a number of other books and
journal articles are consulted (listed in the refer-
ences to this paper).

COURSE CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION
The problems in transport phenomena are
formulated and analyzed in a series of steps as
outlined below.

Problem Visualization
The co-ordinate system based on the geometry
of the problem is chosen first. In most cases the
choice is obvious, but in some cases it is not easy.
For example, in considering diffusion from a point
source in a moving stream (17 K, BSL), it is not
easy to decide whether to use cylindrical or
spherical co-ordinates. After the co-ordinate
system is chosen, the physical aspects of the
problem are discussed. Any intuitive feeling about
the behavior of the system under some limiting
conditions is brought out. Directions of velocity,


The course strives to achieve
a balance between exposing the students
to 1) advanced topics in transport phenomena,
pointing out similarities and differences between the
three transfer processes, and 2) common methods
of solving differential equations.


temperature, and concentration gradients are de-
termined. Appropriate physical assumptions are
made to simplify the resulting set of equations.
One such assumption is to neglect end effects in
many momentum transfer problems. Another
example is the absorption of a component in falling
film where convective flux is neglected in the X-
direction and diffusive flux is neglected in the Z-
direction (17-5, BSL).

Differential Equations
The general equations of continuity, motion,
and energy are now applied to the problem under
consideration. With the help of information ob-
tained in the above section, the terms not applic-
able to the problem at hand are equated to zero.
The solution of the resulting set of differential


TABLE 1
Classification of Problems According to
Method of Solution of Differential Equations

COMBINATION OF VARIABLES SEPARATION OF VARIABLES LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION

1) Flow near a wall suddenly set 1) Velocity distribution in plate and 1) Two large blocks brought in
in motion (4.1-1, BSL) cone viscometer (3T, BSL) contact (6.2.2.-2.5)
2) Heating semi-infinite slab 2) Unsteady laminar flow in a 2) Cooling of sphere in contact with
(11.1-1, BSL) circular tube (4.1-2, BSL) or in well stirred fluid (11.1-3, BSL)
an annulus (4L, BSL)
3) Unsteady evaporation 3) Unsteady tangential flow 3) Gas absorption in a falling film with
(19.1-1, BSL) (4Lb, BSL) chemical reaction (17L, BSL)
4) Gas absorption with rapid 4) Heating finite slab (11.1-2, BSL) 4) Packed adsorption column
chemical reaction or semi-infinite slab with con- modelling (22L, BSL)
(19.1-3, BSL) vective boundary condition
(6.2.3, S)
5) Boundary Layer Theory 5) Mass transfer within a solid 5) Unsteady diffusion with a first
Exact Solution for a) Momentum sphere (9.2.1-1, 9.2.1-2, S) order homogenous reaction
Transfer (3.5.1, 3.5.2, S) (9.2.2, S)
b) Momentum and Heat Transfer
(6.7.1, 6.7.2, S)
c) Heat, mass and momentum
transfer (19.3, BSL)
6) Unsteady interphase diffusion
(19K, BSL)


FALL 1984









equations subject to the appropriate initial and
boundary conditions is attempted by using one of
the following three techniques.
Similarity solution by combination of variables.
The differential equations which can be solved by
this method are characterized by boundary con-
ditions where the dependent variable has the same
value at different values of two independent vari-
ables. For example in fluid flow near a wall sudden-
ly set in motion (4.1-1, BSL), the boundary con-
ditions are V = 0 at t = 0 for all Z and at Z = co
at all t > 0. Such boundary conditions are quite
common in problems involving a semi-infinite
region. A new combined variable -q = Z/a t" is
defined which allows the above two boundary
conditions to merge, i.e. V = 0 at q = oo. The
value of n is chosen such that when Y] is substi-
tuted into the partial differential equation, on
simplification, an ordinary differential equation
is obtained. The choice of a is more arbitrary but is
generally taken as a reciprocal of n. When the
ordinary differential equation is solved, one ends
up with error functions and gamma functions.


The method also gives an opportunity to introduce
the concept of penetration thickness which is ex-
ploited later in the boundary layer approximation
discussion. The method is applied repeatedly to
many of the problems listed in Table 1. The empha-
sis is on why the method works, when it is ap-
plicable, and how it works.
Similarity Solution by Separation of Variables.
The boundary conditions in this case are such
that a combined variable cannot be formulated
that combines the two boundary conditions into
one. The boundary condition at Z = oo is either
replaced by a similar one at Z = L or is character-
ized by heat or mass transfer resistance. Such
problems are solved by the method of separation
of variables. The dependent variable is assumed
to be product of separable functions, each one of
which is in turn a function of one independent
variable only. The method requires that the
students be exposed to Sturm-Louiville theorem,
orthogonal functions, weighting functions, and the
limits of integration. Again, why the method
works for these boundary conditions is empha-


TABLE 2
Simplification of Differential Equations

SEPARATION OF VARIABLES
WHERE ONE FUNCTION PSEUDO STEADY STATE
IS KNOWN ASYMPTOTIC CASES APPROXIMATION

1) Cone and plate Viscometer 1) Graetz-Nusselt Problem 1) Squeeze film (12.4, Denn)
(3.5-3, BSL) a) Large distances (9.8, BSL)
b) Short distances (11.2-2, BSL)
2) Creeping flow between con- 2) Short contact times 2) Unsteady evaporation from a tube
centric spheres (3Q, BSL) a) (9.P, 9.R, BSL)
followed by separation of b) Heat transfer from wall to
variables falling film (10R, BSL)
c) Diffusion into falling liquid
film (17.5, BSL)
d) Solid dissolution into falling
film (17J, BSL)
3) Periodic heating of earth's 3) Navier-Stokes Equations 3) Unsteady evaporation of a drop
crust (11L, BSL) a) Re->0, Creeping flow
(chapter 12, Denn)
b) Re -> oo, potential flow
Inviscid flow (3.4.1, S)
c) Re-> o, Boundary
layer approximation (chapter 15,
Denn)
4) Flow near an oscillating 4) Shrinking unreacted core model in
wall (3.2.4-4, S) gas-solid non-catalytic reaction
5) Flow between rotating discs 5) Efflux times for tank (7M, 7P, BSL)
(12.2, Denn)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









sized by comparing the similar profiles, and how
it works is illustrated by solving a number of
problems, some of which are listed in Table 1.
In some cases, not only are the functions
separable, but one of the functions is easily formu-
lated from the boundary conditions. For example,
in describing a velocity field for flow near an
oscillating wall, the boundary conditions are at
Y = 0, V = Vo sin (wt e) and at Y = oo, V = 0.
The boundary conditions allow us to formulate
the solution as V = exp[i(wt e)]f(y). There
are many such cases, and some are listed in Table
2.
Use of Laplace Transforms. Many of the
problems solved by combination of variables or
separation of variables can also be solved by using
the Laplace transform. However, it is preferably
applied where there are more than one partial
differential equations and variable of interest can
not be determined without solving for some other
variables first. An excellent example of this is the
cooling of a sphere in contact with well-stirred
fluid (11.2-1; BSL). By using Laplace transforms,
it is possible to evaluate the variation of solid
temperature with radius and time without having
to solve for the temperature history of the fluid.
A number of problems where the Laplace trans-
form method is applied and illustrated are listed
in Table 1.

Simplification of Differential Equations
Many times the differential equations derived
are quite complicated and none of the three
methods outlined above is applicable. Under these
conditions, one may wish to consider a limited
case where one or more terms in the differential
equations are neglected. However, it is very im-
portant to indicate how these approximations are
made and how a simplified set of differential equa-
tions is derived. This is illustrated with the classic
problem in fluid mechanics. The Navier-Stokes
equations are written in dimensionless form using
characteristic quantities. This introduces the
Reynolds number into the Navier-Stokes equations.
The behavior of these equations in the following
three cases is then investigated.
Creeping flow in the limit as Re 0
Potential flow in the limit as Re oo. This corres-
ponds to inviscid fluid flow far from the boundary
Boundary layer approximation in the limit as
Re -> oo for fluid flow in the immediate neighbor-
hood of a boundary
Excellent discussion of these topics is provided


Many times the differential
equations derived are quite complicated
and none of the three methods
outlined ... is applicable.

TABLE 3
List of Additional Topics Covered in the Course
A) Potential flow and stream function
Creeping flow around sphere
(2.6, 4.2-1, BSL; 3.3.3, S)
B) Non-Newtonian fluid flow
Introduction to tensor algebra
Cone and plate viscometer (3.4-3, 3T, BSL;
3.3.2, S)
Flow in simple geometry (3.2.2-3.2.4, S)
C) Turbulent flow (Chapter 5, BSL)
Time averaged Navier-Stokes equations
Approximations to Reynolds Stresses
Velocity profiles in simple geometry
(5E, 5F, 5D, 5H, BSL)
D) Exact solution of Navier-Stokes equations
Converging flow in a channel
Other examples (Chapter 5, Schlichting)
E) Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in laminar and
turbulent flow (Ref. 2, 3)
F) Steady State multicomponent diffusion with homo-
geneous and heterogeneous reactions (18Q, 18S, BSL;
9.2.3, 9.2.7, S)
G) Diffusion from a point source in a moving stream
(10.2, S)
H) Macroscopic Balances
Pressure distribution in a manifold (7Q, BSL)
Heat exchangers (15J, BSL)
Heating of a liquid in an agitated tank (15M,
15.5-1, BSL)
Packed bed absorber and adsorber (22.5-1,
22.6-2, BSL)

by Slattery and Denn.
It is also pointed out to students that the
number of asymptotic cases considered for large
distances or short contact times treated in BSL
and Slattery represent another way of simplifying
the differential equations. Many cases of short
contact times let us assume that the depth of pene-
tration is much smaller than the length of region
of interest. This allows one to shift the boundary
condition at, say, Z = L to Z = oo. The students
immediately see the benefit of doing this as the
problem becomes solvable by the combination of
variables as outlined earlier. Various problems
of this type are listed in Table 2.
Another common concept used to simplify the
differential equations is the concept of pseudo
steady state approximation. The problems listed
in Table 2 are used to illustrate the application of
Continued on page 213.


FALL 1984









4 Cowsce on


HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS

INVOLVING VIDEO-BASED SEMINARS

MARK G. WHITE
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 .&


WE HAVE OFFERED, for the past three years, a
specialized seminar course entitled "Seminars
in Heterogeneous Catalysis" to students in our
research groups on alternating quarters, usually
fall and spring. The original purpose of these
seminars was to bring about a feeling of unity
to our program of heterogeneous catalysis and to
help educate our students on the nature of catalysis
outside the formal graduate lecture course we offer
once a year under the same name: Catalysis. After
the initial start-up of this seminar course we ex-
plored the benefits of such a communications-based
course which included the transfer of information
between graduate students working on similar
problems and the improvement upon communica-
tion skills. The next logical extension of the
course was to formalize the feedback mechanism
by which students could learn of their strengths
and weaknesses. Our first attempt at this feed-
back was rating sheets on which the audience
would mark the performance of the presenter as
"good" to "poor" for various aspects of the
seminar presentation, such as clarity of ideas,
organization, and the mechanics of the presenta-
tion (including quality of visual aids, nervous
mannerisms, etc.). As a result of this rating sys-
tem, we noticed a significant improvement in the
quality of the presentations, in both the content
and the style of presentation. An integral part of
the seminar program was a question-and-answer
period that followed the formal talk. As with all
novice speakers, the reaction to such interrogation


The setting of the video
seminar was a classroom equipped
with cameras in discrete locations and with
classroom-type tables having small
monitors located on them.


( Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


Mark G. White received his BSChE degree from the University of
Texas at Austin, his MSChE degree from Purdue University, and was
graduated with a PhD degree from Rice University. For the last six
years he has been teaching at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
His industrial experience includes a position as a summer engineer
with the Amoco Oil Company (Texas Division) and as a research
engineer with the Amoco Oil Research in Whiting, Indiana. His re-
search interests include heterogeneous catalysis and reaction kinetics.

ranged from fright to morbid fear. However, the
more experienced students began to see the value
of such questioning which forced the speaker to
defend his research and resulted in a better under-
standing of the work. In time, a fraction of the
students began to look forward to such question-
and-answer periods, except when they were the
presenters. As a result of the success of the feed-
back rating procedure and through a desire to
have further improvements in the seminar pre-
sentations, we chose the video-based format to
affect such improvements.

MECHANICS OF THE COURSE
The video-taping of a formal presentation
shows both similarities to and differences from the
familiar seminar format. Among the similarities,
the speaker must convey thoughts through words
and illustrations which must be organized into a
cohesive unit. In one sense, the video-based format
demands better organization of the talk because
of the time limit imposed by rental of the on-
campus taping studio. The setting of the video
seminar was a classroom equipped with cameras


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Sin discrete locations and with classroom-type
tables having small monitors located on them. An
audience was present for all the tapings, and the
lighting was only slightly brighter than normal
room conditions. These "familiar" conditions help
put the presenter at ease.
However, the differences associated with video-
taping are significant. Usually there were one or
two operators present in a control booth behind
the classroom to focus the remote-controlled
cameras and to record the talk. The students be-
came aware of the importance of communication
between the operators and themselves to ensure
the proper camera position when illustrations
were used in a presentation. In essence, the student
became both the star and the director in taping
the talk. Finally, fear of the unknown, coupled
with the excitement created by the medium of
television, made this experience something quite
different.
We tried to meet some of these differences
with some preproduction planning and prepara-
tion. During the quarter immediately before the
taping, the students were given an article entitled
"The Video Performer," by Norm Herman (Edu-
cational and Industrial Television), which is aimed
at helping the first-time TV star to avoid some
common mistakes. Additionally, the students
were asked to submit titles and one-page abstracts
of their talks before the quarter began, to facili-
tate early planning of the seminar content. Dave
Edwards, Assistant Director of the Department
of Continuing Education at Georgia Tech, suggest-
ed we have two class sessions of planning and
preparation before the actual seminars were
taped. The first session would involve Dave giving
a short lecture on the dos and don't of video-
taped presentations, followed by a short presenta-
tion by this author demonstrating some of the
ideas. The students seemed to appreciate my feeble
attempt to make them feel at ease by blundering
my way through the presentation. The second
session was a three-minute taping of each student
giving his seminar topic and abstract; this taping
was followed by a review of all the presentations.
This preliminary taping session was a good way
of demonstrating how difficult it is to produce an
error-free talk with only one shooting.
Additional pre-production preparation in-
volved a series of meetings between the student
and this author to determine the scope of the 20-
minute presentation, to write a sketchy outline
(followed by a detailed outline), and finally to re-


view the illustrations for content and quality. We
have found that these pre-production meetings are
essential to producing a quality seminar for
taping. Finally, each student met with the camera
operators to review the illustrations on camera
and to discuss the camera angles, etc.
The studio was equipped with three cameras
operated by remote control from the booth. Two
of these cameras afforded shots of the commenta-
tor while the third, an overhead camera, was used
exclusively for the illustrations. The side camera
could be used to give angle shots of the speaker,
whereas the main camera gave head-on shots.
When appropriate, the side camera was used to
give better definition of three dimensional models.
Titles and names could be superimposed under the
speaker and split-screens could be used for extend-
ed discussions of illustrations. Although not used
in these seminars, split-screens and chrome-key
facilities are available in our campus studio;
needless to say, these exotic techniques require
more pre-production planning and direction on the
part of the student. Our experience shows that
the most successful talks, in terms of clarity and


An integral part of the
seminar program was a question-and-answer
period that followed the formal talk.


freedom of errors, were those which used a mini-
mum of visuals and few exotic techniques; as the
speakers mature, these other techniques will
certainly enhance the professional nature of their
talks.
The review of these seminars commenced im-
mediately following the talk. The objective of this
review was to show the student the success/failure
of his attempt to communicate a technical subject
in a formal setting. Success could be evaluated in
terms of how clearly the student told his story.
Did he connect the major points of the topic with
good transition sentences? Was the logic sound?
Did the illustrations convey the essence of the
thought with a minimum of information? In short,
did the student give a talk which was enjoyed by
his peers? During the review process I would
comment on the positive and negative aspects of
only the more subtle points; there was no need to
comment on the obvious blunders. Also, the
students became aware of distractive mannerisms
such as throat-clearing, nervous hand-waving,
Continued on page 189.


FALL 1984









AR AL A Fe iCH



LINEAR ALGEBRA FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS


KYRIACOS ZYGOURAKIS
Rice University
Houston, TX 77251

A FIRST-YEAR GRADUATE course (or sequence of
courses) in applied mathematics has become
an integral part of the curriculum in a large
number of chemical engineering departments.
Among the diverse subjects taught in these
courses, linear algebra usually enjoys a prominent
position. The reason for this popularity perhaps
lies in the fact that linear algebra is as central a
subject and as applicable as calculus. The pioneer-
ing work of Neal Amundson, and of his students
and disciples as well as other prominent scholars,
has established beyond any doubt that many sig-
nificant and complex chemical engineering prob-
lems may be solved by advanced linear algebra
techniques [1].
Linear algebra can also serve as an ideal
stepping stone for introducing the first-year
graduate student to the formal mathematical
language of functional analysis. The basic con-
cepts of matrix algebra, already familiar to the
student, can be formulated using the abstract
framework of linear vector spaces. The same
abstraction can also be used to unify apparently
diverse problems in finite dimensional spaces
under this common framework. Thus, the ground-
work is laid out for the introduction of functional
analysis in infinite dimensional spaces, which is
necessary for the study of differential and integral
operator problems [2].
Our linear algebra course strives to combine
both elements of mathematics-abstraction and
application. Many of the fundamental theorems
of linear algebra are rigorously derived in class.


Student responses to the course
evaluation questionnaire indicate that
they particularly enjoy the computational part
of the course since it points out some of the
real problems to which linear algebra
theory can be applied.

c Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


TABLE 1
Course Materials
COURSE TEXTBOOK
Strang, G., Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 2nd
Edition, Academic Press, (1980).
ADDITIONAL COURSE REFERENCES
1. Amundson, N. R., Mathematical Methods in Chemical
Engineering: Matrices and Their Application, Pren-
tice Hall, (1966).
2. Braun, M., Differential Equations and Their Applica-
tions, 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag (1975).
3. Dahlquist, G., A. Bjorck and N. Anderson, Numerical
Methods, Prentice Hall (1974).
4. Friedman, B., Principles and Techniques of Applied
Mathematics, John Wiley (1956).
5. Hirsch, M. W. and S. Smale, Differential Equations,
Dynamical Systems and Linear Algebra, Academic
Press (1974).
6. Noble, B. and J. W. Daniel, Applied Linear Algebra,
2nd Edition, Prentice Hall (1977).
7. Steinberg, D. T., Computational Matrix Algebra, Mc-
Graw-Hill (1974).

The theory, however, is motivated and reinforced
by examples derived from a wide range of chemi-
cal engineering problems. Particular emphasis is
placed upon the important aspects of computa-
tional linear algebra. In our opinion, it is impera-
tive to expose the students to some fundamental
computational methods and to study their efficiency
as well as their convergence problems. Student
responses to the course evaluation questionnaire
indicate that they particularly enjoy the compu-
tational part of the course since it points out some
of the real problems to which linear algebra theory
can be applied.

COURSE ORGANIZATION
Eleven weeks (out of a total of fifteen) of
the fall semester course, "Applied Mathematics
for Chemical Engineers I," are devoted to the
study of linear algebra and its applications. The
remaining time is devoted to a brief review of
complex analysis and complex integration, which
is the final preparation step for the second course
in applied mathematics taught at Rice. This


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


























Kyriacos Zygourakis received his diploma in chemical engineering
from the National Technical University of Greece in 1975 and his PhD
from the University of Minnesota in 1980. He is presently an assistant
professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Rice Uni-
versity. His main research interests are in the areas of reaction
engineering, applied mathematics and numerical methods.


second course covers the theory of differential and
integral operators, again using the functional
analysis approach.
The course meets twice a week for two hours
and runs largely as a lecture, although active
student participation is encouraged by frequent
questions from the instructor. The lectures are
accompanied by tutoring sessions which are de-


signed to help the students with their computer
projects as well as for the discussion of home-
work assignments in an informal way.
The students are urged to keep a complete
set of notes, which are regularly supplemented by
handouts providing lengthy theorem proofs or
summarizing the results established up to that
point.
The assigned textbook is Linear Algebra and
its Applications (2nd Edition), by Gilbert Strang.
Although it is an extremely well-written book, it
is not followed closely (especially in the first part
of the course). The students are strongly en-
couraged to consult additional references (see
Table 1).
Homework problems are assigned almost
every week. In addition, the students are required
to complete one or two computational projects.
They also have to take a mid-semester and a final
exam, which consist of both open- and closed-book
parts.

COURSE CONTENTS

The linear algebra part of the course (see
Table 2) consists of four parts:
Vector spaces and linear transformations
The solution of systems of linear equations


TABLE 2
Topical Outline of the Linear Algebra Course


1. VECTOR SPACES AND LINEAR
TRANSFORMATIONS
Overview of the problem of solving systems of
linear equations. Which applications give rise
to such systems? Which are the theoretical
porblems that must be answered?
Vector spaces and subspaces.
Linear dependence, basis and dimension.
Linear transformations between finite-dimension-
al spaces and their matrix representation.
Rank and nullity of linear transformations.
Elementary matrices and the computation of the
rank of a matrix.
The theory of simultaneous linear equations.
Homogeneous and nonhomogeneous systems.
The Fredholm alternative.
2. SOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF LINEAR
EQUATIONS A x = b
Gaussian elimination. LU--decomposition, pivot-
ing, operation count.
Error analysis. Ill-conditioned matrices.
Band matrices and how they arise in practice.
Finite differences solution of partial differ-
ential equations.


Overview of iterative methods for solving linear
equations.
Comparison of the various numerical algorithms.

3. THE EIGENVALUE PROBLEM A x = Xx
Determinants.
Inner products, norms, orthogonality.
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices.
Diagonalization and similarity transformations.
Systems of difference equations.
Functions of matrices.
Solution of systems of ordinary differential
equations. Stability.
Unitary transformations. Normal matrices.
Spectral decomposition of operators.

4. QUADRATIC FORMS AND VARIATIONAL
PRINCIPLES
Positive definite quadratic forms.
Minimization problems. Least squares.
Rayleigh quotient. Maximum and minimax
principles.
Numerical computation of eigenvalues and
eigenvectors.
Overview of the finite elements method.


FALL 1984











The students are thus presented with our objectives for the first part of the course. A brief review
of the algebra of matrices follows, reminding the student of the familiar concepts of multiplying a matrix
by a scalar to obtain another matrix and of summing two matrices to obtain a third one.

Th Elgnvale prble


The Eigenvalue problem
Quadratic forms and variational principles
The Linear Equation Problem A x = b
The course starts with an introduction to the
problem of solving systems of linear equations of
the form A x = b. Several applications that give
rise to such large systems are discussed and the
three fundamental questions are introduced:
Do these problems have a solution?
If they do, is the solution unique?
How can the solution be computed?
The students are thus presented with our ob-
jectives for the first part of the course. A brief
review of the algebra of matrices follows, remind-
ing the student of the familiar concepts of multi-
plying a matrix by a scalar to obtain another
matrix and of summing two matrices to obtain a
third one. It is also pointed out that these opera-
tions satisfy certain properties such as associativi-
ty, commutativity, distributivity, etc. This dis-
cussion serves as the motivation to introduce the
notion of abstract linear vector spaces. Several
examples of vector spaces are then presented,
covering sets of functions, polynomials, solutions
of differential or integral equations, etc. The
students come to realize that seemingly different
mathematical systems may be considered as
vector spaces and that this abstract framework
can unify these diverse phenomena into a single
study.
The basic concepts of linear combinations, basis
sets, and dimension are then discussed. Thus, the
abstract quantities called vectors can be repre-
sented now in terms of their coefficients of ex-
pansion with respect to a particular basis set.
The first milestone is reached with the intro-
duction of linear transformations between finite-
dimensional spaces and their matrix representa-
tion. Most of the important theorems here are
rigorously derived in class and the concepts of
rank and nullity of transformations are formally
introduced. Armed with the conclusion that all
the results established for linear transformations
can be used for matrices (and conversely), we can
then establish the conditions for existence and
uniqueness of solutions of the first fundamental


problem of linear algebra A x = b. This is ac-
complished in one lecture using the previously
derived theorems.
Throughout this part of the course, emphasis
is placed on the generality of this approach, and
the students have the opportunity to see how the
results apply to linear differential and integral
operators, as well as to chemical engineering
problems. Such examples include first-order re-
action systems and the determination of the
number of independent chemical reactions in a
closed system using experimental measurements.
The practical problem of efficiently computing
the solution of systems of linear equations can now
be considered. The Gauss elimination procedure
and the LU decomposition are introduced, which
lead naturally to the idea of the operation count
as a measure of the computational effort required.
An important application which gives rise to large
systems of linear equations is then studied by
introducing the finite-difference method for solv-
ing ordinary and partial differential equations
subject to specified boundary conditions. The
students learn how to take advantage of the
matrix structure (band or positive-definite
matrices) in order to speed up the computational
process and how to use the LU-decomposition for
the efficient solution of iterative problems that
arise in the solution of nonlinear differential equa-
tions. The problem of ill-conditioned matrices is
outlined in sketchy form, along with a rudimentary
introduction to error analysis. Iterative methods
for the solution of linear systems of equations are
also briefly covered.
At this point a computer project is assigned.
The students are asked to solve a two-dimensional
partial differential equation using finite differ-
ences. They must use different grid sizes and
compare the numerical results to the true solutions
in each case.
The students must demonstrate that they can
correctly formulate the system of linear equations.
Following that, they use the library programs
available at our computer center to obtain the
results. The library programs LINPACK and
ITPACK (for the direct and iterative solution of
linear systems) have proven to be invaluable aids.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Thus, the emphasis is shifted from the drudg-
ery of computer programming to the analysis of
the results. The numerical simulations permit the
students to evaluate the relative efficiency of
numerical schemes (i.e. execution speeds, memory
requirements) and to determine which ones must
be used for the various structures and sizes of the
resulting matrices. Thus, the theoretical results
derived in class are reinforced and justified.
The second part of the computer assignment
exposes the students to the pitfalls which may be-
fall the unwary and uninstructed user of computer
software packages. The students are asked to
solve a system of equations for which the matrix
of the coefficients of the unknowns is badly ill-
conditioned (the notorious Hilbert matrix has
served as the perfect example in this respect). The
students are asked to compute the known solution
of a system of equations using single and double
precision computer arithmetic. They are then
asked to explain why the solution deteriorates as
the order of the system increases by monitoring
the magnitude of the pivoting elements, the con-
dition number of the matrix, and using the theory
presented in class.

The Eigenvalue Problem A x = Xx
The second part of the course starts with a
brief review of the theory of determinants. Their
properties are presented along with the basic
formulas for their computation. The operation
count for solving systems of linear equations using
Cramer's rate is derived and most of the students
are surprised to find out that even the most power-
ful computer would need about 10145 years to solve
a 100 x 100 system using this method. They are
reminded, however, that determinants give a very
useful invertibility test for square matrices, whose
main application will be used later on in the
course for the development of the theory of eigen-
values. The concepts of inner products of vectors
and of the norm of a vector are then presented
as abstract mappings of vectors into the field of
real (or complex) numbers and are related to the
familiar notions of angle between vectors and of
magnitude respectively.
A discussion of the solution of a simple 2 x 2
system of linear ordinary differential equations
motivates the introduction of the eigenvalues of a
matrix A. The main emphasis here is on the de-
velopment of the theoretical results needed for
the solution of systems of difference and ordinary


differential equations. The cases of operators with
distinct and non-distinct eigenvalues are treated
in detail, although the case of defective matrices
and the Jordan canonical form are only briefly
covered.
Throughout this part of the course it is con-
tinuously emphasized that the eigenvalues are
the most important feature of any dynamical
system. The students have the opportunity to
solve a large variety of chemical engineering
problems. They study:
The difference equations describing a cascade of
CSTR'S.
The differential equations describing isothermal and
nonisothermal CSTR's and their stability.
The problem of N first-order chemical reactions
taking place in a catalyst pellet.
The difference equations resulting when a con-
tinuous system is subject to piecewise constant inputs,
which provides them with an introduction to sampled-
data system theory.
The problem of N first-order reactions taking place
in a batch reactor. This is a long assignment, which


Throughout this part of the
course it is continuously emphasized
that the eigenvalues are the most important
feature of any dynamical system.

leads the students in a step-by-step fashion to derive
the theoretical results necessary to determine all the
rate constants, through a set of carefully designed
experiments [3]. This problem encompasses almost
everything the students have learned so far in the
course. As such, it has come to be known as the
"Everything you always wanted to know about first-
order reactions in batch (. and more!)" assign-
ment.
The final part of the course introduces the
students to the concept of formulating the two
main problems of linear algebra, namely A x = b
and A x = Xx, as minimization problems. The
emphasis now shifts to pointing out the ad-
vantages of this approach for numerical computa-
tions. The problem of minimization of a multi-
variable function serves as the starting point for
an introduction of the concepts of quadratic forms
and positive definite matrices. The least squares
method is then developed formally, and its practi-
cal implications are considered. The course closes
with the formulation of the eigenvalue problem
as a minimization one. The Rayleigh and the mini-
max principles are presented, followed by a brief
Continued on page 213.


FALL 1984










ReAeatcWk oa


CATALYSIS


CALVIN H. BARTHOLOMEW AND
WILLIAM C. HECKER
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602

CATALYSIS IS A developing science which plays
a critically important role in the gas, petroleum,
chemical, and emerging energy industries. It com-
bines principles from the diverse disciplines of
kinetics, chemistry, materials science, surface
science, and chemical engineering. Catalysis re-
search at universities is typically pursued in de-
partments of chemical engineering and chemistry,
although some of the most successful centers of
catalysis research employ surface scientists, ma-
terial scientists, and physicists as well.
Catalysis research at Brigham Young Uni-
versity (BYU) had its beginning about eleven
years ago when Professor Bartholomew joined the
chemical engineering faculty and has since evolved
into an interdisciplinary program referred to as
the BYU Catalysis Laboratory. The Catalysis
Laboratory currently involves three faculty, two
postdoctoral fellows, two visiting scholars, and
fifteen students in basic investigations of hetero-
geneous catalysts.

OBJECTIVES AND PHILOSOPHY

The long term objectives of the laboratory are
to:
Pursue basic research in the following catalysis-
related areas: adsorption, supported metal catalysis,
catalyst preparation, catalyst characterization, and
catalyst deactivation.
Obtain a basic understanding of catalyst functions
in energy- and air pollution-related processes such
as methanation, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and
nitric oxide reduction which can be used by industry


Our guiding philosophies are that a
basic understanding of these relationships will
lead to the development of better catalyst technology
and that university laboratories are best suited
to carry out fundamental investigations ...


Copyright ChE Division. ASEE, 1984


to develop new and better catalyst technology.
Develop new and improve existing methods and tools
for catalyst study, e.g. adsorption techniques, calori-
metry, infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopies.
Train and educate 10-15 students on a continuous
basis in the science and art of catalysis research.
The emphasis in our laboratory is on basic
research relating the physical and chemical
properties of catalysts to their activity and se-
lectivity properties. Our guiding philosophies are
(i) that a basic understanding of these relation-
ships will lead to the development of better
catalyst technology, and (ii) that university
laboratories are best suited to carry out funda-
mental investigations of catalysts and catalytic
reactions while industry is better equipped to
undertake catalyst screening and development ac-
tivities. We subscribe to the "multitool approach";
namely, utilizing as many scientific techniques as
can be usefully applied to the study of a particular
catalyst or catalytic reaction.

RECENT AND CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
Work over the past five years has focused on
preparation, characterization, activity/selectivity,
deactivation, and kinetic studies of cobalt, nickel,
and iron catalysts in methanation and Fischer-
Tropsch synthesis. Publications of the Catalysis

TABLE 1
Current Laboratory Research Projects
1. Investigation of Boron Promoted Cobalt and Iron
Catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Sponsors,
DOE Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology
Center
2. Effects of Support on Adsorption, Activity/Selectivity
and Electronic Properties of Cobalt: Sponsor, DOE
Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences
3. Investigation of Carbonyl-Derived Fischer-Tropsch
Catalysts: Sponsor, Atlantic Richfield Co.
4. Carbon Deposition on Fluidized Bed Methanation
Catalysts: Sponsor, BCR
5. Mathematical Modeling of Methanation on Monolithic
Nickel Catalysts: Sponsor, BYU
6. Infrared and Reaction Studies of Rhodium and Rhod-
ium-Molybdenum Nitric Oxide Reduction Catalysts:
Sponsor, BYU


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























Calvin H. Bartholomew received his BS degree from Brigham Young
University and his MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from
Stanford University. He spent a year at Corning Glass Works as a
Senior Chemical Engineer in Surface Chemistry Research and a summer
at Union Oil as a visiting consultant. In 1973 he joined the chemical
engineering department at Brigham Young University and was recently
promoted to professor. He has authored over 60 scientific papers and
3 major reviews in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and catalyst
deactivation. Active in both teaching and research, he has also con-
sulted with 12 different companies and is currently President of the
California Catalysis Society. His major research and teaching interests
are heterogeneous catalysis (adsorption, kinetics, and catalyst character-
ization), Moessbauer spectroscopy, and air pollution chemistry. (L)
William C. Hecker received his BS and MS degrees from Brigham
Young University and his PhD degree from the University of California,
Berkeley (1982). He has considerable industrial experience, having
worked for Chevron Research, Occidental Research, Dow Chemical,
Exxon, and Columbia Gas Systems. His research and teaching interests
include heterogeneous catalysis, chemical kinetics, heat transfer,
and infrared spectroscopy. (R)

Laboratory since 1982 are listed in the References
section to this paper. A complete list of publica-
tions and areas of current investigation may be
had by contacting the authors. Recent investiga-
tions have considered metal boride catalyst prepa-
ration chemistry; adsorption of CO, H, and H2S
on nickel, cobalt, and iron and of 02 on reduced
and sulfided molybdenum catalysts; activities and
selectivities of cobalt, iron and nickel in CO and
CO, hydrogenation reactions; kinetics of CO and
CO2 methanation on nickel; interactions of co-
balt, iron, and nickel with various supports; ac-
tivities of monolithic nickel catalysts; and de-
activation of nickel catalysts by sulfur poisoning,
carbon deposition or sintering. Current research
projects (Table 1) are directed toward the under-
standing of activity and selectivity properties of
boron-promoted and carbonyl-derived cobalt and
iron catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis,;
effects of support and dispersion on the adsorp-
tion, activity, and selectivity properties of cobalt;
mathematical modeling of CO hydrogenation on


cobalt, iron, and nickel catalysts; and infrared/
reaction studies of NO reduction on Rh and Rh-Mo
catalysts.
From the above brief description it is ap-
parent that BYU's efforts in catalysis are diverse
in terms of the reactions and catalyst types
studied (i.e., methanation, Fischer-Tropsch, NO
reduction; metals, oxides, and sulfides). Never-
theless, the experimental approach in most of these
studies has a common feature, namely an empha-
sis on the characterization of these systems using
adsorption techniques and spectroscopy combined
with laboratory reactor studies to determine spe-
cific activity/selectivity properties. The breadth
of research interests in the Catalysis Laboratory
is further illustrated by the previous work with
nickel methanation catalysts which included
studies of CO and H2 adsorption stoichiometry,
activity/selectivity properties for CO2 and CO
methanation, CO and CO, methanation kinetics,
metal-support interactions, TPD of H2 desorption
for nickel on different supports, sulfur poisoning,
carbon deposition, sintering of nickel on different
supports and modeling of monolithic Ni reactors.
The following brief description of four recent
or ongoing studies illustrates the nature of cataly-
sis research at BYU. The first example concerns
a study of Oa adsorption on unsupported MoS2,
carried out by Bernardo Concha (M.S. candidate)
under the direction of Professor Bartholomew.
Oxygen adsorption uptakes and methanation ac-
tivities were determined for a series of MoS2
catalysts having a range of surface areas. The ex-
cellent linear correlation of the data (Fig. 1) indi-

120
to
0 400 "C



6o
0 s -o

0 40
0
0C 60 C
0 0
Z, *


20 o
aoo'C
0 5 10 15 20 25
02 UPTAKE (pmnole/g)

FIGURE 1. Oxygen uptake of MoS2 catalysts after re-
action for 15-20 h versus steady-state methane pro-
duction (sulfiding temperatures are designated for each
catalyst). (Paper Ref. 10)


FALL 1984








to the number of oxygen adsorption sites. These
results have important application in the develop-
ment of techniques for characterizing sulfide
hydrotreating catalysts used to remove sulfur
from sour petroleum and synthetic crude feed-
stocks.
The second example is the result of a joint
effort by Professors Bartholomew, Brewster, and
Philip J. Smith in cooperation with PhD candi-
dates Edward Sughrue and Philip R. Smith to
model both pellet and monolithic, fixed bed
methanators. This state-of-the-art model includes
complete kinetic rate expressions for CO and CO2
methanation reactions, for the water-gas-shift re-
action, and for inhibition by steam. It also in-
corporates the appropriate reaction rate terms
to account for pore diffusion, heat transfer, and
external mass transfer. Using this model it is
possible to predict reactor temperature profiles
and conversion-temperature profiles in good
agreement with experimental data for pellet or
monolithic packed bed methanators (see Fig. 2).
The third example, an ongoing study con-
ducted by Bruce Breneman (MS candidate) and
Huo-Yen Hsieh (PhD candidate) under the di-
rection of Professor Hecker, involves the use of
infrared spectroscopy to investigate NO reduction
catalysts. (NO reduction is an important function
of auto emissions catalysts.) A series of support-
ed rhodium catalysts have been prepared using
various preparation techniques and various
amounts of molybdenum in an effort to improve
their activity and selectivity. Activity/selectivity
measurements and two types of IR measurements
are made on each catalyst. In the first type, the
quantity and stoichiometry of various adsorbate
molecules (e.g. CO) adsorbed on the catalyst sur-
face at room temperature are determined. This


500 550 600 650
Temperature (K)
FIGURE 2. Comparison of experimental conversion-
temperature profile for 3% Ni/Al04/monolith with
model calculations. (E. L. Sughrue, Ph.D. Dissertation,
Brigham Young Univ., 1983)


cates that hydrogenation activity is proportional
information is used to determine useful correla-
tions with activity and selectivity. In the second
type, IR spectra are obtained under reaction con-
ditions and reveal important information regard-
ing the state of the catalyst surface and the nature
of the reaction intermediates. This information
is important in determining reaction mechanisms.
The fourth study, carried out by Robert Reuel
(MS graduate) under the direction of Professor
Bartholomew, involved the measurement of spe-
cific activities and product selectivities of cobalt
on different supports. These catalysts were found
to have a range of cobalt dispersions (fractions
of cobalt atoms exposed to the surface) which
varied over 2 orders of magnitude. While prepara-
tion, support, and cobalt loading influenced the
activity and selectivity properties, these data were
best correlated with dispersion (see Figs. 3 and


-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1
Ln (Nco)


FIGURE 3. Percentage dispersion (percentage of atoms
exposed to the surface) versus CO turnover frequency
(rate of CO conversion per site per second) at 2250C
for supported cobalt catalysts. (Paper Ref. 20)

4). These results indicate that the specific activity
of cobalt and its selectivity to high molecular
weight products both decrease with increasing
dispersion.
One important dimension of scientific work is
the careful technical communication of the results.
It is, in our opinion, the necessary finishing touch
to any project. The laboratory has been reasonably
productive in this regard. For example, during a
two-year period from 1981 to 1983, the personnel
of the laboratory participated in 8 different pro-
jects, published 42 papers and reports, completed
7 theses and dissertations, and presented 26 papers
and seminars.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













Lu
W
0.

0 13
13 A 0

Z
uJ co/s102
5 C0 c.o



Average Carbon Number (wt. basis)
FIGURE 4. Average carbon number of hydrocarbons pro-
duced at 2250C and 1 atmosphere for 3 and 10 wt.%

supported cobalt catalysts as a function of dispersion.
(Paper Ref. 20)

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
The most important objective of our research
is to educate and train students in the science
and art of catalysis research. Th sis accomplished
at BYU in a number of ways: through participa-
tion in research projects and special courses, by
participation in the biweekly catalysis seminars,
and by attendance at regional and national meet-
ings. In addition to our basic graduate course on
kinetics and catalysis (see Chem. Eng. Ed., Fall,
1981), advanced graduate courses are offered bi-
yearly on special topics related to catalysis, e.g.,
catalyst deactivation, industrial catalysis, and re-
actor design. The laboratory is host to roughly
10-12 visitors each year of whom about 5-6 pre-
sent seminars. Graduate students are also pro-
vided with opportunities to attend and present
papers at regional and national catalysis meetings.
RESEARCH FACILITIES
The Catalysis Laboratory is located in the
Clyde Building, which houses the engineering
disciplines. It presently includes 6 laboratories
(3,000 ft2) and the basic equipment listed in Table
2 to carry out adsorption, reaction, infrared, and
Moessbauer spectroscopy studies. Our facilities
for studying adsorption processes (two vacuum
systems, one flow system, a TGA system, and two
TPD systems) are scarcely equalled even by in-
dustrial laboratories. The temperature-program-
med-desorption (TPD) systems have proven to be
particularly valuable in determining the states and
energetic of H2 and CO adsorptions on cobalt,
iron, and nickel catalysts. The Moessbauer spectro-
meter has been extremely useful in determining


phase composition and oxidation states of iron in
Fischer-Tropsch catalysts while our new FTIR
infrared spectrometer is proving its worth in the
study of NO adsorption and reactions on Rh
catalysts. Having this variety of adsorption, re-
action and spectroscopic techniques at our dis-
posal makes it possible for us to pursue the multi-
tool approach.

SOURCES OF RESEARCH SUPPORT

The Catalysis Laboratory has weathered the
recent turbulent times of increased competition
and declining federal support through diversifica-
tiol of funding from both industry and govern-
ment agencies (see Table 2 and acknowledg-
ments). We presently receive about $200,000-
$250,000 in yearly support from sources outside
the university. A new fund raising effort, the
Industrial Affiliates program, was initiated about
two years ago. The objectives of this program
are to establish closer ties with our industrial col-

TABLE 2

Facilities and Equipment of the
BYU Catalysis Laboratory
CATALYSIS LABORATORY

Six laboratories-3,000 ft2 with catalyst preparation
areas and preparation equipment
Three lab reactors including a Berty Autoclave
reactor
Two vacuum adsorption systems
One flow adsorption system
Five chromatographs-including HP-5830 and Sigma
I systems
TGS-2 thermogravimetric balance
Two TPD/TPR systems with mass spectrometer and
TC detection
Moessbauer spectrometer system
Nicholet 5-MX FTIR infrared spectrometer system
Sage II, 68000 computer system; 2 Macintosh and
one Lisa II-5 computers
Vacuum Atmospheres HE-43-2 Dri-Lab glove boxb
UNIVERSITY

Six large computers (several VAX 750 and 780
systems, IBM-4341)
Transmission electron microscopes (Botany):
Phillips EM-400 (with EDAX) and Hitachi HU-11E.
(Both microscopes have been used for catalyst work;
TEM sample preparations have been developed.)
Calorimeters (The Thermochemical Institute)
GC-MS (Chemistry)
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (Chemistry)

aThree new laboratories added in 1982-83.
bEquipment added in 1983.
cEquipment added in 1984.


FALL 1984








leagues and obtain fellowship support for gradu-
ate students through annual subscriptions of
$5,000-$15,000. Affiliates of our program receive
advance copies of our publications and a special
annual study on some aspect of catalysis. Thus far,
three companies (Atlantic Richfield Co., Phillips
Petroleum Co., and Union Oil Co. of California)
have joined our program.

SUMMARY

Catalysis at BYU is a growing cooperative
effort of faculty and students engaged in diverse
areas of basic research in heterogeneous catalysis.
While the Catalysis Lab is unusually productive
in terms of publications, its most important pro-
ducts are students well trained in the multitool,
multidisciplinary approach to catalysis research.
Looking ahead, members of the laboratory are
hoping to expand into other areas of catalysis re-
search including homogeneous catalysis and sur-
face science with the addition of a senior scientist
in each of these areas. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors gratefully acknowledge financial
support from the AMAX Foundation; DOE,
Fossil Energy; DOE, Office of Basic Energy
Sciences; NSF; Atlantic Richfield Co.; Phillips
Petroleum Co.; Union Oil Foundation; and Brig-
ham Young University.

REFERENCES: Laboratory Publications since 1982
A. Contributions to Books
1. C. H. Bartholomew and J. R. Katzer, "Sulfur Poison-
ing of Nickel in CO Hydrogenation," in Catalyst De-
activation ed. B. Delmon and G. F. Froment, Elsevier
Sci. Pub. Co., Amsterdam, 1980.
2. C. H. Bartholomew, P. K. Agrawal, and J. R. Katzer,
"Sulfur Poisoning of Metals," Advances in Catalysis,
31, 136 (1982).
B. Journal Publications
1. C. H. Bartholomew, "Carbon Deposition in Steam Re-
forming and Methanation," Catalysis Reviews-Sci.
Eng., 24(1), 67 (1982).
2. C. H. Bartholomew and R. B. Pannell, "Sulfur Poison-
ing of H2 and CO Adsorption on Nickel," Appl. Catal.,
2, 39 (1982).
3. E. L. Sughrue and C. H. Bartholomew, "Kinetics of
CO Methanation on Nickel Monolithic Catalysts,"
Appl. Catal., 2, 239 (1982).
4. A. D. Moeller and C. H. Bartholomew, "Deactivation
by Carbon of Nickel, Nickel-Ruthenium, and Nickel-
Molybdenum Methanation Catalysts," I & EC Prod.
Res. & Develop., 21, 390 (1982).
5. C. H. Bartholomew and A. H. Uken, "Metal Boride


Catalysts in Methanation of Carbon Monoxide, III.
Sulfur Resistance of Nickel Boride Catalysts Com-
pared to Nickel and Raney Nickel Catalysts," Appl.
Catal., 4, 19 (1982).
6. G. D. Weatherbee and C. H. Bartholomew, "Hydro-
genation of CO2 on Group VIII Metals, II. Kinetics
and Mechanism of CO2 Hydrogenation on Nickel,"
J. Catal., 77, 460 (1982).
7. C. H. Bartholomew, "Response to Comments on Nickel-
Support Interactions: Their Effects on Particle
Morphology, Adsorption, and Activity Selectivity
Properties," I & EC Prod. Res. Develop., 21(3), 523
(1982).
8. T. A. Bodrero, C. H. Bartholomew, and K. C. Pratt,
"Characterization of Unsupported Ni-Mo Hydrode-
sulphurization Catalysts by Oxygen Chemisorption,"
J. Catal., 78, 253 (1982).
9. C. H. Bartholomew, R. B. Pannell, and R. W. Fowler,
"Sintering of Alumina-Supported Nickel and Nickel
Bimetallic Catalysts in H2/H20 Atmospheres," J.
Catal., 79 34 (1983).
10. B. E. Concha and C. H. Bartholomew, "Correlation
of O, Uptake with CO Hydrogenation Activity of
Unsupported MoS2 Catalysts," J. Catal., 79, 327
(1983).
11. E. J. Erekson and C. H. Bartholomew, "Sulfur
Poisoning of Nickel Methanation Catalysts, II. Effects
of H,S Concentration, CO and H20 Partial Pressures
and Temperature on Deactivation Rates," Appl.
Catal., 5, 323 (1983).
12. C. H. Bartholomew and W. L. Sorensen, "Sintering
Kinetics of Silica and Alumina-Supported Nickel in
Hydrogen Atmosphere," J. Catal., 81, 131 (1983).
13. J. M. Zowtiak, G. D. Weatherbee, and C. H. Bartholo-
mew, "Activated Adsorption of H2 on Cobalt and
Effects of Support Thereon," J. Catal., 82, 230 (1983).
14. J. M. Zowtiak and C. H. Bartholomew, "The Kinetics
of H, Adsorption on and Desorption from Cobalt and
the Effects of Support Thereon," J. Catal., 83, 107
(1983).
15. C. K. Vance and C. H. Bartholomew, "Hydrogenation
of Carbon Dioxide on Group VII Metals, III. Effects
of Support on Activity/Selectivity and Adsorption
Properties of Nickel," Appl. Catal., 7, 169 (1983).
16. R. M. Bowman and C. H. Bartholomew, "Deactiva-
tion by Carbon of Ru/A1203 During CO Hydro-
genation," Appl. Catal., 7, 179 (1983).
17. T. A. Bodrero and C. H. Bartholomew, "Oxygen
Chemisorption on MoS2 and Commercial Hydrotreat-
ing Catalysts," J. Catal., 84, 145 (1983).
18. C. H. Bartholomew, "Finding Keys to Selectivity in
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis," Industrial Chemical
News, 4(10), 1 (1983).
19. R. C. Reuel and C. H. Bartholomew, "The Stoichio-
metries of H2 and CO Adsorptions on Cobalt: Effects
of Support and Preparation," J. Catal., 85, 63 (1984).
20. R. C. Reuel and C. H. Bartholomew, "Effects of Sup-
port and Dispersion on the CO Hydrogenation Ac-
tivity/Selectivity Properties of Cobalt," J. Catal.,
85, 78 (1984).
21. G. D. Weatherbee and C. H. Bartholomew, "Effects
of Support on Hydrogen Adsorption/Desorption
Kinetics of Nickel," J. Catal. 87(1), 55 (1984).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








REVIEW: Engineering Optimization
Continued from page 159.
to common sense to understand each of the op-
timization methods considered. Also, every method
is followed with an example to illustrate it. This
format is exactly right as the focus is on how to
use the methods. As the jacket flyer states, ". .
proofs and derivations are included only if they
serve to explain key steps and properties of
algorithms." The authors also offer their opinions
as to the strengths and weaknesses of the various
methods, and I found myself agreeing with them
in virtually all cases.
The book occasionally stops rather abruptly
on a topic, perhaps most noticeably with the
chapter on linear programming. The theory be-
hind sensitivity analysis for linear programming
is not that difficult to present, yet the text simply
presents some of the 'how to' aspects of this useful
subject. Also it does not develop generalized
duality theory, which can actually be done rather
agreeably at a level consistent with the rest of
the book. This theory is useful when attempting
to understand a number of concepts, such as the
saddlepoint conditions and dual bounding.
The variety of methods covered in the first 11
chapters is impressive. The authors have ob-
viously scoured the engineering literature for the
methods that have found their way into practical
use for engineering problems. Included are direct
and gradient based methods for unconstrained op-
timization problems; a simple presentation of the
simplex algorithm for linear programming; the
important theorems for constrained optimality;
both ordinary and generalized penalty function
methods; successive linearization methods; the
very effective generalized reduced gradient me-
thod; gradient projection methods; and very im-
portantly the ideas behind successive quadratic
programming methods, perhaps the best of the
methods developed so far for nonlinear constrain-
ed optimization. The final chapter on methods,
Chapter 11, covers briefly mixed integer linear pro-
gramming, quadratic programming and geometric
programming.
The last three chapters of the book, Chapters
12 to 14, are a chapter on studies which have been
performed to compare many of the methods pre-
sented, a very readable and important chapter of
the issues one must worry about when embarking
on an optimization study, and finally a chapter de-
scribing three larger case studies, obviously one


per author. The first of these chapters emphasizes
what the authors feel must be included in a com,-
parison study for methods if the study is to be
meaningful.
The homework problems are plentiful and
seem appropriate for the topics covered. Students
using this book will be much better off if they have
had a course on linear algebra.
The material could be taught in one semester,
if one is careful about not overdoing the detail
on some of the methods. O



PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC CONVEYING
OF SOLIDS
by O. A. Williams
Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1983, 319 pages.

Reviewed by T. D. Wheelock
Iowa State University

This volume is the 13th in a special series of
reference books and textbooks relating to the
chemical industries. It treats pneumatic and
hydraulic conveying as separate and independent
subjects with seven chapters devoted to the former
and ten chapters to the latter. An additional
chapter is devoted to solid waste disposal areas,
landfills, and sluice ponds. The volume is based
largely on the author's considerable experience as a
designer and user of conveying systems. In line
with the author's statement that "the design of a
pneumatic conveying system is almost as much of
an art as it is in engineering function," the treat-
ment is largely descriptive and highly empirical.
Various types of conveying systems and their
operating characteristics are described. Also dis-
cussed are important features of system com-
ponents such as bins, feeders, exhausters, blowers,
pumps, piping, gates, and control units. In ad-
dition two chapters are devoted to detailed design
calculations for a number of different systems.
Since the volume provides a broad and rather
detailed introduction to the layout, design, and
operation of pneumatic and hydraulic conveying
systems, it will be of particular value to engineers
responsible for the design and/or operation of such
systems. It may also serve as a useful reference
for college-level process design courses. In ad-
dition, because it illustrates the highly empirical
nature of solids conveying technology, it may
stimulate further research and development in
this important field. D


FALL 1984









R6eceacih o#4


BIO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS


ALVIN 0. CONVERSE and
HANS E. GRETHLEIN
Dartmouth College
Hanover, NH 03755

T HE OBJECTIVE OF OUR WORK is to contribute to
the development of new practical processes for
the conversion of the cellulose found in biomass to
fuels, chemicals, and foods. Industrial scale plants
for the dilute acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the
cellulose in wood are currently operated in USSR,
and in the past both concentrated HC1 and dilute
HSO, processes have been developed in Europe
and the USA. However, these processes have not
been commercially viable in competition with
petrochemicals and soybean protein.

ACID HYDROLYSIS
Our work in this area began in 1967 when
Andrew Porteous, then a student in the DE pro-
gram, recommended in the solution to his qualify-
ing examination (a design problem on which the







"A






A. O. Converse is Associate Dean and professor of engineering at
the Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College. He holds a BS
degree in chemical engineering from Lehigh University and the MS
and PhD degrees from the University of Delaware. Currently he is
involved in research associated with the conversion of biomass to
fuels and chemicals. (L)
H. E. Grethlein is professor of engineering at the Thayer School
of Engineering, Dartmouth College, where he specializes in biomass
hydrolysis with acid or enzymes, water treatment with membranes and
micro-organisms, and process development in biotechnology. He has
his BSChE degree from Drexel University and his PhD degree from
Princeton University. (R)


Obviously the costs and
corrosion problems associated with higher
temperatures limit the practical temperature, and
mixing and heating requirements established
a lower limit on the residence time.

student has 30 days to work) that a continuous
plug flow reactor be used to carry out dilute acid
hydrolysis of the cellulosic material found in
municipal wastes. Compared to the percolation re-
actor that had been developed for woody materials
by the Forest Products Laboratory at Madison,
Wisconsin [10], Porteous reasoned that the plug
flow reactor would be able to handle materials,
such as waste paper, that would not be porous
enough for percolation, and furthermore the pro-
cess would be fully continuous [9]. The kinetics for
Douglas fir [10] indicated that the yield of glucose
would increase as the temperature is increased
and the residence time is reduced. This is of par-
ticular importance because the yields obtainable
in a percolation reactor are inherently greater than
in a plug flow reactor.
With support from EPA, Fagen [2], for his
ME thesis, conducted batch hydrolysis experi-
ments and measured the kinetics constants for
paper, the principal cellulosic component of
municipal wastes. He found that they were similar
to those for Douglas fir and hence a plug flow re-
actor should be operated at high temperature and
a short residence time. Subsequent studies on many
biomass substrates have shown this conclusion to
hold true in general.
Obviously the costs and corrosion problems as-
sociated with higher temperatures limit the practi-
cal temperature, and mixing and heating require-
ments established a lower limit on the residence
time. Hence, we set out to develop a flow reactor
to determine the yields that could in fact be ob-
tained. From a more scientific point of view, the
flow reactor has another attraction: it allows one
to study the kinetics of hydrolysis under more
severe conditions than can accurately be studied

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








in a batch reactor because short residence times
can be obtained without the heat up transients in-
volved in a batch reactor.
Lay [6], Thompson [11], and McParland [8]
(supported first by NSF and later by DOE), in
their respective ME theses, developed the present
flow reactor, shown in Fig. 1, and studied the
kinetics of several substrates. Currently the acidi-
fied slurry is pumped into the reactor along with
high pressure steam which condenses, mixes with,
and heats the mixture to reaction temperature in,
we estimate, about 0.7 sec. The minimum resi-
dence time used thus far is 7 sec. and the maxi-
mum temperature, 260 C. Under these conditions
the glucose yield is 55-60%. Current modifications
should permit operation at 280 C where a 70%
yield is expected.
Several other approaches are being taken in
an effort to increase the yield from acid hydroly-
sis. The glucose yields are reduced by the fact that
glucose decomposes under the same conditions as it
forms. Ward is currently studying whether the
presence of acetone, through the formation of glu-
cose-acetone complexes, can be used to reduce the
glucose decomposition. Holland is currently de-
signing a reactor which is to have a shorter resi-
dence time for the liquid, and hence less glucose
decomposition, than for the solids. Vick Roy [12]
has recently explored the use of SO2 catalyzed
hydrolysis under supercritical conditions.
Because of the difficulty in pumping slurries
containing a high concentration of wood, and the
practice of injecting live steam into the flow re-
actor, the sugar concentrations in the reactor
effluent are low. By using a nonaqueous immiscible
carrier fluid in place of water, we have found it
possible to increase the concentration of sugar in
the aqueous phase. This also permits another
means for separating the products. Woods have
small amounts of rosins and oils, and they would
be expected to concentrate in the nonaqueous
phase. Of course, these advantages must justify
the cost of any carrier fluid which is not recovered
as well as additional processing steps. Further
study is needed to allow such evaluation.

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS
As an alternative to acid catalyzed hydrolysis,
enzymes can be used to catalyze the reaction. In
this case, the glucose yields, with proper pretreat-
ment of the substrate, are in the range of 95-
100%, considerably higher than is obtained with
acid hydrolysis. The reaction, however, is much


slower; 24-48 hrs. rather than 7 sec. Grethlein
[3] compared these two methods, using data from
Berkeley [13], and concluded that at that time
acid hydrolysis appeared more attractive. This
process evaluation is currently being updated
through a set of process studies sponsored by
DOE/SERI.
In her DE thesis, Knappert [4] (with support
from NSF and International Harvester Corp.),
showed that by operating the flow reactor under
somewhat milder conditions (1% HSO, 7-10 sec.,
200 C) an effective pretreatment could be ob-
tained. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis of these pre-
treated solids, the glucose yield was >90% in 24
hrs. compared to 35% in 48 hrs. from unpretreated
solids. Knappert showed that this pretreatment


FIGURE 1. Flow reactor equipment.
increases the fraction of pores that are larger than
the enzyme molecule. Subsequent studies by Allen
[1] and others have shown that the crystallinity of
the cellulose remains unchanged and that the
lignin is not removed. The pores are increased by
the removal of a fraction of the hemicellulose, and
contrary to the prevailing view, we now believe
this to be the essential feature of an effective pre-
treatment. Grous is currently extending this
study to include other methods of pretreatment.
BYPRODUCTS
Although glucose is the principal sugar (maxi-
mum yield = 42% of dry hardwood), a significant
amount of xylose can be produced (maximum yield
= 18% of dry hardwood). Whereas glucose is
easily fermented to ethanol, xylose is not. Natural-
ly, efforts are underway at a number of labora-
tories to develop yeasts than can effectively carry
out such a fermentation. However, xylose can be
used to produce single-cell protein. Furthermore,
its decomposition product, furfural, has a con-


FALL 1984










These theses include both
process design and development,
and basic research in applied science, in keeping
with our two sets of graduate degrees...

siderable value, albeit to a small market. In his
PhD thesis, Kwarteng [5] (supported by Dow
Chemical Co. and DOE/SERI), reformulated
Root's kinetic model for the formation and de-
composition of furfural from xylose, and redeter-
mined the constants from experiments in the flow
reactor. He also extended the model to include the
formation of xylose from the xylan in the biomass.
In contrast to xylose and glucose decomposition,
furfural decomposition is second order. Hence,
the furfural yield is increased by using a more
dilute feed. This is countered by acid costs, product
concentration, and heating costs, all of which favor
a more concentrated feed. Process optimization
studies are underway to evaluate the optimum feed
concentration of biomass. Even at half the current
market price furfural is two to three times more
valuable than the sugars produced; hence its pro-
duction could have an important impact on the
profitability of the overall process.
Lignin is another byproduct that we plan to
study in the future. Some of it is solubilized in
the flow reactor, and the solubility of the residue
in solvents is increased. Furthermore, the short
residence time followed by flash quenching em-
ployed in the flow reactor is expected to give it
unique properties.

PRODUCT SEPARATION
The overall process has three main parts:
hydrolysis of the biomass to produce sugars and
furfural, fermentation of the sugars to ethanol or
possibly other chemicals, and separation of the
ethanol to an anhydrous product if the ethanol is
to be added to gasoline. Even though it requires a
considerable amount of energy, distillation still
appears to be the preferred means of separation.
In his ME thesis, Lynd [7] proposed a new means
of combining heat pumps with distillation that sig-
nificantly reduces the energy requirement, par-
ticularly for dilute feeds which are usually en-
countered when fermentation is used to generate
the feed.
The azeotrope formed between ethanol and
water makes their separation more difficult, and
even if a salt such as potassium acetate (KAc) is
added to break the azeotrope, with normal distilla-


tion the reflux (and hence energy) must remain
high if the feed is dilute, e.g. 1-10 wt. %. Lynd's
innovation helps to overcome this requirement.
Hence, the use of KAc looks much more attractive.
Work is getting underway to test out the critical
aspects of this process experimentally.

FERMENTATION STUDIES
Tricoderma reesei is a fungus which produces
the extracellular enzymes used in our enzyme
hydrolysis work described above. It must be grown
on a cellulosic substrate in order to produce these
cellulase enzymes, but unfortunately can not be
present during the main hydrolysis step since it
would consume the glucose product. Hence, the
enzymes must be produced in a separate step. Since
the pretreatment is effective in the hydrolysis step,
we are now testing its effectiveness in the kinetics
of the enzyme production step.
Some thermophylic bacteria have the ability
to ferment cellulose directly to ethanol. As the
name implies, they live at relatively high tempera-
tures and hence the likelihood of contamination
of this fermentation by other organisms is low.
However, they also have some limitations: they
ferment natural biomass, which contains lignin as
well as cellulose, very slowly; they have a low
tolerance compared to yeast for the ethanol that
they produce and hence produce dilute beers, and
they produce other products that compete for the
substrate. We think that it may be possible to
overcome these limitations through the use of
mild acid hydrolysis in the flow reactor as a pre-
treatment, combined with simultaneous fermenta-
tion and product removal using Lynd's distillation
scheme to remove the ethanol from the dilute beer
as it is formed thus altering the product distribu-
tion in the favor of ethanol. Lynd will undertake
a study of this in his DE thesis.
In order to emphasize the role of the students
in this work, the references cited are primarily
student theses rather than papers in the litera-
ture. These theses include both process design and
development, and basic research in applied science,
in keeping with our two sets of graduate degrees
-ME and DE for those interested primarily in
design and MS and PhD for those interested pri-
marily in research. The distinction is one of de-
gree since many theses involve both elements.
The undergraduate programs of the students in-
volved in this work have included biology, chemis-
try, engineering science, and civil engineering as
well as chemical engineering, in keeping with non-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









departmental organization of the Thayer
School. O

REFERENCES
1. Allen, D. C., "Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Acid Pre-
treated Cellulosic Substrate: Substrate Hydrolysis,
Process Development & Process Economics," ME
thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth
College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1983.
2. Fagan, R. D., "The Acid Hydrolysis of Refuse," ME
thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth
College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1969.
3. Grethlein, H. E., "Comparison of the Economics of
Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Newsprint," Bio-
tech Bioeng, Vol. XX, 503, 1978.
4. Knappert, D. R., "Partial Acid Hydrolysis Pretreat-
ment for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose: A Pro-
cess Development Study for Ethanol Production,"
DE thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dart-
mouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1981.
5. Kwarteng, I. K., "Kinetics of Dilute Acid Hydrolysis
of Hardwood in Continuous Plug Flow Reactor,"
PhD thesis, Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth
College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1984.
6. Lay, J. R., "The Acid Hydrolysis of High Solid
Content Cellulose Slurries," ME thesis, Thayer School
of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH
03755, 1978.
7. Lynd, L. R., "Energy Efficient Distillation with In-
novative Use of Heat Pumps," MS thesis, Thayer
School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover,
NH 03755, 1984.
8. McParland, J. J., "The Acid Hydrolysis of Cellulosic
Biomass: A Bench Scale System and Preliminary
Plant Design," ME thesis, Thayer School of Engi-
neering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755,
1980.
9. Porteous, A., "Improved Manufacture of Polyure-
thane Foam," DE thesis, Thayer School of Engineer-
ing, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1967.
10. Saeman, J. F., "Kinetics of Wood Saccharification,"
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 37, 32, 1945.
11. Thompson, D. R., "The Acid Hydrolysis as a Means
of Converting Municipal Refuse to Ethanol: Process
Kinetics and Preliminary Plant Design," ME thesis,
Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College,
Hanover, NH 03755, 1978.
12. Vick Roy, J. R., "Biomass Hydrolysis with Sulfur
Dioxide," ME thesis Thayer School of Engineering,
Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1984.
13. Wilke, C. R., R. D. Yang and U. Von Stockar, Bio-
tech. Bioeng. Symp., 6, 155, 1976.


VIDEO-BASED SEMINARS
Continued from page 175.
and use of non-communicative words such as "uh",
etc. Sometimes the review sessions were absolutely
devastating for the presenter since these manner-
isms are greatly "amplified" by the video camera


and, of course, preserved for posterity. However,
I was pleasantly surprised by the light-hearted
attitude with which all students received the re-
view process. There was much good-natured
kidding about the errors, and no one seemed to be
embarrassed or hurt by the review.
The two best presentations (i.e. free from
errors) were edited, together with my brief com-
ments, into one tape which we shall use as a means
of external communication to industry and to
other academic institutions. For example, I plan
to send this tape to some industry contacts to intro-
duce our research group and to precede my visit
to a group I have yet to meet. Secondly, this tape
may be used as a subtle recruiting aid at academic
institutions which I may visit. Students seem to
listen intently to their peers regarding graduate
research experiences.
REACTIONS TO THE VIDEO SEMINARS
The student reactions to this new format were
varied. Some met the video-based seminar course
with enthusiasm, some with fear, and some with
indifference. A few were cynical about the value
of a seminar course which did not allow a tough
question-and-answer session. Many felt that furth-
er refinement of their seminar mechanics was un-
necessary. The professors showed the opposite
feelings, perhaps as a result of years of teaching
and giving technical presentations-seminars.
However, after the taping all were of the same
accord. Moreover, the students became more aware
of the original intent of this experiment: to pro-
vide a new format which would allow instant feed-
back on a seminar presentation. The video-based
format best satisfies that need for instant feed-
back.
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, this brief experiment with
video-based seminars was successful with regard
to the original intent of improving visual com-
munication skills in a formal seminar setting. This
format is suitable for use as an occasional tool,
preferably with students who have had some ex-
perience in seminar presentation. We may not
repeat this experience until at least six to eight
quarters have elapsed. O
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We acknowledge the generous help offered by
David Edwards and the crew in our Media Center
and the monetary support offered by Rohm and
Haas Company to cover the taping and studio costs.


FALL 1984










4 PSEPAS Ria in R


SEPARATIONS RESEARCH


JAMES R. FAIR
The University of Texas
Austin, TX 78712

A LL CHEMICAL ENGINEERS understand the im-
portance of separation processes in the manu-
facture of chemical products. Raw materials must
be purified, catalyst poisons eliminated, unreacted
materials separated for recycle, and end-products
refined to meet specifications. Further, waste
streams must undergo separations before they can
be discharged into the environment. Separation
processes pervade not only the classical chemical/
petroleum process industries but other ones as
well, such as electronics, food and biological,
metals, and so on. Investment in separation equip-
ment represents a large fraction of the industry
total, and the processes consume very large
amounts of energy. It is not surprising that there
is much interest in developing improved methods
for separating mixtures, not just for improved
economics but also for simply enabling isolation
of a material that is tightly bound in some parent
mixture. It is surprising, however, that there is
not more easily-identifiable research of a generic
type that can support the needs of an industry so
dependent on separations.
In fact, there is a great deal of research in pro-
gress that supports the development of improved
industrial separation processes. In academia, such
research covers areas of thermodynamics, trans-
port processes in various media, and reaction se-
lectivity. In industry, the research is often directed
toward specific problems that occur in the develop-
ment of new processes or products. In many re-
spects, there has been too little collaboration be-
tween the academicians and the industrialists who

The research areas targeted were:
distillation, adsorption, liquid-liquid extraction,
supercritical fluid extraction, membrane processes
for separating both gaseous and liquid mixtures,
chromatographic separations, electrochemical
separation methods, and separations
employing chemical reactions.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1984


James R. Fair joined the chemical engineering faculty at The Uni-
versity of Texas in 1979, after many years with Monsanto Company.
At Texas he holds the Ernest & Virginia Cockrell Chair and also is
Head of the Separations Research Program. He has received numerous
awards from the AIChE and was honored as an Eminent Chemical
Engineer at the Diamond Jubilee meeting in November 1983. He is a
Fellow of AIChE and a member of National Academy of Engineer-
ing. He holds BS, MS and PhD degrees from Georgia Institute of
Technology and the Universities of Michigan and Texas, as well as
an honorary ScD degree from Washington University.

share common interests in separations ranging
from the fundamental to the applied. This paper
describes one attempt to foster greater industry-
university collaboration in the separations tech-
nology area, the attempt being identified as our
Separations Research Program at The University
of Texas at Austin.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROGRAM
A number of UT faculty had been conducting
separations-related research for several years
when in 1983 they were invited to participate in
an industry-funded consortium sponsored by the
Center for Energy Studies at UT. The center had
a line-item budget from the State of Texas and
had as one of its purposes the development of new
programs that could impact the efficiency of energy
usage by industry. Since the chemical and petrole-
um industries represent two of the three largest
energy-consuming segments of the total industry,
and since within them separations are the largest
energy-users, it was logical for the center to be
interested in industrial separation processes. This


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









led to a seed money grant that enabled the hiring
of a full-time program manager, Dr. J. L. Humph-
rey, to pursue the planning and organization of
the consortium. At the same time, a large (145,000
square feet) new research facility was approved
by the UT administration, and arrangements were
made for the separations work to utilize a signifi-
cant amount of the space.
The research areas targeted were: distillation,
adsorption, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical
fluid extraction, membrane processes for separat-
ing both gaseous and liquid mixtures, chromato-
graphic separations, electrochemical separation
methods, and separations employing chemical re-
actions. All of these areas had some coverage by
faculty in the chemical engineering and chemistry
departments. The industries targeted were: chemi-
cal, petroleum refining, gas processing, biologi-
cal, pharmaceutical, food, and textile. Informal
talks were held with UT faculty members, uni-

TABLE 1
Participants-Separations Research Program*

ABCOR, Inc./Koch Engineering
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Albany International Corp.
Aluminum Company of America
Amoco Oil Company
ARCO Petroleum Products Company
The BOC Group, Inc.
Celanese Chemical Company
Combustion Engineering, Inc.
Dow Chemical Company
Dow Corning Corporation
E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co.
Ethyl Corporation
Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
Glitsch, Inc.
B. F. Goodrich Company
Hoffman-La Roche, Inc.
M. W. Kellogg Company
Koppers Company, Inc.
Monsanto Company
Neste Oy
Norton Company
Nutter Engineering/Chem-Pro Corporation
Osmonics, Inc.
Perry Gas Companies, Inc./Separex Corporation
Phillips Petroleum Company
Rohm & Haas Company
Shell Development Company
A. E. Staley Manufacturing Co.
Standard Oil of Ohio
Texaco, Inc.
Union Carbide Corporation


*As of June 1984


Since the chemical and petroleum industries
represent two of the three largest energy-consuming
segments of the total industry, and since within them
separations are the largest energy-users, it
was logical for the center to be interested
in industrial separation processes.

versity administration, and representatives of a
number of companies. A charter was written, and
the plan was further developed and published as
an 89-page prospectus. This document was mailed
widely to industry, and during the developmental
period twenty-two companies visited the UT
campus to learn more about the proposed pro-
gram. In May 1983 an informational meeting was
held, and 101 representatives from sixty com-
panies attended. A research participation agree-
ment was drawn up and mailed to companies with
an invitation to join the program. Formal opera-
tion was to begin in January 1984. It should be
mentioned that the cost of the prospectus, the in-
formational meeting, and the preparation of state-
of-the-art reports on the several separations areas
was underwritten by the Electric Power Research
Institute through a grant.
At this writing, thirty-two companies have
signed two-year participation agreements. They
are listed in Table 1.
CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS
The plan was for the research to be supervised
largely by regular UT faculty members. Thus, it
was necessary for the research area coverage to be
compatible with the interests of these people. It
was recognized that additional areas could be
covered by faculty yet to be hired, or by full-time
research scientists and engineers, but these were
deferred until a later time when resources and in-
dustry interests could justify the expansion. In
the following sections brief sketches will describe
the current work in progress.
Membrane Separations. This work is divided
into the separation of gaseous and liquid mix-
tures. For gases, direction is under D. R. Paul and
W. J. Koros. Both of these people have had active
programs in membrane separations for several
years, Dr. Paul at UT and Dr. Koros at North
Carolina State University. Arrangements were
made for Koros to move to UT as a full-time re-
searcher initially, followed by a faculty appoint-
ment. It is clear that the use of membranes for gas
separation is an industrial reality, with the
promise of a large expansion of the areas of


FALL 1984








application. It is equally clear that many im-
portant questions regarding application cannot be
answered with today's knowledge, and thus there
is the opportunity for more rapid expansion of
membrane technology through the support of
generic research. The current program has thrusts
in the following directions: pure gas sorption and
transport, mixed gas sorption and transport, mem-
brane durability, separation of vapors, asymmetric


SRP researcher William J. Koros measures the weight
gained by a tiny membrane sample as it sorbs, or takes
in, gas. A weight gain of 500 millionths of a gram
indicates a highly sorbent material.

membrane formation and characterization, and
module simulation/performance. As might be ex-
pected, emphases such as the foregoing can shift
as more knowledge is gained.
The liquid-mixture membrane program is
under the direction of D. R. Lloyd, who began his
research in this area at Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University before moving to
UT a few years ago. The program includes the
synthesis of polymers, the preparation of sheet-
and hollow-fiber membranes, transport studies,
and the investigation of possible applications in
the petrochemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical,
biomedical, and genetic industries. The unifying
theme of the research is the need to understand
the physicochemical factors that govern the sepa-
ration process.


Distillation. This old friend, and its associates
absorption and stripping, is being studied under
the direction of J. R. Fair. As is well known, it is
the dominant separation method in the process
industries and for many good reasons is likely to
remain so. The work at UT is directed primarily
to the mass transfer efficiency of common types
of contacting devices for distillation columns. Of
the several segments of distillation technology
(phase equilibria, mass and energy balances,
efficiency, and equipment design), understanding
of the mass transfer process is in the lowest stage
of development. Two particular devices are being
studied: the crossflow sieve tray and high-efficien-
cy packing. The sieve tray is widely used and is
uniquely amenable to mechanistic modeling. The
high-efficiency packing types, only recently de-
veloped, are making possible large energy savings
in vacuum fractionations. The ultimate goal of
this work is to have the form of mechanistic
models that enable the reliable prediction of per-
formance for both new and retrofitted distillation
columns.
Supercritical Fluid Extraction. This work is
under the direction of K. P. Johnston. Supercriti-
cal fluid extraction (SFE) is a hybrid process that
uses benefits from both distillation and liquid ex-
traction. The process has the additional advantage
that slight changes in temperature and pressure
near the critical point cause extremely large
changes in the solvent density and thus its dis-
solving power. In comparison with conventional
separation processes, SFE offers considerable
flexibility for an extractive separation through
the control of pressure, temperature, choice of
solvent and co-solvent ("entrainer"). There are a
few SFE processes that have reached commercial-
ization, but in general the method still awaits
better understanding of phase behavior as well
as the transport processes that take place in SFE
equipment. The program at UT is directed toward
the acquisition of fundamental thermodynamic
data and the development of predictive models that
can guide solvent selection and processing con-
ditions. Of particular interest is the use of co-
solvents which in small amount can greatly en-
hance the separation factors.
Liquid-Liquid Extraction. This work is under
the direction of J. R. Fair and J. L. Humphrey.
Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is another old
friend, though not nearly as old as distillation. It
has gained increased attention recently as an
alternative to distillation that for some cases can


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








result in distinct energy savings. For temperature-
labile mixtures, LLE can also offer advantages if
the labile species do not undergo high tempera-
ture conditions in the solvent stripper. As for
distillation, little is known about the mass transfer
processes that take place in LLE equipment, and
this is partly due to the dominance of proprietary-
type extraction devices in commercial practice.
Under study at UT are sieve tray extractors and
high-efficiency packed columns, both of which are
non-proprietary and amenable to mechanistic
modeling. It is expected that with the new under-
standing gained there will be resulting develop-
ments in more energy-efficient extraction device
design.
In a related area, work is underway to deter-
mine the mass transfer characteristics of a con-
tinuous-flow supercritical fluid extraction system
using a counterflow solvent/feed arrangement.
Adsorption. Drs. Fair and Humphrey are also
directing work in this area. Interest in the area
is high because of breakthroughs in the applica-
tion of pressure-swing adsorption to separating
gas mixtures such as air into their components
without excessive thermal gradients. There are
two areas of initial study at UT: mechanisms of
thermal and pressure regeneration steps for con-
ventional fixed bed gas adsorbers, and break-
through relationships for liquid-phase adsorption.
There is future interest in the study of moving
bed and fluid bed adsorption processes. Progress
in adsorption technology has been largely through
the development of improved adsorbents such as
zeolite and carbon molecular sieves. The work at
UT is centered on the kinetics of adsorption and
desorption on and from these adsorbents as well
as the more traditional adsorbents (where new
process applications may be envisioned).
Electric-Based Processes. This work comes
under the direction of A. J. Bard of the UT chemis-
try department. Two areas are currently being
studied: electrochemistry in critical aqueous solu-
tions and electrically controlled adsorption. Funda-
mental research on electrochemical processes in
critical aqueous solutions has not been performed
previously. Thermodynamic (PVT) and conduct-
ance studies have illustrated that the structure of
water solutions changes dramatically near the
critical point (375C and 220 atmospheres for
pure water). Since the dielectric constant of water
decreases to that of a "normal" fluid at high
temperatures and pressures, critical and super-
critical water becomes a good solvent for nonionic


At poster session representatives from companies listen
to program manager J. L. Humphrey describe the sepa-
rations test facilities to be installed in the new research
laboratories.

organic species. However, a wide range of super-
critical temperatures and pressures is accessible
for which water is still a good electrolytic solvent.
The electrochemical study of these systems there-
fore provides a unique opportunity to examine se-
lectively soluble, electroactive species in situ.
With respect to electrosorption, the extent of
adsorption of substances at the solid/liquid inter-
face depends upon the potential difference across
this interface. Thus, the adsorption of organic
species on conductive carbon particles can be con-
trolled by the potential applied. This type of sepa-
ration has not been exploited, mainly because the
fundamental data have not been obtained and be-
cause of construction problems associated with
large-scale adsorbers where a uniform applied po-
tential could be used.
Separations with Chemical Reactions. This pro-
gram represents an expansion of work started
several years ago at UT by G. T. Rochelle, the
director of the present work. His quite compre-
hensive program has dealt largely with the re-
moval of sulfur dioxide from stack gases, common-
ly called flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The
technology of FGD dominates commercial ap-
proaches to pollution abatement in fossil-fired


FALL 1984









Newer programs deal with
the more general area of acid gas
removal from gas mixtures and involves basic
absorption/reaction modeling studies.


power plants but is expensive, presents operating
problems, and produces by-products of limited in-
dustrial use. However, it is unlikely to be dis-
placed by other technologies and by its nature
suggests that there are many possible improve-
ments. The program at UT has involved enhance-
ment of SO, absorption by buffer additives to the
CaCOs slurry scrubbing medium, and has pro-
duced mechanistic models for the total diffusion/
reaction process. Studies have included the use of
dry CaO and "dry" Ca(OH), scrubbing media.
Simulation work is underway that encompasses
the entire process, including regeneration and re-
cycle.
Newer programs deal with the more general
area of acid gas removal from gas mixtures and
involves basic absorption/reaction modeling
studies. Mass transfer in such separations is fre-
quently enhanced by fast chemical reactions and
at the very least is accompanied by nonlinear
equilibria associated with chemical reactions.
Thus, technical quantification of such separations
can require measurements of chemical kinetics,
equilibria, and mass transfer at representative
conditions.
Chromatographic Separation Processes. The
use of high-pressure liquid chromatography
(HPLC) or gel-permeation chromatography
(GPC) for the separation of macromolecular solu-
tions is being studied under the direction of D. R.
Lloyd. Aqueous and organic solutions containing
synthetic polymers, natural polymers, proteins,
pharmaceuticals, and the like are under investiga-
tion. The objective here is to study the design con-
siderations that are required to scale up from
laboratory to pilot plant. It is clear that this work
will have an important bearing on developing bio-
technology-type processes.

OPERATION OF THE PROGRAM
The Separations Research Program is ad-
ministered by a program head, J. R. Fair, and a
program manager, J. L. Humphrey. One repre-
sentative from each participating company makes
up the SRP Industrial Advisory Committee, which
meets twice a year to review and advise the pro-
gram. Separate study groups meet twice yearly


to review individual programs in detail; for
example, in May 1984 there were separate study
group meetings for membranes, distillation, ex-
traction (conventional and supercritical), and
chemical reaction separations. The Industrial Ad-
visory Committee receives overviews of programs,
whereas the study groups interact closely with
faculty, graduate students and, very importantly,
with themselves. An effort is made to obtain in-
puts from the companies that can influence the
directions that some programs can take, even
though the principal investigators (faculty/staff)
retain final control over specific research studies.
An example response from the companies to a
questionnaire is shown in Table 2.
A question often asked both by academicians
and industry people, with regard to consortia of
this type, is "What advantage does a participant
have over a non-participant, since the research
results will eventually be placed in the public
domain through theses, dissertations and pub-
lished articles ?" The response to this question can
be quite positive, and follows these lines: (1) the
participant receives results early, in the way of
progress reports, discussions with the researchers,
theses and dissertations that can be delayed for
publication; (2) the participant receives a royalty-
free license to practice any patents resulting from
the program; (3) the participant has a mechanism

TABLE 2
Research Topics-Participating Company Interest
(26 companies reporting)


Degree of Interest


Separation of gas
mixtures by membranes
Separation of liquid
mixtures by membranes
Supercritical fluid
extraction
Distillation/absorption
/stripping
Liquid/liquid extraction
Adsorption
Separation by chemical
reaction
Electrochemical separation
methods


High Mod.
19 6


Low
1


Weighted
Rating*
44


17 8 1 42

16 8 2 40

14 7 5 35

10 12 4 32
11 9 6 31
9 7 10 25

7 7 12 21


*Weighted rating: high = 2, moderate = 1, low = 0

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























Panel discussion at Industrial Advisory Committee meet-
ing, with members, from left, James R. Fair, program
head; Herbert H. Woodson, director, Center for Energy
Studies; Jimmy L. Humphrey, program manager; Donald
R. Paul, principal investigator and chairman, Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering.

for keeping up to date in separations areas where
there is not justification for doing so in-house-
for example, in an area of only peripheral interest
presently but possibly more active in the future;
(4) the participant benefits from interaction of
its people with those in other organizations with
kindred interests. In some ways, the last-named
benefit can be the greatest of them all, if the par-
ticipant works it carefully.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

We expect the separations field to continue in
the forefront of chemical processing technology,
along with the allied areas of reaction engineer-
ing and transport processes. Developing interest
in specialty chemicals, such as those in the bio-
technology and electronics industry segments,
carries with it the critical need for recovery and
purification, often under non-classical operating
conditions. Tonnage chemicals will remain under
continuous pressure to reduce costs and conserve
energy, and this means retrofitting a like separa-
tion technique, substituting a new separation tech-
nique, or adopting novel combinations of separat-
ing methods. Much of the time-honored technolo-
gy, for example in distillation, is still not well
understood and thus may be difficult to exploit
economically. In summary, chemical engineers
will continue to deal heavily with separation prob-
lems, and we expect to provide them with some
answers.
The future of the Separations Research Pro-


gram at The University of Texas also seems
bright. Along with the new research laboratory
space will come new equipment provided by the
university, some of it of a fairly large scale. A
number of companies have recently expressed
interest in becoming participants. Plans are de-
veloping for the use of visiting scholars and full-
time research personnel. We have outside grants
and contracts in the separations field that serve
to leverage the funding provided by the industrial
participants. Importantly, the entire program is
being staffed with excellent graduate students,
and the learning experience for them and the
principal investigators is, indeed, the raison
d'etre for the entire effort. D



books received

Gas Tables: International Version, Joseph H. Keenan, Jing
Chao, Joseph Kaye. John Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NJ
08873; 211 pages, $37.95 (1983)
)Vetering Pumps: Selection and Application, James P.
Poynton. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 10016; 216
pages, $29.75 (1983)
Chemical Grouting, Reuben H. Karol. Marcel Dekker, Inc.,
New York 10016; 344 pages, $45.00 (1983)
Basic Chemical Thermodynamics, Third Edition, E. Brian
Smith. Oxford University Press, New York 10016; 160
pages, $21.95 (1983)
Los Alamos Explosives Performance Data, Charles L.
Mader, James N. Johnson, Sharon L. Crane. University of
California Press, Berkeley, CA; 811 pages, $45.00 (1983)
Practical Quality Management in the Chemical Process
Industry, Morton E. Bader. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New
York 10016; 160 pages, $27.50 (1983)
Fourth Symposium on Biotechnology in Energy Pro-
duction and Conservation, Charles D. Scott, Editor; John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ 08873; 495 pages, $65.00
(1983)
NMR and Chemistry: An Introduction to the Fourier
Transform-Multinuclear Era, Second Edition, J. W. Akitt.
Chapman & Hall, 733 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017;
263 pages, $16.95 (paperback) (1983)
Waste Heat: Utilization and Management, S. Sengupta
and S. S. Lee; Hemisphere Publishing Co., New York
10036; 1010 pages $125.00 (1983)
Journal: Particulate Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No.
1, J. K. Beddow, Editor; Hemisphere Publishing Co., New
York, NY 10036; $27.50/year indiv. rate.
Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals in Labora-
tories, Nat. Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., Wash-
ington, DC 20418; 282 pages, $16.50 (1983)
The Chemistry and Technology of Coal, James G. Speight,
Marcel Dekker, New York 10016; 544 pages, $69.75 (1983)


FALL 1984










4 Pfaym /e,



GRADUATE RESIDENCY AT CLEMSON

"A Real World MS Degree"


DAN D. EDIE
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29631

"I would like to get an MS degree but
I first want to see what industry is like."

W E HAD HEARD this statement (or some varia-
tion of it) over and over as we tried to con-
vince quality undergraduate students to seek ad-
vanced training after graduation. It was especially
hard for me to counter this statement since I felt
the same way when I completed my Bachelor of
Science degree. Of course, most undergraduates
cannot realize how truly difficult it is to leave in-
dustry and return to graduate school. Also, they
do not fully appreciate the problems that the
shortage of American graduate students is
causing as universities and industry attempt to fill
teaching and research positions.
This desire for industrial experience and the
decline in the number of American graduate
students was extensively discussed in the fall
1980 meeting of the Clemson Department of
Chemical Engineering faculty and the depart-
ment's Industrial Advisory Board. The discussions
led to a new approach to graduate funding and
training at Clemson called the Graduate Residency
Program. This program seems to be that rare in-
stance where the student, industry, and the uni-
versity all benefit through cooperation in gradu-
ate education. The Graduate Residency Program
offers an increased level of financial support for
the student and, at the same time, provides the


This is the third year of
the Industrial Residency program.
Thus far, eight students have completed their MS,
four are presently in their final work period
completing their MS thesis research, and
three are just beginning the program.

C Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


-

Dan Edie is professor of chemical engineering at Clemson Uni-
versity. He received his BS degree from Ohio University and his
PhD degree from the University of Virginia. Before joining Clemson
he was employed by NASA and the Celanese Corporation. At Clemson
he has served as Graduate Program Coordinator and his research
interests include rheology and polymer processing.

student with an opportunity to gain significant
industrial research experience.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM
First, companies submit proposed research
projects to the faculty, and these projects are re-
viewed for their suitability as thesis topics. The
approved topics are then given to the Graduate
Residency Program applicants who have pre-
viously applied to the graduate program and who
typically have a 3.5/4.0 or better undergraduate
grade point average. The applicants indicate their
preference of both the thesis topic and company.
Next, the applicants and company representatives
are invited to the Clemson campus for one day of
interviews during which the applicants can ask
further questions about both the companies and
the research topics. The companies can evaluate
the applicants at the same time. Finally, the com-
panies indicate their preference, and applicants
are informed of this selection. The applicant can
either accept or reject the residency research
position offered.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









A student graduating with a BS degree in
chemical engineering in May would begin this
master's degree program immediately. The Gradu-
ate Residency Program begins with an initial
three-month summer work period with the spon-
soring company. The student normally spends this
first summer getting to know the company pro-
cedures as he or she begins to work on the research
project proposed by the company and agreed upon
by the student. The student meets biweekly with
the faculty advisor and company advisor. At the
end of this first summer the research project is


FIGURE 1. Bill Thornton of Milliken and Company (L)
and Kyle Veatch (R) discussing Graduate Residency
projects.

fairly well defined, and the student returns to the
Clemson campus for two consecutive semesters.
During these two semesters, the twenty-four se-
mester hours of formal lecture courses required
for the MS degree are completed. Also during this
period of full-time study, the student is able to
interact academically and socially with the full-
time graduate students in the university. Six
hours of research credits taken during the work
periods complete the 30 hours required for the
degree.
Upon completion of the formal course work,
the student returns to the sponsoring company and
resumes work on the project begun the previous
summer. The project is supervised by an industrial
and a faculty advisor through biweekly meetings
with the student. At the completion of this seven-
month work period, a formal thesis based on the
project is presented to an advisory committee
composed of the faculty advisor (committee chair-
man), the industrial advisor, and two faculty
members from the department of chemical engi-
neering. After committee approval of the thesis,


the student receives the Master of Science degree
in December, thus obtaining the degree nineteen
months after completion of the BS degree.
The sponsoring company provides financial
support for the student by providing Clemson
with a grant of approximately ten-months salary
for a BS-level chemical engineer (the time period
the student is actually working on the research
project). The university then awards this support
to the student in the form of a fellowship. Thus,
the student receives a stipend of approxi-
mately $1000 per month throughout the nineteen-
month master's degree program. This is signifi-
cantly higher than typical financial support for
graduate students and, coupled with the oppor-
tunity to obtain ten months of industrial ex-
perience, has allowed us to attract top-notch
undergraduates to our graduate program. The
program offers several advantages to the student,
the company, and the faculty.

Advantages to the Graduate Student
The student can obtain a master's degree in nineteen
months, with ten months spent working on a spe-
cific industrial problem while compensated by a
fellowship of $1000 per month.
Since the student begins work on the project during
the summer prior to the start of formal course work,
graduate courses may be selected and tailored to his


FIGURE 2. Craig Leite, holder of a Graduate Residency
Fellowship, preparing an emulsion in his research into
emulsion stability.


FALL 1984





































FIGURE 3. Dr. John Beard (L) served as the faculty ad-
visor for Bill Rion (R) who just completed the residency
program. The thesis topic involved an energy balance
on a large polymer plant.

or her research needs, which increases motivation in
classwork.
The student is exposed to an industrial environment,
including specific industrial problems, prior to decid-
ing the direction of his or her career.
The student has excellent day-to-day supervision, ex-
perimental facilities, and analytical equipment avail-
able to him or her at the company location (which
is normally an industrial, technical or research
center).

Advantages to the Sponsoring Company
The participating company can evaluate the future
potential of the graduate student on a first-hand
basis.
The research results have more than compensated
for the support paid to the student.
The company is able to draw on the expertise of
top level BS chemical engineers as well as Clemson
University faculty to solve problems of specific
interest to the company.

Advantages to the Faculty
Faculty members are exposed to a wide variety of
industrially oriented problems in a number of
companies. This helps them stay current with in-


dustrial needs. This, in turn, increases their prob-
ability of developing more industrially-oriented on-
campus research projects.
The department has obtained a significant new source
of financial support for graduate education which
can supplement industrial, state, and federal grants.
The department of chemical engineering now has in-
dustrial research facilities and resources at its dis-
posal which it could not otherwise afford.
The department of chemical engineering at Clemson
has become a more vital and productive partner with
the rapidly growing chemical and polymer industries
in the state of South Carolina.
Even publication of results has posed no great
problem. Although a couple of MS theses have been
held two years before being placed in the uni-
versity library, most thesis topics have been based
on non-proprietary problems and the results have
been freely published.

PARTICIPANTS AND THESIS TOPICS

Companies such as Tennessee Eastman, the
Allied Corporation, DuPont, Exxon Enterprises,
Celanese, and Milliken & Company are presently
supporting Industrial Residency students. These
students had obtained their BS degrees from
several universities. Thesis topics have been excit-
ing and challenging to both students and faculty
alike. They have covered topics such as

Control of emulsion polymerization
Effect of additives on theological characteristics of
resin system
Mathematical modeling of radial temperature effects
during melt spinning
Parametric studies of binary distillation columns
Rheology of dye systems
Solvent extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide

This is the third year of the Industrial Resi-
dency program. Thus far, eight students have
completed their MS, four are presently in their
final work period completing their MS thesis re-
search, and three are just beginning the program.
The program has had a significant impact on our
MS program, not only by adding more top-notch
students to our graduate program, but also by
providing over $250,000 to support quality gradu-
ate students during these three years. The faculty
and the sponsoring companies are enthusiastic
about this unique blend of a full-time Master of
Science program and "real world" research. But
the best measures of success is that the Industrial
Residency students themselves are delighted with
the program. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










book reviews

FLUID MECHANICS AND
UNIT OPERATIONS

By David S. Azbel and Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff:
Butterworth Publishers,
Woburn, MA (1983) $49.95
Reviewed by
David B. Greenberg
University of Cincinnati

Fluid Mechanics and Unit Operations is de-
finitely not just another overworked theme on the
topic of momentum transport. It is, rather, a
serious attempt on the part of the authors to pres-
ent the subject uniquely in the language of the
practitioner and in a fashion that bridges the ob-
vious gap between theory and practice or, more
appropriately, between classroom and application.
It is relatively detailed in the subject matter treat-
ed and massive in size (over 1100 pages). The
book is, however, focused solely on those opera-
tions that are based primarily on momentum
transport. These include single and multiphase
fluid flow, fluid transport by pumps and compres-
sors, separation techniques such as filtration,
fluidization, sedimentation and centrifugation, and
the theory and application of mixing. Those
operations which require detailed knowledge of
the remaining transport science trilogy, namely
heat and mass transport coupled with fluid dy-
namics are not covered in this work but, as the
authors suggest, are best treated separately in
additional volumes. One might assume, therefore,
that the authors ambitiously intend to complete
the trilogy at some point in the future.
The text naturally partitions into several
sections. The first of these includes the funda-
mental development of the subject of fluid dy-
namics and covers introductory and descriptive
material on the thermodynamic and transport
properties of fluids, similitude, modelling and di-
mensional analysis, hydrostatics and a section
which the authors denote as internal problems
of hydrodynamics. This latter portion is actually
an elementary development of the associated con-
servation equations of fluid dynamics and their
application to flow in pipes and conduits. The
treatment here is far from complete but adequate
for an introductory sophomore or junior course,
or as a reference for the practicing engineer. The


text is easy to read, the diagrams are clear, and
the example problems are detailed in scope and
effectively presented. It is clear that this section,
which covers about one-third of the book, is
roughly equivalent to many of the elementary
texts available on the subject.
In the second section of the book the authors
apply the theoretical concepts developed earlier
to fluid transport in pumps and compressors.
Here, the reader is guided through a detailed de-
scription and classification of the various basic
pump designs, their associated operational details,
and where each of these designs is best used. There
is also a section on selection and special applica-
tions as well as a set of practical problems at the
end of each chapter. The practitioner should es-
pecially appreciate the fashion in which the ana-
lytical and descriptive material is synergistically
presented. Moreover, the student, whose knowl-
edge of the subject is more application limited,
will gain considerably, not only by the theory-
practice blend but also through the examples and
problems which are well couched in an industrial
atmosphere.
The last two sections of the book deal with the
application of fluid flow to external problems of
hydrodynamics and heterogeneous systems. The
authors introduce the topic of physical separations
briefly and then develop the topics of sedementa-
tion, gravity settling, filtration, electrostatic pre-
cipitation, and centrifugal techniques from con-
sideration first of single-particle motion in liquid-
solid and gas-solid systems. Emphasis is placed on
the requisite theoretical concepts which lead the
student directly to the salient design considera-
tions of the topic. The theory is well supported by
useful practical examples and problems which
cover a range of contemporary unit operations.
The chapter on fluidization which is especially
descriptive will be quite useful to the engineer in
industry who is concerned with the design of such
equipment. Practical treatment of complicated
phenomena in multiphase systems is presented in
a clear, concise fashion with some needed detail
devoted to the effects of such parameters as hold-
up, classification, bubble size effects and entrain-
ment upon the design of these systems. Moreover,
the authors devote a final chapter to the hydro-
dynamics of gas-liquid flow. Much of this ma-
terial is quite new and relevant, and is probably
not available in earlier texts on fluid dynamics.
Because two-phase flow is still a most complex and
Continued on page 212.


FALL 1984











PSEMICONR in



SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING


CAROL M. McCONICA
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING includes the science of
reactor design and optimization. As any pro-
duction environment becomes process limited, the
role of chemical engineering increases in im-
portance. Semiconductor manufacturing is an
ideal example of a maturing process ready for re-
actor optimization and design. As we break into
the technology of Very Large Scale Integration
(VLSI) and Ultra High Speed Integrated Circuits
(UHSIC), yields in the fabrication facility be-
come very important. High-throughput, high-yield
processes must be developed so that our industries
will be viable in a marketplace filled with over-
whelming foreign competition. Such processes can
only be developed after the fundamental physics
and chemistry of the chemical reactions are well
understood.
At Colorado State University (CSU), the de-
partments of chemical engineering, electrical
engineering, physics, and chemistry have respond-
ed to industry's need by creating a graduate pro-
gram in integrated circuit (IC) process engineer-


C. M. McConica received her PhD (1982) in chemical engineering
from Stanford University. She spent three years with Hewlett Packard
(1979-1982) developing state-of-the-art deposition/etching processes
for their 128Kb RAM and 640Kb ROM, all fabricated with 1 micron
NMOS double-layer metal technology. The chips utilizing this tech-
nology are now sold in the HP 9000.


TABLE 1
National Average Monthly Salary Offers (BSChE)**


Total Offers
ELECTRONICS
% of Offers
Salary
PETROLEUM
% of Offers
Salary
CHEMICALS
% of Offers
Salary


1984* 1983 1982 1981
827 2023 6952 11695

11.5 15.8 4.4 2.9
$2173 $2109 $2112 $1915

13.0 16.6 36.7 41.5
$2358 $2329 $2329 $2068


47 34.5
$2304 $2260


39 36
$2241 $2016


*1984 data through June only
**CPC Salary Survey, The College Placement Council

ing. A student trained in most classical BSEE
programs lacks the background in fluid mechanics,
heat transfer, reaction kinetics and chemistry
which is essential to integrated circuit manu-
facturing. While students with BSChE degrees
have the best education for processing integrated
circuits, they lack an understanding of circuit de-
sign, device physics, and EE language. The gradu-
ate programs in integrated circuit processing at
CSU give students an opportunity to broaden their
background while pursuing research on a state-
of-the-art level.

EMPLOYMENT OF CHEs BY ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES
The electronics industries have recently begun
to recognize the value of hiring chemical engineers
to fulfill their processing needs. Table 1 lists cur-
rent salary offers and the percentage of the total
number of offers made by the electronics, petrol-
eum, and chemical industries to BSChE gradu-
ates. The statistics were compiled annually from
the College Placement Council (CPC) Salary
Survey between 1980 and 1984. The actual number
of offers made by both the electronics and
petroleum industries declined, but more so for
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











While students with BSChE degrees have the best education for
processing integrated circuits, they lack an understanding of circuit design, device
physics, and EE language. The graduate programs in integrated circuit processing at CSU give students an
opportunity to broaden their background while pursuing research on a state-of-the-art level.
PERCENT


PERCENT
100
90


s80


10 -

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984
YEAR
FIGURE 1. Percent of BSChE offers from microelectronics
industries in the USA.

the latter. The table clearly shows the growing
importance of the electronics industry for chemi-
cal engineers. In 1981, only 3% of all offers to
BSChE graduates came from electronics, while
40% came from the petroleum industry. By 1983,
however, 13% of all offers were coming from
electronics firms and only 17% from petroleum
industries. The chemical industries have con-
sistently made 30% to 50% of all job offers to
graduating chemical engineers. Fig. 1 presents the
hiring trend by the electronics industry in bar-
graph form.
At CSU the hiring rate by electronics firms has
increased much more rapidly than the national
rate (Fig. 2). This is a reflection of the proximity
of microelectronics companies to CSU. Many
companies have western headquarters and locate
their research and fabrication facilities in appeal-
ing locations. While there is little petroleum re-
fining or chemical production in Colorado, micro-
electronics is pervasive and growing. This is also
true for Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, Utah, Ore-
gon, Washington, Minnesota and, most obviously,
California. Other states with active microelec-
tronics industries also have active petrochemical
or traditional chemical industries. These industries
are still hiring the majority of chemical engineers
in those states.
The salaries offered to BSChE graduates by
electronics companies since 1981 are an average of


$196/month less than offers given by petroleum
companies, and $127/month less than those offered
by chemical companies. This is simply the result
of hiring into an EE-dominated discipline where
salaries have traditionally been lower. Many high
tech companies believe that their remote locations,
informal dress requirements, flexible work hours
and stock option-profit sharing plans compensate
for this salary differential. Female engineers in
microelectronics firms enjoy the support of a
relatively young professional work force and a
primarily female fabrication work force.
The employment statistics listed are for
BSChE graduates and clearly reflect the high de-
mand for chemical engineers in electronics. We
believe this demand would extend to the MS and
PhD level if graduate students could be given the
opportunity to pursue research relevant to micro-
electronics. The following sections describe the
coursework and the research topics and facilities
currently available to graduate students interested
in integrated circuit fabrication.

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROGRAM

The presumed prerequisites for MSChE
candidates are given in Table 2. Students with-
out an engineering background may enter the pro-
gram and complete these undergraduate courses
at CSU. The MS program for a student with a BS

PERCENT
100


30
20


1980 1981


FIGURE 2. Percent of CSU chemical engineering gradu-
ates working in the field of microelectronics.


FALL 1984








TABLE 2

Prerequisites for M.S. ChE
Organic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry
Fluid Mechanics
Unit Operations
Thermodynamics
Electrical Circuits
Reactor Design
Chemical Engineering Design

in chemical engineering normally contains 26
hours of coursework. An additional 4-6 credits are
earned for the thesis. Chemical engineers in the
IC processing program are required to take four
core chemical engineering courses, and then are
allowed to choose the remainder of their credits
from courses offered by EE and other depart-
ments. A typical two-year MS course schedule is
given in Table 3. The PhD program is an ex-
tension of the MS program, requiring more credits
of coursework and successful defense of a dis-
sertation based on original research. Many of the
electrical engineering courses emphasize material
properties, fabrication technologies, and solid state
physics. No special prerequisites are required of
the BSChE student. Chemical engineers do quite
well in these courses because of their solid back-
ground in thermodynamics and transport phe-
nomena. Students have the option to pursue
courses which emphasize device design and de-
vice physics. These are not required of chemical
engineers due to their more classical EE prerequi-
sites.

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PROCESSING RESEARCH

At Colorado State University there is an active
solid state research group in the departments of
chemical engineering, electrical engineering, and
physics. Work is sponsored by the Department of
Defense, the Department of Energy, the National
Science Foundation, and the Colorado Micro-
electronics Industry. The focal point of the re-
search work is a clean semiconductor fabrication
laboratory. Current research activities include
selective chemical vapor deposition of refractory
metals (C. M. McConica), oxides and interfaces
of silicon and compound semiconductors (C. W.
Wilmsen), photovoltaic devices (J. Sites), transi-
tion metal silicides (J. E. Mahan), and polycrystal-
line silicon devices (J. E. Mahan).
The major research facilities supporting the
research are


Solid state device fabrication facility (class 100
clean room, metallization, diffusion, oxidation, photo-
lithography, wet chemistry, plasma etching, ion
beam sputtering).
Electron microscopy (ISI Super-II, ISI 100B and
Hitachi HHS-2R scanning electron microscopes,
Hitachi HU-200F transmission electron micro-
scope).
X-ray diffraction (GE diffractometer, Laue camera).
Transport properties measurements (galvanomag-
netic effects, thermoelectric power, temperature-
controlled cryostat).
Surface analysis facility (Auger electron spectro-
scopy, ESCA, UPS, SIMS analysis).
The current semiconductor research effort in
chemical engineering emphasizes an understand-
ing of the kinetics of low pressure chemical vapor
deposition. Metallic films are deposited on single
wafers in a high vacuum system which can be
used as a differential flow reactor. Classical
methods of kinetics and catalysis are utilized to
determine the kinetic parameters which govern

TABLE 3

M.S. ChE Course Schedule


FALL

Mathematical Modeling
Thermodynamics
Semiconductor Devices I
Seminar
Thin Film Phenomena


SPRING

Advanced Reactor Design
Solid-Gas Kinetics
Seminar
Principles of Semiconductors


3 credits
3 credits
3 credits
1 credit
3 credits
13 credits


3 credits
3 credits
1 credit
3 credits
10 Credits


Remaining courses in second year (3-9 credits)
to be chosen from:
Introduction to Electron Microscopy
Organometallic Chemistry
Technique in Inorganic Chemistry
Surface Chemistry
Advanced Process Control
Advanced Mass Transfer
Semiconductor Devices II
VLSI Plasma Processing
Microelectronics
Semiconductor Materials
Optical Materials and Devices
VLSI Processing
Topics in Plasma Dynamics
Solid State Physics I
Solid State Physics II
THESIS-4-6 credits

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









the deposition reactions. The deposited films are
then analyzed for electrical and physical proper-
ties. Through cooperation with local industries
the students fabricate devices using the latest thin
film technology. Other students are using CSU's
kinetic results to model the behavior of industrial
reactors. Again, local industries cooperate by al-
lowing the comparison between our models' pre-
dictions and their deposition results.
The Department of Chemistry actively partici-
pates along with the previously mentioned de-
partments in Colorado State University's Con-
densed Matter Sciences Laboratory. Current re-
search activities include the study of molecular
condensed phases (E. R. Bernstein), electrode
surface modification (C. M. Elliott), techniques of
elemental analysis and the chemical characteriza-


tion of surfaces (D. E. Leydon), and NMR studies
of solids (G. E. Maciel).

CONCLUSIONS
Chemical engineers are currently contributing
to the electronics industry in growing numbers.
Colorado State University has responded to in-
dustry demand for chemical engineers by offering
a graduate program emphasizing integrated cir-
cuit processing. The program utilizes courses from
several departments while allowing the student
to apply chemical engineering techniques to an
integrated circuit fabrication research topic.
Graduates are receiving multiple offers from top
quality semiconductor companies throughout the
United States. O


S book reviews

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR TURBU-
LENT, TRANSONIC, AND VISCOUS FLOWS
Edited by J. A. Essers
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1983; 360 pages,
$49.95

Reviewed by G. K. Patterson
University of Arizona

This book consists of six contributions in the
general field of numerical simulation of turbulent
flows. Each article is a strong contribution on the
topic covered. Those topics are: "Numerical
Methods for Coordinate Generation Based on a
Mapping Technique," by R. T. Davis; "Intro-
duction to Multigrid Methods for the Numerical
Solution of Boundary Value Problems," by W.
Hackbusch; "Higher-Level Simulations of Turbu-
lent Flows," by J. H. Ferziger; "Numerical
Methods for Two- and Three-Dimensional Re-
circulating Flows," by R. I. Issa; "The Computa-
tion of Transonic Potential Flow," by T. J. Baker;
and "The Calculation of Steady Transonic Flow
by Euler Equations with Relaxation Methods,"
by E. Dick.
To the novice attempting to learn the basics
of numerical turbulence simulation, the organiza-
tion of the book is not optimum. Although it is
logical thematically to present grid generation,
multigrid solution methods, and higher-level
simulation in the first half of the book to lay a
theoretical basis for the more practical topics to


follow, the novice would feel more comfortable
reading first about general methods for Reynolds-
averaged modeling as presented for recirculating
flows and transonic flows in the fourth through
sixth chapters.
The book offers much to those who already have
some knowledge of numerical simulation of turbu-
lent flows. The treatment is not general and
comprehensive for the entire turbulent and
transonic flow modeling field. Each chapter pre-
sents a rather narrow topic from the author's par-
ticular viewpoint. Even though the collection
represents the notes for a course presented at the
von Karman Institute, no effort was made to link
the presentations. Indeed, only one chapter was
supplied with a nomenclature list, and each chapter
has a different set of symbols.
The book would be valuable to those with some
familiarity with numerical simulation of flow but
without expertise in numerical modeling of
turbulent, transonic flow. They should probably
read the chapters in the order: 4, 5, 6, 2, 1, 3. That
order corresponds to problem complexity and so is
easier for non-experts. The book probably does not
present much in each topic that an expert on that
topic does not already know, so it should not be
expected to provide much that is new if only that
chapter is read. Its value is in its possible intro-
duction of experts in one field, say coordinate
generation and mapping, to another field where
that expertise can be used, say external, transonic,
turbulent flows. Having known little about tran-
sonic flows but much about incompressible turbu-
lent flow modeling, I learned much from the last
two chapters. O


FALL 1984










hwad 2.ectue



SIMULATION AND ESTIMATION


BY ORTHOGONAL COLLOCATION


The Chemical Engineer-
ing Division Lecturer for
1983 is Warren E. Stewart
of the University of Wis-
consin. The 3M Company
provides financial support
for this annual lectureship
award.
A native of Wisconsin,
Warren Stewart began his
chemical engineering studies
at the University of Wiscon-
sin, attaining the BS degree in 1945 (as a Navy V-12
trainee) and the MS in 1947 after completion of his naval
service. He received his ScD in 1951 from the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, where he worked with Harold
Mickley on interactions of heat, mass, and momentum
transfer in boundary layers.
He joined Sinclair Research Inc. in 1950, and worked
there for six years, participating in the development of
a catalytic reforming process and in early work on com-
puterized process simulation. His continuing interests in
chemical process modelling and numerical methods date
from this industrial research experience.
In 1956 he joined the chemical engineering faculty of
the University of Wisconsin where he was department
chairman from 1973 to 1978. He has held two visiting ap-
pointments at the Mathematics Research Center of the
university, and is now a regular member of the center.
In 1957, Professors R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart,
and Edwin N. Lightfoot began work on a textbook for a
new course in chemical engineering. The resulting book,
Transport Phenomena, published in 1960, has had a wide
influence in engineering education.
Professor Stewart is a Fellow of AIChE, and received
their Alpha Chi Sigma Award for Chemical Engineering
Research in 1981. He also received the Benjamin Smith
Reynolds Teaching Award of the College of Engineering
at the University of Wisconsin in 1981. He is an associate
editor of the Journal of Computers and Chemical Engineer-
ing and an honorary advisor to the Latin American Journal
of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.
Stewart's research emphasizes new mathematical ap-
rpoaches to practical analysis of chemical process systems.
He has worked extensively in the areas of fluid mechanics,
transport properties, chemical reactor modelling, and
weighted residual methods.


WARREN E. STEWART
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706

T IS A PLEASURE to talk and write on a favorite
theme to my fellow chemical engineers. My
theme for today is orthogonal collocation-its
origins, its relation to other approximate methods,
and some examples of its use in engineering.
Orthogonal collocation is a technique for solv-
ing transport problems efficiently by fitting a trial
solution at selected points. The points are chosen
by use of orthogonal functions to minimize the
approximation error over the given region. The
speed of the method has proved valuable in
modelling and controlling chemical reactors, and
shows similar promise for staged separation
systems.
Two kinds of approximations are important
in process modelling: approximations of the
problem and of the solution. Examples of each
kind are listed in Table 1. Orthogonal collocation
belongs in the second category, among the weighted
residual methods now to be described.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Consider a generalized problem statement,
typical in process modelling and in physical theory.
A vector y of unknown functions of coordinates x
is to be found by solving the equations
Lvy = fv(x,y) in V (1)
Lsy = fs(x,y) on S (2)
in which Lv and Ls are the local parts of a linear
operator L. Eq. (1) denotes the equations (differ-
ential or other) to be solved in the main region of
the problem, and Eq. (2) denotes any needed initial
and boundary conditions. The regions V and S may
be continuous (as in distributed models of re-
actors) or physically lumped (as in stagewise
models of plate columns). We assume that any
desired approximations of the original problem
have been done, so that Eqs. (1) and (2) are to be


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984









solved as given.


APPROXIMATION OF THE SOLUTION
Weighted residual methods employ an approxi-
mating function for y in Eqs. (1) and (2). A
popular form is
n-1
y = yo(x) + 1 ai (x) (3)
i=0
with chosen functions yo(x), (o(x), ... ,n_ (x)
and adjustable coefficients a, .. a.-,. Often the ai
are treated as functions of one of the coordinates,
as in the method of Kantorovich [11] for reducing
two-dimensional problems to ordinary differential
form. If each basis function q (x) is non-zero only
within a corresponding subdomain, Eq. (3) is
called a spline or finite-element approximation.
Approximation of y by y in the problem gives
the residual functions

Lvy fv(x,y) = ev in V (4)

Lsy-fs(x,y) = Es onS (5)
which locally measure the errors incurred. For
given choices of the functions yo and 0i, the
residuals depend on x and on a, an1.
If a general solution of Eq. (1) or (2) is known,
we can use it in (3) and thus eliminate ev or
es. Elimination of E, is often possible, and yields
an interior approximation (only Ev appears).
Elimination of Ev may be possible when fv = 0;
this yields a boundary approximation (only Es ap-
pears). Examples of the latter are the eigen-
function expansions used in problems of potential
theory, heat conduction, and Newtonian creeping
flow. If such general solutions are not available,
or are not used in y, both ev and Es will appear; the

TABLE 1

Kinds of Approximation Methods
1. Approximation of the problem
A. Linearization
B. Asymptotic methods and perturbations
C. Physico-chemical assumptions and simplifications
2. Approximation of the solution
A. Weighted residual methods
Least squares
Orthogonality method
Variational methods of Rayleigh and Ritz
Galerkin method
Collocation methods
Finite element methods
B. Finite difference methods


The following poem was submitted by R. B. Bird to
commemorate Warren Stewart's birthday on July 3,
1984, and was accompanied by the observation that
"I don't quite understand how such a young chap
got to be so old so fast, do you?"

TO WARREN EARL STEWART
on his 60th birthday

A student came in to see Warren
And said in voice quite forlorn
"I can't find a path
Through this quagmire of math
These nablas to me are quite foreign."
So Warren, who's also called Earl,
Decided to help this young girl.
Without using a book
He unflinchingly took
The Laplacian of grad div curl curl.
-r. b. bird


result will then be a mixed approximation.
A weighted residual method (projection
method) is then used to determine the coefficients
ao, an-1. Standard criteria [8, 11, 12, 16, 19, 24]
include least squares


S (E,) = 0
Dai


i = 0 ,.... n-1


the method of moments (here weight functions
g, (x) must be chosen)
(e,gi) = 0 i = 0,... n-1 (7)
the method of Galerkin [7] (which includes the
variational methods of Raleigh [4] and Ritz [6]
when the latter are applicable)
(e, i) = 0 i = 0... n-1 (8)
and the method of collocation or selected points.
e(xi= 0 i = 1,...n (9)

The inner product (e,g,) denotes the sum or inte-
gral of the product Egi over all points of V and S.
Egs. (6), (8) and (9) can be regarded as special
forms of Eq. (7), with the weights gi chosen as
aE/Zai, Oi(x), and 8(x-xi+1), respectively.

ORTHOGONAL COLLOCATION
Eq. (9) is the most convenient criterion, but to
make it reliable one needs a way of choosing good
collocation points. A simple way is to approximate
Eq. (5), (6) or (7) by use of an optimal n-point


FALL 1984








quadrature of the inner product. This leads to Eq.
(9) directly, with the xi now chosen as the quadra-
ture abscissae. The points thus found are always
zeros of one or more orthogonal functions; this
prompted the name orthogonall collocation" given
to this method in [18]. This approach was initially
proposed by the writer to Lou Snyder in 1964
during his research on flow in packed beds [17],
and was implemented with John Villadsen [18]
beginning in 1965.
The theory of optimal quadratures, begun by
Gauss [1], has yielded good points and weights for
approximating many kinds of integrals in one
dimension [14, 15] and in several [15, 23]. One can

This leads to Eq. (9) directly, with the
xi now chosen as the quadrature abscissae. The
points thus found are always zeros of one or more
orthogonal functions; this prompted the name
orthogonall collocation"...

use these points directly for collocation with cor-
responding regions and approximating functions.
Quadratures over discrete point sets have ap-
parently not been studied, but good grid points can
be found, as in [55] and [57], by use of classical
polynomials orthogonal on such regions [5, 10].
A more analytical approach is to write inter-
polation functions Qnv(x,x1, xn) and/or
Qns(x,x, .. Xn) for the collocated residuals. Then
the residual functions, or their effects, can be ap-
proximately minimized by doing the collocation at
those points which minimize a suitable measure
of Qnv and Qs. For example, replacement of E by
Qn in Eq. (6), (7) or (8) yields a grid-point
criterion for a correspondingly weighted orthog-
onal collocation scheme. This method makes clear
the restrictions implied by collocation at standard
quadrature points, and also yields collocation
points for other criteria or basis functions as de-
sired. Examples of this approach to collocation
may be found in Lanczos [13], DeBoor and Swartz
[27], Carey and Finlayson [34], and in several of
our papers [18, 26, 37, 48, 50, 55, 56, 57].
Lanczos [13] chose Q,v in one dimension as the
polynomial (x-xi) ... (x-x,) with least maximum
magnitude on the interval [-1, 1]. The resulting
polynomial is Tn(x) = cos(n cos-1 x), as found by
Tschebychef [2]. This choice of grid points, xi =
cos[i 1/2)rr/n], gives a minimal upper bound on
the residual in collocation [13], just as in ordinary
interpolation [9], provided that the residual and
its first n derivatives are continuous. Different grid


points should be used for collocation, as shown
in [50], if one wishes to minimize the maximum
deviation y yl.
SYMMETRIC PROBLEMS IN ONE DIMENSION
Consider a system of symmetric second-order
differential equations in one space dimension
Lvy = f(x2,y) for 0 < x2 < 1 (10)
The region considered is the interior of a slab, long
cylinder, or sphere. The boundary conditions are


y = y(l) at x2 = 1
and (for a cylinder or sphere)

dy 0 at x = 0
dx


(11)


(12)


The solution is symmetric [y = y(x2)], and is as-
sumed to be continuous. This kind of problem and
extensions of it are important in fluid mechanics
and reactor modeling.
A polynomial approximant y(x2) consistent
with Eqs. (11) and (12) is


S+ 1 .n
y = y(1) + (1-x) I ax"


(13)


Thus the boundary residuals are zero, and the de-
termination of ao,... a,-_ is an interior approxima-
tion problem.
The interior residual Ev is computable, for any
particular form of Eq. (10), by inserting y in place
of y. The result will depend on x2 and on the un-
known coefficient vectors ai. Thus, it will be tedious
to apply Eq. (6), (7) or (8) unless Eq. (10) is
simple.
Suppose we collocate y with Eq. (10) at some
set of points, x,2 < x22 < ... Xn2. Then the residual
vanishes at those points, and assuming continuity,
it can be approximated throughout the interval by

ev = (x2 x12) ... (x2 x2) [bo + blx2 + ...] (14)
according to Weierstrass' theorem [14]. Here bo,
b1, etc., are bounded constants. We can now choose
x2, xn2 by requiring that the leading term of
Ev satisfy Eq. (7) for arbitrary bo. This gives the
orthogonality conditions


f gi(x) Q(x2) d(xa) =0


i = 1,...n (15)


for the polynomial Q (x2) whose zeros are x,2, ...


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








x,2. Here d(x") is a generalized volume element,
with a = 1 for a slab, 2 for a long cylinder, or 3
for a sphere. Eq. (15) determines the grid points
uniquely, provided, of course, that the functions
g, (x2), g(x2) are linearly independent on the
interval of integration.
To get a Galerkin-like collocation method from
Eq. (15), as in [18], we choose g (x2) = (x2)
(1 x2)X2 and obtain

(1 (1- x2) x2 Qn(X2) d(xa) = 0 i=l n -1
f (Galerkin analog)
(16)
From this it follows that Q. is one of the Jacobi
polynomials, derived in [3] and given in [15], [18]
and [38]. For the slab geometry (a = 1), the points
xi, .. .. x+, at which (1 x2) Qn(x2) vanishes
are the abscissae of a (2n + 2)-point symmetric
Radau quadrature formula (or Lobatto formula).
The interior points xl, x are used as collocation
points for Eq. (10), and the point xn+, = 1 is used
for the outer boundary condition.
To get a least-squares collocation method for
Eq. (10), we choose weights consistent with Eq.
(6) and the leading term of Eq. (14). Noting that
the collocation makes ao, ... a,_n implicit functions
of x2, ... Xn2, we obtain the relations
1

-- f [(x2-x2) .. (x2-X.)]2d(xa) = 0
i = ,... n (17)
which may be rearranged to give

Sx2i Qn(x2) d(xa) = 0 i = 0,...n-1
o (least squares analog) (18)
and yield another kind of Jacobi polynomial. Ex-
plicit formulas for the Q. of Eq. (18) are given in
[15] and [38]. For the slab geometry (a =1), Qn
is a Legendre polynomial and the interior grid
points x, ... Xn are the positive abscissae of a 2n-
point Gauss quadrature formula. The point Xn.+ =
1 must be added for collocation of the outer
boundary condition.
For numerical work it is convenient to rewrite
Eq. (13) as a Lagrange interpolant

y = S lj(x2)yj (19)
j=l
n+1
3 (x2) 0+ (X- Xk2)
k=j (Xj2 -Xk) (20)
k~j


... consider the steady-state
performance of a tubular isothermal
catalytic-wall reactor of radius R and catalytic
length L, fed with pure reactant A in developed
laminar flow with centerline velocity Vmax.


in which yj stands for y (xj). Derivatives and inte-
grals of y then follow readily; for example,


dy
dx xi



xi


S( dlj (x2)
j=1 dx xi


n+l
1 Aij
j=l


jn+1
I 2 V'2x2) Yi=
ii> | i


(21)
n+1
Y BijYj
j=l
(22)


f f(x2)xa-dx =


n+1 n+1
I1 j f (x)x"-dx f(xj2) = 1
j=1 f=1
0


Wifi


(23)
The final polynomial, 10.+(x2), in Eq. (19) is pro-
portional to Q,(x2). This gives a simplification of
Eq. (23) when (18) is used, since Q.(x2) is then
orthogonal to x0 and consequently W,,0 vanishes
exactly. Eq. (23) is exact for f(u) of degree 2n
(here u = x2) when Eq. (16) is used, and 2n 1
when Eq. (18) is used.
The constants xi, Aij, Bi, and Wi are tabulated
in [18] for the criterion in Eq. (16). Tables for
both criteria, (16) and (18), are given by
Finlayson [24]; subroutines are given by Villadsen
and Michelsen [38].

EXAMPLE
As a simple example, consider the steady-state
performance of a tubular isothermal catalytic-wall
reactor of radius R and catalytic length L, fed with
pure reactant A in developed laminar flow with
centerline velocity vmax. The catalytic wall, which
begins at z = 0, induces a first-order hetero-
geneous reaction A -> B with rate constant k,"
cm/s. The fluid is considered Newtonian with
constant density p, viscosity t, and binary
diffusivity DAB. Longitudinal diffusion is neglected.
An expression for the flow-mean fractional con-
version as a function of z is desired.
The continuity equation for species A under
these conditions can be written in dimensionless


FALL 1984








form as


(32)


[1-2] 2DY
aZ


1 D DY
x (x
x ax 'xax


0 x<1
(24)


in which y = ACAF/C, x = r/R, and Z = zDAB/R2Vmax.
The boundary conditions are
y=l for 0

Yi = 1 at Z = 0


-4y + 4y = -Ky, for 0 < Z < ZL (33)

-4y + 4y2 = 0 for Z > ZL (34)
Insertion of Eqs. (33) and (34) into Eq. (31)
gives


DY =0 at x=0 for Z>0
Dx


(26)


ay- Ky at x=1 for 0 Dx

Y -=0 at x=l for Z>ZL (28)
Dx
Eq. (27) is a reactant mass balance on an element
of catalytic surface. It contains two dimensionless
parameters: K = kl"R/DAB and ZL = LDAB/
R vmax. Finally, let


(1-x2) [1- y(x,Z)] xdx


(29)


(1-x2) xdx


denote the flow-mean reactant conversion at Z.
For a quick, approximate answer we will use
collocation with n = 1. For this two-dimensional
problem, we extend Eq. (19) as follows
n+l ,-
y = (x) yj (Z) (30)
j=l
thus immediately satisfying Eq. (26) and the
symmetry of the problem. Since y is not known at
x = 1, we will choose the points according to Eq.
(18). The collocation constants then become, with
a = 2 and n = 1:


[xi] = [V\112 [Ai] = -2V2 2V2


[Bjl] = -8 [W,] = 1/2
-8 8 L 0

Collocation of Eq. (24) at the interior locus x =
x, gives the ordinary differential equation

1 dy = -8y' + 8y2
2 dZ (31)

Collocation of Eqs. (25), (27) and (28) gives


_ 16Ky, for 0 4 + K


dy, =0 for Z > ZL
dZ
The solution for the grid-point states is


4 = 4 exp
yJ 4 + K

for 0 < Z < ZL

YL = 1 ( 16K
Y1 exp 4+
Y2 L -4


(35)


(36)


16KZ)
4 + K}
(37)


S)for Z> Z


(38)
and values at other radii can be interpolated with
Eq. (30). The flow mean conversion, computed
from Eqs. (23) and (29), is


X= 1 yfor all Z> 0


(39)


since the quadrature weight W2 is zero for the
grid points used here.
The inlet profile in Eq. (25) is approximated
only roughly here since y(x,0) is a parabola
satisfying Eq. (27). Eq. (32) causes the parabola
to give the correct flow-mean inlet composition.
The inlet condition would be better approximated
if a larger n were used; however, a much better fit
could be obtained by use of a properly singular
function y,, as in (56).
This problem can also be worked via Eq. (13),
with y(1,Z) and a,(Z) as the unknown coefficients.
Several examples of this approach are given in
[18] and [21]. We prefer the method based on
ordinates yi, because it is less affected by round-
ing errors at large n [49] and also handles initial
conditions more directly.
The collocation method also gives quick solu-
tions with axial diffusion included, or with other
forms of kinetics. Nonlinear kinetics will usually
call for numerical treatment of Eq. (31) and of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









the wall boundary condition; several pocket com-
puters now have this capability.
An interesting correspondence exists between
traditional reactor models and collocation approxi-
mations to Eq. (24). Collocation with n = 1
yields Eq. (31), which has the same form as a
plug-flow reactor model. The collocation solution
also gives expressions for the radial profile and
wall transfer coefficient, which the plug flow
model does not provide [22, 38].
Collocation solutions with n > 2 reveal dis-
persion effects [51, 52] through the presence of
unequal velocities v. (xi) at the interior grid points.
In developed laminar flow no artificial term is
needed to describe the dispersion, and no feed-
back of material is predicted other than longi-
tudinal molecular diffusion.
APPLICATIONS OF ORTHOGONAL COLLOCATION
Orthogonal collocation has been used extensive-
ly in chemical reactor simulation and design. A
survey of early work is given in [31]. Applications
have ranged from one-point radial collocation of
catalyst particle models [20] and tubular reactor
models [22] to detailed simulations of multidimen-
sional reactors [25, 26, 49]. Electrochemical re-
actors have also been treated [35], with major re-
ductions in computing time.
Fig. 1 shows temperature profiles from a simu-
lated startup of an o-xylene oxidation reactor
[26, 49]. Orthogonal collocation was used, with
piecewise polynomials in the axial direction and
global polynomials in the radial coordinates of the
particles and tube. Improvements in the algorithms
since the original work [26] have reduced the
computation time from 240 s to 40 s on a Univac
1100 for the first 600 s of reactor operation [49].
Various approximations for reactor engineer-
ing have been developed, and existing models test-
ed. One-point collocation of intraparticle transport
problems [20] has given useful insight regarding
particle shape effects, ignition and extinction phe-
nomena, as well as proper particle sizes for.
measurements of intrinsic kinetics. One-point col-
location of the radial derivatives in two-dimension-
al models of tubular reactors [22, 38] yields equa-
tions formally similar to the plug-flow model, but
provides also the radial profiles and wall transfer
coefficients, as in the example of the preceding
section. Multipoint simulations of catalyst par-
ticles [28] show that the ignition and extinction
limits are somewhat sensitive to the particle
shape, and are often well approximated by one-


400

390 500
T 400
(C) 300
380 200

370 --=--------r100s

.5 I. I.5m
z
FIGURE 1. Bulk temperature profiles during startup
of an o-xylene oxidation reactor [26, 49]. The first
0.8 m of the bed is diluted to 50% catalyst; the re-
mainder is 100% catalyst.

point collocation. Collocation analyses of packed
bed reactors have been made by Young and Finlay-
son [30] to determine when axial dispersion may
be neglected. Collocation studies of multiple re-
actions in porous particles [48] have shown sig-
nificant effects of catalyst pore size distribution.
Collocation has also proved effective in solving
multicomponent reactor problems with dispersion
[52], and has made it clear that the dispersion co-
efficients are rather complicated functions of the
chemical kinetics.
Orthogonal collocation has proved useful in
nonlinear estimation problems where extensive
parameter spaces need to be explored. A useful
short-cut, given in [36], is the direct computation
of parametric sensitivities by a simple extension
of the Newton solution algorithm. Bayesian esti-
mation algorithms are demonstrated in [36] and
[46] for multiresponse reactor data. Computer aids
to formulation and testing of reaction models are
described in [41] and [45]. Pulse-response experi-
ments and collocation analysis are used in [39] to
determine the thermal conductivity and heat ca-
pacity of an extruded catalyst.
Transport problems in various geometries have
been analyzed. Paper [29] analyzes the sensitivity
of Clusius-Dickel column performance to imperfect
centering of the heated rod or wire. Papers [32]
and [33] deal with the Graetz problem for tubes and
for packed beds, with longitudinal conduction in-
cluded; a fuller analysis for tubes is given in
[38]. Paper [56] tests a model of viscoelastic fluids
by comparing predicted and observed flow fields in
a cavity with a rotating lid.
Fast reactions and boundary layers give rise
to steep solutions, which are hard to fit with global
polynomials. Basis functions derived by lineariza-
tion have proved effective in several such cases


FALL 1984










[37, 44, 48, 49] when used in orthogonal collocation
schemes. For example, Table 2 shows multicom-
ponent profiles for catalytic reforming in a spheri-
cal particle, computed by orthogonal collocation
with hyperbolic functions [48]. These functions are
tailor-made for the given problem, thus permitting
good accuracy with a small set of collocation points.
Piecewise polynomials (finite elements) are
widely used in computing steep solutions. They are
commonly fitted by orthogonal collocation on each
element [27, 34, 40, 43, 51, 54]. Integral methods
such as least squares, however, are applicable to
polynomial elements of lower order, and have been
used in [47] to derive a robust algorithm with
moving finite elements. Finite-element schemes
are attractive for systems with localized action,
whereas global schemes are still the most efficient
for computing smooth solutions.
Orthogonal collocation has been applied re-
cently to large plate columns [42, 53, 55, 57] to
obtain reasonable simulations in shorter comput-
ing times. The states in each module of the column
are interpolated by polynomials of low order n,
and these are fitted by applying the column model
at n collocation points. The preferred points [55, 57]
are obtained by a least-squares principle in which
the sum of squares (Qn,Q,) over the stages is mini-
mized with respect to the grid-point locations
x1, ... x, (which can have non-integer values).
The resulting orthogonal polynomial was dis-
covered by Tschebychef [5] in a different context,
and rediscovered by Hahn [10], for whom it is


" C3 t 2.0 hr

S8.6-
FEED

8.4-

e.2


8. 0- li
S 5 1t 15 2e 25 38 35
STAGE NUMBER
FIGURE 2. Transient response of the liquid states in a
binary 32-stage still to a step change in boilup rate
[55, 57]. Solid curves: interpolated full 32-stage solu-
tion. Points and dashed curves: nodal states and inter-
polated profiles found by 8-point orthogonal collocation.


named. Fig. 2 shows the nice results achieved by
this method when eight nodes are used to describe
the transient response of a 32-stage column to a
step change in boil-up rate. The collocation method
closely approximates the full solution, and takes
about 1/12 as long. This method should be useful
in the design and control of distillation systems,
and it has interesting possibilities for particulate
modelling of reactors.
There are many excellent applications in the
literature. Only a sample is reported here. I ask


TABLE 2


Profiles for Catalytic Reforming in a
Spherical Particle of Radius R = 0.9 mm*
Concentrations, mole cm-3.106


n-Heptane Iso-heptanes Naphthenes


Hydrogen


Toluene Cracked
Products


1.0000 15.84 0. 15.84 237.6 15.84 0. 769.24
0.9904 15.50 0.69 13.00 238.2 17.88 0.07 768.80
0.9488 14.13 2.79 5.70 239.6 23.17 0.38 767.64
0.8718 11.99 4.88 1.47 240.5 26.35 0.89 766.92
0.7578 9.62 6.52 0.44 240.7 27.34 1.52 766.70
0.6074 7.56 7.69 0.33 240.8 27.67 2.17 766.63
0.4250 6.10 8.40 0.32 240.8 27.88 2.73 766.59
0.2188 5.28 8.72 0.32 240.8 28.01 3.11 766.56

*Computed by orthogonal collocation with the grid points shown, and a bimodal pore size distribution [48].


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Radial
Position
ri/R


Temp.
K









the understanding of the reader for the sparse
selection that has been made.

CONCLUSION

Orthogonal collocation is an approach designed
to minimize problem size and computation time.
It is adaptable to basis functions of global or piece-
wise form, and to various weighted residual cri-
teria; thus the user's insights can be built in. The
grid-point strategy can be summarized simply as
follows: do to the interpolant Qn (x,x, x,) as
you would to the residual e, if you had unlimited
time. OE

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thanks are due to the 3M Company for spon-
soring this lecture, and to my chemical engineer-
ing friends at Washington University, Virginia
Tech, Carnegie-Mellon and Ohio State University
for their hospitality. Above all, I thank my
students and John Villadsen for their collaboration
in this and other areas of research.

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zengleichungen genfigen," Math. Nachrichten, 2, 4
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11. Kantorovich, L. V., and V. I. Krylov, Approximate
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English translation, Interscience, New York (1958).
12. Crandall, S. H., Engineering Analysis, McGraw-Hill,
New York (1956).
13. Lanczos, C., Applied Analysis, p. 504, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1956).
14. Kopal, Z., Numerical Analysis, Second Edition. Chap-
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15. Abramowitz, M., and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathe-
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16. Finlayson, B. A., and L. E. Scriven, "The Method of
Weighted Residuals-A Review," Appl. Mech. Rev.,
19, 735 (1966).
17. Snyder, L. J., and W. E. Stewart, "Velocity and Pres-
sure Profiles for Newtonian Creeping Flow in Regu-
lar Packed Beds of Spheres," AIChE J., 12, 167, 620
(1966).
18. Villadsen, J. V., and W. E. Stewart, "Solution of
Boundary Value Problems by Orthogonal Colloca-
tion," Chem. Eng. Sci., 22, 1483 (1967); 23, 1515
(1968).
19. Krasnosel'skii, M. A., G. M. Vainikko, P. P. Zabreiko,
Ya.B. Rutitskii, and V.Ya. Stetsenko, Approximate
Solution of Nonlinear Operator Equations, Russian
Edition, Moscow (1969). English translation by D.
Louvish, Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, The Nether-
lands (1972).
20. Stewart, W. E., and J. V. Villadsen, "Graphical Calcu-
lation of Multiple Steady States and Effectiveness
Factors for Porous Catalysts," AIChE J., 15, 28, 961
(1969).
21. Stewart, W. E., "Solution of Transport Problems by
Collocation Methods," Chapter 4 in Lectures in Trans-
port Phenomena, by R. B. Bird, E. N. Lightfoot, T. W.
Chapman and W. E. Stewart, AIChE Continuing
Education Series No. 4 (1969).
22. Finlayson, B. A., "Packed Bed Reactor Analysis by
Orthogonal Collocation," Chem. Eng. Sci., 26, 1081
(1971).
23. Stroud, A. H., Approximate Calculation of Multiple
Integrals, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1971).
24. Finlayson, B. A., The Method of Weighted Residuals
and Variational Principles, Academic Press, New
York (1972).
25. Kjaer, J., Computer Methods in Catalytic Reactor
Calculations, Haldor Tops6e, Vedvaek, Denmark
(1972).
26. Stewart, W. E., and J. P. Serensen, "Transient Re-
actor Analysis by Orthogonal Collocation," Fifth
European Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineer-
ing, pp. B8-75, C2-8, C2-9, Elsevier, Amsterdam
(1972).
27. De Boor, C., and B. Swartz, "Collocation at Gaussian
Points," SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 10, 582 (1973).
28. Sorensen, J. P., E. W. Guertin, and W. E. Stewart,
"Computational Models for Cylindrical Catalyst
Particles," AIChE J., 19, 969, 1286 (1973); 21, 206


FALL 1984










(1975).
29. Serensen, J. P., M. S. Willis, and W. E. Stewart,
"Effects of Column Asymmetry on Thermal Diffusion
Separations," J. Chem. Phys., 59, 2676 (1973).
30. Young, L. C., and B. A. Finlayson, "Axial Dispersion
in Nonisothermal Packed Bed Chemical Reactors,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund., 12, 412 (1973).
31. Finlayson, B. A., "Orthogonal Collocation in Chemi-
cal Reaction Engineering," Catal. Rev., 10, 69 (1974).
32. Sorensen, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Computation
of Forced Convection in Slow Flow through Ducts and
Packed Beds-I. Extensions of the Graetz Problem,"
Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 811 (1974).
33. Serenson, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Computation of
Forced Convection in Slow Flow through Ducts and
Packed Beds--III. Heat and Mass Transfer in a
Cubic Array of Spheres," Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 827
(1974).
34. Carey, C. F., and B. A. Finlayson, "Orthogonal Col-
location on Finite Elements," Chem. Eng. Sci., 30, 587
(1975).
35. Caban, R., and T. W. Chapman, "Rapid Computation
of Current Distribution by Orthogonal Collocation,"
J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 1036 (1976).
36. Stewart, W. E., and J. P. Serensen, "Sensitivity and
Regression of Multicomponent Reactor Models,"
Fourth International Symposium on Chemical Re-
action Engineering, DECHEMA, Frankfurt, 1-12
(1976).
37. Guertin, E. W., J. P. Sorensen, and W. E. Stewart,
"Exponential Collocation of Stiff Reactor Models,"
Comp. Chem. Engng., 1, 197 (1977).
38. Villadsen, J. V., and M. L. Michelsen, Solution of
Diferential Equation Models by Polynomial Approxi-
mation, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1978).
39. Stewart, W. E., J. P. Sorensen, and B. C. Teeter,
"Pulse-Response Measurement of Thermal Properties
of Small Catalyst Pellets," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam.,
17, 221 (1978); 18, 438 (1979).
40. Finlayson, B. A., Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical
Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York (1980).
41. Serensen, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Structural
Analysis of Multicomponent Reactor Models: Part I.
Systematic Editing of Kinetic and Thermodynamic
Values," AIChE J., 26, 98 (1980).
42. Wong, K. T., and R. Luus, "Model Reduction of High-
Order Multistage Systems by the Method of
Orthogonal Collocation," Can. J. Chem. Eng., 58, 382
(1980).
43. Ascher, U., J. Christiansen, and R. D. Russell, "Col-
location Software for Boundary Value ODEs," ACM
Trans. on Math. Software, 7, 209 (1981).
44. Caban, R., and T. W. Chapman, "Solution of Bound-
ary-Layer Transport Problems by Orthogonal Col-
location," Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 849 (1981).
45. Stewart, W. E., and J. P. Serensen, "Computer-Aided
Modelling of Reaction Networks," in Foundations of
Computer-Aided Process Design, R. S. H. Mah and
W. D. Seider, Eds., Engineering Foundation, New
York, II, 335 (1981).
46. Stewart, W. E., and J. P. Serensen, "Bayesian
Estimation of Common Parameters from Irregular
Multi-Response Data," Technometrics, 23, 131 (1981);


24, 91 (1982).
47. Miller, K., and R. N. Miller, "Moving Finite Elements.
I, II.," SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 18, 1019, 1033 (1981).
48. Serensen, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Collocation
Analysis of Multicomponent Diffusion and Reaction
in Porous Catalysts," Chem. Eng. Sci., 37, 1103
(1982).
49. Sorensen, J. P. Simulation, Regression, and Control
of Chemical Reactors by Collocation Techniques. Dr.
Techn. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark,
Lyngby (1982).
50. Co, A., and W. E. Stewart, "Viscoelastic Flow from
a Tube into a Radial Slit," AIChE J., 28, 644 (1982).
51. Wang, J. C., and W. E. Stewart, "New Descriptions
of Dispersion in Flow through Tubes: Convolution
and Collocation Methods," AIChE J., 29, 493 (1983).
52. Wang, J. C., and W. E. Stewart, Coupled Reactions
and Dispersion in Pulse-Fed Tubular Reactors, Paper
57e, AIChE National Meeting, Los Angeles (1982).
53. Cho, Y. S., and B. Joseph, "Reduced-Order Steady-
State and Dynamic Models for Separation Processes,"
AIChE J., 29, 261, 270 (1983).
54. Davis, M. E., Numerical Methods and Modelling for
Chemical Engineers, Wiley, New York (1984).
55. Stewart, W. E., K. L. Levien, and M. Morari, "Col-
location Methods in Distillation," in Proceedings of
the Second International Conference on Foundations
of Computer-Aided Process Design, A. W. Wester-
berg and H. H. Chien, Eds., CACHE Corporation,
New York (1984), page 535.
56. Nirschl, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Computation of
Viscoelastic Flow in a Cylindrical Tank with a Rotat-
ing Lid," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. (in press).
57. Stewart, W. E., K. L. Levien, and M. Morari, "Simu-
lation of Fractionation by Orthogonal Collocation,"
Chem. Eng. Sci. (in press).


REVIEW: Fluid Mechanics
Continued from page 199.
difficult phenomena to quantitate, this chapter pro-
vides a reasonable summary of the key features of
this topic. Again the emphasis is primarily on
the design aspects. It provides, in effect, a point-
of-departure for someone who wishes to gain an
initial insight into the area.
In summary, therefore, the authors have
written a comprehensive text that covers those
unit operations which have a unique basis in fluid,
dynamics. The book is generally well written and
liberally laced with pertinent detailed examples
drawn from industrial situations. Although the
material covered extends well beyond that normal-
ly found in a first course in fluid dynamics, it does
include the requisite essence and could easily be
used as a text in such a course. I suspect, however,
that it will find much more use as a handy refer-
ence for the practicing engineer. I do hope that
the authors complete the trilogy. O]


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Continued from page 173.
this method. However, emphasis is placed on when
such an approximation can be invoked by develop-
ing ideas on multiple time scale analysis. The
method is illustrated by considering shrinking
unreacted core model in gas-solid reactions and
evaporation of a drop in a stagnant fluid.
Additional topics covered in the course are
listed in Table 3. These include non-Newtonian
fluid flow, turbulent flow, some cases of exact
solution of Navier-Stokes equations, evaluations
of Nussclt and Sherwood numbers in laminar and
turbulent flow, and some cases of mass transfer
where no analogs in heat transfer are available.
Finally, some examples of macroscopic balances
are also solved.
SUMMARY
The course is essentially a survey in transport
processes. An attempt is made to give students a
thorough understanding of the topics covered, so
that they can formulate the necessary differential
equations. They are given sufficient insight into
some of the powerful tools available to analyze
and solve these equations. It is emphasized that
the answers obtained must be checked to see if
the assumptions made in deriving them are ful-
filled. It is also stressed that in most cases, knowing
the distribution of velocity, temperature, and con-
centration is not as important as knowing the
fluxes at the interface. These in turn are then'
related to friction factor, Nusselt, and Sherwood
numbers respectively. The course as described
here has been well received by the students. Good
students tend to feel they are ready to tackle more
difficult topics. Terminal master's students feel
they have a solid foundation in transport phe-
nomena on which they can continue to build their
practical experience. O
REFERENCES
1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport
Phenomena, 7th printing, Wiley, New York, 1960.
2. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, and
T. W. Chapman, AIChE Continuing Education Series,
No. 4, 1969.
3. "Selected Topics in Transport Phenomena," Chem.
Eng. Symp. Ser., No. 58, 61, 1965.
4. Denn, M. M., Process Fluid Mechanics, Prentice-Hall,
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980.
5. Schlichting, H., Boundary-Layer Theory, 7th Edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y., 1979.
6. Slattery, J. C., Momentum, Energy and Mass Transfer
in Continue, Robert E. Kreiger Publishing Company,
2nd Edition, Huntington, N.Y., 1981.


LINEAR ALGEBRA
Continued from page 179.
discussion of simple numerical methods for the
computation of eigenvalues. In order to further
establish the importance of the variational
methods, the finite element method is briefly out-
lined at the end of the course, using tools that
the students already possess.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
Our course attempts to introduce the students
to the essentials of linear algebra and, at the
same time, to convey the fact that these elegant
results can be applied to a wide range of engineer-
ing problems. Significant emphasis is placed upon
the development of basic and efficient compu-
tational methods. There is hardly any need to
stress again the importance of exposing the chemi-
cal engineering graduate student to the basics of
numerical analysis. Our experience indicates that
the essentials of computational linear algebra can
be successfully integrated into an applied mathe-
matics course. A large number of students go on
to take a rigorous numerical analysis course given
by the Mathematical Sciences Department at Rice,
which covers methods for the solution of ordinary
and partial differential equations. They have dis-
covered that their background in computational
linear algebra was adequate.
We plan to introduce still another computer
project in future offerings of this course, in order
to familiarize the students with some of the most
useful methods for the numerical computation
of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large matrices.
The emphasis will again be on the understanding
of the physical problem and the resulting mathe-
matical one, and on the study of the relative ad-
vantages of the various algorithms. E

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author wishes to acknowledge the in-
fluence of his mentors, Rutherford Aris, Neal
Amundson and D. Ramkrishna, who have shown
him that applied mathematics can also be enjoy-
able and who have shaped his ideas about teach-
ing.

REFERENCES
1. Amundson, N. R., Chem. Eng. Edn., 3, 174 (1969).
2. Ramkrishna, D., Chem. Eng. Edn., 13, 172 (1979).
3. Wei, T. and C. D. Prater, Adv. Catalysis, 13, 204
(1962).


FALL 1984








APPLIED MATHEMATICS
Continued from page 163.
also enjoy seeing the connection between the non-
existence of a solution determined by the applica-
tion of a mathematical theorem to a physically
generated problem to be equivalent to a violation
of a basic conservation principle such as mass,
energy, or momentum. This helps them develop a
further appreciation for the practical importance
and usefulness of mathematical theorems. When
we present partial differential equations, we begin
by emphasizing the characteristics of the "typical"
problem which can readily be solved by pointing
out the restrictions that must be placed on the
shape of the domain, the boundary conditions, and
the form of the operator. This brings together
many of the concepts developed over the first two
semesters. Then we proceed to analyze a number
of specific problems which violate in one form or
another these restrictions and show that the
manipulations that must be performed to make
these problems solvable, which might have ap-
peared as "tricks," can be rationalized and under-
stood based upon their in-depth knowledge of the
structure and properties of vector spaces. Thus,
the students have developed a deeper appreciation
for the key role played by mathematical theory in
being a creative applied mathematician.
The third semester covers the solution struc-
tures of nonlinear equations and the perturbation
methods used to analyze them. Three different
areas of perturbation analysis are studied: bound-
ary layer theory, bifurcation theory, and finite ele-
ment-based numerical methods. The semester
starts with a general introduction to perturba-
tion techniques. Following a rigorous definition
of order and asymptotic series, a variety of ex-
pansion techniques can be seen to be different
formalisms for singular perturbation.
The bulk of the course covers bifurcation
theory: a set of perturbation techniques for de-
termining the multiple solutions to nonlinear
algebraic, ordinary differential, and partial differ-
ential equations, their stability, and their de-
pendence on parameters. Theoretical concepts de-
veloped in the first two semesters, such as Fred-
holm's Alternative and the Implicit Mapping
Theorem, are central to bifurcation analysis. Spe-
cific examples from fluid mechanics and reactor
design show how the theory may be used to
analyze transitions between the multiple steady
states which frequently arise.
The course concludes by covering computer


implementation of perturbation techniques using
the Finite Element Method. Computer-aided
analysis relies heavily on the same local ex-
pansions covered earlier in the course. Any ana-
lytical technique can be implemented on a com-
puter, but the ability to trade off more steps and
unknowns for simpler calculations at each step en-
courages the use of lower order expansions and
local basis functions rather than, for example,
eigenfunction expansions. Using linear operator
notation highlights the similarities between com-
puter-based techniques for analyzing the ordinary
differential equations that arise upon discretizing
partial differential equations and analytical per-
turbation techniques for studying the original
partial differential equations.
TEXTS
Though it is difficult to find a text that presents
the necessary concepts in the manner we have just
described, it is important for the students to learn
to read applied mathematics literature. Therefore,
we do require a few texts and assign correspond-
ing sections from them. For the first semester
course, we have used either Mathematical Founda-
tions in Engineering and Science by Michel and
Herget or Linear Operator Theory in Engineering
and Science by Naylor and Sell as the major text.
We make up our own homework problems, how-
ever, which include extending theoretical concepts
and proving theorems as well as solving problems
arising from chemical engineering applications.
For the section on matrices, readings from Mathe-
matical Methods in Chemical Engineering, Vol. I:
Matrices and Their Application by Amundson and
Linear Algebra and its Application by Strang are
assigned. For the section on metric spaces, we find
helpful supplemental reading in Green's Functions
and Boundary Value Problems by Stakgold and
Introductory Functional Analysis with Applica-
tions by Kreysig. In the second semester, the
aforementioned book by Stakgold is the major
text. Other references include Principles and
Techniques of Applied Mathematics by Friedman,
and the text by Naylor and Sell mentioned pre-
viously. For the third semester, the principal
texts are Perturbation Methods in Applied Mathe-
matics by Cole and Elementary Stability and Bi-
furcation Theory by loos and Joseph.
CONCLUSION
We are convinced that our approach to teach-
ing applied mathematics for chemical engineer-
ing graduate students has been very successful.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


214








Despite the rigorous and initially abstract per-
spective, student reaction has been overwhelming-
ly favorable. Probably the primary reason for this
is that we try very hard to stress the "why" of
applied mathematics, so that the "how" of solving
problems is seen to follow logically and naturally
from an understandable conceptual framework.
The major criticism of our approach might be that
fewer specific techniques can be included because
of the time devoted to the underlying theory. How-
ever, we strongly believe that this is no real short-
coming because the students are now equipped to
learn a wider assortment of new techniques on
their own because they have the background
necessary to comprehend the basis of unfamiliar
methods. And this, after all, is the objective of
graduate education. O


GRADUATE PLANT DESIGN
Continued from page 165.
theory and its limitations and those of the
numerical procedure utilized to reach a solution.
The proliferation of engineering software houses
is alarming. Are they becoming the de facto engi-
neering companies of the future?
It appears that in the headlong rush to utilize
the computer, the art of creating a reasonable and
useful model of physical reality may be declining.
The measure of the sophistication of a mathemati-
cal model is not what you include but, rather,
what you leave out. However, the capability of
computers to crunch complicated differential
equations and systems of equations encourages
overly complex models that can conceal the sig-
nificant variables and their relationship.
Often, simple models and simple procedures
are all that are required for the problem at hand.
With the bewildering array of software being
marketed and the significant use of computer
design in industry, it is extremely important that
the student appreciate the roles of the various
levels of analysis in his work. Using a sledge
hammer when a tack hammer would suffice is a
cardinal sin which demonstrates a serious lack of
judgment and/or knowledge. Students are en-
couraged to keep it as simple as possible, con-
sistent with the results desired.
Concerning analysis itself, all too often the
student is faced with papers and texts that pre-
sent skimpy discussions of the physical aspects of
the model, and pages and pages devoted to solving
the resulting equations. They are both important,


especially when the model is not correct.
A good example of a meager discussion about
the physical basis of a model is the no slip
boundary condition of fluid mechanics. Consult a
modern text on fluid mechanics and it is probable
that this boundary condition is stated with no dis-
cussion, as if it were a self-evident truth. Consider
the student who has seen mercury flow in a glass
thermometer; would he not question the validity
of this statement? If Coulomb, Poisson, Navier,
and Stokes and others of similar scientific stature
debated this point during the 19th century [7],
does it not deserve some textbook discussion so
that the student can appreciate the turmoil that
is often encountered in creating a good physical
model?
In addition to the current information ex-
plosion problem, misinformation is also trouble-
some. For example, in one year, in just one journal,
at least three authors [8, 9, 10] discussed the mis-
application of Le Chatelier's Principle, while
Pauling [5] describes some recent textbook errors
he has detected.
To help the students develop confidence in
their understanding of the literature and their
creative and analytical abilities, they are required
to rigorously justify the rationales for their de-
signs, the bases for their design calculations, and
the expected accuracies of their results.
If our students achieve these three primary
goals, then I have no doubt that they will be able
to design the bioengineering and materials pro-
cesses of the future as well as the innovative petro-
chemical processes required to retain the vitality
of the chemical process industries. O
REFERENCES
1. Kelleher, E. G. and N. Kafes, Chem. Eng. Ed., Fall,
1972: 178-180.
2. Kelleher, E. G., Chem. Eng. Prog. 68, No. 8: 35-36.
August, 1972.
3. Reid, W. C., Chemical Engineering, Dec. 14, 1970. 147-
150.
4. Strutt, J. W. (Lord Rayleigh), Scientific Papers, Vol.
1, pp. 196-198. Cambridge, University Press. 1899.
5. Pauling, L., Chemtech. 14, No. 6: 326-327. June 1984.
6. Churchill, S. W., Chem. Eng. Prog. 66, No. 7: 86-90.
July 1970.
7. Goldstein, S. (ed.), Modern Developments in Fluid
Dynamics, Vol. 2, pp. 676-680. New York, Dover
Publications. 1965.
8. Treptow, R. S., J. Chem. Ed. 57, No. 6: 417-420. June
1979.
9. Mellon, E. K., J. Chem. Ed. 56, No. 6: 380-381. June
1979.
10. Bodner, G. M., J. Chem. Ed. 57, No. 2: 117-119. Febru-
ary 1980.


FALL 1984






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Chemical Engineering at


UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

EDMONTON, CANADA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


I.G. DALLA LANA, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous
Catalysis.

D.G. FISHER Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control,
Real-Time Computer Applications.

M.R. GRAY Ph.D. (Cal. Tech.): Chemical Kinetics,
Characterization of Complex Organic Mixtures, Bioengineering,
Natural Gas Processing.

D.T. LYNCH, Ph.D. (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling,
Numerical Methods, Computer-Aided Design.

J. MARTIN-SANCHEZ, Ph.D. (Barcelona): Process Control,
Adaptive-Predictive Control, Systems Theory.

J.H. MASLIYAH Ph.D. (British Columbia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics.

A.E. MATHER, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid
Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics.

A.J. MORRIS, Ph.D. (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne): Process Control,
Real Time Use of Microcomputers, Process Simulation.

K. NANDAKUMAR, Ph.D. (Princeton): Transport Phenomena,
Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics.


W.K. NADER Dr. Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics.

F.D. OTTO, (CHAIRMAN), Ph.D. (Michigan): Mass Transfer,
Gas-Liquid Reactions, Separation Processes, Heavy Oil Upgrading.

D. QUON Sc.D. (M.I.T.), PROFESSOR EMERITUS: Energy
Modelling and Economics.

D.B. ROBINSON, Ph.D. (Michigan), PROFESSOR EMERITUS:
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria,
Thermodynamics.

J.T. RYAN Ph.D. (Missouri): Energy Economics and Supply,
Porous Media.

S.L. SHAH Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear Systems Theory, Adaptive
Control, Stability Theory, Stochastic Control.

S.E. WANKE Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kinetics.

R.K. WOOD Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics and
Identification, Control of Distillation Columns, Computer-Aided
Design.

For further information contact:


CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical Engineering,
University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6









THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ




The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through
government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The
faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered
in most of the research areas listed below.


THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor
University of Florida, 1984
Liquid Solution Theory, Solution Thermodynamics
Polyelectrolyte Solutions

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973
Heat Transfer in Biological Systems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Mechanics and
Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology

SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com-
bustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation
Processes, Applied Mathematics

GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head
Ph.D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966
Rheology, Turbulent Mixing, Turbulent Transport, Numerical
Modelling of Transport

DON H. WHITE, Professor


THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant
Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation
Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explosives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation,
Computer Aided Design

FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion

JOST O. L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide
Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Interfacial Phe-
nomena


Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial
and Enzymatic Processes


Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of Ihe
old Southwestern atmosphere.




For further information.
write to:
Dr. Farhang Shadma.n
Graduate Stady Con m ittee
Department of
Chem ical Engitine ring
ULniversity, of A rizona.
Tucson, A r:izona 85 ^21


The Uniers.i/ of Ar.zona .. an
equal opporlunily educal.onal
instftul;on'equal opporluntry employer











ARIZONA STATE


UNIVERSITY

Graduate Programs
for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
in Chemical and Bio Engineering

Research Specializations Include:
ENERGY CONSERVATION ADSORPTION/SEPARATION *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA *
SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
CATALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *

Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly-respected faculty:
James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976
Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966
Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962
Llewellyn W. Bezanson, Clarkson College, 1983
Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston, 1980
William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct)
William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967
R. Leighton Fisk, MD, University of Alberta, Canada, 1972 (Adjunct)
K. Kumar Gidwani, New York University, 1978 (Adjunct)
Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971
Robert Kabel, Pennsylvania State University, (Visiting)
James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970
Gregory Raupp, University of Wisconsin, 1984
Castle O. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus)
Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963
Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967
Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
Imre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961
Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix
metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in
ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study.
Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's
own cultural and recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Imre Zwiebel, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287

--J---W


W IN=WSi



























Auburn

University


Auburn t r |
Engineering W* L.A


THE FACULTY


RESEARCH AREAS


R. P. CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965) Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Process Simulation
C. W. CURTIS (Florida State University, 1976) Biomass Conversion Reaction Engineering
J. A. GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Conversion Reaction Kinetics
L. J. HIRTH (University of Texas, 1958) Environmental Pollution Separations
A. C. T. HSU (University of Pennsylvania, 1953) Heterogeneous Catalysis Surface Science
Y. Y. LEE (Iowa State University, 1972) Oil Processing Transport Phenomena
R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973) Process Design and Control Thermodynamics
T. D. PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) Interfacial Phenomena Pulp and Paper Engineering
C. W. ROOS (Washington University, 1951)
A. R. TARRER (Purdue University, 1973) THE PROGRAM
B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981)
D. L. VIVES (Columbia University, 1949) The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and
D. C. WILLIAMS (Princeton University, 1980) offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes
both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national
FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE interest, with modern research equipment available for most all
Dr. R. P. Chambers Head types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to
Chemical Engineering qualified students.
Auburn University, AL 36849
Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


-- I~


I


GrAD A.E

ISTUDIES


[C] ,MICA, ENG:ll INEEING ; ,









BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

PROVO,UTAH


Ph.D., M.S., & M.E. Degrees
ChE. Masters for Chemists Program
Research Programs


Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Coal Gasification
* Faculty


Combustion
Electrochemical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics


Fossil Fuels Recovery
Thermochemistry &
Calorimetry


D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951)
C. H. Bartholomew, (Ph.D., Stanford, 1972)
M. W. Beckstead, (Ph.D., Utah, 1965)
D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D., Berkeley, 1964)
|B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979)
J. J. Christensen, (Ph.D., Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958)
R. W. Hanks, (Ph.D., Utah, 1961)


W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley,
1982)
P. O. Hedman, (Ph.D., BYU, 1973)
J. L. Oscarson, (M.S., Michigan, 1972)
R. L. Rowley, (Ph.D., Michigan State,
1978)
P. J. Smith, (Ph.D., BYU, 1979)
L. D. Smoot, (Ph.D., Washington, 1960)
K. A. Solen, (Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1974)


Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains
Financial aid available
Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Douglas N. Bennion,
Chemical Engineering Dept., 350 CB, Provo, Utah 84602
FALL 1984















THE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY


,... ~ -.

*.-.-.- ~


GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL AND
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING


The Department offers programs leading to the
M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees (full-time) and the M.
Eng. degree (part-time) in the following areas:

Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Kinetics and Combustion
Multiphase Flows in Pipelines
Fluidization-Grid Region Transport Phenomena
Environmental Engineering
Ultra Pyrolysis of Heavy Oils
Enhanced Oil Recovery
In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Antibiotic Production in Immobilized Cells
Biorheology and Biochemical Engineering
Computer Control and Optimization of
Engineering Processes


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.





FACULTY


The University is located in the City of Calgary,
the oil capital of Canada, the home of the world
famous Calgary Stampede and the 1988 Winter
Olympics. The city combines the traditions of the
Old West with the sophistication of a modern
urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is
110 km west of the City and the ski resorts of the
Banff, Lake Louise and Kananaskis areas are
readily accessible.


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. M. F. Mohtadi, Chairman
Graduate Studies Committee
Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng.
The University of Calqary
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada


R. A. HEIDEMANN, Head
A. BADAKHSHAN
L. A. BEHIE
D. W. B. BENNION
P. R. BISHNOI
R. M. BUTLER
M. FOGARASI
M. A. HASTAOGLU
J. HAVLENA
A. A. JEJE
N. E. KALOGERAKIS
A. K. MEHROTRA
M. F. MOHTADI
R. G. MOORE
P. M. SIGMUND
J. STANISLAV
W. Y. SVRCEK
E. L. TOLLEFSON


(Wash. U.)
(Birm. U.K.)
(W. Ont.)
(Penn. State)
(Alberta)
(Imp. Coll. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(SUNY)
(Czech.)
(MIT)
(Toronto)
(Calgary)
(Birm. U.K.)
(Alberta)
(Texas)
(Prague)
(Alberta)
(Toronto)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


r
I ~ I


CA







THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,


BERKELEY...


RESEARCH INTERESTS

ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-
tains.




FACULTY
Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soong
Charles W. Tobias
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720











UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biotechnology
Colloid and Interface Processes
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Dynamics
Rheology
Semiconductor Device Fabrication
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Program
UC Davis, with 19,000 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Faculty
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne
Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control
BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota
Fluid Mechanics, Coating Flows, Interfacial
Phenomena, Fiber Processes and Refining
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes
AHMET N. PALAZOGLU, Rennsselaer Polytechnic
Institute
Process Synthesis and Control
ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University
Rheology, Fluid Mechanics
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.

For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Graduate Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400










CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY






ALIFORNIA






OS


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
graduate programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities.
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research, adding to
the already wide spectrum of research
activities.

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
of tuition and fees plus a stipend

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on
campus.


CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
NGELES 5405 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles CA 90024
Los Angeles, CA 90024


FACULTY
D.T. Allen
Yoram Cohen
S. Fathi-Afshar
T.H.K. Frederking
S.K. Friedlander
E.L. Knuth


Ken Nobe
L.B. Robinson
0.I. Smith
W. D. Van Vorst
V. L. Vilker
A.R. Wazzan
F.E. Yates


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering












UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA
*, ." .p *: ;- .tz '._ : T *, :.. ..2-":, .


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE
Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Chairman)
Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis
and Wastes
PRAMOD AGRAWAL
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
Science
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical
Reactor Analysis, Transport
Phenomena.
SHINICHI ICHIKAWA
Ph.D. (Stanford)
Adsorption and Heterogeneous
Catalysis
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS
Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Dean of Engineering)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

G. ROBERT ODETTE
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.

A. EDWARD PROFIO
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion
Reactors, Radiation Transport
Analyses.

ROBERT G. RINKER
Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.

ORVILLE C. SANDALL
Ph.D. (Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.

DALE E. SEBORG
Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Sanjoy Banerjee, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION



































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one calendar year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature to the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.

GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.

ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena

L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.

MANFRED MORARI, Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Minnesota
Process control; process design


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor G. N. Stephanopoulos
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1985.


C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate
Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering;
process design and development.
JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics: tracer studies
of various environmental and safety related
problems.
GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Associate Pro-
fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.


W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.






Oan Stereo

E PROFESSORS!
A New Release from Pittsburgh's High Performance Group









The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI


--
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS


GRADUATE STUDY in

Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY
Stanley Cosgrove
Robert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Robert Lemlich
William Licht
Joel Weisman


pattern and mixing in chemical


Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.


POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concen-
trated polymer solutions.
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis
and morphology of polymer blends.
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas clean-
ing devices and systems.
TWO-PHASE FLOW
Boiling. Stability and transport
properties of foam.
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF
LIVING HUMAN AND
CORPORATE SYSTEMS
Longevity, basal metabolic rate,
and Prigogine's and Shannon's
entropy formulae.


FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221


MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.

















ar sonl



O M.S. and Ph.D. programs
O Friendly atmosphere
O Vigorous research programs supported by
government and industry
O Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa
O Skiing, canoeing, mountain climbing and other
recreation in the Adirondacks
O Variety of cultural activities with two liberal arts
colleges nearby
O Twenty-one faculty working on a broad spectrum
of chemical engineering research problems

Research Projects are available in:
o Colloidal and interfacial phenomena
O Computer aided design
O Crystallization
O Electrochemical engineering and corrosion
O Heat transfer
0 Holographic interferometry
O Mass transfer
O Materials processing in space
O Optimization
O Particle separations
O Phase transformations and equilibria
O Polymer processing
O Process control
O Reaction engineering
0 Turbulent flows
O And more...

Financial aid in the form of:
O instructorships
0 fellowships
O research assistantships
0 teaching assistantships
O industrial co-op positions

6r For more details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson University
Potsdam, New York 13676


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












I6i
001 010























Graduate Coorcdnator
^. Chemical Engitneering Dept.
SCLEMSO U nVERSITY
Clemson., SC 29651













FALL 1984 231
li: i

FAL 198 231iirii











COLORADO


SCHOOL /


OF I
1874

MINES CoR0

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived
liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems,
cryogenic engineering.
J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up-
grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re-
finery processing operations, heavy oil processing.

E. D. Sloan, Jr., Professor; Ph.D., Clemson University.
Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measurements of
natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates, thermal
conductivity measurements for coal derived fluids,
adsorption equilibria measurements, stagewise pro-
J *cesses, education methods research.

V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan.
Thermodynamic properties of fluids, especially re-
lating to synthetic fuels. Oil shale and shale oil
processing; numerical methods.

R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Mechanisms of coal liquefaction,
kinetics of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal
geochemistry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of
coal-derived asphaltenes, supercritical gas extrac-
tion of oil shale and heavy oil.

M. S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro-
cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of
coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading.

M. C. Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Heat transfer and fluid me-
chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer
in porous media, free convection in porous media.

M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State
University. Flow of concentrated fine particulate
.. "suspensions in complex geometries; Sedimenta-
'- ; tion of multisized, mixed density particle suspensions.
A 1-' A. L. Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of
~ _-. California at Berkeley. Chromatographic processes,
t enhanced oil recovery, minerals leaching, liquid
membrane separations, ion exchange equilibria.

For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
S5 -i Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
_- t- ,ii Golden, CO 80401
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Colorado State University



Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.



Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:
Faculty: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
F-c4 a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
Larry Belfiore, Ph. D., I.
University of Wisconsin
Bruce Dale, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Jud Harper, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Naz Karim, Ph.D.,
University of Manchester
Terry Lenz, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Jim Linden, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Carol McConica, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Vince Murphy, Ph.D.,
University of
Massachusetts Research Areas:
Alternate Energy Sources
Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Computer Simulation and Control
7 Fermentation
Food Engineering
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Semiconductor Processing
Solar Cooling Systems
Thermochemical Cycles
Wastewater Treatment

For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


FALL 1984







Chemical Engineering at


CORNELL

UNIVERSITY


A place to grow...


with active research in

biochemical engineering
applied mathematics/computer simulation
energy technology
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
reactor design
molecular thermodynamics/statistical mechanics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange
individual programs with a core of chemical engineering
courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell
departments including

chemistry
biological sciences
physics
computer science
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
business administration
and others

with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one
of the most scenic regions of the United States.

Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering
(the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program).
Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
Douglas S. Clark, Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert
K. Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill,
William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele,
Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, Paul H. Steen, William B.
Street, Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F.
Wiegandt.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to
Professor Claude Cohen
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853






































The

University

of Delaware

awards three

graduate

degrees for

studies and

practice in

the artand

science of

chemical

engineering.


An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process Industries.
A Ph.D. degree for original work presented in a dissertation.


THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE:
G. Astarita (1/2 time)
M. A. Barteau
C. E. Birchenall
K. B. Bischoff
C. D. Denson
P. Dhurjati
B. C. Gates
M. T. Klein
A. M. Lenhoff
R. L. McCullough
A. B. Metzner
J. H. Olson
M. E. Paulaitis
R. L. Pigford
T. W. F. Russell
S. I. Sander (Chairman)
J. M. Schultz
A. B. Stiles (1/2 time)
R. S. Weber
A. L. Zydney


CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE:
Thermodynamics and Separ-
ation Process
Rheology, Polymer Science
and Engineering
Materials Science and
Metallurgy
Fluid Mechanics, Heat and
Mass Transfer
Economics and Management
in the Chemical Process Industries
Chemical Reaction Engi-
neering, Kinetics and
Simulation
Catalytic Science and
Technology
Biomedical Engineering-
Pharmacokinetics and
Toxicology
Biochemical Engineering-
Fermentation and Computer Control


FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS, WRITE:
Graduate-Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19716




















UNIVE


RS


ITY


FLORIDA


Gainesville, Florida
Graduate study leading to
ME,MS &PhD

F A C U L T Y
FACULTY
Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor
Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology
Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor
Design/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface Science
Lew Johns Applied Mathematics/ Dale Kirmse
Process Control, Computer Aided Design,
Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor Design,
Catalysis/ Gerasimos K. Lyberatos Optimization,
Biochemical Processes/ Frank May Separations
Ranga Narayanan Transport Phenomena/ John
O'Connell Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics
Dinesh O. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery,
Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros Svoronos
Process Control/ Robert D. Walker Surface
Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/ Gerald
Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Transport
Phenomena


Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


0


F


























TEC If
'4I:


Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ...


GEORGIA TECH


Atlanta
Ballet
Center for Disease Control
Commercial Center of the South
High Museum of Art
All Professional Sports
Major Rock Concerts and
Recording Studios
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow Skiing within two hours
Stone Mountain State Park
Atlanta Symphony
Ten Professional Theaters
Rambling Raft Race
White Water Canoeing within
one hour

For more information write:
Dr. Gary W. Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332


Chemical Engineering
Air Quality Technology
Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis and Surfaces
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Research and Conservation
Fine Particle Technology
Interfacial Phenomena
Kinetics
Mining and Mineral Engineering
Polymer Science and Engineering
Process Synthesis and
Optimization
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reactor Design
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena








Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston



The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston has developed research strength in a broad
range of areas:
Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis
Biochemical Engineering
Electrochemical Systems
Semiconductor Processing
Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology
Process Dynamics and Control
Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation
Solid-liquid Separation
Reliability Theory
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering
The department occupies over 75,000 square feet and has over $3
million worth of experimental apparatus.
Financial support is available to full-time graduate students through re-
search assistantships and special industrial fellowships.
The faculty:


For more information or application forms write to:
Director, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)


N. R. Amundson
O. A. Asbjornsen
V. Balakotaiah
H.-C. Chang
E. L. Claridge
J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
R. W. Flumerfelt
C. F. Goochee
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
J. T. Richardson
F. M. Tiller
F. L. Worley, Jr.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










GRADUATE STUDY
AND RESEARCH

The Department of
Chemical Engineering
Graduate Programs in
The Department of
Chemical Engineering
leading to the degrees of
MASTER OF SCIENCE and
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

ILLINOIS

AT

CHICAGO


FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Francisco J. Brana-Mulero
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980
Assistant Professor
T. S. Jiang
PhD., Northwestern University, 1981
Asssitant Professor
John H. Keifer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor


The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified candidates.
Special fellowships are available for minority students.
To obtain application forms or to request further
information write:


Process synthesis, operations research, optimal
process control, optimization of large systems,
numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations.
Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
laser diagnostics

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics
of liquids and liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.


Professor S. C. Saxena
The Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago
Box 4348,
Chicago, Illinois 60680








UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN


The chemical engineering department
--- -offers graduate programs leading to the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

"-----'- 0 The combination of distinguished faculty,
outstanding facilities and a diversity of
E research interests results in exceptional
opportunities for graduate education.






I
S9300



50 629I
Faculty 579
Richard C. Alkire I I I I I
Harry G. Drickamer
Charles A. Eckert
Thomas J. Hanratty
Jonathan J. L. Higdon
Walter G. May
Richard I. Masel
Anthony J. McHugh
Mark A. Stadtherr
James W. Westwater
Charles F. Zukoski, IV


Fe+2





For Information and Application Forms Write

S.l' O Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois
Box C-3 Roger Adams Lab
1209 W. California Street
Urbana, Illinois 61801






Graduate Studies in

Chemical Engineering


Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois


I --- i i -
iFaculty- ...
R.L. Beissinger
A. Ci nar- -
D. Gidaspow
ID-T.' Hatziavrami-dis
iJ.R. Selman
S.M. Senkan I -..
iB.S.i Swanson I
D.T. Wasan
W.A. Weigand
C.V. Wittmar

Research Areas
'Biochemical and Biomedical -
Chemical Reaction Engineering
Combustion -. -
Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemical Engineering .
Environmental
Fluid Mechanics --. ----
Interfacial and Colloidal
-Phenomena .... -. -
!Process Dynamics and C
Transport Phenomenai'
i _. ....... .. -.i..... .




" .....i .. "". '". .."' l .
4----- \
r t r,
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K \


U

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N-


I I
A> I I
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I I
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SI
Sr1


&' For Mor Information Write to:
Chemical engineering Department -
Graduate admissions Committee
Illinois Ins tute of Technology j
I.I.T. Cen r
Chicago Illinois 60616 I I
U.S. S


_ ~_II _


i------- I--


T

7










THE INSTITUTE OF
PAPER CHEMISTRY
is an independent
graduate school. It has
an interdisciplinary
degree program
designed for B.S.
chemical engineering
graduates. Fellowships
and full tuition
scholarships are
available to qualified
U.S. and Canadian
Citizens. Our students
receive S9,000.00
fellowships each
calendar year.




Our research activities
span the papermaking
process including:

plant tissue culture
surface and colloid science
fluid mechanics
environmental engineering
polymer engineering
heat and mass transfer
process engineering
simulation and control
separations science and
reaction engineering

For f,.rrhe-r nformal'on contfOt:
D.recior of Admissions
The Insi.iule of Paper Chem;slr,
P Bo. 1039 Appleion WI 54912
Telephone 414 734J9251


242 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


M"


la F
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B i ll ll in lll







el l Graduate Program for
*M.S. and Ph. D. Degrees in
Chemical and Materials Engineering

__Research Areos
Bi _* Kinetics and Cotalysis
Biomass Conversion
Membrane Separations
Particle Morphological Analysis
Air Pollution
MassTransfer Operations
Numerical Modeling
Particle Technology
Atmospheric Transport
Bioseparations and Biotechnology
Process Design
-J Surface Science
I Transport In PorousMedia

For additional information and application write to:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and Materials Engineering
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa 52242.
319/353-6237
1 NI


THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA------


THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA


_ _








IOWA


STATE


UNIVERSITY


William H. Abraham
Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport,
process modeling
Lawrence E. Burkhart
Fluid mechanics, separation process, process
control
George Burnet
Coal technology, separation processes
Charles E. Glatz
Biochemical engineering, processing of
biological materials
Kurt R. Hebert
Electrochemical engineering, corrosion
James C. Hill
Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport,
air pollution control
Kenneth R. Jolls
Thermodynamics, simulation
Terry S. King
Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications
Maurice A. Larson
Crystallization, process dynamics
Allen H. Pulsifer
Solid-gas reactions, coal technology
Peter J. Reilly
Biochemical engineering, enzyme and fermentation
technology
Glenn L. Schrader
Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics
processing
Richard C. Seagrave
Biological transport phenomena, biothermo-
dynamics, reactor analysis
Dean L. Ulrichson
Solid-gas reactions, process modeling
Thomas D. Wheelock
Chemical reactor design, coal technology,
fluidization
Gordon R. Younquist
Crystallization, chemical reactor design,
polymerization


For additional information, please write:
Graduate Officer
Department of Chemical Engineering
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011


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S'THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS


Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering



Offers graduate study

leading to the

M.S. and Ph.D. degrees

For further information, write to
Professor George W. Swift, Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
4006 Learned Hall
The University of Kansas
Lawrence, Kansas 66045



Faculty and Areas of Specialization *


Kenneth A. Bishop, Professor (Ph.D., Oklahoma); reser-
voir simulation, interactive computer graphics,
optimization
John C. Davis, Professor and chief of geology research
section, Kansas Geological Survey (Ph.D., Wyoming);
probabilistic techniques for oil exploration, geologic
computer mapping
Kenneth J. Himmelstein, Adjunct Professor (Ph.D.,
Maryland); pharmacokinetics, mathematical model-
ing of biological processes, cell kinetics, diffusion
and mass transfer
Colin S. Howat, III, Assistant Professor (Ph.D., Kansas);
applied equilibrium thermodynamics, process de-
sign
Don W. Green, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Oklahoma); enhanced oil
recovery, hydrological modeling
James O. Maloney, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State);
technology and society
Russell B. Mesler, Professor (Ph.D., Michigan); nucleate
and film boiling, bubble and drop phenomena
Floyd W. Preston, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State); geo-
logic pore structure


Harold F. Rosson, Professor and Department Chairman
(Ph.D., Rice); production of alternate fuels from agri-
cultural materials
Bala Subramaniam, Assistant Professor (Ph.D., Notre
Dame); kinetics and catalysis, insitu characterization
of catalyst systems
George W. Swift, Professor (Ph.D., Kansas); thermo-
dynamics of petroleum and petro chemical systems,
natural gas reservoirs analysis, fractured well
analysis, petrochemical plant design
John E. Thiele, Assistant Professor (Sc.D., MIT); struc-
ture/property relationships of polymers, polymer
chemistry and physics, polymer viscoelasticity
Shapour Vossoughi, Associate Professor (Ph.D., U. of
Alberta); enhanced oil recovery, thermal analysis,
applied rheology and computer modeling
Stanley M. Walas, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan);
combined chemical and phase equilibrium
G. Paul Willhite, Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil
Recovery Project (Ph.D., Northwestern); enhanced
oil recovery, transport processes in porous media,
mathematical modeling


FALL 1984









Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food


Science, and Environmental
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506


Engi-


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
ENERGY ENGINEERING
COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION
THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SOLIDS MIXING
CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS
OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM
ENGINEERING
FLUIDIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL









UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY


DEPARTMENT OF


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS


J. Berman, Ph.D., Northwestern
Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular
Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation
D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D.
Illinois Institute of Technology
Novel Separation Processes; Membranes;
Water Pollution Control
G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia
Catalytic Hydrocracking of
Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction
C. E. Hamrin, Ph.D., Northwestern
Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Nonisothermal Kinetics
R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern
Process Control and Economics


E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State
Electrochemical Processes; Computer
Measurement Techniques and Modeling
L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh
Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena
A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen
Regime; Transport Phenomena
J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville
Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer;
Fuel Gas Desulfurization
T. T. Tsang, Ph.D., Texas-Austin
Aerosol Dynamics in Uniform and Non-Uniform Systems


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants
For details write to:
E. D. Moorhead
Director for Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046


FALL 1984


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Loutsiana


Unhtrstty


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL


THE CITY
Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major
state institution for higher education-LSU. Situated in
the Acadian region, Baton Rouge blends the Old South
and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Baton Rouge is a main
chemical shipping point, and the city s economy rests
heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The
great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities
year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans
provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras.

THE DEPARTMENT
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs
Approximately 70 Graduate Students
DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
IBM 434 I with more than 50 color graphics terminals
Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR,
LC's, GC's...
Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis,
thermodynamics, supercritical processing
Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories
Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility
Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities

TO APPLY, CONTACT:
EDWARD McLAUGHLIN, CHAIRMAN
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


FACULTY
A. B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU)
Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design
K. M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering
M. F. FRENKLACH (Ph. D., Hebrew Univ.)
Combustion, Kinetics, Modeling
F. R. GROVES (Ph.D., Wisconsin)
Control, Modeling, Separation Processes
D. P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas)
Fluid- Solid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes
A. E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida)
Distillation, Control, Modeling
M. HJORTSO (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston)
Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics
F. C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Univ. of Purdue)
Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing
E. McLAUGHLIN (D.Sc., Univ. of London)
Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties
R. W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech)
Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization
J. A. POLACK (Sc.D., MIT)
Sugar Technology, Separation Processes
G. L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.)
Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces
D. D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech)
Transport Phenomena, Environmental Engineering
R. G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Mass Transfer, Separation Processses
D. L. RISTROPH (Ph.D., Pennsylvania)
Biochemical Engineering
C. B. SMITH (Ph. D., Univ. of Houston)
Non-linear Dynamics, Control
A. M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington)
Biomedical Engineering, Transport Properties, Combustion
D. M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware)
Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes

FINANCIAL AID
Tax-free fellowships and assistantships with tuition
waivers available
Special industrial and alumni fellowships with higher
stipends for outstanding students
Some part-time teaching positions for graduate students
in high standing


State












0 University of Maine at Orono


M.S. AND PH.D.
PROGRAMS IN
CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING


* Sponsored projects val-
ued at$1 million peryear
are in progress.
* Faculty is supported by
extensive state-of-the-art
facilities.
* Relevancy of the Depart-
ment's research is in-
sured by continuous liai-
son with engineers and
scientists from industry
who help guide the fac-
ulty concerning emerg-
ing needs and activities
of other laboratories.
* Research and teaching
assistantships are avail-
able.
* Outstanding candidates
(GPA between 3.75 and
4.00) wishing to pursue
the Ph.D. are invited to
apply for President's Fel-
lowships which provide
$4000 per year in addi-
tion to regular stipend
and free tuition.


THE GRADUATE
FACULTY AND
THEIR RESEARCH


William H. Cockler
Sc.D., MIT, 1960
* Heat Transfer
* Pressing & Drying
Operations
* Energy from Low Btu
Fuels
* Process Simulation

Albert Co
Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1979
* Transport phenomena
* Polymeric Fluid
Dynamics
* Rheology

Arthur L. Fricke
Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1962
* Properties of Polymeric
Systems
* Polymer Processing and
Design
* Rheology of Polymeric
Fluids

Joseph M. Genco
Ph.D., Ohio State, 1965
* Process Engineering
* Pulp & Paper
Technology
* Wood Delignification


Marqueta K. Hill
Ph.D., University of
California, 1966
* Black Liquor Chemistry
* Pulping Chemistry
* Ultrafiltration

John C. Hassler
Ph.D., Kansas State, 1966
* Process Analysis and
Numerical Methods
* Instrumentation and
Real-Time Computer
Applications

John J. Hwalek
Ph.D., University of
Illinois, 1982
* Heat Transfer
* Process Control Systems

Erdogan Kiran
Ph.D., Princeton, 1974
* Polymer Physics and
Chemistry
* Thermal Analysis and
Pyrolysis
* Supercritical Fluids

James D. Lisius
Ph.D., University of Illinois,
1984
* Transport Phenomena
* Electrochemical
Engineering
* Mass Transfer


Kenneth I. Mumm6
Ph.D., Maine, 1970
* Process Modeling and
Control
* System Identification &
Optimization

Hemant Pendse
Ph.D., Syracuse, 1980
* Colloidal Phenomena
* Particulate Systems
* Porous Media Modeling

Ivar H. Stockel
Sc.D., MIT, 1959
* Pulp & Paper
Technology
* Droplet Formation
* Fluidization

Edward V. Thompson
Ph.D., Polytechnic Institute
of Brooklyn, 1962
* Polymer Material Prop-
erties
* Membrane Separation
Processes
* Pressing & Drying
Operations

Douglas L. Woerner
Ph.D., University of
Washington, 1983
* Concentration Polariza-
tion
* Ultrafilter Operation
* Light Scattering








University of Maryland


Faculty:
Robert B. Beckmann
Theodore W. Cadman
Richard V. Calabrese
Kyu Y. Choi
Larry L. Gasner
James W. Gentry
Albert Gomezplata
Randolph T. Hatch
Juan Hong
Thomas J. McAvoy
Thomas M. Regan
Wilburn C. Schroeder
Theodore G. Smith


Location:
The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles from
the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent public
transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the
Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House, Arlington
Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces
some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities
on the east coast. An even shorter drive east brings one to the
historic Chesapeake Bay.

"3'^ "I^ ~Degrees Offered.
SM.S. and Ph.D. programs in
: '~l j Chemical Engineering.

Financial Aid Available:
Teaching and Research Assistantships
I. :. at $9,640/yr.
-- -" *-~. .:" ,' .


Research Areas:
Aerosol Mechanics
Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Fermentation
Laser Anemometry
Mass Transfer
Polymer Processing
Process Control
Risk Assessment
Separation Processes
Simulation


For Applications and Further Information, Write:
Professor Thomas J. McAvoy
Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, Md. 20742




Full Text
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PAGE 1

z 0 < u :::, 0 w u. 0 z 0 in > c C) z i:i w w z C) z w ...I < u :x: u chemical engineering education VOLUME XVIII NUMBER 4 FALL 1984 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE m. APPLIED MATHEMATICS IN ChE Lauffenburger, Dusan V., Ungar ChE PRACTICE: GRADUATE PLANT DESIGN Marnell COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE Scamehorn TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Shah HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS WITH VIDEO-BASED SEMINARS LINEAR ALGEBRA FOR ChEs White Zygourakis CATALYSIS BIO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS Bartholomew, Hecker Converse, Grethlein P~m ... SEPARATIONS RESEARCH GRADUATE RESIDENCY AT CLEMSON SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING o,,uJ .. COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING GRAD SCHOOL ./I~ .edw,s. Fair Edie McConica Duda SIMULATION AND ESTIMATION BY ORTHOGONAL COLLOCATION Warren E. Stewart

PAGE 2

ecc 3M FOUNDATION ... CHEMICAL ENGINEERJNG EDUC:ATION

PAGE 3

This is the 16th Graduate Issue to be published by CEE and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous issues, we include articles on graduate courses and re search at various universities and announcements of de partments on their graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a pre vious Fall issue, please write CEE. AUTHOR Davis Sawin, Reif Shaeiwitz Takoudis Valle-Riestra Woods Middleman TITLE Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE University of Florida Fall 1983 "Numerical Methods and Modeling" "Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrication" "Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer" "Chemical Reactor Design" "Project Evaluation in the Chemical Process Industrie s" "Surface Phenomena" "Research on Cleaning up in San Diego" Serageldin "Research on Combustion" W ankat, Oreovicz "Grad Student's Guide to Academic Bird Thomson, Simmons Hightower Mesler Weiland, Taylor Dullien Seapan Skaates Baird, Wilkes Fenn Abbott Butt, Kung Chen, et al Gubbins, Street Guin, et al Thomson Bartholomew Hassler Miller Wankat Wolf FALL 1984 Job Hunting" "Book Writing and ChE Education" "Grad Education Wins in Interstate Rivalry" Fall 1982 "Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts" "Nucleate Boiling" "Mass Transfer" "Funds. of Petroleum Production" "Air Pollution for Engineers" "Catalysis" "Polymer Education and Research" "Research is Engineering" Fall 1981 "Classical Thermodynamics" "Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction Engineering" "Parametric Pumping" "Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer Simulation" "Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization" "Oil Shale Char Reactions" "Kinetics and Catalysis" "ChE Analysis" "Underground Processing" "Separation Processes" "Heterogeneous Catalysis" Bird Edgar, Schecter Hanratty Kenney Kerchenbaum, Perkins, Pyle Liu Peppas Rosner Lees Senkan, Vivian Culberson Davis Frank Morari, Ray Ramkrishna Russel, et al. Russell Vannice Varma Yen Aris Butt & Peterson Kabel Middleman Perlmutter Rajagopalan W heelock Carbonell & Whitaker Dumesic Jorne Retzloff Blanch, Russell C hartoff Alkire Bailey & Ollis DeKee Deshpande Johnson Klinzing Lemlich Koutsky Reynolds Rosner Fall 1980 "Polymer Fluid Dynamics" "In Situ Processing" "Wall Turbulence" "Chemical Reactors" "Systems Modelling & Control" "Process Synthesis" "Polymerization Reaction Engineering" "Combustion Science & Technology" "Plant Engineering at Loughborough "MIT School of ChE Practice" Fall 1979 "Doctoral Level ChE Economics" "M olecular Theory of Thermodynamic s" "Courses in Polymer Science" "Integration of Real-Time Computing Into Process Control Teaching" "F unctional Analysis for ChE" "Colloidal Phenomena" "Structure of the Chemical Processing Industries" "Heterogeneous Catalysis" "Mathematical Methods in ChE" "Coal Liquefaction Processes" Fall 1978 "Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes on Seminars in a ChE Department "Chemical Reactor Engineering" "Influential Papers in Chemical Re action Engineering" "A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro cessing" "Reactor Design From a Stability Viewpoint" "The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal Systems" "Coal Science and Technology" "Transport Phnomena in Multicom ponent Multiphase, Reacting Systems' Fall 1977 "Fundamental Concepts in Surface In teractions" Electrochemical Engineering" "Chemical Reaction Engineering Science" "Biochemical Engineering" "Polymer Science and Engineering Fall 1976 Electrochemical Engineering" "Biochemical En.gr. Fundamentals" "Food Engineering" "Distillation Dynamics & Control" "Fusion Reactor Technology" "Environmental Courses" "Ad Bubble Separation Methods" "Intro. Polymer Science & Tech." "The Engineer as Entrepeneur" "Energy, Mass and Momentum Transport" 153

PAGE 4

Growth Through Responsibility YOUR 9.AREER WITH ROHM AND HAAS If-you're the k nd of person who can take the initiative and aggressively reach for increasing responsibHitY-, consider a career with Rohm ,, and Haas. Weare a highly diversified major chemi cal company producing over 2,500 products used irT industry and agriculture. Because our employees are a critical ingredient in our con tir'IUing success, we place great emphasis on their development and growth. When you join Rohm and Haas, you'll receivea position with .............................. t~ i .Z ""' substantial ir:iitial responsil:>ility and plenty of room for growth. And we'll Rrovide the oppor tunities to acquire the necessary technical and managerial skills to insure you personal and professional development. Our openings are in Engineering, Manufacturing, Research, Tec)lnical Sales and ~inance. For rnore infor mation, visit your College Placement Office, or wr:ite: Rohm arid H aas company, Recruit' ing and e1acement#3484, Phila., PA 19105 ROHMD IHAAS~ PHILADE b PHIA, PA 191D5 An Equal Opportunity Employer

PAGE 5

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857 Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner Managing Editor: Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: Lee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University Past Chairman: Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado SOUTH: Homer F. Johnson University of Tennessee Jack R. Hopper Lamar University James Fair University of Texas Gary Poehlein Georgia Tech CENTRAL: Robert F. Ander son UOP Process Division Lowell B. Koppel Purdue University WEST: William B. Krantz University of Colorado C. Judson King University of California Berkeley Frederick H. Shair California Institut e of Technology NORTHEAST: Angelo J. Perna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Raymond Baddout M.I.T. A. TV. Westerberg Carnegie-Mellon University NORTHWEST: Charles Sleicher University of Washington CANADA: Leslie W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W. Weber State University of New York FALL 1984 Chemical VOLUME XVIII Engineering NUMBER 4 Education FALL 1984 Views and Opinions 156 Common Misconceptions Concerning Graduate School, J. L Duda Courses in 160 Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering, Douglas La uffenburger, Elizabeth Dusan V., Lyle Ungar 164 Chemica l Engineering Practice: Graduate Plant Design, Paul Marnell 166 Co lloid and Surface Science, John F. Scamehorn 170 Transport Phenomena, D. B. Shah 174 Heterogeneous Catalysis Involving Video-Based Seminars, Mark G. White 176 Linear A lg ebra for Chemical Engineers, Kyriacos Zygo urakis Research on ISO Cata lysis, Calvin H. Bartholomew, William C. Hecker IS 6 Bio-Chemical Conversion of Biomass, Alvin 0. Converse, Hans E. Grethlein A Program in 190 Separations Research, James R. Fair 19 6 Graduate Residency at Clemson: A Real World MS Degree, Dan D. Edie 200 Semiconductor Processing, Carol McConica Award Lecture 204 Simulation and Estimation by Orthogonal Collocation, Warren E, Stewart 153 Editorial 159 Division Activities 159, 1S5, 199,203 Book Reviews 195 Books Received CH!l]MlCAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION i s published quarterly by Chemical Eng1neer1ng Djvision, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Depa rtment, University of Florida. Second-c1ass postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Co1-respondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address s hould b e addressed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material may be sent directly to tbe printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co P. 0. Box 877, D e Le on Sprin gs Florida 32028. Subscription rate U .S. Canada, and Mexico i s $20 per year, $ 16 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of A SEE : Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for pric es on individual back copies. Copyright 19 84 Chemical Engineering Di v i s ion of American Soc i ety for Engineering Education The stateme nts and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of tbe writers and not necessarily those of tbe ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defectiv e copies replaced if notified within 120 da ys The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical USPS 101900 155

PAGE 6

kilviews and opinions COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING GRADUATE SCHOOL J. L. DUDA P ennsylvania State University Uni v ersity Park, PA 16802 * * Twenty-five years ago, I started graduate school at the University of Delaware. Looking back on that time, I can see that I was a typical graduate student in that I was both excited and terrified, confident and anxious, sure of success one day and afraid of failure the next. I did howe ver, harbor certain ba sic mi sc onceptions about the experiences which lay ahead of me. In talking to our gra duate students here at Penn State, I found that those same mi sco nception s are still common, and this insight prompted me to give the following introductory address to our incoming graduate s tudent s. * * LIKE YOU TODAY, I was also entering graduate school twenty-five years ago. My mind was also filled with questions and concerns. It was also cluttered with certain misconceptions, which are still popular today. I would like to look back on that time with you and try to tell you how my views on graduate school have changed. Th e first misconception I had was that gradu ate school w ould be a con tinuation of my experience as an undergraduate. This was probably my greatest misconception. First of all, graduate courses and undergraduate courses are, in general, somewhat different. You are an elite group since we only accept one out of every fifteen applicants to our graduate program. Consequently, there is no doubt in our minds that you can perform well in graduate courses since your ability in chemical engineering courses has been demonstrated by your undergraduate record. Therefore, graduate courses tend to be more re laxed, with less emphasis on evaluation and certainly no hint of being a w eeding-out process. We feel that you are in these courses because you Copyright ChE Di 11i s i O'n, ASEE 19 8 4 156 The key to graduate research is problem solving, not the acquisition of specific information. You will learn to solve problems by actually performing this task under the direction of an expert ... want to learn, and therefore our main emphasis is on enhancing your technical expertise. You are now engineers, not just high schoo l graduates. The main difference between undergraduate and graduate education is related to the research aspect of graduate studies. Very few of our gradu ate students fail to receive their graduate degree because of their performance in courses. The main hurdle is the ability to do independent research. Up to now, in my opinion, your educational ex periences have been somewhat artificial. You have studied in order to pass exams which cover very specific and limited areas. In the past, you worked certain problems on examinations. You knew there was an answer. You also knew you had enough data to reach that answer. Co ndu ct ing research in graduate schoo l, on the other hand, does not involve an artificial environment. You will be working on problems where no one knows the answer, and the problem itself might not even be clear. Graduate research is similar to an apprenticeship. You will be working directly w ith an expert and will learn by doing and ob serving how this expert approaches problems. The key to graduate research is problem solving, not the acquisition of specific information. You will learn how to solve problems by actually per forming this task under the direction of an expert, not by studying the philosophy or idealized ap proach to problem solving. What happened to me may also happen to some of you. I slowly began to realize that research was unlike anything that I had been exposed to previously. There is a natural tendency to exagger ate the difference and come to the counter-mis conception that research has nothing to do with y our undergraduate work. This is not true either. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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J. L. Duda is Professor and Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University He received his BS in chemical engineering at Case Institute of Technology and his MS and PhD at the University of Delaware. He joined the staff at Penn State in 1971 after eight years in research with The Dow Chemical Company Research is a natural extension of your learning career to date, but it is also more than that. You have been learning and obtaining information from teachers, textbooks, and independent study in libraries. But what do you do when the knowl edge you desire is not available in any book or article, or when no individual exists who knows the answer? Research in the physical sciences and engineering is the process of learning by asking na~ure questions. In a sense, nature becomes your ultimate teacher. When you design experiments, you are really formulating your questions for nature. Unlike your previous teachers, nature does not anticipate your question. You will get a direct and honest answer to your question as it was formulated. If you are misled or have difficulties, it will not be because nature failed to answer your question. It will be due to your failure in formulat ing the question or in interpreting the results. The best researchers are the ones who ask what appear to be very simple questions and receive earth shaking replies. At this point, one might ask how theory fits into all this if the basis of research is asking nature questions through experimentation. As J. Willard Gibbs said, "The purpose of theory is to find that viewpoint from which experimental observa tions appear to fit the simp lest pattern." You want to determine this pattern so that you can generalize your experimental observations and minimize the number of experiments that have to be conducted. My second misconception concerning graduate school was that the choice of a research topic was one of the most important decisions of my life FALL 1984 since it would determine what area I would work in for the rest of my career. New graduate students continually forget that the main purpose of research at the graduate level is to learn how to do research and to solve prob lems. The acquisition of knowledge in a particular area is of secondary importance. If you have learned how to do research in area A, it is a rela tively minor step to acquire the facts and back ground needed to conduct research in area B. Consequently, when choosing a research topic, your main concern should not be whether you like the research area, but whether this particular re search project and the director of this research have the best chance of teaching you how to con duct research. My third misconception was that my research work would follow the idealized method of scientific inquiry which involves a literature search, develop ment of a theory, design of the experiments, and interpretation of results that tested the theory. One quickly learns that research is often more like a random walk than an idealized textbook apwhen choosing a research topic, your main concern should not be whether you like the research area, but whether this particular research project and the director of this research have the best chance of teaching you how to conduct research. proach. The young researcher is often quite upset when discovering this fact. At first it is difficult to accept this basic truth. It is much easier to arrive at one of the following conclusions: My thesis advisor is incompetent. My research topic is a real lemon; I don 't know how anyone talked me into doing this. My research has nothing to do with what I have learned in the classroom. No one else has problems like me; my project is unique in its difficulty. What the young researcher fails to realize is that the way research results are presented in a paper or a seminar has nothing to do with the process that was followed in obtaining those re sults. Research cannot be planned like many other human endeavors. It is, in fact, a form of art. If you knew beforehand what your results were going to be and the path you would have to take to obtain them, it simply would not be research. 157

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No matter how badly things are going, or how tortuous your route, you should always maintain a clear idea of your objective. One frustration which all faculty members face is that many funding organizations also do not realize this. As a graduate student, you must be careful not to confuse the formal presentation of results in papers or seminars with the actual pro cess. A related misconception is that the results you obtain in research should be in proportion to the time and effort you have spent. The most difficult aspect of research is that you do not usually see a steady progression of results. Instead, results come in bursts or surges. It takes tre mendous tenacity to hang in there and keep plugging away when you are not aware of any progress. Many young researchers also feel that their problem is so complex that it really cannot be ex plained to anyone else in a reasonable period of time. No matter how badly things are going, or how tortuous your route, you should always main tain a clear idea of your objective. If you cannot give a clear overview of your research project in a few short sentences, you have a good indication that part of your problem is your inability to keep things clearly defined in your own mind. My fourth misconception was that the study of c hemical engineering had nothing to do w ith human v alues ethics, morals etc. When I started my graduate studies, I con sidered science to be ethically or morally neutral. However, as Bronowski has pointed out, this is confusing the results or findings of science with the activity of conducting science. There is no question that the results of your research will be ethically neutral ; however, at the center of scien tific inquiry is the standard that facts or truth, not dogma, must dominate your research. By conduct ing research, you will be training yourself to avoid and resist every form of persuasion but the facts The most difficult part will be to avoid deceiving yourself. In everyone's career, there comes a time when experimental observations are inconsistent with a pet theory. It will be a true test of your ma turity as a researcher to unbiasedly look at the facts and to determine if the experimental observa tions are consistent or inconsistent with the theory, independent of your personal feelings As 158 T. H. Huxley said, "The great tragedy of science is the slaying of a beautiful theory by an ugly fact." There is a natural tendency to formulate vague theories which cannot be proven wrong, but all good theories will eventually lead to their own demise since they will finally predict something which is inconsistent with experimental observa tion. Science does not have a Hippocratic oath or any other professionally induced ethical rule. How ever you can be untruthful and still be a success ful doctor or lawyer. This is not a viable possibility for the scientific researcher. As you develop into a good researcher, you will develop the capability of making judgments based solely on the facts. I feel this training can have a very significant posi tive influence on the moral and ethical aspect of your life since it tends to minimize self-deception and rationalization. My fit th and final misconception was that graduate study was all hard work and the rewards w ould come later when I had an inte r esting job and w as making a lot of money. After I received my advanced degrees, I realized that some of the best years of my life were those I spent in graduate school. I found that the pleasure and sense of accomplishment that came with learning and creating far outweighed the other pleasures in life. As graduate students, you are among the fortunate few who will not have to spend all of your time for the next few years working to meet the material needs of your life. Until this century, the great majority of people had to spend 100 % of their time just to feed their bodies. A few privileged individuals, such as the Brahmins, Mandarins, aristocrats, e t c. had the opportunity to simultaneously feed their bodies and their minds. We have made great advances, but today most people still spend a major part of their lives working to fill their material needs. No matter how difficult you find the days ahead, I am confident that you will look back on these years and be grateful that you had this opportunity to devote all of your effort to learning and creating. If you are very lucky, you might, after much hard work, devotion, and frustration, be fortunate enough to be the first person to see one of those patterns to which Gibbs referred. That will be the most rewarding time of your graduate studies, not the moment you receive a piece of paper which declares that you have now earned a specific de gree or that first pay check. D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING E DUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO T. W. FRASER RUSSELL The 1984 ASEE Chemical Engineering Di vision Lecturer was T. W. Fraser Russell of the University of Delaware. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and encourage out standing achievement in an important field of fundamental chemical engineering theory of practice. The 3M Company provides the fina~cial support for this annual lecture award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate These were presented to this year's Lecturer at the Annual Chemical Engineering Division Ban quet, held at the University of Utah on June 26, 1984. NOMINATIONS FOR 1984 AWARD SOLICITED The award is made on an annual basis with nominations being received through February 1, [i) n I book reviews ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS By G. V. Reklaitis, A. Ravindran, K. M. Ragsdell: John Wiley and Sons, NY (1983) 14 Chapters, 648 pages $ 39.95 Reviewed by -A. W. Westerberg Carnegie-Mellon University I This is an excellent text from which to teach optimization techniques to engineering students. It can be used at either the senior or graduate level. All of the most important methods are pre sented that have appeared in the literature. The level of detail given on each method should allow one to see how and where to apply it to sw::J.Jl up FALL 1984 1985. The full details for the award preparation are contained in the A wards Brochure published by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1985 lecture ship are invited. They should be sent to Professor E. Dendy Sloan, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, co 80401. NEW DIVISION OFFICERS ELECTED The newly elected ChE Division officers are: Deran Hanesian, Chairman; D. Barker, Past Chairman ; Dendy Sloan, Chairman Elect; Bill Beckwith, Secretary-Treasurer; and Lamont Tyler, Director. ChE's RECEIVE HONORS Four chemical engineering professors have recently been recognized for their outstanding achievements. Phillip C. Wankat received the George Westinghouse Award for early achieve ment as a teacher and a scholar; James E. Stice was presented with the Chester F. Carlson Award for improving instructional techniques; Peter R. Rony was the recipient of the Delos Award for excellence in laboratory instruction; and Chung King Law received the Curtis W. McGraw Re search Award for outstanding early achievement in research. to moderate-sized practical problems. The book concentrates on methods for solving well behaved, continuous variable optimization problems. The methods included are unconstrain ed single and multivariable optimization, linear programming, and a host of methods for equality and inequality constrained nonlinear problems. Not considered are methods directly applicable for models containing ordinary and partial differ ential equations, nor is there very much on solving problems where some or most of the variables can -take on only discrete values. Also the book does not consider decomposition techniques, sparse matrix techniques and the like, concepts usually needed to allow the techniques covered to be ap plied to really large problems. The book is already lengthy so it is completely reasonable that it limits its coverage to the topics that it does. The style of presentation is generally excel lent The authors have concentrated on appealing Continued on R~~e 18 5. 159

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APPLIED MA TH EMA TICS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DOUGLAS LAUFFENBURGER, ELIZABETH DUSSAN V., and LYLE UNGAR Uni v ersity of P ennsyl v ania Philadelphia, PA 19104 ALTHOUGH APPLIED MATHEMATICS has become increasingly important in chemical engineer ing research over the past three decades, it is still eyed with great trepidation by the typical first year graduate student. The nature of mathematics is viewed as something alien to real engineering, having little or no substance nor, curiously, logic. A prevailing opinion among first-year students is that mathematics is more closely related to magic than it is to science. It has been presented to them during their undergraduate years mainly as a mere assortment of techniques, a "bag of tricks," from which the right method for the spe cific problem at hand must be plucked. Because the "why" of mathematics has not been learned, students lack confidence in the "how" as well. At Penn we believe that this situation must be corrected if our graduate students are to be able to productively use applied mathematics in their research careers. Therefore, our set of six core graduate courses includes a two-semester sequence ("Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineer ing") which is required of every first-year student. In addition, we now offer a strongly recommended elective course as a third semester in that se quence However, it is not only the formal empha sis on mathematics, but also the content and es pecially the approach of the courses that convey our message to the students. In order to gain confidence in using mathe matics in research, a student needs to know not only how to apply some technique to solve a prob lem, but also when that technique is guaranteed to work and why, what other alternatives exist, and what methods are certain to be futile. Thus, our courses are taught with what might be termed a rather fundamental approach That is, we empha size the internal logic and structure of matheCopyright ChE D ivisi on, ASEE 1984 160 In order to gain confidence in using mathematics in research, a student needs to know not only how to apply some technique to solve a problem, but also when that technique is guaranteed to work and why, what other alternatives exist, and what methods are certain to be futile. matics, showing that equations can possess in trinsic, inviolable properties in themselves, by providing rigorous definitions and stating and pro vid ing relevant theorems. It is these theorems which guarantee that certain techniques will pro vide solutions for particular problems and that others will not. Further, we show how the in trinsic properties of equations correspond inti mately with the natural behavior of the physical, chemical, or biological system being modeled mathematically by the equations. Once these properties are understood, it becomes a straight forward matter to derive a large number of solu tion techniques, both familiar and new, to the students' satisfaction. It is at this point that the students finally appreciate the power of the ab stract approach, for they now have learned why the tricks in their bag sometimes worked and sometimes did not. And they realize that they are now capable of reading applied mathematics re search literature to learn new techniques, since they have a grasp of the necessary underlying theoretical foundations. This is, of course, the ultimate aim of a graduate course in any subject not to pretend to teach the entirety of knowledge in the area but to enable the students to learn whatever is of interest to them. So, what at first may appear to be a rather im practical approach to engineering applied mathe matics turns out, in fact, to be of great utility. We make the analogy to mastery of a musical instru ment; it might seem much more practical to memorize a few songs that can readily be played at parties instead of learning to read music and practicing scales and arpeggios, but which ap proach will allow a new concerto to be faced with confidence? CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CONTENT The basis of our approach consists of teaching as much as possible from a linear operator point of view. The first semester course concentrates on establishing the formal structure of linear, or vector, spaces, with an emphasis on spaces of finite dimension. This allows development of solution procedures for systems of linear algebraic equations and systems of linear ordinary differ ential equations. We also establish the formal structure of nonlinear metric spaces, which leads to techniques for approximate solution of non linear equations of both algebraic and ordinary differential types. The second semester course then focuses on linear spaces of infinite dimension. Understanding of these spaces permits develop ment of solution procedures for partial differential equations. Finally, the third (elective) semester deals exclusively with nonlinear systems of ordinary and partial differential equations, utiliz ing perturbation methods and bifurcation theory. The underlying theme running throughout all three semesters is one of considering problems from within an operator framework. We stress linear theory because, simply, only linear problems can really be solved ( excepting special cases) Even approximate solution techniques for non linear problems, whether analytical or numerical can be shown to be based on transforming the non~ linear problem into a system of linear sub problems (It might be noted that this point helps to disabuse the notion that the computer has made Douglas Lauffenburger is currently associate professor of chemical engineering, having arrived at Penn in 1979 after receiving his BS degree at Il linois and his PhD at Minne sota He spent the summer of 1980 as a Visiting Scientist at the Institute for Applied Mathe matics at Heidelberg His re search interests lie in the areas of biochemical and biomedical engineering, with special em phasis on mathematical model ing and analysis of cell be havior. (L) Elizabeth Dussan V. is presently on leave as a Guggenheim Fellow at Cambridge University, holding the position of associate professor at Penn. She received her BS degree at SUNY Stony Brook and her PhD at Johns Hopkins coming to Penn in 1973 following a post doctoral position at Minnesota. Among her areas of investigation are included fluid mechanics and interfacial phenomena (C) FALL 1984 the unde r standing of mathematics less important to the engineer.) Thus, if a student has a firm grasp of the theory of linear problems, he or she will be able to understand how nonlinear problems may be approached. When this lesson is taken to heart, the student acquires confidence from the fact that he or she possesses sufficient mathe matical skill to attack theoretical or computa tional research problems without anxiety. In the next few paragraphs we will attempt to provide a brief summary of the course content. The first lecture is devoted to defining linear spaces rigorously, with a vector being simply an element in such a space It is pointed out that these spaces are of importance essentially because the desired solutions to systems of equations will m fact, be vectors in appropriately defined spaces. We then show how spaces may be comprised of lin ea r subspaces, yielding the possibility of ob t a ining solution vectors as a combination of vectors from different subspaces, using the con cept of direct sums. Convenient ways of develop in g s uch combinations are allowed by introducing th e ide a of line a r independence of vectors. The number of terms needed for such a combination i s spe c ified, using the notion of the dimension of a space, leading to the crucial definition of a basis for a linear space with finite dimension. Linear tr a nsformations are then defined, and it is shown th a t all systems of linear equations, no matter w h a t type, can be cast as a linear transformation of a ve c tor in one space to a vector in another. Lyle Ungar joined the faculty at Penn in 1984 as assistant professor, having received his BS degree at Stanford and his PhD at MIT. His research interests include application of perturbation methods, bi furcation theory and finite element analysis to kinetic and transport problems in continuum physics Topics of current focus include crystal growth and rapid solidification materials processing. (R) 161

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The first lecture is devoted to defining linear spaces rigorously with a vector being simply an element in such a space. It is pointed out that these spaces are of importance essentially because the desired solutions to systems of equations will, in fact, be vectors in appropriately defined spaces. Thu s, the solution to any linear problem can be understood in terms of solution of the general linear transformation equation Lx = y where y is the "data" vector in the range space, x is the "solution" vector in the domain space, and L is the linear transformation. Rega rdless of whether the problem is of algebraic, differential, or integral type, the vectors and the transforma tion can be written in component form in terms of basis vectors for the range and domain spaces, so that all problems invol ving finite-dimensional spaces are equivalent to matrix equations. In verse transformations are now defined, fore shadowing a number of solution techniques for specific problems. This permits the uniqueness of solutions, if they exist, to be determined. Norms and inner products are introduced next in order to add geometric structure to the already present algebraic structure of linear spaces. This allows formulation of orthogonal basis vectors, which will be useful for generating the most convenient solution combinations. Ad joints can now also be discussed, leading to the Fredholm Alternative Theorem and the determina tion of existence of solutions. Finally, the concept of eigenvalues and eigenvectors is presented, and a Spectral Theorem is proved to demonstrate how orthogonal basis solution expansions can be ob tained using the eigenvectors of a self-adjoint operator At this point, it is helpful to pull back from abstract theory and apply the principles learned so far to the solution of matrix equations. As mentioned earlier, it is stressed that such equations are actually involved in all finite dimensional problems. Given the theoretical back ground, a large number of alternative solution techniques can be derived very quickly and easily, and the student now understands the justification for, as well as the limits of, these techniques. We then step back into the realm of theory and, in fact, temporarily remove all the algebraic structure we have learned about linear spaces. This leaves us with only geometric structure; that is, the notions of size and distance generated by the presence of norms in linear spaces. In non162 linear spaces, the function that measures the size of an element, or the distance of it from another, is called a metric. Thus, we present an introduction to metric spaces, of which solutions to nonlinear problems may be elements. We can rigorously de termine whether a sequence of elements converges to a distinct element, a property crucial to the de velopment of approximate solution techniques (as well as analytical solution methods for infinite dimensional space problems). It takes relatively little time to move to the surprisingly powerful Fixed Point Theo rem This can be used to delineate circumstances under which an iterative a pp roach w ill converge to a solution, le ading to development of numerical methods for systems of nonlinear as well as linear algebraic equations. It also can be used to find regions of uniqueness and multi plicity of solutions to nonlinear equations. Finally, we can use it as a bridge to ordinary differential equations, since it is requ ired in a simple and direct proof of Picard's Theorem for existence and uniqueness of solutions to initial-value prob lems. Iterative schemes for obtaining approxi mate solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations can a l so be developed from the Fixed Point Theorem at this time. With the reintroduction of linear spaces, the theory of linear ordinary differential equations follows directly, because all the necessary back ground is in place. The general solution to a system of such equations can quickly be developed in terms of the fundamental matrix for the differ ential transformation. Students are pleased to see the apparently disparate variety of solution techniques they might have encountered previous ly fall out very easily from the general solution expression and development. Methods for de termining the form of the fundamental matrix are discussed next, primarily utilizing eigenvector basis expansions for constant-coefficient problems (thus explaining the "sum of exponentials" type solutions commonly seen) and for variable -co efficient problems as well. The mystery is thus taken out of the use of special functions (Bessel functions, Legendre functions, etc.) for the latter types of equations, as their forms are seen to be derived in a consistent and rigorous way. The last CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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few days of the first semester are used to intro duce the ideas of asymptotic expansions and per turbation theory as means to solve nonlinear problems by turning them into a sequence of linear ones. Linearized stability theory and a quick preview of bifurcation theory are also accessible at this point. The second semester begins with linear ordin ary differential equations of boundary-value type. The solution procedure for these follows directly from the fundamental matrix approach previously developed for initial value problems. The fact that solution properties are not completely specified at one value of the independent variable (providing "initial" conditions) but rather some are specified at another value (yielding "boundary" conditions) causes no breakdown of the approach. Unspecified initial conditions can be assumed to be constants as yet unknown, and the fundamental matrix pro cedure can be followed. The unknown constants can then be determined by requiring the remain ing boundary conditions to be satisfied. At this point it is useful to show how common solution techniques are related to this approach. Of prime interest is a presentation of Green's function techniques, with the Green's function for a linear differential operator demonstrated to be analogous to the fundamental matrix. We then move on to an extension of linear operator theory to linear spaces of infinite dimen sion The most significant change is in the defini tion of a basis for an infinite-dimensional space An infinite number of vectors is now required for expansion of a solution vector, and the determina tion of the coefficients is greatly complicated. It is here that the property of self-adjointness of a linear operator becomes crucially important. For such operators the expansion coefficients can be determined individually in a straightforward manner. Thus, it is worth taking some time at this point to show how problems of unusual form can sometimes be cast as self-adjoint problems by ap propriate definition of the inner product Linear partial differential equations can now be approached as linear operator equations on in finite dimensional spaces. Thus, solutions to these can be obtained as series expansions in terms of the infinite set of basis vectors, which will be orthogonal if the differential operator is self-ad joint. For non-self adjoint operators the eigen vectors will form a biorthogonal set with the eigenvectors of the adjoint operators, although in this case the eigenvalues will be more difficult to FALL 1984 find because they can be complex. The well-known Sturm-Liouville problem is seen to be a special case of a linear self-adjoint differential eigenvalue equation, which allows eigenfunction expansion solution. Now that a foundation for series expansion techniques for solution of linear partial differential equations has been laid, we can go on to examine a serie s of problems of increasing complexity and subtlety Examples include the Laplace and Poisson equations, and the diffusion and wave equations, in rectangular Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinate systems on finite and semi-infinite domains, with a variety of boundary conditions. Problems involving non-self-adjoint operators are also investigated, since the essential concepts have previously been established. .. it is useful to show how common solution techniques are related to this approach. Of prime interest is a presentation of Green's function techniques ... Examples of these include combined convection diffusion equations and the biharmonic equation. Again, we stress the development of the solution procedures from the linear operator theory frame work, emphasizing the unifying logic present despite the apparent variety of problems found. The second semester is, in a sense, more of a "techniques" oriented course than the first semest er in that there is a great emphasis on how to solve problems from a general linear operator point of view rather than primarily proving theorems. For example, proof of theorems relevant to infinite dimensional vector spaces such as the Spectral Theorem are neglected in favor of a de tailed discussion of the subtle differences between finite and infinite dimensional spaces. We revisit many of the topics developed during the first se mester with an almost exclusive focus on differ ential operators. We look at adjoint operators and examine how their form intimately depends on the choice of the inner product. We apply Fredholm's Alternative to examine the conditions under which solutions exist to Lx = y, where L is a Fredholm operator. The students are sur prised to see that the existence of a solution to a particular problem is very sensitive to the form of the boundary conditions, and that the initial value problem can be thought of as a specific type of boundary-value problem. The students Continued on page 214. 163

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE: GRADUATE PLANT DESIGN PA UL MARNELL Manhattan College Riverdale, NY 10471 THE OBJECTIVE OF this year long graduate plant design course [1, 2] is to provide the students with A fundamental appreciation of the profit motive that drives business activity, and the role of the chemical engineer in achieving this fundamental goal Historical and contemporary perspectives on chemical engineering practice Confidence to tackle the wide variety of problems that confront the chemical engineer The emphasis throughout the course is on why things are done the way they are. The "how to" aspects of design are implemented only after their needs have been established by a critical evalua tion of the various problems in process invention, process development, and ultimately, detailed pro cess design. The spectrum of design tools, i.e., ball park estimates, preliminary design techniques, and detailed design procedures, is integrated with the various phases in a process plant project. The rapidly changing technological and social climates demand that we produce generalists who have been schooled in the basic aspects of the de sign methodologies and who can learn fast and quickly bring themselves up to speed for a particular application. Obviously, it is not possible to teach all of the design and economic methods that practicing chemical engineers use, so a collection of procedures that will suffice for many situations is emphasized. The students are also trained to critically study the literature, including The recent recession and its disasterous effect on employment clearly illustrated the fact, which is often missed by students, that engineers provide services to companies to help them achieve the primary goal of an adequate profit. Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984 164 Paul Marnell is an associate professor in the Manhattan College chem ical engineering department H e initiated and he lped direct the coal-water fuel technology research at Broo khaven National Laboratory from 1980-83 Prior to joining Manhattan in 1976 he was Director of Environmental Projects for the U S operations of the Lurgi Company and also held engineering positions with the Stone and Webster and Foster Wheeler Corporations He obtained his BChE from City College his MS (nuclear engineering) from Union College, and an EngScD (mechanical engineering) from Columbia University in 1972. patents, so that they may uncover or develop new procedures and analogies which they can use with confidence in situations that are new to them. The rationale for and some of the methods used to attain the course goals are discussed in the following. "The Chemical plant is a dollar factory." -William C. Reid [3] The recent recession and its disasterous effect on employment clearly illustrated the fact, which is often missed by students, that engineers pro vide services to companies to help them achieve the primary goal of an adequate profit. Thus, technical expertise combined with engineering economic analysis is the bedrock upon which engi neering judgments are made. Engineers create devices by applying the laws of nature and mathematics and using empiricism and intuition where needed. Analysis to provide CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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basic knowledge is the province of the scientist or mathematician. Analysis to provide insight on the performance of a device is a valuable part of the design process and one which can reduce the cost of empiricism. However, often empiricism must be used to create things within a reasonable period of time. Thus, piping systems are designed on the basis of the empirical friction factor cor relations for turbulent flow, and it will probably be many years before a truly fundamental re lationship for turbulent pressure drop in pipelines will be achieved. Similar considerations hold for mass and heat transfer correlations and reaction rate expressions. Nevertheless, chemical plants have been built and will continue to be built by the judicious blending of analysis, intuition, and em piricism. This brief essay is not the place to expand on the various aspects of engineering economic analysis that are considered in the course. How ever, two elements of critical importance are: 1. Multiple alternatives are generally available to achieve a goal, and the engineer is constantly screen ing alternatives of increasing detail with tools of increasing accuracy. The observation is valid at all levels of decision making, from the selection of a project to fund to the choice of a vendor for, say, concrete reinforcing bars. Thus, several years ago the Mobil Oil Corporation felt that buying Mont gomery Ward was an attractive venture to help maximize profits, and currently the United States Steel Corporation is shutting down more of its steel plants while increasing its real estate holdings.* Similarly, examples within the chemical process industry form a hierarchy which ranges from the general to the very specific. Which product should be made to achieve a desired result, and which re action path should be used to produce it? Given the reaction path, which separation technologies would be best, and given that distillation might be desire able, should it be done in a plate or packed tower? What type of plate tower should be used, and who should the vendor be? Alternatives abound, from broad strategic questions to very specific hardware items, and usually one is more attractive than its competitors. 2. As with engineering analysis, the tools for economic analysis range from crude to sophisticated, and the choice represents a compromise between expediency and accuracy that yields a result which is acceptable for the circumstances. "Nevertheless, it would be a mistake to suppose that the present generation can *While they are only noted here, the social and economic implications of these transactions, especially the latter, are explored in the course FALL 1984 The first car built did not look like today's Ferrari. Similarly, many current chemical plants are much more complicated than their predecessors. afford to ignore the labours of its predeces sors." -Lord Rayleigh [4] The first car built did not look like today's Ferrari. Similarly, many current chemical plants are much more complicated than their predeces sors. Modern ethylene, ammonia, and sulfuric acid plants represent the evolution and refinement of their underlying processes. All too often, study of these highly integrated technologies can intimi date a student. It is essential to stress the fact that they represent thousands of man-years of engineering effort and decades of operating ex perience, and in no way, shape, or form were con ceived, developed, and built this way on the first try. Engineers should recognize that technological progress usually represents an evolution of pain staking improvements built upon a singular revolutionary concept. Engineers, like other creative people, design, analyze, redesign, build, and refine their artifacts. Hence, it is important to inculcate the philosophy of not reinventing the wheel. Learn from what has gone before. Minimize mistakes by learning from those of others. Understand the logic of the past to help guide the developments of the present and the future. ... the authors .... not include in their books anything they themselves do ndt understand." -Linus Pauling [5] The vast majority of what a chemical engineer does is included in the categories of process de velopment, process design, and process improve ment. In these activities, analysis is the hand maiden of synthesis. How does the item that has been created perform? Can it be improved? During the sixties and seventies the "hand book" engineer was criticized [6]. He is a person who presumably does not understand the basis of his system, and who can use solutions in books but cannot generate new ones for new situations. In the eighties, the handbook engineer is being replaced by the "black box" engineer, i.e., one who is adept at filling out computer input forms, but who has little understanding of the underlying Continued on page 215, 165

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COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE JOHN F. SCAMEHORN University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73019 APPLICATIONS OF COLLOID and surface phenomena in chemical engineering are becoming increasingly abundant. In the search for new technologies to solve pressing problems, such techniques as enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding, micellar catalysis, and surfactant-based separation techniques have emerged. Traditional technologies using surface and colloid science have aroused new research interest: examples are adsorption, detergency, and flotation. The course discussed here was designed to cover a wide range of some of the more important topics in colloid and surface science (see Table 1). Obviously, in covering this many topics, a great deal of depth could not be attained, but when the students finish the course they have a working familiarity with a wide range of phenomena and a quantitative knowledge of the more important mathematical relationships in the field. Since tra ditional chemical engineering courses essentially ignore surface and colloid phenomena, the in structor has to assume he is starting from ground level in almost all of these topics. This course was designed for chemical engi neers, chemists, and petroleum engineers. A typi cal breakdown of enrollment by the three cate gories is 70 % 20 % and 10 % respectively. The only prerequisite is chemical thermodynamics (either physical chemistry or chemical engineer ing thermodynamics). The mixture of students from different disciplines brings breadth to class room discussions and forces the instructor to search for examples of applications which are out side of his immediate interests TEXTBOOK SELECTION Unfortunately, there is no single textbook which covers both surface and colloid science C o p y rig ht Ch E D ivision A SE E, 198 4 166 sufficiently well to be a basis for this course. Therefore, required texts for the course are Physical Chem i stry of Surfaces, by Adamson [1], for surface science, and Surfactants and Inter fac i al Phenom e na, by Rosen [2], for colloid science. Numerous handouts and references are also used. COURSE DESCRIPTION As seen in Table 1, the first four major topics are related to surface phenomena. Adamson [1] is used in this part of the course, more as a ref er ence than as a textbook. First, considerable effort is expended in ex plaining the physical causes of surface tension, since this is critical to future topics. One useful example is to consider the creation of a vapor liquid interface as the reduction of the number of nearest neighbors to a surface molecule in the liquid from six to five. The surface tension per John F. Scamehorn received his BSChE in 1973 and his MS in chemical engineering in 1974, both from the University of Nebraska, and worked for the Chemical Research Division of Conoco Inc. for three years before returning to graduate school. He received his PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Texas in 1980. He then spent a year and a half in Corporate Research w i th Shell De velopment Co. before joining the chemical engineering and ma terials science department at the University of Oklahoma in 1981. His research interests focus on applications of surface and colloid science and of membrane science He is specifkally interested in enhanced oil recovery ultrafiltration, adsorption electrodialysis and interactions between dissimilar surfactants in various phenomena CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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unit area is then approximated as one-sixth of the heat of vaporization of the surface molecules occupying a unit area. Viewing the creation of a surface as "fractional vaporization" provides physical insight to the reason surface tensions exist, and the crude calculation actually gives values for surface tension within a factor of two of the correct value. Demonstration of the actual measurement of surface tension in the instructor's lab also reinforces the concept that it takes work or energy to create a surface. Using a Du-Noiiy ring tensiometer, the students can see the surface stretch under stress before breaking. One of the greatest weaknesses of Adamson [l J is the treatment of surface thermodynamics. The derivations are generally not rigorous and are often obscure. Therefore, the instructor basically needs to derive fundamental thermo dynamic relationships (like the Kelvin equation and the Gibbs equation) from scratch The power of the Gibbs equation and the importance of the definition of the dividing surface can be illustrated by a calculation of monolayer coverage of a sur factant from dilute solution from surface tension ... when the students finish the course they have a working familiarity with a wide range of phenomena and a quantitative knowledge of the more important mathematical relationships in the field. data. When covering the third major topic, adsorp tion, the basic difference between localized and mobile adsorption must be emphasized. Interconverting 2-D equations of state and mobile ad sorption isotherms using the Gibbs equation il lustrates this point. Hiemenz [3] is a useful refer ence concerning the electrical double layer. At this point in the course (about half-way through), the student has seen mostly theory and is wondering about the usefulness of the material. Even though applications are in a separate section at the end of the course, to complete the ad sorption topic, adsorber design is discussed. First, practical guidelines for selection of industrial ad sorbents for various applications are given. Then some complications of adsorber design are touched TABLE 1 Course Outline 1. CAPILLARITY 5. MICELLE FORMATION Definition and Reason for the Existence of Surface Classes of Surfactants Tensions Micelle Structure Laplace Equation CMC Determination Capillary Rise Phenomena Mass-Action Model Measurement of Surface Tension Pseudo-Phase Separation Model 2. SURFACE THERMODYNAMICS Shinoda Equation Surface Thermodynamic Properties 6. SOLUBILIZATION IN MICELLES Kelvin Equation Locations of Solubilizate in Micelles Criterion of Equilibrium in Systems with Interfaces Driving Forces for Solubilization Dividing Surface Measurement of Solubilization Definition of Adsorption or Surface Excess Gibbs Equation 7. EMULSIONS Monolayer Coverage at the Air-Water Interface Mechanisms of Stabilization 3. ADSORPTION Localized vs Mobile Adsorption Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm Bancroft Rule HLBNumber Breaking Emulsions BET Adsorption Isotherm 8 FOAMS 2-D Equations of State Potential Theory Adsorption from. Solution Electrical Diffuse Double Layer Debye-Hiickel Theory and Debye Length Gibbs Triangle Mechanisms of Film Elasticity Mechanisms of Foam Draina ge Foam Breaking and Inhibiting Stern Layer 9. APPLICATIONS Practical Applications and Adsorber Design Enhanced Oil Recovery by Surfactant Flooding 4. CONTACT ANGLE Detergency Young Equation Measurement of Ccmt;i,ct Angl~ Marangoni Effects Novel Separation Techniques Using Surfactants FALL 1984 167

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on : the mass-transfer zone, bed heat-up due to heat of adsorption, and bed regeneration. Examples of applications using activated carbon, silica gel, and ion-exchange resin are given. Handouts and suggested reading material supple ment lectures on design of adsorbers [4-7]. In covering the topic of contact angles, the reasons that advancing and receding contact angles may differ are explored. The physical mean ing of the Young equation in terms of the surface tensions involved is emphasized. Topics 57 are in the area of colloid science. Rosen [2 ] is used as the text. It is easy to read and is well organized, and the text is followed much more closely in this section of the course than in the surface science section. In the consideration of micelle formation, the variety of surfactants available is discussed and the value of McCutcheons' [8] in finding suppliers of a certain type of detergent is stressed. The various methods of CMC determination help il lustrate the properties of solutions containing micelles and lead naturally into a discussion of the mass-action and pseudo-phase separation models of micelle formation. The fact that these models coincide for large enough micellar aggre gation numbers is stressed. The iceberg structure of water around hydrocarbon chains in solution causing the micelle formation to be entropy driven and the subsequent concept of hydrophobic bonds is then considered in the context of micellar thermodynamics. The effect of electrolyte con centration and hydrocarbon chain length on the CMC is shown to be described by the Shinoda equation [9] The value of Mukerjee and Mysels [10] as the standard reference for literature CMC values is useful to point out. Krafft temperature cloud point, and liquid crystals are briefly dis cussed to show that there are limits to conditions resulting in the isotropic regions where micelle s form in surfactant solutions. Under the topic of solubilization, the wide spread use of Henry's law to extrapolate solubiliza tions measured at unit activity using the maxi mum additivity method is discussed. This is followed by consideration of deviations from Henry's law and methods of measurement of solubilization (vapor pressure, osmometry, vapor phase UV, v apor phase GC, ultrafiltration) over the entire concentration range. The importance of solubilization in such applications as detergency is worth mentioning. In discussions of emulsions the origins of 168 barriers to emulsion breaking are desc r ibed. The guidelines for the selection of surfactant by HLB Number and tabulations of this value in Mc Cutcheons' [8] for commercial surfactan t s are em phasized. The importance of emulsions to chemical and petroleum engineering operations is illustrated by examples such as the severe problem of separat ing oils recovered by tertiary methods from pro duced water in the field because of emulsion for mation. The existence of emulsions in everyday life in products such as milk and paint helps the student feel more comfortable with the phe nomena The fact that emulsions are not thermo dynamically stable is heavily emphasized. How ever, it must be mentioned that the so-called "micro e mulsions" used in surfactant flooding can be considered as a thermodynamic phase. The fact that foams are not thermod y namically stable is also stressed : that foams are sometimes desirable (detergents) and sometimes undesirable ( causing entrainment in distillation columns) is important to note. New applications of foams, such as in enhanced oil recovery for mobility control o r foam fractionation, point out their im portance The applications portion of the course is de signed to show how important the phenomena discussed are and to illustrate that many of them can be occurring at the s ame time and have com plex interactions. The various methods of EOR are first outlined (aided by a handout from Exxon [11]) and the mechanisms by which they function are discussed. Then surfactant flooding is focu s ed on. Theories to explain the ultralow interfacial tension s pre s ent in these systems pro vide an opportunity to explore some subtleties of interfacial tension surface thermodynamics, solubilization, and emulsion stability. Adsorption of surfactants on minerals and precipitation neatly show the tie between surface science and colloid science. A discussion of the state-of-the-art and the major remaining problems to be solved in thi s technology are complimented by an outline of the in s tructor's approach to solving these prob lems. A tour of the in s tructor' s research lab where the students can observe such things as middle phases, surfactant precipitate, and cloud points brings home the applications of the course to EOR. Detergency also involves both surface science (surfactant adsorption on fabrics) and colloid science (solubilization). In addition, the rollback mechanism of oil r emoval from fabrics pro v ides C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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a practical example of contact angles and wetting. Until this point in the course, equilibrium phe nomena have been almost exclusively considered. A disc u ss ion of Marangoni effects demonstrates non-equilibrium surface tension effects. A non mathematical article on tears which form on the inside of a glass of wine [ 12 ] is supp lemented by passing around a wine glass containing vodka so the student can see the tears form. The reduction in liquid level in the g la ss after being passed around the class can not always be accounted for solely by evaporation. This practical demonstra tion of Marangoni effects is a l ways popular. The course is completed by discussion of a favorite research topic of the lecturer: separation techniques using surfactants Among those dis cussed are foam fractionation and micellar en hanced ultrafiltration. Since the majority of the class is composed of chemical engineers, these novel applications of colloid science to replace classical separation techniques illustrate the value of colloid science. STUDENT COMMENTS In general, the students liked the relatively high fraction of course content dedicated to practical applications. They also liked the constant emphasis on the physical significance of the ma terial. The y appreciated the fact that the mathe m atical content of the course was kept to a level suc h that physical rea lit y was not obscured. The students had two main complaints : they did not like Adamson as a text, and they found sur face thermodynamics to be less interesting than the rest of the course. However, most of them recognized the future value of Adamson as a reference book and also realized the necessity of a firm grounding in surface thermodynamics for the later topics covered. GENERAL COMMENTS Teaching both surface and colloid science in a single course is a cha llen g in g task. Some de partments c hoose to cover surface science in detail with a more mathematical orientation a nd a mention of co lloidal phenomena in passing. In order to learn surfactant science, another course is needed. The dedication of two courses to this area is not always possible or desirable (par" ticularly for the MS student). This course was developed as an attempt to integrate the basics from both surface science and co lloid science into one course. Response from former students in in dustry concerning the value of the material learned FALL 1984 FORTRAN CALLABLE REAL TIME SUBROUTINES FOR APPLE II COMPUTER APPLE II can be made to function as a data acquisition and control system for under $3000 FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT Dr. P. Deshpande Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Louisvil'le Louisville, KY 40292 indicates that the course fulfills a need. REFERENCES 1. Adamson, A. W., Phy sical Chemistry of Surfaces, Fourth Edition, Wiley, New York (1982) 2 Rosen, M. J., Surfactants and Int erfacial Ph enomena, Wiley, New York (1978). 3. Hiemenz, P. C., Pr-incipl es of Colloid and Surf ace Chemistry, Ch 9, Marcel Dekker, New York (1~77). 4. Kovach, J L ., in Handbook of Separation T echniques for Chemical Engineers, Ch. 3.1, P.A. Schweitzer, Ed McGraw-Hill, New York (1979). 5 Calgon Corporation, Pamphlet on "Basic Concepts of Adsorption on Activated Carbon," Calgon, Pitts burgh. 6. Scamehorn, J. F., Ind Eng Chem. Pro cess Des. Dev 18, 210 (1979). 7. Vatavuk, W. M., and Neveril, R. B., Chem. Eng., 90, 1 3 1 (Jan 24, 1983). 8 McCutcheons' Emulsifiers & Detergents, North American Division, McCutcheon, G l en Rock, N.J (1983). 9. Shinoda, K., in Colloidal Surfactants, Ch. 1, K. Shinoda, T. Nakagawa, B. Tamamushi, and T. Ise mura, Eds., Academic Press, New York (1963). 10. Mukerjee, P., and Mysels, K. J., Critical Micelle Con centrations of Aqueous Surfactant Systems, National Bureau of Standards, Washington ( 1971). 11. "Improve d Oil Recovery," a pamphlet by Exxon Corporation, Exxon, New York, 1982. 12. Walker, J., Scientific American, 248,163 (May, 1983). 169

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TRANSPORT PHENOMENA D. B. SHAH Cleveland State Uni versi ty Cleveland, OH 44115 T HE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE in a course on transport phenomena is to analyze physical problems in heat, mass, and momentum transfer. The steps involved in this process are understanding the physical aspects of the problem, making appropri ate assumptions, deriving the necessary differ ential equations, and developing analytical solu tions. In this endeavor applied mathematics plays a secondary, but a very powerful, role. Of course, many problems of interest and practical im portance are quite complex, and it is not possible to obtain analytical solutions for these cases. This does not diminish the importance of finding exact or approximate ana l ytical so lution s to the develop ed differential equations. Sometimes it is neces sary to obtain a closed form of the solution in limiting cases. Such solutions under asymptotic conditions are needed to validate the numerical solution of the differential equations. A graduDhananjai B Shah has a BChE from the Department of Chemical Technology, University of Bomba y, and MS and PhD (1975) from Michigan State Un iversity, both in chemical engineering. H e spent two years at the Univ ersity of New Brunswi ck, one year at McMaster Un i versity and three years at the Indiana Institute of Technology. S ince 1982 he has been an assistant professor of chem i cal engineering at Cleveland State Univers ity. His research interests include simulation and modelling of unsteady processes adsorption and diffusion in zeolites and catalysis 170 ate course in transport phenomena, therefore, should place considerable emphasis on common methods of solution of differential equations, how they are applied, and why they work. BACKGROUND Every fall, we offer a graduate course in transport phenomena. The course meets four hours a week for ten weeks, and it is one of the three required of every master's student. It i s the only course a terminal master's degree candidate will have that integrates the three transport processes. Most students take this course in the first quarter of their graduate program. We have a relatively large percentage of part time graduate students. Some have come back to school after a lapse of few years, and some have had their baccalaureate degree in chemistry. They need considerable help in solving the differential equations. However, because of their practical ex perience, they have a good feel for physical situ ations and are good at making approximations and engineering judgments The full time students are only slightly better prepared in solv ing the differential equations. Many of them have not had any undergraduate course in partial differ ential equations, and they tend to be overwhelmed by the equations they come across in transport phenomena. The course strives to ach i eve a bal ance between exposing the students to 1) ad vanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between the three transfer processes, and 2) common methods of solving differential equations. The best way to accomplish these objectives is to solve a large number of problems. Daily homework assignments are made throughout the duration of the course. Textbooks by Bird Stewart and Lightfoot (ESL) and by Slattery (S) are used repeatedly. Both the books abound with challenging problems which are used extensively for classroom discus sion and for homework assignments. All of the students coming into the course are expected to Copyright ChE Di vision ASEE. 19 84 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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have been exposed to the first three chapters in each of the three sections in BSL. At the end of the course, it is hoped that the students will be able to comprehend almost all the material in BSL. In addition, a number of other books and journal articles are consulted (listed in the refer ences to this paper). COURSE CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION The problems in transport phenomena are formulated and analyzed in a series of steps as outlined below. Problem Visualization The co-ordinate system based on the geometry of the problem is chosen first. In most cases the choice is obvious, but in some cases it is not easy. For example, in considering diffusion from a point source in a moving stream (17 K, BSL), it is not easy to decide whether to use cylindrical or spherical co-ordinates. After the co-ordinate system is chosen, the physical aspects of the problem are discussed. Any intuitive feeling about the behavior of the system under some limiting conditions is brought out. Directions of velocity, The course strives to achieve a balance between exposing the students to 1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between the three transfer processes, and 2) common methods of solving differential equations. temperature, and concentration gradients are de termined. Appropriate physical assumptions are made to simplify the resulting set of equations. One such assumption is to neglect end effects in many momentum transfer problems. Another example is the absorption of a component in falling film where convective flux is neglected in the direction and diffusive flux is neglected in the direction ( 17-5, BSL). Differential Equations The general equations of continuity, motion, and energy are now applied to the problem under consideration. With the help of information ob tained in the above section, the terms not applic able to the problem at hand are equated to zero. The solution of the resulting set of differential TABLE 1 COMBINATION OF VARIABLES 1) Flow near a wall suddenly set in motion (4.1-1, BSL) 2) Heating semi-infinite slab (11 1-1, BSL) 3) Unsteady evaporation (19 1-1, BSL) 4) Gas absorption with rapid chemical reaction (19.1-3, BSL) 5) Boundary Layer Theory Exact Solution for a) Momentum Transfer (3.5.1, 3.5.2, S) b) Momentum and Heat Transfer (6.7.1, 6.7.2, S) c) Heat, mass and momentum transfer (19.3, BSL) 6) Unsteady interphase diffusion (19K,BSL) FALL 1984 Classification of Problems According to Method of Solution of Differential Equations SEP A RATION OF VARIABLES 1) Velocity distribution in plate and cone viscometer (3T, BSL) 2) Unsteady laminar flow in a circular tube (4.1-2, BSL) or in an annulus (4L, BSL) 3) Unsteady tangential flow (4Lb, BSL) 4 ) Heating finite slab (11.1-2, BSL) or semi-infinite slab with convective bounda ry condition (6.2.3, S) 5) Mass transfer within a solid sphere (9.2.1-1, 9.2.1-2, S) LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION 1) Two large blocks brought in contact (6.2.2.-2 5) 2) Cooling of sphere in contact with well stirred fluid (11.1-3, BSL) 3) Gas absorption in a falling film with chemical reaction (17L, BSL) 4) Packed adsorption column modelling (22L BSL) 5) Unsteady diffusion with a first order homogenous reaction (9.2.2, S) 171

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equations subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions is attempted by using one of the following three techniques. Similarity solution by combination of variables. The differential equations which can be solved by this method are characterized by boundary con ditions where the dependent variable has the same value at different values of two independent vari ables. For example in fluid flow near a wall sudden ly set in motion ( 4.1-1, ESL), the boundary con ditions are V = 0 at t = 0 for all Zand at Z = oo at all t > 0. Such boundary conditions are quite common in problems involving a semi-infinite region. A new combined variable Y/ = Z / a t n is defined which allows the above two boundary conditions to merge, i.e. V = 0 at Y/ = oo. The value of n is chosen such that when YJ is substi tuted into the partial differential equation, on simplification, an ordinary differential equation is obtained. The choice of a is more arbitrary but is generally taken as a reciprocal of n. When the ordinary differential equation is solved, one ends up with error functions and gamma functions. The method also gives an opportunity to introduce the concept of penetration thickness which is ex ploited later in the boundary layer approximation discussion The method is applied repeatedly to m a n y of the problems listed in Table 1. The empha sis is on why the method works, when it is ap plicable, and how it works. Similarity Solution by Separation of Variables. The boundary conditions in this case are such that a combined variable cannot be formulated that combines the two boundary conditions into one. The boundary condition at Z = oo is either replaced by a similar one at Z = L or is character ized by heat or mass transfer resistance. Such problems are solved by the method of separation of variables. The dependent variable i s assumed to be product of separable functions, each one of which is in turn a function of one independent variable only. The method requires that the students be exposed to Sturm-Louiville theorem, orthogonal functions, weighting functions, and the limits of integration. Again, why the method works for these boundary conditions is emphaTABLE 2 SEPARATION OF VARIABLES WHERE ONE FUNCTION IS KNOWN 1) Cone and plate Viscometer (3.5-3, BSL) 2) Creeping flow between con centric spheres (3Q, BSL) followed by separation of variables 3) Periodic heating of earth's crust (llL, BSL) 4) Flow near an oscillating wall (3.2.4-4, S) 5) Flow between rotating discs (12.2, Denn) 172 Simplification of Differential Equations ASYMPTOTIC CASES 1) Graetz-Nusselt Problem a) Large distances (9.8, BSL) b) Short distances (11.2-2, BSL) 2) Short contact times a) (9.P, 9.R, BSL) b) Heat transfer from wall to falling film (I0R, BSL) c) Diffusion into falling liquid film (17.5, BSL) d) Solid dissolution into falling film (17J, BSL) 3) Navier-Stokes Equations a) R~0 Creeping flow (chapter 12, Denn) b) Re oo potential flow Inviscid flow (3.4.1, S) c) Re oo, Boundary layer approximation (chapter 15, Denn) PSEUDO STEADY STATE APPROXIMATION 1) Squeeze film (12.4, Denn) 2) Unsteady evaporation from a tube 3) Unsteady evaporation of a drop 4) Shrinking unreacted core model in gas-solid non-catalytic reaction 5) Efflux times for tank (7M, 7P, BSL) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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sized by comparing the similar profiles, and how it works is illustrated by solving a number of problems, some of which are listed in Table 1. In some cases, not only are the functions separable, but one of the functions is easily formu lated from the boundary conditions. For example, in describing a velocity field for flow near an oscillating wall, the boundary conditions are at Y = 0, V = V 0 sin (wt-e) andatY = oo V = 0. The boundary conditions allow us to formulate the solution as V = exp[i (wt e) ]f (y). There are many such cases, and some are listed in Table 2. Use of Laplace Transforms. Many of the problems solved by combination of variables or separation of variables can also be solved by using the Laplace transform. However, it is preferably applied where there are more than one partial differential equations and variable of interest can not be determined without solving for some other variables first. An excellent example of this is the cooling of a sphere in contact with well-stirred fluid (11.2-1; BSL). By using Laplace transforms, it is possible to evaluate the variation of solid temperature with radius and time without having to solve for the temperature history of the fluid. A number of problems where the Laplace trans form method is applied and illustrated are listed in Table 1. Simplification of Differential Equations Many times the differential equations derived are quite complicated and none of the three methods outlined above is applicable. Under these conditions, one may wish to consider a limited case where one or more terms in the differential equations are neglected. However, it is very im portant to indicate how these approximations are made and how a simplified set of differential equa tions is derived. This is illustrated with the classic problem in fluid mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equations are written in dimensionless form using characteristic quantities. This introduces the Reynolds number into the Na vier-Stokes equations. The behavior of these equations in the following three cases is then investigated. Creeping flow in the limit as Re 0 Potential flow in the limit as Re oo This corres ponds to inviscid fluid flow far from the boundary Boundary layer approximation in the limit as Re oo for fluid flow in the immediate neighbor hood of a boundary Excellent discussion of these topics is provided FALL 1984 Many times the differential equations derived are quite complicated and none of the three methods outlined ... is applicable. TABLE 3 List of Additional Topics Covered in the Course A) Potential flow and stream function Creeping flow around sphere (2.6, 4.2-1, BSL; 3.3.3, S) B) Non-Newtonian fluid flow Introduction to tensor algebra Cone and plate viscometer (3.4-3, 3T, BSL; 3.3.2, S) Flow in simple geometry (3.2.2-3.2.4, S) C) Turbulent flow (Chapter 5, BSL) Time averaged Navier-Stokes equations Approximations to Reynolds Stresses Velocity profiles in simple geometry (5E, 5F, 5D, 5H, BSL) D) Exact solution of Navier-Stokes equations Converging flow in a channel Other examples (Chapter 5, Schlichting) E) Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in laminar and turbulent flow (Ref. 2, 3) F) Steady State multicomponent diffusion with homo geneous and heterogeneous reactions (18Q, lSS, BSL; 9.2.3, 9.2.7, S) G) Diffusion from a point source in a moving stream (10.2, S) H) Macroscopic Balances Pressure distribution in a manifold (7Q, BSL) Heat exchangers (15J, BSL) Heating of a liquid in an agitated tank (15M, 15.5-1, BSL) Packed bed absorber and adsorber (22.5-1, 22.6-2, BSL) by Slattery and Denn. It is also pointed out to students that the number of asymptotic cases considered for large distances or short contact times treated in BSL and Slattery represent another way of simplifying the differential equations. Many cases of short contact times let us assume that the depth of pene tration is much smaller than the length of region of interest. This allows one to shift the boundary condition at, say, Z = L to Z = oo. The students immediately see the benefit of doing this as the problem becomes solvable by the combination of variables as outlined earlier. Various problems of this type are listed in Table 2. Another common concept used to simplify the differential equations is the concept of pseudo steady state approximation. The problems listed in Table 2 are used to illustrate the application of Continued on page 213. 173

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HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS INVOLVING VIDEO-BASED SEMINARS MARK G. WHITE Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0100 WE HA VE OFFERED, for the past three years, a specialized seminar course entitled "Seminars in Heterogeneous Catalysis" to students in our research groups on alternating quarters, usually fall and spring. The original purpose of these seminars was to bring about a feeling of unity to our program of heterogeneous catalysis and to help educate our students on the nature of catalysis outside the formal graduate lecture course we offer once a year under the same name: Catalysis. After the initial start-up of this seminar course we ex plored the benefits of such a communications-based course which included the transfer of information between graduate students working on similar problems and the improvement upon communica tion skills. The next logical extension of the course was to formalize the feedback mechani sm by which students could learn of their strengths and weaknesses. Our first attempt at this feed back was rating sheets on which the audience would mark the performance of the presenter as "good" to "poor" for various aspects of the seminar presentation, such as clarity of ideas, organization, and the mechanics of the presenta tion (including quality of visual aids, nervous manne risms, etc.). As a result of this rating sys tem, we noticed a significant improvement in the quality of the presentations, in both the content and the style of presentation. An integral part of the seminar program was a question-and-answer period that followed the formal talk. As with all novice speakers, the reaction to such interrogation The setting of the video seminar was a classroom equipped with cameras in discrete locations and with classroom-type tables having small monitors located on them. Copy right ChE 'Division, ASEE_ 1984 174 Mark G White received his BSChE degree from the Un iversity of Texas at Aust in, his MSChE degree from Purdue University, and was graduated with a PhD degree from Rice University. For the last six years he has been teaching at the Georgia Institut e of Technology. His industrial experience includes a position as a summer engi neer with the Amoco Oil Company (Texas Division) and as a research engineer with the Amoco Oil Research i n Whiting Indiana. His re search i nterests include heterogeneous catalysis and reaction kinetics. ranged from fright to morbid fear. However, the more experienced students began to see the value of such questioning which forced the speaker to defend his research and resulted in a better under standing of the work. In time, a fraction of the students began to look forward to such question and-answer periods, except when they were the presenters. As a result of the success of the feed back rating procedure and through a desire to have further improvements in the seminar pre sentations, we chose the video-based format to affect such improvements. MECHANICS OF THE COURSE The video-taping of a formal p r esentation shows both similarities to and differences from the familiar seminar format_ Among the similarities, the speaker must convey thoughts through words and illustrations which must be organized into a cohesive unit. In one sense, the video-based format demands better organization of the talk because of the time limit imposed by rental of the on campus taping studio. The setting of the video seminar was a classroom equipped with cameras CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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in discrete locations and with classroom-type tables having small monitors located on them. An audience was present for all the tapings, and the lighting was only slightly brighter than normal room conditions. These "familiar" conditions help put the presenter at ease. However, the differences associated with video taping are significant. Usually there were one or two operators present in a control booth behind the classroom to focus the remote-controlled cameras and to record the talk. The students be came aware of the importance of communication between the operators and themselves to ensure the proper camera position when illustrations were used in a presentation. In essence, the student became both the star and the director in taping the talk. Finally, fear of the unknown, coupled with the excitement created by the medium of television, made this experience something quite different. We tried to meet some of these differences with some preproduction planning and prepara tion. During the quarter immediately before the taping, the students were given an article entitled "The Video Performer," by Norm Herman (Edu cational and Industrial Television), which is aimed at helping the first-time TV star to avoid some common mistakes. Additionally, the students were asked to submit titles and one-page abstracts of their talks before the quarter began, to facili tate early planning of the seminar content. Dave Edwards, Assistant Director of the Department of Continuing Education at Georgia Tech, suggest ed we have two class sessions of planning and preparation before the actual seminars were taped. The first session would involve Dave giving a short lecture on the dos and don'ts of video taped presentations, followed by a short presenta tion by this author demonstrating some of the ideas. The students seemed to appreciate my feeble attempt to make them feel at ease by blundering my way through the presentation. The second session was a three-minute taping of each student giving his seminar topic and abstract; this taping was followed by a review of all the presentations. This preliminary taping session was a good way of demonstrating how difficult it is to produce an error-free talk with only one shooting. Additional pre-production preparation in volved a series of meetings between the student and this author to determine the scope of the 20minute presentation, to write a sketchy outline (followed by a detailed outline), and finally to reFALL 1984 view the illustrations for content and quality. We have found that these pre-production meetings are essential to producing a quality seminar for taping Finally, each student met with the camera operators to review the illustrations on camera and to discuss the camera angles, etc. The studio was equipped with three cameras operated by remote control from the booth. Two of these cameras afforded shots of the commenta tor while the third, an overhead camera, was used exclusively for the illustrations. The side camera could be used to give angle shots of the speaker, whereas the main camera gave head-on shots. When appropriate, the side camera was used to give better definition of three dimensional models. Titles and names could be superimposed under the speaker and split-screens could be used for extend ed discussions of illustrations. Although not used in these seminars, split-screens and chrome-key facilities are available in our campus studio; needless to say, these exotic techniques require more pre-production planning and direction on the part of the student. Our experience shows that the most successful talks, in terms of clarity and An integral part of the seminar program was a question-and-answer period that followed the formal talk. freedom of errors, were those which used a mini mum of visuals and few exotic techniques; as the speakers mature, these other techniques will certainly enhance the professional nature of their talks. The review of these seminars commenced im mediately following the talk. The objective of this review was to show the student the success / failure of his attempt to communicate a technical subject in a formal setting. Success could be evaluated in terms of how clearly the student told his story. Did he connect the major points of the topic with good transition sentences? Was the logic sound? Did the illustrations convey the essence of the thought with a minimum of information? In short, did the student give a talk which was enjoyed by his peers? During the review process I would comment on the positive and negative aspects of only the more subtle points; there was no need to comment on the obvious blunders. Also, the students became aware of distractive mannerisms such as throat-clearing, nervous hand-waving, Continued on page 189. 175

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LINEAR ALGEBRA FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS KYRIACOS ZYGOURAKIS Rice University Houston, TX 77251 A FIRST-YEAR GRADUATE course (or sequence of courses) in applied mathematics has become an integral part of the curriculum in a large number of chemical engineering departments. Among the diverse subjects taught in these courses, linear algebra usually enjoys a prominent position. The reason for this popularity perhaps lies in the fact that linear algebra is as central a subject and as applicable as calcu lus. The pioneer ing work of Neal Amundson, and of his students and disciples as well as other prominent scholars, has established beyond any doubt that many sig nificant and complex chemical engineering prob lems may be solved by advanced linear algebra techniques [1]. Linear algebra can also serve as an ideal stepping stone for introducing the first-year graduate student to the formal mathematical language of functional analysis. The basic con cepts of matrix algebra, already familiar to the student, can be formulated using the abstract framework of linear vector spaces. The same abstraction can also be used to unify apparently diverse problems in finite dimensional spaces under this common framework. Thus, the ground work is laid out for the introduction of functional analysis in infinite dimensional spaces, which is necessary for the study of differential and integral operator problems [2]. Our linear algebra course strives to combine both elements of mathematics-abstraction and application. Many of the fundamental theorems of linear algebra are rigorously derived in class. Student responses to the course evaluation questionnaire indicate that they particularly enjoy the computational part of the course since it points out some of the real problems to which linear algebra theory can be applied. Copyright ChE D ivision, ABEE 1984 176 TABLE 1 Course Materials COURSE TEXTBOOK Strang, G., Linear Algebra and It s Applications, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, (1980). ADDITIONAL COURSE REFERENCES 1. A mundson, N. R., Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineering: Matrices and Their Application, Pren tice Hall, (1966). 2. Braun, M., Differential Equations and Their Applica tions, 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag (1975). 3. Dahlquist, G., A. Bjorck and N. Anderson, Numerical Methods, Prentice Hall (1974). 4. Friedman, B. P r incipl es and T ec hniques of Applied Mathematics, John Wiley (1956). 5. Hirsch, M. W. and S. Smale, Differential Equations, Dynamical Systems and Linear Algebra Academic Press (1974) 6. Noble, B. and J. W. Daniel, Applied Lin e ar Algebra, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall (1977). 7 Steinberg, D. T., Computational Matrix Algebra, Mc Graw-Hill (1974). The theory, however, is motivated and reinforced by examples derived from a wide r ange of chemi cal engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed upon the important aspects of computa tional linear algebra. In our opinion, it is impera tive to expose the students to some fundamental computational methods and to study their efficiency as well as their convergence problems. Student responses to the course evaluation questionnaire indicate that they particularly enjoy the compu tational pa r t of the course since it points out some of the real problems to which linear algebra theory can be applied. COURSE ORGANIZATION Eleven weeks ( out of a total of fifteen) of the fall semester course, "Applied Mathematics for Chemical Engineers I," are devoted to the study of linear algebra and its applications. The remaining time is devoted to a brief review of complex analysis and complex integration, which is the final preparation step for the second course in applied mathematics taught at Rice. This CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Kyriacos Zygourakis received his diploma in chemical engineering from the National Technical University of Greece in 1975 and his PhD from the University of Minnesota in 1980 He is presently an assistant professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Rice Uni versity His main research interests are in the areas of reaction engineering, applied mathematics and numerical methods second course covers the theory of differential and integral operators, again using the functional analysis approach. The course meets twice a week for two hours and runs largely as a lecture, although active student participation is encouraged by frequent questions from the instructor. The lectures are accompanied by tutoring sessions which are designed to help the students with their computer projects as well as for the discussion of home work assignments in an informal way. The students are urged to keep a complete set of notes, which are regularly supplemented by handouts providing lengthy theorem proofs or summarizing the results established up to that point. The assigned textbook is Linear Algebra and i ts Applications (2nd Edition), by Gilbert Strang. Although it is an extremely well-written book, it is not followed closely ( e s pecially in the first part of the course). The students are strongly en couraged to consult additional references (see Table 1) Homework problems are assigned almost every week. In addition, the students are required to complete one or two computational projects. They also have to take a mid-semester and a final exam, which consist of both openand closed-book parts COURSE CONTENTS The linear algebra part of the course (see Table 2) consists of four parts: Vector spaces and linear transformations The solution of systems of linear equations TABLE 2 Topical Outline of the Linear Algebra Course 1. VECTOR SP ACES AND LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS Overview of the problem of solving systems of linear equations. Which applications give rise to such systems? Which are the theoretical porblems that must be answered? Vector spaces and subspaces Linear depend ence, basis and dimension. Linear transformations between finite-dimension al spaces and their matrix representation. Rank and nullity of linear transformations. Elementary matrices and the computation of the rank of a matrix. The theory of simultaneous linear equations. Homogeneous and nonhomogeneous systems. The Fredholm alternative 2. SOLUTION OF SYSTEMS OF LINEAR EQUATIONS A x = b Gaussian elimination. LU---decomposition, pivot ing, operation count. Error analysis. Ill-conditioned matrices Band matrices and how they arise in practice. FALL 1984 Finite differences solution of partial differ ential equations. Overview of iterative methods for solving linear equations. Comparison of the various numerical algorithms. 3 THE EIGENVALUE PROBLEM A x = AX Determinants. Inner products, norms, orthogonality. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices. Diagonalization and similarity transformations. Systems of difference equations. Functions of matrices. Solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. Stability. Unitary transformations. Normal matrices. Spectral decomposition of operators. 4. QUADRATIC FORMS AND VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES Positive definite quadratic forms. Minimization problems. Least squares. Rayleigh quotient. Maximum and minimax principles. Numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Overview of the finite elements method. 177

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The students are thus presented with our objectives for the first part of the course. A brief review of the algebra of matrices follows, reminding the student of the familiar concepts of multiplying a matrix by a scalar to obtain another matrix and of summing two matrices to obtain a third one. The Eigenvalue problem Quadratic forms and variational principles The Linear Equation Problem A x = b The course starts with an introduction to the problem of solving systems of linear equations of the form A x = b. Several applications that give rise to such large systems are discussed and the three fundamental questions are introduced: Do these problems have a so lution? If they do, is the solution unique? How can the solution be computed? The students are thus presented with our ob jectives for the first part of the course. A brief review of the algebra of matrices follows, remind ing the student of the familiar concepts of multi plying a matrix by a scalar to obtain another matrix and of s umming two matrices to obtain a third one. It is also pointed out that these opera tions satisfy certain properties such as associativi ty, commutativity, distributivity, etc. This dis cussion serves as the motivation to introduce the notion of abstract linear vector spac es. Several examples of vector spaces are then presented, covering sets of functions, polynomials, solutions of differential or integral equations, etc. The students come to realize that seemingly different mathematical systems may be considered as vector spaces and that this abstract framework can unify these diverse phenomena into a single study. The basic concepts of linear combinations, basis sets, and dimension are then discussed. Thus, the abstract quantities called vectors can be repre sented now in terms of their coefficients of ex pansion with respect to a particular basis set. The first milestone is reached with the intro duction of linear transformations between finite dimensional spaces and their matrix representa tion. Most of the important theorems here are rigorously derived in class and the concepts of rank and nullity of transformations are formally introduced. Armed with the conclusion that all the results established for linear transformations can be used for matrices (and conversely), we can then establish the conditions for existence and uniqueness of solutions of the first fundamental 178 problem of linear algebra A x = b. This is ac complished in one lecture using the previously derived theorems. Throughout this part of the course, emphasis is placed on the generality of this approach, and the students have the opportunity to see how the results apply to linear differential and integral operators, as well as to chemical engineering problems. Such examples include first-order re action systems and the determination of the number of independent chemical reactions in a closed system using experimental measurements. The practical problem of efficiently computing the solution of systems of linear equations can now be considered. The Gauss elimination procedure and the LU decomposition are introduced, which lead naturally to the idea of the operation count as a measure of the computational effort required. An important application which gives rise to large systems of linear equations is then studied by introducing the finite-difference method for solv ing ordinary and partial differential equations subject to specified boundary conditions. The students learn how to take advantage of the matrix structure (band or positive-definite matrices) in order to speed up the computational process and how to use the LU-decomposition for the efficient so lution of iterative problems that arise in the solution of nonlinear differential equa tions. The problem of ill-conditioned matrices is outlined in sketchy form, along with a rudimentary introduction to error analysis. Iterative methods for the solut ion of linear systems of equations are also briefly covered. At this point a computer project is assigned. The students are asked to solve a two-dimensional partial differential equation using finite differ ences. They must use different grid sizes and compare the numerical results to the true solutions in each case. The students must demonstrate that they can correctly formulate the system of linear equations. Following that, they use the library programs avai lable at our computer center to obtain the results. The library programs LINP ACK and ITPACK (for the direct and iterative solution of linear systems) have proven to be invaluable aids. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Thus, the emphasis is shifted from the drudg ery of computer programming to the analysis of the results. The numerical simulations permit the students to evaluate the relative efficiency of numerical schemes (i.e. execution speeds, memory requirements) and to determine which ones must be used for the various structures and sizes of the resulting matrices. Thus, the theoretical results derived in class are reinforced and justified. The second part of the computer assignment exposes the students to the pitfalls which may be fall the unwary and uninstructed user of computer software packages. The students are asked to solve a system of equations for which the matrix of the coefficients of the unknowns is badly ill conditioned (the notorious Hilbert matrix has served as the perfect example in this respect). The students are asked to compute the known solution of a system of equations using single and double precision computer arithmetic. They are then asked to explain why the solution deteriorates as the order of the system increases by monitoring the magnitude of the pivoting elements, the con dition number of the matrix, and using the theory presented in class. The Eigenvalue Problem A x = Xx The second part of the course starts with a brief review of the theory of determinants. Their properties are presented along with the basic formulas for their computation. The operation count for solving systems of linear equations using Cramer's rate is derived and most of the students are surprised to find out that even the most power ful computer would need about 10 1 45 years to solve a 100 x 100 system using this method. They are reminded, however, that determinants give a very useful invertibility test for square matrices, whose main application will be used later on in the course for the development of the theory of eigen values. The concepts of inner products of vectors and of the norm of a vector are then presented as abstract mappings of vectors into the field of real (or complex) numbers and are related to the familiar notions of angle between vectors and of magnitude respectively. A discussion of the solution of a simple 2 x 2 system of linear ordinary differential equations motivates the introduction of the eigenvalues of a matrix A. The main emphasis here is on the de velopment of the theoretical results needed for the solution of systems of difference and ordinary FALL 1984 differential equations. The cases of operators with distinct and non-distinct eigenvalues are treated in detail, although the case of defective matrices and the Jordan canonical form are only briefly covered. Throughout this part of the course it is con tinuously emphasized that the eigenvalues are the most important feature of any dynamical system. The students have the opportunity to solve a large variety of chemical engineering problems. They study: The difference equations describing a cascade of CSTR'S. The differential equations describing isothermal and nonisothermal CSTR's and their stability. The problem of N first-order chemical reactions taking place in a catalyst pellet. The difference equations resulting when a con tinuous system is subject to piecewise constant inputs, which provides them with an introduction to sampled data system theory. The problem of N first-order reactions taking place in a batch reactor. This is a long assignment, which Throughout this part of the course it is continuously emphasized that the eigenvalues are the most important feature of any dynamical system. leads the students in a step-by-step fashion to derive the theoretical results necessary to determine all the rate constants, through a set of carefully designed experiments [3]. This problem encompasses almost everything the students have learned so far in the course. As such, it has come to be known as the "Everything you always wanted to know about first order reactions in batch ( ... and more!)" assign ment. The final part of the course introduces the students to the concept of formulating the two main problems of linear algebra, namely A x = b and A x = Xx, as minimization problems. The emphasis now shifts to pointing out the ad vantages of this approach for numerical computa tions. The problem of minimization of a multi variable function serves as the starting point for an introduction of the concepts of quadratic forms and positive definite matrices. The least squares method is then developed formally, and its practi cal implications are considered. The course closes with the formulation of the eigenvalue problem as a minimization one. The Rayleigh and the mini max principles are presented, followed by a brief Continued on page 213. 179

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CATALYSIS CALVIN H. BARTHOLOMEW AND W ILLIAM C. HECKER Brigham Young Uni ver sity Pro v o UT 84602 CATALYSIS IS A developing science which plays a critically important role in the gas, petroleum, chemical, and emerging energy industries. It com bines principles from the diverse disciplines of kinetics, chemistry, materials science, surface science, and chemical engineering. Catalysis re search at universities is typically pursued in de partments of chemical engineering and chemistry, although some of the most successful centers of catalysis research employ surface scientists, ma terial scientists and physicists as well. Catalysis research at Brigham Young Uni versity (BYU) had its beginning about eleven years ago when Professor Bartholomew joined the chemical engineering faculty and has since evolved into an interdisciplinary program referred to as the BYU Catalysis Laboratory. The Catalysis Laboratory currently involves three faculty, two postdoctoral fellows, two visiting scholars, and fifteen students in basic investigations of hetero geneous catalysts OBJECTIVES AND PHILOSOPHY The long term objectives of the laboratory are to: Pursue basic research in the following catalysis related areas: adsorption, s upported metal catalysis catalyst preparation, catalyst characterization, and catalyst dea ctivatio n. Obtain a basic understanding of catalyst functions in energyand air pollution-related processes such as methanation, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and nitric oxide reduction which can be used by industry Our guiding philosophies are that a basic understanding of these relationships will lead to the development of better catalyst technology and that university laboratories are best suited to carry out fundamental investigations ... Copyright ChE D ivision ASEE, 1984 180 to develop new and better catalyst technology. Develop new and improve existing methods and tools for catalyst study, e.g. adsorption techn i ques, calori metry, infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Train and educate 10-15 stu dents on a continuous basis in the science and art of catalysis research. The emphasis in our laborator y is on basic research relating the physical and chemical properties of catalysts to their activity and se lectivity properties. Our guiding philosophies are (i) that a basic understanding of these relation ships will lead to the development of better catalyst technology, and (ii) that university laboratories are best suited to carry out funda mental investigations of catalysts and catalytic reactions while industry is better equipped to undertake catalyst screening and development ac tivities. We subscribe to the "multi tool approach"; namely, utilizing as many scientific techniques as can be usefully applied to the study of a particular catalyst or catalytic reaction. RECENT AND CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Work over the past five years has focussed on preparation, characterization, activity / selectivity, deactivation, and kinetic studies of cobalt, nickel, and iron catalysts in methanation and Fischer Tropsch synthesis Publications of the Catalysis TABLE 1 Current Laboratory Research Projects 1. Investigation of Boron Promoted Cobalt and Iron Catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch Synthe s is: Sponsors DOE Fossil Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center 2. Effects of Support on Adsorption, Activity / Selecti v ity and Electronic Properties of Cobalt: Sponsor DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Division of C hemical Sciences 3. Investigation of Carbo nyl-Derived Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts: Sp onsor Atla ntic Richfield Co. 4. Carbon Deposition on Fluidized Bed Methanation Catalysts: Sponsor, BCR 5. Mathe matical Modeling of Methanation on Monolithic Nickel Cata l ysts: Sponsor, BYU 6 Infrared and Reaction Studies of Rhodium and Rhod ium-Molybdenum Nitric Oxide Reduc t ion Catalysts: Spo n sor, BYU CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Calvin H. Bartholomew received his BS degree from Brigham Young University and his MS and PhD degrees in chemical engineering from Stanford University. He spent a year at Corning Glass Works as a Senior Chemical Engineer in Surface Chemistry Research and a summer at Union Oil as a visiting consultant In 1973 he joined the chemical engineering department at Brigham Young University and was recently promoted to professor He has authored over 60 scientific papers and 3 major reviews in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and catalyst deactivation Active in both teaching and research he has also con sulted with 12 different companies and is currently President of the California Catalysis Society His major research and teaching interests are heterogeneous catalysis (adsorption, kinetics and catalyst character ization), Moessbauer spectroscopy, and air pollution chemistry. (L) William C. Hecker received his BS and MS degrees from Br igham Young University and his PhD degree from the Un ive rsit y of California Berk eley (l 9B2) He has considerable industrial expe rien ce, having worked for Chevron Research, Occidental Research, Dow Chemical, Exxon, and Columbia Gas Systems His research and teaching interests include heterogeneous catalysis chemical kinetics, heat transfer and infrared spectroscopy. (R) Laboratory since 1982 are listed in the References section to this paper. A complete list of publica tions and areas of current investigation may be had by contacting the authors. Recent investiga tions have considered metal boride catalyst prepa ration chemistry; adsorption of CO, H2 and H 2 S on nickel, cobalt, and iron and of 0 2 on reduced and sulfided molybdenum catalysts; activities and selectivities of cobalt, iron and nickel in CO and CO 2 hydrogenation reactions; kinetics of CO and CO 2 methanation on nickel; interactions of co balt, iron, and nickel with various supports; ac tivities of monolithic nickel catalysts; and de activation of nickel catalysts by sulfur poisoning, carbon deposition or sintering. Current research projects (Table 1) are directed toward the under standing of activity and selectivity properties of boron-promoted and carbonyl-derived cobalt and iron catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.; effects of support and dispersion on the adsorp tion, activity, and selectivity properties of cobalt; mathematical modeling of CO hydrogenation on FALL 1984 cobalt, iron, and nickel catalysts; and infrared / reaction studies of NO reduction on Rh and Rh-Mo catalysts. From the above brief description it is ap parent that BYU's efforts in catalysis are diverse in terms of the reactions and catalyst types studied (i.e., methanation, Fischer-Tropsch, NO reduction; metals, oxides, and sulfides). Never theless, the experimental approach in most of these studies has a common feature, namely an empha sis on the characterization of these systems using adsorption techniques and spectroscopy combined with laboratory reactor studies to determine spe cific activity / selectivity properties. The breadth of research interests in the Catalysis Laboratory is further illustrated by the previous work with nickel methanation catalysts which included studies of CO and H 2 adsorption stoichiometry, activity / selectivity properties for CO 2 and CO methanation, CO and CO 2 methanation kinetics, metal-support interactions, TPD of H 2 desorption for nickel on different supports, sulfur poisoning, carbon deposition, sintering of nickel on different supports and modeling of monolithic Ni reactors. The following brief description of four recent or ongoing studies illustrates the nature of cataly sis research at BYU. The first example concerns a study of 0 2 adsorption on unsupported M0S 2 carried out by Bernardo Concha (M.S. candidate) under the direction of Professor Bartholomew. Oxygen adsorption uptakes and methanation ac tivities were determined for a series of M0S 2 catalysts having a ra nge of surface areas. The ex cellent linear correlation of the data (Fig. 1) indi120 .-----,-----,---,----,...,.------, z 0 100 U) 80 5~ 0" 60 w E z ~ < 0 :c 40 w :I: 20 400 c 450 c eoo c eoo c 0 o ___ ...J.....---,-'-o----',s----2-'-o----'2s 0 2 UPTAKE mole / g) FIGURE 1. Oxygen uptake of Mo5 2 catalysts after re action for 15-20 h versus steady-state methane pro duction (sulfiding temperatures are designated for each catalyst) (Paper Ref 10) 181

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to the number of oxygen adsorption sites. These results have important application in the develop ment of techniques for characterizing sulfide hydrotreating catalysts used to remove sulfur from sour petroleum and synthetic crude feed stocks. The second example is the result of a joint effort by Professors Bartholomew, Brewster, and Philip J. Smith in cooperation with PhD candi dates Edward Sughrue and Philip R. Smith to model both pellet and monolithic, fixed bed methanators. This state-of-the-art model includes complete kinetic rate expressions for CO and CO 2 methanation reactions, for the water-gas-shift re action, and for inhibition by steam. It also in corporates the appropriate reaction rate terms to account for pore diffusion, heat transfer, and external mass transfer. Using this model it is possible to predict reactor temperature profiles and conversion-temperature profiles in good agreement with experimental data for pellet or monolithic packed bed methanators (see Fig. 2). The third example, an ongoing study con ducted by Bruce Breneman (MS candidate) and Huo -Y en Hsieh (PhD candidate) under the di rection of Professor Hecker, involves the use of infrared spectr oscopy to investigate NO reduction catalysts (NO reduction is an important function of auto emissions catalysts.) A series of support ed rhodium catalysts have been prepared using various preparation techniques and various amounts of molybdenum in an effort to improve their activity and selectivity. Activity / selectivity measurements and two types of IR measurements are made on each catalyst. In the first type, the quantity and stoichiometry of various adsorbate molecules (e.g. CO) adsorbed on the catalyst sur face at room temperature are determined. This ] 1i .. 1 0 0 ,-----,-:;;:::: :::;;:::::::::::: =::=:J 8 0 60 ,o 20 500 550 Temp era t u re (K) Predicted o--o Experimental 600 650 FIGURE 2 Comparison of experimental conversion temperature profile for 3% Ni / Al 2 0 4 / monolith with model calculations. (E. L. Sughrue, Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young Univ., 1983) 182 cates that hydrogenation activity is proportional information is used to determine useful correla tions with activity and selectivity. In the second type, IR spectra are obtained under reaction con ditions and reveal important information regard ing the state of the catalyst surface and the nature of the reaction intermediates. This information is important in determining reaction mechanisms. The fourth study, carried out by Robert Reuel (MS graduate) under the direction of Professor Bartholomew, involved the measurement of spe cific activities and product selectivities of cobalt on different supports These catalysts were found to have a range of cobalt dispersions (fractions of cobalt atoms exposed to the surface) which varied over 2 orders of magnitude. While prepara tion, support, and cobalt loading influenced the activity and selectivity properties, these data were best correlated with dispersion (see Figs. 3 and s.---.----------------. z 0 4 iii rr w 0.. en 3 i5 0 A w Cl < 0 0 I2 z w 0 u 0 Co / S I 0z rr w 0 Co / Alz03 !!, tJ. Co / TIOz C ...J Co /C 0 -9 -a -7 -6 -5 -4 3 -2 -1 FIGURE 3. Percentage dispersion (percentage of atoms exposed to the surface) versus CO turnover frequency (rate of CO conversion per site per second) at 225 C for supported cobalt catalysts. (Paper Ref. 20) 4). These results indicate that the specific activity of cobalt and its selectivity to high molecular weight products both decrease with increasing dispersion. One important dimension of scientific work is the careful technical communication of the results It is, in our opinion, the necessary finishing touch to any project. The laboratory has been reasonably productive in this regard For example, during a two-year period from 1981 to 1983, the personnel of the laboratory participated in 8 different pro jects, published 42 papers and reports, completed 7 theses and dissertations, and presented 26 papers and seminars. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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5 0 0 z 0 4 0 iii a: UJ 0. en 3 c e UJ .. (!) < 2 I" z UJ 6 Co / S10 2 u a: 0 Co/A 1 2 o 3 UJ 1 !!, Co/Ti0 2 e C: 0 Co/C ...J 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 Average Carbon Number (wt. basis) FIGURE 4. Average carbon number of hydrocarbons pro duced at 225C and 1 atmosphere for 3 and 10 wt.% supported cobalt catalysts as a function of dispersion. (Paper Ref. 20) EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES The most important objective of our research is to educate and train students in the science and art of catalysis research. This is accomplished at BYU in a number of ways: through participa tion in research projects and special courses, by participation in the biweekly catalysis seminars, and by attendance at regional and national meet ings. In addition to our basic graduate course on kinetics and catalysis (see Chem. Eng. Ed., Fall, 1981), advanced graduate courses are offered bi yearly on special topics related to catalysis, e.g., catalyst deactivation, industrial catalysis, and re actor design. The laboratory is host to roughly 10-12 visitors each year of whom about 5-6 pre sent seminars. Graduate students are also pro vided with opportunities to attend and present papers at regional and national catalysis meetings. RESEARCH FACILITIES The Catalysis Laboratory is located in the Clyde Building, which houses the engineering disciplines. It presently includes 6 laboratories (3,000 ft 2 ) and the basic equipment listed in Table 2 to carry out adsorption, reaction, infrared, and Moessbauer spectroscopy studies. Our facilities for studying adsorption processes (two vacuum systems, one flow system, a TGA system, and two TPD systems) are scarcely equalled even by in dustrial laboratories. The temperature-program med-desorption (TPD) systems have proven to be particularly valuable in determining the states and energetics of H 2 and CO adsorptions on cobalt, iron, and nickel catalysts. The Moessbauer spectro meter has been extremely useful in determining FALL 1984 phase composition and oxidation states of iron in Fischer-Tropsch catalysts while our new FTIR infrared spectrometer is proving its worth in the study of NO adsorption and reactions on Rh catalysts. Having this variety of adsorption, re action and spectroscopic techniques at our dis posal makes it possible for us to pursue the multi tool approach. SOURCES OF RESEARCH SUPPORT The Catalysis Laboratory has weathered the recent turbulent times of increased competition and declining federal support through diversifica tio ~ 1 of funding from both industry and govern ment agencies (see Table 2 and acknowledg ments). We presently receive about $200,000$250,000 in yearly support from sources outside the university. A new fund raising effort, the Industrial Affiliates program, was initiated about two years ago. The objectives of this program are to establish closer ties with our industrial colTABLE 2 Facilities and Equipment of the BYU Catalysis Laboratory CATALYSIS LABORATORY Six laboratories-3,000 ft2 with catalyst preparation areas and preparation equipment n Three lab reactors including a Berty Autoclave reactor Two vacuum adsorption systems One flow adsorption system Five chromatographs-including HP-5830 and Sigma I systems TGS-2 thermogravimetric balance Two TPD / TPR systems with mass spectrometer and TC detection Moessbauer spectrometer system Nicholet 5-MX FTIR infrared spectrometer systemh Sage II, 68000 computer systemb; 2 Macintosh and one Lisa 11-5 computers 0 Vacuum Atmospheres HE-43-2 Dri-Lab glove boxh UNIVERSITY Six large computers (several VAX 750 and 780 systems, IBM-4341) Transmission electron microscopes (Botany): Phillips EM-400 (with EDAX) and Hitachi HU-UE. (Both microscopes have been used for catalyst work; TEM sample preparations have been developed.) Calorimeters (The Thermochemical Institute) GC-MS (Chemistry) X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (Chemistry) nThree new laboratories added in 1982-83. bEquipment added in 1983. 0 Equipment added in 1984. 183

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leagues and obtain fellowship support for gradu ate students through annual subscriptions of $5,000-$15,000. Affiliates of our program receive advance copies of our publications and a special annual study on some aspect of catalysis. Thus far, three companies (Atlantic Richfield Co Phillips Petroleum Co., and Union Oil Co. of California) have joined our program. SUMMARY Catalysis at BYU is a growing cooperative effort of faculty and students engaged in diverse areas of basic research in heterogeneous catalysis. While the Catalysis Lab is unusually productive in terms of publications, its most important pro ducts are students well trained in the multitool, multidisciplinary approach to catalysis research. Looking ahead, members of the laboratory are hoping to expand into other areas of catalysis re search including homogeneous catalysis and sur face science with the addition of a senior scientist in each of these areas. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the AMAX Foundation; DOE, Fossil Energy; DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences; NSF; Atlantic Richfield Co.; Phillips Petroleum Co.; Union Oil Foundation; and Brig ham Young University. REFERENCES: Laboratory Publications since 1982 A. Contributions to Books 1. C. H. Bartholom ew and J. R. Katzer, "S ulfur Poison ing of Nickel in CO Hydrogenation," in Catalyst De activation ed B. Delmon and G. F. Froment, Elsevier Sci. Pub. Co., Amsterdam, 1980. 2 C.H. Bartholomew, P. K. Agrawal, and J R. Katzer, "Sulfur Poisoning of Metals," Advances in Catalysis 31, 136 (1982). B. Journal Publications 1. C. H Bartholomew, "Carbon Deposition in Steam Re forming and Methanation," Cataly s is Reviews-Sci. Eng., 24 (1), 67 (1982). 2. C. H. Bartholomew and R. B. Pannell, "Sulfur Poison ing of H 2 and CO Adsorption on Nickel," Appl. Catal., 2, 39 (1982). 3. E L. Sughrue and C. H. Bartholomew, "Kinetics of CO Methanation on Nickel Monolithic Catalysts," Appl. Catal., 2, 239 (1982). 4. A. D. Moeller and C. H. Bartholomew "Deactivation by Carbon of Nickel, Nickel-Ruthenium and Nickel Molybd e num Methanation Catalysts," I & EC Prod. Res. & Develop 21, 390 (1982). 5. C. H. Bartholomew and A. H. Uken, "Metal Boride 184 Cata lysts in Methanation of Car bon Monoxide, III. Sulfur Resistance of Nickel Boride Catalysts Com pared to Nickel and Raney Nickel Catalysts," Appl. Catal., 4, 19 (1982). 6. G. D. Weatherbee and C. H. Bartholomew, "Hydro g e nation of CO 2 on Group VIII Metals, II. Kinetics and Mechanism of CO 2 Hydrogenation on Nickel," J. Catal., 77, 460 (1982). 7. C.H. Bartholomew, "Response to Comments on Nickel Support Interactions: Their Effects on Particle Morphology, Adsorption, and Activity Selectivity Properties," I & EC Prod. Res. Develop., 21 (3), 523 (1982). 8. T. A. Bodrero C. H. Bartholomew, and K. C. Pratt, "Characterization of Unsupported Ni-Mo Hydrode sulphurization Catalysts by Oxygen Chemisorption," J. Catal ., 78, 253 (1982). 9. C.H. Bartholomew, R. B. Pannell, and R. W. Fowler, "Sintering of Alumina-Supported Nickel and Nickel Bim eta llic Catalysts in H 2 / H 2 0 Atmospheres," J. Catal ., 79 34 (1983). 10. B. E. Concha and C H. Bartholomew, "Correlation of 0 2 Uptake with CO Hydrogenation Activity of Unsupported MoS 2 Catalysts," J. Catal 79, 327 (1983). 11. E. J. Erekson and C. H. Bartholomew, "Sulfur Poisoning of Nickel Methanation Catalysts, II. Effects of H 2 S Concentration, CO and H 2 0 Parti a l Pressures a nd Temperature on Deactivation Rates," Appl. Catal., 5, 323 (1983). 12. C H. Bartholomew and W. L. Sorensen, "Sintering Kinetics of Silica and Alumina-Supported Nickel in Hydrogen Atmosphere," J. Catal., 81, 1 31 (1983). 13. J. M. Zowtiak, G D. Weatherbee, and C. H. Bartholo mew, "Activated Adsorption of H 2 on Cobalt and Effects of Support Thereon," J. Catal., 82,230 (1983). 14. J M. Zowtiak and C. H. Bartholom ew, "The Kinetics of H 2 Adsorption on and Desorption from Cobalt and the Effects of Support Thereon," J. Catal., 83, 107 (1983). 15. C. K. Vanc e and C. H. Bartholomew, "Hy drogenation of Carbon Dioxide on Group VII Metals, III. Effects of Support on Activity / Selectivity and Adsorption Prop er ties of Nickel," Appl. Catal., 7, 169 (1983). 16. R. M Bowman and C H Bartholomew, "Deactiva tion by Carbon of Ru / Al 2 0 3 During CO Hydro genation," Appl. Cata l., 7, 179 (1983). 17. T. A. Bodr ero and C. H. Bartholomew, "Oxygen C h emiso rption on MoS 2 and Commercial Hydrotreat ing Cata l ysts," J. Catal ., 84, 145 (1983). 18. C H. Bartholomew, "Finding Keys to Selectivity in Fisch erTropsch Synthesis," Ind ustrial Chemical News, 4(10), 1 (1983). 19. R. C Reuel and C. H. Bartholomew, "The Stoichio metries of H 2 and CO Adsorptions on Cobalt: Effects of Support and Preparation," J. Catal 85, 63 (1984). 20. R. C. Reu e l and C. H. Bartholomew, "Effects of Sup port and Dispersion on the CO Hydrogenation Ac tivity / Selectivity Properties of Coba lt," J. Catal., 85, 78 (1984). 21. G. D. Weatherbee and C H. Bartholomew, "Effects of Support on Hydrogen Adsorption / Desorption Kinetics of Nickel," J. Catal. 87 (1), 55 (1984). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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REVIEW: Engineering Optimization Continued from page 159. to common sense to understand each of the op timization methods considered. Also, every method i s followed with an example to illustrate it. This format is exactly right as the focus is on how to u se the methods. As the jacket flyer states, .. proofs and derivations are included only if they serve to explain key steps and properties of algorithms The authors also offer their opinions a s to the strengths and we a knesses of the various methods, and I found myself agreeing with th e m in virtually all cases. Th e book occasion a lly stops r a ther abruptly on a topic, perhaps most noticeably with the chapter on linear programming. The theory be hind sensitivity analysis for line a r programming is not th a t difficult to present, yet the text simply presents some of the 'how to' aspects of this useful subject. Also it does not develop generalized du a lity th e ory, which can actually be done rather agreeably at a level consistent with the rest of the book. This theory is useful when attempting to understand a number of concepts, such as the s a ddlepoint conditions and dual bounding. The variety of methods covered in the first 11 chapters is impressive. The authors have ob viously scoured the engineering literature for the methods that have found their way into practical use for engineering problems. Included are direct and gradient based methods for unconstrained op timization problems; a simple p r esentation of the simplex algorithm for linear programming; the important theorems for constrained optimality; both ordinary and generalized penalty function methods; successive linearization methods; the very effective generalized reduced gradient me thod; gradient projection methods; and very im portantly the ideas behind successive quadratic programming methods, perhaps the best of the methods developed so far for nonlinear constrain ed optimization. The final chapter on methods, Chapter 11, covers briefly mixed integer linear pro gramming, quadratic programming and geometric programming The last three chapters of the book, Chapters 12 to 14, are a chapter on studies which have been performed to compare many of the methods pre sented, a very readable and important chapter of the issues one must worry about when embarking on an optimization study, and finally a chapter de scribing three larger case studies, obviously one FALL 1984 per author. The first of these chapters emphasizes what the authors feel must be included in a com parison study for methods if the study is to be meaningful. The homework problems are plentiful and s eem appropriate for the topics covered. Students using this book will be much better off if they have h a d a course on linear algebra. The material could be taught in one semester, if one is careful about not overdoing the detail on some of the methods. D PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC CONVEYING OF SOLIDS b y 0. A. Will i ams Ma rce l Dekke r, In c 1983, 319 pages. Reviewed by T. D. Wheelock Iowa State University This volume is the 13th in a special series of r ::iforen c e book s and textbooks relating to the ch e mic a l industries. It treats pneumatic and hyd m ulic conveying as separ a te and independent subjects with s ev en chapters devoted to the former and ten chap t ers to the latter. An additional chapter is devoted to solid waste disposal areas, l a ndfill s and sluic e pond s The volume is based l a rgely on the a uthor' s con s iderable experience as a d e sign e r and user of conveying systems. In line w i t h the a ut h or' s statement that "the design of a p n eum '.l tic conveyin g system is almo s t as much of an art as i t is in engineering function," the treat m e nt is l a r g ely descriptive and highly empirical. Various typ e s of conveying s y s tems and their operating ch a r a cteristics are described. Also dis cus s ed are important features of system com ponents s uch as bins, feeders, exhausters, blowers, pumps, piping, gates, and control units. In ad dition two chapters are devoted to detailed design c a lculations for a numb e r of different systems. Since the volume provid e s a bro a d and rather d e t a il e d introduction to the layout, de ::i i g n, and o pe ration of pneumatic and hydraulic conveying system s i 'c w ill be of particular value to engineers respo!lsible for the design and / o r operation of such s ystems. It m a y also serve as a useful reference for colleg e -level process design courses. In ad dition, because it illustrates the highly empirical n a ture of solids conveying technology, it may stimulate further research and development in this important field. D 185

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BIO-CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF BIOMASS ALVIN 0. CONVERSE and HANS E. GRETHLEIN Dartmouth College Hano ver, NH 03755 THE OBJECTIVE OF OUR WORK is to contribute to the development of new practical processes for the conversion of the cellulose found in biomass to fuels, chemicals, and foods Industrial scale plants for the dilute acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the cellulose in wood are currently operated in USSR, and in the past both concentrated HCl and dilute H 2 SO ,, processes have been developed in Europe and the USA. However, these processes have not been commercially viable in competition with petrochemicals and soybean protein. ACID HYDROLYSIS Our work in this area began in 1967 when Andrew Porteous, then a student in the DE pro gram, recommended in the solution to his qualify ing examination ( a design problem on which the A 0 Converse is Associate Dean and professor of engineering at the Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College He holds a BS degree in chemical engineering from Lehigh University and the MS and PhD degrees from the Univers ity of Delaware Currently he is involved in research associated with the conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals (L) H E. Grethlein is professor of engineering at the Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, where he specializes in biomass hydrolysis with acid or enzymes, water treatment with membranes and microorganisms, and process development in biotechnology He has his BSChE degree from Drexel University and his PhD degree from Princeton University (R) 186 Obviously the costs and corrosion problems associated with higher temperatures limit the practical temperature, and mixing and heating requirements established a lower limit on the residence time. student has 30 days to work) that a co ntinuous plug flow reactor be used to carry out dilute acid hydrolysis of the cellulosic material found in municipal wastes. Compared to the percolation re actor that had been developed for woody materials by the Forest Products Laboratory a t Madison, Wisconsin [10], Porteous reasoned that the plug flow reactor would be able to handle materials, such as waste paper, that would not be porous enough for percolation, and furthermore the pro cess would be fully continuous [9]. The kinetics for Douglas fir [10] indicated that the yield of glucose would increase as the temperature is increased and the residence time is reduced. This is of par ticular importance because the yields obtainable in a percolation reactor are inherently greater than in a plug flow reactor. With support from EPA, Fagen [ 2 ], for his ME thesis, conducted batch hydrolysis experi ments and measured the kinetics constants for paper, the principal cellulosic component of municipal wastes. He found that they were similar to those for Douglas fir and hence a plug flow re actor should be operated at high temperature and a short residence time. Subsequent studies on many biomass substrates have shown this conclusion to hold true in general. Obviously the costs and corrosion problems as sociated with higher temperatures limit the practi cal temperature, and mixing and heating require ments established a lower limit on the residence time. Hence, we set out to develop a flow reactor to determine the yields that could in fact be ob tained. From a more scientific point of view, the flow reactor has another attraction: it allows one to study the kinetics of hydrolysis under more severe conditions than can accurately be studied Copy r i ght ChE D ivi s ion A SEE, 1984 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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in a batch reactor because short residence times can be obtained without the heat up transients in volved in a batch reactor. Lay [6], Thompson [11 ], and McParland [8] (supported first by NSF and later by DOE), in their respective ME theses, developed the present flow reactor, shown in Fig. 1, and studied the kinetics of several substrates. Currently the acidi fied slurry is pumped into the reactor along with high pressure steam which condenses, mixes with, and heats the mixture to reaction temperature in, we estimate, about 0.7 sec. The minimum resi dence time used thus far is 7 sec. and the maxi mum temperature, 260 C. Under these conditions the glucose yield is 55-60 % Current modifications should permit operation at 280 C where a 70 % yield is expected. Several other approaches are being taken in an effort to increase the yield from acid hydroly sis. The glucose yields are reduced by the fact that glucose decomposes under the same conditions as it forms. Ward is currently studying whether the presence of acetone, through the formation of glu cose-acetone complexes, can be used to reduce the glucose decomposition. Holland is currently de signing a reactor which is to have a shorter resi dence time for the liquid, and hence less glucose decomposition, than for the solids. Vick Roy [12] has recently explored the use of SO 2 catalyzed hydrolysis under supercritical conditions. Because of the difficulty in pumping slurries containing a high concentration of wood, and the practice of injecting live steam into the flow re actor, the sugar concentrations in the reactor effluent are low. By using a nonaqueous immiscible carrier fluid in place of water, we have found it possible to increase the concentration of sugar in the aqueous phase. This also permits another means for separating the products. Woods have small amounts of rosins and oils, and they would be expected to concentrate in the nonaqueous phase. Of course, these advantages must justify the cost of any carrier fluid which is not recovered as well as additional processing steps. Further study is needed to allow such evaluation. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS As an alternative to acid catalyzed hydrolysis, enzymes can be used to catalyze the reaction. In this case, the glucose yields, with proper pretreat ment of the substrate, are in the range of 95100 % considerably higher than is obtained with acid hydrolysis. The reaction, however, is much FALL 1984 slower; 24-48 hrs. rather than 7 sec. Grethlein [3] compared these two methods, using data from Berkeley [13], and concluded that at that time acid hydrolysis appeared more attractive. This process evaluation is currently being updated through a set of process studies sponsored by DOE / SERI. In her DE thesis, Knappert [4] (with support from NSF and International Harvester Corp.) showed that by operating the flow reactor under somewhat milder conditions (1 % H 2 SO 7-10 sec., 200 C) an effective pretreatment could be ob tained. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis of these pre treated solids, the glucose yield was > 90 % in 24 hrs. compared to 35 % in 48 hrs. from unpretreated solids. Knappert showed that this pretreatment FIGURE 1 Flow reactor equipment. increases the fraction of pores that are larger than the enzyme molecule. Subsequent studies by Allen [1] and others have shown that the crystallinity of the cellulose remains unchanged and that the lignin is not removed. The pores are increased by the removal of a fraction of the hemicellulose, and contrary to the prevailing view, we now believe this to be the essential feature of an effective pre treatment. Grous is currently extending this study to include other methods of pretreatment. BYPRODUCTS Although glucose is the principal sugar (maxi mum yield = 42 % of dry hardwood), a significant amount of xylose can be produced (maximum yield = 18 % of dry hardwood). Whereas glucose is easily fermented to ethanol, xylose is not. Natural ly, efforts are underway at a number of labora tories to develop yeasts than can effectively carry out such a fermentation. However, xylose can be used to produce single-cell protein. Furthermore, its decomposition product, furfural, has a con187

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These theses include both process design and development, and basic research in applied science, in keeping with our two sets of graduate degrees ... siderable value, albeit to a small market. In his PhD thesis, Kwarteng [5] (supported by Dow Chemical Co. and DOE / SERI), reformulated Root's kinetic model for the formation and de composition of furfural from xylose, and redeter mined the constants from experiments in the flow reactor. He also extended the model to include the formation of xylo se from the xylan in the biomass. In contrast to xylose and glucose decomposition, furfural decomposition is second order. Hence, the furfural yield is increased by using a more dilute feed. This is countered by acid costs, product conc e ntration, and heating costs, all of which favor a more concentrated feed. Process optimization studies are underway to eva luate the optimum feed concentration of biomass. Even at half the current mark et price furfural is two to three times more valu a ble than the sugars produced; hence its pro duc'don could have an important impact on the profitability of the overall process. Lignin is another byproduct that we plan to study in the future. Some of it is solubilized in the flow react or, and the solubility of the residue in solvents is increased. Furthermore the short residence time followed by flash quenching em ployed in the flow reactor is expected to give it unique properties PRODUCT SEPARATION The overall process has three main parts : hydrolysis of the biomass to produce sugars and furfural, fermentation of the sugars to ethanol or possibly other chemicals, and separation of the ethanol to an anhydrous product if the ethanol is to be added to gasoline. Even though it requires a considerable amount of energy, distillation still appears to be the preferred means of separation. In his ME thesis, Lynd [7] proposed a new means of combining heat pumps with distillation that sig nificantly reduces the energy require ment, par ticularly for dilute feeds which are usually en countered when fermentation is used to generate the feed. The azeotrope formed between ethanol and water makes their separation more difficult, and even if a salt such as potassium acetate (KAc) is added to break the azeotrope, with normal distilla188 tion the reflux (and hence energy) must remain high if the feed is dilute, e.g. 1-10 wt. % Lynd's innovation helps to overcome this requirement. Hence, the use of KAc looks much more attractive. Work is getting underway to test out the critical aspects of this process experimentally. FERMENTATION STUDIES Tricoderma reesei is a fungus which produces the extracellular enzymes used in our enzyme hydrolysis work described above. It must be grown on a cellulosic substrate in order to produce these cellulase enzymes, but unfortunately can not be pr ese nt during the main hydrolysis step since it would consume the glucose product. Hence, the enzymes must be produced in a separate step. Since the pretreatment is effective in the hydrolysis step, we are now testing its effectiveness in the kinetics of the enzyme production step. Some thermophylic bacteria have the ability to ferment cellulose directly to ethanol. As the name implies, they live at relatively high tempera tures and hence the likelyhood of contamination of this fermentation by other organisms is low. However, they also have some limitations: they ferment natural biomass, which contains lignin as well as cellulose, very slowly; they have a low tolerance compared to yeast for the ethanol that they produce and hence produce dilute beers, and they produce other products that compete for the substrate. We think that it may be possible to overcome these limitations through the use of mild acid hydrolysis in the flow reactor as a pre treatment, combined with simultaneous fermenta tion and product removal using Lynd's distillation scheme to remove the ethanol from the dilute beer as it is formed thus altering the product distribu tion in the favor of ethanol. Lynd will undertake a study of this in his DE thesis. In order to emphasize the role of the students in this work, the references cited are primarily student theses rather than paper s in the litera ture. These theses include both process design and development, and basic research in applied science, in keeping with our two sets of graduate degrees -ME and DE for those interested primarily in design and MS and PhD for those interested pri marily in research. The distinction is one of de gree since many theses involve both eJements. The undergraduate programs of the students in volved in this work have included biology, chemis try, engineering science, and civil engineering as well as chemical engineering, in keeping with nonCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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departmental organization of the Thayer School. REFERENCES 1. Allen, D. C., "Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Acid Pre treated Cellulosic Substrate: Substrate Hydrolysis, Process Development & Proc e ss Economics ME thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1983. 2 Fagan, R. D., "The Acid Hydrolysis of Refuse," ME thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1969. 3. Grethlein, H E., "Comparison of the Economics of Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Newsprint," Bio tech Bio e ng, Vol. XX, 503, 1978. 4. Knappert, D. R "Partial Acid Hydrolysis Pretreat ment for Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose: A Pro cess Development Study for Ethanol Production," DE thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dart mouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1981. 5. Kwarteng, I. K., "Kinetics of Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Hardwood in Continuous Plug Flow Reactor," PhD thesis, Thayer School of Engineering Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1984. 6. Lay, J. R "The Acid Hydrolysis of High Solid Content Cellulose Slurries," ME th e sis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1978. 7. Lynd, L. R., "Energy Efficient Distillation with In novative Use of Heat Pumps," MS thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1984. 8 McFarland, J. J., "The Acid Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass : A Bench Scale System and Preliminary Plant Design," ME thesis, Thayer School of Engi neering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 1980. 9. Porteous, A., "Improved Manufacture of Polyure thane Foam," DE thesis, Thayer School of Engineer ing, Dartmouth College, Hanov e r, NH 03755, 1967 10. Saeman, J. F., "Kinetics of Wood Saccharification Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 87, 32, 1945. 11. Thompson, D R., "The Acid Hydrolysis as a Means of Converting Municipal Refuse to Ethanol: Process Kinetics and Pr e liminary Plant Design," ME thesis, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755, 1978 12. Vick Roy, J. R., "Biomass Hydrolysis with Sulfur Dioxide," ME thesis Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth Coll e ge, Hanover, NH 03755, 1984. 13. Wilke, C. R., R. D. Yang and U. Von Stockar, Bio tech. Bioeng. Symp 6, 155, 1976. VIDEO-BASED SEMINARS Continued from page 175. and use of non-communicative words such as "uh", etc. Sometimes the review sessions were absolutely devastating for the presenter since these manner isms are greatly "amplified" by the video camera FALL 1984 and, of course, preserved for posterity. However, I was pleasantly surprised by the light-hearted attitude with which all students received the re view process. There was much good-natured kidding about the errors, and no one seemed to be embarrassed or hurt by the review The two best presentations (i.e. free from errors) were edited, together with my brief com ments, into one tape which we shall use as a means of external communication to industry and to other academic institutions. For example, I plan to send this tape to some industry contacts to intro duce our research group and to precede my visit to a group I have yet to meet. Secondly, this tape may be used as a subtle recruiting aid at academic institutions which I may visit. Students seem to listen intently to their peers regarding graduate research experiences. REACTIONS TO THE VIDEO SEMINARS The student reactions to this new format were varied Some met the video-based seminar course with enthusiasm, some with fear, and some with indifference. A few were cynical about the value of a seminar course which did not allow a tough question-and -an swer session Many felt that furth er refinement of their seminar mechanics was un necessary. The professors showed the opposite feelings, perhaps as a result of years of teaching and giving technical presentations-seminars. However, after the taping all were of the same accord. Moreover, the students became more aware of the original intent of this experiment : to pro vide a new format which would allow instant feed back on a seminar presentation. The video-based format best satisfies that need for instant feed back. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, this brief experiment with video-based seminars was successful with regard to the original intent of improving visual com munication skills in a formal seminar setting This format is suitable for use as an occasional tool, preferably with students who have had some ex perience in seminar presentation. We may not repeat this experience until at least six to eight quarters have elapsed. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge the generous help offered by David Edwards and the crew in our Media Center and the monetary support offered by Rohm and Haas Company to cover the taping and studio costs. 189

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SEPARATIONS RESEARCH JAMES R. FAIR The Uni v ersity of Te x as Austin, TX 78712 A LL CHEMICAL ENGINEERS understand the importance of separation processes in the manu facture of chemical products. Raw materials must be purified, catalyst poisons eliminated, unreacted materials separated for recycle, and end-products refined to meet specifications. Further, waste streams must undergo separations before they can be discharged into the environment. Separation processes pervade not only the classical chemical / petroleum process industries but other ones as well, such as electronics, food and biological, metals, and so on. Investment in separation equip ment represents a large fraction of the industry total, and the processes consume very large amounts of energy. It is not surprising that there is much interest in developing improved methods for separating mixtures, not just for improved economics but also for simply enabling isolation of a material that is tightly bound in some parent mixture. It is surprising, however, that there is not more easily-identifiable research of a generic type that can support the needs of an industry so dependent on separations. In fact, there is a great deal of research in pro gress that supports the development of improved industrial separation processes. In academia, such research covers areas of thermodynamics, trans port processes in various media, and reaction se lectivity. In industry, the research is often directed toward specific problems that occur in the develop ment of new processes or products. In many re spects, there has been too little collaboration be tween the academicians and the industrialists who The research areas targeted were: distillation, adsorption, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, membrane processes for separating both gaseous and liquid mixtures, chromatographic separations, electrochemical separation methods, and separations employing chemical reactions. Cop y ri gh t Ch E D ivisi o n A SEE 19 84 190 James R Fair joined the chemical eng i neering faculty at The Un i versity of Texas i n 1979, after many years with Monsanto Company. At Texas he holds the Ernest & Virginia Cockrell Chair and also is Head of the Separations Research Program. He has received numerous awards from the AIChE and was honored as an Eminent Chemical Engineer at the Diamond Jubilee meeting in November 1983. He is a Fellow of AIChE and a member of National Academy of Engineer ing. He holds BS, MS and PhD degrees from Georgia Institute of Technology and the Universities of Michigan and Texas, as well as an honorary ScD degree from Washington University. share common interests in separations ranging from the fundamental to the applied. This paper describes one attempt to foster greater industry university collaboration in the separations tech nology area, the attempt being identified as our Separations Research Program at The University of Texas at Austin. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROGRAM A number of UT faculty had been conducting separations-related research for several years when in 1983 they were invited to participate in an industry-funded consortium sponsored by the Center for Energy Studies at UT. The center had a line-item budget from the State of Texas and had as one of its purposes the development of new programs that could impact the efficiency of energy usage by industry. Since the chemical and petrole um industries represent two of the three largest energy-consuming segments of the total industry, and since within them separations are the largest energy-users, it was logical for the center to be interested in industrial separation processes. This CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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led to a seed money grant that enabled the hiring of a full-time program manager, Dr. J. L. Humph rey, to pursue the planning and organization of the consortium. At the same time, a large (145,000 square feet) new research facility was approved by the UT administration, and arrangements were made for the separations work to utilize a signifi cant amount of the space. The research areas targeted were: distillation, adsorption, liquid-liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, membrane processes for separat ing both gaseous and liquid mixtures, chromato graphic separations, electrochemical separation methods, and separations employing chemical re actions. All of these areas had some coverage by faculty in the chemical engineering and chemistry departments. The industries targeted were: chemi cal, petroleum refining, gas processing, biologi cal, pharmaceutical, food, and textile. Informal talks were held with UT faculty members, uniTABLE 1 Participants-Separations Research Program* ABCOR, Inc. / Koch Engineering Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Albany International Corp. Aluminum Company of America Amoco Oil Company ARCO Petroleum Products Company The BOC Group Inc. Celanese Chemical Company Combustion Engineering, Inc. Dow Chemical Company Dow Corning Corporation E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. Ethyl Corporation Exxon Research & Engineering Co. Glitsch, Inc. B. F. Goodrich Company Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. M. W. Kellogg Company Koppers Com pany, Inc. Monsanto Company Neste Oy Norton Company Nutter Engineering / Chem-Pro Corporation Osmonics, Inc. Perry Gas Companies, Inc. / Separex Corporation Phillips Petroleum Company Rohm & Haas Company Shell Development Company A. E. Staley Manufacturing Co. Standard Oil of Ohio Texaco, Inc. Union Carbide Corporation As of June 1984 FALL 1984 Since the chemical and petroleum industries represent two of the three largest energy-consuming segments of the total industry, and since within them separations are the largest energy-users, it was logical for the center to be interested in industrial separation processes. versity administration, and representatives of a number of companies. A charter was written, and the plan was further developed and published as an 89-page prospectus. This document was mailed widely to industry, and during the developmental period twenty-two companies visited the UT campus to learn more about the proposed pro gram. In May 1983 an informational meeting was held, and 101 representatives from sixty com panies attended. A research participation agree ment was drawn up and mailed to companies with an invitation to join the program. Formal opera tion was to begin in January 1984. It should be mentioned that the cost of the prospectus, the in formational meeting, and the preparation of state of-the-art reports on the several separations areas was underwritten by the Electric Power Research Institute through a grant. At this writing, thirty-two companies have signed two-year participation agreements. They are listed in Table 1. CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS The plan was for the research to be supervised largely by regular UT faculty members. Thus, it was necessary for the research area coverage to be compatible with the interests of these people. It was recognized that additional areas could be covered by faculty yet to be hired, or by full-time research scientists and engineers, but these were deferred until a later time when resources and in dustry interests could justify the expansion. In the following sections brief sketches will describe the current work in progress. Membrane Separations. This work is divided into the separation of gaseous and liquid mix tures. For gases, direction is under D. R. Paul and W. J. Koros. Both of these people have had active programs in membrane separations for several years, Dr. Paul at UT and Dr. Koros at North Carolina State University. Arrangements were made for Koros to move to UT as a full-time re searcher initially, followed by a faculty appoint ment. It is clear that the use of membranes for gas separation is an industrial reality, with the promise of a large expansion of the areas of 191

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application. It is equally clear that many im portant questions regarding application cannot be answered with today's knowledge, and thus there is the opportunity for more rapid expansion of membrane technology through the support of generic research. The current program has thrusts in the following directions : pure gas sorption and transport, mixed gas sorption and transport, mem brane durability, separation of vapors, asymmetric SRP researcher William J. Koros measures the weight gained by a tiny membrane sample as it sorbs, or takes in, gas. A weight gain of 500 millionths of a gram indicates a highly sorbent material. membrane formation and characterization, and module simulation / performance. As might be ex pected, emphases such as the foregoing can shift as more knowledge is gained. The liquid-mixture membrane program is under the direction of D. R. Lloyd, who began his research in this area at Virginia Polytechnic, Institute and State University before moving to UT a few years ago. The program includes the synthesis of polymers, the preparation of sheet and hollow-fiber membranes, transport studies, and the investigation of possible applications in the petrochemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, and genetic industries. The unifying theme of the research is the need to understand the physicochemical factors that govern the sepa ration process. 192 Distillation. This old friend, and its associates absorption and stripping, is being studied under the direction of J R. Fair. As is well known, it is the dominant separation method in the process industries and for many good reasons is likely to remain so. The work at UT is directed primarily to the mass transfer efficiency of common types of contacting devices for distillation columns. Of the several segments of distillation technology (phase equilibria, mass and energy balances, efficiency, and equipment design) understanding of the mass transfer process is in the lowest stage of development. Two particular devices are being studied: the crossflow sieve tray and high-efficien cy packing. The sieve tray is widely used and is uniquely amenable to mechanistic modeling. The high-efficiency packing types, only recently de veloped, are making possible large energy savings in vacuum fractionations. The ultimate goal of this work is to have the form of mechanistic models that enable the reliable prediction of per formance for both new and retrofitted distillation columns. Supercritical Fluid Extraction. This work is under the direction of K. P Johnston. Supercriti cal fluid extraction (SFE) is a hybrid p r ocess that uses benefits from both distillation an d liquid ex traction. The process has the additional advantage that slight changes in temperature and pressure near the critical point cause extremely large changes in the solvent density and thus its dis solving power. In comparison with conventional separation processes, SFE offers considerable flexibility for an extractive separation through the control of pressure, temperature, choice of solvent and co-solvent ("entrainer"). There are a few SFE processes that have reached commercial ization, but in general the method still awaits better understanding of phase behavior as well as the transport processes that take place in SFE equipment. The program at UT is directed toward the acquisition of fundamental thermodynamic data and the development of predictive models that can guide solvent selection and processing con ditions. Of particular interest is the use of co solvents which in small amount can greatly en hance the separation factors. Liquid-Liquid Extraction. This work is under the direction of J. R. Fair and J. L. Humphrey. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is another old friend, though not nearly as old as distillation. It has gained increased attention recently as an alternative to distillation that for some cases can CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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result in distinct energy savings. For temperature labile mixtures, LLE can also off er advantages if the labile species do not undergo high tempera ture conditions in the solvent stripper. As for distillation, little is known about the mass transfer processes that take place in LLE equipment, and this is partly due to the dominance of proprietary type extraction devices in commercial practice. Under study at UT are sieve tray extractors and high-efficiency packed columns, both of which are non-proprietary and amenable to mechanistic modeling. It is expected that with the new under standing gained there will be resulting develop ments in more energy-efficient extraction device design. In a related area, work is underway to deter mine the mass transfer characteristics of a con tinuous-flow supercritical fluid extraction system using a counterflow solvent / feed arrangement. Adsorption. Drs. Fair and Humphrey are also directing work in this area. Interest in the area is high because of breakthroughs in the applica tion of pressure-swing adsorption to separating gas mixtures such as air into their components without excessive thermal gradients. There are two areas of initial study at UT: mechanisms of thermal and pressure regeneration steps for con ventional fixed bed gas adsorbers, and break through relationships for liquid-phase adsorption. There is future interest in the study of moving bed and fluid bed adsorption processes. Progress in adsorption technology has been largely through the development of improved adsorbents such as zeolite and carbon molecular sieves. The work at UT is centered on the kinetics of adsorption and desorption on and from these adsorbents as well as the more traditional adsorbents (where new process applications may be envisioned). Electric-Based Processes. This work comes under the direction of A. J. Bard of the UT chemis try department. Two areas are currently being studied: electrochemistry in critical aqueous solu tions and electrically controlled adsorption. Funda mental research on electrochemical processes in critical aqueous solutions has not been performed previously. Thermodynamic (PVT) and conduct ance studies have illustrated that the structure of water solutions changes dramatically near the critical point (375 C and 220 atmospheres for pure water). Since the dielectric constant of water decreases to that of a "normal" fluid at high temperatures and pressures, critical and super critical water becomes a good solvent for nonionic FALL 1984 At poster session representatives from companies listen to program manager J. L. Humphrey describe the sepa rations test facilities to be installed in the new research laboratories. or g anic species. However, a wide range of super cri t ical temp e ratures and pressures is accessible for which water is still a good electrolytic solvent. The electrochemical stud y of these systems there fore provides a unique opportunity to examine se lectively soluble, electroactive species in situ. With respect to electrosorption, the extent of ad s orption of substances at the solid / liquid inter face depends upon the potential difference across this interface. Thus, the adsorption of organic species on conductive carbon particles can be con trolled by the potential applied. This type of sepa ration has not been exploited, mainly because the fundamental data have not been obtained and be cause of construction problems associated with l arg e-scale adsorbers where a uniform applied po tential could be used. Separations with Chemical Reactions. This pro gram represents an expansion of work started several years ago at UT by G. T. Rochelle, the director of the present work. His quite compre hensive program has dealt largely with the re moval of sulfur dioxide from stack gases, common ly called flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The technology of FGD dominates commercial ap proaches to pollution abatement in fossil-fired 193

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Newer programs deal with the more general area of acid gas removal from gas mixtures and involves basic absorption / reaction modeling studies. power plants but is expensive, presents operating problems, and produces by-products of limited in dustrial use. However, it is unlikely to be dis placed by other technologies and by its nature suggests that there are many possible improve ments. The program at UT has involved enhance ment of SO 2 absorption by buffer additives to the CaCO a slurry scrubbing medium, and has pro duced mechanistic models for the total diffusion / reaction process. Studies have included the use of dry CaO and "dry" Ca(OH) 2 scrubbing media. Simulation work is underway that encompasses the entire process, including regeneration and re cycle. Newer programs deal with the more general area of acid gas removal from gas mixtures and involves basic absorption / reaction modeling studies. Mass transfer in such separations is fre quently enhanced by fast chemical reactions and at the very least is accompanied by nonlinear equilibria associated with chemical reactions. Thus, technical quantification of such separations can require measurements of chemical kinetics, equilibria, and mass transfer at representative conditions. Chromatographic Separation Processes. The use of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) for the separation of macromolecular solu tions is being studied under the direction of D. R. Lloyd Aqueous and organic solutions containing synthetic polymers, natural polymers, proteins, pharmaceuticals, and the like are under investiga tion. The objective here is to study the design con siderations that are required to scale up from laboratory to pilot plant. It is clear that this work will have an important bearing on developing bio technology-type processes. OPERATION OF THE PROGRAM The Separations Research Program is ad ministered by a program head, J. R. Fair, and a program manager, J. L. Humphrey. One repre sentative from each participating company makes up the SRP Industrial Advisory Committee, which meets twice a year to review and advise the pro gram. Separate study groups meet twice yearly 194 to review individual programs in detail; for example, in May 1984 there were separate study group meetings for membranes, distillation ex traction ( conventional and supercritical), and chemical reaction separations. The Industrial Ad visory Committee receives overviews of programs, whereas the study groups interact closely with faculty, graduate students and, very importantly, with themselves. An effort is made to obtain in puts from the companies that can influence the directions that some programs can take, even though the principal investigators (faculty / staff) retain final control over specific research studies An example response from the companies to a questionnaire is shown in Table 2. A question often asked both by academicians and industry people, with regard to consortia of this type, is "What advantage does a participant have over a non-participant, since the research results will eventually be placed in the public domain through theses, dissertations and pub lished articles?" The response to this question can be quite positive and follows these lines: (1) the participant receives results early, in the way of progress reports, discussions with the researchers, theses and dissertations that can be delayed for publication; (2) the participant receives a royalty free license to practice any patents resulting from the program; (3) the participant has a mechanism TABLE 2 Research Topics-Participating Company I nterest (26 companies reporting) Degree of Interest Weighted High Mod. Low Rating Separation of gas 19 6 1 44 mixtures by membranes Separation of liquid 17 8 1 42 mixtures by membranes Supercritical fluid 16 8 2 40 extraction Distillation / absorption 14 7 5 35 / stripping Liquid / liquid extraction 10 12 4 32 A dsorption 11 9 6 31 Separation by chemical 9 7 10 25 reaction Electrochemical separation 7 7 12 21 methods Weighted rating: high = 2, moderate = 1, low = 0 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Panel discussion at Industrial Advisory Committee meet ing, with members, from left, James R. Fair, program head; Herbert H. Woodson, director, Center for Energy Studies; Jimmy L. Humphrey, program manager; Donald R. Paul, principal investigator and chairman, Depart ment of Chemical Engineering. for keeping up to date in separations areas where there is not justification for doing so in-house for example, in an area of only peripheral interest presently but possibly more active in the future; ( 4) the participant benefits from interaction of its people with those in other organizations with kindred interests. In some ways, the last-named benefit can be the greatest of them all, if the par ticipant works it carefully. FUTURE DIRECTIONS We expect the separations field to continue in the forefront of chemical processing technology, along with the allied areas of reaction engineer ing and transport processes. Developing interest in specialty chemicals, such as those in the bio technology and electronics industry segments, carries with it the critical need for recovery and purification, often under non-classical operating conditions. Tonnage chemicals will remain under continuous pressure to reduce costs and conserve energy, and this means retrofitting a like separa tion technique, s ubstituting a new separat ion tech nique, or adopting novel combinations of separat ing methods. Much of the time-honored technolo gy, for example in distillation, i s still not well understood and thus may be difficult to exploit economically. In summary, chemical engineers will continue to deal heavily with separation prob lems and we expect to provide them with some answers. The future of the Separations Research ProFALL 1984 gram at The University of Texas also seems bright. Along with the new research laboratory space will come new equipment provided by the university, some of it of a fairly large scale. A number o f companies have recently expressed interest in becoming participants. Plans are de veloping for the use of visiting scholars and full time research personnel. We have outside grants and contracts in the separations field that serve to leverage the funding provided by the industrial participants. Importantly, the entire program is being staffed with excellent graduate students, and the learning experience for them and the principal investigators is, indeed, the raison d'etre for the entire effort. [i ft I books received Gas Table s: Int ernatio nal Version, Joseph H. Keenan, Jing Chao, Joseph Kaye. John Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NJ 08873; 211 pages, $37 .9 5 (1983) Metering Pump s: Selection and Application, James P. Poynton. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 10016; 216 pages, $29 .75 (1983) Chemical Grouting, Reuben H. Karol. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 10016; 344 pages, $45 .00 (1983) Basic Chemical Thermodynamics, Third Edition, E. Brian Smith Oxford University Press, New York 10016; 160 pages $2 1.9 5 (1983) Los Alamos E xp lo sives P er formanc e Data Charles L. Mader, James N. Johnson, Sharon L. Crane. University of California Press, B e rkeley, CA; 811 pages, $45.00 (1983) Practical Quality Management in the Chemical Process Industry, Morton E. Bader. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 10016; 160 pages, $27 .50 (1983) Fourth Symposium on Biotechnology in Energy Pro duction and Conservation, Char l es D. Scott, Editor; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset, NJ 08873; 495 pages, $65.00 (1983) NMR and Chemistry: An Introduction to the Fourier Transform-Multinuclear Era, Second Edition, J. W. Akitt. Chapman & Hall, 733 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017; 263 pages, $16.95 (paperback) (1983) Waste Heat: Utilization and Management, S. Sengupta and S. S. Lee; Hemisphere Publishing Co New York 10036; 1010 pages $125.00 (1983) Journal: Particulate Science and T echn ology, Vol. 1, No. 1, J. K. Beddow, Editor; Hemisphere Publishing Co., New York, NY 10036; $27.50/year indiv. rate. Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals in Laborar tories, Nat. Academy Press, 2101 Constit ution Ave., Wash ington, DC 20418; 282 pages, $16.50 (1983) The Chemistry and Technology of Coal, James G. Speight, Marcel Dekker, New York 10016; 544 pages, $69.75 (1983) 195

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GRADUATE RESIDENCY AT CLEMSON ("("A Real World MS Degree" DAN D. EDIE Clemson University Clemson, SC 29631 "I would like to get an MS degree but I first want to see what industry is like." WE HAD HEARD this statement (or some variation of it) over and over as we tried to con vince quality undergraduate students to seek ad vanced training after graduation. It was especially hard for me to counter this statement since I felt the same way when I completed my Bachelor of Science degree. Of course, most undergraduates cannot realize how truly difficult it is to leave in dustry and return to graduate school. Also, they do not fully appreciate the problems that the shortage of American graduate students is causing as universities and industry attempt to fill teaching and research positions. This desire for industrial experience and the decline in the number of American graduate students was extensively discussed in the fall 1980 meeting of the Clemson Department of Chemical Engineering faculty and the depart ment's Industrial Advisory Board. The discussions led to a new approach to graduate funding and training at Clemson called the Graduate Residency Program. This program seems to be that rare in stance where the student, industry, and the uni versity all benefit through cooperation in gradu ate education. The Graduate Residency Program offers an increased level of financial support for the student and, at the same time, provides the This is the third year of the Industrial Residency program. Thus far, eight students have completed their MS, four are presently in their final work period completing their MS thesis research, and three are just beginning the program. @ Copyright ChE Divisio,n, ABEE. 1984 196 Dan Edie is professor of chemical engineering at Clemson Uni versity. He received his BS degree from Ohio University and his PhD degree from the University of Virginia. Before joining Clemson he was employed by NASA and the Celanese Corporation At Clemson he has served as Graduate Program Coordinator and his research interests include rheology and polymer processing. student with an opportunity to gain significant industrial research experience. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM First, companies submit proposed research projects to the faculty, and these projects are re viewed for their suitability as thesis topics. The approved topics are then given to the Graduate Residency Program applicants who have pre viously applied to the graduate program and who typically have a 3.5 / 4.0 or better undergraduate grade point average. The applicants indicate their preference of both the thesis topic and company. Next, the applicants and company representatives are invited to the Clemson campus for one day of interviews during which the applicants can ask further questions about both the companies and the research topics. The companies can evaluate the applicants at the same time. Finally, the com panies indicate their preference, and applicants are informed of this selection. The applicant can either accept or reject the residency research position offered. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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A student graduating with a BS degree in chemical engineering in May would begin this master's degree program immediately. The Gradu ate Residency Program begins with an initial three-month summer work period with the spon soring company. The student normally spends this first summer getting to know the company pro cedures as he or she begins to work on the research project proposed by the company and agreed upon by the student. The student meets biweekly with the faculty advisor and company advisor. At the end of this first summer the research project is FIGURE 1. Bill Thornton of Milliken and Company (L) and Kyle Veatch (R) discussing Graduate Residency projects. fairly well defined, and the student returns to the Clemson campus for two consecutive semesters. During these two semesters, the twenty-four se mester hours of formal lecture courses required for the MS degree are completed. Also during this period of full-time study, the student is able to interact academically and socially with the full time graduate students in the university. Six hours of research credits taken during the work periods complete the 30 hours required for the degree. Upon completion of the formal course work, the student returns to the sponsoring company and resumes w6rk on the project begun the previous summer. The project is supervised by an industrial and a faculty advisor through biweekly meetings with the student. At the completion of this seven month work period, a formal thesis based on the project is presented to an advisory committee composed of the faculty advisor ( committee chair man), the industrial advisor, and two faculty members from the department of chemical engi neering. After committee approval of the thesis, FALL 1984 the student receives the Master of Science degree in December, thus obtaining the degree nineteen months after completion of the BS degree. The sponsoring company provides financial support for the student by providing Clemson with a grant of approximately ten-months salary for a BS-level chemical engineer (the time period the student is actually working on the research project). The university then awards this support to the student in the form of a fellowship. Thus, the student receives a stipend of approxi mately $1000 per month throughout the nineteen month master's degree program. This is signifi cantly higher than typical financial support for graduate students and, coupled with the oppor t unity to obtain ten months of industrial ex perience, has allowed us to attract top-notch undergraduates to our graduate program. The program offers several advantages to the student, the company, and the faculty. Advantages to the Graduate Student The student can obtain a master's degree in nineteen months, with ten months spent working on a spe cific industrial problem while compensated by a fellowship of $1000 per month. Since the student begins work on the project during the summer prior to the start of formal course work, graduate courses may be selected and tailored to his FIGURE 2. Craig Leite, holder of a Graduate Residency Fellowship, preparing an emulsion in his research into emulsion stability. 197

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FIGURE 3. Dr. John Beard (L) served as the faculty ad visor for Bill Rion (R) who just completed the residency program. The thesis topic involved an energy balance on a large polymer plant. or her research needs, which increases motivation in classwork. The student is exposed to an industrial environment, including specific industrial problems, prior to decid ing the direction of his or her career. The student has excellent day-to-day supervision, ex perimental facilities, and analytical equipment avail able to him or her at the company location (which is normally an industrial, technical or research center). Advantages to the Sponsoring Company The participating company can evaluate the future potential of the graduate student on a first-hand basis. The research results have more than compensated for the support paid to the student. The company is able to draw on the expertise of top level BS chemical engineers as well as Clemson University faculty to solve problems of specific interest to the company. Advantages to the Faculty Faculty members are exposed to a wide variety of industrially oriented problems in a number of companies. This helps them stay current with in198 dustrial needs. This, in turn, increases their prob ability of developing more industrially-oriented on campus research projects. The department has obtained a significant new source of financial support for graduate education which can supplement industrial, state, and federal grants. The department of chemical engineering now has in dustrial research facilities and resources at its dis posal which it could not otherwise afford. The department of chemical engineering at Clemson has become a more vital and productive partner with the rapidly growing chemical and polymer industries in the state of South Carolina. Even publication of results has posed no great problem. Although a couple of MS theses have been held two years before being placed in the uni versity library, most thesis topics have been based on non-proprietary problems and the results have been freely published. PARTICIPANTS AND THESIS TOPICS Companies such as Tennessee Eastman, the Allied Corporation, DuPont, Exxon Enterprises, Celanese, and Milliken & Company are presently supporting Industrial Residency students. These students had obtained their BS degrees from several universities. Thesis topics have been excit ing and challenging to both students and faculty alike. They have covered topics such as Control of emulsion polymerization Effect of additives on rheological characteristics of resin system Mathematical modeling of radial temperature effects during melt spinning Parametric studies of binary distillation columns Rheology of dye systems Solvent extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide This is the third year of the Industrial Resi dency program. Thus far, eight students have completed their MS, four are presently in their final work period completing their MS thesis re search, and three are just beginning the program. The program has had a significant impact on our MS program, not only by adding more top-notch students to our graduate program, but also by providing over $250,000 to support quality gradu ate students during these three years. The faculty and the sponsoring companies are enthusiastic about this unique blend of a full-time Master of Science program and "real world" research. But the best measures of success is that the Industrial Residency students themselves are delighted with the program. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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[e) ;j a book reviews FLUID MECHANICS AND UNIT OPERATIONS By David S. Azbel and Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff: Butterworth Publishers, Woburn, MA (1983) $ 49.95 Reviewed by David B. Greenberg University of Cincinnati Fluid Mechanics and Unit Operations is de finitely not just another overworked theme on the topic of momentum transport. It is, rather, a serious attempt on the part of the authors to pres ent the subject uniquely in the language of the practitioner and in a fashion that bridges the ob vious gap between theory and practice or, more appropriately, between classroom and application. It is relatively detailed in the subject matter treat ed and massive in size (over 1100 pages). The book is, however, focussed solely on those opera tions that are based primarily on momentum transport These include single and multiphase fluid flow, fluid transport by pumps and compres sors, separation techniques such as filtration, fluidization, sedimentation and centrifugation, and the theory and application of mixing. Those operations which require detailed knowledge of the remaining transport science trilogy, namely heat and mass transport coupled with fluid dy namics are not covered in this work but, as the authors suggest, are best treated separately in additional volumes. One might assume, therefore, that the authors ambitiously intend to complete the trilogy at some point in the future. The text naturally partitions into several sections. The first of these includes the funda mental development of the subject of fluid dy namics and covers introductory and descriptive material on the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids, similitude, modelling and di mensional analysis, hydrostatics and a section which the authors denote as internal problems of hydrodynamics. This latter portion is actually an elementary development of the associated con servation equations of fluid dynamics and their application to flow in pipes and conduits. The treatment here is far from complete but adequate for an introductory sophomore or junior course, or as a reference for the practicing engineer. The FALL 1984 text is easy to read, the diagrams are clear, and the example problems are detailed in scope and effectively presented. It is clear that this section which covers about one-third of the book, is roughly equivalent to many of the elementary texts available on the subject. In the second section of the book the authors apply the theoretical concepts developed earlier to fluid transport in pumps and compressors. Here, the reader is guided through a detailed de scription and classification of the various basic pump designs, their associated operational details, and where each of these designs is best used. There is also a section on selection and special applica tions as well as a set of practical problems at the end of each chapter. The practitioner should es pecially appreciate the fashion in which the ana lytical and descriptive material is synergistically presented. Moreover, the student, whose knowl edge of the subject is more application limited, will gain considerably, not only by the theory practice blend but also through the examples and problems which are well couched in an industrial atmosphere. The last two sections of the book deal with the application of fluid flow to external problems of hydrodynamics and heterogeneous systems. The authors introduce the topic of physical separations briefly and then develop the topics of sedementa tion, gravity settling, filtration, electrostatic pre cipitation, and centrifugal techniques from con sideration first of single-particle motion in liquid solid and gas-solid systems. Emphasis is placed on the requisite theoretical concepts which lead the student directly to the salient design considera tions of the topic. The theory is well supported by useful practical examples and problems which cover a range of contemporary unit operations. The chapter on fluidization which is especially descriptive will be quite useful to the engineer in industry who is concerned with the design of such equipment. Practical treatment of complicated phenomena in multiphase systems is presented in a clear, concise fashion with some needed detail devoted to the effects of such parameters as hold up, classification, bubble size effects and entrain ment upon the design of these systems. Moreover, the authors devote a final chapter to the hydro dynamics of gas-liquid flow. Much of this ma terial is quite new and relevant, and is probably not available in earlier texts on fluid dynamics. Because two-phase flow is still a most complex and Co ntinued on page 212. 199

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SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING CAROL M. McCONICA Colorado State Uni v ersity Fort Collins, CO 80523 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING includes the science of reactor design and optimization. As any pro duction environment becomes process limited, the role of chemical engineering increases in im portance. Semiconductor manufacturing is an ideal example of a maturing process ready for re actor optimization and design. As we break into the technology of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and Ultra High Speed Integrated Circuits (UHSIC), yields in the fabrication facility be come very important. High-throughput, high-yield processes must be developed so that our industries will be viable in a marketplace filled with over whelming foreign competition. Such processes can only be developed after the fundamental physics and chemistry of the chemical reactions are well understood. At Colorado State University (CSU), the de partments of chemical engineering, electrical engineering, physics, and chemistry have respond ed to industry's need by creating a graduate pro gram in integrated circuit (IC) process engineerC M. McConica rece ived her PhD (1982) in chemical engineering from Stanford Uni versi t y She spent three years with H ew lett Pac kard (1979-1982) developing state-of-the-art deposition / etching processes for their 128Kb RAM and 640Kb ROM, all fabricated with 1 micron NMOS double-layer metal technology. The chips utilizing this tech nology are now sold in the HP 9000 200 TABLE 1 National Average Monthly Salary Offers (BSChE) ** 1984 1983 1982 1981 Total Olfers 827 2023 6952 11695 ELECTRONICS % of Olfers 11-5 15.8 4.4 2.9 Salary $2173 $2109 $2112 $1915 PETROLEUM % of Olfers 13.0 16.6 36.7 41.5 Salary $2358 $2329 $2329 $2068 CHEMICALS % of Olfers 47 34.5 39 36 Salary $23 0 4 $226 0 $2241 $2 016 1984 data through June only ** CPC Salary Survey, The College Placement Council ing_ A student trained in most classical BSEE programs lacks the background in fluid mechanics, heat transfer, reaction kinetics and chemistry which is essential to integrated circuit manu facturing_ While students with BSChE degrees have the best education for processing integrated circuits, they lack an understanding of circuit de sign, device physics, and EE language. The gradu ate programs in integrated circuit processing at CSU give students an opportunity to broaden their background while pursuing research on a state of-the-art level. EMPLOYMENT OF CHEs BY ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES The electronics industries have recently begun to recogn ize the value of hiring chemical engineers to fulfill their processing needs. Table 1 lists cur rent salary offers and the percentage of the total number of offers made by the electronics, petrol eum, and chemical industries to BSChE gradu ates. The statistics were compiled annually from the College Placement Council (CPC) Salary Survey between 1980 and 1984. The actual number of offers made by both the electronics and petroleum industries declined, but more so for Co p yright Chb' D ivi s i on ASEE 19 84 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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While students with BSChE degrees have the best education for processing integrated circuits, they lack an understanding of circuit design, device physics, and EE language. The graduate programs in integrated circuit processing at CSU give students an opportunity to broaden their background while pursuing research on a state-of-the-art level. PERCEN T 100 90 BO 70 60 50 4 0 30 20 FIGURE 1. Percent of BSChE offers from microelectronics industries in the USA. the latter. The table clearly shows the growing importance of the electronics industry for chemi cal engineers. In 1981, only 3 % of all offers to BSChE graduates came from electronics, while 40 % came from the petroleum industry. By 1983, however, 13 % of all offers were coming from electronics firms and only 17 % from petroleum industries. The chemical industries have con sistently made 30 % to 50 % of all job offers to graduating chemical engineers. Fig. 1 presents the hiring trend by the electronics industry in bar graph form. At CSU the hiring rate by electronics firms has increased much more rapidly than the national rate (Fig. 2) This is a reflection of the proximity of microelectronics companies to CSU. Many companies have western headquarters and locate their research and fabrication facilities in appeal ing locations. While there is little petroleum re fining or chemical production in Colorado, micro electronics is pervasive and growing. This is also true for Arizona, New Mexico, Idaho, Utah, Ore gon, Washington, Minnesota and, most obviously, California. Other states with active microelec tronics industries also have active petrochemical or traditional chemical industries. These industries are still hiring the majority of chemical engineers in those states. The salaries offered to BSChE graduates by electronics companies since 1981 are an average of FALL 1984 $196 / month less than offers given by petroleum companies, and $127 / month less than those offered by chemical companies. This is simply the result of hiring into an EE-dominated discipline where salaries have traditionally been lower. Many high tech companies believe that their remote locations, informal dress requirements, flexible work hours and stock option-profit sharing plans compensate for this salary differential. Female engineers in microelectronics firms enjoy the support of a relatively young professional work force and a primarily female fabrication work force. The employment statistics listed are for BSChE graduates and clearly reflect the high de mand for chemical engineers in electronics. We believe this demand would extend to the MS and PhD level if graduate students could be given the opportunity to pursue research relevant to micro electronics. The following sections describe the coursework and the research topics and facilities currently available to graduate students interested in integrated circuit fabrication. INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PROCESSING PROGRAM The presumed prerequisites for MSChE candidates are given in Table 2. Students with out an engineering background may enter the pro gram and complete these undergraduate courses at CSU. The MS program for a student with a BS PERCENT 100 ,--------------------90 BO 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1980 FIGURE 2. Percent of CSU chemical engineering gradu ates working in the field of microelectronics. 201

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TABLE 2 Prerequisites for M.S. ChE Organic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Fluid Mechanics Unit Operations Thermodynamics Electrical Circuits Reactor Design Chemical Engineering De s ign in chemical engineering normally contains 26 hours of coursework. An additional 4-6 credits are earned for the thesis. Chemical engineers in the IC processing program are required to take four core chemical engineering courses, and then are allowed to choose the remainder of their credits from courses offered by EE and other depart ments. A typical two-year MS course schedule i s given in Table 3. The PhD program is an ex tension of the MS program, requiring more credits of coursework and successful defense of a dis sertation based on original research. Many of the electrical engineering courses emphasize material properties, fabrication technologies, and solid state physics. No special prerequisites are required of the BSChE student. Chemical engineers do quite well in these courses because of thei r solid back ground in thermodynamics and transport phe nomena. Students have the option to pursue courses which emphasize device design and de vice physics. These are not required of chemical engineers due to their more classical EE prerequi sites INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PROCESSING RESEARCH At Colorado State University there is an active solid state research group in the departments of chemical engineering, electrical engineering, and physics. Work is sponsored by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Colorado Micro electronics Industry. The focal point of the re search work is a clean semiconductor fabrication laboratory. Current research activities include selective chemical vapor deposition of refractory metals (C. M. McConica), oxides and interfaces of silicon and compound semiconductors (C. W Wilmsen), photovoltaic devices (J. Sites), transi tion metal silicides (J.E. Mahan), and polycrystal line silicon devices (J. E. Mahan). The major research facilities supporting the research are 202 Solid s tate device fabrication facility (class 100 clean room, metallization, diffusion, oxidation, photo lithography, wet chemistry, plasma etching, ion beam sputtering) Electron microscopy (ISi Super-II, ISi 100B and Hitachi HHS-2R scanning electron microscopes Hitachi HU-200F transmission electron micro scope). X-ray diffraction (GE diffractometer, Laue camera) Transport properties measurements (galvanomag netic effects thermoelectric power, temperature controlled cryo s tat). Surface analysi s facility ( A uger electron spectro scopy, ESCA, UPS, SIMS analysis). The current semiconducter research effort in chemical engineering emphasizes an understand ing of the kinetics of low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Metallic films are deposited on single wafers in a high vacuum system which can be used as a differential flow reactor Classical methods of kinetics and catalysis are utilized to determine the kinetic parameters which govern TABLE 3 M.S. ChE Course Schedule FALL Mathematical Modeling Thermodynamics Semiconductor Devices I Seminar Thin Film Phenomena SPRING Advanced Reactor Design Solid-Gas Kinetics Seminar Principles of Semiconductors 3 credits 3 credits 3 credits 1 credit 3 credits 13 credits 3 credits 3 credits 1 credit 3 credits IO Credits Remaining courses in second year (3-9 credit s ) to be chosen from: Introduction to Electron Microscopy Organometallic Chemistry Technique in Inorganic Chemistry Surface Chemistry Advanced Process Control Advanced Mass Transfer Semiconductor Devices II VLSI Plasma Processing Microelectronic s Semiconductor Materials Optical Materials and Devices VLSI Processing Topics in Plasma Dynamics Solid State Physics I Solid State Physics II THESIS-4-6 credits C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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the deposition reactions. The deposited films are then analyzed for electrical and physical proper ties. Through cooperation with local industries the students fabricate devices using the latest thin film technology. Other students are using CSU's kinetic results to model the behavior of industrial reactors. Again, local industries cooperate by al lowing the comparison between our models' pre dictions and their deposition results. The Department of Chemistry actively partici pates along with the previously mentioned de partments in Colorado State University's Con densed Matter Sciences Laboratory. Current re search activities include the study of molecular condensed phases (E. R. Bernstein), electrode surface modification (C. M. Elliott), techniques of elemental analysis and the chemical characterizar b 51 book reviews COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR TURBU LENT, TRANSONIC, AND VISCOUS FLOWS Edited by J. A. Essers Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 1983; 360 pages, $ 49.95 Reviewed by G. K. Patterson University of Arizona This book consists of six contributions in the general field of numerical simulation of turbulent flows. Each article is a strong contribution on the topic covered. Those topics are: "Numerical Methods for Coordinate Generation Based on a Mapping Technique," by R. T. Davis; "Intro duction to Multigrid Methods for the Numerical Solution of Boundary Value Problems," by W. Hackbusch; "Higher-Level Simulations of Turbu lent Flows," by J. H. Ferziger; "Numerical Methods for Twoand Three-Dimensional Re circulating Flows," by R. I. Issa; "The Computa tion of Transonic Potential Flow," by T. J. Baker; and "The Calculation of Steady Transonic Flow by Euler Equations with Relaxation Methods," by E. Dick. To the novice attempting to learn the basics of numerical turbulence simulation, the organiza tion of the book is not optimum. Although it is logical thematically to present grid generation, multigrid solution methods, and higher-level simulation in the first half of the book to lay a theoretical basis for the more practical topics to FALL 1984 tion of surfaces (D. E. Leydon), and NMR studies of solids (G. E. Maciel). CONCLUSIONS Chemical engineers are currently contributing to the electronics industry in growing numbers. Colorado State University has responded to in dustry demand for chemical engineers by offering a graduate program emphasizing integrated cir cuit processing. The program utilizes courses from several departments while allowing the student to apply chemical engineering techniques to an integrated circuit fabrication research topic. Graduates are receiving multiple offers from top quality semiconductor companies throughout the United States. follow, the novice would feel more comfortable reading first about general methods for Reynolds averaged modeling as presented for recirculating flows and transonic flows in the fourth through sixth chapters. The book offers much to those who already have some knowledge of numerical simulation of turbu lent flows. The treatment is not general and comprehensive for the entire turbulent and transonic flow modeling field. Each chapter pre sents a rather narrow topic from the author's par ticular viewpoint. Even though the collection represents the notes for a course presented at the von Karman Institute, no effort was made to link the presentations. Indeed, only one chapter was supplied with a nomenclature list, and each chapter has a different set of symbols. The book would be valuable to those with some familiarity with numerical simulation of flow but without expertise in numerical modeling of turbulent, transonic flow. They should probably read the chapters in the order: 4, 5, 6, 2, 1, 3. That order corresponds to problem complexity and so is easier for non-experts. The book probably does not present much in each topic that an expert on that topic does not already know, so it should not be expected to provide much that is new if only that chapter is read. Its value is in its possible intro duction of experts in one field, say coordinate generation and mapping, to another field where that expertise can be used, say external, transonic, turbulent flows. Having known little about tran sonic flows but much about incompressible turbu lent flow modeling, I learned much from the last two chapters. 203

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SIMULATION AND ESTIMATION BY ORTHOGONAL COLLOCATION The Chemical Engineer ing Division Lecturer for 1989 is Warren E. Stewart of the University of Wis consin The 3M Company provides financial support for this annual lec tureship award. A native of Wisconsin, Warren Stewart began his chemical engineering studies at the University of Wiscon sin, attaining the BS degree in 1945 (as a Navy V-12 trainee) and the MS in 1947 after completion of his naval service He receive d his ScD in 1951 from the Massachusetts In stitute of Technology, where he worked with Harold Mickley on interactions of heat, mass, and momentum transfer in boundary lay ers. H e join e d Sinclair Research In c. in 1950, and woiked there for six years, participating in the development of a catalytic reforming process and in early work on com puterized process simulation. His continuing interests in chemical process modelling and numerical methods date from this industrial research experience In 1956 he joined the chemical engineering faculty of the Unfoersity of Wisconsin where he was department chairman from 1979 to 1978 He has held two visiting ap pointments at the Mathematics Research Center of the university, and is now a regula1 member of the center. In 1957, Professors R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart, and Edwin N. Light/ oot began work on a textbook for a new course in chemical engineering Th e resulting book, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960, has had a wide influence in engineering education. Prof essor Stewart is a Fellow of AIChE, and received their Alpha Chi Sigma Award for Chemical Engineering Research in 1981. H e also received the Benjamin Smith Reynolds Teaching Award of the College of Engineering at the Unii,ersity of Wisconsin in 1981. H e is an associate e d itor of the Journal of Computers and Chemical Engineer ing and an honorary advisor to the Latin American Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Stewart's research emphasizes new mathematical ap rpoaches to practical analysis of chemical process systems. H e has worked extensively in the areas of fluid mechanics, transport properties, chemical reactor modelling, and weighted residual methods Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1981 204 WARREN E. STEWART University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 53706 J TIS A PLEASURE to talk and write on a favorite theme to my fellow chemical engineers. My theme for today is orthogonal collocation-its origins, its relation to other approximate methods, and some examples of its use in engineering. Orthogonal collocation is a technique for solv ing transport problems efficiently by fitting a trial solution at selected points. The points are chosen by use of orthogonal functions to minimize the approximat ion error over the given region. The speed of the method has proved valuable in modelling and controlling chemical reactors, and shows similar promise for staged separation systems. Two kinds of approximations are important in process modelling: approximations of the problem and of the solution. Examples of each kind are listed in Table 1. Orthogonal collocation belongs in the second category, among the weighted residual methods now to be described. PROBLEM ST A TEMENT Consider a generalized problem statement, typical in process modelling and in physical theory. A vector y of unknown functions of coordinates x is to be found by solving the equations L vY = fv (x,y) in V L sY = f s(x,y) on S (1) (2) in which L v and L s are the local parts of a linear operator L. Eq. (1) denotes the equations (differ e nti al or other) to be so l ved in the main reg ion of the problem, a nd Eq (2) denotes any needed initial a nd boundary conditions. The regions V and S may be conti nuou s (as in distributed models of re actors) or physically lumped (as in stagewise models of plate columns). We assume that any desired approximations of the origina l problem have been done, so that Eqs. (1) and (2) are to be CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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solved as given. APPROXIMATION OF THE SOLUTION Weighted residual methods employ an approxi mating function for y in Eqs. (1) and (2). A popular form is ,,.-J n-1 Y = Yo(x) + I aicpi (x) (3) i == O with chosen functions y 0 (x), cp 0 (x), c/>n -1 (x) and adjustable coefficients a 0 a 11 -1Often the a i are treated as functions of one of the coordinates, as in the method of Kantorovich [11] for reducing two-dimensional problems to ord inar y differential form. If each basis function cp i (x) is non-zero only within a corresponding subdomain, Eq. (3) is called a spline or finite-element approximation. ,-J Approximation of y by y in the problem gives the residual functions ,-J ,-J L v Y-f v (x,y) =E v in V (4) ,-J ,-J L s yf s (x y) = E s on S (5) which l oca ll y measure the errors incurred. For given choices of the functions y 0 and c/>i, the residua l s depend on x and on ao, ... an + If a general so lution of Eq. (1) or (2) is known, we can use it in (3) and thus eliminate E v or E s Elimination of E s is often possible, and yields an interior approximation ( only E v appears). Elimination of E v may be possible when f v = 0; this yields a boundary approximation ( only E s ap pears). Examples of the latter are the eigen function expansions used in problems of potential theory, heat conduction, and Newtonian creeping flow. If such general solutions are not available, ,-J or are not used in y, both E v and Es will appear; the TABLE 1 Kinds of Approximation Methods 1. A pproximation of the problem A. Linearization B. Asymptotic methods and perturbations C Physico-chemical assumptions and simplifications 2. Approximation of the solution A Weighted residual methods Least squares Orthogonality method Variational methods of Rayleigh and Ritz Galerkin method Collocation methods Finite element methods B. Finite difference methods FALL 1984 The following poem was submitted by R. B. Bird to commemorate Warren Stewart's birthday on July 3, 1984, and was accompanied by the observation that "I don't quite understand how such a young chap got to be so old so fast, do you?" TO WARREN EARL STEWART on his 60th birthday A student came in to see Warren And said in voice quite forlorn "I can't find a path Through this quagmire of math These nablas to me are quite foreign." So Warren, who's also called Earl, Decided to help this young girl. Without using a book He unflinchingly took The Laplacian of grad div curl curl. -r. b. bird result will then be a mixed approximation. A weighted residual method (projection method) is then used to determine the coefficients a 0 a 11 1 Standard criteria [8, 11, 12, 16, 19, 24] include least squares 0 (EE) = 0 aai i = 0, ... n-1 (6) the method of moments (here weight functions gi (x) must be chosen) i = 0, ... n-1 (7) the method of Galerkin [7] (which includes the variational methods of Raleigh [4] and Ritz [6] when the latter are applicable) (E,cpi) = 0 i = 0, ... n-1 (8) and the method of collocation or selected points. i = 1, ... n (9) The inner product (E,gi) denotes the sum or inte gral of the product Eg 1 over all points of V and S. Egs. (6), (8) and (9) can be regarded as special forms of Eq. (7), with the weights g1 chosen as c}E / oai, c/> 1 (x), and 8 (x-x1+1), respectively. ORTHOGONAL COLLOCATION Eq. (9) is the most convenient criterion, but to make it reliable one needs a way of choosing good collocation points. A simple way is to approximate Eq. (5), (6) or (7) by use of an optimal n-point 205

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quadrature of the inner product. This leads to Eq. (9) directly, with the xi now chosen as the quadra ture abscissae. The points thus found are always zeros of one or more orthogonal functions; this prompted the name "orthogonal collocation" given to this method in [18]. This approach was initiall y proposed by the writer to Lou Snyder in 1964 during his research on flow in packed beds [17], and was implemented with John Villadsen [18] beginning in 1965. The theory of optimal quadratures, begun by Gauss [l], has yielded good points and weights for approximating many kinds of integrals in one dimension [14, 15] and in several [15, 23]. One can This leads to Eq. (9) directly, with the x 1 now chosen as the quadrature abscissae. The points thus found are always zeros of one or more orthogonal functions; this prompted the name "orthogonal collocation" ... use these points directly for collocation with cor responding regions and approximating functions. Quadratures over discrete point sets have ap parently not been studied, but good grid points can be found, as in [55] and [57], by use of classical polynomials orthogonal on such regions [5, 10]. A more analytical approach is to write inter polation functions Qnv (x,x 1 x 0 ) and / or Qns (x,xi, ... x 0 ) for the collocated residuals. Then the residual functions, or their effects, can be ap proximately minimized by doing the collocation at those points which minimize a suitable measure of Qnv and Q ns For example, replacement of E by Qn in Eq. (6), (7) or (8) yields a grid-point criterion for a correspondingly weighted orthog onal collocation scheme. This method makes clear the restrictions implied by collocation at standard quadrature points, and also yields collocation points for other criteria or basis functions as de sired. Examples of this approach to collocation may be found in Lanczos [13], DeBoor and Swartz [27], Carey and Finlayson [34], and in several of our papers [18, 26, 37, 48, 50, 55, 56, 57]. Lanczos [13] chose Qnv in one dimension as the polynomial (x-x1) ... (x-xn) with least maximum magnitude on the interval [-1, 1]. The resulting polynomial is T n (x) = cos (n cos 1 x), as found by Tschebychef [2]. This choice of grid points, xi = cos[i 1 / 2)1r / n], gives a minimal upper bound on the residual in collocation [13], just as in ordinary interpolation [9], provided that the residual and its first n derivatives are continuous. Different grid 206 points should be used for collocation, as shown in [50], if one wishes to minimize the maximum deviation I Y Y I SYMMETRIC PROBLEMS IN ONE DIMENSION Consider a system of symmetric second-order differential equations in one space dimension LvY = fv(x2,y) for O x 2 < 1 (10) The region considered is the interior of a slab, long cylinder, or sphere. The boundary conditions are y = y(l) at x 2 = 1 (11) and (for a cylinder or sphere) ~= 0 at X = 0 dx (12) The solution i s symmetric [y = y (x 2 ) } and is as sumed to be continuous. This kind of problem and extensions of it are important in fluid mechanics and reactor modeling. ,..., A polynomial approximant y (x 2 ) consistent with Eqs. (11) and (12) is n 1 y = y(l) + (1x 2 ) I a1x 21 (13) i=O Thus the boundary residuals are zero, and the de termination of ao, ... an i is an interior approxima tion problem. The interior residual Ev is computable, for any ,..., particular form of Eq. (10), by inserting yin place of y. The result will depend on x 2 and on the un known coefficient vectors a1, Thus, it will be tedious to apply Eq. (6), (7) or (8) unless Eq. (10) is simple. ,..., Suppose we collocate y with Eq. (10) at some set of points, x 1 2 < x z2 < ... Xn 2 Then the residual vanishes at those points, and assuming continuity, it can be approximated throughout the interval by ,..., E v = (x 2 x / ) ... (x 2 xn 2 )[b 0 + bix 2 + ... ] (14) according to Weierstrass' theorem [14]. Here b 0 b1, etc., are bounded constants. We can now choose x/, ... Xn 2 by requiring that the leading term of ,...., Ev satisfy Eq. (7) for arbitrary b 0 This gives the orthogonality conditions 1 f gi (x 2 ) Q 0 (x 2 ) d(x a ) = 0 i = 1, ... n (15) 0 for the polynomial Q 0 (x 2 ) whose zeros are x/, ... CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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x, / Here d(x ) is a generalized volume element with a = 1 for a slab 2 for a long cylinder, or 3 for a sphere. Eq. (15) determines the grid points uniquely, provided, of course, that the functions g 1 (x 2 ), g n (x 2 ) are linearly independent on the interval of integration. To get a Galerkin-like collocation method from Eq. (15), as in [18], we choose g ; (x 2 ) = cp i (x 2 ) = (1 x 2 )x 2 i and obtain 1 f (l-x 2 )x 2 iQ n (x 2 )d(x a ) =0 i=l, ... n 1 0 (Gal e rkin analog) (16) From this it follows that Q n is one of the Jacobi polynomials derived in [3] and given in [15], [18] and [38 ] For the slab geometry ( a = 1), the points +x1 + x n+l at which (1 x 2 ) Q n (x 2 ) vanishes are the abscissae of a (2n + 2)-point symmetric Radau quadrature formula (or Lobatto formula). The interior points x 1 ... X n are used as collocation points for Eq (10), and the point X n+1 = 1 is used for the outer boundary condition. To get a least-squares collocation method for Eq. (10), we choose weights consistent with Eq (6) and the leading term of Eq. (14). Noting that the collocation makes a 0 a n i implicit functions of x / ... x / we obtain the relation s 1 f [(x 2 -x i2 ) ... (x 2 X n 2 ) ]2 d(x ) = 0 0 i = 1, ... n which may be rearranged to give 1 (17) f x 2 i Q u (x 2 ) d(x n ) = 0 i = 0, ... n-1 0 (le as t s quar es a nalog) (18) and yield another kind of Jacobi polynomial. Ex plicit formulas for the Q 0 of Eq. (18) are given in [15] and [38]. For the slab geometry (a = 1), Q is a Legendre polynomial and the interior grid points X1, ... Xn are the positive abscissae of a 2n point Gauss quadrature formula. The point X n+i = 1 must be added for colloc a tion of the outer boundary condition. For numerical work it is convenient to rewrite Eq. (13) as a Lagrange interpolant FALL 1984 .-1 n+l ,-1 Y = I Z j (X 2 )Y i i = l n+l II k = l k ;tj (x 2 -x / ) (x /x k 2 ) (19) (20) ... consider the steady-state performance of a tubular isothermal catalytic-wall reactor of radius R and catalytic length L, fed with pure reactant A in developed laminar flow with centerline velocity V m n x r' r' in which Y i stands for y (x i ). Derivatives and inte,-, grals of y then follow readily ; for example, d ; I = n!, 1 ( dl i (x 2 ) I ) ;i = "f A i ;; i dx X ; i = 1 dx x i J = 1 (21) :i: { v 2 z i (x 2 ) I xJ Y i = :i: Bi i ; i (22) 1 f f(x 2 )x n1 dx = 0 i ::::1 (23) The final polynomial, Z n+i (x 2 ), in Eq. (19) is pro p o rtional to Q n (x 2 ). This gives a simplification of Eq. (23) when (18) is used since Q 0 (x 2 ) is then orthogonal to x 0 and consequently W n+i vanishes exactly. Eq. (23) is exact for f(u) of degree 2n (here u = x 2 ) when Eq. (16) is used, and 2n 1 when Eq. (18) is used. The constants x i A 1i B 1 i and W ; are tabulated in [18] for the criterion in Eq. (16). Tables for both criteria, (16) and (18), are given by Finla ys on [24]; s ubroutine s are given by Villadsen and Michelsen [38] EXAMPLE As a simple example consider the steady-state performance of a tubular isothermal catalytic-wall reactor of radius Rand catalytic length L, fed with pure reactant A in developed laminar flow with centerline velocit y V max The catalytic wall, which begins at z = 0, induces a first order hetero geneous re a ction A B with rate constant k i'' cm / s The fluid is considered Newtonian with constant densit y p, viscosity and binary diffusivity D A B Longitudinal diffusion is neglected. An expre s sion for the flow-mean fractional con version as a function of z is desired. The continuity equation for species A under these conditions can be written in dimensionless 207

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form as [1 X 2] _QY = 1 a ( X ___2.L__ ) aZ X ax ax O s x Z L (34) Insertion of Eqs. (33) and (34) into Eq. (31) y = 1 for O s x < 1 at Z = O (25) gives aY = 0 at X = 0 for Z > 0 ax (26) aY = -Ky at x = 1 for O S Z S Z L (27) ax aY ax = 0 at x = 1 for Z > Z L (28) Eq. (27) i s a reactant mass balance on an element of catalytic surface. It contains two dimensionless parameters: K = k "R / DAa and Z L = LD An / R 2 V max Finally, let l f (l-x 2 ) [1-y(x,Z)]xdx X 0 1 (29) r (l x 2 ) xdx J 0 denote the flow-mean reactant conversion at Z. For a quick, approximate answer we will use collocation with n = 1. For this two-dimensional problem, we extend Eq. (19) as follows r-' n+l ,y = !, li (x 2 ) Yi (Z) (30) l = l thus immediately satisfy ing Eq. (26) and the symmetry of the problem. Since y is not known at x = 1, we will choose the points according to Eq. (18). The collocation constants then become, with a= 2 and n = 1: [Ali] =[-2y22y2] 4 4 Collocation of Eq. (24) at the interior locus x x gives the ordinary differential equation L +1 1 _7 d; = -8; + 8; 2 2 -+ dZ (31) Collocation of Eqs. (25), (27) and (28) gives 208 ,...., dy dZ ,...., = 16Ky for O s Z s Z r. 4 + K ,...., dy 1 = 0 for Z > Z L dZ The solution for the grid -point states is L +S 7 = +-L_J__l exp ( 1 6KZ) Y 2 -+ 4 + K -+ 4 + K (35) (36) for O s Z s ZL (37) [ 2 ] [ : } xp ( ~ 6 !i)for Z > Z, (38) and values at other radii can be interpolated with Eq. (30). The flow mean conversion, computed from Eqs. (23) and (29), is ,...., X = l -y 1 for all Z 2: 0 (39) since the quadrature weight W 2 is zero for the grid points used here. The inlet profile in Eq. (25) i s approximated only roughly here since ; (x,O) is a parabola satisfying Eq. (27). Eq. (32) causes the parabola to give the correct flow-mean inlet composition. The inlet condition would be better approximated if a larger n were used; however, a much better fit could be obtained by use of a properly singular function y 0 as in (56). This problem can also be worked via Eq. (13), with y(l, Z) and a 0 (Z) as the unknown coefficients. Several examples of this approach are given in [18] and [21]. We prefer the method based on ordinates ;i, because it is le ss affected by round ing errors at large n [49] and also handles initial conditions more directly. The collocation method also gives quick solu tion s with axial diffusion included, or with other forms of kinetics. Nonlinear kinetics will usually call for numerical treatment of Eq. (31) and of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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the wall boundary condition; several pocket com puters now have this capability. An interesting correspondence exists between traditional reactor models and collocation approxi mations to Eq. (24). Collocation with n = 1 yields Eq. (31), which has the same form as a plug-flow reactor model. The collocation solution also gives expressions for the radial profile and wall transfer coefficient, which the plug flow model does not provide [22, 38]. Collocation solutions with n 2 reveal dis persion effects [51, 52] through the presence of unequal velocities v z (x 1 ) at the interior grid points. In developed laminar flow no artificial term is needed to describe the dispersion, and no feed back of material is predicted other than longi tudinal molecular diffusion AP P LICATIONS OF ORT H OGONA L C OLLOCA T ION Orthogonal collocation has been used extensive ly in chemical reactor simulation and design. A survey of early work is given in [31]. Applications have ranged from one-point radial collocation of catalyst particle models [20] and tubular reactor models [22] to detailed simulations of multidimen sional reactors [25, 26, 49]. Electrochemical re actors have also been treated [35], with major re ductions in computing time. Fig 1 shows temperature profiles from a simu lated startup of an o-xylene oxidation reactor [26, 49]' Orthogonal collocation was used, with piecewise polynomials in the axial direction and global polynomials in the radial coordinates of the particles and tube. Improvements in the algorithms since the original work [26] have reduced the computation time from 240 s to 40 s on a Univac 1100 for the first 600 s of reactor operation [49]. Various approximations for reactor engineer ing have been developed, and existing models test ed. One-point collocation of intraparticle transport probl e ms [20] has given useful insight regarding particle shape effects, ignition and extinction phe nomena, as well as proper particle sizes for, measurements of intrinsic kinetics. One-point col location of the radial derivatives in two-dimension al models of tubular reactors [22, 38] yields equa tions formally similar to the plug-flow model, but provides also the radial profiles and wall transfer coefficients, as in the example of the preceding section. Multipoint simulations of catalyst par ticles [28] show that the ignition and extinction limits are somewhat sensitive to the particle s hape, and are often well approximated by oneFALL 1984 4 00 T d) 39 0 500 T 4 00 (C) 38 0 3 00 2 0 0 37 0 5 I. 1.5m F IGURE 1 Bul k temper a tu r e profiles dur i ng s ta rt up of a n o-xylene oxida t ion r eactor [ 26 49 ]. T he fi r st 0 .8 m of t he bed is d il u t ed t o 50 % catalys t; the r e m ai n d er i s 1 00 % c at a ly st. point collocation. Collocation analyses of packed bed reactors have been made by Young and Finlay son [30] to determine when axial dispersion may be neg l ected. Collocation studies of multiple re actions in porous particles [48] have shown sig nificant effects of catalyst pore size distribution. Collocation has also proved effective in solving multicomponent reactor problems with dispersion [52], and has made it clear that the dispersion co efficients are rather complicated functions of the chemica l kinetics. Orthogonal collocation has proved useful in nonlinear estimation problems where extensive parameter spaces need to be explored. A useful short cut, given in [36], is the direct computation of parametric sensitivities by a simple extension of the Newton solution algorithm. Bayesian esti mation algorithms are demonstrated in [36] and [46] for multiresponse reactor data. Computer aids to formulation and testing of reaction models are described in [41] and [45]. Pulse-response experi ments and collocation analysis are used in [39] to determine the thermal conductivity and heat ca pacity of an extruded catalyst. Transport problems in various geometries have been analyzed. Paper [29] analyzes the sensitivity of Clusius-Dickel column performance to imperfect centering of the heated rod or wire. Papers [32] and [33] deal with the Graetz problem for tubes and for packed beds, with longitudinal conduction in cluded; a fuller analysis for tubes is given in [38]. Paper [56] tests a model of viscoelastic fluids by comparing predicted and observed flow fields in a cavity with a rotating lid. Fast reactions and boundary layers give rise to steep solutions, which are hard to fit with global polynomials. Basis functions derived by lineariza tion have proved effective in several such cases 209

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(37, 44, 48, 49] when used in orthogonal collocation schemes. For example, Table 2 shows multicom ponent profiles for catalytic reforming in a spheri cal particle, computed by orthogonal collocation with hyperbolic functions [48]. These functions are tailor-made for the given problem, thus permitting good accuracy with a small set of collocation points. Piecewise polynomials (finite elements) are widely used in computing steep solutions. They are commonly fitted by orthogonal collocation on each element (27, 34, 40, 43, 51 54]. Integral methods such as least squares, however, are applicable to polynomial elements of lower order, and have been used in [47] to derive a robust algorithm with moving finite elements. Finite-element schemes are attractive for systems with localized action, whereas global schemes are still the most efficient for computing smooth solutions. Orthogonal collocation has been applied re cently to large plate columns (42, 53, 55 57] to obtain reasonable simulations in shorter comput ing times. The states in each module of the column are interpolated by polynomials of low order n and these are fitted by applying the column model at n collocation points. The preferred points (55, 57] are obtained by a least-squares principle in which the sum of squares (Q 0 ,Qn) over the stages is mini mized with respect to the grid-point locations x,, ... x 11 (which can have non-integer values). The resulting orthogonal polynomial was dis covered by Tschebychef (5] in a different context, and rediscovered by Hahn [10], for whom it is 1. 0 8 8 :z: 0 .... u ([ 8 6 "' ... LU _, 0 E C 8 4 ::::, "' _, 8 2 8 8 8 18 15 28 25 38 35 STAGE HU"BER FIGURE 2. Transient response of the liquid states in a binary 32-stage still to a step change in boilup rate (55, 57]. Solid curves: interpolated full 32-stage solu tion. Points and dashed curves: nodal states and inter polated profiles found by 8-point orthogonal collocation. named. Fig. 2 shows the nice results achieved by this method when eight nodes are used to describe the transient response of a 32-stage column to a step change in boil-up rate. The collocation method closely approximates the full solution, and takes about 1 / 12 a s long. This method should be useful in the design and control of distillation systems, and it has interesting possibilities for particulate modelling of reactors. There are many excellent applications in the literature. Only a sample is reported here. I ask TABLE 2 Profiles for Catalytic Reforming in a Spherical Particle of Radius R = 0.9 mm* Concentrations, mole cm -3 ,10 6 Radial n-Heptane Iso-heptanes Naphthenes Hydrogen Toluene Cracked Temp. Position Products K ri / R 1.0000 15.84 0. 15.84 237.6 15.84 0. 769.24 0.9904 15.50 0.69 13.00 238.2 17.88 0.07 768.80 0.9488 14.13 2.79 5.70 239.6 23.17 0.38 767.64 0.8718 11.99 4.88 1.47 240.5 26 35 0.89 766.92 0.7578 9.62 6.52 0.44 240.7 27.3 4 1.52 766.70 0.6074 7.56 7 69 0.33 240.8 27.67 2.17 766.63 0.4250 6.10 8.40 0.32 240.8 27.88 2.73 766.59 0.2188 5.28 8.72 0.32 240.8 28.01 3.11 766.56 Computed by orthogonal collocation with the grid points shown, and a bimodal pore size distribution [48 ]. 210 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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the understanding of the reader for the sparse selection that has been made. CONCLUSION Orthogonal collocation is an approach designed to minimize problem size and computation time. It is adaptable to basis functions of global or piece wise form, and to various weighted residual cri teria; thus the user's insights can be built in. The grid-point strategy can be summarized simply as follows: do to the interpolant Qn (X,X1, Xn) as you would to the residual e, if you had unlimited time. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Thanks are due to the 3M Company for spon soring this lecture and to my chemical engineer ing friends at Washington University, Virginia Tech, Carnegie-Mellon and Ohio State University for their hospitality. Above all, I thank my students and John Villadsen for their collaboration in this and other areas of research. LITERATURE CITED 1. Gauss, C. F., "Methodus Nova Integralium Valores per Approximationem Inveniendi," Comm. Soc. Reg. Sci Gottingen, III, 165 (1816); Werke, 3, 163. 2. Tschebychef, P. L., "Sur Jes Questions de Minima, qui se Rattachant a la Representation Approximative des Fonctions," Mem. Acad. sc. Peter s b., Ser. 6, Vol. 7, 199 (1859) ; Oeuvres, 1, 271. 3. Jacobi, C. G. J., "Untersuchungen iiber die Differ entia lgl eichung der hypergeometrischen Reihe," J. reine angew. Math., 56, 149 (1859); Werke, 6, 184. 4. Rayleigh, Lord J. W. S "Some General Theorems Re lating to Vibrations," Proc. London Math. Soc., IV, 357 (1873). 5. Tschebychef, P. L., "Sur !'Interpolation des Valeurs Equidistantes," Zapiski Imp eratorski Akademii Nauk, 2 5 (1875); Oeuvre s, 2, 217. 6. Ritz, W., "Uber eine neue Methode zur Losung ge wisser Variationsprobleme der mathematischen Physik," J. reine angew. Math 135, 1 (1908). 7. Galerkin, B. G., "Rods and Plates. Series Occurring in Various Problems of Elastic Equilibrium of Rods and Plates," Vestnik Inzhenerov i Tekhnikov 19, 897 (1915). Translation 63 -1 8924, Clearinghouse, Fed. Sci. Tech. Info., Springfield, VA. 8. Frazer, R. A., W. P. Jones and S. W. Skan, "Approxi mations to Functions and to the Solutions of Differen tion Equations," Gt Brit. Air Ministry Aero. Res. Comm Tech. Rept. 1,517 (1937). 9. Lanczos, C., "Trigonometric Interpolation of Em pirical and Analytic Functions," J. Math. Phys., 17, 123 (1938). 10. Hahn, W., "-Ober Orthogonalpolynome, die q-DifferenFALL 1984 zengleichungen geniigen," Math. Nachrichten, 2, 4 (1949) 11. Kantorovich, L. V., and V. I. Krylov, Approximate Methods in Higher Analysis, Gostekhizdat ( 1949). English translation, Interscience, New York (1958). 12. Crandall, S. H., Engineering Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York (1956). 13. Lanczos, C., Applied Analysis, p. 504, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1956). 14. Kopal, Z., Numerical Analy s is, Second Edition. Chapman & Hall, London (1961). 15. Abramowitz, M., and I. Stegun, Handbook of Mathe matical Functions, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series 55, Washington, DC (1964). 16. Finlayson, B. A., and L. E. Scriven, "The Method of Weighted Residuals-A Review," Appl. Mech Rev., 19, 735 (1966) 17. Snyder, L. J., and W. E. Stewart, "Velocity and Pr es sure Profiles for Newtonian Creeping Flow in Regu lar Packed Beds of Spheres," AIChE J., 1 2, 167, 620 (1966) 18. Villadsen, J. V., and W. E. Stewart, "Solution of Bounda1y Value Problems by Orthogonal Colloca tion," Chem. Eng. Sci., 22 1483 (1967) ; 23, 1515 (1968). 19. Krasnosel'skii, M. A., G. M. Vainikko, P. P. Zabreiko, Ya.B Rutitskii, and V.Ya. Stetsenko, Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Operator Equation s, Russian Edition, Moscow (1969). English translation by D. Louvish, Wolters-Noordhoff, Groningen, The Nether lands (1972) 20 Stewart, W. E., and J. V Villadsen, "Graphical Calcu lation of Multiple Steady States and Effectiveness Factors for Porous Catalysts," AIChE J., 15, 28, 961 (1969). 21. Stewart, W. E "Solution of Transport Problems by Collocation Methods," Chapter 4 in Lectures in Trans port Phenomena, by R. B. Bird, E. N. Lightfoot, T. W. Chapman and W. E. Stewart, AIChE Continuing Education Series No. 4 (1969). 22 Finlayson, B. A., "Packed Bed Reactor Analysis by Orthogonal Collocat ion, Chem. Eng. Sci., 26, 1081 (1971). 23. Stroud, A. H., Approximate Calculation of Multiple Int egrals, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1971). 24 Finlayson, B. A., The M et hod of Weighted Residuals and Variational Principles, Academic Press, New York (1972). 25. Kjaer, J., Computer Methods in Catalytic Reactor Calculations, Haldor Topsoe, Vedvaek, Denmark (1972). 26. Stewart, W. E., and J. P. S0rensen, "Transient Re actor Analysis by Orthogonal Collocation," Fifth Europ ean Symposium on Chemical R e action Engineer ing, pp. B8-75, C2 8, C2-9, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1972). 27. De Boor, C., and B. Swartz, "Collocation at Gaussian Points," SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 10, 582 (1973). 28. S0rensen, J P., E. W. Guertin, and W. E. Stewart, "Computational Models for Cylindrical Catalyst Particles," AIChE J., 19, 969, 1286 (1973); 21, 206 211

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(1975). 29. S0rensen, J. P., M. S. Willis, and W. E. Stewart, "Effects of Column Asymmetry on Thermal Diffusion Separations," J. Chem. Phys., 59, 2676 (1973). 30. Young, L. C., and B. A. Finlayson, "Axial Dispersion in Nonisothermal Packed Bed Chemical Reactors," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund ., 1 2, 412 (1973). 31. Finlayson, B. A., "Orthogonal Collocation in Chemi cal Reaction Engineering," Catal. Rev., 10, 69 (1974). 32. S0rensen, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Computation of Forced Convection in Slow Flow through Ducts and Packed Beds-I. Extensions of the Graetz Problem," Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 811 (1974). 33. S0renson, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Computation of Forced Convection in Slow Flow through Ducts and Packed Beds-III. Heat and Mass Transfer in a Cubic Array of Spheres," Chem. Eng. Sci., 29, 827 (1974). 34. Carey, C F., and B. A. Finlayson, "Orthogonal Col location on Finite Elements," Chem. Eng. Sci 30, 587 (1975). 35. Caban, R., and T W. Chapman, "Rapid Computation of Current Distribution by Orthogonal Collocation," J. Electrochem. Soc ., 1 23 1036 (1976). 36. Stewart, W. E., and J. P. S0rensen, "Sensitivity and Regression of Multicomponent Reactor Models," Fourth Int ernati onal Symposium on Chemical R e action Engin eerin g, DECHEMA, Frankfurt, I-12 (1976). 37. Guertin, E. W., J. P. S0rensen, and W. E. Stewart, "Exponential Collocation of Stiff R eac tor Models," Comp. Chem. Engng., 1, 197 (1977). 38. Villadsen, J. V., and M. L. Michelsen, Solution of Differential Equation Models by Polynomial Approxi mation, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1978). 39. Stewart, W. E., J. P. S0rensen, and B. C. Teeter, "Pulse-Response Measurement of Thermal Properties of Small Catalyst Pellets," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 17, 221 (1978); 18, 438 (1979). 40. Finlayson, B A ., Nonlinear Analysis in Chemical Engin eeri ng, McGraw-Hill, New York (1980). 41. S0rensen, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Structural Analysis of Multicomponent Reactor Models: Part I. Systematic Editing of Kinetic and Thermodynamic Values," AIChE J., 2 6, 98 (1980). 42. Wong, K. T., and R. Luus, "Model Reduction of High Order Multistage Systems by the Method of Orthogonal Collocation," Can. J. Chem. Eng. 58, 382 (1980). 43. Ascher, U., J. Christiansen, and R. D. Russell, "Col location Software for Boundary Value ODEs," ACM Tran s on Math. Software, 7, 209 (1981). 44. Caban, R., and T. W. Chapman, "Solution of Bound ary -Lay er Transport Problems by Orthogonal Col location," Chem Eng. Sci 36, 849 (1981). 45. Stewart, W. E., and J. P. S0rensen, "Computer-Aided Modelling of Reaction Networks," in Foundations of Computer-Aided Proc ess Design, R S. H Mah and W. D. Seider, Eds., Engineering Foundation, New York, II, 335 (1981). 46. Stewart, W. E., and J P. S0rensen, "Bayesian Estimation of Common Parameters from Irregular Multi-Response Data," Technometrics, 23, 131 (1981); 212 24, 91 (1982). 47. Miller, K., and R. N. Miller, "Mov ing Finite Elements. I, II.," SIAM J. Numer. Anal 18, 1019, 1033 (1981). 48 S0rensen, J. P., and W. E. Stewart, "Collocation Analysis of Multicomponent Diffusion and Reaction in Porous Catalysts," Chem Eng. Sci., 37, 1103 (1982). 49. S0rensen, J. P. Simulation, Regr ession, and Control of Chemical R eactors by Collocation T echniques Dr. Techn. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (1982). 50. Co, A and W. E. Stewart, "Viscoelastic Flow from a Tube into a Radial Slit," AIChE J., 28,6 44 (1982). 51. Wang, J C., and W. E Stewart, "New Descriptions of Dispersion in Flow through Tubes: Convolution and Collocation Methods," AIChE J., 29, 493 (1983). 52. Wang, J. C and W E. Stewart, Couple d R eactions and Disp ersion in P ulse -F e d T ubular R eactors, Paper 57e, AIChE National Meeting, Los Angeles (1982). 53 Cho, Y. S., and B. Jos ep h "Reduced-Order Steady State and Dynamic Models for Separation Processes," AIChE J., 2 9, 261, 270 (1983). 54. Davis, M E., Num e rical Methods and Modelling for Chemical Engineers, Wil ey, New York (1984). 55. Stewart, W. E., K. L. Levien, and M. Morari, "Col location Methods in Distillation," in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Foundations of Computer-Aided Proce ss D esign, A. W. Wester berg and H. H. Chien, Eds., CACHE Corporation, New York (1984), page 535. 56. Nirschl, J. P and W. E Stewart, "Computation of Visco e lastic Flow in a Cylindrical Tank with a Rotat ing Lid," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech (in press). 57. Stewart, W. E K L. Levien, and M. Morari, "S imu lation of Fractionation by Orthogonal Collocation," Chem. Eng. Sci. (in press). REVIEW: Fluid Mechanics Continued from page 199. difficult phenomena to quantitate, this chapter pro vides a reasonable summary of the key features of this topic. Again the emphasis is primarily on the design aspects. It provides, in effect, a point of-departure for someone who wishes to gain an initial insight into the area. In summary, therefore, the authors have written a comprehensive text that covers those unit operations which have a unique basis in fluid dynamics. The book is generally well written and liberally laced with pertinent detailed examples drawn from industrial situations. Although the material covered extends well beyond that normal ly found in a first course in fluid dynamics, it does include the requisite essence and could easily be used as a text in such a course. I suspect, however, that it will find much more use as a handy refer ence for the practicing engineer. I do hope that the authors complete the trilogy. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATIO N

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TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Cont:nued from page 173. this method. However, emphasis is placed on when such an approximation can be invoked by develop ing ideas on multiple time scale analysis The method is illustrated by considering shrinking unreacted core model in gas-solid reactions and evaporation of a drop in a stagnant fluid. Additional topics covered in the course are listed in Table 3. These include non-Newtonian fluid flow, turbulent flow, some cases of exact solution of Navier-Stokes equations, evaluations of Nuss e lt and Sherwood numbers in laminar and turbulent flow, and some cases of mass transfer where no analogs in heat transfer are available. Finally, some examples of macroscopic balances are also solved. SUMMARY The course is essentially a survey in transport processes. An attempt is made to give students a thorough understanding of the topics covered, so that they c a n formulate the necessary differential equ a tio n s. They are given sufficient insight into some of the powerful tools available to analyze and solve these equations. It is emphasized that the n nswers obtained must be checked to see if the a ssumptions made in deriving them are ful filled. It is also s tressed that in most cases, knowing the distribution of velocity, temperature, and con centration is not as important as knowing the fluxes at the interface. These in turn are then \ related to friction factor, Nusselt, and Sherwood numbers respectively. The course as described here has been well received by the students. Good students tend to feel they are ready to tackle more difficult topics. Terminal master's students feel they have a solid foundation in transport phe nomena on which they can continue to build their practical experience. REFERENCES 1. Bird, R. B W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Tran sp or t Ph e nom e na, 7th printing, Wil e y, New York, 1960. 2. Bird, R. B., W. E Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, and T. W. Chapman AIChE Continuing Education Series, No. 4, 1969. 3 "Selected Topics in Transport Phenomena," Chem Eng. Symp. Ser., No 58, 61, 1965. 4. Denn, M. M., Proc ess Fluid Mechanics, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1980. 5. Schlichting, H., Boundary-Lay e r Theory, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, N Y., 1979. 6. Slattery, J.C., Momen tum En er gy and Mass Transfer in Continua, Robert E. Kreiger Publishing Company, 2nd Edition, Huntington, N.Y 1981. FALL 1984 LINEAR ALGEBRA Continued from page 179. discussion of simple numerical methods for the computation of eigenvalues. In order to further e stablish the importance of the variational methods, the finite element method is briefly out lined at the end of the course, using tools that the students already possess. CONCLUDING REMARKS Our course attempts to introduce the students to the essentials of linear algebra and, at the same time, to convey the fact that these elegant results can be applied to a wide range of engineer ing problems. Significant emphasis is placed upon the development of basic and efficient compu tational methods. There is hardly any need to stress again the importance of exposing the chemi cal engineering graduate student to the basics of numerical analysis. Our experience indicates that the essentials of computational linear algebra can be successfully integrated into an applied mathe matics course. A large number of students go on to ta k e a rigorous numerical analysis course given by the Mathema t ical Sciences Department at Rice, w h ich covers metho d s for the solution of ordinary and partial c. ifferential equations. They have dis covered that th e ir background in computational linear al g ebra was adequate. We plan to introduce still another computer p r ojec t in future offerings of this course, in order to familiarize the students with some of the most useful methods for the numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of large matrices. The emphasis will again be on the understanding of the physical problem and the resulting mathe matical one, and on the study of the relative ad vantages of the various algorithms. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wishes to acknowledge the in fluence of his mentors, Rutherford Aris, Neal Amundson and D. Ramkrishna, who have shown him that applied mathematics can also be enjoy able and who have shaped his ideas about teach ing. REFERENCES 1. Amund s on, N R., Chem Eng. Edn., 3, 174 (1969). 2. Ramkri s hna, D., Chem. Eng. Edn., 13 172 (1979). 3 Wei, T. and C. D. Prater, Adv. Catalysi s, 13, 204 (1962). 213

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APPLIE-D MATHEMATICS Continued from page 163. also enjoy seeing the connection between the non existence of a solution determined by the applica tion of a mathematical theorem to a physically generated problem to be equivalent to a violation of a basic conservation principle such as mass; energy, or momentum. This helps them develop a further appreciation for the practical importance and usefulness of mathematical theorems. When we present partial differential equations, we begin by emphasizing the characteristics of the "typical'; problem which can readily be solved by pointing out the restrictions that must be placed on the shape of the domain, the boundary conditions, and the form of the operator. This brings togetheri many of the concepts developed over the first two semesters. Then we proceed to analyze a numbe~ of specific problems which violate in one form or another these restrictions and show that the manipulations that must be performed to make these problems solvable, which might have ap peared as "tricks," can be rationalized and under stood based upon their in-depth knowledge of the structure and properties of vector spaces. Thus, the students have developed a deeper appreciation for the key role played by mathematical theory in being a creative applied mathematician. The third semester covers the solution struc tures of nonlinear equations and the perturbation methods used to analyze them. Three different areas of perturbation analysis are studied : bound ary layer theory, bifurcation theory, and finite ele ment-based numerical methods. The semester starts with a general introduction to perturba tion techniques. Following a rigorous definition of order and asymptotic series, a variety of ex pansion techniques can be seen to be different formalisms for singular perturbation. The bulk of the course covers bifurcation theo ry: a set of perturbation techniques for de termining the multiple solutions to nonlinear algebraic, ordinary differential, and partial differ ential equations, their stability, and their de pendence on parameters. Theoretical concepts de veloped in the first two semesters, such as Fred holm's Alternative and the Implicit Mapping Theorem, are central to bifurcation analysis. Spe cific examples from fluid mechanics and reactor design show how the theory may be used to analyze transitions between the multiple steady states which frequently arise. The course concludes by covering computer 214 implementation of perturbation techniques using the Finite Element Method. Computer-aided analysis relies heavily on the same local ex pansions covered earlier in the course. Any ana lytical technique can be implemented on a com puter, but the ability to trade off more steps and unknowns for simpler calculations at each step en: courages the use of lower order expansions and local basis functions rather than, for example, eigenfunction expansions. Using linear operator notation highlights the similarities between com puter-based techniques for analyzing the ordinary differential equations that arise upon discretizing partial differential equations and analytical per turbation techniques for studying the original partial differential equations. TEXTS Though it is difficult to find a text that presents the necessary concepts in the manner we have just described, it is important for the students to learn to read applied mathematics literature. Therefore, we do require a few texts and assign correspond ing sections from them. For the first semester course, we have used either Mathematical Founda tions in Engineering and Science by Michel and Herget or Linear Operator Theory in Engineering and Science by Naylor and Sell as the major text. We make up our own homework problems, how ever, which include extending theoretical concepts and proving theorems as well as solving problems arising from chemical engineering applications. For the section on matrices, readings from Mathe matical Methods in Chemical Engineering, Vol. I: Matrices and Their Application by Amundson and Linear Algebra and its Application by Strang are assigned. For the section on metric spaces, we find helpful supplemental reading in Green's Funetions and Boundary Value Problems by Stakgold and Introductory Functional Analysis wit h Applica tions by Kreysig. In the second semester, the aforementioned book by Stakgold is the major text. Other references include Principles and Techniques of Applied Mathematics by Friedman, and the text by Naylor and Sell mentioned pre viously. For the third semester, the principal texts are P erturbation Methods in Applied Mathe matics by Cole and Elementary Stability and Bi furcation Theory by Ioos and Joseph. CONCLUSION We are convinced that our approach to teach ing applied mathematics for chemical engineer ing graduate students has been very successful. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Despite the rigorous and initially abstract per spective, s tudent reaction has been overwhelming ly favorable. Probably the primary reason for this is that we try very ha r d to stress the "why" of applied mathematics, so that the "how" of solving problems is seen to follow logically and naturally from an understandable conceptual framework. The major criticism of our approach might be that fewer specific techniques can be included because of the time devoted to the underlying theory. How ever, we strongly believe that this is no real short coming because the students are now equipped to learn a wider assortment of new techniques on their own because they have the background necessary to comprehend the basis of unfamiliar methods And this, after all, is the objective of graduate education GRADUATE PLANT DESIGN Co nt i n ued from pa g e 1 6 5. theory and its limitations and those of the numerical procedure utilized to reach a solution. The proliferation of engineering software houses is alarming. Are they becoming the de facto engi neering companies of the future? It appears that in the headlong rush to utilize the computer, the art of creating a reasonable and useful model of physical reality may be declining. The measure of the sophistication of a mathemati c a l model is not what you include but, rather, what you leave out However, the capability of computers to crunch complicated differential equations and systems of equations encourages overly complex models that can conceal the sig nificant variables and their relationship. Often, simple models and simple procedures are all that are required for the problem at hand. With the bewildering array of software being marketed and the significant use of computer design in industry, it is extremely important that the student appreciate the roles of the various levels of analysis in his work. Using a sledge hammer when a tack hammer would suffice is a cardinal sin which demonstrates a serious lack of judgment and / or knowledge. Students are en couraged to keep it as simple as possible, con sistent with the results desired. Concerning analysis itself, all too often the student is faced with papers and texts that pre sent skimpy discussions of the physical aspects of the model, and pages and pages devoted to solving the resulting equations. They are both important, FALL 1984 especially when the model is not correct. A good example of a meager discussion about the physical basis of a model is the no slip boundary condition of fluid mechanics. Consult a modern text on fluid mechanics and it is probable that this boundary condition is stated with no dis cussion, as if it were a self-evident truth. Consider the student who has seen mercury flow in a glass thermometer; would he not question the validity of this statement? If Coulomb, Poisson, Navier, and Stokes and others of similar scientific stature debated this point during the 19th century [7], does it not deserve some textbook discussion so that the student can appreciate the turmoil that is often encountered in creating a good physical model? In addition to the current information ex plosion problem, misinformation is also trouble some. For example, in one year, in just one journal, at least three authors [8, 9, 10] discussed the mis a pplication of Le Chatelier's Principle, while Pauling [ 5] describes some recent textbook errors he has detected. To help the students develop confidence in their understanding of the literature and their creative and analytical abilities, they are required to rigorously justify the rationales for their de sign s the bases for their design calculations, and the expected accuracies of their results. If our students achieve these three primary goals, then I have no doubt that they will be able to design the bioengineering and materials pro cesses of the future as well as the innovative petro chemical processes required to retain the vitality of the chemical process industries. R E FERE N CE S 1. K e ll e her, E. G and N. Kaf e s, Ch e m. Eng. Ed., Fall, 1972: 178-180. 2 Kell e h e r, E G., Chem Eng Prog. 6 8, No 8: 35-36 August, 1972. 3. R e id, W C., Ch e mical Engin eer ing, Dec. 14, 1970 1471 5 0. 4 Strutt, J W (Lord Rayleigh), Scie ntific Pap e rs, Vol. 1, pp 196-198. Cambridg e Univ e rsity Press 1899. 5. Pauling, L., Ch e mt e ch. 14, No. 6: 326-327. June 1984. 6. Churchill, S. W Ch e m. Eng. Prog. 66, No. 7: 86-90. July 1970. 7. Goldstein, S ( e d ), Mod e rn D eve lopm e n ts in Fluid Dyn a mic s, Vol. 2, pp. 676-680. New York, Dover Public a tions. 1965. 8 Treptow R S J. C h em Ed. 5 7 No. 6 : 417-420. June 1979. 9. Mellon, E. K., J. Chem Ed. 56, No. 6 : 380-381. June 1979. 10. Bodn e r, G. M., J. C h e m. Ed. 57 No. 2: 117-119. Febru ary 1980. 215

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THE UNIVERSITY I OF ... ALABAMA ~ .. .. ,., . : ~"'~,fk ', .. .-.--' ~.. ., ........ 4 '" : ... lt ;;)Jt: : .. "M \~.. : .. ... .... ..... : .,.. GRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Alabama, enrolling approximately 14,000 undergraduate and 2,500 graduate students per year, is located in Tuscaloosa, a town of some 70,000 population in west central Alabama Since the climate is warm, outdoor activities are possible most of the year. The Department of Chemical Engineering has an annual enrollment of approx imately 200 undergraduate and 25 graduate students. For information concerning available graduate fellowships and assistantships, contact: Director of Graduate studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, P O. Box G, university, AL 35486. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST c.c. April, Ph.D. (Louisiana State): Biomass I.A. Jefcoat, Ph D. (Clemson University): Syn conversion, Modeling, Transport Processes fuels, Environmental, Alternate Chemical Feed stocks o.w. Arnold, Ph D. (Purdue): Thermodynamics, Physical Properties, Phase Equilibrium E.K. Landis, Ph.D. (Carnegie Institute of Tech J.H. Black, Ph.D. (Pittsburgh): Process Design, nology): Metallurgical Processes, Solid-liquid cost Engineering, Economics Separations, Thermodynamics w.c. Clements, Jr., Ph.D. (Vanderbilt): ProM.D. McKinley, Ph.D. (Florida): coal and Oil cess Dynamics and control, Micro-computer Shale, Mass Transfer, separation Processes Hardware W.J. Hatcher, Jr., Ph.D. (Louisiana state): L.Y. Sadler, 111, Ph.D. (Alabama): Energy con catalysis Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction version Processes, Rheology Lignite TechKinetics nology

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Chemical Engineering at UNIVERSITY OF ALBERT A EDMONTON,CANADA OOOCJOtJOtJOO OOOOOCJOOOOO FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS I.G. DALLA LANA Ph D (Minnesota) : Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis D.G. FISHER Ph D (Michigan) : Process Dynamics and Control Real-Time Computer Applications. M.R. GRAY, Ph D (Cal. Tech ) : Chemical Kinetics Characterization of Complex Organic Mixtures Bioengineering, Natural Gas Processing. D.T. LYNCH, Ph D (Alberta): Catalysis, Kinetic Modelling Numerical Methods, Computer-Aided Design : J. MARTIN-SANCHEZ Ph D (Barcelona) : Process Control, Adaptive-Predictive Control, Systems Theory J.H. MASLIYAH, Ph D (British Columbia) : Transport Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid Dynamics A.E. MATHER, Ph D (Michigan) : Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics A.J. MORRIS, Ph D. (NewcastleUponTyne) : Process Control, Real Time Use of Microcomputers Process Simulation K. NANDAKUMAR Ph D. (Princeton) : Transport Phenomena, Process Simulation, Computational Fluid Dynamics W.K. NADER Dr Phil. (Vienna) Heat Transfer, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media Applied Mathematics F.D. OTTO, (CHAIRMAN) Ph D (Michigan) : Mass Transfer, Gas Liquid Reactions Separation Processes, Heavy Oil Upgrading D. QUON Sc D (M I.T ), PROFESSOR EMERITUS : Energy Modelling and Economics D.B. ROBINSON Ph D (Michigan) PROFESSOR EMERITUS : Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids Phase Equilibria, Thermodynamics J.T. RYAN Ph D (Missouri) : Energy Economics and Supply Porous Media S.L. SHAH Ph D (Alberta) : Linear Systems Theory Adaptive Control Stability Theory Stochastic Control. S.E. WANKE Ph D. (California-Davis) : Catalysis, Kinetics R.K. WOOD Ph.D (Northwestern) : Process Dynamics and Identification Control of Distillation Columns, Computer-Aided Design For further information contact: CHAIRMAN, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alberta Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON, AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Ari z ona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph D graduate programs. Financial support is available through government grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. Graduate courses are offered in most of the research areas listed below THE FA CUL TY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: HERIBERTO CABEZAS, Asst. Professor University of Florida 1984 Liquid Solution Theory Solut i on Thermodynamics Polyelectrolyte Solutions WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., Oregon State University, 1973 Heat Transfer in B i olog ic al Systems, Blood Processing JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacok i net ics, Flu i d Mechanics and Mas s Transfer in The Microcirculation Biorh eology SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor Sc.D ., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982 Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Systems, Com bust i on and Fuel Technology, Pollutant Emissions, Separation Processes Applied Mathematics GARY K. PATTERSON, Professor and Head Ph D., University of Missouri-Rolla, 1966 Rheology, Turbulent Mixing Turbulent Transport Numerical Modelling of Transport DON H. WHITE, Professor THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor Ph .D., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants Long -Range Pollutant Transport Parti c ulat e Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols ALAN D. RANDOLPH Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Process e s, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes Explosives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor Ph D., University of Washington 1960 Mass Transf er, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column D is tillation Computer Aided D esign FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc Professor Ph.D. University of California-Berkeley, 1972 React i on Engin ee ring Kinetics, Catalysis, Coal Conversion JOST 0. L. WENDT, Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution Nitrogen and Sulfur Oxide Abatement, Ch e mical Kinetics Thermodynamics lnterfacial Phe nomena Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing, modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to: Dr. Farhang Shadman Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution / equal opportunity employer Polymers Fundamentals and Processes Solar Energ y, Microbial and Enzymatic Proc esses

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ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical and Bio Engineering Research Specializations Include: ENERGY CONSERVATION ADSORPTION/SEPARATION BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING CATALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented by a highly-respected faculty : James R. Beckman, University of Arizona 1976 Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University 1966 Neil S. Berman, University of Texas 1962 Llewellyn W. Bezanson, Clarkson College 1983 Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston 1980 William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct) William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967 R. Leighton Fisk, MD, University of Alberta Canada 1972 (Adjunct) K. Kumar Gidwani, New York University, 1978 (Adjunct) Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971 Robert Kabel, Pennsylvania State University, (Visiting) James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970 Gregory Raupp, University of Wisconsin 1984 Castle 0. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus) Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology 1963 Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967 Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University 1978 lmre Zwiebel, Yale University 1961 Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to qualified applicants ASU is in Tempe a city of 120,000 part of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in ASU s ten colleges ; 10 000 of whom are in graduate study Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU 's own cultural and recreational facilities FOR INFORMATION CONTACT : lmre Zwiebel, Chairman, Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering Arizona State University Tempe AZ 85287

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GRADUATE STUDIES CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Alburn University R. P CHAMBERS (University of California, 1965) C. W. CURTIS (Fl orida State University 1976) J A GUIN (University of Texas, 1970) L. J. HIRTH ( Un ive rsity of Texas, 1958) A C. T HSU (University of Pennsylvania 1953) Y Y LEE (Iowa State University, 1972 ) R. D. NEUMAN (Inst. Paper Chemistry, 1973) T D PLACEK (University of Kentucky, 1978) C. W ROOS (Washington University 1951) A. R. TARRER (Purdue Un iversity 1973 ) B. J. TATARCHUK (University of Wisconsin, 1981) D. l. VIVES (Columbia Univers ity, 1949 ) D c: WILLIAMS (Princeton Univers ity, 1980) FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION, WRITE Dr. R. P. Chambers, Head Chemical Engineering Auburn University, Al 36849 Auburn a! Engineering Biomedical / Biochemical Engineering Biomass Conversion Coal Conversion Environmental Pollution Heterogeneous Catalysis Oil Processing Process Design and Control lnterfacial Phenomena THE PROGRAM Process Simulation Reaction Engineering Reaction Kinetics Separations Surface Scien ce Transport Phenomena Thermodynamics Pulp and Paper Engineering The D epartment is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to qualified students Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution 220 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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I I BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY I PROVO, UTAH Ph.D., M.S., & M.E. Degrees f hE. Masters for Chemists Program esearch Programs Combustion Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Coal Gasification Electrochemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics Fossil Fuels Recovery Thermochemistry & Calorimetry D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951) C.H. Bartholomew, (Ph D., Stanford, 1972) M. W. Beckstead, (Ph D Utah, 1965) D. N. Bennion, (Ph D., Berkeley, 1964) B. S. Brewster, (Ph D., Utah, 1979) J. Christensen, (Ph.D Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958) R. W. Hanks, (Ph.D., Utah, 1961) W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley, 1982) P 0. Hedman, (Ph D., BYU, 1973) J. L. Oscarson, {M.S., Michigan, 1972) R. L. Rowley, (Ph D., Michigan State, 1978) P. J. Smith, (Ph.D., BYU, 1979) L. D. Smoot, (Ph D., Washington, 1960) I K A. Solen, (Ph D., Wisconsin, 1974) Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains I Financial aid available FALL 1984 Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Douglas N. Bennion, Chemical Engineering Dept., 350 CB, Provo, Utah 84602 221

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j ~::; : ::::===:::! u:c:: ;.; THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY The U n i ver sit y i s loca t e d in th e C i t y o f Ca l gary, the oil capi t a l of C anada, th e ho me of t he wor l d famous C a lg ary St a m pe d e and th e 1 988 Win t er Olympi c s. Th e ci t y c omb ines th e t r ad i t i o ns o f th e Old West wi th the s o p h i st ica t i o n of a m o dern urban cen t re B eau t i ful B anff Na t i o na l P ark is 110 km we st of th e C i t y and th e ski res o r t s of t he Banff Lake Lo ui s e an d K anana s kis areas are r eadily acc ess i ble. 222 FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE Dr. M. F. Mohtadi, Chairman Graduate Studies Committee Dept. of Chemical & Petroleum Eng. The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta T2N 1 N4 Canada GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING The Dep art m e n t offe rs progra m s l ea di ng t o the M S c a n d P h .D. d e grees (fu llt ime ) a n d t h e M. En g de gre e (par t tim e ) in the foll owing ar e as : Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria Heat Transfer and Cryogenics Kinetics and Combustion Multiphase Flows in Pipelines Fluidization-Grid Region Transport Phenomena Environmental Engineering Ultra Pyrolysis of Heavy Oils Enhanced Oil Recovery In-Situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Antibiotic Production in Immobilized Cells Biorheology and Biochemical Engineering Computer Control and Optimization of Engineering Processes F e llo ws hip s and R esearch Ass i stantshi p s are ava il ab le t o qua lifi e d applican t s FACULTY R. A. HEIDEMANN, Head A. BADAKHSHAN L.A BEHIE D W. B. BENNION P.R. BISHNOI R M. BUTLER M FOGARASI M A. HAST AOGLU J. HAVLENA A. A. JEJE N. E. KALOGERAKIS A. K. MEHROTRA M. F. MOHTADI R G. MOORE P. M SIGMUND J STANISLAV W Y. SVRCEK E L TOLLEFSON ( Wa sh U.) ( Bi rm. U.K ) (W. On t ) (Pe nn. Sta t e ) ( Alber t a) ( I m p Coll. U K. ) ( A lbe rta) (S UN Y) ( C zech ) ( MIT ) ( To r on t o ) ( Calgary) ( B i r m U K ) (Alber t a ) (Te x a s ) ( Prague) (Albe r ta ) ( Toron t o ) CH EMI CA L E NG INE E RI NG E D UCA TION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY. RESEARCH INTERESTS ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro grams involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within and outside the department. Students have the opportunity to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and moun tains. FACULTY Alexis T. Bell (Chairman) Harvey W. Blanch Elton J. Cairns Morton M. Denn Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N. Hanson Dennis W. Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N. Michaels John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Jeffrey A. Reimer David S. Soong Charles W. Tobias Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams PLEASE WRITE: Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied Mathematics Biotechnology Colloid and Interface Processes Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Dynamics Rheology Semiconductor Device Fabrication Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Processes in Porous Media Program UC Davis, with 19,000 students, is one of the major campuses of the University of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition, the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of environmental engineering, food engineering bio chemical engineering and biomedical engineering. Excellent laboratories, computation center anc:\ electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Faculty RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedi c al Applications ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne Eno logy, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota Fluid Mechanics, Coating Flows, lnterfacial Phenomena, Fiber Processes and Refin i ng ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environme n tal Engineering, Transport Phenomena BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota ~eparation and Transport Processes AHMET N PALAZOGLU, Rennsselaer Polytechnic Institute Process Synthesis and Control ROBERT L. POWELL, The Johns Hopkins University Rheology, Fluid Mechanics DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Ins t. of Technology Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation JOE M SMITH Massachusetts Institute of T echnology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mass Transfer, Colloids, Biotechnology STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware Fluid Mechanics, lnterfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes in Porous Media Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just over an hour away from the San Francisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis) These rec reational opportunities combine with the friendly in formal spirit of the Davis campus to make i t a pleasant place in which to live and study. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus Both furnished and unfurnished oneand two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance. For further details on graduate study at Davis, please write to: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-0400

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Yoram Cohen S, Fathi-Afshar T H K, Frederking S. K Fr i edlander E L. Knuth PROGRAMS UCLA s Chemical Engineering Depart ment maintains academic excellence i n its fl grad 't:l ate prog~ams by offering diversity in both q_ urriculum and research opportunities The department's continual growth is demon strated l::>y the newly established Institute for Medical Engineer i ng and the Nat i onal Center fo r: lntermedia Transport Research adding to the alrea dy wide spectr\Jm of re$ ~ arch J cJiviti es ,.# ..,, RESEARCH ARE.AS ; Thermodynamics and Cryoge n ics r Re v erse Osmosis ana Membra ~ e Transpo r t Pro c ess Des i gn and $ystems Analys i s W E f Var;i Yorst Pelymer Process frH iJ and Rheology v_ L. Vilker. {.;.:;~,,~~ M l:} ss n ansfer and Fluid Mechanics AR. Wazzan "" ..... Kinetics Combustion and Catalysis F.E. Yates Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Aerosol and Environmental En gi n ee r i n g

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) (Chairman) Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis and Wastes PRAMOD AGRAWAL Ph.D. (Purdue) Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation Science HENRI FENECH Ph D. (M.I.T .) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer. OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D (Purdue) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena SHINICHI ICHIKAWA Ph.D. (Stanford) Adsorption and Heterogeneous Catalysis GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials. DUNCAN A MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing 226 JOHN E. MYERS Ph D. (Michigan) (Dean of Engineering) Boiling Heat Transfer. G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph D. (M I.T .) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph D. (M.I T.) Bionuclear Engineering, Fus i on Reactors, Radiation Transport Analyses ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy Conversion, Air Pollution. ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph D (Berkeley) Transport Phenomena Separation Processes DALE E. SEBORG Ph D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification The Department offers M.S. and Ph D. de gree programs Financial aid, including fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re search assistantships, is available. Some awards provide limited moving expenses THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast l 00 miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330 miles south of San Francisco. The student enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor San joy Banerjee, Chairman Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive featu r es of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical and mathematical disciplines in the program of study In this way a student can properly prepare for a productive career of research, development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex panding tchnological society A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one calendar year and a thesi s is not required. A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte grated design project, is a feature to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D degree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study. JAMES E. BAILEY, Prof e ssor Ph.D (1969), Rice University Biochemical engineering; chemical engin e ering. reaction GEORGE R. GA VALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process and optimization; coal gasification. control ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena L. GARY LEAL, Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup port e d by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching ass is t ant s hip appointments during both the academic ye a r a nd the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate s tudy and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives c on s id e ration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants r e gardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application fo r m may be obtained by writing Prof es sor G. N. Stephanopoulos Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pa s ad e na, California 91125 It i s a d v i s abl e to submit a pplic a tion s b e fore February 1 5 1 985 C DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate Ph D (1951), University of Pennsylvania Cataly s is; chemical reaction engineering; proc e s s de s ign and development. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University A ir pollution; control and es timation th e ory. FRED H. SHAIR, Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics: tracer studies of va r ious environmental and safety related problems. GREGORY N STEPHANOPOULOS, A s sociate Pro f e s s or Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction engineering. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales MANFRED MORARI, Professor Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; Ph.D (1977), University of Minn es ota th e ory of viscoelastic behavior; structureProcess control; process design property relations in polymers. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chev r on Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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PROFESSORS! A New Release from Pittsburgh's High Performance Group Featuring: Professors of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University John Anderson Lorenz Biegler Ethel Casassa Michael Domach Ignacio Grossmann Rakesh Jain Myung Jhon Edmond Ko side one Membrane and Colloid Transport Phenomena Process Simulations and Optimizations Colloids and Polymers ,, Biochemical Engineering Process Synthesis and Design Biomedical Engineering Polymer Science Heterogeneous Catalysis CarnegieMellon University Kun Li Gregory McRae Geoffrey Parfitt Gary Powers Dennis Prieve Paul Sides Herbert Toor Arthur Westerberg Write: side two Gas Solid Reaction Kinetics Mathematical Modeling and Environmental Engineering Colloidal Phenomena Process Synthesis and Desig Colloid and Surface Science Electrochemical Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer Design Research Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh PA 15213

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The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDYin Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY Stanley Cosgrove Robert Delcamp Joel Fried Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Robert Lemlich William Licht Joel Weisman CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivati ng catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCESS SYNTHESIS Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations. Prediction of reaction by-products. POLYMERS Viscoelastic properties of concen trated polymer solutions. Th erm odynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AIR POLLUTION Modeling and design of gas clean ing devices and systems. TWO-PHASE FLOW Bo i l ing. Stability and transport properties of foam. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LIVING HUMAN AND CORPORATE SYSTEMS Longevity, basal metabolic rate, and Prigogine's and Shannon's entropy formulae. MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, # 171 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 45221 Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaportion, dynamic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.

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230 D M S and Ph D programs Friendly atmosphere Vigorous research programs supported by government and industry D Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa Skiing, canoeing mounta i n climbing and other recreation in the Adirondacks Variety of cultural activities with two liberal arts colleges nearby Twenty-one faculty working on a broad spectrum of chemical engineering research problems Research Projects are available in : Colloidal and interfacial phenomena Computer aided design Crystallization Electrochemical engineering and corrosion Heat transfer Holographic interferometry Mass transfer Materials processing in space Optimization Particle separations Phase transformations and equilibria Polymer processing Process control Reaction engineering Turbulent flows And more ... Financial aid in the form of : instructorships fellowships research assistantships teaching assistantships industrial co-op positions For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson University Potsdam, New York 13676 C HEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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8 .............. ... .. .. ......... . .. . .. .. . .. .. ... .. ..... . ..... ... ..... .. ..... 8 .. .. ..... .. . .. ..... .. ... .. .. .......... .. ... .. ...... .. ......... .. .... .. ... ,. : ~-; ',\I// l "' : :\?:::: / I Go .. .. .-: .. .. : .-.. :. ...... --E] .... ...... ... ... .. .. ..... . : \ I I ~ .. \ I I I .-. : a -: FAJ.,L 1984 \j(J /: / I I> ~ =--~ -_ A ..:: (J<;J<;J /: / I I 'G.n:uiuate Coonti .. nator C~micat E"':Ji.neei-i."':J Dept. CLEmsan UilIVERSITY Clemson., SC 29631 .. B .. fa @~ 231

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232 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colo rado School of Mines Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems, cryogenic engineering J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University o f Florida. Up grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re finery processing operations heavy oil processing. E D. Sloan, Jr ., Professor; Ph D. Clemson University Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measurements of natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates, thermal conductivity measurements for coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria measurements, stagewise pro cesses, education methods research. V. F Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan Thermodynamic properties of fluids especially re lating to synthetic fuels Oil shale and shale oil processing; numerical methods R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph D. Colorado School of Mines Mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics of coal hydrogenation relation of coal geochemistry to liquefaction kinetir;s upgrading of coal-derived asphaltenes, supercritical gas extrac tion of oil shale and heavy oil. M. 5. Graboski, Assocjate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading M. C Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of California at Ber k eley. Heat transfer and fluid me chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer in porous media, free convection in porous media M. 5. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D ., Iowa State University Flow of concentrated fine particulate suspensions in complex geometries; Sedimenta tion of multisized mixed density particle suspensions A. l. Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph D., University of California at Berke!ey Chromatographic processes enhanced oil recovery, minerals leaching, liquid membrane separations, ion exchange equilibria. For Applications and Further Information On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Colorado State University Faculty: Larry Belfiore, Ph. D., University of Wisconsin Bruce Dale, Ph.D. Purdue University Jud Harper, Ph.D., Iowa State University Naz Karim, Ph.D ., University of Manchester Terry Lenz, Ph.D., Iowa State University Jim Linden, Ph.D., Iowa State University Carol McConica, Ph.D. i:stanford University Vince Murphy, Ph.D., University of Massachusetts FALL 1984 Location: CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 80,000 people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new Center for the Performing Arts. Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement. Research Areas: Alternate Energy Sources Biochemical Engineering Catalysis Chemical Vapor Deposition Computer Simulation and Control Fermentation Food Engineering Polymeric Materials Porous Media Phenomena Rheology Semiconductor Processing Solar Cooling Systems Thermochemical Cycles Wastewater Treatment For Applications and Further Information, write: Professor Vincent G. Murphy Depa r tment of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO 80523 233

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Chemical Engineering at CORNELL UNIVERSITY A place to grow ... with active research in biochemical engineering applied mathematics / computer simulation energy technology environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science heat and rr.ass transfer polymer science fluid dynamics rheology and biorheology reactor design molecular thermodynamics/statistical mechanics with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange individual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell departments including chemistry biological sciences physics computer science food science materials science mechanical engineering business administration and others with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one of the most scenic regions of the United States. Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering (the M.Eng is a professional, design-oriented program). Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available. The faculty members are: Douglas S. Clark, Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert K Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodrigue;z, George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, Paul H. Steen, William B Streett, Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to Professor Claude Cohen Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, New York 14853

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'lhe University of~laware awards three graduate de~eesfor sludiesand praclicein thearland science of chemical engineering. An M Ch E degree based upon course work and a thesis problem An M.Ch E. degree based upon course work and a period of In dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer In the Delaware Valley chemical process Industries A Ph D degree tor original work presented in a dissertation THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE : G Astar i ta ( time ) M A Barteau C E Birchenall K B B i schoff C. D. Denson P. Dhuriati B. C Gates M T Klein A M Lenhoff R. L McCullough A. B Metzne r J. H. Ol s on M E. Paulaiti s R L. Pigford T W F Russell S I Sandler ( Cha i rman) J. M Schult z A. B. St i les ( time) R. S. Webe r A. L. Zydney CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE : Thermodynamics and Separ ation Proces s Rheology Polymer Science and Engineer i ng Materials Science and Metallurgy Fluid Mechanics, Heat and Mass Transfer Economics and Management in the Chemical Process Industries Chemical Reaction Engineering, Kinetics and Simulation Catalytic Science and Technology Biomedical Engineering Pharmacok i n e tics and Tox i cology Biochemical EngineeringFermentation and Computer Control FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS, WRITE : Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19716

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Gainesville, Florida Graduate study leading to ME,MS&PhD F A C u L T y Tim Anderson Thermodynamics Semiconductor Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology Ray W. Fabien Transport Phenomena Reactor Design/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis Surface Science Lew Johns Applied Mathematics/ Dale Kirmse Process Control ; Computer Aided Design Biotechnology/ Hong H Lee Reactor Design Catalysis/ Gerasimos K. Lyberatos Optimization Biochemical Processes/ Frank May Separations Ranga Narayanan Transport Phenomena/ John O'Connell Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics Dinesh 0. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros Svoronos Process Control/ Robert D. Walker Surface Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/ Gerald Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry Transport Phenomena For more inf. ormat1011 f)le~ .. se write: Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville Florida 32611

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ... GEORGIA TECH Atlanta Ballet Center for Disease Control Commercial Center of the South High Museum of Art All Professional Sports Major Rock Concerts and Recording Studios Sailing on Lake Lanier Snow Skiing within two hours Stone Mountain State Park Atlanta Symphony Ten Professional Theaters Rambling Raft Race White Water Canoeing within one hour For more information write : Dr Gary W Poehlein School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332 Chemical Engineering Air Quality Technology Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Surfaces Electrochemical Engineering Energy Research and Conservation Fine Particle Technology lnterfacial Phenomena Kinetics Mining and Mineral Engineering Polymer Science and Engineering Process Synthesis and Optimization Pulp and Paper Engineering Reactor Design Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena

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Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering University of Houston The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston has developed research strength in a broad range of areas: Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis Biochemical Engineering Electrochemical Systems Semiconductor Processing lnterfacial Phenomena, Rheology Process Dynamics and Control Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation Solid-liquid Separation Reliability Theory Petroleum Reservoir Engineering The department occupies over 75 000 square feet and has over $3 million worth of experimental apparatus Financial support is available to full time graduate students through re search assistantships and special industr i al fellowship s. For more informat i on or appl i cation forms write t o : Director, Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Houston Houston, Texas 77004 (Phone 713 / 749-4407) 238 The faculty : N. R. Amundson 0. A. Asbjornsen V. Balakotaiah H.-C. Chang E. L. Claridge J. R. Crump H. A. Deans A. E. Dukler R. W. Flumerfelt C. F. Goochee E. J. Henley D. Luss R. Pollard H. W. Prengle, Jr. J. T. Richardson F. M. Tiller F. L. Worley, Jr. C HEMI C AL EN G INEERING ED U CATION

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GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH The Department of Chemical Engineering Graduate Programs in The Department of Chemical Engineering leading to the degrees of MASTER OF SCIENCE and DOCTOR OF PHILOSPHY THE UNIVERSITY or ILLINOIS AT CfflCAGO FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Francisco J. Brana-Mulero Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980 Assistant Professor T. S. Jiang PhD., Northwestern University, 1981 Asssitant Professor John H. Keifer Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Sohail Murad Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor The MS program, with its optional thesis, can be completed in one year. Evening M.S. can be completed in three years The department invites applications for admission and support from all qualified candidates. Special fellowships are available for minority students. To obtain application forms or to request further information write: Process sy nthesis, operations research optimal process control optimization of large systems, numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations. Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flow s, flow through porous media, sus pension rheology Kinetic s of gas reactions, energy transfer processes, laser diagnostics Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids, solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions, solar energy Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and mass transfer isotope separation, fixed and fluidized bed combustion Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy transmission, modeling and optimization Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow and heat transfer, porous media processes, mathematical analysis and approximation Professor S. C. Saxena The Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348, Chicago, Illinois 60680

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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN POLYMEAIZATION REACTORS Faculty Richard C Alkire Harry G. Drickamer Charles A. Eckert Thomas J. Hanratty Jonathan J. L. Higdon Walter G May Richard I. Masel Anthony J McHugh Mark A. Stadtherr James W. Westwater Charles F Zukoski, IV OEPROP,lNIZ[tJI TO C)( BU'fAHIZE R The chemical engineering department offers graduate programs leading to the M.S and Ph D. degrees The combination of distinguished faculty outstand i ng facilities and a diversity of research interests results in exceptional opportunities for graduate education For Information and Application Forms Write Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois Box C 3 Roger Adams Lab 1209 W. California Street Urbana Illino is 61801

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering I Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, Illinois Fac~lty-t-t---t--+ ---t---+--r---r--t------,---1---J-_L-____j_ __,__+---+ --+----l---J-__J R. L I Beissing r A : a ina r ; ; D. Oidasbow I D-:T t Hat z 1avram1a s ----J. R. i Sel m an I S.M t Senk a n ___ ---+---+--4-. -~1 : B.S. Sw ~ nso h I D.T. Wasan j .. r\ 1T-W .A.. We_iga = n c.,;, d =---1---1---1----' : : ,_ C.V Wittman i I Res~arch Areas i I i i / Bioc hemical ---8nd ---Biom8ciica 1-1---' Chemical Re~ctio~ Enginee t ing Gombustion -l ; I I I I ; Cof11put~r-Aiqed Qesign Electrochemidal Erhgineering -+-~-~,--+---+ / Env i ronrrienta 1 1 Pl icl Methank ...--1---1---1-----+--~--....--'-------'----t lnte t faci~I and Co loidal hk no men a 1 -------,1---------1-; ---+-----4 Prodess bvndmics and Cn 1a11~ t--. ..... Tra sp ~ Pn~no ena -+ l I ~--l~ ~I __ + ----1---+--f I \ i For Mor I lnfo ~ matidn Write to : Ch I i ,.... I I emIca ng11 ; 1eerm ; g1:1ef.1)artment Graduate dm i ssion s Corhmitt e Illinois Ins tut~o tJp chn I logy ...... 1.1.T. Cen r ; 1 I Chicago Illinois 60616 U.S. j _____ .,...

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2 42 THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY is an independent graduate school. It has an interdisciplinary degree program designed for B.S. chemical engineering graduates. Fellowships and full tuition scholarships are available to qualified U.S. and Canadian Citizens. Our students receive $9,000.00 fellowships each Our research activities span the papermaking process including : plant tissue culture surface and colloid science fluid mechanics environmental engineering polymer engineering heat and mass transfer process engineering simulation and control separations science and reaction engineer i ng F or further information contac t : D ir e c to r o f A dmi s sio n s The Ins ti tu t e o f Pape r Chem i s try P O Bo x 1039 App l et o n W I 5 49 12 Tel eph o n e : 414 /7 349 251 CHEMICAL ENGINEE RI NG EDUCAT IO N

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.J Graduate Program for M.S. and Ph.D Degrees in Chemical and Materials Engineering Research Areas Kinetics and Catalysis Biomass Conversion Membrane Separations Particle Morphological Analysis Air Pollution Moss T ronsfer Operations Numerical Modeling Particle Technology AtmospherlcTronsport Bioseporotlons and Biotechnology Process Design Surface Science T ronsport In Porous Media For oddltlonol lnformo~n and oppllcotlon write to: Graduate Admissions Chem Ital and Moterlols Engineering The University of Iowa Iowa City Iowa 52242 319/353-6237 0 L --..... --. _J THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA

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... IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY William H. Abraham Thermodynamics, heat and mass transport, process modeling Lawrence E. Burkhart Fluid mechanics, separation process, process control George Burnet Coal technology, separation processes Charles E. Glatz Biochemical engineering, processing of biological materials Kurt R. Hebert Electrochemical engineering, corrosion James C. Hill Fluid mechanics, turbulence, convective transport, air pollution control Kenneth R. J oils Thermodynamics, simulation Terry S. King Catalysis, surface science, catalyst applications Maurice A. Larson Crystallization, process dynamics Allen H. Pulsifer Solid-gas reactions, coal technology Peter J. Reilly Biochemical engineering, enzyme and fermentation technology Glenn L. Schrader Catalysis, kinetics, solid state electronics processing Richard C. Seagrave Biological transport phenomena, biothermo dynamics, reactor analysis Dean L. Ulrichson Solid-gas reactions, process modeling Thomas D. Wheelock Chemical reactor design, coal technology, fl uidiza tion Gordon R. Younquist Crystallization, chemical reactor design, polymerization For additional information please write: Graduate Officer Department of Chemical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 ,, I -1: \ --\ ----\ ---\ ---\

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THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering offers graduate study leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Fo r f ur th er in form a t i o n, wri t e to Professor George W. Swift, Graduate Advisor Department of Chem i cal and Petroleum Engineering 4006 Learned Hall The University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66045 Faculty and Areas of Specialization Kenneth A. Bishop, Professor (Ph.D ., Oklahoma); reser voir simulation, interact i ve computer graphics optimization John C. Davis, Professor and chief of geology research section, Kansas Geological Survey (Ph.D. Wyoming); probabilistic techniques for o i l exploration, geologic computer mapping Kenneth J Himmelstein, Adjunct Professor (Ph.D Maryland) ; pharmacokinetics, mathematical model i ng of biological processes, cell kinetics, diffusion and mass transfer Colin S Howat, Ill, Assistant Professor (Ph D Kansas ); applied equilibrium thermodynamics, process de sign Don W Green, P r ofessor and Co-director Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (Ph.D Oklahoma); enhanced oil recovery hydrological modeling James 0 Maloney, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State) ; technology and soc i ety Russell B. Mesler, Professor (Ph D ., Michigan); nucleate and film bo i ling, bubble and drop phenomena Floyd W. Preston, Professor (Ph.D., Penn State); geo logic pore structure FALL 1984 Harold F. Rosson, Professor and Department Chairman (Ph D Rice); production of alternate fuels from agri cultural materials Bala Subramaniam, Assistant Professor (Ph D Notre Dame); kinetics and catalysis, ins i tu characterization of catalyst systems George W. Swift, Professor (Ph.D. Kansas) ; thermo dynamics of petroleum and petro chemical systems natura l gas reservoirs analysis, fractured well analysis, petrochemical plant design John E. Thiele, Ass i stant Professor (Sc.D ., MIT) ; struc ture / property rela t ionships of polymers, polymer chemistry and physics, polymer viscoelasticity Shapour Vossoughi, Associate Professor (Ph D., U. of Alberta); enhanced oil recovery, thermal analysis applied rheology and computer modeling Stanley M Walas, Professor Emeritus (Ph.D., Michigan) ; combined chemical and phase equilibrium G Paul Willhite Professor and Co-director Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (Ph D Northwestern); enhanced oil recovery, transport processes in porous media, mathema ti cal modeling 245

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Up to $12,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66506 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ENERGY ENGINEERING COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE SOLIDS MIXING CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM ENGINEERING FLUIDIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL

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UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS J. Berman, Ph.D., Northwestern Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology Novel Separation Processes; Membranes; Water Pollution Control G. F. Crewe, Ph.D West Virginia Catalytic Hydrocracking of Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction C. E. Hamrin, Ph.D., Northwestern Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Nonisothermal Kinetics E. D. Moorhead, Ph D ., Ohio State Electrochemical Processes; Computer Measurement Techniques and Modeling L. K. Peters, Ph D., Pittsburgh Atmospheric Transport ; Aerosol Phenomena A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen Regime; Transport Phenomena J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer; Fuel Gas Desulfurization T. T. Tsang, Ph.D., Texas-Austin R. I. Kermode, Ph.D ., Northwestern Process Control and Economics Aerosol Dynam i cs in Uniform and Non-Uniform Systems FALL 1984 Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants For details write to: E. D. Moorhead Director for Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 247

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{gu(stana Stat~ Untv~rstt~ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE SCHOOL THE CITY Baton Rouge is the state capitol and home of the major state institution for higher education-LSU. Situated in the Acadian region, Ba ton Rouge blends the Old South and Cajun Cultures. The Port of Ba ton Rouge is a main chemical shipping point, and the city s economy rests heavily on the chemical and agricultural industries. The great outdoors provide excellent recreational activities year round, additionally the proximity of New Orleans provides for superb nightlife, especially during Mardi Gras. THE DEPARTMENT M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Approximately 70 Graduate Students DEPARTMENT AL FACILITIES IBM 434 I with more than 50 color graphics terminals Analytical Facilities including GC/MS, FTIR, FT-NMR, LC 1 s, GC 1 s Vacuum to High Pressure Facilities for kinetics, catalysis, thermodynamics, supercritical processing Shock Tube and Combustion Laboratories Laser Doppler Velocimeter Facility Bench Scale Fermentation Facilities TO APPLY, CONT ACT: EDWARD McLAUGHLIN, CHAIRMAN Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 FACULTY A. B. CORRIPIO (Ph.D., LSU) Control, Simulation, Computer Aided Design K. M. DOOLEY (Ph.D., Delaware) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering M. F. FRENKLACH (Ph. D., Hebrew Univ.) Combustion, Kinetics, Modeling F. R. GROVES (Ph.D., Wisconsin) Control, Modeling, Separation Processes D. P. HARRISON (Ph.D., Texas) FluidSolid Reactions, Hazardous Wastes A. E. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Florida) Distillation, Control, Modeling M. HJORTS0 (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) Biotechnology, Applied Mathematics F. C. KNOPF (Ph.D., Univ. of Purdue) Computer Aided Design, Supercritical Processing E. McLAUGHLIN CD.Sc., Univ. of London) Thermodynamics, High Pressures, Physical Properties R. W. PIKE (Ph.D., Georgia Tech) Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering, Optimization J. A. POLACK (Sc.D., MIT) Sugar Technology, Separation Processes G. L. PRICE (Ph.D., Rice Univ.) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Surfaces D. D. REIBLE (Ph.D., Caltech) Transport Phenomena, Environmental Engineering R. G. RICE (Ph.D., Pennsylvania) Mass Transfer, Separation Processses D. L. RISTROPH (Ph.D., Pennsylvania) Biochemical Engineering C. B. SMITH (Ph. D., Univ. of Houston) Non-linear Dynamics, Control A. M. STERLING (Ph.D., Univ. of Washington) Biomedical Engineering, Transport Properties, Combustion D. M. WETZEL (Ph.D., Delaware) Physical Properties, Hazardous Wastes FINANCIAL AID Tax-free fellowships and assistantships with tuition waivers available Special industrial and alumni fellowships with higher stipends for outstanding students Some part-time teaching positions for graduate students in high standing

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0 University of Maine at Orono M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Sponsored proje c ts val ued at $1 m i llion per year ore in progress Facu l ty is supported by extensi v e state-of the art foci I i ties Relevancy of the Deport ment s research i s i n sured by continuous liai son with engineers and scientists from industry who help guide the foc u lty concerning emerg ing needs and activities of other laborator i es Re s earch and teaching assistantships ore ava i able Outstanding candidates (GPA between 3 75 and 4 00) wishing to pursue the Ph D ore invited t o apply for President's Fel lowships which provide $4000 per year i n addi tion to regular stipend and free tuit i on For informat i on brochure and application materials contact : Dr. Hemant Pendse Chemical Engineering Department Universit y of Maine at Orono Orono ME 04469 207 / 581-2290 THE GRADUATE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH William H. Ceckler Sc D ., MIT 1960 Heat Transfer Press i ng & Drying Operations Energy from Low B t u Fuels Process Simulation Albert Co Ph D ., Wisconsin 1979 Transport phenomena Polymeric Fluid Dynamics Rheology Arthur L. Fricke Ph D ., Wiscons i n 1962 Properties of Polymeric Systems Polymer Processing and Design Rheology of Polymeric Fluids Joseph M. Genco Ph D ., Ohio State 1965 Process Engineering Pulp & Poper Technology Wood Delignificot i on Marqueta K. Hill Ph D Un i vers i ty o f California, 1966 Block Liquor Chemistry Pulping Chemistry Ultrofiltration John C. Hassler Ph D ., Kansas State, 1966 Process Analysis and Numerical Methods Instrumentat i on and Real-Time Computer Applications John J Hwalek Ph D ., Univers i ty of Illinois 1982 Heat Transfer Process Control Systems Erdogan Kiron Ph D ., Princeton 1974 Polymer Physics and Chemistry Thermal Analysis and Pyrolys i s Supercritical Fluids James D. Lisius Ph D Un i versity of Illinois 1984 Transport Phenomena Electrochem i co I Engineering Moss Transfer ------\ Kenneth I. Mumme Ph D ., Moine 1970 Process Modeling and Control System Ident i f i cation & Optimization Hemant Pendse Ph D ., Syracuse 1980 Colloidal Phenomena Particulate Systems Porous Media Modeling Ivar H. Stockel Sc.D. MIT 1959 Pulp & Poper Technology Droplet Formation Fluidizotion Edward V Thompson Ph D ., Poly t echnic Inst i tute of Brooklyn 1962 Polymer Material Prop erties Membrane Separation Processes Pressing & Drying Operations Douglas L. Woerner Ph D University of Wash i ngton 1983 Concentration Polariza t i on Ultra f ilter Operation Light Scattering -~ : \ ~

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University of Maryland Faculty: Robert B. Beckmann Theodore W. Cadman Richard V. Calabrese Kyu Y. Choi Larry L. Gasner James W Gentry Albert Gomezplata Randolph T. Hatch Juan Hong Thomas J McAvoy Thomas M Regan Wilburn C Schroeder Theodore G Smith Location: The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles from the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian, National Gallery, Congress, White House, Arlington Cemetery, and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay. Degrees Offered. M.S. and Ph D. programs in Chemical Engineering. Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships at $9,640/yr. Research Areas: Aerosol Mechanics Air Pollution Control Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Fermentation Laser Anemometry Mass Transfer Polymer Processing Process Control Risk Assessment Separation Processes Simulation For Applications and Further Information, Write: Professor Thomas J McAvoy Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering University of Maryland College Park Md 207 42

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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS Amherst The Chemical Engineering Department at the Uni vers ity of Massachusetts offers graduate programs leading to M.S. and Ph.D degrees in Chemical Engine erin g. Active research areas include polymer engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or our prestigious Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Fin a ncial aid in the form of research assistantships and teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. or For further details, please write to Prof. J. M. Ottino Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Massachusetts A mherst, Mass. 01003 413-545-0593 Prof. E. L. Thomas Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts A mherst, Mass. 01003 413-545-0433 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W. C. CONNER Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion M. F. DOHERTY Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design J.M. DOUGLAS Process design and control, Reactor engineering J. W. ELDRIDGE Kinetics Catalysis, Phase equilibria V. HAENSEL Catalysis, Kinetics M. P HAROLD Kinetics and Reactor Engineering R. S KIRK Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors J R. KITTRELL (Adjunct Professor) Kinetics and Catalysis Catalyst deactivation R. L. LAURENCE Polymerizat i on reactors Fluid mechanics R W. LENZ Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization M. F. MALONE Rheology, Polymer processing, Des ign P .A MONSON Statistical mechanics of gases K M NG Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows J M. OTTINO Mixing Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering F. I. SHINSKEY (Adjunct Professor) Process control M. VANPEE Combustion Spectroscopy H. H. WINTER Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer B. E. YDSTIE Process control POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING J. C. W. CHIEN Polymerizat i on catalysts, B i opolymers, Polymer degradation R FARRIS Polymer composites, Mechanical properties, Elastomers S L. HSU Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis F E KARASZ Polymer transitions Polymer blends Conducting polymers W J. MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers T. J. McCARTHY Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces M. MUTHUKUMAR Statistical mechanics of polymer solutions gels and melts R S PORTER Polymer rheology Polymer processing R STEIN Polymer crystallinity and morphology, Characterization D TIRRELL Polymer synthesis and membranes E L THOMAS Electron microscopy Polymer morphology, x-Ray scattering *Joint appointm ents in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engin eeri ng FALL 1984 251

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology J. Wei, Department Head R. C. Armstrong R. F. Baddour J.M. Beer J. F. Brady H. Brenner R.A. Brown R. E. Cohen C. K. Colton C. Cooney W. M.Deen L.B. Evans C. Guzy T.A. Hatton J.B. Howard M.Kramer J.P. Longwell E.W. Merrill C. M. Mohr R. C. Reid A. F. Sarofim C. N. Satterfield H. H. Sawin K. A. Smith G. Stephanopoulos U. W. Suter J. W. Tester P. S. Virk D. I. C. Wang G. C. Williams Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Fluid Mechanics Integrated Circuit Processing Kinetics and Reaction Engineering Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena Photo by James Wei MIT also operates the School of Chemical En~ineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in Albany, New York, the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and Brookhaven National Lab at Long Island, New York. 252 For Information Chemical Engineering Headquarters Room 66-350 MIT Cambridge, MA 02139 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Chemical Engineering at The University of Michigan Research Areas Biotechnology. Control of fermentation processes in-situ separation techniques biosensors synthetic membranes self assembly of proteins models of cell metabolism Catalysis. Atomic metallic clusters catalyst support interactions kinetic mechanisms of hydrocarbon synthesis preparation of catalytic metal colloids electroless plating periodic operation of catalytic reactors Colloidal Science. Structure of microemulsions and micelles colloidal interactions in liquefied coal stability and h y drodynamic theory for emulsions coagulation kinetics. Environmental Control. Waste treatment in natural waters hazardous waste recovery methods adsorption processes in pollutant removal. Petroleum Engineering. Enhanced production of oil and gas catalytic stimulation of formation porosity colloidal properties of minerals interfacial adsorption of surfactants two phase flow through porous media. Polymers. Polymer processing structural properties relations rheology of polymers kinetics of polymerization and gelation. Real-time Computation and Process Simulation. Dynamic simulation of processes computer modeling of transport phenomena parameter identification computer-aided design with personal workstations. Faculty Dale E. Briggs Brice Carnahan Rane L. Curl Francis M. Donahue H. Scott Fogler Erdogan Gulari Robert H Kadlec Donald L. Katz Lloyd L. Kempe Costas Kravaris Bernhard Palsson Anastasios C. Papanastasiou John E Powers Jerome S Schultz Johannes Schwank Maurice J Sinnott M. Rasin Tek Henry Y Wang James 0. Wilkes Brymer Williams Gregory S.Y. Yeh Edwin H. Young Robert M. Ziff ,, ,, College of Engineering For information write : Dept. of Chemical Engineering The University of Michigan Dow Building Ann Arbor Michigan 48109 or call collect: (313) 763-1148

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State University has assistantships and fellowships available for students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two to three additional years. ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $840.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S. degree and approximately $910.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject covered by the research assistantship. Non-resident tuition is waived. FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $16,000 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year. CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman Ph D., University of Washington Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio vascular Physiology, Diffusion in Polymers D. BRIEDIS Ph.D., Iowa State University Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living Systems, Biorheology, Mass Transfer in Biological Mineralization R. E. BUXBAUM Ph.D., Princeton University Chemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion, Dif fusivities and Separation Rates from Theory and Ex periment. C. M. COOPER Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of Transport Processes A .L. DeVERA Ph.D., University of Notre Dame Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Trans port Properties of Random Heterogeneous Media, Applied Mathematics, Catalytic Gasification of Carbon, Shape Selectivity Reactions on Zeolites E.A.GRULKE Ph.D., Ohio State University Food Engineering, Membranes Separations, and Polymer Engineering M. C. HAWLEY Ph.D., Michigan State University Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas, and Reaction Engineering K. JAYARAMAN Ph.D., Princeton University Simplification of Process Models, Parameter Estimation, Rheology of Suspensions and Polymers D. J. MILLER Ph.D., University of Florida Catalytic Reaction Kinetics and Catalyst Characterization, Gas-Solid Reactions, and Modeling of Stochastic Processes C.A.PETTY Ph.D., University of Florida Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena, Solid-Fluid Separations B. W. WILKINSON Ph.D., Ohio State University Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Reactor, and Radioisotope Applications FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE 254 _, Dr Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering 173 Engineering Building, Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1226 MSU is an Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Institution CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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University of Minnesota Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Chemical Engineering Program Process Control Synthesis, Design Fluid Thermodynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Statistical Mechanics I Reaction Engineering Kinetics Catalysis Heterogeneous Reactions Colloid and Interface Science SurfactanC',' Capillary Hydrodynamics Adhesion and Surface Forces Coating Flows I Bioengineering Biochemical, Biomedical THE FACULTY R. Aris R.W. Carr Jr E.L Cussler J.S Dahler H.T. Davis D.F Evans A. Francios i A.G. Fredrickson C.J. Geankoplis W W Gerberich G.L Griff i n W-S. Hu K.F Jensen K H. Keller C. W. Macosko M.L Mecartney M.E Nicholson R.A. Oriani W E. Ranz Polymer Science Polymer Processes Thermodynamics Transport Electrochemical Processes Surface Sc i ence Microelectronics Preparation Processes Polymer Films Sols Gels Dispersions Sol-Gel F i lms Biomedical Materials LO Schmidt LE Scr i ven D.A. Shores J .M. Sivertsen W.H Smyrl R W Staehle M V nrreH J H Weaver S T V'tellinghoff H.S White Materials Science Program Physical and Mechanical Metallurgy Thermodynamics of Solids Diffusion and Kinetics Corrosion Materials Failure Metals Semiconductors Thin films Microelectronic Materials Magnetic Materials Ceramics Dental Materials Artifical Organ Materials For i nformation and application forms. write: Graduate Admissions Chemical Engineering and Mater i als Science Un i versity of M i nnesota 42 1 Washington Ave. S E M i nneapolis MN 55455

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256 Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. AZBEL (D.Sc., Mendeleev ICT-Moscow)-Dis persed Two-Phase Flow, Coal Gasification and Liquefaction. N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado)-Computer Aided Process Design, Bioconversion 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice)-Transport Properties, Kinetics, Catalysis. M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida)-Biochemical Studies, Biomass Utilization J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. lllinois-Chicago)-Chemical kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo dynamics. J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode R~ actions, Corrosion A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich)-Adsorption, Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor Design J. M. D. MAC ELROY (Ph.D., University College Dublin) Transport Phenomena, Heterogeneous Catalysis Dry i ng, Statistical Mechanics D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-lnterfacial Phenomena B. E. POLING (Ph.D., lllinois)-Kinetcis, Energy Storage, Catalysis. X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota)-Fluid Me chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena, Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure. 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Bioengineer ing R. C WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M) Multi stage Mass Transfer Operations Distillation, Ex traction, Process Control H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse) Polymer Membrane Technology Thin-Film Tech nology, Plasma Polymerization Biornedical Ma terials. R. M. YBARRA (Ph.D., Purdue)-Rheology of Polymer Solutions, Chemical Reaction Kinetics Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY, BOZEMAN Come to Montana State University and enjoy a unique lifestyle while getting a solid graduate education in chemical engineering. We are literally minutes away FALL 1984 from some of the finest fish i ng, h i king and downhill ski i ng i n America Yellowstone National Park is only 90 miles from Bozeman. We offer M S. and Ph D. degrees as well as a special masters program for students w i th under graduate preparation in chemistry or other scientific areas The department cu r rently has active research p r og r ams i n a number of areas including: Separations supercritical extraction, extractive distillation, membranes Energy coal liquifaction, heavy oil up grading, biomass conversion Catalysis surface science, catalyst poisoning, mass transfer F inancia l supp o r t is avai l a bl e Write today for further information and application forms Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department Mon t ana State University Bozeman, Montana 59717 257

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Advanced studies in Chemical Engineering atNJIT NJIT, the public technological university of New Jersey, offering the Master of Science in Chemical Engineering, Master of Science, Degree of Engineer, and Doctor of Engineering Science. AT NJIT YOU LL FIND : Outstanding relationships with major petrochemical and pharmaceutical corporations, yielding significant support for research efforts The National Science Foundation university /i ndustry cooperative center for research in hazardous and toxic substances Graduate and undergraduate enrollment in chemical engineering among the largest in the country Financial support available to qualified full-time graduate students Faculty: Chemical Engineering Division M F. Abd-EI-Bary (Lehigh) D P Armenante (Virginia) B Baltzis (Minnesota) E Bart (NYU) T. Greenstein (NYU) D. Hanesian (Cornell) C R Huang (Michigan) G Lewandowski (Columbia) C. C. Lin (Technische Univer sitat Munchen) J E. McCormick (Cincinnati) T. Petroulas (Minnesota) A. G. Perna (Connecticut) E C Roche Jr (Stevens) D Tassios (Texas) W T. Wong (Princeton) Faculty: Chemistry Division J. Bozzelli (Princeton) V. Cagneti (Stevens) L. Dauerman (Rutgers) D. Getzin (Columbia) A. Greenberg (Princeton) J. Grow (Oregon State) T. Gund (Princeton) B Kebbekus (Penn State) H. Kimmel (CUNY) D .S. Kristo! (NYU) D. Lambert (Oklahoma State) D G. Lei (PINY) R. Parker (Washington) H. Perlmutter (NYU) A. Shilman (PINY) L. Suchow (PINY) R. Tomkins (London) R. Trattner (CUNY) C Venanzi (UC at Santa Barbara) CURRENT RESEARCH AREAS ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Air pollutant analysis and transport of organic compounds Biological and chemical detoxification Design of air pollution control equipment Toxicology REACTION KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Fixed and fluidized bed reactors Free radical and global reaction kinetics Biochemical reactors Reactor modeling and transport mechanisms THERMODYNAMICS Vapor-liquid equalibria Calorimetry Equations of state Solute/solvent systems APPLIED CHEMISTRY Electrochemistry Trace analysis and instrument development Strained molecules Inorganic solid state and material science Heterocyclic and synthetic organic compounds Drug receptor interaction modeling Enzyme / substrate geometrics POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Rheology of polymer melts Syn t hesis of dental adhesive Photo initiated polymeriza tion Size distribution of emulsion polymerization Fire resistance fibers BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Thixotropic property of human blood Modified glucose tolerance test Mathematical modeling of metabolic processes PROCESS SIMULATION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES Distillation Parametric pumping Protein separation Liquid membranes New Jersey Institute of Technology is a publicly supported university with 7,000 students enrolled in baccalaureate through doctoral programs, within three colleges : Newark College of Engineering the School of Architecture and Third College the school of sciences humanities, and management. We invite you to explore academic opportunities at NJIT For further information call (201) 596-3460 or write : Director of Graduate Studies New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark New Jersey 07102 ANEO Institution NewJersey lnstituteofTec~

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There's no formula for it. It s a decision that depends in ?::::-:-_J.....__ theend,onyourowninstinct s \, ...__ 0 and judgment / J_ oIt s also a decision y ou {.!::' ;._ 1 ..-------/'{i\ shouldn't make until you look L 11 1 1 :::-:.Z-: I at North Carolina State ( \ 1,7, Because something is ------Dr I ~ ro, ),, l_ l \\~' j f; happening here that's begun to { surprise a lot of people. _____ We've established the -~ ________ -.._____ highest matriculation standard Research \ funding in a If all this is ------"'-l uU in a university system already typical year come s t o o ver beginning to intrigue you known for excellence. $1 250 000. And it come s from try a simple experiment: And that means brighter the most competitive s ources Write to our department more talented undergraduates. for research support. head, Harold B Hopfenberg, The faculty, as a result Currently active research for more information. Or call are constantly challenged.A projects run the gamut of him at (919) 737 2318 very healthy state of affairs that classical areas including multi After all, when you're reflects, in tum, on the quality faculty collaboration in coal trying to make a decision on of the graduate program gasification pol y mer science a graduate school it always And "quality is the word. and biotechnology. pays to do your homework. CHEMICAl E NGINEERING NORDI CAROllNASTATE UNIVERSDY Department of Cherrucal Engineering. Box 7 905 North Carolina, State U niversity. Raleigh North Carolina, 27695-7905.

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Chemical Engineering at 260 Northwestern University S. George Bankoff Two-phase h ea t tr a nsfer nuid m ec h a ni cs George M. Brown Thermodynamics of multi co mp onent ph ase e quilibri a John B. Butt C h em i ca l reaction e n g in ee rin g Stephen H. Carr So lid s t a te properties of polymers William C. Cohen Co ntr o l a nd m eas urem e nt o f disu ibut e d parameter syste ms Buckley Crist Jr. Pol y m er sc i ence Joshua S. Dranoff C h e mi ca l reaction eng in eer in g, c h romatog r a phi c se p a rati o n s Thomas K. Goldstick Biom edica l e ngin eer ing oxyge n tran spo rt in th e hum a n body Hugh M. Hulburt Chemical and physical process fund a m e nt a l s Harold H. Kung Kineti cs, h eteroge ne o u s catalysis Richard S.H. Mah Co mput e r -ai d ed process planning, design a nd a n a l ys i s, di st illation sys tems Gregory R yskin Fluid m ec h a ni cs, computational methods, pol y m er i c liquids Wolfgang M.H. Sachtler Het e ro ge ne o u s ca tal ysis John C. Slattery lnt e rfa c ial transport ph eno m e n a, multiph ase now s William F. Stevens Process co n t r o l a nd op timi zatio n co mput er applications George Thodos Ph ys i ca l prop er ti es of gases a nd liquids John M. Torkelson Polymer sc i e n ce For information and application to the graduate program, write J o hn B Butt C h ai rm a n of Graduate Program D e p ar tm e nt of Chemical Engineering Nort hw es t e rn U ni vers it y Eva n s t o n Illin o i s 60201 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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HAWING IY H, JANIS L, TNIIONI AMOCO HHUCN, NAPIIIYILLI ILL FALL 1984 M.S. and Ph.D. in 'V t <.( ~~N, ;, Chemical Engineering :~, I~ for ~hemical_ engi neering and ., ., ,.. non ch em1cal engmeermg students .. .. .. ,r;;;, ~ .. '-~ \; ~o/ t,y )~H~~ E~F.if.~[~ 261

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The Ohio State University Relevant Graduate Education Excellence in Research Close Relationships Between Graduate Students and Their Faculty Advisors OSU is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution. GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING W E HAVE state-of-the-art research facilities for all of tHe areas mentioned below. In addition, the Department has a DEC VAX 11/780 computer with auxiliary equipment for monochromatic and color graphics, real-time data acquisi tion, and control. The University and surrounding community provide a stimulating setting for our Department. There are several major chemical companies and a variety of high-technology firms in the vicinity. For example, Battelle Memorial Institute is adjacent to our campus, and we have enjoyed technical in teraction on many levels. Columbus is a cultural center with many varied musical, artistic, and dramatic offerings. There are also a wide variety of recreational opportunities nearly every sport from archery to water skiing is available. Financial support is available ranging from $8,500 to $15,000 annually. Robert S. Brodkey Wisconsin 1952 Turbulence Mixing, Reactor Design Rheology and Fluid Mechanics James F. Davis Northwestern 1982 Computer Aided Design Artificial Intelligence Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer L. S. Fan West Virginia 1975 Fluidization, Chemical & Biochemical Reaction Engineering and Mathematical Modeling Edwin R. Haering Ohio State 1966 Reaction Engineering, Catalysis and Adsorption Harry C. Hershey Missouri-Rolla 1965 Thermodynamics and Drag Reduction Kent S. Knaebel Delaware 1980 Mass Transfer Separations Computer-Aided Design and Power Conversion Cycles L. James Lee Minnesota 1979 Polymer Processing, Heat Transfer and Rheology Won-Kyoo Lee Missouri-Columbia 1972 Process Control Computer Control and Computer-Aided Design Umit Ozkan Iowa State 1984 Heterogeneous Catalysis, and Reaction Kinetics Duane R. Skidmore Fordham 1960 Coal Processing and Biochemical Engineering Edwin E. Smith Ohio State 1949 Combustion and Environmental Engineering Thomas L. Sweeney Case 1962 Air Pollution Control Heat Transfer, and Legal Aspects of Engineering Jacques L. Zakin New York 1959 Drag Reduction Rheology and Fluid Mechanics WRITE OR CALL COLLECT Professor Jacques L. Zakin, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering The Ohio State University 140 West 19th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 (614) 422-6986

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FALL 1984 UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering and Material Science ? ~ .,/ > ~: Areas Of Research Interest: SURFACTANTS CORROSION THERMODYNAMICS BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING STATISTICAL MECHANICS SYNTHETIC FUELS REACTION ENGINEERING METALLURGY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY ULTRATHIN FILMS NOVEL SEPARATION PROCESSES BASE STIPEND: $750 / MO. For the application materials and further information, write to Graduate Program Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Oklahoma 202 West Boyd, Room 23 Norman, Oklahoma 73019 263

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Oklahoma State University ... where people are important Address inquiries to: Billy L. Crynes, Head School of Chemical Engineering Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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university of pennsylvania che111ical eng1neer1ng RESEARCH AREAS Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Chemical Reactor Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Crystal Growth Electrochemistry Fluid Mechanics Heterogeneous Catalysis lnterfacial Phenomena Membrane Transport Numerical Analysis Polymer Science React i on Kinetics Separation Techniques Solar Energy Surface Phenomena Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena P en nsylvania's ch e mical engineering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of the research ar eas of the depart ment. The full resources of this Ivy L eague university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. FALL 1984 FACULTY Stuart W. Churchill, PhD, Michigan (1952) Elizabeth B Dussan V., PhD Johns Hopkins (1972) Gregory C. Farrington, PhD, Harvard (1972) William C Forsman, PhD Penn sylvania (1961) Eduardo D. Glandt, PhD Penn sylvania (1 977) Raymond J. Gorte, PhD Minnesota (1981) David J Graves, ScD, MIT (19 67) A Norman Hixson, Emeritus Douglas A. Lauffenburger, PhD, Minnesota (1979) Mitchell Litt, D Eng S ci., Columbia (1961) Alan L Myers, PhD, Cal i fornia (1964) Melvin C. Molstad, Emeritus Daniel D. Perlmutter, PhD, Yale (1956) John A. Quinn, PhD, Princeton (1959)-Chairman Warren D. Seider, PhD, Michigan (1966) Lyle H. Ungar PhD, MIT (1984) Paul B. Weisz, ScD Zur ich (1965) PHILADELPHIA: Th e cultural advantages, historical assets, and recreational facilities of a great city are within walking distance of the University. Enthusiasts will find a variety of college and professional sports at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the Atlantic shore are within a two-hour drive. For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Science 31 lA Towne Building/D3 University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 265

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LOOKING FOR A GRADUATE EDUCATION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING? CONSIDER PENN STATE FACULTY PAUL BARTON (Penn State) ALFRED CARLSON (Wisconsin) RONALD P. DANNER (Lehigh) THOMAS E. DAUBERT (Penn State) J. LARRY DUDA (Delaware) LEE C. EAGLETON (Yale) ALFRED J. ENGEL (Wisconsin) E. EARL GRAHAM (Northwestern) FRIEDRICH G. HELFFERICH (Gottingen) VINA YAK KABADI (Penn State) ROBERT L. KABEL (Washington) E. ERWIN KLAUS (Penn State) JENNINGS H. JONES (Penn State) R. NAGARAJAN (SUNY Buffalo) CHARLES C. PEIFFER (Penn State) JONATHAN PHILLIPS (Wisconsin) JOHN M. TARBELL (Delaware) JAMES S. ULTMAN (Delaware) M. ALBERT VANNICE (Stanford) JAMES S. VRENTAS (Delaware) DANIEL WHITE (Florida) Financial aid is available to qualified applicants in the form of graduate teaching and research assistantships and fellowships. For application forms and further information, write to: Chairman, Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering 160 Fenske Laboratory Pennsylvania State University University Park PA 16802 APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS Compilation, Correlation, Predi ction of Thermodynamic, Transport, Physical Properties API Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining AIChE-DIPPR Data Prediction Manual Equation of State Models Phase Equilibria in Mixtures Critical Prop erty, Vapor Pressure Measurements BIOMEDICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Flow and Mixing in Lung Airways Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics Monitoring and Support of Newborn Mechanical Origin of Atherosclerosis Lung Surfactant Dynamics Microbial Growth Kinetics Food Engineering Enzyme Reactors CATALYSIS AND SURFACE PHENOMENA Metal-Support Interactions CO / Hydrogen Synthesis Reactions Sulfur Poisoning of Catalysts Carbon Supported Metal Cluster Catalysts Sintering of Silver Oxidation Catalysts Noble Metal Reconstruction Characterization of Iron-Carbon Catalysts Catalytic Kinetics and Reactor Dynamics Liquid and Vapor Pha se Lubrication Microoxidation of Lubricants Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Adsorption High-Temperature Lubrication and Tribology POLYMERS AND COLLOIDS Diffus i on in Polymers Rheology and Flow Behavior Enhanced O il Recovery Mi ce lles Vesicles Microemuls ions Separation of Biopolymers TRANSPORT PHENOMENA AND RELATED TOPICS Flow Through Porous Media Mixing and Chemical Reaction in Turbulent Flows Mathematical Analysis of Free Convection Perturbation Approach to Moving Boundary P r oblems Laminar Flow in Complex Systems Ga s-Liqui d and Gas-Solid Reactors Multicomponent Ionic Transport Propagation Phenomena in Multicomponent Systems Transport i n Vesicular and Liquid Membranes Atmospheric Modelling Individuals holding the B.S. in Chemistry or other related areas are encouraged to apply. 266 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? :' .......... CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg R. F. Benenati J. J. Conti C. D. Han W. H. Kapfer J. S. Mijovic E. M. Pearce E. Sadie L. I. Stiel E N. Ziegler Polvtechnic lnsfitute @~~WCQ!?~ Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and New York University School of Engineering and Science. Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's and Doctor's degrees. Areas of Study and research: chemical engineering, polymer science and engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Engineering Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Computer Aided Process Design Energy Conversion Engineering Properties of Polymer s Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Polymer Processing Polymer Morphology Polymer Synthes is and Modification Polymerization Reaction Engineering Rheology Separation Sciences Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available. For further information contact Professor R. F. Benenati Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Institute of New York 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, New York 11201

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Albright Greenkom Andres Hannemann Caruthers Houze Chao Kessler Delgass Koppel Eckert Lim Emery Peppas Franses Ramkrishna Reklaitis Squires Takoudis Tsao Wang Wankat Graduate Information Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 4 7907 An equal access/equal opportunity university

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University of Queensland POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships A v ailable Return Airfare Included STAFF L. S. LEUNG (Cambridge) P R BELL (N.S.W.) J M. BURGESS (Edinburgh) D D. DO (Queensland) P. F. GREENFIELD (N.S W.) G. J. KELLY (Tasmania) A. JUTAN (McMaster) P. L. LEE (Monash) F. K. MAK (Queensland) R. B NEWELL (Alberta) D. J. NICKLIN (Cambridge) D. RANDERSON (N.S.W.) E T. WHITE (Imperial College) R. J. WILES (Queensland) THE DEPARTMENT I ,. -,., RESEARCH AREAS Two Phase Flow Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Electrochemistry Corrosion Fermentation Tissue Culture Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics Mineral Processing Membrane Processes Hybridoma Technology The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an ex tensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M Eng. Studies, M.Eng Science and Ph.D.degrees. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY The University is one of the largest in Australia with more than 18,000 students. Brisbane, with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef. For further information write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4067 AUSTRALIA. FALL 1984 269

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Ban czlaczr Pol\] czchnic ln)titutcz M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering Areas of Research Air and water pollution control Biochemical engineering Combustion Fluid-particle systems Heat transfer Financial Support: Full time graduate 5tudents are eligible f o r financial support including tuition rem i ssion and tax-free fellowships lnterfacial phenomena Polymer reaction engineering Separation engineering Thermodynamics Applications and information: F o r full details writ e : Dr PK. Lashmet E x ecutive Officer Departm e nt of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering Rensselaer Polytech nic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590

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Rice University Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY Privately endowed coeducational school 2600 undergraduate students 1000 graduate students Quiet and beautiful 300 acre tree-shaded campus 3 miles from downtown Houston Architecturally uniform and aesthetic campus THE CITY Large metropolitan and cultural center Petrochemical capital of the world Industrial collaboration and job opportunities World renowned research and treatment medical center Professional sports Close to recreational areas THE DEPARTMENT M.ChE., M S., and Ph.D. degrees Approximately 80 graduate students (predom i nately PhD.) 14 full-time facu l ty FALL 1984 Tax-free stipends and tuition waivers for full-time students Special fellowships with higher stipends for outstanding candidates THE FACULTY WILLIAM W. AKERS (Michigan, 1950) Vice-president for administration CONSTANTINE D ARMENIADES (Case Western Reserve, 1969) Polymers and composites, biomaterials. SAM H DAVIS, JR. (MIT, 1957) Dynamics of chemical systems, optimization, and process control. DEREK C. DYSON (London, 1966) lnterfacial phenomena, hydrodynamic stability, and enhanced oil recovery. J DAVID HELLUMS (Michigan, 1961) Fluid mechanics and biomedical engineering JOE W. HIGHTOWER (Johns Hopkins, 1963) Kinetics and heterogeneous catalysis. RIKI KOBAYASHI (Michigan, 1951) Thermodynamics and transport properties, chromatography, coal liquefaction, and high-pressure properties. THOMAS W. LELAND, JR. (Texas, 1954) Thermodynamic properties. LARRY V MclNTIRE (Princeton, 1970) Rheology, fluid mechanics, and biomedical engineering. CLARENCE A. MILLER (Minnesota, 1969) lnterfacial phenomena in enhanced oil recovery. E TERRY PAPOUTSAKIS (Purdue, 1979) Biochemical engineering and applied mathematics. MARK A ROBERT (Swiss Fed. Institute of Technology, 1980) Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics KA-YU SAN (CalTech, 1983) Biomedical engineering. KYRIACOS ZYGOURAKIS (Minnesota, 1981) Chemical reaction engineering, computer applications for control and data acquisition. APPLICATIONS Chairman, Graduate Committee Wepartment of Chemical Engineering P O. Box 1892 Rice University Houston, TX 77251 271

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Chemical Engineering at the UNIVERSITY of ROCHESTER Graduate study and research leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. Fellowships to $11,000 Summer Research Program available for entering students. For further information and applic-ations, contact: Professor John C. Friedly, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rochester Rochester, New York 14627 Phone: (716) 275-4042 Faculty and Research Areas S. H. CHEN, Ph.D. 1981, Minnesota Diffusion in Dense Gases and Polymer Solutions, Mixing and Chemical Reactions, Solution Thermodynamics E. H. CHIMOWITZ, Ph.D. 1982, Connecticut Computer-Aided Design, Super-Critical E x traction, Control G. R. COKELET, Sc.D. 1963, M.I.T. Blood and Suspension Rheology, Biomed ical Engineering M. R. FEINBERG, Ph.D. 1968, Princeton Comple x Reaction Systems, Applied Mathematics J. R. FERRON Ph.D. 1958, Wisconsin Molecular Transport Processes, Applied Ma thematics J.C. FRIEDLY, Ph.D. 1965, California (Berkeley) Process Dynamics, Control, Heat Transfer 272 R.H. HEIST, Ph.D. 1972, Purdue Nucleation Solid State, Atmospheri c Chemistry J. JORNE, Ph.D. 1972, California (Berkeley) Electrochemical Engineering, Theo re tical Biology R.H. NOTTER, M.D., Ph.D.1969 Washington (Seattle) Lung Su r factants Aerosols, B i oengineering H.J. PALMER, Ph.D. 1971, Washington (Seattle) lnterfacialPhenomena, Mass Transfer H. SALTSBURG, Ph.D.1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering S. V. SOTIRCHOS, Ph.D. 1982, Houston Reaction Engineering, Combustion and Gasification of Coal, Gas-Solid Reactions CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY College of Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AND CHEMICAL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY, COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED BIOCATALYSIS BIOMATERIALS ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS FUELS FROM BIOMASS CONTROL OF FERMENTATION FOOD PROCESSING GENETIC ENGINEERING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSIST ANTS HIPS ARE AVAILABLE FALL 1984 COAL DESULFURIZATION HAZARDOUS & TOXIC WASTE TREATMENT ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS POLYMER PROCESSING WASTEWATER RECOVERY AND REUSE SOLID STATE CATALYSIS INCINERATION & RESOURCE RECOVERY STATISTICAL THERMODYNAMICS For Application Forms and Further Information Write To: Director of Graduate Program Dept of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Rutgers, The State University New Brunswick, N.J. 08903 273

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UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA The College of Engineering offers M,S., M.E. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely with the faculty on research projects. Research and teaching stipends are available. The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of 23,800 on the Columbia campus, offers a variety of cultural and recrea tional activities. Columbia is part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country. The Chem lcal Engineering Faculty B. L. Baker, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., North Carolina State University, 1955 (Process design, environment problems, ion transport). M. W. Davis, Jr., Weisiger Chair Professor, Ph.D., University of California (Berkeley), 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis, chemical process analysis, solvent extraction, waste treatment ). F. A. Gadaia-Maria, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Stanford University, 1979 (Fluid mechanics, rheology). J. H. Gibbons, Professor, Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, 1961 (Heat transfer, fluid mecha~ics) E. L. Hanzevack, Jr., Associate Professor, Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1974 (Two-phase flow, turbulence) F. P. Pike, Professor Emeritus, Ph.D., University of Minneso1a, 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid-liquid systems, vapor-liquid equilibria). T. G. Stanford, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., The University of Michigan, 1977 (Chemical reactor engineering, mathematical modeling of chemical systems, process design, thermodynamics) V. Van Brunt, Associate Professor, Ph.D., University of Tennessee, 1974 (Mass transfer, computer modeling, fluidization). J. W. Van Zee, Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Texas A & M University, 1984 (Electrochemical systems, mathematicai modeling, statistical applications). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Prof. J. H. Gibbons Chairman, Chemical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia, South Carolina 29208

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Stevens Institute of Technology Graduate Programs in Chemical Engirteering Leading to the Degrees of Master of Engineering Chemical Engineer Ph.D. Full and part-time day and evening programs RESEARCH IN Catalysis Chemical Reaction E n gineering Coal Combustion FACULTY J. A. Biesenberger (Ph.D., Princeton) H. Assadipour (Ph.D., Michigan) G. B. Delancey (Ph.D., Pittsburgh) C G. Gogos (Ph.D., Princeton) For additional information, contact: E nergy Conversion Multiphase Transport Na tural Gas Enginee rin g Polymerization E ngin eering D M. Kalyon (Ph.D ., McGill) S Kovenklioglu (Ph.D., Stevens) P. Hold (D.Eng., Vienna) A. P. Plochocki (Ph.D., Warsaw) Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken N.J. 07030 (201) 420-5546 Financial aid available to qualified students. Polymer Rheology and Processing Polymer Structuring Process Design and Dev e lopment Process Simulation and Control S eparat ion Processes D. H. Sebastian (Ph.D., Stevens) H. Silla (Ph.D., Stevens) K. K. Sirkar (Ph.D. Illinois) A. P. Zioudas (Ph.D., Illinois) For application contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken N.J 07030 (201) 420-5234 Overlookin g the Hud so n River and midtown Manhattan, the 55-acre Stevens campus encompasses more than 30 buildings including classroom and research facilities The location of the campus is unique, just 15 minutes from the heart of New York and within a SO-mile radius of the country s largest research laboratories and chemical petroleum and pharmaceutical companies. Stevens In stitute of Tec hn olo gy does n o t dis c rimin ate against a n y perso n beca u se of race, c r ee d co l or, nation a l or i g in sex, age, marital stat u s, handi c ap li ab ilit y for se rvi ce in the ar m e d forces or s t at u s as a d i sab l e d o r Vi et n a m era ve t era n

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY THE DEPARTMENT THE UNIVERSITY Close rela.tionship between faculty and graduate students Comprehensive-over 100 distinct graduate degre e pirograms; all major fields of engineering, science, mathematics, and man agement Full participation of the faculty in the graduate program Programs designed to meet in dividual student needs 15,000 students including 4,2 00 graduate students RESEARCH INTERESTS Allen J. Barduhn John C. Heydweiller George C. Martin Phillip A. Rice Ashok Sangani James A. Schwarz S. Alexander Stern Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien Chiu-sen Wang Desalination Computational Methods, Simulation Polymer Properties and Applications Biotransport Phenomena Theoretical Fluid Mechanics Cata ly sis, Surface Phenomena Membra ne Processes Multiphase Reaction Systems Fluid Particle Separation Aerosol Technology THE SYRACUSE AREA Major concerts (guests last year included: The Rolling Stones, The Greatful Dead, and Sa ntana) Big East Basketball and other major college sports e The Syracuse Symphony and the Syracuse Stage Skiing within 30 minute s Easy access to the Thousand Islands and the Adiro ndack Forest Preserve FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE For Information write: Lawrenc e L. Ta vlarides, Chairman D epartment of Chemical Engineei-ing and Materials Science Syracuse University 229 Hinds Hall Syracuse, New York, 18210 276 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Aerosol Physics & Chemistry Air Pollution Science ,, Artificial Internal Organs ': Aqueous Mass Transfer Biomed ical Engineering Catalysis Chemical Engineering Education Coal Desulfurization Coal Ga$ification & Comliustion Computer Applications Computer-Based Educati ~ Colloid Science Energy Applications Enhanced Oil Recovery Heat Transfer Material Science Membrane Science Multi-phase Systems Optimization Polymer Applications Poly!fler ~roe

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Texas A &M University ; 11'' .. ~. .. THE UNIVERSITY THE DEPARTMENT Texas A&M is a land-grant and sea-grant university and the oldest public institution of higher learning in Texas. The current enrollment is about 36,000. The uni versity location is Bryan / College Station Texas tw i n cities with a combined population of 122,000 (including students). The surrounding country is deciduous forest Houston is 95 miles Southeast and Dallas is 180 miles North. The ChE department has an enrollment of about 1000 undergraduates and l 00 graduates. ChE has excellent facilities in the Zachry Engineering Center. All gradu ate students have desk space. Graduate stipends are currently $1050 / month for teaching assis t antships and $930 / month for research assistants 278 FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS C. D. Holland (department head) distillation A. Akgerman kinetics A. M. Gadalla catalys t characterizat i on C. J. Glover polymer solutions R. G Anthony-catalysis D. B. Bukur reaction engineering J. A. Bullin gas sweetening, air pollution R. Darby-rheology R R. Davison solar energy L. D. Durbin process control P. T. Eubank thermodynamics K. R Hall thermodynamics D. T. S Hanson biochemical W B Harris methanol fuel J. C. Holste thermodynamics G B. Tatterson turbulence and mixing A. T. Watson porous med i a R E. Wh i te e l ectrochemical applicat i ons FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Dept. Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 409 / 845-3361 Admission to The Texas A&M University System and any of its sponsored programs is open to qualified individuals regardless of race, color, age, religion, sex, national origin or educationally unrelated handicaps. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATIO N

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Eggshells Amalgam C i nnabar Vinegar Vitriol Lim e Whit e Ar se ni c Aqua Vitae Zinc N itre Flowers Copper Silver Alchemist Symbols : Gold Chemical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University applying ch~mistry to the needs of man Study with outstanding professors in the land of Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Lee ... where Chemical Engineering is an exciting art. Some current areas of major and well-funded activity are: Renewable Resources chemical and microbiological processing, chemicals from renewable resources Catalysis homogeneous, heterogeneous, spectroscopy, novel immobilizations of homogeneous systems, zeolite synthesis Coal Science and Process Chemistry chemistry of prompt intermediates, reaction paths in coal liquefaction, fate of trace elements Coal Combustion Workshop small-scale systems, fate of trace elements, environmental controls, fluidized beds Microcomputers, Digital Electronics, and Control digital process measurements, microcomputer interfacing, remote data acquisition, digital controls Polymer Science and Engineering processing, morphology, synthei.is, surface science, biopolymers Biochemical Engineering synthetic foods, antibiotics, fermentation process design and instrumentation, environmental engineering Surface Activity use of bubbles and other interfaces for separations, water purification, trace elements, concentration, understanding living systems VPI&SU is the state university of Virginia with 20,000 students and over 5,000 engineering students located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern Virginia. White-water canoeing, skiing, backpacking, and the like are all nearby, as are Washington, D. C. and historic Williamsburg. Initial Stipends to $10,000 per year. Write to: Graduate Committee Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061.

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The Department has a vigorous research program and excellent ph y sical facilities. There are about 55 graduate students of whom typicall y 6-8 are foreign students and the remainder are from about 30 universities in over 20 states. All full-time graduate students are supported The research environment is stimulating and supportive and there is a fine esprit de corps among the graduate students and faculty Seattle is a beautiful city with outstanding cultural activities and unparalleled outdoor activities throughout the y ear. We welcome y our inquiry For further information please write : Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering BFIO ,i__ U niversity of Washington University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 Regular Faculty J. Ray Bowen Ph D ., Stanford ( Dean College of Engineering) John C Berg Ph D ., California ( Berkele y) E James Davis Ph D ., Washington Bruce A F i nla y son Ph D. Minneso ta Harold E Hager Ph.D ., Princeton William]. Heideger Ph D ., Princeton Bradle y R. Holt Ph.D. Wisconsin Eric W Kaler Ph.D. Minnesota Barbara B Krieger Ph D ., Wa y ne State N. Lawrence Ricker Ph D California ( Berkele y ) James C. Seferis Ph D ., Del aw are Charles A Sleicher Ph.D., Michigan Eric M. Stuve Ph D. Stanford Research Faculty Thomas A Horbett Ph D. Washington Adjunct andJoint Faculty Active in Department Research G Graham All a n Ph D. Gl as go w Allan S Hoffman Sc D. M I.T. William T McKean Ph D ., Washington Michael]. Pilat Ph D ., Washington Buddy D Ratner Ph D ., Br o okl y n Polytechnic K y osti V Sarkanen Ph D ., State U ni v of N Y Research Areas Aerosol s Applied Kinetics Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Colloids and Microemulsions Electrochemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Heat Transfer Mathematical Modeling Pol y mer Science and Engineering Process Control and Optimi z ation Pulp and Paper Chemistry a nd Processes Semiconductor Processing and Technology Surface Science and lnterfacial Phenomena

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Washington University ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI Washington Universi ty encourages andgivesfull consideration to application for admission andjinancial a i d without respect to sex, race, handicap, color. cree
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Chemical Engineering Faculty Richard C. Bailie (Iowa State Univ.) Eugene V. Cilento (Univ. of Cincinnati) Dady B. Dadyburjor (Univ. of Delaware) Alfred F. Galli (West Virginia Univ.) Joseph D. Henry, Jr., Chair. (Univ. of Michigan) Hisashi Kono (Kyushu Univ.) Joseph A. Shaeiwitz (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.) Alfred H. Stiller (Univ. of Cincinnati) Charles W. White (Univ. of Pennsylvania) Wallace B. Whiting (Univ California, Berkeley) Ray Y. K. Yang (Princeton Univ.) John W. Zondlo (Carnegie-Mellon Univ.) West v'lrg1n1a Un1vers1ty Topics Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Phase Equilibria Fluidization Bioengineering Solution Chemistry Transport Phenomena Biochemical Engineering Catalysis Computer-aided design M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write: Dr. J. D. Henry Department of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 6101 West Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6101

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Wisconsin A tradition of excellence in Chemical Engineering Faculty Research Interests R. Byron Bird Transport phenomena, polymer fluid dynamics polymer kinetic theory Thomas W. Chapman Electrochemistry, mass transfer Camden A. Coberly Director, Engineering Experiment Station Stuart L. Cooper (Chmn.) Polymer science, biomaterials E.Johansen Crosby Spray and suspended particle processing John A. Duffie Solar energy James A. Dumesic Kinetics and catalysis surfa ce c hemistry Charles G. Hill, Jr. Kinetics and catalys i s membrane processes Richard R. Hughes Process synthesis, s i mulation and optimization Sangtae Kim Fluid mechanics applied mathematics James A. Koutsky Polymer science adhesives composites Stanley H. Langer Kinetics, catalysis, electro chemistry, chromatography hydrometallurgy E. N. Lightfoot, Jr Mass transport and separations processes, biochemical engineering W. Robert Marshall Director University Industr y R e s e arch Program Patrick D. McMahon Statistical thermodynamics renormalization group theory W. Harmon Ray Process dynamics and control, reactor engineering Dale F. Rudd Process design and industrial development Glenn A. Sather Development of instruct i onal program Warren E. Stewart Reactor modeling transport phenomena, applied mathematics Emeritus faculty Roger J Altpeter, Olaf A. Hougen, Wayne K Neill, Roland A. Ragatz, Charles C. Watson For further information about graduate study in chemical engineering, write: THE GRADUATE COMMITTEE Department of Chemical Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison 1415 Johnson Drive Madison, Wisconsin 53706

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284 Chemical Engineering At YALE The Department of Chemical Engineering at Yale offers graduate study in a variety of traditional, nontraditional, and interdisciplinary areas. Research laboratories are well equipped with modern instruments. Students also benefit from outstanding educational and research programs in the social sciences, humanities, and the arts as well as engineer ing and science. FACULTY J. B. Fenn, D. D. Frey, G. L. Haller, B. L Halpern, Cs. Horvath, W. R. Melander, L. D. Pfefferle, D. E. Rosner, RESEARCH AREAS Combustion, Catalysis, Separation Processes, Transport Phenomena, Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Chemical Kinetics, Molecular Beam Chemical Engineering Yale is located in New Haven, Connecticut, on Long Island Sound about 80 miles northeast of New York and 130 miles southwest of Boston. It has two theatre companies of national repute, a symphony orchestra, several chamber music groups, and is within a short drive of Long Island Sound beaches. For more information write: Chairman, Dept. of Chemical Engineering P.O. Box 2159 Yale Station New Haven, CT 06520 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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LL BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering MS R. E. Slonaker, Jr., Chairman (Ph.D., Iowa State) Growth and properties of single crystals, high-temper~ture calorimetry, vapor-liquid equilibria in ternary systems M. E. Hanyak, Jr. (Ph D ., University of Pennsylvania) Computer-aided design and instruction, problem-oriented languages numerical analysis. W. E. King (Ph.D ., University of Pennsylvania) Fluid-solid reactions, applied mathematics synthet i c fuels F. W. Koko, Jr. (Ph D. Lehigh University) Optimization algorithms, fluid mechanics and rheology, direct digital control. IM J. M. Pommersheim (Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh). Catalyst deact i vation, reaction analysis mathematical modeling, and diffusion with reaction and phase change, cement hydration. W. J. Snyder (Ph D., Pennsylvania State University ) Catalys i s polymerization, thermal analysis development of specific ion electrodes, microprocessors and i nstrumentation. who hold undergraduate degrees in one of the natural sciences or mathematics should contact the department chair man regarding eligibility for graduate study. Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available Lewisburg, located in the center of Pennsylvania provides the attraction of a rural setting while conveniently located within 200 miles of New York Philadelphia Washington D C., and Pittsburgh. For further information, write or phone: Coordinator of Graduate Studies Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837 -------717-524 1304 ________ FALL 1984 UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Lake Huron Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De partment offers regular and co-operative M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-doctoral programs in: *Biochemical and Food Engineering *Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Reador Design *Environmental and Pollution Control *Extractive and Process Metallurgy *Polymer Science and Engineering *Mathematical Analysis, Statistics and Control *Transport Phenomena, Multiphase Flow, Petroleum Recovery *Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling, Microwave Heating Financial Aid: Minimum $13,200 per annum (research option) Academic Staff: E Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester), Chair man; G L. Rempel, Ph D. (UBC), Associate Chairman, (Graduate); C. M Burns, Ph.D. (Polytech. Inst. Brooklyn), Associate Chairman, (Undergraduate); T. L. Batke, Ph.D. (Toronto); L. E. Bodnar, Ph D. (McMaster); J. J. Byerley, Ph.D. (UBC); K. S. Chang, Ph.D. (Northwestern); F. A. L. Dullien, Ph.D. (UBC); K. E. Enns, Ph.D. (Toronto); T. Z. Fahidy, Ph.D. (Illinois); J. D. Ford, Ph.D. (Toronto); C. E.Gall, Ph.D. (Minn.); R Y. M. Huang, Ph.D. (Toronto); R. R. Hudgins, Ph.D. (Princeton); I. F. Macdonald, Ph.D. (Wisconsin); M Moo-Young, Ph.D. (London); G. S. Mueller, Ph D. (Manchester), K. F. O'Driscoll, Ph.D. (Princeton) ; D. C. T Pei, Ph.D (McGill); P. M. Reilly, Ph.D (London); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D (Berkeley); A. Rudin, Ph.D. (Northwestern); J. M. Scharer, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania); D.S. Scott, Ph D (Illinois); P L. Silveston, Dr. Ing. (Munich); D. R. Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State); G. A. Turner, Ph.D. (Manchester); B. M. E. van der Hoff, Ir. (Delft); J. R Wynnycki, Ph.D. (Toronto). J. Chatzis, Ph.D. (Waterloo); G. R. Sullivan, Ph.D. (Imperial College). To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G 1 281)

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Graduate Study and Research Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION ROBERT E. BABCOCK e Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamic P r operties Enhanced Oil Recovery EDGAR C. CLAUSEN e Conversion of Biomass into Chemicals and Energy, Biochemical Engineering JAMES R. COUPER Process Design and Economics, Polymers JAMES L. GADDY Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization JERRY A. HAVENS e Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazard Assessment WILLIAM A. MYERS e Natural and Artificial Radio activity, Nuclear Engineering, CHARLES SPRINGER e Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes THOMAS 0 SPICER e Computer Simulation, Dens e Gas Dispersion DAVID W SUDBANK e Biomedical Momentum and Mass Transport CHARLES M THATCHER e Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation JIM L. TURPIN Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conver sion, Process Design J. REED WELKER e Risk Analysis, Fire and Explosion Behavior and Control FINANCIAL AID Graduate Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellow ships. LOCATION The U of A campus is located in beautiful Northwest Arkansas in the heart of the Ozark mountains. This tranquil setting provides an invigorating climate with excellent outdoor recreation including hunting, fishing, camping, hiking, skiing, sailing, and canoeing. Technical and cultural opportunities are available within the eight-college consortium for higher education. For Further Details Contact: Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering 227 Engineering Building, University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 Brown University Graduate Study Faculty Hassan Ar ef, Ph.D. ( Cornell ) i,; J oseph M Ca l o, Ph.D. ( Princeton ) -~ Bruce Caswell, Ph D. ( Stanford ) Joseph H. Clarke, Ph.D. ( Polytechni c 286 In stitu te o f New Y o rk ) Richard A. D ob bins, Ph .D. ( Princ eton ) Sture K F. Karlsson, Ph .D. (Jo hn s H o pkin s ) Joseph D Kestin, D.S c. ( University of L o nd o n ) J ose ph T.C Liu, Ph D ( Californ'ia In s titut e of Techn o log y ) P~ul F. Maeder Ph.D ( Brown ) Edwa rd A Ma so n Ph.D ( Ma ssac hu se tt s Institute of Techn o l o gy ) T F. Morse Ph D ( Northwestern ) P e ter D Ri c hardson Ph D., D.Sc. Eng ( University of L ondon ) Merwin Sibulkin A.E. ( California In s titute of Tech no_l p gy ) Eric M. Suuberg, Sc D ( Massachus e tt s In sti tut e of Technology ) in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering Chemical kinetics com bustion two phas e flows, fluidized beds separation processes, numerical simulation, vortex methods turbulence, hydrodynamic sta bilit y, coal chemistry, coal gasification, h eat and mass trans fer, aerosol condensation, transport processes, irreversible thermodynamics membranes, particulate deposition, physiological fluid mechanics, rheology. A program of graduate study in Chemical Engineering leads toward the M.Sc. or Ph.D. Degree. Teaching and Research Assistantships as well as Industrial and University Fellowships a r e avai l able. For further information write: Professor J. Calo, Coordinator Chemical Engineering Progr am Division of Engineering Brown University Providence, Rhode Island 02912 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Biomedical Engineering/ Chemical Engineering at Carnegie-Mellon University FALL 1 984 Drug Transport Vascular Physiology Membranes Pharmacokinetics Chemotaxis Fermentation Cancer Research Biomaterials For graduate applications and information, write to Carnegie-Mellon University Biomedical Engineering Program Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Attention: R. Hilda Diamond ~boti~ Cameg;e-k:>n un.ern;ty Select any of these eight distinct yet interr elated areas of ongoing research. For further information, contact : Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 4410 6 CaseTech ..... ; : : : : : : : : ..... 1 ~: ::::::: : : : :::::: :: 2 g n .. o a .. .. a o : :; ;::::::: :::::;; :! o .... : : : : .. : : : ... .. CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY 287

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THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING MASTER OF SCIENCE PR06RAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Transport Processes Reaction Engineering Simulation Processes Zeolites The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the doctorate. Financial assistance is available. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: Department of Chemical Engineering The Cleveland State University Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street Cleveland, Ohio 44115 1 tor : Professors R. J. MacGregor, J. L. Falconer, W. F. Ramirez, W. B Krantz, K. D. Timmerhaus, and M S. Peters not shown : Professors P. L. Barrick, D. E. Clough, R. I. Gamow H.J. M. Hanley, R. C. Johnson, R. D. Noble, R. L Sani, R. E West, P. G. Glugla, L. Lauderback, and R. H. Davis 288 JOIN OUR TEAM At the University of rnrn[rnmmrnrn for Graduate Research In ATMOSPHERIC & GEOPHYSICAL STUDIES BIOENGINEERING-BIOTECHNOLOGY ENERGY ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING KINETICS AND CATALYSIS PROCESS CONTROL & OPTIMIZATION SURFACE PHENOMENA THERMODYNAMICS & CRYOGENICS ******************** WRITE TO: Professor Max S. Peters Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Campus Box 424 University of Colorado Boulder CO 80309 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS: J. A. ASENJO P. 0. BRUNN H. Y. CHEH C. J. DURNING H.P. GREGOR C. C. GRYTE E. F. LEONARD G. J. PROKOP AKIS J. L. SPENCER U. STIMMING Biochemical Engineering Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Electrochemical Engineering Polymer Physical Chemistry Polymer Science, Membrane Processes, Environmental Engineering Polymer Science, Separation Proce sses Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena Process Analysis, Simulation and Design Applied Mathematics, Chemical Reactor Engineering El ectroc h emistry For Further Infonaation, Write: Chairman, Graduate Committee Financial assistance is available Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Columbia University New York, New York 10027 faculty T. F. ANDERSON J.P. BELL C. 0. BENNETT R. W. COUGHLIN M. B. CUTLIP (212) 280-4453 programs M.S. and Ph D. programs covering most aspects of Chemical Engineering Research projects in the following areas: KINETICS AND CATALYSIS A. T. DiBENEDETTO J.M. FENTON G.M. HOWARD H E. KLEI M. T SHAW R. M. STEPHENSON D. W. SUNDSTROM R. A. WEISS POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FALL 1984 FUEL PROCESSING SEPARATION THERMODYNAMICS financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships 1ocatlon e eautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut, convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities for an education at UCONN, please write to: Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06268 289

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290 OFFICE OF GRADUATE ADMISSIONS THE THAYER SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, DARTMOUTH COLLEGE HANOVER, NH 03755 603 / 646-2230 Seeks applicants to the Doctor and Master of Engineering degrees for students interested in DESIGN, and the Ph.D and M.S degrees for students interested in RESEARCH. In cooperation with the Tuck School of Business Administration a combined M E. / M B A. program is also available for those interested in ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT. The School is not departmentalized and thus facilitates study in allied fields of interest Current design and research topics of interest to chemical engineers i nclude : Chemical and enzymatic conversion of biomass Properties of brittle alloys Environmental impact studies Biomaterials and prosthetic devices Waste treatment Fermentation Distillation Two-phase flow Properties of ice Finite element methods For application forms and further information fill out the form below and mail to the above address. Visits are encouraged and can be arranged through our office Fellowship support available for Masters and Doctoral candidates Name Address _____ ______ DREXEL UNIVERSITY Faculty M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Research Areas D. R. Coughanowr S. M. Benner E. D. Grossmann Y. H. Lee S. P. Meyer R. Mutharasan J. A. Tallmadge J. R. Thygeson X. E. Verykios C. B. Weinberger Consider: High faculty /student ratio Excellent facili ties Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering Mass and Heat Transport Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options Write to: Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EPUCATION

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HOWARD UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering MS Degree Faculty/R98earch Areas M. E. ALUKO Ph.D., UC (Santa Barbara) J. N. CANNON Ph.D., Colorado Reaction Engineering, Applied Mathematics Fluid and Thermal Sciences R. C. CHAWLA, Ph.D., Wayne State H. M. KATZ, Ph.D. Cincinnati F G. KING D.Sc. Stevens Institute M. G. RAO Ph.D., Washington (Seattle) Air and Water Pollut ion Control, Reaction Kinetics Environmental Engineering Biochemical Engineering, Process Control Pharmacokinetics Process Design, Ion Exchange Separations For Information Write Diredor of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering Howard University Washington, DC 20059 fl Universityotldaho CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS T. E. CARLESON D C DROWN L L. EDWARDS M. L JACKSON R. A KORUS J Y. PARK J J. SCHELDORF G M SIMMONS FALL 1984 FACULTY -Mass Transfer Enhancement, Electrostatic Precipitation Elect rophoresis -Fl u i d i zed Bed Combustion and Pyrolysis, Pro cess Design and Economic Evaluation -C omputer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp/Paper Engineering -Mass Transfer in Biological Systems, Particulate Control Technology -Polymers, B i ochem i cal Engineering Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis -Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics Geothermal Energy Engineering Energy Re c overy Pyrolysis Kinetics The department has a highly active r esearch program covering a wide range of interests. With Washington State University j ust 8 miles away the two departments jointly schedule an expanded list of graduate courses for both MS and PhD candidates, giving the graduate student direct access to a combined graduate faculty of fifteen The northern Idaho region offers a year-round complement of outdoor activities inc luding hiking, white water raft i ng, skiing, and camping Moscow i s a cultural center for the region and cosponsors with Boise Idaho a professional ballet company t hat tours throughout the northwest and the nation FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE : Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho 83843 291

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THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIYEISITY Please contact: Professor Robert Kelly FACULTY Stanley Corrsin, Ph.D. Department of Chemical Engineering The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland 21218 301-338-8252 Caltech Marc Donohue, Ph.D. Berkeley lni Ekpenyong, Sc.D. M.I.T. Joseph Katz, Ph.D. Chicago Robert Kelly, Ph.D. North Carolina State Louis Monchick, Ph.D. Boston Geoffrey Prentice, Ph.D. Berkeley William Schwarz, Dr.Eng. Johns Hopkins RESEARCH AREAS Fluid Mechanics Phase Equilibria Biotechnology Nucleation and Crystallization Electrochemical Engineering Rheology Coal Conversion Turbulence and Mixing Mass and Heat Transfer Process Modeling and Control Reaction Engineering Catalysis ~ill~illrn oom~w~rn@mrw 292 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Doctor of Engineering FACULTY: D. H. CHEN (Ph.D., Oklahoma State Univ.) J. R. HOPPER (Ph.D., Louisiana State Univ.) T. C. HO (Ph.D;, Kansas State Univ.) K. Y. LI (Ph.D., Mississippi State Univ.) R. E. WALKER (Ph.D., Iowa State Univ.) C. L. YAWS (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) 0. R. SHAVER (Ph.D., Univ. of Houston) RESEARCH AREAS: Computer Simulation, Process Dynamics and Control Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Engineering Fluidization and Mass Transfer Transport Properties, Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Rheology of Drilling Fluids, Computer-Aided Design Thermodynamic Properties, Cost Engineering, Photovoltaics FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE: Graduate Adml11lon1 Chairman Department of Chemlcal Engineering Lamar University P. 0. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 An equal opportunlty/afflnnellft action unlYa,.,ty. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FACULTY Philip A. Blythe Hugo S. Caram Marvin Charles John C. Chen Curtis W. Clump Mohamed EI-Aasser Christos Georgakis Arthur E. Humphrey Andrew Klein William L. Luyben Janice Phillips Eric P. Salathe William E. Schiesser Cesar Silebi Leslie H. Sperling Fred P. Stein Harvey Stenger Leonard A. Wenzel LEHIGH UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS Polymer Science & Engineering Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering, Biochemical Engineering Process Simulation & Control Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Thermodynamic Property Research Energy Conversion Technology Applied Heat & Mass Transfer Multiphase Processing DEGREE PROGRAMS M.S. and Ph.D. in Ch E. M.Eng. Program in Design M.S. and Ph.D. in Polymer Science & Engineering FINANCIAL AID Of course. WRITE US FOR DETAILS LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY For information, write Dr. Thomas R. Hanley, Head Department of Chemical Engineering Louisiana Tech University Ruston, Louisiana 71272 (318) 257-2483 FALL 1984 Master of Science and Doctor of Engineering Programs The Department of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana Tech Uni versity offers a well-balanced graduate program for either the Master's or Doctor's degree. Twenty-five full-time students ( ten doctoral candi dates) and fifteen part-time students are pursuing research in Mixing in Chemical and Biochemical Reactors, Membrane Transport, Adaptive Control, Process Simulation, T woPhase Heat Transfer, Lignite Utiliza tion, Nuclear Energy, and Ozonation, with concentration in Energy, Er1r vironment, and Mixing Studies. FACULTY Joseph B. Fernandes, IIT, Bombay Thomas R. Hanley, Virginia Tech Houston K. Huckabay, LSU David H. Knoebel, Oklahoma State Norman F. Marsolan, LSU Ronald H. Thompson, Arkansas 293

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UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE Masters and Doctoral Programs in Chemical Engineering CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Polymers Catalysis and Kinetics Process Dynamics a111d Computer Control Thermodynamics Separation Operations Environmental Engineering Membrane Separations Computer Aided Engineering FACULTY D. J. Collins, Ph.D. (Georgia Tech); P. B. Deshpande, Ph.D. (Arkansas); M. Fleischman, Ph.D. (Cincinnati); D. 0. Harper, Ph.D. {Cincinnati); G. C. Holdren, Ph.D. (Wisconsin); E. Klein, Ph.D. (Tulane); R. Miranda, Ph.D. (Connecticut); W. L. Laukhuf, Ph.D. (Louisville); C. A. Plank, Ph.D. (North Carolina State) ; H. T. Spencer, Sc.D. (Johns Hopkins); KC. Tsai, Ph.D. (Missouri); R. A. Ward, Ph.D. (Canterbury); J. C. Watters, Ph.D. (Maryland). Louisville is a metropolitan area with a moderate climate, excellent recreational and cultural opportunities, and a sizeable chemical processing industry. Part time study possible and financial assistance available. WRITE: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering J.B. Speed Scientific School University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 McMASTER UNIVERSITY Graduate Study in Polymer Reaction Engineering Computer Process Control and Much More! R. B. Anderson Ph.D (lowa) / Emeritus Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Catalysis I. A. Feuerstein, Ph D. (Massachusetts) Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena D. R. Woods, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Surface Phenomena, Cost Estimation Problem Solving M. H. I. Baird Ph D (Cambridge ) Mass Transfer Solvent Extraction J, L. Brash Ph D (Glasgow) Biomedical Engineering, Polymers C. M. Crowe, Ph.D (Cambridge) Data Reconciliation Optimization, Simulation J. M. Dickson, Ph.D (Virginia Tech) Membrane Transport Phenomena, Reverse Osmosis A. E. Hamielec Ph D. (Toronto ) Polymer Reaction Engineering Director McMaster Institute for Polymer Production Technology A. N. Hrymak, Ph D. (Carnegie-Mellon) Computer Aided Design Numerical Methods 2 9 4 J F. MacGregor Ph D (Wisconsin) Computer Process Control, Polymer Reaction Engineering L. W. Shemilt Ph D (Toronto ) Electrochemical Mass Transfer, Corrosion Thermodynamics P. A. Taylor, Ph D (Wales) Computer Process Control M. Tsezos, Ph D (McGill) Wastewater Treatment, Biosorptive Recovery J Vlachopoulos, D.Sc. (Washington U.) Polymer Processing Rheology Numerical Methods P .E Wood, Ph.D. (Caltech) Turbulence Modeling Mixing J. D. Wright, Ph.D. (Cambrid~e)/Part Time Computer Process Control, Process Dynamics and Mpdeling M.Eng and Ph.D Programs Research Scholarships and Teaching Assfstantships are available For further information please contact Professor J. Vlachopoulos Department of Chemical Engineer i ng McMaster University Hamilton Ontario Canada LBS 4L7 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: The department offers a broad program of graduate studies leading to the M.S. and the Ph.D degrees. Fields of Study include membrane technology surface phenomena, heat and mass transfer, waste treatment, resource recovery, polymer science and engineering, spectroscopy, carbohydrate chemistry, battery development, and energy conversion. COST OF TUITION: The tuition is included as part of the student's financial aid. THE COMMUNITY: MTU is located in Houghton on the beautiful Keweenaw Peninsula overlooking Lake Superior. The area surrounding Houghton is a virtual wilderness, providing outstanding opportunities for outdoor activities such as fishing boating h i king camping, and skiing. The local population of about 35,000 is active and sponsors a number of cultural attractions. The major metropolitan centers of Detroit (550 miles) and Chicago (450 miles) are readily accessible FINANCIAL AID: Virtually all applicants receive financial support in the form of fellowships, traineeships, research assistantships, or graduate teaching assistantships. Although the amount of each stipend may vary, a student initially receives about $5700 per academic year in addition to tuition. Summer appointments are usually available For more information write: M. W. Logue, Graduate Studies Chairman Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 Michigan Technol og ical University is an equal opportunity educational in stitution/ equal opportunity employer UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Studies Leading to M.S. and PhD. Degrees Research Areas Air Pollution Monitoring and Control Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams Biomedical Engineer ing Catalysis Energy Sources and Systems Environmental Control Engineering Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Process Control and Modelling of Processes Single-Cell Protein Research Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids Transport in Biological Systems WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg., University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 FALL 1984 295

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2 9 6 Melbourne, Australia Research Degrees: Ph.D., M.Eng.Sc. FACULTY: O.E. POTTER (Chairman) J.R.G. ANDREWS R.J. DRY G.A. HOLDER F. LAWSON I.H. LEHRER J.R. MATHEWS W .E. OLBRICH t.G. PRINCE T. SRIDHAR C. TIU P.H.T. UHLHERR RESEARCH AREAS : Gas-Solid Fluldisation Brown C~ydrollquefaction, Gasification Oxygen Removal, Fk.lidlsed Bed Drying Chemical Reaction Engineering-Gas-Liquid Gas-Solid, Three Phase Heterogeneous Catalysis-Catalyst Design Transport Phenomena-Heat and Mass Transfer Transport Properties Extractive Metallurgy and Mineral Processing Rheology-Suspensions Polymers, Foods Biochemical Engineering-Continuous Culture Waste Treatment and Water Purification FOR FURTHER INFORMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Studies Coordinator, Department of Chemlcal EnglnHrlng Mon11h University, Clayton. Victoria 3188 Australla UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH IN: Air Pollution Polymer Engineer i ng Bio-mass Conversion Separation Processes Reaction Kinetics Surface Science Real-time Computing Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibr i a For Application and Information: Chairman of Chemical Engineering 226 Avery Hall, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0126 CHEM I CAL ENGINE ER ING E D UCAT IO N

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FALL 1984 THE UNIVERSIT'I OF NEW MEXICO M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering Offering Research Opportunities in Geochemical Engineering Desalination/Separation Processes Advanced Design Concepts Catalysis Synthetic Fuel Technology Surface Science VLSI Processing Process Simulation Hydro-Metallurgy Radioactive Waste Management Biomedical Systems Solar Ponds ... and more Enjoy the beautiful Southwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque! For further information, write: Chairman, Graduate Committee Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 Graduate study toward M.S. degrees in chemical engineering Major energy research center: solar petroleum bioconversion geothermal Financial assistance available Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other fields. FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION: Dr. John T. Patton, Head, Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 3805 New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-3805 New Mexico State Un i versity is an Equal Opportunity Affirmative Action employer. 297

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298 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT UNIVERSITY AT BUFFALO STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Faculty Research Areas G.F. Andrews D.R. Brutvan W.Y. Chon P Ehrlich W N.Gill R.J. Good R. Gupta V Hlavacek C.S. Ho K M. Kiser E. Ruckenstein M E. Ryan J. A. Tsamopoulos J J Ulbrecht C J van Oss T W Weber S.W. Weller R T. Yang Adhesion Adsorption Applied Mathematics Biochemical & Biomedical Catalysis, Kinetics & Reactor Design Coal Conversion Desalination & Reverse Osmosis Design and Economics Fluid Mechanics Polymer Processing & Rheology Process Control Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface Phenomena Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport Phenomena Wastewater Treatment Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemical engineering fundamentals while preserving the flexibility needed to develop special areas of interest The Depart ment also draws on the strengths of being part of a large and diverse university center This environ ment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research The new departmental facilities offer an exceptional opportunity for students to develop their research skills and capabilities These features, combined with year-round recreational activities afforded by the Western New York country side and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo, make SUNY/Buffalo an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studies For Information and applications, write to: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Reaction Engineering Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics Energy Conversion Applied Mathematics Process Dynamics and Control Modeling and Simulation Transport Phenomena FACULTY A. Varma, Chairman J. T. Banchero J. J. Carberry C. F. Ivory J.C. Kantor J.P Kohn D T. Leighton, Jr. M. J. McCready M.A. McHugh R. A Schmitz W. C. Strieder E. E. Wolf e1te111ical 8ngineeri11g at ;Notre :Dame The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master's degree are normally completed in twelve to fourteen months. The doctoral program usually requires three to four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships are available to outstanding students pursuing either program. For further information, write to Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Notre Dame Notre Daine, Indiana 46556 f J HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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OREGON STA TE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs FACULTY K. L. Levien -Process Simulation and Control J. W. Frederick, Jr. -Heat Transfer, Pulp and Paper Technology J. G. Knudsen -Heat and Momentum Transfer, Two-Phase Flow 0. Levenspiel -Reador Design, Fluidization R. V. Mrazek -Thermodynamics, Applied Mathematics C. E. Wicks -Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment The info r mal atmosphere of a small department with opportunity for give and take with the faculty. The location is pleasant-in the heart of the Willamette Valley-60 miles from the rugged Oregon Coast and 70 miles from good skiing or mountain climbing in the high Cascades. for further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department, Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. programs in: energy engineering extraction process control enhanced oil recovery ... reverse osmosis .. kinetics and catalysis .. porous media ... non Newtonian flow ... thermodynamics solar energy experimental design and modeling polymer modification pulp & paper phase equilibria .. biochemical engineer ing ... polymer process and rheology ... finite element methods UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OTIA WA. ONTARIO, CANADA KIN 9B4 phone (613)231-3476 G. Andre K. T.Chuang J. A. Golding W. Hayduk V. Hornof, Chairman W. Kozicki B. C.-Y. Lu FACULTY R. S. Mann D. D. McLean E. Mitsoulis S. Sourirajan F. D. F. Talbot M. Ternan G. H. Neale, Professor in charge of Graduate Studies, who should be contacted for further information COME AND JOIN US IN THE EXCITING ENVIRONMENT OF CANADA'S NATIONAL CAPITAL FALL 1984 299

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300 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING ... FACULTY Donna G. Blackmond Charles S. Beroes Paul Biloen Alfred A. Bishop Alan J. Brainard Shiao-Hung Chiang James T Cobb, Jr Paul F. Fulton James G. Goodwin Gerald D. Holder George E. Klinzing Joseph H. Magill Badie Morsi Alan A. Reznik Yatish T. Shah John W. Tierney Irving Wender Princeton UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH The Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering awards Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees through flexible full and part-time programs accommodating the needs of a wide range of engineering professionals. The general objective of all programs is to develop the ability of the chemical or petroleum engineer to carry out design and original research at advanced levels. Within the department there are currently 16 faculty members, five visiting scholars, four post-doctoral fellows, 77 full-time and 40 part-time graduate students, and 300 undergraduates. The department is housed on the top two floors of Benedum Hall. In addition, the Unit Operations Laboratory and many research labs utilizing high-pressure or large equipment are situated in the sub-basement. PROGRAMS AND SUPPORT Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engi neering and Master of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering are offered. While obtaining advanced degrees, students may specialize in research in Energy related Fields, Transport Phenomena, lnterphase Transport, Process Modeling and Synthesis, Thermodynamics, Reactor Engineering and Catalysis. Dual degrees are offered in Chemical/Petroleum and engineering / Mathematics. Graduate applicants should write: Graduate Coordinator, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 University M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis; Chemical Reactor /Reaction Engineering; Energy Conversion and Fusion Reactor Technolo gy; Colloidal Phenomena; Environmental Studies; Fluid Mechanics and Rheology; Hazardous Wastes; Mass and Momentum Transport; Polymer Materials Science and Rheology; Process Control; Geo thermal Processes; Flow of Granular Media; Statistical Mechanics; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria FACULTY Robert C. Axtmann, Jay B. Benziger, John K. Gillham, Carol K. Hall, Roy Jackson, Ernest F. Johnson, Jeffrey Koberstein, Morton D. Kostin, Bryce Maxwell, Robert G. Mills, Robert K. Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld, William B. Russel, Dudley A. Saville, William R. Schowalter (Chairman), Sankaran Sundaresan. WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Q!!een's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D. W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H. A. Becker ScD (MIT) D. H. Bone PhD (London) S. H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R. H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) R. K. Code PhD (Cornell) Chemical Reaction Engineering gas / solid catalytic kinetics polymerization reaction network analysis statistical identification of process dynamics Transport Processes Fuels and Energy coal conversion fluid ize d-bed combustion wood gasification alcohol production F is cher -Tr opsch synthesis A. J. Daugulis PhD (Queen's) P. L. Douglas PhD (Waterloo) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) c ombustion and turbulent mixing computer-aided design Write: M. F. A. Goosen PhD (Toronto) E. W. Grandmaison Ph.D. (Queen's) C. C. Hsu PhD (Texas) B. W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) drying paper making Biochemical Engineering bioreactor des i gn lignocellulosic processes solid-waste treatment Dr. Henry A. Becker Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Canada K7L 3N6 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees Biochemical Engineering Corrosion Crystallizat i on Processes Energy Engineering CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Food Engineering Heat and Mass Transfe r Metallurgy an,d Ceramics Mixing Research Multiphase Flow Phase Change Kinetics Separation Process Surface Phenomena FALL 1984 APPLICATIONS APPLY TO: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Applications for financial aid should be received not later than Feb. 16 301,

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302 OF RESEARCH AREAS K i net i cs and Catalysis Energy Resources and Conve r sion Process Control Polymers Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Biomedical Transport and Control TECHNOLOGY FACULTY C F A b e gg P h .D. Iowa State R S. Artigue, D E T u lan e W. W. Bo w den Ph.D ., P u rdu e J. A. C ask ey Ph D. C l e mso n S <': Hite Ph.D ., P u rd ue S. L e ipzig e r, P h .D. IJ T. N. E. Moore, Ph.D., P ur du e For Information Write : Dr Ronald S Artigue Dept Graduate Advisor Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute IN 47803 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Graduate Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING University of Saskatchewan DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERIN G FACUlTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST N. N. Bakhshi W. J. Decoursey M. N. Esmail G. Hill D. Macdonald D -Y. Peng S. Rohani J. Postlethwaite C. A. Shook Fischer Tropsch synthesis Reaction Engineering Absorption with chemical react i on Mass transfer Fluid mechanics, Applied Mathematics Petroleum Recovery, Numerica l Modelling Biochemical Engineering Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbons and Petroleum Mixing with fast chemical reactions Mathematical Modelling Corrosion Engineering Transport Phenomena, Slurry Pipelines For Information, Write M. N. Esmail, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Sasketchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0W0 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING ED U CATION

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For further information contact : Graduate Program Coordinator Chemical Engineering University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620 (813) 974-2581 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Faculty J.C. Busot L.H. Garcia-Rubio R.A. Gilbert J.A. Llewellyn K.A. Ramanarayanan C.A. Smith A.K. Sunol Research Areas Applications of Artificial Intelligence Coal Liquefaction Computer Aided Process Design Crystallization from Solution Direct Digital Control Electrolytic Solutions Irreversible Thermodynamics Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction Membrane Transport Properties Polymer Reaction Engineering Process Identification Process Monitoring and Analysis Sensors and Instrumentat i on Supercritical Extraction Surface Analysis UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering FACULTY Interested i n advanced stud i es for the M.S ., Eng or Ph D degree i n Chemica l Eng i nee ri ng? Interested in a dynamic and growing depart ment in one of the World s great cl i mates and metropolitan areas? If so, write for further information about the program, financial support and applica tion forms to : Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Southern California Uni v ersity Park, Los Angeles CA 90089-1211 FALL 1984 WENJI VICTOR CHANG (Ph.D. Ch E Ca l tech 1976) Rheological propert i es o f polymers and composites adhes i on polymer processing JOE D. GODDARD (Ph.D. Ch.E. U C Berkeley 1962) Rheology and mechanics of non Newtonian fluids and composite materials transport _processes LYMAN L. HANDY (Ph.D Phys. Chem., U. of Wash 1951) Fluid flow through porous media and petroleum reservoi r eng i neer i ng FRANK J LOCKHART (Ph.D Ch.E., U of Mich 1943 ) Dist i llation, ai r pollut i on design o f chemica l plants ( Eme rit u s ) CORNELIUS J PINGS (Ph.D. Ch E. C a ltech 1955) Thermodynamics stat i stical mechan i cs and liquid state physics (Provost and Senior Vice Pres Academic Affairs) VANIS C YORTSOS MUHAMMAD SAHIMI ( Ph D Ch E ., U o f M i nnesota 1984 ) Applied s tatist i cal physics model li ng of thermodynam i c phase transition and trans po r t in complex med ia RONALD SALOVEY (Ph.D Phys Chem. Harvard, 1958) Physical chemistry and I rradiation of po l ymers characterization of elastomers and polyurethanes KATHERINE S. SHING ( Ph.D. Ch E ., Cornell U 1982 ) Thermodynamics and st atistical mechan i cs ; computer s i mu l a t ion and appl i ed mathemat i c s. THEODORE T TSOTSIS (Ph.D. C h .E U of Ill ., Urbana, 1978) Chem i cal reaction eng i neering, process dynam i cs and control JAMES M. WHELAN (Ph D ., Chem ., U C. Berkeley, 1952) Thin Films 111-V heterogenous catalysis sintering processes ( Ph D ., Ch E Caltech, 1978) Mathematical modelling and transport processes flow in porous media and thermal o i l recovery methods 303

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304 Chemical Engineering at Stanford Stanford University offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philosophy degrees in chemical engineering, with a number of financially attractive fellowships and assistantships available to out standing students : For further information and application blanks write to : FACULTY: Andreas Acrlvos (Ph.D 1954 Minnesota) Flui d Me c h a nic s Michel Boudart (Ph.D ., 1950 Princeton ) Ki neti cs a nd Catalysis Curtis W Frank (Ph.D 1972 Illin ois) Polymer Scie n ce Gerald G. Fuller (Ph.D ., 1980 Cal Tech) M ic rorheotogy Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford California 94305 Closing date for applications is January 15 1 985 Allee P. Gast (Ph.D ., 1984 Pr i n ceton) Phy sics o f Di s persed Sy s t ems George M. Hom1y (Ph.D ., 1969 Illinois ) Flui d Me c hanic s a nd S t ability Robert J, Madlx (Ph.D 1964 U Cal B e rkeley ) Surface Re ac tivity David M. Mason ( Ph.D 1949 Ca l Tech) Applied Thermodynamic s a nd C hemical Kinetics Channing R. Robert1on (Ph.D 1969 Stanlord) Bi oe ngine eri n g John Ross (Ph:O., 1951 MIT),Phy s ical Che mi s try CONSUL TING FACULTY: A. John Appleby, EPRl,Appli ed Etectrochemi s try C. Richard Brundle, IBM Research Laboratory Surface Science Ralph A. Dalla Betta, Catalytica Associates Heterogeneous Ca taly sis Robert M. Kendall, Alzeta Corporation, Combustion Ralph Landau Technology and Public Policy Come to Tennessee for your graduate education! Tennessee-where we've struck a balance between theory and practice. If you're interested in one or more of the following: Career in industrial R&D Production management Process innovation and design Academic career (teaching and research) Founding and managing your own company Write to: Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies The University of Tennessee, Knoxville Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. FACULTY F. T. AlSAADOON, Chairman Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh, P.E. C. V. MOONEY M.E., Oklahoma University, P.E. Reservoir Engineering and Production F. H. DOTTERWEICH Ph D., John Hopkins University, P.E Distribution and Transmission Gas M e asur e ment and Production P. W. PRITCHETT Ph.D., University of Delaware P E P e troch e mical Developmen t and Granular Solids Texas A&I University is located in Tropical South Texas, 40 miles south of the Urban Center of Corpus Christi, and 30 miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. R. N. FINCH C. RAI FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION Ph.D University of Texas, P.E Ph D ., Illinois Institute of Technology, P E WRITE: Phase Equilibria and Environmental Engin e ering Re s ervoir Engin eeri ng and Gasification W. A. HEENAN GRADUATE ADVISOR Depal'tment of Chemical W. A. HEENAN D.Ch.E University of Detroit, P.E. R. W. SERTH & Natura I Gas Engineering Process Control and Thermodynamics Ph D. SUNY at Buffalo, P E Rheology and Applied Mathematics FALL 1984 RESEARCH and TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE Texas A&I University Kingsville, Texas 78363 CHEMICAL EN GI NEERING AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Earn a MS or PhD Degree with Research Opportunities in Biotechnology Equations of State and VLE Process Design and Simulation Multi-Phase Fluid Flow and Fluidization Environmental Control Polymer Science and Technology Energy-Coal, Biomass and Enhanced Oil Recovery Texas Tech Has An Established Record Of Supplying Engineers To Research And Process Firms In The Sunbelt BECOME ONE OF THEM For information, brochure and application materials, write Dr. H. W. Parker, Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 305

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3 0 6 The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.D Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships Available For details write : Dr. S L Rosen Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING M S. AND Ph.D PROGRAMS RHEOLOGY OPTIMIZATION CRYSTALLIZATION POLYMER STUDIES TUFTS UNIVERSITY Metr opolitan Boston CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS BIOCHEMICAL & B I OMEDICAL E NGINEERING MECHANO-CHEMISTRY COAL SLURRIES MEMBRANE PHENOMENA CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS SURFACE & COLLOIDAL CHEMISTRY KINETICS AND CATALYSIS FOR tNFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS WRITE : PROF. S. E CHARM CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD MASSACHUsms 02155 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Tulsa M.S., Master of Engineering Management, Ph.D. THE FACULTY A. P. Buthod Peter Clark K. D. Luks F. S. Manning W. C. Philoon N. D. Sylvester R. E. Thompson A. J Wilson Petroleum refining, petroleum phase behavior, heat transfer Hydraulic fracturing, rheology of gels and suspensions Thermodynamics, phase equilibria Industrial pollution control, surface processing of petroleum Corrosion, process design Enhanced oil recovery, environmental protection, fluid mechanics, reaction engineering Oil and gas processing, computer-aided process design Environmental engineering, water treatment processes, process simulation FURTHER INFORMATION If you would like additional information concerning specific research areas, facilities, and curriculum contact the Chairman of Chemical Engineering (Prof. Manning). Inquiries concerning admissions and financial support should be directed to the Dean of the Graduate School. The University of Tulsa 600 S. College Tulsa, OK 74104 (918) 592-6000 Fluid mechanics in Utah? Naturally I We can't promise the spectacular attractions you may have seen on TV But we can assure you that other interesting experiments are going on. Some are conducted by graduate students in Chemical Engineering at the University of Utah, and some make a big splash of their own. If you want to know more about {lt.iid mechanics research, or research into the other interesting areas of Chemical Engineering, contact: Noel de Nevers Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemicai Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 FALL 1984 The University of Tulsa has an Equal Opportunity/ Affirmative Action Program for students and employees. 307

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308 Offers Graduate Study Leading To The M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY: RESEARCH AREAS: F J BONNER (Ph D Univ of Delaware} Atmospheric Diffusion Analysis K.A. DEBELAK (Ph.D., Univ of Kentucky) Biological Transport Processes T M. GODBOLD (Ph.D North Carolina state Univ ) Biomedical Applications K.A. OVERHOLSER (Ph.D ., P.E ., Univ. of Wisconsin Madison} Chemical Process Simulation R.J. ROSELLI (Ph.D., Univ. of California, Berkeley} Coal Conversion Technology J.A. ROTH (Ph.D., P E ., Univ. of Loulsvllle) Coal Surface and Pore Structure Stud i es K.B. SCHNELLE, JR (Ph.D. P.E. Camegie-Mellon Univ ) Enzyme K i netics and Fermentation Processes R D TANNER (Ph.D Case Western Reserve Univ ) Physical and Chemical Processes I n Wastewater Treatment W.D THREADGILL (Ph D., Univ of Missouri Columbia) Polymer Character i zat i on and Engineering Further Information : Knowles A. OVerholser VANDERBILT Director or Graduate Studies ENGINEERING Chem i cal Eng i neering Department "A. .... Box 6173 Statton B ........ Vanderbilt University Nashville Tennessee 37235 UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Virginia offe rs M.S. and Ph D programs in Chemical Engineering Major research interests of the faculty are Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics-intermolecular association, physical properties of fluids, hindered diffusion Transport processes and operations-heat and mass transfer, low Reynolds number and surface tension driven flow, mixing fluidization, crystallization, fixed bed adsorption, polymer rheology Chemical reactor analysis and engineering. Chemical process development, design, and economics Chemical and energy technology-electrochemical processes, pollution control, catalysis solar and alternative energy utilization. Biochemical technology and engineering-enzyme engineering, transport processes in biological systems, mic r obial processes At "Mr. Jefferson's university," both teaching and researc h are emp has ized in a physical environment of except i o na l beauty. For admission and financial aid information Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSffY OF VIRGINIA Charlottesville, Virginia 22901 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering RESEARCH INTERESTS Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Computer Applications Energy B Synthetic Fuels Environmental Science B Engineering Thermodynamics Kinetics/Catalysi s Mass Transfer/Mixing Metallurgical Engineering Polymer Engineering Process Control/Data Acquisition Transport Phenomena DEGREE PROGRAMS : M.S and Ph D. in Chemical Engineering Conversion Program for students with science degrees FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: Graduate Student Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Washington State University Pullman WA 99164-2710 (509)335-4332 WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D. A. Crowl, PhD H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. R. Fisher PhD E. Gulari, PhD R H. Kummler, PhD C. B. Leffert, PhD R Marriott, PhD J. H. McMicking, PhD R. Mickelson PhD P. K Roi. PhD E. W. Rothe, PhD S. Salley, PhD S. K. Stynes, PhD Contact: combustion-process control thermodynamics-process design kinetics-molecular lasers transport-laser light scattering environmental engr.-kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr. process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments Biosystems modelling-kinetics multi-phase flows-environmental engr. Dr. Ralph H. Kummler Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 FALL 1984 309

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UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR GRADUATE STUDIES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.A.Sc. and Ph.D programs are available RESEARCH INTERESTS Environmental Engineering Three-Phase Fluidization Rheology Membrane Separation P rocesses Computer Aided Process Design Fluid Dynamics in Two-Phase Systems Coal Beneficiation Transport Processes Quenching Systems in Plasma Reactors 310 For further information contact Dr. A. A Asfour, Chairman Graduate Studies Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Windsor Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Graduate study and research leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Research Areas Adsorption and diffusion in porous solids Biopolymers Catalytic properties of surfaces Chemical reactor modelling Coal and syngas technology Complex reaction kinetics Fermentation engineering and control Homogeneous catalysis Zeolite synthesis and catalysis Faculty D. DiBiasio (Purdue) A. G. Dixon (Edinburgh) P Karpinski (Wroclaw) W. L. Kranich (Cornell) Y. H. Ma (M.I.T.) J. W. Meader (M. I. T.) W. R. Moser (M. I. T.) J. E Rollings (Purdue) A. Sacco (M.I.T.) L. B Sand (Penn State) R. W Thompson (Iowa State) R. E Wagner (Princeton) A.H. Weiss (U. Penn ) WPI is located in central Massachusetts in New England's second largest city. Extensive cultural activities are available as well as easy access to the vast summer and winter recreational activities well known to the New England area. Attractive assistantships are available. Address inquiries to: Dr Y. H. Ma, Chairman Chemical Engineering Depa rtment Worcester Pol ytec hni c Institute Worcester Massachusetts 01609 (617) 793-5250 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING For more information contact: We offer exciting opportunities for research in many energy related areas. In recent years research has been conducted in the areas of kinetics and catalysis, adsorption, combustion, extraction, water and air pollution, multiphase flow computer modeling coal liquefaction, and in-situ coal gasification. Dr David 0 Cooney, Head Dept. of Chemical Engineering U n iversity of Wyoming P.O Box 3295 University Station EUROPEAN PROGRAM. An energy research exchange program with West Germany is available. Students can s pend up to 15 months working in Europe as part of their degree program. Laramie Wyoming 82071 Graduates of any accredited chemical engineering program are eligible for admission, and the department offers both an M.S. and a Ph.D. pro g ram Financial aid is available, and all recipients receive full fee waivers. Adm;slli
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Ftorida Institute of Technology GRADUATE STUDl ES G r aduat e Stud en t A s s is t an tsh ip s A v ailabl e I nc l u d e s T ax F re e T ui t i o n R e m i s s io n M.S. CHEMICAL ENGINfERING Faculty R G Barile P A Jenn i ngs J. Linsley D.R. Mason M U Wiggin s M S ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Faculty T. V Belanger F E Dierb e rg H H. H ec k P A Jennings N T S t ephe n s FOR tNFORMATION CONTACT Dr R. G Barile, Chm. Chemical Engineering F.I T 150 W University Blvd. Melbourne, FL 32901-6988 (305) 768-8046 Dr N. T Stephens, Head Environmental Engineering F.I.T 150 W University Blvd Me l bourne, FL 32901-6988 (305) 768-8068 VILLANOVA UNIVERSITY Department of Chemical Engineering The Department has offered the M.Ch.E for more than thirty years. Select from twenty gradu ate courses in Ch.E and more in other depart ments. Many options are ava i lable for example thesis is available and encouraged, a five course program in process control can be part of the Ch E program and many environmental engi neering courses are available. The Department occupies excellent buildings on a pleasant campus in the western suburbs of Philadelphia. Com puter facilities on campus and in the depart ment are excellent The most active research projects recently have been in heat transfer process control, re verse osmosis, solar energy and surface phe nomena. Other topics are available There is a full time faculty of nine. 312 Teaching assistantships are available. For more informat i on wr i te Robert F. Sweeny Chairman Dept of Chemical Engineering Villanova University Villanova, PA 19085 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering Graduate Studies PROGRAMS: The5 i s and non-thesis options available for MS d e gree ; subs t ant i al design component requ i red for M Engr program A full-tim e stud e nt with BSChE can complete pro gram i n 9 12 months Students with degree i n chem i stry will requ i re two calendar years to complete MS degree RESEARCH PROJECTS: Most funded research projects are energy related w i th the full spectrum of bas i c to appl i ed projects available Students participate in projec t -related thesis problems as pro j ect participants. ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER : A cooperative program of study / research with research projects related to low rank coal con vers i on and ut i lization sponsored by U S Department o f En e rgy and privat e industry i s available to l i m i ted numb e r of student s FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO: Dr. Thomas C. Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (701-777-4244) WEST VIRGINIA TECH That's what we usually are called. Our full name is West Virgin i a Institute of Te c hnology. We re in a small state full of friendly people, and we are small enough to keep your personal goals in mind. Our forte is high quality undergraduate instruction, but we are seeking high-grade students for our new graduate program for the M.S If you are a superior student with an interest in helping us while we help you, we may have funding for you. Write : Dr. E. H. CRUM Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia Inst. of Technology Montgomery, WV 25136 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ACl(NOWLEDGMENTS Departmental Sponsors: The following 151 departments contributed to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1984 with bulk subscriptions. University of Akron University of Alabama University of Alberta Arizona State University University of Arizona University of Arkansas University of Aston in Birmingham Auburn University Brigham Young U Diversity University of British Columbia Brown University Bucknell University University of Calgary California State Polytechnic California State University, Long Beach California Institute of Technology University of California (Berkeley) University of California (Davis) University of California (Santa Barbara) University of California at San Diego Carnegie-Mellon University Case-Wes tern Reserve University University of Cincinnati Clarkson University Clemson University Cleveland State University University of Colorado Colorado School of Mines Colorado State University Columbia University University of Connecticut Cornell University Dartmouth College University of Dayton University of Delaware University of Detroit Drexel University University of Florida Florida Institute of Technology Georgia Technical Institute University of Houston Howard University Univer s i ty of Idaho U!' .iv ersity of Illinois (Chicago) University of Illinois (Urbana) Illinois Institute of Technology Institute of Paper Chemistry University of Iowa Iowa State University Johns Hopkins University Kansas State University University of Kansas University of Kentucky Lafayette College Lamar University Laval University Lehigh University Loughborough University of Technology Louisiana State University Louisiana Tech. University University of Louisville University of Maine Manhattan College University of Maryland University of Massachusetts Massachusetts Institute of Technology McMaster University McNeese State University University of Michigan Michigan State University Michigan Tech. University University of Minnesota University of Missouri (Columbia) University of Missouri (Rolla) Monash University Montana State University University of Nebraska University of New Hampshire New Jersey Inst. of Tech. New Mexico State University University of New Mexico City University of New York Polytechnic Institute of New York State University of N.Y. at Buffalo North Carolina State University University of North Dakota Northeastern University Northwestern University University of Notre Dame Nova Scotia Tech. College Ohio State University Ohio University University of Oklahoma Oklahoma State University Oregon State University University of Ottawa University of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University University of Pittsburgh Princeton University Purdue University University of Queensland Queen's University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University of Rhode Island Rice University University of Rochester Rose-Bulman Institute Rutgers University University of South Alabama University of South Carolina University of Saskatchewan South Dakota School of Mines University of Southern California Stanford University Stevens Institute of Technology University of Surrey University of Sydney S yracuse University Teesside Polytechnic Institute Tennessee Technological University University of Tennessee Texas A&I University Texas A&M University University of Texas at Austin Texas Technological University University of Toledo Tri-State University Tufts University Tulane University University of Tulsa University of Utah Vanderbilt University Villanova University University of Virginia Virginia Polytechnic Institute Washington State University University of Washington Washington U Diversity U Diversity of Waterloo Wayne State University West Virginia Inst. Technology West Virginia University University of Western Ontario Widener College University of Windsor University of Wisconsin (Madison) Worcester Polytechnic Institute University of Wyoming Yale University Youngstown State University TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your department chairman to write CHEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

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Our nam e ha s been syno nym ous with en ginee ring educ a tio n for over 1 5 0 years. Her e are eigh t m o re reason s why. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND INVESTMENT DECISIONS Chi U. Ikoku P e nn sy lvania State U ni v ersity (0.-471.-81455.-5 ) April 1985 323 pp PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF AUTOMATIC PROCESS CONTROL Carlos A. Smith, Uni ve r s i ty of South Florida Armando B. C o rripio, Louisiana State Uni v er s i ty (0.-471.-88346.-8) January 1985 600 pp. NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Chi U. lk o ku P e nn sy l vania S t a t e Uni ve r s it y Solutions Manual availab l e (0-471-894 83 -4 ) 1 984 517 pp FUNDAMENTALS OF MOMENTUM HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER 3rd Edition Jam es R. W elty, Charles E. Wicks, and R o b e rt E Wil son, al l of Orego n S ta te Uni ve r si t y Solution s Manual available (0-47187497-3) 1984 832 pp. NUMERICAL ME THODS AND MODEL IN G F OR CHEMICAL EN G INE ERS Mar k E. D avis, Virginia Polytechnic In s t it u te a n d State University Solution s Manu a l available ( 0 -471 -8876 1 -7) 1984 320 pp. INTRODUCTION TO MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES Gint a r as V. R eklaitis, Purdu e U n iversity Solutions Manua l ava il able (0-471-04131-9) 1 984 6 83 p p. A GUIDE TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND ECONOMICS Gael D Ulrich, Unive r sity of New H ampshire (0-471-05276-7) 198 4 4 0 pp NATURAL GA S RESER OIR E N G INEE RING Chi U. lkoku, Pennsy/,,ania State University S ol utions Manual available (0-471-89482-6) 19 4 498 pp. mley THE E N GINEERING PUBLISHER To be considered for complimentary cop ies, please write to LeRoy Davis Dept. JW-4154. Please include c o ur e name, enrollment, and title of present text JOHN \VIL EY & SON S, In c. 605 Third Avenue, ewfork,, '.Y. 1 158


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