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Chemical engineering education

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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Genre:
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

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Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
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TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

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Chemical Engineering Documents

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chemical engineering education


VOLUME XVI


NUMBER 4


FALL 1982


GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE


Reg ctch Oa@..

OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OVER FERRITE CRYSTALS.
NUCLEATE BOILING .
MASS TRANSFER .


Goa44e in ...

FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM
AIR POLLUTION FOR ENGINEERS
CATALYSIS .


PRODUCTION


Hightower
* Maoer
. Welland, Taylor





. Dullien
. Seapan
. Skates


SPOLYRnm A ...

POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


. Baird, Wilkes


RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING Fenn
MINE MOUTH GEYSER PROBLEM DeNevers
GRADUATE EDUCATION IN MEXICO Martinez, Gomez
1981 AIChE-EPC SURVEY a Barker




GCC
ac4uwdleSes and tanhS....



3M COMPANY

CONOCO INC.

SUN COMPANY, INC.




CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
mait a doA-sa oj wu'A.












Cddaiz tat


A Letter to Chemical Engineering Seniors
This is the 14th Graduate Issue to be published by CEE
and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous
issues, we include articles on graduate courses and re-
search at various universities and announcements of de-
partments on their graduate programs. In order for you to
obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue,
but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from
recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a pre-
vious Fall issue, please write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida


AUTHOR


Abbott
Butt, Kung

Chen, et al
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al
Thomson
Bartholomew
Hassler
Miller
Wankat
Wolf


Bird
Edgar, Schecter
Hanratty
Kenney
Kershenbaum,
Perkins, Pyle
Liu
Peppas
Rosner
Lees
Senkan, Vivian


Culberson
Davis
Frank
Morari, Ray

Ramkrishna
Russel, Saville,
Ollis,
Schowalter
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen


Aris


Butt & Peterson
Kabel

Middleman

Perlmutter

Rajagopalan

Wheelock
Carbonell &
Whitaker


TITLE


Fall 1981
"Classical Thermodynamics"
"Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction
Engineering"
"Parametric Pumping"
"Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation"
"Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization"
"Oil Shale Char Reactions"
"Kinetics and Catalysis"
"ChE Analysis"
"Underground Processing"
"Separation Processes"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
Fall 1980
"Polymer Fluid Dynamics"
"In Situ Processing"
"Wall Turbulence"
"Chemical Reactors"
"Systems Modelling & Control"

"Process Synthesis"
"Polymerization Reaction Engineering"
"Combustion Science & Technology"
"Plant Engineering at Loughborough"
"MIT School of ChE Practice"
Fall 1979
"Doctoral Level ChE Economics"
"Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics"
"Courses in Polymer Science"
"Integration of Real-Time Computing
Into Process Control Teaching"
"Functional Analysis for ChE's"


"Colloidal Phenomena"
"Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Mathematical Methods in ChE"
"Coal Liquefaction Processes"


Dumesic


Jorne
Retzloff

Blanch, Russell
Chartoff



Alkire
Bailey & Ollis
DeKee
Deshpande
Johnson
Klinzing
Lemlich
Koutsky
Reynolds
Rosner




Astarita
Delgass
Gruver
Liu
Manning
McCoy
Walter



Corripio
Donaghey
Edgar
Gates, et al.
Luks
Melnyk & Prober
Tavlarides
Theis
Hamrin, et. al.


Fall 1978
"Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes
on Seminars in a ChE Department'
"Chemical Reactor Engineering"
"Influential Papers in Chemical Re-
action Engineering"
"A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro-
cessing"
"Reactor Design From a Stability
Viewpoint"
"The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal
Systems"
"Coal Science and Technology"
"Transport Phenomena in Multicom-
ponent, Multiphase, Reacting
Systems"


Fall 1977
"Fundamental Concepts in Surface In-
teractions"
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Chemical Reaction Engineering Sci-
ence"
"Biochemical Engineering"
"Polymer Science and Engineering"


Fall 1976

"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum Trans-
port"

Fall 1975
"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"


Fall 1974
"Digital Computer Control of Process"
"Solid-State Materials and Devices"
"Multivariable Control and Est."
"Chemistry of Catalytic Process"
"Advanced Thermodynamics"
"Wastewater Engineering for ChE's"
"Enzyme and Biochemical Engr."
"Synthetic & Biological Polymers"
"Energy Engineering"


FALL 1982










Read any best-sellers



lately?


These DOW CAREERS booklets can help college graduates


CHEMICAL ENGINEERS-CHEMISTS
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DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.
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01981. The Dow Chemical Company











EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Editorial & Business Assistant:
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CENTRAL:
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Illinois Institute of Technology
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University of Michigan
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Purdue University

WEST:
William B. Krantz
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NORTHEAST:
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LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE
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Chemical Engineering Education


VOLUME XVI


NUMBER 4


FALL 1982


RESEARCH ON

148 Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts,
Joe W. Hightower

152 Nucleate Boiling, Russell Mesler
158 Mass Transfer, Ralph H. Weiland and Ross Taylor

COURSES IN
164 Fundamentals of Petroleum Production,
F. A. L. Dullien

168 Air Pollution for Engineers, Mayis Seapan

178 Catalysis, J. M. Skaates

A PROGRAM IN

174 Polymer Education and Research
Donald G. Baird and Garth L. Wilkes


DEPARTMENTS

182 Curriculum
1981 AIChE-EPC Survey, Dee H. Barker

186 Class and Home Problems
Mine Mouth Geyser Problem, Noel De Nevers

190 Stirred Pots
Research is Engineering, John B. Fenn

196 International
Graduate Education in Mexico,
Enrico N. Martinez and Roman Gomez

157 In Memoriam William H. Corcoran

167 Division Activities

167-205 Book Reviews

172 Positions Available

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1982 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


FALL 1982










Rieeaacw on


OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION

OVER FERRITE CATALYSTS


JOE W. HIGHTOWER
Rice University
Houston, TX 77001

A COMPLETE STUDY OF heterogeneous catalytic
reactions should include the reaction path-
ways, kinetics, mechanisms, rate limiting steps,
nature of the active sites, solid state effects, de-
activation, and transport properties. It is
normally very difficult to obtain reliable informa-
tion about all these factors for a single system.
However, in the case of butadiene production
from n-butenes via catalytic oxidative dehydro-
genation, we have been able to approach this ob-
jective. The purpose of this paper is to summarize
results obtained during the last several years with
ferrite catalysts [1, 2].

CATALYTIC ROUTES TO BUTADIENE
Two major catalytic approaches have been
used commercially to prepare butadiene. The first


Joe W. Hightower received his B.S. in Chemistry and Math at
Harding College and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry at The
Johns Hopkins University. He has been a Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Rice University since 1970. He has served on numerous
committees, is Chairman of the ACS Petroleum Research Fund Ad-
visory Board for 1982-1984, and received the 1982 Jefferson Award
for Public Service in Houston. His research interests include hetero-
geneous catalysis, mechanisms of catalytic reactions, kinetics and ad-
sorption in heterogeneous systems, and isotopic tracer techniques. He
was the recipient of the 1973 Award in Petroleum Chemistry.


is direct dehydrogenation over a chromia/alumina
or promoted iron oxide catalyst [3, 4], viz.


C4H8 C4H6 + H2


K371C_ 04


Although the reaction is relatively selective, it
suffers from being thermodynamically limited
(requires high temperature and low partial pres-
sures), endothermic (requires addition of costly
heat), and coke-forming (loss of hydrocarbons).
A second approach involves addition of oxygen
to the feed hydrocarbon stream to remove the
hydrogen as water, viz.


C4H8 + 1/2 02-C4H6 H20

*CO2 + H20


Kvic- +13


In contrast to straight dehydrogenation, this re-
action (2) is essentially irreversible and auto-
thermal. Unfortunately, the addition of gaseous
oxygen can lead to deep oxidation (total com-
bustion to CO2 and H20, as illustrated in reaction
(3). This reaction of course decreases the yield
of butadiene. In fact, from the equilibrium
constants given in Eqs. (2) and (3), it is obvious
that only CO, and HO2 would be the products if
thermodynamics alone were controlling the
product selectivity. Of the several catalysts that
give good selectivities (>90% butadiene at low
conversion), ferrites are among the most notable.
Ferrites are well-crystallized spinel oxides (or
partially inverted spinels) that have the general
formula


M Fe2 04


where M can be any of a number of alkaline earth
or transition metal ions, e.g. Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, etc.
The work described herein will be limited to mag-
nesium ferrite.


( Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


K37IC-1*21 (3)









REACTION PATHWAYS


When oxygen and butenes are passed over
MgFe204, both the desired butadiene and some
by-product CO2 are formed. The CO2 may come
directly from burning butene (reaction II) or
from burning the product butadiene (reaction
III), as illustrated by the scheme


C4H8 -- (C4H6)


co 2


By adding a small amount of very highly radio-
active butadiene to the reactant butene/02 mix-
ture and examining the radioactivity in the CO2
as a function of time, one can quantitatively deter-
mine the relative reaction rates [5]. If none of the
radioactivity appears in the CO2, the rate ratio rm/
rn- = 0. For maximum production of butadiene
in this case, one would want to carry out the re-
action at the highest possible conversion. On the
other hand, if all the CO2 were formed by burning
butadiene, the initial specific activity of the CO,
(after correction for the different number of
C atoms in the two molecules) would be exactly
the same as that of the butadiene from which
it was exclusively formed. The rate ratio rIm/
rn in this case would be infinity.
In our case with magnesium ferrite [1] the
rate ratio rm1/rI is about 1.5 at approximately
50% conversion of the butene. This implies the
existence of an optimal degree of conversion in
order to maximize butadiene yield. Too high a
conversion will raise the product butadiene con-
centration to the point where it will be rapidly
combusted to CO2. Moreover, a plug flow reactor
will give a much higher selectivity to butadiene
than will a CSTR. It is also advantageous to add
the reactive oxygen a little at a time at various
points along the reactor bed instead of carrying
the entire lot of 02 all the way through the reactor
where it can cause combustion. Steam also helps
to moderate the exothermic reaction and minimize
hot spot formation.

KINETICS
Over MgFeO4 the major OXD reaction (2)
is zero order in oxygen and near first order in
the partial pressure of n-butene. Neither CO, nor
butadiene affects the rate significantly in the pres-


Since electrical conductivity
is primarily a surface phenomenon,
we postulated that there should be notable
changes in this parameter as the catalyst is
transformed from the oxidized to
the reduced state.


sure range studied. The reaction orders were de-
termined by varying the partial pressures one
at a time (making sure not to get into the ex-
plosion regime!) and noting the effect on the
initial reaction rate. These results suggest a Lang-
muir-Hinshelwood model with the 02 and C4H.
being adsorbed noncompetitively on neighboring
sites. If the 02 were adsorbed dissociatively, the
rate equation can be written as


2V KBPB
rBD= B Bp OB (6)

where K02 and KB are the adsorption equilibrium
constants for 02 and butene, respectively, and k
is the zero order Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate
constant. The O's are fraction coverage of the re-
spective surface sites by oxygen and butene. When
02 is strongly adsorbed (i.e. VKo,02> >1) and
butene is weakly adsorbed (i.e. KBPB<<1), the
rate of butadiene formation rB, reduces to


rBD 2 k KB PB


which fits the observed kinetic data.
At higher partial pressures, terms must be
added in the denominator to account for inhibi-
tion by steam and butadiene.

MECHANISM, RATE LIMITING STEP
During the OXD reaction at temperatures as
high as 4000C, there is very little isomerization
of the n-butenes. For example, if the starting
hydrocarbon is 1-butene, it remains 1-butene
until it either is partially oxidized to butadiene
or burned to CO2. Very few 2-butenes are ob-
served. This implies that the reaction may be
relatively simple with two H atoms being removed
as shown below.


C=C-C-C
I I
H H
It #


FALL 1982









A mixture of 1:1 = CIHs:C4Ds (in presence of a
stoichiometric amount of 02) was used to test this
reaction scheme. Indeed there was essentially no
scrambling of H and D atoms among the mole-
cules, as the only OXD products formed were
C4H6 and CDe. Furthermore, the lightweight
C4H8 molecules reacted about 2.5 times more
rapidly than did the heavier C4D, molecules, which
indicates a large primary kinetic isotope effect
and pinpoints the rate limiting step in the reaction.

C4H )H (2.) (9)
C4D8 I C4D6 I

Since the C-D bond has a lower zero point energy
than does the C-H bond [6], such an isotope effect
would be expected if cleavage of a carbon-hydro-
gen bond were involved in the rate limiting step.
In other words, C-D bonds are more difficult to
break than are C-H bonds.
This kind of information is useful in develop-
ment of more active catalysts. If one could in-

CONDUCTIVITY, Mhos.
o a
S w> OXIDIZED, EVACUATED
m .... 2- BUTENE


"' EVACUATE D


ATED
C41H,


0 EVACU
i ;


zo
o


0
o
0


pi I '


- rO oi -I
0 0 0 0
PARTIAL PRES.,


0
TORR.


FIGURE 1. Electrical conductivity measurements on
pellet of CoFe204 at 4000 C; effect of change in
gaseous environment. (Note: This figure should be
rotated 900 and read with "Time, Mins" at the bottom.)


clude in the catalyst recipe a pinch of C-H bond
breaking ability and still keep all other parameters
the same, a more active catalyst should result.
Such information is critical in establishing the
point where additional research may be pro-
ductive.

ACTIVE SITES
Much previous research has clearly es-
tablished that this type of general reaction in-
volves an oxidation/reduction cycle with some
component of the catalyst being alternately
oxidized and reduced [7-9]. Chemical intuition
would suggest that it is the iron switching between
the Fe+2 and Fe+3 states that provides this
property. Magnesium is not easily reduced. Such
a switch might occur if oxygen were alternately
added to and removed from the surface. In other
words, a reduced Fe+2 might react with gaseous
02 to form an oxide surface species, viz.


Fe2 *2. 1 02 -- Fe.3 O


These 0- ions might then dissociate the C-H bonds
in butene to form an adsorbed C4H, species and an
OH- ion. A second such hydroxyl ion formation
would result in adsorbed C4H6 (perhaps negatively
charged) which can release an electron to reduce
the Fe+3 back to Fe2+ and finally desorb into the
gas phase as butadiene. Two OH groups might
coalesce to split out HO and regenerate the site
on which more 02 can adsorb.
Evidence for this sequence of events comes
from some electrical conductivity measurements
made with a cobalt ferrite catalyst [10]. Since
electrical conductivity is primarily a surface phe-
nomenon, we postulated that there should be
notable changes in this parameter as the catalyst
is transformed from the oxidized to the reduced
state. To test this, a pellet of the catalyst was
prepared by compressing the powder in an infra-
red pellet press. Two electrical leads were at-
tached, and the pellet was placed inside a reactor
connected to a vacuum system through which
different gases could be admitted.
The pellet was first exposed to oxygen and
evacuated at about 4000C. Presumably this left
the catalyst surface in a fully oxidized state, Fe*3.
The conductivity was low and remained low during
the evacuation. However, when 2-butene was ad-
mitted at the same temperature (see point B,
Figure 1), the conductivity rapidly increased. At


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


4AI


P0


m -










From this information one can draw a cyclic representation of the chemistry that is occurring.
Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on active centers located near the edge of a crystallite. In the
reduced state a surface oxygen ion is missing anionn vacancy, O). If the lattice were to be continued in the
vertical direction, another iron atom would be located above the oxide layer (cation vacancy 0), ..


the same time, a small amount of butadiene was
observed to form in the reactor. The amount cor-
responded approximately to 1 butadiene mole-
cule/surface O atom (assuming the surface is
covered with O- ions each occupying 10A2 of sur-
face space). This would leave the surface in a "re-
duced" state according to the equation

FeO3 + C4H8 Fe+2 C4H6 + H20 (II)
By moving in the direction of a more "metallic-
like" reduced surface, one might expect the ma-
terial to be a better conductor than in the oxide
state, as was observed. The slow increase in the
conductivity after the initial rapid rise may have
been due to slow removal of bulk O atoms.
Addition of O, (Point D) quickly returned
the catalyst to its oxidized condition, which it re-
tained during brief evacuation.
At Point E a stoichiometric mixture for the
OXD reaction (C4Hs:02 = 2:1) was admitted,
and both reactions (2) and (3) proceeded. Be-
cause the deep oxidation reaction (3) requires a
lot of oxygen, the gaseous 02 is depleted before
the butene is all consumed (Point F). At this
point, reactions (2) and (3) cease, and the
catalyst is reduced by the unreacted butene, as in
reaction (11). Accordingly, the conductivity in-
creases rapidly. Note that so long as there is any
gaseous 0., the catalyst remains in the fully
oxidized state. This is evidence that oxygen is
very strongly adsorbed.

OXD REACTION CHEMISTRY
From this information one can draw a cyclic
representation of the chemistry that is occurring.
Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on
active centers located near the edge of a crystal-
lite. In the reduced state a surface oxygen ion is
missing anionn vacancy, 0). If the lattice were
to be continued in the vertical direction, another
iron atom would be located above the oxide layer
(cation vacancy, 0), as shown below.


0/
Fe-


C0H8


C0 -H C046 H
0 H H/ '0 0
F0 0 ,, 1


C40H
/ F-3


C060
/ N BF,


1/2 02



2Fe'2 *2 FeH20
FIGURE 2. Proposed cyclic scheme for OXD reaction
occurring on MgFe24O catalyst. Oxidation/
reduction of Fe, adsorption/desorption
from cation vacancy U and anion vacancy
O active site pairs. The symbol A indicates
rate limiting step.
These two vacancies are assumed to be the inde-
pendent sites suggested by the Langmuir-Hinshel-
wood kinetics. Butene presumably adsorbs re-
versibly on the cation sites, and 02 reacts with
the anion vacancy to oxidize the Fe+2 to Fe+3. As
the reaction progresses in a clockwise direction
(see Figure 2), two H atoms are sequentially re-
moved from the butene and placed on the oxide
ions. Reduction occurs when the butadiene is re-
leased into the gas phase, and condensation of
two hydroxyl groups (along with water removal)
returns the catalyst to the reduced state shown
in (12).
The fact that no radioactivity appears in the
butenes when butadiene-14C is admitted supports
the irreversible clockwise direction within this
scheme. The absence of isomerization and H/D
scrambling among the hydrocarbon molecules
confirms the directional irreversibility.

SOLID STATE EFFECTS
So far I've presented only the good news. Un-
fortunately, the MgFe20, catalyst slowly loses its
activity irreversibly. The deactivation is not
caused by coke build-up, and alternate oxidation/
reduction cycling during pretreatment will not
regenerate the catalyst. This suggests that some
Continued on page 204.


FALL 1982










iReea4ch 0o


NUCLEATE BOILING


RUSSELL MESLER
University of Kansas
Lawrence, KS 66045

RESEARCH TAKES AN especially exciting turn
when it requires us to revise our views of long
held beliefs. Such is the case of recent research
results concerning nucleate boiling. Although the
picture is by no means complete, it appears
possible that we may be changing several of our
views concerning nucleate boiling.
Nucleate boiling is a familiar topic to any
chemical engineer. All heat transfer texts devote
sections to it in which the rudimentary facts are
stated. All such treatments advise that nucleate
boiling is a complicated subject and that it is not
possible to go into a detailed discussion of the
subject.
Nucleate boiling is classified as convective heat
transfer. It is unusual convection on at least three
counts. First, because of the latent heat, great
quantities of heat can be exchanged with only a
little change in temperature as long as liquid re-
mains on the surface. Second, the density changes
resulting from heat transfer are very large com-
pared to usual convection. Third, it is only at a
vapor-liquid interface that heat can be absorbed
and vapor generated.
It is perhaps this third aspect that is most re-
sponsible for making nucleate boiling so in-
scrutable. Most of the vapor-liquid interface in
boiling is provided by bubbles, but where do
bubbles come from? Bubbles have short lives,
escaping once they become large. A large source
of nuclei is required.
It is important to recognize that liquids often
resist the tendency to form bubbles. In the
organic chemistry laboratory it is well known that
liquids in a glass flask will superheat above their
usual boiling point. Suddenly, when ebullition

Suddenly, when ebullition does
start, the boiling is so vigorous that the contents
of the flask are likely to be expelled and
wind up on the lab bench.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


Russell Mesler is the Warren S. Bellows Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Kansas. His interest in nucleate boil-
ing began in 1953 when he embarked on his doctoral research at the
University of Michigan. He was a faculty member at the University
of Michigan before coming to the University of Kansas in 1957.

does start, the boiling is so vigorous that the
contents of the flask are likely to be expelled and
wind up on the lab bench. The solution to the
problem is the use of a boiling chip to reduce
superheating and maintain steady ebullition.
The phenomenon of superheating is attributed
to the action of surface tension. The pressure
inside a small static spherical bubble is higher
than outside by twice the surface tension over the
radius, 2o-/r. Such a static bubble would be in
unstable equilibrium. If it were only slightly
smaller, the increased pressure would tend to
collapse it and if it were slightly larger, it would
tend to grow and rise and thus escape.
The action of a solid on the stability of small
bubbles is well exemplified by boiling chips. A
boiling chip is able to retain gas or vapor on its
surfaces and thus provides a vapor-liquid inter-
face deep in the liquid able to generate vapor
when the liquid becomes supersaturated. The
vapor breaks away as bubbles rising to the surface
but leaving behind some vapor from which the
next bubble can grow.
Nucleate boiling is often characterized by the
tendency for bubbles to rise repeatedly from
certain points on the surface when boiling at low
heat flux. These points are described as nucleation
sites. They are thought to act as do boiling chips


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









by stabilizing a vapor-liquid interface on the
surface.
Usually nucleation sites become active only
after the surface temperature rises significantly
above the boiling point. It is possible with very
smooth surfaces to achieve even higher superheats
before ebullition occurs, as in a glass flask. Once
ebullition starts more nucleation sites become
active, often with only a slight increase in surface
temperature. It is only at low heat flux that the
individual bubbles and nucleation sites can be
effectively studied. At just a modest heat flux
bubbles begin to merge and with just a bit more
heat flux the commotion becomes so great that it
is impossible to discern much detail at the center
of activity. Views near the edge of a boiling sur-
face may not be representative of the rest.
Because of the visual difficulty of studying
bubbles at even modest heat fluxes most of the
studies of bubbles have been made at low heat
fluxes. The results of these studies have then
been extrapolated to explain nucleate boiling at
higher heat flux where applications are common.
At high heat fluxes more vapor is generated.
In escaping the surface it pushes back the liquid
and establishes a vapor region just above the
surface. This leaves a film of liquid on the surface
that becomes especially important in the transfer
of heat [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
Nucleate boiling is limited in its ability to
transfer heat. Exceeding what is called the peak
heat flux leads to the drying off of the surface.
Without liquid the surface is unable to lose heat
fast enough and the surface temperature rises
unless the heat supply is reduced.
A surprising fact is that higher heat fluxes
are possible if the depth of liquid on the surface
is a few mm rather than much deeper [6]. Main-
taining a film on the surface with a spray or with
a jet permits even higher peak heat fluxes
[4, 7, 8, 9].
PHASE TRANSITION PROCESSES
Boiling is not the only process involving a
phase transition in which nucleation is important.
Another is crystallization. In crystallization,
crystal nuclei initiate crystal formation.
There are a number of similarities between
crystal nucleation and vapor bubble nucleation.
Both crystals and vapor bubbles will grow on
surface imperfections such as scratches and pits.
Crystallization also exhibits tribonucleation [10].
Crystallization is initiated by rubbing or dragging
a stirring rod along the bottom of a beaker. Vapor


Nucleate boiling is often
characterized by the tendency for bubbles
to rise repeatedly from certain points on the
surface when boiling at low heat flux. These
points are described as nucleation sites.

nuclei can be produced in the same fashion.
There is another source for crystal nuclei for
which no similar source of vapor bubbles has
been reported. It is called secondary nucleation
and is the production of nuclei from the break-up
of larger crystals [11]. This source of nuclei is the
most important one in industrial applications.

SEARCH FOR SECONDARY NUCLEATION
The reason secondary nucleation has never
been seriously considered for nucleate boiling is
probably because it was not easy to see how any
of the abundant vapor could be returned to the
liquid to serve as nuclei. Without a process for the
return of vapor to the liquid it was impossible to
see how secondary nucleation could occur in nucle-
ate boiling.
The first clue to a process for secondary
nucleation came in research on boiling in a thin
liquid film [12, 13]. Nucleate boiling was studied
on the outside of a vertical, steam-heated, copper
tube. High speed motion pictures showed that
when a bubble burst, bubble nuclei appeared
where the bubble had just burst.
The next clue came in an experiment with
superheated water in a glass tube [14]. An air
bubble was formed in the water and was allowed
to rise and burst at the surface. Soon after it
burst, clusters of bubble nuclei appeared beneath
the surface and these nuclei grew and coalesced
to form a vapor bubble. When this bubble burst
it too produced a cluster of nuclei beneath the
surface. Viewing the high speed motion pictures
of the event gave the impression that nuclei came
from the top film of the bubble crashing upon the
surface following the bursting of the bubble.

DROP-FORMED VORTEX RINGS
At this juncture a study of the tendency for
small drops to entrain bubbles seemed appropri-
ate. With just the simplest experiments using
only an eye dropper and a beaker it was obvious
that drops do entrain bubbles. With this en-
couragement high speed motion pictures were
taken of drops falling several feet into water [15].
It was soon learned that entrainment occurred


FALL 1982









not upon initial impact but later when the splash
fell back upon the surface. This led to experiments
with short falls where it was learned, by dying
the drop, that when a dyed water drop strikes a
water surface it usually produces a vortex ring.
Furthermore, with optimized lighting it was seen
that the vortex rings carry tiny bubbles on their
axes as they plunge beneath the surface. See
Figures 1 and 2.
Drop-formed vortex rings were news to us.
Once one knows about them it's not difficult to find
that they've been known a long time. They were
described in an 1858 paper by W. B. Rogers [16]
before he founded MIT. They are not mentioned
in most texts on fluid mechanics, except for
Sommerfield [17] and Batchelor [18]. A recent
book Bubbles, Drops and Particles [19] includes no
mention of them. Apparently few researchers
have had occasion to learn of them.
We found that researchers at Los Alamos were
not familiar with them. They developed a tech-
nique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations
numerically with a computer [20, 21] and applied
their method to the prediction of the behavior of
a drop striking a pool of water. They could only
solve for short falls. They compared their results
to experiments with drops falling from greater
heights. They found agreement and concluded that
their method was sound, unaware that drops fall-
ing from short distances behave differently [22].
Now that drop-formed vortex rings have been
recognized as providing a mechanism for second-
ary nucleation, it is pertinent to consider how im-
portant secondary nucleation might be. Vortex
rings are capable of providing nuclei away from
the interface. The tiny bubbles are carried within
the rings wrapped in layers that come from near


! -r I


FIGURE 1. Examples of a drop-formed vortex ring en-
training air bubbles.


DIRECTION OF TRAVEL
FIGURE 2. Sketch of a drop-formed vortex ring show-
ing entrained and escaped bubbles.
the surface and the impinging drop that likely
have temperatures close to saturation. The tiny
bubbles are shielded from the local environment
through which they are carried. If they escape to
a hotter environment they can begin rapid growth.
The fact that clusters of bubble nuclei are seen
later beneath the surface when a bubble bursts on
a superheated pool fits these circumstances.
When a bubble bursts on the surface, does its
top film form drops that in turn form vortex
rings? A bubble about 2 cm in diameter was
blown from a detergent solution colored with food
dye and placed on the surface of clear water. It
was ruptured soon after placement and a picture
was taken looking down on the surface. The
picture showed tiny rings and bubbles where the
miniscus had been [15]. Apparently the rings were
vortex rings.
Another interesting aspect is the behavior of
a vortex ring as it approaches a wall. It plows
right in and spreads out, giving the impression
that the tiny bubbles it might carry would be de-
livered very close to the wall. If the wall was a
heater surface the tiny bubbles would seem to be
delivered to a region of high temperature.
Although it goes unnoticed by current texts, it
is possible to improve the performance of nucleate
boiling by the simple means of boiling in thin
liquid films. An early indication of this came from
Japanese engineers who studied nucleate boiling
on a horizontal surface with varying depths of
liquid covering the surface [23, 24]. At depths
below 5 mm, surface temperatures were lower and
were lowest just before the surface dried off with
the surface only partially covered with liquid.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Si~i,








They offered no explanation for the observation
but did note that nucleation increased at lower
liquid depths. Others have reported similar re-
sults [25, 26]. Boiling in thin liquid films offers
an ideal opportunity for secondary nucleation to
occur. When boiling thin liquid films, bubbles burst
from the top of the film not far from the heater
surface. Drops formed when a bubble bursts
should be drawn into the film on the surface.
Vortex rings formed by these drops would be well
positioned to carry entrained bubbles to the sur-
face. Near the surface the entrained bubbles
would be exposed to the highest temperatures
around. Whether secondary nucleation is indeed
responsible for the better performance of boiling
in thin liquid films cannot be said at present but
it seems like a good bet. This would seem to be a
a likely candidate for further research.
One advantage of boiling from thin liquid films
is that nucleate boiling can be achieved at lower
surface temperatures and at lower heat fluxes.
This is especially important in low heat flux ap-
plications where, judging only from boiling from
submerged surfaces, nucleate boiling would not
seem possible.
Nucleate boiling from thin films can be im-
proved even more by the addition of traces of sur-
factants to water. This was reported by the Japan-
ese and also more recently in desalination equip-
ment [23, 27, 28]. Preliminary experiments in our
laboratory show that surfactants increase nuclea-
tion, apparently from secondary nucleation.
There have been numerous studies of nucleate
boiling on horizontal or vertical tubes or on verti-
cal flat surfaces [28, 29, 30]. These studies have
generally indicated better performance than
nucleate boiling on submerged surfaces and the
improvement has generally been attributed to the
flow in the film. Not one of these studies has made
any recognition that similar improvements occur
when nucleate boiling occurs in thin liquid films
on horizontal surfaces where there is no imposed
flow.
Most texts on heat transfer describe flow boil-
ing as being different from nucleate boiling on a
submerged surface. In flow boiling, liquid is pro-
gressively converted to vapor so that a number of
flow regimes exist along the flow. The pre-
dominant flow regime is annular flow with a liquid
film on the wall. Early work hypothesized that in
the annular flow region heat transfer was so
good that it must be forced convection and that,
consequently, nucleate boiling was surpressed [31].


The support for this hypothesis has recently been
reanalyzed and found not to support the hypothe-
sis [32]. Annular flow would seem to offer an ideal
situation for secondary nucleation to augment
nucleate boiling heat transfer.
In vigorous boiling on a submerged surface
the view of the bubble activity is obscured. Extra-
polating results on bubble nucleation at lower heat
fluxes suggests that at higher heat fluxes more
surface sites come into play. An alternate hypothe-
sis is that at high heat fluxes secondary nucleation
supplies the additional nuclei. The circumstances
would seem to permit secondary nucleation in
the same way as has been suggested for nucleate
boiling in thin films. At high heat fluxes vapor
does push the liquid away leaving the surface wet
with a film of liquid. It would seem possible for
drops to form from bubbles bursting from this
film or perhaps from all the commotion above the
surface. Drops striking the film would be well
positioned to cause secondary nucleation. Current
literature mentions only the former hypothesis,
so the latter has not been ruled out. Who can say
which hypothesis is more nearly correct? More
research can help decide.
Secondary nucleation can also offer alternate
hypotheses for two other characteristics of nucle-
ate boiling. When heat flux is plotted against
surface temperature excess over saturation, one
obtains what is often called the boiling curve. The
upper portion of the curve often moves in a
parallel fashion to higher or lower temperature
differences because of aging or other obscure
reasons. It is usually said that changes in the
nucleation characteristics of the surface are re-
sponsible for the shift. An alternate hypothesis is
that changes in nucleation on the surface effects
only the lower portion of the curve and that
secondary nucleation ensues to move the rest of
the curve.
The other characteristic is hysteresis in which
surface temperatures are higher as the heat
flux is increased but lower as it is decreased. On
increasing heat flux it sometimes occurs that after
bubbles begin to coalesce the surface temperature
suddenly falls. The usual explanation for this is
that new nucleation sites have acquired vapor and
became active. The alternate hypothesis is that
when bubbles begin to merge a new flow regime is
established which favors secondary nucleation.

CONCLUSIONS
Secondary nucleation definitely occurs in


FALL 1982


155










nucleate boiling. Indications are that drop-formed
vortex rings are responsible for entraining tiny
bubbles to serve as nuclei for secondary nuclea-
tion. How important secondary nucleation is in
submerged boiling remains to be shown, but it
seems likely to be responsible for the improved
performance of nucleate boiling in thin liquid films
with and without surfactants. Research oppor-
tunities abound in evaluating these new develop-
ments. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Most of the research on nucleate boiling has
been supported by the National Science Founda-
tion. A sabbatical leave spent at Berkeley Nuclear
Laboratories in England with R. B. Duffey helped
to develop some of the research. Kenneth Carroll,
Tom Yu, Ted Bergman, Gregg Mailen and other
students are in large measure responsible for
our progress.

REFERENCES

1. Kirby, D. B. and Westwater, "Bubble and Vapor Be-
havior on a Heated Horizontal Plate During Pool
Boiling Near Burnout," AIChE Symposium Series,
No. 57, 61, 238 (1965).
2. Katto, Y. S., Yokoya, S, and Yasunaka, M., "Mechan-
ism of Boiling Crisis and Transition Boiling in Pool
Boiling," Heat Transfer 1970, Vol. V., B3.2, Elsevier,
New York (1970).
3. Ida, Yoshihiro and Kobayashi, Kirjosi, "Distribution
of Void Fraction Above a Horizontal Heating Surface
in Pool Boiling" Bulletin JSME, 12, 283 (1969).
4. Mesler, R., "A Mechanism Supported by Extensive
Experimental Evidence to Explain High Heat Fluxes
Observed During Nucleate Boiling," AIChE Journal,
22, 246 (1976).
5. Yu, Chi-Liang, and Mesler, R. B., "A Study of
Nucleate Boiling Near the Peak Heat Flux Through
Measurement of Transient Surface Temperature,"
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20, 827 (1977).
6. Patten, T. D. and Turmeau, W. A., "Some Character-
istics of Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Layers,"
Heat Transfer 1970, Vol. V, B2.10, Elsevier, New
York, 1970.
7. Kopchikov, I. A., Voronin, G. I., Kolcah, T. A.,
Labuntsov, D. A., and Lebedev, P. D., "Liquid Boiling
in a Thin Film," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12, 791
(1969).
8. Copeland, Robert J., "Boiling Heat Transfer to a
Water Jet Impinging a Flat Surface." Ph.D. Thesis,
Southern Methodist University (1971).
9. Toda, Saburo and Uchida, Hideo, "Study of Liquid
Film Cooling with Evaporation and Boiling," Heat
Transfer-Japanese Research, 2, 44 (1973).
10. Hayward, A. T. J., "Tribonucleation of Bubbles,"
British J. Appl. Phys., 18, 641 (1967).
11. Garside, J., Rusli, I. T., and Larson, M. A., "Origin
and Size Distribution of Secondary Nuclei," AIChE


Journal, 25, 57 (1979).
12. Mesler, R. and Mailen, G., "Nucleate Boiling in Thin
Liquid Films," AIChE Journal, 23, 954 (1977).
13. Mesler, R., "Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films,"
Chapter 23, Bubble Phenomena, by Van Stralen and
Cole, McGraw-Hill, New York (1979).
14. Bergman, Theodore and Mesler, Russell, "Bubble
Nucleation Studies Part I: Formation of Bubble
Nuclei in Superheated Water by Bursting Bubbles,"
AIChE Journal, 27, 851 (1981).
15. Carroll, Kenneth and Mesler, Russell, "Bubble Nuclea-
tion Studies Part II: Bubble Entrainment by Drop-
Formed Vortex Rings," AIChE Journal, 27, 853
(1981).
16. Rogers, W. B., "On the Formation of Rotating Rings
by Air and Liquids Under Certain Conditions of Dis-
charge," Amer. J. Sci. and Arts, Second Series, 26,
246 (1858).
17. Sommerfield, A., Mechanics of Deformable Bodies,
Academic, New York (1950).
18. Batchelor, G. K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics,
Cambridge (1967).
19. Clift, R., Grace, J. R. and Weber, M. E., Bubbles,
Drops and Particles, Academic, New York (1978).
20. Harlow, F. H. and Shannon, J. P., "The Splash of a
Liquid Drop," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3855 (1967).
21. "Distortion of a Splashing Liquid Drop,"
Science, 157, 547 (1967).
22. Carroll, Kenneth and Mesler, Russell, "Splashing
Liquid Drops Form Vortex Rings and Not Jets at
Low Froude Numbers," J. Appl. Phys., 52, 507 (1981).
23. Nishikawa, K., Kusuda, H., Yamasaki, K., and Tanaka,
K., "Nucleate Boiling at Low Liquid Levels," Bulletin
JSME, 10, 328 (1967).
24. Kusuda, H. and Nishikawa, K., "A Study of Nucleate
Boiling in Liquid Films," Mem. Faculty Engineer-
ing, Kyushu University, 27, 155 (1967).
25. Marto, P. J., MacKenzie, D. K., and Rivers, A. D.,
"Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films," AIChE
Symposium Series, 73, No. 164, 228 (1977).
26. Turmeau, W. A., "Studies of Nucleate Boiling in Thin
Liquid Layers," Ph.D. Thesis, Heriot Watt Uni-
versity, Edinburgh (1971).
27. Sephton, Hugo H., "Interface Enhancement for
Vertical Tube Evaporators," ASME Paper 71-HT-38
(1971).
28. Shah, B. H. and Darby, R., "The Effect of Surfactant
on Evaporative Heat Transfer in Vertical Film
Flow," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20, 827 (1977).
29. Fletcher, L. S., Sernas, V. and Galowin, L. S., "Evapo-
ration from Thin Water Films on Horizontal Tubes,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop., 18, 265
(1974).
30. Norman, W. S., and McIntyre, V., "Heat Transfer to
a Liquid Film on a Vertical Surface," Trans. Instn.
Chem. Engrs., 38, 301 (1960).
31. Dengler, C. E. and Addoms, J. N., "Heat Transfer
Mechanism for Vaporization of Water in a Vertical
Tube," Chem. Eng. Progr. Symposium Ser., 52, No. 18,
95 (1965).
32. Mesler, Russell, "An Alternate to the Dengler and
Addoms Convection Concept of Forced Convection
Boiling Heat Transfer," AIChE Journal, 23, 448
(1977).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION












Yin Memnoiawn



WILLIAM H. CORCORAN


William H. Corcoran, 62, Institute Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at the California Institute of Technology, died while vacation-
ing in Hawaii on Saturday, August 21, 1982. Bill is survived by his
wife of nearly 40 years, Martha, son Will Corcoran, Jr. and daughter,
Sally Corcoran Fisher, and six grandchildren. To describe the ac-
complishments and contributions of Bill Corcoran to chemical engi-
neering, engineering education, and to his friends and colleagues
would require many, many pages. During his life, Bill Corcoran at-
tained virtually every honor and recognition available to an engineer-
ing educator, while, at the same time, truly touching the hearts and
minds of all those with whom he came in contact. Ironically, two
weeks before his untimely death, Bill Corcoran prepared a short essay
entitled "My Career as a Chemical Engineer." As a tribute to Bill
Corcoran we now reprint that essay:


My Career as a Chemical Engineer
My professional work began before World War II as
an employee of Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California.
Here my interest in pharmaceuticals and biomedical engi-
neering was sharpened and never left me. In World War
II I was involved with a very excellent group of people at
the California Institute of Technology. We were re-
sponsible for the work on processing of double-base pro-
pellant and interior ballistics of all rocket motors used by
the Navy. One year of that program also concurrently
dealt with ordnance work on the atomic bomb. The rocket
program was very successful, and in my very biased
opinion it contributed in a major way to the quality of our
munitions program in World War II.
Subsequent to World War II I went back to graduate
school, courtesy of the National Research Council. I have
never forgotten the nice fellowships they afforded me,
and today I have an association with the National Re-
search Council by way of its Commission on Engineering
and Technical Systems. That is a pleasure and allows me
to partially pay back the debt I owe them. After receiving
my Ph.D. degree in 1948, I returned to Cutter Laboratories
in Berkeley where for four years I was Director of
Technical Development. The work included process de-
velopment on pharmaceuticals and biologicals, including
fermentation studies on penicillin and deep-culture growth
of useful organisms for manufacture of vaccines. In ad-
dition we did significant work on disposable medical equip-
ment and mass parenteral solutions. My interest in bio-
medical and bioengineering was further intensified by that
experience.
In 1952 I returned to the California Institute of
Technology as an Associate Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering and except for a two-year period from 1957 to
1959 I have been associated with the California Institute
of Technology ever since. In the period of 1957 to 1959 I
was Vice President and Scientific Director for Don Baxter


Incorporated, a subsidiary of the American Hospital Supply
Corporation. Here my biomedical work continued.
My work at Caltech in research has related to studies
of nitric acid-nitrogen dioxide-water systems, pyrolysis of
hydrocarbons, flow systems, including work on artificial
heart valves, and desulfurization and supercritical ex-
traction of coal.
Teaching has been a major interest during my profes-
sional career, and I have especially enjoyed the teaching
of my Senior design course entitled "Optimal Design of
Chemical Systems." I have learned so much in the teach-
ing of the course that I can hardly believe what has
happened, and I do have some hopes that the students
learned at the same time. In terms of breadth of oppor-
tunity for a professor I can't think of a course more de-
signed for a professor's development.
In other professional activities I spent 10 years as Vice
President for Institute Relations at the California Institute
of Technology while still maintaining my programs of
teaching and research. In 1978 I had the privilege of being
President of AIChE. Currently I have the pleasure of
working with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology and will be the President for a two-year term
ending in 1984.
Along the way I have had the great fortune to act
as a consultant for the American Hospital Supply Corpora-
tion and the Bechtel Corporation and as a Director of
Superior Farming, the KTI Corporation, and Phytogen,
Incorporated, a genetic engineering firm. There has not
been one dull second. If I had my life to relive, I would
do exactly what I had done previously and probably would
make the same mistakes. Hopefully not. It has been a great
life, with thanks to all the people with whom I have as-
sociated but with special thanks to my wife Martha who
understood from time zero the nature of the profession
and has been a very interested observer and participant
in my professional activities.


FALL 1982











Reeawch ont


MASS TRANSFER


RALPH H. WEILAND AND
ROSS TAYLOR
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, NY 13676

A number of aspects of effects of diffusive
mass transfer are currently being investigated
at Clarkson College of Technology. The growth
of crystals as it is affected by diffusion is being
studied by Professors William Wilcox and Gordon
Youngquist. A major investigation of the role of
mass transfer in corrosion is being carried out by
Professor Der Tau Chin. Finally, the role of multi-
component diffusion and chemical reaction in
the classical operations of distillation, absorption
and condensation is under investigation by Drs.
Ross Taylor and Ralph Weiland. These latter
studies form the subject of this article.
It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process
driven by concentration gradients (more precisely,
by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless,
the vast majority of commonly used design
methods are based on equilibrium models that
completely neglect the influence of finite rates of
mass transfer. For example, the equilibrium stage
model of distillation for binary, nonreacting
systems (the McCabe-Thiele method) is well
known to all students of chemical engineering
[1, 2]; however, in practice, binary distillation
takes place almost exclusively in the undergradu-
ate laboratory. Real separations involve multi-
component mixtures (three or more species) and
and this presents a real complication that is the
subject of some of our recent research efforts.
In addition to the problems posed by the
multicomponent nature of most separation pro-
cesses, chemical reaction presents a set of unique
difficulties all of its own. The development of pro-
cedures for the analysis and design of such oper-
ations forms the second thrust of our efforts. De-
spite the fact that a great deal of work has been
published on chemically reactive mass transfer
[3, 4], it is remarkable that so little has been
reported on the application of this extensive
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


S, ,


Ross Taylor is an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Clarkson College of Technology where he has been since 1980. He
received his BSc, MSc and Ph.D. degrees from the University of
Manchester Institute of Science and Technology in England. (L)
Ralph H. Weiland obtained his B.A. Sc., M.A. Sc., and Ph.D.
degrees in Chem. Eng. at the University of Toronto. Following a two
year postdoctoral appointment in applied mathematics at the Uni-
versity of Western Australia he taught at the Universities of Calgary
and Queensland. He is presently Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at Clarkson College of Technology. (R)

fundamental work to the design and analysis of
separation processes of industrial scale.
Finally, when multicomponent mass transfer
is combined with chemical reaction and heat
transfer some really intriguing problems arise.
An example is the condensation of multicom-
ponent vapors when two or more species can react
together in the condensed phase. Nothing at all
appears ever to have been written about this
aspect of mass transfer and a study of it forms
the third part of our general efforts.
In what follows it will be most convenient to
discuss these three main threads of our research
somewhat separately.
MULTICOMPONENT DIFFUSIONAL
SEPARATION PROCESSES
Considerable effort has been devoted to the
construction of algorithms for calculating the
equilibrium separation in multicomponent, multi-
stage systems and many ingenious computational
procedures have been devised. The formulation of
the material and energy balance equations in tri-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










diagonal and block tridiagonal matrix form
(thereby permitting efficient methods of solution)
has proved particularly efficacious in this area
[1, 2].
While the principle advantage of equilibrium
models is their (relative) simplicity, the primary
disadvantage is that they are fundamentally un-
sound; distillation, absorption, and so on are
certainly not equilibrium operations. If any
successful non-equilibrium model of multicom-
ponent stagewise processes is to be developed, it
must be based on sound mass transfer principles.
This is where the complications set in because the
calculation of mass transfer rates in multicom-
ponent systems is considerably harder than it is
for binary ones.
Diffusion in multicomponent mixtures is
complicated by the coupling that exists between
the individual concentration gradients. The rate
of diffusion of one species is dependent not only
on its own concentration gradient but on all the
other concentration gradients as well. Now, these
individual concentration gradients may have
vastly different magnitudes and signs. Thus, a
possible consequence of the coupling between the
gradients is that a particular species may perme-
ate in opposition to its own concentration gradient,
or may not transfer at all even though a gradient
for it exists. A further possibility is that a species
with no concentration gradient in a particular
medium may be transported through that medium
at significant rates. These "interaction" phenome-
na, which cannot take place in binary mixtures, are
called reverse diffusion, a diffusion barrier and
osmotic diffusion, respectively [5-7].
Practical consequences of diffusional inter-
action phenomena include individual point
efficiencies in tray distillation not all being equal
and not being constrained to lie between zero and
one, both of which conditions hold for binary
mixtures. In fact, they may be found anywhere
in the range oo. This surprising result, a conse-
quence of reverse diffusion, has been confirmed by
experiment [8]. For the same reasons the indi-
vidual "Numbers of Transfer Units" in continuous
contact equipment are not all equal. In a different
setting (a condenser), one of the species may be
evaporating when the objective is its condensa-
tion.
Any good model of multicomponent mass
transfer must be able to predict when these phe-
nomena will occur; fortunately, such models are
currently available. Recent years have seen in-


creasing interest in the study of multicomponent
mass transfer and a veritable flood of papers has
appeared. The reader is referred to the major re-
view by Krishna and Standart [6] for develop-
ments to 1979.
Diffusion in multicomponent gas-vapor mix-
tures is accurately described by the Maxwell-
Stefan equations. The complete equations were
first published by the famous Scottish physicist
James Clerk Maxwell in a general article [9] on
diffusion in an early edition of the Encyclopedia
Britannica. Since that time, a number of solutions
with varying degrees of approximation and
generality have appeared. Most applications are

Practical consequences of
diffusional interaction phenomena include
individual point efficiencies in tray distillation
not all being equal and not being constrained
to lie between zero and one, both of which
conditions hold for binary mixtures.

based on a film model of steady-state one-dimen-
sional mass transfer.
There are, currently, four such methods able
to predict the occurrence of the various inter-
action phenomena and which are applicable to
mixtures with any number of constituents regard-
less of the relationship between the fluxes (for
example, transfer through a stagnant gas or equi-
molar counter transfer).
In chronological order of their development
they are:
1. The linearized theory of multicomponent mass trans-
fer developed by Toor [10] and by Stewart and
Prober [11].
2. The method of Krishna and Standart [12] based on
an exact solution of the Maxwell-Stefan equations.
It is worth noting that all of the eight or so sepa-
rately published exact solutions of these equations
(see [6] for sources) are simply different forms or
special cases of a single fundamental result [13].
3. An "alternative linearized theory" proposed re-
cently by Krishna [14, 15].
4. A simplified method developed by Taylor and Smith
[16].
All of these methods make use of the proper-
ties of matrices. Methods 1 and 2 usually require
iteration on the fluxes, involve matrix computa-
tions and may suffer convergence problems.
Methods 3 and 4 are explicit in the fluxes. Methods
1 and 2 have been used to predict efficiencies and
Numbers of Transfer Units in distillation and
applied to the simulation of condensers [6]. The
rather limited number of experimental results


FALL 1982









that are available confirm that interaction effects
may sometimes be significant indeed [6, 8, 17-21].
Methods 1 and 2 predict, often to a very satis-
factory degree, the experimentally measured rates
of mass transfer whereas models which neglect
interaction effects, based on the concept of an
effective diffusivity, are inadequate. Methods 3
and 4 have not been tested yet and this is some-
thing we are working on.
Engineering design based on the matrix
methods is necessarily computer based because
of the length and complexity of the calculations
involved. Theoretical papers on mass transfer fre-
quently make claims to the effect that the inclusion
of this or that model into existing design pro-
cedures is straightforward (see, for example, ref.
15). In fact, the combination of design equations

Diffusion in multicomponent
mixtures is complicated by the coupling
that exists between the individual
concentration gradients.

with advanced models of mass transfer is not at
all straightforward because of the nature of the
computations that are required.
Recent research has led to the development of
stable and efficient algorithms for computing intra-
phase mass transfer [20-23]. This, of course, is
only a part of the overall problem because mass
transfer in real systems necessarily involves two
distinct phases. The more practical problem of
computing rates of interphase mass transfer has
been the subject of only very recent investigation
[24, 25]. A number of different computational
algorithms have been developed and these have
proven markedly superior to previously published
procedures. A large part of the problem here is
that the models require extensive physical prop-
erty data that are not always accurately known
and the estimation of which occupies a very major
portion of the total time required. Currently under
way is a computational study to investigate the
sensitivity of the models to uncertainties in basic
data.
It is, of course, possible to compute mass
transfer rates (which are the quantities really
required in design calculations) much more
rapidly from the explicit methods 3 and 4. It is,
therefore, of some interest to know when an ap-
proximate method can be used and what level
of confidence can be ascribed to its predictions.
We have recently compiled statistical informa-


tion on the discrepancies between the fluxes pre-
dicted from the more exact method 2 and those
given by methods 1, 3, 4 and several of the non-
interactive effective diffusivity methods [22]. It
was found that the Toor-Stewart-Prober method
can be expected always to give good estimates of
the fluxes; the explicit method of Krishna [14, 15]
does so if the concentration gradients are low and
the effective diffusivity methods (which just
happen to be those methods used most commonly
in design at present) give good estimates of all
of the fluxes only very rarely. We were pleased
(and not a little surprised) to find that the new
method 4 was in all the many cases examined,
except transfer through a stagnant gas, equivalent
to or superior to all other approximate methods,
although the advantage over the linearized equa-
tions [10, 11] was usually small. (For transfer
through a stagnant gas, method 4 ranks second
best behind method 1). Results to date have been
so promising that applications of the new method
(cf [18-21, 43-45]) are planned and the basic
method is to be extended in the same way that
the assumptions underlying film models 1 and 3
can be extended to other mass transfer situations.
The traditional method of coping with finite
rates of mass transfer in stagewise processes
has been through the concept of a stage efficiency.
Calculation procedures employing the block tri-
diagonal matrix formulation permit the use of a
specified efficiency for each stage [1, 2]. For lack
of other information, this efficiency is always
taken to be the same for all components on any
stage [2], even though, as noted above, modern
theories of mass transfer suggest that this is most
unlikely to be the case. It is our contention that
the concept of stage efficiency is an unnecessary
complication and that multistage units are more
effectively modelled as a sequence of heat and mass
transfer stages.
Along these lines, the material and energy
balance relations for each stage are split into two
parts (one for each phase) and are treated
separately. A term for the constituent mass fluxes
appears in each equation, of different sign for the
different phases. The sum of the two parts gives
the total component material or energy balance
relations that are used in modern block tri-
diagonal algorithms. In fact, the separation of
the balance equations into two parts permits the
retention of the block tridiagonal matrix structure
of the linearized equations and, therefore, of exist-
ing methods for solving such equations. The re-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process driven by concentration gradients (more precisely,
by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless, the vast majority of commonly used design methods are based
on equilibrium models that completely neglect the influence of finite rates of mass transfer.


quired mass transfer rates are estimated from
a model that combines stage hydrodynamics and
multicomponent mass transfer. This model can
be as simple or as complicated as desired [30].

CHEMICALLY REACTIVE SEPARATIONS
Separation operations involving mass transfer
with chemical reaction are typified by a number
of processes for gas purification, particularly those
for the removal of acid gases. Coal gasification
processes produce copious amounts of carbon
dioxide which will have to be removed from the
gas mixture, and in coal liquifacation part of the
product is gas containing much CO2 which lowers
its heating value. Many gas purification processes
employ chemically-reactive solvents which must
be reused; thus, there are two important parts
of such processes, namely gas absorption and
solvent regeneration.
It turns out that the absorption step usually
is of relatively low cost; the solvent regeneration
step, however, is very costly indeed and dominates
the economics, accounting for well over 80% of
the operating costs [31]. With this in mind, the
surprising fact is that it is the gas absorption
step (at least for a single transferring component)
that has been extensively studied [3, 4]. By
contrast, the solvent recovery or stripping oper-
ation has remained virtually unexplored from
either a fundamental or practical viewpoint and
is totally lacking in design methods. If the process
could be understood in a fundamental way to the
extent that the dependence of stripping column
performance on plant operating variables was
predictable, then the real possibility of plant
optimization in terms of reducing energy costs
would exist. Thus, the ultimate objective of this
aspect of our research is to develop design and
analysis procedures founded on a fundamental
understanding of the basic physicochemical pro-
cesses taking place.
Previous literature dealing with gas de-
sorption from chemically-reactive solution is
sparse indeed and most of it addresses the
problem merely as a sideline to a study of the ab-
sorption step of some new process. Notable ex-
ceptions are the experiments of Ellis et al [32]


and McLachlan and Danckwerts [32], although the
former shed little light on the fundamentals. It is
really only in the past year or so that the results
of serious efforts to understand this important
operation have begun to be reported. The stripping
of an already absorbed species from chemically re-
active solvents purely by the action of heating
(and this is the industrially common situation)
has recently been examined from a theoretical
standpoint by Astarita and Savage [34] who in-
corporated the classical two-film theory. The key
result of their analysis was the delineation of the
conditions under which absorption theory (which
is well developed) can be applied to desorption.
In a companion paper, Savage et al. [35] re-
ported absorption and desorption rate data for
the CO,-hot carbonate system and interpreted
the results in terms of their theory. Unlike all
previous studies, one of the more positive aspects
of their work is that it was done in an apparatus
of well-defined geometry and characterizable
hydrodynamics so that, by and large, chemical
kinetics could be nicely separated from mass
transfer effects. The range of solution loadings
covered, however, was insufficient to establish the
influence of this variable. Unfortunately, the data
were interpreted on the basis of negligible gas
phase resistance to mass transfer; whereas, at
least for the CO,-monoethanolamine system,
this resistance is dominant over a certain range of
conditions [36].
Based on the work of Rawal [36] who assumed
that the equilibrium model of Olander [37] applied
to the stripping of carbon dioxide from mono-
ethanolamine solutions (this now seems justified
in the light of ref. 34), we have recently elaborated
on a design procedure for packed stripping
columns using this process [38]. The primary aim
of this work was the prediction of column per-
formance from first principles, based solely on
physicochemical parameters and equilibrium data
specific to the system. For this purpose, the ability
to apply chemical absorption theory, although im-
portant, is only one component of the overall
analysis. The reversibility of the chemical re-
actions is critical in chemical desorption. This
necessarily introduces thermodynamic relations
as an integral part of the theory. Furthermore,


FALL 1982









heat effects cannot be ignored because a sub-
stantial amount of heat must be supplied to effect
the decomposition of the solvent-gas compound
and the liberation of the freed gas from solution.
The implication is that vapor and liquid rates vary
significantly throughout the column, although the
column itself operates substantially isothermally.
We have recently completed an experimental
study of this operation [38] done in a small (6-in.
diameter) reboiled packed column (Fig. 1). While
it must be admitted that the comparison between
model and experiment in this work tended to be
more qualitative than precise, it is useful to note
that many of the trends found were rather
counterintuitive so that the transport process is
by no means a straightforward one. For example,
it was predicted theoretically and confirmed ex-
perimentally in a fairly rough way that at low
solution loadings, increasing liquid rate could
actually decrease the overall mass transfer co-
efficient KOLa. Furthermore, when solution load-
ing was low, the gas-side resistance was found
to be of tremendous importance. This was un-
expected in view of the fact that CO2 has a very


H I I


FIGURE 1. Pilot scale packed column (center) used in
solvent regeneration studies. Thermosyphon
reboiler is at left, condenser-reabsorber for
closed cycle operation at right.


low physical solubility and that it is generally
agreed that the mass transfer of sparingly
soluble gases is liquid-phase controlled. Other
operating variables such as operating pressure,
solution loading and amine concentration were
found to have surprising effects as well. Many
of these results stem from the fact that a change
to one operating variable causes changes in a
number of parameters at the same time so that
intuition cannot be relied upon for guidance. A
good model, however, provides unerring advice.
Naturally there are serious problems associ-
ated with trying to test fundamental models on
large scale equipment at such an early stage of
development. One of these is the poor characteriz-
ability of packed columns in terms of hydro-
dynamics, hence, individual film coefficients so
necessary to a proper film model of chemically re-
active mass transfer. As mentioned earlier in the
context of multicomponent mass transfer, errors
in basic data can have a profound consequence on
model prediction; a sensitivity analysis is
presently underway for reactive mass transfer in
continuous contacting equipment.
To provide data of greater reliability for test-
ing against these fundamental mass transfer
models, we are doing experiments in well-defined
flow geometries like single sphere and string-of-
spheres columns. Then all of the necessary funda-
mental data become accurately known, or at least
can be independently measured, and a real test
of models becomes possible. An obvious extension
is to systems in which two or more gases simul-
taneously absorb and then react with a common
nonvolatile solvent. Typical of such systems is
the absorption into, and stripping from, alkanola-
mines of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Of
particular interest is the selective removal of H2S.
Although a moderate amount of equilibium and
physical property data exists for this combination,
little or no mass transfer work has been done on
the absorption side, and nothing has been re-
ported on solvent regeneration. Yet the natural
gas industry in this country is very large indeed
and natural gas often contains a lot of both im-
purities. Experiments and modelling of both
aspects of this rather more complex system are
underway at Clarkson.
Our studies using model mass transfer devices
are aimed at testing theories of the transfer pro-
cesses which will find ultimate use in simulations
of packed columns. Concurrently, we are also
Continued on page 200.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION







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7 Goea"e in




FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTION

F. A. L. DULLIEN ..-
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada


OVER THE PAST DECADE an increasing number of
graduates of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment and also of some other engineering de-
partments of the University of Waterloo have
been hired by various petroleum companies,
operating mostly in Alberta. The Faculty of Engi-
neering at the University of Waterloo operates
one hundred percent on the cooperative scheme.
The students alternate between academic and
work terms. An increasing proportion of our
students have been hired in their work terms by
the oil companies. This situation created a de-
mand for a senior year elective course in the
fundamentals of petroleum production which is
also suited to the needs of first year graduate
students specializing in some branch of flow
through porous media research. There is no
petroleum engineering department at the Uni-
versity of Waterloo, but there has been con-
tinuous basic research on certain aspects of this
discipline for the past sixteen years, under the
author's supervision. It was thus logical for the
author to propose a course on Fundamentals of
Petroleum Production, which was accepted by the
Faculty of Engineering in 1978. Since then the
course has been taught every year in the winter
term.
The purpose of this course is to introduce the
average chemical engineer, who has only a mini-
mum of familiarity with the concepts of capillarity
and flow through porous media, and none at all
with reservoir engineering concepts, to petroleum
production engineering. All this has to be ac-
complished in thirteen weeks (three contact hours


One of the difficult tasks
to be accomplished in ... the course
is to give the students a "feel" for the physical
phenomena, "drainage" and imbibitionn."

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


Francis A. L. Dullien has been a Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at the University of Waterloo since 1966. He received his Dipl.
Eng. from the Budapest Technical University (1950), his M.A.Sc. and
his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia (1958 and 1960). He
has been a Visiting Professor at Purdue University, at Karlsruhe Uni-
versity and at the Ecole National Polytechnique de Toulouse. He has
published over 100 papers in the fields of flow through porous media,
pore structure research, quantitative stereology, liquid and gaseous
diffusion, mixing, air pollution control and spectroscopy, and is author
of the research monograph "Porous Media-Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure" Academic Press (1979). He has developed courses in flow
through porous media, fundamentals of petroleum production, air
pollution control, surface chemistry, statistical thermodynamics, trans-
port phenomena, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and engineering
math.

per week), because with the coop system the
lecture part of a term is only about three months
long. Under these constraints the course on Funda-
mentals of Petroleum Production is limited in
scope and, at the same time, conceptually difficult
for the students.

TECHNICAL CONTENT
The technical content of the course is best ap-
preciated by perusing the course outline shown
in Table 1. The rationale for this approach to the
course is presented in the following paragraph.
The author does not think that a completely
black box-type presentation of the material is in
the best interest of either the student or the in-
dustry where the student may work. The black
box approach pays no attention to the microscopic
mechanisms, the interplay of the various forces


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










on a microscopic scale and the microscopical geo-
metric parameters of the environment in which
the physical phenomena take place. It is true that
a typical reservoir engineer is concerned with
the control and prediction of macroscopic param-
eters but it is equally true that the observed macro-
scopic behavior is, to a large extent, the result
of events that occur in small pores and which are
determined by microscopic parameters. Staying
mum on the microscopic aspects of petroleum
reservoirs (an attitude which is quite common
in some texts on reservoir engineering) is tanta-
mount to pretending to be completely ignorant
of some facts which are very important in de-
termining the outcome of oil recovery operations,
particularly when secondary and tertiary recovery
are considered. Such an attitude is likely to mis-
lead the student by keeping him ignorant about
things that matter a great deal. The purpose of
university education cannot be the maintenance
of ignorance. This is the reason for starting this
course with an introduction to capillary theory.
In the discussion of basic laws of capillarity,
attention is drawn continually to the fact that
petroleum reservoirs consist of a multitude of tiny
interconnected capillaries. A petroleum reservoir
is a permeable porous medium, not at all like the
water reservoirs most people tend to think of im-
mediately when they hear the word "reservoir."
The major portion of this chapter deals with the


capillary pressure curves: primary drainage, im-
bibition and secondary drainage capillary pres-
sure curves, their methods of measurement in the
lab and in the field, capillary hysteresis and the
roles played both by the pore structure and the
contact angle in bringing about the hysteresis.
One of the difficult tasks to be accomplished in


The formation (resistivity) factor is
then introduced and the fundamental difference
between Darcy flow and electrical conduction
in porous media is pointed out.

this portion of the course is to give the students
a "feel" for the physical phenomena, "drainage"
and imbibitionn." It has been found indispensable
to do a classroom demonstration of these phe-
nomena. Transparent capillary micro-models are
very useful for this purpose, as is an experiment
consisting of placing a sandstone core plug, satu-
rated with oil, in a beaker of water. The spon-
taneous imbibition of water into the plug is
demonstrated by the appearance of oil drops on
the plug's surface which have been displaced by
the water.
The second chapter introduces the student to
the fundamentals of flow of a single fluid through
a permeable porous medium. The discussion is
centered on Darcy's law and the various types of
pressure heads and fluid potentials which are


TABLE 1
Course Outline


1. CAPILLARITY
Laplace's equation of capillarity
Young's equation-The contact angle
Capillary pressure-Effects of the pore structure and
the contact angle
Determination of the capillary pressure curve-
Saturation
Capillary rise-Effects of the pore structure and the
contact angle
Kelvin's equation
Capillary hysteresis-Effects of pore structure
2. FLOW OF A SINGLE FLUID THROUGH POROUS
MEDIA
Porosity
Specific surface
Permeability-Darcy's law
Formation factor
Macroscopic heterogeneity of pore structure
Anisotropy
3. SOME APPLICATIONS OF DARCY'S LAW
Fluid potential
Linear flow vs. radial flow
Well stimulation


4. BASIC CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR ENGINEERING
Calculation of hydrocarbon volumes
Fluid pressure regimes
Oil recovery-Recovery factor
Volumetric gas reservoir engineering
Gas material balance-Recovery factor
5. PVT ANALYSIS FOR OIL
Definition of the basic PVT parameters
Use of the PVT parameters
6. GENERAL MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION
FOR A HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR
Derivation of the general equation
Solution gas drive
Gascap drive
Natural water drive
Compaction drive
7. DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY AN IMMISCIBLE
FLUID
Generalization of Darcy's law for multiphase flow
Effective and relative permeabilities
The Buckley-Leverett theory of oil displacement
Mobility control
Tertiary flooding


FALL 1982










The Kozeny-Carman equation
is "derived," not because it is believed
to be generally valid, but mainly to illustrate
the kind of efforts that have been made to
understand the relationship between
flow and pore structure.


used in conjunction with this basic law of reser-
voir engineering and groundwater hydrology.
Thus, careful distinction is drawn between the
physical meaning of the hydrostatic pressure, P
and the "datum pressure" or "psi-potential" 4 =
P + pgz, where z is distance measured vertically
upward from an arbitrary datum, p is the fluid
density and g is the gravitational acceleration
constant. Generally, it is the gradient of the
datum pressure, Vp, that must be used in Darcy's
law. The heads P/pg and 4/pg = P/pg + z repre-
sent distances in the vertical direction and are
much more readily visualized than the correspond-
ing pressures, P and t. t/pg, the so-called "piezo-
metric head," is then the sum of the pressure
head, P/pg and the elevation head z. The fluid po-
tential 4 is also introduced here.
The permeability, k, the porosity, 4, and the
specific surface, s, are the most commonly used
macroscopic pore structure parameters. By defini-
tion, their value does not depend on the fluids used
in the measurement, but it is completely deter-
mined by the pore structure of the sample. The
important role played by pore structure in de-
termining reservoir behavior is stressed again
when discussing the above mentioned parameters.
The Kozeny-Carman equation is "derived", not
because it is believed to be generally valid, but
mainly to illustrate the kind of efforts that have
been made to understand the relationship between
flow and pore structure.
Simple integrated forms of Darcy's law are
presented, and the special cases of gas flow, slip
flow (Klinkenberg equation) and non-Darcy flow
(Forchheimer equation) are discussed.
There follows a brief outline of some field
applications of Darcy's law.
The formation (resistivity) factor is then
introduced and the fundamental difference be-
tween Darcy flow and electrical conduction in
porous media is pointed out. This is manifested
by the fact that the electrical conductivity of
small pores is the same as that of big pores
whereas the fluid conductivity of a pore in creep-
ing flow varies as A, the normal cross-section of


the pore. Hence a fine-pored medium has a much
lower permeability than a coarse-pored of com-
parable porosity, while the difference between the
formation factors of the two materials may be
relatively little.
It is pointed out that reservoirs are hetero-
geneous, i.e. they are characterized by a distribu-
tion of permeabilities, and anisotropic, i.e. the
permeabilities at a given point are different, de-
pending on the direction of flow.
At this point in the course the students al-
ready have a certain idea of the behavior and
the pore structure of a reservoir. They are un-
likely to confuse it with a water reservoir. Here

TABLE 2
Recommended Reference Books
F. A. L. Dullien, Porous Media-Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure, Academic Press, 1979.
L. P. Dake, Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering,
Elsevier, 1978.
J. W. Amyx, D. M. Bass and R. L. Whiting, Petroleum
Reservoir Engineering-Physical Properties, McGraw-
Hill, 1960.
A. E. Scheidegger, The Physics of Flow Through Porous
Media, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1974.
R. E. Collins, Flow of Fluids Through Porous Materials,
van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1961.

the course switches to the subject which is con-
ventionally at the beginning of reservoir engi-
neering texts; the explanation of the basic con-
cepts of reservoir engineering, such as hydro-
carbon volumes, fluid pressure regimes, gas re-
covery factor, gas expansion factor, solution gas-
oil ratio, oil formation volume factor, gas forma-
tion volume factor, producing gas-oil ratio, etc.
Next, the general macroscopic material balance
for a hydrocarbon reservoir is derived, discussed
and applied to elucidate the various possible
natural modes of petroleum production, the
different so-called "drives."
At the end of the course the fundamentals of
immiscible displacement are outlined. In this
chapter some of the basic concepts, introduced in
the early chapters, play an important role and
are thus vindicated from an applications point of
view which, of course, is the only point conceded
by the average student taking this course.
There are usually four home assignments in
this course, one on each of the following chapters:
1, 2-3, 4-6, and 7, and three tests, one on each of
the following chapters: 1-3, 4-6, and 7. Final
examination has been dispensed with. O


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











00 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

OP DIVISION ACTIVITIES

TWENTIETH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO
LOWELL B. KOPPEL
The 1982 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer was Lowell B. Koppel of Purdue
University. The purpose of this award lecture is
to recognize and encourage outstanding achieve-
ment in an important field of fundamental chemi-
cal engineering theory or practice. The 3M
Company provides the financial support for this
annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate.
These were presented to this year's Lecturer at
the Annual Chemical Engineering Division
banquet, held at the University of California at
Santa Barbara.

NOMINATIONS FOR 1983 AWARD SOLICITED
The award is made on an annual basis with
nominations being received through February 1,
1983. The full details for the award preparation
are contained in the Awards Brochure published
by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1983 lecture-
ship are invited. They should be sent to Robert
E. Slonaker, Chairman, 3M Award Committee,
ChE Department, Bucknell University, Lewis-
burg, PA 17837.

NEW DIVISION OFFICERS ELECTED
The newly elected ChE Division officers are:
Angelo Perna, Chairman; W. D. Baasel, Past
Chairman; Dee Barker, Chairman Elect; Bill
Beckwith, Secretary Treasurer; John Sears and
Dale Seborg, Members at Large; Hal Kemp and
R. P. Stambaugh, Industrial Representatives.

ChE's RECEIVE HONORS
ASEE Meeting Texas A & M
George Burnet, Iowa State University, was
the recipient of ASEE's highest honor, the
Lamme Award, in recognition of his excellence in


teaching, contributions to research and technical
literature, and achievements contributing to the
advancement of the profession. William Corcoran,
California Institute of Technology, received the
Distinguished Service Citation for his long and
continuous service in teaching, research and ad-
ministration.

Summer School U.C.-Santa Barbara
Ray W. Fahien, University of Florida, was
presented with an Award of Excellence. Paul V.
Smith of Exxon and James Townsend of Dow were
both recognized for their many contributions to
the ChE Division as industrial representatives.
T. W. F. Russell, Stanley I. Sandier and Sherri
Barwich, all of the University of Delaware, were
presented with Certificates of Appreciation for
their work in coordinating the 1982 Summer
School, and Dale Seborg and John Myers were
both recognized for their contributions as hosts
at the University of California, Santa Barbara.



[ book reviews

OPTIMIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL
EXPERIMENTATION
By W. E. Biles and J. J. Swain
John Wiley & Sons, NY
Reviewed by R. M. Bethea, H. R. Heichelheim,
L. D. Clements Texas Tech University

Chapter 1. This section provides a thorough
coverage and description of the properties of op-
timization problems with an inconsistent mixture
of belaboring the mathematically obvious and
"name-dropping" of methods to be developed later.
Chapter 2. The use of the chi-squared goodness-
of-fit test to evaluate the Poisson distribution is
unusual in most introductory statistics texts.
The explanation is clear to a reader with some
background in mathematical statistics but not to
the novice as is the authors' stated goal. Note that
in the example of the Poisson on p. 47 should be
fy(y) = e-2.8y2.8/y! and that the values of f, and ei
in Table 2.12 have been multiplied by 100.
In the section starting on p. 89, no justification
has been given for the F-tests. In this way, the
student is not taught the why of analysis of vari-
Continued on page 199.


FALL 1982















AIR POLLUTION FOR ENGINEERS


MAYIS SEAPAN
Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

IN THE PAST TWO DECADES the need for environ-
mental awareness has increased the enrollment
of chemical engineers in environmental courses,
especially in air pollution courses. This is true
both for formal university courses and for the
continuing education short courses.
Traditionally, most of the air pollution courses
have been developed in civil and environmental
engineering departments. Only a small percentage
of chemical engineering departments offer a course
related to air pollution. In 1978, there were 581
air pollution courses offered in 130 American
and Canadian Universities and Colleges in 189
academic departments [1]. These departments
varied from traditional engineering to disciplines
like geography and biology, with only 27 chemical
engineering departments offering an air pollu-
tion course.
The diversity of the disciplines in which the
air pollution courses have been developed and the
variations in the background of students have
made the air pollution courses very non-uniform.
Departments with multiple air pollution courses
cover different aspects of the air pollution under
one or more of the following topics: fundamentals
of air pollution, atmospheric sampling and
analysis, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology,
modeling of atmospheric dispersions, aerosol
science and technology, industrial pollution pro-
cesses, theory and design of air pollution control
systems, and air quality management. These
courses have varied from very introductory and
descriptive to strongly theoretical, with intensive


This course is different
from other one-semester air pollution
courses in several aspects. The
order of presentation of the
topics is completely new.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


use of mathematics, to highly application and
design oriented ones.
Many engineering students who do not intend
to specialize in air pollution cannot afford to take
several courses in air pollution. They would usually
prefer to take one general course that would give
them an overall understanding of the field. Several
schools also offer a general air pollution course
as an elective to students of different disciplines.
Obviously, in this general air pollution course
many of the above mentioned topics have to be
selectively compressed or eliminated.
The air pollution course described in this
article is specially designed to be a general course
of one semester or two quarters duration, tailored
to serve as an elective course for engineering
students in their M.S. or senior level.
This course is different from other one-
semester air pollution courses in several aspects.
The order of presentation of the topics is com-
pletely new. The new arrangement is based on the
principle of cause and effect. The theoretical basics
are reviewed at the beginning of the course. Conse-
quently, the subsequent topics are not presented
as case studies, but as applications of the theo-
retical principles. Thus, the student studies and
analyzes the applications with a creative approach
and often can deduce the resultant phenomena
before the empirical observations are presented.
It is the main objective of this course to challenge
the creative thinking of the students. This is
achieved not only during the lectures, but also by
the type of problems that are given during the
quizzes and examinations. As a result of these
efforts, the learning efficiency is improved and
more material is covered in the course.

COURSE DESCRIPTION
The course consists of two major parts: funda-
mentals of air pollution, and control technology
and equipment design. In the first part, the air
pollution system is treated as a huge chemical
reactor, where man is a moving boundary exposed
to the pollutants. In the second part, the control
technology is described and the design methods


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
























Mayis Seapan received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at
Austin (1976) and is presently Assistant Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Oklahoma State University. His current research interests
are the formation of aerosol particles by chemical reactions and up-
grading of coal derived liquids with specific interest in the catalyst
deactivation and kinetics of hydrotreatment of coal derived liquids.

are discussed. Usually equal time is spent in
teaching these two parts. However, in this article
more space is devoted to the fundamentals of air
pollution to show its special merits.
The most important reason for our study of air
pollution is a concern both for our health and for
that of future generations. The threat to our
health may come from direct exposure to pol-
lutants, or from indirect exposure through water,
plants, animals, and generally from the entire
environment.
The ecological effects of air pollutants depend
on (a) the concentration of the pollutant, (b) the
temperature, (c) the duration of exposure, and
(d) the velocities of the surrounding air. In some
cases other factors, such as concentrations of other
constituents, may also interfere. Thus, in theory, in
order to be able to evaluate the extent of the po-
tential damage of air pollutants, one needs to
know the concentration of every pollutant at any
location and at any time.
The air surrounding the earth is considered
as a huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform, and
non-ideal chemical reactor which has an approxi-
mate shape of a spherical shell. In order to under-
stand this non-ideal reactor, one needs to consider
the following:
Chemical and physical constituents of the reactor
and their properties
Heat transfer and temperature distributions
Fluid dynamics and velocity distributions
Physical boundaries of the reactor and transport
phenomena through these boundaries
Interactive and combined phenomena of all these
factors


Chemical constituents of the atmosphere
include not only nitrogen and oxygen but all re-
active and non-reactive gases as well as the
suspended particles in the atmosphere. Physical
constituents are considered as atmospheric
electricity, radioactivity and electromagnetic radi-
ation; where solar radiation plays the major role.
Therefore the course starts with a review of
different pollutants of the atmosphere and electro-
magnetic radiation. This is followed by a study
of the interaction of radiation with gaseous mole-
cules, the principles of photochemistry, the forma-
tion and dynamics of aerosol particles, and the
interaction of particles with electromagnetic
radiation, electricity and radioactivity. It is at
this stage that the students are introduced to the
concept of free molecular and continuum flow be-
havior of particles. They learn about Brownian
motion and phoretic forces and develop a general
understanding of the significance of each phe-
nomena under different conditions. The students
also learn the role of wavelength in the absorption


The air surrounding
the earth is considered as a
huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform,
and non-ideal chemical reactor which has the
approximate shape of a spherical shell.


of electromagnetic radiation by chemical con-
stituents and its significance in the initiation of
different types of chemical reactions.
Before the discussion of atmospheric fluid
dynamics, i.e., meteorology, the atmospheric
energy balance is discussed. By introducing at-
mospheric layers and their role in filtering
different wavelengths from solar radiation, the
heat balance around the earth is introduced. The
role of different chemical constituents in the at-
mospheric heat balance is discussed and the
greenhouse effect is explained.
The' fluid dynamics of the atmosphere as
classified under macro-, meso- and micro-meteor-
ology is introduced with emphasis on the concept
of cause and effect, indicating the role of solar
radiation and the atmospheric heat balance in the
development of atmospheric motions. This dis-
cussion is further expanded to the vertical
temperature distribution, lapse rate, inversion
layers, and atmospheric stability.
Sources of pollution as inputs through the
lower boundary of the reactor, i.e., the surface of


FALL 1982










. .. it is also emphasized that
"dilution is not a solution to pollution" and
whatever is released into the atmosphere
will eventually return to the
earth in some form.


earth, are reviewed and an account is given to
emission inventories. At this stage atmospheric
chemistry and different types of smogs are pre-
sented. A study of air pollution sinks, both through
the lower boundary to the earth and through the
tropopause to the upper levels of the atmosphere
illustrates how pollutants are eliminated from
the air. Water bodies, open lands, plants and lungs
of living creatures are considered as some of the
sinks on the surface of the earth, while strato-
spheric ozone layer is a sink at the upper levels
of the atmosphere.
To account for localized variations of pollu-
tion, dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere
from point, line, and surface sources are pre-
sented and the concept of atmospheric modeling
is introduced.
Throughout the presentation of this global
reactor model, the principles of global material
and energy balances are repeatedly emphasized so
that the students realize that whatever pollution
is emitted to the atmosphere, eventually is going
to be removed in the sinks in the boundaries of
the reactor.
At this stage, the student, in principle, is cap-
able of predicting the fate of and concentrations
of atmospheric pollutants. The effects of air
pollutants on the atmospheric environment are
discussed by presenting such topics as ozone layer
depletion, acid rain, and visibility reduction. Air
pollution damage to vegetation and materials is
followed by the effects on human and animal
health.
The student at this time is quite familiar with
the behavior of different gaseous and particulate
pollutants and therefore the analysis of their
effects is no longer a case study. For example,
the dependency of particle capture rate on the
particle size in the lungs is not a matter to be
accepted and memorized. The student recognizes
the relative significance of interception, sedi-
mentation and diffusion, so he or she can deduce
the concept of lung deposition.
Once the effects of air pollutants are studied,
the safe limits of pollutants and the existing un-
certainties in these limits are discussed. Air


pollution regulations are presented under the two
classes of receptor and emittor standards. A brief
summary of air pollution measuring techniques
completes the section on the fundamentals of air
pollution.
In the second half of the course, control tech-
nology is taught. Again the ground is laid by re-
viewing the basic chemical engineering principles
to show the thermodynamic and rate limitations
on the formation of pollutants. Material balances
are used to calculate the emission rates. An energy
balance is used to calculate the combustion and
outlet stream temperature. Chemical equilibria
show the thermodynamic limitations on the
formation of pollutants. Finally, chemical kinetics
explain the rate phenomena and the time factor
involved in the formation of pollutants. This re-
view is usually repetitious to chemical engineers,
but it is required for the understanding of
the rest of the discussion. Therefore, it must be
taught if non-chemical engineers are present in
the class.
At this stage, emission inventories and
emission factors are briefly reviewed. Incinera-
tion is discussed as the first control technology. As
another application of the basic principles, auto-
mobile emission control is presented. Again the
discussion is based on thermodynamic and kinetic
principles; therefore the student can deduce the
outcome of most of the control techniques.
Control of gaseous emissions by absorption
and adsorption and the sizing of equipment are
discussed. The students are continuously reminded
of the economic limitations of gas cleaning pro-
cesses so that they realize that, even with the
best available control technology, the exhaust
stream will contain some low levels of pollutants
which need to be properly disposed into the at-
mosphere. The stack as a means of this dispersion
of pollutants is described and its design methods
are exercised. However, it is also emphasized that
"dilution is not a solution to pollution" and what-
ever is released into the atmosphere will eventual-
ly return to the earth in some form.
A theoretical discussion of the aerodynamic
capture of particles and the forces responsible for
the collection and separation of particles precedes
the particulate control section.
Particulate control equipment is divided into
two groups; the equipment in which a specific
body force results in the separation of the particles
from the carrier gas, and the equipment which
operates on the basis of the aerodynamic capture


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










of particles by an object or obstacle. In the first
class, settling chambers, centrifugal separators
and cyclones, and electrostatic precipitators are
discussed. In the second class, filtration and wet
scrubbing are described. For every type of equip-
ment, the operating principles and the physical
construction are presented first, followed by
design principles and equations. Emphasis is
placed on sizing of equipment, calculation of
collection efficiencies, and pressure drops.


The final part of the course is based on com-
paring particulate control equipment. The criteria
for the selection of suitable equipment is pre-
sented and the guidelines to achieve an economical
design are discussed. At present, there seems to
be a need for the coverage of flue gas desulfuriza-
tion and other special topics, but due to time
limitations these have not been incorporated in
the course. Table 1 gives a more detailed course
outline.


TABLE 1 Course Outline


I-Fundamentals of Air Pollution
Introduction to air pollution
Atmosphere, a huge chemical reactor
Chemical Constituents of the Atmosphere
Gaseous pollutants
Particulates
Physical Constituents of the Atmosphere
Electromagnetic radiation, solar radiation
Radioactivity, ions and atmospheric electricity
Interaction of Radiation with Gases
Absorption and emission of radiation by gaseous
molecules
Photoionization and photoexcitation of gases
Principles of photochemistry
Aerosol Particles
Formation of particles by homogeneous and hetero-
geneous nucleations
Growth'of particles by coagulation
Knudsen number and regimes of particle dynamics
Brownian motion and phoretic forces
Interaction of Radiation with Particles
Optical properties of particles: Mie scattering and
Rayleigh scattering
Atmospheric Heat Balance
Radiative heat transfer
Atmospheric layers and solar radiation
Energy balance of the earth
Greenhouse effects
Atmospheric Fluid Dynamics
Macrometeorology and general circulation
Cyclones and anticyclones
Planetary boundary layer and wind profiles
Temperature profiles and lapse rate
Verticle motions in the atmosphere
Atmospheric stability and inversions
Sources of Air Pollution
Natural and anthropogenic sources
Emission inventories
Atmospheric Chemistry
Photochemical smog
Sulfurous smog
Miscellaneous atmospheric reactions
Sinks of Atmospheric Pollution
Sinks at the earth's surface: water bodies, earth,
vegetation, animals
Sinks at the upper layers of the atmosphere
Atmospheric Dispersion
Gaussian plume and ground concentrations
Dispersion of particulates and their deposition from


plumes
Dispersion from line and area sources
Modeling of atmospheric dispersion by unicell and
multicell techniques
Effects of Air Pollution
Global atmospheric effects: ozone depletion
Regional atmospheric effects: acid rain
Localized atmospheric effects: visibility reduction
Effects on vegetation
Effects on material
Effects on human health
Direct and indirect exposure
Lung and its defense mechanisms
Effects of gaseous and particulate pollutants on the
respiratory system
Other effects of pollutants on health
Air Pollution Regulations
Sampling and Analysis of Air Pollutants
Management of Air Pollution
II-Control Technology and Design
Basic Principles
Material balance
Energy balance
Chemical equilibria
Reaction rates
Emission Inventories and Emission Factors
Incineration
Automobile Emissions and Control
Fuel tank, carburetor and crankcase emissions
Exhaust gas emissions and its control
Absorption
Adsorption
Dispersion of Pollutants From Stacks, Stack Height
Particle Size Distributions
Collection Efficiencies and Penetrations
Grade Efficiencies and Overall Efficiencies
Aerodynamic Separation and Capture of Particles
Gravity, centrifugal and electrostatic forces
Calculation of particle trajectories and stop distances
Capture of particles by obstacles: impaction, inter-
ception, diffusion and seiving
Particulate Control Equipment and Their Design
Settling chambers
Centrifugal separators, cyclones
Electrostatic Precipitators
Filtration, fabric filters
Wet scrubbing
Economics and comparative design of particulate
control equipment


FALL 1982










TEXTBOOK

In the past two decades several textbooks
have been written for air pollution courses. Un-
fortunately, none of them can be used for the
entire course. Some of these textbooks cover
primarily the fundamentals [2-6], while others
cover the control aspects [7-10]. The textbooks
that attempt to cover both the fundamentals and
control [11, 12] do not place the desired emphasis
on different topics. In addition, the sequence of
topics in the textbooks is significantly different
from the sequence of this course. Therefore no
single textbook was found suitable for this course.
For every topic, appropriate pages from different
sources are recommended for reading.
ASSIGNMENTS AND EXAMINATIONS

Two types of assignments are normally given.
Computational homework problems, through
which the students learn to use the basic design
equations, are assigned on a regular weekly basis.
During the first few weeks, while the funda-
mentals are being covered, not many computa-
tional problems can be given. Therefore, certain
reading materials are assigned which are later
tested by short quizzes. In order to minimize the
memorization aspect of these assignments and im-
prove the creativity and critical thinking of the
students, no direct questions are asked on the
assigned reading material. The questions are in-
direct and require some creative thinking based
on the studied material. Three one-hour exams
and one final exam are given during the semester.
These examinations are composed of questions
similar to the ones in the short quizzes and compu-
tational problems. Since no direct questions are
asked, all the examinations and short quizzes are
handled on an open-book open-notes basis.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The described air pollution course which
covers both the fundamentals and control of air
pollution introduces a new sequential structure for
its topic presentation. This new structure is built
on the basis of theoretical principles and has
minimized the traditional case study approach.
The major objective throughout the course is to
prepare the students to become creative thinkers
capable of analyzing existing and future/new air
pollution problems.
This course, developed and taught at Okla-
homa State University, has attracted many su-
perior students from different engineering disci-


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Chemical Engineering, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI 48824-1226.

plines. It has successfully challenged the students
and has maintained their interest and enthusiasm
throughout the courses. O

REFERENCES
1. Rossano, A. T. and Cota, H. M., J. of Air Poll. Cont.
Ass., 28, 1106 (1978).
2. Ledbetter, J. O., "Air Pollution," Part A. Marcel
Dekker, 1972.
3. Perkins, H. C., "Air Pollution," McGraw-Hill, 1974.
4. Seinfeld, J. H., "Air Pollution, Physical and Chemical
Fundamentals," McGraw-Hill, 1975.
5. Stern, A. C., H. C. Wohlers, R. W. Boubel, and W. P.
Lowry, "Fundamentals of Air Pollution," Academic
Press, 1973.
6. Williamson, S. "Fundamentals of Air Pollution,"
Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1973.
7. Crawford, M., "Air Pollution Control Theory,"
McGraw-Hill, 1976.
8. Hesketh, H. E., "Air Pollution Control," Ann Arbor
Science, 1979.
9. Strauss, W., "Industrial Gas Cleaning," Second
Edition, Pergamon Press, 1975.
10. Licht, W., "Air Pollution Control Engineering-Basic
Calculations for Particulate Control," Marcel Dekker,
1980.
11. Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., "Air Pollution, Its
Origin and Control," Second Edition, Harper and
Row Publications, 1981.
12. Hesketh, H. E., "Understanding and Controlling Air
Pollution," Ann Arbor Science, 1972.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


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POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


DONALD G. BAIRD AND
GARTH L. WILKES
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University
Blacksburg, VA 24061-6496

POLYMER EDUCATION AND research is gradually
becoming a part of every major university in
the country. At least some type of survey course
in polymers is presented, and occasionally
additional specific courses are offered, e.g. polymer
processing, polymer synthesis, etc. Where more
developed polymer programs are found, they are
usually isolated in specific departments; the most
common being chemistry, chemical engineering
or materials engineering. A few universities have
progressed to the point where separate polymer
science departments now exist.
At VPI & SU a unique interdisciplinary
polymer program (referred to as the Polymer
Materials and Interfaces Laboratory [PMIL]) has
evolved over the last five years and involves 11
faculty from five departments and some 70 gradu-
ate students and post-doctoral associates. The
uniqueness of the program rests in the fact that
it is truly interdisciplinary, with faculty cooperat-
ing in research and teaching activities. While
other interdiscplinary groups or programs exist
in the country, they often do not function smoothly
due to interdepartmental or inter-college barriers.
At Virginia Tech these barriers do not exist.
Furthermore, the operation of this interdisciplin-
ary effort has joint Co-Directors, with one in the
College of Arts and Sciences and the other housed



Polymeric fluids require not only the
application of a shear stress to maintain shear flow
but additional normal stresses. The normal stress
differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids
in shear flow are more sensitive to changes
in molecular structure than is viscosity.


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


SChei.cal Engineorint iI
Materials Engineering CoDirector
College of Engineering Enineerinq Sciece & Mechanics L
Mechan ical Engineering




coJet i ie & D e ntD Ct-irector of
College of Arts & IDep ___________ P IL
Sciences Chemistry 1

FIGURE 1. Schematic drawing of the Interdisciplinary
Polymer Science Program (The Polymer
Materials and Interfaces Laboratory-PMIL)
at Virginia Tech.

in the College of Engineering (see Fig. 1). This
minimizes any political biases and at the same
time provides smoother operation in both edu-
cation and research. One example of cooperative
research is a project entitled "High Performance
Elastomers and Other Multiphase Organic Com-
posites" where five faculty from the departments
of chemical engineering, materials engineering,
and chemistry combine their expertise in polymer
synthesis, characterization, rheology and process-
ing, and structure/property relationships to pro-
vide a complete understanding of novel elastomeric
polymer systems. A second and similar example
of the strong cooperative research is the newly
established "Adhesion Center" where the princi-
pal aim is an understanding of the fundamentals
of polymer adhesion. This center, which has ac-
quired major outside funding from the Office of
Naval Research, was established through the co-
operation of four faculty members of PMIL who
are housed in three different departments.
From an educational viewpoint, a chemical
engineering student who is interested in pursuing
polymer research is expected to obtain a basic level
of proficiency in polymer synthesis and physical
chemistry of high polymers while developing an
expertise in either polymer processing or
structure/property relationships. The remainder
of this article focuses on the educational offerings
in polymers within the Chemical Engineering De-
partment at Virginia Tech.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










RESEARCH ACTIVITIES
Polymer research in the department is carried
out under the direction of either Professor Baird
or Professor Wilkes. The general theme of Pro-
fessor Baird's research is the application of
rheology to polymer and biopolymer processing,
while that of Professor Wilkes is directed toward
the structure/property relationships in these same
or related polymer systems. Although each has his
own research interests, the cooperative aspects
of the polymer group extends strongly into the
program. (David Dwight, who is also a part of
PMIL, holds a partial appointment in Chemical
Engineering but contributes principally to the
















Donald G. Baird received his B.S. (1969) and M.S. (1971) degrees
from Michigan State University in Mechanics of Materials. He obtained
his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1974 under the
guidance of A. S. Lodge of the Rheology Research Center. From 1974
to 1978 he was employed as a chemical research engineer at Mon-
santo's textiles research laboratory in Pensacola, Florida. His work
was primarily concerned with the processing of high modulus/strength
fibers. In 1978 he joined the VPI & SU faculty holding a joint appoint-
ment in the departments of Engineering Mechanics and Chemical
Engineering. In 1981 he was promoted to associate professor in the
Department of Chemical Engineering. He has authored over 30 papers
in the field of polymer rheology and processing and consults on a
frequent basis with the polymer, paper and food industries. (L)
Garth Wilkes received his bachelor's and master's degrees from
the College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Further graduate study
was carried out at the University of Massachusetts where another
master's degree (Polymer Science and Engineering) as well as a
doctoral degree (Physical Chemistry) were obtained. He joined the
chemical engineering faculty at Princeton University in 1969 and was
active in the Polymer Materials Program. In 1974 he received the
outstanding young engineering faculty award at Princeton. The
theme of his research is the structure-property behavior of synthetic
and biological polymeric systems. In 1978 he accepted a full pro-
fessorship at VPI & SU within the Chemical Engineering Department.
In 1981 he was awarded an endowed chair position within the same
department. He participates in both teaching and research duties and
serves as a frequent consultant to the polymer industry. He is also Co-
Director of the Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory. He has
published over 100 scientific papers and contributed to numerous
books. (R)


Department of Materials Engineering; conse-
quently, his interests in polymer adhesion and
surface analysis will not be highlighted here.)
A contrast of Virginia Tech's efforts in
polymer rheology with others shows that some
groups approach non-Newtonian fluid flow be-
havior only from a theoretical viewpoint; they are
often principally concerned with developing equa-
tions of state to describe the flow behavior of visco-
elastic fluids. Our efforts, however, are directed
more toward the application of rheology for solv-
ing polymer processing problems, employing
molecular as well as continuum viewpoints. This
approach sometimes involves merely finding em-
pirical correlations between certain theological
properties and polymer processability. On the
other hand, it may also involve using an existing
constitutive equation in conjunction with molecu-
lar theory to model a polymer process. Since we
study many fluids which are even more complex
than common polymeric melts and solutions (two
examples being liquid crystals and filled polymer
systems), we are also concerned with the develop-
ment of theological equations of state for these
fluids. However, we tend to be motivated by a
need for developing models which are useful for
process calculations, as opposed to developing a
model which is so mathematically complex that
it is of little practical value for calculations and
process design even though it may accurately de-
scribe theological properties of polymeric fluids
over a large range of conditions.
The following description of several of our
ongoing research programs illustrates the type of
research which is carried out and emphasizes the
cooperative nature of the research. The first
examples extend from the work of Professor
Baird. Polymeric fluids require not only the ap-
plication of a shear stress to maintain shear flow,
but additional normal stresses. The normal stress
differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids in
shear flow are more sensitive to changes in molecu-
lar structure than is viscosity. We are presently
investigating two methods (hole pressure and exit
pressure) for measuring normal stresses which
are related to fluid elasticity in a slit-die, using a
technique called flow birefringence. These slit-die
rheometers have potential for in-line monitoring
and quality control of industrial polymer pro-
cesses. Because flowing polymer fluids become
anisotropic, they can transmit polarized light.
The birefringent patterns which arise are directly
related to the state of stress or momentum trans-


FALL 1982










Our efforts are directed toward
the application of rheology for solving polymer
processing problems, employing molecular
as well as continuum viewpoints.


port at every point in the fluid. From the stress
field various pressures related to fluid elasticity
can be calculated from theory and compared to
the directly measured values.
Another project involves the rheology and in-
jection molding of filled polymers. Our first ob-
jective has been to determine what effect filler
has on the non-linear theological properties of
polymer fluids. The second goal has been to deter-
mine whether the theological properties can be
described by constitutive models used for homo-
geneous polymer fluids. We are presently investi-
gating the possibility of using dimensional analysis
to draw correlations between theological proper-
ties, thermodynamic properties, and the final bulk
physical properties which arise as a result of pro-
cess conditions. A particular processing problem
of interest is weld-line formation. This study re-
quires an additional investigation of the structure
and related properties at the interface between the
two polymer fronts.
To illustrate the diversity of our efforts in
rheology, we are also involved with the modeling
of soy flour dough extrusion cooking processes
which lead to meat-like products ( these systems,
of course, are polymeric in nature). This project
involves an initial understanding of the transport
mechanism for soy dough in an extruder, de-
termining the properties of the dough under pro-
cess conditions and developing a mathematical
model for predicting relationships between power,
torque, temperature and output for various ex-
truder designs. This work will eventually be ex-
tended to predicting final extrudate texture and
properties which will require an understanding
of the structure property behavior of the final
solid and how these relationships depend on pro-
cessing. These latter points are addressed more
by the efforts of Professor Wilkes. This particular
project involves all the concepts of momentum,
heat and mass transfer plus rheology, thermo-
dynamics, kinetics, and structure/property re-
lationships.
A last example of theological studies is our
research on liquid crystalline polymers, which in-
volves rheology, processing and bulk structure and
properties investigations. Liquid crystals are an


intermediate state of matter between the isotropic
liquid and crystalline solid state. Polymeric ma-
terials in the liquid crystalline state under shear
generally have extremely low viscosity and can
usually be processed to give bulk specimens with
physical properties approaching those of metals.
Because liquid crystals are by nature anisotropic
they may have unique theological properties. We
are presently studying their flow behavior in
order to identify any unique flow properties which
may require a different theological equation of
state than is used for isotropic fluids. Further-
more, after processing these polymers behave as if
they are self-reinforcing. Our present investiga-
tion concerns the effects of injection molding
conditions on the development of morphology,
structure, and properties. The latter part of the
research is carried out under the supervision of
Professor Wilkes.
Some of the other projects that are focused
more on the structure-property behavior of
polymeric solids include such phenomena as
crystallization of polymers, synthesis and proper-
ties of ionic elastomers as well as block and seg-
mented copolymers, nonequilibrium behavior of
network glasses and rubber modifications thereof
and, finally, polymer compatability studies. In
general, these studies, directed by Professor
Wilkes, utilize a molecular approach with empha-
sis on experimental work. Typically, a student's
graduate research project often involves at least
two, and sometimes three, areas in order to es-
tablish a broader educational foundation in
polymer science from which to work after leaving
the university level. Several of these projects, as
indicated earlier, overlap with those of Professor
Baird where the input of processing and rheology
help to provide insight into the nature of the final
bulk properties that are studied.

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES
Table 1 lists the polymer courses that are
taught at Virginia Tech, some of which are given
within the Department of Chemical Engineering.
We will now address the various polymer science
educational opportunities in chemical engineering
both at the undergraduate and the graduate level.

Undergraduate Courses
At the undergraduate level, chemical engineer-
ing students may take as many as five courses in
the area of polymer science (see Table 1). Two of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









these courses are taught within the Department
of Chemical Engineering while three extend from
the Department of Chemistry and Materials Engi-
neering. The latter three courses (which we will
not address in detail) focus on (a) polymer
synthesis, (b) polymer surface chemistry, and (c)
applications of polymeric materials. In our own
department the two principal courses at the under-
graduate level are "Introduction to Polymer Pro-
cessing" and "Introduction to Polymer Materials."
In the case of the processing course, students are
introduced to the concepts of non-Newtonian
fluid mechanics which serves as a basis for teach-
ing extruder design, die design, and a qualitative
description of processes such as film blowing and
injection molding. The importance of processing
on final structure and properties is also empha-
sized. However the general theme in the Intro-
duction to Polymer Materials course is to focus
principally on the bulk properties of polymeric
systems as found in the glassy, rubbery and semi-
crystalline states. The first part of this course also
includes an introduction to polymer synthesis for
those students who have not acquired this back-
ground through the polymer synthesis course
given in chemistry. It also focuses some attention
on the area of polymer characterization in order to
provide an appreciation of the importance of
molecular weight and molecular weight distribu-
tion effects. While undergraduate students often

TABLE 1
Polymer Science and Engineering Courses at
Virginia Tech
DEPT. INTRODUCTORY COURSES
ChE Introduction to Polymer Materials
ChE Introduction to Polymer Processing
ChE Organic Chemistry of High Polymers
Chem Polymer and Surface Chemistry
MatE Applications of Polymeric Materials
ADVANCED COURSES
ChE Polymer Structure & Morphology
ChE Rheo-optics of Polymers
ChE Technology of Elastomers
ChE Polymer Processing
ChE Advanced Applied Rheology
Chem Current Topics in Polymer Synthesis
Chem Physical Chemistry of High Polymers
ChE/ESM Introduction to Non-Newtonian Fluid
Mechanics
ESM Viscoelasticity
MatE Modern Composite Materials
MatE Surface and Microphase Analysis
MatE Adhesion and Bonding
ME Lubrication
ME Friction and Wear


do not take all of the polymer courses mentioned
above, many often graduate with at least two of
them.
Graduate Level
With respect to courses focusing on rheology,
prior to the students taking the advanced rhe-
ology course they take non-Newtonian fluid
mechanics, which prepares them for advanced
polymer processing topics such as the modeling

With respect to courses focusing
on rheology, prior to the students taking the
advanced rhyology course they take non-Newtonian
fluid mechanics, which prepares them for
advanced polymer processing topics .

of film blowing processes, blow molding and injec-
tion molding. The latter advanced course is offered
for students interested in molecular theories
of rheology. Three additional courses emphasizing
the structure/property behavior of polymeric
solids are taught. The first, called Polymer Struc-
ture and Morphology, focuses on the area of
rubbery elasticity behavior as well as the crystal-
lization of polymers. The second course, Rheo-
optics of Polymers, discusses the use of electro-
magnetic techniques for the purpose of charac-
terizing polymeric materials. Examples of such
techniques are light scattering, X-ray diffraction,
birefringence and linear dichroism. The third
course, Technology of Elastomers, is jointly taught
by Professor Wilkes of Chemical Engineering and
James McGrath of the Department of Chemistry.
This course brings together both the chemistry of
elastomers and some of their performance charac-
teristics, but carries a stronger industrial flavor
than most of the other polymer courses.
SOURCES OF RESEARCH SUPPORT
Support for our research comes from both in-
dustry and governmental agencies. Most support
is for specific research projects. However, contri-
butions of unrestricted funds are also made
through PMIL (The Polymer Materials and Inter-
faces Laboratory) and represents many
companies. This diversified funding illustrates
our ability to carry out research at both the very
fundamental level and the applied level in the field
of polymer science. This has important ramifica-
tions as far as our students are concerned since
it demonstrates that both types of research are
Continued on page 180.


FALL 1982















CATALYSIS


J. M. SKAATES
Michigan Technological University
Houghton, MI 49931


A TEN WEEK SURVEY COURSE in catalysis was de-
signed to meet the needs of both chemistry
and chemical engineering graduate students in
Michigan Tech's Department of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering. The aim of the course is
to show how modern chemistry and chemical
engineering interact in the ongoing development
of industrial catalysts. As the course developed,
it attracted the attention of graduate students in
metallurgy who were grappling with chemical
phenomena in their research in physical and
extractive metallurgy.
The course outline is given in Table 1. The ap-
pearance of Gates, Katzer, and Schuit's Chemistry
of Catalytic Processes, McGraw-Hill, New York
(1979) provided an organizational framework.
This text is incisive, mercifully slender, and
contains challenging homework problems at the
end of each chapter. To maintain the pace shown
in Table 1, a series of sixty-five transparencies
showing chemical structures and reaction mechan-
isms were prepared for use with an overhead pro-
jector. At the beginning of the course each student
is given photocopies of all sixty-five trans-
parencies. Constant reference is made to a wall-
hung periodic table, and to a well-known organic
chemistry text (Morrison and Boyd) which most
students own.
At the beginning of the course the students
are asked to read two articles [1] which contrast
industrial processes with textbook organic chemis-
try. Then a quick review of the active site theory
and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism is
given for the benefit of students who have not
taken the undergraduate chemical engineering
kinetics course. Modern surface analysis tech-
niques are described in a series of notes.
The discussion of thermal cracking is extended
to cover computer modeling of ethylene manu-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


facture [2] and recent research on high-severity
pyrolysis [3]. The catalytic effect of the tube wall
is demonstrated [4]. A set of notes entitled "Physi-
cal properties of coal-derived liquids as affecting
their chemical processing" summarizes the work
of Ubbelohde on melts of polynuclear aromatics
and of Marsh on formation of semi-cokes from
aromatic liquids. A seminal paper by Virk [5]
provides a framework for understanding chemical
processing of aromatic liquids.
Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons is
covered next, and the textbook treatment is supple-
mented by a study of the Socony-Mobil methanol-
to-gasoline process over shape-selective zeolites.
This provides an opportunity for examination of
various processes for obtaining liquid fuels from
coal. The advantages of the coal synthesis gas -
methanol gasoline route are emphasized.
An historical approach is taken to solid-
catalyzed reactions, with the search for the "active
site" being the main theme. For the benefit of
metallurgy students the enhanced reactivity at
emergent dislocations is discussed on the basis of
an excellent review article [6]. Three lectures are


J. M. Skaates received his B.Sc. (1957) at Case Institute of Tech-
nology and M.S. (1958) and Ph.D. (1961) at Ohio State University in
chemical engineering. He worked at California Research Corporation
for three years before joining the faculty of Michigan Tech. His
teaching duties have included undergraduate and graduate courses
in thermodynamics and kinetics, an undergraduate course in process
control, and graduate courses in catalysis and in process optimization.
He has been involved in research in catalysis, biomass pyrolysis, and
wet oxidation.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of proposed mechanisms for five important
industrial reactions. It is emphasized that mechanisms are never finally
"proven," but are working hypotheses reflecting present knowledge.


devoted to the work of Somorjai on clean metal
surfaces, with special attention to his parallel
studies on iridium, platinum, and gold [7], and the
linking of the unique catalytic activity of platinum
to the high density of states at the Fermi level.
Surface reconstruction on platinum-rhodium
screens during the oxidation of ammonia is used
to illustrate that interaction of surface metal
atoms with adsorbates profoundly affects the
metal-metal bonds. The geometric and electronic
theories of catalysis by metals are represented as
reflecting primitive ideas of metal surface morph-
ology and bonding in metals.
The synthesis and catalytic properties of metal
cluster compounds is presented as a third approach
(after transition metal ions in solution and clean
metal surfaces) for studying bonding of metal


atoms. Bonding of ligands to the metal clusters is
compared with chemisorption of gases on bulk
metal surfaces.
The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of
proposed mechanisms for five important industrial
reactions (Table 1). It is emphasized that mechan-
isms are never finally "proven," but are working
hypotheses reflecting present knowledge. As an
illustration, the electronic theory of catalysis, as
applied to semiconducting metal oxides, fails to
explain the baffling Schwab-Parravano dis-
crepancy.
Oxidation of hydrocarbons by oxygen supplied
from an inorganic oxide lattice illustrates that a
novel idea, tested with simple apparatus [8], can
have a big economic payoff. On the other hand,
millions of dollars of research failed to uncover a


TABLE 1


Course Outline


WEEK TOPICS COVERED
1. Theory of active sites
Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms and rate
equations
Survey of modern surface analysis techniques.
2. Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons:
Free-radical mechanisms
Cracking of aromatics
Recent trends in thermal cracking
3. Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons:
Carbonium ion formation on solid surfaces
Carbonium ion mechanisms
Silica-alumina catalysts
Zeolite catalysts
Socony-Mob:l methanol-to-gasoline process
4. Chemistry of transition metal ions
Zeiss' salt
Wacker Process for acetaldehyde from ethylene
Oxo Process
Designing liquid-phase homogeneous catalyst
reactors.
5. Types of defects on solid surfaces
Emergent dislocations as active sites
Surface morphology
H-H, C-H, and C-C bond breaking on steps and
kinks of metal surfaces
Surface reconstruction during catalytic reactions
6. Geometric theory of catalysis on metals
Electronic theory of catalysis on metals
Surface compound theory of catalysis on metals
Metal alloy catalysts


7. Supported metal catalysts
Experimental techniques for characterizing
supported metal catalysts
Reforming of hydrocarbons
Octane and cetane numbers
Modeling catalytic reforming reactors
8. Properties of small metal crystallites
Interaction between metal crystallites and the
support
Metal cluster compounds
Metal-metal bonding
Bonding of carbonyl groups
Bonding of hydrogen
9. Ammonia synthesis mechanism
Hydrocarbon synthesis by CO reduction
Proposed mechanisms for Fischer-Tropsch
Synthesis
Proposed mechanisms for the methanation
reaction
Design of methanation reactors
10. Mechanisms involving electron transfer between
adsorbate and metal oxides
Catalysis on semiconductors
Electronic Theory of Catalysis as applied to
semiconducting metal oxides
Oxygen transfer from the solid oxide lattice
Synthesis of acrolein and acrylonitrile from
propylene
Complex oxide catalysts
Perovskite structures
Scheelite structures
Automobile exhaust converter catalysts


FALL 1982










TABLE 2

Articles Assigned for Outside Reading and Evaluation
1. Witcoff, H., "How It's Really Done," CHEMTECH,
December 1977, p. 753 CHEMTECH, April 1978, p. 229.
2. Riggs, W. M., and Beimer, R. G., "How ESCA Pays Its
Way" CHEMTECH, November 1975, p. 652.
3. Kearns, J. D., Milks, D., and Kamm, G. R., "Develop-
ment of Scaling Methods for a Crude Oil Cracking
Reactor Using Short Duration Test Techniques,"
paper presented to the Division of Petroleum Chemis-
try, 175th National Meeting of the American Chemi-
cal Society, Anaheim (1978).
4. Hall, James W., and Rase, Howard F., "Relation Be-
tween Dislocation Density and Catalytic Activity and
Effects of Physical Treatment" I and EC Funda-
mentals, 3, 158 (1964).
5. Johnson, O., "Classification of Metal Catalysts Based
on Surface d-Electrons," J. Catal., 28, 503 (1973).
6. Callahan, J. L., Grasselli, Robert K., Milberger, E. C.,
and Strecker, H. Arthur, "Oxidation and Ammoxidation
of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst," I and
EC Prod. Res. Rev., 9, 134 (1970).

satisfactory metal oxide replacement for platinum
in the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons in auto-
mobile exhaust.
Student evaluation of this course has been
favorable, and their comments indicate that the
excitement of catalyst research is "catching." The
limitations of current chemical theories are evi-
dent in trying to understand many catalysts.
Playing a "hunch," or serendipity, often lead to
valuable catalysts and also to new chemistry for
the theorist to interpret. E

REFERENCES
1. Witcoff, H., "How It's Really Done," CHEMTECH,
December 1977, p. 753, CHEMTECH, April 1978, p.
229.
2. Shah, M. J., "Computer Control of Ethylene Produc-
tion," Ind. Eng. Chem., 59, 70 (1967).
3. Ennis, Boyd, and Orris, "Olefin Manufacture by
Millisecond Pyrolysis," CHEMTECH, November 1975,
p. 693.
4. Dunkleman and Albright, "Pyrolysis of Propane in
Tubular Flow Reactors Constructed of Different
Materials" ACS Symposium Series, No. 32, p. 261
(1976).
5. Virk, Chambers, and Woebcke, "Thermal Hydrogasifi-
cation of Aromatic Compounds," ACS Advances in
Chemistry Series, No. 131 (1974).
6. Thomas, J. M., "Enhanced Reactivity at Dislocations
in Solids," Advances in Chemistry, 19, 293 (1969).
7. Somorjai, G. A., "Active Sites in Heterogeneous
Catalysis," Advances in Catalysis, 26, 2 (1977).
8. Callahan, J. L. et. al., "Oxidation and Ammoxidation
of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst" I
and EC Prod. Res. Dev., 9, 134 (1970).


POLYMER RESEARCH
Continued from page 177.
compatible. In summary, our objective is to pro-
vide the student with an understanding of molecu-
lar and continuum approaches and an under-
standing of the behavior of polymeric systems. We
try to emphasize the need of understanding both
the chemistry of these macromolecular systems
and their engineering properties.
All students receive a similar background in
coursework. Along with the courses mentioned
above, 11 other polymer courses (including such
topics as polymer synthesis, physical chemistry of
polymers and surface analysis) are available in
the four other departments participating in the
interdisciplinary group. Because of the large
number of graduate students now in our program,
even the advanced courses are offered on a routine
basis.
As a final note concerning educational aspects
extending from chemical engineering in the
polymer science area, we might point out that
there are several industrially oriented polymer
short courses offered at Virginia Tech each year.
These courses are taught jointly through the
polymer oriented chemical engineering faculty as
well as other faculty members of the PMIL group.
In short, we now offer the most extensive
continuing education program in polymer science
through a short course format than any other uni-
versity in the nation.
SUMMARY
In this article we have attempted to outline
the new growth in the polymer area at Virginia
Tech, with emphasis being placed on the role of
the Department of Chemical Engineering. The
overall polymer science effort, as indicated, extends
beyond a single department, encompassing five
departments across two colleges. The growth of
this program has been enormous in the last three
years as a result of cooperative efforts of a truly
interdisciplinary nature. The overall program,
part of which is focused in chemical engineering,
has become a highlight of the Virginia Tech
campus and one which we anticipate will become
even stronger in the future. It has achieved con-
siderable outside funding and has developed
modern research facilities necessary for gradu-
ate research. Inquiries concerning information
about Chemical Engineering and the Polymer
Materials and Interfaces Laboratory can be di-
rected to either of the authors of this article. D


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









What to look for


in choosing your first job.


An intelligent first job assessment is often diffi-
cult. There are important questions you should ask
because the answers to these questions relate to how
fast your career will move ahead. One key question
is How much responsibility will I be given at the
beginning?
At Rohm and Haas, quite a lot. We seek out the
highly motivated person who not only wants respon-
sibility but aggressively goes after it.


We place a lot of importance on helping you in
your chosen area of specialization and your desired
career direction. We call this "growth through re-
sponsibility." We give it to you from the beginning. As
a result, you can grow in the direction your expanding
talents can take you.
Also, top priority is given to individual develop-
ment programs to ensure that all employees have the
same opportunities for advancement.
Our products are used in industry, agriculture
and health services; therefore, we need responsible
people with solid academic backgrounds who
can contribute to our mutual growth. Our open-
ings are in Engineering, Manufacturing,
Research, Technical Sales, and Finance.
If you want to know more about
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Company. Recruiting and Place-
ment #1882, Independence Mall
West. Philadelphia, PA 19105.


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PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19105


An equal opportunity employer.











curriculum


1981 AIChE-EPC SURVEY


DEE H. BARKER
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84112


T HE EDUCATION PROJECTS Committee of the
American Institute of Chemical Engineers has
carried out surveys of the undergraduate curricula
in chemical engineering since 1957 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
The survey reported in this paper was carried out
during 1981. The form, which was similar to that
used in the past surveys, was sent out in the middle
of June and requested its return by the first of
September 1981. The questionnaire was to be based
on the curricula as of September 1, 1981. The
survey was sent out to all 149 schools listed in the
1980-81 Chemical Engineering Faculties [6].
Useable replies were received from 105 schools;
the best response that has been given to the
survey. The results of the survey were coded on
IBM punch cards and analyzed using standard
statistical procedures. The results of this survey
are presented in the accompanying tables. For
purposes of comparison, the same format has been
used as in previous surveys. In this way, a com-
parison can be made of the changes taking place
in the curriculum since 1957.
Table 1 presents the consolidated information
under the categories shown in previous reports
and is divided into three parts. The first set of
columns shows the average number of semester
hours, including all 105 schools. The second section
shows the percentage of schools offering the par-
ticular category and the third section shows the
average semester hours considering only those
schools offering the particular category.



In the area of unit
operations theory, transport theory has
made an increase as well as transport labs.
Unit operation theory has decreased somewhat to
accommodate the transport theory increase.


Dee Barker is professor and chairman of ChE at Brigham Young
University. Dee earned the B.S. and Ph.D. ('51) degrees from the
University of Utah. His industrial experience includes several years
with du Pont in nuclear engineering and with Hercules, Inc., in
atmospheric pollution, heat transfer, and materials development. He
has served foreign assignments at Provo Institute of Technology and
Science at Pilani, Rajasthan, India and Birla Institute of Technology
and Science. Dee's fields of interest include nuclear engineering,
fluid dynamics, heat transfer, process control and environmental
control.


The changes in the curricula, since 1957, in
four categories are shown in Figs. 1 through 4.
Figure 1 shows the total semester hours offered
and indicates a slight increase in the net number
of credit hours since 1957. However the change is


TOTAL IN SEMESTER HOURS SH


136.9
138.2
134.3
131.7
131.2
1132.7


I I I I I I
100 110 120 130 140 150


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


FIGURE 1

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


















TABLE 1

B. ChE. Curriculum 1957, 1961, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1981


Avg. Number of SH

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981

147.0 146.2 136.8 133.1 132.5 133.4
136.9 138.2 134.3 131.7 131.2 132.,


9. Written Communication 6.5 5.9 4.9 3.5
10. Oral Communication 1.1 1.0 0.3 0.6
11. Subtotal Items 9-10 7.6 6.9 5.6 4.3
12. Humanities, Required 4n. 5.4 4.9 4.0
13. Social Studies, Required 3.1 2.7 2.- 2.9
14. Other Req. Soc-Hum. 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5
15. Non-technical Electives 6.2 7.6 9.8 3.
16. Subtotal, Items 12-15 14.7 17.2 9.1 21.0
17. Physical Education, etc. 1. 1.9 .2 .9
18. Military Studies .1 .9 0.8 0.4
19. Other non-technical 0.; 0.4 0.5
20. Subtotal Items 17-19 5.2 2.0 1.9
21. Total Items 11, 16, 20 27. 25.8 26.0

22. MATHEMATICS. CHEMISTRY. AND PHYSICS


23. Intro. & Review Math.
24. Anal. Geom. and Calc.
25. Diff. Eq. & Other
26. Subtotal Items 23-25
27. General Chemistry
28. Physical Chemistry
29. Organic Chemistry
30. Quantitative Analysis
31. Qualitative Analysis
32. Other Chemistry
33. Subtotal Items 27 32
34. General Physics
35. Modern Physics


4.4 2.6 0.2 0.i
11.b 11.7 11.3 9.9
1.3 3.6 b.3 7.
17.3 7. 17.7 17.9
8.0 7.8 7.A 7.1
8.5 8.1 7.7 7.1
8.5 7.8 7.4 6.6
4.2 .5 1.2 [.8
1. 1.3 0.6 0.4
U. 0.5 0.- 0.7
9.., 28.9 24.1 '22.
10.8 10.2 8.5 7.3
0.2 1.0 1.4 1.3


36. Subtotal Items 34-36 11.1 11.3 10.5 9.0
37. Total Items 26, 33, 36 59.2 57.9 49.7

38. ENGINEERING GRAPHICS


39. Total Graphics


4.7 3.8 2.0 1.6


3.3 4 .
0.7 0.6
4.0 5.1
5.1 5.3
2.3 3.1
.2 1.0
8.9
18.9 18.8

0.9
1.7 1.8
5 7 1,8
25.U 25.1



0.2 --
9.8 10.7
8.1 7.4
17.9 1,.1



0.7
6.7 6.6


0.2 0.4
1 0.9
23.0 23.1
7.3 7.9
1.1 0.9

9.1 8.9
49.0 50.6



1.3 0.9


Schools Offering, %

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981






98.8 97.8 92.8 74.0 72.0 89.5
43.2 45.6 28.9 25.0 30.0 24.5
98.8 97.8 92.8 79.0 77.0 88.6
? .3 72.7 66.3 57.0 62.0 66.7
9. r' 55.4 39.8 44.0 38.0 45.7
. 20.7 22.9 21.0 20.0 14.3
n.4 82.6 79.5 79.0 77.0 73.3
S0.O 100.0 1iiO.0 100.0 O. 100.0 1
1;. 51.6 44.6 36.0 33.0 30.5
4 .1 49.0 18.1 5.0 1.0 3.8
,.5 14.1 19.3 14.0 28.0 19.0
4.1 77.2 54.2 44.0 43.0 40.0
i*u.0 100.0 96.4 100.0 100.0 100.0



-.0 53.3 6.0 4.0 5.0 1.0
0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4.4 81.5 98.8 95.0 100.0 100.0
;'U.' 100. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 97.6 99.0 97.0 100.0
110.0 98.9 97.6 99.0 96.0 97.1
100.0 98.9 98.8 98.0 99.0 98.1
:8.5 94.6 35.1 31.0 29.0 40.0
44.4 39.2 25.3 15.0 13.0 16.2
9.9 9.8 18.0 20.0 32.0 23.8
100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 98.8 95.0 90.0 98.0
8.6 38.0 38.6 34.0 26.0 27.6

100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 98.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 85.5 100.0 100.0 100.0



97.5 94.6 67.5 59.0 50.0 44.7


40. ECONOMICS, BUSINESS LAW, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ALLIED


41. Economics, Princ. of
42. Economics, Engineering
43. Bus. Law, Admin., etc.
44. Total Items 41-43




45. MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

46. Mechanics
47. Mechanics of Materials
48. Total Items 46-67


2.2 2.1 1.5 1.1
0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7
0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2
3.4 2.7 2.2 1.9.


Avg. Number of SH

1957 1961 1978 1972 1976 1981


3.7 3.9 4.1 3.0 1.8 1.9
3.1 2.5 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.0
6.8 6.4 5.1 4.2 4.0 3.9


49. ELEMENTARY ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


50. Elementary El. Eng.
51. Elementary Electronics
52. Total Items 50-51


4.7 4.0 '2.8 2.4 2.2 2.3
0.3 0.9 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.7
5.0 5.0 4.3 3.2 2.9 3.1


53. NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS, CATEGORY A AND CATEGORY 8

54. Physical Metallurgy 1.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1
55. Other Category A Courses 0.1 0.3 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.2
56. Metallurgy 0.4 0.6 0. 0. 0.1 0.1
57. Other Category B Courses 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
58. Total Items 54-57 2.3 1.9 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.7

59. SUPPLEMENTARY SCIENCES AND PRACTICES


60. Biology and Geology
61. Heat Power
62. Shop Practice
63. Other
64. Total Items 60-63

65. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.8 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.6
1.8 0.8 0.8 1.3 0.9 1.1


66. Material & Energy Bal. 3.8 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.2
67. Thermodynamics 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.5
68. Chemical Kinetics 0.5 1.2 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.1
69. Subtotal Items 66-68 9.1 9.2 5.0 10.1 9.6 10.8
70. Unit Operations Theory 7.6 8.2 4.3 9.7 9.7 10.4
71. Unit Operations Lab. 4.1 3.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0
72. Subtotal Items 70-71 11.7 12.1 7.0 12.5 12.6 13.4
73. Ch.E. Design 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.1 4.8
74. Chemical Technology 2.7 1.8 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.1
75. Investigational Skills 2.5 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.6
76. Intro. to Ch.E. 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8
77. Instrumentation 0.7 1.1 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.4
78. Unit Processes 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1
79. Trips 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
80. Fuels and Lubricants 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
81. Other 0.6 1.7 4.1 4.5 5.5 5.1
82. Subtotal Items 73-80 12.1 11.5 12.3 8.1 13.5 15.2
83. Total Items 69, 72, 82 32.9 32.9 33.4 35.5 35.7 37.6


84. TECHNICAL ELECTIVES
85. Total Tech. Electives


3.6 5.2 6.2 7.7 7.6 7.0


1.0 1.1 55.6 58.7 39.8 33.0 32.0 34.3
0.8 1.0 23.5 22.8 27.7 29.0 36.0 37.1
0.3 0.3 18.5 8.7 2.4 4.0 10.0 8.0
1.8 2.1 70.4 68.5 55.4 53.0 52.0 55.2


Schools Offering, %

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981


97.8 97.5 90.4 78.0 72.0 78.0
97.5 80.4 47.0 41.0 40.0 40.0
100.0 97.8 90.4 85.0 84.0 83.8



98.8 93.5 77.1 73.0 66.0 71.4
9.9 38.0 49.4 28.0 26.0 27.6
100.0 95.7 88.0 79.0 74.0 79.0



40.7 20.6 13.3 9.0 7.0 3.8
5.0 11.9 57.8 49.0 38.0 40.0
12.7 21.7 2.4 3.0 2.0 2.9
28.4 11.9 10.8 12.0 11.0 9.5
67.9 55.4 71.1 58.0 49.0 48.6



4.9 4.3 6.0 8.0 7.0 8.6
23.5 8.7 1.2 5.0 1.0 5.7
23.5 8.7 1.2 3.0 1.0 0.0
13.6 15.2 18.1 20.0 12.0 13.3
45.7 29.3 24.1 27.0 23.0 25.7



98.8 9.3 91.6 86.0 90.0 93.3
100.0 100.0 98.8 99.0 97.0 100.0
18.5 53.2 89.2 95.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 75.9 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 97.8 73.5 98.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 98.9 81.9 88.0 89.0 91.4
100.0 98.9 91.6 98.0 100.0 100.0
90.1 86.9 90.4 91.0 100.0 100.0
75.3 53.2 19.3 15.0 11.0 7.6
70.4 50.0 24.1 25.0 26.0 20.0
38.3 39.1 30.1 33.0 34.0 40.0
32.1 41.3 71.1 74.0 80.0 85.0
27.2 23.9 7.2 14.0 5.0 2.9
21.0 17.4 7.2 6.0 5.0 4.8
13.6 4.3 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0
19.8 42.3 61.5 69.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 98.9 98.8 97.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 100.0 100.0

65.4 75.0 72.3 83.0 82.0 81.9


6. Gross Credits, 5H
7. Net Credits, SH

8. NON-TECHNICAL STUDIES


3.1 3.1
2.6 3.0
3.0 3.0
2.6 2.3
3.4 3.4



4.0 4.4
2.3 4.0
1.3 1.0
2.2 3.0
2.8 3.3



3.3 3.3
5.0 4.6
2.3 3.0
9.2 6.6
8.4 5.9
4.0 3.3
12.2 7.7
4.0 4.0
3.3 3.0
3.1 3.5
2.3 1.8
2.5 3.3
3.0 3.2
1.7 1.2
1.5 1.0
3.9 6.6
11.6 12.5
32.8 33.8


2.6 2.5 2.5
2.8 3.0 3.9
0.8 2.2 3.2
1.8 1.8 3.0
3.4 3.2 3.6



3.4 3.7 4.1
2.1 1.0 2.6
1.8 1.0 0.0
4.5 4.2 4.2
4.9 3.9 4.1



3.2 3.4 3.4
4.4 4.6 4.5
3.1 3.0 3.1
10.1 11.0 10.8
9.9 9.7 10.4
3.1 3.3 3.2
12.7 13.0 13.6
3.9 4.1 4.8
2.3 1.9 1.6
3.0 3.1 2.8
2.3 1.9 2.0
3.1 2.3 3.1
2.6 3.4 2.2
1.4 0.9 0.8
0.0 0.0 0.0
6.5 5.5 5.1
8.4 23.1
35.5 36.9 37.6


5.5 7.0 8.6 9.3 9.4 8.6


FALL 1982


Avg. SH When Offered

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981






6.6 6.0 5.3 4.8 4.5 5.1
2.4 2.3 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.5
7.7 7.1 6.0 5.4 5.2 5.8
6.3 7.6 7.5 8.5 8.2 8.0
5.9 4.8 6.2 6.6 7.3 6.7
5.7 7.3 6.7 7.4 6.1 6.9
8.3 9.2 12.3 12.8 11.8 12.1
14.7 17.2 19.1 20.0 18.9 18.8
3.5 3.7 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6
6.5 6.0 4.4 7.7 2.0 3.0
1.3 2.0 2.2 3.4 4.1 4.5
6.2 6.6 3.7 4.5 3.5 4.4
27.5 29.6 26.8 26.0 25.0 25.1



5.6 4.9 2.8 2.3 3.1 1.0
11.6 11.7 11.3 9.9 9.8 10.7
2.8 4.3 6.3 7.6 8.1 7.4
17.3 17.9 17.7 17.9 17.9 18.1
8.0 7.8 7.5 '7.2 7.6 7.7
8.5 8.2 7.9 7.2 6.8 6.7
8.5 7.8 7.5 6.7 6.9 7.0
4.2 3.7 3.3 2.6 2.3 1.9
3.0 3.3 2.3 2.3 1.9 2.2
3.3 5.5 2.8 3.3 4.6 3.8
30.8 28.9 24.4 22.9 23.0 23.1
10.8 10.2 8.6 7.6 8.1 8.0
2.6 2.7 3.7 4.0 4.1 3.2

11.12 11.3 10.5 9.1 8.9 8.9
59.2 57.9 52.2 49.7 49.5 50.6



4.8 4.0 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.1



3.9 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.1 3.3
2.8 2.2 2.0 .2.2 2.2 2.6
2.9 3.0 4.5 4.1 2.7 3.0
4.8 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.8

Avg. SH When Offered

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981


3.8 4.0 4.5 3.8 2.5 2.6
3.2 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.6
6.8 6.6 5.7 4.9 4.8 4.7



4.8 4.3 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.3
2.6 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6
*5.0 5.2 4.8 4.1 3.9 3.9












small and probably not significant.
Figure 2 represents the changes in Humanities
and Social Sciences and shows an increase of 2.6%.
Figure 3 indicates that there has been little
change in the Chemistry offerings of the various
departments since the last survey was undertaken.
The figure represents both advanced chemistry


HUMANITIES SH
(% of Curriculum)


S14.7 (11)
1


17.2 (12)
1 18.1 (13)


S20 (15)
18.9 (14)
| 21.5 (16.1)

I 1 I


and introduction chemistry.
In reference 5 (reporting the survey in 1976),
concern was expressed for the decrease in com-
munications offered by the various schools. This
has improved greatly since 1976; today 89% of
the schools present some material. The survey also
indicates that communications was being covered
in seminars and in lab courses and was not re-
corded explicitly with a given number of classes.
The earlier surveys (prior to 1976) did not
include an analysis of the actual course offerings


TABLE 2
B. ChE. Curriculum; Sub-Categories
Avg. SCH
% Offering when Offered

1976 1981 1976 1981


MATH
FIGURE 2 Analytical Geometry
Calculus
Differential Equation
Linear Algebra
CHEMISTRY SH Advanced Calculus
(% of Curriculum) Complex Variables
Partial Differential Equations
Numerical Analysis
Digital Computing
& Programming
Ss30.8 (22) Analog Computations
28.9 (21) Applied Engineering Math
3 24.4 (17: MECHANICS
S22.9 (17) Statics
i 23 (18)
I1 j23.3 (17.5) Dynamics
KINETICS
S I I I I l Chemical Kinetics
0 24 26 28 30 32 Chemical Reactor Design
UNIT OPERATIONS THEORY
FIGURE 3 Transport Theory
Transport Lab
Equilibrium Stage
COMMUNICATIONS % SCHOOL OFFERING U.. Theory
DESIGN
ChE Design
Process Synthesis
INSTRUMENTATION
Instrumentation
Process Control
7 198.8 Process Dynamics
S78 OTHER
1 97.8
S192.8 Mathematical Modeling
2 9 Computer Applications in
2 79
6 177 Chemical Engineering
1 19 Biomedical Engineering
9 Polymer Processing
Nuclear Engineering
I I I I I Environmental Engineering
60 70 80 90 100 110 Other ChE required
Chemical Engineering
FIGURE 4 Electives


72 78 2.7 2.6
36 37 2.4 2.5

60 59 2.0 2.1
73 76 2.5 2.6


93 98 3.6 4.1
33 31 2.4 2.4


14 11 2.6 2.1


49 55 7.1 5.3


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION











The categories of engineering design and engineering science have been
lumped together since there was no way to determine from the survey forms which
portion of the material is engineering science and engineering design. One of the problems facing
educational accreditation is that of design in chemical engineering education.


under math, mechanics, kinetics, etc. This survey
(and the 1976 survey) asked for information
relative to the different kinds of math, etc. Table
2 presents the results of this section of the
questionnaire, both for 1976 and for 1981. Intro-
ductory math is not included since none of the
schools responding indicated that they were teach-
ing introduction or review math.
In the area of unit operations theory, transport
theory has made an increase as well as transport
labs. Unit operation theory has decreased some-
what to accommodate the transport theory in-
crease. In addition, a larger number of schools
are offering courses in instrumentation process
control and process dynamics, which previously
had been listed only as instrumentation.
The distribution of course work as compared
with the AIChE minimum was also calculated.
This information is presented in Table 3. As can
be seen, the basic science and advanced chemistry
are somewhat low. Part of this could be due to
the way these categories were analyzed from the
survey forms since some schools counted chemis-
try from the chemical engineering courses.
Normally it is expected that all chemistry courses
will be taught in the Chemistry Department and
will be the same as taught in Chemistry. The dis-
tribution of course work was determined by taking
selected items from the survey forms and using
them to fit into the various categories. Some
problem probably arose because of this arbitrary
division. For instance, there may be some chemis-
try in the thermodynamics courses which is not
included in the chemistry shown here.
The categories of engineering design and engi-
neering science have been lumped together in
Table 3 since there was no way to determine from
the survey forms which portion of the material is
engineering science and engineering design. One
of the problems facing educational accreditation is
that of design in chemical engineering education.
Typically this comes from eight to ten different
courses. The problem of defining design and look-
ing for it in the curricula is currently being under-
taken by the E & A Committee.
The form also asked for the number of vacant
tenure faculty positions, and 71 schools indicated


Curricular Area
Mathematics beyond Trigonometry
Basic Sciences [Show Advanced
Chemistry]
Engineering Sciences
Engineering Design, Synthesis,
and Systems
Humanities/Social Sciences
Other Required Technical
Courses
Other Required Courses
(Non Technical)
Other Free Electives
Total of "Other"
TOTAL: Percent
TOTAL CREDIT HOURS:


AIChE
Minimum
(%) Avg.
12.5 13.6
25.0 24.3
(12.5) (11.7)
25.0 j
25 37.5 37.3
12.5_ "
12.5 16.1

8.7


12.5
100.00


100.0
133.4


that they had vacancies, for a total of 115
vacancies. The results of this part of the survey
will be published in Chemical Engineering Pro-
gress.
In summary it appears that only minor changes
have been made in the chemical engineering cur-
ricula since the last survey was undertaken. An-
other survey is planned in approximately four to
five years. Any specific questions concerning books
used and other material can be addressed to the
author at Brigham Young University. O

REFERENCES
1. Thatcher, C. M., The Chemical Engineering Cur-
riculum, Chemical Engineering Education, Sept. 1962.
2. Schmidt, A. X., What is the Current ChE Curriculum?
Journal of Engineering Education, October 1958.
3. Balch, C. W., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Engineering 1969-70, Chemical Engineering Edu-
cation, Vol. VI, No. 1, Winter 1972.
4. Barker, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Engineering 1970-71, Chemical Engineering Edu-
cation, Winter 1972.
5. Barker, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula 1976, Chemi-
cal Engineering Education, Spring 1977.
6. Ekerdt, John, Chemical Engineering Faculties 1980-
81, Vol. 29, A publication of the Chemical Engineer-
ing Education Projects Committee of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers.


FALL 1982


TABLE 3
Distribution of Course Work; 1981










[class and home problems

The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems sn
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scot Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.


MINE-MOUTH GEYSER PROBLEM


NOEL DE NEVER
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT 84102

PROBLEM
On November 20, 1980, an oil well drilling rig,
operating in the shallow waters of Lake Peigneur,
Louisiana, accidentally drilled into an under-
ground salt mine. The hole increased rapidly in
size and drained the lake, flooding the mine.
Miraculously, no fatalities or serious injuries oc-
curred, although the property damage was very
large. The incident is recounted by Michael Gold
in, "Who Pulled the Plug on Lake Peigneur?",
Science 81 2(9) (November 1981), 56-63. Figure
1 shows a sketch, roughly to scale, of the mine,
lake, and drilling rig.
From the text of the article, it is clear that
there were two vertical shafts from the surface
to horizontal galleries: a main shaft, and a smaller
ventilation shaft. Which levels of the mine were
open to each of the shafts is not clear in the
article (or any other published description), so
we should probably assume that each shaft was


open on all levels. In addition to the two vertical
shafts, one or more inclined roadways connected
the various underground galleries with each other,
but not with the surface. The mine itself did not
consist of simple cylindrical tunnels, as the sketch
might suggest, but of a series of rooms, up to 100
feet square, with roofs up to 80 feet high,
connected by galleries large enough for several
trucks to drive through side-by-side.
In one part of the article, the flow out of the
ventilation shaft is described as follows:

For some time, a powerful jet of air had been
coming from the mine's ventilation shaft, Forced
out by the incoming floodwaters below, the blast had
kept the emergency elevator dancing around the top
of the shaft like a paper kite in a stiff wind. Suddenly
the rushing air halted, and a thick stream of water
rocketed out of the shaft. The geyser climbed 400 feet
into the sky, surged for 10 minutes, coughed up mud,
and died. (Reproduced by permission of Addison
Wesley.)

The fact that the water flowing from the lake
into the mine would expel the air in the mine is
perfectly obvious. But, as we all know, "water
seeks its own level." This report indicates that
water which flowed from the lake eventually came
out of the top of the ventilation shaft (a few feet
above lake level) and jetted 400 feet in the air.
That means that it "sought a level" 400 feet above
the level it started at. (The article does not
mention any such water flow from the main shaft
of the mine.)
Can the description of a 400 foot geyser
possibly be correct? Were the observers, dazed by
the other wild event of the day, mistaken about
that? If it is correct, it must be explainable by
the laws of fluid mechanics. Present an explana-
tion, in terms of those laws, with suitable diagrams
and calculations.


SCGopyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


FIGURE 1
























Noel de Nevers earned his BSChE at Stanford and his PhD at the
University of Michigan, with a year out in between to be a Fulbright
exchange student at the Technical Institute in Karlsruhe, Germany. He
spent five years with what is now Chevron Research and Chevron Oil-
field Research, before joining the faculty of the University of Utah.
He spent Academic 1971-72 on leave, working for the Office of Air
Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency. He is the author of
a textbook on Fluid Mechanics, and editor of a book of readings and
discussion on Technology and Society.

SOLUTION
In principle, the overall flow in the system is
like that in a U-tube manometer. Inserting liquid
into one leg of the U expels the less-dense air in
the other leg. If the system had been a simple U-
tube, we would expect the air to be expelled and
the flow to stop when the liquid levels in both legs
of the tube were the same. One may easily demon-
strate that in the laboratory. One may also show
that an oscillation can be set up, with the levels
in the two tubes moving up and down 180 degrees
out of phase with one another. The behavior and
mathematical analysis of such an oscillating mano-
meter are identical with that of a pendulum; if
there were zero friction, they would oscillate for-
ever, just as a frictionless pendulum would oscil-
late forever.
Such an oscillation represents the exchange of
potential and kinetic energies between parts of
the system, as does a pendulum. But, just as a
pendulum can never swing higher than its initial
position, so also this type of manometerr oscilla-
tion" can never take any of the fluid higher than
the original position of the free surface of the
fluid poured into the manometer. So, if only an
orderly plugflow displacement of the air in the
mine by the water from the lake had taken place,
we could not have had such a fountain.
However, if one of the legs of the U-tube is a
mixture of air and water, then its average density
is much less than that of the water in the other leg,


and it will not come to simple gravitational equi-
librium at the same level as the other leg. This is
the basis on which coffee percolators and gas-lift
pumps work. Fig. 2 is a copy of a problem from
de Nevers, Fluid Mechanics, Addison Wesley,
1970, which shows an analogous situation. One
can easily set this up in the laboratory and show
that, if one leg of the "equivalent manometer" is
full of liquid while the other leg has a gas-liquid
mixture, then the equilibrium level due to fluid
statics alone will be higher on the gas-liquid
side than the liquid side. This problem has be-
devilled everyone who has ever tried to make ac-
curate measurements with a small diameter mano-
meter in which it is difficult to purge all the air
bubbles.
Returning to the mine geyser, it seems certain
that the geyser must have been caused by some
of the in-rushing liquid finding a flow path which
led it to the ventilation shaft before all of the air
was expelled from the mine. In that case, it would
temporarily block that shaft, and the pressure of
the trapped air in the mine would rise enough to


FIGURE 2. Sketch of a fountain arrangement made of
two glass jars with rubber stoppers,
several lengths of glass tubing, a funnel,
and a piece of rubber tubing. The level of
the jet and the level of the water in the
funnel are exactly the same. The space
above the water in each bottle is full of
air, as is the rubber tube connecting the
two bottles. An inventor has come to us,
telling us that with this arrangement the
water will squirt high in the air, much
higher than the water level in the funnel.
Is he right? Explain your answer.


FALL 1982
























FIGURE 3
expel it with considerable force.
A hypothetical series of events which could
have produced the jet is sketched in Fig. 3 (with
only one shaft).
First Stage: The flow into the 1300-foot level
reaches the shaft and begins to flow down it,
trapping air in the lower, 1500-foot level. With
the water flow down the shaft, the air is unable
to escape. Water displaces air from the upper
levels, causing air to flow out of the shaft.
Second Stage: The continued flow of water
down the shaft to the lower level compresses the
"bubble" of air remaining trapped in the lower
level. Meanwhile, the upper galleries continue to
fill, venting air through the shaft. (Fig. 4)
Third Stage: Eventually, the air bubble in the
lowest level reaches the pressure at which it is at
or near hydrostatic equilibrium with the inflow-
ing water. Thus the water flow down the shaft
slows and stops. This downflowing water was the
seal which kept the bubble in place; now the
bubble can begin to migrate up the shaft. As it
does so, water flows in behind it. Once it begins
to fill areas above the 1300 foot inflow level, it
can again be driven up by the water. But now, the
water above it in the system must be expelled to
make room for it to escape. This causes that water
to be expelled in the "mine-mouth geyser." (Fig. 5)
This simplified picture, with only one shaft,
cannot account for the description that the geyser
"surged for ten minutes, coughed up mud, and
died." If there were only one entrance, the geyser
would have had to end with another air jet, as the
bubble escaped. But with two shafts, one of which
apparently did not show any liquid flow, the air
bubble could have used one of the upper galleries
to move from ventilation to main shaft, and escape


through it, thus ending the geyser without a final
air jet. If the actual underground space had been
a series of horizontal and vertical cylinders, then
the surging might be hard to explain. But the
actual space (as reported in the article) was a
room-and-pillar mine, consisting of many more-or-
less cubical rooms connected by much narrower
rectangular vertical, horizontal, and inclined
shafts. Thus the surging was most likely to be
the result of the irregular flow of the air bubble
through these various rooms and passages.
If, as reported, the jet exiting from the air
shaft went 400 feet in the air, then it exited with
a velocity of roughly

V = V2gh = V(2) (32 ft/sec2) (400 ft)
= 160 ft/sec (1)
If, as shown above, the geyser flowed at 160
ft/sec, and the distance from the topmost gallery


FIGURE 4
to the surface was 800 feet, then the geyser should
only have lasted five seconds. However, because
of the irregular rooms to be filled and emptied,
the actual volume ejected is not implausible. If
we assume that the ventilation shaft was ten feet
in diameter, had a velocity of 160 feet a second,
and flowed steadily for ten minutes, then the
total volume of water ejected would have been
56 x 106 gallons of water. This is a high estimate,
because it assumes a 400 foot high geyser for the
full ten minutes; a much lower estimate is more
plausible because of the reported surging, perhaps
a fourth to a tenth of this number. The total flow
of water from lake to mine (equal to the excavated
volume of the mine) was 3.5 x 109 gallons. Thus
this high estimate of the total liquid flow of the
geyser is only 1.6% of the estimated total flow


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









of water from the lake to the mine.
If a solid column of water had been flowing
up such a ten foot diameter shaft at a velocity
of 160 ft/sec, the pressure gradient due to friction
above the hydrostatic gradient would have been
AP 4f V2
P PD (2)
Ax D 2
To determine the fraction factor, we must esti-
mate the relative roughness of the ventilation
shaft. Assuming that the individual surface
roughnesses are one inch, we can estimate
C 1 inch
inch 0.0083 (3)
D 120 inches
and hence f = 0.009,


AP
Ax


(bm
(4) (0.009) (62.4 ft ) (160 ft/sec


)2
n2


Ibm ft 144 ii
(10 ft) (2) (32.2r-1 ) (--ft
lbf -e C2 f2


= 0.62 psi/ft (4)

This pressure gradient is 1.4 times that of a
hydrostatic column of water; it is clear that a
simple filling of the "U-tube" could never produce
pressure gradients of this magnitude within the
fluid. However, from the sketch in the problem
(taken from the Science 81 article), it appears that
the shallowest gallery of the mine was 800 feet
below the surface, and the deepest was 1500 feet
below the surface. Thus, if there were a column
of air 700 feet high from this deepest gallery to
the shallowest, and if the bottom were in hydro-
static equilibrium with the lake while the top
were facing an 800 foot long column of liquid
open to the surface, a pressure gradient of ap-
proximately 0.38 psi/ft (above the hydrostatic
gradient) would have been exerted on the liquid
in the ventilator shaft. Comparing that to the
above estimate, I infer that either I have over-
estimated the relative roughness of the ventilator
shaft or that the observers overestimated the
height to which the geyser went.
This proposed solution is basically a hydro-
static solution. Before accepting it, we should
consider alternative dynamic solutions. There are
well-known devices, called hydraulic rams, which
allow a liquid falling from level one to level two
to pump some liquid to a level higher than level
one. An illustrated description is given on page
195 of Brown and Associates' Unit Operations,
Wiley, NY, 1950. Their operation requires quick-
acting valving, not likely to be approximated in


the mine flooding. However, the idea on which it
is based deserves examination. If a column of
moving fluid is suddenly stopped, it can generate
high pressures. This is the subject of water-
hammer analysis. It shows, for example, that if
a column of a slightly compressible fluid (e.g.,
water, but not air) is stopped by closing a valve
very quickly, the maximum pressure which will
be generated in the region of the valve will be

P = u[Kp]0.5 (5)
where P is the pressure, u is the original velocity
before the fluid was stopped, K is the isothermal
compressibility, and p is the density of the fluid.
Inserting typical values for water, we find that,
for an initial velocity of 10 ft/see, the calculated
pressure is 650 psi. This is high enough to damage
equipment and rupture pipes; large hydraulic
structures (e.g., hydro power plants) are designed
to avoid the creation of this kind of pressure or
to withstand it where it is unavoidable. But this
kind of pressure can only be exerted on an unyield-
ing structure. It cannot propel a jet of fluid for
any significant time or distance. If a mass of liquid
is compressed to 650 psi and then allowed to do
work by expanding (W = JF dx = JP dV) then
the compressed liquid will return to its original
volume and pressure if it expands 0.2%. Thus the
amount of work of accelerating some of the fluid
up the ventilator shaft could not easily have been
obtained by allowing some other fastmoving body
of liquid to be stopped suddenly and using the
high pressure thus generated to drive a fountain.
It certainly could not drive one for ten minutes.
From the article in Science 81, it is clear that
Continued on page 203.


FALL 1982


FIGURE 5











i PseI stirred pots


RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING


JOHN B. FENN
Yale University
New Haven, CT 06520

What follows is an imaginary dialogue that
embodies the elements of many real conversations
I have had with students. The two participants
are SI SORP (Student In Search Of a Research
Project) and PI NORA (Professor In Need Of.a
Research Assistant).

SI: I hear you might have an opening in your
group for a student ready to do thesis research in
chemical engineering.
PI: Right. Would you be interested?
SI: It depends. I've heard that you work with
molecular beams but I really don't know what
they are or what they're good for.
PI: Well, you might say that what we do is like
playing billiards. We shoot individual molecules
at surfaces or other molecules in a vacuum and see
how they bounce.
SI: I don't understand. It doesn't sound like
chemical engineering to me.
PI: Let me explain. Do you know anything about
cyclotrons and other kinds of accelerators that
physicists use, sometimes called atom smashers in
the popular press?
SI: I've heard about them and read some articles
in magazines and newspapers.
PI: Have you ever seen pictures of particle
tracks in an emulsion, or a cloud chamber or a
bubble chamber?
SI: Yes, but I haven't thought that much about
what they mean.
PI: Look at it this way. Suppose you put a
billiard ball on a table and hit it with the cue ball.
What would happen?
SI: The billiard ball would go in one direction
and the cue ball in another. The particular di-
rections and speeds would depend upon how hard
and how head-on the collision was.
PI: Right. Now suppose you replaced the billiard
ball with an egg.


John Fenn received his B.A. from Berea College (1937) and his
Ph.D. from Yale (1940). After a number of years spent in private
industry he went to Princeton in 1952 and remained there until
joining the chemical engineering department at Yale in 1967.
He has been visiting professor at the University of Trento, Italy, Uni-
versity of Tokyo and Australian National University. He recently re-
ceived a Senior Scientist Award from the Alexander von Humboldt
Foundation in West Germany. He is the author of "Engines, Energy
and Entropy: A Thermodynamics Primer."

SI: Well, the same thing would happen, except
that the egg's trajectory might be different because
it isn't spherically symmetric like a billiard ball.
If the cue ball were going fast enough the egg
would break and splatter. Also, the cue ball
wouldn't change direction quite as much.
PI: Suppose the egg were hard boiled.
SI: Then about the same thing would happen,
except that the cue ball would have to be going
faster to break the egg. And the result wouldn't
be as messy.
PI: In other words, you could tell the difference
between a billiard ball, a fresh egg, and a hard
boiled egg by observing the trajectories of the cue
ball and its target before and after collision. In-
deed, you could learn something about their
structure and behavior.
SI: I see what you mean.
PI: Well, that's what so-called scattering or
collision experiments are all about. The tracks in
photographic emulsions and cloud or bubble
chambers that you've seen pictures of are tra-
jectory traces, usually of one of the collision
partners and the fragments after collision. Es-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


SCopyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982









sentially, all our knowledge of nuclear structure
and reactions has come from the study of such
particle tracks.
SI: Very interesting but I don't want to be
a nuclear physicist.
PI: Wait a minute. Nobody said anything about
your becoming a nuclear scientist or engineer.
Using an egg as an example of a target didn't
mean that I thought you might want to raise
chickens or make omelets! I was just pointing out
that what happens when objects collide can give
information on their structure and properties.
SI: OK, but I still don't see any connection with
chemical engineering.
PI: Let's look further. What are chemical engi-
neers concerned with?
SI: Let me see. Well you know, making
plastics, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals, refining
petroleum, processing foodstuffs things like
that.
PI: Quite a variety, right? Now what do most
or all of these activities have in common?
SI: I guess you could say they all involve some
sort of chemical reaction. Then, too, there is
usually heating and cooling and mixing and dis-
tillation and ... fluid flow .. and ...
PI: Good. You've just been reciting what chemi-
cal engineers once considered the basic building
blocks of their discipline, the so-called unit
operations. Actually, that term usually referred
to physical phenomena like vaporization, crystal-
lization, fluid flow, heat transfer, adsorption and
so forth. Chemical reactions were similarly classi-
fied in such categories as oxidation, reduction,
alkylation, polymerization, hydrolysis, and the
like, that were known as unit processes. But we
can pursue this reduction to fundamentals even
further. If you stop to think, you will realize that
all of these unit operations and processes are
based on the transport of mass, momentum and
energy and the transformation of composition by
chemical reaction.
SI: I see what you're driving at. The next thing
you will tell me is that all of these transport and
reaction processes depend upon what happens
when molecules encounter each other.
PI: Exactly. You can go to the head of the class.
When we scatter a beam of molecules by another
beam or a static cloud of molecules, and watch
how they bounce, that is to say, what happens to
their trajectories, we obtain information on their
structure and the nature of the forces between
them. The difference between what we do and


what atom-smashing physicists do is largely a
matter of energy. Physicists are concerned with
forces that hold the nucleus together and that
relate to energies of billions of electron volts.
Chemists are concerned with extranuclear phe-
nomena involving forces which bind electrons to
the nucleus and hold molecules together. Chemical
energies are always less than a few tens of electron
volts. Incidentally, an electron volt per particle
(atom or molecule) is equivalent to about 23
kcal/mol. Thus, we don't need and cannot use
the billion volt beam energies that the nuclear
physicists require and that make their accelerators
so big and expensive. By the same token, we can-
not see individual collision events as they can. A
particle travelling with energies in the millions
or billions of electron volts can go through a photo-
graphic emulsion or a bubble chamber as if it
weren't there. The energy required to make its
track is a negligible fraction of the total. On the
other hand, an atom or molecule with only a few
electron volts of energy won't even make a dent
in an emulsion, let alone a track through it. Conse-
quently, molecular beam scattering experiments
of the kind we do depend upon bringing about as
many collisions as possible that are as nearly
identical as possible. Each collision contributes a
little bit to the observed signal, usually an electric
current obtained by converting the beam molecules
into ions.
SI: All right. I can see how such experiments
might tell us about the structure of atoms and
molecules, but we already have that information
about practically all species the chemical engineers
are concerned with.
PI: That's quite true, but there is another
difference between atom smashing and molecular
beam scattering experiments. Consider reactive
scattering events that change the composition or
structure of at least one collision partner and are
the primary interest of nuclear physicists. The
energy which seems to count in bringing about
nuclear reactions is translational kinetic energy.
At least that is the only kind of energy that
physicists have a handle on. Chemists, on the
other hand, have long recognized that molecules
can have several kinds of energy: translational,
vibrational, and rotational energy, as well as
electronic excitation energy. Most classical gas
phase reactions experiments measure composition
change with time in a container of reactants at a
uniform temperature that can be varied from ex-
periment to experiment. Unfortunately, rotational,


FALL 1982









vibrational, and translational energies all change
with temperature. Consequently, it is generally
impossible to isolate the effects of these different
forms of energy on the rate or mechanism of the
reaction. Indeed, a molecular beam experiment 20
years ago was one of the first bits of tangible evi-
dence that translational energy was not a very im-
portant component of activation energy in some
reactions. Since then, of course, hindsight and
laser experiments have everybody convinced that
vibrational energy is much more important in
many, if not most, reactions involving reactants
with more than one atom.
SI: Are you saying that excited state inter-
mediates are not important in nuclear reactions?
PI: I guess that's what I am implying, but I
should retreat a bit because I am not expert in
nuclear affairs. It does seem that physicists can't
control internal (nuclear) energy states of collid-
ing partners as readily as chemists can control
vibrational and electronic excitation. Conse-
quently, the role of excited internal states in
nuclear reactions is not as clear as it is becoming
in chemical reactions. But there is still another
difference in kind between atom smashing and
molecular beam scattering experiments.
SI: What is that?
PI: We have been talking so far about reactive
scattering. There are two other kinds of collisions
that are more important to chemists and chemical
engineers than to nuclear physicists. Elastic
collisions are those in which both momentum and
translational kinetic energy are conserved but
there is no change in the structure or internal
energy state of either collision partner. Then
there are inelastic collisions in which there is no
change in structure but there is a change in the
vibrational, rotational or electronic energy of one
or both partners. The trajectories of the partici-
pants in these kinds of collisions generally re-
spond less to intra- than to inter-molecular forces
that are generally repulsive when molecules are
close together, attractive when they are further
apart. It is convenient to characterize these forces
in terms of the work required to pull the molecules
apart to an infinite separation, i.e., where the
forces are zero. A plot of this work as a function
of intermolecular separation is called an inter-
molecular potential because the work required for
separation is equivalent to a potential energy.
SI: Oh, I'm beginning to remember. Didn't we
discuss something in our transport course called
a Lennard-Jones potential which governs the


interaction between two molecules?
PI: That's right. The Lennard-Jones or 12-6 po-
tential model assumes the actual potential is a
simple sum of repulsive and attractive potential
energies that are inversely proportional respec-
tively to the 12th and 6th powers of the distance
between the molecules. The difference between
these two powers leads to net repulsion when the
molecules are close together and net attraction
when they are far apart. Real potentials are more
complicated and cannot be accurately described
in terms of only two parameters. For many engi-
neering approximations, a Lennard-Jones model
is sufficiently accurate to be useful. Which leads
me to a question. Why did the subject of potentials
come up in your transport class?
SI: We were learning about the dependence of
viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusion in
gases upon the forces between molecules! In fact,
don't I remember that it is possible to determine
the parameters of a potential from measured
values of the transport properties and the equation
of state?
PI: Correct. But there is a problem. These
macroscopic properties represent the integrated
or average result of collisions taking place over a
wide range of energies, orientations and impact
parameters (a measure of the head-on-ness of a
collision). For any particular property and set of
conditions, there are many combinations of po-
tential parameters that will match a computation
with a given experiment. Consequently, it is hard
to choose the best one. Moreover, one cannot be
sure that a particular potential which matches
computation and experiment over a particular
range of conditions will give reliable results out-
side of that range. In addition, it frequently turns
out that a potential that works for one transport
property, e.g., thermal conductivity, gives unreal
results when used to calculate another transport
property, e.g., diffusion coefficients.
SI: So what's different about potentials obtained
from scattering experiments?
PI: Such experiments probe the intermolecular
potential much more directly and with greater
sensitivity than macroscopic property measure-
ments. The net result is that potentials based on
scattering experiments are more accurate, par-
ticularly at separation distances where attractive
forces are important. Note that if one does the
arithmetic correctly a calculation based on a par-
ticular potential can lead to only one possible
value of a transport property for a particular


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









temperature and pressure. The converse is not
true. There are many possible potential parameter
combinations which can lead to a given value of
transport property.
SI: I'll take your word for that but it sounds
more like science than engineering. Why should
engineers do molecular beam scattering experi-
ments ?
PI: To answer that question I guess I need to
know what you think engineers should do.
SI: I believe engineers should be concerned with
practical problems. At least they should try to
solve problems in a practical and efficient way.
More than that, I guess I believe that they should
work on problems that have some commercial im-
pact or significance. If an engineer needs to know
the viscosity and thermal conductivity of a gas to
design a heat exchanger he can look them up in a
handbook or measure them directly. All this
business about molecular beams, scattering ex-
periments and intermolecular potentials sounds
like pretty esoteric science to me. Maybe it's all
right for chemists, but chemical engineers? ....
I dunno.
PI: I understand your reaction. You say engi-
neers should be practical and efficient. If you need
the value for a property like viscosity, "you could
look it up" as Casey Stengel used to say. If a
value isn't available then you could measure just
what you need, but you wouldn't bother measur-
ing what you don't see an immediate need for.
SI: Right on.
PI: Let's look at the heat exchanger problem a
little further. Suppose an engineer is trying to
design one as a preheater for a cracker but that
the client isn't exactly sure what feedstock he will
be using. Depending on the time of year and the
market it may vary from a mixture of ethane and
propane to a melange of several alkanes. In fact,
suppose the client's specification calls for a design
which can accommodate any arbitrary mixture of
30 hydrocarbons from C1 to Cs. To simplify the
problem for our purpose let's suppose that the
mixtures would be binary. There are 450 possible
combinations if we include like pairs, i.e., the case
of a single species feedstock. Now let's assume
that temperatures range from 300 K to 700 K
and that the concentration of one component in
the other can be anywhere from 0 to 100 per cent.
If we further assume that it would take measure-
ments at 10 concentrations to cover any unlike
pair and at 10 temperatures to cover the range
we're talking about, something like 42,000 data


points would be needed to map the entire tempera-
ture composition surface for any one property.
If it took an average of only one hour for each
point, two solid years would be required for the
measurements. Of course, by judicious choices and
by taking advantage of behavior similarities one
could cut down substantially on the actual number
of measurements required, but to obtain enough
data would still be a formidable undertaking.
SI: I agree, but how would scattering measure-
ments be any better?
PI: As you might guess my choice of problem
here was not entirely whimsical. A few years ago
a student in my lab determined total cross-sections
for the scattering of an argon beam by those 30
hydrocarbons. From these cross-sections she was
able to obtain the so-called C6 values, the co-
efficients of the r-6 attractive term in the Lennard-
Jones potential. She found that the coefficient of
the r-12 repulsive term could be estimated from
condensed phase densities, values for which are
available. Then she made enough scattering cross-
section measurements of one hydrocarbon on an-
other to satisfy herself (and me) that the so-
called geometric mean mixing rule was effective
enough to give reliable Ca values for any hydro-
carbon pair from the argon-hydrocarbon result.
We haven't checked it out yet but we are reason-
ably confident that similar estimates can be made
for the C12 coefficients of the r-12 term. In sum,
from 30 measurements which took about two
weeks after the machine was set up, we were able
to get 450 C, values. Let's allow another six weeks
to get estimates for C1, and to do a little cross-
checking. We would then have a Lennard-Jones
potential for all possible hydrocarbon pairs. A
computer could be programmed to handle this in-
formation and presto!-we can in principle get
a printout of all transport properties at any
temperature for any binary or multicomponent
mixture of these hydrocarbons. I submit that this
"esoteric science" is engineering at its best-
practical and efficient!
SI: I'm impressed! But still, somehow that kind
of research seems more like science than engi-
neering. I'm not quite comfortable with the
prospect of a thesis on molecular beams.
PI: OK. We'll come back to that problem in a
minute. But first let me make another point about
molecular beam research. Did you know that there
are a number of articles and processes of com-
merce based on molecular beam technology?
SI: Is that a fact? Tell me more.


FALL 1982








PI: To begin with there is the atomic clock.
Until 1967 the standard unit of time, the second,
was defined as (31,556,925.9747)-1 of the tropical
year 1900! Since then it has been officially defined
as the "duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the
radiation corresponding to the transition between
two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of
the atom of cesium 133." The device that provides
a signal of the corresponding frequency to an
accuracy of one part in 1011 or 1012 is a molecular
beam apparatus that one can buy off the shelf.
Thus any laboratory can have a primary time
standard for not a whole lot more than a very
fine Swiss watch! Much less than an astronomical
telescope and computer. Then there are lasers, the
direct descendants of the maser that was first em-
bodied in a molecular beam experiment. You may
remember reading in the papers a few years ago
about the uranium enrichment plant which West
Germany had agreed to build for Brazil. Political
pressure from the U. S. delayed the project but I
understand it is now moving again. That plant
was based on the so-called "trennduse" or separat-
ing nozzle process that stemmed directly from
university research in Germany on the same kinds
of molecular beam systems we use in our labora-
tory. One of the hottest high technologies in thin
film-solid state electronics is called "molecular
beam epitaxy" which permits the growth of single-
crystal-like films of very precisely controlled semi-
conductor compositions on appropriate substrates.
The method allows in situ synthesis of complex
compounds in layers whose thickness is measured
in Angstroms. At last count there were fifty or
more companies and institutional laboratories de-
veloping this art and five companies engaged in
manufacturing the equipment for it.
SI: Golly! Molecular beams are getting to be
big business, aren't they?
PI: Yes, but that is neither the only nor the
best reason for chemical engineering students
to engage in molecular beam research. Let's go
back to what you said a few minutes ago, that
molecular beam research was more like science
than engineering. You've mentioned some of the
things engineers do. Let me hear how you define
"engineering." What do you think are its es-
sential features?
SI: I guess I would say that engineering is the
design, construction and operation of structures,
plants and processes that produce useful goods or
perform useful services.
PI: Not bad. But what do you mean by "useful?"


SI: Hmm. I guess to be considered useful in the
sense I am thinking about something would have
to have commercial or market value. Of course,
an activity can be useful because it is in-
formative or constitutes an exercise for some-
body's talents, but I think it would have to result
in actual or foreseeable market value to qualify as
engineering. If the result were only interesting
but non-marketable then I guess I would call the
activity science.
PI: Well, that is a conventional point of view,
and very thoughtfully put, by the way, but it
troubles me. Suppose somebody designed and
built a microwave antenna dish as part of a relay
station in a long distance communication network.
That would qualify as engineering by your
definition, wouldn't it?
SI: Of course.
PI: Now suppose that same person designed and
built a similar antenna for use in radio astronomy
simply to listen in on the stars. Would he be an
engineer? Not according to your definition, I
think. You would say he was a scientist.
SI: That's a tough call.
PI: Let me try you again. A former classmate
of mine designed and built a reactor which
comprises a 100,000 gallon tank. The reaction
medium is perchlorethylene, dry cleaning fluid.
The product is volatile and at very low concentra-
tion in the medium. To recover it, a recycling
stream of inert gas is bubbled through the tank
and passed through an adsorbent that captures
the product selectively. Would the design, con-
struction, and operation of this system qualify as
chemical engineering?
SI: I would certainly say so.
PI: OK. Now let me tell you that the product is
a radioactive isotope of argon which is formed in
extremely low yield when a neutrino flux passes
through chlorine-containing material. The rate
of formation in the tank is of the order of 5 to 10
atoms of argon per day! The whole purpose of the
enterprise is to measure the neutrino flux from
the sun. Is it still chemical engineering by your
definition?
SI: I think I've painted myself into a corner.
My instinct tells me that in view of its objective
that project should be called science. Logically, I
must admit that it sure looks like engineering.
PI: Why can't it be both?
SI: What do you mean?
PI: I think that a lot of semantic confusion
arises when we try to classify activities in terms


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









of why people do things rather than in terms of
what they do. To me, engineering is the art of
applying quantitative knowledge to the solution
of various kinds of problems. It is really ir-
relevant whether the objective is to make a salable
product or to obtain a publishable bit of informa-
tion.
SI: You mean it's what a person does rather than
why he does it that counts?
PI: Exactly. Especially from the standpoint of
what kind of education and training he gets. Take
farming for example. A poor man farms for
money. He tries to make a living. A rich man often
farms with money. He wants to lose money. That
is, at least on paper so that he can claim a tax
deduction. They both practice agriculture. My wife
loves flower gardening and does it for purely
aesthetic and recreational returns. She also is
practicing agriculture. Three people with entirely
different motivations all practicing the same kind
of art.
SI: You mean that there is no difference between
science and engineering ?
PI: What I mean is that they are not mutually
exclusive categories. An activity should not be
considered as either science or engineering. In
fact, engineering is an art that scientists practice.
It is an art that people other than scientists also
practice. In other words, all scientists are engi-
neers but not all engineers are scientists. Such an
assertion would offend many scientists and more
engineers but I think it is true.
SI: I'll have to think about that one.
PI: The important point is that engineering is
an art; "the systematic application of knowledge
and skill to achieve a desired result." In addition,
an engineer must make educated guesses or
hypotheses about what he doesn't know and put
everything together in the design of a gadget, an
experiment or a computer program aimed at
achieving his objective. He then makes tests,
modifies his design in light of test results, makes
further tests and continues this iteration until
his objective is realized within his limits of
tolerance.
SI: That sounds reasonable.
PI: There's another point to be made. As in the
case of any other art, engineering must be learned
by practice. Like playing tennis, composing music,
or painting pictures, it can't be taught in the class-
room or learned from a book. The needed
knowledge and the rules can be learned from
books or in classrooms, but not the art of using


them. That must be practiced, preferably under
the guidance and supervision of a master practi-
tioner. Medical schools are well aware of this
truth and acquaint their students with the
"factory", i.e., the hospital and clinic, early in
their professional education experience. Later
they serve an apprenticeship as interns and resi-
dents during which they practice the art of apply-
ing what they have learned, in association with
and under the guidance of accomplished experts.
SI: I'd never thought of physicians and surgeons
as engineers, but I see your analogy.
PI: In a sense medical schools do a better job
of engineering education than most engineering
schools. Unfortunately, to provide the same kind
of practical experience for its professional
students a chemical engineering department
would have to operate, or participate in the opera-
tion of, a chemical plant or an oil refinery. That
just isn't feasible in a university. What a uni-
versity can do, is expected to do and be in the
forefront of, is research. Research consists in
learning all that is already known about some
aspect of a subject, making guesses about what
isn't known, designing an experiment or program
based on this knowledge and the guesses, perform-
ing the experiment and then evaluating the result
from the perspective of previous knowledge and
the judgment of peers and experts. In my view
that process of scientific research embodies the
very essence of engineering and is the most valu-
able part of an engineering graduate educational
experience. It doesn't really make much difference
what is chosen as the particular topic or objective.
The important point is that the student, on his
own but with expert guidance, undertakes and
completes a project which involves these im-
portant components: 1) learning what is already
known; 2) making guesses or approximations
about what isn't known but is necessary for: 3)
the design of an approach or program or experi-
ment; 4) execution of the program or experi-
ment; 5) exercise of judgment in the evaluation
of the result. In sum: Research is Engineering.
SI: That's a provocative statement!
PI: Yes, I guess it is and I know there are a lot
of my industrial brothers who would take issue
with it. They say that universities are ivory
towers where researchers are out of touch with
reality, that they don't have to face up to real
world constraints like budgets, materials limita-
tions, personnel problems, and competition. I have
Continued on page 199.


FALL 1982










1M international


GRADUATE EDUCATION IN MEXICO


ENRICO N. MARTINEZ AND
ROMAN GOMEZ
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa
Mexico 13 D.F., Mexico

EDITOR'S NOTE: A historical view of chemical
engineering education in Mexico appeared in the
Summer 1982 issue of CEE (Vol. XVI, No. 3). In
that paper the authors described the needs, de-
ficiencies, and possible solutions for the education
of chemical engineers in the undergraduate pro-
grams of that country. In this paper the authors
extend their comments to the status of graduate
education in Mexico.

T HE MASTER OF SCIENCE program in chemical
engineering was introduced about ten years
ago, both at the National University (UNAM)
and the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), in
an effort to improve the basic education of engi-
neers who were not being fully trained in the
undergraduate programs. It was also an initial
attempt to prepare teachers with a high academic
standard to staff Mexican universities.
It should be mentioned that this initiative was
not casual. We will examine how the proper
conditions came about as a natural development
of the growth of Mexican universities and techno-
logical institutes, and as a result of the need for
highly qualified engineers in industry.
It was in the late sixties when the first foreign-
educated postgraduates joined both UNAM and
IPN. It was during that same period of time that
industry also realized that the quality of the engi-
neers they were recruiting did not meet their re-
quirements. Thus, both professors and engineers
from industry (who also staffed the chemical engi-
neering schools) pressed enthusiastically for the
creation of graduate programs. As a result,
UNAM introduced its Master in Science program
in 1967, and IPN followed suit to establish its own
program in 1968.
It cannot be overemphasized that the main ob-
jective of these early programs was to alleviate
the deficiencies of the undergraduate studies. This

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


can be seen from noting the contents of those early
programs. Most of the courses were, to a great
extent, a review of undergraduate topics. Funda-
mental material such as transport phenomena,
numerical methods, etc., which is undergraduate
material elsewhere, was introduced in the gradu-
ate program. This left no time for an in-depth
treatment due to time restrictions. Research ac-
tivities were very limited, both in quality and
quantity, since there was neither equipment nor
enough qualified personnel for instruction.
The graduate programs at the mentioned
institutions have slowly evolved towards programs
where research has become an ever-important ac-
tivity. This was a result of hiring a significant
number of teachers with higher degrees (mostly
obtained abroad) and of the improvement of
conditions within the universities themselves.
In order to fully understand this development








-I


17'




Enrico N. Martinez, chemical engineer from Universidad Nacional
Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), received his M.S. and Ph.D. (1972) in
Chemical Engineering from University of Notre Dame. He was an
Assistant Professor at UNAM, and is currently Associate Professor at
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalpa (UAM-1), where he has
just been appointed Head of Engineering. He consults in Process Re-
search and Development and his research interests are in Chemical
Reaction Engineering, Catalysis and Education. (L)
Roman Gomez-Vaillard received his B.Sc. degree in Chemical Engi-
neering at UNAM and his Ph.D. at Imperial College, London. He
joined UAM-I in 1976. He has recently become the Chairman of the
Chemical Engineering Group there. His research interests are Process
Design and Development and Computer Applications in Chemical
Engineering. (R)


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









it is interesting at this point to briefly examine, in
general, the role of research in recent history.
Research in Mexican universities and tech-
nology institutes had very limited importance
until, say, 25 years ago. Prior to that, research
as we understand it today was almost nonexistent.
Both universities and industry suffered from the
lack of this activity and it left the country without
any real possibility of participating in the genera-
tion of scientific knowledge or technology. To
mention only one case, a famous Mexican
physicist, Sandoval Vallarta, worked at MIT for
over 20 years, only returning to Mexico in the
early fifties when conditions seemed adequate.
It was, in fact, in that decade that research be-
came a desirable activity and the National Uni-
versity moved towards institutionalizing it by
creating a number of research centers, called
"Institutes" (mainly in scientific and social
disciplines), devoted to research. Unfortunately,
these were separated from the teaching activities
which belonged to the "Schools." In the early
sixties, research in engineering fields began with
the establishment of the Instituto de Ingenieria
which initiated studies in soil mechanics. This was
important due to the soil characteristics of the
capital city which is situated in a highly seismic-
prone zone.
In the early sixties, the Polytechnic Institute
founded its Center for Research and Advanced
Studies, which again was totally devoted to re-
search activities (although it also offered some
graduate programs in pure science and later in
engineering). But again, it separated research
activities from teaching at the undergraduate
level. However, both institutions left out chemical
engineering, which was traditionally more related
to the chemistry schools than to the engineering
ones. Thus, research in chemical engineering did
not materialize until the graduate programs
matured in the pioneer institutions (UNAM and
IPN).
The economic reality of the country, and there-
fore that of its educational system, should not be
forgotten. It was very difficult to divert large
amounts of funds to universities for research
when other social programs, such as elementary
schooling, communications and health centers,
were more pressing. It is only fair to mention
that, because of the limited resources, research at
the universities was not feasible until the country
was able to afford it.
We have heretofore examined how the proper


The masters program should also be a step
towards establishing a doctorate program, which is
now nonexistent. Hence it should prove itself
capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its
scope, the requirements of both industry
and the educational system.


conditions for doing research came about within
the university realm. We will now discuss the
industrial aspect and its influence and contribu-
tions, if any, in this direction.
Industry developed in an isolated and protected
medium where most of the required technology
was acquired abroad and where there was little
incentive, economic or political, for innovation or
development of local technology. Due credit must
be given to the engineers who in the span of a few
years developed a well organized, profitable and
expanding industry; in particular the petroleum
industry, which has reached a prominent position
worldwide.
It was as a direct result of this expansion,
which has recently outgrown the national
frontiers, that Mexican industry realized that in
order to keep its level of competence both in the
local and international markets, it would have to
modernize and optimize its resources both eco-
nomically and technically.
Thus, the necessary gradient towards innova-
tion, adaptation and development of technology
was established and the need for highly qualified
engineers became apparent. The recent practices
of hiring specialists who work at universities as
consultants and sponsoring research projects
carried out at the universities, are indicative of
this mood.
This analysis serves several purposes: first, it
shows that research (or the lack of it) in chemical
engineering has been intimately related to the de-
velopment of the Mexican chemical industry on
one hand, and to the development of the higher
education system on the other. Secondly, it pro-
vides some guidelines for designing a graduate
program which can contribute to alleviate the
difficulties previously mentioned, as well as to re-
spond actively to the challenges that the country
as a whole, and chemical engineering in particular,
face.

GRADUATE PROGRAM DESIGN
It has been established that in order to meet
the demand for highly qualified engineers, both


FALL 1982









the undergraduate and the graduate programs in
Mexico have to be strengthened. It is clear that
the strengthening of the undergraduate program
depends to a great extent on the availability of
qualified personnel to staff the educational institu-
tions; also, industry is demanding more engineers
with higher degrees. Graduate programs must
meet this dual purpose and be designed ac-
cordingly
It is therefore not fortuitous that the basic
philosophy which molded the undergraduate pro-
gram at UAM-I (as described in our previous
paper) should again be applied to the design of
the masters program. A solid formation at the
graduate level, in the fundamentals of chemical
engineering disciplines, is sought. This would
allow the students to perform equally well either
in industry or in research and teaching activities.
The masters program should also be a step
towards establishing a doctorate program, which
is now nonexistent. Hence, it should prove itself
capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its scope, the
requirements of both industry and the educational
system.
The benefits that the country as a whole should
expect from such a program are
Formation of human resources with high academic
standards to staff the educational system.
Development of technology at an intermediate level
of sophistication.
Improvement of plant operation and productivity.
Generation of applied scientific and technical
knowledge.
Generation of research programs, both in industry
and in research institutes, in applied chemical engi-
neering science.
THE MASTERS PROGRAM AT UAM-I
The masters program at UAM-I, took advant-
age of the experience gained at UNAM and of the
new attitudes with regard to graduate studies. It
is therefore not a program intended to alleviate
former deficiencies in the education of the engi-
neer, but is rather directed toward strengthening
the knowledge of the chemical engineering funda-
mentals and introducing the student to the re-
search field. The objectives of the program are
A sound formation in the chemical engineering
fundamentals, i.e. applied mathematics, thermo-
dynamics, transport phenomena and reactor engi-
neering.
An adequate capacity and ability to perform research
through a basic understanding of the relationship
between theory and practice.
The skill to exercise creativity in order to implement
new technologies and to adapt or optimize the


existent ones through the application of the funda-
mental knowledge acquired.
A working comprehension of the Mexican chemical
industry and/or the education system and its re-
quirements, in order to fulfill their needs.
In order to achieve these objectives, the pro-
gram (which is four quarters long) is divided into
three levels.
The first level corresponds to the five basic
courses: Applied mathematics, thermodynamics,
fluid mechanics, mass and heat transfer, and re-
actor engineering. These courses are given at
typical American graduate schools and are
intended to provide the student with a solid
foundation in engineering.
The second level (which is called the specializa-
tion area) is devoted to provide the necessary
tools for a research program (M.S. thesis). It
consists of two 12 credit courses, which could be
in the form of a typical course or a "tutorial,"
where the student follows a program set by the
instructor and under his supervision, but without
formal lecturing.
The third level consists of research work which
should culminate in a thesis. The objective here
is to work in a project relevant to industry, or to
contribute to the generation of applied or funda-
mental scientific knowledge.
It is important to note that the student is en-
couraged to begin his research in the first quarter
and to join a research seminar in all quarters. At
least twice during the term he is expected to
present the state of development of his research
work to other students and to the full staff, thus
permitting evaluation of the work performed. This
also brings about the opportunity for discussions
from which new ideas can be generated.
Thus it can be seen that this program includes
research as a basic component of the Master in
Science program-as opposed to other programs
currently being offered in Mexico which require
the taking of many dissimilar courses.
CONCLUSIONS
The development of the chemical industry and
of the chemical engineering profession in Mexico
has been in phase in terms of supplying the
quantity of engineers required by industry. How-
ever, quality has been a problem (particularly in
the last five years because both the number of
schools offering the program and the number of
students registering for it has exploded tre-
mendously.
Mexican industry now requires a different


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









type of chemical engineer; one capable of as-
similating the imported technologies and of de-
veloping new processes more suitable to the
efficient utilization of our resources. This require-
ment provides one of the fundamentals for cur-
riculum development; the other is a sound
knowledge of what chemical engineering is.
With these two points in mind, we propose the
formation of an "Academic Commission" on a
national level, composed of highly qualified pro-
fessors from all parts of the country who would
coordinate the design of a curriculum which could
then be implemented at all government sponsored
schools. This curriculum should contain a funda-
mental core of basic science (chemistry, physics
and mathematics), with strong interaction
through practice in lab sessions. The second stage
of the curriculum should emphasize the funda-
mentals of chemical engineering (thermody-
namics, transport phenomena and reaction engi-
neering). Finally, the third stage should be flexible
and concentrate on several aspects, depending on
the region of the country or the strength of the
faculty at hand. As examples, important areas to
cover are process design and development, project
engineering, energy resources, and equipment
design.
It is obvious that the implementation of the
proposed curriculum requires highly trained
teachers and researchers. These people should be
educated through the graduate programs now
existing in Mexico; therefore, those programs
should be strengthened and strongly supported at
the main government sponsored institutions.
Furthermore, since all these programs offer only
a M.S. degree thus far, emphasis should be placed
on the development of one or two doctorate pro-
grams at the schools with the capabilities to imple-
ment them. Clearly, UNAM is one of them.
Strengthening the graduate programs should
also develop research in chemical engineering,
which so far has been meager and is greatly
needed for the development of our industry. The
few people that are presently capable of doing this
have been schooled abroad. We feel that we have
reached the stage where it is possible, and in fact
imperative, to do it in Mexico. O

BOOK REVIEW: Optimization
Continued from page 167.
ance, just the how for a few cases. The why is
needed so the student can develop, understand
and use other designs. It is surprising that the


Newton-Bairstow method for curve fitting is not
given.
Chapter 3. This chapter, though well-written,
desperately needs more worked examples. On p.
102, the concepts of consistency and efficiency
should be included with unbiasedness as properties
of an estimator.
Chapter 4. This chapter appears to be a literature
search from a thesis. The notation will be con-
fusing to older readers whose formal mathemati-
cal background predate 1955 but who apply
mathematics daily. A glossary of symbols would
help. The coverage is excellent in scope. The
section on interval reduction is very good. It is
unfortunate that the Kuhn-Tucker conditions for
constrained optimization are not mentioned. The
basis for several algorithms are described but no
executable algorithm is actually given. Completed
examples are rare; no student exercises are pro-
vided. There is no warning against sectioning.
Chapter 5. This is an improvement over Chapter
4 in that stepwise algorithms are given but not
worked.
Chapter 6 contains only four complete examples
to illustrate applications to physical processes.
Chapter 7 is descriptive in nature. For the two
"examples" of simulation models, only the results
were given. O


RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING
Continued from page 195.
spent about half as much time in industry as in
academic institutions and I can tell you that the
neurial, competitive and cost conscious as any-
thing in the "real" world. Our budgets are even
more inflexible than those of our industrial
brothers. We can't pass cost overruns on to our
clients, customers, or stockholders, for example.
I suggest that when you hear someone say that
research in academe is not the real world, you are
listening to a person who doesn't know what he's
talking about, who is so unaware of the actualities
of university research that his own perspective is
unreal.
SI: Well, you have certainly given me some food
for thought. Let me digest it for awhile and come
back to see you again.
PI: Fine. When you come I'll take you through
the lab. It may make you feel better. It has 500-
gallon tanks, 32-inch vacuum pumps, 6-inch valves
and piping, and 10-horsepower motors. You'll
think you're in a factory! O


FALL 1982









MASS TRANSFER
Continued from page 162.
examining chemically reactive mass transfer in
trayed equipment. Measurements of film co-
efficients and active interfacial areas are being
made in the three-tray column shown in Figure 2.
Glitsch valve trays with four square feet of active
area are being used; the center tray has adjust-
able downcomer and weir heights and is the test
tray. The column will be used eventually to pro-
vide tests of models based on treating the separa-
tion as a rate process. Real industrial solvent
solutions will be used in an evaluation of the effect
of corrosion inhibitors and antifoam agents on
mass transfer performance.
Again, as for multicomponent mass transfer,
these models are necessarily computer based and
treat the process on a mechanistic level. Once
more the final aim is to develop reliable methods
for the design and analysis of industrial equip-
ment, an objective that pervades all of our work.


FIGURE 2. Three-valve-tray column for mass transfer
rate measurements in gas absorption.


MULTICOMPONENT SEPARATIONS WITH CHEMICAL
REACTION AND OVERALL PHASE CHANGE

Condensation is another operation of such
broad importance that a wealth of books and
papers have been devoted to its analysis. The com-
plexity of condensation processes varies from
simple systems of pure vapors with no mass
transfer resistances to systems involving non-
condensibles in the vapor phase and those which
condense in the form of two immiscible fluids. The
condensation of multicomponent mixtures is diffi-
cult to analyze because of diffusional interaction
effects, particularly in the vapor phase. Design
methods depend on filmwise condensation with
either a completely unmixed or completely mixed
liquid phase [39]. Vapor condensation to im-
miscible liquid mixtures does not fall even between
the limits of a mixed or unmixed liquid film, but
progress has been made in developing design
methods.
Another example of condensation that can-
not be described by known methods is that of a
multicomponent vapor in which two or more
species undergo chemical reaction in the liquid
phase. This part of our research addresses these
types of processes by bringing together work
from the areas of condensation and chemically re-
active mass transfer. Until now, these have always
been considered as quite separate, yet they are
intimately linked in a number of systems of com-
mercial significance. Design methods are totally
lacking for such systems and this forms one of
the objectives of the present work.
In order to simplify the rate calculations, the
mass transfer resistance offered by the liquid
phase is traditionally ignored. One of two types of
approximation is commonly made: (i) the liquid
phase is always in the totally unmixed state (zero
liquid-side mass transfer coefficients) and the
surface composition of the liquid is decided by the
relative rates of condensation, or (ii) the liquid
phase is completely mixed as far as compositions
are concerned (but normal temperature gradients
still operate) and the liquid composition is calcu-
lated from a material balance along the flow path.
It is clear that the truth lies between these ex-
tremes, at least for miscible systems. There is
also some evidence that the final results are in-
sensitive to whichever extreme is taken [44].
The mixture to be condensed is usually multi-
component and the last decade has seen increased
interest in the development of advanced models


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









for such systems, along with the necessary experi-
mental verification. For example, the classical
Ackermann-Colburn-Drew [40, 41] analyses have
been extended by Schrodt [42] to multicomponent
mixtures; however, his approach is somewhat
naive because it neglects the effects of diffusional
interaction in the vapor. Recently Webb et al. [43]
have examined the significance of coupling effects
in ternary condensation and concluded that an
effective diffusivity type of model (as used by
Schrodt [42]) may safely be employed provided
the condensing species are not too dissimilar and
condensation rates are modest. The safe use of an
effective diffusivity type of model for this process
is partly a result of the unidirectional nature of
the transfer process.
The method of Schrodt [42] and the modifica-
tion by Webb et al. [43] are based on a film model
of the transport process. More exact multicom-
ponent generalizations of the Ackermann-Colburn-
Drew analyses have also been developed [44, 45].
There are a number of other methods available;
some have been supported experimentally and
some have not. The important point in the present
context, however, is that all of these methods are
strictly limited to vapors that condense filmwise
and form a condensate characterizable as being
either perfectly mixed or entirely unmixed.
There are a number of situations that do not
fall into these categories, and one that we are
studying is the condensation of a multicomponent
vapor in which two or more of the species undergo
chemical reaction in the liquid phase. A striking
example of such a system is the ternary mixture
carbon dioxide-ammonia-water vapor which must
be condensed in a number of commercial processes
for the manufacture of the fertilizer and monomer,
urea. It is well known that CO2 and NH, react
in aqueous solution to form ammonium carbamate
and it must be expected that this will have a pro-
found effect not only on condensation rates, but
also on the compositions of both the condensate
and the gas mixture being vented from the con-
denser.
Since the reaction product, ammonium carba-
mate, is nonvolatile, a first impression might be
that reaction would lower the concentrations of
both CO2 and NH, in the liquid film, thereby lower-
ing the corresponding concentrations in the gas
phase at the interface. Thus, an increase in the
driving forces in the vapor phase would favor
heat and mass transfer and lead to a condenser
of lower area. However, such an argument would


be quite specious. It is crucial to recognize that
although ammonia is highly soluble in water,
carbon dioxide is sparingly soluble and that its
physical solubility is of paramount importance
in deciding its transfer rate even in the presence
of a rapid chemical reaction. Chemical equilibrium,
of course, is tied to the reactions involved, where-
as, the physical process of dissolving (which must
proceed reaction) is relatively unaffected by re-
action, except insofar as the concentration of dis-
solved gas is kept low and the liquid film thickness
is reduced. Our intuitive arguments are of little
consequence and it is clear that such systems
do not fall between the two extremes regarding
condensate mixing described above. Indeed, it
must be said that the hydrodynamics of the liquid
film are decisive in determining rates of mass
transfer, including condensation, because the re-
sistance offered by the liquid film is dominant for
the transfer of CO2 even though the vapor phase
resistance is probably more important for the
transfer of ammonia. Thus, arguments about
whether the liquid phase is well mixed or not beg
the issue and will undoubtedly lead to calculations
totally in error.
Gas absorption has been the main focus of
most previous studies of chemically-reactive mass
transfer. However, it is important to recognize a
number of essential differences between absorp-
tion and condensation. In the former, the absorb-
ing medium (water) does not undergo a signifi-
cant degree of phase change; whereas, in the
CO2 NH, H20 system for example, con-
densation results in an extremely large flux of
water vapor that exerts a dominant influence on
the total transfer rate of all the species. The
larger part of the condensate would be expected
to be water which could absorb a considerable
amount of ammonia, since this gas is highly
soluble. Although CO is a very sparingly soluble
gas, the presence of dissolved ammonia greatly in-
creases the total capacity of the liquid for CO, be-
cause it essentially removes it in the form of am-
monium carbamate which is nonvolatile. In the
present context, CO, does not act as an inert gas
since it can be dissolved in large amounts


ERRATA
The Summer 1982 issue of CEE contained an article
written by Leise, Jenkins, and Tarbel, entitled "The
Oscillating Sink." The diagrams in Figs. 3 and 6
(pgs. 112, 113) in that article should be interchanged.


FALL 1982









governed by the chemical reaction equilibrium
and the composition of the condensate. The latter
is of course determined by transfer rates of water
vapor and ammonia which are themselves in-
fluenced by the transport of carbon dioxide, so we
have here a process very much complicated by the
chemical reaction.
In summary, the process being examined here
involves a very large flux of water from the vapor
towards the condensate film which simultaneously
drives the other two species toward the film,
greatly increasing their vapor-phase concentra-
tions at the interface. Ammonia transfer, being
largely gas-phase controlled, will be much affected
by the presence of CO,; whereas, CO2 transfer is
liquid-phase controlled and will be influenced by
dissolved ammonia. In addition, because the
diffusion film in the liquid at the interface will
be at a relatively high temperature, the reactions
will likely have to be considered reversible; how-
ever, temperatures may not be so high that a
chemical reaction equilibrium assumption will
apply. Conditions in the condensate film, par-
ticularly near the vapor boundary are crucial to
the transport rates so that assumptions about
complete mixing or nonmixing would be meaning-
less. The work being done here will provide a
rather severe test of not only condensation theory
but also of absorption with reversible reaction
and the ability of the present state-of-the-art to
combine these theories in an effective way for such
novel but important situations. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Some of the studies reported here have been
supported in the past by the Research Grants
Committee (Australia) and the Science Research
Council (United Kingdom) for which the authors
are grateful. Present studies are being supported
by individual grants to the authors by the National
Science Foundation and by substantial funding
from Dow Chemical U.S.A. Donations of equip-
ment by Goulds Pumps, Inc. and Glitsch, Inc. are
gratefully acknowledged.

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of Oklahoma, B3, 1963.
33. McLachlan, C. N. S. and P. V. Danckwerts, "De-
sorption of Carbon Dioxide from Aqueous Potash
Solutions with and without the Addition of Arsenite
as a Catalyst," Trans. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 50, 300,
1972.
34. Astarita, G. and D. W. Savage, "Theory of Chemical
Desorption," Chem. Eng. Sci., 85, 649, 1980.
35. Savage, D. W., G. Astarita and S. Joshi, "Chemical
Absorption and Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from
Hot Carbonate Solutions," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35,
1513-1522, 1980.
36. Rawal, M. Y., "Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from
Carbonated Monoethanolamine Solutions," Ph.D.
Thesis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia,
Australia, 1980.
37. Olander, D. R., "Simultaneous Mass Transfer and
Equilibrium Chemical Reaction," A.I.ChE.J., 6, 233,
1960.
38. Weiland, R. H., M. Y. Rawal and R. G. Rice,
"Stripping of Carbon Dioxide from Monoethanolamine
Solutions in a Packed Column," A.I.ChE. J., in press.
39. Webb, D. R. and J. M. McNaught, "Condensers,"
Chapter 4 of "Advances in Heat Exchanger
Technology" (D. Chisholm, Ed.), Applied Science
Publishers, Barking, Essen, England, 1980.
40. Ackermann, G., "Heat Transfer and Molecular Mass
Transfer in the Same Field at High Temperatures
and Large Partial Pressure Differences," Ver.
Deutsch. Ing. Forschungsheft, 8, 1, 1937.


41. Colburn, A. P. and T. B. Drew, "The Condensation of
Mixed Vapours," Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs.,
33, 197, 1937.
42. Schrodt, J. T., "Simultaneous Heat and Mass Trans-
fer from Multicomponent Condensing Vapor-Gas
Systems," A.I.ChE. J., 19, 753, 1973.
43. Webb, D. R., C. B. Panchal and I. Coward, "The Sig-
nificance of Multicomponent Diffusional Interactions
in the Process of Condensation in the Presence of a
Non Condensable Gas," Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 87, 1981.
44. Krishna, R., C. B. Panchal D. R. Webb and I. Coward,
"An Ackermann-Colburn-Drew Type Analysis for
Condensation of Multicomponent Mixtures," Letts.
Heat and Mass Transfer, 3, 163, 1976.
45. Krishna, R. and C. B. Panchal, "Condensation of a
Binary Vapour Mixture in the Presence of an Inert
Gas," Chem. Engng. Sci., 82, 741, 1977.



GEYSER PROBLEM
Continued from page 189.

this jet of liquid occurred at the very end of the
filling process, 9.5 hours after the first penetration
of the mine by the drill. At that point, most of
the mine must have been full of water, and the
only forces likely to generate such a spectacular
effect are gravitational ones, of which the bubble
mechanism proposed above is the most plausible.
An alternative gravitational explanation
would be that the first fluid to flow into the mine
was relatively clean water, while the later fluid,
flowing in after the hole had enlarged, would be
quite muddy. In oil well drilling practice it is
possible to produce drilling muds (mud-water
slurries), with densities up to twice that of water.
If the first half of the path from wellbore to venti-
lator shaft were filled with ordinary water, and
the second half filled with a mud whose density
were 1.5 times that of water then the hydrostatic
pressure difference from lake level to ventilator
shaft would have been

P = ghAp = 32 ft/sec2 x 1300 ft
x (0.5 x 62.4 lbm/ft3)
x lbf sec2/32 Ibm ft
x ft2/144 in2 = 281 psi

This would likely have been adequate to produce
the geyser. I consider this a less-likely explana-
tion than the air bubble, because it requires a
much more organized process, with strong segre-
gation of the earlier clean inflowing fluid from
the later mud-ladden fluid. But I cannot rule it out
for certain without more data on the accident than
has been published. O


FALL 1982









OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION
Continued from page 151.
solid state changes may be occurring deep within
the bulk phase that affect the catalytic activity.
Several techniques were used to test this
possibility. First of all, X-ray diffraction patterns
were taken on the fresh catalyst and on samples
that were progressively deactivated. The fresh
catalyst was about 90% MgFe204, but 5% of the
material was iron oxide, a-FeO2. Deactivated
catalysts showed only MgFe204. This suggested
that the true "catalyst" was not the ferrite but
was in fact the Fe2,O which was possibly present
as a surface coating on the MgFe204 base. Auger
spectroscopic measurements confirmed the ab-
sence of Mg in the surface layers of the catalyst.
Both magnetic susceptibility and MSssbauer
spectroscopy confirmed the conclusions derived
from the X-ray data, namely that the iron oxide
was present in the fresh active samples but was
absent in the used inactive catalysts.
Upon inquiring about how the catalyst was
synthesized [11], we were informed that it was
made by the high temperature fusion reaction

MgO Fe203 --- MgFe204 (13)

The reaction was carried out to only 90% com-
pletion during synthesis and this is one of the
secrets of preparing this active catalyst! As heat
was released by the exothermic OXD reaction, the
iron oxide reacted with the MgO dissolved in solid
solution to carry the reaction (13) to completion.

TRANSPORT EFFECTS
The catalyst has a low surface area (about
7 m2/g) and large pores. Furthermore, the re-
action was carried out in an all-Pyrex batch re-
circulation reactor at low temperature to keep the
rate slow. These factors resulted in a very small
Thiele modulus and no mass transport limitations.
On the other hand, it was very difficult to keep
the reactor isothermal due to the large exo-
thermicity of the reaction. Dilution of the catalyst
bed with inert particles helped, but still the re-
action was difficult to control. Only data obtained
under conditions where the temperature remained
essentially constant were used in the kinetics
analysis.
As mentioned in the previous section, it is
likely that the slow dissipation of the heat of re-
action away from the active sites could have
caused localized hot spots in the vicinity of the


active site pairs that led to the progression of the
solid state reaction (13) [12].

CONCLUSIONS
It is rare that one can find a catalytic system of
commercial interest that can be studied in detail
by such a variety of techniques. The small mole-
cules are easily handled in the laboratory and can
be labeled with both radioactive and stable iso-
topic tracers. Being well crystallized and contain-
ing iron, the catalyst itself is amenable to study
by a wide range of solid state techniques.
The results can be summarized by the follow-
ing points.
A redox mechanism (Fe+2/Fe+3 interconversion)
occurs.
C-H cleavage is rate limiting.
Two sites are involved anionn and cation vacancies).
Non-competitive Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics are
obeyed.
Surface oxygen is added and removed; the surface is
fully covered so long as there is even a small amount
of 02 in the gas phase.
The catalyst is easily reduced by hydrocarbons in
absence of 02.
Activity correlates with the presence of a-Fe,O,,
which is probably present as a thin coating on the
MgFe2O4 spinel support.
Deactivation occurs when MgO reacts with Fe20,
to form MgFe,20.
RELATED WORK AT RICE UNIVERSITY
In related work we have studied the oxidative
dehydrodimerization (OXDD) of propylene over
Bi20s to form 1,5-hexadiene and benzene [13-14].
We have also looked at the OXD of butane to form
n-butenes and butadiene over a commercial Ni-
Sn-P oxide catalyst [15]. Finally, the ferrite work
has been expanded to other catalysts such as
CoFe2O, [10] and manganese ferrite [16]. While
some of the questions about the nature of catalytic
activity of these materials have been answered,
many more questions remain in this exciting area
of heterogeneous catalysis. O
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Financial support from NASA, Gulf Oil
Corporation, Mobile Foundation, and the Robert
A. Welch Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES
1. Gibson, M. A., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41,
420 (1976).
2. Gibson, M. A., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41,
431 (1976).
3. Froment, G. F., and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor
Analysis and Design, John Wiley, p. 297 (1979).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


204










4. Welch, L. M., L. J. Croce, and H. F. Christmann,
Hydrocarbon Processing, p. 131 (November, 1978).
5. Boudart, M., Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice
Hall, p. 211 (1968).
6. Melander, L. C., Isotope Effects on Reaction Rates,
Ronald Press, New York (1960).
7. Massoth, F. E., and D. A. Scarpiella, J. Catalysis 21,
29 (1971).
8. Keulks, G. W., L. D. Krenzke, and T. N. Nottermann,
Advances in Catalysis 27 (1978).
9. Haber, J., Int. Chem. Eng. 15, 21 (1975).
10. Cares, W. R., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 28,
193 (1971).
11. Columbian Carbon Company, 1971.
12. Luss, D., Chem. Eng. Journal 1, 311 (1970).
13. White, M. G., "The Oxidative Dehydrogenation
Dimerization of Olefins over Metal Oxides," Ph.D.
Thesis, Rice University, 1977.
14. White, M. G., and J. W. Hightower, AIChE Journal
27, 545 (1981).
15. Chickering, D. H., "Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-
Butane over Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts," Ph.D.
Thesis, Rice University, 1981.
16. Van Kleeck, D. A., "Oxidative Dehydrogenation of
Butenes over Manganese Ferrite," Ph.D. Thesis, Rice
University, 1981.


book reviews

PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, 3RD EDITION
By Max S. Peters, Klaus D. Timmerhaus
McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY

Reviewed by Oran L. Culberson
University of Tennessee

This book in its third edition continues to be
among those classics which should be in the
personal library of every chemical engineer. It
is, however, basically unchanged from the second
edition and may not merit acquisition by those
who own the second edition.
The following chapters in the new edition
contain very much the same information that
was in second edition chapters: (1) Introduction,
(2) Process Design Development, (4) Cost and
Asset Accounting, (5) Cost Estimation, (6) In-
terest and Investment Costs, (7) Taxes and In-
surance, (8) Depreciation, (9) Profitability,
Alternative Investments and Replacements, (11)
Materials and Fabrication Selection, (12) The
Design Report, (13) Materials Transfer, Handling
and Treating Equipment, (14) Heat Transfer
Equipment and (16) Statistical Analysis in De-
sign. There is now an appendix dealing with SI


units, but SI seldom appears anywhere else in
the new edition. (This is not a significant fault in
the opinion of this gray-haired reviewer.) Ap-
pendices for Auxiliary and Utility Cost Data, for
Design Problems and for Tables of Physical
Properties and Constants are presented much as
in the prior edition.
The erstwhile appendices on Linear Pro-
gramming and Dynamic Programming have been
moved into Chapter 10, Optimum Design and
Design Strategy. This was perhaps a mistake.
These two optimization algorithms have little ap-
plication in design. Geometric programming
would have been a more appropriate offering. It is
also unfortunate that the material on linear pro-
gramming does not note that modern computer
programs do not use the Simplex algorithm de-
scribed; this omission will be confusing and ag-
gravating to the reader who wants to use library
programs on computers. A better use of the space
would have resulted from exposition on the
Critical Path Method and for the Project Evalu-
ation and Review Technique which are valuable
for the scheduling and control of projects.
Chapter 10 has been expanded also to explain the
concept of cash flow and to show how the effects
of inflation might be covered in economic analysis.
Chapter 3 on General Design Considerations
has been more than doubled to include information
on design requirements to protect against thermal,
air, liquid and solid waste pollution. Chapter 15,
formerly devoted exclusively to Mass Transfer
Equipment, now treats Reactor Equipment also.
This material is from an appendix of the second
edition, with some augmentation.
A great strength of this book has always
been the voluminous bibliography at the end of
each chapter. These literature references have
been updated and are very valuable to anyone
wanting to delve into a topic beyond the limited
treatment which can be made in the book. The
new edition is still replete with equipment costs,
now updated to January 1, 1979. A table of the
costs of chemicals appears in the new edition
which unfortunately contains neither a date nor
a warning to the neophyte that these costs can
change rapidly.
Another quite useful feature of this book is
the extensive sets of problems for each chapter,
but the problems have not been changed in the
two editions. This reviewer overheard a professor
bemoaning this fact at the AIChE meeting in
Chicago. E


FALL 1982






I:


I I I


* -


:-f I ,


T 1La4 -


ttS


4* : I =1









Chemical Engineering at



UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA


EDMONTON, CANADA


Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota):
Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process
Dynamics and Control, Real-Time
Computer Applications, Process
Design.
C. Kiparissides, Ph.D. (McMaster):
Polymer Reactor Engineering, Op-
timization, Modelling, Stochastic
Control.
D. Lynch, Ph.D. (Alberta): Kinetic
Modelling, Numerical Methods,
Computer Aided Design.
J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (British Colum-
bia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, In-Situ Recovery
of Oil Sands.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase
Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High
Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil, (Vienna): Heat
Transfer, Air Pollution, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied
Mathematics.
F. D. Otto (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michi-
gan): Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Re-
actions, Separation Processes, En-
vironmental Engineering.
D. Quon, Sc.D. (MIT), Professor Emeri-
tus: Energy Modelling and Economics,
Linear Programming, Network
Theory.
D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan):
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of
Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermody-
namics.
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process
Economics, Energy Economics and
Supply.
S. L. Shah, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear
Systems Theory, Adaptive Control,
Stability Theory, Stochastic Control.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis):
Catalysis, Kinetics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern):
Process Dynamics and Identification,
Control of Distillation Columns,
Modelling of Crushing and Grinding
Circuits.

FALL 1982


Graduate Study
U of A's Chemical Engineering gradu-
ate program offers exciting research
opportunities to graduate students moti-
vated towards advanced training and
research. Graduate programs leading to
the degrees of Master of Science, Master
of Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy
are offered. There are currently 13 full-
time faculty members, a few visiting
faculty, several post-doctoral research
associates and 35 graduate students.



Financial Aid
Financial support is available to full-
time graduate students in the form of
fellowships, teaching assistantships and
research assistantships.



The University of Alberta
U of A is one of Canada's largest
Universities and engineering schools
with total enrollment of over 25,000
students. The campus is located in the
city of Edmonton and overlooks the
scenic North Saskatchewan River Valley.
Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern
city of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a
renowned resident professional theatre,
symphony orchestra and professional
football, hockey and soccer leagues.
The famous Banff and Jasper National
Parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains
are within easy driving distance.





For application forms or
more information, write to

CHAIRMAN,
Department of Chemical
Engineering
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6








THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

TUCSON, AZ




The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.

THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE:


JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,
Biorheology

ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics, Interfacial Phenomena







Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.




For further information,
write to:
Dr. T. W. Peterson
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721


The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer


DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants,
Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate
Growth Kinetics.

FARHANG SHADMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis










ARIZONA STATE

UNIVERSITY

Graduate Programs
for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
in Chemical and Bio Engineering



Research Specializations Include:
ENERGY CONVERSION ADSORPTIONISEPARATION *
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING e TRANSPORT PHENOMENA *
SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING *
CATALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL *
ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL *
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly-respected faculty:
James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976
Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966
Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962
Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston, 1980
William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct)
William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967
Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971
James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970
Kim L. Nelson, University of Delaware, 1981
Castle O. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus)
Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963
Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967
Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
James M. Trebilcock, Michigan State University, 1950
Imre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961
Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix
metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in
ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study.
Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's
own cultural and recreational facilities.
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT:
Imre Zwiebel, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287

RWI


j C








CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


A I
kE

++---T--=. E
~iR~f~iAT


THE PROGRAM
The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D.
levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with
modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is
available to qualified students.


THE LOCALE
Auburn University has 19,000 students and is located midway between Atlanta, GA. and Montgomery, AL.
Situated in a beautiful wooded setting, the local population numbers about 75.000 and supports good
shopping and entertainment facilities. The University also sponsors many types of artistic, dramatic,
cultural and sporting events. The combination of good weather and pleasant surroundings make outdoor
activities such as hiking, boating, fishing and camping particularly enjoyable.


THE FACULTY
Robert P. Chambers (University of California, 1965) Enzymatic and Biomedical Engineering, Biomass
Conversion, Adsorption and Ion Exchange.
Christine W. Curtis (Florida State University, 1976) Analytical Methods, Coal Chemistry and Liquefaction.
Catalysis of Hydrocarbon Residuals.
James A. Guin (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Liquefaction, Catalytic Hydrotreating, Reactor Design,
Heat and Mass Transfer.
Leo J. Hirth (University of Texas, 1958) Process and Plant Design, Economics, Oil Reprocessing.
Andrew C. T. Hsu (University of Pennsylvania, 1953) Thermodynamics, Solar Energy, Nucleation and
Crystallization Kinetics.
Y. Y. Lee (Iowa State University, 1972) Biochemical Engineering, Reaction Engineering of Bio-Systems,
Biomass Conversion
Timothy D. Placek (University of Kentucky, 1978) Environmental Pollution, Process Simulation, Multi-
phase Transport Phenomena.
A. R. Tarrer (Purdue University, 1973) Coal Liquefaction, Oil Reprocessing, Solid-Liquid Separations.
Bruce J. Tatarchuk (University of Wisconsin, 1981) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, Spec-
troscopic Characterization of Catalyst Materials.
Donald L. Vives (Columbia University, 1949) Oil Reprocessing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Heat Transfer.
Dennis C. Williams (Princeton University, 1980) Process Dynamics and Control, Reactor Engineering.



Auburn
Engineering


RESEARCH AREAS
Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Coal Conversion
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Oil Reprocessing
Process Design and Control
Process Simulation
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Separations
Surface Science
Transport Phenomena
Thermodynamics







For financial aid and admission
application forms write:
Dr. R.P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849


Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution










BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

PROVO, UTAH


* Ph.D., M.S., & M.E.
* ChE. Masters for Chemists Program
* Research


Biomedical Engineering
Catalysis
Coal Gasification


Combustion
Electrochemical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics


Fossil Fuels Recovery
High Pressure Chemistry
Thermochemistry &
Calorimetry


* Faculty
D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951)
C. H. Bartholomew, (Ph.D., Stanford, 1972)
M W. Beckstead, (Ph.D., Utah, 1965)
D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D., Berkeley, 1964)
B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979)
J J. Christensen, (Ph.D., Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958)
J. M. Glassett, (M.S., MIT, 1948)


R. W. Hanks, (Ph.D., Utah, 1961)
W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley,
1982)
P O. Hedman, (Ph.D., BYU, 1973)
J. L. Oscarson, (Ph.D., Michigan, 1982)
P. J. Smith, (Ph.D., BYU, 1979)
L. D. Smoot, (Ph.D., Washington, 1960)
K. A. Solen, (Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1974)


* Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains
* Financial aid available
Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Richard W. Hanks, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Dept. 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602


FALL 1982




















UC rTHE
UNIVERSITY
OF CALGARY





CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

Program of Study
Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Master of Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Both the M.Sc. and Ph.D. programs are on the full-time basis and have
residency requirements. Course work and a research thesis based on an
original investigation are required of each student enrolled in either
degree program. The M.Eng. involves part-time study. It is designed
for those individuals working in the industry who would like to en-
hance their technical education. The M.Eng. thesis is usually on a
design oriented project related to current or anticipated industrial
trends. All the programs are designed to meet the specific interests
and individual needs of the student. The research and computing facili-
tis within the department and the faculty of engineering are excellent
and continuously being upgraded.
Generous fellowships and assistantships are available throughout the
calendar year to qualified applicants. The four month summer months
are usually devoted to active research. Supplementary financial support
may also be available from the research grants of the individual
faculty members.



Research Areas
Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Kinetics and Combustion
Reaction Engineering and Process Control
Flow in Porous Media
Multi-phase Flows in Pipelines
Computer Aided Design of Pipe Networks
Fluidization
Environmental Engineering
In-situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Biorheology and Biochemical Engineering
Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration


Faculty
R. A. HEIDEMANN, Professor and Head D.Sc. (Wash. U.)
A. BADAKHSHAN, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.)
L. A. BEHIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (W. Ont.)
D. W. BENNION, Professor Ph.D. (Penn. St.)
P. R. BISHNOI, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
M. FOGARASI, Sr. Instructor B.Sc. (Alta.)
G. A. GREGORY, Professor Ph.D. (Waterloo)
M. A. HASTAOGLU, Asst. Professor Ph.D. (SUNY)
J. J. AVLENA, Sr. Instructor D. Sc. (Czech.)
A. A. JEJE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (MIT)
N. G. MCDUFFIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas)
A. K. MEHROTRA Asat. Professor Ph.D. (Calgary)
M. F. MOHTADI, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.)
R. G. MOORE, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
P. M. SIGMUND, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas)
P. M. STANISLAV, Professor Ph.D. (Prague)
W. Y. SVRCEK, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
E. L. TOLLEFSON, Professor Ph.D. (Tor.)


The Community
The university is located in Calgary, Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of half a million combines the traditions
of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and the ski
resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of the most
scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in the com-
munity at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations of engi-
neering activity in the country.




Applications
For further information and application material write to:

The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta. T2N 1N4 Canada


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,



BERKELEY...


RESEARCH INTERESTS

ENERGY UTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
KINETICS AND CATALYSIS
THERMODYNAMICS
POLYMER TECHNOLOGY
ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
SEPARATION PROCESSES
FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY
ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING


PLEASE WRITE:


... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-
tains.



FACULTY

Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soong
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermeulen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams


Department of Chemical Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Berkeley, California 94720


FALL 1982









UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


DAVIS


Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Thermodynamics
Transport Processes in Porous Media

Program
UC Davis, with 17,500 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.


Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy


Faculty
RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
RUBEN G. CARBONELL, Princeton University
Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum
Statistical Mechanics, Transport Processes in
Porous Media
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes
DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University
Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media


Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.



For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Graduate Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


214











CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


..


UNIVERSITY






ALIFORNIA






OS






NGELES

'**=- if


PROGRAMS
UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
gacdua~te-programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities.
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research; adding to
the already wide spectrum of research
activities.

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
of tuition and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly-regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on
campus.

CONTACT
Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering
5405 Boelter Hall
UCLA
Los Angeles, CA 90024


FACULTY-
D. N. Bennion
Yoram Cohen
S. M. Dinh
S. Fathi-Afshar
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
E. L. Knuth
J. W. McCutchan


Ken Nobe"
1.. B. Robinson
O. I. Smith
W. 0. Van Vorst
V. L. Vilker
F. E. Yates
M. M. Baizer


AR

RESEARCH AREAS' :,
SThermodynamics and Crybgenfts
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
.Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering













UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA


SANTA BARBARA


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT


SANJOY BANERJEE
Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Vice Chairman, Nuclear Engineering)
Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis
and Wastes
H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Chemical Reactor Modeling,
Applied Mathematics
HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
(Chairman)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical
Reactor Analysis, Transport
Phenomena.
GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Materials.
DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.


JOHN E. MYERS
Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Dean of Engineering)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

G. ROBERT ODETTE
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.

A. EDWARD PROFIO
Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion
Reactors, Radiation Transport
Analyses.

ROBERT G. RINKER
Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.

ORVILLE C. SANDALL
Ph.D. (Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation
Processes.

DALE E. SEBORG
Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.


The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.


THE UNIVERSITY
One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even
climate.


For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Owen T. Hanna, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
Engineering
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION




































PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature to the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.


FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. G. Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1983.


FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena
L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.

C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate
Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering;
process design .and development.


JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics: tracer studies
of various environmental and safety related
problems.
GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Assistant Pro-
fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
engineering.
NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.








ItIIM II INTL CI
J~liiCL11LM
































IS THERE LIFE

AFTER GRADUATE STUDY?
Want to find out? Heaven can't wait!
Write to:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
FALL 1982 219


~~








The

UNIVERSITY

OF

CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in
Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


p FACULTY
C Stanley Cosgrove
SRobert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
SSHSun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Robert Lemlich
~r William Licht
Joel Weisman

CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
PROCESS SYNTHESIS
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
POLYMERS
Viscoelastic properties of concen-
trated polymer solutions.
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis
and morphology of polymer blends.
AIR POLLUTION
Modeling and design of gas clean- -
ing devices and systems.
TWO-PHASE FLOW
Boiling. Stability and transport
properties of foam.
THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION
LIVING HUMAN AND Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
CORPORATE SYSTEMS Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Longevity, basal metabolic rate, Cincinnati, OH 45221
and Prigogine's and Shannon's
entropy formulae.




























SClarkson

SM.S. and Ph.D. Programs
e Friendly Atmosphere
SVigorous Research Programs Supported by Government
and Industry
Faculty with International Reputation
Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and Other
Recreation in the Adirondacks
Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts
Colleges Nearby
Faculty
S. V. Babu D. H. Rasmussen
Der-Tau Chin Herman L. Shulman
Robert Cole R. Shankar Subramanian
Sandra Harris Peter C. Sukanek
Angelo Lucia Ross Taylor
Richard J. McCluskey Thomas J. Ward
John B. McLaughlin Ralph H. Weiland
Richard J. Nunge William R. Wilcox
Nsima Tom Obot Gordon R. Youngquist
Research Projects are available in:
Energy
Materials Processing in Space
Turbulent Flows
Heat Transfer
~ Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion
Polymer Processing
Particle Separations
Phase Transformations and Equilibria
Reaction Engineering
Optimization and Control
Crystallization
And More ...
Financial aid in the form of fellowships, research
assistantships and teaching assistantships is
--s available. For more details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676


I qN,
man












COLORADO OF


SCHOOL


OF
1874

MINES CLORAoo
THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH
P. F. Dickson, Professor and Head; Ph.D., University of
Minnesota. Oil-shale, shale oil processing, petro-
chemical production from shale oil, heat transfer,
heat exchanger design.

J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up-
grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re-
finery processing operations, heavy oil processing.

A. J. Kidnay, Professor; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines.
Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived liquids,
vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems, cryo-
Sgenic engineering.

R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Coal liquefaction by direct hydro-
genation, mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics
of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochemistry
to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-derived
asphaltenes.

M. S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro-
cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of
coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading.

M. C. Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Heat transfer and fluid me-
chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer
in porous media, free convection in porous media.

E. D. Sloan, Jr., Associate Professor; Ph.D., Clemson Uni-
versity. Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measure-
ments of natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates,
thermal conductivity measurements for coal derived
fluids, adsorption equilibria measurements, stage-
wise processes, education methods research.

V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan.
Kinetic studies of shale oil, phase behavior and
enthalpy of synthetic fuels.

A. L. Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Enhanced oil recovery.
y. M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State
University. Flow of concentrated fine particulate
suspensions in complex geometries; Sedimenta-
tion of multisized, mixed density particle suspensions.
For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








Chemical Engineering at


CORNELL

UNIVERSITY


A place to grow...


with active research in

biochemical engineering
applied mathematics/computer simulation
energy technology
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
reactor design
molecular thermodynamics/statistical mechanics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange
individual programs with a core of chemical engineering
courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell
departments including

chemistry
biological sciences
physics
computer science
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
business administration
and others

with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one
of the most scenic regions of the United States.

Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering
(the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program).
Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn, Keith E.
Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht,
Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler,
Julian C. Smith, Paul H. Steen, William B. Street, Raymond
G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to
Professor Keith E. Gubbins
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853

































The

University

of Ielaware

awards three

graduate

degrees for

studies and

practice in

the artand

science of

chemical

engineering.


An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-blem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.
A Ph.D. degree for original work presented in a dissertation.
THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE: CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE:
Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) Thermodynamics and Separ-
M. A. Barteau ation Process
C. E. Birchenall Rheology, Polymer Science
K. B. Bischoff and Engineering
C. D. Denson Materials Science and
P. Dhorjati Metallurgy
B. C. Gates Fluid Mechanics, Heat and
M. T. Klein Mass Transfer
R. L. McCullough Economics and Management
A. B. Metzner in the Chemical Process Industries
J. H. Olson Chemical Reaction Engi-
M. E. Paulaitis neering, Kinetics and
R. L. Pigford Simulation
T. W. F. Russell Catalytic Science and
S. I. Sandier (Chairman) Technology
G. C. A. Schuit (1/2 time) Biomedical Engineering-
J. M. Schultz Pharmacokinetics and
A. B. Stiles (1/2 time) Toxicology
M. A. Streicher (1/2 time) Biochemical Engineering-
R. S. Weber Fermentation and Computer Control

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS, WRITE:
Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711
















^l3n "gmeer'mg-





UNIVERSITY



OF FLORIDA
Gainesville, Florida
Graduate study leading to MM mmmimmON
ME, MS & PhD


F A C U L T Y
Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor
Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology
Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor
Design/ Ronald J. Gordon Biomedical Engineering,
Rhcology/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface Science
Lew Johns Applied MatJhematics/ Dale Kirmse
Process Control, Computer Aided Design,
Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor Design,
Catalysis/ Frank May Separations/ Ranga
Narayanan Transport Phenomena/ John
O'Connell Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics
Dinesh 0. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery,
Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros Svoronos
Process Control/ Robert I). Walker Surface
Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/ Gerald
Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Transport
Phenomena


Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

























tit


TE~f-T


Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ...


GEORGIA TECH


Atlanta
Ballet
Center for Disease Control
Commercial Center of the South
High Museum of Art
All Professional Sports
Major Rock Concerts and
Recording Studios
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow Skiing within two hours
Stone Mountain State Park
Atlanta Symphony
Ten Professional Theaters
Rambling Raft Race
White Water Canoeing within
one hour


For more information write:
Dr. Gary W Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332


Chemical Engineering
Air Quality Technology
Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis and Surfaces
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Research and Conservation
Fine Particle Technology
Interfacial Phenomena
Kinetics
Mining and Mineral Engineering
Polymer Science and Engineering
Process Synthesis and
Optimization
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reactor Design
Thermodynamics
Transport Phenomena









Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston


The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston has developed seven areas of special research
strength:
Chemical Reaction Engineering Catalysis
Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology
Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation
Solid-liquid Separation
Air Pollution Modeling
Reliability Theory
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering

The department occupies more than 64,000 square feet
and is equipped with more than $2.5 million worth of
experimental apparatus.

Financial support is available to full-time graduate students
with stipends ranging from $8,400 to $13,000 for
twelve months.


The faculty:

N. R. Amundson
O. A. Asbjornsen
V. Balakotaiah
E. L. Claridge
J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
R. W. Flumerfelt
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
A. C. Payatakes
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
J. T. Richardson
F. M. Tiller
J. Villadsen
F. L. Worley, Jr.


For more information or application forms write:
Director, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)








GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEARCH


The Deparlmenl of Energy Engineering



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICA6O CIRCLE




Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


Faculty and Research Activities in
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor and Head of the Department
Francisco J. Brana-Mulero
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980
Assistant Professor
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering
T. S. Jiang
Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1981
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed
in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:


Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.
Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy
Process synthesis, operations research, optimal
process control, optimization of large systems,
numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations.
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and
statistical mechanics of liquids and
liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion

Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization





Professor S. Murad, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago
Box 4348,
Chicago, Illinois 60680


I
rU
























































FACULTY
Richard C. Alkire, Professor
Electrochemical Engineering
Harry G. Drickamer, Professor
High Pressure Studies, Structure
and Properties of Solids
Charles A. Eckert, Professor
and Head
Molecular Thermodynamics,
Applied Chemical Kinetics
Thomas J. Hanratty, Professor
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat
and Mass Transfer


Jonathan J. L. Higdon,
Assistant Professor
Fluid Mechanics, Applied
Mathematics
Richard S. Larson,
Assistant Professor
Chemical Kinetics
Richard I. Masel,
Assistant Professor
Catalysis, Surface Science
Anthony J. McHugh,
Associate Professor
Polymer Crystallization, Transport
of Particles


I


For application forms and further
information, write to:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Roger Adams Laboratory
1209 W. California
Urbana, Illinois 61801-3791












Joseph A. Shaeiwitz,
Assistant Professor
Mass Transfer, Interfacial and
Colloidal Phenomena
Mark A. Stadtherr,
Associate Professor
Systems Analysis and Process
Design
James W. Westwater, Professor
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase
Changes


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


AT THE













URBANA CHAMPAIGN















II IN1 IS



Institute of Technology





M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS IN 0
Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Polymer Processes
Chemical Plant Operations and Management
Energy Conservation and Resources
Medical Engineering


R. L. BEISSINGER
A. CINAR
D. GIDASPOW
D. T. HATZIAVRAMIDIS
J. R. SELMAN
S. M. SENKAN
B. S. SWANSON
D. T. WASAN
C. V. WITTMANN


Polymer Processing and Biological Systems
Process Control and Reactor Control Design
Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion
Multiphase Flow and Turbulence
Electrochemical Engineering
Combustion Engineering, Kinetics and Environmental
Process Dynamics and Controls
Mass Transfer and Surface and Colloid Phenomena
Chemical Reaction Engineering Analysis


FOR INQUIRIES, WRITE
D. T. Wasan
Chemical Engineering Dept.
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd St.
Chicago, IL 60616


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















1.-0 *," "9-- r s- -o ii a... -


--*".






6 S S-"-i





-41
^pij
'2..' ___ A.















Our research activities span the papermaking process.
Current research programs underway include:
J/1 plant tissue culture surface and colloid science fluid mechanics
M ^|environmental engineering polymer engineering heat and mass transfer
process engineering simulation and control separations science and
reaction engineering.

For further information contact: Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone...414/734-9251














-r +'il


. -


-, he



S Transport
:,": (Heat, mass


william H. Abriham
Renato G.BaUtistp*
Charles L'Glatiz-
James C. Hill
Richard C. Seagrave


Process Chemistr yt d
F- Fertilizer Technolot ,:,3 -
David-R. Boylan ... .;-_ -
SGeorge Burnet -
Maurice A. Larson

Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Producti
-Atomic Energy)
S Renato G. Bautista ..
Lawrence E. Borkhar t '
S George Burnet
Allen H. Pulsifer
S'DeanL. Ulrichson : -
* -Thomas D. Wheelock


S Biomedical Engineqrng
. (System Modeling,
S.-Transport. process) -
S ;Jichard C. Seagrave
S, Char es E. Glat


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-,. : --: :/_!..-- '...


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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering


M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.
Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year
FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506


AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
ENERGY ENGINEERING
COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION
THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING
MATERIALS SCIENCE
SOLIDS MIXING
CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS
OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM
ENGINEERING
FLUIDIZATION
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL











UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY


rSi.





-QL'~ I~~ '~~.
I.sF.; -*


J. Ber
flinmprf-.


IRA
r Q~UP


DEPARTMENT OF

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
M.S. and Ph.D. Programs

The Faculty and Their Research Interests
an, Ph.D., Northwestern C. E. Hamrin, Ph.D., Northwestern
, inne-,rnne Crdinr rCic,,r Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Nonisothermal Kinetics


Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation
D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D.
Illinois Institute of Technology
Novel Separation Processes; Membranes;
Water Pollution Control
W. L. Conger, Ph.D., Pennsylvania
Thermochemical Hydrogen Production;
2nd Law Analysis of Processes
G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia
Catalytic Hydrocracking of
Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction
R. B. Grieves, Ph.D., Northwestern
Foam Fractionation; Physicochemical Separations


R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern
Process Control and Economics
L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh
Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena
E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State
Electrochemical Processes; Novel
Measurement Techniques
A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen
Regime; Transport Phenomena
J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville
Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer;
Fuel Gas Desulfurization


Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants

For details write to:
J. T. Schrodt
Director for Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


234


0









University of Maryland



Location:
The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles
from the heart of the nation. Washington, D.C. Excellent public
|B _' transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as
-J" A- Arlington Cemetery. and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west
produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational
l' opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east
.: '- brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay with its delicious
seafood.
? Degrees Offered:
.'I NI" M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
% i Chemical Engineering.
SFinancial Aid Available:
STeaching and Research Assistantships
S at $6.800. plus tuition reimbursement
.. ... are available.
Faculty: ..
Robert B. Beckmann ,,.-......... ,:,,>" i,. .
Theodore \. ('adiman
Richard \. (Cal.bre-,e
Lary L. Gasner
James W. Gentry
Albert Gomezplata
Randolph T. Hatch
Juan Hong
Thomas J. McAvoy
Thomas M. Regan i'
Wilburn C. Schroeder
Theodore G. Smith
RoberLt White Research Areas:
Aerosol Mechanics
Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
SBiomedical Engineering
i Fermentation
Laser Anemometry
.. Mass Transfer
Polymer Processing
Risk Assessment
Separation Processes
Simulation


7 l-' For Applications and Further Information, Write:
Professor Thomas J. McAvoy
Depart ment ol Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
SUniversity o l' Manland
College Park, Md. 21742














































Department of


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


Areas of Research
Pulp and Paper
* Reaction engineering of pulping
* Pulp bleaching
* Formation of paper web
* Paper coating


Environmental Science
* Waste water treatment
* Air pollution


Polymer Science & Engineering
* Polymer synthesis and properties
* Polymer processing


Fluids and Particle Systems
* Rheology
* Solid-fluid separation
* Porous media modeling
* Colloidal stability


Process Dynamics and Control
* Process control & instrumentation
* Real-time computing


Facilities
Pulp and Paper Research and Testing
Laboratory
* Pilot scale batch digesters, pulp re-
finers, a fourdrinier paper machine,
paper coaters and complete testing
equipment.

Instrumental Analysis Laboratory
* Scanning electron microscope with X-
ray microanalyzer, gas and liquid
chromatographs, atomic absorption unit,
infrared, UV and visible spectro-
photometers.

Polymer Laboratory
* Injection and compression molding,
spinning, membrane and vapor pres-
sure, osmometers, light scattering,
GPC, transport property measurement,
synthesis, torsion pendulum.

Fluid Dynamics & Rheology
* Mechanical spectrometer, Instron
capillary rheometer, Haake RV-12 visco-
meter, Sedigraph 5000D Particle size
analyzer, Zeta meter and others.

Real Computing Laboratory
* PDP 11/60 with a data link with the
University IBM 370 system, three PDP
11/03 systems, 8 CRT's, plotters.


Academic Programs
M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering.
M.S. in Pulp and Paper Technology
Master in Chemical Engineering
MChE (no thesis required)
In addition to the students with B.S. in
ChE, students who have a B.S. in the
related fields such as chemistry, bio-
chemistry, and wood science are en-
couraged to do graduate work in ChE.
Most prerequisite courses are offered every
year during the summer.
Financial Assistance
Research Assistantships
Teaching Assistantships
Stipends range from $4,500 for nine
months up to $8,000 for 12 months.

Admission
For application and a copy of the
Graduate School catalog,
write to:

Chairman, Chemical
Engineering Dept.
115 Jenness Hall
University of Maine
Orono, ME 04469

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION













CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT

FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS


J. Wei, Department Head
M. Alger
R. C. Armstrong
R. F. Baddour
J. M. Be6r
J. F. Brady
H. Brenner
R. A. Brown
R. E. Cohen
C. K. Colton
C. Cooney
W. M. Deen
L. B. Evans
C. Georgakis
T. A. Hatton
H. C. Hottel
J. B. Howard


G. A. Huff, Jr.
J. P. Longwell
M. P. Manning
H. P. Meissner
E. W. Merrill
C. M. Mohr
R. C. Reid
A. F. Sarofim
C. N. Satterfield
H. H. Sawin
K. A. Smith
U. W. Suter
J. W. Tester
C. G. Vayenas
P. S. Virk
J. E. Vivian
D. I. C. Wang
G. C. Williams


Biochemical and Biomedical
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Waste Management
Combustion
Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemistry
Energy Conversion
Environmental
Kinetics and Fluid Mechanics
Polymers
Process Dynamics and Control
Surfaces and Colloids
Transport Phenomena


II
II

r~rrcu II


Photo by James Wei


MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in
Albany, New York, and the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

For Information
Chemical Engineering Headquarters
Room 66-350
MIT
Cambridge, MA 02139


FALL 1982












UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS

Amherst
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer
engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research
in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or our prestigious
Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid in the form of research assistantships and
teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation
with one or more of the faculty listed below.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING *


W. C. CONNER
Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion
M. F. DOHERTY
Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design
J. M. DOUGLAS
Process design and control, Reactor engineering
J. W. ELDRIDGE
Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria
V. HANSEL
Catalysis, Kinetics
R. S. KIRK
Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors
J. R. KITTRELL (Adjunct Professor)
Kinetics and catalysis, Catalyst deactivation
R. L. LAURENCE*
Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics


R. W. LENZ*
Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization
M. F. MALONE
Rheology, Polymer processing, Design
K. M. NG
Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows
J. M. OTTINO*
Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering
F. I. SHINSKEY (Adjunct Professor)
Process Control
M. VANPEE
Combustion, Spectroscopy
H. H. WINTER*
Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer
B. E. YDSTIE
Process Control


* POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING *


J. C. W. CHIEN
Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers,
Polymer degradation
R. FARRIS
Polymer composites, Mechanical
properties, Elastomers
A. S. HAY
Polymer synthesis, catalysis, polymer modification
S. L. HSU
Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis
F. E. KARASZ
Polymer transitions, Polymer blends,
Conducting polymers
W. J. MacKNIGHT
Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers
T. J. McCARTHY
Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces


E. P. OTOCKA
Polymer stabilization, processing and fabrication, high
performance composites
R. S. PORTER
Polymer rheology, Polymer processing
I. C. SANCHEZ
Statistical thermodynamics of solutions, transport
properties, phase transition phenomena
R. STEIN
Polymer crystallinity and morphology,
Characterization
E. L. THOMAS*
Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology,
Polyurethanes
0. VOGL
Polymer synthesis, degradation and stabilization
of polymers


*Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering
For further details, please write to:


Prof. J. W. Eldridge
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0470


Prof. R. Farris
Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0433
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






SMcMASTER UNIVERSITY


I M.ENG.
AND
PH.D.
PROGRAMS
PROCESS AND ENERGY
ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL REACTION
ENGINEERING AND CATALYSIS
COMPUTER CONTROL,
SIMULATION AND
OPTIMIZATION
POLYMER ENGINEERING
,* BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
WATER AND WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION,
PLEASE CONTACT:
CHAIRMAN
DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
McMASTER UNIVERSITY
HAMILTON, ONTARIO, CANADA L8S 4L7


FALL 1982










Chemical

Engineering

At The

University

Of Michigan


THE FACULTY
Dale Briggs
Louisville, Michigan
Brice Carnahan
Case-Western, Michigan
Rane Curl
MIT
Francis Donahue
LaSalle, UCLA
H. Scott Fogler
Illinois, Colorado
Erdogan Gulari
Roberts, Cal Tech
James Hand
NJIT, Berkeley
Robert Kadlec
Wisconsin, Michigan
Donald Katz
Michigan
Lloyd Kempe
Minnesota
Joseph Martin
Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie
John Powers
Michigan, Berkeley
Jerome Schultz, Chairman
Columbia, Wisconsin
Johannes Schwank
Innsbruck
Maurice Sinnott
Michigan
Rasin Tek
Michigan
Henry Wang
Iowa State, MIT
James Wilkes
Cambridge, Michigan
Brymer Williams
Michigan
Gregory Yeh
Holy Cross, Cornell, Case
Edwin Young
Detroit, Michigan


THE RESEARCH PROGRAM
Laser Light Scattering
Reservoir Engineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Thrombogenesis
Microemulsions
Applied Numerical Methods
Dynamic Process Simulation
Ecological Simulation
Electroless Plating
Electrochemical Reactors
Polymer Physics
Polymer Processing
Composite Materials
Coal Liquefaction
Coal Gasification
Acidization
Biochemical Engineering
Periodic Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Transport In Membranes
Flow Calorimetry
Ultrasonic Emulsification
Heat Exchangers
Renewable Resources


THE PLACE

Department Of Chemical Engineering
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109

For Information Call 313/763-1148 Collect


For

Tomorrows

Engineers

Today.


I











GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT






MICHIGAN STATE



UNIVERSITY M
0 1FOUNDED
The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State
University has assistantships and fellowships available for
students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these
appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain
the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two to three
additional years.

ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $798.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S.
degree and approximately $867.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject
covered by the research assistantship. Non-resident tuition is waived.

FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $14,500 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year.


CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0


D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman
Ph.D., University of Washington
Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio-
vascular Physiology, Diffusion in Polymers
D. BRIEDIS
Ph.D., Iowa State University
Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living
Systems, Biorheology, Mass Transfer in Biological
Mineralization
R. E. BUXBAUM
Ph.D., Princeton University
Chemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion, Dif-
fusivities and Separation Rates from Theory and Ex-
periment.
C. M. COOPER
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of
Transport Processes
A .L. DeVERA
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame
Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Trans-
port Properties of Random Heterogeneous Media,
Applied Mathematics, Catalytic Gasification of Carbon,
Shape Selectivity Reactions on Zeolites


E. A. GRULKE
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Food Engineering, Membranes Separations, and
Polymer Engineering
M. C. HAWLEY
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas,
and Reaction Engineering
K. JAYARAMAN
Ph.D., Princeton University
Simplification of Process Models, Parameter
Estimation, Rheology of Suspensions and Polymers
D. J. MILLER
Ph.D., University of Florida
Catalytic Reaction Kinetics and Catalyst
Characterization, Gas-Solid Reactions, and
Modeling of Stochastic Processes
C. A. PETTY
Ph.D., University of Florida
Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena,
Solid-Fluid Separations
B. W. WILKINSON
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear
Reactor, and Radioisotope Applications


FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE
Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
173 Engineering Building, Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824

MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution


FALL 1982











Department of Chemical Engineering


UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI


ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401


Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman


Day Programs


M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS


D. AZBEL (D.Sc., Mendeleev ICT-Moscow)-Dis-
persed Two-Phase Flow, Coal Gasification and
Liquefaction.

N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado)-Computer Aided
Process Design, Bioconversion.
O. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice)-Transport Properties,
Kinetics, Catalysis.

M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida)-Biochemical
Studies, Biomass Utilization

J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. Illinois-Chicago)-Chemical
kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo-
dynamics.

J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode Re-
actions, Corrosion.

A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich)-Adsorption,
Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor
Design.


P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-Interfacial
Phenomena

G. K. PATTERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Turbu-
lence, Mixing, Mixed Reactors, Polymer Rheology.
B. E. POLING (Ph.D., Illinois)-Kinetcis, Energy
Storage, Catalysis.

X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota)-Fluid Me-
chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena,
Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure.

O. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Bioengineer-
ing
R. C. Waggoner (Ph.D., Texas A&M)-Multistage
Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Extraction,
Process Control.

H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse)-
Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech-
nology, Plasma Polymerization. Biomedical Ma-
terials.


D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics,
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium.




Ijp Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


- ROLLA




Full Text

PAGE 1

z 0 8 5 w i w w z C) z w a: I i l,L 0 z 0 ;;; C C) z a: w w z a i _, X u chemical engineering education VOLUME XVI NUMBER 4 FALL 1982 GRADUATE EDUCATION ISSUE Redealld,, 0#, OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OVER FERRITE CRYSTALS. NUCLEATE BOILING MASS TRANSFER Hightower Mesler Weiland, Taylor "" .. --FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTION AIR POLLUTION FOR ENGINEERS CATALYSIS "" ... Dullien Seapan Skaates POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Baird, Wilkes t:UUJ, RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING Fenn MINE MOUTH GEYSER PROBLEM DeNevers GRADUATE EDUCATION IN MEXICO Martinez, Gomez 1981 AIChE-EPC SURVEY Barker

PAGE 2

3M COMPANY CONOCO INC. SUN COMPANY, INC ... lfu CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

PAGE 3

A Letter to Chemical Engineering Seniors This is the 14th Graduate Issue to be published by CEE and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous issues, we include articles on graduate courses and re search at various universities and announcements of de partments on their graduate programs. In order for you to obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue, but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a pre vious Fall issue, please write CEE. AUTHOR Abbott Butt, Kung Chen, et al Gubbins, Street Guin, et al Thomson Bartholomew Hassler Miller Wankat Wolf Bird Edgar, Schecter Hanratty Kenney Kershenbaum, Perkins, Pyle Liu Peppas Rosner Lees Senkan, Vivian Culberson Davis Frank Morari, Ray Ramkrishna Russel, Saville, Ollis, Schowalter Russell Vannice Varma Yen FALL 1982 TITLE Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE University of Florida Fall 1981 "C lassical Thermodynamics" "Catalysis & Cata lytic Reaction Engineering" "Parametric Pumping" "Molecular Thermodynamics and Computer Simulation" "Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization" Oil Shale Char Reactions" "Kinetics and C a talysis" "ChE Analysis" "Underground Processing" "Separation Processes" Heterogeneous Catalysis" Fall 1980 "Polymer Fluid Dynamics" "In Situ Processing" Wall Turbulence" "Chemical Reactors" "Systems Modelling & Control" "Process Synthesis" Polymerization Reac tion Engineering" "Combustion Science & Technology" "Plant Engineering at Loughborough" "MIT School of ChE Practice Fall 1979 "Doctoral Level ChE Economics" "Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics" "Courses in Polymer Science" Integration of Real-Time Computing Into Process Control Teaching" "Functional Analysis for ChE's" "Colloidal Phenomena" "Structure of the Chemical Processing Industries" "Heterogeneous Catalysis" "Mathematical Methods in ChE" "Coal Liquefaction Processes" Aris Butt & Peterson Kabel Middleman Perlmutter Rajagopalan Wheelock Carbonell & Whitaker Dumesic Jorne Retzloff Blanch, Russell Chartolf Alkire Bailey & Ollis DeKee Deshpande Johnson Klinzing Lemlich Koutsky Reynolds Rosner Astarita Delgass Gruver Liu Manning McCoy Walter Corripio Donaghey Edgar Gates, et al. Luks Melnyk & Prober Tavlarides Theis Hamrin, et. al. Fall 1978 "Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes on Seminars in a ChE Department' "Chemical Reactor Engineering" "Influential Papers in Chemical Re action Engineering" "A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro cessing" "Reactor Design From a Stability Viewpoint" "The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal Systems" "Coal Science and Technology" Transport Phenomena in Multicom ponent Multiphase, Reacting Systems Fall 1977 "Fundamental Concepts in Surface In teractions" "Electrochemical Engineering" "Chemical Reaction Engineering Sci ence" "Biochemical Engineering" "Polymer Science and Engineering" Fall 1976 "Electrochemical Engineering" "Bi ochemical Engr. Fundamentals" "Food Engineering" "Distillation Dynamics & Control" "Fusion Reactor Technology" "Environmental Courses" "Ad Bubble Separation Methods" "Intro. Polymer Science & Tech." "The Engineer as Entrepeneur" Energy, Mass and Momentum Transport" Fall 1975 "Modern Thermodynamics" "Heterogeneous Catalysis" "Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control" "Digital Computations for ChE's" "Industrial Pollution Control" "Separation Process" "Enzyme Catalysis" Fall 1974 "Digital Computer Control of Process" "Solid-State Materials and Devices" "Multivariable Control and Est." "Chemistry of Catalytic Process" "Advanced Thermodynamics" "Wastewater Engineering for ChE's" "Enzyme and Biochemical Engr." "Synthetic & Biological Polymers" "Energy Engineering" 14~

PAGE 4

Read any best-sellers lately? ,41,r. .. d""' _.,,, These DOW CAREERS booklets can help college graduates find uncommon career opportunities. CHEMICAL ENGINEERS-CHEMISTS MECHANICAL ENGINEERS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS-MARKET ING-COM PUTER SCIENCE BIO LOGICAL SCIENCES-PEOPLE AND PLACES At Dow we re firmly committed to attracting the best college graduates every year And our DOW CAREERS booklets have been our best sellers convincing a lot of people to choose careers with us Each booklet outlines a specific career at Dow You ll read about people who have those jobs now and see how they like them And you ll find out about some typical job challenges-and how Dow people solve them And every book l et explains i mpor tant facts about Dow like how we r e one of the largest chemical companies in the world and yet decentralized so you don t feel lost i n some corporate maze Dow g i ves new employees actual hands-on e x perience beginning with the first day on the job A chance to develop to grow and show us what they can do Plus the recognition they deserve So find out more about the Com mon Sense/Uncommon Chem i st ry People i n our DOW CAREERS book lets and learn about our uncommonly good careers If you know of qualified graduates i n engineering or the sciences or with an i nteres t i n marketing f i nance or computer science we hope you will encourage them to get copies of the DOW CAREERS booklets by writing us : Rec r uiting and College Relations PO Bo x 1713 CE M i dland Michigan 48640 Dow i s an equal opportunity employer male/female DOW CHEMICAL U S A m Trademark o f The Dow Chemical Company A,. 01981 The Dow Chemical Company

PAGE 5

EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0867 Associate Editor: Mack Tyner Editorial & Business Assistant: Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861 Publications Board and Regional Advertising Representatives: Chairman: Lee C. Eagleton Pennsylvania State University Past Chairman: Klaus D. Timmerhaus University of Colorado SOUTH: Homer F. Johnson University of Tennessee Ralph W. Pike Louisiana State University James Fair University of Texas Gary Poehlein Georgia Tech CENTRAL: Darsh T. Wasan Illinois Institute of Technology J. J. Martin University of Michigan Lowell B Koppel Purdue University WEST: William B. Krantz University of Colorado C. Judson King University of California Berkeley NORTHEAST: Angelo J. Perna New Jersey Institute of Technology Stuart W. Churchill University of Pennsylvania Raymond Baddour M.I.T. A. W. Westerberg Carnegie-Mellon University NORTHWEST: Charles Sleicher University of Washington CANADA: Leslie W. Shemilt McMaster University LIBRARY REPRESENTATIVE Thomas W. Weber State University of New York FALL 1982 Chemical Engineering Education VOLUME XVI NUMBER 4 FALL 1982 RESEARCH ON 148 Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts, Joe W Highto wer 152 Nucleate Boiling, Rus sell Mesler 158 Mass Transfer, Ralph H. Weiland and Ros s Taylor COURSES IN 164 Fundamentals of Petroleum Production, F. A. L. Dullien 168 Air Pollution for Engineers, Mayis Seapan 178 Catalysis, J. M. Skaates A PROGRAM IN 174 Polymer Education and Research Donald G. Baird and Garth L. Wilkes DEPARTMENTS 182 Curriculum 1981 AIChE-EPC Survey, Dee H. Barker 186 Class and Home Problems Mine Mouth Geyser Problem, Noel De Nevers 190 Stirred Pots Research is Engineering, John B. Fenn 196 International Graduate Education in Mexico, Enrico N Martinez and Roman Gomez 157 In Memoriam William H Corcoran 167 Division Activities 167-205 Book Reviews 172 Positions Available CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Seco)!d-class postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida Correspo'tidence regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addresaed to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advert ising material may be sent directly to the printer: E. 0 Painter Printing Co., P O. Box 877, DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028 Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $16 per year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE. Bulle subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual back copies Copyright 1982 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society for Engineering Education The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified within 120 days. The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN 0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical 147

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----=-~---OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OVER FERRITE CATALYSTS JOE W. HIGHTOWER Rice University Houston, TX 77001 A COMPLETE STUDY OF heterogeneous catalytic reactions should include the reaction path ways, kinetics, mechanisms, rate limiting steps, nature of the active sites, solid state effects, de activation, and transport properties. It is normally very difficult to obtain reliable informa tion about all these factors for a single system. However, in the case of butadiene production from n-butenes via catalytic oxidative dehydro genation, we have been able to approach this ob jective. The purpose of this paper is to summarize results obtained during the last several years with ferrite catalysts [1, 2]. CATALYTIC ROUTES TO BUTADIENE Two major catalytic approaches have been used commercially to prepare butadiene. The first Joe W. Hightower received his B S. in Chemistry and Math at Harding College and his M.S. and Ph.D in Physical Chemistry at The Johns Hopkins University. He has been a Professor of Chemical Engi neering at Rice University since 1970 He has served on numerous committees, is Chairman of the ACS Petroleum Research Fund Ad visory Board for 1982-1984, and received the 1982 Jefferson Award for Public Service in Houston. His research interests include hetero geneous catalysis, mechanisms of catalytic reactions, kinetics and ad sorption in heterogeneous systems, and isotopic tracer techniques. He was the recipient of the 1973 Award in Petroleum Chemistry. 148 is direct dehydrogenation over a chromia/alumina or promoted iron oxide catalyst [3, 4], viz. ( I ) Although the reaction is relatively selective, it suffers from being thermodynamically limited (requires high temperature and low partial pres sures), endothermic (requires addition of costly heat), and coke-forming (loss of hydrocarbons). A second approach involves addition of oxygen to the feed hydrocarbon stream to remove the hydrogen as water, viz. +13 K3,7ic"'IO (2) K -10 .. 210 (3) 371C In contrast to straight dehydrogenation, this re action (2) is essentially irreversible and auto thermal. Unfortunately, the addition of gaseous oxygen can lead to deep oxidation (total com bustion to CO 2 and H 2 0, as illustrated in reaction (3). This reaction of course decreases the yield of butadiene. In fact, from the equilibrium constants given in Eqs. (2) and (3), it is obvious that only CO 2 and H 2 0 would be the products if thermodynamics alone were controlling the product selectivity. Of the several catalysts that give good selectivities ( > 90 % butadiene at low conversion), ferrites are among the most notable. Ferrites are well-crystallized spinel oxides ( or partially inverted spinels) that have the general formula (4) where M can be any of a number of alkaline earth or transition metal ions, e.g. Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, etc. The work described herein will be limited to mag nesium ferrite. Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1 982 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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----~ --------------------------------------~ REACTION PATHWAYS When oxygen and butenes are passed over MgFe 2 O both the desired butadiene and some by-product CO 2 are formed. The CO 2 may come directly from burning butene (reaction II) or from burning the product butadiene (reaction Ill), as illustrated by the scheme By adding a small amount of very highly radio active butadiene to the reactant butene / O 2 mix ture and examining the radioactivity in the CO 2 as a function of time, one can quantitatively deter mine the relative reaction rates [5]. If none of the radio a ctivity appears in the CO 2 the rate ratio rm / r u = 0. For maximum production of butadiene in this case, one would want to carry out the re action at the highest possible conversion. On the other hand, if all the CO 2 were formed by burning butadiene, the initial specific activity of the CO 2 (after correction for the different number of C atoms in the two molecules) would be exactly the same as that of the butadiene from which it was exclusively formed. The rate ratio rm / r n in this case would be infinity. In our case with magnesium ferrite [l] the rate ratio rm/rn is about 1.5 at approximately 50 % conversion of the butene. This implies the existence of an optimal degree of conversion in order to maximize butadiene yield. Too high a conversion will raise the product butadiene con centration to the point where it will be rapidly combusted to CO 2 Moreover, a plug flow reactor w ill give a much higher selectivity to butadiene than will a CSTR. It is also advantageous to add the reactive oxygen a little at a time at various points along the reactor bed instead of carrying the entire lot of 0 2 all the way through the reactor where it can cause combustion. Steam also helps to moderate the exothermic reaction and minimize hot spot formation. KINETICS Over MgFe 2 O 4 the major OXD reaction (2) is zero order in oxygen and near first order in the partial pressure of n-butene. Neither CO 2 nor butadiene affects the rate significantly in the presFA L L 1982 Since electrical conductivity is primarily a surface phenomenon, we postulated that there should be notable changes in this parameter as the catalyst is transformed from the oxidized to the reduced state. sure range studied. The reaction orders were de termined by varying the partial pressures one at a time (making sure not to get into the ex plosion regime ) and noting the effect on the initial reaction rate. These results suggest a Lang muir-Hinshelwood model with the 02 and C H s being adsorbed noncompetitively on neighboring sites. If the 0 2 were adsorbed dissociatively, the rate equation can be written as where Ko 2 and KB are the adsorption equilibrium constants for 0 2 and butene, respectively, and k is the zero order Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant. The O's are fraction coverage of the re spective surface sites by oxygen and butene. When 0 2 is strongly adsorbed (i.e. v'Ko 2 Po 2 >>l) and butene is weakly adsorbed (i.e. KBPB< <1), the rate of butadiene formation rB n reduces to (7) which fits the observed kinetic data. At higher partial pressures, terms must be added in the denominator to account for inhibi tion by steam and butadiene. MECHANISM, RATE LIMITING STEP During the OXD reaction at temperatures as high as 400 C, there is very little isomerization of the n-butenes. For example, if the starting hydrocarbon is 1-butene, it remains 1-butene until it either is parti~lly oxidized to butadiene or burned to CO 2 Very few 2-butenes are ob served. This implies that the reaction may be relatively simple with two H atoms being removed as shown below. C=C-C-C I I H H J (8) 149

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A mixture of 1 :1 = C 4 H 8 :C 4 D 8 (in presence of a stoichiometric amount of 0 2 ) was used to test this reaction sch e me. Indeed there was essentially no scrambling of H and D atoms among the mole cules, as the only OXD products formed were C 4 H a and C 4 D s Furthermore, the lightweight C 4 H s m o lecules reacted about 2.5 times more rapidly than did the heavier C 4 D 8 molecules, which indicates a large primary kinetic is o tope effect and pinpoints the rate limiting step in the reaction. ( 9) Since the C -D b o nd has a l o wer zer o point energy than d o es the C-H bond [6], such an is o t o pe eff e ct w o uld be e x pe cted if cleavage of a carbon-hydro gen bond were inv o lved in the rate limiting step. In other words, CD bonds are more difficult to break than are C-H bonds. This kind of information is usefu l in develop ment of m o re active catalysts. If one could in--4 3:'. ITI 3:'. z !I> CONDUCTIVITY Mhos e o 0-.,.......----~---------)> ('OXIDIZED, EVACUATED I\) 0 0 0) 0 (X) 0 0 0 N 0 to :C2 BUTENE \ t . (") -EVACUAT E D C : -02 : ..EVACUAT E D C4H9 .. 1 /2 02 "Tl ... 02 DEPLETED ...... __._ __ ......... ..,_ _,,_ __ __ ___, Oo 0N 0 0 0 0 PART I A L PRES TOR R. FIGURE 1. E l ect r ic a l conduct i vity measurem e nts on pe ll e t of Cofe 2 O 4 at 400 C; effe ct o f c hange in ga s eou s env i ronment ( Note : T hi s fi gur e s h o u ld be r otated 90 and r ead with Time Mins a t t h e bo tto m .) 150 elude in the catalyst recipe a pinch of C-H bond breaking ability and still keep all other parameters the same, a more active catalyst should result. Such information is critical in establishing the point where additional research may be pro ductive. ACTIVE SITES Much previous research has clearly es tablished that this type of general reaction in volves an oxidation / reduction cycle with some component of the catalyst being alternatel y oxidized and reduced [7-9] Chemical intuition would suggest that it is the iron switching between the Fe + 2 and Fe + s states that provides this property. Magnesium is not easily reduced. Such a switch might occur if oxygen were alternately add e d t o and removed from the surface. In other words, a reduced Fe + 2 might react with gaseous 0 2 to form an oxide surface species, viz. F e 2 1/2 o 2 Fe 3 0(10) These o i o ns might then dissociate the C-H bonds in butene to form an adsorbed C 4 H 1 species and an OH ion. A second such hydroxyl ion formation would result in adsorbed C 4 H 6 (perhaps negativel y charged) which can relea s e an electron to reduce the Fe+ 3 back to Fe + 2 and finally desorb into the gas phase as butadiene. Two OH groups might coalesce to split out H 2 0 and regenerate the site on which more 0 2 can adsorb Evidence for this sequence of events comes from some electrical conductivity measurements made with a cobalt ferrite catalyst [10]. Since electrical conductivity is primarily a surface phe nomenon, we postulated that there should be notable changes in this parameter as the catalyst is transformed from the o x idized to the reduced state. To test this, a pellet of the catalyst was prepared by compressing the powder in an infra red p e llet press Two electrical leads were at tached, and the pellet was placed inside a reactor connected to a vacuum system through which different gases could be admitted. The pellet was first exposed to oxygen and evacuated at about 400 C. Presumably this left the catalyst surface in a fully oxidized state, Fe + 3 The conductivity was lo w and remained low during the evacuation. However when 2-butene was ad mitted at the same temperature (see point B, Figure 1), the conductivity rapidly increased. At CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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From this information one can draw a cyclic representation of the chemistry that is occurring. Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on active centers located near the edge of a crystallite. In the reduced state a surface oxy g en ion is missing (anion vacancy, ). If the lattice were to be continued in the vertical direction, another iron atom would be located above the oxide layer (cation vacancy ), ... the same time, a small amount of butadiene was observed to form in the reactor. The amount cor responded approximately to 1 butadiene mole cule / surface 0 atom (assuming the surface is covered with o ions each occupying lOA 2 of sur face space). This would leave the surface in a "re duced" state according to the equation +3 +2 ) Fe Q+C 4 H 8 -Fe 4 Hs~0 (II By moving in the direction of a more "metallic like" reduced surface, one might expect the ma terial to be a better conductor than in the oxide state, as was observed. The slow increase in the conductivity after the initial rapid rise may have been due to slow removal of bulk 0 atoms. Addition of 0 2 (Point D) quickly returned the catalyst to its oxidized condition, which it re tained during brief evacuation At Point E a stoichiometric mixture for the 0XD reaction (C 4 H 8 :0 2 = 2 :1) was admitted, and both reactions (2) and (3) proceeded. Be cause the deep oxidation reaction (3) requires a lot of oxygen, the gaseous 0 2 is depleted before the butene is all consumed (Point F). At this point, reactions (2) and (3) cease, and the catalyst is reduced by the unreacted butene, as in reaction (11). Accordingly, the conductivity in creases rapidly. Note that so long as there is any gaseous 0 2 the catalyst remains in the fully oxidized state. This is evidence that oxygen is very strongly adsorbed. OXD REACTION CHEMISTRY From this information one can draw a cyclic representation of the chemistry that is occurring. Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on active centers located near the edge of a crystal lite. In the reduced state a surface oxygen ion is missing (anion vacancy, D). If the lattice were to be continued in the vertical direction, another iron atom would be located above the oxide layer (cation vacancy, ), as shown below. FALL 1982 I \ 0 D I \ /+2 Fe ( 12) FIGURE 2. Proposed cyclic scheme for OXD reaction occu rring on MgFe 2 O 4 catalyst. Oxidation/ reduction of Fe, adsorption/ desorption from cation vacancy and anion vacancy D active site pairs. The symbol A indicates rate limiting step. These two vacancies are assumed to be the inde pendent sites suggested by the Langmuir-Hinshel wood kinetics. Butene presumably adsorbs re versibly on the cation sites, and 0 2 reacts with the anion vacancy to oxidize the Fe + 2 to Fe+ s As the reaction progresses in a clockwise direction (see Figure 2), two H atoms are sequentially re moved from the butene and placed on the oxide ions. Reduction occurs when the butadiene is re leased into the gas phase, and condensation of two hydroxyl groups (along with water removal) returns the catalyst to the reduced state shown in (12). The fact that no radioactivity appears in the butenes when butadiene1 1 C is admitted supports the irreversible clockwise direction within this scheme. The absence of isomerization and H/D scrambling among the hydrocarbon molecules confirms the directional irreversibility. SOLID ST ATE EFFECTS So far I've presented only the good news. Un fortunately, the MgFe 2 0 4 catalyst slowly loses its activity irreversibly. The deactivation is not caused by coke build-up, and alternate oxidation/ reduction cycling during pretreatment will not regenerate the catalyst. This suggests that some Continued on page 204. 151

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NUCLEATE BOILING RUSSELL MESLER University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 RESEARCH TAKES AN especially exciting turn when it requires us to revise our views of long held beliefs. Such is the case of recent research results concerning nucleate boiling. Although the picture is by no means complete, it appears possible that we may be changing several of our views concerning nucleate boiling. Nucleate boiling is a familiar topic to any chemical engineer. All heat transfer texts devote sections to it in which the rudimentary facts are stated. All such treatments advise that nucleate boiling is a complicated subject and that it is not possible to go into a detailed discussion of the subject. Nucleate boiling is classified as convective heat transfer. It is unusual convection on at least three counts. First, because of the latent heat, great quantities of heat can be exchanged with only a little change in temperature as long as liquid re mains on the surface. Second, the density changes resulting from heat transfer are very large com pared to usual convection. Third, it is only at a vapor-liquid interface that heat can be absorbed and vapor generated. It is perhaps this third aspect that is most re sponsible for making nucleate boiling so in scrutable. Most of the vapor-liquid interface in boiling is provided by bubbles, but where do bubbles come from? Bubbles have short lives, escaping once they become large. A large source of nuclei is required. It is important to recognize that liquids often resist the tendency to form bubbles. In the organic chemistry laboratory it is well known that liquids in a glass flask ~ill superheat above their usual boiling point. Suddenly, when ebullition Suddenly, when ebullition does start, the boiling is so vigorous that the contents of the flask are likely to be expelled and wind up on the lab bench. Copyright ChE Diviiom, AS EE, 19 82 152 Russell Mesler is the Warren S. Bellows Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Kansas His interest in nucleate boil ing began in 1953 when he embarked on his doctoral research at the University of Michigan. He was a faculty member at the University of Michigan before coming to the University of Kansas in 1957 does start, the boiling is so vigorous that the contents of the flask are likely to be expelled and wind up on the lab bench. The solution to the problem is the use of a boiling chip to reduce superheating and maintain steady ebullition. The phenomenon of superheating is attributed to the action of surface tension. The pressure inside a small static spherical bubble is higher than outside by twice the surface tension over the radius, 2<:r /r Such a static bubble would be in unstable equilibrium. If it were only slightly smaller, the increased pressure would tend to collapse it and if it were slightly larger, it would tend to grow and rise and thus escape. The action of a solid on the stability of small bubbles is well exemplified by boiling chips. A boiling chip is able to retain gas or vapor on its surfaces and thus provides a vapor-liquid inter face deep in the liquid able to generate vapor when the liquid becomes supersaturated. The vapor breaks away as bubbles rising to the surface but leaving behind some vapor from which the next bubble can grow. Nucleate boiling is often characterized by the tendency for bubbles to rise repeatedly from certain points on the surface when boiling at low heat flux. These points are described as nucleation sites. They are thought to act as do boiling chips CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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-----------------------by stabilizing a vapor-liquid interface on the surface. Usually nucleation sites become active only after the surface temperature rises significantly above the boiling point. It is possible with very smooth surfaces to achieve even higher superheats before ebullition occurs, as in a glass flask. Once ebullition starts more nucleation sites become active, often with only a slight increase in surface temperature. It is only at low heat flux that the individual bubbles and nucleation sites can be effectively studied. At just a modest heat flux bubbles begin to merge and with just a bit more heat flux the commotion becomes so great that it is impossible to discern much detail at the center of activity. Views near the edge of a boiling sur face may not be representative of the rest. Because of the visual difficulty of studying bubbles at even modest heat fluxes most of the studies of bubbles have been made at low heat fluxes. The results of these studies have then been extrapolated to explain nucleate boiling at higher heat flux where applications are common. At high heat fluxes more vapor is generated. In escaping the surface it pushes back the liquid and establishes a vapor region just above the surface. This leaves a film of liquid on the surface that becomes especially important in the transfer of heat [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Nucleate boiling is limited in its ability to transfer heat. Exceeding what is called the peak heat flux leads to the drying off of the surface. Without liquid the surface is unable to lose heat fast enough and the surface temperature rises unless the heat supply is reduced. A surprising fact is that higher heat fluxes are possible if the depth of liquid on the surface is a few mm rather than much deeper [6]. Main taining a film on the surface with a spray or with a jet permits even higher peak heat fluxes [4, 7, 8, 9]. PHASE TRANSITION PROCESSES Boiling is not the only process involving a phase transition in which nucleation is important. Another is crystallization. In crystallization, crystal nuclei initiate crystal formation. There are a number of similarities between crystal nucleation and vapor bubble nucleation. Both crystals and vapor bubbles will grow on surface imperfections such as scratches and pits. Crystallization also exhibits tribonucleation [10]. Crystallization is initiated by rubbing or dragging a stirring rod along the bottom of a beaker. Vapor FALL 1982 Nucleate boiling is often characterized by the tendency for bubbles to rise repeatedly from certain points on the surface when boiling at low heat flux. These points are described as nucleation sites. nuclei can be produced in the same fashion. There is another source for crystal nuclei for which no similar source of vapor bubbles has been reported. It is called secondary nucleation and is the production of nuclei from the break-up of larger crystals [11] This source of nuclei is the most important one in industrial applications. SEARCH FOR SECONDARY NUCLEATION The reason secondary nucleation has never been seriously considered for nucleate boiling is probably because it was not easy to see how any of the abundant vapor could be returned to the liquid to serve as nuclei. Without a process for the return of vapor to the liquid it was impossible to see how secondary nucleation could occur in nucle ate boiling. The first clue to a process for secondary nucleation came in research on boiling in a thin liquid film [12, 13]. Nucleate boiling was studied on the outside of a vertical, steam-heated, copper tube. High speed motion pictures showed that when a bubble burst, bubble nuclei appeared where the bubble had just burst. The next clue came in an experiment with superheated water in a glass tube [14]. An air bubble was formed in the water and was allowed to rise and burst at the surface. Soon after it burst, clusters of bubble nuclei appeared beneath the surface and these nuclei grew and coalesced to form a vapor bubble. When this bubble burst it too produced a cluster of nuclei beneath the surface. Viewing the high speed motion pictures of the event gave the impression that nuclei came from the top film of the bubble crashing upon the surface following the bursting of the bubble. DROP-FORMED VORTEX RINGS At this juncture a study of the tendency for small drops to entrain bubbles seemed appropri ate. With just the simplest experiments using only an eye dropper and a beaker it was obvious that drops do entrain bubbles. With this en couragement high speed motion pictures were taken of drops falling several feet into water [15]. It was soon learned that entrainment occurred 153

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not upon initial impact but later when the splash fell back upon the surface. This led to experiments with short falls where it was learned by dying the drop, that when a dyed water drop strikes a water surface it usually produces a vortex ring. Furthermore, with optimized lighting it was seen that the vortex rings carry tiny bubbles on their axes as they plunge beneath the surface. See Figures 1 and 2. Drop-formed vortex rings were news to us. Once one knows about them it's not difficult to find that they've been known a long time. They were described in an 1858 paper by W B. Rogers [16] befo r e he founded MIT. They are not mentioned in most texts on fluid mechanics, except for Sommerfield [17] and Batchelor [18]. A recent book Bubbl e s, Drops and Particles [19] includes no mention of them. Apparently few researchers have had occasion to learn of them. We found that researchers at Los Alamos were not familiar with them. They developed a tech nique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations numerically with a computer [20, 21] and applied their method to the prediction of the behavior of a drop striking a pool of water. They could only solve for short falls. They compared their results to experiments with drops falling from greater heights. They found ageement and concluded that their method was sound, unaware that drops fall ing from short distances behave differently [22]. Now that drop-formed vortex rings have been recognized as providing a mechanism for second ary nucleation, it is pertinent to consider how im portant secondary nucleation might be. Vortex rings are capable of providing nuclei away from the interface. The tiny bubbles are carried within the rings wrapped in layers that come from near FIGURE 1. Examples of a drop-formed vortex ring en training air bubbles. 154 ESCAPED BUBBLES 00 ~ 0 0 0 0 0 DIRE C TION OF TRAVEL FIGURE 2. Sketch of a drop-formed vortex ring show ing entrained and escaped bubbles. the surface and the impinging drop that likely have temperatures close to saturation The tiny bubbles are shielded from the local environment through which they are carried. If they escape to a hotter environment they can begin rapid growth. The fact that clusters of bubble nuclei are seen later beneath the surface when a bubble bursts on a superheated pool fits these circumstances. When a bubble bursts on the surface, does its top film form drops that in turn form vortex rings? A bubble about 2 cm in diameter was blown from a detergent solution colored with food dye and placed on the surface of clea r water. It was ruptured soon after placement and a picture was taken looking down on the surface. The picture showed tiny rings and bubbles where the miniscus had been [15]. Apparently the rings were vortex rings. Another interesting aspect is the behavior of a vortex ring as it approaches a wall. It plows right in and spreads out, giving the impression that the tiny bubbles it might carry would be de livered very close to the wall. If the wall was a heater surface the tiny bubbles would seem to be delivered to a region of high temperature. Although it goes unnoticed by current texts, it is possible to improve the performance of nucleate boiling by the simple means of boiling in thin liquid films. An early indication of this came from Japanese engineers who studied nucleate boiling on a horizontal surface with varying depths of liquid covering the surface [23, 24]. At depths below 5 mm, surface temperatures were lower and were lowest just before the surface dried off with the surface only partially covered with liquid. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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They offered no explanation for the observation but did note that nucleation increased at lower liquid depths. Others have reported similar re sults [25, 26]. Boiling in thin liquid films offers an ideal opportunity for secondary nucleation to occur. When boiling thin liquid films, bubbles burst from the top of the film not far from the heater surface. Drops formed when a bubble bursts should be drawn into the film on the surface. Vortex rings formed by these drops would be well positioned to carry entrained bubbles to the sur face. Near the surface the entrained bubbles would be exposed to the highest temperatures around. Whether secondary nucleation is indeed responsible for the better performance of boiling in thin liquid films cannot be said at present but it seems like a good bet. This would seem to be a a likely candidate for further research. One advantage of boiling from thin liquid films is that nucleate boiling can be achieved at lower surface temperatures and at lower heat fluxes. This is especially important in low heat flux ap plications where, judging only from boiling from submerged surfaces, nucleate boiling would not seem possible. Nucleate boiling from thin films can be im proved even more by the addition of traces of sur factants to water. This was reported by the Japan ese and also more recently in desalination equip ment [23, 27, 28]. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory show that surfactants increase nuclea tion, apparently from secondary nucleation. There have been numerous studies of nucleate boiling on horizontal or vertical tubes or on verti cal flat surfaces [28, 29, 30]. These studies have generally indicated better performance than nucleate boiling on submerged surfaces and the improvement has generally been attributed to the flow in the film. Not one of these studies has made any recognition that similar improvements occur when nucleate boiling occurs in thin liquid films on horizontal surfaces where there is no imposed flow. Most texts on heat transfer describe flow boil ing as being different from nucleate boiling on a submerged surface. In flow boiling, liquid is pro gressively converted to vapor so that a number of flow regimes exist along the flow. The pre dominant flow regime is annular flow with a liquid film on the wall. Early work hypothesized that in the annular flow region heat transfer was so good that it must be forced convection and that, consequently, nucleate boiling was surpressed [31]. FALL 1982 The support for this hypothesis has recently been reanalyzed and found not to support the hypothe sis [32]. Annular flow would seem to offer an ideal situation for secondary nucleation to augment nucleate boiling heat transfer. In vigorous boiling on a submerged surf ace the view of the bubble activity is obscured. Extra polating results on bubble nucleation at lower heat fluxes suggests that at higher heat fluxes more surface sites come into play. An alternate hypothe sis is that at high heat fluxes secondary nucleation supplies the additional nuclei. The circumstances would seem to permit secondary nucleation in the same way as has been suggested for nucleate boiling in thin films. At high heat fluxes vapor does push the liquid away leaving the surface wet with a film of liquid. It would seem possible for drops to form from bubbles bursting from this film or perhaps from all the commotion above the surface. Drops striking the film would be well positioned to cause secondary nucleation. Current literature mentions only the former hypothesis, so the latter has not been ruled out. Who can say which hypothesis is more nearly correct? More research can help decide. Secondary nucleation can also offer alternate hypotheses for two other characteristics of nucle ate boiling. When heat flux is plotted against surface temperature excess over saturation, one obtains what is often called the boiling curve. The upper portion of the curve often moves in a parallel fashion to higher or lower temperature differences because of aging or other obscure reasons. It is usually said that changes in the nucleation characteristics of the surface are re sponsible for the shift. An alternate hypothesis is that changes in nucleation on the surface effects only the lower portion of the curve and that secondary nucleation ensues to move the rest of the curve. The other characteristic is hysteresis in which surface temperatures are higher as the heat flux is increased but lower as it is decreased. On increasing heat flux it sometimes occurs that after bubbles begin to coalesce the surface temperature suddenly falls. The usual explanation for this is that new nucleation sites have acquired vapor and became active. The alternate hypothesis is that when bubbles begin to merge a new flow regime is established which favors secondary nucleation. CONCLUSIONS Secondary nucleation definitely occurs in 155

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nucleate boiling. Indications are that drop-formed vortex rings are responsible for entraining tiny bubbles to serve as nuclei for secondary nuclea tion. How important secondary nucleation is in submerged boiling remains to be shown, but it seems likely to be responsible for the improved performance of nucleate boiling in thin liquid films with and without surfactants. Research oppor tunities abound in evaluating these new develop ments. D ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Most of the research on nucleate boiling has been supported by the National Science Founda tion. A sabbatical leave spent at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories in England with R. B. Duffey helped to develop some of the research. Kenneth Carroll, Tom Yu, Ted Bergman, Gregg Mailen and other students are in large measure responsible for our progress. REFERENCES 1. Kirby, D. B. and Westwater, "Bubble and Vapor Be havior on a Heated Horizontal Plate During Pool Boiling Near Burnout," AIChE Symposium Series, No. 57, 61, 238 (1965). 2. Katto, Y. S., Yokoya, S, and Yasunaka, M., "Mechan ism of Boiling Crisis and Transition Boiling in Pool Boiling," Heat Transf er 1970, Vol. V., B3.2, Elsevier, New York (1970). 3. Ida, Yoshihiro and Kobayashi, Kirjosi, "Distribution of Void Fraction Above a Horizontal Heating Surface in Pool Boiling" Bulletin JSME, 1 2, 283 (1969). 4. Mesler, R., "A Mechanism Supported by Extensive Experimental Evidence to Explain High Heat Fluxes Observed During Nucleate Boiling," AIChE Journal 22, 246 (1976). 5. Yu, Chi-Liang, and Mesler, R. B., "A Study of Nucleate Boiling Near the Peak Heat Flux Through Measurement of Transient Surface Temperature," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2 0, 827 (1977). 6. Patten, T. D. and Turmeau, W. A., "Some Character istics of Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Layers," Heat Transf e r 19 70, Vol. V, B2.10, Elsevier, New York, 1970. 7. Kopchikov, I. A., Voronin, G. I., Kolcah, T. A., Labuntsov, D. A., and Lebedev, P. D., "L iquid Boiling in a Thin Film," Int. J. Heat Ma ss Transf e r, 12, 791 (1969). 8. Copeland, Robert J., "Boiling Heat Transfer to a Water Jet Impinging a Flat Surface." Ph.D. Thesis, Southern Methodist University (1971). 9. Toda, Saburo and Uchida, Hideo, "Study of Liquid FHm Cooling with Evaporation and Boiling," H eat Tran s fer-Japan ese R ese arch, 2, 44 (1973). 10. Hayward, A. T. J., "Tribonucleation of Bubbles," British J. Appl. Phys., 18, 641 (1967). 11. Garside, J., Rusli, I. T., and Larson, M. A., "Origin and Size Distribution of Secondary Nuclei," AIChE 156 Jo urna l, 25 57 (1979). 12. Mesler, R. and Mailen, G., "Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films," AIChE Jo urna l, 23 954 (1977). 13. Mesler, R., "Nucleat e Boiling in Thin Liquid Films," Chapter 23, Bubbl e Phenom e na, by Van Stralen and Cole, McGraw-Hill, New York (1979). 14. B e rgman, Theodore and M e sler, Russell, "Bubble Nucleation Studies Part I : Formation of Bubbl e Nuclei in Sup er heated Water by Bursting Bubbl es," AIChE Jo urna l, 27 85 1 (1981). 15. Carroll, Kenneth and Mesler, Russell, "Bubble Nuclea tion Studies Part II: Bubble Entrainment by Drop Formed Vortex Rings," AIChE Jo urnal, 27, 853 (1981). 16. Rogers, W. B., "On the Formation of Rotating Rings by Air and Liquids Under Certain Conditions of Dis charge," Am er J. Sci and Arts, Second Series, 26, 246 (1858). 17. Sommerfield, A., Mechanics of Deformable Bod ies, Academic, New York (1950). 18. Batchelor, G. K., An In tro d uction to Fluid Dy namics, Cambridge (1967). 19. Clift, R., Grace, J. R. and Weber, M E., B u bbl es, Drop s and Particl es, Academic, New York (1978). 20. Harlow, F. H. and Shannon, J. P., "The Splash of a Liquid Drop," J. Appl Phy s 38 3855 (1967). 21. -----, "Distortion of a Splashing Liquid Drop," Science, 157, 547 (1967). 22. Carroll, Kenn e th and Mesl e r, Russell, "Splashing Liquid Drops Form Vortex Rings and Not Jets at Low Froude Numbers," J. Appl. Phy s 5 2, 507 (1981) 23. Nishikawa, K., Kusuda, H., Yamasaki, K., and Tanaka, K., "Nucleate Boiling at Low Liquid Levels," B u ll etin JSME, 10 328 (1967). 24. Kusuda, H. and Nishikawa, K., "A Study of Nucl ea t e Boiling in Liquid Films," Mem. Fac ulty Eng ineer ing, Kyushu University, 27 155 (1967). 25. Marto, P. J., MacKenzie, D. K., and Rivers, A. D., "Nucl e ate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films," AIChE Symposium Series, 73, No. 164, 228 (1977). 26. Turmeau, W. A., "Studies of Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Layers ," Ph.D Th e sis, Heriot Watt Uni versity, Edinburgh (1971). 27. Sephton, Hugo H., "Interface Enhancement for Vertical Tube Evaporators," ASME Paper 71-HT-38 (1971). 28. Shah, B. H. and Darby, R., "The Effect of Surfactant on Evaporative Heat Transfer in Vertical Film Flow," Int. J H e a t Mass T ransfe r, 2 0 827 (1977). 29. Fletcher, L. S., Sernas, V. and Galowin, L. S., "Evapo ration from Thin Water Films on Horizontal Tub es," Ind. Eng. Chem. P rocess Design D eve lop., 1 3, 265 (1974). 30. Norman, W. S., and McIntyre, V., "Heat Transfer to a Liquid Film on a Vertical Surface," Tran s. Instn. Chem. Engrs., 38,301 (1960). 31. Dengler, C. E. and Addoms, J. N., "Heat Transfer Mechanism for Vaporization of Water in a Vertical Tube," Chem. Eng. Prog r Symposium Ser., 52, No. 18, 95 (1965). 3 2. Mesler, Russell, "An Alternate to the Dengler and Addoms Convection Concept of Forced Conv ec tion Boiling Heat Transfer," AIChE Journal 23, 448 (1977). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WlLLIAM H. CORCORAN William H. Corcoran, 62, Institute Professor of Chemical Engi neering at the California Institute of Technology, died while vaca tioning in Ha waii on Saturda y, August 2 1 1982. Bill is survived by his wi fe of nearly 40 years, Martha, son Will Corcoran, Jr. and daughter, Sally Corcoran Fisher, and six grandchildren. To describe the ac complishments and contributions of Bill Corcoran to chemical engi neering, engineering education, and tohis friends and colleagues would require many, many pages. During his life, Bill Corcoran at tained virtually every honor and recognition available to an engineer ing educator, whifo, at the same time, truly touching the hearts and minds of all those whith w hom he came in contact. Ironically, two weeks before his untimely d ea th, Bill Corcoran prepared a short essay entitled "My Career as a Chemical Engineer." As a tribute to Bill Corco ran we now reprint that essay: My Career as a Chemical Engineer My professional work began before World War II as an employee of Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California. Here my interest in pharmaceuticals and biomedical engi neering was sharpened and never left me. In World War II I was involved with a very excellent group of people at the California Institute of Technology. We were re sponsible for the work on processing of double-base pro pellant and interior ballistics of all rocket motors used by the Navy. One year of that program also concurrently dealt with ordnance work on the atomic bomb. The rocket program was very successful, and in my very biased opinion it contributed in a major way to the quality of our munitions program in World War II. Subsequent to World War II I went back to graduate school, courtesy of the National Research Council. I have never forgotten the nice fellowships they afforded me, and today I have an association with the National Re search Council by way of its Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. That is a pleasure and allows me to partially pay back the debt I owe them. After receiving my Ph.D. degree in 1948, I returned to Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley where for four years I was Director of Technical Development. The work included process de velopment on pharmaceuticals and biologicals, including fermentation studies on penicillin and deep-culture growth of useful organisms for manufacture of vaccines. In ad dition we did significant work on disposable medical equip ment and mass parenteral solutions. My interest in bio medical and bioengineering was further intensified by that experience. In 1952 I returned to the California Institute of Technology as an Associate Professor of Chemical Engi neering and except for a two-year period from 1957 to 1959 I have been associated with the California Institute of Technology ever since. In the period of 1957 to 1959 I was Vice President and Scientific Director for Don Baxter FA.LL 1982 Incorporated, a subsidiary of the American Hospital Supply Corporation. Here my biomedical work continued. My work at Caltech in research has related to studies of nitric acid-nitrogen dioxide-water systems, pyrolysis of hydrocarbons flow systems, including work on artificial heart valves, and desulfurization and supercritical ex traction of coal. Teaching has been a major interest during my profes sional career, and I have especially enjoyed the teaching of my Senior design course entitled "Optimal Design of Chemical Systems." I have learned so much in the teach ing of the course that I can hardly believe what has happened, and I do have some hopes that the students learned at the same time. In terms of breadth of oppor tunity for a professor I can't think of a course more de signed for a professor's development. In other professional activities I spent 10 years as Vice President for Institute Relations at the California Institute of Technology while still maintaining my programs of teaching and research. In 1978 I had the privilege of being President of AIChE. Currently I have the pleasure of working with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and will be the President for a two-year term ending in 1984. Along the way I have had the great fortune to act as a consultant for the American Hospital Supply Corpora tion and the Bechtel Corporation and as a Director of Superior Farming, the KTI Corporation, and Phytogen, Incorporated, a genetic engineering firm. There has not been one dull second. If I had my life to relive, I would do exactly what I had done previously and probably would make the same mistakes. Hopefully not. It has been a great life, with thanks to all the people with whom I have as sociated but with special thanks to my wife Martha who understood from time zero the nature of the profession and has been a very interested observer and participant in my professional activities. 157

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MASS TRANSFER RALPH H. WEILAND AND ROSS TAYLOR Cl,arkson College of Technology Potsdam, NY 13676 A number of aspects of effects of diffusive mass transfer are currently being investigated at Clarkson College of Technology. The growth of crystals as it is affected by diffusion is being studied by Professors William Wilcox and Gordon Youngquist. A major investigation of the role of mass transfer in corrosion is being carried out by Professor Der Tau Chin. Finally, the role of multi component diffusion and chemical reaction in the classical operations of distillation, absorption and condensation is under investigation by Drs. Ross Taylor and Ralph Weiland. These latter studies form the subject of this article. It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process driven by concentration gradients (more precisely, by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless, the vast majority of commonly used design methods are based on equilibrium models that completely neglect the influence of finite rates of mass transfer. For example, the equilibrium stage model of distillation for binary, nonreacting systems (the McCabe-Thiele method) is well known to all students of chemical engineering [1, 2]; however, in practice, binary distillation takes place almost E:xclusively in the undergradu ate laboratory. Real separations involve multi component mixtures ( three or more species) and and this presents a real complication that is the subject of some of our recent research efforts. In addition to the problems posed by the multicomponent nature of most separation pro cesses, chemical reaction presents a set of unique difficulties all of its own. The development of pro cedures for the analysis and design of such oper ations forms the second thrust of our efforts. De spite the fact that a great deal of work has been published on chemically reactive mass transfer [3, 4], it is remarkable that so little has been reported on the application of this extensive Copyright ChE D i v i sion, ASEE, 1982 158 Ross Taylor is an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at Clarkson College of Technology where he has been since 1980. He received his BSc, MSc and Ph D degrees from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology in England. (l) Ralph H. Weiland obtained his B .A. Sc M A. Sc and Ph.D. degrees in Chem Eng at the University of Toronto Following a two year postdoctoral appointment in applied mathematics at the Uni versity of Western Australia he taught at the Universities of Calgary and Queensland He is presently Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at Clarkson College of Technology (R) fundamental work to the design and analysis of separation processes of industrial scale. Finally, when multicomponent mass transfer is combined with chemical reaction and heat transfer some really intriguing problems arise. An example is the condensation of multicom ponent vapors when two or more species can react together in the condensed phase. Nothing at all appears ever to have been written about this aspect of mass transfer and a study of it forms the third part of our general efforts. In what follows it will be most convenient to discuss these three main threads of our research somewhat separately. MULTICOMPONENT DIF~USIONAL SEPARATION PROCESSES Considerable effort has been devoted to the construction of algorithms for calculating the equilibrium separation in multicomponent, multi stage systems and many ingenious computational procedures have been devised. The formulation of the material and energy balance equations in triCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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diagonal and block tridiagonal matrix form (thereby permitting efficient methods of solution) has proved particularly efficacious in this area [1, 2]. While the principle advantage of equilibrium models is their (relative) simplicity, the primary disadvantage is that they are fundamentally un sound; distillation, absorption, and so on are certainly not equilibrium operations. If any successful non-equilibrium model of multicom ponent stagewise processes is to be developed, it must be based on sound mass transfer principles. This is where the complications set in because the calculation of mass transfer rates in multicom ponent systems is considerably harder than it is for binary ones. Diffusion in multicomponent mixtures is complicated by the coupling that exists between the individual concentration gradients. The rate of diffusion of one species is dependent not only on its own concentration gradient but on all the other concentration gradients as well. Now, these individual concentration gradients may have vastly different magnitudes and signs. Thus, a possible consequence of the coupling between the gradients is that a particular species may perme ate in opposition to its own concentration gradient, or may not transfer at all even though a gradient for it exists. A further possibility is that a species with no concentration gradient in a particular medium may be transported through that medium at significant rates. These "interaction" phenome na, which cannot take place in binary mixtures, are called reverse diffusion, a diffusion barrier and osmotic diffusion, respectively [57]. Practical consequences of diffusional inter action phenomena include individual point efficiencies in tray distillation not all being equal and not being constrained to lie between zero and one, both of which conditions hold for binary mixtures. In fact, they may be found anywhere in the range + oo This surprising result, a conse quence of reverse diffusion, has been confirmed by experiment [8]. For the same reasons the indi vidual "Numbers of Transfer Units" in continuous contact equipment are not all equal. In a different setting ( a condenser) one of the species may be evaporating when the objective is its condensa tion. Any good model of multicomponent mass transfer must be able to predict when these phe nomena will occur; fortunately, such models are currently available. Recent years have seen inFALL 1982 creasing interest in the study of multicomponent mass transfer and a veritable flood of papers has appeared. The reader is referred to the major re view by Krishna and Standart [6] for develop ments to 1979. Diffusion in multicomponent gas-vapor mix tures is accurately described by the Maxwell Stefan equations. The complete equations were first published by the famous Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in a general article [9] on diffusion in an early edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Since that time, a number of solutions with varying degrees of approximation and generality have appeared. Most applications are Practical consequences of diffusional interaction phenomena include individual point efficiencies in tray distillation not all being equal and not being constrained to lie between zero and one, both of which conditions hold for binary mixtures. based on a film model of steady-state one-dimen sional mass transfer. There are, currently, four such methods able to predict the occurrence of the various inter action phenomena and which are applicable to mixtures with any number of constituents regard less of the relationship between the fluxes (for example, transfer through a stagnant gas or equi molar counter transfer) In chronological order of their development they are: 1. The linearized theory of multicomponent mass trans fer developed by Toor [10] and by Stewart and Prober [11]. 2. The method of Krishna and Standart [12] based on an exact solution of the Maxwell-Stefan equations. It is worth noting that all of the eight or so sepa rately published exact solutions of these equations (see [6] for sources) are simply different forms or special cases of a single fundamental result [13]. 3. An "alternative linearized theory" proposed re cently by Krishna [14, 15]. 4. A simplified method developed by Taylor and Smith [16]. All of these methods make use of the proper ties of matrices. Methods 1 and 2 usually require iteration on the fluxes, involve matrix computa tions and may suffer convergence problems. Methods 3 and 4 are explicit in the fluxes. Methods 1 and 2 have been used to predict efficiencies and Numbers of Transfer Units in distillation and applied to the simulation of condensers [6]. The rather limited number of experimental results 159

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that are available confirm that interaction effects may sometimes be significant indeed [6, 8, 17-21]. Methods 1 and 2 predict, often to a very satis factory degree, the experimentally measured rates of mass transfer whereas models which neglect interaction effects, based on the concept of an effective diffusivity, are inadequate. Methods 3 and 4 have not been tested yet and this is some thing we are working on. Engineering design based on the matrix methods is necessarily computer based because of the length and complexity of the calculations involved. Theoretical papers on mass transfer fre quently make claims to the effect that the inclusion of this or that model into existing design pro cedures is straightforward (see, for example, ref. 15). In fact, the combination of design equations Diffu s io n in mul t icomponen t mix t ures i s com p lica t ed b y t h e coup l ing that e x ist s between th e individua l conc e nt r ation grad i e nts. with advanced models of mass transfer is not at all straightforward because of the nature of the computations that are required. Recent research has led to the development of stable and efficient algorithms for computing intra phase mass transfer [20-23]. This, of course, is only a part of the overall problem because mass transfer in real systems necessarily involves two distinct phases. The more practical problem of computing rates of interphase mass transfer has been the subject of only very recent investigation [24, 25]. A number of different computational algorithms have been developed and these have proven markedly superior to previously published procedures. A large part of the problem here is that the models require extensive physical prop erty data that are not always accurately known and the estimation of which occupies a very major portion of the total time required. Currently under way is a computational study to investigate the sensiti v it y of the models to uncertainties in basic data. It is, of course, possible to compute mass transfer rates (which are the quantities really required in design calculations) much more rapidly from the explicit methods 3 and 4. It is, therefore, of some interest to know when an ap proximate method can be used and what level of confidence can be ascribed to its predictions. We have recently compiled statistical informa160 tion on the discrepancies between the fluxes pre dicted from the more exact method 2 and those given by methods 1, 3, 4 and several of the non interactive effective diffusivity methods [22]. It was found that the Toor-Stewart-Prober method can be expected always to give good estimates of the fluxes; the explicit method of Krishna [14 15] does so if the concentration gradients are low and the effective diffusivity methods (which just happen to be those methods used most commonly in design at present) give good estimates of all of the fluxes only very rarely. We were pleased (and not a little surprised) to find that the new method 4 was in all the many cases examined, except transfer through a stagnant gas, equivalent to or superior to all other approximate methods, although the advantage over the linearized equa tions [10, 11] was usually small. (For transfer through a stagnant gas, method 4 ranks second best behind method 1). Results to date have been so promising that applications of the new method ( cf [18-21, 43-45]) are planned and the basic method is to be extended in the same way that the assumptions underlying film models 1 and 3 can be extended to other mass transfer situations. The traditional method of coping with finite rates of mass transfer in stagewise processes has been through the concept of a stage efficiency. Calculation procedures employing the block tri diagonal matrix formulation permit the use of a specified efficiency for each stage [1, 2]. For lack of other information, this efficiency is always taken to be the same for all components on any stage [2], even though, as noted above, modern theories of mass transfer suggest that this is most unlikely to be the case. It is our contention that the concept of stage efficiency is an unnecessary complication and that multistage units are more effectively modelled as a sequence of heat and mass transfer stages. Along these lines, the material and energy balance relations for each stage are split into two parts (one for each phase) and are treated separately. A term for the constituent mass fluxes appears in each equation, of different sign for the different phases. The sum of the two parts gives the total component material or energy balance relations that are used in modern block tri diagonal algorithms. In fact, the separation of the balance equations into two parts permits the retention of the block tridiagonal matrix structure of the linearized equations and, therefore, of exist ing methods for solving such equations. The reCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process driven by concentration gradients (more precisely, by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless, the vast majority of commonly used design methods are based on equilibrium models that completely neglect the influence of finite rates of mass transfer. quired mass transfer rates are estimated from a model that combines stage hydrodynamics and multicomponent mass transfer. This model can be as simple or as complicated as desired [30]. CHEMICALLY REACTIVE SEPARATIONS Separation operations involving mass transfer with chemical reaction are typified by a number of processes for gas purification, particularly those for the removal of acid gases. Coal gasification processes produce copious amounts of carbon dioxide which will have to be removed from the gas mixture, and in coal liquifacation part of the product is gas containing much CO 2 which lowers its heating value. Many gas purification processes employ chemically-reactive solvents which must be reused; thus, there are two important parts of such processes, namely gas absorption and solvent regeneration. It turns out that the absorption step usually is of relatively low cost; the solvent regeneration step, however, is very costly indeed and dominates the economics, accounting for well over 80 % of the operating costs [31]. With this in mind, the surprising fact is that it is the gas absorption step (at least for a single transferring component) that has been extensively studied [3, 4]. By contrast, the solvent recovery or stripping oper ation has remained virtually unexplored from either a fundamental or practical viewpoint and is totally lacking in design methods. If the process could be understood in a fundamental way to the extent that the dependence of stripping column performance on plant operating variables was predictable, then the real possibility of plant optimization in terms of reducing energy costs would exist. Thus, the ultimate objective of this aspect of our research is to develop design and analysis procedures founded on a fundamental understanding of the basic physicochemical pro cesses taking place. Previous literature dealing with gas de sorption from chemically-reactive solution is sparse indeed and most of it addresses the problem merely as a sideline to a study of the ab sorption step of some new process. Notable ex ceptions are the experiments of Ellis et al [32] FALL 1982 and McLachlan and Danckwerts [32], although the former shed little light on the fundamentals. It is really only in the past year or so that the results of serious efforts to understand this important operation have begun to be reported. The stripping of an already absorbed species from chemically re active solvents purely by the action of heating (and this is the industrially common situation) has recently been examined from a theoretical standpoint by Astarita and Savage [34] who in corporated the classical two-film theory. The key result of their analysis was the delineation of the conditions under which absorption theory (which is well developed) can be applied to desorption. In a companion paper, Savage et al. [35] re ported absorption and desorption rate data for the CO 2 -hot carbonate system and interpreted the results in terms of their theory. Unlike all previous studies, one of the more positive aspects of their work is that it was done in an apparatus of well-defined geometry and characterizable hydrodynamics so that, by and large, chemical kinetics could be nicely separated from mass transfer effects. The range of solution loadings covered, however, was insufficient to establish the influence of this variable. Unfortunately, the data were interpreted on the basis of negligible gas phase resistance to mass transfer; whereas, at least for the CO 2 -monoethanolamine system, this resistance is dominant over a certain range of conditions [36]. Based on the work of Rawal [36] who assumed that the equilibrium model of Olander [37] applied to the stripping of carbon dioxide from mono ethanolamine solutions (this now seems justified in the light of ref. 34), we have recently elaborated on a design procedure for packed stripping columns using this process [38]. The primary aim of this work was the prediction of column per formance from first principles, based solely on physicochemical parameters and equilibrium data specific to the system. For this purpose, the ability to apply chemical absorption theory, although im portant, is only one component of the overall analysis. The reversibility of the chemical re actions is critical in chemical desorption. This necessarily introduces thermodynamic relations as an integral part of the theory. Furthermore, 161

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heat effects cannot be ignored because a sub stantial amount of heat must be supplied to effect the decomposition of the solvent-gas compound and the liberation of the freed gas from solution. The implication is that vapor and liquid rates vary significantly throughout the column, although the column itself operates substantially isothermally. We have recently completed an experimental study of this operation [38] done in a small ( 6-in. diameter) reboiled packed column (Fig. 1). While it must be admitted that the comparison between model and experiment in this work tended to be more qualitative than precise, it is useful to note that many of the trends found were rather counterintuitive so that the transport process is by no means a straightforward one. For example, it was predicted theoretically and confirmed ex perimentally in a fairly rough way that at low solution loadings, increasing liquid rate could actually decrease the overall mass transfer co efficient K 0 La. Furthermore, when solution load ing was low, the gas-side resistance was found to be of tremendous importance. This was un expected in view of the fact that CO 2 has a very FIGURE 1. Pilot scale packed column (center) used in solvent regeneration studies. Thermosyphon reboiler is at left, condenser-reabsorber for closed cycle operation at right. 162 low physical solubility and that it is generally agreed that the mass transfer of sparingly soluble gases is liquid-phase controlled. Other operating variables such as operating pressure, solution loading and amine concentration were found to have surprising effects as well. Many of these results stem from the fact that a change to one operating variable causes changes in a number of parameters at the same time so that intuition cannot be relied upon for guidance. A good model, however, provides unerring advice. Naturally there are serious problems associ ated with trying to test fundamental models on large scale equipment at such an early stage of development. One of these is the poor characteriz ability of packed columns in terms of hydro dynamics, hence, individual film coefficients so necessary to a proper film model of chemically re active mass transfer. As mentioned earlier in the context of multicomponent mass transfer, errors in basic data can have a profound consequence on model prediction; a sensitivity analysis is presently underway for reactive mass transfer in continuous contacting equipment. To provide data of greater reliability for test ing against these fundamental mass transfer models, we are doing experiments in well-defined flow geometries like single sphere and string-of spheres columns. Then all of the necessary funda ment a l data become accurately known, or at least can be independently measured, and a real test of models becomes possible. An obvious extension is to systems in which two or more gases simul taneously absorb and then react with a common nonvolatile solvent. Typical of such systems is the absorpt ion into, and stripping from, alkanola mines of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Of particular interest is the selective removal of H 2 S. Although a moderate amount of equilibium and physical property data exists for this combination, little or no mass transfer work has been done on the absorption side, and nothing has been re ported on solvent regeneration. Yet the natural gas industry in this country is very large indeed and natural gas often contains a lot of both im purities. Experiment s and modelling of both aspects of this rather more complex system are underway at Clarkson. Our studies using model mass transfer devices are aimed at testing theories of the transfer pro cesses which will find ultimate use in simulations of packed columns. Concurrently, we are also Continued on page 200. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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----~----------YOU AND UNION CARBIDE ASTRONG PARTNERSHIP An Equal Opportunity Employer (M/F/HN) .. ;.~ j ., , L_ .,, ,1 Join forces with a company making products used in areas ranging from sports equipment and cosmetics .. to the Columbia space shuttle and the Lear Fan aircraft Consider linking your talents with Union Carbide the pioneer of the petrochemicals industry. Becoming partners with Union Carbide means identifying yourself with: the maker of leading product lines such as Glad trash bags, Energizer batteries and Prestone anti-freeze ; the largest U S. supplier of industrial gases, cellulosic casings for processed meats, and tantalum capacitors ; the inventors of the Unipol process which efficiently produces the world's most widely used plastic, polyethylene to name a few At Union Carbide, our continued leadership depends upon the innovations and efforts of scientists, engineers and other professionals ... like you. See our representatives on campus or write to : Manager, Professional Placement Union Carbide Corporation Old Ridgebury Road, Section D3224 Danbury, CT 068l7

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FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTION F. A. L. DULLIEN University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario, Canada OVER THE PAST DECADE an increasing number of graduates of the Chemical Engineering De partment and also of some other engineering de partments of the University of Waterloo have been hired by various petroleum companies, operating mostly in Alberta. The Faculty of Engi neering at the University of Waterloo operates one hundred percent on the cooperative scheme. The students alternate between academic and work terms. An increasing proportion of our students have been hired in their work terms by the oil companies. This situation created a de mand for a senior year elective course in the fundamentals of petroleum production which is also suited to the needs of first year graduate students specializing in some branch of flow through porous media research. There is no petroleum engineering department at the Uni versity of Waterloo, but there has been con tinuous basic research on certain aspects of this discipline for the past sixteen years, under the author's supervision. It was thus logical for the author to propose a course on Fundamentals of Petroleum Production, which was accepted by the Faculty of Engineering in 1978. Since then the course has been taught every year in the winter term. The purpose of this course is to introduce the average chemical engineer, who has only a mini mum of familiarity with the concepts of capillarity and flow through porous media, and none at all with reservoir engineering concepts, to petroleum production engineering. All this has to be ac complished in thirteen weeks (three contact hours One of the difficult tasks to be accomplished in ... the course is to give the students a "feel" for the physical phenomena, "drainage" and "imbibition." Co p y ri ght C hE D ivisio n, A SEE 19 82 164 Francis A L. Dullien has been a Professor of Chemical Engineer ing at the University of Waterloo since 1966 He received his Dipl. Eng from the Budapest Technical University (1950) his M A.Sc and his Ph D. from the University of British Columbia (1958 and 1960). He has been a Visiting Professor at Purdue University at Karlsruhe Uni versity and at the Ecole National Polytechnique de Toulouse. He has published over 100 pap e rs in the fields of flow through porous media pore structure research quantitative stereology liquid and gaseous diffusion mi x ing, air pollution control and spectroscopy, and is author of the research monograph "Porous Media Fluid Transport and Pore Structure" Academic Press (1979). He has developed courses in flow through porous media, fundamentals of petroleum production, air pollution control, surface chemistry, statistical thermodynamics, trans port phenomena, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and engineering math. per week), because with the coop system the lecture part of a term is only about three months long. Under these constraints the course on Funda mentals of Petroleum Production is limited in scope and, at the same time, conceptually difficult for the students. TECHNICAL CONTENT The technical content of the course is best ap preciated by perusing the course outline shown in Table 1. The rationale for this approach to the course is presented in the following paragraph. The author does not think that a completely black box-type presentation of the material is in the best interest of either the student or the in dustry where the student may work. The black box approach pays no attention to the microscopic mechanisms, the interplay of the various forces CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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on a microscopic scale and the microscopical geo metric parameters of the environment in which the physical phenomena take place. It is true that a typical reservoir engineer is concerned with the control and prediction of macroscopic param eters but it is equally true that the obse r ved macro scopic behavior is, to a large extent, the result of events that occur in small pores and which are determined by microscopic parameters. Staying mum on the microscopic aspects of petroleum reservoirs (an attitude which is quite common in some texts on reservoir engineering) is tanta mount to pretending to be completely ignorant of some facts which are very important in de termining the outcome of oil recovery operations, particularly when secondary and tertiary recovery are considered. Such an attitude is likely to mis lead the student by keeping him ignorant about things that matter a great deal. The purpose of university education cannot be the maintenance of ignorance. This is the reason for starting this course with an introduction to capillary theory. In the discussion of basic laws of capillarity, attention is drawn continually to the fact that petroleum reservoirs consist of a multitude of tiny interconnected capillaries. A petroleum reservoir is a permeable porous medium, not at all like the water reservoirs most people tend to think of im mediately when they hear the word "reservoir." The major portion of this chapter deals with the capillary pressure curves: primary drainage, im bibition and secondary drainage capillary pres sure curves, their methods of measurement in the lab and in the field, capillary hysteresis and the roles played both by the pore structure and the contact angle in bringing about the hysteresis. One of the difficult tasks to be accomplished in The formation (resistivity) factor is then introduced and the fundamental difference be t ween Darcy flow and electrical conduction in porous media is pointed out. this portion of the course is to give the students a "feel" for the physical phenomena, "drainage" and "imbibition." It has been found indispensible to do a classroom demonstration of these phe nomena. Transparent capillary micro-models are very useful for this purpose, as is an experiment consisting of placing a sandstone core plug, satu rated with oil, in a beaker of water. The spon taneous imbibition of water into the plug is demonstrated by the appearance of oil drops on the plug's surface which have been displaced by the water. The second chapter introduces the student to the fundamentals of flow of a single fluid through a permeable porous medium. The discussion is centered on Darcy's law and the various types of pressure heads and fluid potentials which are TABLE 1 Course Outline I. CAPILLARITY Laplace's equation of capillarity Young's equation-The contact angle Capillary pressure--Effects of the pore structure and the contact angle Determination of the capillary pressure curve Saturation Capillary rise--Effects of the pore structure and the contact angle Kelvin's equation Capillary hysteresis-Effects of pore structure 2. FLOW OF A SINGLE FLUID THROUGH POROUS MEDIA Porosity Specific surface Permeability-Darcy's law Formation factor Macroscopic heterogeneity of pore structure Anisotropy 3. SOME APPLICATIONS OF DARCY'S LAW Fluid potential Linear ffow vs. radial ffow Well stimulation FALL 1982 4. BASIC CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Calculation of hydrocarbon volumes Fluid pressure regimes Oil recovery-Recovery factor Volumetric gas reservoir engineering Gas material balance--Recovery factor 5. PVT ANALYSIS FOR OIL Definition of the basic PVT parameters Use of the PVT parameters 6. GENERAL MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION FOR A HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR Derivation of the general equation Solution gas drive Gascap drive Natural water drive Comp action drive 7. DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY AN IMMISCIBLE FLUID Generalization of Darcy's law for multiphase ffow Effective and relative permeabilities The Buckley-Leverett theory of oil displacement Mobility control Tertiary ffooding 165

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The Kozeny-Carman equation is "derived," not because it is believed to be generally valid, but mainly to illustrate the kind of efforts that have been made to understand the relat i onship between flow and pore structure. used in conjunction with this basic law of reser voir engineering and groundwater hydrology. Thus, careful distinction is drawn between the physical meaning of the hydrostatic pressure, P and the "datum pressure" or "psi-potential" IP = P + pgz, where z is distance measured vertically upward from an arbitra r y datum, p is the fluid density and g is the gravitational acceleration constant. Generally, it is the gradient of the datum pressure, v'IP, that must be used in Darcy's law. The heads P / pg and IP / pg = P / pg + z repre sent distances in the vertical direction and are much more readily visualized than the correspond ing pressures, P and IP IP / pg, the so-called "piezo metric head," is then the sum of the pressure head, P / pg and the elevation head z. The fluid po tential is also introduced here. The permeability, k, the porosity, cf>, and the specific surface, s, are the most commonly used macroscopic pore structure parameters. By defini tion, their value do e s not depend on the fluids used in the measurement, but it is completely deter mined by the pore structure of the sample. The important role played by pore structure in de termining reservoir behavior is stressed again when discussing the above mentioned parameters. The Kozeny-Carman equation is "derived", not because it is believed to be generally valid, but mainly to illustrate the kind of efforts that have been made to understand the relationship between flow and pore structure. Simple integrated forms of Darcy's law are presented and the special cases of gas flow, slip flow (Klinkenberg equation) and non-Darcy flow (Forchheimer equation) are discussed. There follows a brief outline of some field applications of Darcy's law. The formation (resistivity) factor is then introduced and the fundamental difference be tween Darcy flow and electrical conduction in porous media is pointed out. This is manifested by the fact that the electrical conductivity of small pores is the same as that of big pores whereas the fluid conductivity of a pore in creep ing flow varies as A, the normal cross-section of 166 the pore. Hence a fine-pored medium has a much lower p e rmeability than a coarse-pored of com p a rable porosity, while the difference between the formation factors of the two materials may be relatively little. It is pointed out that reservoirs are hetero geneous, i.e. they are characte r ized by a distribu tion of permeabilities, and anisotropic, i.e. the permeabilities at a gi v en point are different de pending on the direction of flow. At this point in the course the students al read y have a certain idea of the behavior and the pore structure of a reservoir. They are un likely to confu s e it with a water reservoir. Here TABLE 2 Recommended Refer e n c e Boo ks F A. L. Dullien, Porou s Media-Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, Academic Press, 1979. L. P. Dake, Fundamentals of R e servoir Engineering, Elsevier, 1978. J. W. Amyx, D M. Bas s and R. L. Whiting, Petroleum R es ervoir En g in eer ing-Physical P r operties, McGraw Hill, 1960. A. E. Scheidegger The Phy s ics of Flow Through Porous Media, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1974. R E. Collins, Flow of Fluids Throu g h Porous Materials, van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1961. the course switches to the subject which is con ventionally at the beginning of reservoir engi neering texts; the explanation of the basic con cepts of reservoir engineering, such as hydro carbon v olumes, fluid pressure regimes, gas re co v ery factor, g as expansion factor, solution gas oil ratio, oil formation volume factor, gas forma tion volume factor, producing gas-oil ratio, etc. Next, the general macroscopic material balance for a hydrocarbon reservoir is derived, discussed and applied to elucidate the various possible natural modes of petroleum production, the different so-called "drives." At the end of the course the fundamentals of immiscible displacement are outlined. In this chapter some of the basic concepts, introduced in the early chapters, play an important role and are thus vindicated from an applications point of view which, of course, is the only point conceded by the average student taking this course. There are usuall y four home assignments in this course one on each of the following chapters: 1, 2-3, 4-6, and 7, and three tests, one on each of the following chapters: 1-3, 4 6, and 7. Final examination has been dispensed with. D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION ACTIVITIES TWENTIETH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO LOWELL B. KOPPEL The 1982 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi sion Lecturer was Lowell B. Koppel of Purdue University. The purpose of this award lecture is to recognize and encourage outstanding achieve ment in an important field of fundamental chemi cal engineering theory or practice. The 3M Company provides the financial support for this annual lecture award. Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were presented to this year's Lecturer at the Annual Chemical Engineering Division banquet, held at the University of California at Santa Barbara. NOMINATIONS FOR 1983 AWARD SOLICITED The award is made on an annual basis with nominations being received through February 1, 1983. The full details for the award preparation are contained in the Awards Brochure published by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1983 lecture ship are invited. They should be sent to Robert E. Slonaker, Chairman, 3M Award Committee, ChE Department Bucknell University, Lewis burg, PA 17837. NEW DIVISION OFFICERS ELECTED The newly elected ChE Division officers are: Angelo Perna, Chairman; W. D. Baasel Past Chairman; Dee Barker, Chairman Elect; Bill Beckwith, Secretary Treasurer; John Sears and Dale Seborg, Members at Large; Hal Kemp and R. P. Stambaugh, Industrial Representatives. ChE's RECEIVE HONORS ASEE Meeting Texas A & M George Burnet, Iowa State University, was the recipient of ASEE's highest honor, the Lamme Award, in recognition of his excellence in FALL 1982 teaching, contributions to research and technical literature, and achievements contributing to the advancement of the profession. William Corcoran, California Institute of Technology, received the Distinguished Service Citation for his long and continuous service in teaching, research and ad ministration. Summer School U.C.-Santa Barbara Ray W. Fahien, University of Florida, was presented with an Award of Excellence. Paul V. Smith of Exxon and James Townsend of Dow were both recognized for their many contributions to the ChE Division as industrial representatives. T. W. F. Russell, Stanley I. Sandler and Sherri Barwich, all of the University o f Delaware, were presented with Certificates of Appreciation for their work in coordinating the 1982 Summer School, and Dale Seborg and John Myers were both recognized for their contributions as hosts at the University of California, Santa Barbara. [eJ ;j I book reviews OPTIMIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENTATION By W. E. Biles and J. J. Swain John Wiley & Sons, NY Reviewed by R. M. Bethea, H. R. Heichelheim, L. D. Clements Texas Tech University Chapter 1. This section provides a thorough coverage and description of the properties of op timization problems with an inconsistent mixture of belaboring the mathematically obvious and "name-dropping" of methods to be developed later. Chapter 2. The use of the chi-squared goodness of-fit test to evaluate the Poisson distribution is unusual in most introductory statistics texts. The explanation is clear to a reader with some background in mathematical statistics but not to the novice as is the authors' stated goal. Note that in the example of the Poisson on p. 47 should be f y (y) = e 2 8 y 2 8 /y! and that the values of f1 and e 1 in Table 2.12 have been multiplied by 100. In the section starting on p. 89, no justification has been given for the F-tests. In this way, the student is not taught the why of analysis of vari Continued on page 199. 167

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AIR POLLUTION FOR ENGINEERS MA YIS SEAP AN Oklahoma State Uni v ers i t y Still w ater, OK 74078 I N THE PAST TWO DECADES the need for environ mental awareness has increased the enrollment of chemical engineers in environmental courses, especially in air pollution courses. This is true both for formal university courses and for the continuing education short courses. Traditionally, most of the air pollution courses have been developed in civil and environmental engineering departments. Only a small percentage of chemical engineering departments off er a course related to air pollution. In 1978, there were 581 air pollution courses offered in 130 American and Canadian Universities and Colleges in 189 academic departments [1]. These departments varied from traditional engineering to disciplines like geography and biology, with only 27 chemical engineering departments offering an air pollu tion course. The diversity of the disciplines in which the air pollution courses have been developed and the variations in the background of students have made the air pollution courses very non-uniform. Departments with multiple air pollution courses cover different aspects of the air pollution under one or more of the following topics: fundamentals of air pollution, atmospheric sampling and analysis, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology, modeling of atmospheric dispersions, aerosol science and technology, industrial pollution pro cesses, theory and design of air pollution control systems, and air quality management. These courses have varied from very introductory and descriptive to strongly theoretical, with intensive This course is different from other one-semester air pollution courses in several aspects. The order of presentation of the topics is completely new. Copyright ChE D i1'isi(J'TI,, ASEE, 1982 168 use of mathematics, to highly application and design oriented ones. Many engineering students who do not intend to specialize in air pollution cannot afford to take several courses in air pollution. They would usually prefer to take one general course that would give them an overall understanding of the field. Several schools also offer a general air pollution course as an elective to students of different disciplines. Obviously, in this general air pollution course many of the above mentioned topics have to be selectively compressed or eliminated. The air pollution course described in this article is specially designed to be a general course of one semester or two quarters duration, tailored to serve as an elective course for engineering students in their M.S. or senior level. This course is different from other one semester air pollution courses in several aspects. The order of presentation of the topics is com pletely new. The new arrangement is based on the principle of cause and effect. The theoretical basics are reviewed at the beginning of the course. Conse quently, the subsequent topics are not presented as case studies, but as applications of the theo retical principles. Thus, the student studies and analyzes the applications with a creative approach and often can deduce the resultant phenomena before the empirical observations are presented. It is the main objective of this course to challenge the creative thinking of the students. This is achieved not only during the lectures, but also by the type of problems that are given during the quizzes and examinations. As a result of these efforts, the learning efficiency is improved and more material is covered in the course. COURSE DESCRIPTION The course consists of two major parts : funda mentals of air pollution, and control technology and equipment design. In the first part, the air pollution system is treated as a huge chemical reactor, where man is a moving boundary exposed to the pollutants. In the second part, the control technology is described and the design methods CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Mayis Seapan received his Ph D. from the University of Texas at Austin (1976 ) and is presently Assistant Professor of Chemical Engi neering at Oklahoma State University His current research interests are the formation of aerosol particles by chemical reactions and up grading of coal derived liquids with specific interest in the catalyst deact i vation and kinetics of hydrotreatment of coal derived liquids. are discussed. Usually equal time is spent in teaching these two parts. However, in this article more space is devoted to the fundamentals of air pollution to show its special merits. The most important reason for our study of air pollution is a concern both for our health and for that of future generations. The threat to our health may come from direct exposure to pol lutants, or from indirect exposure through water, plants, animals, and generally from the entire environment. The ecological effects of air pollutants depend on (a) the concentration of the pollutant, (b) the temperature, (c) the duration of exposure, and (d) the velocities of the surrounding air. In some cases other factors, such as concentrations of other constituents, may also interfere. Thus, in theory, in order to be able to evaluate the extent of the po tential damage of air pollutants, one needs to know the concentration of every pollutant at any location and at any time. The air surrounding the earth is considered as a huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform, and non-ideal chemical reactor which has an approxi mate shape of a spherical shell. In order to und~r stand this non-ideal reactor, one needs to consider the following: Chemical and physical constituents of the reactor and their properties Heat transfer and temperature distributions Fluid dynamics and velocity distributions Physical boundaries of the reactor and transport phenomena through these boundaries Interactive and combined phenomena of all these factors FALL 1982 Chemical constituents of the atmosphere include not only nitrogen and oxygen but all re active and non-reactive gases as well as the suspended particles in the atmosphere. Physical constituents are considered as atmospheric electricity, radioactivity and electromagnetic radi ation; where solar radiation plays the major role. Therefore the course starts with a review of different pollutants of the atmosphere and electro magnetic radiation. This is followed by a study of the interaction of radiation with gaseous mole cules, the principles of photochemistry, the forma tion and dynamics of aerosol particles, and the interaction of particles with electromagnetic radiation, electricity and radioactivity. It is at this stage that the students are introduced to the concept of free molecular and continuum flow be havior of particles. They learn about Brownian motion and phoretic forces and develop a general understanding of the significance of each phe nomena under different conditions. The students also learn the role of wavelength in the absorption The air surrounding the earth is considered as a huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform, and non-ideal chemical reactor which has the approximate shape of a spherical shell. of electromagnetic radiation by chemical con stituents and its significance in the initiation of different types of chemical reactions Before the discussion of atmospheric fluid dynamics, i.e., meteorology, the atmospheric energy balance is discussed. By introducing at mospheric layers and their role in filtering different wavelengths from solar radiation, the heat balance around the earth is introduced. The role of different chemical constituents in the at mospheric heat balance is discussed and the greenhouse effect is explained. Th i fluid dynamics of the atmosphere as classified under macro-, mesoand micro-meteor ology is introduced with emphasis on the concept of cause and effect, indicating the role of solar radiation and the atmospheric heat balance in the development of atmospheric motions. This dis cussion is further expanded to the vertical temperature distribution, lapse rate, inversion layers, and atmospheric stability. Sources of pollution as inputs through the lower boundary of the reactor, i.e., the surface of 169

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... it is also emphasized that "dilution is not a solution to pollution" and whatever is released into the atmosphere will eventually return to the earth in some form. earth, are reviewed and an account is given to emission inventories. At this stage atmospheric chemistry and different types of smogs are pre sented. A study of air pollution sinks, both through the lower boundary to the earth and through the tropopause to the upper levels of the atmosphere illustrates how pollutants are eliminated from the air. Water bodies, open lands, plants and lungs of living creatures are considered as some of the sinks on the surface of the earth, while strato spheric ozone layer is a sink at the upper levels of the atmosphere. To account for localized variations of pollu tion, dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere from point, line, and surface sources are pre sented and the concept of atmospheric modeling is introduced. Throughout the presentation of this global reactor model, the principles of global material and energy balances are repeatedly emphasized so that the students realize that whatever pollution is emitted to the atmosphere, eventually is going to be removed in the sinks in the boundaries of the reactor. At this stage, the student, in principle, is cap able of predicting the fate of and concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. The effects of air pollutants on the atmospheric environment are discussed by presenting such topics as ozone layer depletion, acid rain, and visibility reduction. Air pollution damage to vegetation and materials is followed by the effects on human and animal health. The student at this time is quite familiar with the behavior of different gaseous and particulate pollutants and therefore the analysis of their effects is no longer a case study. For example, the dependency of particle capture rate on the particle size in the lungs is not a matter to be accepted and memorized. The student recognizes the relative significance of interception, sedi mentation and diffusion, so he or she can deduce the concept of lung deposition. Once the effects of air pollutants are studied, the safe limits of pollutants and the existing un certainties in these limits are discussed. Air 170 pollution regulations are presented under the two classes of receptor and emittor standards. A brief summary of air pollution measuring techniques completes the section on the fundamentals of air pollution. In the second half of the course, control tech nology is taught. Again the ground is laid by re viewing the basic chemical engineering principles to show the thermodynamic and rate limitations on the formation of pollutants. Material balances are used to calculate the emission rates. An energy balance is used to calculate the combustion and outlet stream temperature. Chemical equilibria show the thermodynamic limitations on the formation of pollutants. Finally, chemical kinetics explain the rate phenomena and the time factor involved in the formation of pollutants. This re view is usually repetitious to chemical engineers, but it is required for the understanding of the rest of the discussion. Therefore, it must be taught if non-chemical engineers are present in the class. At this stage, emission inventories and emission factors are briefly reviewed. Incinera tion is discussed as the first control technology. As another application of the basic principles, auto mobile emission control is presented. Again the discussion is based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles; therefore the student can deduce the outcome of most of the control techniques. Control of gaseous emissions by absorption and adsorption and the sizing of equipment are discussed. The students are continuously reminded of the economic limitations of gas cleaning pro cesses so that they realize that, even with the best available control technology, the exhaust stream will contain some low levels of pollutants which need to be properly disposed into the at mosphere. The stack as a means of this dispersion of pollutants is described and its design methods are exercised. However, it is also emphasized that "dilution is not a solution to pollution" and what ever is released into the atmosphere will eventual ly return to the earth in some form. A theoretical discussion of the aerodynamic capture of particles and the forces responsible for the collection and separation of particles precedes the particulate control section. Particulate control equipment is divided into two groups; the equipment in which a specific body force results in the separation of the particles from the carrier gas, and the equipment which operates on the basis of the aerodynamic capture CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of particles by an object or obstacle. In the first class, settling chambers, centrifugal separators and cyclones, and electrostatic precipitators are discussed. In the second class, filtration and wet scrubbing are described. For every type of equip ment, the operating principles and the physical construction are presented first, followed by design principles and equations. Emphasis is placed on sizing of equipment calculation of collection efficiencies, and pressure drops. The final part of the course is based on com paring particulate control equipment. The criteria for the selection of suitable equipment is pre sented and the guidelines to achieve an economical design are discussed. At present, there seems to be a need for the coverage of flue gas desulfuriza tion and other special topics, but due to time limitations these have not been incorporated in the course. Table 1 gives a more detailed course outline. I-Fundamentals of Air Pollution TABLE 1 Course Outline plumes Introduction to air pollution Atmosphere, a huge chemical reactor Chemical Constituents of the Atmosphere Gaseous pollutants Particulates Physical Constituents of the Atmosphere Electromagnetic radiation, solar radiation Radioactivity, ions and atmospheric electricity Interaction of Radiation with Gases Absorption and emission of radiation by gaseous molecules Photoionization and photoexcitation of gases Principles of photochemistry Aerosol Particles Formation of particle s by homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations Growth of particles by coagulation Knudsen number and regimes of particle dynamics Brownian motion and phoretic forces Interaction of Radiation with Particles Optical properties of particles: Mie scattering and Rayleigh scattering Atmospheric Heat Balance Radiative heat transfer Atmospheric layers and solar radiation Energy balance of the earth Greenhouse effects Atmospheric Fluid Dynamics Macrometeorology and general circulation Cyclones and anticyclones Planetary boundary layer and wind profiles Temperature profiles and lapse rate Verticle motions in the atmosphere Atmospheric stability and inversions Sources of Air Pollution Natural and anthropogenic sources Emission inventories Atmospheric Chemistry Photochemical smog Sulfurous smog Miscellaneous atmospheric reactions Sinks of Atmospheric Pollution Sinks at the earth's surface: water bodies, earth, vegetation, animals Sinks at the upper layers of the atmosphere Atmospheric Dispersion Gaussian plume and ground concentrations Dispersion of particulates and their deposition from FALL 1982 Dispersion from line and area sources Modeling of atmospheric dispersion by unicell and multicell techniques Effects of Air Pollution Global atmospheric effects: ozone depletion Regional atmospheric effects: acid rain Localized atmospheric effects: visibility reduction Effects on vegetation Effects on material Effects on human health Direct and indirect exposure Lung and its defense mechanisms Effects of gaseous and particulate pollutants on the respiratory system Other effects of pollutants on health Air Pollution Regulations Sampling and Analysis of Air Pollutants Management of Air Pollution II-Control Technology and Design Basic Principles Material balance Energy balance Chemical equilibria Reaction rates Emission Inventories and Emission Factors Incineration Automobile Emissions and Control Fuel tank, carburator and crankcase emissions Exhaust gas emissions and its control Absorption Adsorption Dispersion of Pollutants From Stacks, Stack Height Particle Size Distributions Collection Efficiencies and Penetrations Grade Efficiencies and Overall Efficiencies Aerodynamic Separation and Capture of Particles Gravity, centrifugal and electrostatic forces Calculation of particle trajectories and stop distances Capture of particles by obstacles: impaction, interception, diffusion and seiving Particulate Control Equipment and Their Design Settling chambers Centrifugal separators, cyclones Electrostatic Precipitators Filtration, fabric filters Wet scrubbing Economics and comparative design of particulate control equipment 171

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TEXTBOOK In the past two decades several textbooks have been written for air pollution courses. Un fortunately, none of them can be used for the entire course. Some of these textbooks cover primarily the fundamentals [2-6], while others cover the control aspects [7-10] The textbooks that attemp;t to cover both the fundamentals and control [11, 12] do not place the desired emphasis on different topics. In addition, the sequence of topics in the textbooks is significantly different from the sequence of this course. Therefore no single textbook was found suitable for this course. For every topic, appropriate pages from different sources are recommended for reading. ASSIGNMENTS AND EXAMINATIONS Two types of assignments are normally given. Computational homework problems, through which the students learn to use the basic design equations, are assigned on a regular weekly basis. During the first few weeks, while the f unda mentals are being covered, not many computa tional problems can be given. Therefore, certain reading materials are assigned which are later tested by short quizzes. In order to minimize the memorization aspect of these assignments and im prove the creativity and critical thinking of the students, no direct questions are asked on the assigned reading material. The questions are in direct and require some creative thinking based on the studied material. Three one-hour exams and one final exam are given during the semester. These examinations are comp osed of questions similar to the ones in the short quizzes and compu tational problems. Since no direct questions are asked, all the examinations and short quizzes are handled on an open-book open-notes basis. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The described air pollution course which covers both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. This new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. The major objective throughout the course is to prepare the students to become creative thinkers capable of analyzing existing and future/new air pollution problems. This course, developed and taught at Okla homa State University, has attracted many su perior students from different engineering disci172 POSITIONS AVAILABLE Use CEE s reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate page $50; each additional column inch $20. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CHEMICAL ENGINEER ING: Must have a Ph.D excellent academic background, strong interest in teaching and research, and be a U.S. citizen or have permanent resident certification. Re sponsible for teaching undergraduate and graduate courses, supervising graduate research. Send resume, three references, transcripts, and statement of interest to: Dr. D. R. Paul, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engi neering, The Unjversity of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1165. Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Em ployer MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Tenure system faculty position. Opening for full-time faculty member, beginning January 1, 1983. Doctorate in Chemical Engineering re quired. Strong commitment to teaching and the ability to develop an outstanding research program is expected. Teaching and/or industrial experience desirable but not essential. Michigan State University is an affirmative action-equal opportunity and welcomes applications from women and members of minority groups. Send applications and name s of references to Chairman, Department of Chem i cal Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226. plines. It has successfully challenged the students and has maintained their interest and enthusiasm throughout the courses REFERENCES 1. Rossano, A. T. and Cota, H. M., J. of Air Poll. Cont. Ass., 2 8, 1106 (1978). 2. Ledb e tter, J 0., "Air Pollution," Part A. Marcel Dekker, 1972. 3. Perkins, H. C., "Air Pollution," McGraw-Hill, 1974. 4. Seinfeld, J. H., "Air Pollution, Physical and Chemical Fundamentals," McGraw-Hill, 1975. 5. Stern, A C., H. C. Wohlers, R. W. Boubel, and W. P. Lowry, "Fundamentals of Air Pollution," Academic Press, 1973. 6. Williamson, S. "Fundamentals of Air Pollution," Addison Wesley Publishing Co 1973. 7. Crawford, M "Air Pollution Control Theory," McGraw-Hill, 1976. 8. Hesketh, H. E., "Air Pollution Control," Ann Arbor Science, 1979. 9. Strauss, W., "Industrial Gas Cleaning," Second Edition, Pergamon Press, 1975. 10. Licht, W., "Air Pollution Control Engineering-Basic Calculations for Particulate Control," Marcel Dekker, 1980. 11. Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., "Air Pollution, Its Origin and Control," Second Edition, Harper and Row Publications, 1981. 12. Hesketh, H. E "Understanding and Controlling Air Pollution," Ann Arbor Science, 1972. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WORLD WIDE ENGINEERING CF Braun & Co is a world leader in the engineering and construction industry For more than 70 years we have provided a wide range of services to the process and power industries Our principal fields of activity are chemical and petrochemical plants oil refineries ore processing plants, coal gasification facilities and power gener ating sta tions Many of 9ur projects have been first of-a-ki nd utilizing new processes never before employed on a commercial scale We also have been involved in the emerging synfuels industry Our rapid growth has opened up many challenging opportunities and assignments for professional growth. Positions are available at our engineering headquarters in Alhambra California, and at our eastern engineering center in Murray Hill New Jer s ey .. PROVIDI~ lHE KEY TO CAREER ADVN-CEMENT BRAUN CF BRAUN & CO A SUBSIDIARY OF SANTA FE INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION

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i,H; POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH DONALD G. BAIRD AND GARTH L. WILKES Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Uni v ersity Bla c ksburg, VA 24061-6496 P OLYMER EDUCATION AND resea_rch is_ gra~ual!y becoming a part of every maJor umvers1ty m the country. At least some type of survey course in polymers is presented, and occasionally additional specific courses are offered, e.g. polymer processing, polymer synthesis, etc. Where more developed polymer programs are found, they are usually isolated in specific departments; the most common being chemistry, chemical engineering or materials engineering. A few universities have progressed to the point where separate polymer science departments now exist. At VPI & SU a unique interdisciplinary polymer program (referred to as the Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory [PMIL]) has evolved over the last five years and involves 11 faculty from five departments and some 70 gradu ate students and post-doctoral associates. The uniqueness of the program rests in the fact that it is truly interdisciplinary; with faculty cooperat ing in research and teaching activities. While other interdiscplinary groups or programs exist in the country, they often do not function smoothly due to interdepartmental or inter-college barriers. At Virginia Tech these bar .,r iers do not exist. Furthermore, the operation of this interdisciplin ary effort has joint Co-Directors, with one in the College of Arts and Sciences and the other housed Polymeric fluids require not only the application of a shear stress to maintain shear flow but additional normal stresses. The normal stress differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids in shear flow are more sensitive to changes in molecular structure than is viscosity. Copyright ChE D i -vision, ASEE, 198 2 174 l Chemical fogiamiag f \ i Materials Engineering Co Di r ector o College of Eng i neering Engineering Sc)e n ce_& M echani cs PMJL Mechanical Engineering College of Arts & Sciences Depa,tmeat i j co-Dfrectoc ot' l Chemistry --1 ?MIL PM! FIGURE 1. Schematic drawing of the Interdisciplinary Polymer Science Program {The Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory-PMIL) at Virginia Tech. in the College of Engineering (see Fig. 1). This minimizes any political biases and at the same time provides smoother operation in both edu cation and research. One example of cooperative research is a project entitled "High Performance Elastomers and Other Multiphase Organic Com posites" where five faculty from the departments of chemical engineering, materials engineering and chemistry combine their expertise in polymer synthesis, characterization rheology and process ing, and structure / property relationships to pro vide a complete understanding of novel elastomeric polymer systems. A second and similar example of the strong cooperative research is the newly established "Adhesion Center" where the princi pal aim is an understanding of the fundamentals of polymer adhesion. This center, which has ac quired major outside funding from the Office of Naval Research, was established through the co operation of four faculty members of PMIL who are housed in three different departments. From an educational viewpoint~ a chemical engineering student who is interested in pursuing polymer research is expected to obtain a basic level of proficiency in polymer synthesis and physical chemistry of high polymers while developing an expertise in either polymer processing or structure / property relationships. The remainder of this article focuses on the educational offerings in polymers within the Chemical Engineering De partment at Virginia Tech. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Polym e r re s earch in the department is carried out under the direction of either Professor Baird or Professor Wilkes. The general theme of Pro fessor Bai r d's research is the application of rh,eolo gy to polyme r and biopolymer processing, while that of Professor Wilkes i s directed toward the structure / property relationships in these same or related polymer systems. Although each has his own research interests, the cooperative aspects of the polymer group extends strongly into the program. (David Dwight, who is also a part of PMIL, holds a partial appointment in Chemical Engineering but contributes principally to the Donald G. Baird received his B S. (1969) and M S (1971) degrees from Michigan State University i n Mechan i cs of Materials He obtained his Ph.D from the University of Wiscons i n Madison i n 1974 under the guid a nce of A. S Lodge of the Rheology Research Center From 1974 to 1978 he was employed as a chemical research engineer at Mon santo's textiles res e arch laboratory in Pensacola Florida His work was primaril y concern e d with the processing of high modulus / strength fibers In 1978 he joined the VPI & SU faculty holding a joint appoint ment in the departments of Engineering Mechanics and Chemical Engineering In 1981 he was promoted to associate professor i n the Department of Chemical Engineering He has authored over 30 papers in the field of polymer rheology and processing and consults on a frequent bas i s with the polymer paper and food industries (L) Garth Wilkes rece i ved his bachelor's and master's degrees from the College of Forestry at Syracuse Un i versity Further graduate study was carried out at the Univers i ty of Massachusetts where ano t her master's degree (Polymer Science and Eng i neer i ng ) as well as a doctoral degree (Physical Chemistry) were obtained He joined the chemical engineering faculty at Princeton University i n 1969 and was activ e in the Polymer Materials Program In 1974 he received the outstand i ng y oung engineering faculty award at Princeton The theme of his research is the structure property behavior of synthetic and b i ological polymer i c systems In 1978 he accepted a full pro fessorship at VPI & SU within the Chemical Engineering Department In 1981 he was awarded an endowed cha i r position within the same department He participates in both teaching and research duties and se rves as a frequent consultant to the polymer industry. He is also Co Director of the Polymer Mater i als and Interfaces Laboratory He has publi s hed over l 00 scientific papers and contributed to numerous books (R) FALL 1982 Department of Materials Engineering; conse quently, his interests in polymer adhesion and surface analysis will not be highlighted here ) A contrast of Virginia Tech's efforts in polymer rheology with others shows that some groups approach non-Newtonian fluid flow be havior only from a theoretical viewpoint; they are often principally concerned with developing equa tions of state to describe the flow behavior of visco elastic fluids. Our efforts, however, are directed more toward the application of rheology for solv ing polymer processing problems, employing molecular as well as continuum viewpoints. This approach sometimes involves merely finding em pirical correlations between certain rheological properties and polymer processability. On the other hand, it may also involve using an existing constitutive equation in conjunction with molecu lar theory to model a polymer process. Since we study many fluids which are even more complex than common polymeric melts and solutions (two examples being liquid crystals and filled polymer systems), we are also concerned with the develop ment of rheological equations of state for these fluids. However, we tend to be motivated by a need for developing models which are useful for process calculations, as opposed to developing a model which is so mathematically complex that it is of little practical value for calculations and process design even though it may accurately de scribe rheological properties of polymeric fluids over a large range of conditions. The following description of several of our ongoing research programs illustrates the type of research which is carried out and emphasizes the coopera t ive nature of the research. The first examples extend from the work of Professor Baird. Polymeric fluids require not only the ap plication of a shear stress to maintain shear flow, but additional normal stresses. The normal stress differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids in shear flow are more sensitive to changes in molecu lar structure than is viscosity. We are presently investigating two methods (hole pressure and exit pressure) for measuring normal stresses which are related to fluid elasticity in a slit-die, using a technique called flow birefringence. These slit-die rheometers have potential for in-line monitoring and quality control of industrial polymer pro cesses. Because flowing polymer fluids become anisotropic, they can transmit polarized light. The birefringent patterns which arise are directly related to the state of stress or momentum trans175

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Our efforts ... are directed toward the application of rheology for solving polymer processing problems, employing molecular as well as continuum viewpoints. port at every point in the fluid. From the stress field various pressures related to fluid elasticity can be calculated from theory and compared to the directly measured values. Another project involves the rheology and in jection molding of filled polymers. Our first ob jective has been to determine what effect filler has on the non-linear rheological properties of polymer fluids. The second goal has been to deter mine whether the rheological properties can be described by constitutive models used for homo geneous polymer fluids. We are presently investi gating the possibility of using dimensional analysis to draw correlations between rheological proper ties, thermodynamic properties, and the final bulk physical properties which arise as a result of pro cess conditions. A particular processing problem of interest is weld-line formation. This study re quires an additional investigation of the structure and related properties at the interface between the two polymer fronts. To illustrate the diversity of our efforts in rheology, we are also involved with the modeling of soy flour dough extrusion cooking processes which lead to meat-like products ( these systems, of course, are polymeric in nature). This project involves an initial understanding of the transport mechanism for soy dough in an extruder, de termining the properties of the dough under pro cess conditions and developing a mathematical model for predicting relationships between power, torque temperature and output for various ex truder designs. This work will eventually be ex tended to predicting final extrudate texture and properties which will require an understanding of the structure property behavior of the final solid and how these relationships depend on pro cessing. These latter points are addressed more by the efforts of Professor Wilkes. This particular project involves all the concepts of momentum, heat and mass transfer plus rheology, thermo dynamics, kinetics, and structure / property re lationships. A last example of rheological studies is our research on liquid crystalline polymers, which in volves rheology, processing and bulk structure and properties investigations. Liquid crystals are an 176 intermediate state of matter between the isotropic liquid and crystalline solid state. Polymeric ma terials in the liquid crystalline state under shear generally have extremely low viscosity and can usually be processed to give bulk specimens with physical properties approaching those of metals Because liquid crystals are by nature anisotropic they may have unique rheological properties. We are presently studying their flow behavior in order to identify any unique flow properties which may require a different rheological equation of state than is used for isotropic fluids. Further more, after processing these polymers behave as if they are self-reinforcing. Our present investiga tion concerns the effects of injection molding conditions on the development of morphology, structure, and properties. The latter part of the research is carried out under the supervision of Professor Wilkes. Some of the other projects that are focused more on the structure-property behavior of polymeric solids include such phenomena as crystallization of polymers, synthesis and proper ties of ionic elastomers as well as block and seg mented copolymers, nonequilibrium behavior of network glassei;; and rubber modifications thereof and, finally, polymer compatability studies. In general, these studies, directed by Professor Wilkes, utilize a molecular approach with empha sis on experimental work. Typically, a student's graduate research project often involves at least two, and sometimes three, areas in order to es tablish a broader educational foundation in polymer science from which to work after leaving the university level. Several of these projects, as indicated earlier, overlap with those of Professor Baird where the input of processing and rheology help to provide insight into the nature of the final bulk properties that are studied ~DUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES Table 1 lists the polymer courses that are taught at Virginia Tech, some of which are given within the Department of Chemical Engineering. We will now address the various polymer science educational opportunities in chemical engineering both at the undergraduate and the graduate level. Undergraduate Courses At the undergraduate level, chemical engineer ing students may take as many as five courses in the area of polymer science (see Table 1). Two of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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these courses are taught within the Department of Chemical Engineering while three extend from the Department of Chemistry and Materials Engi neering. The latter three courses (which we will not address in detail) focus on (a) polymer synthesis, (b) polymer surface chemistry, and (c) applications of polymeric materials. In our own department the two principal courses at the under graduate level are "Introduction to Polymer Pro cessing" and "Introduction to Polymer Materials." In the case of the processing course, students are introduced to the concepts of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics which serves as a basis for teach ing extruder design, die design, and a qualitative description of processes such as film blowing and injection molding. The importance of processing on final structure and properties is also empha sized. However the general theme in the Intro duction to Polymer Materials course is to focus principally on the bulk properties of polymeric systems as found in the glassy, rubbery and semi crystalline states. The first part of this course also includes an introduction to polymer synthesis for those students who have not acquired this back ground through the polymer synthesis course given in chemistry. It also focuses some attention on the area of polymer characterization in order to provide an appreciation of the importance of molecular weight and molecular weight distribu tion effects While undergraduate students often TABLE 1 Polymer Science and Engineering Courses at Virginia Tech DEPT. INTRODUCTORY COURSES ChE Introduction to Polymer Materials ChE Introduction to Polymer Processing ChE Organic Chemistry of High Polymers Chem Polymer and Surface Chemistry MatE Applications of Polymeric Materials ChE ChE ChE ChE ChE Chem Chem ChE/ESM ESM MatE MatE MatE ME ME ADVANCED COURSES Polymer Structure & Morphology Rheo-optics of Polymers Technology of Elastomers Polymer Processing Advanced Applied Rheology Current Topics in Polymer Synthesis Physical Chemistry of High Polymers Introduction to Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Vi s coelasticity Modern Composite Materials Surface and Microphase Analysi s Adhesion and Bonding Lubrication Friction and Wear FALL 1982 do not take all of the polymer courses mentioned above, many often graduate with at least two of them. Graduate Level With respect to courses focusing on rheology, prior to the students taking the advanced rhe ology course they take non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, which prepares them for advanced polymer processing topicssuch as the modeling With respect to courses focusing on rheology, prior to the students taking the advanced rhyology course they take non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, which prepares them for advanced polymer processing topics ... of film blowing processes, blow molding and injec tion molding. The latter advanced course is offered for students interested in molecular theories of rheology. Three additional courses emphasizing the structure / property behavior of polymeric solids are taught. The first, called Polymer Struc ture and Morphology, focuses on the area of rubbery elasticity behavior as well as the crystal lization of polymers. The second course, Rheo optics of Polymers, discusses the use of electro magnetic techniques for the purpose of charac terizing polymeric materials. Examples of such techniques are light scattering, X-ray diffraction, birefringence and linear dichroism. The third course, Technology of Elastomers, is jointly taught by Professor Wilkes of Chemical Engineering and James McGrath of the Department of Chemistry. This course brings together both the chemistry of elastomers and some of their performance charac teristics, but carries a stronger industrial flavor than most of the other polymer courses. SOURCES OF RES EARCH SUPPORT Support for our research comes from both in dustry and governmental agencies. Most support is for specific research projects. However, contri butions of unrestricted funds are also made through PMIL (The Polymer Materials and Inter faces Laboratory) and represents many companies. This diversified funding illustrates our ability to carry out research at both the very fundamental level and the applied level in the field of polymer science. This has important ramifica tions as far as our students are concerned since it demonstrates that both types of research are Continued on page 180. 177

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CATALYSIS J.M. SKAATES Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 A TEN WEEK SURVEY COURSE in catalysis was designed to meet the needs of both chemistry and chemical engineering graduate students in Michigan Tech's Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. The aim of the course is to show how modern chemistry and chemical engineering interact in the ongoing development of industrial catalysts. As the course developed, it attracted the attention of graduate students in metallurgy who were grappling with chemical phenomena in their research in physical and extractive metallurgy. The course outline is given in Table 1. The ap pearance of Gates, Katzer, and Schuit's Chemistry of Catalytic Processes, McGraw-Hill, New York (1979) provided an organizational framework. This text is incisive, mercifully slender, and contains challenging homework problems at the end of each chapter. To maintain the pace shown in Table 1, a series of sixty-five transparencies showing chemical structures and reaction mechan isms were prepared for use with an overhead pro jector. At the beginning of the course each student is given photocopies of all sixty-five trans parencies. Constant reference is made to a wall hung periodic table, and to a well-known organic chemistry text (Morrison and Boyd) which most students own. At the beginning of the course the students are asked to read two articles [1 J which contrast industrial processes with textbook organic chemis try. Then a quick review of the active site theory and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism is given for the benefit of students who have not taken the undergraduate chemical engineering kinetics course. Modern surface analysis tech niques are described in a series of notes. The discussion of thermal cracking is extended to cover computer modeling of ethylene manuCopyright ChE Divisitn1, ABEE, 1982 178 facture [2] and recent research on high-severity pyrolysis [3]. The catalytic effect of the tube wall is demonstrated [4]. A set of notes entitled "Physi cal properties of coal-derived liquids as affecting their chemical processing" summarizes the work of Ubbelohde on melts of polynuclear aromatics and of Marsh on formation of semi-cokes from aromatic liquids. A seminal paper by Virk [5] provides a framework for understanding chemical processing of aromatic liquids. Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons is covered next, and the textbook treatment is supple mented by a study of the Socony-Mobil methanol to-gasoline process over shape-selective zeolites. This provides an opportunity for examination of various processes for obtaining liquid fuels from coal. The advantages of the coal synthesis gas methanol gasoline route are emphasized. An historical approach is taken to solid catalyzed reactions, with the search for the "active site" being the main theme. For the benefit of metallurgy students the enhanced reactivity at emergent dislocations is discussed on the basis of an excellent review article [6]. Three lectures are J. M Skaates received his B.Sc. (1957) at Case Institute of Tech nology and M.S. (1958) and Ph.D. (1961) at Ohio State University in chemical engineering. He worked at Califo~nia Research Corporation for three years before joining the faculty of Michigan Tech. His teaching duties have included undergraduate and graduate courses in thermodynamics and kinetics, an undergraduate course in process control, and graduate courses in catalysis and in process optimization He has been involved in research in catalysis, biomass pyrolysis, and wet oxidation. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of proposed mechanisms for five important industrial reactions. It is emphasized that mechanisms are never finally "proven," but are working hypotheses reflecting present knowledge. devoted to the work of Somorjai on clean metal surfaces, with special attention to his parallel studies on iridium, platinum, and gold [7], and the linking of the unique catalytic activity of platinum to the high density of states at the Fermi level. Surface reconstruction on platinum-rhodium screens during the oxidation of ammonia is used to illustrate that interaction of surface metal atoms with adsorbates profoundly affects the metal-metal bonds. The geometric and electronic theories of catalysis by metals are represented as reflecting primitive ideas of metal surface morph ology and bonding in metals. The synthesis and catalytic properties of metal cluster compounds is presented as a third approach (after transition metal ions in solution and clean metal surfaces) for studying bonding of metal atoms. Bonding of ligands to the metal clusters is compared with chemisorption of gases on bulk metal surfaces. The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of proposed mechanisms for five important industrial reactions (Table 1). It is emphasized that mechan isms are never finally "proven," but are working hypotheses reflecting present knowledge. As an illustration, the electronic theory of catalysis, as applied to semiconducting metal oxides, fails to explain the baffling Schwab-Parravano dis crepancy. Oxidation of hydrocarbons by oxygen supplied from an inorganic oxide lattice illustrates that a novel idea, tested with simple apparatus [8], can have a big economic payoff. On the other hand, millions of dollars of research failed to uncover a TABLE 1 Course Outline WEEK TOPICS COVERED 1. Theory of active sites Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms and rate equations Survey of modern surface analysis techniques. 2. Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons: Free-radical mechanisms Cracking of aromatics Recent trends in thermal cracking 3. Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons: Carbonium ion formation on solid surfaces Carbonium ion mechanisms Silica-alumina catalysts Zeolite catalysts Socony-Mob:l methanol-to-gasoline process 4. Chemistry of transition metal ions Zeiss' salt Wacker Process for acetaldehyde from ethylene Oxo Process Designing liquid-phase homogeneous catalyst reactors. 5. Types of defects on solid surfaces Emergent dislocations as active sites Surface morphology H-H, C-H, and C-C bond breaking on steps and kinks of metal surfaces Surface reconstruction during catalytic reactions 6 Geometric theory of catalysis on metals Electronic theory of catalysis on metals Surface compound theory of catalysis on metals Metal alloy catalysts FALL 1982 7. 8. 9. 10. Supported metal catalysts Experimental techniques for characterizing supported metal catalysts Reforming of hydrocarbons Octane and cetane numbers Modeling catalytic reforming reactors Properties of small metal crystallites Interaction between metal crystallites and the support Metal cluster compounds Metal-metal bonding Bonding of carbonyl groups Bonding of hydrogen Ammonia synthesis mechanism Hydrocarbon synthesis by CO reduction Proposed mechanisms for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Proposed mechanisms for the methanation reaction Design of methanation reactors Mechanisms involving electron transfer between adsorbate and metal oxides Catalysis on semiconductors Electronic Theory of Catalysis as applied to semiconducting metal oxides Oxygen transfer from the solid oxide lattice Synthesis of acrolein and acrylonitrile from propylene Complex oxide catalysts Perovskite structures Scheelite structures Automobile exhaust converter catalysts 179

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TABLE 2 Articles Assigned for Outside Reading and Evaluation 1. Witcoff, H., "H ow It's Really Done," CHEMTECH, December 1977, p 753 CHEMTECH, April 1978, p. 229. 2. Riggs, W. M., and Beimer, R. G., "H ow ESCA Pays Its Way" CHEMTECH, November 1975, p. 652. 3. Kearns, J. D., Milks, D. and Kamm, G. R., "Develop ment of Scaling Methods for a Crude Oil Cracking Reactor Using Short Duration Test Techniques," paper presented to the Division of Petroleum Chemis try, 175th National Meeting of the American Chemi cal Society, Anaheim (1978). 4. Hall, James W., and Rase, Howard F., "Relati on Be tween Dislocation Density and Catalytic Activity and Effects of Physical Treatment" I and EC Funda mentals, 3, 158 (1964). 5. Johnson, 0., "Classification of Metal Catalysts Based on Surface d-Electrons," J. Catal., 28, 503 (1973). 6. Callahan, J. L., Grasselli, Robert K., Milberger, E. C., and Strecker, H. Arthur, "Oxidation and Ammoxidation of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst," I and EC Prod. Res. Rev., 9, 134 (1970). satisfactory metal oxide replacement for platinum in the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons in auto mobile exhaust Student evaluation of this course has been favorable, and their comments indicate that the excitement of catalyst research is "catching." The limitations of current chemical theories are evi dent in trying to understand many catalysts. Playing a "hunch," or serendipity, often lead to valuable catalysts and also to new chemistry for the theorist to interpret. D REFERENCES 1. Witcoff, H., "How It's Really Done," CHEMTECH, December 1977, p. 753, CHEMTECH, April 1978, p. 229. 2. Shah, M. J., "Computer Control of Ethylene Produc tion," Ind. Eng. Chem., 59, 70 (1967). 3. Ennis, Boyd, an d Orris, "Olefin Manufacture by Millisecond Pyrolysis," CHEMTECH, November 1975, p. 693. 4. Dunkleman and Albright, "Pyrolysis of Propane in Tubular Flow Reactors Constructed of Different Materials" ACS Symposium Series, No. 32, p. 261 (1976). 5. Virk, C hamb e rs, an d W oebcke, "Thermal Hydrogasifi cation of Aromatic Compounds," ACS Advances in Chemistry Series, No. 131 (1974). 6. Thomas, J. M., "Enhanced Reactivity at Dislocations in Solids," Advances in Chemistry, 19, 293 (1969). 7. Somorjai, G. A., "Active Sites in Heterogeneous Catalysis," Advances in Catalysis, 26, 2 (1977). 8. Ca llahan, J L. et. al., "Oxidation and Ammoxidation of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst" I and EC Prod. Res. Dev., 9, 134 (1970). 180 POLYMER RESEARCH Continued from page 177. compatible. In summary, our objective is to pro vide the student with an understanding of molecu la r and continuum approaches and an under standing of the behavior of polymeric systems. We try to emphasize the need of understanding both the chemistry of these macromolecular systems and their enginee ring properties. All st udents receive a similar background in coursework. Along with the courses mentioned above, 11 other polymer courses (including such topics as polymer synthesis, physical chemistry of polymers and surface analysis) are available in the four other departments participating in the interdisciplinary gr oup. Because of the large number of graduate students now in our program, even the advanced courses are offered on a routine basis. As a final note concerning educational aspects extending from chemical engineering in the polymer science area, we might point out that there are several industrially oriented polymer short courses offered at Virginia Tech each year. The s e courses are taught jointly through the polymer oriented chemical engineering faculty as w ell as other faculty membe rs of the PMIL group. In short, we now offer the most extensive continuing education program in polymer science through a short course format than any other uni vers it y in the nation. SUMMARY In this article we have attempted to outline the new growth in the polymer area at Virginia Tech, with emphasis being placed on the role of the Department of Chemical Engineering. The overall polymer science effort, as indicated, extends beyond a single department, encompassing five departments across two colleges. The growth of this program has been enormous in the last three years as a result of cooperative efforts of a truly interdisciplina ry nature. The overall program, part of which is focused in chemical engineering, has become a highlight of the Virginia Tech camp us and one which we anticipate will become even stro n ger in the future. It has achieved con siderable outside funding and has developed modern research facilities necessary for gradu ate research. Inquiries concerning information about Chemical Engineering and the Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory can be di rected to either of the authors of this article. D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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What to look for in choosing your first job. An intelligent first job assessment is often diffi cult. There are important questions you should ask because the answers to these questions relate to how fast your career will move ahead. One key question is How much responsibiity will I be given at the beginning? At Rohm and Haas, quite a lot. We seek out the highly motivated person who not only wants respon sibility but aggressively goes after it. We place a lot of importance on helping you in your chosen area of specialization and your desired career direction We call this "growth through re sponsibility." We give it to you from the beginning. As a result you can grow in the direction your expanding talents can take you. Also, top priority is given to individual develop ment programs to ensure that all employees have the same opportunities for advancement Our products are used in industry, agriculture and health services; therefore, we need responsible people with solid academic backgrounds who can contribute to our mutual growth. Our open ings are in Engineering, Manufacturing, Research, Technical Sales, and Finance. If you want to know more about us see your College Placement Of fice, or write to : Rohm and Haas Company Recruiting and Place ment #1882, Independence Mall West Philadelphia PA 19105. ROHMD !HAAS~ PHILADELPHIA, PA 191D5 An equal opportunity employer.

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ti Na curriculum 1981 AIChE-EPC SURVEY DEE H. BARKER Brigham Young Un iv ersity Provo, UT 84112 THE EDUCATION PROJECTS Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers has carried out surveys of the undergraduate curricula in chemical engineering since 1957 [l, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The survey reported in this paper was carried out during 1981. The form, which was similar to that used in the past surveys, was sent out in the middle of June and requested its return by the first of September 1981. The questionnaire was to be based on the curricula as of September 1, 1981. The survey was sent out to all 149 schools listed in the 1980-81 Chemical Engineering Faculties [6]. Useable replies were received from 105 schools; the best response that has been given to the survey. The results of the survey were coded on IBM punch cards and analyzed using standard statistical procedures. The results of this survey are presented in the accompanying tables. For purposes of comparison, the same format has been used as in previous surveys. In this way, a com parison can be made of the changes taking place in the curriculum since 1957 Table 1 presents the consolidated information under the categories shown in previous reports and is divided into three parts. The first set of columns shows the average number of semester hours, including all 105 schools. The second section shows the percentage of schools offering the par ticular category and the third section shows the average semester hours considering only those schools offering the particular category. In the area of unit operations theory, transport theory has made an increase as well as transport labs. Unit operation theory has decreased somewhat to accomodate the transport theory increase. Oo p yrigkt CkE D i'ViBi on, ASEE, 198 2 182 Dee Barker is professor and chairman of ChE at Brigham Young University. Dee earned the B S and Ph D. ('51) degrees from the University of Utah His industrial experience includes seve r al years with du Pont in nuclear engineering and with Hercules Inc ., in atmospheric pollution, heat transfer, and materials development. He has served foreign assignments at Provo Institute of Technology and Science at Pilani Rajasthan, India and Birla Institute of Technology and Science. Dee's fields of interest include nuclear engineering, fluid dynamics heat transfer, process control and environmental control. The changes in the curricula, since 1957, in four categories are shown in Figs. 1 through 4 Figure 1 shows the total semester hours offered and indicates a slight increase in the net number of credit hours since 1957. However the change is 1 9 5 7 196 1 1 964 1 972 1 97 6 198 1 1 0 0 TOTAL IN S EMESTER H OURS SH l 136.9 I 1 3 a .2 I 134. 3 J 131. 7 I 131 .2 1 132 7 I I I I I 11 0 1 20 130 14 0 150 FIGURE 1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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TABLE 1 B ChE Curriculum 1 9 57, 1 96 1, 1 96 8, 1 9 7 2 1 9 7 6 1 9 81 Av~ Number of SH Scho ol s Offe rin 9, % Avg SH \.:hen Offe re d .illl .illl. Jill. Jill. .!ill .illl .illl. Jill. Jill. .!ill .illl .!ill. Jill. Jill. .!ill 6 Gross Credi t s, SH 147 .o 146. 2 1 36 8 l ll l 132 5 1 33. 4 7 Net C r edits SH 1 3 6 9 1 38 2 1 34 J 13 1. 7 131 2 1 32. 7 a N ON -T ECH NI CAL S TUDI ES 9 Wr i t ten Commu n t cation 6 5 5 9 4 9 3 5 3 3 4 6 98 8 97 8 92 8 7 4 0 72 0 89 5 6.6 6 0 5 J 4.8 4 5 5 1 10 O ral Commu ni cat ion 1.1 1 o 0 8 0 6 0 7 0 .6 43 2 45 6 28 9 25 0 JO O 24.5 2 4 2 J 2 7 2 6 2 J 2 5 1 1. Subtota l Items 9-10 7 6 6 9 5 6 4 3 4 o 5 1 98 8 97 8 92 P, 79 0 77 0 88 6 7 7 7 .1 6 0 5 .4 5.2 5 8 1 2 Humanities, Requi r ed 4 0 5 4 4 9 4 9 5 1 5. 3 6!. 0 72 7 66 3 57 o 62 0 66 7 6 J 7 6 7 5 8 5 8.2 8 .0 13 S ocial Studies Required J l 2 7 2 5 2 9 2 8 3 1 59 l 55 4 39 8 44 0 38 0 45 7 5 9 4.8 6 2 6.6 7 3 6 7 14 Ot her Req. Soc Hum. 1. 3 1. 5 1.5 1. 5 1. 2 1. 0 ?.2 2 20 7 22 9 2 1 o 20 .0 14 J 5 7 7 J 6 7 7 4 6 1 6 9 1 5 Non technical Electives 6 7 6 9 8 10 2 9 1 8 9 i6 5 82 6 79 5 79 0 77 0 73 J 8 3 9 2 1 2 3 12 8 il. 8 1 2 .1 16 Subtotal I tems 12 -1 5 14 7 17 2 19 1 2') 0 18 9 18 S 1 00 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 100 0 14 7 17 2 19 1 20 0 16 9 18 8 17 P h ys i cal Education, et c 1. 8 1. 9 1.2 0 9 o s 0 8 :>0 6 5 1. 6 44 6 36 0 33 0 30 5 J 5 J 7 2 .8 2 6 2 5 2 6 18 Military Studies 3 : 9 0 8 0 4 U 11 0 1 ~ 8 1 49 0 18 1 5 0 1. 0 J 8 6 5 6 0 4 4 7 7 2 0 3 .o 19 O ther non te c hni cal 0 :5 0 3 0 4 0 5 1.1 0 9 23 5 14 1 19 3 14 o 28 0 19 0 1. 3 2 0 2 2 l. 4 4 1 4 5 20 Subtotal Items 17 1 9 5 2 5 2 2 0 1. 9 1 r1 1. 8 ::,1 4 !l 77 2 54 2 44 0 43 0 40 0 6 2 6 6 J 7 4 5 J 5 4 4 21. Total Items 11 16 20 27 2
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small and probably not significant. Figure 2 represents the changes in Humanities and Social Sciences and shows an increase of 2.6 % Figure 3 indicates that there has been little change in the Chemistry offerings of the various departments since the last survey was undertaken. The figure represents both advanced chemistry HU MAN ITIES SH ( % of C u r r i cu lu m) 19 57 1-______ ____._l_ l '-' 4 '-'. 7 _, ( ..,_ 11 '-'l --, 196 1 I 17 2 (12) 1 968 I 18 l ( 1 3) 1 912 I 20 ( 1 si 197 6 I 18. 9 ( 14 l 198 1 1 21.5(16.1 ) I 10 1 2 I I 14 1 6 FIGURE 2 C HE M I S TRY SH ( % of Curri c ul um) I 1 8 20 22 1957 1-----------------r--~ I 3 0.8 (22) 196 1 I 28.9 (2 1 l 1968 1------.------'1 2 4.4 (17:, 1912 I 22 .9 ( 1 7) 19 7 6 I 23 ( 1 8) 19 8 1 1 23.3 (17.5) I I I 20 22 24 2G 28 30 32 FIGURE 3 COMMUNICATIONS % SCHOOL OFFERIN G 19571-______________ ...,I 98.8 1961 I 97 .8 19681---------.--------'' 92 8 1972 1---------.~' 79 1976 I n 1981 ___________ _.1 89 I I I I I 60 70 80 90 100 11 0 FIGURE 4 184 and introduction chemistry. In reference 5 (reporting the survey in 1976), concern was expressed for the decrease in com munications offered by the various schools. This has improved greatly since 1976; today 89 % of the schools present some material. The survey also indicates that communications was being covered in seminars and in lab courses and was not re corded explicitly with a given number of classes. The earlier surveys (prior to 1976) did not include an analysis of the actual course offerings TABLE 2 B. ChE. Curriculum; Sub-Categories Avg. SCH % Offering when Offered 1976 1981 1976 1981 MATH Analytical Geometry 53 Calculus 89 Differential Equation 94 Linear Algebra 36 Advanced Calculus 20 Complex Variables 6 Partial Differential Equations 16 Numerical Analysis 20 Digital Computing & Programming 79 A nalog Computations 7 Applie d Engineering Math 22 MECHANICS Statics Dynamics KINETICS 72 36 Chemical Kinetics 60 Chemical Reactor Design 73 UNIT OPERATIONS THEORY Transport Theory 68 Transport Lab 36 Equilibrium Stage 47 U.O. Theory 83 DESIGN C hE Design Process Synthesis INSTRUMENTATION Instrumentation Process Control Process Dynamics OTHER Mathematical Modeling Computer Applications in Chemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Polymer Processing Nuclear Engineering Environmental Engineering Other ChE required Chemical Engineering Electives 93 33 14 64 34 14 15 1 5 2 5 34 49 49 93 94 27 18 3 10 16 74 2 30 78 37 59 76 84 43 51 78 98 31 16 70 4 0 11 27 0 6 3 5 36 55 3.9 8.6 2.8 2.5 3.4 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.1 1.8 3.0 2.7 2.4 2.0 2.5 4.4 1.7 2.6 5.9 3.6 2.4 1.5 2.3 1.8 2.6 2.4 4.0 1.8 4 .5 4.1 2.3 7.1 4.1 9.3 3.2 2.4 3.1 1.7 2.6 1.9 2.3 1.8 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.1 2.6 4.8 2.2 2.5 5.3 4.1 2.4 1.6 2.5 1.8 2.1 2.1 0 2.3 4.5 5.2 2.3 5.3 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The categories of engineering design and engineering science have been lumped together ... since there was no way to determine from the survey forms which portion of the material is engineering science and engineering design. One of the problems facing educational accreditation is that of design in chemical engineering education. under math, mechanics, kinetic s etc. This survey (and the 1976 survey) asked fo r information relative to the different kinds of math, etc. Table 2 presents the results of this section of the questionnaire both for 1976 and for 1981. Intro ductory math is not included since none of the schools responding indicated that they were teach ing introduction or review math. In the area of unit operations theory, transport theory has made an increase as well as transport labs. Unit operation theory has decreased some what to accommodate the transport theory in crease. In addition, a larger number of schools are offering courses in instrumentation process control and process dynamics, which previously had been listed only as instrumentation. The distribution of course work as compared with the AIChE minimum was also calculated. This information is presented in Table 3. As can be seen, the basic science and advanced chemistry are somewhat low Part of this could be due to the w ay these categories w ere analyzed from the survey forms since some schools counted chemis try from the chemical engineering courses. Normally it is expected that all chemistry courses will be taught in the Chemistry Department and will be the same as taught in Chemistry. The dis tribution of course work was determined by taking selected items from the survey forms and using them to fit into the various categories. Some problem probably arose because of this arbitrary division. For instance, there may be some chemis try in the thermodynamics courses which is not included in the chemistry shown here. The categories of engineering design and engi neering science have been lumped together in Table 3 since there was no way to determine from the survey forms which portion of the material is engineering science and engineering design. One of the problems facing educational accreditation is that of design in chemical engineering education. Typically this comes from eight to ten different courses. The problem of defining design and look ing for it in the curricula is currently being under taken by the E & A Committee. The form also asked for the number of vacant tenure faculty positions, and 71 schools indicated FALL 1982 TABLE 3 Distribution of Course Work; 1981 Curricular Area Mathematics beyond Trigonometry Basic Sciences [Show Advanced Chemistry] Engineering Sciences AIChE Minimum (%) Avg. 12.5 13.6 25.0 24.3 (12.5) (11.7) Engineering Design, Synthesis, and Sy s tem s 25.0 l l 37.5 37.3 Humanities/Social Sciences Other Required Technical Course s Other Required Courses (Non Technical) Other Free Electives Total of "Other" TOTAL: Percent TOT A L CREDIT HOURS: 12.5 -+ -+ 12.5 16.1 12.5 100.00 8.7 100.0 133.4 that they had vacancies, for a total of 115 vacancies. The results of this part of the survey will be published in Chemi c al Engineering P r gress. In summary it appears that only minor changes have been made in the chemical engineering cur ricula since the last survey was undertaken. An other survey is planned in approximately four to five years. Any specific questions concerning books used and other material can be addressed to the author at Brigham Young University. REFERENCES 1. Th a tcher, C. M., Th e Chemical Engineering Cur riculum, Ch e m ic al Eng i n ee ri n g Ed ucati on, Sept. 1962. 2. Schmidt, A. X What is the Curr e nt ChE Curriculum? Jo ur nal of Eng i n ee ri n g Ed u c at ion, October 1958. 3 B a lch, C. W. Und e rgraduat e Curricula in Chemical Engin e ering 19 6 9-70, C h e m ica l Eng i n ee ring Ed u ca t ion, Vol. VI, No. 1, Winter 1972. 4. B a rker, D. H., Und e rgraduate Curricula in Chemical Engin e ering 1970-71, C h e m i c a l Engin ee ring Edu c a t io n Winter 1972. 5 Bark e r, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula 1976, Ch e m i c al Eng i n eeri ng Ed uc at i on, Spring 1977. 6. Ekerdt, John, Ch e mical Engineering Faculties 198081, Vol. 29, A publication of the Chemical Engineer ing Education Project s Committe ~ of the American Institute of Chemi c al Engineers. 185

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lilb#lclass and home problems The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular pri'neiple in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub mit them to Professor H. Scot Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. MINE-MOUTH GEYSER PROBLEM NOEL DE NEVERS Uni v ersity of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84102 PROBLEM On November 20, 1980, an oil well drilling rig, operating in the shallow waters of Lake Peigneur, Louisiana, accidentally drilled into an under ground salt mine. The hole increased rapidly in size and drained the lake, flooding the mine. Miraculously, no fatalities or serious injuries oc curred, although the property damage was very large. The incident is recounted by Michael Gold in, "Who Pulled the Plug on Lake Peigneur ?", Science 81 2 (9) (November 1981), 56-63. Figure 1 shows a sketch, roughly to scale, of the mine, lake, and drilling rig. From the text of the article, it is clear that there were two vertical shafts from the surface to horizontal galleries : a main shaft, and a smaller ventilation shaft. Which levels of the mine were open to each of the shafts is not clear in the article (or any other published description), so we should probably assume that each shaft was 186 MINE,NTRANCE ........... 1,500' MINESHAFf 1,800' FIGURE 1 open on all levels. In addition to the two vertical shafts, one or more inclined roadways connected the various underground galleries with each other, but not with the surface. The mine itself did not consist of simple cylindrical tunnels, as the sketch might suggest, but of a series of rooms, up to 100 feet square, with roofs up to 80 feet high, connected by galleries large enough for several trucks to drive through side-by-side. In one part of the article, the flow out of the ventilation shaft is described as follows: For some time, a powerful jet of air had been coming from the mine's ventilation shaft, Forced out by the incoming floodwaters below, the blast had kept the emergency elevator dancing around the top of the shaft like a paper kite in a stiff wind. Suddenly the rushing air halted, and a thick stream of water rocketed out of the shaft. The geyser climbed 400 feet into the sky, surged for 10 minutes, coughed up mud, and died. (Reproduced by permission of Addison Wesley.) The fact that the water flowing from the lake into the mine would expel the air in the mine is perfectly obvious. But, as we all know, "water seeks its own level." This report indicates that water which flowed from the lake eventually came out of the top of the ventilation shaft (a few feet above lake level) and jetted 400 feet in the air. That means that it "sought a level" 400 feet above the level it started at. (The article does not mention any such water flow from the main shaft of the mine.) Can the description of a 400 foot geyser possibly be correct? Were the observers, dazed by the other wild event of the day, mistaken about that? If it is correct, it must be explainable by the laws of fluid mechanics. Present an explana tion, in terms of those laws, with suitable diagrams and calculations. Copyright ChE D i v isi on, ABEE, 1982 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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----------------Noel de Nevers earned his BSChE at Stanford and his PhD at the University of Michigan with a year out in between to be a Fulbright exchange student at the Techn ica l Inst itute in Karlsruhe Germany He spent five years with what is now Chevron Research and Chevron O il field Research, before joining the faculty of the University of Utah. He spent Academic 1971-72 on leave, working for the Office of Air Programs of the Env ir onmental Protection Agency He is the author of a textbook on Fluid Mechanics and editor of a book of readings and discussion on Technology and Society SOLUTION In principle, the overall flow in the system is like that in a U-tube manometer. Inserting liquid into one leg of the U expels the less-dense air in the other leg. If the system had been a simple tube, we would expect the air to be expelled and the flow to stop when the liquid levels in both legs of the tube were the same. One may easily demon strate that in the laboratory. One may also show that an oscillation can be set up, with the levels in the two tubes moving up and down 180 degrees out of phase with one another. The behavior and mathematical analysis of such an oscillating mano meter are identical with that of a pendulum; if there were zero friction, they would oscillate for ever, just as a frictionless pendulum would oscil late forever. Such an oscillation represents the exchange of potential and kinetic energies between parts of the system, as does a pendulum. But, just as a pendulum can never swing higher than its initial position, so also this type of "manometer oscilla tion" can never take any of the fluid higher than the original position of the free surface of the fluid poured into the manometer. So, if only an orderly plugflow displacement of the air in the mine by the water from the lake had taken place, we could not have had such a fountain. However, if one of the legs of the U-tube is a mixture of air and water, then its average density is much less than that of the water in the other leg, FALL 1982 and it will not come to simple gravitational equi librium at the same level as the other leg. This is the basis on which coffee percolators and gas-lift pumps work. Fig. 2 is a copy of a problem from de Nevers, Fluid Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1970, which shows an analogous situation. One can easily set this up in the laboratory and show that, if one leg of the "equivalent manometer" is full of liquid while the other leg has a gas-liquid mixture, then the equilibrium level due to fluid statics alone will be higher on the gas-liquid side than the liquid side. This problem has be devilled everyone who has ever tried to make ac curate measurements with a small diameter mano meter in which it is difficult to purge all the air bubbles. Returning to the mine geyser, it seems certain that the geyser must have been caused by some of the in-rushing liquid finding a flow path which led it to the ventilation shaft before all of the air was expelled from the mine In that case, it would temporarily block that shaft, and the pressure of the trapped air in the mine would rise enough to FIGURE 2. Sketch of a fountain arrangement made of two glass jars with rubber stoppers, several lengths of glass tubing, a funnel, and a piece of rubber tubing. The level of the jet and the level of the water in the funnel are exactly the same. The space above the water in each bottle is full of air, as is the rubber tube connecting the two bottles. An inventor has come to us, telling us that with this arrangement the water will squirt high in the air, much higher than the water level in tfie funnel. Is he right? Explain your answer. 187

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MINE /NTRANCE '---1,500' MINESHAFT 1,800' FIGURE 3 expel it with considerable force. A hypothetical series of events which could have produced the jet is sketched in Fig. 3 (with only one shaft) First Stage: The flow into the 1300-foot level reaches the shaft and begins to flow down it, trapping air in the lower, 1500-foot level. With the water flow down the shaft, the air is unable to escape. Water displaces air from the upper levels, causing air to flow out of the shaft. Second Stage: The continued flow of water down the shaft to the lower level compresses the "bubble" of air remaining trapped in the lower level. Meanwhile, the upper galleries continue to fill, venting air through the shaft. (Fig. 4) Third Stage: Eventually, the air bubble in the lowest level reaches the pressure at which it is at or near hydrostatic equilibrium with the inflow ing water. Thus the water flow down the shaft slows and stops. This downflowing water was the seal which kept the bubble in place; now the bubble can begin to migrate up the shaft. As it does so, water flows in behind it. Once it begins to fill areas above the 1300 foot inflow level, it can again be driven up by the water. But now, the water above it in the system must be expelled to make room for it to escape. This causes that water to be expelled in the "mine-mouth geyser." (Fig. 5) This simplified picture, with only one shaft, cannot account for the description that the geyser "surged for ten minutes, coughed up mud, and died." If there were only one entrance, the geyser would have had to end with another air jet, as the bubble escaped. But with two shafts, one of which apparently did not show any liquid flow, the air bubble could have used one of the upper galleries to move from ventilation to main shaft, and escape 188 through it, thus ending the geyser without a final air jet. If the actual underground space had been a series of horizontal and vertical cylinders, then the surging might be hard to explain. But the actual space ( as reported in the article) was a room-and-pillar mine, consisting of many more-or less cubical rooms connected by much narrower rectangular vertical, horizontal, and inclined shafts. Thus the surging was most likely to be the result of the irregular flow of the air bubble through these various rooms and passages. If, as reported, the jet exiting from the air shaft went 400 feet in the air, then it exited with a velocity of roughly V = y'2gh = y' (2) (32 ft / sec 2 ) (400 ft) = 160 ft / sec (1) If, as shown above, the geyser flowed at 160 ft / sec, and the distance from the topmost gallery MINE/ NTRANCE '---1,500' MINE SHA FT 1,800' FIGURE 4 to the surface was 800 feet, then the geyser should only have lasted five seconds However, because of the irregular rooms to be filled and emptied, the actual volume ejected is not implausible. If we assume that the ventilation shaft was ten feet in diameter, had a velocity of 160 feet a second, and flowed steadily for ten minutes, then the total volume of water ejected would have been 56 x 10 6 gallons of water. This is a high estimate, because it assumes a 400 foot high geyser for the full ten minutes; a much lower estimate is more plausible because of the reported surging, perhaps a fourth to a tenth of this number. The total flow of water from lake to mine ( equal to the excavated volume of the mine) was 3.5 x 10 9 gallons. Thus this high estimate of the total liquid flow of the geyser is only 1.6 % of the estimated total flow CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of water from the lake to the mine. If a solid column of water had been flowing up such a ten foot diameter shaft at a velocity of 160 ft / sec, the pressure gradient due to friction above the hydrostatic gradient would have been AP 4f y 2 Ax = P 2( 2 ) To determine the fraction factor, we must esti mate the relative roughness of the ventilation shaft. Assuming that the individual surface roughnesses are one inch, we can estimate e 1 inch D = 120 inches = 0 0083 (3) and hence f = 0.009, lbm (4) (0.009) (62.4 ft s ) (160 ft/sec) 2 (10 ft) (2) (32.2lbm 1!_) ( 144 in2) lbf sec 2 ft 2 = 0.62 psi/ft (4) This pressure gradient is 1.4 times that of a hydrostatic column of water; it is clear that a simple filling of the "U-tube" could never produce pressure gradients of this magnitude within the fluid. However, from the sketch in the problem (taken from the Science 81 article), it appears that the shallowest gallery of the mine was 800 feet below the surface, and the deepest was 1500 feet below the surface. Thus, if there were a column of air 700 feet high from this deepest gallery to the shallowest, and if the bottom were in hydro static equilibrium with the lake while the top were facing an 800 foot long column of liquid open to the surface, a pressure gradient of ap proximately 0.38 psi / ft (above the hydrostatic gradient) would have been exerted on the liquid in the ventilator shaft. Comparing that to the above estimate, I infer that either I have over estimated the relative roughness of the ventilator shaft or that the observers overestimated the height to which the geyser went. This proposed solution is basically a hydro static solution. Before accepting it, we should consider alternative dynamic solutions. There are well-known devices, called hydraulic rams, which allow a liquid falling from level one to level two to pump some liquid to a level higher than level one. An illustrated description is given on page 195 of Brown and Associates' Unit Operations, Wiley, NY, 1950. Their operation requires quick acting valving, not likely to be approximated in FALL 1982 "--1,500' MINESHAFf 1,800' FIGURE 5 the mine flooding. However, the idea on which it is based deserves examination. If a column of moving fluid is suddenly stopped, it can generate high pressures. This is the subject of water hammer analysis. It shows, for example, that if a column of a slightly compressible fluid ( e.g., water, but not air) is stopped by closing a valve very quickly, the maximum pressure which will be generated in the region of the valve will be p = u[Kp]o. 5 (5) where P is the pressure, u is the original velocity before the fluid was stopped, K is the isothermal compressibility, and p is the density of the fluid. Inserting typical values for water, we find that, for an initial velocity of 10 ft / sec, the calculated pressure is 650 psi. This is high enough to damage equipment and rupture pipes; large hydraulic structures (e.g., hydro power plants) are designed to avoid the creation of this kind of pressure or to withstand it where it is unavoidable. But this kind of pressure can only be exerted on an unyield ing structure. It cannot propel a jet of fluid for any significant time or distance. If a mass of liquid is compressed to 650 psi and then allowed to do work by expanding (W = )F dx = )P dV) then the compressed liquid will return to its original volume and pressure if it expands 0.2 % Thus the amount of work of accelerating some of the fluid up the ventilator shaft could not easily have been obtained by allowing some other fastmoving body of liquid to be stopped suddenly and using the high pressure thus generated to drive a fountain. It certainly could not drive one for ten minutes. From the article in Science 81, it is clear that Continued on page 203. 189

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[9n?l1stirred pots RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING JOHN B. FENN Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 What follows is an imaginary dialogue that embodies the elements of many real conversations I have had with students. The two participants are SI SORP (Student In Search Of a Research Project) and PI NORA (Professor In Need Of a Research Assistant) SI: I hear you might have an opening in your group for a student ready to do thesis research in chemical engineering. PI : Right. Would you be interested? SI: It depends. I've heard that you work with molecular beams but I really don't know what they are or what they're good for. PI: Well, you might say that what we do is like playing billiards. We shoot individual molecules at surfaces or other molecules in a vacuum and see how they bounce. SI: I don't understand. It doesn't sound like chemical engineering to me. PI : Let me explain. Do you know anything about cyclotrons and other kinds of accelerators that physicists use, sometimes called atom smashers in the popular press? SI: I've heard about them and read some articles in magazines and newspapers. PI : Have you ever seen pictures of particle tracks in an emulsion, or a cloud chamber or a bubble chamber? SI: Yes, but I haven't thought that much about what they mean. PI: Look at it this way. Suppose you put a billiard ball on a table and hit it with the cue ball. What would happen? SI: The billiard ball would go in one dire<>tion and the cue ball in another. The particular di rections and speeds would depend upon how hard and how head-on the collision was. PI: Right. Now suppose you replaced the billiard ball with an egg. Copyright ChE Di11ision, ABEE, 1982 190 John Fenn received his B,A, from Berea College (1937) and his Ph D from Yale (1940) After a number of years spent in private industry he went to Princeton in 1952 and remained there until joining the chemical engineering department at Yale in 1967. He has been visiting professor at the University of Trento, Italy, Uni versity of Tokyo and Australian National University. He recently re ceived a Senior Scientist Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in West Germany He is the author of "Engines Energy and Entropy : A Thermodynamics Primer SI: Well, the same thing would happen, except that the egg's trajecto r y might be different because it isn't spherically symmetric like a billiard ball. If the cue ball were going fast enough the egg would break and splatter. Also, the cue ball wouldn't change direction quite as much. PI: Suppose the egg were hard boiled. SI: Then about the same thing would happen, except that the cue ball would have to be going faster to break the egg. And the result wouldn't be as messy. PI: In other words, you could tell the di:ff erence between a billiard ball, a fresh egg, and a hard boiled egg by observing the trajectories of the cue ball and its target before and after collision. In deed, you could learn something about their structure and behavior. SI: I see what you mean. PI: Well, that's what so-called scattering or collision experiments are all about. The tracks in photographic emulsions and cloud or bubble chambers that you've seen pictures of are tra jectory traces, usually of one of the collision partners and the fragments after collision. EsCHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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sentially, all our knowledge of nuclear structure and reactions has come from the study of such particle tracks. SI: Very interesting ... but I don't want to be a nuclear physicist. PI: Wait a minute. Nobody said anything about your becoming a nuclear scientist or engineer. Using an egg as an example of a target didn't mean that I thought you might want to raise chickens or make omelets I was just pointing out that what happens when objects collide can give information on their structure and properties. SI: OK, but I still don't see any connection with chemical engineering. PI: Let's look further. What are chemical engi neers concerned with? SI: Let me see. Well ... you know, making plastics, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals, refining petroleum, processing foodstuffs things like that. PI: Quite a variety, right? Now what do most or all of these activities have in common? SI: I guess you could say they all in v ol ve some sort of chemical reaction. Then, too, there is usually heating and cooling and mixing and dis tillation and ... fluid flow ... and ... PI: Good. You've just been reciting what chemi cal engineers once considered the basic building blocks of their discipline, the so-called unit operations. Actually, that term usually referred to physical phenomena like vaporization, crystal lization, fluid flow, heat transfer, adsorption and so forth. Chemical reactions were similarly classi fied in such categories as oxidation, reduction, alkylation, polymerization, hydrolysis, and the like, that were known as unit processes. But we can pursue this reduction to fundamentals even further. If you stop to think, you will realize that all of these unit operations and processes are based on the transport of mass momentum and energy and the transformation of composition by chemical reaction. SI: I see w hat you're dri ving at. The next thing you wi ll tell me is that all of these transport and reaction processes depend upon what happens w hen mol ecu les encounter each other. PI : Exactly. You can go to the head of the class. When we scatter a beam of molecules by another beam or a static cloud of molecules, and watch how they bounce, that is to say, what happens to their trajectories, we obtain information on their structure and the nature of the forces between them. The difference between what we do and FALL 1982 what atom-smashing physicists do is largely a matter of energy. Physicists are concerned with forces that hold the nucleus together and that relate to energies of billions of electron volts. Chemists are concerned with extranuclear phe nomena involving forces which bind electrons to the nucleus and hold molecules together. Chemical energies are always less than a few tens of electron volts. Incidentally, an electron volt per particle (atom or molecule) is equivalent to about 23 kcal / mol. Thus, we don't need and cannot use the billion volt beam energies that the nuclear physicists require and that make their accelerators so big and expensive. By the same token, we can not see individual collision events as they can. A particle travelling with energies in the millions or billions of electron volts can go through a photo graphic emulsion or a bubble chamber as if it weren't there. The energy required to make its track is a negligible fraction of the total. On the other hand, an atom or molecule with only a few electron volts of energy won't even make a dent in an emulsion, let alone a track through it. Conse quently, molecular beam scattering experiments of the kind we do depend upon bringing about as many collisions as possible that are as nearly identical as possible. Each collision contributes a little bit to the observed signal, usually an electric current obtained by converting the beam molecules into ions. SI: All rig ht. I can see ho w such experiments might tell us about the structure of atoms and molecules, but we already ha ve that information about practically all species the chemical engineers are concerned with. PI : That's quite true, but there is another difference between atom smashing and molecular beam scattering experiments. Consider reactive scattering events that change the composition or structure of at least one collision partner and are the primary interest of nuclear physicists. The energy which seems to count in bringing about nuclear reactions is translational kinetic energy. At least that is the only kind of energy that physicists have a handle on. Chemists, on the other hand, have long recognized that molecules can have several kinds of energy: translational, vibrational, and rotational energy, as well as electronic excitation energy. Most classical gas phase reactions experiments measure composition change with time in a container of reactants at a uniform temperature that can be varied from ex periment to experiment. Unfortunately, rotational, 191

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vibrational, and translational energies all change with temperature. Consequently, it is generally impossible to isolate the effects of these different forms of energy on the rate or mechanism of the reaction. Indeed, a molecular beam experiment 20 years ago was one of the first bits of tangible evi dence that translational energy was not a very im portant component of activation energy in some reactions. Since then, of course, hindsight and laser experiments have everybody convinced that vibrational energy is much more important in many, if not most, reactions involving reactants with more than one atom. SI: A re you saying that excited state inter mediates are not important in nuclear reactions? PI : I guess that's what I am implying, but I should retreat a bit because I am not expert in nuclear affairs It does seem that physicists can't control internal (nuclear) energy states of collid ing partners as readily as chemists can control vibrational and electronic excitation. Conse quently, the role of excited internal states in nuclear reactions is not as clear as it is becoming in chemical reactions. But there is still another difference in kind between atom smashing and molecular beam scattering experiments. SI: What is that? PI: We have been talking so far about reactive scattering. There are two other kinds of collisions that are more important to chemists and chemical engineers than to nuclear physicists. Elastic collisions are those in which both momentum and translational kinetic energy are conserved but there is no change in the structure or internal energy state of either collision partner. Then there are inelastic collisions in which there is no change in structure but there is a change in the vibrational, rotational or electronic energy of one or both partners. The trajectories of the partici pants in these kinds of collisions generally re spond less to intrathan to inter-molecular forces that are generally repulsive when molecules are cl o se together, attractive when they are further apart. It is convenient to characterize these forces in terms of the work required to pull the molecules apart to an infinite separation, i.e., where the forces are zero. A plot of this work as a function of intermolecular separation is called an inter molecular potential because the work required for separation is equivalent to a potential energy. SI: Oh, I'm beginning to remember. Didn't we discuss something in our transport course called a Lennard-Jones potential which governs the 192 interaction between two molecules? PI: That's right. The Lennard-Jones or 12-6 po tential model assumes the actual potential is a simple sum of repulsive and attractive potential energies that are inversely proportional respec tively to the 12th and 6th powers of the distance between the molecules. The difference between these two powers leads to net repulsion when the molecules are close together and net attraction when they are far apart. Real potentials are more complicated and cannot be accurately described in terms of only two parameters. For many engi neering approximations, a Lennard-Jones model is sufficiently accurate to be useful. Which leads me to a question. Why did the subject of potentials come up in your transport class? SI: We were learning about the dependence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusion in gases upon the forces between molecules! In fact, don't I remember that it is possible to determine the parameters of a potential from measured v alues of the transport properties and the equation of state? PI : Correct. But there is a problem. These macroscopic properties represent the integrated or average result of collisions taking place over a wide range of energies, orientations and impact parameters (a measure of the head-on-ness of a collision). For any particular property and set of conditions, there are many combinations of po tential parameters that will match a computation with a given experiment. Consequently, it is hard to choose the best one. Moreover, one cannot be sure that a particular potential which matches computation and experiment over a particular range of conditions will give reliable results out side of that range. In addition, it frequently turns out that a potential that works for one transport property, e.g., thermal conductivity, gives unreal results when used to calculate another transport property, e.g., diffusion coefficients. SI: So what's different about potentials obtained from scattering experiments? PI: Such experiments probe the intermolecular potential much more directly and with greater sensitivity than macroscopic property measure ments. The net result is that potentials based on scattering experiments are more accurate, par ticularly at separation distances where attractive forces are important. Note that if one does the arithmetic correctly a calculation based on a par ticular potential can lead to only one possible value of a transport property for a particular CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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temperature and pressure. The converse is not true. There are many possible potential parameter combinations which can lead to a given value of transport property. SI: I'll take your word for that but it sounds more like science than engineering. Why should engineers do molecular beam scattering experi ments? PI : To answer that question I guess I need to know what you think engineers should do. SI: I belie ve engineers should be concerned with practical problems. At least they should try to solve problems in a practical and efficient way. More than that, I guess I belie ve that they should w ork on problems that have some commercial im pact or significance. If an engineer needs to know the visc osity and thermal conductivity of a gas to design a heat exchanger he can look them up in a handbook or measure them directly. All this business about molecular beams, scattering ex periments and in termolecular potentials sounds like pretty esoteric science to me. Maybe it's all rig ht for chemists, but chemical engineers? .... I dunno. PI : I understand your reaction. You say engi neers should be practical and efficient. If you need the value for a property like viscosity, "you could look it up" as Casey Stengel used to say. If a value isn't available then you could measure just what you need, but you wouldn't bother measur ing what you don't see an immediate need for. SI: Rig ht on. PI: Let's look at the heat exchanger problem a little further. Suppose an engineer is trying to design one as a preheater for a cracker but that the client isn't exactly sure what feedstock he will be using. Depending on the time of year and the market it may vary from a mixture of ethane and propane to a melange of several alkanes. In fact, suppose the client's specification calls for a design which can accommodate any arbitrary mixture of 30 hydrocarbons from C 1 to C 8 To simplify the problem for our purpose let's suppose that the mixtures would be binary. There are 450 possible combinations if we include like pairs, i.e., the case of a single species feedstock. Now let's assume that temperatures range from 300 K to 700 K and that the concentration of one component in the other can be anywhere from Oto 100 per cent. If we further assume that it would take measure ments at 10 concentrations to cover any unlike pair and at 10 temperatures to cover the range we're talking about, something like 42,000 data FALL 1982 points would be needed to map the entire tempera ture composition surface for any one property. If it took an average of only one hour for each point, two solid years would be required for the measurements. Of course, by judicious choices and by taking advantage of behavior similarities one could cut down substantially on the actual number of measurements required, but to obtain enough data would still be a formidable undertaking. SI: I agree, but how would scattering measure ments be any better? PI : As you might guess my choice of problem here was not entirely whimsical. A few years ago a student in my lab determined total cross-sections for the scattering of an argon beam by those 30 hydrocarbons. From these cross-sections she was able to obtain the so -called C a values, the co efficients of the r6 attractive term in the Lennard J ones potential. She found that the coefficient of the r1 2 repulsive term could be estimated from condensed phase densities, values for which are available. Then she made enough scattering cross section measurements of one hydrocarbon on an other to satisfy herself (and me) that the so called geometric mean mixing rule was effective enough to give reliable Ca values for any hydro carbon pair from the argon-hydrocarbon result. We haven't checked it out yet but we are reason ably confident that similar estimates can be made for the C 12 coefficients of the r12 term. In sum, from 30 measurements which took about two weeks after the machine was set up, we were able to get 450 C a values. Let's allow another six weeks to get estimates for C ,2 and to do a little cross checking. We would then have a Lennard-Jones potential for all possible hydrocarbon pairs. A computer could be programmed to handle this in formation and presto !-we can in principle get a printout of all transport properties at any temperature for any binary or multicomponent mixture of these hydrocarbons. I submit that this "esoteric science" is engineering at its best practical and efficient! SI: I'm impressed! But still, somehow that kind of research seems more like science than engi neering. I'm not quite comfortable with the prospect of a thesis on molecular beams. PI : OK. We'll come back to that problem in a minute. But first let me make another point about molecular beam research. Did you know that there are a number of articles and processes of com merce based on molecular beam technology? SI: Is that a fact? Tell me more. 193

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PI: To begin with there is the atomic clock. Until 1967 the standard unit of time, the second, was defined as (31,556,925.9747) 1 of the tropical year 1900 Since then it has been officially defined as the "duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of the atom of cesium 133." The device that provides a signal of the corresponding frequency to an accuracy of one part in 10 11 or 10 12 is a molecular beam apparatus that one can buy off the shelf. Thus any laboratory can have a primary time standard for not a whole lot more than a very fine Swiss watch! Much less than an astronomical telescope and computer. Then there are lasers, the direct descendants of the maser that was first em bodied in a molecular beam experiment. You may remember reading in the papers a few years ago about the uranium enrichment plant which West Germany had agreed to build for Brazil. Political pressure from the U. S. delayed the project but I understand it is now moving again. That plant was based on the so-called "trennduse" or separat ing nozzle process that stemmed directly from university research in Germany on the same kinds of molecular beam systems we use in our labora tory. One of the hottest high technologies in thin film-solid state electronics is called "molecular beam epitaxy" which permits the growth of single crystal-like films of very precisely controlled semi conductor compositions on appropriate substrates. The method allows in situ synthesis of complex compounds in layers whose thickness is measured in A ngstroms. At last count there were fifty or more companies and institutional laboratories de veloping this art and five companies engaged in manufacturing the equipment for it. SI: Golly I Molecular beams are getting to be big business, aren t they? PI : Yes, but that is neither the only nor the best reason for chemical engineering students to engage in molecular beam research. Let's go back to what you said a few minutes ago, that molecular beam research was more like science than engineering. You've mentioned some of the things engineers do. Let me hear how you define "engineering." What do you think are its es sential features? SI: I guess I woul,d say that engineering is the design, construction and operation of structures, plants and processes that p r oduce useful goods o r perform useful serv i ces. PI: Not bad. But what do you mean by "useful?" 194 SI: Hmm. I guess to be conside r ed useful in the sense I am thinking about something w oul,d ha v e to ha v e comme r c i al or market v alue. Of course an acti vi ty can be usef u l be c ause i t i s in fo r mat iv e or c onstit u t e s a n ex e r c i se fo r some body's talents, but I thi n k it w ould ha v e to r esult in actual or f orseeabl e market v alue to qualify as engineering. If the result w e r e only interesting but non-marketable then I gu e ss I would call the a cti v ity science. PI: Well, that is a conventional point of view, and very thoughtfully put, by the way, but it troubles me. Suppose somebody designed and built a microwave antenna dish as part of a relay station in a long distance communication network. That would qualify as engineering by your definition, wouldn't it? SI: Of course. PI: Now suppose that same person designed and built a similar antenna for use in radio astronomy simply to listen in on the stars. Would he be an engineer? Not according to your definition, I think. You would s ay he was a scientist. SI: That's a tough c all. PI : Let me try you again A former classmate of mine designed and built a reactor which comprises a 100,000 gallon tank. The reaction medium is perchlorethylene, dry cleaning fluid. The product is volatile and at very low concentra tion in the medium. To recover it, a recycling stream of inert gas is bubbled through the tank and passed through an adsorbent that captures the product selectively. Would the design, con struction, and operation of this system qualify as chemical engineering? SI: I w ould certainly say so. PI : OK. Now let me tell you that the product is a radioactive isotope of argon which is formed in extremely low yield when a neutrino flux passes through chlorine-containing material. The rate of formation in the tank is of the order of 5 to 10 atoms of argon per day! The whole purpose of the enterprise is to measure the neutrino flux from the sun. Is it still chemical engineering by your definition? SI: I think I' ve painted myself into a corne r My instinct tells me that in v ie w of its objective that p r oject should be called s c ience. Logically I must admit that it sure looks like eng i nee ri ng. PI: Why can't it be both? SI: What do yo u m e a n ? PI : I think that a lot of semantic confusion arises when we try to classify activities in terms C HEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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of why people do things rather than in terms of what they do. To me, engineering is the art of applying quantitative knowledge to the solution of various kinds of problems. It is really ir relevant whether the objective is to make a salable product or to obtain a publishable bit of informa tion. SI: You mean it's w hat a pe r so n does r ather than w hy he does it that counts? PI: Exactly. Especially from the standpoint of what kind of education and training he gets. Take farming for example. A poor man farms for money. He tries to make a living. A rich man often farms with money. He wants to lose money. That is, at least on paper so that he can claim a tax deduction. They both practice agriculture. My wife loves flower gardening and does it for purely aesthetic and recreational returns She also is practicing agriculture. Three people with entirely different motivations all practicing the same kind of art. SI: You mean that there is no difference between s c ience and enginee ri ng? PI : What I mean is that they are not mutually exclusive categories. An activity should not be considered as either science or engineering. In fact, engineering is an art that scientists practice. It is an art that people other than scientists also practice. In other words, all scientists are engi neers but not all engineers are scientists. Such an assertion would offend many scientists and more engineers but I think it is true. SI: I'll ha v e to think about that o ne PI: The important point is that engineering is an art; "the systematic application of knowledge and skill to achieve a desired result." In addition, an engineer must make educated guesses or hypotheses about what he doesn't know and put everything together in the design of a gadget, an experiment or a computer program aimed at achieving his objective. He then makes tests, modifies his design in light of test results, makes further tests and continues this iteration until his objective is realized within his limits of tolerance. SI: That sounds reasonable. PI: There's another point to be made. As in the case of any other art, engineering must be learned by practice. Like playing tennis, composing music or painting pictures, it can't be taught in the class room or learned from a book. The needed knowledge and the rules can be learned from books or in classrooms, but not the art of using FALL 1982 them. That must be practiced, preferably under the guidance and supervision of a master practi tioner. Medical schools are well aware of this truth and acquaint their students with the "factory", i.e., the hospital and clinic, early in their professional education experience. Later they serve an apprenticeship as interns and resi dents during which they practice the art of apply ing what they have learned, in association with and under the guidance of accomplished experts. SI: I'd ne v er thought of physicians and surgeons as enginee r s, but I see your analogy. PI: In a sense medical schools do a better job of engineering education than most engineering schools. Unfortunately, to provide the same kind of practical experience for its professional students a chemical engineering department would have to operate, or participate in the opera tion of, a chemical plant or an oil refinery. That just isn't feasible in a university. What a uni versity can do, is expected to do and be in the forefront of, is research. Research consists in learning all that is already known about some aspect of a subject, making guesses about what isn't known, designing an experiment or program based on this knowledge and the guesses, perform ing the experiment and then evaluating the result from the perspective of previous knowledge and the judgment of peers and experts. In my view that process of scientific research embodies the very essence of engineering and is the most valu able part of an engineering graduate educational experience. It doesn't really make much difference what is chosen as the particular topic or objective. The important point is that the student, on his own but with expert guidance, undertakes and completes a project which involves these im portant components: 1) learning what is already known; 2) making guesses or approximations about what isn't known but is necessary for: 3) the design of an approach or program or experi ment; 4) execution of the program or experi ment; 5) exercise of judgment in the evaluation of the result. In sum: Research is Engineering. SI: That's a pro v ocati v e statement! PI : Yes, I guess it is and I know there are a lot of my industrial brothers who would take issue with it. They say that universities are ivory towers where researchers are out of touch with reality, that they don't have to face up to real world constraints like budgets, materials limita tions, personnel problems, and competition. I have Continued on page 199. 195

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Cj;jDII international GRADUATE EDUCATION IN MEXICO ENRICO N. MARTINEZ AND ROMAN GOMEZ Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa Mexico 13 D.F., Mexico EDITOR'S NOTE: A historical view of chemical engineering education in Mexico appeared in the Summer 1982 issue of CEE (Vol. XVI, No. 3). In that paper the authors described the needs, de ficiencies, and possible solutions for the education of chemical engineers in the undergraduate pro grams of that country. In this paper the authors extend their comments to the status of graduate education in Mexico. THE MASTER OF SCIENCE program in chemical engineering was introduced about ten years ago, both at the National University (UNAM) and the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), in an effort to improve the basic education of engi neers who were not being fully trained in the undergraduate programs. It was also an initial attempt to prepare teachers with a high academic standard to staff Mexican universities. It should be mentioned that this initiative was not casual. We will examine how the proper conditions came about as a natural development of the growth of Mexican universities and techno logical institutes, and as a result of the need for highly qualified engineers in industry. It was in the late sixties when the first foreign educated postgraduates joined both UNAM and IPN. It was during that same period of time that industry also realized that the quality of the engi neers they were recruiting did not meet their re quirements. Thus, both professors and engineers from industry (who also staffed the chemical engi neering schools) pressed enthusiastically for the creation of graduate programs. As a result, UNAM introduced its Master in Science program in 1967, and IPN followed suit to establish its own program in 1968. It cannot be overemphasized that the main ob jective of these early programs was to alleviate the deficiencies of the undergraduate studies. This Co p yright ChE Di 'IJi siO'n, ASEE, 1982 196 can be seen from noting the contents of those early programs. Most of the courses were, to a great extent, a review of undergraduate topics. Funda mental material such as transport phenomena, numerical methods, etc., which is undergraduate material elsewhere, was introduced in the gradu ate program. This left no time for an in-depth treatment due to time restrictions. Research ac tivities were very limited, both in quality and quantity, since there was neither equipment nor enough qualified personnel for instruction. The graduate programs at the mentioned institutions have slowly evolved towards programs where research has become an ever-important ac tivity. This was a result of hiring a significant number of teachers with higher degrees (mostly obtained abroad) and of the improvement of conditions within the universities themselves. In order to fully understand this development Enrico N Martinez, chemical engineer from Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) received his M.S. and Ph.D. (1972) in Chemical Engineering from University of Notre Dame. He was an Assistant Professor at UNAM, and is currently Associate Professor at Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalpa (UAM-1) where he has just been appointed Head of Engineering. He consults in Process Re search and Development and his research interests are in Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis and Education (L) Roman Gomez-Vaillard received h i s B.Sc. degree in Chemical Engi neering at UNAM and his Ph D at Imperial College, London He joined UAM 1 in 1976. He has recently become the Chairman of the Chemical Engineering Group there His research interests are Process Design and Development and Computer Applications in Chemical Engineering (R) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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it is interesting at this point to briefly examine, in general, the role of research in recent history. Research in Mexican universities and tech nology institutes had very limited importance until, say, 25 years ago. Prior to that, research as we understand it today was almost nonexistant. Both universities and industry suffered from the lack of this activity and it left the country without any real possibility of participating in the genera tion of scientific knowledge or technology. To mention only one case, a famous Mexican physicist, Sandoval Vallarta, worked at MIT for over 20 years, only returning to Mexico in the early fifties when conditions seemed adequate. It was, in fact, in that decade that research be came a desirable activity and the National Uni versity moved towards institutionalizing it by creating a number of research centers, called "Institutes" (mainly in scientific and social disciplines), devoted to research. Unfortunately, these were separated from the teaching activities which belonged to the "Schools." In the early sixties, research in engineering fields began with the establishment of the Instituto de Ingenieria which initiated studies in soil mechanics. This was important due to the soil characteristics of the capital city which is situated in a highly seismic prone zone. In the early sixties, the Polytechnic Institute founded its Center for Research and Advanced Studies, which again was totally devoted to re search activities (although it also offered some graduate programs in pure science and later in engineering). But again, it separated research activities from teaching at the undergraduate level. However, both institutions left out chemical engineering, which was traditionally more related to the chemistry schools than to the engineering ones. Thus, research in chemical engineering did not materialize until the graduate programs matured in the pioneer institutions (UNAM and IPN). The economic reality of the country, and there fore that of its educational system, should not be forgotten. It was very difficult to divert large amounts of funds to universities for research when other social programs, such as elementary schooling, communications and health centers, were more pressing. It is only fair to mention that, because of the limited resources, research at the universities was not feasible until the country was able to afford it. We have heretofore examined how the proper FALL 1982 The masters program should also be a step towards establishing a doctorate program, which is now nonexistant. Hence it should prove itself capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its scope, the requirements of both industry and the educational system. conditions for doing research came about within the university realm. We will now discuss the industrial aspect and its influence and contribu tions, if any, in this direction. Industry developed in an isolated and protected medium where most of the required technology was acquired abroad and where there was little incentive, economic or political, for innovation or development of local technology. Due credit must be given to the engineers who in the span of a few years developed a well organized, profitable and expanding industry; in particular the petroleum industry, which has reached a prominent position worldwide. It was as a direct result of this expansion, which has recently outgrown the national frontiers, that Mexican industry realized that in order to keep its level of competence both in the local and international markets, it would have to modernize and optimize its resources both eco nomically and technically. Thus, the necessary gradient towards innova tion, adaptation and development of technology was established and the need for highly qualified engineers became apparent. The recent practices of hiring specialists who work at universities as consultants and sponsoring research projects carried out at the universities, are indicative of this mood. This analysis serves several purposes: first, it shows that research (or the lack of it) in chemical engineering has been intimately related to the de velopment of the Mexican chemical industry on one hand, and to the development of the higher education system on the other. Secondly, it pro vides some guidelines for designing a graduate program which can contribute to alleviate the difficulties previously mentioned, as well as to re spond actively to the challenges that the country as a whole, and chemical engineering in particular, face. GRADUATE PROGRAM DESIGN It has been established that in order to meet the demand for highly qualified engineers, both J.97

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the undergraduate and the graduate programs in Mexico have to be strengthened. It is clear that the strengthening of the undergraduate program depends to a great extent on the availability of qualified personnel to staff the educational institu tions; also, industry is demanding more engineers with higher degrees. Graduate programs must meet this dual purpose and be designed ac cordingly It is therefore not fortuitous that the basic philosophy which molded the undergraduate pro gram at UAM-I (as described in our previous paper) should again be applied to the design of the masters program. A solid formation at the graduate level, in the fundamentals of chemical engineering disciplines, is sought. This would allow the students to perform equally well either in industry or in research and teaching activities. The masters program should also be a step towards establishing a doctorate program, which is now nonexistent. Hence, it should prove itself capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its scope, the requirements of both industry and the educational system. The benefits that the country as a whole should expect from such a program are Formation of human resources with high academic standards to staff the educational system. Development of technology at an intermediate level of sophistication. Improvement of plant operation and productivity. Generation of applied scientific and technical knowledge. Generation of research programs, both in industry and in research institutes, in applied chemical engi neering science. THE MASTERS PROGRAM AT UAM-1 The masters program at UAM-I, took advant age of the experience gained at UNAM and of the new attitudes with regard to graduate studies. It is therefore not a program intended to alleviate former deficiencies in the education of the engi neer, but is rather directed toward strengthening the knowledge of the chemical engineering funda mentals and introducing the student to the re search field. The objectives of the program are A sound formation in the chemical engineering fundamentals, i.e. applied mathematics, thermo dynamics, transport phenomena and reactor engi neering. An adequate capacity and ability to perform research through a basic understanding of the relationship between theory and practice. The skill to exercise creativity in order to implement new technologies and to adapt or optimize the 198 existent ones through the application of the funda mental knowledge acquired. A working comprehension of the Mexican chemical industry and/or the education system and its re quirements, in order to fulfill their needs. In order to achieve these objectives, the pro gram (which is four quarters long) is divided into three levels. The first level corresponds to the five basic courses: Applied mathematics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mass and heat transfer, and re actor engineering. These courses are given at typical American graduate schools and are intended to provide the student with a solid foundation in engineering. The second level ( which is called the specializa tion area) is devoted to provide the necessary tools for a research program (M.S. thesis). It consists of two 12 credit courses, which could be in the form of a typical course or a "tutorial," where the student follows a program set by the instructor and under his supervision, but without formal lecturing. The third level consists of research work which should culminate in a thesis. The objective here is to work in a project relevant to industry, or to contribute to the generation of applied or funda mental scientific knowledge. It is important to note that the student is en couraged to begin his research in the first quarter and to join a research seminar in all quarters. At least twice during the term he is expected to present the state of development of his research work to other students and to the full staff, thus permitting evaluation of the work performed. This also brings about the opportunity for discussions from which new ideas can be generated. Thus it can be seen that this program includes research as a basic component of the Master in Science program-as opposed to other programs currently being offered in Mexico which require the taking of many dissimilar courses. CONCLUSIONS The development of the chemical industry and of the chemical engineering profession in Mexico has been in phase in terms of supplying the quantity of engineers required by industry. How ever, quality has been a problem (particularly in the last five years because both the number of schools offering the program and the number of students registering for it has exploded tre mendously. Mexican industry now requires a different CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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type of chemical engineer; one capable of as similating the imported technologies and of de veloping new processes more suitable to the efficient utilization of our resources. This require ment provides one of the fundamentals for cur riculum development; the other is a sound knowledge of what chemical engineering is. With these two points in mind, we propose the formation of an "Academic Commission" on a national level, composed of highly qualified pro fessors from all parts of the country who would coordinate the design of a curriculum which could then be implemented at all government sponsored schools. This curriculum should contain a funda mental core of basic science (chemistry, physics and mathematics), with strong interaction through practice in lab sessions. The second stage of the curriculum should emphasize the funda mentals of chemical engineering (thermody namics, transport phenomena and reaction engi neering). Finally, the third stage should be flexible and concentrate on several aspects, depending on the region of the country or the strength of the faculty at hand. As examples, important areas to cover are process design and development, project engineering, energy resources, and equipment design. It is obvious that the implementation of the proposed curriculum requires highly trained teachers and research!;lrS. These people should be educated through the graduate programs now existing in Mexico ; therefore, those programs should be strengthened and strongly supported at the main government sponsored institutions. Furthermore, since all these programs offer only a M.S. degree thus far, emphasis should be placed on the development of one or two doctorate pro grams at the schools with the capabilities to imple ment them. Clearly, UNAM is one of them. Strengthening the graduate programs should also develop research in chemical engineering, which so far has been meager and is greatly needed for the development of our industry. The few people that are presently capable of doing this have been schooled abroad. We feel that we have reached the stage where it is possible, and in fact imperative, to do it in Mexico. BOOK REVIEW: Optimization Continued from page 167. ance, just the how for a few cases. The why is needed so the student can develop, understand and use other designs. It is surprising that the FALL 1982 Newton-Bairstow method for curve fitting is not given. Chapter 3. This chapter, though well-written, desperately needs more worked examples. On p. 102, the concepts of consistency and efficiency should be included with unbiasedness as properties of an estimator. Chapter 4. This chapter appears to be a literature search from a thesis. The notation will be con fusing to older readers whose formal mathemati cal background predate 1955 but who apply mathematics daily. A glossary of symbols would help. The coverage is excellent in scope. The section on interval reduction is very good. It is unfortunate that the Kuhn-Tucker conditions for constrained optimization are not mentioned. The basis for several algorithms are described but no executable algorithm is actually given. Completed examples are rare; no student exercises are pro vided. There is no warning against sectioning. Chapter 5. This is an improvement over Chapter 4 in that stepwise algorithms are given but not worked. Chapter 6 contains only four complete examples to illustrate applications to physical processes. Chapter 7 is descriptive in nature. For the two "examples" of simulation models, only the results were given. RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING Continued from page 195. spent about half as much time in industry as in academic institutions and I can tell you that the neurial, competitive and cost conscious as any thing in the "real" world. Our budgets are even more inflexible than those of our industrial brothers. We can't pass cost overruns on to our clients, customers, or stockholders, for example. I suggest that when you hear someone say that research in academe is not the real world, you are listening to a person who doesn't know what he's talking about, who is so unaware of the actualities of university research that his own perspective is unreal. SI: Well, you have certainly given me some food for thought. Let me digest it for awhile and come back to see you again. PI : Fine. When you come I'll take you through the lab. It may make you feel better. It has 500gallon tanks, 32-inch vacuum pumps, 6-inch valves and piping, and 10-horsepower motors. You'll think you're in a factory 199

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MASS TRANSFER Continued from page 162. examining chemically reactive mass transfer in trayed equipment. Measurements of film co efficients and active interfacial areas are being made in the three-tray column shown in Figure 2. Glitsch valve trays with four square feet of active area are being used; the center tray has adjust able downcomer and weir heights and is the test tray. The column will be used eventually to pro vide tests of models based on treating the separa tion as a rate process. Real industrial solvent solutions will be used in an evaluation of the effect of corrosion inhibitors and antifoam agents on mass transfer performance. Again, as for multicomponent mass transfer, these models are necessarily computer based and treat the process on a mechanistic level. Once more the final aim is to develop reliable methods for the design and analysis of industrial equip ment, an objective that pervades all of our work. FIGURE 2. Three-valve-tray column for mass transfer rate measurements in gas absorption. ~00 MULTICOMPONENT SEPARATIONS WITH CHEMICAL REACTION AND OVERALL PHASE CHANGE Condensation is another operation of such broad importance that a wealth of books and papers have been devoted to its analysis. The com plexity of condensation processes varies from simple systems of pure vapors with no mass transfer resistances to systems involving non condensibles in the vapor phase and those which condense in the form of two immiscible fluids. The condensation of multicomponent mixtures is diffi cult to analyze because of diffusional interaction effects, particularly in the vapor phase. Design methods depend on filmwise condensation with either a completely unmixed or completely mixed liquid phase [39]. Vapor condensation to im miscible liquid mixtures does not fall even between the limits of a mixed or unmixed liquid film, but progress has been made in developing design methods. Another example of condensation that can not be described by known methods is that of a multicomponent vapor in which two or more species undergo chemical reaction in the liquid phase. This part of our research addresses these types of processes by bringing together work from the areas of condensation and chemically re active mass transfer. Until now, these have always been considered as quite separate, yet they are intimately linked in a number of systems of com mercial significance. Design methods are totally lacking for such systems and this forms one of the objectives of the present work. In order to simplify the rate calculations, the mass transfer resistance offered by the liquid phase is traditionally ignored. One of two types of approximation is commonly made: (i) the liquid phase is always in the totally unmixed state (zero liquid-side mass transfer coefficients) and the surface composition of the liquid is decided by the relative rates of condensation, or (ii) the liquid phase is completely mixed as far as compositions are concerned (but normal temperature gradients still operate) and the liquid composition is calcu lated from a material balance along the flow path. It is clear that the truth lies between these ex tremes, at least for miscible systems. There is also some evidence that the final results are in sensitive to whichever extreme is taken [44]. The mixture to be condensed is usually multi component and the last decade has seen increased interest in the development of advanced models CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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for such systems, along with the necessary experi mental verification. For example, the classical Ackermann-Colburn-Drew [40, 41] analyses have been extended by Schrodt [ 42] to multicomponent mixtures; however, his approach is somewhat naive because it neglects the effects of diffusional interaction in the vapor. Recently Webb et al. [43] have examined the significance of coupling effects in ternary condensation and concluded that an effective diffusivity type of model (as used by Schrodt [ 42]) may safely be employed provided the condensing species are not too dissimilar and condensation rates are modest. The safe use of an effective diffusivity type of model for this process is partly a result of the unidirectional nature of the transfer process. The method of Schrodt [ 42] and the modifica tion by Webb et al. [ 43] are based on a film model of the transport process. More exact multicom ponent generalizations of the Ackermann-Colburn Drew analyses have also been developed [44, 45]. There are a number of other methods available; some have been supported experimentally and some have not. The important point in the present context, however, is that all of these methods are strictly limited to vapors that condense filmwise and form a condensate characterizable as being either perfectly mixed or entirely unmixed. There are a number of situations that do not fall into these categories, and one that we are studying is the condensation of a multicomponent vapor in which two or more of the species undergo chemical reaction in the liquid phase. A striking example of such a system is the ternary mixture carbon dioxide-ammonia-water vapor which must be condensed in a number of commercial processes for the manufacture of the fertilizer and monomer, urea. It is well known that CO 2 and NH 3 react in aqueous solution to form ammonium carbamate and it must be expected that this will have a pro found effect not only on condensation rates, but also on the compositions of both the condensate and the gas mixture being vented from the con denser. Since the reaction product ammonium carba mate, is nonvolatile, a first impression might be that reaction would lower the concentrations of both CO 2 and NH a in the liquid film, thereby lower ing the corresponding concentrations in the gas phase at the interface. Thus, an increase in the driving forces in the vapor phase would favor heat and mass transfer and lead to a condenser of lower area. However, such an argument would FALL 1982 be quite specious. It is crucial to recognize that although ammonia is highly soluble in water, carbon dioxide is sparingly soluble and that its physical solubility is of paramount importance in deciding its transfer rate even in the presence of a rapid chemical reaction. Chemical equilibrium, of course, is tied to the reactions involved, where. as, the physical process of dissolving ( which must preceed reaction) is relatively unaffected by re action, except insofar as the concentration of dis solved gas is kept low and the liquid film thickness is reduced. Our intuitive arguments are of little consequence and it is clear that such systems do not fall between the two extremes regarding condensate mixing described above. Indeed, it must be said that the hydrodynamics of the liquid film are decisive in determining rates of mass transfer, including condensation, because the re sistance offered by the liquid film is dominant for the transfer of CO 2 even though the vapor phase resistance is probably more important for the transfer of ammonia. Thus, arguments about whether the liquid phase is well mixed or not beg the issue and will undoubtedly lead to calculations totally in error Gas absorption has been the main focus of most previous studies of chemically-reactive mass transfer. However, it is important to recognize a number of essential differences between absorp tion and condensation. In the former, the absorb ing medium (water) does not undergo a signifi cant degree of phase change ; whereas, in the CO 2 NH a H 2 O system for example, con densation results in an extremely large flux of water vapor that exerts a dominant influence on the total transfer rate of all the species. The larger part of the condensate would be expected to be water which could absorb a considerable amount of ammonia, since this gas is highly soluble. Although CO 2 is a very sparingly soluble gas, the presence of dissolved ammonia greatly in creases the total capacity of the liquid for CO 2 be cause it essentially removes it in the form of am monium carbamate which is nonvolatile. In the present context, CO 2 does not act as an inert gas since it can be dissolved in large amounts ERRATA The Summer 1982 issue of CEE contained an article written by Leise, Jenkins, and Tarbel, entitled "The Oscillating Sink.'' The diagrams in Figs. 3 and 6 (pgs. 112, 113) in that article should be interchanged. 201

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governed by the chemical reaction equilibrium and the composition of the condensate. The latter is of course determined by transfer rates of water vapor and ammonia which are themselves in fluenced by the transport of carbon dioxide, so we have here a process very much complicated by the chemical reaction. In summary, the process being examined here involves a very large flux of water from the vapor towards the condensate film which simultaneously drives the other two species toward the film, greatly increasing their vapor-phase concentra tions at the interface. Ammonia transfer, being largely gas-phase controlled, will be much affected by the presence of CO 2 ; whereas, CO 2 transfer is liquid-phase controlled and will be influenced by dissol v ed ammonia. In addition, because the diffusion film in the liquid at the interface will be at a relatively high temperature, the reactions will likely have to be considered reversible; how ever, temperatures may not be so high that a chemical reaction equilibrium assumption will apply. Conditions in the condensate film, par ticularly near the vapor boundary are crucial to the transport rates so that assumptions about complete mixing or nonmixing would be meaning less. The work being done here will provide a rather ilevere test of not only condensation theory but also of absorption with reversible reaction and the ability of the present state-of-the-art to combine these theories in an effective way for such novel but important situations. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Some of the studies reported here have been supported in the past by the Research Grants Committee (Australia) and the Science Research Council (United Kingdom) for which the authors are grateful. Present studies are being supported by individual grants to the authors by the National Science Foundation and by substantial funding from Dow Chemical U.S A. Donations of equip ment by Goulds Pumps, Inc. and Glitsch, Inc. are gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Henley, E. J. and J. D. Seader, 'Equilibrium-Stage Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering," Wiley, New York 1981. 2. King, C. J., "Separation Processes," 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980. 3. Astarita, G., "Mass Transfer with Chemical Re action," Elsevier, Amsterdam (1967). 202 4. Dan c kwerts, P. V ., "Gas-Liquid Reactions," McGraw Hill New York (1970). 5 Toor H L "Diffusion in Three Component Gas Mixtures," AIChEJ, 3 197 1957. 6. Krishna, R and G. L. Standart, "Mass and Energy Transfer in Multicomponent Systems," Chem. Eng. Commun., 3 201, 1979. 7 R e inhardt, D. and K. Dialer, "G e om e trical Relation s hip s for T e rnary Gas Diffusion Balances and C rit e ria for Multicomponent Phenomena," Chem. Eng. S c i., 3 6 1 55 7, 19 8 1. 8. Krishna, R., H F. Martinez, R. Sreedhar and G. L. Standart, "Murphr e e Point Efficiencies in Multi component Systems Trans. I. Chem. E., 55 178, 1977. 9. Ma x well, J. C., "Diffusion," Collected Papers, Vol. 2, Dover, 1952. 10. Toor H. L. "Solution of th e Linearised Equations of Multi c ompon e nt Mass Transfer," A.I.ChE.J., 1'0, 44 8 460, 1964. 11. St e wart, W. E. and R. Prober, "Matric Calculation of Multicompon e nt Mass Transf e r in Isothermal Syst e ms," Ind. Eng. C hem. Fundam 3, 224, 1964. 12. Kri s hna, R. and G. L. Standart, A Multicomponent Film Model Incorporating a G e neral Matrix Method of Solution of th e Maxwell-Stefan Equations," A.I.ChE J 22 383 1976. 13 Taylor, R., "On Exact Solutions of the Maxwell St e fan Equations for the Multicomponent Film Mod e l," Chem. Eng. Commun., 10, 61, 1981; 14, 121, 19 8 2. 14 Krishna, R., A Simplified Mass Transfer Analysis for Multi c ompon e nt C ond e nsation," Letts. Heat and Mass Tr a nsf e r, 6, 4 3 9, 1979. 1 5. Kri s hna R. An Alternative Linearized Theory of Multicompon e nt Mass Transfer Chem. Eng. Sci., 3 6, 219, 1981. 16. Taylor, R. a nd L. W. Smith, "On Some Explicit Ap proximate Solutions of the Maxwell-Stefan Equations for the Multicomponent Film Model," Chem Eng. Commun. 14, 3 61, 1982. 17. Vog e lpohl, A., "Murphr e e Efficiencies in Multicom pon e n t Sy s t e m." Paper pr e s e nt e d at the Third Inter national Sympo s ium on Distillation, I. Chem. E., London April 1979. 18. Dribicka, M M and 0. C. Sandall, "Simultaneous H e at and Mass Transfer for Multicomponent Distilla tion in Continuous C ontact Equipment," Chem. Eng. Sci., 3 4, 73 3, 1979. 19. Krishna, R., -"Ternary Mass Transfer in a Wetted Wall Column Significance of Diffusional Interactions. Part I. Stefan Diffusion," Trans. I. Chem. E., 59, 35 1981. 20 Krishn a R ., R M. Salomo and M. A. Rahman, T e rn a ry Ma ss Tr a nsfer in a W e tt e d Wall Column. Significance of Diffusional Int e ractions. Part II. Equimolar Diffusion Trans. I. Chem. E., 59, 44, 1981. 21. W e bb, D. R. and R. G. Sardesai, "Verification of Multicomponent Mass Transfer Models for Condensa tion Inside a Vertical Tube," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 7, 507, 1981. 22. Smith, L. W. and R. Taylor, "Film Models for Multi compon e nt Mass Transfer-A Statistical Compari son Ind. Eng. C hem Fundam., in press. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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23. Taylor, R. and D. R. Webb, "Stability of the Film Model for Multicomponent Mass Transfer," Chem. Eng. Commun. 6, 175, 1980. 24. Taylor, R. and D. R. Webb, "Film Models for Multi component Mass Transfer: Computational Methods; The Exact Solution of the Maxwell-Stefan Equa tions," Comput. Chem. Eng., 5, 61, 1981. 25. Taylor, R., "Film Models for Multicomponent Mass Transfer: Computational Methods II; The Linearised Theory," Comput. Chem. Eng 6, 69, 1982. 26. Krishna, R., "Binary and Multicomponent Mass Transfer at High Transfer Rates," Chem. Eng. J., 22, 251, 1981. 27. Krishnamurthy, R. and R. Taylor, "Calculation of Multicomponent Mass Transfer at High Transfer Rates," Chem. Eng. J., In press. 28 Webb, D.R. and R. Taylor, "The Efficient Estimation of Rates of Multicomponent Condensation by a Film Model," Chem. Eng., Sci., 37, 117, 1982. 29. Krishnamurthy, R. and R. Taylor, "Algorithms for the Calculation of Interphase Mass Transfer Rates in Multicomponent Systems," Proc. HTFS Research Symposium, p. 685 Oxford, 1981. 30. Krishnamurthy, R., "A Heat and Mass Transfer Stage Model of Multicomponent, Multistage Separa tion Process," Ph.D. Research Proposal, CCT, Dec. 1981. 31. Butwell, K. F., D. J. Kubek and P. W Sigmund, "Amine Guard III," Chem. Eng. Frog., 75 (Feb., 1979). 32. Ellis, G. C., G. S. Leachman, R. E. Formaini, R. F. Hazelton and W. C. Smith "Rate of Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from Monoethanolamine Solutions ," Proc. 13th Ann. Gass Conditioning Conf., University of Oklahoma, B3, 1963. 33. McLachlan, C. N. S. and P. V. Danckwerts, "De sorption of Carbon Dioxide from Aqueous Potash Solutions with and without the Addition of Arsenite as a Catalyst," Trans. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 50, 300, 1972. 34. Astarita, G. and D. W. Savage, "Theory of Chemical Desorption," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 649, 1980. 35. Savage, D. W., G. Astarita and S. Joshi, "Chemical Absorption and Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from Hot Carbonate Solutions," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 1513-1522, 1980. 36 Rawal, M. Y., "Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from Carbonated Monoethanolamine Solutions," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia, 1980. 37. Olander, D. R., "Simultaneous Mass Transfer and Equilibrium Chemical Reaction," A.I.ChE.J., 6, 233, 1960. 38. Weiland, R. H., M. Y. Rawal and R. G. Rice, "Stripping of Carbon Dioxide from Monoethanolamine Solutions in a Packed Column," A.I.ChE. J., in press 39. Webb, D. R. and J. M. McNaught, "Condensers," Chapter 4 of "Advances in Heat Exchanger Technology" (D. Chisholm, Ed.), Applied Science Publishers, Barking, Essen, England, 1980. 40. Ackermann, G., "Heat Transfer and Molecular Mass Transfer in the Same Field at High Temperatures and Large Partial Pressure Differences," Ver. Deutsch. Ing. Forschungsheft, 8, 1, 1937. FALL 1982 41. Colburn, A. P. and T. B. Drew, "The Condensation of Mixed Vapours," Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 33, 197, 1937. 42. Schrodt, J. T., "Simultaneous Heat and Mass Trans fer from Multicomponent Condensing Vapor-Gas Systems," A.I.ChE. J., 19, 753, 1973. 43. Webb, D.R., C. B. Panchal and I. Coward, "The Sig nificance of Multicomponent Diffusional Interactions in the Process of Condensation in the Presence of a Non Condensable Gas," Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 87, 1981. 44. Krishna, R., C. B. Panchal D.R. Webb and I. Coward, "An Ackermann-Colburn-Drew Type Analysis for Condensation of Multicomponent Mixtures," Letts. Heat and Mass Transfer, 3, 163, 1976. 45. Krishna, R. and C. B. Panchal, "Condensation of a Binary Vapour Mixture in the Presence of an Inert Gas," Chem. Engng. Sci., 32, 741, 1977. GEYSER PROBLEM Continued from page 189. this jet of liquid occurred at the very end of the filling process, 9.5 hours after the first penetration of the mine by the drill. At that point, most of the mine must have been full of water, and the only forces likely to generate such a spectacular effect are gravitational ones, of which the bubble mechanism proposed above is the most plausible. An alternative gravitational explanation would be that the first fluid to flow into the mine was relatively clean water, while the later fluid, flowing in after the hole had enlarged, would be quite muddy. In oil well drilling practice it is possible to produce drilling muds (mud-water slurries), with densities up to twice that of water. If the first half of the path from wellbore to venti lator shaft were filled with ordinary water, and the second half filled with a mud whose density were 1.5 times that of water then the hydrostatic pressure difference from lake level to ventilator shaft would have been P = ghiip = 32 ft/sec 2 x 1300 ft x (0.5 x 62.4 lbm/ft 3 ) x lbf sec 2 /3 2 lbm ft x ft 2 /144 in 2 = 281 psi This would likely have been adequate to produce the geyser. I consider this a less-likely explana tion than the air bubble, because it requires a much more organized process, with strong segre gation of the earlier clean inflowing fluid from the later mud-ladden fluid. But I cannot rule it out for certain without more data on the accident than has been published. 203

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OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION Continued from page 151. solid state changes may be occurring deep within the bulk phase that affect the catalytic activity. Several techniques were used to test this possibility. First of all, X-ray diffraction patterns were taken on the fresh catalyst and on samples that were progressively deactivated. The fresh catalyst was about 90 % MgFe 2 O4, but 5 % of the material was iron oxide, a-Fe 2 O 3 Deactivated catalysts showed only MgFe2O 4 This suggested that the true "catalyst" was not the ferrite but was in fact the Fe 2 O 3 which was possibly present as a surface coating on the MgFe2O4 base. Auger spectroscopic measurements confirmed the ab sence of Mg in the surface layers of the catalyst. Both magnetic susceptibility and Mossbauer spectroscopy confirmed the conclusions derived from the X-ray data, namely that the iron oxide was present in the fresh active samples but was absent in the used inactive catalysts. Upon inquiring about how the catalyst was synthesized [11], we were informed that it was made by the high temperature fusion reaction MgO + Fe203 MgFe2Cl4 (13) The reaction was carried out to only 90 % com pletion during synthesis ... and this is one of the secrets of preparing this active catalyst! As heat was released by the exothermic OXD reaction, the iron oxide reacted with the MgO dissolved in solid solution to carry the reaction (13) to completion. TRANSPORT EFFECTS The catalyst has a low surface area (about 7 m 2 / g) and large pores. Furthermore, the re action was carried out in an all-Pyrex batch re circulation reactor at low temperature to keep the rate slow. These factors resulted in a very small Thiele modulus and no mass transport limitations. On the other hand, it was very difficult to keep the reactor isothermal due to the large exo thermicity of the reaction. Dilution of the catalyst bed with inert particles helped, but still the re action was difficult to control. Only data obtained under conditions where the temperature remained essentially constant were used in the kinetics analysis. As mentioned in the previous section, it is likely that the slow dissipation of the heat of re action away from the active sites could have caused localized hot spots in the vicinity of the 204 active site pairs that led to the progression of the solid state reaction (13) [12]. CONCLUSIONS It is rare that one can find a catalytic system of commercial interest that can be studied in detail by such a variety of techniques. The small mole cules are easily handled in the laboratory and can be labeled with both radioactive and stable iso topic tracers. Being well crystallized and contain ing iron, the catalyst itself is amenable to study by a wide range of solid state techniques. The results can be summarized by the follow ing points. A redox mechanism (Fe+ 2 / Fe + 3 interconversion) occurs. C-H cleavage is rate limiting. Two sites are involved (anion and cation vacancies). Non competitive Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics are obeyed. Surface oxygen is added and removed; the surface is fully covered so long as there is even a small amount of 0 2 in the gas phase. The catalyst is easily reduced by hydrocarbons in absence of 0 2 Activity correlates with the presence of a -Fe 2 0 3 which is probably present as a thin coating on the MgFe 2 0 4 spine} support. Deactivation occurs when Mg0 reacts with Fe 2 0 a to form MgFe 2 0 1 RELATED WORK AT RICE UNIVERSITY In related work we have studied the oxidative dehydrodimerization (OXDD) of propylene over Bi2O a to form 1,5-hexadiene and benzene [13-14]. We have also looked at the OXD of butane to form n-butenes and butadiene over a commercial Ni Sn-P oxide catalyst [15]. Finally, the ferrite work has been expanded to other catalysts such as C0Fe 2 O [10] and manganese ferrite [16J. While some of the questions about the nature of catalytic activity of these materials have been answered, many more questions remain in this exciting area of heterogeneous catalysis. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Financial support from NASA, Gulf Oil Corporation, Mobile Foundation, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Gibson, M.A., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41, 420 (1976). 2. Gibson, M. A and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41, 431 (1976). 3. Froment, G F., and K B. Bischoff, Ch e mical Reactor Analy sis and D es ign, John Wiley, p. 297 (1979). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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4. Welch, L. M., L. J. Croce, and H. F. Christmann, Hydrocarbon Processing, p. 131 (November, 1978). 5. Boudart, M., Kin etics of Chemical Proc esses, Prentice Hall, p. 211 (1968). 6 Melander, L. C I sotope Eff ects on Rea ction Ra tes, Ronald Press, New York (1960). 7. Massoth, F. E., and D. A. Scarpiella, J. Catalysis 2 1 29 (1971). 8. Keulks, G. W., L. D. Krenzke, and T. N. Nottermann, Advances in Catalysis 27 (1978). 9. Haber, J., Int. Chem Eng. 15, 21 (1975). 10. Cares, W. R., and J. W. Hightower J. Ca talysis 23, 19 3 (1971). 11. Columbian Carbon Company, 1971. 12. Luss, D., Chem. Eng. Journal 1, 311 (1970). 1 3 White, M. G., "The Oxidative Dehydrogenation Dimerization of Olefins over Metal Oxides," Ph.D. Thesis, Ric e University, 1977. 14. White, M. G., and J. W. Hightow e r, AIChE Journal 2 7, 545 (1981). 15. Chickering, D. H., "Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Butane over Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts," Ph.D. Thesis, Rice Univer sity, 1981. 16. Van Kle ec k, D. A., "Oxidative Dehydrog e nation of But e nes over Manganese Ferrite, Ph D. Thesis, Rice University, 1981. Kil ;j #I book reviews PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, 3RD EDITION By Max S. Peters, Klaus D. Timmerhaus McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY Reviewed by Oran L. Culberson University of Tennessee This book in its third edition continues to be among those classics which should be in the personal library of every chemical engineer. It is, however, basically unchanged from the second edition and may not merit acquisition by those who own the second edition. The following chapters in the new edition contain very much the same information that was in second edition chapters: (1) Introduction (2) Process De sign Development, ( 4) Cost and Asset Accounting, (5) Cost Estimation, (6) In terest and Investment Costs, (7) Taxes and In surance, (8) Depreciation, (9) Profitability, Alternative Investments and Replacements, (11) Materials and Fabrication Selection, (12) The Design Report, (13) Materials Transfer, Handling and Treating Equipment, (14) Heat Transfer Equipment and (16) Statistical Analysis in De sign. There is now an appendix dealing with SI FALL 1982 units, but SI seldom appears anywhere else in the new edition. (This is not a significant fault in the opinion of this gray-haired reviewer.) Ap pendices for Auxiliary and Utility Cost Data, for Design Problems and for Tables of Physical Properties and Constants are presented much as in the prior edition. The erstwhile appendices on Linear Pro gramming and Dynamic Programming have been moved into Chapter 10, Optimum Design and Design Strategy. This was perhaps a mistake These two optimization algorithms have little ap~ plication in design. Geometric programming would have been a more appropriate offering. It is also unfortunate that the material on linear pro gramming does not note that modern computer programs do not use the Simplex algorithm de scribed; this omission will be confusing and ag gravating to the reader who wants to use library programs on computers. A better use of the space would have resulted from exposition on the Critical Path Method and for the Project Evalu ation and Review Technique which are valuable for the scheduling and control of projects. Chapter 10 has been expanded also to explain the concept of cash flow and to show how the effects of inflation might be covered in economic analysis. Chapter 3 on General Design Considerations has been more than doubled to include information on design requirements to protect against thermal, air, liquid and solid waste pollution. Chapter 15, formerly devoted exclusively to Mass Transfer Equipment, now treats Reactor Equipment also. This material is from an appendix of the second edition, with some augmentation. A great strength of this book has always been the voluminous bibliography at the end of each chapter. These literature references have been updated and are very valuable to anyone wanting to delve into a topic beyond the limited treatment which can be made in the book. The new edition is still replete with equipment costs, now updated to January 1, 1979. A table of the costs of chemicals appears in the new edition which unfortunately contains neither a date nor a warning to the neophyte that these costs can change rapidly. Another quite useful feature of this book is the extensive sets of problems for each chapter, but the problems have not been changed in the two editions. This reviewer overheard a professor bemoaning this fact at the AIChE meeting in Chicago. 205

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THE .. UNIVERSITY OF ... ALABAMA ~ ., ,., .. ..\ rl" : '1rk -'!A t :.; .. ~. A .A........... "' : ,' '. lt ;,K. :--~. -: .~.;. \~,....,,, .. . -. .... : yGRADUATE PROGRAMS FOR M.S. AND PH.D. DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Alabama, enrolling approximately 14,000 undergraduate and 3,000 graduate students per year, is located in Tuscafoosa, a town of some 70,000 population in west central Alabama. Since the climate is warm, outdoor activities are possible most of the year. The Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering has an annual enrollment of approximately 200 undergraduate and 25 graduate students. For information concerning available graduate fellowships and assistantships, con tact: Director of Graduate studies, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, P.O. Box G, University, AL 35486. Faculty and Research Interests G.C. APRIL, Ph D. (Louisiana State): Biomass con version, Modeling, Transport Processes D.W. ARNOLD, Ph.D. (Purdue) : Thermodyna mics, Physical Properties, Phase Equilibrium J.H. BLACK, Ph D (Pittsburgh) : Process Design, Cost Engineering, Economics W.C. CLEMENTS, JR Ph.D (Vanderbilt): Process Dynamics and control, Micro-computer Hard ware W.J. HATCHER, JR., Ph D (Louisiana State): Cata lysis, Chemical Reactor Design, Reaction Kine tics E.K. LANDIS, Ph.D. (Carnegie Institute Of Tech nology) : Metallurgical Processes Solid-liquid Separations, Thermodynamics M.D. MCKINLEY, Ph.D (Florida) : coal and Oil Shale, Mass Transfer, Separation Processes L.Y. SADLER, Ill, Ph.D. (Alabama) : Energy conver sion Processes, Rheology, Lignite Technology

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Chemical Engineering at UNl'VERSITY OF ALBERTA Faculty and Research Interests I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis. D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process Design. C. Kiparissides, Ph.D. (McMaster): Polymer Rea~tor Engineering, Op timization, Modelling, Stochastic Control. D. Lynch, Ph.D. (Alberta): Kinetic Modelling, Numerical Methods, Computer Aided Design, J. H. Masliyah, Ph D. (British Colum bia): Transport Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, In-Situ Recovery of Oil Sands. A E. Mather, Ph.D (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics. W. Nader, Dr. Phil, (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pollution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics. F. D Otto (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michi gan): Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Re actions, Separation Processes, En vironmental Engineering. D. Quon, Sc.D. (MIT), Professor Emeri tus: Energy Modelling and Economic s, Linear Programming, Network Theory. D. B. Robin so n Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volumetrie Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermody namics. J. T Ryan, Ph D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy Economics and Supply. S L Shah, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear Systems Theory, Adaptive Control, Stability Theory, Stochastic Control. S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kinetics. R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process D ynamics and Identification, Contro l of Distillation Columns, Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circuits. FALL 1982 EDMONTON, CANADA Graduate Study U of A's Chemical Engineering gradu ate program offers exciting research opportunities to graduate students moti vated towards advanced training and research Graduate programs leading to the de grees of Master of Science, Ma ster of En g ineering and D octor of Philosophy are offered. There are currently 13 full t i me faculty members. a few visiting faculty. several post-doctoral research associates and 35 graduate stude nt s. Financial Aid Financial support is available to full time g raduate students in the form of fellow s hips, teaching assistantships and res ea rch assistantships. The University of Alberta U of A is one of Canada's largest Un i versities and engineering sc hool s with total e nrollment of over 25,000 students. The campus is located in the city of Edmonton a nd overlooks the scenic North Sa s katchewan Rive r Valley, Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern city of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a renowned re s ident professional theatre, symphony orchestra and professional football hockey and soccer leagues. Th e famous Banff and .!asper National Parks in th e Canadian Rocky Mountains are within ea s y driving distance. For application forms or more information, write to CHAIRMAN, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6 207

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THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON, AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Applied Design JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics Thermody namics, lnterfacial Phenomena Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing, modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to: Dr. T. W. Peterson Graduate Study Committee Depa r tm e nt of Ch e mical Engineering Univ e rsity of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/ equal opportunity employer DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor Ph.D Oregon State University, 1973 Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys tems Blood Processing THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics. FARHANG SHADMAN, Asst. Professor Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972 Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis

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/ ./ ';' ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical and Bio Engineering Research Specializations Include: ENERGY CONVERSION ADSORPTION/SEPARATION BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING TRANSPORT PHENOMENA SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING CATALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented by a highly-respected faculty: James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976 Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966 Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962 Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston, 1980 William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct) William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967 Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971 James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970 Kim L. Nelson, University of Delaware, 1981 Castle 0. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus) Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963 Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967 Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978 James M. Trebilcock, Michigan State University, 1950 lmre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961 Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to qualified applicants. ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study. Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and recreational facilities. FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT : lmre Zwiebel, Chairman, Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THE PROGRAM The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Sout h east and offers degrees at the M .S. and Ph D. levels Research emphasizes both experimental a nd theoretical work in areas o f national in t erest. with modern resear ch equipment available for most all types of st ud ies. Generous finan ci al assistance is avail able to qualified studen ts THE L OCALE A u burn University has 19,000 students and is l oca ted midway between Atlanta GA and M ontgomery, AL. Situated in a beautiful wooded setting, the lo ca l population numbers about 75,000 an d supports good shopping and entertainment facili ties The Univer sity also sponsors many typ es of artisti c, drama ti c, cultural and sporting events The combina t ion of good weather and pleasant surrou n d ing s make ou td oor activ ities such as hiking boating, fishing and camping particularly enjoyable THE FACULTY Robe rt P Chambers ( University of Ca lif ornia, 1965) Enzymatic and Bi omedical En gineering, Bi o ma ss Conversion Adsorption and Ion Exchange Chr i st i ne W Curtis (Florida State University 1976) Analyti ca l Meth ods, Coal Chemistry and Liquefa c tion Catalysis of Hydro ca rbon Residual s. J ames A. Guin (University of Texas 1970) Coal Liquefaction Ca talyt ic Hydr ot reating Reactor Design, Heat and Mass Transfer Leo J H irt h ( University of Texas 1958) Pr ocess and Plant Design, E co n omics, Oil Repro c essin g. And r ew C T Hsu (University of Pennsylvan ia, 1953) Thermodynamics, Solar Energy Nucleation and Crystall i zation Kinetics Y Y Lee (Iowa State Universit y, 1 972) Biochemi c al Engineering, Reaction Engin eer in g o f Bi o-Sys tem s, Biomass Co n version Timothy D Placek ( University of Kentu c ky 1978) Environmental Pollution Pro c ess Simulation, Multi phase Transp ort Phenomena A R Tar r er ( Purdu e University, 1973) Coa l Liquefa c ti on, Oil Reprocessing, Solid Liquid Separatio~s. Bruce J Taia r chuk (University of Wis co nsin 1981) H ete r ogeneous Ca taly sis, Rea c ti on Kineti cs, Spec troscopic Cha ra c terizati on of Ca tal yst Material s. Donald L. V i ves (Columbia University 1949) Oil Repr ocessi ng Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Heat Tran s fer Denn i s C Will i ams (Princeton University 1980) Process Dynamics and Control, Rea c tor En gi ne e r ing. Auburn ~ Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Biomass Conversion Coal Conversion Environmental Pollution Heterogeneous Catalysis Oil Reprocessing Process Design and Control Process Simulation Reaction Engineering Reaction Kinetics Separations Surface Science Transport Phenomena Thermodynamics F o r financial aid and .idmission applica ti on fo rm s write : Dr R P Cha m b ers, H e a d C hemic a l E n g i nee ri n g A ub urn Un iv e r s it y AL 368 49 Auburn Urnversity 1 s an Equal Opportunity Edu ca ti o nal I nstitution

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BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PROVO, UTAH Ph.D., M.S., & M.E. ChE. Masters for Chemists Program Research Combustion Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Coal Gasification Electrochemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics Fossil Fuels Recovery High Pressure Chemistry Thermochemistry & Calorimetry Faculty D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951) C.H. Bartholomew, (Ph.D., Stanford, 1972) MW. Beckstead, (Ph.D Utah, 1965) D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D., Berkeley, 1964) B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979) J J. Christensen, (Ph.D. Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958) J.M. Glassett, (M.S., MIT, 1948) it W. Hanks, (Ph.D : Utah, 1961) W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley, 1982) P 0. Hedman, (Ph.D., BYU, 1973) J. L. Oscarson, (Ph.D Michigan, 1982) P. J. Smith, (Ph.D BYU, 1979) L. D. Smoot, (Ph.D., Washington, 1960) K. A. Solen, (Ph ; D., Wisconsin, 1974) Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains Financial aid available FALL 1982 Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Richard W. Hanks, Chairman Chemical Engineering Dept 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602 211

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY CHEMICAL AND PETROUUM ENGINl!ERING Program of Study Degrees Offered Master of Science Master of Engineering Doctor of Philosophy Both the M.Sc. and Ph.D. programs are on the full-time basis and have residency requirements. Course work and a research thesis based on an original investigation are required of each student enrolled in either degree program. The M.Eng. Involves part-time study. It is designed for those Individuals working In the induatry who would like to en hance their technical education. The M.Eng. thesis la uaually on a design oriented project related to current or anticipated industrial trends. All the programs are designed to meet the specUlc Interests and individual needs of the student. The resarch and computing faclli tis within the department and the faculty of engineering are excellent and continuously being upgraded. Generous fellowshipa and assistantships are available throughout the calendar year to qualified applicants. The four month summer months are usually devoted to active research. Supplementary financial support may also be available from the research grants of the individual faculty members. Research Areas Thermodynamic-Phase Equilibria Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer and Cryogenics Kinetics and Combustion Reaction Engineering and Process Control Flow in Porous Media Multi-phase Flows in Pipelines Computer Aided Design of Pipe Networks Fluidization Environmental Engineering In-situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Olis Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Biorheology and Biochemical Engineering Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration The Community Faculty R. A. HEIDEMANN, Professor and Head D.Sc. (Wash. U.) A. BADAKHSHAN, Professor Ph.D (Birm.) L. A. BEHIE, Assoc. Professor Ph D. (W. Ont.) D. W. BENNION, Professor Ph.D. (Penn. St .) P.R. BISHNOI Professor Ph D. (Alta.) M. FOGARASI, Sr. Instructor B.Sc. (Alta.) G A. GREGORY, Professor Ph.D. (Waterloo) M.A. HASTAOGLU, Asst. Professor Ph.D. (SUNY) J. J. HA VLEN,A, Sr. Instructor D. Sc. (Czech.) A. A. JEJE, Assoc. Profe ss or Ph D (MIT) N. G. MCDUFFIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas) A K. MEHROTRA Asst. Professor Ph.D (Calgary) M. F. MOHTADI, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.) R. G. MOORE, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.) P. M. SIGMUND, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas) P. M. STANISLAV, Professor Ph D (Prague) W. Y. SVRCEK, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.) E. L. TOLLEFSON, Professor Ph.D. (Tor.) The university is located In Calgary Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of half a million combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modem, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Ban ff National Park is 60 miles from the city and the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readlly accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in the com munity at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum lndua try in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations of engi neering activity in the country. Applications For further information and application material write to: 212 The Chairman, Graduate Studiles Committee Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta. T2N 1N4 Canada CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, FALL 1982 RESEARCH INTERESTS ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING PLEASE WRITE: Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720 BERKELEY ... offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro grams involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within and outside the department. Students have the opportunity to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and moun tains. FACULTY Alexis T. Bell (Chairman) Harvey W. Blanch Elton J. Cairns Morton M. Denn Alan S. Foss Simon ~Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N. Hanson Dennis W Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N. Michaels John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J Radke Jeffrey A. Reimer David S. Soong Charles W. Tobias Theodore Vermeulen Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams 213

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied Mathematics Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering Catalysis Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Dynamics Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Processes in Porous Media Program UC Davis, with 17,500 students, is one of the major campuses of the University of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition, the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio chemical engineering and biomedical engineering. Excellent laboratories, computation center and electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants. 214 Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Faculty RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications RUBEN G. CARBONELL, Princeton University Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum St atistical Mechanics, Transport Processes in Porous Media ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota Separation and Transport Processes DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mass Transfer, Colloids STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware Fluid Mechanics, lnterfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes in Porous Media Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just over an hour away from the San Francisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec reational opportunities combine with the friendly in formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished oneand two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance. For further details on graduate study at Davis, please write lo: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-0400 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING /~~~"( FACUL :f V D N. Bennio n Yoram Cohen ~ S M. Dinh S Fathi-Afshar T. H. K. Frederking S K Friedlander E L. Knuth J W Mccutchan PROGRAMS

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANT A BARBARA FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) (Vice Chairman Nuclear Engineering) Two Phase Flow Rea c tor Safety Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis and Wastes H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D (Princeton) Chemical Reactor Modeling, Applied Mathematics HENRI FENECH Ph D. (M.I.T.) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer. OWEN T. HANNA Ph D (Purdue) (Chairman) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis Transport Phenomena. GLENN E. LUCAS Ph D. (M.I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph D (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing 216 JOHN E. MYERS Ph D (Michigan ) (Dean of Engineering) Boiling Heat Transfer. G ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I T.) Radiation Effects in Sol i ds, Energy R e lated Materials Development A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph D. ( M I T ) Bionuclear Engineering Fus i on Rea c tors Radiation Transport Analyses ROBERT G. RINKER Ph D (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design Ca t alys i s Energy Conversion A i r Pollution ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph D (Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes DALE E. SEBORG Ph D. (Princeton) Proc e ss Control, Computer Control Process Identification. The Department offers M.S and Ph.D. de gree programs F i nancial aid, including fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re search assistantships, is available Some awards provide limited moving expenses THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast l 00 miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330 miles south of San Francisco. The studen t enrollment i s over 14,000 The metropoli tan Santa Ba r bara a r ea h as over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate For additional information and applications, write to: Professor Owen T. Hanna, Chairman Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 C H E MICAL E N G INEERING ED UC ATION

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l'HOGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in c h e mical engineering at the California Institute of Tech nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical di s ciplines in the program of study. In this way a student can p r operly prepare for a productive car e er of research, development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and e x p a nd i n g tchnological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minin w l. The Master of Science degree is normally com pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special M S. option, involving either research or an inte gr a ted de s ign project, is a feature to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B S. degree, consisting of the s i s research and further advanced study. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants r e gardless of race, religion or sex. A Pl'LICA TIONS Further information and an application form ma y be obtained by writing Profes s or L. G. Leal Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It i s advi s able to submit applications before February 1 5, 1983 FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor Ph D. (1969), Rice University Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction engineering GEORGE R GA VALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process contro l and optimization; coal gasification. ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Profe s sor Ph.D. (1979) Stanford Unive r sity Fluid mechani c s and transport phenomena L. GARY LEAL, Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. C DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate Ph.D ( 1951), University of Pennsylvania Catalysis; chemical r e a c tion en g ineering; pro ce s s design a nd development. JOHN H. SEINFELD Louis E. Nohl Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Air pollution; control and estimation theory. FRED H SHAIR, Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics: tracer studies of va r ious environmental and safety related problems. GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Assistant Pro f ess or Ph.D. (1978), University of Minne s ota Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction e ngineering. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D (1958), University of New South Wales M e chanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure property relations in polymers W HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis.

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IS THERE LIFE AFTE R GR ADUATE STUDY? FALL 1982 Want to find out? Heaven can't wait! Write to: Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department Case Western Reserve University Cleveland Ohio 44106 219

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The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDYin Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY Stanley Cosgrove Robert Delcamp Joel Fried Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey Sun-Tak Hwang Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Robert Lemlich William Licht Joel Weisman CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCESS SYNTHESIS Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations. Prediction of reaction by-products. POLYMERS V i scoelastic properties of concentrated polymer solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AIR POLLUTION Modeling and design of gas clean ing devices and systems. TWO-PHASE FLOW Boiling. Stability and transport properties of foam. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF LIVING HUMAN AND CORPORATE SYSTEMS Longevity, basal metabolic rate, and Prigogine's and Shannon's entropy formulae. FOR ADMIS SI.ON INFORMATION Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, # 171 University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, OH 45221

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Clarkson M S and Ph.D. Programs Friendly Atmosphere Vigorous Research Programs Supported by Government and Industry Faculty with International Reputation Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and Other Recreation in the Adirondacks Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts Colleges Nearby Faculty S V Babu Der Tau Chin Robert Coie Sandra Harris Angelo Lucia Richard J McCluskey John B. McLaughlin Richard J. Nunge Nsima Tom Obot D H Rasmussen Herman L. Shulman R. Shankar Subramanian Peter C Sukanek Ross Taylor Thomas J Ward Ralph H Weiland William R. Wilcox Gordon R. Youngquist Research Projects are available in : Energy Materials Processing in Space Turbulent Flows Heat Transfer Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion Polymer Processing Particle Separations Phase Transformations and Equilibria Reaction Engineering Optimization and Control Crystallization And More .. Financial aid in the form.of fellowships, research assistantships and teaching assistantships is available. For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson College of Technology Potsdam, New York 13676

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222 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH P. F. Dickson, Professor and Head; Ph D. University of Minnesota. Oil-shale, shale oil processing, petro chemical production from shale oil, heat transfer, heat exchanger design J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re finery pro c essing operations, heavy oil processing. A J. Kidnay Professor; D Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems, cryo g enic engineering. R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor Ph.D Colorado School of Mines Coal liquefaction by direct hydro genation, mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochemistry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-derived asphaltenes M S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph .D. Pennsylvania State Uni versit y. Coal and b iomass gasification pro cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading M. C. Jones, Associate Professor ; Ph D ., University of California at Berkeley Heat transfer and fluid me chan ics in oil shale retorting radiative heat transfer in porous media, free convection in porous media. E D. Sloan, Jr., Associate Professor; Ph .D., Clemson Uni ve rsity Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measure ments of natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates thermal conductivity measurements for coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria measurements, stage wise processes education methods research. V F Yesavage, Professor; Ph D. University of Michigan. Kinetic studies of shale o i l phase behavior and enthalpy of synthetic fuels. A. l. Bunge, Assistant Professor ; Ph D ., University of Cal i fornia at Ber keley Enhanced oil recovery M S Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State Univer sity. Flow of concentrated fine particulate suspensions in complex geometries ; Sedimenta tion of multisized, mixed dens i ty particle suspensions For Applications and Further Information On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Chemical Engineering at CORNELL UNIVERSITY A place to grow ... with active research in biochemical engineering applied mathematics/computer simulation energy technology environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science heat and mass transfer polymer science fluid d y namics rheology and biorheology reactor design molecular thermodynamics / statistical mechanics with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange individual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell departments including chemistry biological sciences physics computer science food science materials science mechanical engineering business administration and others with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one of the most scenic regions of the United States. Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering (the AA.Eng is a professional, design-oriented program). Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available. The faculty members are: Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, Paul H. Steen, William B. Streett, Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F Wiegandt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to Professor Keith E. Gubbins Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, New York 14853

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The Universily of Elaware awards three gmduate de~eesfor sludiesand practice in theartand science of chemical engineering. An M.Ch E degree based upon course work and a thesis problem An M Ch E. degree based upon course work and a period of in dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the Delaware Valley chemical process industries A Ph.D degree for original work presented In a dissertation THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE: Gianni Astar i ta ( time) M.A Barteau C. E. Birchenall K B. Bischoff C D Denson P Dhoriati B. C Gates M T Klein R L. McCullough A B. Metzner J H Olson M E. Paulaitis R. L. Pigford T W F Russell S. I Sandler (Chairman) G. C A Schuit (112 time) J M Schultz A B Stiles ( time) M A Streicher (l / 2 time) R S Weber CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE : Thermodynamics and Separ ation Process Rheology Polymer Science and Engineering Materials Science and Metallurgy Fluid Mechanics, Heat and Mass Transfer Economics and Management in the Chemical Process Industries Chemical Reaction Engi neering, Kinetics and Simulation Catalytic Science and Technology Biomedical Engineering Pharmacokinetics and Toxicology Biochem i cal EngineeringFermentation and Computer Control FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS WRITE : Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19711

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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Gainesville, Florida Graduate study leading to ME,MS&PhD F A C u L T y Tim Anderson Th e rm o d y nami cs, S e mi co ndu c t o r P rocess in g / Seymour S. Bl ock Biot ec hn o l ogy Ra y W. Fahien Tran s p o rt Ph e n o m e na, R eactor De s i g n / Ronald J. Gordon Bi o m e di c:i l Engineering, Rh eo l ogy / Gar Hotlund Cataly s i s, Surface Scien ce Lew J o hn s Appli e d Mat h ematics / Dale Kirm se P rocess Co nt ro l Computer Aid e d D es i g n, 13i o te c hn o l ogy / Hon g H Lee R eactor D es i gn, Cata l ys i s / Frank Ma y Separati o n s / R:inga Narayanan Tran s p o rt Ph eno m e na / J o hn O'Connell St atis ti ca l M ec h a n ics, Th e rm o d y n amics Dine s h 0. Shah Enh:in ce d Oil R ecovery, Bi o m e dical En gi n eer in g/ Spyros Svoronos P rocess Control / Rob ert D. Walker Surfac e Chemistry, Enhanced Oi l R eco ver y/ Gerald Westermann Clark El ee t roc hemi s tr y, Tran s p ort Ph e n o m e na Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville Florida 32611

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Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ... GEORGIA TECH Atlanta Ballet Center for Disease Control Commercial Center of the South High Museum of Art All Professional Sports Major Rock Concerts and Recording Studios Sailing on Lake Lanier Snow Skiing within two hours Stone Mountain State Park Atlanta Symphony Ten Professional Theaters Rambling Raft Race White Water Canoeing within one hour For more information write : Dr Gary W Poehlein School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332 Chemical Engineering Air Quality Technology Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Surfaces Electrochemical Engineering Energy Research and Conservation Fine Particle Technology lnterfacial Phenomena Kinetics Mining and Mineral Engineering Polymer Science and Engineering Process Synthesis and Optimization Pulp and Paper Engineering Reactor Design Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena

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Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering University of Houston The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston has developed seven areas of special research strength: Chemical Reaction Engineering Catalysis lnterfacial Phenomena, Rheology Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation Solid-liquid Separation Air Pollution Modeling Reliability Theory Petroleum Reservoir Engineering The department occupies more than 64,000 square feet and is equipped with more than $2.5 million worth of experimental apparatus. Financial suport is available to full-time graduate students with stipends ranging from $8,400 to $13,000 for twelve months. For more information or application forms write: D i rector, Graduate Admissions De~artment of Chemical Engineering University of Houston Houston, Texas 77004 (Phone 713 / 749-4407) The faculty: N. R. Amundson 0. A. Asbjornsen V. Balakotaiah E. L. Claridge J. R. Crump H. A. Deans A. E. Dukler R. W. Flumerfelt E. J. Henley D. Luss A. C. Payatakes R. Pollard H. W. Prengle, Jr. J. T. Richardson F. M. Tiller J. Villadsen F. L. Worley, Jr.

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Graduate Programs in The Department of Energy Engineering leading to the degrees of MASTER OF SCIENCE and D OCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Faculty and Research Activities in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Raffi M. Turian Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964 Professor and Head of the Department Francisco J. Brana-Mulero Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980 Assistant Professor Paul M. Chung Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957 Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering T. S. Jiang Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1981 Assistant Professor John H. Kiefer Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961 Professor G. Ali Mansoori Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969 Professor Sohail Murad Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979 Assistant Professor Satish C. Saxena Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956 Professor Stephen Szepe Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966 Associate Professor The MS program, with its optional thesis, can be completed in one year. Evening M.S. can be completed in three years. The department invites applications for admission and support from all qualified candidates. Special fellowships are available for minority students. To obtain application forms or to request further information write: I Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow and heat transfer, porous media processes, mathematical analysis and approximation. Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence, chemically reacting flows Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through porous media, suspension rheology Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes, molecular lasers Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids, solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions, solar energy Process synthesis, operations research, optimal process control, optimization of large systems, numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations. Thermodynamics and transport properties of fluids, computer simulation and statistical mechanics of liquids and liquid mixtures Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized bed combustion Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy transmission, modeling and optimization Professor S. Murad, Chairman The Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago Box 4348, Chicago Illinois 60680

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FACULTY Richard C. Alkire, Professor Electrochemical Engineering Harry G. Drickamer, Professor High Pressure Studies, Structure and Properties of Solids Charles A. Eckert, Professor and Head Molecular Thermodynamics, Applied Chemical Kinetics Thomas J. Hanratty, Professor Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer Jonathan J. L. Higdon, Assistant Professor Fluid Mechanics, Applied Mathematics Richard S. Larson, Assistant Professor Chemical Kinetics Richard I. Masel, Assistant Professor Catalysis, Surface Science Anthony J. McHugh, Associate Professor Polymer Crystallization, Transport of Particles CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT THE URBANA CHAMPAIGN For application forms and further information, write to: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Chemical Engineering 113 Roger Adams Laboratory 1209 W. California Urbana, Illinois 61801-3791 Joseph A. Shaeiwitz, Assistant Professor Mass Transfer, lnterfacial and Colloidal Phenomena Mark A. Stadtherr, Associate Professor Systems Analysis and Process Design James W. Westwater, Professor Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase Changes

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230 Institute of Technology M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS IN Chemical Engineering and Interdisci pl i nary Areas of Polymer Processes Chemical Plant Operat i ons and Management Energy Conservat l on and Resources R. L. BEISSINGER A. CINAR D. GIDASPOW D. T. HATZIAVRAMIDIS J. R. SELMAN S. M. SENKAN B. S. SW ANSON D.T. WASAN C. V. WITTMANN Medical Engineering Polymer Processing and Biological Systems Proc ess Control and Reactor Control Design Heat Transfer and En er gy Con ver sion Multiphase Flow and Turbulence Electrochemical Engineering Combustion Engineering, Kinetics and En vir onmental Process Dynamics and Controls Mass Transfer and Surface and Colloid Phenomena Chemical Reaction Engineering Analysis FOR INQUIRIES, WRITE D. T. Wasan Chemical Engineering Dept. Illinois Institute of Technology 10 West 33rd St. Chicago, IL 60616 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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THE INSTITUTE OF PAPER CHEMISTRY is an independent graduate school. It has an interdisciplinary degree program designed for B S. chemical engineering graduates. Fellowships tuition scholarships are available to qualified U.S. Canadian Citizens. Currently, our students and full and receive fellowships in the amount of $8000.00 per calendar year. INSTITUTE OF PA P ER CHEMISTRY -l pp / I on IJ. lsoutfln Current research programs underway include: plant tissue culture surface and colloid science fluid mechanics environmental engineering polymer engineering heat and mass transfer process engineering simulation and control separations science and reaction engineering. For further information cont.act: Director of Admissions The Institute of Paper Chemistry P.O. Box 1039 Appleton, WI 54912 Tele hone ... 414 734-9251

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IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE STUDY and GRADUATE RESEARCH in Chemical Engineering Transport Processes (Heat, mass & momentum transfer) William H. Abraham Renato G. Bautista Charles E. Glatz James C. Hill Richard C. Seagrave J>rocess Chemistry and rertilizer Technology Dayid R. Boylan George Burnet Maurice A. Larson Energy Conversion (Coal Tech, Hydrogen Production, Atomic Energy) Renato G. Bautista Lawrence E. Burkhart George Burnet Allen H. Pulsifer Dean L. Ulrichson Thomas D. Wheelock Biomedical Engineering (System Modeling, Transport.process) Richard C. Seagrave Charles E. Glat& OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Biochemical Engineering (Enzyme Technology) Charles E. Glatz Peter J. Reilly Polymerization Processes William H. Abraham Crystallization Kinetics Maurice A. Larson /. Process Instrumentati and System Optimiza. o and Control Lawrence E. Burkhart Kenneth R. Jolls Catalysis Glenn L. Schrader write to: Chairman Department of Chemical Enginee Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 as wen as Air Pollution Control Solvent Extraction High Pr echnology Mi ~essing) I

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Systems Engineering, Food Science, and Environmental Engi neering. Financial Aid Available Up to $12 000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B G. Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kan s as 66506 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ENERGY ENGINEERING COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE SOLIDS MIXING CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM ENGINEERING FLUIDIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL

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-----------------------UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY 234 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs The Faculty and Their Research Interests J. Berman, Ph.D Northwestern Biomedical Engineering; Cardiovascular Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation D. Bhattacharyya, Ph D. Illinois Institute of Technology Novel Separation Processes; Membranes ; Water Pollution Control W. L. Conger, Ph D Pennsylvania Thermochemical Hydrogen Production; 2nd l,aw Analysis of Processes G. F. Crewe, Ph.D West Virginia Catalytic Hydrocracking of Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction R. B. Grieves, Ph.D., Northwestern Foam Fractionation; Pfiysicochemical Separations C. E. Hamrin, Ph D Northwestern Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis ; Nonisothermal Kinetics R. I. Kermode, Ph.D Northwestern Process Control and Economics L. K Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena E. D. Moorhead, Ph D ., Oh i o State Electrochemical Processes ; Novel Measurement Techniques A K. Ray, Ph.D Clarkson Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen Regime; Transport Phenomena J T. Schrodt, Ph D Louisville Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer ; Fuel Gas Desulfurization Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants For details write to: J. T. Schrodt Director for Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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University of Maryland Faculty: R o b e rt B. B ec km a nn T h eo d o r e W Ca dm a n Ri c h a rd V. Ca l a br ese La ny L. Gas n e r Ja m es W G e n try A lb e r t G o m ez pl ata R a nd o lph T. H atc h Ju a n H o n g T h o m as J M c A voy Thom as M R ega n Wilburn C. S c hro e d e r T heodor e G. Smith Rob e r t Whit e Location: The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles from the heart of the nation, Washington, D.C. Excellent public transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as the Smithsonian National Gallery Congress White House. Arlington Cemetery and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay with its delicious seafood. Degrees Offered: M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical Engineering. Financial Aid Available: Teaching and Research Assistantships at $6 800. plus tuition reimbursement are available. Research Areas: Aerosol Mechanics Air Pollution Control Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Fermentation Laser Anemometry Mass Transfer Polymer Processing Risk Assessment Separation Processes Simulation For Applications and Further Information, Write: P rof es sor T hom as J McA v o y D e p a rtm e n t of C h e mi ca l a nd Nucl e ar En g in ee rin g Universit y of Maryland C ollege Park, Md. 217 42

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Department of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Areas of Research Pulp and Paper Reaction engineering of pulping Pulp bleaching Formation of paper web Paper coating Environmental Science Waste water treatment Air pollution Polymer Science & Engineering Polymer synthesis and properties Polymer processing Fluids and Particle Systems Rheology Solid-fluid separation Porous media modeling Colloidal stability Process Dynamics and Control Process control & instrumentation Real time computing 236 Facilities Pulp and Paper Research and Testing Laboratory Pilot scale batch digesters, pulp re finers, a fourdrinier paper machine, paper coaters and complete testing equipment. Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Scanning electron microscope with ray microanalyzer, gas and liquid chromatographs, atomic absorption unit, infrared, UV and visible spectro photometers. Polymer Laboratory Injection and compression molding, spinning, membrane and vapor pres sure, osmometers light scattering, GPC, transport property measurement, synthesis, torsion pendulum. Fluid Dynamics & Rheology Mechanical spectrometer, lnstron capillary rheometer, Haake RV-12 visco meter, Sedigraph 5000D Particle size analyzer, Zeta meter and others Real Computing Laboratory PDP 11 / 60 with a data link with the University IBM 370 system, three PDP 11 / 03 systems, 8 CRT's, plotters. Academic Programs M S. and Ph .D. in Chemical Engineering. M S. in Pulp and Paper Technology Master in Chemical Engineering MChE (no thesis required) In addition to the students with B S in ChE, students who have a B.S. in the related fields such as chemistry, bio chemistry, and wood science are en couraged to do graduate work in ChE. Most prerequisite courses are offered every year during the summer. Financial Assistance Research Assistantships Teaching Assistantships Stipends range from $4,500 for nine months up to $8,000 for 12 months Admission For application and a copy of the Graduate School catalog, write to: Chairman, Chemical Engineering Dept. 115 Jenness Hall University of Maine Orono, ME 04469 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT FACULTY J. Wei, Department Head M. Alger R. C. Armstrong R. F Baddour J.M. Beer J. F. Brady H. Brenner R. A. Brown R. E. Cohen C. K. Colton C. Cooney W. M.Deen L.B. Evans C. Georgakis T. A. Hatton H. C. Hottel J.B. Howard G. A. Huff, Jr. J. P. Longwell M. P. Manning H. P. Meissner E. W. Merrill C. M.Mohr R. C. Reid A. F. Sarofim C. N. Satterfield H. H. Sawin K. A. Smith U. W. Suter J. W. Tester C. G. Vayenas P. S. Virk J.E. Vivian D. I. C. Wang G. C. Williams RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical and Biomedical Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Chemical Waste Management Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Conversion Environmental Kinetics and Fluid Mechanics Polymers Process Dynamics and Control Surfaces and Colloids Transport Phenomena Photo by Jam es Wei MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in Albany, New York, and the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem Pennsylvania. FALL 1982 For Information Chemical Engineering Headquarters Room 66-350 MIT Cambridge, MA 02139 237

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UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS Amherst The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate pr og rams leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or our prestigious Polymer Science and Engineering Department Financial aid in the form of research assistantships and teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. e CHEMICAL ENGINEERING e W.C.CONNER R W. LENZ* Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization M. F. DOHERTY M. F. MALONE Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design Rheology, Polymer processing, Design J. M. DOUGLAS K.M.NG Process design and control, Reactor engineering Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows J. W. ELDRIDGE Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria J. M. OTTINO* Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering V. HANSEL Catalysis, Kinetics F. I. SHINSKEY (Adjunct Professor) Process Control R. S KIRK Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors M. VANPEE Combustion, Spectroscopy J. R. KITTRELL (Adjunct Professor) Kinetics and catalysis, Catalyst deactivation H. H. WINTER* Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer R. L. LAURENCE* B. E. YDSTIE Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics Process Control e POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING e J. C. W. CHIEN Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers, Polymer degradation R. FARRIS Polymer composites, Mechanical properties, Elastomers A S. HAY Polymer synthesis, catalysis, polymer modification S. L. HSU Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis F. E. KARASZ Polymer transitions, Polymer blends, Conducting polymers W J. MacKNIGHT Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers T. J. McCARTHY Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces E. P OTOCKA Polymer stabilization, processing and fabrication, high performance composites R. S. PORTER Polymer rheology, Polymer processing I. C. SANCHEZ Statistical thermodynamics of solutions, transport properties, phase transition phenomena R. STEIN Polymer crystallinity and morphology, Characterization E. L. THOMAS* Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology, Polyurethanes 0. VOGL Polymer synthesis, degradation and stabilization of polymers *Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering For further details, please write to: 238 Prof. J. W. Eldridge Dept. of Chemical Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst. Mass. 01003 413-545-0470 Prof. R. Farris Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass. 01003 413-545-0433 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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I MCMASTER UNIVERSllY FALL 1982 M.ENG. AND PH.D. PROGR4MS PROCESS AND ENERGY ENGINEERING CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND CATALYSIS COMPUTER CONTROL, SIMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMER ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: CHAIRMAN DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING McMA5TER UNIVERSITY HAMILTON ONTARIO, CANADA L8S 4L7 239

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THE FACULTY Dale Briggs Louisville, Michigan Brice Carnahan Case-Western, Michigan Rane Curl MIT Francis Donahue LaSalle, UCLA H Scott Fogler Illinois, Colorado Erdogan Gulari Roberts, Cal Tech James Hand NJIT, Berkeley Robert Kadlec Wisconsin, Michigan Donald Katz Michigan Lloyd Kempe Minnesota Joseph Martin Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie John Powers Michigan, Berkeley Jerome Schultz, Chairman Columbia, Wisconsin Johannes Schwank Innsbruck Maurice Sinnott Michigan Rasin Tek Michigan Henry Wang Iowa State, MIT James Wilkes Cambridge, Michigan Brymer Williams Michigan Gregory Yeh Holy Cross, Cornell, Case Edwin Young Detroit, Michigan Chemical Engineering At The University Of Michigan THE RESEARCH PROGRAM Laser Light Scattering Reservoir Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Thrombogenesis Microemulsions Applied Numerical Methods Dynamic Process Simulation Ecological Simulation Electroless Plating Electrochemical Reactors Polymer Physics Polymer Processing Composite Materials Coal Liquefaction Coal Gasification Acidization Biochemical Engineering Periodic Processes Tertiary Oil Recovery Transport In Membranes Flow Calorimetry Ultrasonic Emulsification Heat Exchangers Renewable Resources THE PLACE Department Of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109 For Information Call 3131763-1148 Collect For Tomorrows Engineers Today.

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GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State University has assistantships and fellowships available for students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two to three additional years. ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $798.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S. degree and approximately $867.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject covered by the research assistantship. Non-resident tuition is waived FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $14,500 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year. CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman Ph.D., University of Washington Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio vascular Physiology, Diffusion in Polymers D. BRIEDIS Ph.D., Iowa State University Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living Systems, Biorheology, Mass Transfer in Biological Mineralization R. E. BUXBAUM E.A.GRULKE Ph.D., Ohio State University Food Engineering, Membranes Separations, and Polymer Engineering M. C. HAWLEY Ph.D., Michigan State University Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas, and Reaction Engineering K. JA YARAMAN Ph.D., Princeton University Ph.D., Princeton University Chemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion, Dif fusivities and Separation Rates from Theory and Ex periment. Simplification of Process Models, Parameter Estimation, Rheology of Suspensions and Polymers C.M.COOPER Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of Transport Processes A .L. DeVERA D.J. MILLER Ph.D., University of Florida Catalytic Reaction Kinetics and Catalyst Characterization, Gas-Solid Reactions, and Modeling of Stochastic Processes C.A.PETTY Ph.D., University of Florida Ph.D., University of Notre Dame Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Trans port Properties of Random Heterogeneous Media, Applied Mathematics, Catalytic Gasification of Carbon, Shape Selectivity Reactions on Zeolites Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena, Solid-Fluid Separations FALL 1982 B. W. WILKINSON Ph.D., Ohio State University Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear Reactor, and Radioisotope Applications FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WRITE Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering 173 Engineering Building, Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48824 MSU is an Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Institution 241

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242 Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401 Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman Day Programs M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS D. AZBEL (D.Sc., Mendeleev ICT-Moscow)-Dis persed Two-Phase Flow, Coal Gasification and Liquefaction. N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado) Computer Aided Process Design, Bioconversion. 0. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice) Transport Properties Kinetics, Catalysis M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida)-Biochemical Studies, Biomass Utilization J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. lllinois-Chicago)-Chemical kinetics Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo dynamics. J W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode Re actions, Corrosion A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich).-Adsorption, Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor Design. D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium. P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-lnterfacial Phenomena G. K. PA HERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla) Turbu lence, Mixing, Mixed Reactors Polymer Rheology. B. E. POLING (Ph.D., lllinois)-Kinetcis, Energy Storage, Catalysis X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota) Fluid Me chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena, Liquid Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure. 0. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Bioengineer ing R. C. Waggoner (Ph.D Texas A&M}.-Multistage Mass Transfer Operat i ons, Distillation Extraction, Process Control. H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse) Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech nology, Plasma Polymerization. Biomedical Ma terials Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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UNIVERSITY, BOZEMAN MONTANA STATE Ch ettge y 0 urseU In The Big Sky Cou11-try Come to Montana State University and enjoy a unique lifestyle while getting a solid graduate edu cation in chemical engineering. We are l i terally minutes away from some of the finest downhill ski ing in America and 90 miles from Yellowstone Na tional Park. We offer M S. and Ph.D. degrees and have just ini tiated a special master s program for students whose unqergraduate preparation is in chemistry or other scientific areas The department has a low student to faculty ratio and occupies two floors of a modern six-storied building. Financial support is available Incoming students can choose research topics in a variety of areas. The department has particular strength in energy, separations heat transfer and chemical kinetics. Write today for further information and applica tion forms : Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department Montana State University Bozeman Montana 59717

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Th ere's n o fo rmula fo r it. I t's a d ec i s i o n th a t d e p e n d<; in }:::-:--_J....____ th ee nd o n yo ur ow nin s tin c t s l. ...... 0 : mdjud g m e nt / J-~oIt :., al so a d ec i s i o n yo u / t:, 1..__ 1 ,...------r{i\ s h o uldn t m a k e until vo u l oo k L N ,,~-: I a t No rth C arolin a S tat e { \ 1,7, B eca u se so m e thin g i s ..._____D happ e ning h e r e that :-; b eg un t o l \ \ s uqxi se a l o t o f p eo pl e. W e've es t a bli s h e d th e _,,_,____ -----------hi g h es t m a t r i c ul a t io n s t a nd c u-d R esea r c h \ f undin g in a in a uni ve r s i ty sys t e m a lr eady t y pi ca l year co m es t o ove r kn ow n fo r exce ll e n ce $1,25 0 000. A nd i t co m es fr o m A nd th at m ea n s bri g ht er, th e m os t co m pe ti t i ve so ur ces m o r e talent e d und e r g r a duat es. fo r r esea r c h s u p p ort. 111 e fac ul ty, as a r es ult C urr e ntl y ac ti ve r esea r c h ar e co nstantl y c hall e n ge d A proj ec t s run th e ga mut o f v e 1 y h ea lth y s t a t e o f a f fa ir s th a t cl ass i ca l a r e~ L <; includin g multi r e fl ec t s, in turn o n th e qu a li ty fac ul ty co ll a b o r a ti o n in coa l o f the gr a du a t e p rog r a m ga'> ifi cat i o n a n d in p o l y m er And qu a lit y i s th e wor d sc i e n ce a nd e n g in ee ring rci, ),, C l \~--._/, } r: J~ uU If a ll t h i s i s ......_ b eg innin g t o i ntrigu e yo u ti y a s impl e ex p e rim e nt : W rit e t o o urd e p~tm e nt h ea d H ~o ld B. H o pf e nberg fo r m o r e inf or m a tion Or ca ll him a t (919)737 2 3 1 8. After a ll w h e n yo u r e uy i n g t o m a k e a d e ci s i o n o n a g r ad u ate sc h oo l it a l ways p ays t o d o yo u r h o m ewo rk. CHEMICAl ENGINEERING 10111 CAIOllNASTATE UNIVERSDY Depa rtm e nt o f C h e mi ca l Eng i neer in g Box 5035, No rt h Caro li na S t ate U niuersity. R a l eig h NC 276 50

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NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS S. G. Bankoff G. M. Brown J.B. Butt S. H. Carr W. C. Cohen B. Crist J. S. Dranoff T. K. Goldstick W.W. Graessley (On leave) H. M. Hulburt H.H.Kung R. S. H. Mah G. Ryskin W. Sachtler J. C. Slattery W. F. Stevens G. Thodos Boiling Heat Transfer Two-Phase Flo w Thermodynamics, Process Simulation Chem i cal Reaction Engineer i ng, Appl i ed Catalysis Solid State Properties of Polymers, B i omedical Polymers Dynamics and Control of Process Systems Polymers in the Solid State Chemical Reaction Engineer i ng, Chromatograph i c Separations Biomedical Engineering Oxygen Transport Polymer Rheology Polymer Reaction Engineer i ng Analysis of Chemical and Physical Processes Catalyst Behavior Properties of Oxide Surfaces Computer-Aided Process Planning Design and Analysis Fluid Mechan i cs Heterogeneous Catalys i s Transport and lnterfacial Phenomena Process Optim i zation and Control, Computer Applications Properties of Fluids Coal Processing, Solar Energy For inf o rmati o n and app l icati o n ma t er ials wri t b I FALL 1982 Professor J. C. Slattery, Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Northwestern University Evanston, IL 60201 245

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246 The Ohio State University Cheniical Engineering T HE OHIO STATE UNIVER,SITY has offered graduate degrees in Chemical Engineering since just after the turn of the century and has a proud traditi on o f distinguished alumni in industry government and academic positions The requirements for both the M .S and the Ph.D. degree include a core of ba si c chemical engineering co ur ses and ot h er cou r ses appro pri ate to the student's research and professional goal s. Becau se research is such a vital part of graduate educatio n close relation ships between research advisors and students are fostered. Th e Department has fourteen faculty members and the range of research topics and / or co ur se optio n areas cover a wide cross section of chemical enginee ring theory and practice : Biochemical Engineering Coal Conversion and Tr eatment Digital Pro cess Control Fluidized Bed Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Polymer Proce ssing Process Simulation Separation Processes Turbulence Bi oengineering Combustion o f Materials Environm en tal Fluid M ec hani cs Kin e tic s Petroleum Reservoir Process Design Rh eology Th er m odynamics The Chemical Engineering Building ha s more than 80,000 square feet and includes 45 research and teaching laboratories and classrooms Th e Department has a DEC VAX 11 / 780 computer for data acquisition computation and process control services More than fifteen in teractive graphics terminals are available for research and teaching Many kinds of specialized research equipment are available along with a University computer and an extensive library with fine search capabilities C OLUMBUS is a center for technical activity with Battelle Memorial Institute and Chemical Abstracts adjacent to the campus and many corporate research centers and technically based industries nearby. Cultural offerings in music art and drama are also widely available in Columbus. For those interested in recreational activities the University offers opportunities for virtually every sport from archery to water skiing For further information, write to Prof Jacques L. Zakin Dept. of Chemical Engineering, 140 W. 19th Street The Ohio State University Columbus Ohio 43210. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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D AWINCi IIY DR. JAMU L. THJtONt, AMOCO H SIE.UC:N, N VIIIV IL L I ILL FALL 198 2 .,. ...., ..,_ ,-.,, : ; ~-A-,l : ~ i ~ 1 ~' .:i '. -d~ M.S. in Chemical Engineering for chemical engineering and non-chemical engineering students D r j 0 hn R. Coll i er En gin e er i ng Depar t ment OHIO UNIVERSITY A th en s, Oh i o 4570 1 247

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248 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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. OKLRHOmR STATE UNIVERSITY School of Chemical Engineering welcomes _you for further information write to : Bill.Y L. Cr_ynes, Head School of Chem i cal Eng i neering Oklahoma State Universit.Y St i llwater Oklahoma .74078 l rnBrn ... 1 .4 The Oklahoma State Universit_y Chemical Engineering facult_y: Dr B. L. Cr_ynes Dr. Kenneth J. Bell Dr. R. Robinson, Jr Dr ma_yis Seapan Dr Gar_y L. Foutch Dr Robert maddox Dr John H. Erbar Dr Jan Wagner Dr. Arch G Hill Dr. Robert A. Wills Dr. Robert H. Heidersbach -

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university of pennsylvania chemical eng1neer1ng RESEARCH AREAS Applied Mathematics Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Chemical Reactor Engineering Combustion Computer-Aided Design Electrochemistry Energy Production Fluid Mechanics Heterogeneous Catalysis lnterfacial Phenomena Membrane Transport Polymer Science and Engineering Process Simulation Reaction Kinetics Separation Techniques Solar Energy Surface Phenomena Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Pennsylvania's chemical e ngin e ering program is designed to be flexible while emphasizing the fundamental nature of chemical and physical processes. Students may focus their studies in any of th e research areas of the depart ment. The full resources of this Ivy League university, including the Wharton School of Business and one of this country's foremost medical centers, are available to students in the program. 250 FACULTY Stuart W Churchill, PhD, Michigan (1952) Elizabeth B. Dussan V., PhD, Johns Hopkins (1972) Gregory C. Farrington, PhD, Harvard (1972) William C. Forsman, PhD, Pennsylvania (1961) Eduardo D. Giandt, PhD, Pennsylvania (1977) Raymond J Gorte, PhD, Minnesota (1981) David J. Graves, ScD, MIT (1967) A. Norman Hixson, Emeritus Douglas A. Lauffenburger, PhD, Minnesota (1979) Mitchell Litt, D Eng Sci., Columbia (1961) Alan L. Myers, PhD, California (1964) Melvin C. Molstad, Emeritus Daniel D Perlmutter, PhD Yale (1956) John A Quinn, PhD, Princeton (1959)-Chairman Warren D. Seider, PhD, Michigan (1966) PHILADELPHIA: The cultural ad v antag e s, hi s torical a s s e t s, and recreational facilities of a gr e at city wre within walking distance of the University. Enthusia s ts will find a variety of college and profes s ional sport s at hand. The Pocono Mountains and the Atlantic shor e ar e within a two-hour drive. For additional information, write: Director of Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Science 311A Towne Building / D3 University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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LOOKING FOR A GRADUATE EDUCATION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING? coNSIDER PENN STAIE FACULTY PAUL BARTON (Penn State) ALFRED CARLSON (W i sconsin) RONALD P. DANNER (Lehigh) THOMAS E. DAUBERT (Penn State) J LARRY DUDA (Delaware) LEE C. EAGLETON (Yale) ALFRED J ENGEL (Wisconsin) E EARL GRAHAM (Northwestern) FRIEDRICH G. HELFFERICH (Gottingen) ROBERT L. KABEL (Wash i ngton) E. ERWIN KLAUS (Penn State) SHENG-YI-LEE (Minnesota) R. NAGARAJAN (SUNY Buffalo) CHARLES C. PEIFFER (Penn State) JONATHAN PHILLIPS (Wisconsin) JOHN M. TARBELL (Delaware) JAMES S. ULTMAN (Delaware) M. ALBERT VANNICE (Stanford) JAMES S. VRENTAS (Delaware) DANIEL WHITE (Florida) Fi n ancial ai d is avai l a bl e to qua l i fi e d app l icants in t h e form of gr ad uate teaching an d research assista nt s h ips an d fe llo wships. F or a p pl icati o n fo rms an d f urther informati o n, write to: Dr. Lee C. Eagleton Head Dep a rtment of Chemic a l Enginee r in g 15 8 Fen s ke Labo r ator y Penns y l v ania Sta t e U ni ve r s it y Univer s ity Park P A 1 6802 BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Physiological Transport Processes Newborn Monitoring ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Gaseous and Particulate Control Atmospheric Modeling UNSTEADY STATE OPERATIONS Cyclic Distillation Cyclic Reactor Operations HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Metal-Support Interactions Adsorption and Desorption Processes Catalyst Character i zation Sulfur Poisoning Stud i es TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Analytical and Numerical Solutions Polymer Rheology and Transport Convective Heating and Mass Transfer Mass Transfer in Cocurrent Flow PROPERTY PREDICTION Thermodynamic, Phys i cal and Transport APPLIED MAT HEMA TICS Stability and B i furca t ion Theory Perturbation Theory APPLIED CHEMISTRY AND KINETICS Industrial Chemical Processes Complex React i on Systems PETROLEUM REFINING Process Development Product Conversion TRI BO LOGY Properties of Liquid Lubricants Boundary Lubrication Fundamentals INTERFACIAL PHENOMENA Adsorption Thermodynamics and Kinetics Monolayer and Membrane Processes Applications of Surfactants ENERGY RESEARCH T ertiary Oil Recovery Nuclear Technology Coal Convers i on Proce sses I n d ivi d uals ho l ding the B.S. in Chemistry or other re l ate d areas are encourage d to app l y FALL 1982 251

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HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTE R OF THE WORLD? ........ CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING FACULTY R. C. Ackerberg R. F. Benenati J. J. Conti C. D. Han W H. Kapfer J. S. Mijovic E. M Pearce E Sadie P. F. Schubert L. I. Stiel E. N. Ziegler Polvtechnic lnsfitute ~~WCQY~ Formed by the merger of Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and N ew York University School of Engineering and Science. Department of Chemical Engineering Programs leading to Master's and Doctor 's degrees. Areas of study and research : chemical engineering, polymer science and engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biochemical Engineering Catalysis, Kinetics and Reactors Computer Aided Process Design Energy Conversion Engineering Properties of Polymers Fluidization Fluid Mechanics Heat and Mass Transfer Polymer Processing Polymer Morphology Polymer Synthesis and Modification Polymerization Reaction Engineering Rheology Separation Sciences Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids Fellowships and Research Assistantships are available. For further information contact Professor R. F. Benenati Acting Head, Department of Chemical Engineering Polytechnic Institute of New York 333 Jay Street Brooklyn, New York 11201

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Albright Greenkom Andres Hannemann Caruthers Houze Chao Kessler Delgass Koppel Eckert Lim Emery Peppas Franses Ramkrishna Reklaitis Squires Takoudis Tsao Wang Wankat Graduate Information Chemical Engineering Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana 4 7907 An equal access/equal opportunity university.

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University of Queensland POSTGRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Scholarships Available STAFF L. S LEUNG (Cambridge) P. R. BELL (N.S W.) P. C. BROOKS (M.I.T.) D. D DO (Queensland) P. F. GREENFIELD (N.S.W.) G. J. KELLY (Tasmania) R. B NEWELL (Alberta) D J. NICKLIN (Cambridge) E. T. WHITE (Imperial College) R. J. WILES (Queensland) THE DEPARTMENT Jc / I -1 I --, r RESEARCH AREAS Two Phase Flow Fluidization Systems Analysis Computer Control Applied Mathematics Transport Phenomena Crystallization Rheology Chemical Reactor Analysis Energy Resource Studies Oil Shale Processing Water and Wastewater Treatment Electrochemistry Corrosion Fermentation Enzyme Engineering Environmental Control Process Economics The Department occupies its own building, is well supported by research grants, and maintains an ex tensive range of research equipment. It has an active postgraduate programme, which involves course work and research work leading to M.Eng. Studies, M.Eng.Science and Ph.D.degrees. THE UNIVERSITY AND THE CITY The University is one of the largest in Australia with more than 18,000 students. Brisbane, with a population of about one million, enjoys a pleasant climate and attractive coasts which extend northward into the Great Barrier Reef For further information write to: Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4067 AUSTRALIA. 254 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering Department Faculty and Areas of Research Michael M Abbott Ph.D. (Rensselaer)-classical thermodynamics ; vapor/liquid equilibria; analytic equations of state; expressions for excess thermodynamic functions Elmar A. Altwicker Ph.D. (Ohio State)-air pollution control ; atmospheric chemistry; combustion additives; mass transfer with chemical reactions. Yaman Arkun Ph.D (Minnesota)-process design, dynamics, and control; control strategies for highly integrated chemical plants. Donald B. Aulenbach P.E., Ph D. (Rutgers)-heavy metals removal ; chemical interactions in fresh-water lakes and streams ; disposal of radioactive wastes. Georges Belfort Ph.D (California-lrvine)-separations engineering (membrane processes and adsorption); biochemical concentrat i on and reactors; particle dynamics ; adsorption thermodynamics. Henry R. Bungay Ill P.E., Ph D (Syracuse) oxygen transfer in various microbial systems; high flow rate continuous cultures ; biomass refining. Chan I. Chung Ph.D. (Rutgers)-engineering aspects of polymer processing; physics of the structure-property relationships of polymer melts Nicholas L. Clesceri Ph.D (Wisconsini-intermedia transport research ; acid precipitation; toxic heavy metals removal ; water supply taste/odor problems ; lake eutrophication. Dady B Dadyburjor Ph D. (Delaware)-heterogeneous catalysis : deactivation, regeneration, and effects of catalyst mfcrostructure ; aggregation of surface active agents Arthur Fontijn D.Sc (Amsterdam)-kinetic measurements on high temperature reactions for combustion applications; air pollutant luminescence monitoring methods development. Cynthia S Hirtzel Ph.D (Northwestern)-probabilistic and statistical analysis of extreme value phenomena ; stochastic analysis of random processes in engineering science Financial Support: Full time graduate students are eligible for financial support includ ing iuition remis~ion and tax-free fellowships Arland H. Johannes P.E ., Ph.D. (Kentucky)-acid precipitation; wet and dry deposition ; atmospheric c hemistry; surface studies of coal mineral matter. Clement Kleinstreuer Ph D (Vanderbilt)-non-isothermal fluid particle systems ; higher-order boundary layer theory; membrane separation systems biochem i cal reactor design Peter K. Lashmet P.E. Ph.D. (Delaware)-process engineering; application of several numeri c al techniques such as probabilistics and collocation to improve design procedures Howard Littman Ph D ( Yale)-Fluid-particle systems with emphasis on the mechanics of spouted beds Charles Muckenfuss Ph.D (Wisconsin)-theoret i cal studies of. transport phen0mena ; applicat i ons of kinetic theory and irreversible thermodynamics to multicomponent reacting systems. E. Bruce Nauman Ph.D. (Leeds)-polymer reaction engineering; study of motionless mi x ers i n tubular polymerizers ; residence time theory-extensions to non isothermal non homogeneous reactors Michael H. Peters Ph D. (Oh i o State)-aerosoi dynamics; theoretical and experimental investigations on fluidization and fluid-particle systems Raj Rajagopalan Ph D ( Syracuse)-collo i dal and interfacial phe nomena; stat i st i cal physics and thermodynamics of macromolecular systems; transport phenomena William W. Shuster P.E., D.Ch E (Rensselaer)-treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes ; evaporation of toxic organics ; methane production from anaerob i c decomposition : Sanford S Sternstein Ph D (Rensselaer)-engineering and mechanical properties of polymers and polymeric materials; inhomogeneous swelling theory ; high performance composites. Hendrick C. VanNess P.E. D Eng. (Yale)-solution thermodynamics of ternary mixtures ; development of efficient data reduction procedures and appropriate correlating expressions. Peter C Wayner Jr. Ph.D. (Northwestern)-cha.nge of phase heat transfer ; iriterfacial phenomena ; transport processes in thin liquid films. Applications and Information: For full details, write : Dr. PK Lashmet Executive Officer Department of Chemical Engi neering and Environmental Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York 12181

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Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University Graduate study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University is offered to qualified students with suitable backgrounds in the fundamental principles of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics. The curriculum is aimed at strengthening the student's understanding of these principles and provides a basis for developing in certain areas the necessary proficiency for conducting independent research. Research programs are pursued in various areas of Chemical Engineering and related fields, such as Biomedical Engineering and Polymer Science. A joint program with the Baylor College of Medicine, leading to M-D.-Ph.D and M D.-M.S degrees is also available The Department has approximately 60 graduate students, predominantly Ph.D. candidates. There are also several post-doctoral fellows and research engineers associated with the various laboratories. Permanent faculty numbers 12, all active in undergraduate and graduate teaching, as well as in research. The high faculty-to-student ratio, outstanding laboratory facilities, and stimulating research projects provide a graduate education environment in keeping with Rice's reputation for academic excellence. The Department is one of the leading Chemical Engineer ing Departments in the U.S., ranked by graduate faculty quality and program effectiveness, according to recent evaluations. MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis Chromatography Optimization, Stability, and Process Control Biochemical Reaction Engineering Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Polymer Science Chemical Reactor Modeling Coal Liquefaction Tertiary Oil Recovery lnterfacial Phenomena BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Blood Flow and Blood Trauma Biorheology Biomaterials Rice University Rice is a privately endowed nonsectarian, coeduca tional university It occupies an architecturally attrac tive, tree-shaded campus of 300 acres, located in a fine residential area, 3 miles from the center of Hous t on. There are approximately 2600 undergraduate and l 000 graduate students. The school offers the benefits of a complete university with programs in the various fields of science and the humanities, as well as in engineer ing. It has an excellent library with extensive hold i ngs The academic year is from August to May As there are no summer classes, graduate students have nearly four months for research The school offers excellent recreational and athletic facilities with a completely equipped gymnasium, and the southern climate makes outdoor sports, such as tennis golf, and sailing year round activities 256 FINANCIAL SUPPORT Full-time graduate students receive financial support with tuition remission and a tax-free fellowship of $650-800 per month. A few special fellowships with higher stipends are given to particularly outstanding students. APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION Address letters of inquiry to: Houston Chairman Graduate Comm i ttee Department of Chem i cal Engineering Rice University Houston, Tex a s 77251 With a populat i on of nearly two m i llion, Houston is the largest me t ropolitan financial and commercial center in the South and Sou t hwest. It has achieved world-wide recognition through its vast and growing petrochemical complex, the pioneering medical and surgical activities at the Texas Medical Center, and the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Houston is a cosmopolitan city with many cultural and recreat i onal attractions It has a well-known resident symphony orchestra, an opera, and a ballet company, which perform regularly in the newly constructed Jesse H Jones Hall. Just east of the Rice campus is Hermann Park with its free zoo, golf course, Planetarium and Museum of Natural Science. The air-conditioned Astra dome i s the home of the Houston Astros and Oilers and the s i te of many other events. C HEMICAL E NGINEERING EDUC A TION

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~(\~ RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY M.S. and Ph.D. P ROGRAMS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF AND CHEM ICAL BIOCHEMICAL ENGi NEERiNG College of Engineering AREAS OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS THERMODYNAMICS TRANSPORT PHENOMENA KINETICS AND CATALYSIS CONTROL THEORY, COMPUTERS AND OPTIMIZATION POLYMERS AND SURFACE CHEMISTRY SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS MICROBIAL REACTIONS AND PRODUCTS SOLUBLE AND IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES BIOMATERIALS ENZYME AND FERMENTATION REACTORS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS BIOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY WATER RESOURCES ANALYSES INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATIONS FUELS FROM BIOMASS CONTROL OF FERMENTATION FOOD PROCESSING FELLOWSHIPS AND ASSISTANTSHIPS ARE AVAILABLE FALL 1982 COAL DESULFURIZATION OCEANS AND ESTUARIES ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING QUALITY MANAGEMENT POLYMER PROCESSING WASTES RECOVERY PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS For Application Forms and Further Information W r ite To : Graduate Admissions Office Van Nest Hall Rutgers, The State University New Brunswick, N J. 08903 257

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I r I 'icf. t.' t. ;r i': "'+. 't'. > ... ;.fa,, :-::, I University of south Carolina The College of Engineering offers M.S. M.E. and Ph.D degrees in Chemical Engineering Graduate students have the opportunity to work closely with the faculty on research projects Research and te ach i ng stipends are available The University of South Carolina, with an enrollment of 23,800 on the Columbia campus, offers a variety of cultural and recreational activities. Columbia is part of one of the fastest growing areas in the country : The Chemical engineering Faculty B.L. Baker Distinguished Professor Emeritus Ph D ., North Carolina State University 1955 (Process design, environment problems ion transport) M.W. Davis, Jr., Weisiger Chair Professor Ph D ., Univers,ity of Calif ornia (Berkeley) 1951 (Kinetics and catalysis chemical process analysis solvent extraction waste treatment). F.A. Gadala-Maria, Assistant Professor Ph D Stanford University 1979 (Fluid mechanics rheology) J H.Gibbons, Professor Ph D. University of Pittsburgh 19 61 (Heat transfer fluid mechanics) F.P. Pike, Professor Emeritus Ph D ., University of Minnesota 1949 (Mass transfer in liquid liquid systems vapor liquid equilibria) T.G.Stanford, Assistant Professor Ph D ., The University ., of Michigan 1977 (Chemical reactor engineering mathematical" modeling of chemical systems process design thermodynamics) V Van Brunt, Associate Professor Ph.D ., University of Tennessee 1974 (Mass transfer computer modeling, fluidization) For further information contact: Prof J H Gibbons Chairman Chemical Engineering College of Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia South Carolina 29208 An Equal Opportunity Institution

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Stevens Institute of Technology Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering Leading to the Degrees of Master of Engineering Chemical Engineer Ph.D. Full and part-time day and evening programs RESEARCH IN Catalysis Chemical Reaction Engineeri n g Coal Combustion FACULTY E nergy Conversion Multip ha se Transport Natural Gas E ngin ee ring Polymerization E ngin ee rin g J. A Bi ese nb e r ger (Ph .D. Princ e ton) S. Kovenklioglu (Ph.D., St eve ns) G. B. Delancey (Ph.D Pittsburgh) P. Hold (D. E ng. Vienna) C. G Gogos (Ph .D ., Princ eton) D JI. Sebastian (P h.D. Stevens) For additional information co ntact: Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Stevens Institute of Technolog y Hoboken N.J. 07030 (201) 420-5546 Financial aid available to qualified st ud ents. Polymer Rheology and Processing Polymer Structuring Process Design ancl D eve lopm ent Process Simulation ancl Control S epara tion Processes H Silla (Ph.D., Stevens) K. K. Sirkar ( Ph.D. lllinois ) A. P. Ziouclas (Ph .D. Illinois ) For application, contact: Office of Graduate Studies Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, N.J. 07030 (201) 420-5234 Overlooking the Hud s on River and midtown Manhattan, the 55-ane Stevens campus encompasses more than 30 buildings including classroom and resea(ch facilities. The location of the campus is unique, just 15 minutes from the heart of ew York and within a SO-mile radius of the country's largest research laboratories and chemical, petroleum and pharmaceutical companies. Stevens In s titute of Technology does n ot discriminate against a ny person because of race, creed, color, nati o nal or i g in, sex, age, marital stat u s, h a ndic ap, liability for serv i ce in the armed forces ur s tatu s as a d i sab l ed or Vktnam era veteran.

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COME TO TENNESSEE THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE Graduate Studies in Chemical, Metallurgical, and Polymer Engineering Programs Programs for the degrees of Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy are offered in chemical engineering, metallurgical engineering and poly mer engineering. The Master's pro gram may be tailored as a terminal one with emphasis on professional development or it ma y serve as prep aration for more advanced work lead ing to the Doctorate Financial Assistance Sources available include graduate teaching assistantships, research as sistantships and industrial fellow ships Send Inquiry with listing of degree(s) date(s) and grade point average(s) to Department of Chemical Metallurg ical, and Polym er Enginee ring The Univer sity of Tenne ssee Knoxville Tennessee 37996-2200 Faculty William T. Bec ker Donald C. Bogu e Charlie R Bro oks Duane D Bruns Edward S Clark Robert M Counce John F Feller s George C Frazier John M Holmes Hsien Wen Hsu Homer F. Johnson Department Head Carl D Lundin Charles F Moore Ben F Oliver Joseph J Peron a A ssoc iate Department Head for Chemic a l Engineerin g Joseph E Spru ie ll Associ ate Dep ar tment He ad for Materials Engineering E Eu gene Stansbury Carl 0 Thomas Roy A. Vandermeer Fred W eber James L White Professor-in-Charge of Polymer Engineer ing Research Process Dynamics and Control Coal Processing Chromatographic and Ultracentrifuge Studies of Macromolecules Development and Synthesis of New Engineering Polymers Fiber and Plastics Processing Chemical Bioenginee ring X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy Solidification, Zone Refining Welding Cryogenic and High Temperature Calorimetry Flow and Fracture in Metallic and Polymetric Systems Corrosion Solid State Kinetics

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY J. W. BARLOW (University of Wisconsin) J. R. BROCK (University of Wisconsin) T. F. EDGAR (Princeton University) J. G. EKERDT (University of California) J. R. FAIR (University of Texas) D. M. HIMME LBLAU (University of Washington) K. P. JOHNSTON (University of Illinois) D.R. LLOYD (University of Waterloo) J. J. MCKETTA (University of Michigan) D. R PAUL (University of Wisconsin) R. P. POPOVICH (University of Washington) H. F. RASE (University of Wisconsin) G. T. ROCHE~LE (University of California) R. S. SCHECHTER (University of Minnesota) H. STEINFINI<: (Polytechnic Institute of New York) J. E STICE (Illinois Institute ofTechnology) N. P. VASILAl(OS (California Institute of Technology) E. H. WISSLER (Un i versi t y of Minneso t a) RESEARCH INTERESTS Aerosol Physics & Chemistry Air Pollution Science Artificial Internal Organs Aqueous Mass Transfer Biomass Liquefaction Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Chemical Engineering Education Coal Beneficiation Coal Desulfu'rization Coal Gasification & Combustion Computer Applications Computer-Based Education Colloid Science Crystal Structure & Properties Energy Applications Enhanced Oil Recovery Heat Transfer Material Science Membrane Science Multi-phase Systems Optimization Polymer Applications Polymer Processing Polymer Properties Polymer Thermodynamics Process Control Process Design & Development Process Simulation Reaction Kinetics & Mechanisms Separation Processes Stack Gas Desulfurization Surface Science Thermodynamics Transition Metal Studies I n q uirie s slwu ld be sent to Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering FALL 1982 The University of Texas Austin T X 78712 261

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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Texas A&M is a land-grant and sea grant university, and the oldest public institution of higher learning in Texas The current enrollment is about 35,000. The uni versity location is Bryan/College Station, Texas-twin cities with a combined population of 122,000 (including students). The surrounding country is deciduous forest Houston is 95 miles Southeast and Dallas is 160 miles North. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT The ChE department has an enrollment of about 1000 undergraduates and 70 graduates. ChE has excellent facilities in the Zachry Engineering Center. All gradu ate students have desk space. Graduate stipends are currently $1050 / month for teaching assistantships and $870 / month for research assistants. Admission to The Texas A&M University System and any of its sponsored programs is open to qualified individuals regardless of race, color, age, religion, sex, national origin or educationally unrelated handicaps. FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS C. D. Holland (department head) d i stillation A. Akgerman k i ne t ics R. G. Anthony catalysis D. B Bukur simulation J. A. Bullin gas sweetening, air pollution R. Darby rheology R R. Davison solar energy L. D. Durbin process control P. T. Eubank -t hermodynamics T. W. Fogwell applied mathematics A. M Gadalla catalysts C J Glover polymer solution s K. R Hall-thermodynamics D. T. S. Hanson biochemical W B Harris methanol fuel J C. Holste thermodynamics G. B. Tatterson turbulence and mixing A T. Watson porous media R. E. White electrochemical applications FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Dept Texas A&M University Co!le q e Station, TX 77843 713 / 845-3361

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1addo:::> s1 a M01::1 a 11!N J U Z aeJ!/\ enb\;I a wn O ll ll f\ we61ewv FALL 1982 Chemical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University applying chemistry to the needs of man $tudy with outstanding professors in the land of Washington, Jefferson, Henry and Lee ... where Chemical Engineering is an exciting art. Some current areas of major and well-funded activity are: Renewable Resources chemical and microbiological processing, chemicals from renewable resources Coal Science and Process Chemistry chemistry of prompt intermediates, reaction paths in coal liquefaction, fate of trace elements Coal Combustion Workshop small-scale systems, fate of trace elements, environmental controls, fluidized beds Microcomputers, Digital Electronics, and Control digital process measurements, microcomputer interfacing, remote data acquisition, digital controls Polymer Science and Engineering processing, morphology, synthesis, surface science, biopolymers Engineering Chemistry chemically pumped lasers, multiphase catalysis, chemical microengineering, photoelectrochemistry reactor design Biochemical Engineering synthetic foods, antibiotics, fermentation process design and instrumentation, environmental engineering Surface Activity use of bubbles and other interfaces for separations, water purification, trace elements, concentration, understanding living systems VPI&SU is the state university of Virginia with 20,000 students and over 5,000 engineering students located in the beautiful mountains of southwestern Virginia. White-water canoeing, skiing, backpacking, and the like are all nearby, as are Washington, D. C. and historic Williamsburg. Initial Stipends to $10,000 per year. Write to: Graduate Committee Chemical Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, or call collect (703) 961-5771. 263

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LUP HXGH SCORE ~UP 23240 J.40030 --~. . CllalDJ . . :::, =L.: I : : :J.: ] "" ft tr.-o :,i[ :.J=E o~: l.z 4 ...... : c .............. .. . CIIIIDIT 0 Research Areas Polymer Science and Engineering Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Electrochemical Engineering Surface and lnterfacial Phenomena Computer Process Control and Optimization Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Systems Applied Kinetics Fluid Mechanics and Rheology Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Processes Semiconductor Processing and Technology Heat Transfer The University of Washington is a diverse institution with strong programs in many scholarly fields Chemical engineering graduate students take advantage of specialized courses given by other departments to add breadth and depth to their program of study Essentially all graduate students are supported financially Seattle is a beautiful city with outstanding cultural activities and many recreational opportunities at its doorstep. Further information, write: Chairman Chemical Engineering Dept. 264 University of Washington. BF 10 Seattle.Washington 98195 Tired of no REAL challenges? Join us at the University of Washington Department of Chemical Engineering for an _exciting educational experience Faculty G. Graham Allant. Glasgow J. Ray Bowen,** Berkeley John C. Berg, Berkeley Morton M David (Emeritus). Yale Bruce A. Finlayson. Minnesota Harold E Hager. Princeton William J Heideger Pr i nceton Allan S. Hoffman*. Mass Inst. of Tech. Thomas A. Horbett. Washington Thomas E. Hutchinson*. Virginia Lennart N. Johanson. Wisconsin Eric Kaler, Minn esota Barbara B. Krieger, Wayne State Joseph L. McCarthyt, McGill William T McKeant, Washington R. Wells Moulton (Emeritus), Washington Buddy D. Ratner, Brooklyn Poly N Lawrence Ricker. Berkeley Kyosti V Sarkdnent. New York James C. Seferis, Delaware Charles A. Sleicher, Michigan t Joint appointments with Forest Resources joint appointments with Bioengineering ** Dean College o,f Engineering CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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,,. : ;-:"" ~ ~ ; ::~l:~-~f~r :~_;t~.; ... ~-:~-~~-~... _.,..,.-_: ---" ~ ... -~::.:~.:,:::__.._ : _..--:. -

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Chemical Engineering Energy Engineering Coal Conversion Combustion Biomass Conversion Environmental Engineering Chemical Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Sludge and Emulsion Dewatering River & Lake Modeling Emission Control for Sulfur Gases West VlrgIn1a UnIversIly Other Topics Reaction Engineering Separation Processes Surface and Colloid Phenomena Phase Eq uilibria Fluidization Bioengineering Solution Chemistry Electrochemical Engineering Transport Phenomena M.S. and Ph.D. Programs For further information on financial aid write: Dr. J. D. Henry Department of Chemical Engineering West Virginia University Morgantown West Virginia 26506

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R. E Slonaker, Jr. ,Chairman (Ph D ., Iowa State) .. Growth and properties of single c r ystals high temp e rature ca l orimetry, vapor liquid equilib ri a in t e rnary sys t e ms M E. Hanyak, Jr (Ph D ., Un iversi t y of P en n sylvania) Computer-aided design and instruction problem oriented language s, numerical analysi s F W Koko, Jr. (Ph D ., Leh i gh Univ ers ity) Optim izat i o n algorit hm s fluid mechanic s and rheology, direct digital control. IN J M. Pommersheim ( Ph D., Universit y of P ittsburgh) Catalyst deactivation reaction analysis math e matical m odeling, and diffusion with reaction and phase change W. J. Snyder (Ph D ., Pennsylvania State Uni versi t y) Catalysis, polymerization thermal analysis development o f specific ion electrodes mi croprocessors and instrumentation wh o hold und e rgraduat e degrees in one o f the natural sciences o r mathematic s s h o uld contac t th e department c hairman regarding e li gibility for graduate s tud y Fellowships and tea c hing and rese ar ch assistantships are available Lewi sb urg located in the center o f Pennsylvania provides the attraction o f a rural setting while co nv e niently l oca t ed within 200 miles of New York Philad e lphia Washingt on, D C ., and Pittsburgh For further Information, write or phone: Coordinator of Graduate Studie s Bu c knell Univers ity Lewisbu r g, PA 178 37 ,.._ ________ 717 524-1304 ______ __. FALL 1982 Lake Huro n Canada's largest Chemical Engineering De partment offers regular and co-operative M.A.Sc., Ph.D. and post-doctoral programs in: Biochemical and Food Engineering *Chemical Kinetics, Catalysis and Reactor Design *Environmental and Pollution Control *Extractive and Process Metallurgy Polymer Science and Engineering Mathematical Analysis, Statistics and Control *Transport Phenomena, Multiphase Flow, Petroleum Recovery Electrochemical Processes, Solids Handling, Microwave Heating Financial Aid: Minimum $12 600 per annum (research option) Academic Staff: E. Rhodes, Ph.D. (Manchester), Chair man; T. Z Fahidy, Ph.D (Illinois), Associate Chairman (Graduate); G. S. Mueller, Ph.D (Manchester), Associ ate Chairman, (Undergraduate); T L. Batke, Ph D. (To ronto); L. E Bodnar, Ph.D. (McMaster) ; C M Burns, Ph.D. (Polytech. Inst. Brooklyn); J. J Byerley, Ph D. (UBC); K. S. Chang, Ph.D. (Northwestern); F. A. L. Dullien Ph.D (UBC); K. E. Enns, Ph D. (Toronto); J. D. Ford, Ph D (Toronto); C. E. Gall, Ph D. (Minn.); R. Y. M. Huang, Ph D. (Toronto); R. R. Hudgins, Ph D (Prince ton); I. F. Macdonald Ph.D. (Wisconsin); M. Moo-Young, Ph.D. (London) ; K. F. O'Driscoll Ph.D. (Princeton); D. C. T. Pei, Ph D., (McGill) ; P. M. Reilly Ph.D (London); G. L. Rempel, Ph.D. (UBC); C. W. Robinson, Ph.D. (Berkeley); A. Rudin Ph D. (Northwestern); J. M. Scharer, Ph D. (Pennsylvania); D.S. Scott, Ph.D. (Illinois); P. L. Silveston Dr Ing. (Munich); D R Spink, Ph.D. (Iowa State) ; G. A. Turner, Ph.D (Manchester); B. M E van der Hoff Ir (Delft); J. R Wynnyckj. Ph.D. (Toronto). J. Chat zis, Ph D. (Waterloo); G. R. Sullivan, Ph.D. (Im perial College) To apply, contact: The Associate Chairman (Graduate Studies) Department of Chemical Engineering University of Waterloo Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3G1 Further information: See CEE, p. 4, Winter 1975 267

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Graduate Study and Research Leading to M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees FACULTY AND AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION ROBERT E. BABCOCK e Water Resources, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamic Properties PHILIP E. BOCQUET e Electrokinetics, Thermo dynamics EDGAR C. CLAUSEN e Conversion of Biomass into Chemicals and Energy JAMES R. COUPER Process Design and Economics, Polymers JAMES L. GADDY e Biochemical Engineering, Process Optimization JERRY A. HAVENS e Irreversible Thermodynamics, Fire and Explosion Hazard Assessment CHARLES SPRINGER e Mass Transfer, Diffusional Processes CHARLES M. THATCHER e Mathematical Modeling, Computer Simulation LOUIS J. THIBODEAUX e Chemical Separations, Chemodynamics JIM L. TURPIN e Fluid Mechanics, Biomass Conver sion, Process Design FINANCIAL AID Graduate Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellow ships. LOCATION The U of A campus is located in beautiful Northwest Arkansas in the heart of the Ozark mountains. This tranquil setting provides an invigorating climate with excellent outdoor recreation including hunting, fishing, camping, hiking, skiing, sailing, and canoeing. Technical and cultural opportunities are available within the eight-college consortium for higher education. For Further Details Contact: Dr. James L. Gaddy, Professor and Head Department of Chemical Engineering 227 Engineering Building, University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR 72701 Brown University Graduate Study 268 Faculty Hassan Aref, Ph .D. (Co rnell ) Joseph M. Calo Ph.D. ( Princeton ) Bruc e Caswell Ph D. ( Stanford ) Joseph H Clarke Ph.D. ( Polytechnic In stitu te of New York ) Richard A. Dobbins, Ph.D ( Prin ceton ) Sture K F. Karl sso n Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins ) Joseph D. Kestin, D.S c. ( University of London ) Joseph T.C. Liu, Ph.D (Ca lifornia I ns titut e of Tec hn o l ogy ) P~ul F. M aeder, Ph.D ( Brown ) Edward A Mason, Ph.D. ( M assachusetts In s titut e of T ec hnol ogy ) T .F. Mor se, Ph .D. ( Northwestern ) Peter D. Richardson, Ph.D ., D.Sc. Eng. ( University of London ) Merwin Sibulkin A E. ( Ca li fornia Institute of Technolog y ) Eric M Suuberg, S c.D. ( Ma ssac hu se tt s In s titut e of Technology ) in Chemical Engineering Research Topics in Chemical Engineering Chemical kinetics, combustion, two phase flows, fluidized b eds, se p ara tion proc esses, numerical simulation, vortex methods, turbulence, hydrodynamic s t a bilit y, coal chemistry, coal gasification heat and mass transfer, aerosol condensation, transport processes, irreversi bl e th ermodynamics, membranes, particulate deposition, physiological fluid mechanics, rheology. A program of graduate s tud y in Chemical Engineering leads toward the M.S c. or Ph.D. Degree. Teaching and R esea rch Assistantships as well as Industri a l a nd Univ ersi ty Fellowships are ava ilabl e. For further information write: Professor J. Calo, Coor dinator Chemical Engineering Program Division of Engineering Brown University Providence, R hode Island 02912 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Biomedical Engineering / Chemical Engineering at Carnegie-Mellon University Drug Transport Membranes Vascular Physiology Pharmacokinetics Chemotaxis Cancer Research The Graduate Program offers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Biomedical Engineering/ Chemical Engineering M.S. in Biomedical Engi neering/ Chemical Engi neering prepares engineer.: ing students for careers in industry and medical research. FALL 1982 Ph.D. in Biomedical Engi neering /Chemical Engi neering prepares engineer ing students for academic teaching and research; also for positions in industry and medical research. Tuition support plus a monthly stipend available. Graduate Study For applications and informa tion write to: Chairman, Biomedical Engineering Program 1323 Wean Hall Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 In Chemical Engineering Degrees Offered M S. and Ph.D programs are available for persons in Chemical Engineering or related fields Research Areas Energy Storage and Conservation Polymer Processing Environmental Pollution Control Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design Computer Process Control Process Simulation Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Membrane Transport Processes Thermodynamics Faculty F.C. Alley W.B. Barlage J.N. Beard W.F. Beckwith D.D. Edie J.M. Haile R.C. Harshman S.S. Melsheimer J.C. Mullins R.W. Rice C.H. Gooding Clemson University Clemson University is a state coeducational land-grant university offering 78 undergraduate fields of study and 57 areas of graduate study in its nine academic units which include the College of Engineering. Present on-campus enrollment totals about 10,800 students which includes about 1,500 graduate students The campus which comprises 600 acres and represents an investment of approximately $195 million in permanent facilities, is located in the northwestern part of South Carolina on the shores of Lake Hartwell. For Information For further information and a descriptive brochure write D.D Edie Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering Clemson University Clemson SC 29631 269

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THE CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY DOCTOR OF ENGINEERING MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAM IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION Transport Processes Porous Media Bioengineering Reaction Engineering Simulation Processes Zeolites The program may be designed as terminal or as preparation for further advance study leading to the doctorate. Financial assistance is available. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: Department of Chemical Engineering The Cleveland State University Euclid Avenue at East 24th Street Cleveland, Ohio 44115 l tor: Professors R. J. MacGregor, J L. Falconer, W. F. Ramirez, W. B. Krantz, K. D. Timmerhaus, and M. S. Peters not shown: Professors P. L. Barrick D. E Clough, R. I. Gamow, H J. M. Hanley, R. C. Johnson, R. L. Sani, R. E. West, P. G. Glugla, L. Lauderback, and R. H. Davis ~70 JOIN OUR TEAM At the University of mm am mm rnrn for Graduate Research In ATMOSPHERIC & GEOPHYSICAL STUDIES BIOENGINEERING ENERGY ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT AL ENGINEERING KINETICS AND CATALYSIS PROCESS CONTROL & OPTIMIZATION SURFACE PHENOMENA THERMODYNAMICS & CRYOGENICS ******************** WRITE TO: Professor Max S. Peters, Chai rman Department of Chemical Eng ineerin g Campus Box 424 U niver s ity of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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FALL 1982 l_ COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY NEW YORK, NEW YORK 10027 Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering, Applied Chemistry and Bioengineering FACULTY AND RESEARCH AREAS: J. A. ASENJO P. O .BRUNN F. S. CASTELLANA H. Y.CHEH H.P. GREGOR C. C. GRYTE E. F. LEONARD G. J. PROKOP AKIS J. L. SPENCER Biochemical Engineering Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics Biomedical Engineering Mass Transfer Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Electrochemical Engineering Polymer Science, Membrane Processes, Environmental Engineering Polymer Science, Separation Processes Biomedical Engineering, Transport Phenomena Process Analysis, Simulation and Design Applied Mathematics, Chemical Reactor Engineering For Further Information, Write: Chairman, Graduate Committee Financial assistance is available Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Columbia Univers ity New York, New York 10027 faculty T. F. ANDERSON P. BABCOCK J. P. BELL C. 0 BENNETT R. W. COUGHLIN M. B. CUTLIP (212) 280-4453 programs M.S. and Ph.D. programs covering most aspects of Chemical Engineering Research projects in the following areas : KINETICS AND CATALYSIS A. T. DiBENEDETTO G M. HOWARD H E. KLEI M. T. SHAW R. M STEPHENSON L. F. STUTZMAN POLYMERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALS PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL WATER AND AIR POLLUTION CONTROL BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING D W. SUNDSTROM R A. WEISS FUEL PROCESSING Si:PARATION THERMODYNAMICS financial aid Research and Teaching Assistantships, Fellowships locatlon e eautiful setting in rural Northeast Connecticut, convenient to Boston, New York, and Northern New England We would like to tell you much more about the opportunities for an education at UCONN, please write to: Graduate Admissions Committee Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Connecticut Storrs, Connecticut 06268 271

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DREXEL UNIVERSITY M.S. and Ph.D. Programs in Chemical Engineering Faculty D. R. Coughanowr S. M. Benner E. D. Grossmann Y. H. Lee R. Mutharasan J. A. Tallmadge J. R. Thygeson X. E. Verykios C. B. Weinberger Consider: High faculty/student ratio Excellent facilities Research Areas Biochemical Engineering Chemical Reactor/Reaction Engineering Mass and Heat Transport Polymer Processing Process Control and Dynamics Rheology and Fluid Mechanics Systems Analysis and Optimization Thermodynamics and Process Energy Analysis Outstanding location for cultural activities and job opportunities Full time and part time options Write to: Department of Chemical Engineering Drexel University Philadelphia, PA 19104 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. PROGRAMS T. E. CARLESON D. C. DROWN L. L. EDWARDS R. R. FURGASON W.R. HAGER D. S HOFFMAN M. L. JACKSON R.A.KORUS J. Y. PARK J. J. SCHELDORF G. M. SIMMONS 272 FACULTY -Mass Transfer Enhancement, Electrostatic Precipitation, Electrophoresis -Fluidized Bed Combustion and Pyrolysis Pro cess Design and Economic Evaluation -Computer Aided Process Design, Systems Analysis, Pulp/Paper Engineering Heat Transfer Process Design and Economics -Environmental Systems, Alternative Energy Engineering Education Applied Thermodynamics, Mass Transfer -Mass Transfer in Biological Systems, Particulate Control Technology -Polymers, Biochemical Engineering -Chemical Reaction Analysis and Catalysis -Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics -Geothermal Energy Engineering, Energy Recovery, Pyrolysis Kinetics University of Idaho 0 A concentrated program of study in an informal atmosphere allows completion of a M.S. program in one calendar year. Graduate programs are also available for students having non-chemical degrees. The region has an invigorating cl i mate with excellent outdoor recreation including fishing, hunting, skiing, hiking, boating, and camping. The university community provides access to a variety of cultural activities and events. FOR FURTHER INFOflMATION & APPLICATION WRITE: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of Idaho Moscow, Idaho 83843 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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The Johns Hopkins University M.S. and Ph.D. Programs Faculty Stanl ey Co rr s in P h .D. C alt ec h M a r c D o n o hu e, Ph .D Research Areas F l uid Mec hani cs Pha se Equ i l i b r i a B io t ec hn o l o g y B e rk e l ey J ose ph K a t z, Ph.D. C hi c a go R o b e rt Ke ll y, Ph .D. Nu c l e ati o n an d Crys t a ll iza ti o n E l e c tr oc h e mi c a l Eng inee r i n g Rh e o l o g y N o rth C aro lin a St a t e Loui s M o n c h ic k Ph.D Co al Co n ve r s i o n Turbu l e n ce and M ixi n g B os t o n V i vian O Bri e n Ph.D. Ma s s and H e at Tran s f e r Pro ce ss Modeling and C o nt rol Johns H opk i n s Ge o ffr ey Prent ice Ph.D B e rke l ey William Sch w arz Dr Eng J ohn s H opkin s Financial assistan ce is a v ailabl e The University of Kansas Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering otters graduate study lead i ng to th e M.S. a nd Ph D d eg r ees F o r f u rt h er i nf o r ma t ion wri te : Pro f e ssor R usse ll M es l er G r aduate Adviser D e p a rtm e n t of Chemica l and P etrole u m Engin ee r ing 4 006 Learned Hall T he U n iversity of Kansa s L awrence Ka n sa s 66045 Faculty and Areas of Specialization Kenneth A Bishop P rofessor ( Ph.D Okl a h oma); re se r vo ir s imu la ti o n i n t e r active co m p ut e r g r a phi cs op t i mi za ti on. John C. Davis, P rofesso r a n d c h ief of geo l ogy r es e a r c h s e c ti o n K ans a s Geolog i cal S ur vey ( Ph D ., W yo ming ); Prob abi li s ti c tec h n iqu es f or oil exp l oration geo l ogic computer map p ing Kenneth J Himmelstein Adju n ct P ro f essor (Ph.D ., M ary l an d ); pha rm acok in et i cs mathe m a tica l m o d e li ng of bio l og i c al pr ocesses ce ll kineti cs d iff u s i o n a nd m ass t ra n sfe r Colin S Howat Ill Ass i sta nt Pr ofessor ( Ph D ., K ansas); a p p li e d e qu i l i br iu m t he r m ody n am i cs process d es i gn FA LL 1982 Don W Green Profe sso r and Co-director Te r tiary Oil R ecove r y P r oject (Ph D. Oklahoma); enhanced oil recove r y hydro l ogical m odeling. James 0 Maloney P rofesso r ( P h.D ., Penn State) ; tec hn ology and society. Russell B Mesler -P rofessor ( P h.D ., M ichi ga n ) ; nuc l eate and film boi l ing bubble and drop phenomena Floyd W Preston Professor (Ph D ., Penn Sta t e) ; geologic pore structu r e. Harold F. Rosson P rofessor and Departmen t Chai r m an ( P h. D ., R ice) ; P roduc t io n of a l ter nate f ue l s f r om ag r icultu r al mate r ials George W Swift P rofessor ( P h.D. Kansas) ; T he r modynam i cs of pe tr oleum and petro Pl ease co nt act: Pr o fe sso r Mar c D ono hu e D e partm e nt o f C h e mi c a l Engin ee r ing Th e J o hns H o pkin s Un i v e r s it y Balt i m o r e, Ma ry land 2 12 1 8 3 013 38 7761 sys tem s, natural gas reservo i r s analysis fractured well analysis petrochemical plant design. John E Thiele Assoc i ate P rofessor (Sc.D ., M IT) polyme r s. Shapour Vossoughi Associa t e Pr ofessor ( P h D. U of Alber t a) ; enhanced o il recove r y thermal ana l ysis applied rheology and com puter mode l ing Stanley M Walas P rofes sor ( P h. D ., M ichi ga n ) ; co mb ine d c h e mi ca l and pha se e qu i l i brium G Paul Willhite Pr ofesso r a n d Codir ec t or Te rt ia r y Oil R ecovery P ro j ect, ( Ph.D ., N o r t h western) ; e nh a n ced o il r ecove r y, t r a n spo rt processes in porous m e d ia, m a th e m a i ica l mode li ng 273

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274 ~ill~illrn oorn~wrnrn~~1rw Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering Master of Engineering Master of Engineering Science Doctor of Engineering FACULTY: RESEARCH AREAS: D. H. CHEN (Ph D., Oklahoma State Univ.) Computer Simulation Process Dynamics and Control J. R. HOPPER (Ph D. Louisiana State Univ.) Heterogeneous Catalysis Reaction Engineering Fluidization and Mass Transfer T. C. HO (Ph.D;, Kansas State Univ ) K. Y. LI (Ph D Mississippi State Univ.) R. E. WALKER (Ph D ., Iowa State Univ ) C. L. YAWS (Ph D. Univ of Houston) 0. R. SHAVER (Ph D. Univ of Houston) Transport Properties Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Reactions Rheology of Drilling Fluids Computer-Aided Design Thermodynamic Properties, Cost Engineering, Photovoltaics FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PLEASE WRITE: Graduate Adml11lon1 Chairman Department of Chemlcal Engineering Lamar University P. 0. Box 10053 Beaumont, TX 77710 An equal -rtunlty / afflnnallva action unlYeBlty LEHIGH UNIVERSITY FACULTY Hugo S. Caram Marvin Charles John C. Chen Curtis W. Clump Mohamed EI-Aasser Arthur E. Humphrey Fikret Kargi Andrew Klein William L. Luyben Janice Phillips William E. Schiesser Cesar Silebi Leslie H. Sperling Fred P. Stein Leonard A. Wenzel Department of Chemical Engineering Whitaker Laboratory, Bldg. 5 Bethlehem, Pa. 18015 RESEARCH CONCENTRATIONS Polymer Science & Engineering Fermentation, Enzyme Engineering, B i ochemica l Engineering Process S i mulation & Control Catalysis & Rea c tion Engineering Thermodynamic Property Research Energy Conversion Technology Applied Hea t & Mass Transfer Fluid Mechanics SPECIAL PROGRAMS M Eng. Program in Des i gn M S. and Ph D Programs in Polymer Science & Engineering FINANCIAL AID Of course. WRITE US FOR DETAILS C HEMI C AL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Enrollment 91 Faculty 17 Bioengineering Pollution Control Process Dynamics Computer Control Kinetics and Catalysis Thermodynamics Ecological Modeling Write: Chemical Engineering Department Suear Technology Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE Masters and Doctoral Programs in Chemical Engineering CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Polymers Catalysis Process Dynamics and Computer Control Thermodynamics Physical-Chemical Properties Separation Operations Environmental Engineering Coal & Shale Conversion Genetic Engineering FACULTY P. M. Christopher, M.S. (Newark); D. J. Collins, Ph.D. (Georgia Tech); P. B. Deshpande, Ph.D. (Arkansas); M. Fleischman, Ph D (Cincinnati) ; D. 0. Harper, Ph.D. (Cincinnati); W. L. Laukhuf, Ph D. (Louisville); W. I. Mitsch, Ph.D. (Florida); C. A. Plank, Ph.D. (North Carolina State); H. T. Spencer, Sc.D. (John Hopkins); K. C. Tsai, Ph.D. (Missouri); J. C. Watters, Ph.D.(Maryland) Louis ville is a metropolitan area with a moderate climate, excellent recreational and cultural opportunities, and a sizeable chemical processing industry Part time study avail,able. FALL 1982 WRITE: Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering J. B. Speed Scientific School University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 275

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MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering PROGRAM OF STUDY: The Department offers a broad program of graduate studies leading to the M S and the Ph D degrees Fields of study include membrane technology, surface phenomena, heat and mass transfer, waste treatment resource recovery, polymer science and engineering, spectroscopy, carbohydrate chemistry, cancer chemotherapy, and energy conversion COST OF TUITION: The tuition is included as part of the student's financial aid THE COMMUNITY: MTU is located in Houghton on the beautiful Keweenaw Pen i nsula overlooking Lake Superior. The area surrounding Houghton is a virtual wilderness, providing outstanding opportunities for outdoor activities such as fishing boating, hiking camping, and skiing. The local population of about 35,000 is active and sponsors a number of cultural attractions The major metropolitan centers of Detroit (550 miles) and Chicago (450 miles) are readily accessible by airline flights three times daily FINANCIAL AID: Virtually all applicants receive fiancial support in the form of fellowships, traineeships, research assistantships, or graduate teaching assistantships Although the amount of each stipend may vary a student initially receives about $4500 per academic year in addition to tuition. Summer appointments are usually available. For more information write: A. B. Ponter, Head Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Michigan Technological University Houghton, Michigan 49931 Michigan Technological University is an equal opportunity educational in stitution / equal opportunity employer UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Studies Leading to M.S. and Ph D. Degrees Research Areas Air Pollution Monitoring and Control Biochemical Engineering and Biological Stabilization of Waste Streams Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Energy Sources and Systems Environmental Control Engineering Heat and Mass Transport Influence by Fields Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Process Control and Modelling of Processes Single-Cell Protein Research Themodynamics and Transport Properties of Gases and Liquids Transport in Biological Systems WRITE: Dr. George W. Preckshot, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, 1030 Engineering Bldg., University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 276 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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F ALL 1982 UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OFFERING GRADUATE STUDY AND RESEA RCH IN: Air Pollution Polymer Eng in ee ring Bio-mass Conversion Separation Pr ocesses Reaction Kinetics Surface Scie nce Real-time Computing Thermody n a mics and P h a s e E quilibria For Application and Informatio n: Dr. Luh C. Tao, Chairman of Chemical E ngineer i n g 226 Avery Hall, University of Ne braska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW M EXICO M.S. and Ph.D. Graduate Studies in Che m ical Engi neering Off er i ng Rese ar ch O pportunities in G e c:ichem ica l Eng ineering ~esa lin a tion/S eparation Processes Advance d Desi gn Concepts Cat alysis Synt h etic Fuel Technology Mi ni Computer Applications to Process Control P rocess Simulation Hydro-Metallurgy Radioactive Waste Management Biomedical Systems Solar Ponds ... and more Enjoy t he be a uf 1 fu l So uthwest and the hospitality of Albuquerque! For further information, write: Chairman, Graduate Committee Dept of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering The University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 277

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278 RESEARCH AREAS Catalysis Reaction Engineering Phase Equilibria Thermodynamics Energy Conversion Applied Mathematics Process Dynamics and Control Modeling and Simulation Transport Phenomena FACULTY A. Varma, Acting Chairman J. J. Carberry C. F. Ivory J.C. Kantor J.P.Kohn M.A. McHugh W. C. Strieder E. E. Wolf J. T. Banchero, Emeritus R. A. Schmitz, Dean of Engineering Graduate study toward M.S. degrees in chemical engineering Major energy research center: solar petroleum bioconversion geothermal Financial assistance available. Special programs for students with B.S. degrees in other fields. FOR APPLICATIONS AND INFORMATION: Dr. John T. Patton, Head, Department of Chemical Engineering, Box 3805, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-3805 New Mexico State University is an Equal Opportunity Affirmative Action employer. e1te111ica! 8ngineeri11g at ;Notre iJame The University of Notre Dame offers programs of graduate study leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engineering. The requirements for the master's degie are normally completed in one calendar year. The doctoral pr6g.;ram usually requires three to four years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree. Financially attractive fellowships and assistantships are available to outstanding students pursuing either program. For further information, writ~ to Prof. A. Varma Department of Chemical Engineed.pg University of Notre Dame Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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OREGON ST A TE UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Programs A. Konuk J. G. Knudsen 0. Levenspiel R. E. Meredith FACULTY Process Simulation and Control -Heat and Momentum Transfer, TwoPhase Flow Reactor Design, Fluidization Corrosion, Electrochemical Engineering R. V. Mrazek Thermodynamics, Applied Mathe matics C. E. Wicks Mass Transfer, Wastewater Treatment An informal atmosphere with opportunity for give and take with faculty and for joint work with the Pacific Northwest Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA), Metallurgical Research Center of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Forest Product Laboratory, Environmental Health Science Center and the School of Oceanography. The location is good-in the heart of the Willamette Valley-60 miles from the rugged Oregon Coast and 70 miles from good skiing or mountain climbing in the high Cascades. For further information, write: Chemical Engineering Department, Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 M.A.Sc. and Ph.D. programs in: energy storage ... extraction ... process control ... enhanced oil recovery .. reverse osmosis ... kinetics and catalysis ... porous media ... non Newtonian flow ... thermodynamics solar energy experimental design polymer modification ... pulp & paper .. phase equilibria biochemical engineering UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OTIA WA, ONTARIO, CANADA KIN 9B4 phone (613)231-3476 G .Andre K. T.Chuang J. A. Golding W. Hayduk V. Homof FACULTY R. S. Mann D. D. McLean, Chairman G. H. Neale S. Sourirajan F. D. F. Talbot W. Kozicki, Professor in charge of Graduate Studies, who should be contacted for further information B. C.-Y. Lu M. Ternan COME AND JOIN US IN THE EXCITING ENVIRONMENT OF CANAl:>A'S NATIONAL CAPITAL FALL 1982 r 279

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280 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING FACULTY Charles S Beroes Paul Biloen Alfred A. Bishop Alan J. Brainard Shiao Hung Chiang James T. Cobb Jr Paul F Fulton James G Goodwin Gerald D Holder George E Klinzing Joseph H. Magill Badie Morsi Alan A Reznik Yatish T. Shah John W. Tierney Irving Wender Princeton University RESEARCH AREAS UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH The Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering awards Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees through flexible full and part-time programs accommodating the needs of a wide range of engineering professionals. The general objective of all programs is to develop the ability of the chemical or petroleum engineer to carry out design and original research at advanced levels. Within the department there are currently 16 faculty members, five visiting scholars, four post-doctoral fellows, 77 full-time and 40 part-time graduate students, and 300 undergraduates. The department is housed on the top two floors of Benedum Hall. In addition, the Unit Operations Laboratory and many research labs utilizing high-pressure or large equipment are situated in the sub-basement. PROGRAMS AND SUPPORT Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in Chemical Engi neering and Master of Science degree in Petroleum Engineering are offered. While obtaining advanced degrees, students may specialize in research in Energy related Fields, Transport Phenomena, Interphase Transport, Process Modeling and Synthesis, Thermodynamics, Reactor Engineering and Catalysis. Dual degrees are offered in Chemical/Petroleum and engineering / Mathematics. Graduate applicants should write: Graduate Coordinator, Chemical and Petroleum Engineering School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15261 M.S.E. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Catalysis; Chemical Reactor/ Reaction Engineering; Energy Conversion and Fusion Reactor Technolo gy; Colloidal Phenomena; Environmental Studies; Fluid Mechanics and Rheology; Hazardous Wastes; Mass and Momentum Transport; Polymer Materials Science and Rheology; Process Control; Geo thermal Processes; Flow of Granular Media; Statistical Mechanics; Surface Science; Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria FACULTY Robert C. Axtmann, Jay B. Benziger, John K. Gillham, Carol K. Hall, Roy Jackson, Ernest F. Johnson, Jeffrey Koberstein, Morton D Kostin, Bryce Maxwell, Robert G. Mills, Robert K. Prud'homme, Ludwig Rebenfeld, William B Russel, Dudley A. Saville, William R. Schowalter (Chairman) Sankaran Sundaresan. WRITE TO Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Qgeell's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering MSc and PhD Degree Programs D. W. Bacon PhD (Wisconsin) H. A. Becker ScD (MIT) D. H. Bone PhD (London S. H. Cho PhD (Princeton) R. H. Clark PhD (Imperial College) R. K. Code PhD (Cornell) A. J. Daugulis PhD (Queen's) P. L. Douglas PhD (Waterloo) J. Downie PhD (Toronto) E.W. Grandmaison Ph.D. (Queen's) C. C. Hsu PhD (Texas) B. W. Wojciechowski PhD (Ottawa) Resource Recovery solid-waste treatment biotechnology biochemical engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering catalysis statistical design polymerizat i on Transport Processes combustion turbulence and mixing drying rheology Fuels and Energy coal conversion fluidized-bed combustion wood gasification alcohol production Write: Dr. Henry A. Becker Department of Chemical Engineering Queen's University Kingston, Ontario Canada K7L 3N6 UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FALL 1982 GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees CURRENT AREAS OF INTEREST Biochemical Engineering Food Engineering Materials Engineering Phase Change Kinetics Mixing Separation Processes Energy Engineering Heat Trans/ er APPLICATIONS APPLY TO: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 Applications for financial aid should be received not later than Feb. 16 281

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282 UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER ROCHESTER, NEW YORK 14627 MS & PhD Programs The Faculty S. H. Chen, Ph.D 1981, Minnesota Mass Transfer, lnterfacial Phenomena E H. Chimowitz, Ph.D., 1982, Connecticut Computer-Aided Design G. R. Cokelet, Sc. D 1963, MIT Blood & Suspension Rheology, Biotechnology R. F. Eisenberg, M.S., 1948, Rochester Corrosion, Physical Metallurgy M. R. Feinberg, Ph D., 1968, Princeton Complex Reaction Systems, Continuum Mechanics J. R. Ferron, Ph.D., 1958, Wisconsin Molecular Transport Processes, Applied Mathematics J. C. Friedly, Ph.D 1965, California (Berkeley) Process Dynamics Control, Heat Transfer R. H. Heist, Ph.D., 1972 Purdue Nucleation, Solid State Atmospheric Chemistry J. Jorne, Ph.D., 1972, California (Berkeley) Electrochemistry R.H. Notter, Ph.D., 1969, Washington (Seattle) lnterfacial Phenomena, Bioengineering M.D., 1980, Rochester H.J. Palmer, Ph.D., 1971, Washington (Seattle) lnterfacial Phenomena, Mass Transfer H. Saltsburg, Ph.D., 1955, Boston Surface Phenomena, Catalysis, Molecular Scattering S. V. Sotirchos, Ph.D., 1982, Houston Reaction Engineering, Combustion and Gasification G. J Su, Sc. D., 1937, MIT Colloidal & Amphorous States, Glass Science For information write: J. C. Friedly, Chairman OF RESEARCH AREAS Kinetics and Catalysis Energy Resources and Conversion Process Control Polymers Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Biochemical Processing Biomedical Transport and Control TECHNOLOGY FACULTY R. S. Artigue, D E, Tulane W. W. Bowden, Ph.D., Purd ue J. A. Caskey, Ph.D. Clemson T. R. Hanley, Ph.D. VPISU S. C. Hite, Ph.D. Purdue P. F. Hogan, Ph.D., Rice N. E. Moore, P h .D ., Purdue For Information Write: Dr. Thomas R. Hanley Dept. Graduate Advisor Rose-Hulman Institute of T~chnology Terre Haute, IN 47803 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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Graduate Studies DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING University of Saskatchewan DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERIN G FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTEREST N. N. Bakhshi W. J. Decoursey M N. Esmail G Hill D. Macdonald J. F. Mathews S. Rohani J. Postlethwaite C. A. Shook Fischer Tropsch synthesis, Reaction Engineering Absorption with chemical reaction, Mass transfer Fluid mechanics, Applied Mathematics Petroleum Recovery, Numerical Modelling Biochemical Engineering Heterogeneous Catalysis Conversion of Natural Resources Mixing with fast chemical reactions, Mathematical Modelling Corrosion Engineering Transport Phenomena, Slurry Pipelines For Information, Write M. N. Esmail, Head Department of Chemical Engineering University of Sasketchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N OWO UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CAIJFORNIA Los Angeles Interested in advanced studies for the M S., Eng. or Ph.D. degree in Chemical Engineering? Interested in a dynamic and growing depart ment in one of the World's great climates and metropolitan areas? If so, write for further information about the program, financial support, and applica tion forms to: Graduate Admissions Department of Chemical Engineering University of Southern California University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1211 FALL 1982 Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering FACULTY WENJI VICTOR CHANG (Ph.D., Ch E., Caltech, 1976) Rheological properties of polymers and composites, adhesion, polymer processing JOE D. GODDARD (Ph.D., Ch.E., U.C. Berkeley, 1962) Rheology and mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids and composite materials, transport processes LYMAN L. HANDY (Ph.D., Phys. Chem., U of Wash 1951) Fluid flow through porous media and petroleum reservoir engineering FRANK J. LOCKHART (Ph D Ch E., U. of Mich., 1943) Distillation, air pollution, design of chemical plants CORNELIUS J. PINGS (Ph.D Ch E Caltech, 1955) Thermodynamics, statistical mechanics and liquid state physics (Senior Vice Pres Academic Affairs) RONALD SALOVEY (Ph.D., Phys. Chem Harvard 1958) Physical chemistry and irradiation of polymers, characterization of elastomers and polyurethanes KATHERINE S SHING (Ph.D. Cornell U 1982) Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; computer simulation and applied mathematics THEODORE T. TSOTSIS (Ph.D ., Ch.E U. of Ill., Urbana, 1978) Chemical reaction engineering, process dynamics and control JAMES M. WHELAN (Ph D., Chem U C. Berkeley, 1952) Thin Films 111-V, heterogenous catalysis, sintering processes VANIS C. YORTSOS (Ph D Ch E Caltech, 1978) Mathematical modelling and transport processes, flow in porous media and thermal oil recovery methods 283

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284 Chemical Engineering at Stanford Stanford University offers programs of study and research leading to master of science and doctor of philo s ophy degrees in chemical engineering with a number of financially attractive fellowships and ass i stantship s available to out standing students pursuing either program For further in formation and application blanks write to : FACULTY : AndreasAcrivos ( Ph.D ., 1 95 4 M inne s o t a) Fluid Me c hanics Michel Boudart ( P h.D ., 1 950 Princeton ) Kinetic s and Catalysi s Curtis W Frank ( Ph.D 1 972 I llinois ) Polymer Science Gerald G Fuller ( P h.D 1 980 Cal T ech ) Microrheology Admissions Chairman Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford California 94305 Closing date for applications i s January 15 1983 George M. Homsy ( P h.D ., 1 96 9 Illin oi s } Fluid Mechanics and Stability RobertJ Madix (Ph.D ., 1 964 U Ca B erkeley) Surface Reactivity David M Mason ( Ph D 1949 C al Tech ) Appl i ed Thermodynamics and Chemical Kinetics Channing R. Robertson ( Ph O 1969 S t an f ord) Bioengineer i ng LECTURERS AND CONSULTING FACULTY: A John Appleby Elect r ic Power R esearc h In s tit u t e P a lo Al t o Ca l ifo rn ia Electrochemistry C Richard Brundle, I BM R esea r c h L abo r a t ory San J ose, California Surface Science Robert M. Kendall, A c ur ex Co rpor a t ion Mount a in V i ew, Ca lif o rni a Combustion Robert H. Schwaar, S R.I. I n t erna t ional M e n lo P ark Cali f ornia Technological Development and Process Design Manes'1 Shah, IBM Cor por a t ion M e nl o P ark Ca liforni a Process Analysis and Control CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT G.F. Andrews D.R Brutvan W.Y Chon P Ehrlich W.N. Gill R.J Good R. Gupta V Hlavacek State University of New York at Buffalo Faculty K M K i ser E Ruckenstein M.E Ryan J.J Ulbrecht C.J. van Os s T W Weber S W. Weller R.T. Yang Research Areas Adhesion Fluidization Adsorption Mixing Appl i ed Mathematics Nuclear Engineering Biochemical & Biomedical Polymer Processing & Rheology Catalysis, Kinetics & Process Control Reactor Des i gn Separation Processes Coal Conversion Surface Phenomena Desalination & Tertiary Oil Recovery Reverse Osmosis Transport Phenomena Design and Econom i cs Wastewater Treatment Academic programs for MS and PhD candidates are designed to provide depth in chemical engineering fundamentals while preserving the flexibility needed to develop special areas of interest The Depart ment also draws on the strengths of being part of a large and diverse university center This environ ment stimulates interdisciplinary interactions in teaching and research The new departmental facilities offer an exceptional opportunity for students to develop their research skills and capabilities These features, combined with year-round recreational activities afforded by the Western New York country side and numerous cultural activities centered around the City of Buffalo make SUNY/Buffalo an especially attractive place to pursue graduate studie s For information and applications, write to: Chairman, Graduate Committee Department of Chemical Engineering State University of New York at Buffalo Buffalo, New York 14260 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY IN SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY RESEARCH AREAS FACULTY Water Renovation Biomedical Engineering Membrane Processes Desalination Catalysis Polymer Characterization Process Simulation Fluid-Particle Separation Allen J. Barduhn John C. Heydweiller Vasilios Karagounis George C. Martin Philip A. Rice Ashok S. Sangani James A. Schwarz S. Alexander Stern Lawrence L. Tavlarides Chi Tien Liquid-Liquid Extraction Chiu-Sen Wang Syracuse University is a private coeducational university located on a 640 acre campus situated among the hills of Central New York State. A broad cultural climate which encourages interest in engineering, science, the social sciences, and the humanities exists at the university. The many diversified activities conducted on the campus provide an ideal environment for the attainment of both specific and general educational goals. As a part of this medium sized research oriented university, the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science offers graduate education which continually reflects the broadening interest of the faculty in new technological problems confronting society. Research, independent study and the general atmosphere within the Department engender individual stimulation. FELLOWSHIPS AND GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 1982-1983 For Information: Chairman Stipends: Stipends range from $6,000 to $7,800 with most students receiving at least $6,000 per annum in addition to re mitted tuition privileges. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Syracuse University Syracuse, New York 13210 TEXAS A&I UNIVERSITY Chemical Engineering M.S. and M.E. Natural Gas Engineering M.S. and M.E. FACULTY F. AI-Saadoon Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering J. B. Finley Mass Transfer and Corrosion W. A. Heenan Process Control and Computer Applications Obed Paracha Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering R. W. Serth Rheology and Applied Mathematics RESEARCH and TEACHING ASSISTANTSHIPS AVAILABLE FALL 1982 Texas A&I University is located in Tropical South Texas, 40 miles south of the Urban Center of Corpus Christie, and 30 miles west of Padre Island National Seashore. FOR INFORMATION AND APPLICATION WRITE: GRADUATE ADVISOR Department of Chemical & N'atural Gas Engineering Texas A&I University Kingsville, Texas 78363 285

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----------------------286 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT TEXAS TECH JO I N A RA PID LY ACCELERATING DE P ARTMENT Research funding has increased an average of 2 6% year for the past three years GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECTS AVAILA B LE IN e ENERGY PROCESS ENGINEERING POLYMER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY BIOMASS UTILIZATION COMPLEX FLUID FLOWS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL Texas T ech Chemical Engineering graduates are among the m o st sought-after by industry in the country. BE ONE OF THEM! for tinformation, brochure and application materials, write Dr. H. W Parker, Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Texas Tech University Lubbock, Texas 79409 The University of Toledo Graduate Study Toward the M.S. and Ph.a ~ Degrees Assistantships and Fellowships Available For details write : Dr. S L. Rosen Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Toledo Toledo, Ohio 43606 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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BIOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING FALL 1982 M.S. AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS RHEOLOGY OPTIMIZiATION CRYSTALLIZ,ATION POLYMER STUDIES TUFTS UNIVERSITY MetJopolltan Boston CURRENT RESEARCH TOPICS BIOCHEMICAL & BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING MECHANO-CKl:MISTRY COAL SLURRIES MEMBRANE PHENOMENA CONTINUOUS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS TRANSFER OPERATIONS SURFACE & COLLOIDAL CHEMISTRY KINETICS AND CATALYSIS FOR tNFORMATION AND APPLICATIONS, WRITE: PROF. S. E. CHARM, CHAIRMAN DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TUFTS UNIVERSITY MEDFORD, MASSACHUSETTS 02155 THE BURNING QUESTION One would think that by now industrial societies would know how to bum coal. We do, but not in ways that minimize the formation of air pollutants. As we move toward a coal-based society, the pollutants from coal combustion are indeed becoming the burning question. The furnace at the left, in the Combustion Research Laboratory in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Utah, is one of the most technically advanced facilities in the world for the study of air pollutant formation in coal combustion. If you would like to learn more about this and other burning questions in Chemical Engineering, contact Noel de Nevers Director of Graduate Studies Department of Chemical Engineering University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 287

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288 UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING The University of Virginia offers M.S. and P h. D. programs in Chemical Engineering and a Special M.S. program for Chemistry and other Natural Science Majors. Major research inter e sts of the faculty ar e The r modynamics and statistical mechanics-intermolecular association, physical properties of fluids, hindered diffusion Transport pro c esses and operations-heat and mass t r ansfer low Reynolds number and surface tens i on driven flow mixing fluidiza tion crystallization fi x ed bed adsorption polymer rheology Chemical reacto r analys is and engineering Chemical process development d e sign and economic s. Chemical and energy technology-electrochemical processes pollution control catalysis solar and alternative energy utilization Biochem i cal technology and engineering-enzyme engineering transport processes in biological systems, microbial processes. At "Mr J efferson's uni v ersi t y," bo t h t eac h ing and research are emphasized in a p h y s ical envir o nmen t of excep t ional b eau t y. RESEARCH INTERESTS : Air Pollution Biochemical Engineering Computer Applications Energy Nuclear Engineering Polymer Engineering Transport Phenomena For admission and financial aid information Graduate Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINlA Charlottesville Vi r ginia 22901 FOR INFORMATION CONTACT : Graduate Student Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering Pullman, WA 99164 509-335-4332 C H E MICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY FALL 1982 GRADUATE STUDY in CHEMICAL ENGINEERING D. A. Crowl, PhD H. G. Donnelly, PhD E. R. Fisher, PhD E. Gulari, PhD J. Jorne, PhD R H. Kummler, PhD C. B. Leffert, PhD R. Marriott PhD J. H. McMicking, PhD R. Mickelson, PhD P. K. Roi, PhD E. W. Rothe, PhD S. Salley, PhD S. K. Stynes, PhD Contact: combustion-process control thermodynamics-process design kinetics-molecular lasers transport-laser light scattering electrochemical engr.-fuel eel Is environmental engr.-kinetics energy conversion-heat transfer computer applications-nuclear engr. process dynamics-mass transfer polymer science-combustion processes molecular beams-vacuum science molecular beams-analysis of experiments Biosystems modelling-kinetics multi-phase flows-environmental engr. Dr. Ralph H. Kummler Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, Michigan 48202 289

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WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Graduate study and research leading to the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees Research Areas Faculty D. DiBia s io (Purdue) Adsorption and diffusion in porous so lid s Biopol yme r s Catalytic prop ert i es of s urfa ces Chemical re acto r modelling A. G. Di xon (Ed inbur g h ) W. L. Kranich (Corne ll ) Y. H Ma (M I.T .) J. E. Rollin gs (Purdue) A. Sacco (M. I.T .) L. B Sand ( Penn State) R W. Thompson ( I owa State) R E Wagner ( Prin ceton) Coal and syngas technology Complex reaction kinetics Fermentation engineering a nd control Homog e neou s cata l ys i s Zeolite sy nth es i s and cata l ysis J W. Meader (M. I.T .) W. R Moser ( M.I.T. ) A. H Weis s (U. Penn .) WPI is located in central Ma ssac hu setts in New England 's seco nd lar gest city. Extensive c ultur a l activ iti es are available as well as easy access to th e vast s ummer a nd winter recreational act i vities well known to t h e New England area Attractive assistantships are available Address inquiries to: Dr. Y. H Ma Chairman Chemical Engineering Department Worcester Polytechni c Institute Worcester Massachusett s 01609 (617) 793-5250 UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING We offer exciting opportunitie s for research in many energy related areas. In recent years research has been conducted in the areas of kinetics and catalysis, hydrogenation of shale oil, coal liquefaction, water de salination, waste energy recovery, thermodynamics and phase equilibria, transport phenomena, in-situ coal gasification and synthetic fuel pro duction from coal and oil shales. Graduates of any accredited engineering school are eligible for ad mission, and the department also offers a masters degree program for students with a B.S. degree in chemistry or physics. Financial aid is available, and all aid recipients receive full fee waivers. 290 For more information contact: Dr. A. L. Hines Dept. of Chemical Engineering Univers i ty of Wyoming P O Box 3295 University Station Laramie, Wyoming 82071 AdmisRion, e mploym e nt, and programs of th e Unive r sity of Wyoming are offer ed to all eligib'le peop'le without regard to rac e, color, national or igin, se:t:, religion, or po litical bel ie f. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING F C+2-c/J G H-TS Josiah Willard Gibbs PhD-Engineering 1863 You? PhD-Engineering 198? YALE UNIVERSITY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA The Department of Chemical Engineering invites applications for graduate study from candidates who wish to proceed to the M Eng M A Sc or Ph.D degree For the latter two degrees Assistantsh i ps or Fellowships are available. AREAS OF RESEARCH A i r Pollution Biochemical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Coal Gasificat i on Liquefaction, and Combustion Electrochemical Engineer i ng Electrokinetic Phenomena Fluid Dynamics Fluid i zation Heat Transfer K i netics Liquid Extraction Magnetic Effects Mass Transfer Modelling and Optimization Particle Dynamics Process Dynamics Pulp & Paper Rheology Rotary Kilns S e paration Processes Spouted Beds Sulphur Thermodynamics Water Pollution Inquiries should be addressed to : FALL 1982 Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Vancouver, B C. V6T lWS THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA Iowa City M.S. Ph.D. Research in Flow through microporous media Membrane Separations Mass transfer operations Characterization of particulate materials Materials science Materials processing Air pollution Computer Modeling Reaction kinetics Catalysis Write: Chairman Chemical and Materials Engineering University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 52242 291

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MONASH UNIVERSITY CLAYTON, VICTORIA Department of Chemical Engineering Ap plic a ti ons a r e i nv i t e d for Monash Un i v e r si t y R ese a rch Scho l a r s h i p s te nable i n t he Depa r tm e n t o f C hemic al En ginee r i n g. The a w ard s are i ntended to enabl e s cholar s t o ca rr y o ut under supervis i on, a programme of full t ime advan ce d s tudie s an d r ese a rch w hich may lead to the degr e e s o f Master of Eng i ne er i ng Sci e nce and/ or Do c tor of Philo s ophy Fa ciliti e s a r e available for wor k in t he general fi e lds of : Biochemical and Food Engineering Chemical Reactor Engineering Extractive Metallurgy and Mineral Engineering Process Dynamics, Control and Opt i mization Polymer Processing and Rheology Transport Phenomena Waste Treatment and Water Purification Hydrogenat i on and Drying of Brown Coal S c holar s hips c arr y a st ip e n d of $5, 750 pe r a n num D etai l ed i nfor m ation about the awards and t he nec e s s ary a p pli c ation forms may be obtained from the Academ ic Reg i strar Techn i ca l enquiries should be addressed to the Chairman of Departmen t Profe s sor O ; E Potter. Postal Address : Monash University Wellington Road Clayton, 3168 Victoria, Australia NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEWARK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GRADUATE STUDY FOR M.S., ENGINEER AND Sc.D DEGREES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Biomedical Engineering Basic Studies-Chemical Biochemical Engineering Engineering Environmental Engineering Basic Studies Applied Polymer Science and Chemistry Engineering Process and Design Studies For details on applications and financial aid, write: 292 Mr Dino Sethi Director of Graduate Studies New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 High Street Newark, New Jersey 07102 VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degree Programs F R ANCIS J BONNER: Po l ymer Engineeri n g, C h aracter ization of polymers Thermal Diffusion and Membrane Transport of macromolecule s. KENNETH A DEBELAK: Gasification and Liquifaction of coa l Energy-Environmental Systems Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Processes THOMAS M. GOLDBOLD: Process Dynamics and Contro l Mass Transfer, Coal Convers i on Technology KNOWLES A OVERHOLSE R : Biological Transport Pro cesses, Biorheo l ogy ROBERT J ROSELLI: Biomedical Engineering, Bio logical Transport Processes JOHN A ROTH: Industrial Waste Treatment, Physica l Chemica l Waste Treatment, Reaction K i netics and Chemical Reaction Design KARL B. SCHNELLE, JR.: Chairman of t h e Depart ment ; Air Po ll ution Conu o l Solution Thermodynamics, Environmental Transport Processes ROB ERT D. TA NER : Enzyme Kinetics, Fermentation Processes and Ki n etics Pharmacokinetics, Microbial Assays W DENNIS THREADGILL: Unit Operations, Food and Dairy In d u s t ry Waste Treatment Further Information : Knowles A. Overholser Director of Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department Box 6173 Station B Vanderbilt University Nashville Tennessee 37235 UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA Graduate Studies MS and MEngr. in Chemical Engineering PROGRAMS : Thesis a n d non th es is opt io n s are availabl e a t th e M S le v el. A s ub sta nt i al d esi gn proj ect is r equ i r e d for t he M Eng r. d e gr ee. A full t i m e s tudent w it h a BS i n Ch E can complet e a program i n a c a l en dar ye ar S t uden t s w it h a degr ee i n c h e m i stry ar e a cce p t ed i n our progr a m. R es earc h a n d Teach i ng A ssi stan s h i ps are a va i l a ble. RESEARCH PROJECTS : Most fund e d r e s e arch proj e ct s ar e e n e rgy rela te d al t hou g h o th er ba s ic and a ppl ie d proje cts are avail a bl e. S tud e n ts m a y parti ci pate i n p r o j ec trelated t h esi s problem s o r may be em p loy e d as project work ers i n t h e Departm e nt the Eng i n eerin g E x p erime n t St ati o n o r th e G r and Fo rks Energy T ec hnolog y C e n t er DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY : A c oop e ra t i ve p rogr am o f st ud y r es ear c h re lat e d t o fo s s i l fu e l co n v ers ion and upgrading i s o ffe r e d by t h e D ep art m ent and t h e U S Depart m en t of Ene r gy t hrough t h e Grand For k s E n ergy T ec hnology Cen t er Join t R s ea r c h fellowsh i ps a re ava i lable t o U S ci t i ze ns. FOR INFORMATION WRITE TO : Dr. Thomas C Owens, Chairman Chemical Engineering Department University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 (701-777-4244) C HE M I CA L E N G INEERIN G EDU C ATION

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WEST VIRGINIA TECH That's what we usually are called. Our full name is West Virginia Institute of Technology. We're in a small state full of friendly people, and we are small enough to keep your personal goals in mind. Our forte is high quality undergraduate instruction, but we are seeking high-grade students for our new graduate program for the M.S. UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M.ENG., M.A.SC., PH.D. programs are available RESEARCH INTERESTS If you are a superior student with an interest in helping us while we help you, we may have funding for you. Write: Fluidization Transport Phenomena Rheology Polymer and Environmental Engineering Dr. E. H. CRUM Chemical Engineering Department West Virginia Inst. of Technology Montgomery, WV 25136 For Further Information, Write to Dr. D. De Kee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Windsor Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION aeh~ and IJie IJ/.6 wk,. to owi ui 198:l. ~r;/4 ~C..,""7'""""1~, and /Jie f 18 Jepa,i!,menU IJuwi 9~ ui tl,,u U4ue FALL 1982 293

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At Atlantic Richfield, the most important resource you'll develop won't be oil, or gas, or coal, or solar energy, or chemicals, or metals, or minerals ... It will be Y-OU. A nd we'll give you plenty of help Plenty of opportunity. Plenty of options In careers such as chemical mechanical electrical civil mining and petroleum engineering. They re all waiting for you at Atlantic Richfield and so are we. Fo r more information about Atlant i c Richfield-its people its products and its career potent i a l for you-see your P lac e ment Office. AtlanticRichfieldCompany <> Atlantic Richf i e l d is a practicing equal opportunity employ e r


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