Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
sobekcm - AA00000383_00082
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00082

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. .. .. .I l ...







Our name has been synonymous with

engineering education for over 150 years.

Here are thirteen more reasons why.


New
GUIDE TO CHEMICAL
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1984 472 pp.
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1984 565 pp.
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1984 258 pp.
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ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF
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Solutions Manual available
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CHEMICAL REACTION
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AN INTRODUCTION TO
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Charles G. Hill, Jr., University of
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Solutions Manual available
1977 594 pp.
CHEMICAL REACTOR
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
G.F. Froment, Rysksuniversteit Ghent,
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1979 765 pp.
PRINCIPLES OF UNIT
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both of Lehigh University
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TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
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1960 780 pp.
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1981 742 pp.

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

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Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XVIII NUMBER 2 SPRING 1984

DEPARTMENTS
The Educator
50 Hank Van Ness of R.P.I., Michael M. Abbott
Department of Chemical Engineering
56 ChE at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute,
Soviet Armenia, Deran Hanesian
Classroom
60 Teaching Simulation and Modelling at Royal
Military College,
Hugues W. Bonin, Ronald D. Weir
Laboratory
64 Using Hydraulic Analog Method to Develop Kinetic
Rate Equations from Laboratory Data,
Zhang Guo-Tai, Hau Shau-Drang
74 A Nonideal Flow Experiment, Juan Ramon
Gonzalez-Velasco, Javier Bilbao Elorriaga
78 Pulse Testing with a Microcomputer, Y. L. Yeow
88 Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction,
G. Malmary, J. Molinier, G. Mankowski, J. Lenzi
Curriculum
66 A New Approach to Teaching ChE Using
Computers, I. M. Pallai, P. P. Grosschmid
Class and Home Problems
70 A Wine Problem, Jose 0. Valderrama
Views and Opinions
82 How Much Safety do We Need in ChE Education?
Jan Mewis
Stirred Pots
91 Mass Transfer Talkin' Blues, R. R. Hudgins

53 Division Activities

73,92 Book Reviews

73 Letters to the Editor

87 In Memoriam Ted Vermeulen

93 Books Received

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per
year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1984 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


SPRING 1984









W I educator


0i?. P. A9.


MICHAEL M. ABBOTT
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Troy, NY 12181

"Hank's excellence in teaching provided the
inspiration to make me want to teach." "Gibbs in-
vented chemical thermodynamics but, for chemical
engineers, it was Hank who transformed Gibbs' in-
vention for everyday use." "The Van Ness iso-
thermal dilution calorimeter and isothermal dilu-
tion total-pressure cell have revolutionized the arts
of obtaining heats of mixing and low-pressure
VLE data." "I have only a few heroes in intel-
lectual work: Hank is one of them, because of his
honesty, his willingness to grapple with difficult
problems, and his desire and ability to put across
principles to learners at all levels."
These quotes from fellow educators exemplify
the high regard in which Hank Van Ness is held
by his colleagues and former students, and
characterize-as well as a few sentences can-the
variety of accomplishments of a distinguished
chemical-engineering educator.

ORIGINS AND EDUCATION
Hendrick Charles Van Ness was born in 1924,
in New York City. His Dutch ancestry-which
he frequently invokes to explain such attributes
as common sense, stubbornness, brevity, and
thrift-has a solid American base: Van Nesses
settled in Northeastern New York State in the
17th century. When he was still a child, Hank

This early heat-of-mixing work was
done at Purdue. W nhe moved to Rensselaer,
Hank initiated an experimental program in solution
thermodynamics that was to set the tone
for his subsequent career in
thermodynamic research.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


moved northward with his parents to Greenwich,
New York, where he attended grammar and
secondary schools.
In 1941, Hank entered the University of
Rochester, from which he obtained a B.S. (1944)
and M.S. (1946) in chemical engineering. During
this time he also obtained his first experience as a
classroom teacher, serving as an instructor to re-
turning veterans of World War II. In 1947, he
joined M. W. Kellogg in Jersey City, but left in
1949 to pursue his PhD at Yale University. At
Yale, he did research with B. F. Dodge, studying
the hydrogen embrittlement of steels. After com-
pleting his doctoral studies, he spent four years
as an assistant professor at Purdue University,
which he left in 1956 to join the staff at Rens-
selaer Polytechnic Institute. He has been at Rens-
selaer ever since.

RESEARCH AND SCHOLARLY WORK
Hank's publication list begins with the year


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The Van Ness commandments of experimentation are that data-taking should be as speedy and
as painless as is practical, and that one should measure no more variables than are absolutely necessary,
thus allowing one to concentrate one's efforts on measuring a few numbers very well. These dicta
characterize the design of the Van Ness isothermal dilution heat-of-mixing calorimeter . .


1955. Of his first five papers, four were on the
subject that would soon become his area of
specialization: classical thermodynamics. These
early papers covered a broad range of topics:
equation-of-state calculations, solution thermo-
dynamics, the thermodynamic analysis of pro-
cesses, and-significantly-an experimental effort
coauthoredd with H. W. Schnaible and J. M.
Smith) on the heats of mixing of liquids.
This early heat-of-mixing work was done at
Purdue. When he moved to Rensselaer, Hank initi-
ated an experimental program in solution thermo-
dynamics that was to set the tone for his subse-
quent career in thermodynamic research. The Van
Ness commandments of experimentation are that
data-taking should be as speedy and as painless as
is practical, and that one should measure no more
variables than are absolutely necessary, thus al-
lowing one to concentrate one's efforts on measur-
ing a few numbers very well. These dicta charac-
terize the design of the Van Ness isothermal
dilution heat-of-mixing calorimeter (first de-
veloped with R. V. Mrazek in the early 1960's),
and the Van Ness dilution total-pressure appara-
tus for measuring low-pressure VLE (developed
with R. E. Gibbs in the early 1970's). Both of these
devices have gone through several generations of
design changes and have been widely copied. Di-
rectly or indirectly, they are the source of many
of the world's published heat-of-mixing and low-
pressure VLE data.
Economy in data collection requires special re-
sourcefulness and care in the data reduction and
analysis. There is of course a vast network of
equations relating the various thermodynamic
properties, and these can be used to special ad-
vantage in reducing and analyzing mixture data.
However, when Hank entered the field, classical
solution thermodynamics was understood and
practiced well by only a few dozen experts. Find-
ing existing treatments of the subject incomplete
or incoherent, he systematized and expanded
earlier work into a logical, consistent thermo-
dynamics of solutions, incorporating a clean and
rational system of postulates and notation. While
much of this work appeared originally in the
technical literature, most of it has found its way
into textbooks (his own, and those of others).


Hank's research continues to focus on solution
thermodynamics. For the past ten years, he has
directed a program of collecting precise VLE and
heat-of-mixing data for ternary mixtures and
their constituent binaries. As an adjunct to the
experimental effort, he has critically examined and
developed new data reduction procedures for such
mixtures and has published significant papers on
representing the excess Gibbs energy for highly
non-ideal mixtures and for mixtures containing a


Hank takes a break for the photographer's benefit.

supercritical component. Current work includes
studies on VLE for systems displaying partial
miscibility in the liquid phase and modeling efforts
incorporating chemical theories of solution.

TEACHING AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
Hank is probably best known to chemical
engineering educators and students through his
many textbooks, monographs, and handbook
articles. No one needs an introduction to "Smith
and Van Ness," a classic (now undergoing another
revision) that has captured roughly 75% of the
American market for undergraduate chemical-
engineering thermodynamics texts. Other books
include Basic Engineering Thermodynamics,
Understanding Thermodynamics, Classical
Thermodynamics of Nonelectrolyte Solutions, and
the Schaum's Outline of Thermodynamics.
The popularity of Hank's writings reflects an
important attribute of Van Ness the educator: he


SPRING 1984








does not merely "present" a subject, he explains
it, and well. Clarity, organization, and a sense of
style are as much features of a Van Ness opus as
are carefully-chosen examples, rigor, and a finely
tuned appreciation for the concepts most likely to
bedevil the student. Van Ness productions are as
crystal-clear as the topic allows, but never
watered-down. The level of presentation in his
undergraduate texts is continually augmented to
reflect the state of the art.
Hank's contributions to chemical engineering
education do not end at the bookstore. At
Rensselaer, he is considered by both students and
colleagues to be one of the best instructors in his
department. Besides projecting an understanding
of and devotion to his subject, he manages to
communicate that learning is fun, and that he is
still learning. Other educators who have sampled
his courses view him as a "teacher's teacher," and
indeed many of his former students have become
outstanding educators. They all attribute much of
their success to his instruction and example.
For Hank, education continues long beyond the
university classroom. In 1978, he organized and
supervised a short course for college teachers,
"Teaching Applied Solution Thermodynamics."
Since 1981, he has run a short course in the AIChE
Today Series, "Fluid-Phase Equilibria for Process
Calculations." He serves on the editorial boards of
three technical journals, and is a two-term member
of the AIChE Programming Committee on
Thermodynamics and Transport Properties. In all
of these endeavors, his special efforts reflect an
honest concern for the needs of the practicing
educator or engineer, and evaluations of the short
courses affirm his success.

VAN NESS-THE MAN
As a recital of his accomplishments suggests,
Hank is an unusual person. However, his techni-
cal interests-inspired by a high school mathe-
matics teacher, with whom he has recently enjoyed
several chance reunions-are augmented by
several totally unrelated enthusiasm: most not-
ably music, gardening, and hunting. Although he
can normally be found at the office or in the lab
seven days a week, there are particular times of
the day or year when one can count on Hank's
absence. In the early morning (unless he has an
8 o'clock class), he confronts Chopin and Mozart
at the Steinway. Many summer afternoons are
spent in the vegetable patch, attending to the cukes


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and tomatoes, and plotting against the ravaging
woodchucks. And, at certain times in the fall, he
travels northward to the homestead to pursue the
pheasant and partridge. (His relatively Spartan
office boasts a single portrait: that of Bonasa um-
bellus, the North American ruffed grouse.)
At the personal level, notwithstanding his
apparent Dutch astringency, Hank is an eminent-
ly approachable person. Whoever it may be-a
student with a classroom question, a colleague
with an interest in adopting one of the Van Ness
dilution devices to his own needs, or an industrial-
ist with an ingenious and profitable processing
scheme based on a subtle violation of the Second
Law-Hank has time for serious discussions with
anyone who has "done his homework." Ten-minute
questions frequently generate one-hour (or
several-page) answers. "Knowledge and Thor-
oughness" Rensselaer's motto characterize
Hank's approach.
In recognition of his considerable contributions
to chemical engineering education as a scholar,
author, teacher, and administrator, Hendrick C.
Van Ness was recently appointed Institute Pro-
fessor of Chemical Engineering at Rensselaer. EO


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









I division activities


FINAL REPORT

1982 ASEE Summer School for ChE Faculty


SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR Chemical Engineering
Faculty started in 1931 and, since 1962, have
been held every five years by the Chemical Engi-
neering Division of the American Society for
Engineering Education. The purpose of these
Summer Schools has been to achieve a more effec-
tive and realistic chemical engineering educational
program by providing a forum for a stimulating
and provocative exchange of ideas, approaches
and methods between chemical engineering facul-
ty, outstanding educators, and practicing engi-
neers. The Summer Schools are unique in that they
are the only meetings devoted solely to chemical
engineering education, and they have played an
important role in the dissemination of new in-
structional materials and course ideas. The
Summer Schools are supported entirely by dona-
tions from industry and foundations.
The 1982 Summer School for Chemical Engi-
neering Faculty, ninth in the series, was held
August 1-6, 1982, on the University of California
at Santa Barbara campus. It was co-chaired by
Professors T. W. Fraser Russell and Stanley I.
Sandler of the University of Delaware.
Table 1 contains a list of the thirty-six in-
dustrial firms and foundations which generously
donated approximately $128,000 to support the
1982 Summer School. In addition to their financial
contribution, many firms also sent attendees to
Santa Barbara to participate in the technical
sessions. Members of the Organizing Committee
and instructors donated their time and services.
Attendees at the Summer School were chosen by
their chairman in response to an invitation to all
department heads in the United States, Canada,
and Mexico, and travel lodging subsidies to each of
the 226 faculty member attendees representing 105
different schools was provided from the Summer
School support funds.
The program was divided into six interest
blocks with each block chairman responsible for
the sessions in his subject.


BLOCK 1:


New Technical Directions in Chemical
Engineering; Prof. Timothy J.
Anderson, University of Florida


BLOCK 2:




BLOCK 3:




BLOCK 4:



BLOCK 5:



BLOCK 6:


Expanding Role of Computers in
Chemical Engineering Education;
Prof. Thomas F. Edgar, University
of Texas
Chemical Engineering in the class-
room and Laboratory; Prof. G.
Michael Howard, University of Con-
necticut

Industrial/ University Interaction;
Dr. Harold S. Kemp, E. I. du Pont de
Nemours & Company, Inc.

The Social Responsibilities of the
Engineer; Dr. Benjamin J. Luberoff,
Editor, Chemtech Magazine

Chemical Sciences and Chemical
Engineering; Prof. Glenn L. Schrad-
er, Iowa State University


A listing of the eight sessions for each block is
given on the following page.
The eight sessions in each block were held in
the mornings and Monday, Tuesday and Thursday
evenings. The sessions ran in parallel, and each
participant had the choice of attending sessions in
any of the six blocks. Afternoons, except Wednes-
day, were unstructured except for poster and book
displays, informal meetings of special interest
groups, committee meetings, recreation and social-
izing.
The program opened on Monday, August 1,
with remarks by Dean John E. Myers, College of
Engineering, University of California at Santa
Barbara, an address by Dr. D. Bruce Merrifield,
Assistant Secretary of Commerce, entitled "The
Business Environment Ahead and How to Deal
with It," followed by the start of the technical
sessions. Wednesday afternoon was devoted to the
3-M Award lecture, given by Professor Lowell B.
Koppel of Purdue University, on "Input Multiplici-
ties in Process Control." Following the lecture
there was a superb wine tasting reception (includ-
ing wines of the Santa Ynez Valley) and the
Summer School Banquet.


SPRING 1984
















BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3S BLOCK 4 BLOCK 5 BLOCK 6
NEW TECHNICAL EXPANDING ROLE CHEMICAL ENGR IN INDUSTRIAL/ THE SOCIAL
DIRECTIONS IN OF COMPUTERS IN THE CLASSROOM UNIVERSITY RESPONSIBILITIES CHEMICAL SCIENCES
CHEMICAL ENGR CHE EDUCATION & LABORATORY INTERACTION OF THE ENGINEER & CHEMICAL ENGR

Biomedical Computer Graphics Problem-Solving Senior Design Statement of Catalytic
Engineering I and Modular Workshop I Course I the Problem Chemistry &
Instruction I Surfaces I
Biomedical Computer Graphics Problem-Solving Senior Design The Law and Its Catalytic
Engineering II and Modular Workshop II Course II Implementation Chemistry &
Instruction II Surfaces II
Biotechnology Use of Computers Undergraduate University-Academic Can Big Be Applied
in Teaching Laboratory Personnel Beautiful? Thermodynamics I
Process Design I Instruction Interchange
Process Personal Managing Intern and Separate Applied
Synthesis Computing Large Co-op Programs Togetherness Thermodynamics II
Development Classes
Solid-State Use of Computers Updating Process Academic-Industrial Industrial &
Processing in Teaching Dynamics and Perceptions of Engr Chemistry
Process Design II Control Education Engr Education
Polymer Science Microcomputers in Oral & Written Financial Aid Relating to Food Processing &
& Engineering Chemical Engr Communication the Market Food Science I
Laboratories I Skills
New Separation Teaching of Course Design & Role of Industrial Approaches to Food Processing
Techniques Process Synthesis Evaluation of Advisory Boards Integrating & Food Science II
in Process Design Learning I Technology &
Society in Engr
Education I

Pulp and Paper Microcomputers in Course Design & How to Conduct Approaches to Electrochemistry
Technology Chemical Engr Evaluation of a Short Course Integrating & Corrosion
Laboratories II Learning II Technology &
Society in Engr
Education II









Professor Angelo J. Perna, Chairman of the
ASEE Chemical Engineering Division, presented
divisional awards at the banquet: James Town-
send, Jr., of Dow, and Paul V. Smith of Exxon
received awards "for dedicated service to CHED
and as an Industrial Member of the Executive
Committee"; Professor Ray W. Fahien of the
University of Florida was awarded a certificate
"for his service as Editor of Chemical Engineering
Education which has contributed to the prestige
with which the magazine is received"; and certifi-
cates of recognition were given to members of
the organizing committee, T. W. F. Russell,
Stanley I. Sandler, and Sherri Barwick, all of the
University of Delaware, in appreciation of their
services.
The UCSB campus was a beautiful and effective
site for the 1982 Summer School. The dormitory


housing was pleasant and the dining hall food
services were excellent, providing an impressive
and comfortable atmosphere to both attendees and
their families. The meeting rooms on campus were
close to each other, to the dining hall, and to the
dormitory, making it easy for attendees to interact
in an informal way, which is so important to the
success of a conference of this type. The college
campus proved superior to a resort facility in
meeting the needs of this unique conference.
The next ASEE Summer School for Chemical
Engineering Faculty is planned for 1987 and is
being organized by Professor Glenn L. Schrader.
Any questions or suggestions for program content
should be addressed to him at the Department of
Chemical Engineering, Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011.


TABLE 1
Industrial Donors to 1982 Division Summer School


Air Products Foundation
Alcoa Foundation
Amoco Foundation, Inc.
BASF Wyandotte Corporation
Betz Laboratories, Inc.
Celanese Corporation
Conoco, Inc.
CPC North America
Diamond Shamrock Corporation
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company
Eastman Kodak Company
Ethyl Corporation
Exxon Research & Engineering Company
Fluor Foundation
General Electric Foundation
General Foods Corporation
General Mills Foundation


Lubrizol Foundation
Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories
Monsanto Company
NL Industries Foundation, Inc.
Olin Corporation Charitable Trust
Pfizer, Incorporated
PPG Industries Foundation
Phillips Petroleum Company
Rohm & Hass Company
Shell Development Company
SOHIO
Standard Oil of California
Stauffer Chemical Company
Sun Company, Incorporated
Texaco, Incorporated
Union Carbide Corporation
The Upjohn Company
Weyerhaeuser Company Foundation


EDITOR'S NOTE


This issue is our first issue devoted almost
entirely to International Chemical Engineering
Education. It appears because of the wide-spread
international interest in CEE which has developed
over the years. In order to emphasize this interest
we have selected some of the papers we have re-
ceived about chemical engineering in other
countries. We begin with a departmental article
on Erevan Polytechnic Institute which differs


from those we have been publishing in that it is
written by an observer (Deran Hanesian of New
Jersey Institute of Technology) who compares
their curriculum and department with his own (see
also CEE, Vol. IV, No. 2). It also includes a paper
from Hungary on a new computer age approach to
the chemical engineering curriculum as well as
papers from Belgium, Canada, Chile, China,
France, Scotland, and Spain.


SPRING 1984








m[S lN department |


ChE AT THE EREVAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE

SOVIET ARMENIA


DERAN HANESIAN
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Newark, NJ 07102

I LEFT NEW YORK on February 7, 1982 for Mos-
cow with a Fulbright teaching grant at the
Erevan Polytechnic Institute, Erevan, Armenian
SSR. Three of us, all Fulbright Scholars, spent
a few days in Moscow as guests of the Ministry
of Secondary and Higher Education, and on Febru-
ary 10, 1982 two of us left for Erevan. My col-
league, who was assigned to educational psy-
chology at the University of Erevan, travelled
with his wife, three sons and his elderly father. I
was alone and was assigned to chemical engineer-
ing at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute. Our third
colleague left for the University of Keremova in
Siberia to study anthropology and the migration
of peoples (ancestors of the American Indians)
from the Siberian land mass to North and South
America.

BACKGROUND
Soviet Armenia is the smallest republic in the
USSR. It is a landlocked, mountainous republic
in the Caucasus mountains between the Black Sea
and the Caspian Sea, and bordering on Turkey
and Iran. It is rich in agriculture and has well de-
veloped industry. Its area is about 29,800 square
kilometers, or about 0.13% of the territory of the
USSR. Its population is 3.0-3.5 million, or about
1% or more of the total population of the USSR.
The average elevation is about 1800 meters
above sea level, about twice the mean elevation of
the Asian continent. The lowest points are 400
meters. The present republic is a small part of the

I found the students at EPI to be
very much like the students at NJIT, They had
the same likes and dislikes... and their behavior in
and out of class was about the same. They were
very interested in student life in America.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


Mount Ararat rises to 5156 meters above sea level.

Anatolian plateau, the traditional homeland of the
Armenian people for over 3000 years. This area
is about 300,000 square kilometers and covers
large parts of present day eastern Turkey and
northern Iran. The highest peak in the area
(5156 meters) is Mount Ararat, the biblical
mountain upon which Noah's Ark rested. The
land is rich in ancient history and architecture.
About 90% of the population of Soviet Armenia is
ethnic Armenian.
This visit was my eighth. I frequently visited
my mother's older sister who lived there alone until
she passed away in 1977 at age 92. Many of my
colleagues in chemical engineering may remember
my after-dinner slide presentation to the ChE
Division at the ASEE meeting at the University
of Tennessee in June of 1976.
Erevan, a large, culturally rich metropolis, is
the capital city of the Armenian SSR. It is a hilly
city shaped like an amphitheater which opens up
into the plain of Ararat. The city is about 1200
meters in elevation, and Mount Ararat rises at one
end, presenting a magnificent view. The population
is about 1,200,000. It is a beautiful, well-planned
modern city which has been essentially built since
1920. Last year a new Metro was opened which
parallels the Moscow subway in beauty.
In 1923 Erevan was a small city of 30,000.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















Deran Hanesian received his undergraduate and graduate degrees
from Cornell University (BChE, 1952, PhD, 1961). He worked about
nine years at duPont in Niagara Falls, New York and the Jackson
Laboratory, Deepwater, N.J. He started teaching in 1963 at NJIT and
since 1975 has been Chairman of the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering and Chemistry. In 1977 he received the Robert Van Houten
Award for Teaching Excellence. His sabbatical leave for 1981-82 was
spent partly at the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, and
as a Fulbright Scholar at the Erevan Polytechnic Institute, Erevan,
Armenian SSR.

Many of its people were survivors of the massacre
of the Armenian people in 1915 by the Ottoman
Turks. Many colleagues there shared a common
history with me, the difference being that during
and after the massacres their parents fled east to
Czarist Russia and my parents fled to America. It
was in 1933 that the Erevan Polytechnic Institute
was founded, and in September 1983 they cele-
brated their 50th anniversary.

EREVAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE
The Erevan Polytechnic Institute (EPI),
is a large technological university with 23,000
students. Of these, 14,000 are day students in
Erevan, 3000 are evening students, and 5000 are
at the Institute's locations outside of Erevan. The
remaining 1000 students are called "commuters."
These students generally live in outside areas and
are working students who study at home but
periodically take leaves from work (lasting one
month) to visit Erevan for concentrated lectures
and to take examinations.
The Institute has about 2500 faculty, 1700 of
whom are in Erevan and 800 of whom are outside.
Generally, a teacher-to-student ratio of 10.7 is
aimed at.
The Institute is headed by a Rector and six
Pro-Rectors working with him. Three Pro-Rectors
take care of Academic Affairs: one for research
and the others for business affairs and physical
plant.


The three Pro-Rectors in Academic Affairs are
directly involved with eleven Faculties. These
Faculties (which are headed by a "Degan") are:
Architecture, Civil, Chemical, Electrotechnic,
Energetic, Mechanical, Automotive, Cybernetic,
Computer Hardware, Radio, and Geology. In ad-
dition, there are many support departments such
as the excellent Department of Foreign Langu-
ages.
Budgets are formula based and calculated from
hours per year for all duties: teaching, research,
service, etc. Professors (there are only a very few
since the rank is difficult to obtain) are assigned
600 hours/year. The next rank (called "Dots-
zent") is assigned 750-800 hours/year. All con-
tracts are for twelve months and are renewable
every five years. Since everyone must work, there
are no lay-offs, but there may be new assignments.


Campus scene showing a teaching and research build-
ing, Erevan Polytechnic Institute.

Sabbatical leaves are given to everyone for a se-
mester every five years. Research work brings
extra compensation (up to one-half of salary) and
twice the salary in the summer. Rest leaves with
pay are available.
Students enter the Institute following compre-
hensive three-week entrance examinations in
August. These examinations are in physics
(written), math (written), math (oral), and
language (composition). Admission is by govern-
ment plan and quotas. There are 4500 accepted as
freshmen. Of those, 2800 are for the day division
in Erevan, 500 are for the evening division, 200
are for the distant commuters, and 1000 are for


SPRING 1984










Undergraduate degrees require five years. To enter the graduate program,
"aspirants" take examinations in language, field of endeavor, and humanities-philosophy.
Those who are accepted work with a professor and do not take formal courses.


the Institute locations outside of Erevan. Those
who are not accepted can try again, or can work
in factories and attend evenings. There is a good
system for recycling marginal students. Students
pay no tuition or fees and receive a monthly stip-
end of about 60 roubles, which is adequate for
their personal needs and is about one-half the
salary of a laborer.
The faculty members are organized into a
powerful union called "Prof. Meeoutyiun." It
represents faculty grievances against the ad-
ministration. The union cannot be overruled by


A few members of the Processes, Apparatus and
Modelling group upon receipt of an Outstanding De-
partment Award for 1981-82.

the Rector and differences are settled at the Minis-
try of Secondary and Higher Education or in the
courts.
Undergraduate degrees require five years. To
enter the graduate program, "aspirants" take
examinations in language, field of endeavor, and
humanities-philosophy. Those who are accepted
work with a professor and do not take formal
courses. They study and complete their thesis in
three years, defend their study, and if successful
become "candidates." A candidate must continue
to work for many years, do original work, and
defend this additional work before a committee of
five academicians, or Professor Doctors. If success-
ful, one is then entitled to the title "Doctor." The
whole process of education is quite rigorous and
is similar to the European system.

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
The Faculty of Chemical Technology most


closely resembles a combined department of chemi-
cal engineering and chemistry, such as the one
at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT).
At EPI this faculty has about 150-170 workers.
About 70-80 are teachers and 80-90 are laboratory
assistants. The faculty is under Degan Azad Gulza-
dian. There are six degree (diploma) programs
governed by the faculty: Organic and Petroleum
(Naptha) Synthesis, Inorganic, Silica, Electro-
chemical, Resins and Plastics, and Polymers. Each
of the six groups is limited to twenty-five students
per group for each of the five years in the degree
program. About 90% of the students in chemical
technology are women.
The program which most closely resembles our
programs is Organic and Petroleum (Naphtha)
Synthesis. I will compare it with our program
at NJIT, which is an ABET approved program
and therefore similar to others in the United
States.
Fig. 1 shows the calendar by weeks at EPI. It
is fairly complex compared to the straightforward
fifteen weeks of instruction and one week of
examinations for each of two semesters at NJIT.
At NJIT our students have twenty weeks of recess
and take four years to obtain a degree. At the
EPI, five years are required for a degree and re-
cesses are much shorter (4-8 weeks). Table 1
shows a comparison of the number of weeks ex-
pended in various educational areas at EPI and
NJIT. The regular four-year program for NJIT
is shown. Students at EPI spend more time in


STRUCTURE OF ACADEMIC CALENDER | 1B1uCTIOn
EVEVAN POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE ,E3S
ooV EXAMS AWA JDJ
IND PRACTICE c 8 8 3









5 1 15 2 25 30 40 45 50 52
9/I/81 8/31/82
WEEK PER YEAR


FIGURE 1


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









instruction, diploma design projects, and examina-
tions, which are individual and oral at the end of
the semester. The diploma design project must be
defended to an external committee of six to eight
industrial people. The committee chairman must
be external to the Institute. In addition, much time
is spent in practical experience in the chemical
plants. Students at EPI have less recess time. Our
students at NJIT spend some of their recess time,
particularly between the third and fourth year, in
chemical plants, when work is available. At NJIT
co-op students spend two six-month work periods
in industry during their third year. Table 1 also
shows the class hours by week for each semester
of study.
Tables 2 and 3 show a comparative breakdown
of total class hours spent at EPI and NJIT. It is
clear that students at Erevan study more subjects
for longer class hours (4765 hours) than their
colleagues at NJIT (2355 hours). In addition to
attending school for two additional semesters,
students in Erevan attend classes longer each
week (by about 73%), and spend about twice as
much total time in class until graduation. Also
shown is a comparison of the percent of total class


hours distributed in the subject areas. Students at
NJIT spend a lower percentage of their class
hours in formal computer courses, humanities-
social science, and electrical technology. A larger
fraction of class hours is spent at NJIT in chemi-
cal engineering, mathematics, and physics.
Chemistry percentages are about equal. The pro-
gram at EPI more nearly resembles in intensity
the five-year program which I studied under
"Dusty" Rhodes at Cornell in the early 1950's than
the relatively condensed four-year programs of
today.
PROCESSES, APPARATUS, AND MODELLING
Chemical engineering subjects are taught to
all six groups by the "Processes, Apparatus, and
Modelling Division" called an "Ambion." This
group was involved in teaching chemical engineer-
ing as we know it in the unit operations areas of
momentum, heat and mass transfer. The group
was under the direction of a "Varich" who was
the Rector Emeritus of the EPI. Professor Dr.
A. M. Kasparian, an academician and excellent
scientist and researcher, headed the Polytechnic
as Rector for about fourteen years before retiring
Continued on page 94.


TABLE 1
Comparison of Calendars at EPI and NJIT, in weeks.
Class Hours per week of each semester are shown by (


INSTR. AND
THEO. STUDIES


34 (33,34)
34 (34,
31 (34,36)
28 (34,36)
14 (30,Project)
141 (33.8 Av.)


INTRO.
INDUST. IND. PRAC. DIPLOMA
EXAMS PRACTICE STUDIES DES. PROJ.


NJIT-Regular Program
1 30 (23,21)
2 30 (17,20)
3 30 (19,19)
4 30 (19,19)
5 0


RECESS


6
10
10
6
6
38


20
20
20
5
0


TOTAL


52
52
52
52
44
252


52
52
52
37


120 (19.6 Av.) 8 0 0 0 65 193
NJIT-CO OP Program
1 30 2 0 0 0 20 52
2 30 2 0 0 0 20 52
3 15 1 0 26 0 10 52
4 15 1 0 26 0 10 52
5 30 2 0 0 0 5 37


SPRING 1984


YEAR
EPI
1
2
3
4
5









SnPlil classroom


TEACHING SIMULATION AND MODELLING AT

ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE*


HUGUES W. BONIN AND RONALD D. WEIR
Royal Military Colege of Canada
Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 2W3

IN ITS PRESENT calendar, the Royal Military
College of Canada offers to its fourth year fuels
and materials engineering students a course in
modelling and optimization. The course bears the
number FME413B and CMF413B for the English
and French versions respectively, and the calendar
entry reads: "FME413B (CMF413B) : Systems
Analysis: Modelling and Optimization. Mathemati-
cal formulation and digital computer simulation of
engineering problems are carried out and digital
techniques are used to solve optimization prob-
lems. The emphasis is on writing the mathemati-
cal model from word statements and programming
to predict the steady-state behaviour of various
problems of contemporary and future significance
to the Canadian Forces. A brief overview is given
of major optimization techniques."

HISTORY
The course originated in the 1960's and it
contained only the setting up of mathematical
equations from problem statements. During the
academic year 1974-75, the course was augmented
to include process modelling and simulation
techniques and in 1979 optimization was included
with the introduction of the new Fuels and Ma-

*Paper presented at the IASTED Symposium Applied
Simulation and Modelling, San Diego.


The goal of the course is to
assist students in writing differential
equations to represent chemical processes and other
natural phenomena, and to solve these
problems on digital computers.


trials Engineering program. It is now presented
during the longer winter term (at three 45-min-
ute lectures/week for sixteen weeks), which al-
lows more time for computing projects than be-
fore.















Hugues W. Bonin is presently Assistant Professor of nuclear engi-
neering at Royal Military College. He obtained a B.A. degree from
College de Saint-Laurent (affiliated to Universite de Montreal), then a
B.Sc. in physics at Universite de Montreal. After obtaining the
B.Sc.A. and Engineering degree in engineering physics at Ecole Poly-
technique (Montreal), he received a M.Ing. degree in nuclear engineer-
ing, also at Ecole Polytechnique. Then he went to Purdue University in
Indiana, U.S.A., for a Ph.D. degree in nuclear engineering which he
obtained in May 1983. In addition to teaching courses in nuclear
engineering, Dr. Bonin also teaches a course in chemical process
simulation and optimization. His present research interests are in
optimal fuel management of thorium-fueled CANDU nuclear reactors
and in the design of neutron moisture gauges for roofing surveys. (L)
Ron D. Weir is Professor of chemical engineering at The Royal
Military College. His BSc was obtained in chemical engineering at The
University of New Brunswick. He went to England as an Athlone
Fellow to obtain his Diploma of the Imperial College of Science and
Technology in London and PhD from the University of London, where
he won the Lessing medal. He has also been a N.A.T.O. Fellow and
National Research Council of Canada Fellow. Dr. Weir joined RMC
from the NRC in 1968. In 1978-79, he was Senior Visitor in the De-
partment of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Oxford. Other
courses currently taught by him are chemical and engineering thermo-
dynamics, and fluid mechanics. His research involves orientational
disorder in crystals via low temperature heat capacity measurements.
(R)
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









PHILOSOPHY
The goal of the course is to assist students in
writing differential equations to represent chemi-
cal processes and other natural phenomena, and
to solve these problems on digital computers.
Ultimately, the students are able to write mathe-
matical models to represent specific chemical or
physical processes, to solve the resulting equations
in order to predict the behaviour of the system
parameters according to the control and design
variables and, finally, to use optimization tech-
niques to obtain the values of decision variables
that yield the best index of performance for the
process. Only steady-state phenomena are studied
due to lecture time constraints.

COURSE OUTLINE
Four main parts make up the course, viz.: I-
Optimization, II-Simulation, III-Solution of
differential equations, and IV-Mathematical

FIGURE 1
Course Plan
FME 413B/ CMF413B
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS: MODELLING AND
OPTIMIZATION
PART I: OPTIMIZATION
* Introduction, principles, Lagrange multipliers
* Steepest Descent Techniques (Gauss', Newton's,
Hestenes', Penalty Functions)
(6 lectures, 1 quiz, 1 assignment, 1 project)
PART II: SIMULATION
* Possible approaches: Special-purpose programs; Build-
ing-block routines ("MECCANO" approach);
General purpose programs for particular class of
processes.


* "MECCANO" approach explained, with
process taken as example
(11 lectures, 1 quiz, 1 project)


simple CSTR


PART III: DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
* Analytical: Review, Bessel Equations
* Numerical: Finite Difference method
(7 lectures, Z30 problems, 1 project)
PART IV: FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAL
EQUATIONS FROM WORD STATEMENTS
* Balance Equations: ACCUMULATION = INPUT-
OUTPUT
* Illustration through several examples, such as
Multi-plates distillation column
Gas diffusion into a liquid with chemical re-
actions
Heat transfer through a cooling fin
Flow systems (Euler and Lagrange Methods)
(21 lectures, ;10 assignments, 1 quiz, 1 project)


After the general principles of optimization
are explained, the Lagrange multipliers technique
is studied and applied to a few examples,
with assignment.


Modelling. In addition, four projects are assigned,
corresponding to the main parts of the course. A
detailed plan of the course appears in Fig. 1.
The first part consists of a block of six lectures
on several optimization techniques. After the
general principles of optimization are explained,
the Lagrange multipliers technique is studied and
applied to a few examples, with assignment. Linear
programming is mentioned, but this subject is not
covered since several excellent routines exist in
most computer systems and the application of the
methods is limited.
The course goes into more detail on steepest
descent techniques of the most robust kinds, such
as Gauss', Newton's and Hestenes' methods.
Examples for unconstrained problems are studied,
and a method using penalty functions is explained
for more realistic problems with constraints. The
reason for the use of these search methods is that
often chemical processes models cannot be ex-
pressed as simple analytical equations, and in
these cases search methods are usually the only
ones capable of solving these problems.
The philosophy is to provide some basic tools
to perform mathematical optimization of chemical
processes. Although this part does not follow any
particular textbooks, several references are indi-
cated, so that the students have a basis for under-
standing the best methods suitable for the practi-
cal problems they may encounter during their
engineering career. The most important goal is
achieved when the student is able to write a
properly-defined mathematical optimization prob-
lem and to use an appropriate technique to solve it.
The second part of the course covers the simu-
lation of the process itself. The students are told
of three broad approaches to simulate physical
and chemical processes. Since the course is of a
very practical nature, staff insist on the most
practical way to attack a simulation problem. Be-
cause many routines exist that simulate whole
chemical processes or parts of them, the option of
writing a special purpose computer program for
a specific process is only mentioned, as is the option
of operating an already complete program that
simulates a given class of processes. The "building
block" subroutines approach (or "MECCANO"


SPRING 1984







approach) is followed. The reason is that these
subroutines (which simulate standard parts of
chemical processes such as reactors, splitters, and
flash separators) are often written in an optimal
way that minimizes the memory space and the
computer time. Therefore, the student is expected,
through the use of an example, to make use of these
standard subroutines in order to simulate a given
chemical process. The example used is the con-
tinuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) process ex-
plained below (Fig. 2).
Part III consists primarily of a brief review of
the solution of differential equations. This is done
by means of lectures, handouts and assignments.
Emphasis is put on the Bessel equations and their
solutions. Simple numerical methods are investi-
gated, including the Secant and the Newton-
Raphson.
Finally, in the last part of the course tech-
niques are described which allow mathematical
models to be written from word descriptions of
physical problems. The conservation principle is
the basis. This enables the students to write
balance equations for mass, energy, momentum,
forces, electric charges, etc., applied to an ele-
mentary volume of the system under study. They
are taught using a series of examples representing
several classes of problems frequently encountered
in chemical engineering. These sample problems
viewed in class include a multiple-plate distillation
column, gas diffusion into a liquid in which chemi-
cal reactions occur, and flow systems, among
others. Flow systems are treated both by the Euler
and the Lagrange methods. In the Euler method,
the volume element on which the balance equations
are applied is chosen as stationary, as opposed to
the Lagrange method where this element moves
with the fluid. To complement these examples, a
series of ten to twelve assignment problems is
given to the students.

THE SUPER PROJECTS
A substantial part of the course is taken up by
the four computer projects, since they are seen as
the best way for students to acquire these model-
ling and optimization techniques. These projects
are: 1) Steepest descent techniques, 2) simulation
of the CSTR, 3) numerical solution of a system
of differential equations, and 4) optimization of
the CSTR. Project 1 requires the use of some steep-
est descent techniques to solve simple optimiza-
tion problems, namely by writing computer pro-
grams in FORTRAN to implement optimization


FIGURE 2. Hypothetical chemical process involving
CSTR and flash separator.

algorithms such as Gauss', Newton's and Hestenes'
methods. Unconstrained problems are first studied,
and in the last exercise of the project, students are
asked to use penalty functions to solve a simple
constrained problem. In addition to analyzing the
problems, the students compare the various
methods in terms of convergence speed and com-
puter effort. Although this seems quite simple, it
represents a major effort by the students since
most of them have limited computer experience
and need more practice.
The goal of Project 3 is the application of
numerical methods to a practical problem of solv-
ing a system of differential equations. The students
must derive the numerical equations based on a
finite difference method and solve on the computer
the resulting algebraic equations. Also, they are
required to carry out several runs with different
numbers of mesh points in such a way that they
can see how to control the error associated with
this numerical technique. A simple graph is re-
quired from which the order of the method can be
determined, and in their report the students dis-
cuss the method and outline ways to improve it.
The problem used is simple heat transfer in nu-
clear engineering, and it consists of calculating
the temperature distribution in a fuel element plate
made of uranium metal protected by a sheath. The
mesh spacing in each region is kept constant in
order to keep the numerical equations fairly
simple. Since the computer used (PDP-11) was
capable of only modest performance, it was de-
cided not to use large number of mesh points for
this exercise.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE CSTR
The heart of the course is the simulation and
optimization of the Continuously-Stirred Tank Re-
actor (CSTR) process. A diagram appears in
Fig. 2. This chemical process is composed of a
"T-mixer," a "CSTR," a "flash separator" and a
"splitter." In this process, a chemical component
P is produced through a chemical reaction in the
CSTR from a component A which is fed to the
system in pure form. The chemical reaction is
A -> P, but a secondary reaction occurs in which
P forms an undesirable material G. The mixture of
the three chemical components is then sent to the
flash separator where pure product P is extracted.
The residue is then sent back to the reactor in
order to improve the yield. However, a fraction


choosing the set of decision variables that gives the
best index of performance. This was done in past
years, but since the technique is obvious and
tedious it was not making the best use of the
students' time. The students are now required to
use the optimization method of their choice. Most
selected a simple steepest descent algorithm which
improved the current estimate by performing a
line search for the optimum along the direction of
the largest partial derivative (which was com-
puted numerically).

DISCUSSION
The first aspect to be discussed is the topic
arrangement in the course, which may seem re-
versed. A more logical order might be: mathimati-


The philosophy is to provide some basic tools to perform mathematical optimization
of chemical processes. Although this part does not follow any particular textbooks, severely references
are indicated, so that the students have a basis for understanding the best methods suitable
for the practical problems they may encounter during their engineering career.


"f" of the recycled stream is bled off, for the com-
ponent G would eventually clog the piping.
The mass and energy balance equations are
derived in class, and the students are given the
listings of the subroutines which solve these equa-
tions. Also in class, the nomenclature and the
various arrays which contain pure components,
equipment and stream parameters are covered.
The students are shown how to make use of a
special equipment unit (called the "convergence
block") to perform the iterations needed by the
presence of a feedback loop in the chemical pro-
cess. The routine associated with the convergence
block modifies the stream parameters values of
stream #7 until these values become such that
equilibrium occurs in the system, within tolerances
fixed by the student.
Project 2 consists in writing the main
FORTRAN program that calls the various sub-
routines (stored on a disk), in order to simulate
this chemical process. In Project 4, the students
maximize the yield of product P as a function of
one design variable, VR, (the CSTR volume), and
four control variables: F (the feed rate of pure
component A), TR (the CSTR operation tempera-
ture), PF (the flash separator pressure), and f
(the bleed fraction).
Two approaches are possible for optimizing
this system. The simplest is to run the program
successively using different parameters and then


cal modelling, differential equations, simulation
and optimization. However, if this order were
followed, all computer work would be cramped
into the last part of the semester. At RMC, the
officer cadets have a solid block of ten hours a day
of academic and military/sports activities, which
leaves them only evenings and some weekends for
computer work. Therefore, computer time must
be spread out over the entire semester. Since the
optimization part is self-contained, it provides a
good topic in which to assign the first computer
project and thereby refresh computer skills.
In addition, since the mathematical modelling
part of the course involves only non-computer as-
signments it is saved for the last part of the semes-
ter so that these assignments and the last project
can be done simultaneously. As is now obvious,
time is a critical factor. With only three formal
lectures per week and the heavy work load on the
students, there is insufficient time for good cover-
age of the material by all students, and some
projects must be done in groups. One consequence
of this is that only a few students become "ex-
perts"; the others adopt a passive attitude and
probably derive only marginal benefit from the
computer part of the course.
Another problem area comes from the de-
pendence of this course on many other courses
such as mathematics (calculus, differential equa-
Continued on page 81.


SPRING 1984








UNj I Elaboratory


USING HYDRAULIC ANALOG METHODS


TO DEVELOP KINETIC RATE EQUATIONS FROM


LABORATORY DATA


ZHANG, GUO-TAI* AND
HAU, SHAU-DRANG**
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331


These experiments require very simple
and inexpensive equipment, and they illustrate
one of the basic problems in chemical
reaction engineering.


IN A PREVIOUS paper (A Grand Sale: $12 for a
Dozen Experiments in CRE [1]) we introduced
a class experiment which employed the hydraulic
analog to represent systems of first order reactions
in batch reactors. These experiments require very
simple and inexpensive equipment, and they il-
lustrate one of the basic problems in chemical re-
action engineering. In this paper we extend the
hydraulic experiments to represent reaction
systems with non-linear systems.

*On leave from East China Institute of Chemical Tech-
nology, Shanghai, China.
**On leave from Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.


At start VAO = 100 cm3
AG


Volume
(cm3)
100


(sec)
0


FIGURE 1. Experimental set up to represent reactions
(A -> R) with orders smaller than one.


batch reactor for the
reaction A R

initial concentration
CA = 100mol/m3


Reactant
concentration
(mol/m3)
100


FIGURE 2. Reactor analog to the hydraulic experiment
of Fig. 1.


CASE 1: Reaction orders n < 1
Let us first illustrate the experimental appara-
tus. Connect an ordinary glass capillary to a funnel
as shown in Fig. 1. Fill the funnel with water. At
time zero let the water flow out, and record the
change in volume with time.
We tell the student that we view the experi-
ment of Fig. 1 as a batch reactor in which reactant
A disappears to form product R. The volume of
water in the funnel in cm3 is to be considered as a
concentration of reactant in mole/m3. Thus the
experiment of Fig. 1 is to be treated as shown in
Fig. 2. By following the volume of water in the
funnel versus time the student is to determine

Copyright ChE (Division, ASEE 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










start VA= 100 cm3
AO


Zhang Guo-tai was born in Shanghai, China, in 1943. He graduated
from the Shanghai Institute of Chemical Technology in 1965 and is an
instructor there. His teaching and research activities center on the
theory of chemical kinetics and on reactor design. He was at Oregon
State University on a two year visiting faculty appointment, spon-
sored by the Chinese government. (I)
Hau Shau-Drang is an instructor in the chemistry department at
Sichuan University, China, where he is responsible for the teaching
of basic chemical engineering subjects to all chemistry students, a
normal feature of Chinese universities. His duties included being
superintendent of the chemical factory, and later, the pharmaceutical
factory, owned and run by the chemistry department. Mr. Hau
held a courtesy faculty appointment at Oregon State University where
he studied chemical reaction engineering, on a Chinese government
grant. (R)



the reaction order and the value of the rate con-
stant.
One may guess, and it so happens, that this
hydraulic experiment and its kinetic analog are
reasonably represented by nth order kinetics


dV
dt= kV
dt


_dCA = kCAn
dt

in which case a plot of n (-AV/At) versus In V
should give a straight line of slope n. From this
the reaction order and rate constant can be deter-
mined.
Fig. 3 shows the results of experiments under
the following conditions


-1


-2


2 3 4 5 InVA
23 3 4 5


Symbol 0 L(cm) n(slope)
o 23 10 0.37
X 23 20 0.37
30 10 0.28
& 600 10 0.25


FIGURE 3. Experimental results for Case 1.


FIGURE 4. Experimental set up to represent reactions
(A -> R) with orders larger than one.


VAo = 100 cm3
L (length of capillary) = 10 cm, 20 cm
AVA = 5 cm3
d (diameter of capillary) = 0.124 cm
Clearly, nth order kinetics with n < 1 well
represents the results, the smaller the cone angle a
the larger the value of n. Also note that the length
of capillary does not affect the reaction order, how-
ever, it will affect the reaction rate constant.

CASE 2: Reaction orders n > 1

When the conical container is turned upside
down, as shown in Fig. 4, the results of Fig. 5 are


Symbol 0 L(cm) k(slope
o 23 10 1.35
30 10 1.91


-41 I InVA
3 4 5
FIGURE 5. Experimental results Case 2.


obtained.
In this case the reaction order is found to be
greater than unity. Again the larger the cone
angle a the greater is the reaction order.

FINAL REMARKS

1. Experiments with hydraulic analogs to
the batch reactor, reported in [1] and here show
Continued on page 69.


SPRING 1984


Volume
(cm3)
100


Time
(sec)
0









^Hcurriculum


A NEW APPROACH TO TEACHING ChE

USING COMPUTERS


I. M. PALLAI
P. P. GROSSCHMID*
Inst. for Science Management and Informatics
Budapest, Hungary

T HIS PAPER WILL DISCUSS a continuing project
which has been in progress in Hungary during
the past few years. Within the framework of this
project, universities and specialized colleges con-
cerned with the teaching of chemical engineering
science have undertaken to develop and compile,
according to a coordinated plan, chemical engi-
neering computer programs for a new approach
in chemical engineering education. In Hungary
this unified system, consisting of the computer
programs and the series of textbooks which ex-
plain the theoretical basis and practical applica-
tion of the programs, has been assigned the task of
laying the foundations for the training of chemical
engineers who will be able to apply computers
creatively.
The rapid development of the computer as an
aid to engineers has opened up new potentials for
the automation of technical activities, permitting
a number of possibilities defined in part by size,
performance and peripheral features of the com-
puter and in part by the level of application. Pro-
grams aiding the engineers' work in industry may
be further developed and economically utilized only
if universities train experts with that aim in
view.

HIERARCHY OF THE FIELDS OF CHE
On the basis of accumulated experience, the


This analysis provides
sufficient guidance for the revision
of the whole chemical engineering curriculum based
on the universal availability of computers.


*Now at Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Ltd., Buda-
pest, Hungary.


Ivan Pallai received his Diploma Chemist Degree in 1950, and his
Candidate of Science and Doctor of Science degrees in 1960 and 1969,
from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He has worked at the
Hungarian Oil and Gas Research Institute, at the Design Center Chemi-
cal Industries, and later at the Institute for Computing and Automa-
tion, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 1977 he joined the Institute
for Science Management and Informatics. His interests concern com-
puter control of chemical processes, and teaching of computer aided
design of chemical systems. He has published 130 papers and research
reports on the subjects. (L)
Peter P. Grosschmid was born in Godollo, Hungary, in 1950, and
received his diploma of a Chemist in 1974 at the Budapest University
of Sciences. He worked in the Publishing House of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences as an editor before joining the Institute for
Science Management and Informatics. After closing the first period of
CHEMISYS project he left the Institute for the Chemical Works of
Gedeon Richter Ltd., where he is now responsible for international
relations. (R)

acquired knowledge of a chemical engineer falls
into a hierarchy of three levels [1]:
On the first level we find disciplines related to the
properties and transformation of materials, e.g.
physical properties
thermodynamic properties
transport properties
reaction kinetics
On the second level we find disciplines dealing with the
industrial scale implementation of physical and/or
chemical transformation of materials, such as
unit operations and reactors
On the third level there are disciplines related to large-
scale industrial production, e.g.
theory of chemical technological networks
theory of process control

0 Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Breaking chemical engineering into these levels
is regarded as a historical process and is a conse-
quence of differentiation in science. In chemical
engineering education, each step toward differenti-
ation was followed by another step of method-
ological nature toward integration. Between levels
1 and 2, integration led to mathematical modelling,
while integration between levels 2 and 3 led to a
systems approach with a methodological nature.
This analysis provides sufficient guidance for
the revision of the whole chemical engineering cur-
riculum based on the universal availability of com-
puters.

COMPUTER PROGRAMS IN CHE
Slightly overstating the above conclusions, this
notion means that the complete curriculum of


The individual chapters of chemical
engineering science, broken up into hierarchical
levels, were assigned to participating departments
and institutes according to
their special field.


chemical engineering consists of a single large
data base and a library of programs, or rather,
sub-routines [2, 3]. Within each subject this
philosophy denies automation with relation to un-
mastered problems posed by the particular subject,
but for problems pertaining to each previously
mastered subject, it makes automatic response
necessary and sufficient.
The establishment of the above mentioned data
base and subroutine library is a task which sur-
passes the capabilities of any single research insti-
tute or university department. An effective solu-
tion can only be attained through the cooperation
of several units of research and education.

THE CHEMISYS PROJECT
Since 1979, several Hungarian universities
which train chemists and chemical engineers have
been involved in implementing the above ob-
jectives in the CHEMISYS project. While organiz-
ing the project, the researchers and teachers took
into account the possibilities and foreseeable de-
velopments in the field of computers in Hungarian
universities. The work began with the assumption
that the easiest way to provide every student with
a computer would be through the development of
computing centers with a network of terminals.
Therefore, those taking part in the CHEMISYS


project decided to create a data base and a sub-
routine library as mentioned earlier.
The so-called CHEMISYS System is, on one
hand, a computer program itself, and on the other
hand it is a system of rules and prescriptions
which should be taken into account when writing
or adding subroutines to the system.
The basic advantage of CHEMISYS is the con-
siderable simplification in handling data files. The
inexperienced user is spared the need to learn and
apply a difficult collection of statements for creat-
ing and handling data files. Of course, subroutines
can be run under the control of a deliberate main
program written by the user, or can be used as
stand-alone routines independent of the
CHEMISYS system.

ORGANIZATION OF THE PROJECT AND
EDITING OF TEXTBOOKS
The individual chapters of chemical engineer-
ing science, broken up into hierarchical levels,
were assigned to participating departments and
institutes according to their special field. In this
context we may consider any of the previously
outlined thematic fields as a chapter, e.g. thermo-
dynamics or chemical networks. By combining
both teaching and research aspects, a curriculum
supported by computer methods on every possible
point has been compiled. Part of the curriculum
consists of the chapters of seven textbooks, one
for each thematic field. The programs prepared for
those fields have been written, according to identi-
cal principles, in a high-level programming langu-
age.
This activity has been organized by the Insti-
tute for Science Management and Informatics,
which is the institution of the Hungarian Ministry
of Education and Culture.
The application of the results of this work is
not compulsory, but the departments taking part
in the project have introduced the new method in
their own programs and textbooks. The next step
is for these departments to adopt the results of
the other participants. In the near future we hope
the results of this project will be generally used
in the curriculum of chemists and chemical engi-
neers in Hungary. According to the general
opinion, this will require five to ten years to ac-
complish. Of course, such a centralized organiza-
tion of a project like this would be impossible in
a country having many universities and depart-
ments of chemical engineering, but it can be
carried out in Hungary where the number of uni-


SPRING 1984









versities and departments teaching this field of
science is relatively low and the number of students
is limited and planned according to the needs of
industry and research.
In the present experiment the different fields
of chemical engineering sciences are shown in
Table 1. From the point of view of this project,
the different fields are considered as independent
subjects and are revised by taking into account
the new possibilities provided by the computer.
Each book consists of three parts: the first
part treats exhaustively the theory of the given
thematic field; the second part provides know-how
needed for the discussion of the theory and the
computer programs suitable for the solution of
the given problems; the third part gives illustra-
tive examples of problems raised in part I and
solved by programs outlined in part II.
The main sections of the series of textbooks
follow the logical concept introduced herein: the
first section discusses the lowest hierarchical level
of chemical engineering science, the second section
discusses the middle level, and the third section


is devoted to the highest level.
Besides providing a survey of principles, the
sections contain appropriate flowcharts on which
actual computer programs have been implemented
within the CHEMISYS system. A number of prob-
lems included in each section have been solved
using those computer programs.
The CHEMISYS system has been established
on the appropriate size computers in Hungarian
university centers so that the system is available,
through terminals, to educational staff and
students. With the present dramatic develop-
ment of computers and related devices, the par-
ticipants in the project are making use of sub-
routines on different micro- and personal com-
puters in a conversational form.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
The introduction of computer methods in
chemical engineering education was started more
than twenty years ago by the CACHE (Computer
Aids for Chemical Engineering Education) Com-
mittee in the U.S.A. [4] and by EURECHA (Euro-


TABLE 1
Titles of Seven Volumes with Some Problems Solved with the Published Computer Programs*


1. CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS OF LIQUIDS
AND GASES
Subroutines, calculating the substance-specific
constants of the pseudo-mono-component
Subroutines for the calculation of fundamental
physical-chemical properties of pure components
Procedures to calculate vapour-liquid equilibria
Subroutine for the calculation of isothermal and
isobaric chemical equilibrium
Adiabatic compression
2. TRANSPORT OF FLUIDS AND TRANSPORT PHE-
NOMENA
Friction factor
Reynolds number
Pressure drop in tube section
Flooding velocity of liquid-liquid systems in packed
towers
Heat transfer coefficient by KARMAN's analogy
Mass transfer coefficient for evaporating droplets
Design of air cooler with fine gills for isothermal
condensation by direct method
3. SEPARATION PROCESSES
Steady-state simulation of distillation plate columns
Determination of the number of theoretical plates
of distillation columns using short-cut methods
Calculation of equilibrium constants of hydrocarbon
mixtures using the McWilliams equation
Modelling and design of countercurrant extraction
using the stagewise/stirred cell/model.


4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGICAL NETWORKS
Identification of maximal recycle loops by power
raising of the adjacency matrix
Recycle loop identification by tracking the graph
Determination of the calculation sequence
Convergence acceleration by the Wegstein method

5. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF CHEMICAL
PROCESSES
Responses of a first order process to unit step,
pulse and ramp functions
First-order process under P-controller action
First-order process under PI-controller action
Capacitive plus first-order processes under P-
controller action
Setting of controller parameter by the continuous
cycling method

6. COMPUTER TECHNIQUE IN ANALYTICAL
CHEMISTRY
Simulation of density function like signals
Credibility test of measurement data values
Fast Fourier transformation
Calculation of discrete convolution
Fitting and statistical characterization of calibra-
tion lines
Analysis of multilcomponent linear systems
Cluster analysis by Forgy method
7. METHODS OF OPERATIONAL RESEARCH


*In December 1983 the CHEMISYS System contained about 350 subroutines.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








pean Committee for the Use of Computers in
Chemical Engineering Education) in Europe
[5, 6].
We are in very close contact with EURECHA,
which makes possible a continuous interchange of
experiences and computer programs and visits by
experts. Together, we have worked out a standard
of writing chemical engineering computer pro-
grams which is widely used both in Hungary and
in other countries joined by EURECHA. We be-
lieve that the realization of the CHEMISYS sys-
tem represents a significant advance since it repre-
sents a unified system; the projects organized
earlier by CACHE and EURECHA are character-
ized by the lack of any common system. In order
to promote the foreign applications of the
CHEMISYS subroutines, an agreement has been
signed between the ETH (Eidgenissische Tech-
nische Hochschule, Zurich, Switzerland) which is
the Secretariat of EURECHA, and the Institute
for Science Management and Informatics.

AVAILABILITY
The CHEMISYS algorithm is available as a
collection of computer programs. They have been
written in FORTRAN and run on RJAD-22, 32,
and 40 series computers in Hungary. Of course,
the programs can also run on larger computers
without any difficulty as well as on IBM 360 or
other computer in the same size range.

REFERENCES
1. Polinszky, K., K6miai K6zlem6nyek, 50, 409, 1978.
2. Pallai, I., P. Benedek, F. Olti, "A Project for Com-
puter Aided Learning and Computer Aided Design in
Chemical Engineering Education." Paper of CHEM-
PLANT '80 Symposium, Heviz, Hungary, 1980. pp.
468-479.
3. Pallai, I., P. Grosschmid, "A Way for Teaching Pro-
cess Control. A New Concept Model for the Use of
Computers in Chemical Engineering Education in
Hungary." Paper of CHEM CONTROL '81 Sympos-
ium, Vienna, Austria, 1981. pp. 201-205.
4. Motard, R. L., and D. M. Himmelblau, "Current Situ-
ation on the Use of Computers in the Education of
Chemical Engineers in the USA." Symposium of
CACHE '79, Montreaux, Switzerland, 1979. pp. 370-
380.
5. Rose, L. M., and D. W. T. Rippin, "The Current Situ-
ation on the Use of Computers in Chemical Engineer-
ing Education in Europe." Paper of CACHE '79
Symposium, Montreaux, Switzerland, 1979. pp. 361-
365.
6. Rose, L. M., "Exchange of Chemical Engineering
Computer Programs for Teaching Purposes." Paper
of CHEMPLANT '80 Symposium, H6viz, Hungary,
1980. pp. 505-514.


HYDRAULIC ANALOG METHOD
Continued from page 65.
that reaction orders smaller, equal or greater than
unity are obtained with various shaped containers,
as shown in Fig. 6. Large cone angles give large
deviations from first order kinetics, and as cone
angles approach zero the reaction order ap-
proaches unity.


an




(b) n = 1 (c) n > 1


(a)n < 1


FIGURE 6. The relationship between shape of the con-
tainer and reaction order.

2. Capillary length does not affect the re-
action order. However, for ease in running the
experiment it is suggested that the length be
chosen such that the half life of the reaction is
between 2 and 3 minutes.
3. In order to get accurate data it is better
to measure AV from the outlet of the capillary
with a burette (as shown in Fig. 1) instead of
reading water levels on the funnel directly.
4. One can combine the set up here with ad-
ditional burettes and funnels to give multiple re-
actions of various types as outlined in our previous
paper [1], such as
A R, A-> R-- S, etc
Interpretation of such systems with non-linear
kinetics is not easy and provides a challenge to
the brighter students and practice on the com-
puter.
5. The large variety of combinations of set-
ups and capillary lengths will allow each student
in the laboratory to run his own experiment, even
in China with its huge student population.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to thank our advisor, Professor
Octave Levenspiel, for his advice and encourage-
ment, and for suggesting that we develop this
series of experiments.

REFERENCES
1. Zhang, Guo-tai and Hau, Shau-drang, "A Grand Sale:
$12 for a Dozen Experiments in CRE," Chem. Eng.
Education VIII, No. 1, 1984.


SPRING 1984









class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scott Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.



A WINE PROBLEM


JOSE 0. VALDERRAMA
Universidad del Norte
Antofagasta, Chile

T OPPER, OUR LABORATORY Assistant, told us an
interesting story about a problem he had with a
customer in the restaurant where he works on
weekends. Topper said that only scientific minds
like ours (chemical engineers, after all!) could
help him.
Some days ago, a very handsome, elegant
gentleman came to the restaurant where Topper
tends bar and ordered a very simple drink con-
sisting of a mixture of three rare, expensive wines
and some orange peels. The mixture should
contain: 500 cc of French RomanCe, the rarest of
the great wines from Borgofia, according to the
gourmet; 200 cc of Italian Falerno, "the wine
sung of by Horatio," boasted the customer; 300 cc


Jose 0. Valderrama is a professor of chemical engineering at the
Universidad del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile. He takes pleasure in in-
venting amusing problems for his students, with whom and for whom
he enjoys working. He holds B.S. and M.Sc. degrees from the Uni-
versidad de Concepcion in Chile and a Ph.D. from the University of
Delaware. He has published a number of articles in the areas of
thermodynamics and chemical reactors. Presently, his major interests,
on which he is developing both theoretical and experimental- research
projects, deal with fluid phase equilibria and with mixing and chemi-
cal reaction.


TABLE 1
Topper's experimental data for mixtures containing
Romanee (A), Falerno (B), and Vintage Port (C). All
data at T = 295 K.

Composition Vol. % V9
A B C SE/R GE/RT UE/RT (cc/mol)

50 40 10 0.0251 0.0498 0.0750 -3.0
50 30 20 0.0400 0.0700 0.1101 -5.5
50 25 25 0.0448 0.0751 0.1199 -6.0
50 20 30 0.0402 0.0688 0.1102 -5.5
50 15 35 0.0301 0.0549 0.0848 -4.5


of an authentic Portuguese Vintage Port 1947;
and 5 cm2 of orange peels. The customer said that
all the wines and the pieces of orange peels should
be at 22C and be carefully mixed for 10 seconds
.. not less . not more. Then the drink should
be served in a mug, hopefully an earthenware mug
to keep the temperature constant. Topper took
the thermos which he uses to prepare all the
drinks, put the wines and peels in it, and mixed
them as the customer had indicated. After 10
seconds of mixing, he poured the potion into a mug
and brought it to the sophisticated customer. The
gentleman then took a high-precision thermometer
he carried with him, measured the temperature of
the liquor, and or, my God! . What a tragedy!
The thermometer indicated 24.520 C instead of
22C as the gourmet expected. He made a big deal
out of that little detail, arguing that the flavor,
bouquet, and aroma were all destroyed by that
slight temperature rise. He also observed that in
the mug and thermos the total volume of liquor was
less than one liter, as anyone who has had a ma-
terial balance course should expect when mixing
500 cc, plus 300 cc, plus 200 cc. Topper was fired

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








after the scandal.
Our hero, of course, was not happy with the lay-
off and was determined to find the root of the
problem. He came to the laboratory to perform
some experiments. He had heard that thermo-
dynamics has something to do with mixing phe-
nomena and had notions of excess functions,
mixing properties, activity coefficients and so on.
He thought that there should be a way to find
something to convince his boss that he was not re-
sponsible for what had happened. He measured,
very carefully, the excess volume, excess free
energy, excess entropy, and excess internal energy
at 22C for five mixtures. His results are shown
in Table 1. Topper's trouble now is that he doesn't
know what to do with the experimental data. Let's
help him!

a) Topper's data for HE, GE, and SE agree with
other results published in the literature (J.R.
Sot et al., J. Alcoholism & Drugs, 81 (4), 348-
53, 1980) and can be considered to be ac-
curate and correct. However, the excess
volume seems to be inconsistent. Are Topper's
data for the excess volume correct?
b) Show, quantitatively, that the rise in tempera-
ture is natural because of the mixing phe-
nomena. Is the customer's thermometer ac-
curate enough?
c) The customer argued that he usually pre-
pared the mix at home, that the temperature
never rose more than a half Celsius degree,
and that he always got the liter he expected.
What could have possibly happened that
made Topper's mix hotter? Why didn't
Topper get one liter after the mixing?
d) Prausnitz, in his book Molecular Thermo-
dynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria (p. 484),
asserts in respect to the Regular Solution

TABLE 2
Pure component data at 220C for Romanee (A), Falerno
(B), and Vintage Port (C). (All the data were taken from
the Wine Tester's Handbook by Terry and Chitton).

Property A B C

VL (cc/mol) 44.0 44.1 43.9
8 (cal/cc)1/2 9.0 6.5 9.0
p (gr/cc) 0.851 0.849 0.850
Cp (cal/mol K) 25.0 20.1 29.9
pisat (atm) 0.871 0.870 0.869
Molecular Weight 40.1 39.8 40.2


Theory: "It is therefore surprising that these
equations work as well as they do. It is likely
that the success of the regular-solution treat-
ment is due to a considerable amount of for-
tuitous cancellation of those errors which are
introduced by the many simplifying assump-
tions."
Show that such a cancellation of errors
occurs here in some cases, while in others it
doesn't.
e) The gourmet bragged about his tasting abili-
ties claiming that by only smelling the mix
he could detect the various wines and in what
proportion they were present in the mixture.
He actually did it with the mixture prepared


Then the drink should be
served in a mug, hopefully an earthenware
mug to keep the temperature constant. Topper took the
thermos which he uses to prepare all the drinks, put
the wine and peels in it, and mixed them
as the customer had indicated.


by Topper, announcing: "I smell 48% of
RomanCe, 27% of Falerno, and 25% of
Vintage Port (in volume %)." Then he said
that the quantities established by the recipe
(500 cc of A, 200 cc of B, and 300 cc of C)
were correct, but not the temperature, nor the
volume! Do you agree with the client's as-
sertions ?

SOLUTION
a) From thermodynamics courses
PVE = HE UE (1)
HE = GE + TSE (2)
pyV= (GE + TSE-UE)
or
PVE GE SE U (3)
-IRT = (RT + R RT (3)I
For all compositions shown in Table 1 we
get VE -= 0, which indicates that Topper's
data for the excess volume are wrong.
b) We know from our thermodynamics courses
that
AHm = Hmix i xiHi


HE = Hmix Hideal mix


SPRING 1984








Since
Hideal mix = ? XiHio

We have that
AH" = HE (4)
The heat developed by the mixing pro-
cess, that is, AH", is entirely used to increase
the temperature of the mixture. (Remember
that' Topper prepared the drink in a thermos,
that is, an adiabatic reservoir). Therefore,
from an energy balance, we have
AH" = HE = CpAT
with
Cp I xiCp,i

and
HE = GE + TSE
we have
AT = (GE + TSE)/ XC,i (5)

For the mixture under consideration
(XA = 0.5, X, = 0.2, X, = 0.3), we obtain
from Table 1 GE/RT = 0.0751, SE/R =
0.0448; and from Table 2
Cp = 0.5 (25.0) + 0.2 (20.1) + 0.3 (29.9)
= 25.49 (cal/mol K)
Note that since the densities and molecu-
lar weights of all wines are approximately
the same, the volume percent is equal to the
mole percent.
Introducing values into Eq. (5), we obtain

AT = (0.1101) (1.987. 295)
25 49
AT = 2.53C
It can be seen that the temperature rise
comes from the mixing process itself (carried
out adiabatically). The customer's thermo-
meter can be considered accurate enough for
the objectives of the measure.
c) Probably the customer prepared the drink in
a good mixer (like the good gourmet he
was!), but perhaps it was not an adiabatic
one. Therefore, the heat released by the mix-
ing process was absorbed by the surround-
ings. In respect to the volume, there is no
doubt that Topper drank a sip and then
cheated with the values to justify the re-
duction of volume.


d) From our studies on Regular Solution Theory
for multicomponent mixtures, we know that


GE = X XiViL(Si-)2

2 XiViL
8 = 2 XiV,


If the volumes ViL are equal, as in this case
(from Table 2, V,L = 44 for all i)

8 = 2 X,8i

Introducing values
6 = 0.5-* 9.0 + 0.2 6.5 + 0.3 9
8 = 8.5 (cal/mol K)1/2
GE = 44 [0.5 (9.0 8.5) 2 + 0.2 (6.5 -
8.5)2 + 0.3 (9.0- 8.5)2]
GE = 44 (cal/mol K)
From Table 1, for XA = 0.5, XB = 0.2, and
Xc = 0.3
GE/RT = 0.0751
GE = 44.02 (cal/mol K)
For the mixture under consideration, the
RST applies for the calculation of GE. But,
be careful! Remember that RST also con-
sidered that GE = UE and SE = VE = 0. Of
these, only VE = 0 is fulfilled here. The
coincidence has to be considered as a fortui-
tous case. Also, for other compositions, GE
predicted by RST doesn't agree with Topper's
experimental data.
e) At low pressures the gas phase can be con-
sidered ideal. Therefore, the basic relation

y.OiP = Xiyifio (8)
becomes
YIP = XiYiPisat (9)
Let's assume valid the RST for the mixture
under consideration, that is


In = ViL 2
1 -RT


(10)


YA = 7c = 1.0178
yB = 1.3225
From Eq. (9)

Xi YiP
y p sat


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








XA = 0.508
XB = 0.253
Xc = 0.239
The customer's assertion is correct (-+- 5%
deviation considered acceptable). 0

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank the students of my under-
graduate course in thermodynamics of fall 1981
(University of Concepci6n) for having the cour-
age to accept the challenge of first attacking the
problem. Special thanks go to Mr. Jaime P.
Morales, a good, perceptive student, for his useful
contributions to my original problem statement.



IOM book reviews

PRINCIPLES OF POLYMERIZATION
ENGINEERING
by J. A. Biesenberger and D. H. Sebastian
John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983: $54.50

Reviewed by Donald G. Baird
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University

Chemical engineers are slowly being exposed
to more polymer courses in their education.
General courses in polymer science are most com-
monly available, but courses in polymer processing,
materials, and chemistry are also being offered.
One area of polymer engineering which should
also be studied by chemical engineers and chemists
is that of polymerization engineering. Some of
the significant problems faced by scientists and
engineers in the polymer industry are how to scale
up reactors from the bench size, and how to design
optimum and efficient polymerization processes.
As we update the traditional engineering curricu-
lum, it is important that a course in polymerization
engineering be included. Of course, offering a
course of this nature requires the availability of a
textbook. In this article we review the text
Principles of Polymerization Engineering by J. A.
Biesenberger and D. H. Sebastian.
We first look at the goals of this book and its
specific contents. This will be followed by a dis-
cussion of whether the authors reached their ob-
jectives. We will also discuss briefly the level of
student for which the book is intended and


critically evaluate it in terms of its pedagogical
and scientific value.
The goal of the book, as stated by the authors,
is to formulate generalizations that will be useful
in the design, scaling, and modification of poly-
merization processes. To accomplish their goal,
the authors start in Chapter One by defining the
important concepts and terms needed in the re-
mainder of the book. For example, the basic types
of reactors and polymerization processes, along
with the important variables, are discussed. The
mathematical description of the reaction mechan-
isms and other pertinent relations are presented.
In Chapter Two the kinetic variables (besides the
monomer and initiator consumed) which affect
the properties such as the degree of polymeriza-
tion, the degree of polymerization distribution, de-
gree of branching and its distribution, and co-
polymer composition and its distribution, are dis-
cussed. The main goal of this chapter is to mathe-
matically incorporate the factors which affect the
variables just mentioned, into the reaction kinetics.
Continued on page 91.




[00 letters

ANECDOTES ANYONE?

Dear Editor:
I should be pleased and grateful if you would
kindly print this invitation . in an early issue
of CEE. Many of your readers probably know of
gems of chemical humor; I'd welcome your help
and theirs in finding some.
For possible inclusion in an anthology, "Science
with a Smile," I should welcome contributions of humor
in the sciences: physics, chemistry, astronomy, mathe-
matics, earth sciences, life sciences and computer
science-historic and contemporary. Appropriate would
be anecdotes, biographical notes, cartoons, parodies,
verse, examples of self-deception, and hoaxes. I es-
pecially seek pieces which, while humorous, also have
value in the history of science, providing insight into
changing attitudes or illuminating personalities.
So far, chemistry is least well represented of the
sciences in the manuscript for this anthology. I'd wel-
come evidence that chemists are not lacking in humor.
Please identify fully the sources of all contributions.

Robert L. Weber
104 Davey Laboratory
University Park, PA 16802


SPRING 1984










0 i laboratory


A NONIDEAL FLOW EXPERIMENT


JUAN RAMON GONZALEZ-VELASCO AND
JAVIER BILBAO ELORRIAGA
Universidad del Pais Vasco
Bilbao, Spain

R EAL REACTORS NEVER fully satisfy one of two
very specific idealized flow patterns: plug
flow or backmix flow. Deviation from ideality
can be caused by the channeling of fluid through
the vessel, by the recycling of fluid within the
vessel, or by the existence of stagnant regions or
pockets of fluid in the vessel.
To predict the exact behaviour of a vessel as a
chemical reactor we must know what is happening
in it. We must at least know how the fluid is
passing through the vessel. One way to determine
this is to tag and follow each and every molecule
as it passes through the vessel. Though fine in
principle, the attendant complexities make this
method impractical and we must resign ourselves
to finding out how long individual molecules stay
in the vessel. This information on the distribution
of ages of molecules in the exit stream can be
found easily and directly by a widely used experi-
mental technique, the stimulus-response tech-
nique.
In this work we hope to consider the deviation
from the ideal flows of both a backmix tank and
a backmix tank followed by a plug flow vessel.
From the C curves we calculate the dispersion
number and the number of tanks in series that
represent the deviation from ideality of the two
studied systems.

THEORY
Since extensive treatments of this subject are
available in many books on process modeling
[1-5], only a concise review will be given here.
The exit age distribution function of fluid
leaving a vessel or residence time distribution of
fluid in a vessel is called the E curve. This curve


Juan R. Gonzalez-Velasco graduated as a chemist in 1975 and re-
ceived his PhD in industrial chemistry in 1979 from the Universidad
del Pais Vasco, both degrees with extraordinary mention. Since 1975
he has been a professor of technical chemistry and economics at the
same university. His research studies have been focused upon hetero-
geneous catalysis, with special emphasis on design and optimization
of fixed bed reactors subject to catalyst deactivation. He has published
about thirty papers on these topics. He is presently conducting research
on batch distillation optimization. (L)
Javier Bilbao Elorriaga obtained his PhD degree in industrial
chemistry from the Universidad del Pais Vasco in 1977. Since 1973
he has been working as a professor of chemical reaction engineering at
the Universidad del Pais Vasco. He has published about forty articles
on heterogeneous kinetics and catalyst deactivation. Presently he works
on simulation of deactivating catalyst reactors, especially on reaction-
regeneration systems. He arranges his research with the supervision of
some doctoral thesis. (R)

is normalized in such a way that the area under it
is unity


E dt = 1


In stimulus-response experimentation we
perturb the system and then see how the system
reacts or responds to this stimulus. The analysis
of the response gives the desired information
about the system. In our problem the stimulus is
a tracer input signal to the vessel, the response
signal being the recording of tracer leaving the
vessel. Any type of tracer input signal may be
used: a random signal, a cyclical signal, a step or
continuous signal, a pulse or discontinuous


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984








signal. The two last modes of injection are the
most used. The concentration-time curve at the
vessel outlet is called the F curve when the input
signal is a step signal and is called the C curve
when the input signal is a pulse signal.
Considering steady-state flow of fluid through
a closed vessel, it can be easily deduced that
C = E (2)
The mean age of the exit stream or mean resi-
dence time is


= TE = T= f tEdt = tEAt (3)
o
and the variance of the E or C distribution is
00


0
The last terms in Eqs. (3) and (4) are used
when the continuous distribution function is
measured only at a number of equidistant points.
All the above concepts can be used with time
measured in units of mean residence time. This is
called reduced time
0 = ti/ (5)
and then
E0 = rE
Co = i-C
OE = 1
Or"2 = O"t2/T2 (6)
If the flow were ideal the theoretical curves
for the studied systems would be as shown in
Fig. 1.
To characterize nonideal flow patterns many
types of models can be used. These models are
useful in accounting for the deviation of real
systems (such as tubular or packed beds) from


V 1
---
'V exp (ej-a )I




1 Ve
e v e

FIGURE 1. Theoretical Ea-curves for systems studied.


From the C curves we
calculate the dispersion number
and the number of tanks in series that represent
the deviation from ideality of the
two studied systems.


1,2 Valves to get samples
3 Stirred Tank
4 Tubular Vessel
5 Feed Tank (Water)
6 Rotameter


FIGURE 2. Schematic diagram of apparatus.


plug flow; or in describing the deviation of real
stirred tanks from the ideal of backmix flow. The
most important models are the dispersion model
and the tanks in series model.
The dispersed plug flow model (for brevity we
simply call it the dispersion model) considers that
some degree of backmixing or intermixing is
superimposed on the plug flow of the fluid. The
magnitude of this deviation of the ideal plug
flow is indicated by the dimensionless group
D/uL which is called the vessel or reactor dis-
persion number. It varies from zero for plug flow
to infinity for backmix flow and is the reciprocal
of the axial Peclet number for mass transfer. For
closed vessels we can calculate the dispersion
number from the C curve
D D
S2= (L ) -2( uL-)2 (l-e-uL/D) (7)

The tanks-in-series-model is an alternate ap-
proach to the dispersion model for dealing with
small deviations from plug flow. In this model we
assume that the actual reactor can be represented
by a series of N equal-sized backmix flow vessels.
From experimental variance measurements N can
be found


0"2 = 1/N


APPARATUS
As is shown in Fig. 2, the experimental equip-
ment consists of a stirred tank and a tubular vessel
made of glass. The characteristics and dimensions


SPRING 1984










In stimulus-response experimentation we perturb the system and then see how the system
reacts or responds to this stimulus. The analysis of the response gives the desired information about the
system. In our problem the stimulus is a tracer input signal to the vessel, the
response signal being the recording of tracer leaving the vessel.


of two vessels are:

STIRRED TANK
Height of fluid = 150 mm
Inside diameter = 143 mm
Volume = 2.409 liters
Agitation: A vertical flat 4-blade turbine impeller
with diameter of 6.0 cm and width of 1.0 cm was
used. It is connected to a motor of 1/23 HP ar-
ranged with a rotation speed governor (335-2500
rpm). Four vertical side-wall baffles projecting 1/10
of the tank diameter into the vessel perform a
helpful purpose in controlling vortex action.

TUBULAR VESSEL
Length = 2370 mm
Inside diameter = 20 mm
Volume = 0.744 liters

The fluid flows by gravity and a rotameter
indicates the flow rate. Valves 1 and 2 let us re-
move the samples for analysis.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The experimental procedure can be divided
into the following steps:
a. We calibrated the rotameter. The fluid used
is water. The volumetric feed rate selected was
142 cm3/ min.
b. We obtained steady state flow (no accumula-
tion in the stirred tank).
c. We inputed into the system an H2S04 injection
(tracer input pulse signal).
d. Every five minutes we removed samples at


Time, min


TABLE 1
Experimental results
Concentration, moles/1
Point 1 Point 2


0.00
0.32
0.27
0.20
0.16
0.12
0.10
0.07
0.05
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.003


0.00
0.09
0.30
0.25
0.21
0.16
0.12
0.09
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.000


TABLE 2
Values calculated for the stirred tank


min E= cl min-1
t, min iclAt


0.0000
0.0476
0.0402
0.0298
0.0238
0.0179
0.0149
0.0104
0.0074
0.0045
0.0015
0.0015
0.0004


t
0--
T


0.000
0.286
0.571
0.857
1.142
1.428
1.713
1.999
2.285
2.570
2.856
3.141
3.427


E =T E


0.0000
0.8333
0.7038
0.5217
0.4170
0.3134
0.2609
0.1821
0.1296
0.0788
0.0263
0.0263
0.0070


points 1 and 2 (as indicated in Fig. 1) until
practically all tracer had left the vessels.
e. We analyzed these samples with 0.4N Na2CO3.
The concentration values obtained are shown in
Table 1.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

We now calculate the E curve, the dispersion
number, and the number of tanks in series for
these systems: 1) the stirred tank and 2) the
stirred tank followed by the tubular vessel.
Stirred tank: The area under the concentra-
tion versus time curve

S c, At = 5 Y c, = 6.715 mol min/1

gives the total amount of tracer added in the pulse
input. To find E this area must be unity; hence the
concentrations must each be divided by S c, At,
giving

E cAt
c Ci At
To obtain Eo, t must be changed to 0 and E to
E,. But to do this we first need the mean resi-
dence time in the vessel which is given by Eq. (3)
as

T = 2 tE At = 5 2 tE = 17.51 min

Hence from Eqs. (5) and (6) the necessary con-
versions are


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









t t
0 =-
T 17.51

E, = TE 17.51 E

The values are tabulated in Table 2.
Fig. 3 is a plot of the distribution where we
have also drawn the curve corresponding to the
ideal backmix flow, E, = e-0. In this figure we
see a small deviation of the ideal E curve from the
real one.
To evaluate the degree of deviation we calcu-
late a) the dispersion number and b) the number
of tanks in series that represents the stirred tank.
To do so we first need the variance of the distribu-
tion; this is given by Eqs. (4) and (6) as

(o'2 = 2 02 Eo AO 1 = 0.4592

Now for a closed vessel we have from Eq. (7)


- Experimental
-- Ideal Backmix


TABLE 3
Values calculated for the stirred tank and the tubular
vessel in series


t, min


E = C2 min-1
Yc2At


0.0000
0.0133
0.0440
0.0370
0.0311
0.0237
0.0178
0.0133
0.0089
0.0059
0.0030
0.0015
0.0000


t
0 =
T


0.000
0.242
0.484
0.726
0.968
1.209
1.451
1.693
1.935
2.177
2.419
2.661
2.903


E,=T E

0.0000
0.2749
0.9177
0.7648
0.6428
0.4899
0.3679
0.2749
0.1840
0.1220
0.0620
0.0310
0.0000


Stirred tank followed by a tubular vessel: Table
3 shows calculated values of E, 0 and Eo. The mean
residence time in the system is T = 20.67 min.
Fig. 4 is a plot of this distribution where we
have also drawn the curve corresponding to the
ideal backmix and plug flow in series, E, =
1.308 exp[-1.308 (0 0.236)] (Fig. 1). In this
figure we can see a smaller amount of dispersion
from ideal plug flow than when there was only the
stirred tank. Both curves, the ideal and the ex-
Continued on page 93.


and experimental E.-curves for


that the dispersion number = D/uL = 0.338 and
from Eq. (8) the number of tanks in series =
2.18.
Both numbers indicate to us that there is a
large amount of dispersion from plug flow.
Since we work with a volumetric feed rate of
142 cm3/min, the mean residence time in the tank
should theoretically be

Vm 2409
Tt = Q 142 16.95 min

This time is below the experimental mean resi-
dence time, 17.51 min, i.e., the fluid leaves the
tank after the time predicted theoretically, al-
though both are practically concurrent.


1.2


1.0


. 0.8
E
S0.6
W0.6


- Experimental
--- Ideal System


0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
Reduced Time, e

FIGURE 4. Theoretical and experimental Ea-curves for
the stirred tank followed by the tubular vessel.


0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5
Reduced Time, 9


FIGURE 3. Theoretical
the stirred tank.


SPRING 1984









laboratory


PULSE TESTING WITH A MICROCOMPUTER


Y. L. YEOW*
University of Edinburgh
Edinburgh EH9 3JL Scotland

SINCE THEY BECAME available in the 1970s,
microcomputers have been featured more and
more in undergraduate curricula. The chemical
engineering laboratory is no exception. The flexi-
bility of the microcomputer can be exploited in a
variety of ways. One simple way is to use the
microcomputer, where possible, as a substitute for
specialized -and expensive electronic hardware
normally found only in research laboratories. This
opens up a whole new range of experiments for
the undergraduates. This paper describes one such
development where a microcomputer was pro-
grammed to function as a transfer function
analyzer and was used to investigate the dynamics
of stirred vessels. The main objective of this ex-
periment is to illustrate the theory and application
of the pulse test.

THEORY OF PULSE TEST
Pulse test is a method of determining the
transfer function of a process and is described in
most standard textbooks on process dynamics. See,
for example, Luyben [1]. To carry out a pulse test,
a signal pulse of arbitrary shape is introduced in
the input to the process. The resulting output
signal is monitored. The first task of a transfer
function analyzer is to analyze the input and out-
put signals into their Fourier spectra. From these
spectra it calculates the amplitude ratio, A.R.,
and phase angle, 4, between the input and output
at various frequencies, co. These then allow the
Bode diagram to be constructed and the nature
of the transfer function to be deduced.
Let f(t) and h(t) be the input and output
pulses respectively. Denote their Laplace trans-

*Now at the University of Melbourne, in Parkville,
Victoria, Australia.


forms by tFs) and H(s). The transfer function
G(s) is then given by G(s) = H(s)/F(s). The
frequency 'response function is obtained by re-
placing s in the transfer function by iw. co is the
frequency of the input signal and i = V -1. Thus
the frequency response function is given by

Sh(t)e- dt
SG(i (i) = 0
G(i) = F(iw) -
Sf(t)e-it dt
0

Sh cos t dt.+ i h sin t dt

f cos wt dt + 1 f sin wt dt
o 0
A(W) + iB(W)
C(w) + iD0()
A, B, C and D are the real and imaginary parts of
the numerator and denominator. The numerator


Leong YEOW did his undergraduate work at the University of Canter-
bury, New Zealand, and obtained his PhD from the University of
Cambridge, England. He is currently a lecturer in the Chemical Engi-
neering Department in Melbourne. Prior to that he was with the
Chemical Engineering Department of the University of Edinburgh Scot-
land. His teaching and research interests include process dynamics
and control, modelling of polymer processing operations and stability
of fluid flows.
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










This paper describes one such development where a microcomputer was programmed to
function as a transfer function analyzer and was used to investigate the dynamics of stirred vessels.
The main objective . is to illustrate the theory and application of the pulse test.


and denominator can be identified as the Fourier
transforms of the output and input respectively.
For any input pulse and its resulting measured
output, A, B, C and D can be evaluated for differ-
ent w. From these the amplitude ratio and phase
angle can be calculated.

AF2 2B
A.R. = G(iaI) = 2 2
C+ D
-1 BC AD
= L G(iw) = tan AC BD

Plotting log (A.R.) and 04 against log (co) gives
the Bode diagram.
In this experiment the input pulse was a rec-
tangular pulse: i.e., f(t) = 0 for t < 0 and t >
td; f(t) = fo for 0 < t < td. The width of the
pulse is td and fo is a constant. It is the height of
the pulse. For such an input C = fo (sin (ota) )/w
and D = fo (cos ((td) 1) /O.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Fig. 1 is a schematic representation of the ap-
paratus used. Water from a cold tap was fed to
the stirred vessels at a constant rate, Fw, via a
rotameter. Fluctuation in this stream was kept
to a minimum during the experimental run. The
input signal was a rectangular pulse of concen-
trated salt solution. This was injected directly into
the first stirred vessel. The salt solution was de-
livered by a syringe pump at a constant rate F,.
To generate the rectangular pulse the pump dis-
charge was intercepted and diverted away from


Stirred Vessels
FIGURE 1. Apparatus for pulse testing of stirred vessels.


the stirred vessels for t < 0 and t > td. This way
a very sharp rectangular pulse of accurately con-
trolled width was produced.
The salt concentration in the outlet was con-
tinuously monitored by a conductivity cell in the
final stirred vessel. This cell was connected to an
autobalance bridge (Wayne Kerr Universal
Bridge B642). The analogue output from the
bridge was sent to a digital voltmeter. Its digital
output was in turn fed to a microcomputer (Com-
modore Pet 3008) using an IEEE interface.
The stirred vessels were 1000 c.c. plastic beak-
ers. The flow rate of water was kept constant at
approximately 160 c.c. per minute giving a resi-
dence time of about 6.25 minutes per vessel. The
flow rate of the concentrated salt solution was
much smaller than Fw, with a typical value of 9 c.c.
per minute. The concentration of the salt solution
depends on the sensitivity of the conductivity
measurement. It should be sufficiently concen-
trated so that a distinct output signal could be de-
tected. On the other hand, for ease of converting
conductivity readings in mhos into concentration
in gm. per c.c., the maximum output signal should
stay within the linear range of the conductivity
vs concentration calibration curve. A suitable con-
centration can be established by a test run. For this
experiment a salt solution of 0.16 gm. per c.c. was
used. This together with Fw = 160 c.c. per minute
and F, = 9 c.c. per minute gave a pulse height fo =
8.5 X 10-3 gm. per c.c.
The choice of input pulse width, td, depends
very much on the time constants of the process
under investigation. Luyben recommended, as a
rule of thumb, that the pulse width should not ex-
ceed one half of the smallest time constant in the
process. In this experiment pulse widths between
three to four minutes were used.

COMPUTER PROGRAMS
There are two main programs associated with
this experiment. The first program is a short real-
time program which directs the computer to obtain
from the IEEE interface the conductivity read-
ing. Sampling intervals between 20 to 30 seconds
were used. These sampling frequencies can be
achieved with a program written in Basic or simi-


SPRING 1984









lar high level languages. This program was started
simultaneously with the injection of the pulse of
salt solution. During the experimental run data
collected were stored as an array in the computer
memory. For a typical run lasting about two
hours a 1 X 400 array would be needed. This is
within the capacity of most microcomputers. At
the end of the run these data were transferred
to a cassette tape for subsequent processing. The
run was terminated when the conductivity of the
outlet returned to that of pure tap water. Other
data transferred to the tape were Fw,F,,td, concen-
tration of salt solution used, sampling interval
used and slope and intercept of the linear calibra-
tion curve.
The second program reads the data from the
tape and performs the computation for A, B, C, D,
A.R. and ) according to the expressions derived
above for each co entered from the keyboard. To
get A and B from the measured output h (t)
numerical integration has to be carried out. This
was done by the trapezoidal rule. The sampling
interval was also used as the interval for the trape-
zoidal rule. Interpolation between sampling points
was tried out to test the accuracy of the numerical
integration. This is particularly important for
large om.

RESULTS
The Bode diagrams derived from two experi-
mental runs are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 2 is
for a single stirred vessel (volume = 955 c.c.,
Fw = 160 c.c. per minute). Fig. 3 is for two stirred
vessels in series (volumes = 970 c.c. and 990 c.c.,
Fw = 160 c.c. per minute).
From the asymptotes of the Bode diagrams it is

1.0 0






-60



T
0.1 I 1 -100
10-4 0-,3 10-2 i0-I
SradLans/second
FIGURE 2. Bode diagram for single stirred vessel.


oo0.o *--- = _\\\ -

0.5 *
0.3
..2



.o3
.02 1

o10-s5 14 10-3
0 radians/second
FIGURE 3. Bode diagram for two stirred vessels in series.

clear that the single stirred vessel behaved as a
first order process with G (s) = 1/ (6.3s + 1). The
two vessels in series behaved as a second order pro-
cess with G (s) = 1/ (6.2s + 1)2. s is in reciprocal
minutes. The value of the time constants are in
good agreement with the theoretical values given
by volume divided by the flow rate.
In the calculation of A.R. and 4), results showed
random scatter when eo > 2 radians per minute.
This is to be expected. For a pulse width of 3 to 4
minutes the "frequency content" for ea > 27r/td z
1.5 radians per minute becomes very small leading
to unacceptably small signal to noise ratio. The
upper limit of eo can be extended by reducing the
width of the pulse.

DISCUSSION
The microcomputer performed very satis-
factorily as a transfer function analyzer. The pulse
tests have successfully determined the transfer
functions of the stirred vessels. The most at-
tractive feature of this experiment is that it il-
lustrates clearly every stage of the working of
pulse testing.
If time permits, students should be encouraged
to find out for themselves the proper choice of
pulse height, pulse width, sampling frequency etc.
as these are crucial to the success of pulse testing.
They should also be given the opportunity to
analyse and, if necessary, modify the programs
used in the experiment. This would serve to re-
move any feeling of "black box" for the transfer
function analyzer.
The same apparatus can also be used to per-
form step tests. For such a test the stirred vessels
are filled with salt solution. At t = 0 the tap water
feed is turned on. The salt concentration of the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








outlet is again monitored. Curve fitting techniques
can then be used to obtain the time constants. At
the University of Edinburgh step tests and pulse
tests on various arrangements of stirred vessels
were carried out by students as a laboratory
project lasting for a week. In addition they were
required to construct the conductivity-concentra-
tion calibration curve. This was again carried out
with the aid of the microcomputer. The project
proved to be a very effective tool for illustrating
the principles of process dynamics in general and
the dynamics of stirred vessels in particular. OE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to thank Alan Ewan,
Richard Vamos, Michael Geddes and Hugh Sam-
son, undergraduates of the University of Edin-
burgh, for their help in developing this experi-
ment. The results in Figures 2 and 3 were ob-
tained by Messrs Geddes and Samson.

REFERENCES
1. Luyben, W. L., Process Modeling, Simulation, and
Control for Chemical Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New
York (1973).


SIMULATION AND MODELLING
Continued from page 63.
tions), thermodynamics, heat, mass and mo-
mentum transfer, as well as computer pro-
gramming. It is possible to exert some control on
the background in many topic areas, but in some
key subjects (such as programming) the back-
ground varies widely among the students. These
students have usually followed the prerequisite
courses at other military colleges before trans-
ferring to RMC for their final two years. It is
therefore unavoidable that some precious time has
to be spent in bringing all the students up to the
same level.
One handicap is in the lack of good textbooks.
Presently, Mickley, Sherwood and Reed [1] is used
for the modelling part, and Daniels [2] is used as a
reference for the optimization part. The need for
more recent textbooks, especially in modelling, is
obvious, and a search for them is always under
way.
On the positive side, the small size of the
classes (twenty students) is a real asset; the
course can be more tutorial in nature and more
time can be devoted to each individual. Assessment
of the students can be performed more often, with


three quizzes and a final 3-hour exam in addition
to the assignments and projects. The performance
of each student can be monitored closely and prob-
lems cured soon after they show up.
The course is considered as a dynamic pro-
cess, where improvements are continuously
sought and made. Currently, more simulation
problems are needed in order to cover the spectrum
of chemical processes and of systems suitable for
simulation. It is necessary to expand the course to
include economical models within the mathemati-
cal models of the processes. Finally, as RMC is
about to acquire a new and more powerful com-
puter, it is expected that the limitations imposed
by our present computer will vanish and that more
interesting simulation/optimization problems can
be solved by the students in a more efficient
manner.

CONCLUSIONS
The present simulation/optimization course
taught at RMC is the result of rapid evolution over
several years. Divided into four main parts (op-
timization, simulation, differential equations
solutions and mathematical modelling), the course
emphasizes the effective writing of differential
equations in order to simulate chemical processes
or physical systems and the solution of these
mathematical equations either analytically or
numerically.
Simulation of the systems in steady state
allows the prediction of the properties of that
system as a function of the value of the various
control or design parameters, which can be op-
timized using suitable optimization techniques.
This permits the effective design of chemical pro-
cesses to meet the needs of industry or the armed
forces particularly.
Although the course is satisfactory for the
moment, the staff wishes to make further improve-
ments. Better text books and a greater variety of
simulation problems are needed. Hopefully this
presentation will bring comments, criticisms and
suggestions from readers with relevant ex-
periences. D

REFERENCES
1. Mickley, H. S., T. K. Sherwood, and C. E. Reed,
Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957.
2. Daniels, R. W., An Introduction to Numerical
Methods and Optimization Techniques, North Holland,
New York, 1978.


SPRING 1984









views and opinions


HOW MUCH SAFETY DO WE NEED

IN ChE EDUCATION?

JAN MEWIS
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
B-3030 Leuven, Belgium


T TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES ARE not only dictated
by progress in science and engineering, but
also by shifts in external conditions. This can be
illustrated by the impact of oil prices on process
design and by the limitations imposed on tech-
nology by society. Engineering education is
supposed to keep track of technological innova-
tions and even to anticipate them. However,
changes in external conditions affect research
more than education. It could be argued that the
use of new engineering principles was not required
and consequently that new courses were unneces-
sary. Can conventional chemical engineering
handle the requirements imposed by society
through the various authorities ?
The two major areas which are of great
concern to society are ecology and safety. Ecology
entered engineering education both as a new cur-
riculum and as a separate course in existing pro-
grams where there was a need for solving some
environmental problems. Also, the scope of the
problem made specialization possible and useful.
The second area, safety, hardly affected the
academic world, with the possible exception of
nuclear engineering. Nevertheless, safety con-
siderations play an important role in making a
number of vital decisions in the chemical industry.
Examples are plant location and layout, feasibility
studies, process selection, and design. In all of
these areas the safety aspect does more nowadays
than just change the boundary conditions or the

... it was felt that the essential
elements could hardly be developed into
a course of academic level ... it was concluded that
on-the-job training was indicated. Recently the
situation has evolved somewhat... and safety
engineering programs were introduced.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


Jan Mewis graduated and received a PhD in chemical engineering
from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). He worked for
five years as an assistant-director in an industrial research laboratory
before returning to the K. U. Leuven to join the faculty. He spent a
semester as visiting professor at the University of Delaware (1981) and
at Princeton (1982). His research interests are in rheology and more re-
cently in risk analysis.

optimum process parameters. The question arises
whether chemical engineering students should be
confronted with safety problems.
Until recently there seemed to be no need to
introduce formal safety courses. It was felt that
the topic did not essentially alter usual chemical
engineering practices. Admittedly the practicing
chemical engineer should know about safety, but
it was felt that the essential elements could hardly
be developed into a course of academic level.
Therefore it was concluded that on-the-job train-
ing was indicated. Recently the situation has
evolved somewhat, especially in Europe, and safety
engineering programs were introduced in
countries such as the U.K., GFR, Holland and
Belgium. In Leuven we have had, for several years
now, a safety engineering program and a safety
course for chemical engineering students. The
latter will be discussed here.

MOTIVATION
Various topics can be covered by the term
"safety." Therefore our subject should first be


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


!


WSV3S








specified more accurately. In its most restricted
meaning, it refers to the prevention of accidents to
employees and to the protection of their health.
More specific terms for this are occupational
safety, accident prevention, or internal safety.
The latter is used in opposition to "external
safety," which refers to public hazards caused by
industrial activity. The difference between in-
ternal and external safety is important for regula-
tory purposes. The same methods are often used
to solve problems in both fields. Finally, one could
also concentrate on the prevention of losses to the
plant (loss prevention). For the present purpose,
the term "safety" will be used in its broadest sense,
covering all the previous domains.
The motivation of the course is based on some
changes which have taken place in the approach
to industrial hazards. Traditionally, experience
provided the main basis for assessing and dealing
with risks. One more or less waited until an acci-
dent occurred before measures were taken; the
"dog was allowed its first bite." Safety measures
often consisted of adding safety devices to the
plant or providing suitable protective equipment
for its people. The resulting level of safety was
reasonable, but the whole approach lacked a
rationale. In addition, it could not guarantee the
safety of new processes.
The growing public concern for the risks of
industrial activities triggered research in this area
and the appearance of new, potentially dangerous
technologies (nuclear energy, space programs) ac-
celerated the trend. Research, which is still going
on, encompasses divergent disciplines; its results
have already drastically changed the approach to
safety. The empirical assessment of hazards has
been replaced by a number of prognostic methods
for risk analysis. A final solution has not been
found yet, but the available techniques are steadily
improving and are increasingly applied in in-
dustry. The occurrence and evolution of accidents
are now better understood, and this leads to the
introduction of more general prevention strate-
gies.
The rational approach to safety also confirmed
that safety is not a separate part of a design
which can be added on afterwards. It is inter-
twined with the whole design operation and should
be taken into consideration when various decisions
are made along the way. It should not be con-
cluded that accident prevention is a purely techni-
cal matter. A systems approach clearly shows the
need for organizational measures to guarantee the


The motivation ... is based on some changes
which have taken place in the approach to industrial
hazards. Traditionally, experience provided the
main masis for ... dealing with risks.

proper functioning of man in the global system.
This result has important repercussions. Among
other things it places more responsibility on
people who design and run plants. In a growing
number of countries the responsibility of engineers
and managers for industrial accidents is now ex-
plicitly specified by law.
Reviewing the present situation, one can detect
a clear trend towards a situation where
* Young chemical engineers have to take safety con-
siderations into account in their daily work, whether it
is in production, development or design
* Safety engineering is developing into a separate dis-
cipline, with its own specific concepts and its own
methodology
* Chemical engineers carry a larger responsibility in
safety matters.
These conclusions point to a necessity for some
kind of safety training. The genesis of a separate
discipline makes its incorporation into the engi-
neering curriculum appropriate; the funda-
mentals of any science are more efficiently taught
in college than on the job. Furthermore, safety
engineering has definitely reached a level that is
suitable for an academic course.
The introduction of such a course offers ad-
ditional educational opportunities which go
beyond the course subject. They are associated
with the interdisciplinary nature of safety. A
safety course exposes engineering students to
concepts, methods, and arguments from outside
the realm of natural sciences. At the same time
students are made aware of the nontechnical
consequences of industrial activities. These ex-
periences can compensate the linear and sometimes
naive way of thinking about nontechnical matters
which engineering students often develop. Finally,
on a purely technical level, such a course requires
the application of chemical engineering principles
in a synthetic and integrated fashion which is
often lacking in other courses.

AIM AND GENERAL OBJECTIVES
In principle, a safety course is aimed at pro-
viding the future chemical engineer with the
necessary tools to cope with safety problems in
his industrial environment. He therefore should
be able to detect, assess, and counteract hazards


SPRING 1984








in the design and operation of chemical plants.
The risks refer to the safety and health of people
inside and outside the plant and to the integrity
and functioning of the plant itself.
The subject covers a vast area that includes
elements from various disciplines. The usual pit-
falls of such a situation should be avoided. In
particular, the course should not be reduced to a
mere compilation of concepts where the higher
levels of learning are completely overlooked. This
procedure would strip the course of most of its
educational value. The aim of the general course
objectives should reflect the necessary balance be-
tween covering a lot of ground and an in-depth
analysis. This still leaves room for various alter-
natives. Only a basic set of general objectives is
discussed here. Specific didactical objectives would
depend too much on the other elements of the cur-
riculum.
First, a proper attitude towards risk and safety
is of paramount importance and should be stated
as a specific goal
1) A chemical engineer should be aware of the
existence of hazards and of his responsibility in
this respect.
This is not a professional ethics course but
students should realize their involvement with
hazards. Rather than ignoring this factor, they
should realize that some kind of rational approach
is necessary. Awareness should entail motivation
as a natural consequence.
The objectives in the cognitive domain take
into account the points raised earlier. The lowest
meaningful level of knowledge about general
principles is incorporated in the second objective
2) A chemical engineer should know the basic con-
cepts and principles of safety engineering in
order to apply them in chemical engineering
practice and to use the available literature
efficiently.
This statement is less trivial than it may look.
It presupposes the existence of a useful general
approach, a fact which is often ignored by engi-
neers even when they do safety work. Further, it
assumes that sufficient concepts and methods can
be taught and learned in a single course. This
question will be reconsidered later.
The general concepts and methods of safety
engineering can be applied to the process industry,
even though it is characterized by problems for
which specific techniques are being developed.
These problems should be incorporated because
they have a direct bearing on chemical engineering
work and also because they cannot be handled by


safety experts with a different background. As a
result a third general objective is formulated
3) A chemical engineer should be able to recognize,
assess, and remedy specific risks occurring in
chemical plants.
Since the general aim has now been divided
in three main themes, the course answers the ex-
pectations and possibilities discussed under "Moti-
vation."

GENERAL COURSE OUTLINE
As mentioned earlier, no detailed set of didacti-
cal objectives will be discussed. Instead attention
will be concentrated on the feasibility of ade-
quately covering the three given themes during a
single course. Obviously some difficulties are en-
countered, and compromises must be made.
Nevertheless, experience indicates that the goal
can be achieved.
In a chronological order the development of a
suitable attitude towards safety and towards the
course comes first. Group discussions provide the
necessary tools for this. Using statistical evidence
a number of questions can be considered: How
hazardous are industrial activities in general and
the process industry in particular? How do these
risks compare with other risks we take? What is
the level of acceptable risk? Why should we bother
about safety? The resulting discussions not only
contribute to attitude development, but they also
lead to definitions of concepts such as hazard, risk,
objective against subjective risk, risk perception,
and acceptable risk.
The next step is motivated by the need to
tackle safety problems in a systematic and scien-
tific manner. Considering the available amount of
time, only a limited number of safety engineer-
ing topics [2] can be covered. The system dynamics
approach can be considered to be the most im-
portant feature. It is used as a starting point in
every further analysis. It guarantees that all ele-
ments are systematically covered (man, machine,
material, and environmental conditions). Perhaps
for the first time the students are confronted with
a science where not the machine, but man and
his environment, are central. Later on it will put
the organizational prevention measures into per-
spective.
Another essential topic of safety engineering
is found in the analysis of accidents and in the
general strategy for protective measures. An
accident should be approached as a dynamic pro-
cess which evolves through a series of simul-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Although a complete methodology is still lacking,
the process industry has at its disposal an extensive
set of methods and techniques. Students should be
taught the different elements of risk analysis.

taneous and consecutive events. The analysis pro-
vides a means for searching systematically for
sources of risks. Similarly, a taxonomy of tech-
niques for risk reduction can be developed. The
general strategies will be further applied in the
last part of the course, which deals with the spe-
cific aspects of the process industry.
The discussion of general safety engineering
principles is also used to stress the interdisciplin-
ary nature of safety. By means of the system dy-
namics approach, the relevance of various dis-
ciplines, including the human sciences, can be
made clear. It is easy to demonstrate that ignoring
this complexity will definitely lead to inadequate
safety policies. The need for different engineering
disciplines can be demonstrated again in the last
part of the course (the Flixborough disaster [3]
provides a dramatic illustration for this problem).
The middle section of the course is also the natural
choice for mentioning legal aspects.
When the general strategy is applied to the
process industries some specific problems arise.
They are mainly related to the presence of
hazardous materials and to the complexity of such
plants. The specific problems can easily fill a 2-
semester course [3]. Therefore the selection of
relevant topics should be very discriminating.
Starting from the general objectives, three major
areas have been included in the program at
Leuven. Except for illustrating the specific safety
aspects of chemical plants, the chosen topics offer
the opportunity to apply the general principles and
strategies. These topics are
* Risk analysis
* Dealing with hazardous materials
* Technical methods in loss prevention
A good understanding of how to assess the
safety of a design or of an existing process is ob-
viously an essential requirement in a safety pro-
gram. Although a complete methodology is still
lacking, the process industry has at its disposal an
extensive set of methods and techniques. The
students should be taught the different elements
of risk analysis. This includes a qualitative step
(inventory of possible accidents) and a quantita-
tive step (frequency and size of possible acci-
dents). The students should be able to select suit-
able methods in each stage of a project and realize


the limitations of the methods used. In our course
we particularly stress Hazard and Operability
Studies [4], Fault Free Analysis [5], and Effect
Calculations (calculation of the possible effects of
fires, explosions and releases of toxic products)
[6].
The presence of hazardous materials can be
dealt with according to the general principles and
strategies of safety engineering. However, ad-
ditional knowledge is required to systematically
investigate the intrinsic material hazards (tox-
icity, flammability, and reactivity). Special
emphasis is put on the use of material properties
and hazard indices where the use of non-technical
data, i.e. toxicity parameters, must be introduced.
This kind of information surfaces in risk analysis
and in the prevention methods.
The final section covers the technical aspects of
loss prevention in the process industries. The skills
in applying the general strategy can be further de-
veloped here. The typical hazards (overpressuriz-
ing, overheating, material escape) will arise
automatically. This offers an opportunity to dis-
cuss their prevention, including the corresponding
control and safety devices. Two points should be
made very clear: First, safety considerations can
affect the basic aspects of a project (selection of
the site, lay-out, process, raw materials and inter-
mediates, reactor type, etc.), and second, the
optimal design and selection of safety devices is
based on the same chemical engineering principles
as the process development itself. It requires at
least the same degree of sophistication in model-
ling (e.g. temperature or pressure changes under
deviations from normal process conditions). This
point is important because students often think
that safety is a second rate activity for engineers.

COURSE IMPLEMENTATION
A large variety of didactical methods can be
used. Group discussions (attitude development
and motivation), formal teaching (e.g. for con-
cept learning in the general part), individual and
group work (e.g. skill development in applying
the methodology), all have their place.
Experience shows that a one-semester course
provides sufficient time to cover the topics dis-
cussed above. The basic elements of safety and loss
prevention can then be treated in such a way that
the various levels of learning are included. The
section on risk analysis involves complex inductive
and deductive thinking processes.
At Leuven the course is offered as optional and


SPRING 1984









is taken by more than 80% of the chemical engi-
neering students. The group discussions on risk
start from the students' own perception of risk and
hazard. This is compared with objective, statisti-
cal evidence. In the next step, industry-related
risks are compared with other risks. The problems
of acceptable risk and risk assessment are intro-
duced here.
The first part poses no problems in practice
except for controlling and ending the discussions!
The next part, on general safety engineering, con-
centrates on concepts and general methodology.
The danger of becoming too abstract can be over-
come by the use of specific accidents as examples
and exercises (e.g. transport accident, overheating
of a stirred tank reactor). An introductory
example for the assessment of safety devices is
given in an addendum.
About two thirds of the course is devoted to
the specific aspects of chemical plants. More than
in most courses, a critical attitude towards the
methods used is important in safety. Limitations
and drawbacks are discussed with each method.
Most applications are open-ended problems and
creativity is often required. Hence, high level
learning is possible. Class problems have to be se-
lected carefully since the students do not have
knowledge of a plant's technical features. It is
interesting to challenge the students to find the
weak spots in accidents that really occurred. When
presented with cases such as Flixborough or
Seveso, they succeed in pinpointing the problems.
Safety might still be an unusual component of
the chemical engineering curriculum but there is
a growing need to cover the topic, and ex-
perience indicates that a valuable and attractive
course can be set up. It features many nontechnical
elements which increasingly affect engineering
practice. The knowledge and skills which are
taught here are also required in normal engineer-
ing and management functions. This contributes
further to the usefulness of the course.
ADDENDUM: EXAMPLE
This simple example illustrates
The general procedure for assessing the use of pro-
tective systems
How to take into account human reliability
Kletz [7] discusses a situation in which a tank
had to be filled daily. The hazard of overfill was
avoided by the operator who watched the level of
fluid and stopped the pump at the right moment.
After a few years an accidental overfill occurred
because of human error. It was decided to install


a high level trip, which essentially replaced the
operator as a protective device. It was tested
monthly to improve its reliability, but within the
year another overfill occurred.
The theory for simple protective devices pro-
vides an expression for the hazard rate (H) of
the process
H = f(1-e-DT/2)
where f = failure rate of the protective
system
D = rate at which the protective device
is commanded to operate
T = time length between controls of the
protective device.
An operator of a task as described above is
generally attributed a failure rate of 10-3 per oc-
casion. Assuming 250 fillings a year the tank will
be overfilled on the average every 4 years
H = 0.25 year-1
A trip has a failure rate of f = 0.5 year-'.
With a monthly testing (T = 0.1 year) and a
demand of rate of 250 year-1 the given formula
predicts
H f = 0.5 year-'
As empirically verified, the trip could bh ex-
pected to be less reliable than the operator, at least
in cases as discussed here. The monthly control
could not reduce the hazard rate because of the
high demand rate. The probability of detecting a
failure of the trip before it is required to function
is negligible. Much more reliable devices are re-
quired if an occasional overflow is to be avoided.
The theory can be extended to include multiple
safety devices. Theory and examples can be found
in Ref. [3]. D
LITERATURE
1. T. A. Kletz, Chemical Engineering in a Changing
World, W. T. Koetsier ed., Elsevier Amsterdam 1976,
p. 397.
2. A. Kuhlmann, Einfiihrung in die Sicherheitswissen-
schaft, Vieweg, Wiesbaden 1981.
3. F. P. Lees, Loss Prevention in the Process Industries,
2 vol., Butterworths, London 1978.
4. Anon., A Guide to Hazard and Operability Studies,
CIA, London 1977.
5. J. B. Fussel, Generic Techniques in System Re-
biability Assessment, E. J. Henley and J. W. Lynn
eds., Noordhoff Publ. Co., Leyden 1975.
6. Anon, "Methods for the calculation of physical effects
of the escape of dangerous materials," Ministry of
Social Affairs, The Hague 1980.
7. T. A. Kletz, Chem. Eng. Progr., 74(10), 47, 1978.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











Ynt Meamo'am




Ted Vermeulen


Chemical Engineering Professor Theodore
Vermeulen died October 28, 1983, of complications
resulting from Leukemia. He was 67.
He kept up work and friendships to the last,
"proceeding full-blast when leukemia struck," ac-
cording to a friend. His sister recalls Vermeulen
dictating a letter to a former student a week before
his death.
Vermeulen graduated with honors from the
California Institute of Technology, where he was
editor of the Cal Tech Yearbook and a member of
Tau Beta Pi honor society. He obtained a master's
degree in chemical engineering at Cal Tech and
the first doctorate bestowed in chemistry at UCLA.
During World War II, he worked for the
government at Shell Oil Co. in Emeryville and San
Francisco in synthetics development. In February
1947 he was appointed to set up UC's chemical
engineering department.
His wife says Vermeulen never meant to enter
academia. Working at Shell, he had already
turned down one university offer when he received
a call from Wendell Latimer; "The job at Berkeley
was a particular challenge. To develop a curricu-
lum and faculty-it was something he couldn't
resist."
Chemical Engineering Professor Donald
Hanson said Vermeulen was vital in developing
the department's atmosphere: "It was very con-
vivial, very friendly. Small. I think, starting out
that way, it remained that way." Chemical Engi-
neering Department Chairman Alexis Bell agrees:
"The spirit of collegiality which [Vermeulen]
helped develop in our department continues to be
one of our unique characteristics." Vermeulen
fought to keep the department in the College of
Chemistry despite pressure from the College of
Engineering to move it there.
The prodigious quality as well as quantity of
his work was well-recognized. The author of many
professional papers and the chapter on absorption
and ion exchanges in Perry's Handbook for Chemi-


cal Engineers, Dr. Vermeulen was the 1971 winner
of AIChE's William H. Walker Award for out-
standing research. He was a Fulbright Scholar in
Belgium and France in 1953-54, and was a
Guggenheim Fellow at Cambridge in 1964. In 1981
he was invited to lecture in China. He gave the an-
nual Chemical Engineering Division Lectureship
for the American Society for Engineering Educa-
tion in 1978.
In a recent UC sketch of the chemical engineer-
ing department, Dr. Vermeulen noted it was his
objective to build "bridges between theory and
practice, bridges toward better understanding,
bridges between chemical engineering and other
areas of pure and applied science and with societal
needs."
Although his most recent work focused on new
methods for coal liquefaction, Dr. Vermeulin was
credited with improving processes to desalinate
and purify water.
College Dean C. Judson King, a chemical en-
gineering professor for 21 years and a close friend
of Vermeulen's, calls him "really the founder of
the department. His research and scholarship
pioneered and led the analysis and development
of ion exchange and adsorption processes. He also
established and explained the ways in which axial
dispersion so substantially affects a number of im-
portant separation processes.... But we who knew
him best will remember him most as a warm,
giving, and extremely helpful person . an ex-
cellent and close friend . a willing and know-
ledgeable counselor. He genuinely cared for others,
sensed their needs, and did his utmost to provide
positive assistance to them."
He is survived by his wife of 44 years, Mary
Dee Cole; two sons, Ray and Bruce; his father,
Aurele; a sister, Lydiane, and three grandchildren.


SPRING 1984









laboratory


METALS SEPARATION BY LIQUID EXTRACTION


G. MALMARY, J. MOLINIER,
G. MANKOWSKI AND J. LENZI
Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie,
Toulouse, France

SEPARATION PROCESSES HAVE long been an
integral part of chemical engineering educa-
tion. For a few years now, a pilot scale study has
been proposed to the graduating students of the
Ecole Nationale Sup6rieure de Chimie (E.N.S.C.
T.). The aim of this project was to give the
students some knowledge of the experimental
techniques used in industrial chemistry. More-
over, it appeared that this was an opportunity for
students to apply and study more completely the
chemical engineering course work which they had
been taught during their studies.
We present here one theme that is explored
during thirty periods of eight hours spread over
ten weeks by a group of two students. This theme
deals with the study of the separation of copper
from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solu-
tion by liquid extraction with triisooctylamine
solvent (TIOA).
These metals are to be found at low concentra-
tions in nickel ore leach liquors from the HC1
leaching process. The present work may be con-
sidered as the study of the recovery and the sepa-
ration of these metals from such chloride leach
liquors. Because of its cost nickel chloride was re-
placed, in our experiments, by sodium chloride.
This substitution does not affect the copper and
cobalt extraction because neither nickel nor
sodium are extracted by the solvent.
This education project includes two main
parts: literature research into separation process


This education project includes
two main parts: literature research into
separation process of these metals and experiments
carried out in the pilot plant.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


of these metals and experiments carried out in
the pilot plant.

LITERATURE RESEARCH INTO
SEPARATION PROCESS
With regard to literature, a few solvents have
been reported to be available to extract cobalt or
copper [1-5], but it seems that triisooctylamine is
the only extractant that can selectively separate
copper and cobalt from nickel. Therefore, this sol-
vent has been chosen for the pilot experiments.
Because of its viscosity, the extractant is diluted
in a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons called
SOLVESSO 100 [1].
Copper and cobalt are extracted by TIOA
hydrochloride in the form of MCl-tetrahedral
complexes according to the following mechanism
+ + +
organic R3HN (MC) NHR + 2C MC2- + 2(R NH, CI)
Interface --------------------------------- ----------------
aqueous M(H20)6 2CI + 2(Cl ,Na+) MC14 2Na + 6 H20
phase
M = Cu, Co.
As the mechanism is the same for copper and
cobalt, their relative ease of extraction is deter-
mined only by the differences in the stability of the
metals' tetrahedral complexes and the speed of the
transformation of the initial octahedral com-
plexes into tetrahedral complexes. Copper, cobalt
and nickel belong to the first transition series, and
the partial filling of their d orbitals grants them
special properties as to octehedral and tetrahedral
complex formation. Cobalt has the smallest crystal
field splitting energy before it can change from
octahedral to tetrahedral symmetry [6]; copper
and nickel follow in increasing order. Nickel has
a high ligand field stabilization energy, so that
this element is difficult to extract, as the tetra-
hedral complex cannot be easily formed.
Though the theoretical ligand field stabiliza-
tion energy of copper between its octahedral and
tetrahedral symmetries is higher than that of co-
balt, the important distortion due to the Jahn-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Teller effect in the octahedral symmetry causes
the copper to adopt a distorted tetrahedral sym-
metry [6]. For a given concentration of chloride in
a solution, the copper tetrahedral complex is
formed more easily than that of cobalt, so copper
is extracted more efficiently. Hence, the three
metals lie in the following order as to their ca-
pacity to form a tetrahedral complex

Ni2 < < Co2+ < Cu2+

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON
THE PILOT PLANT

The main part of the extraction unit was a
MORRIS pilot extractor [7] (Fig. 1) in which the
counter-current flow of the two phases takes place
without separation into two layers at each stage.
This apparatus works on the spray-column princi-
ple with only one coalescence interface; each vessel
in which the counter-current flow takes place is
included between two agitated vessels fitted with
flat-bladed impellers. The cellular structure of
this extractor makes it possible to increase or de-
crease the number of stages. Furthermore, the
feed position can be easily changed, therefore
modifying the proportion between the extracting
and the stripping stages. The feed (dispersed
phase) was an aqueous solution containing 1 gpl
each of copper and cobalt. The solvent (continuous


G. Malmary graduated from Institut du Genie Chimique de TOU-
LOUSE in 1962 and received his doctorate in chemical engineering
from Sabatier University of Toulouse in 1973. He is a research engi-
neer at the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse. His
major research interests are mass transfer operations. (L)
J. Molinier graduated from Institut du Genie Chimique de TOU-
LOUSE in 1967, and was awarded Docteur-Ingenieur degree in 1970
and Docteur es-Sciences degree in 1976, while working at the Institut
du Genie Chimique de Toulouse on liquid-liquid mass transfer. At
present he is professor of chemical engineering at the Ecole Nationale
Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse. His interests are concerned with
process development and pilot plant investigation. (LC)
G. Mankowski obtained the chemical engineer diploma from Ecole


This type of apparatus is
well adapted for the study of the
influence of various parameters such as
solvent ratio, feed location, total flows, agitation
speed and others on the extration process.


MORRIS EXTRACTOR


i.coalescence-interface. a:impeller m:variable speed motors

FIGURE 1

phase) was 0.3 N TIOA hydrochloride in Solvesso
100. The chloride level is adjusted in aqueous solu-
tion by addition of sodium chloride. The stripping-
feed was an aqueous solution of sodium chloride.
An experimental approach has shown that eleven
stages are necessary in the extracting section and
only four stages in the stripping section.
According to previous laboratory experiments,
two chloride concentrations seemed of interest for
















National Superieure de Chimie of TOULOUSE in 1972, and since
then he has taught chemical engineering in the same school. He works
in the Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy of ENSCT on studies relating
to stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion of titatium and
zirconium alloys. (RC)
J. Lenzi received her engineer degree from Ecole Nationale Su-
perieure de Chimie de PARIS and her Doctorat es Sciences Physiques
from Paris University and taught practical organic chemistry there.
She is now a maitre-assistant of practical industrial chemistry and
chemical engineering at Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de
Toulouse. Her research interest is heterogeneous catalysis with empha-
sis on the relation between structure and activity of catalysts, dehydro-
genation, and kinetics. (R)


SPRING 1984









the separation of the metals: at a 2M concentra-
tion in chloride, the cobalt is very little extracted
while the extraction of copper is important; on the
other hand, at a 3.5 M concentration in chloride
the extraction of copper is almost complete and
the cobalt is purer than in the preceding case.
Table 1 shows examples of runs carried out on
the MORRIS pilot extractor. The results obtained
regarding the yields and purities of copper and
cobalt become more satisfactory with different
chloride levels in the extracting and stripping
sections. Table 2 points out the effect of agitation
speed on the efficiency of the apparatus.
Method of chemical analysis: The concentra-
tions of cobalt and copper in the extract are de-
termined by spectrophotometry in the visible
spectrum. The concentrations in the raffinate
phase are determined by the same analytical
method after a complete preextraction of metals
by TIOA.

CONCLUSIONS

The selective extraction of copper and cobalt
by triisooctylamine using an extraction unit com-

TABLE 1
Results of experiments with different chloride
concentrations in extracting and stripping sections.

EXPERIMENT 1 2 3

Feed flow rate,
F + SF (1/h) 2.30 2.18 2.79
Stripping feed
flow rate, SF (1/h) 1.06 1.11 1.11
Extractant flow
rate, E(1/h) 2.18 2.60 3.10
E/(F + SF) 0.96 1.19 1.11
E/SF 2.05 2.33 2.78
Cl- in extracting
section (mol/1) 3.5 3.5 3.5
Cl- in stripping
section (mol/1) 3.5(3.5)* 2.5(4)* 2.0(5)*
Raffinate:
Cu (g/1) 0.002 0.0005 0.0005
Co (g/1) 0.50 0.49 0.58
Co/Cu 250 980 [160
Yield in Co (%) 91 99 99.5
Extract:
Cu (g1l) 0.72 0.42 0.52
Co (g/1) 0.047 0.0036 0.0035
Cu/Co 15 115 150
Yield in Cu (%) 100 100 100


F-Feed; SF-Stripping feed; (
in the feed


)* chloride concentration


TABLE 2
Influence of agitation speed on separation of copper
from cobalt by solvent extraction. The experimental
conditions are those of experiment 3 in Table 1.

EXPERIMENT 1 2 3 4


Agitation speed
in extracting
section (rev/min)
Agitation speed
in stripping
section (rev/min)
Raffinate
Cu (g/1)
Co (g/1)
Co/Cu
Yield in Co (%)
Extract
Cu (g/I)
Co (g/l)
Cu/Co
Yield in Cu (%)


500 600 750


500 600 750 950


0.0005
0.58
1160
99.5

0.52
0.0035
150
100


0.0004
0.58
1450
99.5

0.52
0.0030
175
100


0.0002
0.58
3000
100

0.52
0.0015
300
100


0.0002
0.58
3000
100

0.52
0.0010
500
100


posed of Morris extractors presents a problem of
great educational interest. This type of apparatus
is well adapted for the study of the influence of
various parameters such as solvent ratio, feed
location, total flows, agitation speed and others on
the extraction process. The results obtained from
the experiments carried out on the Morris device
can be used for the design of a large-scale equip-
ment. The color gradients (from green to yellow)
observed along the pilot unit give a particularly
significant representation of the concentration
profile in metals. Moreover, this type of liquid
system was an opportunity for students to study
the behavior of metal complexes.
Caution: The amine and aromatic contents in
the atmosphere must not exceed about 20 mg/in.
The vapors are continuously removed by means of
fans located near the apparatus. As a matter of
fact, amine because of its liposolubility may pene-
trate into the organism through the skin. If the
aromatic diluent contains benzene as an impurity,
the vapors are toxic since they can induce medul-
lary aplasia (chronic poisoning).

REFERENCES
1. P. J. Bailes, C. Hanson and M. A. Hughes, Chem. Eng.
30, 86, (1976).
2. R. N. Sharma and M. H. I. Baird, Can. J. Chem. Eng.
56, 310, (1978).
3. J. C. Merchuk, R. Shai and D. Wolf, Ind. Eng. Chem.
Process Des. Dev., 19, 91, (1980).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









i?, stirred pots


MASS TRANSFER TALKING' BLUES

R. R. HUDGINS
Waterloo University


Performers' Note: These blues were performed
at a pub with the author strumming an autoharp
accompanying colleague-actor Carl Gall before a
group of hapless Waterloo ChE students at their
most vulnerable moment, i.e., just before exams.
The dashes indicate points at which the performer
would manage the "pregnant pause," which is the
very essence of the talking' blues.
Hackin' thru the courses-in Chemical E.-
On my way-to the bach'lors degree-
Learned a lotta stuff-'bout chemistry-
And something' called-Transport Phenomeny.
Prof calls it Mass Transfer-
Sure don't have much of a ring to it.
Ploddin' thru the textbook-in Unit Ops-
An everlastin' course-without a stop-
Got a load o' problems 'n' no solution-
Couldn't solve 'em without a-lotta collusion.
Anyhow, Prof said known' where to FIND the
answer-
's a hesk of a lot more important than
knowing-
How to DO it.

4. A. S. Rappas and J. P. Pemska, U.S. Patent No. 4,
148, 816, (1979).
5. M. A. Hugues, Commercial Solvent Systems for Metals
Extraction, P. J. Bailes Ed., U.K., (1978).
6. F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic
Chemistry, Wiley-Interscience, London (1972).
7. W. H. Morris, "Apparatus for contacting a liquid with
a liquid or a particulate solid," U.K. Patent No. 885,
50, 3, (1961).

BOOK REVIEW: Polymerization
Continued from page 73.
Some of the theoretical treatment is compared
with results for some polymerization processes of
commercial importance, such as those for polysty-
rene and polyvinyl chloride. In Chapter Three the
authors consider the effects of mixing on the re-
action kinetics and the quality of product, while
in Chapter Four thermal effects are discussed. In


Sweatin' it out-until I drops-
But I'll never git the hang o' them-Unit Ops-
Gas Absorption, 'n'-Distillation-
Liquid Extraction 'n'-Humidification.
Prof uses a lotta big words in this course-
I used to think Transport Phenomena-
Was all about trucks.
Crunchin' out numbers on m' Texas Eight Four-
Leaves m' brain and m' fingers-just a little bit
sore-
Hoped by now to be-pretty proficient-
But I still can't do a-diffusion coewcient.

Not too worried-
Long as none o' m' buddies figures it out-
Before the final.
Hittin' the textbooks-till two or three-
Doin' ev'ry problem in Three One Three-
Cain't help feeling-there ought be-
A new mass transferless-Chemical E.

Human mind's too small for the like o' this-
Why can't they crunch it up-
An' give it in smaller doses?

Chapter Five, the authors turn their attention to
the coupling of flow and the extent of reaction.
This material applies not only to continuous
polymerization processes but to some of the newer
processes such as reaction injection molding and
reactive extrusion. Finally, in Chapter Six the
process of removing residual small-molecule sub-
stances such as unreacted monomer or reaction
products such as water is discussed. Additional
background material is given in the appendices,
such as polymerization chemistry, distribution
theory, thermodynamics, and chemical kinetics.
The last sections make the book nearly self-con-
tained.
The book is primarily theoretical in its content.
However, the mathematics and theory presented
are well within the grasp of most senior chemical
engineering students. The book could also be used


SPRING 1984








for first year graduate students. Most of the ma-
terial could be covered in a one semester course
but several topics would have to be eliminated if
the text were used in a one quarter course. The
text could also be adapted for use by chemistry
graduate students by using chapters one through
four.
Although the book is well written and the
presentation is well organized, it has several short-
comings. From a pedagogical viewpoint, the lack
of problem sets at the end of each chapter prevent
the book from being a complete teaching aid. It
would also be helpful if several case studies con-
cerned with actual processes were analyzed and
results were compared with data. This would serve
the purpose of illustrating the use of the theory
and at the same time show how good the theory is.
Finally, it would be useful if the theories were
analyzed critically so that one might know the
limits of the theory and where one can expect
deviations from the theory to occur.
In summary, the book is well written and one
of the first textbooks covering the topic of poly-
merization engineering. Although there are several
places where the book could be improved for teach-
ing purposes, the overall quality and thorough-
ness of the theoretical coverage make the book a
very good classroom aid. All we have to do now,
as chemical engineering educators, is to realize
that polymer science and engineering is not a
topic of secondary importance (even falling behind
the age old topic of distillation in many curricu-
lums) but one of equal importance with all other
topics in our curriculum. F

CATALYST MANUFACTURE: LABORATORY
AND COMMERCIAL PREPARATIONS
by Alvin B. Stiles, edited by Heinz Heinemann
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1983;
192 pages, $49.75

Reviewed by Charles G. Hill, Jr.
University of Wisconsin

This monograph constitutes a useful addition
to the literature dealing with heterogeneous
catalysts. The author indicates that "Catalyst
manufacture is probably the most secretive of all
business enterprises." While this book exposes
few, if any, industrial secrets, it does provide an
excellent overview of the unit operations, pro-
cedures and equipment used in successful practice
of the art of catalyst manufacture. Although de-
velopments in the past two decades have done


ONE HUNDRED YEARS OF ACADEMIC
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (1898-1988)
In 1888, Professor Lewis Mills Norton established Chemical
Engineering in MIT's Department of Chemistry. The Industrial
Engineering Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society
will celebrate the 100th anniversary of this event with a major
five-day symposium at the ACS meeting in Toronto, Canada, on
June 5-11, 1988. There will be sessions on the "History of Aca-
demic Chemical Engineering," "Educational Development," and
"Research in Universities." All chemical engineering depart-
ments are invited to participate in this joyous occasion by
appropriate contributions. Please express your interest to par-
ticipate, and offer assistance and ideas by writing to the
Chairman of the Symposium, Professor Nicholas A. Peppas,
School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West
Lafayette, IN 47907.


much to more firmly establish the scientific basis
of research in catalysis, our present state of
knowledge still contains large voids where a funda-
mental understanding of the molecular processes
involved in catalytic phenomena is lacking. Con-
siderable progress has been made, and books and
articles dealing with the general subject of a priori
design of commercially viable catalysts have even
appeared in the the literature (e.g. "Design of In-
dustrial Catalysts" by D. L. Trimm). Nonetheless,
many chemists and chemical engineers regard the
development of commercial catalysts as the last
bastion of alchemy. Stiles' discussions of several of
the unit operations involved in the manufacture of
industrial catalysts indicate that much art still
remains. His emphasis is on how these catalysts
are manufactured rather than on why certain
techniques or materials are employed.
The monograph is divided into two portions;
the first treats the several unit operations involved
in various protocols for manufacturing hetero-
geneous catalysts while the second focuses on
specific procedures employed in the manufacture
of several industrially significant catalysts. The
unit operations treated range from simple filtra-
tion and washing to calcination, pilling and spray
drying. The brief discussions and the diagrams
and pictures associated therewith would provide
useful background material both to individuals be-
ginning to work in the area of catalysis and to
those professionals who work on the periphery
thereof. The second half of the book provides de-
tailed recipes for the synthesis of sixteen families
of catalysts together with helpful hints for their
production in a research laboratory environment
(including some safety considerations). The
generic catalysts discussed range from those used


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








to treat automotive exhausts and other more con-
ventional oxidation and partial oxidation catalysts
to hydrogenation/dehydrogenation catalysts and
Ziegler-Natta polymerization catalysts.
While much useful information is conveyed in
the book, this reviewer would be remiss in his
obligations to the profession if he did not point
out that the book would have benefited significantly
if additional effort had been focused on the edit-
ing and proofreading aspects of its production. It
contains a large number of grammatical errors.
The lack of subject-verb agreement was evident
numerous times in the second half of the book.
Nonetheless I regard the book as a welcome ad-
dition to my bookshelf. Ol


NONIDEAL FLOW EXPERIMENT
Continued from page 77.
perimental one, however, are very close.
To evaluate the degree of deviation from the
ideal flows we calculate the variance of the dis-
tribution, the dispersion number and the number
of tanks in series that represents the system. These
values are
a-r2 = 0.1105
D/uL = 0.059
N = 9 tanks
Again, these values indicate to us that there is
a smaller amount of dispersion from plug flow
than in the above case.
The theoretical mean residence time is in this
case

't Q 142= 22.20 min

This is above the experimental mean residence
time, 20.67 min. In this case the fluid leaves the
system before the time predicted theoretically. El

NOTATION
C dimensionless tracer response curve to an
idealized pulse input
c concentration, mol/1
D dispersion or axial dispersion coefficient,
m2/s
D/uL dimensionless dispersion number
E exit age distribution function, dimension-
less
L length of vessel, m
N number of equal-sized backmixed flow
tanks
Q volumetric flow, cm3/min
t time, min


REQUEST FOR FALL ISSUE PAPERS
Each year CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION publishes
a special fall issue devoted to graduate education. This issue
consists of articles on graduate courses and research written by
professors at various universities, and of announcements placed
by ChE departments describing their graduate programs. Any-
one interested in contributing to the editorial content of the fall
1984 issue should write to the editor, indicating the subject of
the paper and the tentative date it can be submitted. Deadline
is June 15th.


r equals V/Q, reactor holding time or mean
residence time of fluid in a flow vessel, min
rt theoretical mean residence time, min
u velocity, m/s
Vm volume of the stirred tank, 1
V, volume of the tubular vessel, 1
0 equals t/r, reduced time, dimensionless
0o2 equals GOt2/T2, variance of a tracer curve or
distribution function in 0 units, dimension-
less
o-t2 variance in time units, min2

REFERENCES
1. Kramers, H. and K. R. Westerterp, Elements of
Chemical Reactor Design and Operation, Academic
Press, New York, 1963.
2. Levenspiel, 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd
ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1972.
3. Wen, C. Y. and L. T. Fan, Models for Flow Systems
and Chemical Reactors, Marcel Dekker, New York,
1975.
4. Froment, G. F. and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor
Analysis and Design, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New
York, 1979.


-S5S


books received


Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity, Second Edition,
John J. Aklonis, William J. MacKnight; John Wiley &
Sons, Somerset, NJ 08873; 295 pages, $39.95 (1983)
Modeling and Identification of Dynamic Systems, N. K.
Sinha, B. Kuszta; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., Inc., New
York 10020; 334 pages, $32.50 (1983)
Laser Processing and Analysis of Materials, W. W. Duley;
Plenum Publishing Corp., New York 10013; 463 pages,
$59.50 (1983)
Phosphates and Phosphoric Acid, Pierre Becker; Marcel
Dekker, Inc., New York 10016; 608 pages, $95.00 (1983)
Hydraulic Pumps and Motors, Raymond P. Lambeck;
Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York 10016; 176 pages, $24.95
(1983)
Advances in Drying, Volume 2, Arun S. Mujumdar; Hemis-
phere Publishing Corp., New York 10036; 301 pages,
$55.00 (1983)
Physicochemical Aspects of Polymer Surfaces, K. L.
Mittal; Plenum Publishing Corp., New York 10013; Vol.
1, 580 pages, $75.00; Vol. 2, to page 1250, $85.00 (1983)


SPRING 1984










CHE AT EREVAN
Continued from page 59..
and returning to research and the classroom a few
years ago. In Professor Kasparian's absence the
group was headed by the "Varich," Prof. Raphael
Y. Hagopian, another excellent teacher, researcher
and leader. The group consisted of about fourteen


full-time people and a number of part-time ad-
juncts who worked elsewhere during the day. This
group was involved heavily in teaching and re-
search, six days a week from 9-4:00 p.m. unless
they had an evening class. The undergraduate
laboratories were very basic but adequate.
There are no examinations during the semester
and no formal homework assignments. I lectured


TABLE 2. Courses of Study at EPI Percent of Total is shown by ( )


SUBJECTS


1. Chemistry (20.4)
General Inorganic
Analytical
Organic
Physical
Colloid


2. Mathematics (7.1)
Higher Math


3. Physics (10.3)
Physics
Theo. Mech.
Appl. Mech.


4. Computer Math (3.2)
Computer Use in
Eng. & Econ.


5. Eng. Graphics (1.8)
6. Eng. Standards (0.3)
7. Elec. Tech. (2.1)
8. ChE (21.7)
Intro. Chem Tech
Proc. Appar.
Gen. Chem Tech
Model. Chem Pro.
Mechanism of Reactions
Chem. Tech. of Org. Synthesis
Proc.-Equip. Design
Elective-ChE


9. Environ. Prot. (0.3)
10. Safety at Work (0.9)
11. Other (31.9)
History, Economics
Philosophy, Management,
Law, Foreign Language,
Physical Education, etc.)


TOTAL CLASS HOURS
Sem.


Lec.-Rec.


221
186
289
231
42
969


340
340


34
245
98
70
70
336
56
56
1035


28





766
2824


28
1116


710
710


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Projs.


Total


14
115


1518
4765








for fifty minutes in Armenian, and answered
questions for each group of twenty-five. At the
end of the semester, all students are required to
take a final examination. Each student studies and
on the scheduled examination day comes before
two faculty, individually, when prepared. The
students then sit and, without texts, prepare to
answer the questions which will be picked at
random. When ready (usually after about one to
two hours of meditation), the student comes before
the two faculty, who then proceed to quiz the
student on all related areas of concern.
Grades are from a low of 2 to a high of 5.
Receipt of a 2 means failure. The student is then


given two additional opportunities to pass, usually
after a period of a few months of self-study and
review. If a student doesn't successfully complete
the examination in three attempts, he is dis-
charged from the Institute. Following discharge,
the student is given a job in a factory. After one
year of serious work, the student's supervisors can
recommend that the student work days at the
factory and attend the Institute at night. This
system of recycle impressed me very much. Upon
graduation, all students obtain jobs in the chemical
industry, if they desire. Otherwise they could go
to other factories, but they have to work some-
where.


TABLE 3. Courses of Study at NJIT Percent of Total is shown by ( )


SUBJECTS


Lec.-Rec.


1. Chemistry (21.0)
General
Organic
Physical (Anal)


2. Mathematics (10.2)
Higher Math


3. Physics (12.1)
Physics
Mechanics


4. Computer Use In
Eng. & Graph. (1.9)
5. Eng. Graph. (1.9)
6. ChE (33.8)
Chem. Proc. Prin.
Trans. Op. I
(Fluid Flow)
Trans. Op. II
(Heat Trans.)
Trans. Op. III
(Mass Trans.)
ChE Thermo
Reac. Kin.
Proc. Dyn. & Cont.
Proc. & Plant Des.
ChE Lab.
ChE Elec.
Tech. Elec.


7. Other (19.1)
Humanities, Economics,
Physical Education, etc.)


105
105
105
315

240
240

150
60
210

30
15

90
45


45

60
90
45
60

42
45
45
567
420


1797


60
45
75
180

0
0


75
0
75

15
30

0
0


0

0
0
0
30

138
0
0
168
30


498


SPRING 1984


TOTAL CLASS HOURS
(Excludes Finals)
Sem.


Proj.


Total


60
90
45
90
60
180
45
45
795
450


2355








I found the students at EPI to be very much
like the students at NJIT. They had the same likes
and dislikes as our students, and their behavior in
and out of class was about the same. They were
very interested in student life in America. One
prime difference was that when I entered class,
everyone rose to their feet and remained standing
until I told them to sit. I enjoyed the students;
they were intelligent, well-mannered, well dressed,
clean, polite, pretty, and a lot of fun.
Our group ("Ambion") was heavily engaged
in research. Research at the Ambion was done
collectively by all personnel under the leadership
of Prof. A. M. Kasparian and Prof. Raphael Y.
Hagopian. We worked together on a number of
projects which included an air pollution problem
from a cement plant that involved experimental
studies and a theoretical computer simulation. Ex-
tensive work was being done with the mineral
"Berlite," a mixture of sodium, aluminum, and sili-
con oxides used in making crystal glass. There
were various studies in solid-fluid reactors and
their optimization. A computer simulation of the
reactors was developed, and hydro-dynamic studies
were made with various particle sizes of Berlite.
We worked on a computer simulation of a scheme
of series-parallel reactions which attempted to
optimize the yield of useful products needed as cor-
rosion inhibitors in pipelines. In addition, we
worked on transport of solids in pipelines using a
minimum of transport fluid to minimize attrition
and pollution, and we also studied various optimal
heat transfer problems simulated on a computer.
The faculty were very capable. We had one
prime disadvantage compared to America. We
couldn't pick up a catalog and order whatever
equipment we needed (budgets permitting) as is
the case at NJIT. However, this problem was eased
because we could pick up a phone at EPI, call our
friends and former students in the plants and ask
them to send us the needed equipment. We man-
aged to get a great deal of work done in a short
time. Each year, one week in the fall is devoted to
student research seminars. In the spring, one week
is devoted to faculty seminars. The extensive pro-
gram is Institute-wide. I was an invited speaker
and delivered a seminar in Armenian to the
Faculty of Chemical Technology.
In conclusion, chemical engineering at EPI
more nearly resembles our co-op program and the
intensive five-year program at Cornell in the early
1950's than the relatively condensed four-year
programs of today. Chemical engineering students


at EPI (about 90% female) spend more class
hours in instruction, more time in examinations,
more time in diploma design project, a consider-
able amount of time in industrial practice, and less
time in recess. The number of class hours per week
is about 73% greater at EPI than at NJIT, and
the total class hours required for graduation is
about double. Students at EPI spend a greater per-
centage of their class hours in computers, humani-
ties-social sciences, and electrical technology, and
fewer in the areas of chemical engineering, mathe-
matics, and physics. Chemistry percentages are
about equal. I was very impressed by the quality
of the faculty in research and teaching ability and
of the students with whom I worked. The system
of recycle established for marginal students is ex-
cellent and enables unsuccessful students to re-
enter the educational process if they so desire.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am grateful to have been granted a sabbati-
cal leave from NJIT, to have received a Fulbright
grant to visit the Erevan Polytechnic Institute,
and to have been accepted there as a Fulbright
Scholar. I must first thank Dr. Angelo Perna, my
colleague at NJIT, who in my absence assumed the
role of Acting Chairman. I thank both Prof. Dr.
A. M. Kasparian and Prof. Raphael Y. Hagopian
who treated me as if I were a member of their
families. They spent many hours with me in open,
honest discussions about the details of chemical
engineering education at both EPI and NJIT. I
also thank them and my other colleagues at EPI
for their help in enabling me to lecture in
Armenian and for getting me totally involved in
their research program. They made me feel like
a permanent member of the department rather
than a guest from America, and completely ac-
cepted me into their "collective." I also thank
William James and Margaret Henry (Council for
the International Exchange of Scholars) and Ms.
Alla Dombrowsky (United States International
Communications Agency) for their help. I thank
Boris Fonarev (Ministry of Secondary and High
Education, Moscow) and Mark Dillen and Leland
Cross (Cultural Affairs Section, U.S. Embassy,
Moscow) for their kind attention the few times I
needed questions answered. Finally, I thank our
departmental secretary "Chip" Lardier for every-
thing she did for me during the past year. It would
be impossible to itemize the details of all the
support she gave to me from the conception of the
idea until my return to NJIT. E


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Departmental Sponsors: The following 151 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1984 with bulk subscriptions.


University of Akron
University of Alabama
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TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your department chairman to write CHEMI-
CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611.
























ELEMENTARY CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING, Second Edition
Max S. Peters, University of Colorado at Boulder
1984, 384 pages, (0-07-049586-6)
Solutions Manual (0-07-049588-2)
This widely used text has been revised and is now even
more valuable to students being exposed to the field for
the first time. With a new emphasis on the quantitative
aspects of chemical engineering, the second edition builds
on the successful approach of the first edition in presenting
a unified picture of chemical engineering that concentrates
on the development, applications, and interrelationships
of the basic principles.
Throughout the second edition, the author incorporates
SI units with abundant applications. A new, comprehensive
appendix covers the background and use of SI units, along
with an exhaustive table for converting U.S. units to SI
units. Additional problems have been included in the text,
along with practical problems intended for computer so-
lution and printout.

PROJECT EVALUATION IN THE
CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
J. Frank Valle-Riestra, Dow Chemical Company and
the University of California, Berkeley
1983, 745 pages, (0-07-066840-X)
Solutions Manual (0-07-066841-8)
This is the first book to bring together and systematize
all of the constituent themes of project evaluation and
management in the chemical process industries. It dis-
cusses how to apply acquired evaluation tools, as well as
assimilated academic disciplines, to "real world" industrial
situations.

COMPUTER METHODS FOR SOLVING
DYNAMIC SEPARATION PROBLEMS
C.D. Holland, Texas A&M University, and A.I. Liapis,
University of Missouri at Rolla
1983,-626 pages, (0-07-029573-5)
Solutions Manual (0-07-029574-5)
Here is a book that provides an in-depth, unified
presentation of modeling, numerical solutions of modeling
equations, and the analysis of both staged and continuous
separation processes.


FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSPORT
PHENOMENA
Ray Fahien, University of Florida
1983, 640 pages, (0-07-019891-8)
Solutions Manual (0-07-019892-6)
This is the only book in the field that simultaneously
treats the one-dimensional transport of heat, momentum,
and mass in detail before examining the more complex
subject of multi-dimensional transport. Applications are
made to typical engineering problems.

COST AND OPTIMIZATION
ENGINEERING, Second Edition
F.C. Jelen, Fellow of the American Association of Cost
Engineers, and James H. Black, University of Alabama
and Fellow of the American Association of Cost Engineers
1983, 530 pages, (0-07-032331-3)
Solutions Manual (0-07-032332-1)
Featuring the work of contributors from both industry
and education, this text presents up-to-date cost data plus
complete coverage of important, timely topics. The second
edition examines new tax laws, inflation, a new chapter
on risk analysis, SI units, and much more.

COMBUSTION DYNAMICS: The
Dynamics of Chemically Reacting Fluids
Tau-Yi Toong, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1983, 352 pages, (0-07-064976-6)
By extensively examining a selection of problems
ranging from simple to complex, this new text explains the
physics involved in the development of interactions be-
tween chemical reaction and fluid flows. It emphasizes
physical elucidation and presents clear discussions of an-
alytical techniques.

V A -, -f --iii ii iiii ...


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McGraw-Hill Book Company
1221 Avenue of the Americas
New York, N.Y. 10020




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