Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00080

Full Text








chemical engineering education


VOLUME XVII


NUMBER 4


FALL 1983


4$


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE



Goa&iedn is...


NUMERICAL METHODS AND MODELING
PLASMA PROCESSING IN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT FABRICATION .
ADVANCED TOPICS IN HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN . .
PROJECT EVALUATION IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
SURFACE PHENOMENA . . .


Reciea4ch ans...

CLEANING UP IN SAN DIEGO . . .
COMBUSTION . .


. Davis

SSawin, Reif
Shaelwitz
Takoudis
SValle-Restra
S Woods




SMiddleman
Serageldin


THE GRADUATE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO ACADEMIC JOB HUNTING
Wankat, Oreovicz
GRADUATE EDUCATION WINS IN INTERSTATE RIVALRY
Thomson, Simmons


41" ....


BOB BIRD ON
BOOK WRITING AND CHE EDUCATION





eCC
achsakwleae^ and thankw ...





SUN COMPANY, INC.








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
wdS a doin m on Iewud.









Frank
Morari, Ray


This is the 15th Graduate Issue to be published by CEE
and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous
issues, we include articles on graduate courses and re-
search at various universities and announcements of de-
partments on their graduate programs. In order for you to
obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue,
but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from
recent years follows. If you yould like a copy of a pre-
vious Fall issue, please write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida


AUTHOR


Hightower

Mesler
Weiland, Taylor
Dullien
Seapan
Skaates
Baird, Wilkes
Fenn


Abbott
Butt, Kung

Chen, et al
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al
Thomson
Bartholomew
Hassler
Miller
Wankat
Wolf


Bird
Edgar, Schecter
Hanratty
Kenney
Kershenbaum,
Perkins, Pyle
Liu
Peppas
Rosner
Lees
Senkan, Vivian


Culberson
Davis


TITLE
Fall 1982

"Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over
Ferrite Catalysts"
"Nucleate Boiling"
"Mass Transfer"
"Funds. of Petroleum Production"
"Air Pollution for Engineers"
"Catalysis"
"Polymer Education and Research"
"Research is Engineering"
Fall 1981

"Classical Thermodynamics"
"Catalyis & Catalytic Reaction
Engineering"
"Parametric Pumping"
"Molecular Thermidynamics and
Computer Simulation"
"Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization"
"Oil Shale Char Reactions"
"Kinetics and Catalysis"
"ChE Analysis"
"Underground Processing"
"Separation Processes"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"

Fall 1980
"Polymer Fluid Dynamics"
"In Situ Processing"
"Wall Turbulence"
"Chemical Reactors"
"Systems Modelling & Control"

"Process Synthesis"
"Polymerization Reaction Engineering"
"Combustion Science & Technology"
"Plant Engineering at Loughborough"
"MIT School of ChE Practice"
Fall 1979
"Doctoral Level ChE Economics"
"Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics"


Ramkrishna
Russel, Saville,
Ollis,
Schowalter
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen



Aris

Butt & Peterson
Kabel

Middleman

Perlmutter

Rajagopalan

Wheelock
Carbonell &
Whitaker


Dumesic

Jorne
Retzloff

Blanch, Russell
Chartoff


Alkire
Bailey & Ollis
DeKee
Deshpande
Johnson
Klinzing
Lemlich
Koutsky
Reynolds
Rosner


Astarita
Delgass
Gruver
Liu
Manning
McCoy
Walter


Cdio4's Aole


FALL 1983


"Courses in Polymer Science"
"Integration of Real-Time Computing
Into Process Control Teaching"
"Functional Analysis for ChE"


"Colloidal Phenamena"
"Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Mathematical Methods in ChE"
"Coal Liquefaction Processes"

Fall 1978

"Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes
on Seminars in a ChE Department"
"Chemical Reactor Engineering"
"Influential Papers in Chemical Re-
action Engineering"
"A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro-
cessing"
"Reactor Design From a Stability
Viewpoint"
"The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal
Systems"
"Coal Science and Technology"
"Transport Phenomena in Multicom-
ponent, Multiphase, Reacting
Systems"

Fall 1977

"Fundamental Concepts in Surface In-
teractions"
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Chemical Reaction Engineering
Science"
"Biochemical Engineering"
"Polymer Science and Engineering"

Fall 1976

"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum
Transport"

Fall 1975

"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"








What to look for


in choosing your first job.


An intelligent first job assessment is often diffi-
cult. There are important questions you should ask
because the answers to these questions relate to how
fast your career will move ahead. One key question
is How much responsibility will I be given at the
beginning?
At Rohm and Haas, quite a lot. We seek out the
highly motivated person who not only wants respon-
sibility but aggressively goes after it.


We place a lot of importance on helping you in
your chosen area of specialization and your desired
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sponsibility." We give it to you from the beginning. As
a result, you can grow in thedirection yourexpanding
talents can take you.
Also, top priority is given to individual develop-
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same opportunities for advancement.
Our products are used in industry, agriculture
and health services; therefore, we need responsible
people with solid academic backgrounds who
can contribute to our mutual growth. Our open-
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If you want to know more about
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Company, Recruiting and Place-
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West, Philadelphia, PA 19105.


ROHMR
iHRRSM
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19105


An equal opportunity employer.









EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Consulting Editor: Mack Tyner
Managing Editor:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
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Pennsylvania State University

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University of Colorado

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University of Tennessee
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Lamar University
James Fair
University of Texas
Gary Poehlesn
Georgia Tech

CENTRAL:
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Purdue University

WEST:
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University of California Berkeley
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LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
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Chemical Engineering Education
VOLUME XVII NUMBER 4 FALL 1983


Courses in
144 Numerical Methods and Modeling,
Mark Davis

148 Plasma Processing in Integrated Circuit
Fabrication, Herbert H. Sawin,
Rafael Reif
152 Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass
Transfer, Joseph A. Shaeiwitz
158 Chemical Reactor Design,
Christos Takoudis

162 Project Evaluation in the Chemical
Process Industries,
J. Frank Valle-Riestra

166 Surface Phenomena, Donald R. Woods

Research on
170 Cleaning Up in San Diego,
Stanley Middleman

147 Combustion, Mohamed A. Serageldin

Features
178 The Graduate Student's Guide to Academic
Job Hunting,
Phillip C. Wankat, Frank S. Oreovicz

182 Graduate Education Wins in Interstate
Rivalry, William J. Thomson,
George M. Simmons

184 Book Writing and Chemical Engineering
Education: Rites, Rewards, and Re-
sponsibilities, R. Byron Bird

Departments
151 Positions Available
161 Letters
176, 196 Book Reviews
197 Books Received

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs. Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1983 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed. in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


FALL 1983










4 Coa 4e in


NUMERICAL METHODS AND MODELING

MARK E. DAVIS
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University
Blacksburg, VA 24061 ..


A N ENGINEER WORKING on a mathematical pro-
ject is typically not interested in sophisticated
theoretical treatments, but rather the solution of
a model and the physical insight that the solution
can give. A recent and important tool in regards
to this objective is mathematical software, i.e.,
preprogrammed, reliable computer subroutines for
solving mathematical problems. Since numerical
methods are not infallible, a "black-box" approach
of using these subroutines can be dangerous. In
order to utilize software effectively, one must be
aware of its capabilities and especially its limita-
tions. This implies that the user must at least
have an intuitive understanding of how the soft-
ware is designed and implemented.

TABLE 1
'Table of Contents for Ordinary Differential Equations
1. Initial Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations
Explicit Methods
Stability
Runga-Kutta Methods
Implicit Methods
Extrapolation
Multistep Methods
Stiffness
Systems of Differential Equations
Step-Size Strategies
Mathematical Software
2. Boundary Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations: Discrete Variable Methods
Initial Value Methods
Shooting Methods
Superposition
Finite Difference Methods
Mathematical Software
3. Boundary Value Problems for Ordinary Differential
Equations: Finite Element Methods
Piecewise Polynomial Functions
B-splines
Galerkin
Collocation
Mathematical Software


Mark Davis is an Assistant Professor of the Department of Chemical
Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University since
1981. He earned his B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. (1981) from the University
of Kentucky. He is currently working on research projects in zeolite
catalysis, novel catalytic reactor configurations, and the application of
computers to the study of reacting systems. He recently completed his
first textbook in the field of mathematical modeling and is currently
working on another which will involve the use of personal computers.

BACKGROUND
Typically, graduate students have time for
only one or two courses in computational methods.
Thus a one-semester course or a two-quarter se-
quence is about the maximum length comparable
with most graduate programs of study. Within
this limited time, the student must be exposed
to the broad and rapidly increasing field of numeri-
cal methods. Traditional courses in applied numeri-
cal analysis have concentrated on algorithms, and
students wrote their own programs to solve as-
signed problems. This approach is very time in-
tensive and limits the scope of topics which can be
covered within the timeframe outlined above.
On the other extreme, there are courses which are
based solely on the application of software. The
increased student productivity and the expanded
number of topics that can be discussed through
the use of this scheme are achieved at the expense
of understanding numerical methods. Also, this
approach leaves the engineer at the complete
mercy of software. Therefore, a course in numeri-
cal methods and modeling for chemical engineers
should involve software, but give emphasis on the

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








TABLE 2
Table of Contents for Partial Differential Equations
1. Parabolic Partial Differential Equations In One Space
Variable
Classification of Partial Differential Equations
Method of Lines
Finite Differences
Finite Elements
Galerkin
Collocation
Mathematical Software
2. Partial Differential Equations In Two Space Variables
Elliptic PDE's-Finite Differences
Elliptic PDE's-Finite Elements
Parabolic PDE's in Two Space Variables
Method of Lines
Alternating Direction Implicit Methods
Mathematical Software

numerical techniques implemented in the soft-
ware. Students should be provided with an under-
standing of how software is constructed and imple-
mented in order to gain maximum benefit from
it. A course of this nature bridges the gap between
the aforementioned extremes in order to combine
increased productivity without loss of understand-
ing. Such courses have been developed at Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI &
SU) and are described below.

COURSE CONTENTS
A two-quarter sequence of courses in numerical
methods and modeling for chemical engineers has
recently been developed at VPI & SU. The courses
involve the solution of differential equations since
this area arises most frequently in practice, and
is usually the weak point of a student's mathe-
matical literacy. In the first quarter, ordinary
differential equations are covered (see Table 1 for
course contents), while in the second quarter
partial differential equations are addressed (see
Table 2 for course contents). Emphasis is placed
on the treatment of numerical methods imple-
mented in commercial software, and topics are
covered through the use of chemical engineering
examples. A textbook to support courses of this
nature will be available shortly [1].
Referring to Tables 1 and 2, a few remarks
on the course contents follow. Let us consider
topic 1 to illustrate the methodology used through-
out the courses. Topic 1 concerns initial value
problems and begins with a presentation of the
simplest method, namely, the Euler method. The
technique is illustrated by solving an isothermal,
heterogeneous, plug-flow reactor problem. The re-


actor material balance equation is formulated, and
the solutions are chosen to show the low order of
accuracy and the poor stability of the Euler
method. These results lead into discussions con-
cerning improvements in accuracy and stability.
Runga-Kutta, implicit methods, extrapolation, and
multistep methods are outlined in this context.
In most cases, the topics are presented through the
use of chemical engineering problems: e.g., Runga-
Kutta; temperature response of a thermocouple,
extrapolation; batch distillation. Before covering
systems of equations, stiffness is illustrated by
calculating the concentration-time profiles of the
reaction network
k, ks
A B-- C, ki >> k2 = k,.
k2
These results are used to show why explicit
methods are not suitable for stiff systems of
initial value problems. To create a system of initial
value equations, the plug-flow reactor problem
used to demonstrate the Euler method is now
specified to be adiabatic. Thus, an energy balance
is added to the material balance giving a set of
coupled, nonlinear initial value equations. The
stiffness of the system is calculated and various
methods are formulated for the solution of the
problem. Next, advanced techniques such as adap-
tive step-size strategies and error control are
covered with an emphasis on how they are imple-
mented in software.
Finally, each topic is concluded with a survey
of software. The survey used for Topic 1 is given
in Table 3. Each piece of software is discussed in
the context of which methods it implements, and
what other features such as error control and
TABLE 3
Survey of Software for Initial Value Problems


CODE
RKF45
GERK
DE/ODE
DEROOT/ODERT
GEAR/GEARB
LSODE
EPISODE/EPISODEB
M3RK
STRIDE
STIFF
BLSODE
STINT
SECDER
DVERK
DGEAR


REFERENCE
(2)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(5, 6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(15)


FALL 1983








... a course in numerical methods
and modeling for chemical engineers should
involve software, but give emphasis on the numerical
techniques implemented in the software.

adaptive step-size abilities are incorporated. The
section on mathematical software is ended by
solving two reaction engineering problems chosen
to illustrate stiffness. The software given in Table
3 is used to solve the two problems. The solutions
are rationalized in terms of their physical implica-
tions, and the software's performance is analyzed.
It is shown that software which implements
explicit methods is not suitable for stiff problems.
Thus, the student becomes aware of how the soft-
ware is constructed and how it works in order to
gain maximum benefit from it.
I increase the level of complexity in the
examples and homework problems in a given
course, and throughout the two quarter sequence.
The following set of examples and problems in
diffusion-reaction behavior illustrates the progres-
sion of complexity. Other sequences involve pro-
cess control, fluid flow, and heterogeneous reactor
theory. During the discussions of boundary value
problems, the one-dimensional material balance
equation for a porous catalyst pellet (slab, cy-
linder, or sphere) with a first-order reaction rate
is developed and the significance of the effective-
ness factor is outlined. The boundary value
problem is solved by many techniques and the
physical implications of the solutions discussed.
The ensuing homework problem is the classical
Weisz-Hicks problem [16], i.e., the material and
energy balance equations for a porous catalyst
pellet utilizing an exothermic first-order reaction.
The solution of the isothermal example problem
and the Weisz-Hicks problem (for various values
of the Prater number, /) are shown in Fig. 1. I
point out how the effectiveness factor can be
greater than one for an exothermic reaction, and
for increasing 6, how multiple steady-states are
obtained. The concept of diffusion and reaction is
continued in the second course by considering the
most common geometry used in practical applica-
tion, namely, the finite cylinder with length equal
to diameter. The material and energy balance
equations now constitute a coupled set of nonlinear
elliptic partial differential equations (symmetry
in the theta direction is assumed). The solution of
the elliptic problem allows the effectiveness factor
to be calculated, and the results are compared to
the following one-dimensional solutions: (a) in-


finite cylinder of radius equal to the finite cylinder,
(b) infinite cylinder of equal volume to surface
area (V/S) of the finite cylinder, and (c) sphere
of equal (V/S) of the finite cylinder. Fig 2 shows
the results. For all practical purposes, the one-
dimensional models (b) and (c) predict the be-
havior of the finite cylinder. Model (c) gives
nearly the exact behavior as the finite cylinder.
Since the elliptic problem is more difficult to solve
than model (c), it is pointed out that it is ap-
propriate to use model (c) instead of the elliptic
problem when modeling many heterogeneous re-
actors.


Thiele Modulus,
FIGURE 1. Effectiveness factor as a function of the
Thiele modulus for a spherical catalyst pellet with
first-order reaction.

WORK REQUIREMENTS
I assign one to two homework problems per
topic and one design project per course. Home-
work problems are real chemical engineering
problems with physical implications. Therefore,
an equal emphasis is placed on the mathematics
and the physics of the problem. A proper solution
contains: (a) a detailed formulation of the physi-
cal situation into a relevant mathematical model,
(b) the rationals for choosing the numerical tech-
nique and software package, (c) the numerical
solution of the problem with a full error analysis
and a comment or two on the performance of the
software package, (d) an evaluation of the solu-
tion, i.e., does it make sense from a physical stand-
point, and (e) the physical implications of the


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









solution. Each student works independently on
homework problems, but for design projects, I
allow groups as large as three to work together.
The design projects consist of large chemical engi-
neering problems. A typical design project would
be to access the affects of disturbances in the feed
to the feed-forward controlled distillation column
shown in Fig. 3. This problem involves the solution
of approximately forty initial value equations.
Many of the design projects are constructed by
the students and are used as part of their thesis
research. A few projects have led to journal
publications.
In conclusion, I have found that teaching
numerical methods through the use of chemical
engineering examples has kept interest levels high,
and that the approach described in this article
allows for maximal coverage and understand-
ing. O
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to thank Brandt Carter,
Dan Pike, and Georg Viola for the solutions shown
in Fig. 2, and to Young Park, J. C. Yang, and
Nandu Madhekar for those illustrated in Fig. 1.

REFERENCES
1. Davis, M. E., Numerical Methods and Modeling for
Chemical Engineers, John Wiley and Sons, in press.
2. Forsythe, G. E., M. A. Malcolm, and C. B. Moler,
Computer Methods for Mathematical Computations,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1977).
3. Shampine, L. F., and H. A. Watts, "Global Error
Estimation for Ordinary Differential Equations,"
ACM TOMS, 2, 172 (1976).
4. Shampine, L. F., and M. K. Gordon, Computer Solu-
tion of Ordinary Differential Equations: The Initial
Value Problem, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco
(1975).
5. Hindmarsh, A. C., "GEAR: Ordinary Differential
Equation System Solver," Lawrence Livermore Labo-
ratory Report UCID-30001 (1974).

1.0 Infle Cylinder Equal Radius Comparion
on f Sphere Equal /S Comparison
o0 -dinfinle Cylinder Equal V/S Comparl.o
P- 'I SFnit Cyhder








Thiele Modulus,
FIGURE 2. Effectiveness factor as a function of the
Thiele modulus for isothermal pellets with first-order
reaction.


OVERHEAD


FIGURE 3. Feed-forward controlled distillation column.
The column contains nine trays with the temperature
control (T.C.) at tray 8, and the feed introduced on tray
6. F.C.: feed flow control, L.C.: liquid level control,
F.R.C.: feed-forward control of the recycle from the
measured feed flow rate.


6. Hindmarsh, A. C., "GEARB: Solution of Ordinary
Differential Equations Having Banded Jacobians,"
Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report UCID-30059
(1975).
7. Hindmarsh, A. C., "LSODE and LSODI, Two New
Initial Value Ordinary Differential Equation Solvers,"
ACM SIGNUM Newsletter, December (1980).
8. Byrne, G. D., and A. C. Hindmarsh, "EPISODEB: An
Experimental Package for the Integration of Systems
of Ordinary Differential Equations with Banded
Jacobians," Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Report
UCID-30132 (1976).
9. Verwer, J. G., "Algorithm 553. MERK, An Explicit
Time Integrator for Semidiscrete Parabolic Equa-
tions," ACM TOMS, 6, 236 (1980).
10. Butcher, J. C., K. Burrage, and F. H. Chipman,
"STRIDE Stable Runga-Kutta Integrator for
Differential Equations," Report Series No. 150, De-
partment of Mathematics, University of Auckland,
New Zealand (1979).
11. Villadsen, J., and M. L. Michelsen, Solution of Differ-
ential Equation Models by Polynomial Approxima-
tion, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1978).
12. Skeel, R., and A. Kong, "Blended Linear Multistep
Methods," ACM TOMS, 3, 326 (1977).
13. Tendler, J. M., T. A. Bickard, and Z. Picel, "Al-
gorighm 534. STINT: STiff INTegrator," ACM
TOMS, 4., 399 (1978).
14. Addison, C. A., "Implementing a Stiff Method Based
Upon the Second Derivative Formulas," University
of Toronto Department of Computer Science Techni-
cal Report No. 130/79 (1979).
15. International Mathematics and Statistics Libraries
Inc., Sixth Floor-NBC Building, 7500 Bellaire
Boulevard, Houston, Texas.
16. Weisz, P. B., and J. S. Hicks, "The Behavior of Porous
Catalyst Particles in View of Internal Mass and Heat
Diffusion Effects," Chem. Engng. Sci., 17, 265 (1962).


FALL 1983













PLASMA PROCESSING

IN INTEGRATED CIRCUIT FABRICATION


HERBERT H. SAWIN AND
RAFAEL REIF
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA 02139

N THIS PAPER WE review a course entitled "Plas-
ma Processing in Integrated Circuit Fabrica-
tion" which was offered for the first time in the
spring semester of 1983 at MIT. The course was
taught jointly, listed both in chemical engineering
and electrical engineering. It has been accepted
as a permanent course which will be taught on
alternate years.
Plasma processes are playing an ever expand-
ing role in microelectronic fabrication, replacing
many of the conventional wet etching and high
temperature chemical vapor deposition processes.
In very large scale integration (VLSI), plasma
processes are required to provide fine spacial
resolution and low temperature processing. In
most of the plasma processes, the plasma is created
by an electric field that accelerates electrons
within the plasma. The electrons suffer collisions
with gas molecules creating excited neutrals, free
radicals, and ions. In this manner, energy is
supplied to the plasma creating highly reactive
species without significantly raising the average
temperature of the gas. Microelectronic fabrica-
tion processes typically use low pressure plasmas
(1-200 Pascals) which are weakly ionized (less
than 10-4 mole fraction). They are more appropri-
ately referred to as glow discharges rather than
plasmas, due to the non-equilibrium between the
electrons, ions, and neutrals from which they
are composed. The first use of placmas in inte-
grated circuit fabrication was for sputtering pro-
cesses which deposit or etch thin films. In a
sputtering process, ions created within a plasma
are accelerated by an electric field. Upon collision
with the electrode, the ions remove or sputter
material from the electrode by momentum ex-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


The goal of this course is to
teach the fundamental science of plasma
processing as well as to give a brief overview of the
present state of industrial processes.


change, etching the surface of the electrode. The
sputtered electrode material can be deposited
onto the surface of a wafer to form a thin film.
By placing wafers on the sputtered electrode, a
thin film on the wafer can be etched. A resist ma-
terial placed selectively on top of the thin film is
normally used to mask the ion bombardment in-
hibiting the etching in the selected areas. In the
late 1960's, oxygen discharges were developed to
produce atomic oxygen which chemically etches
organic photoresist masks. Presently, plasma
etching processes use a combination of sputtering
and chemical reaction to remove with high resolu-
tion, thin films which have been masked with
resist. Chemical vapor deposition is a process in
which a gas is thermally decomposed at a hot
surface to produce a thin solid film. For example,
silane can be decomposed at a hot surface to
deposit silicon. Plasma assisted chemical vapor
deposition (PACVD) processes have been de-
veloped which use the highly reactive species
created within a plasma to deposit thin films at
lower temperatures than are possible with con-
ventional chemical vapor deposition.
The goal of this course is to teach the funda-
mental science of plasma processing as well as to
give a brief overview of the present state of in-
dustrial processes. This goal has a number of
motivations. First, we perceive a general lack of
understanding within the industrial community
with regard to the basics of plasma physics and
chemistry. Many of the present plasma process
engineers treat plasmas as a "black art" which
depends upon intuition and a great deal of trial-
and-error. Most of the graduating students going
into plasma processing have little or no training,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








instruction, and/or experience in plasma process-
ing. Also, the plasma physics courses most
commonly taught deal with high density, equilib-
rium plasmas related to fusion reactors.
The present engineering state of the art is ad-
vancing extremely rapidly with the demands made
by the microelectronics industry. We feel that by
equipping the students with an understanding
of the basics, they will be prepared to make the
best use of the advancements. We also feel that
an overview of the present use of the plasma
processes along with the greater concentration on
a few representative areas is best.
In deciding to teach a joint course between
electrical and chemical engineering, the ad-
vantages and difficulties were carefully weighed.
As faculty doing research in the area of integrated
circuit fabrication, we have independently taught
courses in the more general areas of micro-
electronic processing in our respective depart-
ments. Although there is significant overlap in
some of these courses, it is believed that the varied
backgrounds of the students in chemical and
electrical engineering as well as the different
emphasis of the courses more than justified their
mutual existence. We saw a need for a more ad-
vanced course dealing with the area of plasma
processing, a new and rapidly advancing field. It
was obvious that this field is highly inter-
disciplinary and that a pooling of our efforts
would create a stronger course than either of us
could teach alone. The benefit of having students
with varied backgrounds was viewed as more of
an asset to the class than a difficulty. The inter-
action between chemical engineering students who
are mostly concerned with how a plasma process
functions, and the electrical engineers who are
much more aware of the uses of the structures and
the subsequent requirements, was thought to be
highly beneficial. We decided that a strong
emphasis on the engineering science aspects of
the processes would form a common background
from which both groups would benefit.
As might be expected, no appropriate text
could be found which covered all the material we
desired. As a text, we chose Glow Discharge Pro-
cesses by Chapman [1], as the most appropriate
in its coverage. It is quite readable for the students
and formed a basis upon which we built with
papers from the literature. Techniques and Ap-
plications of Plasma Chemistry edited by Holla-
han and Bell [2] was also very useful as a refer-
ence; in particular, Chapter 1 which deals with the


fundamentals of plasma physics and chemistry in
glow discharges.
The class had an enrollment of 23 students
during the bulk of the course, however, there were
typically a number of additional students who sat
in on the class depending upon the topic under
discussion. Two of the students came from in-
dustry to attend the class. We required one home-
work set per week which accounted for 60 percent
of the grade and a term paper which accounted
for the remaining 40 per cent. As the term paper
deadline approached, the class enrollment took an
expected drop to 18 students. The remaining class
consisted of 7 chemical engineers, 7 electrical
engineers, 3 material scientists, and 1 physicist.
We were quite pleased with the overall quality
of the term papers and feel that the students
benefited by being required to search the literature
on the topic of their choice which dealt with
plasma processing.

















Herb Sawin was born in 1951. He received a Bachelors of Science
in chemical engineering from Iowa State University in 1973 and his
Ph.D. from the University of California (Berkeley) in 1980. His
doctoral dissertation was on the catalytic decomposition of hydrazine
using molecular beam scattering. In 1980 he joined the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology where he is presently an assistant professor
of chemical engineering. He is currently working on the plasma
etching of silicon and silicides, the enhancement of surface reactions
by ion bombardment, chemical vapor deposition of silicon, and fuel
cells. (L)
Rafael Reif was born in Venezuela in 1950. He received the degree
of Ingeniero Electrico from Universidad de Carabobo, Venezuela, in
1973, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from
Stanford University in 1975 and 1979, respectively. In 1978 he became
a Visiting Assistant Professor of electrical engineering at Stanford
University, and in 1980 he joined the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, where he is presently an Associate Professor of electrical
engineering. He is currently working on the Plasma Enhanced Chemical
Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of crystalline silicon films, the PECVD of
refractory metals and silicides, the computer simulation of CVD silicon
epitaxy, and on low-temperature epitaxial and silicon-on-insulator
technologies. (R)


FALL 1983










We were quite pleased
with the overall quality of the term
papers and feel that the students benefited by
being required to search the literature on the topic of
their choice which dealt with plasma processing.


COURSE DESCRIPTION

The first one third of the course covered the
basics of glow discharge physics and chemistry.
Following the ultra-simplified model for gas
kinetics presented in section 1.2 of Molecular
Theory of Gases and Liquids by Hirschfelder,
Curtis, and Bird [3], we quickly developed the gas
phase kinetics and transport properties of a
neutral gas. Chapman's coverage of this material
in Chapters 1 and 2 was too weak in this area to
give the student an appropriate physical under-
standing. Using Hollahan and Bell as a reference,
the unique properties of a glow discharge caused
by its weakly ionized nature were added to the


neutral gas kinetics. The prime emphasis was on
the physics of the situation rather than the math
and the derivation of the various energy distribu-
tions. The significance of the electron energy dis-
tribution and how it is related to both the plasma
chemistry and the transport properties of the
charged species was stressed. Chapters 3 to 5 of
Chapman which cover the sheath kinetics, DC dis-
charges, and RF discharges were taught in reason-
able detail with some embellishment. We reviewed
some of the main probes used to characterize
plasmas used for microelectronic fabrication:
Langmuir probes [4], optical emission [5], mass
spectroscopy, and laser induced fluorescence [6].
Approximately one sixth of the course was
spent on sputtering mechanisms and the sputter-
ing processes [7] that have been developed for
microelectronic fabrication. Chapter 6 of Chap-
man was used as background material and was
heavily augmented. A very simplified model was
used to generate the qualitatively correct results
in lecture and in homework assignments. Topics


TABLE. 1
Course Syllabus By Lectures


Gas Mechanics: Ideal gas law, energy distributions, mean
free path, impingement flux
Gas Kinetics I: Collision cross-sections, energy transfer,
ionization, excitation, relaxation
Gas Kinetics II: Completion of lectures
Electron Energy Distribution I: Plasma kinetic theory,
transport phenomena
Plasma Chemistry: Plasma chemical reactions, reaction
cross-sections, free radical reactions
DC Glow Discharges: Glow architecture, secondary
emission, cathode and anode glow
RF Glow Discharges I: RF coupling, glow architecture,
voltage distribution
RF Discharges II: Self-biasing, ion bombardment energies,
electron energy distributions
Sputtering Kinetics: Sputtering yields, mechanisms, chemi-
cal enhancement
Optical Emission: Emission mechanisms, nomenclature, de-
tectors
Laser Induced Fluorescence: Laser probes, mass spectro-
analysis, quantification

Other Plasma Probes: Langmuir probes, mass spectro-
meter, microwaves
Sputter Deposition I: Sputtering physics, DC and RF
sputtering, ion beams, magnetron


Sputter Deposition II: Etch rates, masks, profile control,
ion beam vs. conventional, mask erosion, redeposition,
angular dependence
Overview of Plasma Etching: definitions, wet vs. dry,
uses, isotropic vs. anisotropic, selectivity
Etching Apparatus: Parallel plate, reactive ion etching,
tunnel, reactive ion beam etching, costs, through-put, wet
etch comparison
General Principles of Etching: Volatilization, additives, F
and Cl etchants, flow, loading, example of a simple system
(O0 etching of organic)
Review of Si and SiO2 etching
Aluminum Etching
Etching of Si3N,
Plasma Etch Control: Flowrate, power and bias, end-
point detection
Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition: Overview,
equipment considerations, commercial reactors
PACVD of Si3N, and SiO,
PACVD of Amorphous Si
PACVD of Poly- and Mono- crystalline Si and GaAs
PACVD of Refractory Metals and Silicides
Plasma-Assisted Techniques: Oxidation, nitridation, an-
nealing, ion beam deposition, ionized beam cluster deposi-
tion


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








discussed included DC sputtering, RF sputtering,
contamination, bias sputtering, triode sputtering,
magnetron sputtering, and ion beam technology.
Sputtering processes which are capable of pro-
ducing and controlling multicomponent films were
also discussed.
The next one quarter of the class was spent in
the discussion of plasma etching. Again, Chapter
7 of Chapman which deals with plasma etching
was used as background material and was aug-
mented. Dr. David R. Day, a research associate
at MIT, assisted by teaching this section. First of
all, the specifications and desirable attributes for
good etching processes were outlined. Comparisons
were made with wet etching processes that the
plasma processes are replacing. Dr. Day chose
to concentrate on the etching of carbonaceous ma-
terials such as photoresists and polyimides as an
example system [8]. He developed an appreciation
that etching proceeds by both a chemical reaction
and physical sputtering as well as a strong inter-
action between them. He drew from the literature
heavily; outlining the different types of reactors,
the volatilization of materials, the use of gas mix-
tures, and loading in plasma etchers. Anisotropy of
etching was discussed on a mechanistic as well
as an engineering basis. An overview of some of
the more industrially important etching systems
was presented: silicon, silicon dioxide, aluminum
alloys, silicon nitride, and refractory metal sili-
cides. The aspects of safety, corrosion, and resist
degradation were also discussed.
The remaining one quarter of the class was
spent covering plasma assisted chemical vapor
deposition. First thermally induced chemical vapor
deposition was reviewed to build a basis on which
the plasma assisted process could be appreciated.
The modelling of thermal chemical vapor deposi-
tion was presented using classical boundary layer
theory and surface kinetics. The need for plasma
processes was brought out by reviewing the
temperatures which are required for the thermal
chemical vapor deposition and the desired deposi-
tion processes needed for VLSI. Case studies of
silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, polycrystaline sili-
con, epitaxial silicon, refractory metal silicides,
and gallium arsenide deposition processes were
discussed.
Because our research work involves plasma
processing, we were also able to enhance the class
discussion with some of the difficulties we ex-
perienced such as pump oil contamination, RF
interference, and impedance matching of the


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Doctorate in Chemical Engineering required. Strong
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: CHAIRPERSON, Uni-
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plasmas to the RF generators. The presence of a
number of students who are presently doing re-
search in the area kept the discussion lively. E

REFERENCES
1. B. Chapman, Glow Discharge Processes, Wiley-Inter-
science (1980).
2. J. Hollahan and A. Bell, Techniques and Applications
of Plasma Chemistry, Wiley-Interscience (1974).
3. J. Hirschfelder, C. Curtis, and R. Bird, Molecular
Theory of Gases and Liquids, John Wiley and Sons
(1954).
4. B. Cherrington, Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Pro-
cessing, 2, 113 (1982).
5. W. Harshbarger, T. Porter, T. Miller, and P. Norton,
Applied Spectroscopy, 31, 201 (1977).
J. Greene, Journal of Vacuum Science and Tech-
nology, 15, 1718 (1978).
6. V. Donnelly, D. Flamm, and G. Collins, Journal of
Vacuum Science and Technology, 21, 817 (1982).
7. J. Greene and S. Barnett, Journal of Vacuum Science
and Technology, 21, 285 (1982).
C. Horwitz, Journal of Vacuum Science and Tech-
nology A, 1, 60 1983.
8. M. Tsuda, S. Oikawa, D. Ohnogi and A. Suzuki, Pro-
ceedings of the 6th International Conference on
Microlithography edited by P. Krammer, Delft Uni-
versity, Amsterdam (1980).


FALL 1983









$1 ceame in



ADVANCED TOPICS IN HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER


JOSEPH A. SHAEIWITZ
University of Illinois
Urbana, IL 61801


T HAS BEEN ALMOST thirty years since the field
of transport phenomena entered chemical engi-
neering curricula. Essentially one excellent text-
book has defined the scope of material usually
treated in such courses; however, much of this
material is now treated either as a requirement
or as an elective in undergraduate programs.
Since there is no obvious choice for a graduate
level heat and mass transfer text specifically for
chemical engineers, which would provide a frame-
work for teaching such a course, it is left to the
discretion of the instructor to construct an ap-
propriate sequence of topics. What follows is a
discussion of the type of material that has been
covered in one such course. The goals of the course
are to provide basic instruction in heat and mass
transfer topics relevant to chemical engineering
problems, and to train the students to develop
mathematical descriptions of totally new situ-
ations which may be encountered in solving heat
and mass transfer problems. Achieving the first
goal is reasonably straightforward; the traditional
method of lectures, reading, doing problem sets
and taking examinations works reasonably well.
Achieving the second goal is much more difficult
but is, of course, the skill desired in research. The
problems used for the second goal are either so
different from assigned problems students are
accustomed to, or are so deliberately vague, that
students appear to get frustrated at not being
certain whether or not they have the correct
solution. Each problem set and each exam always
has at least one problem requiring creativity
rather than just routine analysis. Although there
seems to be a latency period, by the end of the
course most of the students appear to have im-
proved their ability to handle new situations.
Table 1 is the course outline. The approximate
times for coverage of the general topics in a


Joseph A. Shaeiwitz received his B.S. degree from the University
of Delaware in 1974, and his M.S. and Ph.D. from Carnegie-Mellon
University in 1976 and 1978, respectively. He has been on the faculty
at the University of Illinois, Urbana, since 1978. Professor Shaeiwitz's
research interests are in mass transfer, interfacial and colloidal phe-
nomena. One major area has included several problems involving mass
transfer of surfactants near interfaces including the dynamics of
adsorption, micellar solubilization and emulsification. Related research
focusing on solute diffusion in mixed micelle and microemulsion
systems is also beginning. A second area involves multicomponent
diffusion in solute-particle-solvent systems. This problem encompasses
both modeling and experimental verification of enhanced particle
capture efficiencies relevant to particle filtration in liquids.

fifteen week semester are shown in parenthesis
and the numbers in square brackets refer to the
reference list at the end of this paper. The
details of the outline represent the total amount
of material that has been covered all of the times
the course has been given, and probably would
require a four semester hour course to cover
thoroughly. Indeed, it would not be difficult to
devote an entire semester to each topic. Since the
course is only offered for three semester hours,
some of the material is either left out entirely,
covered in less depth or used as problem set
material. The latter option has the advantage of
providing more flexibility in making up new
problems, and gives the students opportunities to
handle new situations independently. It is also ob-
vious that no present text covers all of this


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983









material; and, although it may be tempting to
write one, it is also an integral part of the learn-
ing experience for students to familiarize them-
selves with the vast collection of literature on
heat and mass transfer.
It is obvious from the outline that both heat
and mass transfer are taught simultaneously. This
method is preferred mainly because when I was in


school the topics were always covered sequentially,
heat transfer and then mass transfer. This in-
evitably resulted in mass transfer being short-
changed. The two topics may be covered in parallel
if one is careful to point out when the analogy be-
tween heat and mass transfer fails. It is only
necessary to point out that the analogy exists
once; however, it is necessary to point out each


TABLE 1
Course Outline: Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer


1. Review (one week)
A. Shell Balances[6]
Simple cases
Cases involving more complex math
Boundary condition or source term?
B. Equations of Change [6]
Derivations for continuity, momentum and heat
transfer
Differential cube
Divergence theorem
Different types of fluxes
A continuum entropy equation
Macroscopic balances [6, 7'
2. Diffusive Transport (three weeks) [9, 10, 15, 19, 21]
A. Steady
Slabs and membranes
1-dimensional
Multidimensional
B. Unsteady
Solution methods
Combined variable
Laplace Transform
Fourier Transform
Separation of variables
Duhamel's Theorem
Physical considerations
When to use a solution method
Controlling resistances
Short vs. long time solutions
Intermediate regime

3. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer (one week)
A. Change of Phase Problems [9, 21]
B. Fog Formation-An Interesting Example [31J
C. Moving Boundary Problems in General [10, 12]
4. Convective Transport (three weeks)
A. Closed Channels [15, 17, 29]
Graetz problem
Leveque solution
Sturm-Liouville solutions
Asymptotic behavior far from entrance
Analogy to heat conduction
B. External Surfaces [15, 17, 18, 20, 26, 29]
Boundary layer theory
Ordering arguments
General solutions
Important limiting cases
Other approximate solution methods
Integral methods


C. Unsteady Convective Transport
D. Turbulent Transport

5. Interfacial Transport (one week)
A. Resistances in Series
B. Classical Theories
C. Coupling between Navier-Stokes, Energy and
Continuity Equations [4, 5, 30]
D. Other Interface Models
Interface as a separate phase [4, 5]
Forced diffusion [8]

6. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction (one week)
A. Heterogeneous Reaction
Resistances in series
Applications
B. Homogeneous Reaction [2, 13]
Rapid reaction
Instantaneous reaction
Interface models

7. Theory of Diffusion and Other Transport Processes
(three weeks)
A. Diffusivity Measurement Techniques [11]
B. Diffusion vs. Sedimentation
C. Irreversible Thermodynamics [14, 16]
Entropy production
Coupled phenomena
D. Reacting and Interacting Systems [11]
E. Electrostatically Coupled Systems [11]
F. Multicomponent Diffusion [11]
Tracer, intra-, self and mutual diffusion [1]
Solution of coupled equations
G. Multicomponent Mass Transfer [11]

8. Carrier-Membranes (one week) [111
A. Physical Situation-an interesting example of
multicomponent transport and mass transfer
with chemical reaction
B. Carrier Systems
Facilitated transport
Co-transport
Counter-transport
C. Irreversible Thermodynamics Formulation

9. Particle Transport (one week)
A. Failure of Continuum Theories-Need for
Statistical Theories [3]
B. Particle Adsorption-the intermolecular force
boundary layer [23, 24]
C. Particle Chromatography [24, 25, 28]


FALL 1983









A problem on the time necessary to melt an ice cube (which, along with a
few other problems, I confess are not original, but almost identical to ones assigned to me
by Herb Toor when I was a graduate student) is used as either a lecture example, or as an assignment
with result of each step given to guide the student through the problem.


time it fails. In all fairness, it is obvious from the
outline that in this course, mass transfer is the
major focus of attention, and I must confess that
my personal research interests prejudice my allot-
ment of time for each topic. A course emphasizing
heat transfer might best be taught without the
intrusion of mass transfer complications.
The semester starts with a review of shell
balances, reference frames for mass transfer and
equations of change, both differential and macro-
scopic, found in Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot [6]. It
is assumed the class has already covered this ma-
terial either somewhere in their undergraduate
education or in our senior-graduate course which
covers the entire book. The "sub-two" problems
are all assigned as optional review problems, and
many of the "sub-three" and "sub-four" problems
are required. Three concepts are emphasized in
this review. One is when a reaction or heat flux
expression appears as a source term and when it
appears is a boundary condition. Emphasis is made
on analyzing each problem individually rather than
using firm rules such as "homogeneous-source,
heterogeneous-boundary condition." The standard
porous catalyst problem as well as comparison of
the one-dimensional rectangular fin problem to a
two-dimensional version which allows conduction
toward the main heat transfer surface amply il-
lustrates this concept. Secondly, derivation of the
equations of change is rarely done using the di-
vergence theorem, owing to the popularity of the
BSL treatment. This is emphasized along with the
relationship between the differential and integral
balances for an arbitrary control volume [7].
Finally, by assigning the circular fin heat transfer
problem, the lesson is learned that while it may
be straightforward to formulate many transport
problems, one must be facile with many aspects of
mathematics to obtain solutions. Memorization of
Bessel equations or functions or other common
functions, except for what to expect from what
geometries, is discouraged; liberal use of mathe-
matical handbooks is encouraged.
The first major topic covered is diffusive
transport. Two major points are emphasized.
These are developing the mathematical skills
necessary to obtain solutions and obtaining a


physical understanding of the conduction process.
Without care, the difficulty of the first goal can
obscure the second goal. Even though solutions are
tabulated for most, if not all, physical situations
of interest [9, 10, 22], these books are written
at a sufficiently high enough level that an under-
standing of the mathematics involved is required
just to use them. Furthermore, obtaining the
solution is part of the goal of teaching the students
to handle new physical situations which may not
have been anticipated by these authors. The usual
partial differential equation solution techniques
are introduced, as shown in the outline, and some
insight into which method to choose for a par-
ticular situation is discussed. The narrow scope
of the combined variable solution is demonstrated
merely by changing from a constant temperature
(or concentration) to a convective heat (or mass)
transfer coefficient boundary condition. This intro-
duces the Laplace Transform technique, but
finite slab problems are found to be most easily
solved using separation of variables and Fourier
series. Being able to choose "the best" solution
method upon examining a new problem is con-
sidered almost as important as obtaining the
solution itself.
An intuitive understanding of conduction and
diffusion is only possible if real numbers are
plugged into the equations. The text by McAdams
[19] is suggested as a possible alternative to
Perry's [22] in finding heat transfer data, charts
for quick calculations and correlations. A problem
on the time necessary to melt an ice cube (which,
along with a few other problems, I confess are not
original, but almost identical to ones assigned to
me by Herb Toor when I was a graduate student)
is used as either a lecture example, or as an assign-
ment with result of each step given to guide the
student through the problem. This problem il-
lustrates how, for a quick estimate, it does not
matter whether some faces are horizontal or
vertical since the free convection heat transfer
coefficients only differ by 25%o. For this problem,
it is also found not to be necessary to use exact
series solutions since the cube temperature does
not differ in temperature by more than a few de-
grees from edge to center. The simpler external


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







control solution suffices for an estimate. Finally,
since the numerical result for the melting time
seems too long, the neglect of radiation is found
to be serious. (This has been circumvented by a
problem statement involving a large ice cube in an
ice chest in the shade at a football game tailgate
party, a situation of extreme practical signifi-
cance.) Some appreciation of when a simpler solu-
tion will suffice in place of a more complex one is
essential.
Simultaneous heat and mass transfer, which
mostly involves change of phase problems, follows
next. The mathematics is shown to be identical to
conduction problems except for the extra bound-
ary condition needed since the location of the
phase boundary in the system at a given time is a
new unknown. Physically, it must be appreciated
that this is merely an energy balance at the
moving boundary. Fog formation is an interest-
ing example which illustrates the complexities of
real problems as well as the simplifications that
can be made in order to obtain quantitative
trends [31]. Finally, the general treatment of
moving boundary problems due to Danckwerts
[10] is presented, and the students are left to
decide for themselves whether they wish to use
this method to solve problems, or to treat each
new situation individually. I suggest the latter
since problems of more recent interest such as
injection molding of polymers were not antici-
pated in the general treatment. However, for
simple one-dimensional problems, either method
is considered satisfactory.
Quasi-steady state solutions are also covered.
It is shown that for phase change problems in-
volving very large latent heats, the position of
the moving boundary with time is very quickly
obtained by assuming a linear profile in the dis-
appearing phase. This is usually a good time to
introduce the frozen margarita problem; that is,
how long will the liquid/solid slurry remain intact
before the beverage becomes entirely liquid and,
alas, an ordinary margarita. One possible solu-
tion (and not necessarily the best) method in-
volves modeling the slurry as a composite of
liquid and solid in series and estimating the melt-
ing time with a quasi-steady solution. This has
the further advantage of demonstrating how the
model for a physical situation need not involve
the exact same geometry as the situation itself.
Deciding exactly what to cover in only a few
weeks on the topic of convective transport is
difficult. Topics considered to be of particular


interest to chemical engineers are chosen, since
courses from other departments are available with
appropriate biases. Hence, although heat transfer
is considered, mass transfer applications are
emphasized. The Graetz problem is covered first
because solutions for the different regions parallel
the different solution regimes for diffusive trans-
port. The short-time error function solution for
conduction involves almost identical physical as-
sumptions as the Leveque solution for the entrance
region. The series solutions used for longer
transient time periods are just special cases of
the more general Sturm-Liouville treatment neces-
sary for longer distances from the entrance.
Finally, the constant asymptotic Nusselt or Sher-
wood numbers far from the channel entrance
directly parallel steady state conduction. The de-


This is usually a good time to
introduce the frozen margarita problem;
that is, how long will the liquid/solid slurry remain
intact before the beverage becomes entirely
liquid and, alas, an ordinary margarita.

crease in Nusselt number with axial position is
shown to directly parallel the decrease in the
transient heat flux with time. This analogy makes
understanding heat and mass transfer in closed
channels relatively straightforward, as well as
cementing the understanding of transient con-
duction.
The major topic covered pertaining to external
surfaces is boundary layer theory. The concept is
developed starting with fluid mechanics and then
by moving into heat and mass transfer. Similarity
solutions are developed for forced convection past
a flat plate as well as free convection adjacent
to a vertical surface. Extension to wedge flows
provides a convenient problem assignment. Par-
ticular attention is focused on the large and small
Prandtl number and the large Schmidt number
solutions for arbitrary geometries [20]. (The small
Schmidt number exists mathematically but there
is no corresponding physical situation.) The latter
solution is found to be extremely important since
it encompasses diffusion in all liquid systems. The
integral treatment of the boundary layer as well
as other solution techniques are presented as
examples.
The two topics covered under the heading of
unsteady convective transport are presented most-
ly using examples such as Taylor dispersion and
the dropping mercury electrode. Turbulent trans-


FALL 1983







port is covered only to the extent of time averaging
the equations of change, presenting some useful
empiricisms and developing the analogy concept.
Fortunately for this author, other courses at the
university cover this topic in much more depth,
and with much more personal insight by the in-
structor.
The major portion of the time alotted to inter-
facial transport involves changing the miscon-
ceptions about interfaces obtained by all students
in their undergraduate mass transfer operations


The standard porous catalyst problem
as well as comparison of the one-dimensional
rectangular fin problem to a two-dimensional version
which allows conduction toward the main heat transfer
surface amply illustrates this concept.


courses. Therefore, after reviewing these treat-
ments including the classical film, penetration and
surface renewal theories, the concept of interfacial
tension is introduced. The modified fluid mechanics
boundary conditions at the interface are shown to
correctly predict convective flows caused by con-
centration and temperature differences. Eventually
the classical treatment of Sternling and Scriven
[30] is presented in order to demonstrate the
effect of interfacial convection on mass transfer.
By then discussing other models of interfaces,
interfacial transport becomes the first topic
covered that is not totally well-defined and the
progression of examples covered illustrate the de-
velopment of research in a field.
Even though there are entire books on mass
transfer with chemical reaction, only one, or per-
haps two, weeks are devoted to the subject. First
of all, diffusion in porous catalysts and resistances
in series models of heterogeneous reactions are
briefly reviewed since it is assumed that these
topics are treated in depth in other courses. For
mass transfer with homogeneous reaction, the
film, penetration and surface renewal theories are
discussed, emphasizing that the enhancement
factors predicted by each theory do not differ sig-
nificantly. Methods of treating instantaneous re-
actions, both irreversible and reversible, are pre-
sented-the former reinforcing the moving
boundary problem techniques discussed earlier
in the course and the latter laying the foundation
for treating diffusion in reacting systems which
follows later in the semester. This treatment
suffices by providing a general understanding of


the topic without the drudgery of solving every
possible variation in kinetics.
The next topic covered is the theory of diffu-
sion and other transport processes. While it could
be argued that this topic might well belong at the
beginning of the course, the development of a
more sophisticated approach to problem analysis
and solution makes this topic much easier to treat
later in the semester. The variety of methods
available for measuring diffusivity are shown to
sharply contrast the relative ease of measuring
thermal conductivity. By examining the equilibri-
um between diffusion and sedimentation, the
1 /m size is shown to separate brownian from
non-brownian particles. Then the topic of ir-
reversible thermodynamics is introduced, leading
to such well-known phenomena as Fick's law,
Fourier's law, Ohm's law, and coupled phenomena
such as ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, electro-
phoresis and multicomponent diffusion. Reacting
systems such as weak acids and electrostatically
coupled systems involving electrolytes provide
relevent examples. While it is intuitive that a
binary electrolyte may be uniquely represented by
one diffusivity, and the irreversible thermo-
dynamics formalism proves it, only combination
of the diffusion equations yields the form for the
effective diffusivity.
While the examples cited above manifest the
concepts of multicomponent diffusion, numerous
other examples are also discussed. Solution of the
equations in Fickian form is found to be relatively
straightforward as long as the diffusivity is as-
sumed constant. The Stefan-Maxwell form is also
introduced, and the advantages of each form are
briefly discussed. Finally, the equations for multi-
component mass transfer are found to be a natural
extension of those for multicomponent diffusion.
The multicomponent solution is found to be
particularly convenient since any physical situ-
ation for which a binary solution is available
yields a multicomponent solution immediately. The
assumption of constant diffusivity is pointed out
to be serious theoretical limitation, but approxi-
mating the diffusivities at an average concentra-
tion is found to be an eminently practical solution.
At this point in the course, many topics of
interest could be covered. The topic of carrier-
membranes is chosen because it is a recent de-
velopment and the subject of vigorous continuing
research. It is also an excellent example of both
mass transfer with chemical reaction and multi-
component mass transfer. Co-transport and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








counter-transport are particularly interesting be-
cause they are examples of how one species can
be transported continuously against its gradient
as long as another species is "supplying the
energy" by being transported down its own
gradient. Occasionally, when other topics during
the semester have been given more time, this topic
has been handled by assigning the model develop-
ment part of problem sets. This has the advantage
of giving the students practice in handling a new
situation, and progressively developing it to higher
levels of complexity.
The final topic covered involves particle trans-
port. This topic is favored mainly due to this
instructor's research interests. The first lesson
learned is that concentrated particle solutions do
not form a continuum, and that statistical theories
are necessary to describe the effect of particle-
particle interactions on diffusion. This is done in
a very general manner, since the level of statistical
mechanics background varies widely between
students. Particle adsorption represents an ex-
cellent example of extending well-known concepts
to a new problem. The intermolecular force bound-
ary layer used to model particle adsorption phe-
nomena provides this lesson, as well as one on
length scales. Since this boundary layer is often
much smaller than the diffusion and hydrody-
namic boundary layers, it is shown how macro-
scopically adsorption is described by adsorption-
desorption rate constants, and how a microscopic
analysis reveals a method for predicting these
rate constants from knowledge of the specific
interactions involved. Finally, particle chroma-
tography provides an example of how hydro-
dynamic and colloidal interactions between
particles and surfaces can be exploited for
particle separations.
In summary, the course described represents
one instructor's opinion on the material suitable
for an advanced course in heat and mass transfer.
In general, the breadth of material treated limits
the depth of coverage of any particular topic.
This, however, is totally consistent with the goal
of training the students to be able to handle new
situations. By treating a wide variety of topics,
they have a convenient starting point on almost
any problem that they might encounter. Since I
believe that the ultimate goal of any graduate
program should be to train problem solvers ir-
respective of research topic, the scope and purpose
of this course is one part of achieving that lofty
ideal. O


REFERENCES
1. Albright, J. G. and R. Mills, J Phys Chem, 69, 3120
(1965).
2. Astarita, G., "Mass Transfer with Chemical Re-
action," Elsevier, New York, 1967.
3. Batchelor, G., J. Fluid Mech., 52, 245 (1972); 74, 1
(1976).
4. Berg, J. C., "Interfacial Phenomena in Fluid Phase
Separation Processes," in CRC Recent Developments
in Separation Science, 2, 1 (1971).
5. Berg, J. C., Can. Met. Quart., 2, 121 (1982).
6. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart and E. N. Lightfoot,
Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, 1960.
7. Bird, R. B., Chem. Eng. Sci., 6, 123 (1957).
8. Brenner, H. and L. G. Leal, AIChE J, 24, 246 (1978).
9. Carslaw, H. S. and J. C. Jaeger, "Conduction of Heat
in Solids," (2nd ed.) Oxford, Oxford, England, 1959.
10. Crank, J., "The Mathematics of Diffusion," (2nd
ed.) Oxford, Oxford, England, 1975.
11. Cussler, E. L., "Multicomponent Diffusion," Elsevier,
New York, 1976.
12. Danckwerts, P. V., Trans. Farad Soc., 46, 701 (1950).
13. Danckwerts, P. V., "Gas-Liquid Reactions," McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1970.
14. deGroot, S. R. and P. Mazur, "Non-Equilibrium
Thermodynamics," Wiley, New York, 1962.
15. Eckert, E. R. G. and R. M. Drake, "Analysis of Heat
and Mass Transfer," McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.
16. Katchalsky, A. and P. F. Curran, "Non-Equilibrium
Thermodynamics in Biophysics," Harvard Press,
Cambridge, MA, 1965.
17. Kays, W. M. and M. E. Crawford, "Convective Heat
Transfer," McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
18# Levich, V., "Physicochemical Hydrodynamics,"
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1962.
19. McAdams, W. H., "Heat Transmission," (3rd ed.),
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1954.
20. Newman, J. S., "The Fundamental Principles of
Current Distribution and Mass Transport in Electro-
chemical Cells," in Electroanalytical Chemistry: A
Series of Advances (A. J. Bard, ed), 6, 187 (1973).
21. Osizik, M. N. "Heat Conduction," Wiley-Inter-
science, New York, 1980.
22. Perry, R. H. and C. H. Colton, "Chemical Engineers
Handbook," (5th ed.) McGraw-Hill, New York, 1973.
23. Ruckenstein, E. and D. C. Prieve, J. Chem. Soc.
Faraday II, 69, 1522 (1973).
24. Ruckenstein, E. and D. C. Prieve, AIChE J, 22, 276
(1976).
25. Ruckenstein, E., A. Marmur and W. N. Gill, J. Coll.
Int. Sci., 61, 183 (1977).
26. Schlichting, H., "Boundary Layer Theory," (7th ed.)
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979.
27. Sherwood, T. K., R. E. Pigford and C. R. Wilke,
"Mass Transfer," McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975.
28. Silebi, C. and A. J. McHugh, AIChE J., 24, 204
(1978).
29. Skelland, A. H. P., "Diffusional Mass Transfer,"
Wiley, New York, 1974.
30. Sternling, C. V. and L. E. Scriven, AIChE J., 5, 514
(1959).
31. Toor, H. L., AIChE J., 17, 5 (1971); IEC Fund, 10,
121 (1971).


FALL 1983










CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN


CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN


CHRISTOS G. TAKOUDIS
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907

A FIFTEEN WEEK COURSE in chemical reactor de-
sign was prepared to meet the needs of
graduate students in Purdue's School of Chemical
Engineering. Since this is essentially the only
graduate course on chemical reaction engineering
in our school, a variety of topics was included.
The course outline is given in Table 1. The aim of
the course is to bring together different disciplines
on studying the behavior of chemical reactors.
This behavior is intimately related to the inter-
play of chemical and physical rate processes.
There has been an increasing number of books
on reaction engineering or analysis in recent
times with widely varying directions or emphasis.
In this course, the main text was Froment and
Bischoff's "Chemical Reactor Analysis and De-
sign" [1] and collateral reading was suggested
from Lapidus and Amundson's "Chemical Reactor
Theory, A Review." [2] Although these texts pro-
vided an organizational framework for this course,
they were inadequate on several occasions. Hence,
handouts were used and additional reading was
suggested from numerous papers and other books,
some of which are mentioned at the end. [3-11]


C. G. Takoudis received his Diploma (1977) at the National Technical
University of Athens, Greece and his Ph.D. (1981) at the University of
Minnesota in chemical engineering. He joined the faculty of Purdue
University in November 1981. He has been involved in research in re-
action engineering, heterogeneous catalysis and kinetics.


The aim of this course is to
bring together different disciplines on
studying the behavior of chemical reactors. This
behavior is intimately related to the interplay of
chemical and physical rate processes.

In order to maintain the pace shown in Table 1,
some topics were not covered in depth. For these,
several references were suggested and students'
comprehension of these topics was examined
through unannounced quizzes, homework prob-
lems, and midsemester exams. At the end of the
course, the students were displeased with the
main text, fairly positive to the recommended one,
and pleased with the supplementary readings.
At the beginning of the course the students be-
come familiar with the concept of stoichiometry
and the implications of the law of mass action to
the algebraic treatment of chemical reactions [3].
An introduction to the pure and applied aspects of
kinetics of chemical processes as well as a unified
treatment of the kinetic analysis of elementary
steps, simple reactions and reaction networks form
a review of the undergraduate chemical engineer-
ing kinetics course [4]. Special emphasis is given
to chemisorption kinetics and equilibria, and to
catalytic reaction kinetic models.
Despite the simplicity of a chemical reaction
system or a reaction network, one may have to en-
counter questions like these [5]: Does a system
admit a positive equilibrium? Can there be more
than one positive equilibrium? Can the positive
equilibria be unstable? Are there cyclic solutions?
Although these questions are not simple, several
existing theorems may provide useful information
on the answers to the above. A series of examples
from heterogeneous catalysis emphasizes clearly
the advantages and particularly the limitations
of the existing analyses.
Polymerization mechanisms and kinetics are
covered next. Methods for the solution of the in-
finite set of difference-differential equations
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










TABLE 1
Course Outline


Stoichiometry. Elements of Reaction Kinetics.
Chemical reaction. Rate of reaction
The law of mass action
Independence of reactions
Measurement of quantity and its change due to reaction
Invariants of a system of reactions
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Reactions
Intrinsic reaction rate
Chemical kinetics of elementary steps
The steady-state approximation
The rate determining step
Ambiguity of simplified kinetics
Chemisorption in kinetics and equilibria
Some illustrations of catalytic rate models and
mechanisms
Mathematical Aspects of Mass Action Kinetics
Mechanisms, kinetics and equilibria
The stability of open isothermal reactors with complex
chemistry
Reaction network structure
Multiple equilibria and chemical oscillations
Advantages and limitations of the "zero deficiency
theorem" and other related theorems
Applications from heterogeneous catalysis
Polymerization. Biochemical and Fermentation Kinetics
Polymerization mechanisms and kinetics
Microbial kinetics and dynamics
Growth of a single population
Growth of mixed populations
Lumped Kinetics. Parameter Estimation
Lumping analysis in monomolecular reaction systems
Structure of a lumpable monomolecular system for
reversible chemical reactions
Kinetic behavior of a network of first order reversible
reactions
New methods of parameter estimation in linear systems
Parameter estimation in non-linear systems
Conservation Equations for Chemically Reacting
Multicomponent Mixtures in Continuous Media
The continuity equations
The energy equation
The momentum equation
Equation for a retreating surface
Catalytic Heterogeneous Reactions. Single Particle Studies
The general equations of diffusion and reaction
Effectiveness factor
The single reaction in an isothermal pellet
Reaction in a slab
The first order reaction
The infinite cylinder. The sphere
Finite and hollow cylinders
The reversible first-order reaction
Reaction with volume change
The pth-order reaction
Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics
The Single reaction in a non-isothermal body
The equations and methods of solutions
The first order reaction. Boundary conditions
General kinetics
Multiple reactions


Lumped resistance models
Uniqueness and multiplicity criteria
Stability of the Steady State and Dynamic Behavior
Tests for stability. Limit cycles
Stability and dynamics of lumped resistance models
Some features of the transient behavior of diffusing
and reacting systems
Numerical methods
Catalyst Deactivation
Types of catalyst deactivation
Kinetics of catalyst poisoning
Kinetics of catalyst deactivation by coking
Separability of catalytic deactivation kinetics
Non-catalytic Reactions
Solid-fluid reactions
Gas-liquid reactions
The Batch Reactor
The isothermal and non-isothermal batch reactor
Optimal operation policies and control strategies
The Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor
The basic mass and energy balances
The design of a single reactor
The stability and control of the steady state
Sequences of stirred reactors
Transient behavior
The Tubular Reactor
Types of tubular reactor
The mass, momentum and energy balances
Design principles. Optimal design
The effects of flow profile
Axial dispersion in tubular reactors
Criteria for the uniqueness of the steady state
Stability and transient behavior
The Fixed Bed Reactor
Factors in the design of fixed bed reactors
Modelling of fixed bed reactors
Pseudo-homogeneous models. Heterogeneous models
Fixed bed reactors with heat exchangers
Stability and transient behavior
Nonideal Continuous Flow Reactors
Age-distribution functions
Application of age-distribution functions
Flow models
The Fluidized Bed Reactor
The two-phase theory. Fluid mechanics of bubbles
Two-phase theory applied to catalytic reactors
Division of gas flow, bed expansion, and phase volumes
Factors in the design of fluidized bed reactors
Stability and multiplicity of the steady state
Multiphase Flow Reactors
Types of multiphase flow reactors
Trickle bed reactors
Design principles
Wetting efficiency
Interphase mass transfer. Heat transport
Pressure drop and liquid hold-up
Reactor models
Optimization of Chemical Reactors
Conventional and unconventional optimization
Globally optimal design.


FALL 1983








pertinent to polymeric systems, and step and chain
growth polymerizations are discussed in detail.
Unstructured and structured models of microbial
kinetics are a precursor to the understanding of
the growth of mixed populations, and microbial
dynamics is a precursor to the stability of a
steady state.
The importance of lumping in the petrochemi-
cal industry is presented and lumping analysis in
monomolecular reaction systems is discussed [6].
Also, parameter estimation and kinetic models
based on experimental data are increasingly used
in the chemical industry for the design of catalytic
reactors. Hence, parameter estimation and kinetic
behavior of a network of first order reversible
reactions or non-linear reaction systems are dis-
cussed in depth.
Since the investigation of chemical reactors
involves a synthesis of information pertaining to
the chemical reacting system such as thermo-
dynamics (e.g. heat of reactions, equilibrium com-
positions), kinetics (reaction rate expressions)
and those relating to pertinent physical rate pro-
cesses (momentum, heat and mass transfer),
conservation equations for chemically reacting
mixtures are discussed next. The conservation of
mass, momentum and energy appended by ap-
propriate phenomenological descriptions of physi-
cal laws (e.g. Fourier's law of heat conduction)
and economic considerations govern the rules of
this synthesis.
After a reference to the general equations of
diffusion and reaction, single particle studies
follow [7]. Different particle shapes, various
kinetics, isothermal or nonisothermal operation
and single or multiple reactions in permeable
catalysts are discussed in detail. Special emphasis
is given to boundary conditions and asymptotic
behaviors. Also, at this point, the students become
familiar with the concept of lumped resistance
models and the possible serious pitfalls of such a
lumping.
Once the above investigation of diffusion and
reaction in permeable catalysts is completed, the
following questions may arise [8]: Which steady
states can be realized? What initial conditions may
lead to a given steady state? Could periodic opera-
tion result? Answers to these questions are pre-
sented in two stages. First, after a quick review
of the autonomous ordinary differential equations
and the tests for stability, the stability and dy-
namics of lumped resistance models are discussed
in depth. Second, several features of the transient


behavior of distributed systems are investigated
with emphasis on diffusing and reacting systems.
After a review of the different types of catalyst
deactivation, the kinetics of catalyst poisoning and
of deactivation by coking are discussed. Emphasis
is given to the separability of catalytic deactiva-
tion kinetics and to the implications of catalyst de-
activation in a number of chemical processes.
Solid-fluid and gas-liquid non-catalytic re-
actions are covered in depth next. The shrinking
core model, the grain model, and the pore model
with structure are investigated within the frame-
work of the solid-fluid reactions.
A unified treatment of chemical reactor
analysis and design is complicated by at least two
sources of divergent behavior. Naturally, the di-
versity of chemically reacting systems would be in-
herited by the reactors in which reactions are car-
ried out. Furthermore, reaction equipment itself
covers a wide variety such as stirred tank, moving
bed, packed bed, fluidized bed and other types of
reactors in which the relative role of physical and
chemical rate processes may be profoundly differ-
ent. Therefore, it should be evident that general
results on reactor behavior or design prescriptions
are not to be found. However, the divergent
features of chemical reactor analysis have been
presented in a proper perspective in [9].
The batch reactor is investigated under iso-
thermal and nonisothermal operation. Special at-
tention is given to optimal operation policies and
control strategies.
The continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR)
is covered next. The design principles of a single
or a sequence of stirred reactors are discussed in
detail. After a review of the stability of the steady
state and the transient behavior of a CSTR, the
optimal sequence of stirred reactors based on the
principle of optimality is presented.
The investigation of the tubular reactor com-
prises design principles, the effects of flow pro-
file and axial dispersion. Emphasis is given to the
comparisons and connections between a CSTR and
a plug flow reactor. Criteria for the uniqueness
of the steady state and a discussion on the sta-
bility and dynamic behavior of a tubular reactor
conclude the analysis of this type of reactor.
The fixed bed reactor is investigated next. The
factors in the design of fixed beds are discussed
in detail. Pseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous
models are presented. Special attention is given to
runaway phenomena, excessive sensitivity to
variations in some parameters, and the non-steady


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








behavior due to catalyst deactivation. The current
state of art on multiplicity, stability and transient
behavior of a fixed bed reactor is also discussed.
After a brief review of imperfect mixing in
reactors and age-distribution functions, the analy-
sis and design of the fluidized bed reactor follows.
The design principles of such a reactor are dis-
cussed in detail within the context of the two-
phase theory applied to catalytic reactors. Several
reactor models are discussed with emphasis on the
assumptions and approximations of each one of
them. The analysis of a fluidized bed becomes com-
plete with a discussion of desulfurization with
limestone in a fluidized coal combustor.
The trickle bed reactor is investigated next
[10]. Emphasis is given to internal and external
wetting efficiencies, mass transfer pertinent to
trickle flow, and the factors in the design of such a
reactor.
An overview of conventional and particularly
unconventional optimization concludes this course.
Special emphasis is given to globally optimal de-
sign [11].
The last stage of this course is a take home
final exam. This exam includes a set of data of
the methanol synthesis from H2 and CO (in the
presence or absence of CO2). This is a simple
system chemically, the thermodynamic properties
of the chemical species are well-known, it has
commercial significance, and it is not too simple
kinetically. The students have to develop a kinetic
model for the synthesis of methanol from that set
of rate data; to simulate specified plant-scale
catalytic reactors at specified reaction conditions,
using their kinetic model; and to summarize their
results. They are given the types of reactors, the
reaction conditions and most thermodynamic and
physical property data. The reactors may be fixed
or fluidized beds, one- or two-dimensional, and iso-
thermal or nonisothermal. The purpose of this
project is to compare the kinetic models and simu-
lated reactor performance calculations generated
by various students working independently from
a common data base and set of assumptions. The
modeling process itself-by incorporating differ-
ent interpretations of experimental data into the
basic kinetic models-can influence the final re-
actor design and its ultimate performance dra-
matically.
Student evaluation of this course has been
favorable and their comments indicate that they
enjoyed the final project. O


REFERENCES
1. Froment, G. F., and K. B. Bischoff, "Chemical Re-
actor Analysis and Design", John Wiley and Sons,
1979.
2. Lapidus, L., and N. R. Amundson, "Chemical Re-
actor Theory, A Review", Prentice Hall, 1977.
3. Aris, R., "Introduction to the Analysis of Chemical
Reactors", Prentice Hall, 1965.
4. Boudart, M., "Kinetics of Chemical Processes",
Prentice Hall, 1968.
5. Stewart, W. E., W. H. Ray, and C. C. Conley, "Dy-
namics and Modelling of Reactive Systems", Aca-
demic Press, 1980.
6. Wei, J., and J. C. W. Kuo, I. E. C. Fund, 8, 114 (1969),
"A Lumping Analysis in Monomolecular Reaction
Systems."
7. Aris, R., "The Mathematical Theory of Diffusion and
Reaction in Permeable Catalysts, Vols. I and II,
Clarendon Press, 1975.
8. Pismen, L. M., Chem. Eng. Sci. .5, 1950 (1980),
"Kinetic Instabilities in Man-Made and Natural Re-
actors".
9. Aris, R., I. E. Chem. 56, 22 (1964), "Chemical Re-
actor Analysis".
10. Herskowitz, M., and J. M. Smith, A.I.Ch.E. J. 29, 1
(1983), "Trickle-Bed Reactors: A Review".
11. Wilde, D. J., "Globally Optimal Design", Wiley-Inter-
science, 1978.


N letters

DEAD STATE NOT A DEAD ISSUE
Dear Sir:
Re: Availability (Exergy) Analysis, and En-
vironmental Reference States (CEE, p. 138,
Summer 1983)
Nothing pleases an author more than a long
and careful review, seasoned with salutory ad-
jectives, of his book [1]. Consequently I am obliged
to both the reviewer and the editor for their
generosity.
Permit me use of this letter to try to put to rest
an issue raised in the review-the proper environ-
mental reference state to be used for availability
calculations.
Almost any reference state will do; as long as
it can be explicitly defined, is convenient, is used
consistently, and is clearly stated to readers and
users whenever absolute rather than incremental
availability changes are presented.
I have chosen the same reference state used
throughout the chemical literature for "Standard
Enthalpies of Combustion"-and hence I call the
availability values compiled in my book "Standard
Continued on page 197.


FALL 1983









4 co44du in



PROJECT EVALUATION

IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES


J. FRANK VALLE-RIESTRA
Dow Chemical U.S.A.
Pittsburg, CA 94565

T HERE APPEARS TO BE a difference in perception
between teachers of chemical engineering and
the industry which employs their students-a
perceptual difference as to what constitutes a
balanced course of instruction that best prepares
the students for their industrial tasks. There is a
point of view in some industrial quarters that
chemical engineering education is too "theoretical"
(whatever that may mean) and that students
enter industry unprepared for the realities of the
business world. There is an academic point of
view that maintains that the task of the university
is to educate the student in the fundamental
sciences (and, at the graduate level, to teach re-
search skills in those sciences), for it is versa-
tility in the fundamentals that allows the chemical
engineer in industry to be creative and effective
in a gamut of endeavors, to be a general problem
solver. The latter point of view maintains that it
is industry's own responsibility to indoctrinate its
employees so they may function well in the world
of applied technology and business.
There is a great deal to be said for both points
of view. There is no question that chemical engi-
neers, by virtue of their exposure to the unique
combination of fundamental sciences which consti-
tutes the chemical engineering curriculum, have
gained the reputation of exceptional problem
solving ability in all industrial functions. Yet the
academic world has not ignored industry's call
for educational realism, and university chemical

The purpose of the course is to
expose the neophyte chemical engineer to
the methodology used in the chemical process
industries to evaluate the ultimate commercial
feasibility of proposed new projects.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


engineering curricula continue to exhibit a grow-
ing industrial cant, as evidenced by many articles
in this journal. Most corporations in the chemical
process industries profess to be moving in the
direction of specialized, small-volume, high-priced
products; this trend, if true, will demand of the
universities, more than ever, an education which
blends a strong background in the fundamental
sciences with some nurturing of skills that will
allow the neophyte engineer to handle the antici-
pated heavier demands of project management and
evaluation.
At the University of California, Berkeley, the
tradition of an industrial input into the chemical
engineering curriculum goes back almost three
decades, to the organization of an undergraduate
process design course by practicing engineers in
industry-Charles F. Oldershaw (Dow Chemical
Co.) and later E. Morse ("Bud") Blue (Chevron
Research Co.). The participation of part-time in-
structors from industry has since been extended
to the graduate curriculum as well; moreover, an
industrial process design and development option
is available to students working toward the PhD
degree. The department is served by an Industrial
Advisory Board whose members are top corporate
managers from several companies; many of the
industrially-oriented programs were initiated upon
their recommendation.
Indeed, some ten years ago the board suggested
that an advanced project evaluation course be in-
corporated into the graduate curriculum. On the
strength of my industrial experience, I was asked
by Jud King, at that time department chairman,
to organize and teach such a course. I confess that
I accepted this challenge with a certain degree of
reluctance, for I had quite enough to keep myself
usefully occupied at The Dow Chemical Co. Never-
theless, I took the plunge, and it seems to me that
all concerned-my industrial employer, my de-
partmental colleagues, the students, and certainly
myself-have benefitted from the resulting ex-
change of information, ideas, and points of view.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























J. Frank Valle-Riestra received a BAS degree in mechanical engi-
neering from the University of California, Berkeley (1944), and a BS
degree in applied chemistry (1948) and an MS degree in chemical
engineering (1949) from the California Institute of Technology. He
has been employed by The Dow Chemical Co. since 1949 and
currently holds the title of Senior Associate Scientist. His duties include
organization and management of a process development group in
Dow's Western Division Applied Science Laboratories in Pittsburg,
California. He has held a post of Lecturer in the Chemical Engi-
neering Department, University of California, Berkeley, since 1975.
Included among his publications is a recent book, "Project Evaluation
in the Chemical Process Industries," published by McGraw-Hill Book
Co.


COURSE OBJECTIVES
The purpose of the course is to expose the
neophyte chemical engineer to the methodology
used in the chemical process industries to evaluate
the ultimate commercial feasibility of proposed
new projects. It is an attempt to give some insight
into the intricacies of industrial project manage-
ment.
As such, the course goes beyond the subject
matter of allied courses previously described in
this journal-doctoral level engineering economics
(Oran L. Culberson, Fall 1979), or the structure
of the chemical process industries (T. W. F.
Russell, Fall 1979)--although elements of each
are, indeed, to be found. Economic principles
which may already be familiar to many students
are reviewed, and elements and analytical tools
that are new are introduced-the economic,
marketing, and managerial techniques common-
place in industry. The principal thrust is to impart
skills in the integration of previously acquired
disciplines to facilitate preliminary process syn-
thesis, to help gain an appreciation for the nature
of industrial projects and the industrial viewpoint
used in managing them, to become adept at creat-
ing a successful business venture. The ultimate
objective is to give the neophyte chemical engineer


the background for the assumption of project
managerial responsibilities at the earliest stages
of an industrial career.

COURSE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT

The course is listed in the catalog as "Chemical
Engineering Economics and Project Evaluation";
it is a three-unit course given once a year. (It will
be maintained as a three-unit course following
conversion this year from the quarter to the se-
mester system at Berkeley.) A senior process de-
sign course is prerequisite; most participating
students have been graduates, but undergraduates
taking process design concurrently have per-
formed quite well.
The subject matter is presented as six se-
quential concepts:
1. The Industrial Environment. The nature of the in-
dustrial workplace wherein project evaluation is practiced
is described, and the job functions of the professional
chemical engineer are placed in context.
2. The Mathematics of Finance. The mathematical
tools of project evaluation are presented, but concepts
rather than manipulative skills are emphasized. The con-
cept of the time value of money, which permeates the sub-
sequent course material, is introduced.
3. The Evaluation Process. This is the core material
of the course and includes project definition, investment
analysis, net revenue analysis, project economic analysis,
and evaluation of criteria of economic performance-the
various subjects tied together as shown in Fig. 1.

PROJECT ]
I DEFINITION I


4. The Analysis of Alternatives. The core material is
generalized for the case of "multicomponent" systems.
5. Management of the Developing Project. Manage-
ment techniques for the advancement of projects from the
laboratory to operating commercial units are introduced;
these include techniques of construction time and cost
control.
6. Performance Analysis of the Corporation. The
corporation is evaluated as an ensemble of individual pro-
jects, and the performance is gauged in terms of criteria
prescribed for the separate projects.
Within the context of this sequence a variety
of special topics is introduced, all of which impact


FALL 1983







peripherally upon the core material and are in-
tended to stimulate the interest of the student. The
discussion of the industrial environment incorpor-
ates an overview of many aspects of the chemical
engineer's work-the gamut of human relations
problems; challenges of professional development;
the technical-managerial dichotomy; a realistic
approach to the problems of ethics. The engineer's
responsibilities for environmental protection and
product stewardship are repeatedly emphasized,
from the point of view of ethics and good citizen-
ship as well as the point of view of assuring the
continued productive functioning of the chemical
industry in a distrustful society. Project defini-
tion, the first step in the evaluation sequence, in-

... the academic world has not ignored
industry's call for educational realism, and
university chemical engineering curricula continue to
exhibit a growing industrial cant.

cludes an introduction to marketing research and
the methods of projecting demand and an accept-
able pricing structure-subjects frequently
entirely novel to students.
Chemical engineers are fond of systematiza-
tion and mathematical analysis, and these prefer-
ences are recognized by introducing aspects of risk
analysis-decision trees, Monte Carlo methods for
projecting the probability distribution of criteria
of economic performance, life cycle theory, con-
struction of sensitivity diagrams, and others. Both
strengths and weaknesses of risk analysis are
emphasized. Several aspects of network analysis
are presented, in particular CPM and PERT tech-
niques used in project planning. Methods of linear
programming are applied to the problem of the
allocation of resources. A unique approach is out-
lined for the calculation of the inflation-adjusted,
after-tax rate of return upon the average corpo-
rate project investment from data in annual re-
ports.
TEACHING STRATEGY
Problem solving receives heavy emphasis in
the course. Assigned problems not only illustrate
but also expand and supplement lecture material
and reading assignments. The problems are often
open-ended and unstructured; students are given
a wide-ranging indoctrination into methods of
attacking such problems and are taught the tech-
niques of problem synthesis, in contrast to the
analytical approach common to most of their
previous courses. Most of the problems require the


application of knowledge acquired in the course
of a typical undergraduate chemical engineering
curriculum. The purpose is to force students to
utilize the sum total of their acquired engineering
know-how, to reach back and to apply facts and
techniques not necessarily contained in lecture
material. This is a source of irritation and un-
happiness to some students, but it is typical of
the problems that actually confront the engineer in
industry.
The fact of the matter is that students like to
solve problems, and the review of solutions and the
accompanying commentary take up a considerable
portion of class time. Students also enjoy group
participation in the solution of experiential
exercises and other enrichment activities to
supplement lecture material. My lecture notes have
been expanded into a book, "Project Evaluation in
the Chemical Process Industries", published this
year by McGraw-Hill Book Company. I anticipate
that use of the text, with supplemental reading
assignments, will leave more class time for en-
richment activities and anecdotal accounts of in-
dustrial experiences.

TERM PROJECT
Short (one-hour) examinations constitute a
standard evaluation technique of acquired skills
in specific course areas. However, a massive final
examination has not appeared to me to fill a use-
ful course overview role. In order to demonstrate
skills in project evaluation, one ought to evaluate
a project, and this, in fact, constitutes the sub-
stance of a term project assignment. Four-person
teams are asked to investigate the commercial
feasibility of building a new production facility
in a specific geographical area to manufacture a
specific product. The team starts with a common
scenario describing an existing integrated corpo-
rate complex, and an additional scenario is given
which outlines an assigned business proposal in
general terms. The team is asked to write a report
to the corporation's management summing up and
documenting its recommendations. Team members
are asked, on a prearranged basis, to visit in-
dustrial libraries to consult business publications
not normally available in university libraries.
A typical proposal might involve the con-
struction of a hydrogen peroxide plant in the San
Francisco Bay area to serve the West Coast pulp
and paper industry, or the investigation of
prospects for gasohol, obtained from cottonseed
hulls, in the Gulf Coast area. The scenario given


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









to each team must be carefully designed to keep
the investigation within reasonable limits. The
final report gives students much-needed writing
practice and serves as a vehicle for teaching
content and style that corporate management likes
to see in a business overview report. Students in-
variably approach the project with a great deal
of enthusiasm, for they quickly recognize the
challenge of a "real world" situation. I must say
that the results have been a joy to me-topnotch
professional-grade business analyses.
Occasionally student teams have chosen to con-
centrate on term projects of their own choosing,
not necessarily involved with production planning
-perhaps a study of the feasibility of aeolian
power, or research into novel economic analyses
such as process step scoring. Individual projects
have been assigned to those who, for some reason,
cannot participate in a team effort. Assignments
have spanned such widely diverse subjects as life
cycle theory, optimum surge tank policy, and the
economics of reclamation of paper from garbage.

ENRICHMENT TECHNIQUES
Term projects and other enrichment activi-
ties do require effective instructor-student con-
tacts outside of classroom hours. A few of the
more important classroom enrichment techniques
have included the following:
Oral Presentations. Students are asked to do library
research on specially assigned subjects and to give a ten-
minute presentation in class. The purpose is to give
students some badly needed practice in technical speaking
and to give them some feel for the nature of time-
restricted, industrial oral presentations. Typical assigned
subjects have included:
The Delphi method.
Status of engineering registration in state.
ASPEN, use in economic evaluation.
Geothermal power: status and costs.
The presentations have not proved to be very popular
with students, most of whom just do not like to speak in
front of their colleagues. Nevertheless, I consider the
speaking experience to be beneficial.
ResumBs. A first assignment in the course has been the
assembly (or update) of the student's resum6. The in-
structor writes out an individual critique on each resume
submitted; this is followed by office consultation when re-
quested. After-class seminars on job interview techniques
have been well attended.
Term Project Reviews. A worthy review technique in-
volves a small group of volunteer engineers from industry
who interact directly with the project team by offering a
report critique and exploring alternative project aspects.
Such interaction has been warmly received by both groups
of participants.
Visiting Lecturers. A welcome break in class routine


Substantial Chemistry Texts
from Prentice-Hall
CHEMICAL PROCESS CONTROL: An Introduction to
Theory and Practice
George Stephanopoulos, The National Technical University of Athens
1984 704 pp. (est.) Cloth $34.95
CHEMICAL AND PROCESS THERMODYNAMICS
B.G. Kyle, Kansas State University
1984 512 pp. (est.) Cloth $32.95
MASS TRANSFER: Fundamentals and Applications
Anthony L. Hines and Robert N. Maddox, both of Oklahoma State University
1984 500 pp. (est.) Cloth $30.95
BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CALCULATIONS IN CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING, Fourth Edition
David M. Himmelblau, The University of Texas at Austin
1982 656 pp. Cloth $33.95
PROCESS FLUID MECHANICS
Morton M. Denn, University of Delaware
1980 383 pp. Cloth $33.95
DIFFRACTION FOR MATERIALS SCIENTISTS
Jerold M. Schultz, University of Delaware
1982 287 pp. Cloth $35.95
NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR BOUNDARY VALUE
PROBLEMS WITH APPLICATIONS
Milan Kubicek, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology;
Vladimir Hlavacek, SUNY at Buffalo
1983 336 pp. Cloth $34.95
For further information, or to order or reserve examination copies, please write: Ben E. Colt,
College Operations, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632.
For "SUPER-QUICK" Service, dial TOLL FREE (800) 526-0485*
between 8:15 a.m.-4:45 p.m., EST, Mon.-Fri.
*not applicable in New Jersey, g nti Hll
Alaska, Hawaii or Puerto Rico. Prentice-Hall

is to have visiting lecturers talk about special subjects
such as the evaluation of securities.
Special Projects. Projects involving participation by all
members of a class have been tried. One such project
involves contacting of equipment vendors by individual
students to get recommendations and quotations on pur-
chase inquiries for specially formulated "pretend" ap-
plications. The exercise gives students the experience of
such vendor contacts and a great deal of useful technical
information. Most vendors have been eminently coopera-
tive in this venture.

EVALUATION
Students are fascinated and excited by the
opportunities the course offers-a glimpse into the
"industrial real world", an opportunity to sharpen
the skills which that world demands. Even
students with some industrial background wel-
come the chance to integrate their haphazard ex-
periences into a systematized project-evaluation
discipline. End-of-the-course written evaluations
have been gratifyingly favorable.
The adoption of a course of this kind into the
graduate curriculum is an important step in pre-
paring students of chemical engineering for the
assumption of project-management duties which
form such a paramount part of their industrial
careers. O


FALL 1983










4 Coaae on


SURFACE PHENOMENA


DONALD R. WOODS
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7

COLLOID AND SURFACE SCIENCE have been
subjects of interest to scientists for many
years. Within the last 20 years engineers have
been paying more and more attention to this area
of study. The more recent developments of the
application of mathematical modelling and the
gradual collection of numerical values for different
surface properties have meant that colloid and
surface science can be used to solve industrial
problems. The combination of the fundamentals
of surface phenomena with practical problems is
what is unique about the graduate course offered
in our department. The course is structured around
a series of case problems encountered in the pro-
cess illustrated in the flow diagram shown in Fig.
1. Here the engineer is faced with a multi-phase
reactor, a phase separator, a vacuum distillation
column, a solvent extraction process, a wastewater
treatment facility and a coating process.


D. R. Woods is a graduate of Queen's University and the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin (Ph.D.). His teaching and research interests are in
process analysis, and synthesis communication skills, cost estimation,
separations, surface phenomena and developing problem solving skills.
He is the author of "Financial Decision-Making in the Process In-
dustry." He received the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty
Association award for Outstanding Contribution to University Teach-
ing.


FIGURE 1. An imaginary process.


The course is divided into nine units and in
each of the nine units students focus first on a case
problem related to the process shown in Fig. 1 that
is to be solved. The problems have been chosen
carefully so as to require certain new knowledge
in the area of surface phenomena. Once this
knowledge has been acquired the practical calcula-
tions are then completed to solve particular case
problems. Each unit ends by discussing other ap-
plications of the fundamental concepts of surface
phenomena to practical problems of interest.
The first unit focuses more on what is a sur-
face and a way of thinking about surfaces that
forms the background for the rest of the text.
The very thin thickness of the surface, the anioso-
tropy of the surface and the force fields that a
molecule experiences in the surface are the major
themes in the first chapter. The basic idea that
two-dimensional surface phenomena is but an ex-
tension of the familiar three-dimensional be-
haviour is the overall theme of the course. The
identification of analogous two-dimensional sur-
face properties to the familiar three dimensional

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


o walt tj tt
t rutatmen
ftt"Ot








surface properties is highlighted. These are il-
lustrated in Table 1. Similarly, the analogous sur-
face equations of change are tabulated and con-
trasted with their three dimensional bulk phase
analogues. Practical problems are given to il-
lustrate the application of these principles.
The next unit helps the student identify when
surfaces should be important. Although much of
the detail in this unit focuses on particle and
polymer size characterization, the emphasis is on
thinking about when surface phenomena will be-
come important. The general guidelines are when-
ever the particles are less than a millimeter in
diameter, whenever we encounter thin films,
whenever a surface is broken to create sprays,
emulsions or powders, whenever surfaces are
bound together, whenever reactions occur at sur-
faces, and whenever we experience some un-
explained behaviour.
The third unit focuses on the multiphase re-
actor and poses the question "How does one de-
cide on the operating conditions within the reactor
to generate a dispersion with a given character-
istic size?" More specifically, "For the reactor in
our process, the vessel is 2 m in diameter with a
0.7 m diameter, 6 bladed impeller. Full baffles are
used. If the reactant mixture in our alkylation re-
actor is i-butane and 98% sulfuric acid, what
should be the rotational speed of the impeller to
give a volume to surface average drop size of
200 /m? Assume the temperature is 20C and that
the holdup is 0.40." Since this problem involves the
creation of an emulsion, surface phenomena should
be important. To answer this question requires
that we learn something about surface tension.
The concept of a surface tension of a liquid is
discussed as a thermodynamic reversible work re-
quired to increase the surface area by one unit, as
a two-dimensional pressure in a mechanical energy
balance and as the result of cutting the microscale
bonds to create a surface. Methods of estimating
the dispersion contribution of surface tension are
given. Tables of data are provided. Measurement
techniques are surveyed. Methods of estimating
both the surface and interfacial tensions for fluids
systems are given. The fundamental concepts
introduced are:
a. Young-LaPlace equilibrium relationship be-
tween bulk phase pressures and surface ten-
sion:
For a single surface surface

pI pI = 7y +


TABLE 1
Analogous Properties in Bulk and Surface Phases

Surface Phase
Parallel Perpendicular
Concept Bulk Phase to Surface to Surface

Temperature T To
Pressure a y, surface tension
7r, surface pressure
Concentration a c, surface concern.
r, surface excess
concentration
Shape NA radii of curvature
Chemical potential u u
Electrochemical potential e e
Charge a cr
Potential 0 DL'X
Internal Energy U UO
Entropy S S
Enthalpy H H
Ho
Gibbs Free Energy G GO
Go
Helmholtz Free Energy A AO
Work functions of cohesion
of adhesion
Force balance 0, contact angle
S, spreading coefft.
Thermal conductivity k k k*
Electrical conductivity K KO K*
Diffusivity p DO D*
Elasticity, shear coefft. G G
dilational coefft. eg
Viscosity, shear coefft. A O*
dilational coefft. K K*



b. For fluids whose intermolecular forces are
based solely on physical forces (and no hydro-
gen bonding occurs), then
1A
4(6 lho2)
or for close separations,

1.2 A
1 4 rT yo2

c. For two liquids

yn-Im = yi-n + yi- mI 24/VyIni y
where

p = pressure
S= surface tension
r = radius of curvature
A = Hamaker's constant
h = distance of separation between two layers
y = distance of separation between molecules
= Good and Elbing correction factor
Super- or subscripts
I = bulk phase I
II = bulk phase II
III = bulk phase III
d = dispersion component


FALL 1983









The combination of the fundamentals of
surface phenomena with practical problems is
what is unique about the graduate course offered ...
it is structured around a series of case problems ...


With this background in surface phenomena,
the students then proceed to select the speed of
rotation for the case problem: 2.4 rps. From this
practical calculation the students then estimate
what happens to the drop size distribution if the
reacting mixture is discharged from the reactor
at 5 m per s through an 8 cm diameter pipe. The
answer to this is that the volume to surface
average diameter decreases to 195 Mm. Other
variations on the theme would be to predict the
drop size distribution coming from a pump that
is pumping the material. These basic principles
that have defined surface tension illustrate how
the dispersion is now extended to other applica-
tions. These include bubble formation as required
in an activated sludge reactor, flotation or liquid
phase oxidation reactors; the diameter of sprays
for drying in spray dryers, air pollution control
equipment, jet scrubbers, ink jet printing and
sprays of insecticides. All of these applications
have considered only fluid-fluid surfaces. We add
the definition of surface tension for solid systems
at this stage and go on to illustrate how this infor-
mation can be used to describe crushing and grind-
ing circuits.
The case problem for Unit 4 is to select the
correct material of construction for tower pack-
ing in a distillation tower. The case specifically
is: in a column distilling benzene and n-heptane,
can we use a teflon packing? Is this the correct
choice? This case problem requires that we look
at the interaction amongst three surfaces and
introduce the idea of a contact angle and how it
varies as a function of state properties and solid
systems, especially the solid roughness. The con-
cept is defined for a solid-liquid-liquid or a three-
liquid system and Young's equation is introduced.
The characteristics of contact angles depend
upon advancing versus receding hysteresis effect,
the inhomogeneities of the solid and the roughness
ratio. The sensitivity of contact angle to the force
fields in the immediate vicinity of the contact line,
and the importance of the outermost adsorbed sur-
face are illustrated. The concepts of critical sur-
face tension for a solid and autophobicity are
introduced. Methods of estimating the contact
angle from surface tension data and correcting for


mutual solubility of the various phases are given.
Finally, the relationship between work of cohesion,
work of adhesion and spreading coefficient are
given. This interaction is illustrated through the
various possible conditions for engulfing, particle
engulfing or complete engulfing of a particulate
when it is at a moving boundary. The dynamic
behaviour of contact line and the flow of slugs of
material through capillaries and the wetting of a
fluid in coating processes are described. The sum-
mary of the key equations including the definition
of the capillary number are as follows.
Young's Equation:
I-II cos 0 = 7I-III,2 'I-III,
for gas-liquid-solid
YI-n COS 0 = TI-III YII-III 1T 111,2 + r II-111,1
for liquid-liquid-solid
'I-IIcos0123 = yI-III II-III IT 111,2 7IIII,1
-TI-III,2 + "wII-III,
Cassie equation for inhomogeneous solid
cosO = ni cos0i + n2cos02
Wenzel's result for rough surfaces
7y-IIcose' = r(7I-III 'I-II)
We defined advancing and receding angles in
terms of an intrinsic angle OE

For low energy solids, Zisman defined a criti-
cal surface tension for a solid, y,, which indicated
that a fluid with 7y-II < ye would spread over the
solid, whereas if y1-II > y,, it will not spread.
For most high energy solids (with yI-1 >
100 mN-m-'), most liquids spread over these solids
except autophobic liquids that will not because
the bulk liquid cannot spread over its own ad-
sorbed species.

The work of cohesion is We 2 yn-v
The work of adhesion is WA= yI + yI-II 7YII-II
The spreading coefficient is WA We
For example
S1 Yy-ii (yi-iI + yI-In)
The spreading coefficient can be used to pre-
dict engulfment or rejection. For dynamic be-
haviour, the flow through a capillary is given as
(AP) D = 4n y,-n (cos 0R cos 4A)
A significant dimensionless group is the Capil-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








lary number defined as

Ca VCL MII
IYI-II
Based on this information we could use the
critical surface tension and the surface of the
material being distilled (in this case benzene and
normal heptane) to show that this choice of teflon
would give film instability and non-wetting of the
packing would result. As in other chapters we
extend the concept of contact angle to the design
of condensers, and specifically promoting drop-
wise condensation to the design of reboilers, boil-
ing phenomena and to film breakup in a tube two-
bundle of a nuclear reactor to prevent dry patch
formation. This is also related to polymerization
reactors, to oil spill cleanup and to detergency, and
finally to tertiary oil recovery.
Table 2 leads off the case problem for Unit 5.
This illustrates that for different distillation con-
ditions we get strange behaviour. To understand
this behaviour we lead into a study of how the
surface tension varies as a function of tempera-
ture, pressure, concentration, applied electrical
field, curvature and time. After this exploration
(which includes the Krafft temperature, water,
surfactant and co-surfactant systems, and the
effect of electrolyte on surface tension behaviour),
we can use this information to lead into Marangoni
type instability analysis. We start with macro and
micro generated flows based on a temperature
difference and then move on to the same type of
flows as based on concentration variation. The
application is not only to this case problem of
looking at surface tension positive and surface
tension negative systems and their use in under-
standing distillation behaviour, but in the drying
of paint films, the conditions for a solvent ex-
traction column, the stability of thin films in heat

TABLE 2
Unexpected Behaviour

Location/
Operation Device Chemicals Observation

Edmonton, 30 sieve tray n-heptane plate efficiency
distillation column toluene abnormally high,
floods easily
Glace Bay, 12 m Pall ring benzene required HTU
distillation packed tower eyclohexane almost double
with azeotrope what we
as the distillate expected
product


exchanger and wiped film evaporator systems and
in gas adsorption. We have been fortunate enough
to obtain films from Royal Dutch Shell, Dr. Harvey
Palmer at the University of Rochester, Dr. J. C.
Berg, the University of Washington and Dr. Keith
Brimacombe, the University of British Columbia,
that visually illustrate this behaviour.
The next unit presents the case problem of try-
ing to design an adhering system that will bind a
plastic to a metal. This introduces the attractive
force between two surfaces of condensed media.
The emphasis in the overview is on the micro-
scopic, or Hamaker, approach-although refer-
ences are made to the Lifschitz and Ninhan and
Persegian methods of estimating the attractive
force between two surfaces. Various methods of
estimating the Hamaker constant and accomo-
dating for the attractive forces between various
configurations are illustrated. Worked case
examples include the attractive force between
drops of chlorobenzene in water and the same
drops coated with a monolayer of surfactant.
When it comes to the adhesion question the ad-
ditional aspects of the viscosity and flowability
of the adherent and the surface area of contact
between the two surfaces is also important. The
application of these ideas to the production of
pellets is illustrated with case examples.
Unit 7 explores the possibility of foam fraction-
ation as a technique to remove some of the emulsi-
fier that gets into the waste water from our pro-
cess. This leads to the concept of surface con-
centration, methods of defining it, modelling it
and measuring it. Our emphasis is on the indirect
mass balance and the indirect thermodynamic
balance (Gibbs adsorption isotherm technique).
The methods of estimating based on heats of im-
mersion and calorimetry are discussed briefly as
are the various models for relating surface con-
centration to bulk concentration. The case problem,
namely the design of the waste treatment plant,
is worked out. The ideas are extended to adsorp-
tion and mass transfer in a solvent extraction
column and where the surfaces are contaminated
with surfactant and to the adsorption of emulsifier
on latex.
A very large unit is on surface charge and the
stability of dispersions. Many problems can be
used to illustrate this application although our
initial focus is on the decanter design and coales-
cence. The description of surface charge parallels
the description of surface concentration (the only

Continued on page 195.


FALL 1983









Reecasxc on


CLEANING UP IN SAN DIEGO

STANLEY MIDDLEMAN
University of California at San Diego
La Jolla, CA 92093


UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS HAVE an opportunity
for exposure to research through a number
of methods utilized by many departments. Seniors
often attend their department's graduate research
seminar, which brings visitors to campus from
other academic and industrial research labora-
tories. Independent study projects, and some
senior courses, require exposure to the research
literature. In most of these cases, one sees re-
search at the end of the process-the reporting
of completed work, usually after it has been tied
up into a neat, coherent, package-as opposed to
viewing the work during its stages of evolution
and aggravation.
In this article I would like to describe how we
came to begin studies in a specific field, and how


CLEANING.
by

WIPING-


CLEANING

by
FLUSHING-


Stanley Middleman is Professor of Chemical Engineering at the
University of California, San Diego. His undergraduate and doctoral
degrees are from The Johns Hopkins University. He has authored three
books: The Flow of High Polymer, Transport Phenomena in the
Cardiovascular Systems, and Fundamentals of Polymer Processing. In
addition to his responsibility for directing the establishment of the
chemical engineering program at UCSD, he carries on an active re-
search program in the field of fluid dynamics.

our successes and failures have led to the evolu-
tion of a set of research programs that now in-
volve a number of graduate students in our
chemical engineering program.
For some years we had carried on a research
program aimed at elucidating some of the fluid
dynamic phenomena associated with the coating
of liquids onto moving surfaces [1, 2]. In such a
field of study one examines the process by which a
liquid film is purposefully and quantitatively
spread onto a solid surface. But what of the in-
verse process: the removal of a film of liquid
from a solid surface?
Consider, as an example, the situation in which
a liquid is spilled upon a surface, and subse-
quently must be removed from that surface. How
is that to be done? Two "generic" methods might
come to mind: flushing with a jet of a second
liquid, and wiping the surface with a second, clean,
surface.
Fig. 1 shows in a schematic way the processes
of interest. It is immediately apparent that a
number of questions arise that could form the
basis for several laboratory studies and that lead
to a number of theoretical inquiries as well. For
example
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


: .:-, 1.. .. '.1. H.1.1. .... . .:.-. ?. '. '
FIGURE 1. Liquid film may be removed from a surface
by wiping, or flushing.







How does the wiper angle affect the residual film
thickness?
Does the liquid rheology play any role?
Does the speed of wiping matter?
Is a steady jet more effective than a pulsed jet?
While these questions are relevant, they
ignore one important feature associated with the
problem of removing liquids from surfaces: the
role of surface roughness. Fig. 2 suggests, at a
microscopic scale, the fact that liquid spilled upon
a surface may be entrapped within the cavities



FIGURE 2. A real surface is rough, and can trap con-
taminant in its surface cavities.

that make up the architecture, or roughness,
characteristic of real surfaces. Now one may raise
additional questions
Can an external flow field invade a small cavity in
a surface and displace a contaminant from that
cavity?
If displacement does not occur, can circulation be
induced within the cavity, and to what extent will
that aid removal of the contaminant by diffusive
processes?
Is it possible to characterize surface roughness in a
quantitative manner, in a way that provides a
measure of how difficult a surface is to clean?
With a little more thought it should occur to
one that if the interest is in the cleaning of rough
surfaces, there may be interest in cleaning down
to such a level that practically all of the original
contaminating liquid film has been removed, and
all that remains is the very small amount of liquid
remaining in the cavities. Now two additional
questions arise
How does one measure residual liquid at such a low
level?
How does one reproduceably create an initial liquid
film of very small thickness on a surface of
interest?
At some point in the evolution of a research
program one must stop asking questions and begin
answering them. Of course, the reality is that in a
good research program the attempt to provide
answers to preliminary questions serve primarily
to raise additional questions, and at the same time
provides new directions to the research program.
This, indeed, is what has happened in our own
studies in this field. Let us turn, then, to a de-
scription of the current status of our research
program.


The novelty that arises in
our study lies in the fact that the jet
impacts not on a rigid plate, but upon a thin
layer of viscous liquid. How does this
change the physics of the problem?


SPREADING A VERY THIN FILM OF LIQUID
Fig. 3 shows a sketch of the technique we
now use for spreading a thin film of liquid on a
surface of interest to us. A rigid disk is attached
to the axis of a shaft in such a way that the disk
can be rotated at high speed about its axis. A
drop of the contaminating liquid is placed upon the
surface, and the disk is set into rotation. Centri-
fugal forces cause the drop to spread into a thin
film. This so-called rotating disk apparatus is not
novel: the technique is used commercially for the
creation of thin films in a number of areas of
technology.
It would suffice to say that the technique
works, and provides the initial films for our
studies of removal. However, in an academic re-
search environment, and sometimes in an in-
dustrial setting, the method itself may become the
focus of interest. The flow of thin liquid films is
not well understood, although thin film phenomena
occur widely in many areas of chemical engineer-
ing. Indeed, one may create a sub-program of re-
search from this spinning disk system, although
the system evolved only as a means to a different
end-the creation of a sample film for our clean-
ing studies. For example, one may raise the follow-



















FIGURE 3. A thin liquid film may be spread on a
surface by spinning.


FALL 1983














flash light j 1 '"I ''
bulbs-8 B, 8 _8 <
I compressed
I- air
air jet
H thin, dyed liquid film

<-base
V/ / plate

Fpower1
photo diode amplifier Recorder

FIGURE 4. Schematic of apparatus for study of re-
moval of a liquid film by an air jet.

ing questions
How do the surface tension and fluid viscosity
interact to control the rate of spreading of the
liquid film?
What is the role of surface roughness in spreading
kinetics?
It should be emphasized here that questions
such as those raised above have in fact been the
focus of other research programs. There exists a
large literature in the field of wetting kinetics,
and in the study of moving interfaces [3, 4, 51.
Nevertheless, one finds in studying the literature
that many unanswered, and interesting, questions
remain to be pursued.
Instead of continuing with a detailed discus-
sion of this area of our work, let us pass on to
another aspect more directly related to the
business of liquid film removal.

A SIMPLE MODEL OF LIQUID FILM REMOVAL
One must always attempt to understand the
physics of the phenomena under study. A useful
first step toward that goal is the creation of a
very simple mathematical model that incorporates
the major physical events that affect the process
of interest. Although the model may not be in
sufficient quantitative agreement with observa-
tion to serve as a useful description of the pro-
cess, it is often the case that the simple model
serves to fix certain ideas that determine future
directions of the experimental program, and pro-


vides some guidance toward creation of a more
accurate and satisfying theory.
Fig. 4 shows a schematic of a very simple ap-
paratus for the study of some aspects of the
kinetics of liquid film removal under the action
of a fluid jet. A thin film is spread on a plate of
transparent acrylic, and an air jet is blown on the
surface. The action of the jet causes the liquid
film to be displaced radially, leaving a clean area
under the jet. The liquid is dyed, and an optical
method, suggested in the figure, is easily used to
measure the rate of thinning of the film in the
region directly under the jet. Note that the
simplicity of this experiment is such that the ex-
periment deals with an isolated and very specific
piece of the whole problem of surface cleaning.
The goal at this stage was not to complete the
research program, but to perform some simple ex-
periments that would shed some light on the
physics of the processes of interest to us, and
that would at the same time explore some possible
experimental techniques that might be useful in
other aspects of the program. Research is an
evolutionary process.
How does one produce a simple model of the
process suggested in Fig. 4? The problem of a
turbulent jet impacting upon a rigid surface
normal to the jet axis is a classic problem in
fluid dynamics. One may find solutions for the
100







N


O 10 10
H/D
FIGURE 5. Data in support of a very simple model of
film removal.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








One must always attempt to understand the physics of the phenomena under study.
A useful first step toward that goal is the creation of a very simple mathematical model that incorporates
the major physical events that affect the process of interest.


velocity and pressure fields in the neighborhood
of the stagnation point, as well as experimental
data relevant to this flow field [6]. The novelty
that arises in our study lies in the fact that the
jet impacts not on a rigid plate, but upon a thin
layer of viscous liquid. How does this change the
physics of the problem? Perhaps very little!
For a first model of the process, we assumed
that the jet flow was unaffected by the presence
of the underlying liquid layer. In addition, we
assumed that the ability of the jet to displace
the liquid film was due primarily to the pressure
exerted by the jet, which created a kind of squeez-
ing flow in the underlying liquid film. These as-
sumptions are certainly suspect, but they are
worth pursuing because:
They permit the use of existing theory for im-
pinging jets.
They permit the use of existing theory for squeezing
flows.
In short, by beginning with a simple model one
may quickly learn something about the physics
of the phenomena of interest, with a minimal ex-
penditure of time and energy.
Such a model has been developed by us and
Fig. 5 shows the expectation that follows from
the model. The half-time, the time for the film
to be reduced to half its initial thickness, is pre-
dicted to depend upon parameters that appear in
a dimensionless group N, defined as
N = p uo2h02t1/2/,D2 (1)
where
p = jet density
uo = mean jet velocity
D = initial jet diameter
ho = initial liquid film thickness
p = liquid film viscosity
tl/2 = half-time
According to this model, one expects N to de-
pend only upon the "stand-off distance" of the jet.
(See Fig. 4.)
The two data points in Fig. 5 really represent
the average N-value of many experiments, in
which liquid viscosity, initial film thickness, and
jet speed, were varied. Considering the simplicity
of the model, the agreement is quite good. Still, a
key question is left unanswered by this particular
demonstration


FIGURE 6. Idealization of a roughness element by a
rectangular cavity.

Since an air jet is essentially inviscid, would a
liquid jet behave in the same manner?
Studies along lines implied by this question
are in progress, but will not be described here. In-
stead let us turn to another aspect of the research
program.

A MODEL OF REMOVAL FROM A CAVITY
Fig. 6 shows the transformation of a rough-
ness element in a surface into an idealized two-
dimensional rectangular cavity. If one can learn
something about the ability of an external flow
to aid the removal of a contaminant from such an
idealized cavity, it should be possible to extend
this knowledge to the more realistic but complex
case that corresponds to a real rough surface.
Thus we raise the following questions
Is it possible to simplify the geometry and the
flow field to the point that it is possible to carry
out a theoretical model of the removal process?
Is it possible to perform laboratory experiments on
a cavity that is large enough to be instrumented,
and then translate the results so that they apply to
a micron-sized cavity?
Theoretical models have been developed, using
numerical methods, which allow solution of the
equations that describe flow external to the cavity,
and the development of an internal circulation
within the cavity induced by that external flow.
The model allows for diffusion of contaminant
from the cavity. In addition it is possible to add
chemical reaction to the model, and in this way
Continued on page 194.


FALL 1983









Reeadwc on


COMBUSTION


MOHAMED A. SERAGELDIN
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, MI 49931


T IS WIDELY recognized that there is a need for
better understanding of the chemical and physi-
cal phenomena involved in the combustion and
gasification of fuels such as coal and oil. Such
understanding could lead to the development of
more efficient methods of preparation and con-
version. That would reduce the levels of pollution
and operating costs.
Various aspects related to combustion are
presently being investigated at Michigan Techno-
logical University, MTU. Work on characterizing
and modifying diesel emission is being performed
in the Mechanical Engineering Department [1, 2].
Semiquantitative dose-response data on the bio-
logical activity of exhaust particulate emission [3]
is being obtained at the Biology Department using
the Ames Test [4] as modified by Belser et al [5].
Bacterial mutagenicity tests are widely used today
because of the correlation between mutagenicity in
bacteria and carcinogenicity in humans [6]. In the
Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department
research focuses to a large extent on coal pyroly-
sis, combustion and corrosion. Experiments on the
effect of flame retardants on the smoking tendency
of high and low temperature polymers is under-
way. In the following paragraphs only the work
related to coal will be discussed.

COAL RELATED RESEARCH
Since the renewed interest in coal, numerous
studies were performed as may be judged from
the proliferation of publications and the rise in
the number of symposia and technical meetings on
the subject [7]. Since the work is being performed
in various laboratories it is not surprising that
there is much overlapping of effort. For this reason
papers that describe the state of the art [8, 9] are
needed to make us aware of other people's activi-
ties and to identify areas in need of further in-
vestigation.
The main thrust of the work which is the


Mohamed A. Serageldin received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Chemical
Engineering from Cairo University and his Ph.D. from Imperial College
-London University.

subject of this paper was aimed at improving coal
combustion and reducing operating expenses by
using additives (catalysts). The introduction of
additives was intended to tackle certain problems
in industrial boilers such as 1) to improve com-
bustion by reducing the unburned carbon in the
ash and carbon monoxide in fuel gas atmosphere,
2) reduce excess air and lower exit temperature to
minimize the heat loss up the stack, 3) reduce
particulate emissions into the atmosphere, and 4)
control corrosion of tubes and other parts of a
boiler. Single or mixed additives that produce
some or all of the above effects exist [10-13]. They
vary in composition, effectiveness and cost. Most
of the additives studied fall into one of three
groups: alkali metal salts (Li, Na, K), alkaline
earth metal salts (Ca, Mg), and transition metal
salts (Fe and Ni). The first group was extensively
studied because of its influence on coal gasification
and also for the purpose of understanding the cor-
rosion mechanism. It is generally believed that
alkali iron trisulphate complexes [M3Fe(SO4)3
where M = Na, K] are the principal contributors
to high temperature coal-ash corrosion [14]. The
alkali and sulfur constitute part of the impurities
in the fuel. The production of the alkali metal
complex requires the presence of sulphur trioxide.
The rate of formation of SO, is related to the
amount of SO, available.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983







Our studies on coal combustion parameters
[12, 13] were performed in a tubular combustor
(Fig. 1) and using thermal analytical techniques.
The combustor construction was similar to that
used by Horton et al. [15]; however the burner
section was slightly modified for stability. Pulver-
ized coal was fed to the top of the burner section
using a screwfeeder into a downflow flat premixed
flame of methane and air. The system shown in
Fig. 1 had a number of windows which made it
possible to probe the test furnace along its length
for chemical species and solid material as well as
to place metal specimens for studies on corrosion.
Electron microscopy, X-ray analysis and Auger
spectrometry were used to characterize the de-
posits on the metal specimens. This made it
possible to probe the metal specimens to various
depths.
In addition to the above combustor, a DuPont
950 thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used
to obtain kinetic data related to coal decomposi-
tion. These instruments possess a high degree of
precision and speed in producing data. It is also
possible to observe continuously the change of
mass (TG) and rate of mass change (DTG) with
time or temperature. This makes it possible to
observe details that are liable to be missed using
a flow combustor. For example, mixed additives


FIGURE 1. Coal combustor.


The main thrust of the
work which is the subject of
this paper was aimed at improving coal
combustion and reducing operating expenses by
using additives (catalysts).


are found to be more effective than single additives
on an atom per atom basis. It is difficult to deter-
mine, for instance, in a steady-state flow system
such as that used in our experiment, the time
during the decomposition stage at which the
synergetic effect of the mixed additive occurs.
However this is a simple task in TGA work, since
the decomposition profile is completely available.
There is evidence that the promoting effect occurs
mainly during the initial stage of coal conversion.
In this region single additives inhibit decomposi-
tion of coal [13]. The TGA was found to be useful
in identifying the experiments to be studied in the
flow combustor and in performing corrosion-
related studies under very controlled conditions.
Thermogravimetric analysis has been ex-
tensively used judging from the number of books
and specialized journals. Nevertheless, several
aspects need to be investigated to understand what
is being measured
The meaning of activation energies of solids such as
coal obtained from TGA experiments is not clear.
The values of the activation parameters are de-
pendent on the operating conditions [16] such as
heating rate and gas flow rate.
To calculate E first order kinetics for coal de-
composition is usually assumed using one thermo-
gram obtained at one heating rate. However, it was
proposed (on the basis of theoretical considerations)
that methods involving more than one heating rate
will give more precise values of E [17].
A detailed investigation of several methods,
using the same coal, showed that methods using
one heating rate are preferred. Methods which use
multiple heating rates will give values of E
which are dependent on the heating rate com-
bination [18]. The latter method is also time con-
suming. In an attempt to explain the meaning of
the activation energy obtained from TGA work
the enthalpy of reaction, AHR was measured using
a Differential Thermal Analyser; DTA [13]. A
linear relationship was found between E and
|AH1a. This suggested the influence of the heat of
reaction on the chemical change typical of ele-
mentary reactions [19] and would, therefore, re-
inforce the previous postulate that coal decomposi-
tion follows first order kinetics [20]. The change in


FALL 1983








operating parameters such as heating rate will
favor different reactions, thus producing different
values of AHR and E. Therefore, comparison of the
effectiveness of different additives should be per-
formed under identical operating conditions.

CONCLUSION

Much work is needed before one is able to com-
pletely understand the role played by additives in
the combustion of coal used in industrial and
utility boilers. The chemical state of the additive
in promoting combustion of CO-* CO, is still
speculative [8]. Also, the behavior of the coal
during combustion will vary according to the
physical state of the coal, i.e. molten or dry. It will
also depend on the aerodynamic properties such as
density and shape and the adhesive quality known
as the wettability of coal [21]. We also have to
distinguished between combustion of small, and
combustion (and gasification) of large, coal
particles. Ol

REFERENCES
1. Campbell, J., J. Scholl, F. Hibbler, S. Bagley, D.
Leddy, D. Abata, and J. Johnson. The Effect of Fuel
Injection Rate and Timing on the Physical, Chemical,
and Biological Character of Particle Emissions from
a Direct Injection Diesel. SAE Paper No. 810996,
Transactions 1981.
2. Funkenbusch, E. F., D. Leddy, and J. H. Johnson,
"The Characterization of the Soluble Organic
Fraction of Diesel Particulate Matter," SAE/PT-
79/17.
3. Miller, P. R., J. Scholl, S. Bagley, D. Leddy, and J.
Johnson. The Effects of a Porous Ceramic Particulate
Trap on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological
Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions. SAE
Paper No. 830475, 1983.
4. Ames, B. N., J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki. Methods
for Detecting Carcinogens and Mutagens with the
Salmonella Mammaliam-microsome Mutagenicity
Test. Mutation Research 31: 347-364, 1975.
5. Belser, W. L., Jr., S. D. Shaffer, R. D. Bliss, P. M.
Hynds, L. Yamamoto, J. N. Pitts, Jr., and J. A.
Winer. Quantification of the Ames Salmonella/
Mammaliam-microsome Mutagenicity test. Environ-
mental Mutagenesis 3: 123-139, 1981.
6. Bagley, S. T., Private Communication-1983.
7. Van Krevelin, D. W., "Development of Coal Research
-a review"; Fuel 61, 786-90, 1982.
8. Special Issue of the papers presented at the Inter-
national Symposium, "Fundamentals of Catalytic
Coal and Carbon Gasification, held at Amsterdam. The
Netherlands, 27-29 September 1982, Fuel 62 (2), 1983.
9. Elliot, M. A. (Editor): "Chemistry of Coal Utiliza-
tion Second Supplementary Volume"; John Wiley and
Sons, 1981.
10. Oschell, F. J. and E. J. Boccuzzi, Improved Coal Com-


bustion Through Chemical Treatment. Combustion,
52, 32-5, 1980.
11. Serageldin, M. A., "Effect of Calcium Chloride on
Coal Decomposition", Report presented to the Dow
Chemical Company, 1983.
12. Serageldin, M. A., "An Examination of the Effects of
Calcium Chloride on Corrosion of Mild-Steel by
Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction
-Report presented to the Dow Chemical Company-
1983.
13. Serageldin, M. A. and W. P. Pan, "Coal: Analysis
Using Thermogravimetry", Presented at 185th Na-
tional ACS Meeting, Seattle, Washington.
14. Reid, W. T., "Basic Problems in the Formation of
Sulfate in Boiler Furnaces", Journal of Engineering
for Power, Trans. ASME, Series A, Vol. 89, No. 2,
283-87, 1967.
15. Horton, M. D., F. P. Goodson, and L. D. Smoot,
Characteristics of Flat, Laminar Coal-Dust Flames.
Combust. Flame, 28, 187-195, 1977.
16. Serageldin, M. A. and W. P. Pan, "Coal Conversion:
Effects of Heating Rate and Furnace Atmosphere,"
Proceedings of the 32nd Canadian Chemical Engi-
neering Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia,
October 3-6, 1982, Vol 1, pp. 442-51.
17. Flyn, J. H. and L. A. Wall, "General Treatment of
Thermogravimetry of Polymers", J. Res. Nat. ;u:r.
Stand. 50A, 487-523, 1966.
18. Serageldin, M. A. and W. P. Pan, "Coal: Kinetic
Analysis of Thermogravimetric Data", to be public' hd
in Thermochimica Acta.
19. Semenov, N. N. "Some Problems in Chemical Kinct:cs
and Reactivity"; Princeton University Press, 1958,
Vol 1, 1-33.
20. Van Krevelin, D. W., "Coal"; Elsevier Publishing Co.,
N.Y., 1961.
21. O'Gorman, J. V., P. L. Walker, Jr., "Thermal Be-
havior of Mineral Fractions Separated from Se-
lected American Coals", Fuel, 52, 71, 1973.



yabook reviews

CHEMICAL REACTOR ANALYSIS
AND DESIGN

By G. F. Froment and K. B. Bischoff
John Wiley and Sons, New York

Reviewed by
Arvind Varma
University of Notre Dame

This book is a welcome addition to the growing
number of books now available in the area of re-
action engineering. It is comprehensive, and con-
tains more topics than are covered in most books.
The book has two particularly strong points. One
is the wealth of real examples, and the second is a
Continued on page 196.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
















ii-2













0,
0I-
BU li *J



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THE GRADUATE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO

ACADEMIC JOB HUNTING


PHILLIP C. WANKAT AND
FRANK S. OREOVICZ
Purdue University
West Lafayette, IN 47907

IN EDUCATION AS IN industry, one of manage-
ment's jobs is to train successors-qualified
persons to carry on the excellence of the program
or operation. To date, many faculties have not
placed a very high premium on this responsibility.
We suggest that the job can be simplified and
that qualified students can be encouraged and
helped to start an academic career. This paper
will be addressed to graduate students to help
them ease the transition to an academic career.
We will look mainly at what a candidate does in
preparing for an academic career and the steps
he or she needs to take along the road to a job.
We will also look at what the school does since this
information is helpful to the candidate. Table 1
















Phil Wankat received his BSChE from Purdue and his PhD from
Princeton. He is a professor of chemical engineering at Purdue. He
has received several teaching awards at Purdue and earned an
MS.Ed in Counseling (Purdue, 1982). Phil does research on separation
methods with emphasis on cyclic separations, two-dimensional sepa-
rations, large scale chromatography, and high gradient magnetic
separation. (L)
Frank Oreovicz has a PhD in English (Penn State) and a BS in Physics
(Illinois Institute of Technology). He has taught English and been the
Assistant Director of the Center for Instructional Development in
Engineering at Purdue. Currently, he is a communications specialist in
the School of Chemical Engineering at Purdue. His professional
interests include finding ways of using word processing to teach
technical communication. (R)


provides a guide for the steps and we will refer
to it throughout the paper.

WHAT THE CANDIDATE DOES
Most important is that you obtain an excellent
education. You must learn how to do sound re-
search. Obviously, each student does some sort of
research, but you must have something to offer
your potential school, something that is beyond
the ordinary project. In addition to conducting re-
search, be sure your experience includes research
planning, proposal and report writing. Think in
terms of what a prospective employer might re-
quire.
1. Develop a Resume. A resume can be used
effectively to help you construct your scenario
for the future. What it contains will tell you
where your strengths are, and what is more im-
portant, it will show you what you haven't done.
Since you've planned ahead and started early,
there's still time for you to gain valuable ex-
perience and knowledge, especially in the follow-
ing areas
Teaching (try to get lecturing experience)
Money raising (help with proposals)
Presentations at meetings
Paper writing
References (get to know at least 3 professors well)
By working closely with your advisor and
other faculty, you can arrange to gain experience
in all these areas.
2. Pre-screen. First, what openings are avail-
able? The usual locations for advertisements are
Chemical Engineering Progress, Chemical and
Engineering News, and ASEE Engineering Educa-
tion News. However, since not all openings are
listed, be sure to ask your faculty contacts for
suggestions and watch the department's bulletin
boards. What openings are you going to apply
for? Do your interests and philosophies match
the school's? Obviously, to make this decision you
must first know your goals, both personal and pro-
fessional. For example, is geographical location
important to you? Is size of school a factor? Re-
ligious affiliation? And so on. Where do you find
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









information about schools? Several resource
guides are available:
ACS Directory of Graduate Research
ASEE, March issue of Engineering Education
AIChE Fall Student Member's Bulletin
Chemical Engineering Faculties, AIChE
Ratings in Chronicle of Higher Education
Graduate student brochures from schools
Professors--ask.
What are some things you might look for?
Teaching loads, school resources, research areas,
promotion policies, and reputation should all be
considered. Careful screening at this stage can
save time and frustration, even embarrassment,
later. There is no point in applying to a school if
you wouldn't want to teach there. Use a large

TABLE 1
Chronological Steps in the Academic Job Hunt


CANDIDATE
Does sound research and
develops professional goals



Decides on academic
career
Develops resume; picks
references
Prescreens school openings
Writes individual cover
letter & mails with resume


Makes sure references are
sent


Decide to accept; set up
time for visit
Prepare for seminar; get
info about the school
Visit: Social and individual
talks, seminar
Follow-up: thank you
letter and expenses
Negotiation
Acceptance


SCHOOL
Develops an ongoing tra-
dition of excellence which
makes school an attractive
place to teach and to do
research
Needs new professor; sets
criteria



Advertises
Does initial screening

Ask for reference letters



Decide to invite for visit



Set up schedule of visit


Decision: offer a job?


Negotiation


Prepare place for new
professor


Prepare for first year
Move to new position


This paper will be addressed to graduate
students to help them ease the transition to an
academic career ... mainly at what a candidate does in
preparing for (that) career ...


sheet of paper and make up a rating chart to com-
pare the schools.
3. Send letter plus resume. Your aim in send-
ing a letter with a resume is to convince the
school that you are worthy of consideration. You
won't accomplish this aim, however, if you do a
blanket mailing and send out a standard letter to
many schools. Tailor the cover letter for the par-
ticular needs of the hiring department, remember-
ing of course to be forthright in listing your
qualifications. Make sure that all critical informa-
tion is also in the resume. A cover letter may not
be circulated as widely, or at all, within the de-
partment. Since the typical resume is short, you
may need to include important additional docu-
ments with it. These may include key submitted
papers or papers published in proceedings. If you
don't have any publications, now may be a good
time to start thinking about writing some.
What is a good time to start applying? The
bottom line is that sending nothing is better than
sending half-formed ideas. You must have solid
research to report, but you don't want to wait
until the last minute. Wait until you have at least
one paper written and submitted.
Another step in pre-planning involves refer-
ences. Once you get a response to your letter, make
sure that reference letters are sent. These are
often a key factor in a school's decision to invite
you for an interview; consequently, you must
choose the writers carefully. Obviously, your dis-
sertation advisor must write a key letter, but
others may have a great deal of influence in the
"old boy" network. Establish contacts early in
your career as a graduate student and get to know
faculty members who are competent to judge your
work.
4. Plan trip. Now that you've received a
favorable response and have been invited to visit
the campus, several preparatory steps can make
that visit easier and more productive. Most critical
is the preparation for the seminar you'll be ex-
pected to give. Your success depends on how well
you prepare because a good presentation will show
the school that you can do research, organize ideas,
communicate, teach, and handle questions while
under pressure.


FALL 1983








The first step to writing an effective presenta-
tion is audience analysis. Your listeners will be
intelligent individuals but few will be experts in
your field. Consequently, don't insult the intelli-
gence of some by talking down to them, that is, by
explaining matters that should be obvious to a
general engineering audience; and don't lose others
in an attempt to impress them with arcane minu-
tiae. Give the presentation before your research
group and invite any faculty members who may
be able to offer advice. Ask for difficult questions
and get accustomed to being put on the spot.
Attend seminars and note the qualities that
make good presentations effective (and learn from


Schools want candidates who will
"land running" when they begin their jobs,
who know where they want to go. A vague idea of
wanting "to teach and do research"
is not enough.


the failures). Positive aspects will include manner
of presentation-style of delivery, vocal qualities
-and effective use of media, usually slide or over-
head projector.
For the visit to be successful you must also be
prepared to have a clear idea of the directions you
expect your career to take. Schools want candi-
dates who will "land running" when they begin
their jobs, who know where they want to go. A
vague idea of wanting "to teach and do research"
is not enough. A corollary is to do research on the
school and faculty to discover what their goals
are. A quick reading of the department's graduate
brochure will acquaint you with the interests of
the faculty and give you an idea of where you
might fit in. Not only will this information be
useful to you, but it will enable you to show them
that you know who they are, that you know which
faculty you want to talk to and which facilities you
want to see. You can only enhance your image as
an organized and motivated individual when you
show the foresight to ask about computer facili-
ties, special research equipment available and so
on.

VISIT
The visit to the campus offers you a great op-
portunity to shine personally and professionally.
The social aspects involve all the typical matters of
etiquette-listen to others, learn names, don't
drink too much, and so on. But in an attempt to be


all things to everyone don't spread yourself too
thin. If the next day looks to be hectic, don't be
afraid to be assertive about the need for sleep the
night before.
The visit works both ways for the two parties.
The school wants to learn everything about you,
but you should also take the initiative and ask
questions about matters important to your future.
For example, what are the facilities like, not just
the immediate ones but the support facilities-
university computer system, etc,; what are the
promotion policies; talk with young faculty about
their morale; will graduate students be available;
availability of summer support; and teaching load.
These questions will affect you from the minute
you sign the contract, so you better get answers
fast. The department head can answer many of
these questions, but many times answers appear in
the unlikeliest of places. Keep attuned to conversa-
tions with those not at the center of the power
structure, especially students and untenured
faculty.
The key words for the seminar are "be pre-
pared." Since schools use the seminar to judge
your ability to teach, to do research, and to think
on your feet, the occasion is very important. Being
prepared will help to make the "hot seat" more
comfortable when the time comes. Sometimes,
however, no amount of preparation will cover
everything; inevitably, someone asks a question
which leaves you groping. Whatever you do, don't
become defensive or hostile. First, make sure you
understand the question; rephrase it or ask for
it to be repeated. If nothing else this pause will
give you time to think. In the interim you might
think of an answer. But, be willing to say "I don't
know" or "we haven't determined that yet."

FOLLOW-UP
A simple thank-you letter is all that is needed.
Include a statement of your expenses and of course
be honest in your figures. If several visits were
combined into one trip, be sure to pro-rate the
expenses. Don't pad and don't try to make money
on the trip. If you promised to send follow-up in-
formation, papers, or articles, do so immediately.
The personal habits you display now will reinforce
the good impression you made during the visit.

NEGOTIATION
You've been offered the job: At this point you
have the most negotiating power. Spell out what
you need and try to get it- within "reason" of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









The first step to writing an effective presentation is audience analysis. Your listeners will be
intelligent individuals but few will be experts in your field. Consequently, don't insult the intelligence of some
by talking down to them ... by explaining matters that should be obvious to a general engineering audience.


course. And do so in writing. This is required not
because a lack of trust exists, but because mis-
understandings arise between even the best in-
tentioned of parties. Some of the negotiable items
are the following: computing facilities, equipment,
grad student support, lab space, salary, starting
date, start-up money for equipment, summer
support, teaching assignments, and travel money.

ACCEPTANCE
If the offer is for the job of a lifetime or if
it's the only one that's likely to come along, then
by all means ACCEPT immediately. If you have
several, weigh carefully. Remember that you're
making a serious commitment. First accepting an
offer and then withdrawing it to accept another
offer is not ethical behavior. Note too that the
salary or fringe benefits from School A will not
mean so much in a few years if the location is such
that your hay fever won't be able to adjust to the
climate; School B, on the other hand, is ideally
suited in this regard, although its starting offer
isn't as liberal. And so on. If you still have a visit
or two to make then give the schools a date by
which you will make a decision. But don't keep the
school waiting too long. They need to know.

PREPARE FOR FIRST YEAR
Be sure to finish your PhD. Don't expect to be
able to finish writing while on the job. Once you
begin teaching, you will be under pressure to pro-
duce immediately. Also finish most of the writing
of papers arising from your graduate research.
When promotion time comes, you will be judged
on your new ideas, not the spin-offs of the past.

MOVE TO NEW POSITION
The first year will be an acclimating and
settling in experience. First proposals will have to
be sent out, research programs initiated, graduate
students chosen, first courses developed: in short,
the ropes will have to be learned. This is a time to
develop your identity. The work you will be
judged on will come from you and your graduate
students. Since the most important articles will
be those in high quality refereed journals, select
carefully where you send manuscripts.


You will also be judged on your teaching-
not as much as on your research, but bad teaching
will hurt you. Excellent teaching helps if you
already have good research. Teaching skills can
be improved, even learned. Since good teaching
may take no more time than poor teaching, find out
if your school has an instructional services center.
Such centers often offer short courses in im-
proving teaching skills or your department may
have a course or structured teaching experience.

WHAT THE SCHOOL DOES
What is the school looking for in a candidate?
A research institution wants future research
winners, good, but not necessarily outstanding,
teachers, and dependable individuals. In choosing
their ideal they go through the steps in Table 1.
Their choice may also depend on whether they
want to fill a gap in teaching or research, or build
up a strong area of excellence. To succeed in their
selection they will use the screening process, the
reference letters, and visit. They will look for
potential and sound accomplishment. But they may
also go beyond the immediate papers available.
They may compare notes with other schools.
Schools also know what the going rates for
salaries, equipment, and teaching loads are at
competing institutions. A carry-over negative at-
titude to a visit may be communicated to your im-
mediate prospect. So treat everyone respectfully
and honestly, even if you decide during the visit
that you would not accept an offer.

CONCLUSION
We have tried to formalize the process for
searching for an academic job. Our experience has
shown that too often students go through a hap-
hazard procedure, getting advice here and there.
Attention to details such as noted here should help
make life simpler for many graduate students. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Many of the ideas in this article were gleaned
from a panel discussion held at Purdue University.
The panel members were Drs. Ron Andres, Nick
Delgass, Lowell Koppel, Richard Mallinson, Frank
Oreovicz, and Phil Wankat.


FALL 1983









GRADUATE EDUCATION WINS IN

INTERSTATE RIVALRY


WILLIAM J. THOMSON
Washington State University
Pullman, WA 99164
GEORGE M. SIMMONS
University of Idaho
Moscow, ID 83843

OUR DEPARTMENTS OF chemical engineering at
Washington State University (WSU) and the
University of Idaho (UI) have been successfully
coordinating their graduate offerings for the past
two years. The universities are just eight miles
apart and travel time from classroom to classroom
is under thirty minutes. Like many similarly sized
graduate programs in the country, we lacked the
critical mass to sustain an expanded course offer-
ing so desirable for a quality doctorate program.
By joining forces for graduate course-work, we
have a combined pool of about forty full time
graduate students and fourteen full time graduate
faculty, which allows for a wide variety of course
offerings.
Historically, most of our entering graduate
students pursue the Master of Science degree,
with far fewer numbers opting and being accepted
for doctorate work. To meet the needs of the
master's student, a basic core of graduate level
courses must be offered every year. This require-
ment left little room in the teaching schedule to
offer additional courses for the doctorate program
and we relied extensively on the departments of
math, chemistry, and other engineering dis-
ciplines. Adding to this problem was the desire
and need on the part of the faculty to teach ad-
vanced courses in their particular area of ex-
pertise.
Prior to our decision to formalize our co-
operation, we had encouraged students to take
classes of interest at the other university. This
non-intervention approach had three major
obstacles: the different academic calendars, ar-
ranging compatible course schedules, and lack
of course offerings.
Calendar. The two universities both operate
on the semester system, however UI has an early

@ Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


William J. Thomson received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering
from the University of Idaho in 1969. His research interests are in
kinetics and catalysis and he has been teaching chemical engineering
for 14 years. He is currently chair of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment at Washington State University. (L)
George M. Simmons received his Ph.D. in 1970 from Stanford; he
worked in the solid propulsion group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
before joining the University of Idaho faculty in 1975. Dr. Simmons,
whose main research areas are in thermochemical biomass de-
composition and in geothermal energy utilization is currently professor
and chairman of the Chemical Engineering Department at the University
of Idaho. (R)

start (late August) compared to WSU (mid to
late September). While UI was starting its second
semester, WSU had three weeks remaining on
their first. Scheduling of courses was then difficult
in that we had to interface four separate
schedules. An additional (and remaining) problem
is that neither professors nor students are able
to take advantage of a traditional spring break,
which occurs at different times at the two uni-
versities.
Course Scheduling. A course scheduled in the
middle of the day in effect wasted nearly a half
day in attending one class at the other campus.
Even though the transit time is about 25 minutes,
a student finishing a class at one campus at 10 am
could not start a class at the other campus until
11 am. Coupled with the built-in inertia of getting
started on a new task courseworkk or research),
we found that students taking classes at the other
university were wasting a lot of valuable time.
There were also many conflicts in the two
schedules.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Course Availability. Since we are obligated to
provide a basic graduate offering for the Master
of Science program, we found that we were in fact
teaching nearly the same courses; there was
seldom any advantage in taking courses across
the state line.
Once we agreed to coordinate our graduate
offerings we were forced to address these and
other unforeseen problems. We did, however, have
enthusiastic support from the administrative
officers at both universities. We have resolved
most of these problems in a quite satisfactory way
and wanted to share our experiences.

TABLE I
Joint Graduate Course Offerings
FALL 1981
Transport Phenomena (WSU)
Polymer Reactor Engineering (WSU)
Chemical Engineering Analysis I (UI)
process simulation
Advanced Plant Design (UI)
SPRING 1982
Chemical Engineering Kinetics (UI)*
Biochemical Engineering (UI)*
ChE Thermodynamics (WSU)
Digital Process Control (WSU)*
FALL 1982
Transport Phenomena (UI)*
Advanced Plant Design (UI)
Chemical Engineering Analysis I (WSU)*
ChE Thermodynamics (WSU)*
SPRING 1983
Multi Phase Transport & Reactions (WSU)
Chemical Engineering Kinetics (WSU)
Chemical Engineering Analysis II (UI)
statistics and experimental design
Mass Transfer Operations I (UI)
diffusional
Fall 1983t
Transport Phenomena (WSU)
ChE Thermodynamics (WSU)
Chemical Engineering Analysis I (UI & WSU)
Advanced Heat Transfer (UI)
SPRING 1984t
Chemical Engineering Kinetics (UI)
Biochemical Engineering (UI)
Advanced Extractive Metallurgy (WSU)
Mass Transfer Operations II (WSU)
physicochemical hydrodynamics

*Taught via two-way microwave
tScheduled for 1983/84


By joining forces for graduate
course-work, we have a combined pool of
about forty full time graduate students and fourteen
full time graduate faculty, which allows for a
wide variety of course offerings.


DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROGRAM
First Attempts
The initiation of the cooperative course pro-
gram took place in the spring of 1981 with a single
course (ChE 523-Basic Concepts in Catalysis)
which was taught at WSU. The difficulties en-
countered at that time were primarily involved
with the paperwork of getting students registered,
assigning grades and the everpresent problems as-
sociated with academic calendars at the two uni-
versities. The latter initially was solved by teach-
ing the course on a compressed schedule so that it
began on WSU's schedule (February) and ended
on Idaho's schedule (mid-May). UI had previously
adjusted its daily class schedule to start all
classes on the half-hour; this change gave UI
an extra class period and also fit well with the
WSU schedule, which starts on the hour. We
found the easiest way to deal with the paperwork
was to simply cross-list in both university catalogs
all the graduate courses in both departments. The
formalities were soon in place and the bookkeep-
ing problems were eliminated as obstacles.

The Basic Program
By the following semester (Fall, 1981), the
basic elements of the program as we know it today
were established. Certain "core" courses (Trans-
port Phenomena, Chemical Engineering Analysis,
Thermodynamics, and Chemical Engineering
Kinetics) were identified as being common to both
curricula; with the exception of Thermodynamics
it was agreed to teach the core program in
alternate years at each university. This sharing
of core courses left room for several additional
courses to be offered by our two faculties. Table I
shows the courses which have been taught under
this program since the fall of 1981 and those
planned for the 1983/84 academic year.
The specific courses to be offered in a given
year are decided in consultation between the two
departments and are based on core requirements,
faculty research interests and balanced teaching
loads. While the core courses are taught each
Continued on page 194.


FALL 1983









BOOK WRITING


AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION*

Rites, Rewards, and Responsibilities


". . of making many books there is no end; and much
study is a weariness of the flesh."
Eccl. 12:12


R. BYRON BIRD
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706


ON THE WALL ABOVE my desk at home I have a
map of Canada prepared by the cartographer
Guillaume de L'isle in 1720. It shows the Great
Lakes in about the correct relative positions, but
their shapes are somewhat distorted. Much of the
region, known at that time as La Nouvelle France,
had been only partially explored, and consequently
the map is clearly imperfect in the eyes of a 20th
century American. The region to the west of Lake
Superior was terra incognita in 1720. But in-
complete as this map was it doubtless served ex-
plorers, government officials, and scholars of that
time; subsequent explorations, many of them by
canoe, led to better and better maps as the un-
known gave way to the known. Every summer
when I go canoeing in the Canadian "bush", I can
imagine the frustrations of the early explorers
as they tried to push ahead through the water-
ways with their imperfect maps. Even armed with
the best maps of our time, made from aerial
photographs, we occasionally have encountered
errors that have cost us time and trouble (includ-
ing the interchange of a 2-foot rapids and a 50-
foot waterfall on the Balmoral River in Ontario).
The 1720 map over my desk serves as a
constant reminder that current books on science
and engineering represent only an imperfect
summary of our present knowledge and that
beyond the covers of these books is a vast terra in-
cognita which will be explored and charted by

*This manuscript was prepared and presented for the
Phillips Petroleum Company-Chemical Engineering
Lectureship Award at Oklahoma State University on De-
cember 6, 1982. This lectureship series has been active
since 1967 and is meant to recognize outstanding contribu-
tions to chemical engineering education.


Bob Bird was an undergraduate at the University of Maryland, re-
ceived a B.S. in chemical engineering at the University of Illinois, did
his doctoral studies in physical chemistry at the University of Wisconsin,
and had a postdoctoral appointment in theoretical physics at the
University of Amsterdam. He joined the staff of the Department of
Chemical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin in 1953 and has
been there ever since (except for teaching for one semester in Delft,
in Kyoto, and in Nagoya) serving as its chairman during the period
1964-1968.


those who follow us. The books of the future will
reflect the new discoveries and will present the
subject material in sharper focus and in better
perspective. Meanwhile we make do with the
currently available books, recognizing that mis-
takes and misconceptions contained in them will
occasionally result in confusion and disaster-just
as the errors in the Canadian maps have plagued
the canoeist.
In educational circles today we hear a great
deal about teaching and research (or, more often,
teaching vs. research-as though these were
mutually exclusive activities!). However we hear
very little about the activity of book-writing,
which ought to be included as a third principal

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1983


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








--
One bit of advice that cannot be overemphasized: allot some time for physical exercise
and relaxation during the period you are working on a manuscript. During periods of intense mental
activity, the mind sometimes gets 'clogged up.' I have found that a good long hike
(preferably alone) once a week is essential to good bookwriting.


activity of a university teacher since it is con-
cerned directly with the production, evaluation,
organization, and dissemination of new knowledge.
Therefore I thought it might be useful to use this
lecture to focus attention on the "rites, rewards,
and responsibilities" of book authorship. Since I
have had the pleasure and good fortune to co-
author several books [1] perhaps I can offer some
appropriate words of encouragement to aspiring
writers and even a few helpful suggestions re-
garding the art of writing. Maybe I can help
others avoid some of the mistakes I've made. From
time to time I will cite specific personal ex-
periences in order to avoid discussing the prob-
lems of authorship in the abstract.
It is not my intention to discuss the history of
chemical engineering and the role that various
books have played in the development of the
discipline. A brief historical summary was pre-
pared in 1957 by Dr. Thomas H. Chilton [2], and
Professor Olaf A. Hougen's Bicentennial Lec-
ture [3] on Chemical Engineering History in 1976
contains additional material on chemical engi-
neering textbooks. Still more information is to be
found in two recent collections of articles on the
history of chemical engineering [4].
WHAT KINDS OF BOOKS DO CHEMICAL
ENGINEERS NEED
A library of professional volumes includes
various classes of books: (i) edited volumes to
present very recent developments by teams of
experts; (ii) research monographs to catalog and
evaluate the research published in the preceding
5-10 years; (iii) treatises to give authoritative,
encyclopedic coverage of one particular topic; (iv)
textbooks to set forth the basic ideas in the field in
a form suitable for students; (v) handbooks to
summarize standard results of widespread use;
and (vi) design manuals to provide up-to-date
procedures for practicing engineers. Each of these
categories has a different audience, and each re-
quires special organizational talents. Generally
speaking there is a flow of information from (i)
towards (vi) in the above listing-that is, from
innovative, exploratory, and (sometimes) im-
practical ideas of the researcher all the way to the
time-tested and reliable tools of the practitioner.


Along the way many ideas and methods are in-
evitably discarded, and only the most useful
material survives to the arena of industrial prac-
tice. But without this constant exploration of new
ideas and subsequent filtration, a profession can
stagnate and atrophy.
In a very real sense good books bring about
change. Some material from research-level mono-
graphs gradually finds its way into graduate and
then undergraduate textbooks. New textbooks
create changes in college courses and curricula;
they can also produce changes in teaching
methods. Handbooks and design manuals can
ultimately bring about improvements in pro-
duction methods.
The very boundaries of what we mean by
chemical engineering are determined to a signifi-
cant extent by the textbooks. The publication of
"Principles of Chemical Engineering," by Walker,
Lewis, and McAdams [5] at MIT about 60 years
ago shaped the field of chemical engineering for
many decades afterwards. And the trilogy of books
by Hougen, Watson, and Ragatz [6] showed how
the ideas of thermodynamics, kinetics, and diffu-
sion could be used in the solution of key chemical
engineering problems. These books were par-
ticularly influential because of their incisive
organization of large quantities of material and
the timeliness of the examples and problems.
The future definition of chemical engineering will
be established by books of the same quality and
insight, but in new areas.
What are some of these new areas that are
crying out for authors? No one person can supply
such a list, of course, but I'll offer a few ideas:

Thermodynamics from the point of view of differ-
ential geometry (based on some of the develop-
ments of Weinhold [7])
Separations processes in solids purification, with
particular emphasis on the materials needed in the
electronics industry
Biochemical separations techniques
Preparation and properties of catalysts
Flow of powders and granular materials
Applied mathematics for chemists and chemical
engineers, illustrating some of the newest mathe-
matical techniques (presented in the style of the
imaginative text by Marshall & Pigford [8])
Stochastic processes in chemical engineering


FALL 1983








Colloids, emulsions, and suspensions, taking into
account hydrodynamic, chemical electrical, and sur-
face phenomena
Chemical kinetics and reactor operation laboratory
manual
Fuels and their combustion, making use of the
newest results from kinetics and transport phe-
nomena
Applied physical chemistry for non-chemical engi-
neers, including some of the "classical" topics that
have vanished from physical chemistry textbooks
Product development, giving case studies on methods
that have been evolved for making products with
specified shapes, sizes, optical properties, corrosion
properties, etc.
Two-phase flows of polymeric liquids
Thermodynamics and phase equilibria of polymeric
systems
Better lists can undoubtedly be prepared by
those under thirty-five, for they are the ones who
should be itching to reorganize the profession.

WHO SHOULD WRITE?
Not everyone is suited to be an author. The
principal requirements for bookwriting are: (i)


It may be that industrial
organizations will wish to assist in the
teaching of chemical engineering by allocating funds
specifically for the preparation of textbooks.

thorough knowledge of the subject, (ii) skill in
the use of the language, (iii) a highly developed
sense of organization, (iv) much enthusiasm for
telling others about the subject, (v) enough of a
sense of impatience to get the job done, (vi) ability
to interact with coauthors, (vii) a willingness to
attend to details, (viii) familiarity with the key
people in the field, (ix) an attitude of innovation,
(x) ability to evaluate critically the published
literature in the field, (xi) a good sense of humor,
(xii) excellent health and stamina.
Very few people have all these characteristics.
Consequently most writing projects are under-
taken by a small group of individuals who can
pool their knowledge and talents and make up for
each other's shortcomings. This brings to mind the
limerick [9].
When twins came their father Dan Dunn
Gave "Edward" as name to each son
When folks said "Absurdl"
He replied, "Ain't you heard
That two Eds are better than one?"
No doubt about it-two heads (or even three or
four) are better than one when it comes to pro-
ducing a responsible manuscript. I've never gone


solo in the book-writing business, and it's always
seemed to me that it would be a lonely chore. True,
there have been moments when I've had disagree-
ments with my coauthors and had second thoughts
about the joys of cooperative efforts, but usually
out of these disagreements have come a better
understanding of the subject and consequently
more lucid writing.
In chemical engineering we should have more
teams of authors in which one author is from in-
dustry and one from academia. In this way a
balance could be achieved between industrial
practice on the one hand and academic research on
the other.

WHEN TO WRITE

The time is ripe for an author to begin writing
a book when he has a burning desire to communi-
cate his subject to his readership. Without an
intense feeling of "missionary zeal" (why do mis-
sionaries get singled out for this honor?) a person
probably will not have the energy and drive
needed to complete the manuscript in a reasonable
time. But one must have more than this com-
pelling wish to communicate to his professional
colleagues. There must be some element of novelty
in the projected manuscript. Just what kinds of
novelty should be required?
Novel ideas. If one has spent 10 or 15 years doing re-
search on some particular topic and has been particularly
successful and productive, the time may have arrived for
him to collect his cumulative findings in a monograph.
Preparing a book gives him a chance to summarize new
achievements and put them in perspective. And who else
is better prepared to do this than the originator of the
novel ideas?
Novel survey of recent research. In every field-and
particularly in rapidly developing ones-it is very im-
portant to prepare from time to time authoritative, critical,
reviews of the recent advances and current status. To be
useful such a review should try to resolve current contro-
versies, suggest new experiments, establish new organizing
schemes for the subject material, and compare and
contrast competing theories or methods. Such an activity
requires research status in the field, thorough familiarity
with the key participants in the subject area, and the
ability to recognize novel viewpoints and imaginative
organization.
Novel organization of old ideas. We need textbooks in
every profession. Inevitably much of the material in most
textbooks will already be well-known and widely accepted.
The novelty here has to be in the improved pedagogy,
imaginative problems, sparkling new applications of old
material, new viewpoints made possible by recent research
advances, and more up-to-date data, apparatus, comput-
ing procedures, and materials. Even for old subjects, such


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








as thermodynamics and fluid dynamics, much can be done
to create textbooks with a high degree of novelty.
The key words throughout are "novelty",
"creativity", and "imagination". If a prospective
author is not in a position to contribute new, crea-
tive, and imaginative thoughts of some kind, it is
not yet time to put pen to paper (or sit down at the
keyboard of a word processor).

HOW TO GET READY TO WRITE

Before the actual writing process begins, there
are certain preliminary matters which should be
attended to if the writing is to proceed efficiently
and if the final printed volume is to be sharply
focused.
Establishment of Aim, Scope, and Level. Book-writing
demands dedication to a single goal. At the very outset
the authors should specify the audience for whom their
book is intended and the scientific background that the
audience will have. The purpose of the book should be
carefully spelled out and the boundaries of the subject
material should be agreed on. Keep in mind the German
proverb "In der Beschrlinkung zeigt sich der Meister".
(The true master knows how to limit himself.)
Preparation of an Outline. Book-writing demands
organization. A list of chapters should be prepared and
then the section headings within each chapter should be
agreed on. Every effort should be made to arrange the
subject material in such a way that the organization of
the material jumps out at the reader when he looks at the
Table of Contents. One of the most important contributions
of the authors is to provide the reader with a framework
for the subject into which the details can gradually be
filed away. Authors should spend a lot of time on arrang-
ing their table of contents and choosing the chapter titles
in such a way that the reader understands the anatomy
of the subject material.
Allocation of Time. Book-writing demands large blocks
of uninterrupted working time. The writing should be done
as quickly as possible in order that the authors maintain
momentum and continuity of thought. If the writing is
spread out over too long a period, much time and energy
are frittered away in rereading and updating previous
chapters.
Establishing a Place to Work. Book-writing demands
isolation. It is very important to find a room in the
library, a room at home, an abandoned store-room or any
out-of-the-way place (preferably phone-less), where the
book-writing activity can occur. All of one's writing ma-
terials, reference books, dictionaries, reprints, and journals
should be moved into this area away from the hurly-burly
of everyday professional life. This may mean a common
room where all coauthors work together, or it may mean
separate rooms for each coauthor. In any case, this
Shangri-La should be inviolate.
Suspension of Unnecessary Activities. Book-writing
demands sacrifices of the authors, particularly in curtail-


ing or eliminating social activities, attendance at meet-
ings, participation on committees, and time spent on
hobbies. One simply has to get one's vectors lined up so
that for the book-writing period most of one's energies are
directed towards a single goal.
Establishment of a Style Sheet. Book-writing demands
consistency. Much time can be saved if at the very outset
the authors can agree on certain questions of nomenclature,
notation, and style (by the latter we mean those picky
little details such as whether you write Eq. 5.2-1, Eqn.
(5.2-1), eq. [5.2-1], or (V(2).1)). One can get a lot of help
by imitating the style of some book that one admires, or
one can get valuable tips from the carefully prepared style
manuals provided by the publisher.


After the index has been shipped off to
the publisher, there is a several-month waiting
period until the author finally gets the first copy
of his new book. This period seems interminable...
Most authors about this time experience a rather
serious "post partum" depression.

Yes, book-writing demands a lot of prepara-
tion and commitment right from the beginning.
Failure to get the writing done within a reason-
able time span can result in an out-of-date manu-
script or one that doesn't have much coherence.
Failure to establish a suitable place for writing
can result in inefficient work habits, interrup-
tions, and errors. Failure to establish a style sheet
can result in a lot of rewriting and last-minute
changes. Failure to establish the aims and to pre-
pare an outline can result in chaos and confusion,
and even ultimately the abandonment of the
project. Many manuscripts have withered away
and authors have become frustrated or em-
bittered as a result of inadequate preparation.

HOW TO WRITE
The actual production of manuscript copy is a
very personal matter. Each author has to de-
velop his own modus operandi. Some like to have
a daily goal of, say, four typed pages; others like
to work for, say, three hours per day; still others
like to work in spurts. Some like to work with
pencil and yellow pad, using an eraser as they go;
some scribble their thoughts on scratch paper and
then type a neat manuscript from their rough
notes; still others prefer to use a dictating ma-
chine; very rapidly word processors are replacing
the pencil, pen and typewriter.
Regardless of the writing procedures that an
author chooses to adopt, there are many points to
keep in mind to insure quality of the finished pro-
duct:


FALL 1983








Bibliography. Those scholarly-looking footnotes at the
bottom of the page are not put there as a show of erudition.
They serve two purposes: to tell the reader where ad-
ditional information may be found in the technical litera-
ture, and to thank originators of the ideas for their
contributions. It is essential to maintain an accurate
bibliography and to keep meticulous track of the sources
of all material used. It is a source of lasting embarrass-
ment if later on you find you have slighted a colleague by
failing to acknowledge his contribution.
Orientation. It is vital to provide the reader frequently
with introductory or concluding paragraphs that give him
orientation and perspective. It is difficult enough to master
the details of any technical subject, but it is even more
difficult to understand the status, principal challenges, or
limitations of the subject. It is also very valuable to supply
generous cross-referencing within the book to help the
reader understand how various topics are interrelated.
Equations. In presenting derivations it is, of course,
essential that the equations be correct, and in the manu-
script they should be written precisely in the form that
they are to be typeset. But that is not enough. One should
also group symbols in meaningful ways so as to suggest
or emphasize the physical content and maintain the group-
ings carefully in a sequence of equations. The use of
dimensionless ratios is particularly helpful. There is a lot
of artistry involved in displaying derivations of equations;
the equations can be remembered more easily and their
physical meaning better understood if attention is paid to
the arrangement of the mathematical symbols and if
symbols are used that have mnemonic value. My
mentor, Professor Jan de Boer at the University of Amster-
dam, once cited the Dutch proverb Set oog wil ook wat
hebben (the eye also wants to have a treat-i.e., it is not
enough to have the equation correct, but it must also look
artistic!).
Graphs, Charts, and Tables. Much engineering work
involves the use of tabular or graphical summaries. Re-
liable, accurate, easy-to-use reference material is indispens-
able. Here again there is a lot of artistry involved in
cramming as much as possible into a visual display that
can give the reader a good overview of a lot of informa-
tion.
Illustrative Examples and Problems. Professor Olaf A.
Hougen said that if you can't make up good problems and
illustrative examples for a topic, then that topic may not
be worth teaching to students in an engineering course.
Certainly one of the great strengths of the Hougen-
Watson-Ragatz series was the imposing collection of
worked and unworked problems. Carefully prepared il-
lustrative examples are often more helpful to students than
long discussions in the abstract. Also for industrial practi-
tioners an illustrative example is extremely useful for self-
instruction. One time when Professor Hougen was visit-
ing a blast furnace on a plant trip with a group of under-
graduates, he asked one of the engineers how they made
computations for their plant; the engineer said that he had
found an excellent book that told just how to do it-and
then he produced a copy of Professor Hougen's own book
on material and energy balances, which had an extensive
illustrative example on blast furnaces! In writing text-


There's no need to inundate the reader
with arcane incantations or sesquipedalian
persiflage-(it) offends most engineering readers;
furthermore we must remember that science and
engineering are international and that the
native language of a large percentage
of the readers is not English.

books, my coauthors and I often found that we had to go
back and change the main text or include some additional
tables after trying to work out the details of our own
problems and examples.
Solutions Manual. Most professors of engineering are
overworked, and having a solutions manual for grading
the homework assignments is enormously helpful. Also, as
we all know, it not infrequently happens that a teacher
is pressed into service for teaching some course in an area
where his own background may be only minimal; a solu-
tions manual can actually help to instruct the teacher. If
the authors prepare the solutions manual right along
with the textbook, they have the additional peace of mind
that their problems actually can be worked and that the
solutions are physically reasonable.
In every part of the manuscript preparation
one very good motto is: KEEP IT SIMPLE. The
learning of technical material is difficult, and the
reader does not appreciate it when the author
thoughtlessly or purposely introduces unnecessary
complexities. Tables, notation, equations, graphs,
bibliographical listings-all of these should be
arranged as simply as possibly. Simplicity in
sentence structure and vocabulary is also highly
desirable. There's no need to inundate the reader
with arcane incantations or sesquipedalian persi-
flage-that kind of language offends most engi-
neering readers; furthermore we must remember
that science and engineering are international, and
that the native language of a large percentage of
the readers is not English. Making things simple
for the reader demands a lot of effort by the
author. It requires great talent and insight to
distil out of the vast and conflicting literature the
essential ideas on a given subject, but this is one
of the obligations of authorship.
One bit of advice that cannot be overempha-
sized: allot some time for physical exercise and
relaxation during the period you are working on
a manuscript. During periods of intense mental
activity, the mind sometimes gets 'clogged up'. I
have found that a good long hike (preferably
alone) once a week is essential to good book-
writing. Five or six hours out-of-doors is worth
far more than the same amount of time behind
the typewriter. After one or two hours of walking,
the mind begins to 'come unclogged', and ideas


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








about arrangement of material and detailed ex-
planations begin to flow freely. I always take along
a pen and a stack of 3 x 5 cards to jot down the
ideas as they come. After a hike I come back to
the manuscript physically relaxed and mentally
aired out, and I usually have several cards full of
new thoughts.

INTERACTIONS WITH THE PUBLISHER

My own dealings with publishers have been
generally very cordial. Some of my colleagues
have, however, had unpleasant experiences; these
may in part have resulted from not recognizing
what their relation to the publisher would be. Just
what are some of the ways in which authors inter-
act with publishers?
The Contract. Many authors are so delighted and
flattered that someone is actually going to publish their
manuscript that they really do not give the contract much
thought. They should consider carefully not only the
question of royalties (which can be computed in many
different ways), but also such questions as the making of
corrections in later printings, the choice of type fonts
available, the format of the book, the form in which art
work is to be delivered to the printer, the status of the
book if it goes out of print, and the type of paper and
binding to be used. It pays to discuss contracts with col-
leagues who have already published to find out what
problems they may have had. Authors should remember
that they are entering into a business agreement, and if
the nature of the agreement is thoroughly understood the
collaboration will be more harmonious. Most publishers
have standard printed contracts, but authors should not
hesitate to request modification of the wording where
appropriate.

A Visit to the Publishing House. If possible one or
more of the authors should visit the publisher's. Many
of the editing and production problems are much more
easily handled if the authors have met the key staff
members of the publishing team. By seeing how various
parts of the production are performed, authors can avoid
making unreasonable demands on their publisher.
Manuscript Review. The publisher will normally send
the manuscript to one or more experts in the field to
elicit comments. This is very beneficial to the authors, and
the reviewer's criticisms should be taken seriously. The
authors should also get comments from colleagues or
students. At the time we published Transport Phenomena,
our publisher (John Wiley and Sons) prepared a "pre-
liminary edition" which was used for two years by us at
the University of Wisconsin and also by Professor J. E.
Powers at the University of Oklahoma, Professor J.
Dranoff at Northwestern University, Professor E. Weger
at John Hopkins University, and Professor K. M. Watson
at Illinois Institute of Technology. The advice that we
received from them and their students was invaluable.
The students' comments were often very blunt and vitriolic,
but they had a sobering influence on the three of us. And


it was Professor K. M. Watson who suggested to us that
the problems at the ends of the chapters ought to have a
subscript to tell how difficult the problems were. With the
word processors now available, it should be possible for
authors to put out their own preliminary editions before
sending a final manuscript to the publisher.
Copy Editing. Most authors hate the copy editors. These
faceless people (unless you have actually visited them on
their home ground) correct your grammar, turn your
sentences around, and insert schoolmarmish queries in the
margins. Adults just don't like to be treated that way.
In the long run, I have profited from my interactions with
the editors; they have a tough job to do, and authors
should learn all they can from those "purple pencil
people" who deface their cherished manuscript. One does,
however, have to check all the purple marks very carefully
to be sure that meanings are not changed and that correct
equations are not transformed into gibberish.
Proofreading. Most authors regard this activity as ex-
tremely distasteful. It is a demanding, exhausting chore
that cannot be turned over to wives, assistants, or students.
This is the authors' last chance to be sure that errors have
not been introduced by the editor or the printer; the
authors may even find that some of their own errors have
managed to survive to this stage. No matter how careful
one is, a number of errors will nonetheless slip through.
Some of these will be trivial misprints, and occasionally an
erratum will be funny-such as the appearance of the
word 'Bird' in Fig. 9.L on p. 305 of the first printing of
Transport Phenomena [1] (all india ink drawings are
marked with the name of the senior author, and in the
final composition of this page the author's name was not
whited out). Another amusing erratum is the appearance
of the word "theological" in lieu of theologicall" in Dr.
J. R. A. Pearson's book on polymer processing [10]. It's im-
possible to eliminate all errors, of course, but the authors
have the responsibility to their future readers to do their
level best.
The Index. By the time the authors have written the
manuscript, done battle with the copy editor, and slaved
over several sets of proofs, they are usually approaching
a state of mental and physical ruin. It is at this time that
they are asked to prepare the index, and this task is also
one that cannot be delegated. There's the story about the
arrogant professor who had just finished a 1200 page book
on ornithology, and ordered his graduate students to pre-
pare the index. The students, chafing under this assign-
ment got revenge by inserting an entry: "Birds, for the,
1-1200". A number of otherwise excellent books have been
seriously flawed by the authors' irresponsibility with re-
gard to preparing an index.
I said at the outset that my own relations with
the publishers have generally been very pleasant.
I do recall, however, that I got rather upset with
Mr. J. S. ("Stet") Barnes of John Wiley and
Sons because he wouldn't let me put a Dutch
proverb at the end of the preface of Molecular
Theory of Gases and Liquids [1], since Dutch
proverbs don't have much currency outside of
The Netherlands. Of course he was right. But six


FALL 1983








or seven years later, when writing the preface for
Transport Phenomena [1] I decided to get even by
including "secret messages" in the preface and
postface of the book in the form of acronyms.
When the book was published I was invited to
attend a luncheon for the Wiley sales force to let
them ask me some questions about the new book.
At the end of the question-and-answer session I
reminded Mr. Barnes of our earlier altercation re-
garding the Dutch proverb, and announced that
I had at last succeeded in evening the score by in-
cluding hidden messages. Mr. Barnes turned
several colors of red, grabbed a copy of the book,
and began deciphering the messages; he was
visibly relieved to find that the messages were not
directed at him personally or at the publisher.

PRE- AND POST-PUBLICATION EVENTS
After the index has been shipped off to the
publisher, there is a several-month waiting period
until the author finally gets the first copy of his
new book. This period seems interminable. One has
to start putting his life back together again and
do all kinds of chores that had been put off. But
the conscientious author begins to have nagging
doubts as to whether he really left the reader with
the correct impression in Chapter 6, and whether
he should really have included Table III in
Chapter 8, and whether a derivation couldn't
have been presented more simply in Chapter 11.
And perhaps he discovers to his horror that a key
reference has been omitted in Chapter 9 or that
a life-long friend and colleague was omitted in
the acknowledgments. Most authors about this
time experience a rather serious "post partum" de-
pression.
The day that the first copy of the book arrives,
there are feelings of elation, accomplishment, re-
lief, and pride, but mingled with feelings of dis-
satisfaction, and these latter feelings usually are
reinforced by the unwelcome discovery-on that
first day-of several misprints or errors. This odd
collection of emotions is known only to authors.
But the period of depression is not yet over, be-
cause it will be six to twelve months before the
book is reviewed in the professional journals.
During this period of waiting the authors tend to
magnify out of all proportion the errors that they
find. In addition, as scientific and engineering re-
search surges onward, the authors realize that
their opus magnum is already getting out of date.
It is very important for book-writers to be pre-
pared for this stage of their lives; it's a good time


for the development of a new hobby, a trip to Tas-
mania, or planning the next book (before you do
that, however, you should join your local chapter
of "Authors Anonymous).
In the wake of the publication one does have
to maintain a file of errata, unpleasant though
this chore may be. Authors do appreciate it when
readers take the time and trouble to write or
phone them about mistakes that have been found,
since these errors can be corrected in later print-
ings. Also, many authors maintain lists of "cor-
rigenda" (I think this word is somewhat more
friendly than errataa"), which they duplicate and
make available to other workers in the same field.
So don't hesitate to write to authors and let them
know how their books can be improved.
As a matter of fact, after you publish a book
you have correspondence with all sorts of people
all over the U.S. and abroad. I've had letters from
students wanting topics for term papers, from
people in industry asking for the solution to some
problem at the end of a chapter in connection with
a specific design problem, from students who
claim that they were graded incorrectly on an
exam problem by their teacher (and they want
me to be the referee), from professors who don't
like my notation or units, etc.
Since becoming an author I don't hesitate to
write other authors when I feel shortchanged.
During my first week of teaching at Kyoto Uni-
versity, I found it was impossible for me to get a
ham sandwich without mustard at a nearby
restaurant because I didn't know how to say
'without'; that word was not to be found in the
grammar book [11] (by Professor S. E. Martin of
Yale) I had been studying. Right away I wrote to
Professor Martin, explained my dilemma, and
sent him a list of errata I had found in his text-
book. He responded promptly and kindly sent me a
complimentary copy of the newest edition of his
book. Several years later, when visiting the ChE
Department at Yale, I went over to see Professor
Martin. He greeted me immediately with "Ah, yes,
you're the one who couldn't order a sandwich
without mustard!" Don't be timid about writing
to authors-they enjoy hearing from their
customers.
Of all the emotional experiences after publish-
ing a book, none can beat that crushed feeling you
get when you see a copy of your book in the used-
book section at the bookstore. Then you open it
and see the underlined paragraphs, the penciled
notes about exam dates in the front cover, and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








the comments in the margins (perhaps even an
occasional unkind remark about the authors). You
realize then that some student tried to study your
book and was turned off by the subject, or by your
style of writing, or maybe because you as the
author didn't somehow have that reader in mind.
The time to think about that discouraged student
is not after the book has been published, but
while the manuscript is being prepared!

REWARDS
Book-writing should not be undertaken to gain
fame and fortune. If you want to make a fortune
you're better off to buy real estate, do consulting,
or study the art of investing. Book-writing is no
guarantee of fame, since one can damage one's
name if the final product does not meet with the
approval of the professional community. No, the
rewards of book-writing are of a different nature.
First of all there is the opportunity for scholar-
ly growth. By the time you have completed a book
manuscript you have an extremely detailed and
thorough knowledge of a subject. This in turn
enriches your capabilities as a teacher, researcher,
consultant, or designer. Also, having spent months
in reading about many facets of the subject and
having devoted months to organizing the material,
you are in an excellent position to keep up with
the burgeoning literature of the field. In addition,
if your book has been well received, many people
will send you reprints of their work and copies
of their books just as a question of collegial
courtesy, and this also makes it easier to keep
abreast of the latest advances. Book-writing also
makes you aware of the problems that most
urgently need to be attacked in your field, and
hence you are led into new research vistas.
The second reward of book-writing is the feel-
ing of service to the professional community-and
this is an international community. Considerable
satisfaction results from knowing that one has
produced a manual, a textbook, a monograph, or
a handbook that will help other people to do their
jobs better or to help them to acquire new
knowledge.
And finally the third reward for book-writing
is the learning from one's coauthors. I have been
very fortunate to have collaborated with some
truly extraordinary people. From Joe Hirschfelder
I learned that science is just one thrilling ad-
venture, and that numerical tables should never
contain any errors. Every encounter with Chuck
Curtiss has resulted in his patiently teaching me


some new technique from his seemingly infinite
supply of theoretical tricks. Warren Stewart, who
seems to have a photographic memory and total re-
call, introduced me to simultaneous heat-and-mass
transfer with and without chemical reactions; his
dedication to expository and numerical accuracy
never ceases to amaze me. I have valued very much
Ed Lightfoot's almost iconoclastic approach to
science and engineering, which sometimes knocks
you off balance and makes you think about subjects
from a totally different point of view. Bill Shetter
has helped me to appreciate Dutch literature and
linguistics, and never to trust foreign-language
dictionaries blindly. My colleagues Ed Daub and
Nob Inoue taught me a lot about the subtleties of
the Japanese language and the scholarly contribu-
tions of Japanese engineers and scientists. And
my former students Bob Armstrong and Ole
Hassager rejuvenated me by helping me to under-
stand better some of the notions of modern con-
tinuum mechanics, rheology, and kinetic theory.
All of these people were lots of fun to work with,
and their constructive attitudes and great sense of
humor made each publishing undertaking an ad-
venture rather than an ordeal. Sure, we had our
moments of misunderstandings and perhaps even
a harsh word now and then, but the teamwork and
camaraderie are what we remember. I treasure the
memories of our joint ventures, and would like to
thank all of my coauthors for enriching my pro-
fessional and personal life. I know this may sound
sentimental, but friendships forged in manuscript-
writing and tempered by the galley-proof reading
are very special.

ENCOURAGEMENT FOR BOOK-WRITING
Most book-writing is done nights and weekends
by dedicated authors whose spirit of service is
almost overpowering. It requires a lot of personal
sacrifices. There are only limited possibilities for
obtaining a grant of financial aid to write a book,
and thereby have a substantial block of time for
bookwriting. Guggenhiem grants have been used
for preparing research monographs, although
chemical engineers do not seem to have made much
use of them for this purpose. In chemistry, the
George Fisher Baker Lectures of Cornell Uni-
versity have enabled outstanding scientists to give
special lectures and prepare books; this series
has been eminently successful with Flory's
Polymer Chemistry, Debye's Polar Molecules, and
Pauling's Nature of the Chemical Bond being a
few of the trail-blazing volumes resulting from


FALL 1983








this endowed chair. At the University of Wis-
consin we have established the Olaf A. Hougen
Professorship, patterned somewhat after the
Baker Lectures, and we hope that the contribu-
tions of the Hougen Professors through the years
to come will be influential in the future teaching
and research in chemical engineering. Other uni-
versities ought to consider setting up similar
endowed chairs to honor eminent authors and re-
searchers.
It may be that industrial organizations will
wish to assist in the teaching of chemical engineer-
ing by allocating funds specifically for the prepa-
ration of textbooks; this might be a useful alterna-
tive or supplement to the "young faculty grants",
which have been very much appreciated by the
universities. The American Institute of Engineers
may want to reexamine its "Institute Lectureship"
with an eye to encouraging the improvement of
research and teaching in the U.S.; originally the
Institute Lectureship Award carried with it the
responsibility for preparing a monograph, pub-
lished by AIChE, but it is my understanding
that only several of the award winners have ful-
filled that obligation. In the frenetic professional
world of today, it is probably asking too much for
the Institute Lecturer to prepare a monograph
without providing some released time for under-
taking the manuscript preparation.
Book-writing is not even encouraged in some
institutions. I have heard of several chemical
engineering departments in which young faculty
are actively discouraged from undertaking any
textbook writing by intimations that such an
activity will in no way contribute to their chances
for tenure. And our present system of research
grants, with the continual scrambling for funds
and requirement of continuity of productivity,
almost prohibits an active researcher from
taking a year or two off to write a first-rate book.
Those who do have the temerity to do this risk
losing their grants or their health or both.

BOOK-WRITING IN THE FUTURE
When Joe Hirschfelder, Chuck Curtiss, and I
worked on the manuscript for Molecular Theory
of Gases and Liquids [1], about thirty years ago,
there were no Xerox machines, and manuscript
copies had to be prepared using carbon paper. All
equations had to be filled in by hand, and since
we had no correction fluid at that time, erasers,
and the inevitable smudges were just part of the
book-writing scene.


In the near future the entire book-writing and
book-publishing process will undergo an upheaval
[14]. Manuscripts will routinely be prepared by
word-processors, and publishers are already
issuing instructions to prospective authors about
the use of these devices [14]. Manuscripts will not
be mailed to the publisher, but instead floppy disks
and tapes will be sent. The copy editing will prob-
ably be done with word-processing equipment, and
the page layout, pagination, indexing, preparation
of drawings, checking of cross references, and
other tedious chores will become automated and
computerized. This will relieve a lot of the
drudgery of book-writing and make it easier for
the author to concentrate his efforts on the techni-
cal content of his book.
Publishers are still faced with several problems
that are particularly difficult to solve. The first is
the widespread use of copying devices to make
copies of parts or all of books. And the second is
the widespread publishing of unauthorized
editions of books in other countries. It is the
publisher, after all, who has to bear the cost
of identifying manuscripts, reviewing of manu-
scripts, editing of manuscripts, preparation of art-
work, page layout, typesetting, advertising and
paying royalties to the authors. When large scale
photocopying occurs it clearly upsets the eco-
nomics of the industry and neither the author nor
publisher are properly remunerated for their
labors.

CONCLUSIONS
Let us now return to the Biblical quotation at
the beginning: ". .. of making books there is no
end . ". Although the methods for preparing
manuscripts and producing books will undergo
tremendous changes in the next decade, the need
for books is still going to be present. If young
people in our profession are going to be trained
at our institutions of higher learning, we must
have lively, up-to-date, and responsibly written
textbooks. As Carlyle said: THE TRUE UNI-
VERSITY OF THESE DAYS IS A COLLEC-
TION OF BOOKS, and it is no wonder that these
words are found engraved over the portals of
many university libraries. The industrial practi-
tioners also need source books on chemical engi-
neering. As Dr. Thomas H. Chilton (of the Engi-
neering Department of DuPont) said [2],
". .there must be more books, for engineering
data and the interpretation of results are funda-
mental needs. The industry grows not only on


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








transmitted art and practice, but also through the
careful and long study and reinterpretation of
described practices, art, and data."
The field of chemical engineering will in-
evitably be known and measured by its journals
and books. It behooves us, as professionals, to
offer encouragement to willing and responsible
book authors and to strive for the amelioration
of the conditions under which these books are
prepared. The establishment of special book-
writing chairs at universities, an annual AIChE
supported monograph, and industrial sponsorship
for certain kinds of books could profoundly in-
fluence the direction and speed of progress in the
profession of chemical engineering.
In conclusion I would like to say a few words
about "style" in book-writing-"style" in the
general sense of the word. In a recent issue of the
Wall Street Journal [15], there was an article by
James Sloan Allen on the subject of style, par-
ticularly with regard to the performing arts. But
his comments apply also to book-writing, teaching,
and research. He says that by style he means
"that near-magical touch of artful individuality
that elevates most anything one does above the
routine, the common, or even the respectable ....
There is more to style than well-wrought appear-
ances. For there must be something within the
performer, some attributes of character, that
makes style possible. These attributes are imagina-
tion and will or discipline." The books that lead
chemical engineering into the future will be those
imaginative and innovative volumes written by
self-disciplined, responsible authors. D

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am very much indebted to my departmental
colleagues who have through the years given me
considerable encouragement in my activities as
an author, and also to my publishers (John Wiley
and Sons, Martinus Nijhoff, and The University
of Wisconsin and University of Tokyo Presses)
for teaching me about the art and business of
book publishing. I should like also to express my
sincere appreciation to the Vilas Trust Fund of
the University of Wisconsin whose financial
support has been of great assistance to me in
providing released time for the preparation of the
manuscripts for my last three books. Finally I
should like to acknowledge correspondence with
Mr. Charles B. Stoll, Mr. Merrill G. Floyd, and
Mr. Robert B. Polhemus of John Wiley and Sons,
Inc., and with Dr. Dominic Sherony of the Xerox


Corporation, in connection with providing me
material on the emerging methods in the publish-
ing and printing industries.

REFERENCES
1. J. O. Hirschfelder, C. F. Curtiss, and R. B. Bird,
"Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids", Wiley,
New York (1954); R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and
E. N. Lightfoot, "Transport Phenomena", Wiley,
New York (1960); R. B. Bird and W. Z. Shetter,
"Een Goed Begin", Martinus-Nijhoff, The Hague
(1963); E. E. Daub, R. B. Bird, and N. Inoue,
"Comprehending Technical Japanese", Univ. of Wisc.
and Univ. of Tokyo Presses (1975); "Dynamics of
Polymeric Liquids", Vol. 1 by R. B. :Bird, R. C. Arm-
strong, and 0. Hassager and Vol. 2 by R. B. Bird, O.
Hassager, R. C. Armstrong, and C. F. Curtiss, Wiley,
New York (1977).
2. T. H. Chilton, in "The First One Hundred and Fifty
Years", John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York (1957).
3. O. A. Hougen, "Seven Decades of Chemical Engineer-
ing", Chemical Engineering Progress, Jan. 1977, pp.
89-104.
4. W. F. Furter (Ed.), "History of Chemical Engi-
neering", Adv. in Chem. Series, No. 190, Amer. Chem.
Soc., Washington, D.C. (1980); W. F. Furter (Ed.),
"A Century of Chemical Engineering", Plenum Publ.
Co., New York (1982).
5. W. H. Walker, W. K. Lewis, and W. H. Adams,
"Principles of Chemical Engineering", McGraw-Hill,
New York (1923).
6. 0. A. Hougen, K. M. Watson, and R. A. Ragatz,
"Material and Energy Balances", Wiley, New York
(1954); 0. A. Hougen, K. M. Watson, and R. A.
Ragatz, "Thermodynamics", Wiley, New York
(1959); O. A. Hougen and K. M. Watson, "Kinetics
and Catalysis", Wiley, New York (1947).
7. F. Weinhold, "Metric Geometry of Thermodynamics",
J. Chem. Phys., 63, 2479-2501 (1975).
8. W. R. Marshall and R. L. Pigford, "The Application
of Differential Equations to Chemical Engineering
Problems", U. of Delaware Press, Newark, Del.
(1947).
9. Limerick by Berton Braley, on p. 96 of "Out on a
Limerick", by Benett Cerf, Pocket Books, Inc., New
York (1962).
10. J. R. A. Pearson, "Mechanical Principles of Polymer
Melt Processing", Pergamon, New York (1966),
p. 1.
11. S. E. Martin, "Essential Japanese", Tuttle, Rutland,
Vt. (1956).
12. A. A. P. Faculty Service, "An Author's Guide to
Academic Publishing", College Div., Assoc. of Amer.
Publishers, 1 Park Ave., New York, New York, 10016.
13. M. H. Bruno, "Status of Printing in the U.S.A.-
1981", New England Printer & Publisher, July 1981,
pp. 27-49.
14. P. Seybold, "An Introduction to Word Processing for
Wiley Authors", John Wiley and Sons, New York
(1982).
15. J. S. Allen, "The Importance of Style in Art and
Life", Wall Street Journal, Nov. 26, 1982.


FALL 1983







INTERSTATE RIVALRY
Continued from page 183.
year, the remaining four courses are taught for
the most part in alternate years and reflect the
research interests of individual faculty members.
Thus UI teaches courses in biochemical engineer-
ing, mass transport and plant design while WSU
concentrates on digital process control, extractive
metallurgy and polymer reactor engineering.

Trial and Error
As with any attempt at innovation, unantici-
pated problems arise. We dealt with these in the
time-honored engineering methodology of trial
and error. As mentioned, our first attempt at
solving the scheduling conflict was to teach on a
compressed schedule to avoid the semester "over-
lap" period. Whereas this had worked for one class
in the spring of 1981, it posed too great a burden
when students were taking more than one course.
The eventual solution was to start the fall se-
mester on Idaho's schedule (early start) and the
spring semester on WSU's schedule (February
start). This approach leaves about six weeks be-
tween semesters (including Christmas break), a
time when graduate students can devote efficient
time to their research projects. The ultimate
solution for us is that WSU will switch to an early
start calendar commencing August 1984.
Another problem that had to be dealt with
was the deliverance of students from one institu-
tion to classrooms at the other. We started off by
using university vehicles, then we experimented
with a 2-way microwave video link (see Table I) ;
for the present we have settled on car pooling.
To minimize transportation time, all graduate
classes on the same campus are taught one follow-
ing the other, and we teach three credit courses
twice per week (14/2 hour lectures). UI offers its
classes Tuesday/Thursday afternoon, and WSU
offers its classes Monday/Wednesday afternoon.
Scheduling these blocks of time is flexible to meet
the needs of the two programs and to interface
with the undergraduate program.
The use of the microwave link is very time
efficient and has a great deal of potential. How-
ever, both students and faculty were resistant to
its use and we have temporarily discontinued
this approach. Both universities are upgrading
their microwave systems and it is likely that we
will try it again once these modifications are in
place. We also learned that intensive analyses
courses such as "Chemical Engineering Analysis


I" are not well suited to this type of program.
This course requires a great deal of independent
student effort using computer simulation tech-
niques. As a result, most of the instruction is
tutorial in nature and, beginning Fall 1983, both
departments will offer this course independently.
For one professor to keep two computer systems
happy was just too much work. Requiring students
to become familiar with a different operating
system also seemed inappropriate, not to mention
the problems to be faced gaining computer access.

ADDITIONAL COOPERATIVE VENTURES
Not only has this program achieved the ob-
jectives of being able to offer broad based gradu-
ate courses while maintaining acceptable teaching
loads, other cooperative ventures have arisen as
well. An obvious extension is the joint sponsorship
of visiting seminar speakers. Each department
maintains a separate graduate seminar series with
speakers often participating in both series. In
addition, we join forces to sponsor at least one
speaker per semester. We are able to attract (and
compensate) many visitors by this method that
we otherwise could not bring to our campus. The
two departments take turns choosing the speakers
in alternate semesters and visitors spend one day
on each campus. Joint research efforts, are an-
other extension; a research program in food pro-
cessing is currently being developed since it is a
subject area of regional interest and combines the
complementary talents of two faculty members.
We have even had one student complete his course-
work at one institution and conduct his research
under the supervision of a faculty member at the
other. Though this relationship between professor
and student is not expected to be a common oc-
currence, it does illustrate the degree of flexibility
and responsiveness that can result from a co-
operative program between universities. O


CLEANING UP
Continued from page 173.
simulate the use of a chemical decontaminant to
neutralize a contaminant, otherwise trapped,
within the cavity. This work has already been
published [7].
Parallel to these theoretical endeavors, an ex-
perimental program is in progress. Fig. 7 suggests
the type of studies underway. A large (one centi-
meter) rectangular cavity is created in a flat plate,
and can be filled with a liquid, containing a dye,


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















FIGURE 7. Experiment for study of removal of fluid
from a cavity by an external stream.

that simulates a trapped contaminant. An external
flushing flow is then initiated, which induces circu-
lation within the cavity. A laser light shines down
the cavity axis, and is received at the far end of
the cavity. The intensity of the transmitted light
is related to the amount of dye remaining in the
cavity. In this way it is possible to measure the
rate of removal of the contaminant, as a function
of external flowrate, cavity geometry (aspect
ratio), and viscosity of the trapped liquid.
This dual approach to research, in which
theoretical and experimental studies proceed
simultaneously, but interactively, is character-
istic of our philosophy of research, and is proving
to be quite successful.
Space does not permit a more complete dis-
cussion of our research program in this field.
Suffice it to say that we are pursuing many of the
questions raised in the discussion above, and
that we anticipate that we will continue to carry
on research in this field for some time to come. O

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This research program has been supported
by the National Institute of Occupational Safety
and Health (5R010H01004) and by the Army Re-
search Office (DAAG29-80-K0058).

REFERENCES
1. Greener, J., and S. Middleman, "Theoretical and Ex-
perimental Studies of the Fluid Dynamics of a Two-
Roll Coater," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, 18, 35
(1979).
2. Bauman, T., T. Sullivan, and S. Middleman, "Ribbing
Instabilities in Coating Flows: Effect of Polymer
Additives," Chem. Eng. Commun., 14, 35 (1982).
3. Oliver, J. F., and S. G. Mason, "Microspreading
Studies on Rough Surfaces by SEM," J. Coll. Int.
Sci., 60, 480 (1977).


4. Huh, C., and L. E. Scriven, "Hydrodynamic Model
of Steady Movement of a Solid/Liquid/Fluid Contact
Line," ibid., 35, 85 (1971).
5. Neogi, P., and C. A. Miller, "Spreading Kinetics of a
Drop on a Rough Surface," ibid., 92, 338 (1983).
6. Giralt, F., C-J. Chia, and 0. Trass, "Characterization
of the Impingement Region in an Axisymmetric
Turbulent Jet," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, 16, 21
(1977).
7. Chilukuri, R., and S. Middleman, "Circulation,
Diffusion, and Reaction within a Liquid Trapped in
a Cavity," Chem. Eng. Commun., 22, 127 (1983).


SURFACE PHENOMENA
Continued from page 169.
difference is that now we are accounting for the
charged species rather than any species at the
surface). The indirect mass balance and the in-
direct thermodynamic approaches (the Lippman
equation) provide nice parallels between the two
subjects. Details are given of the modelling of the
electrochemical double layer with the emphasis
on the effect of the variables, especially the po-
tential determining ions, the indifferent electro-
lyte and the valence of the indifferent electrolyte
on the double layer. The case problem is discussed
and the emphasis then shifts to the DLVO theory
which combines the material from Unit 6 with
that of the current unit to yield the energy inter-
action curves. The dynamics of the stability of
dispersions is discussed in the context of the von
Smoluchowski equation for rapid coagulation and
the use of the retardation factor, W, to account for
slow coagulation. Models are also developed for
orthokinetic coagulation. This section concludes
with the design procedures for coagulation basins.
Examples are worked for the case of coagulation
of SBR latex and polystyrene latex. Other
examples illustrated include ion exchange, froth
flotation, electrostatic charging through pumping,
deep bed filtration and corrosion product deposition
in cooling circuits.
In the final unit in this course the stated case
problem is to select a protective colloid (namely
a polymer) that can be used in the suspension
polymerization of PVC. This topic requires that
we understand not only the adsorption of polym-
ers to a surface but the configuration of the
polymers once they are absorbed into the surface.
The calculations introduced focus on the volume
restriction and osmotic repulsion that occur when
two surfaces containing polymers approach each
other. This discussion of steric stabilization
focuses mostly on suspension polymerization ap-


FALL 1983







plications, although it could be used and extended
to other topics.
This course has evolved over the past 10 years
and has taken on more and more of the practical
application flavour as data become available and
as examples of the application are worked out.
At the present time the course is offered both as a
graduate course and as a technical elective for
seniors. We find that the attractive features of
this course are the practical applications, the
demonstrations that can be given in class to il-
lustrate the behaviour, and the research films that
have been developed to illustrate the behaviour. D


REVIEW: REACTOR DESIGN
Continued from page 176.
good qualitative discussion of the many problems
related to reactor analysis and design.
The book is divided into two parts. The first
part, containing six chapters, is on Chemical
Engineering Kinetics. The second part has eight
chapters, and deals with the Analysis and Design
of Chemical Reactors.
In the kinetics part, the first chapter is on
homogeneous reaction kinetics, while the second
deals with kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic re-
actions. In Chapter 2, the treatment of how
Langmuir-Hinshelwood Hougen-Watson rate
equations are derived, given a reaction mecha-
nism, is presented well. Both chapters also contain
methods for kinetic parameter estimation, which
are usually not found in most texts. Chapter 3 is
the longest one in the first part, and it treats the
interaction of transport processes with reaction
kinetics in a single catalyst pellet-essentially the
effectiveness factor problem. It is a good and
thorough chapter. Chapter 4 has a good account
of gas-solid noncatalytic reactions. Catalyst de-
activation, by poisoning and coking, is treated in
Chapter 5. Gas-liquid reactions are covered in
Chapter 6, where both the film and surface re-
newal models are discussed.
The second part of the book starts out with a
short Chapter 7 on transport equations for re-
actors. The next three chapters treat the batch,
plug-flow, and stirred-tank reactors, respectively.
Chapter 11, on fixed-bed reactors, is the longest
(130 pages) in the book, and is indeed compre-
hensive. One and two-dimensional pseudohomo-
geneous and heterogeneous models are discussed in
detail, and correlations to estimate transport
parameters for these models are also given.


Chapter 12 deals with non-ideal flow patterns, and
also has a description of the more fundamental
population balance models. Chapters 13 and 14
discuss the modeling of fluid-bed and multiphase
reactors, respectively.
The collection of topics in the book is broader
than in most other books available in the reaction
engineering area, and this is a genuine strength.
Nevertheless, there are omissions, some of which
may also be cited. These include thermodynamics
of chemical reactions (a weakness also in several
other books in the area) ; experimental methods
for measuring transport properties in pellets, and
a comparison of measurements with predictions of
several models that are discussed; metal catalyst
deactivation by sintering. In a book of this type, it
would have also been nice to see, at least for
CSTRs, a more thorough treatment of steady state
multiplicity for single and complex reactions, and
of the complexities of transient behavior that are
possible-but, of course, not everyone shares the
same hobbies.
The preface suggests that the book can be used
at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.
However, in view of the general level and extent of
treatment, I expect that it is appropriate and more
likely to be used as a graduate text. Those engaged
in practice will also find this to be a useful source
of principles and design information, and with the
extensive references provided, an excellent intro-
duction to the research literature.
There are some 112 problems given at the end
of chapters, and a solutions manual is available. O

SELECTED NUMERICAL METHODS AND
COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS

By Huan-Yang Chang, Ira Earl Over
Sterling Swift Publishing Co.
Manchara, Texas 78562
Reviewed by
Charles A. Walker
Yale University

Introductory courses in computer program-
ming necessarily emphasize methods that are
available for solving general classes of problems
without going into detail on the applications of
these methods to the subject matter of specific
disciplines. Since students of any discipline usually
study computer programming at the same time
that they are being introduced to the fundamental


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









concepts and methodologies of a discipline, they
are not prepared to imagine how the solution of
nonlinear equations (for example) might apply to
their discipline. The authors have recognized that
interest in computer programming for students of
chemical engineering might be enhanced if they
could see how the solutions of general classes of
problems developed in computer science courses
apply to chemical engineering. Their book might
be useful for supplementary reading in a course
on computer programming, although it is more
likely to be useful for independent study by stu-
dents in their junior and senior years, or perhaps
for a short course offered in a chemical engineer-
ing department.
The book is at a very elementary level in terms
of both computer programming and chemical en-
gineering. The authors discuss briefly each of sev-
eral general classes of problems and present com-
puter programs (in FORTRAN Extended Version
IV) for specific problems in chemical engineering.
The first chapter, on the solution of nonlinear
equations, for example, includes applications such
as solving the virial equation of state, bubble-point
and dew-point calculations, and simple flash vapor-
ization. Other chapters deal with simultaneous
linear equations, curve fitting, numerical integra-
tion and differentiation, linear interpretation, non-
linear simultaneous equations, and plotting. Ol

LETTER: Dead States
Continued from page 161.
Chemical Availabilities." This choice of reference
state is simple and is comparable with the existing
chemical literature, in particular, data on standard
free energies of formation. More complex or idio-
syncratic reference states defined by European
thermodynamicists [2, 3, 5] have been adopted by
some U.S. authors [4].
The motivation for these complex reference
states appears to be the belief that one needs to and
can calculate an absolute or "actual" availability,
if the "dead" state of the environment is defined.
The "dead" state definition consists of a careful
description of the temperature, pressure, and com-
position of the environment. Once a system's com-
ponents match this state, the system is "dead" as
far as work production in concerned.
The effort to define a "dead" state has yielded
a laborious analysis of the average composition of
the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere to
crustal depths [5], and atmospheric "dead" states
like that reprinted in the review, wherein the at-


mosphere is at 100% humidity, giving the actual
atmosphere a negative availability, in most places
for most of the year; and where the reference
state for CO, requires that tabulated CO2 free
energy must be corrected for the work that may,
in theory but not in practice, be obtained by ex-
panding CO, from one atmosphere to an assigned
atmospheric partial pressure.
There is less utility in computing an "absolute"
or "actual" availability, than in computing an ab-
solute energy. The calculation of the former should
be done, according to Gibbs, with respect to the
"surrounding medium," that is the interacting,
local, environment; which is, of course, so dy-
namic that it is the universal subject of conversa-
tion.
Availabilities like energies have relative
magnitudes, computed with respect to reference
states. A reference state, is a reference state, is a
reference state, and not a "dead" state. If it is
dead now it will quicken as soon as Summer ends
(To = 25C) and the fog lifts (pno = .03 atm).
Sincerely,
Martin V. Sussman
Tufts University
[1] Sussman, M. V., "Availability (Exergy) Analysis,"
Mulliken House, 1361 Mass. Av., Lex, MA (1980)
[2] Szargut, J., Freiberger Forschungshefte, Nr. B6B, S.
81/103 (1962)
[3] Baehr, H. D., and E. F. Schmidt, Brennstoff-Warme-
Kraft, Bd. 15, Nr. 8, 5375/81 (1963)
[4] Gaggioli, R. and P. J. Petit, Chem. Tech., Z, 495-506
(1977)
[5] Ahrendts, J., Veriens Deutscher Ingenieure-For-
schangsheft 579 (1977)

Books received
"Physical Cleaning of Coal: Present and Developing
Methods," edited by Y. A. Liu; Marcel Dekker, Inc., New
York; 552 pages, $75.00 (1982)
"The Oxide Handbook," Second Edition, edited by G. V.
Samsonov; Plenum Publishing Corp., New York; 463 pages,
$75.00 (1982)
"Los Alamos Shock Wave Profile Data," Charles Morris;
Univ. of California Press, Berkeley, CA 94720; 488 pages,
$35.00 (1982)
"Microemulsions," edited by I. D. Robb; Plenum Publish-
ing Corp., New York 10013; 259 pages, $35.00 (1982)
"Plastics Polymer Science and Technology," edited by
Mahendra D. Baijal; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Somerset,
NJ 08873; 945 pages, $150.00 (1982)
"Dust Explosions," Jean Cross, Donald Farrer; Plenum
Publishing Corp., New York 10013; 248 pages, $37.50
(1982)


FALL 1983

















Ii.


GRADUATE PRO


Lodn m c nun o nlnda


! L












Chemical Engineering at



UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


EDMONTON, CANADA


I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota):
Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process
Dynamics and Control, Real-Time
Computer Applications.
M. R. Gray, Ph.D. (CalTech):
Process Development and Simulation,
Natural Gas Processing, Bioengineer-
ing.
C. Kiparissides, Ph.D. (McMaster):
Polymer Reactor Engineering, Op-
timization, Modelling, Stochastic
Control.
D. Lynch, Ph.D. (Alberta): Kinetic
Modelling, Numerical Methods,
Computer Aided Design.
J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (British Colum-
b.a) : Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, Particle-Fluid
Dynamics.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase
Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High
Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil, (Vienna): Heat
Transfer, Transport Phenomena in
Porous Media, Applied Mathematics.
K. Kandakumar, Ph.D. (Princeton):
Fluid Dynamics, Heat Transfer, Pro-
cess Simulation, Enhanced Oil Re-
covery
F. D. Otto (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michi-
gan): Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Re-
actions, Separation Processes, Heavy
Oil Upgrading.
D. Quon, Sc.D. (MIT), Professor Emeri-
tus: Energy Modelling and Economics.
D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan):
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of
Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermody-
namics.
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process
Economics, Energy Economics and
Supply.
S. L. Shah, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear
Systems Theory, Adaptive Control,
Stability Theory, Stochastic Control.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis):
Catalysis, Kinetics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern):
Process Dynamics and Identification,
Control of Distillation Columns,
Computer Aided Design.


Graduate Study
U of A's Chemical Engineering gradu-
ate program offers exciting research
opportunities to graduate students moti-
vated towards advanced training and
research. Graduate programs leading to
the degrees of Master of Science, Master
of Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy
are offered. There are currently 15 full-
time faculty members, a few visiting
faculty, several post-doctoral research
associates and 35 graduate students.



Financial Aid
Financial support is available to full-
time graduate students in the form of
fellowships, teaching assistantships and
research assistantships.



The University of Alberta
U of A is one of Canada's largest
Universities and engineering schools
with total enrollment of over 25,000
students. The campus is located in the
city of Edmonton and overlooks the
scenic North Saskatchewan River Valley.
Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern
city of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a
renowned resident professional theatre,
symphony orchestra and professional
football, hockey and soccer leagues.
The famous Banff and Zasper National
Parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains
are within easy driving distance.





For application forms or
more information, write to

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical
Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6








THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

i TUCSON, AZ




The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

SIMON P. HANSON, Asst. Professor
Sc.D., Massachusetts Inst. Technology, 1982
Coupled Transport Phenomena in Heterogeneous Sys-
tems, Combustion and Fuel Technology, Pollutant
Emissions, Separation Processes, Applied Mathematics

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants,
Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate
Growth Kinetics, Combustion Aerosols


ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

FARHANG SHADMAN, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis

JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics, Interfacial Phenomena


DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.




For further information,
write to:
Dr. T. W. Peterson
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer










ARIZONA STATE

UNIVERSITY

Graduate Programs
for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
in Chemical and Bio Engineering


Research Specializations Include:
ENERGY CONSERVATION ADSORPTION/SEPARATION *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA *
SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
CATALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *

Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly-respected faculty:
James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976
Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966
Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962
Llewellan W. Bezanson, Clarkson College, 1983
Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston, 1980
William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct)
William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967
R. Leighton Fisk, MD, University of Alberta, Canada, 1972
K. Kumar Gidwani, New York University, 1978 (Adjunct)
Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971
James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970
Kim L. Nelson, University of Delaware, 1983
Castle 0. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus)
Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963
Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967
Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
Imre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961
Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.

ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix
metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in
ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study.
Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's
own cultural and recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Imre Zwiebel, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287

RH7








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


THE PROGRAM
The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S and Ph.D.
levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with
modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is
available to qualified students.



THE LOCALE
Auburn University has 19,000 students and is located midway between Atlanta. GA, and Montgomery, AL.
Situated in a beautiful wooded setting, the local population numbers about 75,000 and supports good
shopping and entertainment facilities. The University also sponsors many types of artistic, dramatic,
cultural and sporting events. The combination of good weather and pleasant surroundings make outdoor
activities such as hiking, boating, fishing and camping particularly enjoyable.


THE FACULTY
Robert P. Chambers (University of California, 1965) Enzymatic and Biomedical Engineering, Biomass
Conversion, Adsorption and Ion Exchange.
Christine W. Curtis (Florida State University, 1976) Analytical Methods, Coal Chemistry and Liquefaction,
Catalysis of Hydrocarbon Residuals.
James A. Guin (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Liquefaction, Catalytic Hydrotreating, Reactor Design,
Heat and Mass Transfer.
Leo J. Hirth (University of Texas, 1958) Process and Plant Design, Economics, Oil Reprocessing.
Andrew C. T. Hsu (University of Pennsylvania, 1953) Thermodynamics, Solar Energy, Nucleation and
Crystallization Kinetics.
Y. Y. Lee (Iowa State University, 1972) Biochemical Engineering, Reaction Engineering of Bio-Systems,
Biomass Conversion
Timothy D. Placek (University of Kentucky, 1978) Environmental Pollution, Process Simulation, Multi-
phase Transport Phenomena.
A. R. Tarrer (Purdue University, 1973) Coal Liquefaction, Oil Reprocessing, Solid-Liquid Separations.
Bruce J. Tatarchuk (University of Wisconsin, 1981) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, Spec.
troscopic Characterization of Catalyst Materials.
Donald L. Vives (Columbia University, 1949) Oil Reprocessing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Heat Transfer.
Dennis C. Williams (Princeton University, 1980) Process Dynamics and Control, Reactor Engineering.




Auburn (
Engineering


RESEARCH AREAS
Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Coal Conversion
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Oil Reprocessing
Process Design and Control
Process Simulation
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Separations
Surface Science
Transport Phenomena
Thermodynamics







For financial aid and admission
application forms write:
Dr. R.P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational institution


~ ~j~~








BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

PROVO,UTAH


* Ph.D., M.S., & M.E. Degrees
* ChE. Masters for Chemists Program
* Research Programs


Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Coal Gasification


Combustion
Electrochemical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics


Fossil Fuels Recovery
Thermochemistry &
Calorimetry


* Faculty
D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951)
C. H. Bartholomew, (Ph.D., Stanford, 1972)
M. W. Beckstead, (Ph.D., Utah, 1965)
D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D., Berkeley, 1964)
B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979)
J. J. Christensen, (Ph.D., Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958)
R. W. Hanks, (Ph.D., Utah, 1961)


W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley,
1982)
P. O. Hedman, (Ph.D., BYU, 1973)
J. L. Oscarson, (Ph.D., Michigan, 1982)
R. L. Rowley, (Ph.D., Michigan State,
1978)
P. J. Smith, (Ph.D., BYU, 1979)
L. D. Smoot, (Ph.D., Washington, 1960)
K. A. Solen, (Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1974)


* Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains
* Financial aid available
Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Richard W. Hanks, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Dept. 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602


FALL 1983

















UTHE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY






CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Program of Study
Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Master of Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Both the M.Sc. and Ph.D. programs are on the full-time basis and have
residency requirements. Course work and a research thesis based on an
original investigation are required of each student enrolled in either
degree program. The M.Eng. involves part-time study. It is designed
for those individuals working in the industry who would like to en-
hance their technical education. The M.Eng. thesis is usually on a
design oriented project related to current or anticipated industrial
trends. All the programs are designed to meet the specific interests
and individual needs of the student. The research and computing facili-
ties within the department and the faculty of engineering are excellent
and continuously being upgraded.
Generous fellowships and assistantships are available throughout the
calendar year to qualified applicants. The four month summer months
are usually devoted to active research. Supplementary financial support
may also be available from the research grants of the individual
faculty members.


Research Areas
Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Kinetics and Combustion
Reaction Engineering and Process Control
Flow in Porous Media
Multi-phase Flows in Pipelines
Computer Aided Design of Pipe Networks
Fluidization
Environmental Engineering
In-situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Biorheology and Biochemical Engineering
Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration


Faculty
R. A. HEIDEMANN, Professor and Head D.Sc. (Wash. U.)
A. BADAKHSHAN, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.)
L. A. BEHIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (W. Ont.)
D. W. BENNION, Professor Ph.D. (Penn. St.)
P. R. BISHNOI, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
M. FOGARASI, Sr. Instructor B.Sc. (Alta.)
G. A. GREGORY, Professor Ph.D. (Waterloo)
M. A. HASTAOGLU, Asst. Professor Ph.D. (SUNY)
J. J. HAVLENA, Sr. Instructor D. Sc. (Czech.)
A. A. JEJE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (MIT)
N. G. MCDUFFIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas)
A. K. MEHROTRA Asst. Professor Ph.D. (Calgary)
M. F. MOHTADI, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.)
R. G. MOORE, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
P. M. SIGMUND, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas)
P. M. STANISLAV, Professor Ph.D. (Prague)
W. Y. SVRCEK, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
E. L. TOLLEFSON, Professor Ph.D. (Tor.)


The Community
The university is located in Calgary, Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of over half a million residents combines
the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and the ski
resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of the most
scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in the com-
munity at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations of engi-
neering activity in the country.





Applications
For further information and application material write to:

The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta. T2N 1N4 Canada


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,



BERKELEY...


RESEARCH INTERESTS


ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-
tains.



FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soong
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermeulen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720


FALL 1983










UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media


Program
UC Davis, with 19,000 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

Faculty
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
ROGER B. BOULTON, University of Melbourne
Enology, Fermentation, Filtration, Process Control
BRIAN G. HIGGINS, University of Minnesota
Fluid Mechanics, Coating Flows, Interfacial
Phenomena, Fiber Processes and Refining
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes
DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University
Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.



For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Graduate Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400









CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY






ALIFORNIA






OS


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
graduate programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities.
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research, adding to
the already wide spectrum of research
activities.

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
of tuition and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on
campus.


CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering Department
NGELES "5405 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles CA 90024
Los Angeles. CA 90024


FACULTY
D.T. Allen
Yoram Cohen
S. Fathi-Afshar
T. H. K. Frederking
S.K. Friedlander
E.L. Knuth


Ken Nobe
L.B. Robinson
O.I. Smith
W.D. Van Vorst
V.L. Vilker
A. R. Wazzan
F.E. Yates


RESEARCH AREAS
Thermodynamics and Cryogenics
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering











Graduate Study and Research

in Chemical Engineering



The University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego, is located in La
Jolla, near the northern limits of the city of San Diego. The
thousand-acre campus site spreads from the seashore, home
of UCSD's Scripps Institution of Oceanography, across a large
portion of the adjacent Torrey Pines Mesa, high above the
Pacific Ocean. Much of the land is wooded; to the east and
north lie mountains, to the west the sea. The campus has
grown steadily since it opened in 1964 and now has a faculty
of over 750, an undergraduate enrollment of about 8,800, and
a graduate enrollment of about 2,000.
Excellence in research has been a goal of this institution
since its opening fewer than twenty years ago, and an atmos-
phere of intellectual stimulation pervades the campus. Chemi-
cal engineering is housed in Urey Hall, named after Harold
Urey, the Nobel laureate in chemistry who helped to create
one of the outstanding chemistry departments in the nation in
San Diego. The adjacent physics building, Mayer Hall, takes
its name from two of the founding builders of the Department
of Physics here, Maria (a Nobel laureate) and Joseph Mayer.
The biological sciences are a special strength here, with
strong interaction with the School of Medicine (on campus)
and the Salk Institute (literally across the street). Several
Nobel laureates in the biological sciences are on this campus,
including Dr. Jonas Salk, and Francis Crick.
The chancellor is the chief academic officer of this
campus, and sets the tone and standard of excellence that
characterizes academic pursuits at UCSD. The most recent
former chancellor, who recently returned to his research in
biochemistry, is Dr. William McElroy, who prior to becoming
chancellor in 1972, was head of the National Science Founda-
tion. His successor as chancellor, since 1980, is Dr. Richard
Atkinson, a distinguished psychologist, and himself head of
the National Science Foundation prior to his appointment at
UCSD.



Chemical Engineering
The administrative structure on this campus is nontradi-
tional. Chemical engineering exists not as a department, but
as a formal program within a large broad-based engineering
department.
The Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Sciences (AMES) houses a faculty of thirty who have created
a set of distinct but interacting programs of study in a variety
of fields.
The Department of AMES offers graduate instruction lead-
ing to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the fields of applied
mechanics, bioengineering, chemical engineering, engineering
physics, systems science, and applied ocean science.
The Instructional and research programs are character-
ized by strong interdisciplinary relationships with the Depart-
ments of Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry, with Scripps
Institution of Oceanography, and with associated campus
institutes such as the Energy Center.
Graduate students may work toward an advanced degree
in chemical engineering under the direction of those faculty
appointed formally in chemical engineering, or under the
direction of other AMES faculty whose interests include areas
of study traditionally found in chemical engineering depart-
ments.


University of
California,
San Diego



The Faculty and Their Research Interests
Chau, Pao C.
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering: homogene-
ous and heterogeneous catalysis, membrane science,
transport phenomena, and biochemical engineering.

Gibson, Carl H.
Professor of Che:nical Engineering and Oceanography:
theoretical and experimental studies of turbulence and
turbulent mixing.

Gough, David A.
Associate Professor of Bioengineering: electrochemical
monitoring of biological materials, synthetic membranes,
material properties, enzyme kinetics.

Libby, Paul A.
Professor of Fluid Mechanics: turbulent flows including:
theoretical and experimental studies of variable density
turbulence; turbulent flows involving chemical reactions;
and heat transfer.

Middleman, Stanley
Professor of Chemical Engineering: fluid dynamics, poly-
mer rheology, biochemical engineering (membranes and
enzymes).

Miller, David R.
Professor of Chemical Engineering: gas phase chemical
kinetics and gas-surface interactions, heterogeneous
catalysis.

Olfe, Daniel B.
Professor of Engineering Physics: theoretical fluid
dynamics and heat transfer: capillary instability.

Penner, Stanford S.
Professor of Engineering Physics and Director of the
UCSD Energy Center: high-temperature gas dynamics,
radiative heat transfer; combustion.

Schmid-Schoenbein, Geert W.
Assistant Professor of Bioengineering: microcirculatory
research: theological properties of tissue and blood,
mass transport; mechanics of leukocyte migration.

Sebald, Anthony V.
Associate Professor of Engineering Science: macro
energy and economic policy analysis, environmental
effects of energy systems, solar based energy supply
systems.

Seshadrl, K.
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering: combustion,
high temperature transport phenomena.


For More Information Write To:

Chemical Engineering
AMES B-Q10, UCSD
La Jolla, CA 92093











UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA
___.... --_______ __ :-r!; 'i . '-_


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE
Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Vice Chairman, Nuclear Engineering)
Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis
and Wastes
H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Chemical Reactor Modeling,
Applied Mathematics
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
(Chairman)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical
Reactor Analysis, Transport
Phenomena.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS
Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Dean of Engineering)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

G. ROBERT ODETTE
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.

A. EDWARD PROFIO
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion
Reactors, Radiation Transport
Analyses.

ROBERT G. RINKER
Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.

ORVILLE C. SANDALL
Ph.D. (Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.

DALE E. SEBORG
Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Owen T. Hanna, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


FALL 1983


































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one calendar year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature to the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.

GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.

ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena

L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.

MANFRED MORARI, Professor
Ph.D. (1977), University of Minnesota
Process control; process design


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. G. Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1984.


C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate
Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering;
process design .and development.
JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics: tracer studies
of various environmental and safety related
problems.
GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Assistant Pro-
fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.


W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.




















CARNEGIE-




MELLON




UNIVERSITY




for more information
write to:

Director of Graduate Admissions

Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

Pittsburgh, PA 15213


FACULTY:

JOHN L. ANDERSON
Professor and Head of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. University of Illinois
Research in membranes, transport of
macromolecules and colloids, surface and
electrokinetic phenomena, hindered
diffusion effects in catalysis.
LORENZ T. BIEGLER
Ph.D. University of Wisconsin-Madison
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
Research in optimization methods for process
design, simulation and control; application to
chemical processes.
ETHEL Z. CASASSA
Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
and Director of Colloids, Polymers, and Surface
Program
Ph.D. Columbia University
Research in micellization, solubilization and
adsorption phenomena; physical chemistry
of polymers and interfacial synthesis of
polyesters; aqueous coal slurries.
MICHAEL DOMACH
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. Cornell University
Research in biomedical area includes
molecular biology, fermentation engineering,
enzyme engineering, computer simulation of
metabolism.
IGNACIO E. GROSSMANN
Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. Imperial College, University of London
Research in optimal design of flexible chemical
plants; synthesis of integrated flowsheets;
mixed-integer programming.


RAKESH K. JAIN
Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. University of Delaware
Research in microcirculatory physiology,
transport and growth in normal and
cancerous tissues, pharmacokinetics, thin
liquid films with application in biological
and industrial systems.

MYUNG S. JHON
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. University of Chicago
Research in kinetic theory of fluids, chemical
reactions, and polymer theology, interfacial
dynamics and turbulence.

EDMOND I. KO
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. Stanford University
Research in preparation and characterization
of heterogeneous catalysts, adsorption and
reaction on solid surfaces, and synthesis of
support materials.

KUN LI
Professor of Chemical Engineering
D.Sc. Carnegie-Mellon University
Research in heterogeneous reaction kinetics
in hot gas desulfurization, dry scrubbing,
iron ore reduction, and chalcopyrite
chlorination.

GREGORY J. McRAE
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
and Engineering and Public Policy
Ph.D. California Institute of Technology
Research in mathematical modeling of multi
media systems, sensitivity analysis and
environmental management.


GEOFFREY D. PARFITT
Professor of Chemical Engineering
D.Sc. University of Bristol
Research in colloid and interface science and
technology of organic coatings; stability of
coal/water slurries; powder technology.
GARY J. POWERS
Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. University of Wisconsin
Research in process synthesis; safety and
reliability analysis; reaction path synthesis.
DENNIS C. PRIEVE
Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. University of Delaware
Research in mass transfer and fluid
mechanics applied to aqueous colloidal
systems especially electrokintic phenomena
and chemically driven particle motion.
ROBERT R. ROTHPUS
Professor of Chemical Engineering
D.Sc. Carnegie-Mellon University
Research in fluid mechanics, heat transfer
and mass transfer, process dynamics and
control, and fine-particle technology.
PAUL J. SIDES
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. University of California-Berkeley
Research in electrochemical engineering;
electrolytic gas evolution; molten salt
electrometallurgy.
HERBERT L. TOOR
Mobay Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. Northwestern University
Research in mass and heat transfer, reactive
mixing, synfuels, and combustion.
ARTHUR W. WESTERBERG
Swearingen Professor of Chemical Engineering
Ph.D. Imperial College, University of London
Research in computer-aided design of
chemical processes; process flowsheeting,
optimization, dynamics, synthesis of
energy efficient processes; use of "expert
systems" in process design.


FALL 1983








The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in
Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY
Stanley Cosgrove
Robert Delcamp
Jo0l Fried
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
Sun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Robert Lemlich
William Licht
Joel Weisman

CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concen-
trated polymer solutions.
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis
and morphology of polymer blends.
AIR POLLUTION

ing devices and systems.
TWO-PHASE FLOW
Boiling. Stability and transport
properties of foam.
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF
LIVING HUMAN AND
CORPORATE SYSTEMS FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
Longevity, basal metabolic rate, Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171
and Prigogine's and Shannon's University of Cincinnati
entropy formulae. Cincinnati, OH 45221
MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS
Membrane gas separation, continuous membrane reactor column, equilibrium shift, pervaporation, dy-
namic simulation of membrane separators, membrane preparation and characterization.























Clarkson
aIIIPA 1. -.0 ss

SIPE M.S. and Ph.D. programs
EO Friendly atmosphere
O Vigorous research programs supported by
government and industry
El Proximity to Montreal and Ottawa
S OEl Skiing, canoeing, mountain climbing and other
recreation in the Adirondacks
El Variety of cultural activities with two liberal arts
.7 colleges nearby
SOEl Twenty faculty working on a broad spectrum of
chemical engineering research 'problems

Research Projects are available in:
El Colloidal and interfacial phenomena
El Computer aided design
El Crystallization
El Electrochemical engineering and corrosion
El Heat transfer
El Holographic interferometry
'~ Mass transfer
EO Materials processing in space
El Optimization and control
El Particle separations
El Phase transformations and equilibria
El Polymer processing
El Reaction engineering
El O Turbulent flows
El And more ...

-- Financial aid in the form of instructor-
ships, fellowships, research assistantships
0 and teaching assistantships is available.
11P For more details, please write to:

S Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676










COLORADO O


SCHOOL /


OF I X
1874

MINES COLOAoa
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
P. F. Dickson, Professor and Head; Ph.D., University of
Minnesota. Oil-shale, shale oil processing, petro-
chemical production from shale oil, heat transfer,
heat exchanger design.
J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up-
grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re-
finery processing operations, heavy oil processing.
A. J. Kidnay, Professor and Head; D.Sc., Colorado School
of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived
liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems,
Scryogenic engineering.
E. D. Sloan, Jr., Professor; Ph.D., Clemson University.
Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measurements of
natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates, thermal
conductivity measurements for coal derived fijids,
adsorption equilibria measurements, stagewise pro-
cesses, education methods research.
V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan.
Thermodynamic properties of fluids, especially re-
lating to synthetic fuels. Oil shale and shale oil
processing; numerical methods.
R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Coal liquefaction by direct hydro-
genation, mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics
of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochemistry
to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-derived
asphaltenes.
M. S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro-
cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of
coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading.
M. C. Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Heat transfer and fluid me-
chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer
in porous media, free convection in porous media.
M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State
University. Flow of concentrated fine particulate
. .f *,..' suspensions in complex geometries; Sedimenta-
tion of multisized, mixed density particle suspensions.
S" A. L. Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Chromatographic processes,
.. ..enhanced oil recovery, minerals leaching, liquid
membrane separations, ion exchange equilibria.
S- For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
S. Golden, CO 80401
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


214








0

Colorado State University



Location:
CSU is situated in Fort Collins, a pleasant community of 78,000
people located about 65 miles north of Denver. This site is
adjacent to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in full view
of majestic Long's Peak. The climate is excellent with 300 sunny
days per year, mild temperatures and low humidity. Opportunities
for hiking, camping, boating, fishing and skiing abound in the
immediate and nearby areas. The campus is within easy walking
or biking distance of the town's shopping areas and its new
Center for the Performing Arts.



Degrees Offered:
M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
Chemical Engineering

Financial Aid Available:

Faculty: Teaching and Research Assistantships paying
a monthly stipend plus tuition reimbursement.
Larry Belfiore, Ph. D.,
University of Wisconsin
Bruce Dale, Ph.D.
Purdue University
Jud Harper, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Naz Karim, Ph.D.,
University of Manchester
Terry Lenz, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Jim Linden, Ph.D.,
Iowa State University
Carol McConica, Ph.D.
Stanford University
Vince Murphy, Ph.D.,
University of
Massachusetts Research Areas:
Alternate Energy Sources
Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis
Computer Simulation and Control
Fermentation
Food Engineering
Polymeric Materials
Porous Media Phenomena
Rheology
Solar Cooling Systems
Thermochemical Cycles
Wastewater Treatment


For Applications and Further Information, write:
Professor Vincent G. Murphy
Department of Agricultural and Chemical Engineering
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO 80523


FALL 1983





Chemical Engineering at


CORNELL

UNIVERSITY


A place to grow...


with active research in

biochemical engineering
applied mathematics/computer simulation
energy technology
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science
fluid dynamics
rheo!ogy and biorheology
reactor design
molecular thermodynamics/statistical mechanics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange
individual programs with a core of chemical engineering
courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell
departments including

chemistry
biological sciences
physics
computer science
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
business administration
and others

with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one
of the most scenic regions of the United States.

Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering
(the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program).
Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
Douglas S. Clark, Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert
K. Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill,
William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele,
Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, Paul H. Steen, William B.
Street, Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F.
Wiegandt.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to
Professor Michael L. Shuler
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853






































The &

University

of Delaware

awards three


01I0Cv


duate


degrees for

studies and

practice in

the art and

science of

chemical

engineering.


An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.
A Ph.D. degree for original work presented in a dissertation.


THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE:
Gianni Astarita (1/2 time)
M. A. Barteau
C. E. Birchenall
K. B. Bischoff
C. D. Denson
P. Dhuriati
B. C. Gates
M. T. Klein
R. L. McCullough
A. B. Metzner
J. H. Olson
M. E. Paulaitis
R. L. Pigford
T. W. F. Russell
S. I. Sandier (Chairman)
G. C. A. Schuit (/2 time)
J. M. Schultz
A. B. Stiles (1/2 time)
M. A. Streicher (1/2 time)
R. S. Weber


CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE:
Thermodynamics and Separ-
ation Process
Rheology, Polymer Science
and Engineering
Materials Science and
Metallurgy
Fluid Mechanics, Heat and
Mass Transfer
Economics and Management
in the Chemical Process Industries
Chemical Reaction Engi-
neering, Kinetics and
Simulation
Catalytic Science and
Technology
Biomedical Engineering-
Pharmacokinetics and
Toxicology
Biochemical Engineering-
Fermentation and Computer Control


FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS, WRITE:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711


















NIVE


F


RS


FLORIDA


Gainesville, Florida


Graduate study leading to
ME,MS& PhD

FAC UL T Y
Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor
Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology
Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor
Design/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface Science
Lew Johns Applied Mathematics/ Dale Kirmse
Process Control, Computer Aided Design,
Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor Design,
Catalysis/ Gerasimos K. Lyberatos Optimization,
Biochemical Processes/ Frank May Separations
Ranga Narayanan Transport Phenomena/ John
O'Connell Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics
Dinesh O. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery,
Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros Svoronos
Process Control/ Robert D. Walker Surface
Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/ Gerald
Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Transport
Phenomena


Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611


U


O


ITY



































Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ...


GEORGIA TECH


Atlanta
Ballet
Center for Disease Control
Commercial Center of the South
High Museum of Art
All Professional Sports
Major Rock Concerts and
Recording Studios
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow Skiing within two hours
Stone Mountain State Park
Atlanta Symphony
Ten Professional Theaters
Rambling Raft Race
White Water Canoeing within
one hour


For more information write:
Dr. Gary W Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332


Chemical Engineering
Air Quality Technology
Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis and Surfaces
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Research and Conservation
Fine Particle Technology
Interfacial Phenomena
Kinetics
Mining and Mineral Engineering
Polymer Science and Engineering
Process Synthesis and
Optimization
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reactor Design
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena


TEC








Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston



The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston has developed seven areas of special research
strength:
Chemical Reaction Engineering Catalysis
Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology
Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation
Solid-liquid Separation I
Air Pollution Modeling
Reliability Theory
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering

The department occupies more than 64,000 square feet
and is equipped with more than $2.5 million worth of
experimental apparatus.

Financial support is available to full-time graduate students
with stipends ranging from $8,400 to $13,000 for
twelve months. The faculty:
N. R. Amundson
O. A. Asbjornsen
V. Balakotaiah
E. L. Claridge
J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
R. W. Flumerfelt
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
A. C. Payatakes
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
J. T. Richardson
F. M. Tiller
J. Villadsen
F. L. Worley, Jr.
For more information or application forms write:
Director, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)










GRADUATE STUDY
AND RESEARCH

The Department of
Chemical Engineering
Graduate Programs in
The Department of
Chemical Engineering
leading to the degrees of
MASTER OF SCIENCE and
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


THE

UNIVERSITY

OF

ILLINOIS

AT

CHICAGO


FACULTY AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Francisco J. Brana-Mulero
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980
Assistant Professor
T. S. Jiang
PhD., Northwestern University, 1981
Asssitant Professor
John H. Keifer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor
Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor


The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified candidates.
Special fellowships are available for minority students.
To obtain application forms or to request further
information write:


Process synthesis, operations research, optimal
process control, optimization of large systems,
numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations.
Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
laser diagnostics

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics
of liquids and liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion
Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.



Professor S. Murad, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago
Box 4348,
Chicago, Illinois 60680


I













CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AT THE













URBANA CHAMPAIGN


For application forms and further
information, write to:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Roger Adams Laboratory
1209 W. California
Urbana, Illinois 61801-3791


FACULTY
Richard C. Alkire, Professor
Electrochemical Engineering
Harry G. Drickamer, Professor
High Pressure Studies, Structure
and Properties of Solids
Charles A. Eckert, Professor
and Head
Molecular Thermodynamics,
Applied Chemical Kinetics
Thomas J. Hanratty, Professor
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat
and Mass Transfer


Jonathan J. L. Higdon,
Assistant Professor
Fluid Mechanics, Applied
Mathematics
Richard S. Larson,
Assistant Professor
Chemical Kinetics
Richard I. Masel,
Assistant Professor
Catalysis, Surface Science
Walter G. May
Visiting Professor
Chemical Process Engineering


Anthony J. McHugh,
Professor
Polymer Crystallization, Transport
of Particles
Joseph A. Shaeiwitz,
Assistant Professor
Mass Transfer, Interfacial and
Colloidal Phenomena
Mark A. Stadtherr,
Associate Professor
Process Flowsheeting
and Optimization
James W. Westwater, Professor
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase
Changes

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





Graduate Studies in
Chemical Engineering


Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois


Fac Ity- -- ........
R.L. Beissinger I I
A._-Cinar -
ID. Gidas ow )
I IY t- Id sL- a
J.R.ISelrman I
S.AM Serkan4
B.S.i Swanson (
D.T Wasan
W.. Wigand ( -
C.VWitiman __ I -
Researc Areas
Bioe.hemical-ad- iomedia - ......
Chemical Reaction Engineering
rGo bustion--- -- .- -' ...... . .
Computer-Aided Design I
Electrochemical-Engineering---
Environmnental -
Interfacial and Co loidal
-Phebnrie na- loda 7
Process dynamics and C \
Transpo Ph no r -1


I F_




I ; _

For M Information Write to:
-rC-hemical engineering Department
Graduate Admissions Committee
Illinois Instute of Technology ._. _
I.I.T. Cen- r
Chicago Illinois 60616
U. S.


















p r

^'


I....


f


Our research activities span the papermaking process.7
Su Current research programs underway include:
S- I plant tissue culture surface and colloid science fluid mechanics
environmental engineering polymer engineering heat and mass transfer
S process engineering simulation and control separations science and
reaction engineering.

_IB For further information contact: Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone...414/734-9251


' _/ -
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I
,
"
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Graduate Program for
M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in
Fn Chemical and Materials Engineering

Research Areas ,
jB--hI tI Kineics and Catalysis es
BiomassConversion
Membrane Separations
Particle Morphological Analysis
Air Pollution
-* MassTransferOperations
Numerical Modeling
Particle Technology
AtmosphericTronsport
Bloseparations and Biotechnology
Process Design
SurfaceScience -.
Transport in Porous Media I


For additional informaoon and application write to:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical and Materials Engineering-
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, lowa 52242
319/353-6237
II





THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA













Iowa State

University
Iowa State is an excellent place for
your graduate study. Our facilities are
first-rate and our support for graduate
students is provided by the Engineer-
ing Research Institute, the Ames
Laboratory of the Department of En-
ergy and over 30 industrial firms. We
are located in Ames, a town of about
46,000 offering a wide variety of
outstanding cultural activities.


Please write:
Chair
Department of Chemical
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa 50011

Faculty
William H. Abraham
Renato G. Bautista
Kris A. Berglund
Lawrence E. Burkhart
George Burnet
Charles E. Glatz
James C. Hill
Kenneth R. Jolls
Terry S. King
Maurice A. Larson
Allen H. Pulsifer
Peter J. Reilly
Glenn L. Schrader
Richard C. Seagrave
Dean L. Ulrichson
Thomas D. Wheelock


Engineering




(Purdue)
(Wisconsin)
(Iowa State)
(Iowa State)
(Iowa State)
(Wisconsin)
(Washington)
(Illinois)
(MIT)
(Iowa State)
(Syracuse)
(Pennsylvania)
(Wisconsin)
(Iowa State)
(Iowa State)
(Iowa State)


Research Interests
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis and Kinetics
Coal Technology
Crystallization Technology
Energy Conversion
Fluid Mechanics and Rheology
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Polymer Technology
Process Instrumentation, Optimization and Control
Surface Science
Thermodynamics








Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.

Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
ENERGY ENGINEERING
COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION
THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SOLIDS MIXING
CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS
OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM
ENGINEERING
FLUIDIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL








UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY


DEPARTMENT OF
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs


THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS


J. Berman, Ph.D., Northwestern
Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular
Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation
D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D.
Illinois Institute of Technology
Novel Separation Processes; Membranes;
Water Pollution Control
G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia
Catalytic Hydrocracking of
Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction
C. E. Hamrin, Ph.D., Northwestern
Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Nonisothermal Kinetics


R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern
Process Control and Economics
L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh
Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena
E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State
Electrochemical Processes; Computer
Measurement Techniques and Modeling
A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen
Regime; Transport Phenomena
J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville
Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer;
Fuel Gas Desulfurization


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants
For details write to:
E. D. Moorhead
Director for Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





1~8~511~~IIPgBQ
*ClyYICL -PI~











GRADUATE STUDY IN



CHEMICAL


ENGINEERING


*C1110 FAl A, r am rul1111 1N


PROGRAMS


The Department of Chemical Engineering at
LSU offers the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees through
a broad program of studies that allows students
to concentrate on their particular interests.
Some 100 master's and doctoral candidates
are presently training and studying within the
department.
FACULTY AND RESEARCH
A strong faculty, with diverse research inter-
ests, provides a broad base of expertise from
which thesis or dissertation topics can be cho-
sen. Current faculty research interests include
biochemical processes, catalysis, combustion,
computer-aided design, optimization, pollution
dynamics and control, process control and
simulation, reactor design, separation science,
sugar technology, thermodynamic properties,
and transport phenomena. Collaborative re-
search projects are also conducted in associa-
tion with the Audubon Sugar Institute, Hazard-
ous Waste Research Center, Center for Energy
Studies, Coastal Studies Institute, Water Re-
sources Institute, Mining and Minerals Re-
sources Research Institute, and other LSU or-
ganizations.


FINANCIAL AID

Financial support is usually available to
high-ranking graduates of U.S. universities.
The prestigious Alumni Federation Fellowships
provide stipends of $10,000 a year for four
years, tax exempt, and are available to out-
standing Ph.D. candidates. Full-time graduate
students receiving fellowships or assistant-
ships are also exempt from tuition and most
University fees.

THE COMMUNITY
The University is located in proximity to the
corridor of petrochemical industries stretching
north of Baton Rouge down the Mississippi
River to the fringes of New Orleans. Some 280
chemical plants and refineries within this com-
plex enjoy technological rapport and exchange
with the University and the Department of
Chemical Engineering.
Baton Rouge, with a metropolitan population
of about 400,000, is in the middle of Louisiana,
a sportsman's paradise of hunting, fishing, and
water recreation in the nearby lakes, bayous,
marshes, and the Gulf of Mexico.


For further information, write
Director of Graduate Instruction
Department of Chemical Engineering
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA 70803


FALL 1983











0 University of Maine at Orono


M.S. AND PH.D.
PROGRAMS IN
CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING


* Sponsored projects val-
ued at $1 million per year
are in progress.
* Faculty is supported by
extensive state-of-the-art
facilities.
* Relevancy of the Depart-
ment's research is in-
sured by continuous liai-
son with engineers arid
scientists from industry
who help guide the fac-
ulty concerning emerg-
ing needs and activities
of other laboratories.
* Several research and
teaching assistantships
are available.
* Outstanding candidates
(GPA greater than 3.75/
4.00) wishing to pursue
the Ph.D. are invited to
apply for President's Fel-
lowships which provide
$4000 per year in addi-
tion to regular stipend
and free tuition.


THE FACULTY AND
THEIR RESEARCH



Dr. William H. Ceckler
Sc.D., MIT, 1960
Flow through porous media
Paper manufacture
Process simulation

Dr. Albert Co
Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1979
Transport phenomena
Polymeric fluid dynamics
Rheology

Dr. Arthur L. Fricke
Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1962
Properties of polymeric
systems
Polymer processing and
design
Rheology of polymeric
fluids

Dr. Joseph M. Genco
Ph.D., Ohio State, 1965
Process engineering
Pulp and paper technology
Wood delignification

Dr. John C. Hassler
Ph.D., Kansas State, 1966
Process analysis and
*asjin^


numerical methods
Instrumentation and real-
time computer
applications

Dr. Marqueta K. Hill
Ph.D., U of California,
1966
Black liquor chemistry
Pulping chemistry
Ultrafiltration

Dr. John J. Hwalek
Ph.D., Illinois, 1982
Process control systems
Alternative energy
resources

Dr. Erdogan Kiran
Ph.D., Princeton, 1974
Polymer physics and
chemistry
Pulp and paper technology
Thermal analysis and
pyrolysis

Dr. Kenneth I. Mumme
Ph.D., Maine, 1970
Process modeling and
control
System identification and
optimization

Dr. Hemant Pendse
Ph.D., Syracuse, 1980
Porous media modeling


Colloidal phenomena
Particulate systems

Dr. Ivar H. Stockel
Sc.D., MIT, 1959
Pulp and paper technology
Applied mathematics
Droplet formation

Dr. Edward V. Thompson
Ph.D., Brooklyn
Polytech., 1962
Polymer material properties
Membrane separation
processes
Paper manufacture



For information brochure
and application materi-
als contact:

Dr. Hemant Pendse,
Chemical Engineering
Department
University of Maine
at Orono
Orono, ME 04469
207/581-2290







University of Maryland


','F -- -, -,.'.
-' .r ..
I.- -










Faculty:
Robert B. Beckmann
Theodore W. Cadman
Richard V. Calabrese
Larry L. Gasner
James W. Gently
Albert Gomezplata
Randolph T. Hatch
Juan Hong
Thomas J. McAvoy
Thomas M. Regan
Wilburn C. Schroeder
Theodore (U. Smith
Robert White


Location:
The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles
1'rom the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent public
I transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as
the Smithsonian. National Gallery, Congress, White House,
\ rli ngton ('emet enr. and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west
produces some of the Iinest mountain scenery and recreational
opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east
brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay with its delicious
sea food.
Degrees Offered:
.-.:. M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
S. Chemical Engineering.


Financial Aid Available:
Teaching and Research Assistantships
at $6,800. plus tuition reimbursement
are available.

'.. : .. -
.


Research Areas:
Aerosol Mechanics
Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
Biomedical Engineering
Fermentation
SLaser Anemometry
Mass Transfer
Polymer Processing
Risk Assessment
Separation Processes
Simulation


For Applications and Further Information, Write:
I'rol'essor Th iima- .J. McAvoy
Iepart me n oI C chemical and Nuclear Engineering
University of Marynland
College Park, Md. 21742


-- .. 1.
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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS

Amherst
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer
engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research
in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or our prestigious
Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid in the form of research assistantships and
teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation
with one or more of the faculty listed below.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING *


W. C. CONNER
Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion
M. F. DOHERTY
Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design
J. M. DOUGLAS
Process design and control, Reactor engineering
J. W. ELDRIDGE
Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria
V. HAENSEL
Catalysis, Kinetics
R. S. KIRK
Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors
J. R. KITTRELL (Adjunct Professor)
Kinetics and catalysis, Catalyst deactivation
R. L. LAURENCE*
Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics
R. W. LENZ*
Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization


M. H. LOCKE
Computer-aided design
M. F. MALONE
Rheology, Polymer processing, Design
P. A. MONSON
Statistical mechanics of gases
K. M. NG
Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows
J. M. OTTINO*
Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering
F. I. SHINSKEY (Adjunct Professor)
Process Control
M. VANPEE
Combustion, Spectroscopy
H. H. WINTER*
Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer
B. E. YDSTIE
Process Control


* POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING *


J. C. W. CHIEN
Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers,
Polymer degradation
R. FARRIS
Polymer composites, Mechanical
properties, Elastomers
S. L. HSU
Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis
F. E. KARASZ
Polymer transitions, Polymer blends,
Conducting polymers
W. J. MacKNIGHT
Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers


T. J. McCARTHY
Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces
M. MUTHUKUMAR
Statistical mechanics of polymer
solutions, gels, and melts
R. S. PORTER
Polymer rheology, Polymer processing
R. STEIN
Polymer crystallinity and morphology,
Characterization
E. L. THOMAS*
Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology,
x-Ray Scattering


*Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering

For further details, please write to:


Prof. J. W. Eldridge
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0276


Prof. E. Thomas
Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0433


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT

FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS


J. Wei, Department Head
M. Alger
R. C. Armstrong
R. F. Baddour
J. M. Be6r
J. F. Brady
H. Brenner
R. A. Brown
R. E. Cohen
C. K. Colton
C. Cooney
W. M. Deen
L. B. Evans
T. A. Hatton
H. C. Hottel
J. B. Howard


G. A. Huff, Jr.
M. Kramer
J. P. Longwell
H. P. Meissner
E. W. Merrill
C. M. Mohr
R. C. Reid
A. F. Sarofim
C. N. Satterfield
H. H. Sawin
K. A. Smith
U. W. Suter
J. W. Tester
P. S. Virk
J. E. Vivian
D. I. C. Wang
G. C. Williams


Biomedical Engineering
Biotechnology
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Combustion
Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemistry
Energy Conversion
Environmental
Fluid Mechanics
Integrated Circuit Processing
Kinetics and Reaction Engineering
Polymers
Process Dynamics and Control
Surfaces and Colloids
Transport Phenomena


.rncgnUrnMM


Photo by James Wei


MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in
Albany, New York, the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and
Brookhaven National Lab at Long Island, New York.

For Information
Chemical Engineering Headquarters
Room 66-350
MIT
Cambridge, MA 02139


FALL 1983






* McMASTER UNIVERSITY


M.ENG.
AND
PH.D.
PROGRAMS
PROCESS AND ENERGY
ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL REACTION
ENGINEERING AND CATALYSIS
COMPUTER CONTROL,
SIMULATION AND
S OPTIMIZATION
POLYMER ENGINEERING
S * BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
WATER AND WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION,
PLEASE CONTACT:
CH+RMAN
DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
McMASTER UNIVERSITY
HAMILTON, ONTARIO, CANADA L8S 4L7


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










Chemical

Engineering

At The

University

Of Michigan


THE FACULTY
Dale Briggs
Louisville, Michigan
Brice Carnahan
Case-Western, Michigan
Rane Curl
MIT
Francis Donahue
LaSalle, UCLA
H. Scott Fogler
Illinois, Colorado
Erdogan Gulari
Robert, Cal Tech
Robert Kadlec
Wisconsin, Michigan
Donald Katz
Michigan
Lloyd Kempe
Minnesota
Costas Kravaris
Athens, Cal Tech
John Powers
Michigan, Berkeley
Jerome Schultz, Chairman
Columbia, Wisconsin
Johannes Schwank
Innsbruck
Maurice Sinnott
Michigan
Rasin Tek
Michigan
Henry Wang
Iowa State, MIT
James Wilkes
Cambridge, Michigan
Brymer Williams
Michigan
Gregory Yeh
Holy Cross, Cornell, Case
Edwin Young
Detroit, Michigan
Robert Ziff
Rockefeller, UCLA


THE RESEARCH PROGRAM
Laser Light Scattering
Reservoir Engineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Thrombogenesis
Microemulsions
Applied Numerical Methods
Dynamic Process Simulation
Ecological Simulation
Electroless Plating
Electrochemical Reactors
Polymer Physics
Polymer Processing
Composite Materials
Coal Liquefaction
Coal Gasification
Acidization
Biochemical Engineering
Periodic Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Transport In Membranes
Flow Calorimetry
Ultrasonic Emulsification
Heat Exchangers
Renewable Resources


For

Tomorrows

Engineers

Today


THE PLACE

Department of Chemical Engineering
Dow Building
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109

For information call 313/763-1148 collect


I









GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT






MICHIGAN STATE



UNIVERSITY ... .
FOUNDED
The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State Y
University has assistantships and fellowships available for
students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these
appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain
the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two to three
additional years.

ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $800.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S.
degree and approximately $870.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject
covered by the research assistantship. Non-resident tuition is waived.

FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $15,000 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year.


CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0


D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman
Ph.D., University of Washington
Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio-
vascular Physiology, Diffusion in Polymers
D. BRIEDIS
Ph.D., Iowa State University
Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living
Systems, Biorheology, Mass Transfer in Biological
Mineralization
R. E. BUXBAUM
Ph.D., Princeton University
Chemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion, Dif-
fusivities and Separation Rates from Theory and Ex-
periment.
C. M. COOPER
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of
Transport Processes
A .L. DeVERA
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame
Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Trans-
port Properties of Random Heterogeneous Media,
Applied Mathematics, Catalytic Gasification of Carbon,
Shape Selectivity Reactions on Zeolites


E. A. GRULKE
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Food Engineering, Membranes Separations, and
Polymer Engineering
M. C. HAWLEY
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas,
and Reaction Engineering
K. JAYARAMAN
Ph.D., Princeton University
Simplification of Process Models, Parameter
Estimation, Rheology of Suspensions and Polymers
D. J. MILLER
Ph.D., University of Florida
Catalytic Reaction Kinetics and Catalyst
Characterization, Gas-Solid Reactions, and
Modeling of Stochastic Processes
C. A. PETTY
Ph.D., University of Florida
Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena,
Solid-Fluid Separations
B. W. WILKINSON
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear
Reactor, and Radioisotope Applications


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
173 Engineering Building, Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1226

MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





University of Minnesota


Chemical Engineering and

Materials Science


Chemical Engineering
Program


Materials Science
Program


Process Control
Synthesis, Design


Fluid Thermodynamics
Fluid Mechanics
Heat and Mass Transfer
0S i+! l R J, h k ;i


Polymer Science
Polymer Processes


Physical and Mechanical
Metallurgy


Thermodynamics of Solids
Diffusion and Kinetics


Bioengineering Biomedical Dental Materials
Biochemical, Biomedical Materials Artifical Organ Materials


THE FACULTY


R.Aris
R.W. Carr, Jr.
E.L. Cussler
J.S. Dahler
H.T. Davis
D.F. Evans
A. Franciosi
A.G. Frederickson
C.J. Geankoplis


W.W. Gerberich
G.L. Griffin
W-S. Hu
K.F. Jensen
K.H. Keller
C.W. Macosko
M.E. Nicholson
R.A. Oriani


WE. Ranz
L.D. Schmidt
L.E. Scriven
D.A. Shores
J.M. Sivertsen
R.W Staehle
M.V. Tirrell
J.H. Weaver
ST. Wellinghoff


For information and application forms,
write:
Graduate Admissions
Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science
University of Minnesota
421 Washington Ave. S.E.
Minneapolis, MN. 55455


burrace science
Microelectronics
Preparation Processes
Polymer Films


Reaction Engineering i Electrochemical Corrosion
Kinetics Processes Materials Failure

I I TI


Metals, Semiconuciors
Thin films
Microelectronic Materials
Magentic Materials


Colloid and Interface Science
Surfactancy
Capillary Hydrodynamics
Adhesion and Surface Forces
Coating Flows


Sols, Gels
Dispersions Ceramics
Sol-Gel Films I









Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI


ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401


Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman


Day Programs


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


D. AZBEL (D.Sc., Mendeleev ICT-Moscow)-Dis-
persed Two-Phase Flow, Coal Gasification and
Liquefaction.

N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado)-Computer Aided
Process Design, Bioconversion.

O. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice)-Transport Properties,
Kinetics, Catalysis.

M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida)-Biochemical
Studies, Biomass Utilization

J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. lllinois-Chicago)-Chemical
kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo-
dynamics.

J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode Re-
actions, Corrosion.

A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich)-Adsorption,
Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor
Design.

J. M. D. MAC ELROY (Ph.D., University College
Dublin)-Transport Phenomena, Heterogeneous
Catalysis, Drying, Statistical Mechanics.


D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics,
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium.

P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-lnterfacial
Phenomena

G. K. PATTERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Turbu-
lence, Mixing, Mixed Reactors, Polymer Rheology.

B. E. POLING (Ph.D., Illinois)-Kinetcis, Energy
Storage, Catalysis.

X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota)-Fluid Me-
chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena,
Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure.

O. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Bioengineer-
ing

R. C. WAGGONER (Ph.D., Texas A&M)-Multi-
stage Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Ex-
traction, Process Control.

H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse)-
Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech-
nology, Plasma Polymerization, Biomedical Ma-
terials.


Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


- ROLLA




Full Text