Citation
Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
Classification:
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
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Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XVIII NUMBER 1 WINTER 1984

DEPARTMENTS
2 Department of Chemical Engineering
Northwestern University
John C. Slattery
6 The Educator
Richard C. Alkire of Illinois,
Illinois Colleagues
Laboratory
10 A Grand Sale: $12 for a Dozen Experiments
in CRE,
Zhang Guo-Tai, Hau Shau-Drang
20 New Adsorption Methods,
Phillip C. Wankat
Classroom
14 Two Computer Programs for Equipment
Cost Estimation and Economic Evalu-
ation of Chemical Processes,
Carlos J. Kuri, Armando B. Corripio
26 The Process Design Courses at
Pennsylvania: Impact of Process
Simulators, Warren D. Seider
34 Modular Instruction Under Restricted
Conditions, Tjipto Utomo, Kees Ruijter
30 Curriculum
Introducing the Regulatory Process into
the Chemical Engineering Curriculum:
A Painless Method,
Franklin G. King, Ramesh C. Chawla
38 Class and Home Problems
Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a
Distillation, Allen J. Barduhn
9 Positions Available
9,37 Book Reviews
18,48 Books Received
19 In Memoriam J. H. Erbar
19 Stirred Pots

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs. Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P. 0. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $20 per
year, $15 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1984 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


WINTER 1984
























The Technological Institute, home of the Department of Chemical Engineering.


Wmn 1n department


NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

... THE NORTHWESTERN PHILOSOPHY


JOHN C. SLATTERY
Northwestern University
Evanstan, IL 60201

IF YOU READ NO further than this first para-
graph, I would like you to leave with the im-
pression that we take pride in our teaching, that
we strive to be on the forefront in our research,
and that we are committed to meaningful contact
with our students. Those priorities provide the
guiding philosophy for the department.
This philosophy has been tested by time. This
year marks the 40th anniversary of the first class
graduating in chemical engineering from the
Technological Institute. We awarded our first
master's degree in 1945 and our first PhD in 1948.
Our department now includes 18 faculty, 250
undergraduate and 100 graduate students, six
visiting scholars, and three postdoctoral fellows.
Since modern chemical engineering research is
increasingly interdisciplinary in nature, a number
of the faculty hold joint appointments with other

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


As we have become
convinced of the synergism, we have
chosen to emphasize several broad areas of research
rather than 18 individual activities.


departments: biomedical engineering, chemistry,
materials science and engineering, mechanical and
nuclear engineering, and neurobiology/physiology.
No scale for the comparison of chemical engi-
neering graduate programs exists. It is clear that,
while top departments all offer excellent faculty
and facilities, there are differences in educational
philosophy and in the research interests of their
faculties. Our department strives to maintain a
balanced commitment to teaching and research.
The training of graduate and undergraduate
students is taken seriously by all of us.
The prerequisites for admission to graduate
work include a bachelor's degree in chemical engi-
neering from a university or college of recognized
standing. Graduates of a curriculum in science or
in other fields of engineering whose programs


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









have included sufficient courses in chemistry,
mathematics, and physics will also be accepted for
graduate work in chemical engineering. However,
they may be required to take selected undergradu-
ate courses without credit, in addition to the
normal graduate program.
An individual plan of study is arranged for
each student after consultation between the
student, his or her adviser, and the graduate com-
mittee of the department. Every effort is made to
design a program covering the fundamentals of
modern chemical engineering science and tech-
nology while allowing for individual specialization
in particular fields of interest.
For the MS degree, we require a minimum of
nine (quarter) courses. Research and the prepa-
ration of an acceptable thesis may be an alterna-
tive to three extra courses.
For the PhD, a minimum of 18 (quarter)
courses are required beyond the BS degree or nine
(quarter) courses beyond the MS. Students are
guided towards this program based on their class-
room performances. The formal qualifying exam
is oral and focused on the research topic proposed
for the thesis. We have no language requirements.
As we have become convinced of the synergism,
we have chosen to emphasize several broad areas
of research rather than 18 individual activities. In
the descriptions that follow, observe that we have
encouraged for the same reason interactions be-
tween faculty which cross department boundaries.
The single paragraphs devoted to individual
faculty are meant to give an impression of their
activities rather than to summarize their multi-
faceted research programs.

RESEARCH
Chemical Reaction Engineering. The largest
single area is chemical reaction engineering:
kinetics, catalysis, chemical reactor design, and
combustion. There are five faculty active in this
area: John B. Butt, Joshua S. Dranoff, Harold H.
Kung (who has a joint appointment with chemis-
try), Chung K. Law (who has a joint appoint-
ment with mechanical and nuclear engineering),
and Wolfgang M. H. Sachtler (who has a joint
appointment with chemistry). This group features
extraordinary interactions with faculty in ma-
terials science and engineering, chemistry, and
physics through the Catalysis Research Center,
which will soon have its own building adjacent
to the Technological Institute.
John Butt's work in catalysis has been largely


in the area of supported metal catalysts. His
group's current research is devoted to the study of
hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation reactions on
supported Pt group metals and to synthesis re-
actions on supported iron alloys. Particular empha-
sis is given to the relationship between the morph-
ology of the supported metal crystallites and their
activity and selectivity properties. More generally,
John Butt is concerned with the interrelation be-
tween catalyst deactivation and chemical process
dynamics.
The work of Josh Dranoff and his students in
photochemical reaction engineering has previously
involved gas and liquid phase photochlorination
reactions as well as solution photopolymerization.

(,.. .-. ;^* ,^- -- .--*- *,*i, fS T Ig^ ^. -- ^ TI_ TI.-r. l r. i ) .;, :._


A practice race in view of the campus.


Current emphasis is focused on the study of novel
photoreactor designs in which the photoinitiation
and subsequent thermal reaction steps common
to many photoreactions of interest are carried
out in spatially segregated zones.
Harold Kung is pursuing the reasons for high
selectivities in oxide catalysis. Using modern
surface science and catalyst characterization
techniques, his group has prepared and character-
ized both model single crystal oxide catalysts that
have high concentrations of a particular type of
surface defect, such as anion or cation vacancies,
as well as microcrystalline oxide catalysts smaller
than 10 nm that possess unusually high selectivi-
ties.
A viable approach to enhance combustion
efficiency and reduce pollutant formation is
through lean combustion. Since lean mixtures are
hard to ignite and easy to extinguish, the use of
heterogeneous catalysts can significantly extend
the lower flammability limits of these mixtures. Ed


WINTER 1984









Law's group is working to identify the dominant
catalytic mechanisms and to determine the as-
sociated overall kinetic constants for hydrocarbon/
air mixtures flowing over different catalysts.
Wolfgang Sachtler and Harold Kung are study-
ing stereospecific catalysts with the objective of
understanding the relationship between the
geometry of the active site and catalytic selectivity.
On the basis of Wolfgang Sachtler's previous
work, it has been proposed that many such re-
actions involve a dual site mechanism. Their re-
search is aimed towards checking this model and
evaluating the prospects of dual site hydro-
genation catalysts in general.
Interfacial and Multiphase Transport Phe-
nomena. We have three faculty working in the
general area of interfacial and multiphase trans-


. we take pride in our teaching, we strive to be
forefront in our research, and we are committed to
Those priorities provide the guiding philosophy for the


port phenomena: S. George Bankoff (who has a
joint appointment with mechanical and nuclear
engineering), Gregory Ryskin, and me. All three
of us find complementary interests in the activi-
ties of Stephen H. Davis (who has joint appoint-
ments in engineering science and applied mathe-
matics and in mechanical and nuclear engineer-
ing). We are involved in such diverse activities as
dynamic interfacial phenomena, coalescence, two-
phase flows with heat transfer, flows in porous
media, flows of suspensions, and structural
models for the stress-deformation behavior of
polymer solutions.
George Bankoff has been directing a broad
program of experimental and theoretical studies
on two-phase flow and heat transfer. His particu-
lar motivation has been problems associated
with nuclear reactor accidents. Rather than
studying these complicated problems directly, he
and his students have chosen to examine more
fundamental problems that can shed light on par-
ticular aspects of the overall process.
Gregory Ryskin's current research interests
focus on the numerical solution of fluid mechanics
problems. He is considering both flows with free
boundaries as well as the motions of polymer
solutions, the stress-deformation behavior of
which is determined by the local microstructure.
My students and I have directed our attention


to a series of fundamental problems concerned
with dynamic interfacial behavior and multiphase
flows arising in the context of oil production. For
example, we have been investigating the in-
fluence of the interfacial viscosities upon displace-
ment and the stability of displacement of residual
oil from old oil fields.
Polymer Science. Our three faculty whose
primary interests are in the area of polymers have
joint appointments with materials science and
engineering: Stephen H. Carr, Buckley Crist Jr.,
and John M. Torkelson.
Plastic films that possess either permanent
electrical polarizations or electrical conductivity
are currently being used as the active elements in
such devices as microphones, infrared detectors
or batteries. Steve Carr and some of his students


on the
meaningful contact with our students.
department.


are seeking to understand the origins of the per-
sistent polarization that can be established in
some polymer solids. They are studying other
polymers that are electronic conductors and act as
organic metals.
Using model crystallizable hydrogenated poly-
butadiene (HPB), Buck Crist's group is making
significant advances in understanding the im-
portant effects of molecular weight, molecular
weight distribution, short chain branching and
long chain branching on the structure and proper-
ties of semicrystalline polymers. These studies
utilize light scattering, x-ray scattering and
diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, calori-
metry and density measurements on HPB having
extremely well-defined molecular microstructures.
The utility of photophysics in studying macro-
molecular diffusion-controlled reactions has been
demonstrated by studies of intermolecular re-
actions between labelled polystyrene chains as well
as by studies of intramolecular cyclization dy-
namics of a single polystyrene chain. By a com-
bination of carefully selected fluorescence and
phosphorescence studies, John Torkelson is in-
vestigating the Rouse dynamics of polymer
chains.

Process Engineering. The area of computer-
aided process planning, design, analysis, and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









control is the interest of Richard S .H. Mah and
William F. Stevens.
The research of Dick Mah and his students is
directed towards the development of compre-
hensive theories and techniques for operating pro-
cesses. One focus of their research is their work
on process data reconciliation and rectification,
which has already led to new techniques of gross
error detection and identification, a rigorous theory
of observability and redundancy, and efficient
variable and measurement classification al-
gorithms. Another thrust is in the design and
scheduling of batch chemical processes.
Process optimization and process control are
beginning to depend significantly upon the utiliza-
tion of equipment and procedures for "real-time"
computing. Bill Stevens' current research activi-
ties emphasize the development of programs and
procedures for the implementation of various
"real-time' applications utilizing minicomputers
and microcomputers.
Separation Processes. There is currently a de-
veloping interest in the department in separation
processes.
Josh Dranoff has had a long-term interest in
separations based on sorption in zeolites and simi-
lar adsorbents. Currently his students are investi-
gating the kinetics of sorption of binary gas mix-
tures by zeolite adsorbents using a differential
bed-chromatographic type apparatus.
Dick Mah's group has proposed and is investi-
gating a new class of distillation schemes designed
to enhance overall thermal efficiency. This is ac-
complished through heat exchange between the
rectifying and stripping sections of a distillation
apparatus in what is known as secondary reflux
and vaporization (SRV) distillation.
George Thodos and his students are studying
the removal of SO, from flue gases using re-
generable sorbents such as Nahcolite (NaHCO3),
which may offer the possibility of closed loop
systems for clean-up of power station stack gases.
Separately, he is testing supercritical extraction
as a separation tool.
Individual Activities. Naturally, not all of the
research in the department is done in the context
of group activities.
Thomas K. Goldstick (who has joint appoint-
ments with biomedical engineering and neuro-
biology/physiology) is well known for his long-
term interests in biomedical engineering. His


current research centers around the dynamics of
oxygen transport in the retina of the eye.
Studies of vapor-liquid equilibria and critical
state phenomena continue to occupy the interests
of George Thodos and some of his students, while
















Chairman John Slattery in an informal discussion with
students.

with another group he extends his investigation
of solar energy collection and storage.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Chemical engineering is an evolving discipline,
the one continuous thread being that we are all
concerned with applications of chemistry, broadly
interpreted. The emphasis given to particular areas
of research shifts as the needs of society change,
the current faculty matures in its outlook, and we
add new faculty.
Looking to the future, we are anxious to ex-
pand our activities in the area of computer-aided
process planning, design, analysis, and control,
when we are presented with the right oppor-
tunity. Both the students and faculty agree that
this will be a field of increasing importance to the
profession.
We would also like to move into biochemical
technology. This is not only an area of consider-
able promise, but also it is one in which, by our
judgment, the primary impact of chemical engi-
neers is still developing.
But as we continue to look in new directions,
basic priorities will remain unchanged: our pride
in our teaching, our eagerness to be on the fore-
front in our research, and our commitment to
meaningful contact with our students, 2


WINTER 1984









educator


Richa C. A4Zie

of Illinois


Prepared by his
ILLINOIS COLLEAGUES
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801

T O HIS PROFESSIONAL colleagues, Dick Alkire is
known as an electrochemical engineer, to his
students as an outstanding teacher and to others
through many different perspectives, especially
music.
Though he now lives in the heartland of Il-
linois, Dick grew up in Easton, Pennsylvania,
where he graduated from Lafayette College in
1963. For two years of his time at Lafayette, he
was tutored on the subject of electrochemical cor-
rosion by Zbigniew Jastrzebski. Traveling to the
other coast, Dick attended the University of Cali-
fornia at Berkeley to continue the study of electro-
chemical engineering. Working under the direction
of Charles Tobias and Edward Grens, he carried
out graduate research on transport processes in
porous electrodes. Just to keep things in balance,
he enrolled in a piano performance class where he
met his future bride, Betty. They left Berkeley in
1968 to spend a post-doctoral year in G6ttingen,
at the Max Planck Institut fiir physikalische
Chemie, where he studied thermodynamics of
solid-state galvanic cells under the late Carl
Wagner. A year later, Dick brought his young
family back to the United States and took up a
post as assistant professor at the University of
Illinois. Promotion to associate professor came in
1975, and to full professor in 1977.

... it is Dick's philosophy that
"you can't teach research creativity by
telling everyone what to do." He gives students
a great deal of independence in the pursuit
of their thesis research ...

(0 Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1984


During these early years, Dick was deeply in-
fluenced by his mentors Jastrzebski, Tobias, Grens
and Wagner. Under Tobias he had experienced the
excitement of a research group that moved
steadily into uncharted waters, and with Carl
Wagner had had long discussions on how to break
open new problems. As a consequence, he em-
barked on a program of electrochemical engineer-
ing research, at Illinois, which continues to this
day. At the time, however, the electrochemical
field was not common to chemical engineers and it
was John Quinn and Roger Schmitz who gave him
strong encouragement to maintain his direction.
With these perspectives, Dick worked resolute-
ly to broaden his capabilities and interests. He has
emphasized application of potential distribution
principles to complex electrochemical problems
which involve coupled mass transport, ohmic re-
sistance, and interfacial processes. Concentrating
at first on electrodeposition, his work for over a
decade in that area earned him, in 1983, the Re-
search Award of The Electrodeposition Division
of The Electrochemical Society. Also in the early
seventies, he returned to corrosion problems where
transport phenomena in the solution phase played
a critical but unexplored role. Based on his Ph.D.
dissertation on crevice corrosion, Dick's student,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








David Siitari, was awarded the Young Author's
Prize for the best paper in the 1982 Journal of
the Electrochemical Society. During a sabbatical
leave at Cal Tech in 1976, Dick formulated a new
program in electro-organic synthesis, and intro-
duced rigorous chemical engineering concepts to
electro-organic reactor design and scale-up. These
programs subsequently led to interactions with
Robert Sani, at the University of Colorado, in
finite element calculations of electrode shape
evolution; with Mark Stadtherr, at Illinois, on
electrolytic process simulation and optimization;
and with Theodore Beck, of the Electrochemical
Technology Corp. in Seattle, on corrosion. In 1983,
Dick again used his sabbatical leave, this time at
the University of Washington in Seattle, to de-
velop a research program in plasma reactor de-
sign, where potential field and convective diffusion
phenomena play a critical role.


Working with Steve Perusich, Dick investigates trans-
port processes during corrosion. Here, they use focused
ultrasound to trigger breakdown of protective surface
films, and then study film repair in the presence of
fluid flow.

A consequence of these broad and continuing
interests is that Dick's research program is by now
very large. Last Fall his group included twenty
graduate students and a half dozen undergradu-
ate laboratory assistants. Of necessity, a group of
such size demands a meticulous management of
time and resources. Dick is quick to point out that
a major factor in this regard is the excellent repu-
tation with which Illinois attracts truly outstand-
ing graduate students. In addition, it is Dick's
philosophy that, "you can't teach research
creativity by telling everyone what to do." He


Dick supervises four seminars a week for his graduate
students. Shown here (I. to r.) are Steve Lott, Mark
Greenlaw, Dick, Bob Schroeder, Demetre Economou,
and Kurt Hebert.


gives students a great deal of independence in the
pursuit of their thesis research, but demands
high standards of commitment, knowledge of the
literature, and developing intuitive prowess for
linking mathematics to the physical world. One of
Dick's former research students observes that "he
instills by personal example a deep commitment
for achieving a high level of innovation and techni-
cal excellence." Another former student notes,
"The advice Dick gave me in graduate school in
all areas, technical and non-technical, has helped
me immensely in my professional career."
To a significant extent, Dick's early years in
music have shaped his character and attitudes.
Dick and his brother Ed grew up in a family music
business where performing came at a young age at
the encouragement of Dad, the pro, and Mom, the
supporter. Dad, Ed and Dick started playing pro-
fessionally when Dick was twelve; by the time
he was sixteen, they had performed throughout
the East and had cut numerous records. Mean-
while, back at the family studio, Dick taught
piano, guitar, bass, and vibes, helped run the
wholesale and retail businesses, and did much of
the art work for Dad's teaching publications. He
turned down a four-year organ scholarship to
attend Lafayette College to study chemical engi-
neering, but nevertheless performed on over three
hundred occasions in the college touring choir, in
a barbershop quartet, in a jazz group, and as a
solo pianist at weddings and receptions.
The time and energies invested in public per-
formance, in music teaching, and in business-
related affairs paid invaluable dividends for
Dick's management of his massive research effort
today. By the way, his brother is also a chemical
engineer with Air Products & Chemicals. Ed is


WINTER 1984









... no matter how hectic the day ... Dick
will always give a student his total attention.
His efforts were rewarded in 1982 with the Teaching
Excellence Award of the School of Chemical
Sciences at Illinois.

Manager of Technical Affairs for the Industrial
Gas Division and has responsibility for safety and
operating procedures, process engineering, quality
assurance, engineering standards, and environ-
mental compliance.
Dick takes it as a given fact that competence
in research both requires and demands excellence
in the teaching classroom. With a repertoire of
a dozen lecture courses, he takes special pleasure
in teaching the subjects and in dealing with
students on a personal basis. Thinking back on
his own training, he recalls that "I have been
extremely fortunate to have had teachers who
took a personal interest in me and who inspired
me to standards which were beyond my awareness
at the time. Sometimes those feelings of in-
spiration came from only brief moments in their
presence when I felt that their entire energies
were directed toward giving me an appreciation
of the subject matter." As a result, no matter
how hectic the day, in the classroom or in his
office, Dick will always give a student his total
attention. His efforts were rewarded in 1982 with
the Teaching Excellence Award of the School of
Chemical Sciences at Illinois.
Active in professional pursuits, Dick is the
youngest Vice President in the history of the 82-
year old Electrochemical Society, and will succeed
to the presidency in 1985. He is also a divisional
editor of the Society's journal. In the AIChE, he
founded a group in 1974 for programming sym-
posia in electrochemical engineering, and has also
served as chairman of the Heat Transfer and
Energy Conversion Division of the Institute. To
quote one of Dick's colleagues, he applies "the
same enthusiasm, integrity, and competence to
Society affairs as he has to his own students and
research."
These experiences, along with extensive con-
sulting activity, serve as critical elements in the
continual upgrading of teaching and research.
With this activity, he has averaged an off-campus
seminar every two weeks during the past four
years. As one of his colleagues notes, "A hall-
mark of his work is his ability to translate results
of complex calculations into a form easily under-
standable to practical users in the field." Like the


family music business, Dick's life represents a
total commitment to advancing the electrochemical
engineering field so that others will be encouraged
to follow.
One activity has brought him a special sense
of satisfaction. Emeritus Professor Sherlock
Swann, Jr. had been at Illinois since 1927 and had,
for 45 of those years, meticulously compiled an ex-
haustively detailed bibliography of the electro-
organic synthesis literature, beginning with the
first known paper in 1801. Their friendship had
begun, understandably, with a mutual love of
music which found Dick spending evenings at
Sherlock's home listening to old 78-rpm recordings
of the masters. Through this musical bond of


Dick's students often spring surprise parties to bid an
affectionate adieu to a graduating member of the gang.

shared trust, Sherlock slowly revealed his in-
credible bibliography. Dick eventually raised over
$90,000 to support a meticulous effort at indexing
and publishing the collection through The Electro-
chemical Society. The result was deeply satisfying
to Professor Swann, who passed away in 1983
after having seen an important part of his life's
work brought to fruition.
Music continues to be the center of Dick's out-
side interests. It seemed ironic at the time that,
within a few months of deciding on a college
career in chemical engineering, his parents' music
business took an upswing and they presented him
with a Baldwin grand piano. During the years
since, his main hobby has been keeping up a sound
technique and broadening his knowledge of the
literature. A few years ago, Dick built a two-
manual harpsichord to gain access to four more
centuries of keyboard literature. His daughters,
now 14 and 16, play violin and cello and, in ad-
dition, are studying string quartets under Gabriel


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Magyar, master cellist for 16 years with the
Hungarian String Quartet. Meanwhile Betty, the
Berkeley music major, continues the family tra-
dition by operating her own music studio.
In summary, Dick has made a significant
contribution by identifying electrochemical phe-
nomena where chemical engineering concepts
find welcome application. He has helped unify
diverse electrochemical subfields so that inter-
communication between them has been promoted.
Through his research students and his professional
activities, he has contributed significantly to the
broadening horizon of chemical engineering. O


book reviews


MASS TRANSFER IN ENGINEERING
PRACTICE
By Aksel L. Lydersen
John Wiley & Sons, 1983, xiii + 321 pgs. $39.95
Reviewed by F. L. Rawling, Jr.
E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.

This book is a companion volume to the
author's previous book "Fluid Flow and Heat
Transfer" (John Wiley & Sons, 1979). The aim
of the present volume is to present a short re-
fresher course in those areas of unit operations
specifically dealing with mass transfer. The book
consists of eight chapters: an introductory
chapter on the principles of diffusion and seven
chapters covering distillation, gas absorption and
desorption, liquid-liquid extraction and leaching,
humidification, drying of solids, adsorption and
ion exchange, and crystallization. The introduc-
tory chapter on the principles of diffusion pro-
vides a summary of the major equations together
with a short discussion of the various types of
diffusion, i.e. diffusion with bulk of mass in
motion, eddy diffusion, molecular diffusion in
liquids, etc. A short discussion of the two film
theory and the penetration theory is also pre-
sented. No attempt is made at providing a funda-
mental treatment of the subject of diffusion;
rather, reference is made to the literature. Several
problems, typical of those encountered in in-
dustry are worked out in detail. There are four
problems to be worked by the reader. The chapter
ends with a good bibliography, although half the
references are pre-1970.
Approximately two-thirds of the book is con-


- POSITIONS AVAILABLE
Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
% page $60; each additional column inch $25.

OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
Chemical Engineering: Assistant, Associate, or Full Pro-
fessor Position. This is a tenure-track position and will be
approximately half-time teaching and half-time research.
We will help the successful candidate establish research
by providing initiation funds, co-investigation opportuni-
ties with senior faculty and proposal preparation-processing
assistance from our Office of Engineering Research. Candi-
dates must possess an earned Ph.D. from an accredited
Department or School of Chemical Engineering or have a
Ph.D. in related areas and have strongly related qualifica-
tions. We welcome applications from candidates with
competencies and interest in any field of chemical engi-
neering, but especially seek those with strengths in design
and computer applications. This position is available as
early as July 1984. Applications will be received through
March 16, 1984. Please send your resume and list of three
references to Professor Billy L. Crynes, Head, School of
Chemical Engineering, 423 Engineering North, Oklahoma
State University, Stillwater, OK 74078. Calls for additional
information invited. OSU is an equal opportunity/affirma-
tive action employer.


cerned with staged operations, reflecting the in-
dustrial importance of this type of process. In
general, each chapter follows the same outline:
a short discussion of the theory involved together
with the relevant equations, a discussion of the
unit operation presenting the assumptions in-
volved and the major design equations, a very
general discussion on the various types of equip-
ment employed, a series of worked examples, a
set of problems to be worked by the reader, and a
bibliography.
The worked examples in each chapter make
this book worthwhile. They are well chosen to
illustrate industrial problems and are worked out
in detail, giving the assumptions and reasoning
involved in arriving at a solution. In a few in-
stances, a programmable calculator (Hewlett-
Packard) is used in the solution of a problem. The
calculator program is given.
I believe the book fulfills its goal, i.e. a re-
fresher course in mass transfer. The many refer-
ences adequately direct the user to the funda-
mental literature. Practicing engineers faced with
a problem in an area of mass transfer that they
have not been involved with for some time will
find this a good, succinct review. Students will
find the worked examples illuminating. In-
structors should find this book to be a useful
adjunct to their course. E


WINTER 1984









IM-1laboratory


A GRAND SALE:

$12 For A Dozen Experiments In CRE


ZHANG GUO-TAI* AND
HAU SHAU-DRANG**
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331

WE HAVE NOTICED THAT undergraduate chemi-
cal engineering laboratories in the United
States commonly make use of experiments in unit
operations, instrumentation and control; but that
experiments in chemical reaction engineering
(CRE) are very rare. This is understandable be-
cause such experiments usually require an ad-
vanced level of understanding, are rather complex
in set up, and more involved to operate.
We would like to introduce a whole class of
experiments which require very simple and in-
expensive equipment and which illustrate one of
the basic problems of chemical reaction engineer-
ing: the development of a kinetic rate equation
from laboratory data. In essence, the student takes
laboratory data, guesses a kinetic equation, tests
its fit to the data and, if this is satisfactory, de-
termines the corresponding rate constants.
Basically, we use a hydraulic analog. We will
illustrate this with the simplest case; the fitting
of a first order decomposition, A->R.
Connect an ordinary glass capillary to a burette
as shown in Fig. 1. Fill the burette with water,
at time zero let the water flow out, and record
the change in volume as time progresses.


We would like to introduce
a whole class of experiments which
require very simple and inexpensive equipment
and which illustrate one of the basic problems of
chemical reaction engineering.


*On leave from Shanghai Institute of Chemical Tech-
nology, China.
**On leave from Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.


50cm3






0


at start V= 50cm3




horizontal capillary should
be level with the zero volume
reading on the burette


vy ----


Volume
5cm3)
50


FIGURE 1. Experimental set up to represent the first
order decomposition of reactant A, or A -- R.

The student is told to view the experiment of
Fig. 1 as a batch reactor in which reactant A
disappears to form product R. The volume read-
ing on the burette in cm3 is to be considered as a
concentration of reactant in mole/m3. Thus the
experiment of Fig. 1 is to be treated as shown in
Fig. 2.
By following the reactant concentration
(actually the volume of water in the burette)
versus time the student is to determine the order
of reaction and the value of the rate constant. If
the experiment is set up properly, one will find
that the data fits first order kinetics.
The student sooner or later guesses first order
kinetics, integrates the rate equation to give
In (Co/C) = kt, plots the logarithm of concentration
versus time, and from this evaluates the rate
constant. Thus he learns how to test kinetic
models. Of course, the length and diameter of
capillary will determine the value of the rate
constant.
The experiment is so simple and quick to do
one can incorporate a lesson in statistical analysis
with it. Ask the student to repeat the experiment


Copyright ChE VDivision, ASEE. 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










a number of times, find the rate constant, and also
the 95% confidence interval for the rate constant.
This is the simplest of a whole class of experi-
ments that can be done with burettes and capil-
laries. Fig. 3 shows some of the many other re-
action schemes that may be used.
There may be more than one way to test a
rate form and fit the rate constants. It challenges
the student's initiative and ingenuity to see how
he approaches his particular problem. For
example: for reactions in series, A--R--S he can
try to follow the concentrations directly, he may
follow concentration ratios and fit them to charts
as shown in Levenspiel [1], or he may try to use
the conditions when the intermediate hits its
maximum value. He soon finds that some ap-
proaches are much more discriminating than
others.

SUGGESTIONS FOR SETTING UP THE EXPERIMENTS

WE HAVE TESTED ALL THE experimental vari-
ations of Fig. 3 in the laboratory ourselves,
and we have found that observation of the follow-
ing simple precautions will result in excellent
agreement of experiment with theory.

Be sure that the capillary outlet is level with the zero
line of the burette. Check this by filling the burette

















Zhang Guo-tai was born in Shanghai, China, in 1943. He graduated
from the Shanghai Institute of Chemical Technology in 1965 and is an
instructor there. His teaching and research activities center on the
theory of chemical kinetics and on reactor design. He was at Oregon
State University on a two year visiting faculty appointment, spon-
sored by the Chinese government. (L)
Hau Shau-Drang is an instructor in the chemistry department at
Sichuan University, China, where he is responsible for the teaching
of basic chemical engineering subjects to all chemistry students, a
normal feature of Chinese universities. His duties included being
superintendent of the chemical factory, and later, the pharmaceutical
factory, owned and run by the chemistry department. Mr. Hau
held a courtesy faculty appointment at Oregon State University where
he studied chemical reaction engineering, on a Chinese government
grant. (R)


batch reactor for the
reaction A---R

initial concentration


Reactant
concentration
(mol/m3)

50


FIGURE 2. Reactor analog to the hydraulic experiment
of Fig. I.



and letting water run out until equilibrium is achieved.
* Do not have any restriction between burette and
capillary comparable with that of the capillary itself.
* Verify that laminar flow exists in the capillary. For an
ordinary capillary and burette this condition is well
satisfied.
* Before starting an experiment pour water through the
burettes so as to wet them. Also see that water does
not flow back along the bottom of the capillary. Use a
rubber band or a Chinese teapot spout dripper at the
capillary outlet.
* If the capillary is not long enough then the run time
will be awkwardly short; if too long, a lot of time is
wasted: The following suggestions are convenient time
scales and capillary lengths.
Let T, be the time required for the water in the first
burette to drop to half its initial height and let the
corresponding length of capillary be L,.
For the first experiment of Fig. 3 we find that
T, = 30-40 sec is about right. For other experiments
the appropriate time scales and capillary lengths are
shown in Table 1.
By preparing a number of capillaries and by using


TABLE 1
Recommended experimental conditions


Reaction Scheme
Shown in Fig. 3


Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4
Case 5
Case 6

Case 7

Case 8a,b
Case 9
Case 10
Case l1a,b
Case 12


T,(sec) Capillary length


30-40 L,
20-30 L2 = 2-6 L1
30-40 L, = 2-4 L,
20-30 L2 = 4 L,, L3 = 2-4 L,
30-40 L, = 2-4 L1, L, = 2 L,
20-30 L2 = 4-5 L,,
L, = 2-4 L1
20-30 L, = 4 L,, L3 = 2-4 L,,
L, = 8-10 L,
30-40 L,
20-30 L3 = 4 L
30-40 L, = 4 L,
30-40 L, = 3-4 L,
30-40 L, = 2-4 L,,
L, = 6-8 L,


WINTER 1984












A JRA Ai




S R R



SA-R AR R













- A--R S- -S A -R--
U



k k k1 k3


A




T R




T A S


kA k3
"T -.U


rA A R A

LJ R siT bJ s


@ AR
k2


A-R
k2


A R -- S
k A4


A, k~- S


S.


A R --S
k2


A R S-S T


FIGURE 3. Some reaction schemes.
NOTES: In 8a, 9, 10, 11, use different diameter burettes to obtain different rate constants for the forward and reverse
reactions. Be sure to take the volumetric burette reading, not height.
8b. One can use just one burette if one locates the capillary at a height above the zero reading on the burette.
1 lb. One can use 2 burettes if one locates the second capillary somewhat above the zero reading on the burettes.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









various combinations of burettes the laboratory in-
structor can insure that no two laboratory groups will
have the same experiment to perform, even in the
giant classes which are now being processed.
Finally, a nice feature of this set of experi-
ments is that the student most likely will be led
to perform an integration of the performance
equation for the batch reactor before he can test
his guess with experiment.

CONCLUSION
WE HAVE SHOWN HOW A FEW burettes and
capillaries, properly connected, can be the
basis for a large number of simple experiments
to teach the principles of data fitting in chemical
reaction engineering. These experiments may be
simple but they are not trivial. E

REFERENCES
1. O. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd
Ed., Figure 15, page 191, Wiley, 1972.

APPENDIX
1. Many of the kinetic models of Fig. 3 (cases 1
to 6) are special cases of the Denbigh reaction
scheme (case 7). The integrated form for this
kinetic model, after appropriate manipulation
is found to be

CA
CA = exp(-Kt)
CA,o

CR --- [exp (-Kt) exp (-K2t)]
CA,o K2 K1
CT k
-- = [1 exp(-Kit)]
CA,o K,

Cs kik 1 exp (-Kit)
CA,, (K2 K,) K,
1 exp (-Kat)
K2

Cu k,k4 1- exp (-K,t)
CA.o (K, K,) K,

1 exp (-K2t)
K,
where
K, = k3 + k,

The conditions when the intermediate is at its + k
The conditions when the intermediate is at its


Substantial Chemistry Texts
from Prentice-Hall
CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL: An Introduction to
Theory and Practice
George Stephanopoulos, The National Technical University of Athens
1984 704 pp. (est.) Cloth $34.95
CHEMICAL AND PROCESS THERMODYNAMICS
B.G. Kyle, Kansas State University
1984 512 pp. (est.) Cloth $32.95
MASS TRANSFER: Fundamentals and Applications
Anthony L. Hines and Robert N. Maddox, both of Oklahoma State University
1984 500 pp. (est.) Cloth $30.95
BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CALCULATIONS IN CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING, Fourth Edition
David M. Himmelblau, The University of Texas at Austin
1982 656 pp. Cloth $33.95
PROCESS FLUID MECHANICS
Morton M. Denn, University of Delaware
1980 383 pp. Cloth $33.95
DIFFRACTION FOR MATERIALS SCIENTISTS
Jerold M. Schultz, University of Delaware
1982 287 pp. Cloth $35.95
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR BOUNDARY VALUE
PROBLEMS WITH APPLICATIONS
Milan Kubicek, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology;
Vladimir Hlavacek, SUNY at Buffalo
1983 336 pp. Cloth $34.95
For further information, or to order or reserve examination copies, please write: Ben E. Colt,
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maximum value are then

CR.mx ki K, K2/(K2-K1)
CA,o K, K2
and
t fo ) n (K2/K,)
t(forC ...ax) K_--K_-
K2 K,
These expressions may be useful for the instructor
as a check of the students work.
2. All the kinetic equations in Fig. 3 involve
systems of first order reactions and are con-
veniently solved, either by integration or by com-
puter simulation for those who know how to talk
to these machines. In a later paper we will con-
sider non-linear systems and reaction orders
different from unity. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to thank our advisor, Professor
Levenspiel for suggesting that we develop this
series of experiments, and we would like to recog-
nize Professor Jodra of the University of Madrid
for indirectly bringing this type of experiment to
our attention.


WINTER 1984










Slclassroom


TWO COMPUTER PROGRAMS


FOR EQUIPMENT COST ESTIMATION AND


ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES


CARLOS J. KURI AND
ARMANDO B. CORRIPIO
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803

IN RECENT YEARS SEVERAL cost estimation and
economic evaluation computer programs have
been developed, including those associated with
ASPEN [2, 3, 4], Monsanto's FLOWTRAN [10],
Purdue's PCOST [11], and others. However, the
fact that these programs are not readily available
to most colleges and universities motivated this
work: the development of a cost estimation and
economic evaluation computer program with the
latest information in the field, easy to use and by
all means suited to fulfill the requirements of a
senior process design course.
The algorithms used for the cost estimation
computer program were obtained from the
ASPEN Project, eleventh, thirteenth and
fourteenth quarterly progress reports [2, 3, 4].
These algorithms are based on cost data for 1979.

EQUIPMENT COSTING PROGRAM
The equipment costing program is modular in
design so that it is relatively easy to add equip-
ment classes as new costing models are developed.
It is also relatively easy to update the cost cor-
relations for existing equipment classes without
affecting other classes. A schematic diagram of
the program modular structure is given in Fig. 1.
A feature of the general design that is worth
mentioning is the procedure for handling input
data errors. When an error occurs in the specifica-
tions for a given equipment item, the calculated
cost of that item is the only one affected. In other
words, the program can recover and continue to
calculate the costs of the items that follow. This

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


Carlos J. Kuri is Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
of IMEX Corporation in Houston, Texas. He is a native of El Salvador
and holds a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from the University
of El Salvador and an M.S. degree, also in chemical engineering, from
LSU. He has practiced engineering for the Salvadorean Institute for
Industrial Development and for Barnard and Burke Consulting Engi-
neers of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He has also taught engineering
courses at the University of El Salvador and at LSU. Mr. Kuri is
married and the proud father of two children. (L)
Armando B. Corripio is professor of chemical engineering at
Louisiana State University. For the past fourteen years he has taught
courses and directed research in the areas of computer process
control, automatic control theory and process simulation and optimiza-
tion. He has been actively involved in consulting for several industrial
organizations, has authored and coauthored over seventy technical
articles and presentations, and has presented over seventy short
courses and seminars for ISA, AIChE, and other organizations. He is
a member of ISA, AIChE, The Society for Computer Simulation, and
other professional and honorary societies. He is also a registered
professional engineer, married, and proud father of four children. In
his spare time he plays tennis, swims and coaches a youth soccer
team. (R)


procedure is designed so that the program can
detect as many input data errors as possible in a
single run, as opposed to detecting one error per
run.

Equipment Cost Correlations. The basic cor-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


























FIGURE 1. Modular structure of equipment cost estima-
tion program.


relation for the base cost of a piece of equipment
is usually of the form:

In CB = ai + a2 In S + a, (In S)2

where CB = the base equipment cost per unit

S = the equipment size (or duty pa-
rameter) per unit

a,, a2, a3 = the cost correlation coefficients.

The base cost is used as a basis to compute the
actual estimated cost, the installation materials
cost and the installation labor hours. It is usually
the cost of the equipment in carbon steel for a
common design type and pressure rating and thus
independent of the equipment design type, the
material of construction and the pressure rating.
The estimated equipment cost is then calculated
by the following formula

CE = CBfDfMfP

where CE = the estimated equipment cost
fD = the design type cost factor (if
applicable)
fA = the material of construction cost
factor
fp = the pressure rating factor (if
applicable)

If the equipment size is larger than the cor-
relation upper limit, the function is extrapolated
at constant cost per unit size

CB = CBamx (S/S.mx)

where CBmax = the maximum cost of the maxi-
mum size
Smax = the maximum size for which the
correlation is valid.

If the equipment size per unit is less than the


Two computer programs have
been developed which are suitable for
use by students in process design courses. The
equipment cost estimation program is flexible, easy
to use and based on the latest cost correlations
available, those from project ASPEN.


correlation lower limit, the cost per unit is set
equal to the minimum

CB = CBrmi

where Camin = the minimum cost for which the
correlation is valid.

The equipment cost is adjusted to the specified
escalation index in order to correct for inflation.
The Chemical Engineering Fabricated Equip-
ment Index [5] is used for this purpose.

Input Data Specifications. A sample of the
input specifications for the equipment costing pro-
gram is shown in Table 1. The data on this table
illustrate the costing of seven different equipment
items, organized in card-image (80-column)
records. The first record of specifications for each
equipment item is easily recognized by the asterisk
(*) in column one. This code provides a key for the
detection by the program of missing records or
of records out of sequence.

Discussion of Cost Estimation Results. The
results of the equipment cost estimation program
for the items specified in Table 1 are compared in
Table 2 with costs for similar equipment items
that have been reported in the literature. Most of
the literature costs are from Peters and Timmer-
haus [7] which is a widely used text for process
design courses. All of the literature costs have
been escalated to a Chemical Engineering Fabri-
cated Equipment Index of 259.9 (1979) for com-
parison. The agreement between the program

TABLE 1
Sample of Inpute Data for Equipment Costing Program.


*CDCK101DCCY
M3/SN/M2
"CFAKI02
M3/SN/M2
K
.CHEK103
F2N/M2
-CPVK104PVHO
FF


CYCLONE


INDUSTRIAL FAN
31
HEAT EXCHANGER 3
4
HORIZONTAL VESSEL I


F
*CPUK105 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
LBF3F3/' N/M2
*CTAK106 .I FIELD-ERECTED TANK
M3
.CTOK107TOTR TRAY TOWER
FF
F
*SUM
"END


1979
12 8.50 6.90E3


16.5 1870.
323.
1000.1.034E6
9. 30.
.041666
2 1
62.4 47.472
1.13
1892.5
3 14. 130.
0.2Q


6.9E05


WINTER 1984









costs and the literature costs is quite good in most
cases and within the accuracy of preliminary
study estimates. The largest discrepancies are in
the cyclone and tray tower costs. For each of these
cases the graphs in Peters and Timmerhaus had
to be extrapolated, which may account for the
discrepancy.

ECONOMIC EVALUATION PROGRAM
An acceptable plant design must present a
process that is capable of operating under con-
ditions that will yield a profit. The purpose of the
economic evaluation computer program is to calcu-
late two profitability indices: the net present value
and the internal rate of return. These two indices
are based on discounted cash flow techniques,
taking into consideration the time value of money.

Net Present Value (NPV)
n NCFk
NPV = NCF
V = (l+i)(1+RINF) k
where NCFk = the net cash flow for the k'"
year
i = the effective annual rate of
return
RINF = the annual inflation rate


n = the number of years of dura-
tion of the project.

Internal Rate of Return (IRR). This is the
rate of return that equates the present value of
the expected future cash flows or receipts to the
initial capital outlay. Normally a trial and error
procedure or root finding technique is required
to find the discount rate that forces the NPV to
zero.
To be more realistic in the calculation of these
two indices of profitability, the effect of inflation
is included. Failure to at least try to predict in-
flation rates and take them into account can
greatly distort project economics, especially at
the double-digit rates that have become common
throughout the world.
The procedure used in the program in com-
puting the indices of profitability is described in
the text by Bussey [1].
Economic Evaluation Program Results. Results
of the economic evaluation program for a sample
case are presented in Table 3. The problem is to
estimate the profitability of a solids processing
plant. Total purchased equipment cost is estimated
at $3,200,000, with an economic life of 10 years.
An interest rate of 10%, inflation rate of 8% and


TABLE 2
Comparison of Equipment Cost Estimation Results


Program
Cost, 1979

8.5 ms/s (18,000 cfm); $ 3,380
6,900 N/m2 (28 in water);
Excluding blower and motor


16.50 m3/s (35,000 cfm);
1,870 N/m2 (7.5 in water); 3230K (121 F);
Carbon steel; Explosion-proof motor;
Belt drive coupling
1,000 ft2; 1.034*106 N/m2 (150 psi);
Stainless 316; U-Tube
1.034*106 N/m2 (150 psi);
9 ft diameter; 30 ft long
6.9*105 N/m2 (100 psi); 62.4 lb/ft3;
23.74 ft-/min (178 GPM);
Totally enclosed fan-cooled electric motor
1,893 m3 (500,000 gal); Carbon steel


14 ft diameter; TTL = 130 ft long;
Stainless 304; 75 Valve trays


Literature
Cost, 1979
$ 5,300


Reference

Peters and Timmerhaus [7],
(p. 599). Extrapolation
required.


$ 8,360 $ 8,500 Richardson [9].


$ 29,100 $ 33,000 Peters and Timmerhaus [7],
(p. 670).
$ 28,600 $ 25,500 Pikulik and Diaz, [8].

$ 1,830 $ 1,800 AVS (American Volunteer
Standard) Peters and
Timmerhaus [7], (p. 557).
$ 79,600 $ 71,000 Cone roof tank
Peters and Timmerhaus [7],
(p. 573).
$859,000 $657,000 Peters and Timmerhaus [7],
(p. 768). Extrapolation
required.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Equipment Item

1. Cyclone


2. Fan


3. Heat Exchanger

4. Horizontal Vessel

5. Centrifugal Pump


6. Storage Tank


7. Tray Tower











TABLE 3
Sample of Output Results for Economic Evaluation
Program. Profitability.


LAD OF NET OPERATING GROSS INTEREST DEPRECIATION NET INCO
YEAR SALES COST INCOME EXPENSE EXPENSE AFTER TA


0. 0. 0.


1 13933488. 11581918. 2351570.
2 17424176. 13894143. 3530033.


1027764.
963276.


3 21669312. 16668485. 5000827. 892339.
4 26790096. 19977360. 6812736. 814308.
5 33256672. 24096912. 9159760. 728474.
6 35917184. 26024640. 9892544. 634056.
7 38790544. 28106608. 10683936. 530197.
8 41893760. 30355104. 11538656. 415952.
9 45245248. 32783504. 12461744. 290283.
10 48864816. 35406160. 13458656. 152047.


0.
2431999. -57626
1958071. 31651
1576499. 131663


1269284. 2459155.
1021936. 3852862.


ME SECTION 1231 NET
X CASH FLOW CASH FLOW
J. -4404706. -4404706.
.0. -644883. 1210855.
7. -709371. 1565215.
4. -780308. 2112824.


-858339. 2870099.
-944173. 3930624.


822790. 4386562. -1038591. 4170761.
769855. 4879619. -1142449. 4507024.
769855. 5383481. -1256694. 4896641.


769855. 5928835.
769855. 6519112.


-1382363. 5316326.
1001752. 8290718.


PRESENT VALUE
INCREMENT
-4404706.
934302.
931891.
970621.
1017369.
1075074.
880213.
733936.
615265.
515431.
620221.


NET PRESENT VALUE AT 20.0 PERCENT RATE OF RETURN
DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW RATE OF RETURN (PERCENT)
INFLATION RATE (PERCENT)
TAX RATE (PERCENT)




tax rate of 48% are specified. Base net annual
sales are estimated at $22,634,000 with a fixed
annual operating cost of $3,200,000 and a variable
annual operating cost of $13,200,000 at 100%
production. The variable annual operating cost is
assumed to be proportional to the production rate.
Percentages of production for the ten years of
operation are as follows: 57, 66, 76, 87, 100, 100,
100, 100, 100, 100. Additional input data are the
percentage of total investment financed by debt,
70%, the life of the loan, 10 years, and the depreci-
able life, 10 years. Depreciation is computed by
the double-declining balance method with a salvage
value of $320,000. The program input data are
entered in free format.
The columns of the cash flow table (Table 3)
summarize the major components of the cash flow
for each year of operation. The numbers represent
annual amounts in inflated dollars.
Case Studies. A series of results obtained with
the economic evaluation program are summarized
in Tables 4 and 5. The effect of inflation on the
internal rate of return (IRR) and on the net
present value (NPV) is illustrated in Table 4 for
various financing and tax situations. Cases 1
through 4 represent "after-tax return" with a tax
rate of 48%, while cases 5 through 8 represent
"before-tax return," that is, tax rate equal to


3889614,
38.19
8.00
48.00


zero. The rest of the input data are the same as
for the sample problem described above.
Comparison of cases 1 and 2 and of cases 5 and
6 show the effect of inflation on a heavily debt-
financed project. The increase in both the IRR and
NPV is due to the fact that the net income from
the project inflates while the loan payments re-
main constant. In other words, most of the in-
flation losses are passed on to the financing
organization. Comparison of cases 3 and 4 show
that the effect of inflation on the IRR and NPV
reverses when the project is 100% equity financed.
This is due to taxes which increase with inflation

TABLE 4
Effect of Inflation on the Rate of Return
and the Net Present Value
Inflation % Tax IRR NPV @
Rate, % Debt Rate, % % 20% k$


0 70
8 70


35.76
38.19


3,250
3,890


0 0 48 17.17 -1,580
8 0 48 15.56 -2,400


0 70 0 46.46
8 70 0 51.17

0 0 0 26.56
8 0 0 26.32


7,620
9,180

4,350
4,130


WINTER 1984









as depreciation remains constant. Notice the nega-
tive NPV for both of these cases. This is because
the actual IRR is less than the 20% rate of re-
turn used to calculate the NPV. The obvious ad-
vantage of debt financing in this problem is due
to the low interest rate on the loan (10%). Finally,
comparison of cases 7 and 8 shows that inflation
has no effect on the before-tax return when there
is no loan. This is because all of the remaining
cash flow items are assumed to inflate at the same
rate. Depreciation has no effect on the before-tax
returns.
The effect of the depreciation method on the
IRR and on the NPV is shown in Table 5. Both
double-declining balance and sum-of-the-years'
digits produce similar results and are superior to
the straight line method. This is because the de-
preciation allowance is accelerated in the early
years of the project reducing taxes and shifting
after-tax income to the early years where it counts

TABLE 5
Effect of Method of Depreciation on the Rate of Return
and the Net Present Value


Depreciation Method


Straight-line
Double-declining balance
Sum-of-the-years' digits
Percent debt: 70%
Tax Rate: 48%
Inflation Rate: 8%


NPV @
IRR, % 20% k$


34.22
38.19
38.30


3,300
3,890
3,943


more. The double-declining balance method used
by the program switches automatically to straight-
line in the later years of the project as allowed by
the rules of the Internal Revenue Service.

CONCLUSIONS

Two computer programs have been developed
which are suitable for use by students in process
design courses. The equipment cost estimation pro-
gram is flexible, easy to use and based on the latest
cost correlations available, those from project
ASPEN. The economic evaluation program frees
the student from the tedious trial-and-error calcu-
lations which are involved in the determination
of the internal rate of return. The program is
realistic as it accounts for depreciation, income
taxes and inflation. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to express their appreciation


to the staff of project ASPEN, MIT Energy
Laboratory, for the cost correlations used in the
equipment cost estimation program, and to Banco
Central de Reserva de El Salvador for the support
of Mr. Kuri.

REFERENCES
1. Bussey, L. E., The Economic Analysis of Industrial
Projects, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
1978.
2. Evans, L. B., et al., "Computer-Aided Industrial Pro-
cess Design," The ASPEN Project, Eleventh Quarter-
ly Progress Report, Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology, Cambridge, MA, March 15, 1979.
3. Evans, L. B., et al., "Computer-Aided Industrial Pro-
cess Design," The ASPEN Project, Thirteenth
Quarterly Progress Report, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, Cambridge, MA, September 15, 1979.
4. Evans, L. B., et al., "Computer-Aided Industrial Pro-
cess Design," The ASPEN Project, Fourteenth
Quarterly Progress Report, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, Cambridge, MA, December 15, 1979.
5. Kohn, Philip M., "CE Cost Indexes Maintain 13-year
Ascent," Chemical Engineering, Vol. 85, No. 10, May
8, 1978, pp. 189-192.
6. Kuri, C. J., "Process Equipment Cost Estimation
and Economic Evaluation," M.S. Thesis, Department
of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1980.
7. Peters, M. S., and K. D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design
and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 3rd. ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
8. Pikulik, A., and H. E. Diaz, "Cost Estimating for
Major Process Equipment," Chemical Engineering,
Vol. 84, No. 22, Oct. 10, 1977, pp. 106-122.
9. Richardson Engineering Services, Process Plant Con-
struction Estimating Standards, Vol. 4, Solana Beach,
CA, 1979-80.
10. Seader, J. D., W. D. Seider, and A. C. Pauls, FLOW-
TRAN Simulation-An Introduction, 2nd Ed., CACHE
Corporation, Cambridge, MA, 1977.
11. Soni, Y., M. K. Sood, and G. V. Reklaitis, PCOST
Costing Program, Purdue University, W. Lafayette,
Indiana, May 1979.

S t^books received

"Flame-Retardant Polymeric Materials," edited by Mena-
chem Lewin, S. M. Atlas, and Eli M. Pearce; Plenum
Publishing Corp., New York, 10013; 238 pages, $35.00
(1982)
"Advances in Cryogenic Engineering," R. W. Fast, Editor;
Plenum Publishing Corp., New York 10013; 1224 pages,
$95.00 (1982)
"Surface Chemistry of Froth Flotation," Jan Leja; Plenum
Publishing Corp., New York 10013; 758 pages, $69.50
(1982)
"Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook," Mario
Di Giovanni; Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 10016; 424
pages, $55.00 (1982)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Y9 MWemo4am

J. H. ERBAR
John Harold Erbar, 51, professor of chemical
engineering at Oklahoma State University, died
September 17, 1983.
Born in El Reno, OK, Erbar earned all of his
academic degrees in chemical engineering at Okla-
homa State University. Following service in the
U.S. Army, he joined Standard Oil Company and
worked in several research positions. He joined
the OSU faculty as an assistant professor of
chemical engineering in 1962 and was named full
professor in 1969. He was named Teacher of the
Year in 1970-71 and again in 1982-83.
Dr. Erbar was recognized internationally as an
expert in computer applications in chemical engi-
neering and taught courses in chemical engineer-
ing design, thermodynamics, fluid flow, stagewise


operations and others. He was a member of Omega
Chi Epsilon, AIChE, ACS, ASEE, and various
Oklahoma and national societies for professional
engineers. He was a registered professional engi-
neer in Oklahoma.
He is survived by his widow, Ruth, and a
daughter and a son.


J stirred pots


The Limerick Metric

Applied to

Thermodynamics

The subject of Thermodynamics,
'Tis true, is not for pedantics.
For, tho work must be done
And sweat be not shunned,
Insight requires more than mechanics.
O'r the four Laws stands Confusion,
As their numbering is all but illusion;
For the first is not first,
Tho the first is well vers'd,
And the last is not fourth-how amusin'!
The relations of Maxwell are infamous
For prompting ill-natured remarks most
boisterous.
Their exactness is trying,
Their permutations vying
With other companions more amorous.


The compressibility of liquids and gases
Is oft devious to lads and lasses.
Relating P, V, and T
Seems difficult to see
Without perturbing the masses.
Some students have little capacity
For understanding fugacity.
Their tendency to flee
Is paradoxical, to me,
And how will they develop tenacity?
The structure of phase diagrams abound
With complexities horribly profound.
Solid fluid, triple critical,
And others more mythical,
Its very dimensions can naught but astound.
T'was once a Chem Engineer grasping
For the concept of entropy dashing
To proverbial heights;
But try as he might,
There seemed little hope of his passing!
J. M. Haile
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29631


WINTER 1984









laboratory


NEW ADSORPTION METHODS*


PHILLIP C. WANKAT
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907

ADSORPTION AND ION EXCHANGE systems are used T
for a variety of separations and purifications 2
in industry. Many different operational techniques o
have been proposed for these separation schemes.
In this review we will first develop a simple
method (suitable for undergraduate and graduate
students) for following the movement of a solute
in an adsorption or ion exchange system. Then this
solute movement will be used to study a variety of
operational methods. Much of this paper appeared c
previously [23]. excua/ed
FIGURE 1. Porosities in packed bed.
SOLUTE MOVEMENT


Consider first a bed of porous particles. The
particles have an interparticle (between different
particles) porosity of a and an intraparticle
(within a given particle) porosity of E. The total
porosity of the bed for small molecules is a +
(1-a)e. This is illustrated in Fig. 1. In addition,
large solutes will not be able to penetrate all of the
intraparticle void space. The fraction of volume
of the particle which any species can penetrate
is Kd. For a non-adsorbed species, Kd can be de-
termined from

Kd = V (1)
Vi
where Ve is the elution volume, Vo is the external
void volume between the particles, and V1 is the

*Presented at ChE Division ASEE Summer School,
August, 1982.


internal void volume. When the molecules are
small and can penetrate the entire interparticle
volume, Ve = Vi + Vo and Kd = 1.0. When the
molecules are large and can penetrate none of the
interparticle volume, Ve = Vo and Kd = 0.
As solutes migrate through the bed they can
be in the mobile fluid in the external void volume,
in the stagnant fluid inside a particle, or sorbed
to the particle. The only solutes which are moving
towards the column exit are those in the mobile
fluid. Consider the movement of an incremental
mass of solute added to a segment of the bed shown
in Fig. 1. Within this segment this incremental
amount of solute must distribute to form a change
in fluid concentration, Ac, and a change in the
amount of solute adsorbed, Aq. The amount of this
increment of solute in the mobile fluid compared
to the total amount of solute increment in this
segment is


Amt. in mobile fluid
Total amt. in segment


Amt. in mobile fluid
Amt. in: (Mobile fluid + stationary fluid + sorbed)


which is
Amt. in mobile fluid (AzAc) aAc
Total amt. in segment (AzA) aAc + (AzAe) (1-a) eAcKd + (AzA,) (1-a) (1-e) pAqKd

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








The solid density, ps, is included in Eq. (3) to
make the units balance. Ae is the cross sectional
area, and z is the axial distance.
If fluid has a constant interstitial velocity, v,
then the average velocity of the solute in the bed
(the solute wave velocity) is just v times (relative
amount of time the incremental amount of solute
is in the mobile phase). Assuming a random pro-
cess of adsorption, desorption and diffusion in and
out of the stagnant fluid, the solute wave velocity
becomes

Amount solute in mobile phase
soute = total amount solute in column

(4)
or, after rearrangement


usolute (T) =


therm. This assumption allows us to ignore mass
transfer effects. The second assumption is that dis-
persion and diffusion are negligible; thus, all of
the solute will travel at the same average solute
velocity. These assumptions greatly oversimplify
the physical situation, but they do allow us to
make simple predictions. As long as we don't be-
lieve these predictions must be exactly correct, the
simple model which results can be extremely help-
ful in understanding separation techniques.
For undergraduate students we limit the
theory to simple linear equilibrium of the form

q = A(T)c (6)
where q is the adsorbed solute concentration,


S(5)
1 + [(1-a) /a] EKd + [(1-a)/a] (1-E)pJ(Aq/Ac) Kd (5)


Eq. (5) represents a crude, first order description
of movement of solute in the column. With a few
additional assumptions this equation can be used
to predict the separation in the system.
The most important assumption, and the as-
sumption least likely to be valid, is that the solid
and fluid are locally in equilibrium. Then Aq will
be related to Ac by the equilibrium adsorption iso-


usolute (T) =


Phil Wankat received his BSChE from Purdue and his PhD from
Princeton. He is currently a professor of chemical engineering at
Purdue. He is interested in teaching and counseling, has won several
teaching awards at Purdue, and is a part-time graduate student in
Education. Phil's research interests are in the area of separation
process with particular emphasis on cyclic separations, two-dimensional
separations, preparative chromatography, and high gradient magnetic
separation.


A(T) is the equilibrium constant which is a
function of temperature, and c is the solute con-
centration in the fluid.
For common adsorbents the amount of material
adsorbed decreases as temperature is increased.
Thus A (T) is a monotonically decreasing function
of temperature. With linear equilibrium
Aq/Ac = A(T), and Eq. (5) becomes


v
1 + [(1-a) /a]EK, + [1-a) Ia] Ka,(1-e)p$A(T) (7)


For Eq. (7) the solute wave velocity is the same
as the average solute velocity. Eq. (7) allows us
to explore the behavior of solute in the column
for a variety of operating methods.
Several facts about the movement of solute can
be deduced from Eq. (5) or Eq. (7). The highest
possible solute velocity is v, the interstitial fluid
velocity. This will occur when the molecules are
very large and K,, = 0.0. For small molecules Kd =
1.0, and with porous packing these molecules
always move slower than the interstitial velocity
even when they are not adsorbed. If adsorption is
very strong the solute will move very slowly.
When the adsorption equilibrium is linear, Eq. (7)
shows that the solute velocity does not depend on
the solute concentration. This is important and
greatly simplifies the analysis for linear equilibria.
If the equilibrium is nonlinear, Aq/Ac will depend
on the fluid concentration and Eq. (5) shows that
the solute velocity will depend on concentration.


WINTER 1984








Nonlinear equilibrium will be considered later.
A convenient graphical representation of the
solute movement is obtained on a plot of axial
distance, z, versus time. Since the average solute
molecule moves at a velocity of usoute(T), this
movement is shown as a line with a slope usolute.
This is illustrated for a simple chromatographic
separation in Fig. 2. Fig. 2A shows the feed pulse
while Fig. 2B shows the solute movement in the
column. The product concentrations predicted are
shown in Fig. 2C. Note that this simple model does
not predict dispersion or zone speeding, but does
predict when the peaks exit.
If desired, zone spreading can be included, but
will conceptually complicate the model. The ad-
vantage of this model is that it is simple and can be
used to understand a variety of methods of opera-
tion.
EFFECTS OF CHANGING THERMODYNAMIC
VARIABLES
Changes in temperature, pH, ionic strength or
solvent concentration are often used to help de-
sorb and elute the solute. Changes in these
variables will change the equilibrium constant, A,
in Eqs. (6) and (7). With temperature one can
either use a jacketed bed and change the tempera-
ture of the entire bed (called the direct mode) or
he can change the temperature of the inlet stream
and have a temperature wave propagate through
the column (called the travelling wave mode). For
most of the other elution methods the travelling
wave mode is used. Elution may be done either co-
currently or countercurrently.
The wave velocities for chemicals added to the
system can be obtained from Eq. (5) or (7). The


CA /A 1
or
CAl.


z









C5As.


A.



I 1


TIME
FIGURE 2. Solute movement model for isothermal
chromatography: A) Feed pulse; B) Trace of solute
movement in column; C) Product concentrations.

In Eq. (8) W is the weight of column wall per
length and Tref is any convenient reference
temperature. The wall term is only important in
laboratory scale columns. The velocity of the
thermal wave in the column is just the ratio in
Eq. (8) multiplied times the fluid velocity. After
assuming local equilibrium so that Ts = Tr = T,
and simplifying, we have


Uthernial = 1 + (1-Cp + (W/A) C(9)
1 + [(l-a)/a]E + [l-a) (1-E) Cp, + (W/A,) C,]/ap Cf


velocity at which temperature moves in the column
(the thermal wave velocity) can be obtained from
an energy balance. If we can ignore the heat of
adsorption and heat of mixing and assume the
column is adiabatic, then the energy in the mobile
fluid compared to the total energy in mobile fluid,
stationary fluid, solid and the column wall in a
segment of the column is


Note that with the simplifying assumptions made
here uthernma is independent of temperature. Com-
parison of Eqs. (9) and (7) show they have a
similar form but there is an additional term in Eq.
(8) to account for thermal storage in the column
wall, and effectively K, = 1.0 for energy changes.
Just as Eqs. (5) and (7) represented the move-


Energy in mobile phase
Total energy in column segment
(AzA,) apC, (Tf-Tr,., r)
[(AzA,) (a + (1-a) E) pfC (Tf-T,,,) + (AzAe) (1-a) (1-E) Cp (Ts-Trer) + (AzW) Cw (Tw-T,r,,) (8)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


L








ment of the average solute molecule, Eq. (9)
represents the average rate of movement of the
thermal wave. A more exact analysis is needed to
include dispersion and heat transfer rate effects.
On a graph of axial distance z versus time t
the thermal wave will be a straight line with a
slope Uthermal. Figure 3 illustrates elution using
temperature for counter-current desorption. In
this case a single solute is adsorbed. The feed flow
is continued until just before solute breakthrough
occurs. Then counter-current flow of a hot fluid
is used to remove solute. Upon reversing the flow
the fluid first exits at the feed temperature and
the feed concentration. When the thermal wave
breaks through, the temperature and concentra-
tion both jump. Since the adsorption equilibrium

constant is lower at high temperature the solute
velocity can be significantly greater at the higher
temperature. In actual practice the outlet tempera-
ture and concentration waves will be S-shaped
curves because of the dispersion forces.
To complete the analysis of the traveling wave
mode we need to consider the change in solute
concentration when the adsorbent temperature is
changed. The effect of temperature changes on
solute concentration can be determined by a mass
balance on a differential section of column Az
over which the temperature changes during a time
interval At. This balance for one solute is
avAt(c2-cl) -[a + Kde(l-a)](c2-cl) Az
(1-a) (1-e)Kdpa(q2-q1) Az = 0
(10)

where 1 refers to conditions before the tempera-
ture shift and 2 to after the shift. In Eq. (10) the
first term is the in-out term, the second term is
accumulation of solute in the fluid, and the third
term is accumulation of solute on the solid. To
ensure that all material in the differential section
undergoes a temperature change the control
volume is selected so that At = Az/uthermaI. The
mass balance then becomes

(a+e-(1-a)Kd- avh (c2-c1)
11thermal I
+ Kd(l-a) (1-e)p (q2-ql) = 0 (11)
If we assume that solid and fluid are locally in
equilibrium and that the equilibrium isotherm is
linear, then Eq. (11) reduces to


... we will first develop a simple
method (suitable for undergraduate and
graduate students) for following the movement of a
solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. Then
this solute movement will be used to study
a variety of operational methods.


A.


C


L I






01
I
Z l .
I
^ ( -
.^ (^ i)
o ^-------


TIME
FIGURE 3. Solute movement model for adsorption
followed by counter-current elution with a hot fluid:
A) Inlet concentration and temperatures; B) Trace of
solute and temperature movement in bed; C) Product
concentrations and temperatures.


In the typical liquid system thermal > Usolute (TH) >
Usoiute(Tc), and C(TH) > C(Te). Thus the solute
is concentrated during elution. This concentration
is calculated from Eq. (12), and was plotted on
Fig. 3C. Note in Figs. 3A and 3C that the overall
mass balance will be satisfied. If the equilibrium
constant A does not change very much uso (TH) =
Uso1 (Tc) and there will be little change in con-
centration during elution. Since A is not usually
strongly dependent on temperature, large tempera-
ture changes are required. An alternative is to use


c(T,) ( 1 1 /( 1
c (T,) Uol ute(T.) Utherm ai / UsQite (TH)


1 t (12)
Thermal &


WINTER 1984









The equations developed here can be rigorously derived from
the governing partial differential equations by making a group of assumptions called
the local equilibrium assumptions and then using th3 method of characteristics.


a different eluant which has a major effect on A.
Eqs. (11) and (12) are still valid but with
UEluant replacing Uthermal.
In the direct mode the entire column is heated
or cooled simultaneously. In this case Uthermal is
essentially infinite and Eq. (12) simplifies to
c(Ta) Uolute (TH) (13)
c(Te) Usoute(Te)
For the usual adsorbent A(T) decreases ( solute
desorbs) as temperature increases. Thus Uolutc
increases and, as expected, Eq. (13) predicts that
the solute concentration increases as temperature
increases.
This completes the basic analysis procedure for
the solute movement model for linear isotherms.
As presented, this is not a rigorous mathematical
model but was based on simple physical ideas.
The equations developed here can be rigorously
derived from the governing partial differential
equations by making a group of assumptions called
the local equilibrium assumptions and then using
a mathematical method called the method of
characteristics [1, 22]. Although some of the as-
sumptions required for the rigorous development
have been mentioned in passing, it will be help-
ful to list them explicitly here.
1. Homogeneous packing (no channeling).
2. Radial gradients are negligible.
3. Neglect thermal and pressure diffusion.
4. No chemical reactions except for sorption.
5. Neglect kinetic and potential energy terms.
6. No radiant heat transfer.
7. No electrical or magnetic fields.
8. No changes of phase except sorption.
9. Parameters are constant except for A.
10. Constant fluid velocity.
11a. Column is adiabatic, or
11b. Column is at controlled constant temperature.
12. Heat of adsorption is negligible.
13. Solutes do not interact.
14. Thermal and mass dispersion and diffusion are
negligible.
15. Heat and mass transfer rates are very high so that
fluid and solid are locally in equilibrium.
16. Equilibrium is linear.
This is a formidable list of assumptions. If any


of these assumptions are invalid the predictions
can be way off. The most critical assumptions are
the last three. Assumptions 14 and 15 cause the
outlet concentrations and temperatures to show
sharp jumps instead of the experimentally ob-
served S-shaped curves. Alternate mathematical
models which are more realistic but much more
complex are reviewed by Sherwood et al [19]. As-
sumption 16 can also cause physically impossible
predictions, but fortunately this assumption of
linear equilibrium is easily relaxed (see the next
section).
As we have seen this model greatly over-
simplifies the actual fluid flow and heat and mass
transfer processes occurring in the column. Be-
cause of this the predicted separation is always
better than that obtained in practice. What is this
model good for? The model is simple and can thus
be used to analyze rather complex processes. The
model does predict when the peak maximum will
exit and thus is a good guide for setting operating
variables. Since this model predicts the best
possible separation, the model can be used to de-
termine if, at its best, a separation scheme is of
interest. Since the predictions made are qualita-
tively correct, as long as the model predictions are
interpreted in a qualitative or at best semi-
quantitative sense the model is very useful.

NONLINEAR SYSTEMS
If the equilibrium isotherm is nonlinear the
basic structure developed here is still applicable,
but we must use Eqs. (5) and (11) instead of (7)
and (12). The solute velocity now depends on
both temperature and concentration. Once a
specific isotherm is determined it can be substi-
tuted into Eq. (5). For example, if the Freundlich
isotherm


q = A(T)c1 k<
is used, then
lim Aq q kA(T)-
Ac-40 Ac ac
and


(14)


(15)


usolute = +


[(l-a)/a] eKd + [(1-a)/a] Kd(1-e)p,kA(T) c-1


(16)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








This is shown in Fig. 5C and the outlet concentra-
tion is calculated in Fig. 5D.
Nonlinear isotherms can result in interesting
interactions when various shock and diffuse waves
intersect. The mathematical principles involved
in switching from differential to finite elements is
also a good pedalogical tool for teaching graduate
students. For graduate students I rigorously de-
rive all these results using the local equilibrium
model and the method of characteristics [19, 22].

COUNTER-CURRENT OPERATION I. Continuous Flow
In most chemical engineering unit operations
continuous counter-current flow is used since it is
usually the most efficient way to operate. Counter-
current movement of solids and fluid is difficult
Continued on page 44.


C. I


_____I


TIME
FIGURE 4. Diffuse waves: A) Inlet concentration; B)
Solute movement; C) Outlet concentration.



A diffuse wave occurs when a concentrated
solution is displaced by a dilute system. This is
illustrated in Fig. 4 where the outlet wave con-
centrations are calculated. If we try the reverse
(dilute solution displaced by a concentrated solu-
tion) then the limit does not exist since Ac has a
finite value. A shock wave occurs. Another way of
looking at this is Eq. (16) predicts a lower slope
for dilute systems. When a concentrated solution
displaces a dilute solution (Fig. 5A), the theory
predicts that the solute lines overlap and two
different concentrations occur simultaneously
(Fig. 5B). This is physically impossible. To avoid
this problem a mass balance is done on a finite
section of the column of length Az. This balance
is the same as Eq. (10) except 1 refers to before
the shock and 2 after the shock. Now we select the
time interval At = Az/ushock so that the shock has
passed through the entire section. Solving for the
shock wave velocity, we obtain


Z





C


FIGURE 5. Shock wave: A) Inlet concentration; B) Solute
waves following Eq. 18; C) Shock wave; D) Outlet
concentration.


V
ushock = 1 + [(l-a)/a]eKd + [(l-a)/a] (1-e) KdpS [(q2-q) /(c2-c1)] (17)


WINTER 1984









Classroom


THE PROCESS DESIGN COURSES AT PENNSYLVANIA:*


Impact Of Process Simulators


WARREN D. SEIDER
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104

F OR THE PAST 35 years, a two-semester process
design sequence has been taught at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania. This sequence is unique
in several aspects, most notably its diversity of de-
sign projects, involving seven faculty advisors and
seven consultants from local industry. The fall
lecture course, "Introduction to Process Design,"
covers the methodology of process design and pre-
pares our students for the spring project course,
"Plant Design Project," which is intended to pro-
vide a meaningful design experience. This article
is focused on the impact of process simulators in
recent years.
In 1967, we began to introduce computing
technology and modern design strategies, princi-
pally in the sophomore course on "Material and
Energy Balances," and have gradually integrated
process simulators into the design sequence. Our
objective was to strengthen the highly successful
sequence developed by Melvin C. Molstad, A.
Norman Hixson, other faculty, and our many in-
dustrial consultants. From 1967-1973, our efforts
to develop educational materials (principally soft-
ware) far outweighed the benefits to the students.
However, in 1974, the availability of Monsanto's
FLOWTRAN Simulator finally made this step
successful. Additional industrial simulators have
since become available and the benefits to our
students now far outweigh our past efforts.

*Based on a lecture at the ASEE Summer School for
ChE faculty, Santa Barbara, CA, August, 1982.

Initially, the steps to
satisfy a societal need are summarized
e.g., the conversion of coal to
liquid and gaseous fuels.


Warren D. Seider is Associate Professor of chemical engineering
at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his B.S. Degree from
the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and Ph.D. Degree from the
University of Michigan. Warren's research concentrates on mathe-
matical modelling for process design and analysis. He and his
students have developed new methods for calculation of phase and
chemical equilibria, analysis of azeotropic distillation towers, analysis
of complex reaction systems, and integration of stiff systems. Warren
teaches courses with emphasis on process analysis and design. He has
co-authored Introduction to Chemical Engineering and Computer
Calculations (with A. L. Myers) and FLOWTRAN Simulation-An Intro-
duction (with J. D. Seader and A. C. Pauls). He helped to organize
CACHE and served as the first chairman from 1971-73. In 1979 he was
elected Chairman of the CAST Division of AIChE and in 1983 he was
elected a Director of AIChE.

Design courses are normally taught last in
the chemical engineering curriculum and, hence,
the details of the lecture course depend somewhat
on the prerequisite courses-and class size. Hope-
fully, this discussion of our particular format will
provide useful ideas.

FALL LECTURE COURSE:
INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS DESIGN
The outline of topics and associated lecture
hours are listed in Table 1. Two books are re-
quired: Plant Design and Economics for Chemical
Engineers [7], and FLOWTRAN Simulation-An

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









TABLE 1
Outline of topics. Fall lecture course.
Lecture Hours

Introduction 1
Process Synthesis 1
Analysis of Flowsheets-FLOWTRAN 12
Simulation
Design of Heat Exchangers 8
Cost Estimation 3
Time-Value of Money, Taxes, Depreciation 3
Profitability Analysis 2
Optimization 3
Heat Integration 4
Synthesis of Separation Processes 2
Selection of Design Projects (for 1
Spring Project Course)
Exams 2
42


Introduction [9]. In addition, materials are taken
from seven other sources which are placed on re-
serve in our library [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11].
The course expands upon the steps in the de-
velopment of a new chemical process as shown in
Fig. 1 (based upon a similar figure in Rudd and
Watson [8]). Initially, the steps to satisfy a societal
need are summarized; e.g., the conversion of coal
to liquid and gaseous fuels. Of course, the steps
are not always carried out in the sequence shown.
For example, a sensitivity analysis is often per-
formed prior to an economic analysis. In the inte-
grated plants of today, aspects of transient and
safety analysis must also be considered in the
synthesis of the process flowsheet.
Next, the steps in the synthesis of a vinyl
chloride process are illustrated with the intent of
exposing the steps that enter into the invention
of alternative flowsheets. Fig. 2 shows the evolu-
tion of one flowsheet, beginning with selection of
the reaction path (not shown), followed by the
distribution of chemicals (matching sources and
sinks and introducing recycle), selection of the
separation steps, the temperature and phase
change operations (not shown), and, finally, the
integration into chemical process equipment. This
is based upon Chapter 3, "Process Synthesis," in
Introduction to Chemical Engineering and Com-
puter Calculations [6]. It is noteworthy that steam
is used to vaporize dichloroethane and cooling
water to cool the reaction products in a quench
operation. We emphasize the desirability of heat
integration, when feasible, but because carbon
would deposit in the evaporator tubes, a rapid
low-temperature quench, with water as the cool-


Principal emphasis is given
to the subroutines to model the process
units such as vapor-liquid separators, multi-staged
towers, heat exchangers, compressors,
and reactors.



ing medium, is necessary.
Having introduced the concepts of flowsheet
synthesis, attention is turned to the analysis of
alternative flowsheets. In practice, of course, the
two go hand-in-hand. FLOWTRAN is used princi-
pally because our book [9] is written in a tutorial
fashion, as compared with the usual User Manuals.
FLOWTRAN has been available for students on
United Computing Systems, but its usage has been
limited by the relatively high cost of commercial
computers. Recently, however, like ChemShare
(DESIGN/2000) and Simulation Sciences (PRO-
CESS), Monsanto has made FLOWTRAN avail-
able for installation on university computers-

Societal Need

Define General E economic Forecasts


Information P ormanc Proram

Alternative
Process Concepts

Synthesize
Process Operations
Select
Equipment

I ...... I Modify Process
Cond lonsModty Process


FIGURE 1. Steps in the development of a new chemical
process.


WINTER 1984








greatly improving the effectiveness of process
simulators in the design course.
Principal emphasis is given to the subroutines
to model the process units such as vapor-liquid
separators, multi-staged towers, heat exchangers,
compressors, and reactors. There are several sub-
routines to solve the equations that model each
process unit. The models vary in specifications and
rigor and it is important that the design student
understand the underlying assumptions, but not
the solution algorithm. We review the assumptions
and make recommendations concerning usage of
the subroutines listed in Fig. 3. For example, the
PUMP routine disregards the capacity-head curve
and uses the viscosity of pure water. When de-
signing a distillation tower, use of DSTWU is
recommended to calculate the minimum number
of trays, the minimum reflux ratio, and the theo-
retical number of trays (given the reflux ratio),
followed by DISTL which uses the Edmister as-
sumptions to simulate the tower and, in some cases,
FRAKB or AFRAC to solve the MESH equations
with fewer assumptions.
The synthesis of the simulation flowsheet is
also emphasized with consideration of novel ways
of using the subroutines to analyze a process
flowsheet. For example, consider the quench pro-
cess (Fig. 4a) in which hot gases are contacted
with a cold liquid stream. Given the recycle
fraction, and assuming that the vapor and liquid
products are at equilibrium with no entrainment,
most designers would develop the simulation flow-
sheet shown in Fig. 4b. However, iterative recycle
calculations are unnecessary because the vapor
and liquid products (S3, S5) are independent of
the recirculation rate. In a more efficient simu-
lation flowsheet, the IFLSH subroutine deter-
mines the flow rate and compositions of S3 and S5
(see Fig. 4c). Then, MULPY subroutines com-
pute the flow rates for S4 and S6. Most students
use the "brute-force" approach in Fig. 4b, re-
quiring about 5-10 iterations with Wegstein's
method, before we demonstrate that the iterative
recycle calculations can be avoided.
These lessons are reinforced with a problem to
simulate the reactor section of the toluene hydro-
dealkylation process [9, p. 228]. Feed toluene is
mixed with recycle toluene and a recycle gas
stream. The reaction products at 1268F are
quenched and the recycle fraction is adjusted to
reduce the product temperature to 1150F. As
above, the iterative recycle calculations can be
avoided, although most students use the brute-


Raw Materials
(possibly C2 H4, CI)


Desired Product
(C2H3CI)


a) The process synthesis problem


c., nu l rl abibid
I 1 10 811u h 5;, 10 BlU /0f

SIr.iH Cl0CI, Prolli H CI
Chlfolxion 500. C -C,,CI -- C,ICI

C.HU+CI- 2C1M4C0, C0H4CI-2 C,03CIt+HCI

10.-5 11h,


b) Flow sheet showing distribution of chemicals for thermal cracking of
dichloroethane from chlorination of ethylene (reaction past 3)


c) Flow sheet showing separation scheme for vinyl chloride process


d) Flow sheet showing task integration for the vinyl chloride process
FIGURE 2. Synthesis of a vinyl chloride process (Myers
and Seider [6]).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


i
'c.










force approach.
The FLOWTRAN subroutine EXCH1 imple-
ments the method of thermodynamic effectiveness
(computes terminal temperatures, given the area
and overall heat transfer coefficient), and the
EXCH3 subroutine implements the log-mean
temperature difference method (computes the
area, given terminal temperatures and overall
heat transfer coefficient). Since these methods
are not covered in our course on heat and mass
transfer, the methods are derived and problems
are worked using Chapter 11 of Principles of Heat
Transfer [5] as text material. Then, the students
design a heat exchanger (e.g., 1-4 parallel-
counterflow) with correlations for the heat trans-
fer coefficients and pressure drops on the shell and
tube sides and the methods presented by Kern [4]
and Peters and Timmerhaus [7]. This exposes the
student to more detailed analysis procedures than
are available in most process simulators. Such de-
tail is recommended only when the approximate
models introduce large errors and the cost of a
heat exchanger contributes significantly to the
economics of the process.
This leads to methods of cost estimation.
FLOWTRAN has subroutines for cost estimation,
but the assumptions of the cost models are not


FIGURE 3
FLOWTRAN subroutines (blocks)


stated or referenced. Since no basis is available
for justifying their results, well-established and
clearly stated methods are preferred. The factored
cost methods of Guthrie [3] have been used to
date, but the factors in his article need updating.
We are evaluating the PCOST program de-
veloped at Purdue University [10] and the data


Quenched
Gas


Hot Gas


(a) Process Flowsheet










(b) Iterative Simulation
Flowsheet


Isothermal flash
Adiabatic flash
General purpose flash


SEPR Split fraction specification
DSTWU Winn-Underwood-Gilliland
distillation
DISTL Edmister distillation
FRAKB Tray-to-tray distillation (KB
method)
AFRAC Tray-to-tray distillation and
absorption (matrix method)
HEATR Heat requirement
EXCH1 Shell and tube-method of
thermodynamic effectiveness
EXCH3 Shell and tube-log-mean temp.
diff. method
REACT Fractional conversion specifica-
tion
XTNT Extent of reaction specification


Compression PUMP Centrifugal pump
GCOMP Compressor (or turbine)


Misc.


ADD
SPLIT
MULPY


Mixer
Stream splitter
Stream multiplier


(c) Acyclic Simulation Flowsheet

FIGURE 4. QUENCH process.

books of Woods [12]. Both give cost curves and
factors based upon more recent cost data.
For production or operating costs, the recom-
mendations of Peters and Timmerhaus in Chap. 5
are used with concentration on the direct pro-
duction costs, such as for raw materials, operat-
ing labor, and utilities. The Chemical Marketing
Reporter provides the costs of chemicals bi-weekly
(often for several locations within the United
States).
Next, the concepts of profitability analysis are
introduced, following the sequence of Peters and
Timmerhaus in Chaps. 6-9. The concepts of simple
and compound interest are applied to give the
present and future values of an investment and
to define an annuity. Then, capitalized costs are
covered to provide a basis for evaluating the cost
of equipment having different service lives. For
Continued on page 41.


WINTER 1984


IFLSH
AFLSH
BFLSH


Flash


Stagewise
separation






Heat exchange




Reactor










curriculum


INTRODUCING THE REGULATORY PROCESS

INTO THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM

A Painless Method


FRANKLIN G. KING AND
RAMESH C. CHAWLA
Howard University
Washington, D.C. 20059

E ENGINEERING FACULTY CAN NO longer doubt
that government regulations have had a major
impact on engineering practice. Public policy de-
cisions have resulted from social concerns and
have mandated engineering solutions in many
areas, such as environmental pollution, proper dis-
posal of hazardous wastes, consumer product
safety, and the control of exposure to carcino-
genic and toxic materials. Because technological
invention has such a great impact on our society,
the scope of an engineer's responsibilities must
include a sensitivity for social concerns and the
participation in public policy issues involving
technology. Engineers are directly affected be-
cause our designs are often covered by govern-
ment regulations. Engineers must also provide the
data and technical judgment needed to formu-
late public policy and to write realistic and
technically feasible regulations to implement the
policies. If all these things are true, then an argu-
ment can be made that engineering students
should be exposed to the interaction of engineer-
ing and public policy as part of their professional
education.
There are at least three different ways that an
introduction to government regulations and the

Engineers are directly affected
because our designs are often covered by
government regulations. Engineers must also provide
the data and technical judgment needed
to formulate public policy...

Copyright ChE division. ASEE. 1984


Franklin G. King received his B.S. degree from Penn State, his
masters in education from Howard University, his masters in chemical
engineering from Kansas State and his D.Sc. from Stevens Institute of
Technology. He has been teaching for the last 18 years at Howard
University and at Lafayette College. His current interests include the
development of personalized instruction methods, biochemical engi-
neering and pharmacokinetic modelling of anticancer drugs. (L)
Ramesh C. Chawla is an Associate Professor of chemical engineer-
ing at Howard University. He did his undergraduate work at the
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur and obtained his M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees from Wayne State University. Dr. Chawla is a member
of many professional societies including AIChE, APCA, WPCF, Sigma-
Xi and SAE. He has received several teaching awards including Out-
standing Instructor Award from the Howard University AIChE Student
Chapter and Teetor Award from SAE. His research interests include
kinetics, air and water pollution, and mass transfer. (R)


regulatory process can be integrated into the
chemical engineering curriculum. The first ap-
proach would be to recommend an elective course
on the topic. Many universities have introduced
"Society and Technology" elective courses which
usually focus on the impact of technology as a
social phenomenon, rather than on the technical
aspects of public policy issues. These courses are
often not recommended by engineering faculty be-
cause they do not meet the requirements as a


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








technical or a social science elective. Generally
these courses are not taught by engineering
faculty. Thus, engineering students are deprived
of a role model and get the feeling that engineers
are not concerned with the regulatory process and
public policy issues. Also, since the courses are
elective courses, many students may not select
them voluntarily.
A second approach is the use of interdisciplin-
ary project-oriented courses. The course would be
team-taught by both engineering and social
science faculty and the students could be both
technical and non-technical. As an example, a
course could be devoted to a project of cleaning
up a river where the team would have to consider
both the technical and the social aspects of differ-
ent solutions. These courses require a consider-
able amount of faculty time to organize and
develop. They also require cooperation of different
departments operating on different budgets.
A third technique is to use engineering case
studies to introduce public policy considerations
directly into the engineering curriculum. The use
of case studies can overcome the local problem of
developing and sustaining projects with public
policy issues. If case materials were available and
if only part of a course involved issues concerning
public policy, then many faculty might be willing
to get involved. On the other hand, few engineer-
ing faculty would feel comfortable with or be
willing to teach an entire course dealing with
public policy. However, if faculty would give
students even a small peek at public policy issues
they should be able to foster an awareness of the
relevance of the social science/humanities com-
ponent in education. We, as engineering faculty,
might even grow a bit as we come to understand
the impact of policy issues on the practice of engi-
neering education.
We would like to describe a project which was
aimed at developing a number of case studies with
public policy considerations and how we have
introduced public policy into our undergraduate
curriculum at Howard University. We would also
invite you to get involved so that case studies can be
developed that can be used in chemical engineer-
ing curricula.

THE EPEPP PROJECT
The Educating Prospective Engineers for
Public Policy (EPEPP) project is administered by
ASEE with the University of Washington as the
academic sponsor and Professor Barry Hyman [2]


The goal of the project is to provide
future engineers with the tools necessary to
contribute professionally to the resolution of
technically intensive public policy issues.



as the project director. The project has the
financial support from the National Science
Foundation, Sun Oil Company, General Motors,
and nine engineering societies. AIChE has become
a sponsor for the 1984 program.
The goal of the project is to provide future
engineers with the tools necessary to contribute
professionally to the resolution of technically in-
tensive public policy issues. The project is in re-
sponse to the needs of society to have a greater
technical input into the making of public policy
in engineering and technology areas and to the
needs of engineers to have a broadened awareness
and understanding of the meaning of public policy.
The project is geared to produce case studies on
topics concerning public policy issues which have
technical components. The objective of the pro-
ject will be accomplished by the direct experience
of a small number of students and faculty and
by the integration of the case studies into the
typical engineering curriculum.
The project has three major integrated com-
ponents: 1) Washington Internship for Students
of Engineering (WISE); 2) the development of
case studies on engineering and public policy on
topics based on the WISE program; and 3) a series
of regional ASEE faculty workshops to promote
the utilization of case studies.
The WISE Program provides an opportunity
for about 15 third-year engineering students to
spend 10 weeks during the summer studying the
relationship between engineering and public
policy. An objective of the WISE program is for
the students to gain an understanding of the ope-
ration of the federal government so that they can
appreciate the non-technical aspects of technology
related public policy problems. The students re-
ceive a stipend of $1750 to cover expenses. They
also receive 3 credits from University of Washing-
ton. Their goal for the summer is to complete a
written report on their project to provide the basis
of a case study. The students are selected com-
petitively by the sponsoring engineering societies.
Fortunately, five chemical engineers have been
selected even though AIChE was not a sponsor.


WINTER 1984











1980 1981 1982
5 4 5
3 2 3
2 (SAE, 2(ANS) I(ANS)
NSPE)


*One or more students were sponsored by the societies
shown in parenthesis-Society of Automotive Engineers
(SAE), National Society of Professional Engineers
(NSPE) and American Nuclear Society (ANS).



Table 1 lists past WISE participants by back-
ground.
In pursuing their specific projects, the students
spend about 5 hours a week in a classroom setting
discussing the dimensions of engineering and
public policy [4]. In pursuing their specific projects,
the students interact regularly with ASEE head-
quarters, the Washington office of their sponsor-
ing societies, government agencies, congressional
staff, corporate lobbyists and consumer advocates.
They also attend seminars by leading experts on
current issues of interest to the technical com-
munity and to society.
The classroom work and field work is co-
ordinated by a faculty-member-in-residence. The
faculty-member-in-residence meets regularly with
individual WISE students to monitor the progress
of their activities. The faculty-member-in-resi-
dence is selected on the basis of first-hand ex-
perience with public issues, record of teaching,
and familiarity with the case method of instruc-
tion. Professors Charles Overby (Ohio University),
Paul Craig (UC-Davis), and F. Karl Willenbrock

TABLE 2
1980 WISE Case Studies

* Regulation of trihalomethanes in drinking water
* Subsurface disposal of hazardous waste
* Problems with implementing an effective automobile
fuel economy program
* Management of high-level radioactive wastes
* Building energy performance standards


TABLE 1
WISE Participants*


DISCIPLINE
C.E.
Ch.E. (Howard, Suny-Buffalo)
M.E.
I.E.
E.E.


NUMBER


regional ASEE conferences. The workshops are
to encourage and publicize the use of EPEPP cases
on many campuses. Ten of the faculty that ex-
pressed an interest in the project were invited to
participate in a case workshop which was held in
conjunction with the 1981 ASEE Annual Confer-
ence. The field test faculty were selected to get a
mix of disciplines and geographical areas. The
distribution by disciplines is shown in Table 3.

USING ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES
An engineering case study is a written account
of an engineering activity as it actually took
place [3]. A case gives the sequence of events of a
real experience, often from the viewpoint of one
or more participants. Unlike a technical paper


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


INTERNS
Mechanical Engineering
Civil Engineering
Chemical Engineering

Electrical Engineering
Agricultural Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Aeronautical Engineering
Manufacturing Engineering
Energy Systems Engineering
Nuclear Engineering
Engineering & Public Policy
Engineering Science


(SMU) were the faculty-members-in-residence for
the first three years of the program.
The second phase of the EPEPP project is to
convert the student papers into draft cases and
to coordinate the preparation for classroom testing
of the drafts [1]. In autumn 1980, in response to a
national questionnaire, about 75 faculty expressed
interest in using a case on a specific area and to
participate in workshops on the use of the cases.
On the basis of the questionnaire, five topics were
selected by the project director to be converted
into draft cases. The topics selected are listed
in Table 2. As part of the process of converting
the papers into draft cases, additional introductory
material was written describing the regulatory
process. Exerpts from the Federal Register and
transcripts of expert testimony on proposed rules
were included where appropriate. An Instructor's
Guide was also written for each case. The Guide
contains suggestions on how each case might be
used.
The third and final component of the project is
the validation of the cases and their integration
into engineering curricula. The validation and
integration of the cases are to be accomplished
by classroom testing and a series of workshops at

TABLE 3
Faculty Participation









which focuses on the validity of a solution, a case
considers how the results were obtained. A case
often shows how the participants interacted to ac-
complish the engineering task. A case is often
written in segments to allow class study or dis-
cussion at critical decision points. Cases, like de-
sign projects, have no single correct answer and
depend on many subdivisions of engineering. They
often raise questions of human behavior and
ethics as well as technical questions, and thus
permit many possible solutions.
Engineering cases can be used in many differ-
ent ways. A list of some of the more common
methods is given in Table 4. Using cases as read-

TABLE 4
Classroom Uses of Case Material
Reading assignments
Background to specific problems
Practice in formulating problems
Subjects for class discussion
Medium for relating engineering history and illustrat-
ing the engineering method
Motivation for laboratory work
Background and source for research or design projects


ing material is the simplest method, but it is
probably the least effective. One of the other
methods should probably be selected since students
will be more involved in the learning process.

EXPERIENCE AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY
We used the draft case study "Regulation of
Trihalomethanes (THM's) in Drinking Water" as
part of our first chemical engineering course
"Introduction to Engineering Design." All of our
students were concurrently taking their second
semester of chemistry and calculus. The THM
case was selected from the available cases be-
cause it had a strong chemistry component and
the topic had the most interest to chemical engi-
neers.
The students were all given a copy of the case
study as a reading assignment and were given a
short technical presentation on the formation
of THM's in water. Every attempt was made to
insure unbiased dissemination of information. The
students were next organized, voluntarily, into one
of six groups consisting of the EPA, Congress, in-
dustry, consumer groups, research centers and
universities, and judges. Each group was asked
to prepare themselves for a role-playing discus-
sion of the topic. Each group then met individual-


Unlike a technical paper which focuses
on the validity of a solution, a case considers
how the results were obtained ... Cases, like design
projects, have no single correct answer and
depend on many subdivisions
of engineering.



ly to formulate their strategy. They were en-
couraged to explore the topic in as great technical
detail as possible. The students were expected to
present and defend the positions of their group,
rather than express their personal views.
The discussion period consisted of a two-hour
session which began by having each group's
spokesperson summarize the group's role in the
regulation process. Two faculty members and a
senior student joined the judges group to moder-
ate and guide the discussion and to bring out
various aspects of the problem. The judges also
acted to evaluate individual student and group
performance. A lively debate followed, with each
group questioning the others. The judges were
successful in keeping the discussion going and
getting most of the students involved in the dis-
cussion. The student judges were unanimous in
siding with the consumer group, their evaluation
being more on an emotional basis than a factual
one. The faculty judges felt that the discussions
should have been more technical, but everyone
agreed that they had a better understanding of the
regulatory process and why engineers must be in-
volved.
We plan to continue using the case studies in
our freshman class and intend to introduce them
in the senior level design course. We expect to get
a better technical response from the seniors, but
both groups will gain a sensitivity for the social
responsibility of engineers. O

REFERENCES
1. Federow, H. L., and B. Hyman. "Developing Case
Histories from the WISE Program," Proceedings of
the 1981 ASEE Annual Conference, pp. 1011-1015.
2. Hyman, Barry (EPEPP Project Director). Program
in Social Management of Technology, FS-15. Uni-
versity of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195.
3. Kardos, G., and C. O. Smith. "On Writing Engineer-
ing Cases." Proceedings of the 1979 ASEE Engineer-
ing Case Studies Conference.
4. Overby, C. M. "Engineering and Public Policy: Re-
flections by the 1980 (WISE) Faculty-Member-in-
Residence." Proceedings of the 1981 ASEE Annual
Conference, pp. 1004-1009.


WINTER 1984










BS5 classroom


MODULAR INSTRUCTION


UNDER RESTRICTED CONDITIONS


TJIPTO UTOMO
Bandung Institute of Technology
Bandung, Indonesia

KEES RUIJTER
Twente University of Technology
Enschede, The Netherlands

D UE TO THE ECONOMIC recession and cuts in edu-
cational budgets, discussions on the efficiency
of the education system (especially with regard
to faculty time) have only recently been started
in the Western world. For developing countries,
however, this is not only a well known problem
but only one of many problems. Besides having a
















Tjipto Utomo graduated from high school in 1941 but had to
suspend his academic activities during the second World War and
the following struggle for independence. He began university studies
in 1950 and graduated from the chemical engineering department of
the Institute of Technology Bandung in 1957. He obtained his MChE
degree in 1959 from the University of Louisville and is presently a
professor at the Institute of Technology Bandung. (L)
Kees T. A. Ruijter is a graduate in chemistry from the University
of Amsterdam. During the years of 1979-1983 he worked in the
Dutch-Indonesian program on upgrading chemical engineering edu-
cation in Indonesia. Before that he was with the Twente University
of Technology (Holland) working on the development of chemical
engineering education and he has now returned there. His main
areas of interest are lab course improvement, efficiency of the learn-
ing-teaching process, and curriculum evaluation and development. (R)


small faculty, underpaid and overoccupied with
additional activities, universities often face such
conditions as inhomogeneous classes (in capability
as well as in motivation), low staff-student ratios,
rapidly increasing enrollments, and the need for
more graduates.
In a cooperative project between the Bandung
Institute of Technology (ITB) and technical uni-
versities in The Netherlands, the educational sys-
tem was improved gradually within these restric-
tive conditions [1]. One of the main features, a
modified modular instructional system, is the
subject of this article.

THE TRANSPORT PHENOMENA COURSE
The transport phenomena (T.P.) course is a
fourth semester course. However, because the first
year is a common basic science program for all
ITB students, it is their first real confrontation
with engineering concepts. For this reason and
because less than 30% of the students passed
yearly, the T.P. course was chosen as our pilot
course.
In the first phase of reconstruction the course
and its context were thoroughly evaluated. Some
measures were investigated in an experimental
set-up and implemented step-wise. The main find-
ings were
1. Only a few students perform at an acceptable level.
Many students know the principles and laws but
cannot apply them in any situation.
We decided to restrict the number of topics to be
discussed and to require the students to perform
at a higher level of competence.
2. The individual differences in student performance are
enormous (despite the common first year program).
To minimize this problem we developed a modu-
lar instruction scheme enabling the students to
study at their own pace.
3. The students (80%) are not able to read English
texts.
Also, because the lecture as a source of informa-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









tion is inadequate for an inhomogeneous class,
we decided that all information (text, examples,
exercises and solutions) should be made avail-
able on paper.
4. Students do not solve the problems systematically
and they have difficulty in describing physical phe-
nomena in mathematical terms.
For this we adopted a methodology for solving
science problems and modified it for the T.P.
problems [2, 3].
5. Individual guidance of students working on prob-
lems is quite effective but cannot be applied to
exercises at home because of lack of tutors.
An instructional scheme was developed wherein
the presentation of theory and applications by
the teacher was followed directly by individual
exercises in class and continued at home.
6. The usual norm-referenced grading procedure ap-
pears to be inadequate to evaluate effectiveness of
learning and instruction and is demotivating for the
students.
In grading the module exams we applied the
criterion-referenced performance assessment. As
criterion we chose 60%, the minimum level of
mastery necessary to take the following module.

MODULAR INSTRUCTION

Modularization is a classical solution for the
problem of an inhomogeneous student population.
Students in such a group differ in capability, in-
telligence, and motivation, resulting in different
time requirements for study. In a modular scheme
the allowed time is made to correspond with the
students' required time. The course is divided into
modules, enabling students to choose more or less
individual paths [4]. However, we could not apply
all principles of modular instruction because
ITB students are not able to study on their own
(they have never studied in instructional schemes
other than the lecture).
Faculty time is very restricted and assistants,
proctors, or administrative staff are not available.
Therefore we limited the number of examina-
tions and the opportunity for remedial instruction
and developed a teacher-paced modular system.
The contents of the T.P. course are very suitable
for modularization because of the similarity
among the three sections: transfer of momentum,
heat, and mass. After the first part the other two
can be presented by analogy.
The contents were divided into 6 modules; 3
modules covering the basics of momentum, heat,
and mass transfer; 2 covering extensions and ap-
plications of these; and the 6th module (C-2, ex-
tension of mass transfer) is postponed to the unit
operations courses. The first module is a small
module, to encourage the students to start their


We developed a teacher-paced
modular system which allows the students
to study on a full or a 60% pace
(a 2 gear-system).


study immediately. The students can concentrate
on the macro-balance approach and by the time
they are acquainted with this concept and the new
instructional system, the micro-balance approach
is introduced (see Table 1).

TABLE 1
Contents of 5 Modules


MODULE
A-1


SUBJECT
INTRODUCTION
Transport phenomena
Laws of conservation


MOMENTUM TRANSPORT
Laminar flow
Sample problems
Abstract and exercise
Dimensional analysis
Exercise
A-2 Flow in pipes
Turbulent flow
Pressure drop in tube flow
Flow in conduits with varying cross section
Sample problems
Abstract and exercise
Flow around objects
Exercise
B-1 MICROBALANCES
Introduction
Equation of Continuity
Equation of Motion
Application of the equation
Abstract and exercise
HEAT TRANSPORT
Introduction
Equation of Energy
Application of the equation of energy
Abstract and exercise
B-2 Unsteady state conduction
Heat transfer by convection
Radiation
Abstract and exercise
C-1 MASS TRANSPORT
Diffusion
Mass transfer
Coefficient of mass transfer
The film theory
Concentration distribution
Unsteady state diffusion
Mass transfer by convection
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer
Abstract and exercise


WINTER 1984









The examination procedure forces the students
to concentrate on the basic modules. Only students
who pass the first module (A-l) are allowed to
proceed to the second module (A-2). The others
must repeat the A-1 exam, which is scheduled at
the same time as the regular module A-2 exam.
This procedure requires the least possible time
from the lecturer. For the same reason, no reme-
dial instruction for repeating students is organ-
ized. The printed text and work-out exercises
should enable them to prepare for the repetition.
As a consequence, as many students as possible
who are starting to study heat transfer have
passed module A-1 and have a proper compre-
hension of the essentials of momentum transfer.
The procedure for the second section is quite simi-
lar.
A calculation showed that the examination for
modular instruction should consume no more in-
structor time than examination by the former
method, if 60% of the group passes on the first
attempt.
Since 1981 all homework problems have been
directly related to classroom exercise. Feedback
on the exercises was provided in class and in the
lecture notes (answers), while many worked-out
problems were shown in show-windows. All prob-
lems were worked out in four phases: analysis,
plan, elaboration, evaluation. Only a precise result
in one phase allows the problem solver to proceed
to the next phase. The results at each phase enable
the instructor to provide adequate feedback and
allows the students to look for adequate in-
formation about their solving process. This prob-
lem solving scheme was also followed for examina-
tions.

RESULTS

The module test results of 1981 are shown in
Table 2. The student performances were accept-
able except for modules B-2 and C. Here a final
module effect, "we have got the ticket," seems
likely.
After the tests only 66% had to repeat two
modules or less. Most of them were able to pass
the respective parts of the final exam and thus the
whole course. This and the overall effect of the re-
construction is shown in Table 3.
By means of questionnaires, interviews, and
analysis of examination results, other informa-
tion was collected on

TIME SPENT Students did not feel the modular


TABLE 2
1981 Module Test Results


STUDENTS WITH SCORE
ABOVE 60%
First Second Final
MODULE attempt attempt exam
A-1 95 (70%) 34 1
A-2 67 (70%)* ** 35
B-1 97 (72%) 26 1
B-2 55 (57%) ** 1
C 27 (20%) ** 77


% Students
passed
(N=135)
96
67
92
41
77


*Percentage of number of participants in the examina-
tion. Here 67 passed out of 95 students allowed to par-
ticipate.
**For these modules the final exam is the second attempt.


system forced them to spend more time on trans-
port phenomena.
PROBLEM SOLVING The plan phase was very
difficult for the students. The lecturer considers the
systematical method on problem solving not only
as a means for learning but also as a sound tool for
instruction and explanation to the students.
ATTENDANCE AT LECTURES/INSTRUCTIONS
The number of students attending the lectures
during the semester was higher than before. The
decrease in attendance during modules B-2 and C
was partly caused by the interference of labora-
tory activities. This explains the lower scores on
these modules.
ACCEPTANCE Students and lecturer were very
positive about the reconstructed course and the
modular system.


CONCLUSIONS

The examination results of the reconstructed
courses and the general acceptance show that the
modular T.P. course is a substantially improved
course. The better performance of the students is
not a result of an increase in their efforts or the


TABLE 3
Distribution of Final Grades for the TP Course
During and After 1980


GRADE
A
B
C
(A+B+C)
D
E
F


1980
0%
2.5%
18.5%
(21.0%)
25.2%
30.3%
23.5%


1981
3.3%
30.1%
46.3%
(79.7%)
12.2%
0%
8.1%


1982
21.0%
29.5%
27.6%
(78.1%)
5.7%
4.8%
11.4%


A/B/C-Passed: D-Passed conditionally: E/F-Failed.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








activities of the teacher, but by a more efficient
use of the students' and lecturer's time; i.e. the
internal efficiency of the instructional process has
been improved.
The main feature of the new course is the
modular system. We developed a teacher-paced
modular system which allows the students to study
on a full or a 60% pace (a 2 gear-system). Re-
medial teaching was not applied. This system re-
sulted in a constant study load in transport phe-
nomena during the semester and few students lost
the junction in an early phase as they had in the
past. We may conclude that it is worthwhile to
apply a modular scheme, even under very re-
stricted conditions of faculty time. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This educational upgrading program was
sponsored by The Netherlands Ministery of De-
velopment Cooperation.

LITERATURE
1. Ruijter, K. and Tjipto Utomo, "The Improvement of
Higher Education in Indonesia: A Project Approach."
Higher Education, 12 (1983).
2. Mettes, C. T. C. W., et al., "Teaching and Learning
Problem Solving in Science," Part I; Journal of
Chemical Education, 57/12 (1980).
3. Idem, Part II: Journal of Chemical Education, 58/1
(1981).
4. Russel, J. D., "Modular Instruction," Burgess Co.,
1974.


Book reviews

THE HISTORY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
AT CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY
By Robert R. Rothfus
Carnegie-Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213, 302 pages
Reviewed by
Robert B. Beckmann
University of Maryland

The author, Robert R. Rothfus has been asso-
ciated with the chemical engineering program at
Carnegie-Mellon, as a graduate student and fac-
ulty member, for over forty years, a period that
covers over half the Chemical Engineering pro-
grams total existence and almost the entire period
of its existence as a separate department. The book
was obviously a labor of love to Professor Rothfus


as evidenced by its attention to statistical detail
and anecdotes as well as historical development.
The first part of the book outlines the histori-
cal development of the school beginning with An-
drew Carnegie's original offer to establish an
institution for technical education on 15 Novem-
ber 1900 and traces the development from the
"Carnegie Technical Schools" to the transition
(1912) to Carnegie Institute of Technology and
the final transition (1967) to Carnegie Mellon
University. Following the detailed development
to University status the book turns to the histori-
cal growth and development of the original School
of Applied Science one of the four original
Schools founded by the Carnegie gift .. to the
current College of Engineering. The first diplomas
in Chemical Engineering Practice were awarded
in 1908 along with the initial "Diplomas" in the
Civil, Electrical, Mechanical and Metallurgical
Practice fields. Included are statistical and organi-
zational details relating to the various depart-
ments, research laboratories, interdisciplinary
programs, the academic calendar, tuition and en-
rollments.
The development and growth of the Chemical
Engineering Department is chronicled in Chap-
ter 4, beginning with the original Chemical Prac-
tice program in 1905 and the transition to Chemi-
cal Engineering in 1910. The chapter divides the
history of the Department into quantum periods
depending upon who was the chief administrative
officer of the department during that period. The
problems, issues and accomplishments of each
period are well chronicled. The development is
carried through 1980.
Part Two of the book, which comprises over 40
percent of the total pages is devoted to an ex-
haustive presentation of departmental statistics
from its inception through 1980. The various
chapters include such topics as enrollment and
degrees granted, the faculty over the years, the
changing undergraduate curriculum and gradu-
ate instruction, research activities and financial
support and anecdotal sections devoted to depart-
mental "personalities" and a recalling of the un-
usual, comical and tragicomical events over the
years. The Appendices, about a third of the book,
are devoted to a complete delineation of faculty,
staff and students (graduate and undergraduate)
by name and years of service, or graduation, who
have been a part of the Carnegie Story in chemi-
cal engineering.
Continued on page 48.


WINTER 1984









[ class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type than can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scot Fogler, ChE department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.



SETTING THE PRESSURE

AT WHICH TO CONDUCT A DISTILLATION


ALLEN J. BARDUHN
Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY 13210

This memorandum was issued to the students
in chemical engineering stage operations, most
of whom are sophomores and first semester
juniors but none of whom have yet had any heat
transfer courses. Thus the elementary explana-
tion of heat exchangers may be unnecessary for
more experienced students.
The subject of the memorandum is usually not
covered at all in stage operation texts, or at most
only lightly covered. In most of the problems on
this subject for distillation the pressure is given
but there is no statement as to how it is de-
termined.
When the pressure is given, most students
(and a few professors) will have no idea whether
it is reasonable or even possible.

T HE MINIMUM PRESSURE at which to conduct a
distillation is set by the condenser. The
temperature of condensation of the top product
must be high enough to condense it with the cool-
ing water available. We remove heat in the con-
denser with cooling water which rises in tempera-
ture as it removes heat, since its sensible heat rises


The maximum pressure for the
separation is set by the reboiler. The boiling
temperature of the bottom product must be low enough
to be boiled by condensing the
steam available.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1984


with temperature. Also the condensing tempera-
tures of the overhead product increase with in-
creasing pressure.
The maximum pressure for the separation is
set by the reboiler. The boiling temperature of
the bottom product must be low enough to be
boiled by condensing the steam available. We must
be able to add heat to the reboiler, by having the
heat source at a higher temperature than the
bubble point of the bottom product.

HEAT EXCHANGERS
Both the condenser and the reboiler are generic
heat exchangers and all heat exchangers require
that there be a temperature difference between
the source of heat and the sink, i.e. the source
must be hotter than the sink. The local tempera-
ture difference (At) between the two streams ex-
changing heat is often not a constant but it must
be everywhere greater than zero. If the At is zero
anywhere in the exchanger, the area required to
transfer the heat becomes uneconomically large.
It is useful to plot the temperature history in any
heat exchanger to see what the At (driving force)
is and how it varies throughout the device. For
example, the overhead vapors (from a distillation
column when heat is removed) will first begin to
condense at their dew point. Further cooling will
condense more until it is completely condensed at
the bubble point.

THE CONDENSER
If the dew point of the overhead product at
the column pressure is 1400F and the bubble
point is 120oF-and if the inlet cooling water is


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









70F and a 30F rise may be taken-the tempera-
ture pattern in the condenser when the overhead is
condensed completely but not subcooled is repre-
sented in Fig. 1.
The At driving heat transfer is thus between
400 and 50F. This is quite adequate, but At's as
low as 10 or 20F are not uncommon.
Now if the pressure of operation were lowered
then the dew and bubble point temperatures would
be less than those shown and they might ap-
proach the cooling water temperature, thus de-
creasing the At which drives heat transfer and
increasing the area required according to the de-
sign equation

A = ft2 Area req'd. = U At
U Atlmean
where Q = the rate at which heat is to be
transferred (Btu/hr.)
U = the overall heat transfer coefficient
Btu/[(hr) (ft2) (oF)]
Atmean = the mean driving force tempera-
ture difference in F.


1-

All during my undergraduate days (1936-1940) at the University
of Washington in Seattle, the country was in the depths of the great
depression and jobs were scarce. After obtaining my M.S. I was
lucky to get one job offer with an oil refinery in California which I
promptly accepted and started to work 24 November, 1941 just two
weeks before Pearl Harbor.
The refinery work was very good chemical engineering experience
for me. I worked there for over 7 years and remember wondering
when I first arrived, why all de-butanizers operated at 50 to 60 psig
and all depropanizers operated at 180 psig. When I later figured it
out it was simple but I seldom come across any professors who
have thought about it enough to have a well organized answer to my
question of "How is the Pressure Set for a Distillation Column?" I
have yet to see a thorough or even a sketchy treatment of this subject
in any text on distillation. So I thought it would be appropriate to
write this article for a class in Stage Operations and perhaps to
publish it in CEE. The elementary discussion of heat exchangers was
necessary because the students had not yet taken a course in heat
transfer. (Informal biographical sketch submitted by author.)


The condenser thus
sets the minimum pressure at
which the column must operate. To
find this minimum pressure, first find the bubble
point pressure of the D product...


140F o,,
WaterOUT= --I
At= 400F c120F
1200F
70F= Water IN
At = 50F
FIGURE 1.

The mean At is usually somewhere between the
two terminal temperature differences (unless one
of them is 0) and you will learn in Transport II
how to calculate these mean At's.
The condenser thus sets the minimum pressure
at which the column must operate. To find this
minimum pressure, first find the bubble point
pressure of the D product at a temperature of say
100 or 20F higher than the inlet cooling water
temperature. For a binary distillation this can
be taken from the P-x-y diagram for that tempera-
ture, and for multicomponent mixtures one must
use the relations for vapor-liquid equilibrium in
multicomponent mixtures.

THE REBOILER
As the column pressure is increased, the At in
the condenser will just get bigger and this is satis-
factory; but the pressure also affects the opera-
tion of the reboiler in the opposite fashion. The
material being boiled in the reboiler has the com-
position of the bottom product and the boiling
temperature is the bubble point of W, the bottom
product. It is fixed once its composition and the
pressure are known. The heat source is usually
condensing steam and the steam condensing
temperature must thus be at least 10 or 20F
above the bubble point of the bottoms product.
Since the latter temperature goes up with in-
creasing pressure, this sets a maximum pressure at
which the distillation may be conducted. The
temperature pattern in the reboiler is simpler
than that in the condenser since neither the steam
nor the bottom product changes temperature as
heat is transferred. If, for example, the bubble
point of W is 300F at the column pressure, and
we have steam available at 300 psig, the condens-
ing temperature for this steam (steam tables) is


WINTER 1984








about 422F. This temperature pattern is il-
lustrated in Fig. 2.

4220F condensing steam 4220F,

300OF boiling btms. product 3000
At = 122*F At 1220F
FIGURE 2.

The bubble point of the bottom product (which
increases as P goes up) and the available steam
pressure (and its condensing temperature) thus
set a maximum pressure for the distillation. To
find this pressure, estimate the bubble point pres-
sure of the W product at a temperature of say
200F (more or less) below the condensing steam
temperature.
We now have both a maximum and minimum
pressure at which the distillation can be carried
out. Some pressure between these two would be
used in the final design and its optimum value
will be determined by an economic balance. The
items to consider in such an economic balance
are:
1. The effect of P on the temperatures of condensation
of the overhead and on the boiling temperature of the
bottom product which affect the mean At in the con-
denser and reboiler and thus their areas. Each of these
exchangers may be made smaller at the expense of the
other one by adjusting the pressure up or down be-
tween the limits imposed. The higher the pressure,
the smaller the condenser and the larger the reboiler,
and vice versa. Pressure affects these two exchangers
in opposite directions because we are removing heat
from one and adding heat to the other.
2. The effect of the column design pressure on its wall
thickness and thus cost.
3. The effect of pressure on the vapor-liquid equilibrium.
This effect is likely small for nearly ideal liquid
solutions since for these liquid mixtures the relative
volatility is independent of pressure. For hydrocarbon
systems for example, by changing the absolute pres-
sure by a factor of 2, the relative volatility changes
only about 5%. For non-ideal systems however pres-
sure may have a more important effect especially
when there are azeotropes since the composition of the
azeotrope may change with pressure. It may even be
possible to eliminate an azeotrope by suitably adjusting
the pressure.

A COMMON PROBLEM
It is entirely possible (especially when there
is wide variation in the boiling points of the
bottom and top product) that the minimum pres-


sure set by the condenser is higher than the maxi-
mum pressure set by the reboiler. In this case
there are three possible solutions. One is to use
refrigeration to condense the top product, but
this may be expensive. A second solution is to use
a fired reboiler for the bottoms, i.e. send the liquid
from the bottom tray to a furnace which may heat
to temperatures much higher than condensing
steam. The liquid is thus partially vaporized and
sent to a flash drum to separate the vapor formed
from the remaining liquid. The vapor off this
drum is returned to the column below the bottom
plate, and the liquid becomes the W product.
A third possible solution to the problem is to
accept as a vapor that part of the overhead
product which can not be condensed with the
cooling medium, i.e. design a partial condenser.
The part that is condensed is partly returned as
reflux and the rest is liquid D product. The D
products thus consist of two streams; one a vapor
and one a liquid. This is usually the case for the
first crude oil fractionation. The flow sheet is
illustrated in Fig. 3.


FIGURE 3.


The vapor product contains methane, and
ethane which can't be condensed easily. The vapor
product is called "wet gas" not because it con-
tains water (which it does), but because it con-
tains some condensible hydrocarbons. It is sent to
compressors and thence to an absorption column
where the ethane and heavier are removed as
ethane and L.P.G. (Liquified Petroleum Gasses)
which consist mostly of Cs's and C4's. The methane
containing very little ethane and heavier is called
dry gas and is about the same as natural gas. The
ethane is usually cracked at high temperature to
yield ethylene which is the source of many of our
petrochemicals.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








The liquid water product comes from open
steam used to assist in the first crude oil fractiona-
tion instead of having a reboiler.

GENERAL FRACTIONATION NOTES
(a) The optimum reflux ratio is said by
Treybal to fall in the range of 1.2 to 1.5 times
the minimum reflux ratio. This rule was formu-
lated when heat was cheap, say $0.50 to $1.00 per
million Btu. With currently expensive heat, say
$5.00 to $8.00 per million Btu the optimum reflux
ratio comes much nearer to the minimum and may
lie in the range (1.05 to 1.2) (Rmi,).
(b) In desert areas when water is scarce and
expensive, air cooling is often used to condense
the overhead vapors but in this case the overall
heat transfer coefficients are much lower than with
water cooling and the optimum approach tempera-
ture differences for condensing may be much
larger than the 100 to 20F quoted above. Also
the design air inlet temperatures may have to be
900 to 110F or even 120oF in order to get a design
which will work most of the time. O


DESIGN COURSE
Continued from page 29.
projects with gross profit, tax and depreciation
schedules are described. Finally, cash flow dia-
grams are introduced for comparing investments
on the basis of simple rate of return, present
worth of cash flows, or discounted cash flows.
Given profitability measures, questions of op-
timality arise. The optimization problem is de-
fined in general terms to begin coverage of this
comprehensive subject. The objective is to intro-
duce optimization methods, suggesting the need
for further study. Single variable, unconstrained
methods known as sequential search methods
(e.g., the Golden-Section method) are covered
using the excellent descriptions in Chap. 10 of
Digital Computers and Numerical Methods [2]
with two example problems from Chap. 10 of
Peters and Timmerhaus (optimal insulation
thickness and optimal batch time). Then, multi-
variable, unconstrained methods are covered in-
cluding lattice search, repeated uni-directional
search, and optimal steepest descent [2].
Next, the students optimize the design of a
distillation tower with a condenser, reboiler, and
reflux pump. Throughout the course they have


solved problems involving these components, so
for this problem they are given the FORTRAN
function DISTIL which computes the rate of re-
turn on investment as a function of the product
purity, the reflux ratio, and the fractional re-
covery of the most volatile species in the distillate.
The use of DISTIL to (1) carry out material
balances, (2) count trays, (3) calculate the tower
diameter, heat exchanger areas, and pump horse-
power, and (4) calculate costs, cash flows and
discounted cash flow rate of return is reviewed.
Then, the students write a program to calculate
the maximum rate of return on investment. Inci-
dentally, DISTIL was written by Prof. D. Brutvan
[1] and has been modified slightly for use in our
course. Prof. Brutvan prepared an excellent
problem-statement, typical of a large company,
with design specifications, sources of physical
property data, cost data, and explanations of the
algorithm. This has also been modified for use in
our course.
After the introduction to process synthesis,
the course concentrates on analysis with the con-
figuration of the process flowsheet given. The de-
sign variables are adjusted to locate an optimal
design for a given configuration. However, in pro-
cess synthesis, the emphasis is placed upon finding
the best configuration. This approach is well-suited
to teach methods of increasing the thermodynamic
efficiency by heat integration. The monograph,
Availability (Exergy) Analysis [13] and the paper
"Heat Recovery Networks" [11] provide excellent
introductions to the analysis of thermodynamic
efficiency and the pinch method for minimizing
utilities. Synthesis of separation processes is also
covered, but briefly in just two hours. The key con-
siderations are introduced, time being unavailable
to solve a meaningful problem.
The course concludes with a final exam and
the course grade is based upon two mid-semester
exams and the homework. Approximately 15
problem sets are assigned, with two problems
using FLOWTRAN and one problem in which the
rate of return for a distillation tower ( using the
DISTIL function) is maximized.

SPRING COURSE: PLANT DESIGN PROJECT
Penn's strength in process design can be at-
tributed in part to the large concentration of
chemical industry along the Delaware River and
to our close interactions with several industrial


WINTER 1984









colleagues. In this section, organization of the
project course to benefit from this interaction is
examined, before considering the impact of pro-
cess simulators.
During the last two weeks of the fall lecture
course, the students select design projects suggest-
ed by our industrial colleagues and the chemical
engineering faculty. The projects must be timely,
of practical interest to the CPI, and be workable
in 15 weeks. Kinetic and thermophysical property
data should be available. Abstracts of possible de-
sign projects are prepared and the students select
a project or propose one of special interest to
themselves. No effort is made to restrict projects
to those well-suited for simulation.
In the spring, 1982, we had sixteen projects,
one for each group of three students, and in 1983
we had nineteen projects. Each group is advised
by one of seven members of our faculty, usually
supplemented by a visiting faculty member and a
research student in the area of computer-aided
design.
During the spring, as the designs proceed,
each group meets for one hour weekly (on Tues-
day afternoon) with its faculty advisor and one
of its four industrial "consultants." For the past
three years we have had seven outstanding con-
sultants. Dr. Arnold Kivnick of Pennwalt Corp.
has completed his twenty-fifth year as a con-
sultant to our students. Arnold has shared his
years of experience in helping our students and
young faculty develop their design skills. Other
members of our consultant team contribute simi-
larly, making it possible to expose our students to
a broad range of design projects.
The course concludes with a one-day technical

FIGURE 5
Abstract of a typical design project

High purity isobutene
(suggested by Len Fabiano, ARCO)

Isobutene will be recovered from a mixed C4 stream con-
taining n-butane, i-butane, butene-1, butene-2, i-butene, and
butadiene. A four-step sequence will be considered: (1) re-
action with CHOH to MTBE (methyl-tertiary-butyl-
ether), (2) recovery of MTBE from the reaction products,
(3) cracking of MTBE to methanol, isobutene, and by-
products, and (4) recovery of isobutene, by-products and
methanol.

This design will concentrate on (3) and (4). Kinetic data
in the literature will be supplemented by ARCO.

Fattore, Massi Mauri, Oriani, Paret, "Crack MTBE for
Isobutylene," Hydrocarbon Processing, 101, Aug., 1981.


1. Cyclohexane oxidation to
cyclohexanol
2. Polymerizer solvent recovery
3. High purity isobutene
4. Catalyst recovery plant
5. Triolefin process
6. Ethylene dimerization
7. Ethanol to gasoline
8. Methane from coal with K2CO3
catalyst
9. Liquid CO2 for extraction of
pyrethrin from chrysanthemums
10. Syngas to methanol
11. Separation of benzene, toluene,
xylene
12. Heat pump for ethane-
ethylene split
13. Optimization of solar heated
home
1A. Maleic anhydride from butane
15. Fluidized-bed, coal combustion,
electric power plant
16. Suuercritical fluid extraction
17. Dimethylamine
18. Paramethylstyrene with zeolite
catalyst
19. Hydrogen production by
radiation of CO, and water-
gas shift


W. D. Seider
D. F. Kelley, DuPont
L. A. Fabiano, ARCO
L. A. Fabiano, ARCO
L. A. Fabiano, ARCO
L. A. Fabiano, ARCO
W. B. Retallick, Cons.

W. D. Seider

W. D. Seider
S. W. Churchill

W. D. Seider

W. D. Seider

N. Lior
W. D. Seider

N. Arai
A. L. Myers
P. J. O'Flynn

W. D. Seider


S. W. Churchill


meeting of oral presentations accompanied by
written design reports. From the oral and written
reports, the faculty selects the outstanding design
project for the Melvin C. Molstad Award. Each
member of the winning group receives a $100 prize
thanks to the generous endowment of Dr. Ken
Chan, Class of 1962. Notably, the last five reports
have also won the Zeisberg Award in competition
with other schools in our area.
A typical abstract of a design project is shown
in Fig. 5 and the titles for 1982-83 are in Table 2.
The problems are timely and their diversity shows
the broad interests of our faculty and industrial
consultants.

IMPACT OF SIMULATORS

Since 1974 we have had access to the FLOW-
TRAN program on United Computing Systems
(UCS), but its usage has been limited by the high
cost of UCS, a commercial computing system.
Initially modest funds were budgeted for FLOW-
TRAN, but with increasing class sizes and tight
budgets it became necessary to charge the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


TABLE 2
Possible Design Projects (1982-83)
Suggested by









students for use of FLOWTRAN. Consequently,
FLOWTRAN was used by just a few groups
-as a last resort. The maximum charge per
group was approximately $100.
In 1982, ChemShare Corp. provided DESIGN/
2000 as a load module for installation on our
UNIVAC/1100 at no cost to the University of
Pennsylvania. Subsequently, eight of the sixteen
design groups chose to use DESIGN/2000, averag-
ing $800 of computer charges per group.
DESIGN/2000 has a well-developed thermo-
physical property system, CHEMTRAN, with a
data bank containing constants for 900 chemicals
(as compared with 180 in the student version of
FLOWTRAN). Programs are available to calcu-
late constants such as the normal boiling point
temperature and critical properties, given the
molecular structure (the atom-bond interconnec-
tions). For nonideal solutions, programs are avail-
able to compute the interaction coefficients for the
UNIQUAC equation and, when equilibrium data
are unavailable, to estimate activity coefficients
using the UNIFAC group interaction coefficients.
Furthermore, CHEMTRAN provides the Soave-
Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations for
calculations in the vapor-liquid critical region. In
addition to these advantages (compared with
FLOWTRAN), alternative programs are provided
for short-cut and rigorous analysis of multistaged
towers.
Similarly, the PROCESS system of Simulation
Sciences, Inc., provides features that are not in-
cluded in the student version of FLOWTRAN.
Some are equivalent to DESIGN/2000, some are
not in DESIGN/2000, while some of the DESIGN/
2000 features are not included. PROCESS has not
yet been installed on our computer, so that we are
less familiar with this system.
Several limitations remain and these are gradu-
ally being eliminated. However, currently FLOW-
TRAN, DESIGN/2000 and PROCESS do not
model processes with inorganic compounds and
ionic species. There are no programs to calculate
compositions in phase and chemical equilibrium
or to simulate CSTRs, PFTRs, and solids-handling
equipment. These features have been included in
the ASPEN system, but ASPEN is not yet avail-
able for routine student usage. As expected,
ChemShare and Simulation Sciences are adding
many of the same features.
The bottom line with respect to our design se-
quence is that industrial process simulators permit
more routine analysis of simple processes and


give more accurate analyses for complex pre-
cesses; for example, extractive distillation towers.
These simulators enable more complete parametric
analysis and examination of process alternatives.
Normally, they are applicable for just parts of the
analysis; rarely for analysis of the entire flow-
sheet. They provide our students with experience
in the use of modern CAD tools.
In our research, the development of new CAD
methodologies is emphasized. In the senior design
course, some of these methodologies are intro-
duced using well-tested industrial simulators
which are gradually upgraded. Emphasis is
placed on completing the design. Student time is
not wasted working out difficulties with a proto-
type program.
When possible, process synthesis method-
ologies are emphasized. As yet, however, few pro-
jects have been found which are sufficiently open-
ended to permit analysis of many alternate con-
figurations in the fifteen week term. Good sugges-
tions are welcomed. D

REFERENCES
1. Brutvan, D. R., "Economic Optimum Conditions for a
Staged Separation Process," Computers in Engineer-
ing Design Education, Vol. II, Univ. of Michigan
Project, Ann Arbor, 1966.
2. Carnahan, B. and J. 0. Wilkes, Digital Computing
and Numerical Methods, Wiley, 1973.
3. Guthrie, K. M., "Capital Cost Estimating," Chem.
Eng., March 24, 1969.
4. Kern, D. Q., Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill,
1950.
5. Kreith, F., Principles of Heat Transfer, Third Ed.,
Int'l. Text Co., 1973.
6. Myers, A. L., and W. D. Seider, Introduction to
Chemical Engineering and Computer Calculations,
Prentice-Hall, 1976.
7. Peters, M. S., and K. D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design
and Economics for Chemical Engineers, Third Ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1980.
8. Rudd, D. F., and C. C. Watson, Strategy of Process
Engineering, Wiley, 1968.
9. Seader, J. D., W. D. Seider, and A. C. Pauls, FLOW-
TRAN Simulation-An Introduction, Second Ed.,
CACHE, Ulrich's Bookstore, Ann Arbor, Michigan,
1977.
10. Soni, Y., M. K. Sood, and G. V. Reklaitis, PCOST
Costing Program, School of Chem. Eng., Purdue Uni-
versity, W. Lafayette, Indiana, May, 1979.
11. Linnhoff, B., and J. A. Turner, "Heat Recovery Net-
works," Chem. Eng., Nov. 2, 1981.
12. Woods, D., "Cost Data for the Process Industries,"
McMaster Univ. Bookstore, Hamilton, Ontario,
Canada (1974).
13. Sussman, M. V., Availability (Exergy) Analysis,
Milliken House, 1980.


WINTER 1984









NEW ADSORPTION METHODS
Continued from page 25.
to achieve, but has been extensively studied.
Counter-current schemes have included flow in
open columns [2, 10, 17]; the hypersorption pro-
cess where solids flow was controlled by the open-
ing and closing of holes in sieve trays [11], moving
belt schemes [12] and the recent magnetically
stabilized moving bed system developed by Exxon.
The idealized analysis of all these systems will
be similar.
A counter-current system is shown in Fig. 6.
The solids flow down the column while the fluid
flows up. The less strongly adsorbed solute A
moves up in zone 1 while strongly adsorbed solute
B moves down in this zone. Thus zone 1 purifies
solute A. Zone 2 removes solute A from B and
thus purifies solute B. In zone 3 solute B is de-
sorbed with desorbent D. Zone 4 serves to remove
solute A from the desorbent so that desorbent
can be recycled. The desorbent could be water or a
solvent.
The solute movement theory can be applied to
this system. The solute wave velocities calculated
from Eq. (5) or (7) were with respect to a
stationary solid. The appropriate fluid velocity is
then the interstitial fluid velocity relative to the
solid. Thus


V= V--u + Volid
a


(18)


where Vsuper is the superficial fluid velocity and
Vsolid is the superficial solid velocity. Now uo1ute,
calculated from Eq. (5) or (7) is the solute
velocity with respect to the solid. The solute


FIGURE 6. Counter-current separator.


velocity which an observer will see is obtained by
subtracting the solids velocity


Usolute Cc = usolute Vsolid


(19)


usolute cc is positive when the solute flow is up the
column and negative when it flows down.
In the counter-current column the solids
velocity is the same in all zones but the superficial
fluid velocity varies from zone to zone since feed
is added and products are withdrawn. If we set
Vsuper,a as velocity in zone 3, then for relatively
dilute systems
Vsuper,2 = Vsuper,3 P2/Ac


(20)


Vsuper,l = Vsuper,2 + F/Ac
VSuper,4 = Vsuper,L P1/Ac


Since Vsuper changes, Usolute cc will change from
zone to zone. In addition, if the desorbent affects
the adsorption of solute then the equilibrium


TIME
FIGURE 7. Solute movement in continuous counter-
current column.

constant A(T) will vary from zone to zone and
Usoute cc will change. This latter effect is not
necessary to make the counter-current column
work.
To achieve the separation indicated in Fig. 6 we
want solute A to move upward in zones 1 and 2
and downward in zone 4. Thus


uA CC,1 > UA CC,2 > 0 > UA CC,4


(21)


Solute B should move downwards in zones 1 and
2 and upwards in zone 3. Thus


UB C0,3 > 0 > uB CC,1 > UB CC,2


(22)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










An alternative to continuously moving solid down the column is to
move solid and entrained fluid down in pulses. This is commonly used in continuous ion
exchange systems such as variants of the Higgins system and the Graver Water Treatment System.
This system could also be applied to the binary separator.


Eqs. (21) and (22) are an important result since
they control the operation of the continuous
counter-current column. There is a range of values
for P1, P2 and D for a given feed flow rate which
will satisfy inequalities (21) and (22). In actual
practice it is desirable to choose the flow rates so
that all the inequalities are as large as possible.
The appropriate solute waves are shown in
Fig. 7. In the ideal case at steady state there will
be no solute A in zones 4, 2 or 3 and no solute B
in zones 1, 3 and 4. Because of dispersion and
finite mass transfer rates solute A will appear in
zones 4 and 2, and B will be in zones 1 and 3. The
size of the zones required depends on these dis-
persion and mass transfer rate effects. In ad-
dition, any axial solid or fluid mixing caused by
non-perfect flow will require a larger column. Ex-
treme mixing or channeling can destroy the de-
sired separation.

COUNTER-CURRENT OPERATION II. Pulsed Flow
An alternative to continuously moving solid
down the column is to move solid and entrained
fluid down in pulses. This is commonly used in
continuous ion exchange systems such as variants
of the Higgins system [10, 18, 20] and the Graver
Water Treatment System [14]. This system could
also be applied to the binary separator shown in
Fig. 6.
In the pulsed system the solid is stationary
except for short periods when it moves down. Thus
usolute is given directly by Eq. (5) or (7) with the
superficial fluid velocities given by Eq. (20).
When the solid and fluid are pulsed downward,
the solute waves are also shifted down. The solute
wave theory for the pulsed flow system is shown
in Fig. 8. The net movement of solute A is upward
in zones 1 and 2 and downward in zone 4. The net
movement of solute B is downward in zones 1 and
2 and up in zone 3. Fig. 8 is drawn for a plug
flow movement of solids and fluids during the
downward pulse. Feed would be introduced con-
tinuously and withdrawn continuously. Only one
feed period was shown to keep the figure simple.
If mixing occurs during the pulse less separation
will be obtained. This is a practical limit to sharp


fractionation of two solutes in a pulsed flow
counter-current system.


Vsolids,avg = lp/tp


(23)


where 1, is the length of a pulse movement in
meters and tp is the time between pulses in
minutes. The average solute velocity over many
pulses is given by Eq. (19). The desired separa-
tion will be achieved when inequalities (21) and
(22) are satisfied.

SIMULATED COUNTER-CURRENT SYSTEMS
An alternative to moving bed systems is to
simulate counter-current movement. This is done
with a series of packed bed sections by switching
the location of all feed and product withdrawal
ports. An observer located at a product withdrawal
port sees the solids move downwards everytime


FIGURE 8. Solute
system.


TIME
movement in pulsed counter-current


the port location is shifted upwards. Thus the
observer sees a process very similar to the pulsed
counter-current system analyzed in Fig. 8.
The first simulated counter-current system
was the Shanks system which has been applied
to leaching, adsorption and ion exchange [13, 21].
The Shanks system uses a series of columns with
plumbing arranged so that feed can be input and


WINTER 1984










The solute movement
theory can be used to analyze
the simulated counter-current system
in two ways.


product withdrawals removed from any column.
Thus the counter-current separator shown in Fig.
6 can be simulated. Modern adaptations of the
Shanks process have been done by Barker and his
co-workers for gas chromatography systems [3, 5]
and for gel permeation chromatography [4]. UOP
has extensively used a pilot plant scale system
which is a series of columns for scaling up their
commercial scale units [9, 16]. The commercial
UOP simulated counter-current process, Sorbex,
uses a single column with many packed sections
and has a rotating valve for distributing feed, de-
sorbent and products. The commercial units simu-
late the system shown in Fig. 6 [6, 7, 8, 9, 16]. The
UOP process was first commercialized as Molex
for separation of linear paraffins from branched-
chain and cyclic hydrocarbons using 5A molecular
sieves. Since then, processes for p-xylene purifica-
tion (Parex), Olefin separation (Olex), and
separation of fructose from glucose (Sarex) have
been commercialized. Pilot plant scale separations
for a variety of other problems have been demon-
strated [9, 16]. A large number of patents have
been granted on simulated moving bed systems.
The solute movement theory can be used to
analyze the simulated counter-current system in
two ways. First, if the observer fixes himself at
one of the outlet or inlet ports then he sees the
solid and entrained fluid transferred downwards
in pulses. This observer then sees solute movement
as shown in Fig. 8. The average solids velocity this
observer sees is given by Eq. (19), and the analysis
applied for the pulsed counter-current operation is
applicable.
In the second analysis the observer fixes him-
self on the ground and he sees the solid as station-
ary. With the fluid flowing up the column, he sees
all the inlet and outlet ports move up the column
at discrete times. When a port reaches the top of
the column, it recycles back to the bottom. In be-
tween the shifting of port locations, the adsorber
is a fixed bed system. Thus the solute wave velocity
can be determined from Eqs. (5) or (7). The fluid
velocities in each section will differ. The super-
ficial fluid velocities are given by Eq. (20) and the
interstitial velocity v equals Vsuper/a. The shifting
of ports does not shift the solute waves, but does


change the wave velocities since it changes which
zone the solute is in. This is illustrated in Fig. 9.
If the desorbent changes the equilibrium constants
this will also change the solute velocities.
Note in Fig. 9 that the movement of both
species is up, but the more strongly adsorbed
solute B moves down with respect to the port
locations. Feed would be introduced continuously
at the port marked A + B, but was illustrated for
only one time period. The zone numbers cor-
responding to Fig. 6 are shown on Fig. 9. The


i I _/ i











S_ I Ar.JV / I ,a I
1- tp--l
TIE







FIGURE 9. Solute movement in simulated counter-
current system.

fluid velocities and hence the solute velocities are
different in each zone. When fluid reaches the top
of the cascade it is recycled to the bottom. Thus the
solute waves are also recycled. If the timing of the
switches is appropriate, solute A will appear in
zones 1, 2 and the lower section of zone 4, and
solute B will appear in zones 1, 2 and the upper
section of zone 3. Solute A goes into zone 4 since
only a portion of the fluid is withdrawn as product
P1. Solute B goes into zone 3 because of the switch-
ing of ports. Dispersion and mixing effects will
naturally spread out the solute waves in each zone.
To achieve the desired separation we desire to
have solute A move up in zones 1 and 2 faster than
the port movement and slower in zone 4. Solute B
should move slower than the port movement in
zones 1 and 2 and faster in zone 3. The average
velocity of port movement is
3
7i-
3
3_ I I I


TIME
FIGURE 9. Solute movement in simulated counter-
current system.

fluid velocities and hence the solute velocities are
different in each zone. When fluid reaches the top
of the cascade it is recycled to the bottom. Thus the
solute waves are also recycled. If the timing of the
switches is appropriate, solute A will appear in
zones 1, 2 and the lower section of zone 4, and
solute B will appear in zones 1, 2 and the upper
section of zone 3. Solute A goes into zone 4 since
only a portion of the fluid is withdrawn as product
P. Solute B goes into zone 3 because of the switch-
ing of ports. Dispersion and mixing effects will
naturally spread out the solute waves in each zone.
To achieve the desired separation we desire to
have solute A move up in zones 1 and 2 faster than
the port movement and slower in zone 4. Solute B
should move slower than the port movement in
zones 1 and 2 and faster in zone 3. The average
velocity of port movement is


uport,avg = Iport/tport


(24)


where port is the packing height between ports and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







tpor is the time between switches of ports. The
conditions to achieve separation are then


UA,I > UA,2 > Uport,avg > UA,i


(25)


UB,3 > Uport,avg > UB,1 > uB,2
These conditions follow the same order as Eqs.
(21) and (22).
How close is a simulated counter-current
system to a truly counter-current separator? Al-
though the answer to this depends on the chemical
system and the column length, Liapis and Rippin
[15] found that the simulated system had an ad-
sorbent utilization from 79% to 98% that of the
truly counter-current system. With a single zone
system they found that from two to four sections
were sufficient and that two to four column
switches were required to reach a periodic con-
centration profile.
Comparison of simulated counter-current and
truly counter-current systems is of considerable
interest. Both systems at steady state can at best
do a complete binary separation. Partial sepa-
ration of additional components can be obtained
with side withdrawals. The simulated counter-
current system could also be extended to more
complex cycles where part of the bed is temporarily
operated as a batch chromatograph. The simulated
moving bed system is actually a fixed bed system.
Thus flooding (unintentional upwards entrain-
ment of solid) will not be a problem, but excessive
pressure drop may result for small particles or
viscous solutions. The fixed bed will have a lower
a and hence a higher capacity than truly counter-
current systems, but this will be offset by the
distribution zones between sections. The actual
movement of solids requires means for keeping the
bed stable, may result in excessive attrition, but
allows for easy solids replacement or external re-
activation. Both systems have mechanical difficul-
ties to overcome. In the simulated moving bed
these difficulties are the valving and timing while
in an actual moving bed they involve moving,the
solids without mixing. Currently, the simulated
counter-current systems have been the preferred
choice for large-scale adsorption installations. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Some of the research reported here was sup-
ported by NSF Grant CPE-8006903. This paper
is a modified version of Wankat [23]. The per-
mission of the Corn Refiner's Association to
reprint parts of that paper is gratefully


acknowledged.

NOMENCLATURE

A(T) -Equilibrium parameter, Eq. (6)
A, -Cross sectional area of column
c -Solute concentration in fluid, kg/L
Cr -Heat capacity of fluid
Cs -Heat capacity of solid
Cw -Heat capacity of wall
F -Feed rate, L/min
k -Exponent in Freundlich isotherm,
Eq. (14)
K, -Fraction of interparticle volume
species can penetrate, Eq. (1)
lp,lport -Length of travel of pulse, or pack-
ing height between ports, m
L -Column length, m
Pi,P2 -Product flow rates, L/min
q -Amount of solute adsorbed, kg/kg
adsorbent
t -Time, min
tp -Time between switching port
locations, min
T -Temperature, C
Tr,Ts,Tw,Tr --Temperature of fluid, solid, wall
and reference
Tc,TH -Cold and hot temperatures
uA,UBusolute -Solute wave velocity, m/min, Eq.
(5) or (7)
Ushock -Shock wave velocity, m/min, Eq.
(17)
thermal -Thermal wave velocity m/min, Eq.
(9)
v -Interstitial fluid velocity, m/min
Ve -Elution volume of non-adsorbed
species, L
V, -Internal void volume, L
Vo -External void volume, L
Vsolid -Solid velocity, m/min
Vsuper -Superficial fluid velocity, m/min
W -Weight of column wall per length,
kg/m
z -Axial distance in column, m
a -TnterDarticle void fraction
e --ntraparticle void fraction
A -T-ifference calculation
ps -Solid density, kg/L

REFERENCES
1. Baker, B. and R. L. Pigford, "Cycling Zone Adsorp-
tion: Quantitative Theory and Experimental Results,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 10, 283 (1971).
2. Barker, P. E., "Continuous Chromatographic Re-
fining," in E. S. Perry and C. J. Van Oss (eds.), Pro-
gress in Separation and Purification, Vol. 4, p. 325,
Wiley, N.Y., 1971.
3. Barker, P. E. and R. E. Deeble, "Production Scale
Organic Mixture Separation Using a New Sequential
Chromatographic Machine," Anal. Chem., 45, 1121
(1973).
4. Barker, P. E., F. J. Ellison, and B. W. Hatt, "A New


WINTER 1984









Process for the Continuous Fractionation of Dextran,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Develop., 17, 302 (1978).
5. Barker, P. E., M. I. Howari, and G. A. Irlam,
"Further Developments in the Modelling of a Se-
quential Chromatographic Refiner Unit," Chromato-
graphia, 14, 192 (1981).
6. Broughton, D. B., "Molex: Case History of a Pro-
cess," Chem. Eng. Prog., 64, (8) 60 (1968).
7. Broughton, D. B. and D. B. Carson, "The Molex Pro-
cess," Petroleum Refiner, 38 (4), 130 (1959).
8. Broughton, D. B., R. W. Neuzil, J. M. Pharis, and
C. S. Breasley, "The Parex Process for Recovering
Paraxylene," Chem. Eng. Prog. 66, (9) 70 (1970).
9. de Rosset, A. J., R. W. Neuzil, and D. J. Korous,
"Liquid Column Chromatography as a Predictive Tool
for Continuous Counter-current Adsorption Separa-
tions," Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Develop., 15, 261
(1976).
10. Gold, H., A. Todisco, A. A. Sonin, and R. F. Prob-
stein, "The Avco Continuous Moving Bed Ion Ex-
change Process and Large Scale Desalting," Desali-
nation, 17, 97 (Aug. 1975).
11. Hiester, N. K., T. Vermeulen, and G. Klein, "Ad-
sorption and Ion Exchange," Sect. 16 in R. H. Perry,
C. H. Chilton and S. D. Kirkpatrick (eds.), Chemical
Engineer's Handbook, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, N.Y.,
1963.
12. Jamrack, W. D., Rare Metal Extraction by Chemical
Engineering Methods, Pergamon Press, N.Y., 1963.
13. King, C. J., Separation Processes, 2nd ed., McGraw-
Hill, N.Y., p. 172-195, 1980.
14. Levendusky, J. A., "Progress Report on the Con-
tinuous Ion Exchange Process," Water-1969, CEP
Symposium Ser., 65, #97, 113 (1969).
15. Liapis, A. I. and D. W. T. Rippin, "The Simulation
of Binary Adsorption in Continuous Counter-current
Operation and a Comparison with Other Operating
Modes," AIChE Journal, 25, 455 (1979).
16. Neuzil, R. W., D. H. Rosback, R. H. Jensen, J. R.
Teague, and A. J. de Rosset, "An Energy-Saving
Separation Scheme," Chemtech, 10, 498 (Aug. 1980).
17. Rendell, M., "The Real Future for Large-Scale
Chromatography," Process Engineering, p. 66 (April
1975).
18. Roland, L. D., "Ion Exchange-operational advantages
of continuous plants," Processing, 22, (1), 11 (1976).
19. Sherwood, T. K., R. L. Pigford, and C. R. Wilke,
Mass Transfer, Chapt. 10, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1975.
20. Smith, J. C., A. W. Michaelson, and J. T. Roberts,
"Ion Exchange Equipment," p. 19-18 to 19-26, in
R. H. Perry, C. H. Chilton and S. D. Kirkpatrick
(eds.), Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 4th ed.,
McGraw Hill, N.Y., 1963.
21. Treybal, R. E., Mass Transfer Operations, 2nd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1968.
22. Wankat, P. C., "Cyclic Separation Techniques," in
A. E. Rodrigues and D. Tondeur (eds.), Percolation
Processes, Theory and Applications, Sijthoff and
Noordoff, Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands, p. 443-
516 (1981).
23. Wankat, P. C., "Operational Techniques for Ad-
sorption and Ion Exchange," Corn Refiner's Associ-
ation Conf., Lincolnshire, IL, June 1982.


BOOK REVIEW: Carnegie-Mellon
Continued from page 37.
Obviously the book is not intended for use in
the usual academic sense and its particular audi-
ence is the many people .. faculty, staff and stu-
dents who have contributed to chemical engi-
neering at Carnegie over the years. It can also
serve as a guide to those considering similar
undertakings at their own institution in pointing
out the monumental effort involved. Admittedly,
this reviewer is not wholly unbiased in considera-
tion of this volume inasmuch as he has spent
almost half of his academic career at Carnegie,
but he can attest to a considerable portion of the
accuracy of Professor Rothfus' many details. Its
delightful reading!! D


books received

"Resource Recovery Economics," Stuart H. Russell;
Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 10016; 312 pages, $39.75
(1982)
"Specifying Air Pollution Control Equipment," edited by
Richard A. Young, Frank L. Cross, Jr.; Marcel Dekker Inc.,
New York 10016; 296 pages, $38.50 (1982)
"Introduction to High-Performance Liquid Chromatogra-
phy," R. J. Hamilton, P. A. Sewell; Chapman & Hall, 733
Third Ave., New York 10017; 183 pages, $29.95 (1982)
"Nuclear Waste Management Abstracts," Richard A.
Heckman, Camille Minichino; Plenum Publishing Corp.,
New York 10013; 103 pages, $45.00 (1982)
"Heat Transfer in Nuclear Reactor Safety," S. George
Bankoff, N. H. Afgan; Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New
York 10036; 964 pages, $95.00 (1982)
"Essentials of Nuclear Chemistry," H. J. Arnikar; John
Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NJ 08873; 335 pages, $17.95
(1982)
"Technology Transfer and Innovation," Louis N. Mogavero,
Robert S. Shane; Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 10016;
168 pages, $22.50 (1982)
"Solar Heating and Cooling: Active and Passive Design,"
Second Edition, J. F. Kreider, F. Kreith; Hemisphere
Publishing Corp., Washington DC 20005; 479 pages,
$29.95 (1982)
"Liquids and Liquid Mixtures," Third Edition, J.S. Rowlin-
son, F. L. Swinton; Butterworths, Woburn, MA 01801; 328
pages, $69.95 (1982)
"Handbook of Multiphase Systems," edited by G. Hetsroni;
Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, DC 20005;
$64.50 (1982)
"Liquid Filtration," Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, David S.
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PAGE 1

z 0 u ::::, C w IL, 0 z 0 in > Q C) z iii: w w z C) z w ...I u ::c u chetnical VOLUME XVIII NUMBER 1 WINTER 1984

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3M COMPANY ... /fu~r; CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahi e n (904) 392-0857 Consulting Editor: Mack Tyn er Managing Editor: Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: L e e C. Eagl e ton Pennsylvania State University Past Chairman: Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado SOUTH: Homer F Johnson University of Tennessee J ac k R Hopp e r Lamar University James Fair University of Texas Gary Poehlein Georgia Tech CENTRAL: R o b ert F An d ers on UOP Proc ess Division Lo we ll B. Koppel Purdue University WEST: William B. Krantz University of Colorado C. Judson King University of California Berkeley Fr e d e ri c k H. S ha ir C alifornia In s titut e of Technolog y NORTHEAST: Angelo J. Perna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Raymond Baddour M.I.T. A. TV. W e sterberg Carnegie-Mellon University NORTHWEST: Charles Sleicher University of Washington CANADA: Leslie W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W. Weber State University of New York WINTER 1984 Chemical VOLUME XVIII Engineering NUMBER l DEPARTMENTS Education WINTER 1984 2 Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University John C Slatter y 6 The Educator Richard C. Alkire of Illinois, Ill in o is Coll e agu es Laboratory 10 A Grand Sale: $12 for a Dozen Experiments in CRE, Zhang Guo-Tai Hau Shau-Drang 20 New Adsorption Methods, Phillip C Wankat Classroom 14 Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evalu ation of Chemical Processes, Ca r los J. Kuri, A r mando B. Corripio 26 The Process Design Courses at Pennsylvania: Impact of Process Simulators, Warr e n D. S e ide r 34 Modular Instruction Under Restricted C onditions, Tji p to Utomo, Ke e s Ruijte r 30 Curriculum Introducing the Regulatory Process into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum: A Painless Method, Franklin G. King, Ramesh C. Cha w la 38 Class and Home Problems Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation, Allen J. Barduhn 9 Positions Available 9, 37 Book Reviews 18, 48 Books Received 19 In Memoriam J. H. Erbar 19 Stirred Pots CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed to the Editor at Gainesville Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the adverti s ing representativ es Plates and other advertising material may be s ent d i rectly to the printer: E. 0. Painter Printing Co., P 0. Box 877, D e L eo n Sp r in gs, F l or i da 32028. Sub sc rip t ion ra t e U .S. Ca n a d a, and M ex ico i s $2 0 p e r year, $ 1 5 p e r yea r m a il e d to m e mb e r s o f AI C hE an d o f th e C hE Di v i s ion of ASEE. Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual b ac k c opi es. Cop y r i g ht 1 984 C h e mi c a] En g i n ee rin g Di v i s i o n o f Am er i c an Soci ety for Engineerin g Education. The statement.s and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical 1

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The Technolog i ca l Institute, home o f the Departmen t of Ch em ical E ngineering [., ;j pll department NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY .. THE NORTHWESTERN 'PHILOSO'PHY JOHN C. SLATTERY Northwestern Uni v ersity E va nstan, IL 60201 J F YOU READ NO further than this first paragraph, I would like you to leave with the im pression that we take pride in our teaching, that we strive to be on the forefront in our research, and that we are committed to meaningful contact with our students. Those priorities provide the guiding philosophy for the department. This philosophy has been tested by time. This year marks the 40th anniversary of the first class graduating in chemical engineering from the Technological Institute. We awarded our first master's degree in 1945 and our first PhD in 1948. Our department now includes 18 faculty, 250 undergraduate and 100 graduate students, six visiting scholars, and three postdoctoral fellows. Since modern chemical engineering research is increasingly interdisciplinary in nature, a number of the faculty hold joint appointments with other Copyrig ht ChE Division, ASEE 1 984 2 As we have become co~v i nced of the synergism we hav e chosen to emphasize several b r oad areas of research rather than 18 ind i vidua l act i vities. depar~ment~: biomedical engineering, chemistry, materials science and engineering, mechanical and nuclear engineering, and neurobiology / physiology. ~o scale for the comparison of chemical engi neermg graduate programs exists. It is clear that, while departments all offer excellent faculty and fac1hhes, there are differences in educational philosophy and in the research interests of their faculties. Our department strives to maintain a balanced commitment to teaching and research. The training of graduate and undergraduate students is taken seriously by all of us The prerequisites for admission to graduate wor~ include a bachelor's degree in chemical engi neeri~g from a university or college of recognized standmg. Graduates of a curriculum in science or in other fields of engineering whose programs CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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have included sufficient courses in chemistry, mathematics, and physics will also be accepted for graduate work in chemical engineering However, they may be required to take selected undergradu ate courses without credit, in addition to the normal graduate program An individual plan of study is arranged for each student after consultation between the student, his or her adviser, and the graduate com mittee of the department. Every effort is made to design a program covering the fundamentals of modern chemical engineering science and tech nology while allowing for individual specialization in particular fields of interest. For the MS degree, we require a minimum of nine (quarter) courses. Research and the prepa ration of an acceptable thesis may be an alterna tive to three extra courses. For the PhD, a minimum of 18 (quarter) courses are required beyond the BS degree or nine (quarter) courses beyond the MS. Students are guided towards this program based on their class room performances. The formal qualifying exam is oral and focused on the research topic proposed for the thesis. We have no language requirements. As we have become convinced of the synergi s m, we have chosen to emphasize several bro 2 d area s of research rather than 18 individual activities. In the descriptions that follow, observe that we have encouraged for the same reason interactions be tween faculty which cross department boundaries. The single paragraphs devoted to individual faculty are meant to give an impression of their activities rather than to summarize their multi faceted research programs. RESEARCH Chemical Reaction Engineering. The largest single area is chemical reaction engineering: kinetics, catalysis, chemical reactor design, and combustion. There are five faculty active in this area: John B. Butt, Joshua S. Dranoff, Harold H. Kung (who has a joint appointment with chemis try), Chung K. Law (who has a joint appoint ment with mechanical and nuclear engineering), and Wolfgang M. H. Sachtler (who has a joint appointment with chemistry). This group features extraordinary interactions with faculty in ma terials science and engineering, chemistry, and physics through the Catalysis Research Center, which will soon have its own building adjacent to the Technological Institute. John Butt's work in catalysis has been largely WINTER 1984 in the area of supported metal catalysts. His group's current research is devoted to the study of hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation reactions on supported Pt group metals and to synthesis re actions on supported iron alloys. Particular empha sis is given to the relationship between the morph ology of the supported metal crystallites and their activity and selectivity properties. More generally, John Butt is concerned with the interrelation be tween catalyst deactivation and chemical process dynamics. The work of Josh Dranoff and his students in photochemical reaction engineering has previously involved gas and liquid phase photochlorination reactions as well as solution photopolymerization. A practice race in view of the campus. Current emphasis is focused on the study of novel photoreactor designs in which the photoinitiation and subsequent thermal reaction steps common to many photoreactions of interest are carried out in spatially segregated zones. Harold Kung is pursuing the reasons for high selectivities in oxide catalysis. Using modern surface science and catalyst characterization techniques, his group has prepared and character ized both model single crystal oxide catalysts that have high concentrations of a particular type of surface defect, such as anion or cation vacancies, as well as microcrystalline oxide catalysts smaller than 10 nm that possess unusually high selectivi ties. A viable approach to enhance combustion efficiency and reduce pollutant formation is through lean combustion. Since lean mixtures are hard to ignite and easy to extinguish, the use of heterogeneous catalysts can significantly extend the lower flammability limits of these mixtures. Ed 3

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Law's group is working to identify the dominant catalytic mechanisms and to determine the as sociated overall kinetic constants for hydrocarbon / air mixtures flowing over different catalysts. Wolfgang Sachtler and Harold Kung are study ing stereospecific catalysts with the objective of understanding the relationship between the geometry of the active site and catalytic selectivity. On the basis of Wolfgang Sachtler's previous work, it has been proposed that many such re actions involve a dual site mechanism. Their re search is aimed towards checking this model and evaluating the prospects of dual site hydro genation catalysts in general. Interfacial and Multiphase Transport Phe nomena. We have three faculty working in the general area of interfacial and multiphase transto a series of fundamental problems concerned with dynamic interfacial behavior and multiphase flows arising in the context of oil production. For example, we have been investigating the in fluence of the interfacial viscosities upon displace ment and the stability of displacement of residual oil from old oil fields. Polymer Science. Our three faculty whose primary interests are in the area of polymers have joint appointments with materials science and engineering: Stephen H. Carr, Buckley Crist Jr., and John M. Torkelson. Plastic films that possess either permanent electrical polarizations or electrical conductivity are currently being used as the active elements in such devices as microphones, infrared detectors or batteries. Steve Carr and some of his students .. we take pride in our teaching, ... we strive to be on the forefront in our research, and ... we are committed to m~aningful contact with our students. Those priorities provide the guiding philosophy for the department. port phenomena: S. George Bankoff (who has a joint appointment with mechanical and nuclear engineering), Gregory Ryskin, and me. All three of us find complementary interests in the activi ties of Stephen H. Davis (who has joint appoint ments in engineering science and applied mathe matics and in mechanical and nuclear engineer ing). We are involved in such diverse activities as dynamic interfacial phenomena, coalescence, two phase flows with heat transfer, flows in porous media, flows of suspensions, and structural models for the stress-deformation behavior of polymer solutions. George Bankoff has been directing a broad program of experimental and theoretical studies on two-phase flow and heat transfer. His particu lar motivation has been problems associated with nuclear reactor accidents. Rather than studying these complicated problems directly, he and his students have chosen to examine more fundamental problems that can shed light on par ticular aspects of the overall process. Gregory Ryskin's current research interests focus on the numerical solution of fluid mechanics problems. He is considering both flows with free boundaries as well as the motions of polymer solutions, the stress-deformation behavior of which is determined by the local microstructure. My students and I have directed our attention 4 are seeking to understand the origins of the per sistent polarization that can be established in some polymer solids. They are studying other polymers that are electronic conductors and act as organic metals. Using model crystallizable hydrogenated poly butadiene (HPB), Buck Crist's group is making significant advances in understanding the im portant effects of molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, short chain branching and long chain branching on the structure and proper ties of semicrystalline polymers. These studies utilize light scatteri ng, x-ray scattering and diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, calori metry and density measurements on HPB having extremely well-defined molecular microstructures. The utility of photophysics in studying macro molecular diffusion-controlled reactions has been demonstrated by studies of intermolecular re actions between labelled polystyrene chains as well as by studies of intramolecular cyclization dy namics of a single polystyrene chain. By a com bination of carefully selected fluorescence and phosphorescence studies, John Torkelson is in vestigating the Rouse dynamics of polymer chains. Process Engineering. The area of computer aided process planning, design, analysis, and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 7

control is the interest of Richard S .H. Mah and William F. Stevens. The research of Dick Mah and his students is directed towards the development of compre hensive theories and techniques for operating pro cesses. One focus of their research is their work on process data reconciliation and rectification, which has already led to new techniques of gross error detection and identification, a rigorous theory of observability and redundancy, and efficient variable and measurement classification al gorithms. Another thrust is in the design and scheduling of batch chemical processes Process optimization and process control are beginning to depend significantly upon the utiliza tion of equipment and procedures for "real-:-time" computing. Bill Stevens' current research activi ties emphasize the development of programs and procedures for the implementation of various "real-time" applications utilizing minicomputers and microcomputers. Separation Processes. There is currently a de veloping interest in the department in separation processes. Josh Dranoff has had a long-term interest in separations based on sorption in zeolites and simi lar adsorbents. Currently his students are investi gating the kinetics of sorption of binary gas mix tures by zeolite adsorbents using a differential bed-chromatographic type apparatus. Dick Mah's group has proposed and is investi gating a new class of distillation schemes designed to enhance overall thermal efficiency. This is ac complished through heat exchange between the rectifying and stripping sections of a distillation apparatus in what is known as secondary reflux and vaporization (SRV) distillation. George Thodos and his students are studying the removal of S0 2 from flue gases using re generable sorbents such as Nahcolite (NaHC0 3 ), which may offer the possibility of closed loop systems for clean-up of power station stack gases. Separately, he is testing supercritical extraction as a separation tool. Individual Activities. Naturally, not all of the research in the department is done in the context of group activities. Thomas K. Goldstick (who has joint appoint ments with biomedical engineering and neuro biology / physiology) is well known for his long term interests in biomedical engineering. His WINTER 1984 current research centers around the dynamics of oxygen transport in the retina of the eye. Studies of vapor-liquid equilibria and critical state phenomena continue to occupy the interests of George Thodos and some of his students, while Chairman John Slattery in an informal discussion with students. with another group he extends his investigation of solar energy collection and storage. FUTURE DIRECTIONS Chemical engineering is an evolving discipline, the one continuous thread being that we are all concerned with applications of chemistry, broadly interpreted. The emphasis given to particular areas of research shifts as the need s of society change, the current faculty matures in its outlook, and we add new faculty. Looking to the future we are anxious to ex pand our activities in the area of computer-aided process planning, design, analysis, and control, when we are presented with the right oppor tunity. Both the students and faculty agree that this will be a field of increasing importance to the profession. We would also like to move into biochemical technology. This is not only an area of consider able promise, but also it is one in which, by our judgment, the primary impact of chemical engi neers is still developing. But as we continue to look in new directions, basic priorities will remain unchanged: our pride in our teaching, our eagerness to be on the fore front in our research, and our commitment to meaningful contact with our students. D 5

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(! n :I educator of Illinois Prepared by his ILLINOIS COLLEAGUES University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801 To HIS PROFESSIONAL collea_gues, D~ck Alkire is known as an electrochemical engmeer, to his students as an outstanding teacher and to others through many different perspectives, especially music. Though he now lives in the heartland of Il linois, Dick grew up in Easton, Pennsylvania, where he graduated from Lafayette College in 1963. For two years of his time at Lafayette, he was tutored on the subject of electrochemical cor rosion by Zbigniew Jastrzebski. Traveling to the other coast, Dick attended the University of Cali fornia at Berkeley to continue the study of electro chemical engineering. Working under the direction of Char l es Tobias and Edward Grens, he carried out graduate research on transport processes in porous electrodes. Just to keep things in balance, he enrolled in a piano performance class where he met his future bride, Betty. They left Berkeley in 1968 to spend a post-doctoral year in Gottingen, at the Max Planck Institut ftir physikalische Chemie, where he studied thermodynamics of solid state galvanic cells under the late Carl Wagner. A year later, Dick brought his young family back to the United States and took up a post as assistant professor at the University of Illinois. Promotion to associate professor came in 1975, and to full professor in 1977. ... it is Dick's philosophy that "you can't teach research creativity by telling everyone what to do." He gives students a great deal of independence in the pursuit of their thesis research ... Copyri1Jht C hE D ivisi on, ASEE 19 8 4 6 During these early years, Dick was deeply in fluenced by his mentors Jastrzebski, Tobias, Grens and Wagner. Under Tobias he had experienced the excitement of a research group that moved steadily into uncharted waters, and with Carl Wagner had had long discussions on how to break open new problems. As a consequence, he em barked on a program of electrochemical engineer ing research, at Illinois, which continues to this day. At the time, however, the electrochemical field was not common to chemical engineers and it was John Quinn and Roger Schmitz who gave him strong encouragement to maintain his direction. With these perspectives, Dick worked resolute ly to broaden his capabilities and interests. He has emphasized application of potential distribution principles to complex electrochemical problems which involve coupled mass transport, ohmic re sistance, and interfacial processes. Concentrating at first on electrodeposition, his work for over a decade in that area earned him, in 1983, the Re search Award of The Electrodeposition Division of The Electrochemical Society Also in the early seventies, he returned to corrosion problems where transport phenomena in the solution phase played a critical but unexplored role. Based on his Ph.D. dissertation on crevice corrosion, Dick's student, CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 9

David Siitari, was awarded the Young Author's Prize for the best paper in the 1982 Journal of the Electrochemical Society. During a sabbatical leave at Cal Tech in 1976, Dick formulated a new program in electro-organic synthesis, and intro duced rigorous chemical engineering concepts to electro-organic reactor design and scale-up. These programs subsequently led to interactions with Robert Sani, at the University of Colorado, in finite element calculations of electrode shape evolution; with Mark Stadtherr, at Illinois, on electrolytic process simulation and optimization; and with Theodore Beck, of the Electrochemical Technology Corp. in Seattle, on corrosion. In 1983, Dick again used his sabbatical leave, this time at the University of Washington in Seattle, to de velop a research program in plasma reactor de s ign, where potential field and convective diffusion phenomena play a critical role. Working with Steve Perusich, Dick investigates trans port processes during corrosion. Here, they use focused ultrasound to trigger breakdown of protective surface films, and then study film repair in the presence of fluid flow. A consequence of these broad and continuing interests is that Dick's research program is by now very large. Last Fall his group included twenty graduate students and a half dozen undergradu ate laboratory assistants. Of necessity, a group of such size demands a meticulous management of time and resources. Dick is quick to point out that a major factor in this regard is the excellent repu tation with which Illinois attracts truly outstand ing graduate students. In addition, it is Dick's philosophy that, "you can't teach research creativit y by telling everyone what to do He WINTER 1984 Dick supervises four seminars a week for his graduate students. Shown here (I. to r.} are Steve Lott, Mark Greenlaw, Dick, Bob Schroeder, Demetre Economou, and Kurt Hebert. gives students a great deal of independence in the pursuit of their thesis research, but demands high standards of commitment, knowledge of the literature, and developing intuitive prowess for linking mathematics to the physical world. One of Dick's former research students observes that "he instills by personal example a deep commitment for achieving a high level of innovation and techni c a l excellence." Another former student notes, "The advice Dick gave me in graduate school in all areas, technical and non-technical, has helped me immensely in m y professional career." To a significant extent, Dick's early years in music have shaped his character and attitudes. Dick and his brother Ed grew up in a family music business where performing came at a young age at the encouragement of Dad, the pro, and Mom, the supporter. Dad, Ed and Dick started playing pro fessionally when Dick wa s twelve; by the time he was sixteen, they had performed throughout the East and had cut numerou s records. Mean while, back at tl : e family studio, Dick taught piano, guitar, bass, and vibes, helped run the wholesale and retail businesses, and did much of the art work for Dad's teaching publications. He turned down a four-year organ scholarship to attend Lafayette College to study chemical engi neering, but nevertheless performed on over three hundred occasions in the college touring choir, in a barbershop quartet, in a jazz group, and as a solo pianist at weddings and receptions. The time and energies invested in public per formance, in music teaching, and in business related affairs paid invaluable dividends for Dick's management of his massive research effort today. By the way, his brother is also a chemical engineer with Air Products & Chemicals. Ed is 7

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... no matter how hectic the day ... Dick will always give a student his total attention. His efforts were rewarded in 1982 with the Teaching Excellence Award of the School of Chemical Sciences at Illinois. Manager of Technical Affairs for the Industrial Gas Division and has responsibility for safety and operating procedures, process engineering, quality assurance, engineering standards, and environ mental compliance. Dick takes it as a given fact that competence in research both requires and demands excellence in the teaching classroom. With a repertoire of a dozen lecture courses, he takes special pleasure in teaching the subjects and in dealing with students on a personal basis. Thinking back on his own training, he recalls that "I have been extremely fortunate to have had teachers who took a personal interest in me and who inspired me to standards which were beyond my awareness at the time. Sometimes those feelings of in spiration came from only brief moments in their presence when I felt that their entire energies were directed toward giving me an appreciation of the subject matter." As a result, no matter how hectic the day, in the classroom or in his office, Dick will always give a student his total attention. His efforts were rewarded in 1982 with the Teaching Excellence Award of the School of Chemical Sciences at Illinois. Active in professional pursuits, Dick is the youngest Vice President in the history of the 82year old Electrochemical Society, and will succeed to the presidency in 1985. He is also a divisional editor of the Society's journal. In the AIChE, he founded a group in 1974 for programming sym posia in electrochemical engineering, and has also served as chairman of the Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion Division of the Institute. To quote one of Dick's colleagues, he applies "the same enthusiasm, integrity, and competence to Society affairs as he has to his own students and research." These experiences, along with extensive con sulting activity, serve as critical elements in the continual upgrading of teaching and research. With this activity, he has averaged an off-campus seminar every two weeks during the past four years. As one of his colleagues notes, "A hall mark of his work is his ability to translate results of complex calculations into a form easily under standable to practical users in the field." Like the 8 family music business, Dick's life represents a total commitment to advancing the electrochemical engineering field so that others will be encouraged to follow. One activity has brought him a special sense of satisfaction. Emeritus Professor Sherlock Swann, Jr. had been at Illinois since 1927 and had, for 45 of those years, meticulously compiled an ex haustively detailed bibliography of the electro organic synthesis literature, beginning with the first known paper in 1801. Their friendship had begun, understandably, with a mutual love of music which found Dick spending evenings at Sherlock's home listening to old 78-rpm recordings of the masters. Through this musical bond of Dick's students often spring surprise parties to bid an affectionate adieu to a graduating member of the gang. shared trust, Sherlock slowly revealed his in credible bibliography. Dick eventually raised over $90,000 to support a meticulous effort at indexing and publishing the collection through The Electro chemical Society. The result was deeply satisfying to Professor Swann, who passed away in 1983 after having seen an important part of his life's work brought to fruition. Music continues to be the center of Dick's out side interests. It seemed ironic at the time that, within a few months of deciding on a college career in chemical engineering, his parents' music business took an upswing and they presented him with a Baldwin grand piano. During the years since, his main hobby has been keeping up a sound technique and broadening his knowledge of the literature. A few years ago, Dick built a two manual harpsichord to gain access to four more centuries of keyboard literature. His daughters, now 14 and 16, play violin and cello and, in ad dition, are studying string quartets under Gabriel CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Magyar, master cellist for 16 years with the Hungarian String Quartet. Meanwhile Betty, the Berkeley music major, continues the family tra dition by operating her own music studio. In summary, Dick has made a significant contribution by identifying electrochemical phe nomena where chemical engineering concepts find welcome application. He has helped unify diverse electrochemical subfields so that inter communication between them has been promoted. Through his research students and his professional activities, he has contributed significant l y to the broadening horizon of chemical engineering. [j n I book reviews MASS TRANSFER IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE By Aksel L. Lydersen John Wiley & Sons, 1983, x iii + 3 2 1 pgs $ 39 95 Reviewed by F. L. Rawling, Jr. E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. This book is a companion vo lume to the author's previous book "Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer" (John Wiley & Sons, 1979). The aim of the present volume is to present a short re fresher course in those areas of unit operations specifically dealing with mass transfer. The book consists of eight chapters: an introductory chapter on the principles of diffusion and seven chapters covering distillation, gas absorption and desorption, liquid-liquid extraction and leaching, humidification, drying of solids, adsorption and ion exchange, and crystallization The introduc tory chapter on the principles of diffusion pro vides a summary of the major equations together with a short discussion of the various types of diffusion, i.e. diffusion with bulk of mass in motion, eddy diffusion, molecular diffusion in liquids, etc. A short discussion of the two film theory and the penetration theory is also pre sented. No attempt is made at providing a funda mental treatment of the subject of diffusion; rather, reference is made to the literature. Several problems, typical of those encountered in in dustry are worked out in detail. There are four problems to be worked by the reader The chapter ends with a good bibliography, although half the references are pre-1970. Approximately two-thirds of the book is conWINTER 1984 POSITIONS AVAILABLE Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate page $60: each additional column inch $25. OKLAHOMA ST A TE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering: Assistant, Associate, or Full Pro fessor Position. This is a tenure-track position and will be approximately half-time teaching and half-time research. We will help the successful candidate establish research by providing initiation funds, co-investigation opportuni ties with senior faculty and proposal preparation-processing assistance from our Office of Engineering Research. Candi dates must possess an earned Ph.D. from an accredited Department or School of Chemical Engineering or have a Ph.D. in related areas and have strongly related qualifica tions. We welcome applications from candidates with competencies and interest in any field of chemical engi neering, but especially seek those with stre ngth s in design and computer applications. This position is available as early as July 1984. Applications will be received through March 16, 1984. Please send your resume and list of three references to Professor Billy L. Cry ne s, Head, School of Chemical Engineering, 423 Engineering North, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078. Calls for additional information invited. OSU is an equal opportunity / affirma tive action employer. cerned with staged operations, reflecting the in dustrial importance of this type of process. In general, each chapter follows the same outline: a short discussion of the theory involved together with the relevant equations, a discussion of the unit operation presenting the assumptions in volved and the major design equations a very general discussion on the various types of equip ment employed, a series of worked examples, a set of problems to be worked by the reader, and a bibliography. The worked examples in each chapter make this book worthwhile. They are well chosen to illustrate industrial problems and are worked out in detail, giving the assumptions and reasoning involved in arriving at a solution. In a few in stances, a programmable calculator (Hewlett Packard) is used in the solution of a problem. The calculator program is given. I believe the book fulfills its goal, i.e. a re fresher course in mass transfer. The many refer ences adequately direct the user to the funda mental literature. Practicing engineers faced with a problem in an area of mass transfer that they have not been involved with for some time will find this a good, succinct review. Students will find the worked examples illuminating. In structors should find this book to be a useful adjunct to their course. 9

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l!J Na laboratory A GRAND SALE: $12 For A Dozen Experiments In CRE ZHANG GUO-TAI AND HAU SHAU-DRANG** Oregon State Uni v ersity Corvallis, OR 97331 WE HAVE NOTICED THAT undergraduate chemical engineering laboratories in the United States commonly make use of experiments in unit operations, instrumentation and control; but that experiments in chemical reaction engineering (CRE) are very rare. This is understandable be cause such experiments usually require an ad vanced level of understanding, are rather complex in set up, and more involved to operate. We would like to introduce a whole class of experiments which require very simple and in expensive equipment and which illustrate one of the basic problems of chemical reaction engineer ing: the development of a kinetic rate equation from laboratory data. In essence, the student takes laboratory data, guesses a kinetic equation, tests its fit to the data and if this is satisfactory de termines the corresponding rate constants. Basically, we use a hydraulic analog. We will illustrate this with the simplest case; the fitting of a first order decomposition A R. Connect an ordinary glass capillary to a burette as shown in Fig. 1. Fill the burette with water at time zero let the water flow out, and record the change in volume as time progresses. We would like to introduce a whole class of experiments which require very simple and inexpensive equipment and which illustrate one of the basic problems of chemical reaction engineering. on leave from Shanghai Institute of Chemical Tech nology, China. ''* On leave from Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. 10 5 0cm 3 0 at start V = 50 cm3 horizontal capillary should ( be level with the zero volume reading on the burette .. Q Volume Time (cm3) (sec) 50 0 FIGURE 1. Experimental set up to represent the first order decomposition of reactant A, or A R. The student is told to view the experiment of Fig. 1 as a batch reactor in which reactant A disappears to form product R. The volume read ing on the burette in cm 3 is to be considered as a concentration of reactant in mole / m 3 Thus the experiment of Fig. 1 is to be treated as shown in Fig. 2. By following the reactant concentration (actually the volume of water in the burette) versus time the student is to determine the order of reaction and the value of the rate constant. If the experiment is set up properly, one will find that the data fits first order kinetics. The student sooner or later guesses first order kinetics, integrates the rate equation to give ln ( C o / C) = kt, plots the logarithm of concentration versus time, and from this evaluates the rate constant. Thus he learns how to test kinetic models. Of course, the length and diameter of capillary will determine the value of the rate constant. The experiment is so simple and quick to do one can incorporate a lesson in statistical analysis with it. Ask the student to repeat the experiment C o py ri g ht C hE 'D iv i si on A S E E_ 1 984 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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a number of times, find the rate constant, and also the 95 % confidence interval for the rate constant. This is the simplest of a whole class of experi ments that can be done with burettes and capil laries. Fig. 3 shows some of the many other re action schemes that may be used. There may be more than one way to test a rate form and fit the rate constants. It challenges the student's initiative and ingenuity to see how he approaches his particular problem. For example: for reactions in series, A-R-s he can try to follow the concentrations directly, he may follow concentration ratios and fit them to charts as shown in Levenspiel [1 ], or he may try to use the conditions when the intermediate hits its maximum value. He soon finds that some ap proaches are much more discriminating than others. SUGGESTIONS FOR SETTING UP THE EXPERIMENTS WE HAVE TESTED ALL THE experimental variations of Fig. 3 in the laboratory ourselves, and we have found that observation of the follow ing simple precautions will result in excellent agreement of experiment with theory. Be s ure that the capillary outlet is level with the zero line of the burette. Check this by filling the burette Zhang Guo-tai was born in Shanghai China in 1943 He graduated from the Shanghai Institute of Chemical Technology in 1965 and is an instructor there. His teaching and research activities center on the theor y of chemical kinetics and on reactor design He was at Oregon State Univ e rsit y on a two year visiting faculty appointment spon sored by the Chinese government (L) Hau Shau-Orang is an instructor in the chemistry department at Sichuan University China, where he is responsible for the teaching of basic chemical engineering subjects to all chemistry students a normal feature of Chin ese universities His duties included being superintendent of the chemical factory, and later, the pharmaceutical factory, owned and run by the chemistry department Mr Hau held a courtesy faculty appointment at Oregon State University where he studied chemical reaction engineering, on a Chinese government grant. (R) WINTER 1984 botch reactor for the / reaction A-R initial concentration w CA," 50mol/m3 Reactant concentration (mol/m 3 ) 50 Time (sec) 0 FIGURE 2. Reactor analog to the hydraulic experiment of Fig. 1. and letting water run out until equilibrium is achieved. Do not have any restriction between burette and ca pillary comparable with that of the capillary itself. Verify that laminar flow exists in the capillary. For an ordinary capillary and burette this condition is well satisfie d. Before starting an experiment pour water through the burettes so as to wet them. Also see that water does not flow back along the bottom of the capillary. Use a rubber band or a Chinese teapot s pout dripper at the capillary outlet. If the capillary is not long enough then the run time will be awkwardly short; if too long, a lot of time is wasted: The following s uggestions are convenient time scales and capillary lengths. Let T 1 be the time required for the water in the first burette to drop to half its initial height and let the corresponding length of capillary be L,. For the first experiment of Fig. 3 we find that T, = 30~40 sec is about right. For other experiments the appropriate time sca les and capillary lengths are s hown in Table 1. By preparing a number of capillaries and by using TABLE 1 Recommended experimental conditions Reaction Sche me Shown in Fig. 3 T 1 (sec) Capillary length Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6 Case 7 Case Sa b Case 9 Case 10 Case lla,b Case 12 30~40 20-30 30~40 20~30 30~40 20-30 30~40 20~30 30~40 30-40 30-40 L l L 2 = 2-6 L l L 3 = 2~4 Ll L 2 = 4 L,, L a = 2-4 L, L a = 2~4 LPL = 2 L, L 2 = 4-5 L 1 L 3 = 2----4 Ll L 2 = 4 L,, L 3 = 2'--'4 L,, L 4 = s-10 L, Ll L 3 = 4 L, L 3 = 4 L 1 L 3 = 3........,4 L, L 2 = 2~4 LI' L_ = 6-8 L, 11

PAGE 14

12 LJ h t nR LLR U]R UJs @ l LIJ U--w. L s A~R~S!1T FIGURE 3. Some reaction schemes. NOTES : In Sa 9, 10, 11, use different diameter burettes to obtain different rate constants for the forward and reverse reactions. Be sure to take the volumetric burette reading, not height. Sb. One can use just one burette if one locates the capillary at a height above the zero reading on the burette 11 b. One can use 2 burettes if one locates the second capillary somewhat above the zero reading on the burettes. CHEMICAL ENGINE ERI NG E D UCAT ION

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various combinations of burettes the laboratory in structor can insure that no two laborator y groups will have the same experiment to perform even in the giant classes which are now being proces s ed. Finally, a nice feature of this set of experi ments is that the student most likely will be led to perform an integration of the performance equation for the batch reactor before he can test his guess with experiment. CONCLUSION W E HAVE SHOWN HOW A FEW burettes and capillaries properly connected can be the basis for a large number of simple experiments to teach the principles of data fitting in chemical reaction engineering These experiments ma y be simple but they are not trivial. REFERENCES 1. 0. Levenspiel, Chemical Reaction Engineerin g 2nd Ed., Figure 15, page 191 Wiley, 1972 APPENDIX 1. Many of the kinetic models of Fig. 3 (cases 1 to 6) are special cases of the Denbigh reaction scheme ( case 7) The integrated form for this kinetic model, after appropriate manipulation is found to be C A C A,o CR C A o C T C A,o where K = k 1 + k 2 K 2 = k 3 + k 1 The conditions when the intermediate is at it s WINTER 1984; Substantial ChemistryTexts from Prentice-Hall CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL: An Introduction to Theory and Practice George Stephanopoulos T he Nat i ona l Techn i cal Un i ver s ity of Athen s 1984 704 pp (est.) Cloth $34 95 CHEMICAL AND PROCESS THERMODYNAMICS B G Kyte Kan sas State Un i ver s ity 1984 512 pp. (est.) Cloth $32 95 MASS TRANSFER: Fundamentals and Applications Anthony L. Hines and Robert N. Maddox both of Oklahoma State Univer s ity 1984 500 pp (est.) Cloth $30 95 BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CALCULATIONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Fourth Edition David M Himmelblau The Un i ver s ity o f Te xas at Au s t i n 1982 656 pp Cloth $33 95 PROCESS FLUID MECHANICS Morton M Denn Univer s ity of Del a w are 1980 383 pp Cloth $33 9 5 DIFFRACTION FOR MATERIALS SCIENTISTS Jerold M Schultz Univer s ity of Delaware 1982 287 pp. Cloth $35.95 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS WITH APPLICATIONS Milan Kubicek Prague Institute of Chemical Technology ; Vladimir Hlavacek SUNY at Buffalo 1983 336 pp Cloth $34 95 For further i nformation or to order or r eserve e x amination cop i es plea s e write : Ben E Colt College Operation s Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliff s, NJ 07632 For ''SUPER-QUl~K" Service, dial TOLL FREE (800) 526-0485* between 8:15 a.m.-4:45 p.m., EST, Mon.-Fri. no t applicab f e i n New Jer sey a liil p t H 11 A las ka H a waii or Puerto Ric o ell t::J LIi ren IC8 a maximum value are then C R,max k 1 [ K J K2 / (Kz-K1) ~ K 1 K 2 and t (f C ) ln (K 2/ K 1 ) or R ,m ax K 2 K 1 These expressions may be useful for the instructor as a check of the students work. 2. All the kinetic equations in Fig. 3 involve systems of first order reactions and are con veniently solved, either by integration or by com puter simulation for those who know how to talk to these machines. In a later paper we will con sider non-linear systems and reaction orders diffe r ent from unity. D ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank our advisor, Professor Levenspiel for suggesting that we develop this series of experiments, and we would like to recog nize Professor Jodra of the University of Madrid for indirectly bringing this type of experiment to our attention. 1 3

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[iJ n a classroom TWO COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR EQUIPMENT COST ESTIMATION AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES CARLOS J. KURI AND ARMANDO B. CORRIPIO Lo-,isiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 J N RECENT YEARS SEVERAL cost estimation and economic evaluation computer programs have been developed, including those associated with ASPEN [2, 3, 4), Monsanto's FLOWTRAN [10), Purdue's PCOST [11], and others. However, the fact that these programs are not readily available to most colleges and universities motivated this .work: the development of a cost estimation and economic evaluation computer program with the latest information in the field, easy to use and by all means suited to fulfill the requirements of a senior process design course. The algorithms used for the cost estimation computer program were obtained from the ASPEN Project, eleventh, thirteenth and fourteenth quarterly progress reports [2, 3, 4]. These algorithms are based on cost data for 1979. EQUIPMENT COSTING PROGRAM The equipment costing program is modular in design so that it is relatively easy to add equip ment classes as new costing models are developed. It is also relatively easy to update the cost cor relations for existing equipment classes without affecting other classes. A schematic diagram of the program modular structure is given in Fig. 1. A feature of the general design that is worth mentioning is the procedure for handling input data errors. When an error occurs in the specifica tions for a given equipment item, the calculated cost of that item is the only one affected. In other words, the program can recover and continue to calculate the costs of the items that follow. This Co p yright ChE Di vi s i on ASEE 19 84 14 Carlos J. Kuri is Chairman of the Board and Chief Exe cutive Officer of IMEX Corporation in Houston, Texas. He is a native of El Salvador and holds a B S degree in chemical engineering from the University of El Salvador and an M S degree also in chemical engineering from LSU He has practiced engineering for the Salvadorean Institute for Industrial Development and for Barnard and Burk e Consulting Engi neers of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He has also taught engineering courses at the University of El Salvador and at LSU Mr Kuri is married and the proud father of two children (L) Armando B. Corripio is professor of chemical engineering at Louisiana State Universit y For the past fourteen years he has taught courses and directed research in the areas of computer process control, automatic control theory and process simulation and optimiza tion H e has been actively involved in consu lt ing for several industrial organizations has authored and coauthored over seventy technical articles and presentations and has presented over seventy short courses and seminars for ISA AIChE, and other organization s. He is a member of ISA AIChE The Societ y for Computer Simulation and other professional and honorary societies. He is also a registered professional engineer, married and proud father of four children. In his spare time he plays tennis swims and coaches a youth soccer team. (R) procedure is designed so that the program can detect as many input data errors as possible in a single run, as opposed to detecting one error per run. Equipment Cost Correlations. The basic corCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FIGURE 1. Modular structure of equipment cost estima tion program. relation for the base cost of a piece of equipment is usually of the form: ln C B = a 1 + a 2 ln S + a 3 ( Zn S) 2 w here CB the base e q uipment cost per unit S the equipment size ( or duty pa rameter) per unit ai, a 2 a s = the cost correlation coefficients. The base cost is used as a basis to compute the actual estimated cost, the installation material s cost and the in s tallation labor hour s It is usuall y the cost of the equipment in carbon s teel for a common design type and pressure rating and thu s independent of the e q uipment design type, the material of construction and the pressure rating. The estimated equipment cost is then calculated by the following formula C E = C B f D fMf P the estimated equipment cost the design type cost fa c tor (if applicable) the material of construction cost factor the pressure rating factor (if applicable) If the equipment size is larger than the cor relation upper limit, the function is extrapolated at constant cost per unit size where C Bmax C B = C Bmux (S / S mux ) the maximum c o s t of the maxi mum size the maximum size for which the correlation is valid. If the e q uipment size per unit is less than the WINTER 1984 Two computer programs have been developed which are suitable for use by students in process design courses. The equipment cost estimation program is flexible, easy to use and based on the latest cost correlations available, those from project ASPEN. correlation lo we r limit, the c ost per unit is set equal to the minimum CB = CBmiu w here CBmio = the minimum cost for w hich the correlation is v alid. The equipment cost is adjusted to the specified escalation index in order to correct for inflation. The C hemical Engineering Fabricated E q uip ment Index [5 ] is used for thi s purpose. Input Data Specifications. A sa mple of the input specifications for the equipment costing pro gram is shown in Table 1. The data on this table illustrate the costing of seven different equipment items, o r ganized in card-image (80-column) records The first record of specifications for each equipment item is easily recognized by the asterisk ( ) in column one This code pro v ides a key for the detection by the program of missing reco r ds o r of r ecords out of s e q uence. Discussion of Cost Estimation Results. The results of the equipment cost estimation program for the items specified in Table 1 ar e compared in Table 2 with costs for simila r equipment items that ha v e been reported in the literature. Most of the literature costs are from Peters a nd Timmer hau s [7 ] which is a w idely used text for process design c ourses. All of the lite r ature c osts have been e sc alated to a C hemical Engineering Fabri cated E q uipment Index of 259.9 (1979) for c om pari s on. The agreement between the program TABLE 1 Sample of lnpute Data for Equipment Costing Program. COC K 101 DCCV CYCLONE M3/SN/M2 1979 12 CF A K 102 M3/S N /M2 K C HE K 103 F2 N /M2 CPVK I 04PVHO FF F IND USTRIAL FAN 3 1 HE A T EXCH AN GER 3 4 HORIZONT A L VESSEL 1 C P UK 105 CENT R IFUGAL PUMP L B F3F3/t N/ M 2 C TA K 1 OE. I FI E LD-ERECTE[l TANK I M 3 C T OK 107TOTR TRAY TOWER 2 TT 23 SUM ENO 2 1 a.so 6.90E3 16.5 1870. 323. 1000. 1 034E6 9. 30. .041666 62.4 47.472 1. 13 16 9 2.5 14. 130. 75, Q.ZQ 6.9E05 15

PAGE 18

costs and the literature costs is quite good in most cases and within the accuracy of prelimina ry study estimates. The largest discrepancies are in the cyclone and tray tower costs. For each of these cases the graphs in Peters and Timmerhaus had to be extrapolated, which may account for the discrepancy. ECONOMIC EVALUATION PROGRAM An acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable of operating under con ditions that will yield a profit. The purpose of the economic evaluation computer program is to calcu late two profitability indices: the net present value and the internal rate of return. These two indices are based on discounted cash flow techniques, taking into consideration the time va lue of money. Net Present Value (NPV) n NCF k NPV = k; (l+i)1'(1+RINF)k where NCFk the net cash flow for the kth year i = the effective annual rate of return RINF the annual inflation rate n = the number of years of dura tion of the project. Internal Rate of Return (IRR). This is the rate of return that equates the present value of the expected future cash flows or receipts to the initial capital outlay. Normally a trial and error procedure or root finding technique is required to find the discount rate that forces the NPV to zero. To be more realistic in the calculation of these two indices of profitability, the effect of inflation is included. Failure to at least try to predict in flation rates and take them into account can greatly distort project economics, especially at the double-digit rates that have become common throughout the world. The procedure used in the program in com puting the indices of profitability is described in the text by Bussey [l]. Economic Evaluation Program Result s Results of the economic evaluation program for a sample case are presented in Table 3. The problem is to estimate the profitability of a solids processing plant. Total purchased equipment cost is estimated at $3,200,000, with an economic life of 10 years An interest rate of 10 % inflation rate of 8 % and TABLE 2 Comparison of Equipment Cost Estimation Results Equipment Item 1. Cyclone 2. Fan 8.5 m 3 /s (18,000 cfm); 6,900 N/m 2 (28 in water); Excluding blower and motor 16.50 m /s (35,000 cfm); 1,870 N/m 2 (7.5 in water); 323 K (121 F); Carbon steel; Explosion-proof motor; Belt dri ve coupling 3. Heat Exchanger 1,000 ft2; 1.034 6 N / m 2 (150 psi); Stainless 316; U-T ube 4. Horizontal Vessel 1.034 6 N/m 2 (150 psi); 9 ft diameter; 30 ft long 5. Ce ntrifugal Pump 6.9 5 N/m 2 (100 psi); 62.4 lb/ft 3 ; 23.74 ft3/min (178 GPM); 6. Storage Tank 7. Tray Tower 16 Totally enclosed fan-cooled electric motor 1,893 m 3 (500,000 gal); Carbon steel 14 ft diameter; TTL = 130 ft long; Stainless 304; 75 Valve trays Program Cost, 1979 $ 3,380 $ 8,360 $ 29,100 $ 28,600 $ 1,830 $ 79,600 $859,000 Literature Cost, 1979 Reference $ 5,300 Peters and Timmerhaus [7], (p. 599). Extrapolation required. $ 8,500 Richardson [9]. $ 33,000 Peters and Timmerhaus [7], (p. 670). $ 25,500 Pikulik and Diaz, [8]$ 1,800 A VS (American Volunteer St a ndard) Peters and Timmerhaus [7], (p. 557). $ 71,000 Cone roof tank Peters and Timmerhaus [7], (p. 573). $657,000 Peters and Timmerhaus [7], (p. 76 8 ). Extrapolation required. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 3 Sample of Output Results for Economic Evaluation Program. Profitability c.,rn OF NET OPE RA TING GROSS INTEREST DEPRECIATION N ET INCOME SECTION 1231 NET PRES ENT VALUE YE AR SALES COST INCO ME EXPENSE EXPENSE AFTER TAX C A SH FLOW CAS H FLOW INCREMENT 0 0 0. 0 0 o. ::,. -4404706. -4404706. -4404706 13933488. 1 1581918 2351570 1027764 2431999. -576260 -644883 1210855. 934302. 2 17424176. 13894143. 3530033. 963276 1958071. 316517 -709371. 1565215. 931891 3 21669312 16668485 5000827 892339. 1576499. 1 316634. -780308. 2112824 970621. 4 26790096. 19977360. 6812736. 814308. 1269284. 2459155. -858339. 2870099 1017369. 5 33256672. 24096912. 9159760 728474. 1021936 3852862. -944173. 3930624 1075074. 6 7 8 9 10 35917184. 26024640 9892544. 634056 38790544. 28106608. 10683936. 530197. 41893760 30355104. 11538656. 415952. 45245248. 32783504. 12461744. 290283 488648 1 6 35406160. 13458656. 152047 NET PRESENT VALUE AT 20.0 PERCENT RATE OF RETURN DIS COUNTED CASH FLOW RATE OF RETURN < PE R C ENT ) INF LATI ON RA T E
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as depreciation remains constant. Notice the nega tive NPV for both of these cases This is because the actual IRR is less than the 20 % rate of re turn used to calculate the NPV. The obvious ad vantage of debt financing in this problem is due to the low interest rate on the loan (10 % ). Finally, comparison of cases 7 and 8 shows that inflation has no effect on the before-tax return when there is no loan. This is because all of the remaining cash flow items are assumed to inflate at the same rate. Dep reciation has no effect on the before-tax returns. The effect of the depreciation method on the IRR and on the NPV is shown in Table 5. Both double-declining balance and sum-of-the-yearn' digits produce similar results and are superior to the straight line method. This is because the de preciation allowance is accelerated in the early years of the project reducing taxes and shifting after-tax income to the early years where it counts TABLE 5 Effect of Method of Depreciation on the Rate of Return and the Net Present Value Depreciation Method Straight-line Double-declining balance Sum-of-the-years' digits Percent debt: 70 % Tax Rate: 48 % Inflation Rate: 8 % NPV @ IRR, % 20 % k$ 34.22 3,300 38.19 3,890 38.30 3,943 more. The double-declining balance method used by the program switches automatically to straight line in the later years of the project as allowed by the rules of the Internal Revenue Service. CONCLUSIONS Two computer programs have been developed which are suitable for use by students in process design courses. The equipment cost estimation pro gram is flexible, easy to use and based on the latest cost correlations available, those from project ASPEN. The economic evaluation program frees the student from the tedious trial-and-error calcu lations which are involved in the determination of the internal rate of return. The program is realistic as it accounts for depreciation, income taxes and inflation. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to express their appreciation 18 to the staff of project ASPEN, MIT Energy Laboratory, for the cost correlations used in the equipment cost estimation program, and to Banco Central de Reserva de El Salvador for the support of Mr. Kuri. REFERENCES 1. Bussey, L. E Th e Economic Analy s is of Indu s trial Project s Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1978. 2 Evans, L. B., et al., "Computer-Aided Industrial Pro cess Design," The ASPEN Project, Eleventh Quarter ly Progress Report, Massachusetts Institute of Tech nology, Cambridg e MA, March 15, 1979. 3 Evans, L B., et al., "Comput e r-Aid e d Industrial Pro cess Design," The ASPEN Project, Thirteenth Quart e rly Progress Report, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, September 15, 1979. 4. Evans, L. B., et al., "Computer-Aided Industrial Pro c e ss Design," The ASPEN Project, Fourteenth Quarterly Progress Report, Massachusetts In s titute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, December 15, 1979. 5. Kohn, Philip M "CE Cost Indexes Maintain 13-year Ascent," Ch e mical Engin ee ring, Vol. 85, No. 10, May 8, 197 8 pp 189-192. 6 Kuri, C J., "Proc e ss Equipm e nt C ost Estima t i o n and Economic Ev a luation," M.S Th e sis, D e partm r nt of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1980. 7. Peters, M. S., and K. D. Timmerhaus, Plant D es ign and Economic s for Ch e mical Engin ee rs, 3rd. ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980 8. Pikulik, A., and H. E. Diaz, "Cost Estimating for Major Process Equipment," C h e mical Engin ee ring Vol. 84, No. 22, Oct 10, 1977, pp. 106-122. 9. Richardson Engin ee ring Services, Pro cess Plant Con s truc ti on E s tima t ing Standard s, Vol. 4, Solana Beach, CA, 1979-80. 10. S e ad e r, J. D., W. D S e ider, and A C Pauls, FLOW TRAN Simulation-An Introduction, 2nd Ed CACHE Corporation, Cambridge, MA, 1977 11. Soni, Y., M. K. Sood, and G V Reklaitis, PCOST Co s t i ng Program, Purdue University W. Lafayette Indiana, May 1979. [i) ;j #I books received "Flame-Retardant Polymeric Materials," edited by Mena chem Lewin, S. M. Atlas, and Eli M. Pearce; Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, 10013; 238 pages, $35.00 (1982) "Advances in Cryogenic Engineering," R. W. Fast, Editor; Plenum Publishing Corp., New York 10013; 1224 pages, $95.00 (1982) "Surface Chemistry of Froth Flotation," Jan Leja; Plenum Publishing Corp., New York 10013; 758 pages, $69.50 (1982) "Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook," Mario Di Giovanni; Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 10016; 424 pages, $55.00 (1982) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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J. H. ERBAR John Harold Erbar, 51, professor of chemica l engineering at Oklahoma State University, died September 17, 1983. Born in El Reno, OK, Erbar earned all of his academic degrees in chemical engineering at Okla homa State University. Following service in the U.S. Army, he joined Standard Oil Company and worked in several research positions. He joined the OSU faculty as an assistant professor of chemical engineering in 1962 and was named full professor in 1969. He was named Teacher of the Year in 1970-71 and again in 1982-83. Dr. Erbar was recognized internationally as an expert in computer applications in chemical engi neering and taught courses in chemical engineer ing design, thermodynamics, fluid flow, stagewise [i) ;j plll 1 stirred pots The Limerick Metric Applied to Thermodynamics The subject of Thermodynamics, 'Tis true, is not for pedantics For, tho w ork must be done And sweat be not shunned, Insight requires more than mechani cs. O'r th e four Laws stands Confusion, As their numbering is all but illusion; For the first is not first, Tho the first is we ll ver s'd, And the last is not fourth-how amusin' The relations of Maxwell are infamous For prompting ill-natured remarks most boisterous. Their exactness is trying, Their permutations vying With other c ompanions more amorous. WINTER 1984 operations and others. He was a member of Omega Chi Epsilon, AIChE, ACS, ASEE, and various Oklahoma and national societies for professional engineers. He was a registered professional engi neer in Oklahoma. He is survived by his widow, Ruth, and a daughter and a son. Th e compressibility of liquids and gases Is oft de vi ous to lads and lasses. Relating P, V, and T Seems difficult to see Without perturbing th e masses. Some students ha ve little capacity For understanding fugacity. Their tendency to flee Is paradoxical, to me, And how will they de ve lop tenacity? The structure of phase diagrams abound With c omplexities horribly profound. Solid fluid, triple critical, And others more mythical, Its very dimensions can naught but astound. T'was once a Chem Engineer grasping For the c oncept of entropy dashing To proverbial heights ; But try as he might, There seemed little hope of his passing! J.M Haile Cl emson University C lem son, SC 29631 19

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, D pll lab~~atory : NEW ADSORPTION METHODS* PHILLIP C. WANKAT Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907 ADSORPTION AND ION EXCHANGE systems are used for a variety of separations and purifications in industry. Many different operational techniques have been proposed for these separation schemes. In this review we will first develop a simple method (suitable for undergraduate and rrraduate students) for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. Then this solute movement will be used to study a variety of operational methods. Much of this paper appeared previously [23]. SOLUTE MOVEMENT Consider first a bed of porous particles. The particles have an interparticle (between different particles) porosity of a and an intraparticle (within a given particle) porosity of e. The total porosity of the bed for small molecules is a + (1-a)e. This is illustrated in Fig. 1. In addition, large solutes will not be able to penetrate all of the intraparticle void space. The fraction of volume of the particle which any species can penetrate is Ka, For a non-adsorbed species, Ka can be de termined from K V e V o d vi (1) where v is the elution volume, V 0 is the external void volume between the particles, and Vi is the Presented at ChE Division ASEE Summer School, August, 1982. .....------..... FIGURE 1. Porosities in packed bed. internal void volume. When the molecules arc small and can penetrate the entire interparticle volume, V = V1 + V 0 and K a = 1.0. When the molecules are large and can penetrate none of the interparticle volume, V = V 0 and Kct = 0. As solutes migrate through the bed they can be in the mobile fluid in the external void volume in the stagnant fluid inside a particle, or sorbed to the particle. The only solutes which are moving towards the column exit are those in the mobile fluid. Consider the movement of an incremental mass of solute added to a segment of the bed shown in Fig. 1. Within this segment this incremental amount of solute must distribute to form a change in fluid concentration, ~c, and a change in the amount of solute adsorbed, ~q. The amount of this increment of solute in the mobile fluid compared to the total amount of solute increment in this segment is Amt. in mobile fluid Total amt. in segment Amt. in mobile fluid (2) which is 20 Amt. in mobile fluid Total amt. in segment Amt. in: (Mobile fluid + stationary fluid + sorbed) C o p yr i gh t C hE D ivisi on, A SEE, 1 98 4 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The solid density, p is included in Eq. (3) to make the units balance. A c is the cross sectional area, and z is the axial distance. If fluid has a constant interstitial velocity, v, then the average velocity of the solute in the bed (the solute wave velocity) is just v times (relative amount of time the incremental amount of solute is in the mobile phase). Assuming a random pro cess of adsorption, desorption and diffusion in and out of the stagnant fluid, the solute wave velocity becomes --Lamount solute in mobile phase J u =v s olu te total amount solute in column (4) or, after rearrangement V therm. This assumption allows us to ignore mass transfer effects. The second assumption is that dis persion and diffusion are negligible; thus, all of the solute will travel at the same average solute velocity. These assumptions greatly oversimplify the physical situation, but they do allow us to make simple predictions. As long as we don't be lieve these predictions must be exactly correct, the simple model which results can be extremely help ful in understanding separation techniques. For undergraduate students we limit the theory to simple linear equilibrium of the form q = A(T)c (6) where q is the adsorbed solute concentration, U s olute (T) 1 + [(1-a) / a ] eK 1 + [(1 a) / a ] (1-e)p (.Aq / Ac) K d (5) Eq. (5) represents a crude first order description of movement of solute in the column. With a few additional assumptions this equation can be used to predict the separation in the system. The most important assumption, and the as sumption least likely to be valid, is that the solid and fluid are locally in equilibrium. Then Aq will be related to Ac by the equilibrium adsorption isoU s o l ut e (T) Phil Wankat received his BSChE from Purdue and his PhD from Princeton. He is currently a professor of chemical engineering at Purdue He is interested in teaching and counseling, has won several teaching awards at Purdue, and is a part-time graduate student in Education. Phil's research interests are in the area of separation process with particular emphasis on cyclic separations, two-dimensional separations preparative chromatography and high gradient magnetic; separation WIN'rER 1984 A (T) is the equilibrium constant which is a function of temperature, and c is the solute con centration in the fluid. For common adsorbents the amount of material adsorbed decreases as temperature is increased. Thus A (T) is a monotonically decreasing function of temperature. With linear equilibrium Aq / Ac= A (T), and Eq. (5) becomes V 1 + [(1-a) / a]eK 11 + [1-a) / a]Krt(l-e)p A(T) ( 7 ) For Eq. (7) the solute wave velocity is the same as the average solute velocity. Eq. (7) allows us to explore the behavior of solute in the column for a variety of operating methods. Several facts about the movement of solute can be deduced from Eq. (5) or Eq. (7). The highest possible solute velocity is v, the interstitial fluid velocity. This will occur when the molecules are very large and K" = 0.0. For small molecules K~ = 1.0, and with porous packings these molecules always move slower than the interstitial velocity even when they are not adsorbed. If adsorption is very strong the solute will move very slowly. When the adsorption equilibrium is linear, Eq. (7) shows that the solute velocity does not depend on the solute concentration. This is important and greatly simplifies the analysis for linear equilibria. If the equilibrium is nonlinear, Aq / Ac will depend on the fluid concentration and Eq. (5) shows that the solute velocity will depend on concentration. 21

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Nonlinear equilibrium will be considered later. A convenient graphical representation of the solute movement is obtained on a plot of axial distance, z, versus time. Since the average solute molecule moves at a velocity of U s o lu t e (T)' this movement is shown as a line with a slope U s olu l e This is illustrated for a simple chromatographic separation in Fig. 2. Fig. 2A shows the feed pulse while Fig. 2B shows the solute movement in the column. The product concentrations predicted are shown in Fig. 2C. Note that this simple model does not predict dispersion or zone speading, but does predict when the peaks exit. If desired, zone spreading can be included, but will conceptually complicate the model. The ad vantage of this model is that it is simple and can be used to understand a variety of methods of opera tion. EFFECTS OF CHANGING THERMODYNAMIC VARIABLES Changes in temperature, pH ionic strength or solvent concentration are often used to help de sorb and elute the solute. Changes in these variables will change the equilibrium constant, A, in Eqs. (6) and (7). With temperature one can either use a jacketed bed and change the tempera ture of the entire bed ( called the direct mode) or he can change the temperature of the inlet stream and have a temperature wave propagate through the column (called the travelling wave mode). For most of the other elution methods the travelling wave mode is used. Elution may be done either co currently or countercurrently. The wave velocities for chemicals added to the system can be obtained from Eq. (5) or (7). The A. ~lcA, 1 l or C 5 / c,, 0 I 8. I I z I C I I I I A B 0 .. h, L;,.____ TIM FIGURE 2. Solute movement model for isothermal chromatography: A) Feed pulse; B) Trace of solute movement in column; C) Product concentrations. In Eq. (8) W is the weight of column wall per length and T ref is any convenient reference temperature. The wall term is only important in laboratory scale columns. The velocity of the thermal wave in the column is just the ratio in Eq. (8) multiplied times the fluid velocity After assuming local equilibrium so that T = T r = T w and simplifying, we have V Ut h e rmal 1 + [(1 a) / a]e + [1-a) (1-e)C p + (W / A c ) C w ] / apC r (9) velocity at which temperature moves in the column (the thermal wave velocity) can be obtained from an energy balance. If we can ignore the heat of adsorption and heat of mixing and assume the column is adiabatic, then the energy in the mobile fluid compared to the total energy in mobile fluid, stationary fluid, solid and the column wall in a segment of the column is Energy in mobile phase Total energy in column segment 22 Note that with the simplifying assumptions made here Ut h e rma1 is independent of temperature. Com parison of Eqs. (9) and (7) show they have a similar form but there is an additional term in Eq. (8) to account for thermal storage in the column wall, and effectively K a = 1.0 for energy changes Just as Eqs. (5) and (7) represented the moveCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ment of the average solute molecule, E q (9) represents the average rate of movement of the thermal wave. A more exact analysis is needed to include dispersion and heat transfer rate effects. On a graph of axial distance z versus time t the thermal wave will be a straight line with a slope Utb erm al Figure 3 illustrates elution using temperature for counter-current desorption. In this case a single solute is adsorbed. The feed flow is continued until just before solute breakthrough occurs. Then counter-current flow of a hot fluid is used to remove solute. Upon reversing the flow the fluid first exits at the feed temperature and the feed concentration. When the thermal wave breaks through, the temperature and concentra tion both jump. Since the adsorption equilibrium constant is lower at high temperature the solute velocity can be significantly greater at the higher temperature. In actual practice the outlet tempera ture and concentration waves will be S-shaped curves because of the dispersion forces. To complete the analysis of the traveling wave mode we need to consider the change in solute concentration when the adsorbent temperature is changed. The effect of temperature changes on solute concentration can be determined by a mass balance on a differential section of column Az over which the temperature changes during a time interval At. This balance for one solute is avAt(c 2 -c 1 ) [a+ K c1 dl-a)] (C 2 -C 1 ) Az (1--a) (l-e)Kc1p (q 2 -q,) Az = 0 (10) where 1 refers to conditions before the tempera ture shift and 2 to after the shift. In Eq. (10) the first term is the in-out term, the second term is accumulation of solute in the fluid, and the third term is accumulation of solute on the solid. To ensure that all material in the differential section undergoes a temperature change the control volume is selected so that At = Az / utb etm nl The mass balance then becomes ( a+E(l-a) Kc1 av ) (C 2 -C1) U t11 e rmul + Kc1(l-a) (l-e)p (q 2 -q 1 ) = 0 (11) If we assume that solid and fluid are locally in equilibrium and that the equilibrium isotherm is linear, then Eq. (11) reduces to WINTER 1984 ... we will first develop a simple method (suitable for undergraduate and graduate students) for following the movement of a solute in an adsorption or ion exchange system. Then this solute movement will be used to study a variety of operational methods. C C, 0 z 0 C or T 0 A. I Reverse F/oi,, 1-------I 8. r :iol .. '"r C. 1--I 7j.r., T I I CcNC Tof oF C,,/u,.,K BottoM ol ~l"-HN C, Jr r. C tR t, TIME FIGURE 3. Solute movement model for adsorption followed by counter-current elution with a hot fluid: A) Inlet concentration and temperatures; B) Trace of solute and temperature movement in bed; C) Product concentrations and temperatures In the typical liquid system U t bermal > U s olut e (TH) > U s olut e (T c ), and C(T H ) > C(T c ), Thus the solute is concentrated during elution. This concentration is calculated from Eq. (12), and was plotted on Fig. 3C. Note in Figs. 3A and 3C that the overall mass balance will be satisfied. If the equilibrium constant A does not change very much u 0 1 (TH) U 80 1 (T c ) and there will be little change in con centration during elution. Since A is not usually strongly dependent on temperature, large tempera ture changes are required. An alternative is to use I ) (12) U t herm a l 23

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The equations developed here can be rigorously derived from the governing partial differential equations by 111aking a group of assumptions called the local equilibrium assumptions and then using .. th:i method of characteristics. a different eluant which has a major effect on A. Eqs. (11) and (12) are still valid but with U E!ua n t replacing U thermnl In the direct mode the entire column is heated or cooled simultaneously. In this case U therma l is essentially infinite and Eq. (12) simplifies to U solute (T H ) U so l ut e (T c ) (13) For the usual adsorbent A (T) decreases ( solute desorbs) as temperature increases. Thus U so iu tc increases and, as expected Eq. (13) predicts that the solute concentration increases as temperature increases. This completes the basic analysis procedure for the solute movement model for linear isotherms. As presented, this is not a rigorous mathematical model but was based on simple physical ideas. The equations developed here can be rigorously derived from the governing partial differential equations by making a group of assumptions called the local equilibrium assumptions and then using a mathematical method called the method of characteristics [ l, 22]. Although some of the as sumptions required for the rigorous development have been mentioned in passing, it will be help ful to list them explicitly here. 1. Homogeneous packing (no channeling). 2. Radial gradients are negligible. 3. Neglect thermal and pressure diffusion 4. No chemical reactions except for sorption. 5. Neglect kinetic and potential energy terms. 6. No radiant heat transfer. 7. No electrical or magnetic fields. 8 No changes of phase except sorption 9. Parameters are constant except for A. 10. Constant fluid velocity. lla. Column is adiabatic, or llb. Column is at controlled con s tant temperature. 12. Heat of adsorption i s negligible. 13. Solutes do not interact. 14. Thermal and mass dispersion and diffusion are negligible. 15. Heat and mass transfer rates are very high so that fluid and solid are locally in equilibrium. 16. Equilibrium is linear. This is a formidable list of assumptions. If an y of these assumptions are invalid the predictions can be way off. The most critical assumptions are the last three Assumptions 14 and 15 cause the outlet concentrations and temperatures to sho w sharp jumps instead of the experimentally ob served S-shaped curves. Alternate mathematical models which are more realistic but much more complex are reviewed by Sherwood et al [19]. As sumption 16 can also cause physically impossible predictions, but fortunately this assumption of linear equilibrium is easily relaxed (see the next section). As we have seen this model greatly over simplifies the actual fluid flow and heat and mass transfer processes occurring in the column. Be cause of this the predicted separation is always better than that obtained in practice. What is this model good for? The model is simple and can thus be used to analyze rather complex precesses. The model does predict when the peak maximum will exit and thus is a good guide for setting operating variables. Since this model predicts the best possible separation the model can be used to de termine if, at its best, a separation scheme is of interest. Since the predictions made are qualita tively correct, as long as the model predictions are interpreted in a qualitative or at best semi quantitative sense the model is v ery useful. NONLINEAR SYSTEMS If the equilibrium isotherm is nonlinear the basic structure developed here is still applicable, but we must use Eqs. (5) and (11) instead of (7) and (12) The solute velocity now depends on both temperature and concentration. Once a specific isotherm is determined it can be substi tuted into Eq. (5). For example if the Freundlich isotherm q=A(T)c '' k < l is used, then and lim A q Ac O Ac o q I = kA(T)ck 1 ac T (14) (15) V ll s o l ute = 1 + [(1 a) / a ] EK ct + [ (h x ) / a ] K ct (l e)p kA(T)c k-i (l6) 24 C HEMI CA L ENGINE E RIN G EDU C ATION

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A c~ [IN c, B. L z C. TfMt FIGURE 4. Diffuse waves: A) Inlet concentration; B) Sol\lte movement; C) Outlet concentration. A diffuse wave occurs when a concentrated solution is displaced by a dilute system. This is illustrated in Fig. 4 where the outlet wave con centrations are calculated. If we try the reverse ( dilute solution displaced by a concentrated solu tion) then the limit does not exist since Lie has a finite value. A shock wave occurs. Another way of looking at this is Eq. (16) predicts a lower slope for dilute systems. When a concentrated solution displaces a dilute solution (Fig. 5A), the theory predicts that the solute lines overlap and two different concentrations occur simultaneously (Fig. 5B). This is physically impossible. To avoid this problem a mass balance is done on a finite section of the column of length Liz. This balance is the same as Eq. (10) except 1 refers to before the shock and 2 after the shock. Now we select the time interval Lit = Liz / u s ho c k so that the shock has passed through the entire section. Solving for the shock wave velocity, we obtain This is shown in Fig. 5C and the outlet concentra tion is calculated in Fig. 5D. Nonlinear isotherms can result in interesting interactions when various shock and diffuse waves intersect. The mathematical principles involved in switching from differential to finite elements is also a good pedalogical tool for teaching graduate students. For graduate students I rigorously de rive all these results using the local equilibrium model and the method of characteristics [ 19, 22]. COUNTER-CURRENT OPERATION I. Continuous Flow In most chemical engineering unit operations continuous counter-current flow is used since it is usually the most efficient way to operate. Counter current movement of solids and fluid is difficult Co ntinued on page 44 B z C. z TIME FIGURE 5. Shock wave: A) Inlet concentration; B) Solute waves following Eq. 18; C) Shock wave; D) Outlet concentration. V (17) U s hock = 1 + [ (1 a) / a]eKd + [(1-a) / a] (1 E) Kdp s [(q 2q 1 ) / (C 2 C 1 )] WINTER 1984 25

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[eJ n #I classroom THE PROCESS DESIGN COURSES AT PENNSYLVANIA:* Impact Of Process Simulators WARREN D. SEIDER University of Pennsyl vania Ph iladelphia, PA 19104 FOR THE PAST 35 years, a two-semester process design sequence has been taught at the Uni versity of Pennsylvania. This sequence is unique in several aspects, most notably its diversity of de sign projects, involving seven faculty advisors and seven consultants from local industry. The fall lecture course, "Introduction to Process Design," covers the methodology of process design and pre pares our students for the spring project course, "Plant Design Project," which is intended to pro vide a meaningful design experience. This article is focused on the impact of process simulators in recent years. In 1967 we began to introduce computing technology and modern design strategies, princi pally in the sophomore course on "Material and Energy Balances," and have gradually integrated process simulators into the design sequence. Our objective was to strengthen the highly successful sequence developed by Melvin C. Molstad, A. Norman Hixson, other faculty, and our many in dustrial consultants. From 1967-1973, our efforts to develop educational materials (principally soft ware) far outweighed the benefits to the students. However, in 1974, the availability of Monsanto's FLOWTRAN Simulator finally made this step successful. Additional industrial simulators have since become available and the benefits to our students now far outweigh our past efforts. *Base d on a l ect ur e at th e ASEE Summer School for ChE faculty, Santa Barbara, CA, August, 1982. Initially, the steps to satisfy a societal need are summarized e.g., the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous fuels. 26 Warren D. Seider is Associate Professor of chemical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his B S Degree from the Polytechnic Inst it ut e of Brooklyn and Ph D Degree from the University of Michigan. Warren s research concentrates on mathe matical modelling for process design and analysis He and his students have developed new methods for calculation of phase and chemical equilibria, analysis of azeotropic distillation tower s analysis of complex reaction systems, and integration of stiff systems. Warren teaches courses with emphasis on process analysis and design He has co-authored Introduction to Chemical Engineering and Computer Calculations (with A. L. Myers) and FLOWTRAN Simulation-An Intro duction (with J. D. Seader and A. C Pauls ). He helped to organize CACHE and served as the first chairman from 1971-73. In 1979 he was elected Chairman of the CAST Division of AIChE and in 1983 he was elected a Director of AIChE. Design courses are normally taught last in the chemical engineering curriculum and, hence, the details of the lecture course depend somewhat on the prerequisite courses-and class size. Hope fully this discussion of our particular format will provide useful idea s. FALL LECTURE COURSE: INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS DESIGN The outline of topics and associated lecture hours are listed in Table 1. Two books are re quired: Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers [7], and FLOWTRAN Simulation-An 1) Copyright C hE ,D iv ision, ASEE_ 1984 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 1 Outline of topics. Fall lecture cou r se Lect u re Hours Intr odu ction 1 Process Sy n t h esis 1 A n a l ysis of F l ows h eets FLOWTRAN 12 Si m u l atio n Desig n of Heat Exchanger s 8 Cost Esti m ation 3 Ti m e-Value of Money, Taxes, Depreciation 3 Profitability Ana l ys i s 2 O p ti m izatio n 3 Heat I n tegration 4 Sy n t h es i s of Separat i o n Processes 2 Se l ectio n of Desig n Projects (for 1 S p ri n g Project Co u rse) Exa m s 2 42 Int r odu c t i o n [9]. In addition, mate r ials are taken from seven other sources which are pl a ced on re serve in our library [l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11 ] The course expands upon the step s in the de velopment of a new chemical process as shown in Fig. 1 (based upon a similar figure in Rudd and Watson [8]). Initially, the steps to satisfy a societal need are summarized; e g the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous fuels. Of course, the steps are not always carried out in the sequence shown. For example, a sensitivity anal y sis is often per formed prior to an economic analysis. In the inte grated plants of today, aspects of transient and safety analysis must also be considered in the synthesis of the process flowsheet Next, the steps in the synthesis of a vinyl chloride process are illustrated with the intent of exposing the steps that enter into the invention of alternative flowsheets. Fig. 2 shows the evolu tion of one flowsheet, beginning with selection of the reaction path (not shown), followed by the distribution of chemicals (matching sources and sinks and introducing recycle) selection of the separation steps, the temperature and phase change operations (not shown), and, finally, the integration into chemical process e q uipment. This is based upon Chapter 3, "Process Synthesis," in Int r oduction to Chemi c al E n gi neer ing and Com puter Calculations [6]. It is noteworthy that steam is used to vaporize dichloroethane and cooling water to cool the reaction products in a quench operation. We emphasize the desirability of heat integration, when feasible, but because carbon would deposit in the evaporator tubes, a rapid low-temperature quench, with w ater as the coolWINTER 1984 Principal emphasis is given to the subroutines to model the process units such as vapor-liquid separators multi-staged towers, heat exchangers, compressors and reactors ing medium, is necessary. Having introduced the concepts of flowsh ee t synthe s is, attention is turned to the analysis of alternative flowsheets. In practice, of cours e the two go hand-in hand. FLOWT R AN is used pr i nci pally because our book [9] is written in a t u torial fashion, as compared with the usua l User M anuals. FLOWTRAN has been available for stude n ts on United Computing Systems, but its usage has been limited by the relatively high cost of co mm erc i a l computers. Recently however, like Ch em Share (DESIGN / 2000) and Simulation Sciences ( PR O CESS), Monsanto has made FLOWT R AN avail able for installat i on on university computersS oci e t a l Need De l i ne G enera l P r ocess Objective Co ll ect Sensilivi l y An a l ysis P r oduc t De mo nd { E cono m ic Fo r ecas t s Row M at eri al S upplies F IG U RE 1. Steps i n the development of a new chemical p r ocess 27

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greatly improving the effectiveness of process simulators in the design course. Principal emphasis is given to the subroutines to model the process units such as vapor-liquid separators, multi-staged towers, heat exchangers, compressors, and reactors. There are several sub routines to solve the equations that model each process unit. The models vary in specifications and rigor and it is important that the design student understand the underlying assumptions, but not the solution algorithm. We review the assumptions and make recommendations concerning usage of the subroutines listed in Fig. 3. For example, the PUMP routine disregards the capacity-head curve and uses the viscosity of pure wa ter. When de signing a distillation tower, use of DSTWU is recommended to calculate the minimum number of trays, the minimum reflux ratio, and the theo retical number of trays (given the re flux ratio), followed by DISTL which uses the Edmister as sumptions to simulate the tower and, in some cases, FRAKB or AFRAC to solve the MESH equations with fewer assumptions. The synthesis of the simulation flowsheet is also emphasized with consideration of novel ways of using the subroutines to analyze a process flowsheet. For example, consider the quench pro cess (Fig. 4a) in which hot gases are contacted with a cold liquid stream. Given the recycle fraction, and assuming that the vapor and liquid products are at equilibrium with no entrainment, most designers would develop the simulation flow sheet shown in Fig. 4b. However, iterative recycle calculations are unnecessary because the vapor and liquid products (S3, S5) are independent of the recirculation rate. In a more efficient simu lation flowsheet, the IFLSH subroutine deter mines the flow rate and compositions of S3 and S5 (see Fig. 4c). Then, MULPY subroutines com pute the flow rates for S4 and S6. Most students use the "brute-force" approach in Fig. 4b, re quiring about 5-10 iterations with Wegstein's method, before we demonstrate that the iterative recycle calculations can be avoided. These lessons are reinforced with a problem to simulate the reactor section of the toluene hydro dealkylation process [9, p. 228]. Feed toluene is mixed with recycle toluene and a recycle gas stream. The reaction products at 1268 F are quenched and the recycle fraction is adjusted to reduce the product temperature to 1150 F. As above, the iterative recycle calculations can be avoided, although most students use the brute28 a) The process synthesis problem H U I I I IMNllod II J ,ood l D ft l u t o' a ,~ ~ f ., H ool l l!H r h ,h1 rl ft t N~ti.,, ~ 2 1 I 0 6 11w / M ; I Desired Product b) Flow sheet showing distribution of chemicals for thermal cracking of dichloroethane from chlorination of ethylene (reaction past 3) '" c) Flow sheet showing separation scheme for vinyl chloride process d) Flow sheet showing task integration for the vinyl chloride process FIGURE 2. Synthesis of a vinyl chloride process (Myers and Seider [6]). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCA'rlON

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force approach. The FLOWTRAN subroutine EXCHl imple ments the method of thermodynamic effectiveness (computes terminal temperatures, given the area and overall heat transfer coefficient), and the EXCH3 subroutine implements the log-mean temperature difference method ( computes the area, given terminal temperatures and overall heat transfer coefficient). Since these methods are not covered in our course on heat and mass transfer, the methods are derived and problems are worked using Chapter 11 of P rinciples of Heat Trans! er [5] as text material. Then, the students design a heat exchanger (e.g., 1-4 parallel counterflow) with correlations for the heat trans fer coefficients and pressure drops on the shell and tube sides and the methods presented by Kern [4] and Peters and Timmerhaus [7]. This exposes the student to more detailed analysis procedures than are available in most process simulators. Such de tail is recommended only when the approximate models introduce large errors and the cost of a heat exchanger contributes significantly to the economics of the process. This leads to methods of cost estimation. FLOWTRAN has subroutines for cost estimation, but the assumptions of the cost models are not FIGURE 3 FLOWTRAN subroutines (blocks) Flash IFLSH AFLSH BFLSH Stage wise SEPR separation DSTWU DISTL FRAKB AFRAC Heat exchange HEATR EXCHl EXCH3 Reactor REACT XTNT Compression PUMP GCOMP Misc. ADD SPLIT MULPY WINTER 1984 Isothermal flash Adiabatic flash General purpose flash Split fraction specification Win nUnderwood-Gilliland distillation Edmister distillation Tray-to-tray distillation (KB method) Tray-to-tray distillation and absorption (matrix method) Heat requirement Shell and tube -m ethod of thermodynamic effectiveness Shell and tube-log-mean temp. diff. method Fractional conversion specification Extent of reaction s pecification Centrifugal pump Compressor (or turbine) Mixer Stream splitter Stream multiplier stated or referenced. Since no basis is available for justifying their results, well-established and clearly stated methods are preferred. The factored cost methods of Guthrie [3] have been used to date, but the factors in his article need updating. We are evaluating the PCOST program de veloped at Purdue University [10] and the data Quen c hed G os Coo l i ng Water Hot G as ~ ~ ( c l Acyc lic S i mu l at io n F lo wsheet FIGURE 4. QUENCH process. ( a l P r oc ess Fl o wsheet bl Iterative S i mulat io n Fl o wsheet books of Woods [12]. Both give cost curves and factors based upon more r ecent cost data. For production or operating costs, the recom mendations of Peters and Timmerhaus in Chap. 5 are used with concentration on the direct pro duction costs, such as for raw materials, operat ing labor, and utilities. The Chemical Marketing Reporter provides the costs of chemicals bi-weekly ( often for several locations within the United States). Next, the concepts of profitability analysis are introduced, following the sequence of Peters and Timmerhaus in Chaps. 6-9. The concepts of simple and compound interest are applied to give the present and future values of an investment and to define an annuity. Then, capitalized costs are covered to provide a basis for evaluating the cost of equipment having different service lives. For Co ntinued on page 41. 29

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Kil;, a curriculum INTRODUCING THE REGULA TORY PROCESS INTO THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM A Painless Method FRANKLIN G. KING AND RAMESH C. CHAWLA Ho ward University Washington, D.C. 20059 ENGINEERING FACULTY CAN NO longer doubt that government regulations have had a major imp act on engineering practice. Public policy de cisions have resulted from social concerns and have mandated engineering solutions in many areas, such as environmental pollution, proper dis posal of h azardo u s wastes, consumer product safety, and the control of exposure to carcino genic and toxic materials. Because technological invention has s uch a great impact on our society, the scope of an engineer's responsibilities must include a sensitivity for social concerns and the participation in public policy issues involving technology. Engineers are directly affected be cause our designs are often covered by govern ment regulations. Engineers must also provide the data and technical judgment needed to formu late public policy and to write realistic and technically feasible regulations to implement the policies. If all these things are true, then an argu ment can be made that engineering students sho uld be exposed to the interaction of engineer ing and public policy as part of their professional education. There are at least three different ways that an introduction to government regulations and the Engineers are directly affected because our designs are often covered by government regulations. Engineers must also provide the data and technical judgment needed to formulate public policy .. Copyright ChE ,Piv itti on, ASEE 1984 30 Franklin G. King received his B.S degree from Penn State his masters in e ducation from Howard University his masters in chemical engineering from Kansas State and his D .Sc. from Stevens Institute of Technology. He has been teaching for the last 18 years at Howard University and at Lafayette College. His current interests include the development of personalized instruction methods, biochemical eng neering and pharmacokinetic modelling of anticancer drugs (L) Ramesh C. Chawla is an Associate Professor of chemical engineer ing at Howard University He did his undergraduate work at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur and obtained his M.S. and Ph.D degrees from Wayne State University Dr Chawla is a member of many professional societies including AIChE, APCA WPCF, Sigma Xi and SAE. He has received several teaching awards including Out standing Instructor Award from the Howard University AIChE Student Chapter and Teeter Award from SAE. His research interests include kinetics air and water pollution, and mass transfer (R) regulatory process can be integrated into the chemical engineering curriculum. The first ap proach would be to recommend an elective course on the topic. Many universities have introduced "Society and Technology" elective courses which usually focus on the impact of technology as a social phenomenon, rather than on the technical aspects of public policy issues. These courses are often not recommended by engineering faculty be cause they do not meet the requirements as a CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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technical or a social science elective. Generally these courses are not taught by engineering faculty. Thus, engineering students are deprived of a role model and get the feeling that engineers are not concerned with the regulatory process and public policy issues. Also, since the courses are elective courses, many students may not select them voluntarily. A second approach is the use of interdisciplin ary project-oriented courses. The course would be team-taught by both engineering and social science faculty and the students could be both technical and non-technical. As an example, a course could be devoted to a project of cleaning up a river where the team would have to consider both the technical and the social aspects of differ ent solutions. These courses require a consider able amount of faculty time to organize and develop. They also require cooperation of different departments operating on different budgets. A third technique is to use engineering case studies to introduce public policy considerations directly into the engineering curriculum. The use of case studies can overcome the local problem of developing and sustaining projects with public policy issues. If case materials were available and if only part of a course involved issues concerning public policy, then many faculty might be willing to get involved. On the other hand, few engineer ing faculty would feel comfortable with or be willing to teach an entire course dealing with public policy. However, if faculty would give students even a small peek at public policy issues they should be able to foster an awareness of the relevance of the social science / humanities com ponent in education. We, as engineering faculty, might even grow a bit as we come to understand the impact of policy issues on the practice of engi neering education. We would like to describe a project which was aimed at developing a number of case studies with public policy considerations and how we have introduced public policy into our undergraduate curriculum at Howard University. We would also invite you to get involved so that case studies can be developed that can be used in chemical engineer ing curricula. THE EPEPP PROJECT The Educating Prospective Engineers for Public Policy (EPEPP) project is administered by ASEE with the University of Washington as the academic sponsor and Professor Barry Hyman [2] WINTER 1984 The goal of the project is to provide future engineers with the tools necessary to contribute professionally to the resolution of technically intensive public policy issues. as the project director. The project has the financial support from the National Science Foundation, Sun Oil Company, General Motors, and nine engineering societies. AIChE has become a sponsor for the 1984 program. The goal of the project is to provide future engineers with the tools necessary to contribute professionally to the resolution of technically in tensive public policy issues. The project is in re sponse to the needs of society to have a greater technical input into the making of public policy in engineering and technology areas and to the needs of engineers to have a broadened awareness and understanding of the meaning of public policy. The project is geared to produce case studies on topics concerning public policy issues which have technical components. The objective of the pro ject will be accomplished by the direct experience of a small number of students and faculty and by the integration of the case studies into the typical engineering curriculum. The project has three major integrated com ponents: 1) Washington Internship for Students of Engineering (WISE) ; 2) the development of case studies on engineering and public policy on topics based on the WISE program; and 3) a series of regional ASEE faculty workshops to promote the utilization of case studies. The WISE Program provides an opportunity for about 15 third-year engineering students to spend 10 weeks during the summer studying the relationship between engineering and public policy. An objective of the WISE program is for the students to gain an understanding of the ope ration of the federal government so that they can appreciate the non-technical aspects of technology related public policy problems. The students re ceive a stipend of $1750 to cover expenses. They also receive 3 credits from University of Washing ton. Their goal for the summer is to complete a written report on their project to provide the basis of a case study. The students are selected com petitively by the sponsoring engineering societies. Fortunately, five chemical engineers have been selected even though AIChE was not a sponsor. 31

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TABLE 1 WISE Participants* INTERNS 1980 Mechanical Engineering 5 Civil Engineering 3 Chemical Engineering 2 (SAE, NSPE) Electrical Engineering 1 Agricultural Engineering 2 Industrial Engineering 0 Aeronautical Engineering 0 Manufacturing Engineering 0 Energy Systems Engineering 0 Nuclear Engineering 1 Engineering & Public Policy 1 Engineering Science 0 1981 1982 4 5 2 3 2(ANS) l(ANS) 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 One or more students were sponsored by the societies shown in parenthesis-Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) and American Nuclear Society (ANS). Table 1 lists past WISE participants by back ground. In pursuing their specific projects, the students spend about 5 hours a week in a classroom setting discussing the dimensions of engineering and public policy [ 4]. In pursuing their specific projects, the students interact regularly with ASEE head quarters, the Washington office of their sponsor ing societies, government agencies, congressional staff, corporate lobbyists and consumer advocates. They also attend seminars by leading experts on current issues of interest to the technical com munity and to society. The classroom work and field work is co ordinated by a faculty-member-in-residence. The faculty-member-in-residence meets regularly with individual WISE students to monitor the progress of their activities. The faculty-member-in-resi dence is selected on the basis of first-hand ex perience with public issues, record of teaching, and familiarity with the case method of instruc tion. Professors Charles Overby (Ohio University), Paul Craig (UC-Davis), and F. Karl Willenbrock TABLE 2 1980 WISE Case Studies Regulation of trihalomethanes in drinking water Subsurface disposal of hazardous waste Problems with implementing an effective automobile fuel economy program Management of high-level radioactive wastes Building energy performance standards 32 (SMU) were the faculty-members-in-residence for the first three years of the program. The second phase of the EPEPP project is to convert the student papers into draft cases and to coordinate the preparation for classroom testing of the drafts [l]. In autumn 1980, in response to a national questionnaire, about 75 faculty expressed interest in using a case on a specific area and to participate in workshops on the use of the cases. On the basis of the questionnaire, five topics were selected by the project director to be converted into draft cases. The topics selected are listed in Table 2. As part of the process of converting the papers into draft cases, additional introductory material was written describing the regulatory process. Exerpts from the Federal Register and transcripts of expert testimony on proposed rules were included where appropriate. An Instructor's Guide was also written for each case. The Guide contains suggestions on how each case might be used. The third and final component of the project is the validation of the cases and their integration into engineering curricula. The validation and integration of the cases are to be accomplished by classroom testing and a series of workshops at TABLE 3 Faculty Participation DISCIPLINE C.E. Ch.E. (Howard, Sony-Buffalo) M.E. I.E. E.E. NUMBER 3 2 2 2 1 regional ASEE conferences. The workshops are to encourage and publicize the use of EPEPP cases on many campuses. Ten of the faculty that ex pressed an interest in the project were invited to participate in a case workshop which was held in conjunction with the 1981 ASEE Annual Confer ence. The field test faculty were selected to get a mix of disciplines and geographical areas. The distribution by disciplines is shown in Table 3. USING ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES An engineering case study is a written account of an engineering activity as it actually took place (3]. A case gives the sequence of events of a real experience, often from the viewpoint of one or more participants. Unlike a technical paper CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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which focuses on the validity of a solution, a case considers how the results were obtained. A case often shows how the participants interacted to ac complish the engineering task. A case is often written in segments to a llow class study or dis cussion at critical decision points. Cases, like de sign projects, have no single correct answer and depend on many subdivisions of engineering. They often raise questions of human behavior and ethics as well as technical questions, and thus permit many possible solutions. Engineering cases can be used in many differ ent ways. A list of some of the more common methods is given in Table 4. Using cases as readTABLE 4 Classroom Uses of Case Material Reading assignments Background to specific problems Practice in formulating problems Subjects for class discussion Medium for relating engineering history and illustrat ing the engineering method Motivation for laboratory work Background and source for research or de sig n projects ing material is the simplest method, but it is probably the least effective. One of the other methods should probably be selected since students will be more involved in the learning process. EXPERIENCE AT HOWARD UNIVERSITY We used the draft case study "Regulation of Trihalomethanes (THM's) in Drinking Water" as part of our first chemical engineering course "Introduction to Engineering Design." All of our students were concurrently taking their second semester of chemistry and calculus. The THM case was selected from the available cases be cause it had a strong chemistry component and the topic had the most interest to chemical engi neers. The students were all given a copy of the case study as a reading assignment and were given a short technical presentation on the formation of THM's in water. Every attempt was made to insure unbiased dissemination of information. The students were next organized, voluntarily, into one of six groups consisting of the EPA, Congress, in dustry, consumer groups, research centers and universities, and judges. Each group was asked to prepare themselves for a role-playing discus sion of the topic. Each group then met individualWINTER 1984 Unlike a technical paper which focuses on the validity of a solution, a case considers how the results were obtained ... Cases, like design projects, have no single correct answer and depend on many subdivisions of engineering. ly to formulate their strategy. They were en couraged to explore the topic in as great technical detail as possible. The students were expected to present and defend the positions of their group, rather than express their personal views. The discussion period consisted of a two-hour session which began by having each group's spokesperson summarize the group's role in the regulation process. Two faculty members and a senior student joined the judges group to moder ate and guide the discussion and to bring out various aspects of the problem. The judges also acted to evaluate individual student and group performance. A lively debate followed, with each group questioning the others. The judges were successful in keeping the discussion going and getting most of the students involved in the dis cussion. The student judge s were unanimous in siding with the consumer group, their evaluation being more on an emotional basis than a factual one. The faculty judges felt that the discussions should have been more technical, but everyone agreed that they had a better understanding of the regulatory process and why engineers must be in volved. We plan to continue using the case studies in our freshman class and intend to introduce them in the senior level design course. We expect to get a better technical response from the seniors, but both groups will gain a sensitivity for the social responsibility of engineers. REFERENCES 1. Federow, H. L and B. Hyman. "Developing Case Histories from the WISE Program, Proceedings of the 1981 ASEE Annual Conference, pp. 1011-1015. 2. Hyman, Barry (EPEPP Project Director). Program in Social Management of Technology, FS-15. Uni versity of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195. 3 Kardos, G., and C. 0 Smith. "On Writing Engineer ing Cases." Proceedings of the 1979 ASEE Engineer ing Case Studies Conference 4. Overby, C. M. "Engineering and Public Policy: Re flections by the 19 80 (WISE) Fa cu lty-Member-in Residence." Proceedings of the 1981 ASEE Annual Conference, pp. 1004-1009 33

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[e) ;j plll classroom MODULAR INSTRUCTION UNDER RESTRICTED CONDITIONS TJIPTO UTOMO Bandung Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia KEES RUIJTER Twente Uni v ersity of Technology Enschede, Th e Netherlands DUE TO THE ECONOMIC recession and cuts in educational budgets, discussions on the efficiency of the education system (especially with regard to faculty time) have only recently been started in the Western world. For developing countries, however, this is not only a well known problem but only one of many problems. Besides having a Tjipto Utomo graduated from high school i n 1941 but had to suspend his academic activities during the second World War and the following struggle for independence. He began university studies in 1950 and graduated from the chemical engineering department of the Institute of Technology Bandung in 1957 He obtained his MChE degree in 1959 from the University of Louisville and is presently a professor at the Institute of Technology Bandung. (L) Kees T. A. Ruijter is a graduate in chemistry from the University of Amsterdam. During the years of 1979-19B3 he worked in the Dutch-Indonesian program on upgrading chemical engineering edu cation in Indonesia. Before that he was with the Twente University of Technology (Holland ) working on the development of chemical engineering education and he has now returned there His ma i n areas of interest are lab course improvement, efficiency of the learn ing-teaching process and curriculum evaluation and development. (R) 34 small faculty, underpaid and overoccupied with additional activities, universities often face such conditions as inhomogeneous classes (in capability as well as in motivation), low staff-student ratios, rapidly increasing enrollments, and the need for more graduates. In a cooperative project between the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) and technical uni versities in The Netherlands, the educational sys tem was improved gradually within these restric tive conditions [1]. One of the main features, a modified modular instructional system, is the subject of this article. THE TRANSPORT PHENOMENA COURSE The transport phenomena ( T .P.) course is a fourth semester course. However, because the first year is a common basic science program for all ITB students, it is their first real confrontation with engineering concepts. For this reason and because less than 30 % of the students passed yearly, the T.P. course was chosen as our pilot course. In the first phase of reconstruction the course and its context were thoroughly evaluated. Some measures were investigated in an experimental set-up and implemented step-wise. The main find ings were 1. Only a few students perform at an acceptable level. Many students know the principles and laws but cannot apply them in any situation. We decided to restrict the number of topics to be discussed and to require the students to perform at a higher level of competence. 2. The individual differences in student performance are enormous (despite the common first year program). To minimize this problem we developed a modu lar instruction scheme enabling the students to study at their own pace. 3. The students (80%) are not able to read English texts. Also, because the lecture as a source of informaCopyri ght C h E D ivision ASE E 1 984 C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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tion is inadequate for an inhomogeneous class, we decided that all information (text, examples, exercises and solutions) should be made avail able on paper. 4. Students do not solve the problems systematically and they have difficulty in describing physical phe nomena in mathematical terms. For this we adopted a methodology for solving science problems and modified it for the T.P. problems [2, 3 ] 5. fodividual guidance of students working on prob lems is quite effective but cannot be applied to exercises at home because of lack of tutors. An instructional scheme was developed wherein the presentation of theory and applications by the teacher was followed directly by individual exercises in class and continued at home. 6. The usual norm-referenced grading procedure ap pears to be inadequate to evaluate effectiveness of learning and instruction and is demotivating for the students. In grading the module exams we applied the criterion-referenced performance assessment. As criterion we chose 60%, the minimum level of mastery necessary to take the following module. MODULAR INSTRUCTION Modularization is a classical solution for the problem of an inhomogeneous student population. Students in such a group differ in capability, in telligence, and motivation, resulting in different time requirements for study. In a modular scheme the allowed time is made to correspond with the students' required time. The course is divided into modules, enabling students to choose more or less individual paths [4]. However, we could not apply all principles of modular instruction because 1TB students are not able to study on their own (they have never studied in instructional schemes other than the lecture). Faculty time is very restricted and assistants, proctors, or administrative staff are not available Therefore we limited the number of examina tions and the opportunity for remedial instruction and developed a teacher-paced modular system. The contents of the T .P. course are very suitable for modularization because of the similarity among the three sections: transfer of momentum, heat, and mass. After the first part the other two can be presented by analogy. The contents were divided into 6 modules ; 3 modules covering the basics of momentum, heat, and mass transfer; 2 covering extensions and ap plications of these; and the 6th module ( C-2, ex tension of mass transfer) is postponed to the unit operations courses. The first module is a small module, to encourage the students to start their WINTER 1984 We developed a teacher-paced modular system which allows the students to study on a full or a 60% pace (a 2 gear-system). study immediately. The students can concentrate on the macro-balance approach and by the time they are acquainted with this concept and the new instructional system, the micro-balance approach is introduced (see Table 1). TABLE 1 Contents of 5 Modules MODULE SUBJECT A-1 INTRODUCTION Transport phenomena Laws of conservation MOMENTUM TRANSPORT Laminar flow Sample problems Abstract and exercise Dimensional analysis Exercise A-2 Flow in pipes Turbulent flow Pressure drop in tube flow Flow in conduits with varying cross section Sample problems Abstract and exercise Flow around objects Exercise B-1 MICROBALANCES B-2 C-1 Introduction Equation of Continuity Equation of Motion Application of the equation Abstract and exercise HEAT TRANSPORT Introduction Equation of Energy Application of the equation of energy Abstract and exercise Unsteady state conduction Heat transfer by convection Radiation Abstract and exercise MASS TRANSPORT Diffusion Mass transfer Coefficient of mass transfer The film theory Concentration distribution Unsteady state diffusion Mass transfer by convection Simultaneous heat and mass transfer Abstract and exercise 35

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The examination procedure forces the students to concentrate on the basic modules. Only students who pass the first module (A-1) are allowed to proceed to the second module (A-2). The others must repeat the A-1 exam, which is scheduled at the same time as the regular module A-2 exam. This procedure requires the least possible time from the lecturer. For the same reason, no reme dial instruction for repeating students is organ ized. The printed text and work-out exercises should enable them to prepare for the repetition. As a consequence, as many students as possible who are starting to study heat transfer have passed module A-1 and have a proper compre hension of the essentials of momentum transfer. The procedure for the second section is quite simi lar. A calculation showed that the examination for modular instruction should consume no more in structor time than examination by the former method, if 60 % of the group passes on the first attempt. Since 1981 all homework problems have been directly related to classroom exercise. Feedback on the exercises was provided in class and in the lecture notes (answers), while many worked-out problems were shown in show-windows. All prob lems were worked out in four phases: analysis, plan, elaboration, evaluation. Only a precise result in one phase allows the problem solver to proceed to the next phase. The results at each phase enable the instructor to provide adequate feedback and allows the students to look for adequate in formation about their solving process. This prob lem solving scheme was also followed for examina tions. RESULTS The module test results of 1981 are shown in Table 2. The student performances were accept able except for modules B-2 and C. Here a final module effect, "we have got the ticket," seems likely. After the tests only 66 % had to repeat two modules or less. Most of them were able to pass the respective parts of the final exam and thus the whole course. This and the overall effect of the re construction is shown in Table 3. By means of questionnaires, interviews, and analysis of examination results, other informa tion was collected on TIME SPENT Students did not feel the modular 36 TABLE 2 1981 Module Test Results STUDENTS WITH SCORE ABOVE 60% % Students First Second Final passed MODULE attempt attempt exam (N=135) A-1 95 (70%) 34 1 96 A-2 67 (70%) 35 67 B-1 97 (72%) 26 1 92 B-2 55 (57%) 1 41 C 27 (20%) 77 77 Percentage of number of participants in the examina tion. Here 67 passed out of 95 students allowed to par ticipate. 1 '* For these modules the final exam is the second attempt. system forced them to spend more time on trans port phenomena. PROBLEM SOLVING The plan phase was very difficult for the students. The lecturer considers the systematical method on problem solving not only as a means for learning but also as a sound tool for instruction and explanation to the students. ATTENDANCE AT LECTURES / INSTRUCTIONS The number of students attending the lectures during the semester was higher than before. The decrease in attendance during modules B-2 and C was partly caused by the interference of labora tory activities. This explains the lower scores on these modules. ACCEPTANCE Students and lecturer were very positive about the reconstructed course and the modular system. CONCLUSIONS The examination results of the reconstructed courses and the general acceptance show that the modular T.P. course is a substantially improved course. The better performance of the students is not a result of an increase in their efforts or the TABLE 3 Distribution of Final Grades for the TP Course During and After 1980 GRADE 1980 1981 1982 A 0% 3.3% 21.0% B 2.5% 30.1% 29.5% C 18.5% 46.3% 27.6% (A+B+C) (21.0%) (79.7%) (78.1 % ) D 25.2% 12.2% 5.7% E 30.3% 0% 4.8% F 23.5% 8.1% 11.4% A / B / C Passed: D Passed conditionally: E / F Failed. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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activities of the teacher, but by a more efficient use of the students' and lecturer's time; i.e. the internal efficiency of the instructional process has been improved. The main feature of the new course is the modular system. We developed a teacher-paced modular system which allows the students to study on a full or a 60 % pace (a 2 gear-system). Re medial teaching was not applied. This system re sulted in a constant study load in transport phe nomena during the semester and few students lost the junction in an early phase as they had in the past. We may conclude that it is worthwhile to apply a modular scheme, even under very re stricted conditions of faculty time. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This educational upgrading program was sponsored by The Netherlands Ministery of De velopment Cooperation. LITERATURE 1. Ruijter, K. and Tjipto Utomo, "The Improvement of Higher Education in Indonesia : A Project Approach." Higher Education, 12 ( 1983). 2 Mettes, C. T. C. W., et al., "Teaching and Learning Problem Solving in Science," Part I; Journal of Chemical Education, 57 / 12 (1980). 3. Idem, Part II: Journal of Chemical Education, 58 / 1 (1981). 4. Russel, J. D., "Modular Instruction," Burgess Co., 1974. [9;j I book reviews THE HISTORY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY By Robert R. Rothfus Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15 2 13 302 pages Reviewed by Robert B. Beckmann University of Maryland The author, Robert R. Rothfus has been asso ciated with the chemical engineering program at Carnegie-Mellon, as a graduate student and fac ulty member, for over forty years, a period that covers over half the Chemical Engineering pro grams total existence and almost the entire period of its existence as a separate department. The book was obviously a labor of love to Professor Rothfus WINTER 1984 as evidenced by its attention to statistical detail and anecdotes as well as historical development. The first part of the book outlines the histori cal development of the school beginning with An drew Carnegie's original offer to establish an institution for technical education on 15 Novem ber 1900 and traces the development from the "Carnegie Technical Schools" to the transition (1912) to Carnegie Institute of Technology and the final transition (1967) to Carnegie Mellon University. Following the detailed development to University status the book turns to the histori cal growth and development of the original School of Applied Science one of the four original Schools founded by the Carnegie gift to the current College of Engineering. The first diplomas in Chemical Engineering Practice were awarded in 1908 along with the initial "Diplomas" in the Civil, Electrical, Mechanical and Metallurgical Practice fields. Included are statistical and organi zational details relating to the various depart ments, research laboratories, interdisciplinary programs, the academic calendar, tuition and en rollments. The development and growth of the Chemical Engineering Department is chronicled in Chap ter 4, beginning with the original Chemical Prac tice program in 1905 and the transition to Chemi cal Engineering in 1910. The chapter divides the history of the Department into quantum periods depending upon who was the chief administrative officer of the department during that period. The problems, issues and accomplishments of each period are well chronicled. The development is carried through 1980. Part Two of the book, which comprises over 40 percent of the total pages is devoted to an ex haustive presentation of departmental statistics from its inception through 1980. The various chapters include such topics as enrollment and degrees granted, the faculty over the years, the changing undergraduate curriculum and gradu ate instruction, research activities and financial support and anecdotal sections devoted to depart mental "personalities" and a recalling of the un usual, comical and tragicomical events over the years. The Appendices, about a third of the book, are devoted to a complete delineation of faculty, staff and students (graduate and undergraduate) by name and years of service, or graduation, who have been a part of the Carnegie Story in chemi cal engineering. Continued on page 48. 37

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class and home problems The object of this c olumn is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type than can be used to moti va t e the student by presenting a particular principle in c lass or in a new light o r that can be assigned as a novel hom e problem are re quested as we ll as those that are more traditional in nature that e luc i dat e d i ffi cu lt concep ts. Pleas e sub m i t them to Professor H. Scot Fogle r, ChE epartment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. SETTING THE PRESSURE AT WHICH TO CONDUCT A DISTILLATION ALLEN J. BARDUHN Syracuse Uni ver sity Syracuse, NY 13210 This memorandum w as issued to the students in chemical engineering stage o pera tions, most of whom are sophomores and first semester juniors but none of whom ha ve yet had any h ea t transfer courses. Thus the elementary explana tion of heat exchangers may be unnecessary fo r more experienced students. The subject of the memorandum is usually n ot c o ve red at all in stage operation te x ts, or at most only lightly covered. In most of the problems on this subject for distillation the pressure is gi ven but ther e is n o statement a s to ho w it is de termined. When the pressure is gi ven, most students (and a fe w professors) will ha ve no idea whether it is reasonable or even possible T HE MINIMUM PRESSURE at which to conduct a distillation is set by the condenser. The temperature of condensation of the top product must be high enough to condense it with the cool ing water available. We remove heat in the con denser with cooling water which rises in tempera ture as it removes heat, since its sensible heat rises The maximum pressure for the separation is set by the reboiler. The boiling temperature of the bottom product must be low enough to be boiled by condensing the steam available Copyright ChE Division, ASEE 1984 38 with temperature. Also the condensing tempera tures of the overhead product increase with in creasing pressure. The maximum pressure for the separation is set by the reboiler. The boiling temperature of the bottom product must be low enough to be boiled by condensing the steam available. We must be able to add heat to the reboiler, by having the heat source at a higher temperature than the bubble point of the bottom product. HEAT EXCHANGERS Both the condenser and the reboiler are generic heat exchangers and all heat exchangers require that there be a temperature difference between the source of heat and the sink, i e. the source must be hotter than the sink. The local tempera ture difference (Lit) between the two streams ex changing heat is often not a constant but it must be everywhere greater than zero. If the Lit is zero anywhere in the exchanger, the area required to transfer the heat becomes uneconomically large. It is useful to plot the temperature history in any heat exchanger to see what the Lit (driving force) is and how it varies throughout the device. For example, the overhead vapors (from a distillation column when heat is removed) will first begin to condense at their dew point. Further cooling will condense more until it is completely condensed at the bubble point. THE CONDENSER If the dew point of the overhead product at the column pressure is 140 F and the bubble point is 120 F-and if the inlet cooling water is CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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70 F and a 30 F rise may be taken-the tempera ture pattern in the condenser when the overhead is condensed completely but not subcooled is repre sented in Fig. 1. The At driving heat transfer is thus between 40 and 50 F. This is quite adequate, but At's as low as 10 or 20 F are not uncommon. Now if the pressure of operation were lowered then the dew and bubble point temperatures would be less than those shown and they might ap proach the cooling water temperature thus de creasing the At which drives heat transfer and increasing the area required according to the de sign equation A= ft 2 Area req'd. Q where Q u the rate at which heat is to be transferred (Btu / hr.) the overall heat transfer coefficient Btu / [ (hr) (ft 2 ) (F) J the mean driving force tempera ture difference in F. All during my undergraduate days (1936-1940) at the University of Washington in Seattle, the country was in the depths of the great depression and jobs were scarce After obtaining my M.S I was lucky to get one job offer with an oil refinery in California which I promptly accepted and started to work 24 November, 1941 just two weeks before Pearl Harbor. The refinery work was very good chemical engineering experience for me I worked there for over 7 years and remember wondering when I first arrived why all de butanizers operated at 50 to 60 psig and all depropanizers operated at 180 psig. When I later figured it out it was simple but I seldom come across any professors who have thought about it enough to have a well organized answer to my question of "How is the Pressure Set for a Distillation Column?" I have yet to see a thorough or even a sketchy treatment of this subject in any text on distillation. So I thought it would be appropriate to write this article for a class in Stage Operations and perhaps to publish it in CEE The elementary discussion of heat exchangers was necessary because the students had not yet taken a course in heat transfer (Informal biographical sketch submitted by author.) WINTER 1984 The condenser thus sets the minimum pressure at which the column must operate. To find this minimum pressure, first find the bubble point pressure of the D product ... FIGURE 1. 120F ~=Water IN LU = 50F The mean Lit is usually some where between the two terminal temperature differences ( unless one of them is 0) and you will learn in Transport II how to calculate these mean At's. The condenser thus sets the minimum pressure at which the column must operate. To find this minimum pressure, first find the bubble point pressure of the D product at a temperature of say 10 or 20 F higher than the inlet cooling water temperature. For a binary distillation this can be taken from the P-x-y diagram for that tempera ture, and for multicomponent mixtures one must use the relations for vapor-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent mixtures. THE REBOILER As the column pressure is increased, the At in the condenser will just get bigger and this is satis factory; but the pressure also affects the opera tion of the reboiler in the opposite fashion. The material being boiled in the reboiler has the com position of the bottom product and the boiling temperature is the bubble point of W the bottom product. It is fixed once its composition and the pressure are known. The heat source is usually condensing steam and the steam condensing temperature must thus be at least 10 or 20 F above the bubble point of the bottoms product. Since the latter temperature goes up with in creasing pressure, this sets a maximum pressure at which the distillation may be conducted. The temperature pattern in the reboiler is simpler than that in the condenser since neither the steam nor the bottom product changes temperature as heat is transferred. If, for example, the bubble point of W is 300 F at the column pressure, and we have steam available at 300 psig, the condens ing temperature for this steam (steam tables) is 39

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about 422 F. This temperature pattern is il lustrated in Fig. 2. 4220 F __ c_on_d_e_n_si_n-=-g_s_teo_m __ 4220 F 300F t.t = 122F boiling btms product 3 00F flt : 122F FIGURE 2. The bubble point of the bottom product ( which increases as P goes up) and the available steam pressure (and its condensing temperature) thus set a maximum pressure for the distillation. To find this pressure, estimate the bubble point pres sure of the W product at a temperature of say 20 F (more or less) below the condensing steam temperature. We now have both a maximum and minimum pressure at which the distillation can be carried out. Some pressure between these two would be used in the final design and its optimum value will be determined by an economic balance. The items to consider in such an economic balance are: 1. The effect of P on the temperatures of condensation of the overhead and on the boiling temperature of the bottom product which affect the mean ;lt in the con denser and reboiler and thus their areas. Each of these exchangers may be made smaller at the eipense of the other one by adjusting the pressure up or down be tween the limits imposed. The higher the pressure, the smaller the condenser and the larger the reboiler, and vice versa. Pressure affects these two exchangers .in opposite directions because we are removing heat from one and adding heat to the other. 2. The effect of the column design pressure on its wall thickness and thus cost. 3. The effect of pressure on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. This effect is likely small for nearly ideal liquid solutions since for these liquid mixtures the relative volatility is independent of pressure. For hydrocarbon systems for example, by changing the absolute pres sure by a factor of 2, the relative volatility changes only about 5%. For non-ideal systems however pres sure may have a more important effect especially when there are azeotropes since the composition of the azeotrope may change with pressure. It may even be possible to eliminate an azeotrope by suitably adjusting the pressure. A COMMON PROBLEM It is entirely possible ( especially when there is wide variation in the boiling points of the bottom and top product) that the minimum pres40 sure set by the condenser is higher than the maxi mum pressure set by the reboil er. In this case there are three possible solutions. One is to use refrigeration to condense the top product, but this may be expensive. A second solution is to use a fired reboiler for the bottoms, i.e. send the liquid from the bottom tray to a furnace which may heat to temperatures much higher than condensing steam. The liquid is thus partially vaporized and sent to a flash drum to separate the vapor formed from the remaining liquid. The vapor off this drum is returned to the column below the bottom plate, and the liquid becomes the W product. A third possible solution to the problem is to accept as a vapor that part of the overhead product which can not be condensed with the cooling medium, i.e. design a partial condenser. The part that is condensed is partly returned as reflux and the rest is liquid D product. The D products thus consist of two streams; one a vapor and one a liquid. This is usually the case for the first crude oil fractionation. The flow sheet is illustrated in Fig. 3 Vapor product (wet gosl Liquid .._ ____ water .._ ________ Liquid top product FIGURE 3. The vapor product contains methane, and ethane which can't be condensed easily. The vapor product is called "wet gas" not because it con tains water (which it does), but because it con tains some condensible hydrocarbons. It is sent to compressors and thence to an absorption column where the ethane and heavier are removed as ethane and L.P.G. (Liquified Petroleum Gasses) which consist mostly of C a' s and C / s. The methane containing very little ethane and heavier is called dry gas and is about the same as natural gas. The ethane is usually cracked at high temperature to yield ethylene which is the source of many of our petrochemicals. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The liquid water product comes from open steam used to assist in the first crude oil fractiona tion instead of having a reboiler. GENERAL FRACTIONATION NOTES (a) The optimum reflux ratio is said by Treybal to fall in the range of 1.2 to 1.5 times the minimum reflux ratio. This rule was formu lated when heat was cheap, say $0.50 to $1.00 per million Btu. With currently expensive heat, say $5.00 to $8.00 per million Btu the optimum reflux ratio comes much nearer to the minimum and may lie in the range (1.05 to 1.2) (R m 1n). (b) In desert areas when water is scarce and expensive, air cooling is often used to condense the overhead vapors but in this case the overall heat transfer coefficients are much lower than with water cooling and the optimum approach tempera ture differences for condensing may be much larger than the 10 to 20 F quoted above. Also the design air inlet temperatures may have to be 90 to 110 F or even 120 F in order to get a design which will work most of the time. D DESIGN COURSE Continued from page 29. projects with gross profit, tax and depreciation schedules are described. Finally, cash flow dia grams are introduced for comparing investments on the basis of simple rate of return, present worth of cash flows, or discounted cash flows. Given profitability measures, questions of op timality arise. The optimization problem is de fined in general terms to begin coverage of this comprehensive subject. The objective is to intro duce optimization methods, suggesting the need for further study. Single variable, unconstrained methods known as sequential search methods ( e.g., the Golden-Section method) are covered using the excellent descriptions in Chap. 10 of Digital Computers and Numerical Methods [2] with two example problems from Chap. 10 of Peters and Timmerhaus ( optimal insulation thickness and optimal batch time). Then, multi variable, unconstrained methods are covered in cluding lattice search, repeated uni-directional search, and optimal steepest descent [2]. Next, the students optimize the design of a distillation tower with a condenser, reboiler and reflux pump. Throughout the course they have WINTER 1984 solved problems involving these components, so for this problem they are given the FORTRAN function DISTIL which computes the rate of re turn on investment as a function of the product purity, the reflux ratio, and the fractional re covery of the most volatile species in the distillate. The use of DISTIL to (1) carry out material balances, (2) count trays, (3) calculate the tower diameter, heat exchanger areas, and pump horse power, and (4) calculate costs, cash flows and discounted cash flow rate of return is reviewed. Then, the students write a program to calculate the maximum rate of return on investment. Inci dentally, DISTIL was written by Prof. D. Brutvan [1 J and has been modified slightly for use in our course. Prof. Brutvan prepared an excellent problem-statement, typical of a large company, with design specifications, sources of physical property data, cost data, and explanations of the algorithm. This has also been modified for use in our course. After the introduction to process synthesis, the course concentrates on analysis with the con figuration of the process flowsheet given. The de sign variables are adjusted to locate an optimal design for a given configuration. However, in pro cess synthesis, the emphasis is placed upon finding the best configuration. This approach is well-suited to teach methods of increasing the thermodynamic efficiency by heat integration. The monograph, Availability (Exergy) Analysis [13] and the paper "Heat Recovery Networks" [11] provide excellent introductions to the analysis of thermodynamic efficiency and the pinch method for minimizing utilities. Synthesis of separation processes is also covered, but briefly in just two hours. The key con siderations are introduced, time being unavailable to solve a meaningful problem. The course concludes with a final exam and the course grade is based upon two mid-semester exams and the homework. Approximately 15 problem sets are assigned, with two problems using FLOWTRAN and one problem in which the rate of return for a distillation tower ( using the DISTIL function) is maximized. SPRING COURSE: PLANT DESIGN PROJECT Penn's strength in process design can be at tributed in part to the large concentration of chemical industry along the Delaware River and to our close interactions with several industrial 41

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colleagues. In this section, organization of the project course to benefit from this interaction is examined, before considering the impact of pro cess simulators. During the last two weeks of the fall lecture course, the students select design projects suggest ed by our industrial colleagues and the chemical engineering faculty. The projects must be timely, of practical interest to the CPI, and be workable in 15 weeks. Kinetic and thermophysical property data should be available. Abstracts of possible de sign projects are prepared and the students select a project or propose one of special interest to themselves. No effort is made to restrict projects to those we ll-suited for simulation. In the spring, 1982, we had sixteen projects, one for each group of three students, and in 1983 we had nineteen projects. Each group is advised by one of seven members of our faculty, usually supplemented by a visiting faculty member and a research student in the area of computer-aided design. During the spring, as the designs proceed, each group meets for one hour weekly ( on Tues day afternoon) with its faculty advisor and one of its four industrial "consultants." For the past three years we have had seven outstanding con sultants. Dr. Arnold Kivnick of Pennwalt Corp. has completed his twenty-fifth year as a con sultant to our students. Arnold has shared his years of experience in helping our student s and young faculty develop their design skills. Other members of our consultant team contribute simi larly, making it possible to expose our students to a broad range of design projects. The course concludes with a one-day technical FIGURE 5 Abstract of a typical design project High purity isobutene (suggested by Len Fabiano, ARCO) lsobutene will be recovered from a mixed C 4 stream con taining n-butane, i-butane, butene-I, butene-2, i-butene, and butadiene. A four-step sequence will be considered: (1) re action with CH 3 OH to MTBE (methyl-tertiary-butyl ether), (2) recovery of M;TBE from the reaction products, (3) cracking of MTBE to methanol, isobutene, and by products and (4) recovery of isobutene, by-products and methanol. This design will concentrate on (3) and (4). Kinetic data in the literature will be supplemented by ARCO. Fattore, Massi Mauri, Oriani, Paret, "Crack MTBE for Isobutylene," Hydrocarbon Processing, 101, Aug., 1981. 42 TABLE 2 Possible Design Projects (1982-83) 1. Cyclohexane oxidation to cyclohexanol 2. Polymerizer solvent recovery 3. High purity isobutene 4. Catalyst recovery plant 5. Triolefin process 6. Ethylene dimerization 7. Ethanol to gasoline 8. Methane from coal with K 2 CO 0 catalyst 9. Liquid CO 2 for extraction of Suggested by W D. Seider D. F. Kelley DuPont L. A. Fabiano, ARCO L. A. Fabiano, ARCO L. A. Fabiano, ARCO L.A. Fabiano, ARCO W. B. Retallick, Cons. W. D. Seider pyrethrin from chrysanthemums W. D. Seider 10. Syngas to methanol S. W. C hurchill 11. Separation of benzene, toluene, xylene 12. Heat pump for ethane ethylene split 13. Optimization of solar heated home 1 ~ Maleic anhydride from butane 15. Fluidized-bed, coal combustion, electric power plant J 6. Supercritical fluid extraction 17. Dimethylamine 18. Paramethylstyrene with zeolite catalyst 19. Hydrogen production by radiation of CO 0 and watergas shift W. D. Seider W. D. Seider N Lior W. D. Seider N. Arai A. L. Myers P. J. O'Flynn W. D. Seider S. W. Churchill meeting of oral presentations accompanied by written design reports. From the oral and written reports, the faculty selects the outstanding design project for the Melvin C. Molstad Award. Each member of the winning group receives a $100 prize thanks to the generous endowment of Dr. Ken Chan, Class of 1962. Notably, the last five reports have also won the Zeisberg Award in competition with other schools in our area. A typical abstract of a design project is shown in Fig. 5 and the titles for 1982-83 are in Table 2. The problems are timely and their diversity shows the broad interests of our faculty and industrial consultants. IMPACT OF SIMULATORS Since 1974 we have had access to the FLOW TRAN program on United Computing Systems (UCS), but its usage has been limited by the high cost of UCS, a commercial computing system. Initially modest funds were budgeted for FLOW TRAN, but with increasing class sizes and tight budgets it became necessary to charge the CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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students for use of FLOWTRAN. Consequently, FLOWTRAN was used by just a few groups -as a last resort. The maximum charge per group was approximate l y $100. In 1982, ChemS hare Corp. provided DESIGN / 2000 as a load module for installation on our UNIVAC / 1100 at no cost to the University of Pennsylvania. Subsequently, eight of the sixteen design groups chose to use DESIGN / 2000, averag ing $800 of computer charges per group. DESIGN / 2000 has a well-developed thermo physical property system, CHEMTRAN, with a data bank containing constants for 900 chemicals (as compared with 180 in the student version of FLOWTRAN). Programs are available to calcu late constants such as the normal boiling point temperature and critical properties, given the molecular structure (the atom-bond interconnec tions). For nonideal solutions, programs are avail able to compute the interaction coefficients for the UNIQUAC equation and, when equilibrium data are unavailable, to estimate activity coefficients using the UNIF AC group interaction coefficients. Furthermore, CHEMTRAN provides the Soave Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson equations for calculations in the vapor-liquid critical region. In addition to these advantages ( compared with FLOWTRAN), alternative programs are provided for short-cut and rigorous analysis of multistaged towers. Similarly, the PROCESS system of Simulation Sciences, Inc., provides features that are not in cluded in the student version of FLOWTRAN. Some are equivalent to DESIGN / 2000, some are not in DESIGN / 2000, while some of the DESIGN / 2000 features are not included. PROCESS has not yet been installed on our computer, so that we are less familiar with this system. Several limitations remain and these are gradu ally being eliminated. However, currently FLOW TRAN, DESIGN / 2000 and PROCESS do not model processes with inorganic compounds and ionic species There are no programs to calculate compositions in phase and chemical equilibrium or to simulate CSTRs, PFTRs, and solids-handling equipment. These features have been included in the ASPEN system, but ASPEN is not yet avail able for routine student usage. As expected, ChemShare and Simulation Sciences are adding many of the same features. The bottom line with respect to our design se quence is that industrial process simulators permit more routine analysis of simple processes and WINTER 1984 give more accurate analyses for complex pre cesses ; for example, extractive distillation towers. These simulators enable more complete parametric analysis and examination of process alternatives. Normally, they are applicable for just parts of the analysis; rarely for analysis of the entire flow sheet They provide our students with experience in the use of modern CAD tools. In our research, the development of new CAD methodologies is emphasized. In the senior design course, some of these methodologies are intro duced using well-tested industrial simulators which are gradually upgraded. Emphasis is placed on completing the design. Student time is not wasted working out difficulties with a proto type program. When possible, process synthesis method ologies are emphasized. As yet, however, few pro jects have been found which are sufficiently open ended to permit analysis of many alternate con figurations in the fifteen week term. Good sugges tions are welcomed. REFERENCES 1. Brutvan, D R., "Economic Optimum Conditions for a Staged Separation Process," Comput e rs in Engin e er i ng D e sign Ed uc ation Vol II Univ. of Michigan Proj e ct, Ann Arbor 1966. 2. Carnahan, B. and J. 0 Wilkes, Digital Computing and Num e rical M e thod s Wil e y, 1973. 3. Guthrie, K. M., "Capital Cost Estimating," Ch e m. Eng March 24, 1969. 4. Kern, D. Q., Proc ess H e at Tran s f e r, McGraw-Hill, 1950. 5. Kreith, F., P ri ncipl es of H e a t T r an s f e r Third Ed., Int'l. Text Co., 197 3. 6. Myers, A. L., and W. D. Seider, Introduc t ion t o Ch e mical Engin ee r i ng and C omputer Calculation s, Pr e ntice-Hall, 1976. 7. Peters, M. S., and K. D. Timmerhaus, Plant D es ign and Economic s for Ch e mical Engine e r s Third Ed McGraw -Hill 1980 8. Rudd, D F., and C. C. Watson, Strat e gy of Proc ess Engin ee ring, Wiley, 1968. 9 S e ader, J. D., W. D Seider, and A. C. Pauls, FLOW TRAN Sim u lat i on-An Introd u ction, Second Ed., CACHE, Ulrich s Bookstore, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1977. 10. Soni, Y., M. K. Sood, and G V. Reklaitis, PCOST C osting P.rogram, School of Chem. Eng., Purdue Uni versity, W. Lafayette, Indiana, May, 1979. 11. Linnhoff B., and J. A Turner, "Heat Recovery Net works," Ch e m Eng., Nov 2, 1981. 12. Woods, D., "Cost Data for the Process Industries," McMaster Univ Bookstore, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (1974). 13. Sussman, M. V., A v ailability (Ex e rgy) Analysi s, Milliken House, 1980. 43

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NEW ADSORPTION METHODS Continued from page 25. to achieve, but has been extensively studied. Counter-current schemes have included flow in open columns [2, 10, 17] ; the hypersorption pro cess where solids flow was controlled by the open ing and closing of holes in sieve trays [11 ], moving belt schemes [12] and the recent magnetically stabilized moving bed system developed by Exxon. The idealized analysis of all these systems will be similar. A counter-current system is shown in Fig. 6. The solids flow down the column while the fluid flows up. The less strongly adsorbed solute A moves up in zone 1 while strongly adsorbed solute B moves down in this zone. Thus zone 1 purifies solute A. Zone 2 removes solute A from B and thus purifies solute B. In zone 3 solute B is de sorbed with desorbent D. Zone 4 serves to remove solute A from the desorbent so that desorbent can be recycled. The desorbent could be water or a solvent. The solute movement theory can be applied to this system. The solute wave velocities calculated from Eq. (5) or (7) were with respect to a stationary solid. The appropriate fluid velocity is then the interstitial fluid velocity relative to the solid. Thus V = Y s up e r + V a so lid (18) where V suver is the superficial fluid velocity and V s oi!d is the superficial solid velocity. Now U so l ute calculated from Eq. (5) or (7) is the solute velocity with respect to the solid. The solute SoliJs A-,D,P, A+B, F 2 B-,D, Pz 3 D FIGURE 6. Counter-current separator. 44 velocity which an observer will see is obtained by subtracting the solids velocity U solute CC = U s olu te Y solld (19) U so l ute cc is positive when the solute flow is up the column and negative when it flows down. In the counter-current column the solids velocity is the same in all zones but the superficial fluid velocity varies from zone to zone since feed is added and products are withdrawn. If we set Ysuv e ,a as velocity in zone 3, then for relatively dilute systems Y supe r ,2 = Y s up er 3 P 2/ A c Y super,1 = Y super,2 + F / A c Y super,4 = Y s u per,1 -P i/ A c (20) Since V super changes, U so lute cc will change from zone to zone. In addition, if the desorbent affects the adsorption of solute then the equilibrium s 'I P, z F 8 3 D TIM FIGURE 7. Solute movement in continuous counter current column. constant A (T) will vary from zone to zone and U so lu te cc will change. This latter effect is not necessary to make the counter-current column work. To achieve the separation indicated in Fig. 6 we want solute A to move upward in zones 1 and 2 and downward in zone 4. Thus U A CC ,1 > U A CC,2 > 0 > UA CC,4 (21) Solute B should move downwards in zones 1 and 2 and upwards in zone 3. Thus Un CC,3 > 0 > U B cc,1 > UB CC,2 (22) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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An alternative to continuously moving solid down the column is to move solid and entrained fluid down in pulses. This is commonly used in continuous ion exchange systems such as variants of the Higgins system and the Graver Water Treatment System. This system could also be applied to the binary separator. Eqs. (21) and (22) are an important result since they control the operation of the continuous counter-current column. There is a range of values for P 1 P 2 and D for a given feed flow rate which will satisfy inequalities (21) and (22). In actual practice it is desirable to choose the flow rates so that all the inequalities are as large as possible. The appropriate solute waves are shown in Fig. 7. In the ideal case at steady state there will be no solute A in zones 4, 2 or 3 and no solute B in zones 1, 3 and 4. Because of dispersion and finite mass transfer rates solute A will appear in zones 4 and 2, and B will be in zones 1 and 3. The size of the zones required depends on these dis persion and mass transfer rate effects. In ad dition, any axial solid or fluid mixing caused by non-perfect flow will require a larger column. Ex treme mixing or channeling can destroy the de sired separation COUNTER-CURRENT OPERATION II. Pulsed Flow An alternative to continuously moving solid down the column is to move solid and entrained fluid down in pulses. This is commonly used in continuous ion exchange systems such as variants of the Higgins system [10, 18, 20] and the Graver Water Treatment System [14 ] This system could also be applied to the binary separator shown in Fig. 6. In the pulsed system the solid is stationary except for short periods when it moves down. Thus U 8 01 u te is given directly by Eq. (5) or (7) with the superficial fluid velocities given by Eq. (20). When the solid and fluid are pulsed downward, the solute waves are also shifted down. The solute wave theory for the pulsed flow system is shown in Fig. 8. The net movement of solute A is upward in zones 1 and 2 and downward in zone 4. The net movement of solute B is downward in zones 1 and 2 and up in zone 3. Fig. 8 is drawn for a plug flow movement of solids and fluids during the downward pulse. Feed would be introduced con tinuously and withdrawn continuously. Only one feed period was shown to keep the figure simple. If mixing occurs during the pulse less separation will be obtained. This is a practical limit to sharp WINTER 1984 fractionation of two solutes in a pulsed flow counter-current system. (23) where l p is the length of a pulse movement in meters and t v is the time between pulses in minutes. The average solute velocity over many pulses is given by Eq. (19). The desired separa tion will be achieved when inequalities (21) and (22) are satisfied. SIMULATED COUNTER-CURRENT SYSTEMS An alternative to moving bed systems is to simulate counter-current movement. This is done with a series of packed bed sections by switching the location of all feed and product withdrawal ports. An observer located at a product withdrawal port sees the solids move downwards everytime s z I-t, --1 TIME FIGURE 8. Solute movement in pulsed counter-current system the port location is shifted upwards. Thus the observer sees a process very similar to the pulsed counter-current system analyzed in Fig. 8. The first simulated counter-current system was the Shanks system which has been applied to leaching, adsorption and ion exchange [13, 21]. The Shanks system uses a series of columns with plumbing arranged so that feed can be input and 45

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The solute movement theory can be used to analyze the simulated counter-current system in two ways. product withdrawals removed from any column. Thus the counter-current separator shown in Fig. 6 can be simulated. Modern adaptations of the Shanks process have been done by Barker and his co-workers for gas chromatography systems [3, 5] and for gel permeation chromatography [4]. UOP has extensively used a pilot plant scale system which is a series of columns for scaling up their commercial scale units [9, 16]. The commercial UOP simulated counter-current process, Sorbex, uses a single column with many packed sections and has a rotating valve for distributing feed, de sorbent and products. The commercial units simu late the system shown in Fig. 6 [6, 7, 8, 9, 16]. The UOP process was first commercialized as Molex for separation of linear paraffins from branched chain and cyclic hydrocarbons using 5A molecular sieves. Since then, processes for p-xylene purifica tion (Parex), Olefin separation (Olex), and separation of fructose from glucose (Sarex) have been commerciali zed. Pilot plant scale separations for a variety of other problems have been demon strated [9, 16]. A large number of patents have been granted on simulated moving bed systems. The solute movement theory can be used to analyze the simulated counter-current system in two ways. First, if the observer fixes himself at one of the outlet or inlet ports then he sees the solid and entrained fluid transferred downwards in pulses. This observer then sees solute movement as shown in Fig. 8. The average solids velocity this observer sees is given by Eq. (19), and the analysis applied for the pulsed counter-current operation is applicable. In the second analysis the observer fixes him self on the ground and he sees the solid as station ary. With the fluid flowing up the column, he sees all the inlet and outlet ports move up the column at discrete times. When a port reaches the top of the column, it recycles back to the bottom. In be tween the shifting of port locations, the adsorber is a fixed bed system. Thus the solute wave velocity can be determined from Eqs. (5) or (7). The fluid velocities in each section will differ. The super ficiaffluid velocities are given by Eq. (20) and the interstitial velocity v equals V s uper/ a. The shifting of ports does not shift the solute waves, but does 46 change the wave velocities since it changes which zone the solute is in. This is illustrated in Fig. 9. If the desorbent changes the equilibrium constants this will also change the solute velocities. Note in Fig. 9 that the movement of both species is up, but the more strongly adsorbed solute B moves down with respect to the port locations. Feed would be introduced continuously at the port marked A + B, but was illustrated for only one time period. The zone numbers cor responding to Fig. 6 are shown on Fig. 9. The STREAMS Pwl z TIME FIGURE 9. Solute movement in simulated counter current system. fluid velocities and hence the solute velocities are different in each zone. When fluid reaches the top of the cascade it is recycled to the bottom. Thus the solute wave~ are also recycled. If the timing of the switches is appropriate, solute A will appear in zones 1, 2 and the lower section of zone 4, and solute B will appear in zones 1, 2 and the upper section of zone 3. Solute A goes into zone 4 since only a portion of the fluid is withdrawn as product P 1 Solute B goes into zone 3 because of the switch ing of ports. Dispersion and mixing effects will naturally spread out the solute waves in each zone. To achieve the desired separation we desire to have solute A move up in zones 1 and 2 faster than the port movement and slower in zone 4. Solute B should move slower than the port movement in zones 1 and 2 and faster in zone 3. The average velocity of port movement is U port,nvg = lport/tp ort (24) where lpor t is the packing height between ports and CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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t p o rt is the time between switches of ports. The conditions to achieve separation are then (25) These conditions follow the same order as Eqs. (21) and (22). How close is a simulated counter current system to a truly counter-current separator? Al though the answer to this depends on the chemical system and the column length, Liapis and Rippin [15] found that the simulated system had an ad sorbent utilization from 79 % to 98 % that of the truly counter-current system. With a single zone system they found that from two to four sections were sufficient and that two to four column switches were required to reach a periodic con centration profile. Comparison of simulated counter-current and truly counter-current systems is of considerable interest. Both systems at steady state can at best do a complete binary separation. Partial sepa ration of additional components can be obtained with side withdrawals. The simulated counter current system could also be extended to more complex cycles where part of the bed is temporarily operated as a batch chromatograph. The simulated moving bed system is actually a fixed bed system. Thus flooding ( unintentional upwards entrain ment of solid) will not be a problem, but excessive pressure drop may result for small particles or viscous solutions. The fixed bed will have a lower a and hence a higher capacity than truly counter current systems, but this will be offset by the distribution zones between sections. The actual movement of solids requires means for keeping the bed stable, may result in excessive attrition, but allows for easy solids replacement or external re activation. Both systems have mechanical difficul ties to overcome. In the simulated moving bed these difficulties are the valving and timing while in an actual moving bed they involve moving the solids without mixing. Currently, the simulated counter-current systems have been the preferred choice for large-scale adsorption installations. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Some of the research reported here was sup ported by NSF Grant CPE-8006903. This paper is a modified version of Wankat [23]. The per mission of the Corn Refiner's Association to reprint parts of that paper is gratefully WINTER 1984 acknowledged. NOMENCLATURE A(T) A c C C r Cs C w F k L -Equilibrium parameter, Eq. (6) Cross sectional area of column -Solute concentration in fluid, kg / L -Heat capacity of fluid -Heat capacity of solid -Heat capacity of wall -Feed rate, L / min -Exponent in Freundlich isotherm, Eq. (14) -Fraction of interparticle volume species can penetrate, Eq. (1) -Length of travel of pulse, or pack ing height between ports, m -Column length, m -Product flow rates, L / min -Amount of solute adsorbed, kg / kg adsorbent -Time,min -Time between switching port locations, min T -Temperature, C Tr,Ts,Tw,Tr .r -Temperature of fluid, solid, wall and reference -Cold and hot temperatures U A ,Un,U so ln te -Solute wave velocity, m / min, Eq. U s bock (5) or (7) -Sh ock wave velocity, m / min, Eq. (17) Ut b e rmn I -Thermal wave velocity m / min, Eq. (9) V v z P s REFERENCES -Interstitial fluid velocity, m / min -Elution volume of non-adsorbed species, L -Internal void volume, L -External void volume, L -Solid velocity, m / min -Superficial fluid velocity, m / min Weight of column wall per length, kg / m -Axial distance in column, m -Tntern a rticle void fraction -Jntr:1 p a rticle void fraction T)iff P.t'P.nce calculation -Solid density, kg / L 1. Bak e r, B. and R L. Pigford, "Cycling Zone Adsorp tion: Quantitativ e Theory and Experimental Results," Ind. Eng. Ch em Fundam., 10, 283 (1971). 2. Barker, P. E., "Continuous Chromatographic Re fining," in E S Perry and C. J. Van Oss (eds.), Pro gr ess in S e par a tion and P u rifi c ation, Vol. 4, p. 325, Wiley, N.Y., 1971. 3. Barker, P. E. and R. E. Deeble, "Production Scale Organic Mixture Separation Using a New Sequential Chromatographic Machine," Anal. Chem., 45, 1121 (1973). 4. Barker, P. E F. J. Ellison, and B. W. Hatt, "A New 47

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Process for the Continuous Fractionation of Dextran," Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Develop., 17, 302 (1978). 5. Barker, P. E., M. I. Howari, and G. A. Irlam, "Further Developments in the Modelling of a Se quential Chromatographic Refiner Unit," Chromato graphia, 14, 192 (1981). 6 Broughton, D. B., "Molex: Case History of a Pro cess," Chem. Eng. Prog., 64, (8) 60 (1968). 7. Broughton, D. B. and D. B. Carson, "The Molex Pro cess," Petroleum R e finer, 38 ( 4), 130 (1959). 8. Broughton, D. B., R. W. Neuzil, J. M. Pharis, and C. S. Breasley, "The Parex Process for Recovering Paraxylene," Chem. Eng. Prog. 66, (9) 70 (1970). 9. de Rosset, A. J., R. W. Neuzil, and D. J. Korous, "Liquid Column Chromatography as a Predictive Tool for Continuous Counter-current Adsorption Separa tions," Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc Des. Develop., 15, 261 (1976). 10. Gold, H., A Todisco, A A Sonin, and R. F. Prob stein, "The Avco Continuous Moving Bed Ion Ex change Process and Large Scale Desalting," Desali nation, 17, 97 (Aug. 1975) 11. Hiester, N. K ., T. Vermeulen, and G. Klein, "Ad sorption and Ion Exchange," Sect. 16 in R. H. Perry, C. H. Ch ilton and S. D. Kirkpatrick (eds.), Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 4th ed McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1963. 12. Jamrack, W. D., Rare Metal Extrac tio n by Chemical Engineering Methods, Pergamon Press, N.Y., 1963. 13. King, C. J., Separation Proc esses, 2nd ed McGraw Hill, N.Y., p. 172-195, 1980. 14. Levendusky, J. A., "Progress Report on the Con tinuous Ion Exchange Process," Water-1969, CEP Symposium Ser 65, #97, 113 (1969). 15. Liapis, A. I. and D. W. T. Rippin, "The Simulation of Binary Adsorption in Continuous Counter-current Operation and a Comparison with Other Operating Modes," AIChE Journal, 25 455 (1979). 16. Neuzil, R. W., D. H. Rosback, R. H. Jensen, J. R. Teague, and A. J. de Rosset, "An Energy-Saving Separation Scheme," Chemtech, 10, 498 (Aug. 1980). 17. Rendell, M "The Real Future for Large-Scale Chromatography," Proc ess Engine ering p. 66 (April 1975). 18. Roland, L. D., "Ion Exchange-operational advantages of continuous plants," Processing, 22, (1), 11 (1976). 19. Sherwood, T. K., R. L. Pigford, and C. R. Wilke, Mass Transfer, Chapt. 10, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1975. 20. Smith, J. C A. W. Michaelson, and J. T. Roberts, "Ion Exchange Equipment," p. 19 18 to 19-26, in R. H. Perry, C H. Chilton and S. D. Kirkpatrick (eds.), Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 4th ed ., McGraw Hill, N.Y., 1963. 21. Treybal, R. E., Mass Transfer Op e ration s 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, 1968. 22. Wankat, P. C ., "Cyclic Separation Techniques," in A. E. Rodrigues and D. Tondeur (eds.), Percolation Processes, Theory and Applications, Sijthoff and Noordoff, Alphen aan den Rijn, Netherlands, p. 443516 (1981). 23. Wankat, P. C., "Operational Techniques for Ad sorption and Ion Exchange," Corn Refiner's Associ ation Conf., Lincolnshire, IL, June 1982. 48 BOOK REVIEW: Carnegie-Mellon Continued from page 37 Obviously the book is not intended for use in the usual academic sense and its particular audi ence is the many people ... faculty, staff and stu dents ... who have contributed to chemical engi neering at Carnegie over the years. It can also serve as a guide to those considering similar undertakings at their own institution in pointing out the monumental effort involved. Admittedly, this reviewer is not wholly unbiased in considera tion of this volume inasmuch as he has spent almost half of his academic career at Carnegie, but he can attest to a considerable portion of the accuracy of Professor Rothfu s' many details. Its delightful reading! [eJ;, ;I books received "Reso urce Recovery Economics," Stuart H. Russell; Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 10016; 312 pages, $39.75 (1982) "S pecifying Air Pollution Control Equipment," edited by Richard A. Young, Frank L. Cross, Jr.; Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 10016; 296 pages, $38.50 (1982) "Intro duction to High-Performance Liquid Chromatogra phy," R. J. Hamilton, P. A. Sewell; Chapman & Hall, 733 Third Ave., New York 10017; 183 pages, $29.95 (1982) "Nuclear Waste Management Abstracts," Richard A. Heckman, Camille Minichino; Plenum Publishing Corp., New York 10013; 103 pages, $45 .00 (1982) "Heat Transfer in Nuclear Reactor Safety," S. George Bankoff, N. H. Afgan; Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York 10036; 964 pages, $95.00 (1982) "Essentials of Nuclear Chemistry," H. J. Arnikar; John Wiley & Sons, Somerset, NJ 08873; 335 pages, $17.95 (1982) "Technology Transfer and Innovation ," Louis N. Mogavero, Robert S. Shane; Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 10016; 168 pages, $22.50 (1982) "Solar Heating and C ooling: Active and Passive Design," Second Edition J. F. Kreider, F. Kreith; Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington DC 20005; 479 pages, $29.95 (1982) "Liquids and Liquid Mixtures," Third Edition, J.S. Rowlin son, F. L. Swinton; Butterworths, Woburn, MA 01801; 328 pages, $69.95 (1982) "Ha ndbook of Multiphase Systems," edited by G. Hetsroni; Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, DC 20005; $64.50 (1982) "Liquid Filtration," Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff, David S. Azbel; Butterworth Publishers, Woburn, MA 01801; 520 pages, $49 95 (1983) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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ACl(NOWLEDGMENTS Departmental Sponsors: The following 141 departments contributed to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1984 with bulk subscriptions. University of Akron University of Alabama University of Alberta Arizona State University lJ niversity of Arizona University of Arkansas University of Aston in Birmingham Auburn University Llrigham Young UnivenitJ University of British Columbia Brown University Bucknell University University of Calgary California State Polytechnic California Institute of Technology University of California (Berkeley) University of California (Davis) Unirnrsity of California (Santa Barbara) University of California at San Diego Carnegie-Mellon University Case-Wes tern Reserve University University of Cincinnati Clarkson College of Technology Clemson University Cleveland State Univenity University of Colorado Colorado School of Mines Colorado State University Columbia University University of Connecticut Cornell University Dartmouth College University of Dayton University of Delaware U. of Detroit Drexel University University of Florida Florida Institute of Technology Georgia Technical Institute University of Houston Howard University University of Illinois (Urbana) Illinois Institute of Technology Institute of Paper Chemistry University of Iowa Iowa State University John Hopkins University Kansas State University University of Kansas University of Kentucky Lafayette College Lamar University Laval University Lehigh University Louisiana State University Louisiana Tech University University of Louisville University of Maine Manhattan College University of Maryland University of Massachusetts Massachusetts Institute of Technology l\lcMaster University University of Michigan Michigan State University Michigan Tech. University University of Minnesota University of Missouri (Columbia) University of Missouri (Rolla) Monash University Montana State University University of Nebraska University of New Hampshire New Jersey Inst. of Tech. New Mexico State University University of New Mexico City University of New York Polytechnic Institute of New York State University of N.Y. at Buffalo North Carolina State University University of North Dakota Northeastern University Northwestern University University of Notre Dame Nova Scotia Tech College Ohio State University Ohio University Hniversity of Oklahoma Oklahoma State University Oregon State University University of Ottawa University of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University Princeton University Purdue University University of Queensland Queen's University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute University of Rhode Island Rice University University of Rochester Rose-Bulman Institute Rutgers U. University of South Alabama University of South Carolina University of Saskatchewan South Dakota School of Mines University of Southern California Stanford University Stevens Institute of Technology University of Sydney Syracuse University Teesside Polytechnic Institute Tennessee Technological University University of Tennessee Texas A&M University University of Texas at Austin Texas Technological University University of Toledo Tulane University University of Tulsa University of Utah Vanderbilt University Villanova University University of Virginia Virginia Polytechnic Institute Washington State University University of Washington Washmgton University University of Waterloo Wayne State University West Virginia Inst. Technology West Virginia University University of Western Ontario Widener College University of Windsor University of Wisconsin (Madison) Worcester Polytechnic Institute University of Wyoming Yale University Youngstown State University TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your department chairman to write CHEMI CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611.

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"I'. Our name has been synonymous wi~h engineering education for over 150 years. Here are thirteen more reasons why. New GUIDE TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND ECONOMICS Gael Ulrich University of New Hampshire Solutions Manual available Janu a r y 198 4 a pprox 4 6 4 pp New FUNDAMENTALS OF MOMENTUM, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, 3rd Edition James R Welty, Charles E Wicks and Robert E Wilson Oregon State University Solutions Manual available Januar y 198 4 a ppro x 8 3 2 pp New NUMERICAL METHODS AND MODELLING FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Mark E Davis Virginia Polytechni c Institute and Universit y Solutions Manual available Febru a r y 198 4 a ppro x 3 20 pp New INTRODUCTION TO MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES Gintara s V Reklaitis, Purdue Universit y Solutions Manual available 198 3 68 3 pp New NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION ENGINEERING Chi Ikoku Pennsylvania State University Solutions Manual a v ailable Januar y 198 4 approx 4 6 4 pp ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES Richard M Felder Ronald W Rousseau North Carolina State University Solutions Manual available 19 7 8 571 pp. CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Stanle y J. Sandler University of Delaware Solutions Manual available 19 77 58 7 pp CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING, 2nd Edition Octave Levenspiel Oregon State University Solutions Manual available 197 4 600 pp. AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Charle s G. Hill Jr U niversity of Wisconsin Solutions Manual available 19 77 594 pp CHEMICAL REACTOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN G.F. Froment Rysksuniversteit Ghent Belgium and Kenneth B. Bischoff Uni v ersit y of Delawar e 19 7 9 7 65 pp. PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS, 2nd Edition Alan Foust Emeritus Lehigh University Leonard A Wenzel and Curtis W Clumb both of Lehigh University Louis Maus and L. Bruce Andersen New Jersey Institute of Technology Solutions Manual availabl e 1980 7 8 4 pp TRANSPORT PHENOMENA R. Byron Bird Warren E Stewart, and Edwin N Lightfoot, University of Wisconsin 1960 7 80 pp EQUILIBRIUM-STAGE SEPARATION OPERATIONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Ernest]. Henley, University of Houston and]. D. Seader University of Utah 1981 74 2 pp To be considered for complimentary copies please write to Dennis Sawicki Dept. 4 -1315. Please include course name enrollment and title of present text JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc. 605 Third Avenue New York N.Y 101.58 In C :lnada : 2 2 Wor c hest e r R oa d R cx d21 c O m.ri o M 9 W II.I 4 1 3 15