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Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Quarterly[1962-]
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular
Language:
English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.

## Subjects

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Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )

## Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
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70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
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660/.2/071 ( ddc )

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Chemical Engineering Documents

Full Text

chemical engineering education

VOLUME XVI

NUMBER 4

FALL 1982

Reg ctch Oa@..

OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OVER FERRITE CRYSTALS.
NUCLEATE BOILING .
MASS TRANSFER .

Goa44e in ...

FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM
AIR POLLUTION FOR ENGINEERS
CATALYSIS .

PRODUCTION

Hightower
* Maoer
. Welland, Taylor

. Dullien
. Seapan
. Skates

SPOLYRnm A ...

POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

. Baird, Wilkes

RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING Fenn
MINE MOUTH GEYSER PROBLEM DeNevers
GRADUATE EDUCATION IN MEXICO Martinez, Gomez
1981 AIChE-EPC SURVEY a Barker

GCC
ac4uwdleSes and tanhS....

3M COMPANY

CONOCO INC.

SUN COMPANY, INC.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION
mait a doA-sa oj wu'A.

Cddaiz tat

A Letter to Chemical Engineering Seniors
and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous
issues, we include articles on graduate courses and re-
search at various universities and announcements of de-
partments on their graduate programs. In order for you to
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue,
but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from
recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a pre-
vious Fall issue, please write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida

AUTHOR

Abbott
Butt, Kung

Chen, et al
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al
Thomson
Bartholomew
Hassler
Miller
Wankat
Wolf

Bird
Edgar, Schecter
Hanratty
Kenney
Kershenbaum,
Perkins, Pyle
Liu
Peppas
Rosner
Lees
Senkan, Vivian

Culberson
Davis
Frank
Morari, Ray

Ramkrishna
Russel, Saville,
Ollis,
Schowalter
Russell

Vannice
Varma
Yen

Aris

Butt & Peterson
Kabel

Middleman

Perlmutter

Rajagopalan

Wheelock
Carbonell &
Whitaker

TITLE

Fall 1981
"Classical Thermodynamics"
"Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction
Engineering"
"Parametric Pumping"
"Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation"
"Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization"
"Oil Shale Char Reactions"
"Kinetics and Catalysis"
"ChE Analysis"
"Underground Processing"
"Separation Processes"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
Fall 1980
"Polymer Fluid Dynamics"
"In Situ Processing"
"Wall Turbulence"
"Chemical Reactors"
"Systems Modelling & Control"

"Process Synthesis"
"Polymerization Reaction Engineering"
"Combustion Science & Technology"
"Plant Engineering at Loughborough"
"MIT School of ChE Practice"
Fall 1979
"Doctoral Level ChE Economics"
"Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics"
"Courses in Polymer Science"
"Integration of Real-Time Computing
Into Process Control Teaching"
"Functional Analysis for ChE's"

"Colloidal Phenomena"
"Structure of the Chemical Processing
Industries"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Mathematical Methods in ChE"
"Coal Liquefaction Processes"

Dumesic

Jorne
Retzloff

Blanch, Russell
Chartoff

Alkire
Bailey & Ollis
DeKee
Deshpande
Johnson
Klinzing
Lemlich
Koutsky
Reynolds
Rosner

Astarita
Delgass
Gruver
Liu
Manning
McCoy
Walter

Corripio
Donaghey
Edgar
Gates, et al.
Luks
Melnyk & Prober
Tavlarides
Theis
Hamrin, et. al.

Fall 1978
"Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes
on Seminars in a ChE Department'
"Chemical Reactor Engineering"
"Influential Papers in Chemical Re-
action Engineering"
"A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro-
cessing"
"Reactor Design From a Stability
Viewpoint"
"The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal
Systems"
"Coal Science and Technology"
"Transport Phenomena in Multicom-
ponent, Multiphase, Reacting
Systems"

Fall 1977
"Fundamental Concepts in Surface In-
teractions"
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Chemical Reaction Engineering Sci-
ence"
"Biochemical Engineering"
"Polymer Science and Engineering"

Fall 1976

"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum Trans-
port"

Fall 1975
"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"

Fall 1974
"Digital Computer Control of Process"
"Solid-State Materials and Devices"
"Multivariable Control and Est."
"Chemistry of Catalytic Process"
"Wastewater Engineering for ChE's"
"Enzyme and Biochemical Engr."
"Synthetic & Biological Polymers"
"Energy Engineering"

FALL 1982

lately?

These DOW CAREERS booklets can help college graduates

CHEMICAL ENGINEERS-CHEMISTS
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ING-COMPUTER SCIENCE-BIO-
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-convincing a lot of people to choose
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Each booklet outlines a specific
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some typical job challenges-and how
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People in our DOW CAREERS book-
good careers.
If you know of qualified graduates
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encourage them to get copies of the
DOW CAREERS booklets by writing
us: Recruiting and College Relations,
PO. Box 1713-CE, Midland, Michigan
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DOW CHEMICAL U.S.A.
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01981. The Dow Chemical Company

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
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Pennsylvania State University

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Chemical Engineering Education

VOLUME XVI

NUMBER 4

FALL 1982

RESEARCH ON

148 Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts,
Joe W. Hightower

152 Nucleate Boiling, Russell Mesler
158 Mass Transfer, Ralph H. Weiland and Ross Taylor

COURSES IN
164 Fundamentals of Petroleum Production,
F. A. L. Dullien

168 Air Pollution for Engineers, Mayis Seapan

178 Catalysis, J. M. Skaates

A PROGRAM IN

174 Polymer Education and Research
Donald G. Baird and Garth L. Wilkes

DEPARTMENTS

182 Curriculum
1981 AIChE-EPC Survey, Dee H. Barker

186 Class and Home Problems
Mine Mouth Geyser Problem, Noel De Nevers

190 Stirred Pots
Research is Engineering, John B. Fenn

196 International
Enrico N. Martinez and Roman Gomez

157 In Memoriam William H. Corcoran

167 Division Activities

167-205 Book Reviews

172 Positions Available

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per year,$10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1982 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

FALL 1982

Rieeaacw on

OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION

OVER FERRITE CATALYSTS

JOE W. HIGHTOWER
Rice University
Houston, TX 77001

A COMPLETE STUDY OF heterogeneous catalytic
reactions should include the reaction path-
ways, kinetics, mechanisms, rate limiting steps,
nature of the active sites, solid state effects, de-
activation, and transport properties. It is
normally very difficult to obtain reliable informa-
tion about all these factors for a single system.
However, in the case of butadiene production
from n-butenes via catalytic oxidative dehydro-
genation, we have been able to approach this ob-
jective. The purpose of this paper is to summarize
results obtained during the last several years with
ferrite catalysts [1, 2].

Two major catalytic approaches have been
used commercially to prepare butadiene. The first

Joe W. Hightower received his B.S. in Chemistry and Math at
Harding College and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry at The
Johns Hopkins University. He has been a Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Rice University since 1970. He has served on numerous
committees, is Chairman of the ACS Petroleum Research Fund Ad-
visory Board for 1982-1984, and received the 1982 Jefferson Award
for Public Service in Houston. His research interests include hetero-
geneous catalysis, mechanisms of catalytic reactions, kinetics and ad-
sorption in heterogeneous systems, and isotopic tracer techniques. He
was the recipient of the 1973 Award in Petroleum Chemistry.

is direct dehydrogenation over a chromia/alumina
or promoted iron oxide catalyst [3, 4], viz.

C4H8 C4H6 + H2

K371C_ 04

Although the reaction is relatively selective, it
suffers from being thermodynamically limited
(requires high temperature and low partial pres-
sures), endothermic (requires addition of costly
heat), and coke-forming (loss of hydrocarbons).
A second approach involves addition of oxygen
to the feed hydrocarbon stream to remove the
hydrogen as water, viz.

C4H8 + 1/2 02-C4H6 H20

*CO2 + H20

Kvic- +13

In contrast to straight dehydrogenation, this re-
action (2) is essentially irreversible and auto-
thermal. Unfortunately, the addition of gaseous
oxygen can lead to deep oxidation (total com-
bustion to CO2 and H20, as illustrated in reaction
(3). This reaction of course decreases the yield
of butadiene. In fact, from the equilibrium
constants given in Eqs. (2) and (3), it is obvious
that only CO, and HO2 would be the products if
thermodynamics alone were controlling the
product selectivity. Of the several catalysts that
give good selectivities (>90% butadiene at low
conversion), ferrites are among the most notable.
Ferrites are well-crystallized spinel oxides (or
partially inverted spinels) that have the general
formula

M Fe2 04

where M can be any of a number of alkaline earth
or transition metal ions, e.g. Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, etc.
The work described herein will be limited to mag-
nesium ferrite.

( Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

K37IC-1*21 (3)

REACTION PATHWAYS

When oxygen and butenes are passed over
MgFe204, both the desired butadiene and some
by-product CO2 are formed. The CO2 may come
directly from burning butene (reaction II) or
from burning the product butadiene (reaction
III), as illustrated by the scheme

C4H8 -- (C4H6)

co 2

active butadiene to the reactant butene/02 mix-
ture and examining the radioactivity in the CO2
as a function of time, one can quantitatively deter-
mine the relative reaction rates [5]. If none of the
radioactivity appears in the CO2, the rate ratio rm/
rn- = 0. For maximum production of butadiene
in this case, one would want to carry out the re-
action at the highest possible conversion. On the
other hand, if all the CO2 were formed by burning
butadiene, the initial specific activity of the CO,
(after correction for the different number of
C atoms in the two molecules) would be exactly
the same as that of the butadiene from which
it was exclusively formed. The rate ratio rIm/
rn in this case would be infinity.
In our case with magnesium ferrite [1] the
rate ratio rm1/rI is about 1.5 at approximately
50% conversion of the butene. This implies the
existence of an optimal degree of conversion in
order to maximize butadiene yield. Too high a
conversion will raise the product butadiene con-
centration to the point where it will be rapidly
combusted to CO2. Moreover, a plug flow reactor
will give a much higher selectivity to butadiene
the reactive oxygen a little at a time at various
points along the reactor bed instead of carrying
the entire lot of 02 all the way through the reactor
where it can cause combustion. Steam also helps
to moderate the exothermic reaction and minimize
hot spot formation.

KINETICS
Over MgFeO4 the major OXD reaction (2)
is zero order in oxygen and near first order in
the partial pressure of n-butene. Neither CO, nor
butadiene affects the rate significantly in the pres-

Since electrical conductivity
is primarily a surface phenomenon,
we postulated that there should be notable
changes in this parameter as the catalyst is
transformed from the oxidized to
the reduced state.

sure range studied. The reaction orders were de-
termined by varying the partial pressures one
at a time (making sure not to get into the ex-
plosion regime!) and noting the effect on the
initial reaction rate. These results suggest a Lang-
muir-Hinshelwood model with the 02 and C4H.
sites. If the 02 were adsorbed dissociatively, the
rate equation can be written as

2V KBPB
rBD= B Bp OB (6)

where K02 and KB are the adsorption equilibrium
constants for 02 and butene, respectively, and k
is the zero order Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate
constant. The O's are fraction coverage of the re-
spective surface sites by oxygen and butene. When
02 is strongly adsorbed (i.e. VKo,02> >1) and
butene is weakly adsorbed (i.e. KBPB<<1), the
rate of butadiene formation rB, reduces to

rBD 2 k KB PB

which fits the observed kinetic data.
At higher partial pressures, terms must be
added in the denominator to account for inhibi-

MECHANISM, RATE LIMITING STEP
During the OXD reaction at temperatures as
high as 4000C, there is very little isomerization
of the n-butenes. For example, if the starting
hydrocarbon is 1-butene, it remains 1-butene
until it either is partially oxidized to butadiene
or burned to CO2. Very few 2-butenes are ob-
served. This implies that the reaction may be
relatively simple with two H atoms being removed
as shown below.

C=C-C-C
I I
H H
It #

FALL 1982

A mixture of 1:1 = CIHs:C4Ds (in presence of a
stoichiometric amount of 02) was used to test this
reaction scheme. Indeed there was essentially no
scrambling of H and D atoms among the mole-
cules, as the only OXD products formed were
C4H6 and CDe. Furthermore, the lightweight
C4H8 molecules reacted about 2.5 times more
rapidly than did the heavier C4D, molecules, which
indicates a large primary kinetic isotope effect
and pinpoints the rate limiting step in the reaction.

C4H )H (2.) (9)
C4D8 I C4D6 I

Since the C-D bond has a lower zero point energy
than does the C-H bond [6], such an isotope effect
would be expected if cleavage of a carbon-hydro-
gen bond were involved in the rate limiting step.
In other words, C-D bonds are more difficult to
break than are C-H bonds.
This kind of information is useful in develop-
ment of more active catalysts. If one could in-

CONDUCTIVITY, Mhos.
o a
S w> OXIDIZED, EVACUATED
m .... 2- BUTENE

"' EVACUATE D

ATED
C41H,

0 EVACU
i ;

zo
o

0
o
0

pi I '

- rO oi -I
0 0 0 0
PARTIAL PRES.,

0
TORR.

FIGURE 1. Electrical conductivity measurements on
pellet of CoFe204 at 4000 C; effect of change in
gaseous environment. (Note: This figure should be
rotated 900 and read with "Time, Mins" at the bottom.)

clude in the catalyst recipe a pinch of C-H bond
breaking ability and still keep all other parameters
the same, a more active catalyst should result.
Such information is critical in establishing the
point where additional research may be pro-
ductive.

ACTIVE SITES
Much previous research has clearly es-
tablished that this type of general reaction in-
volves an oxidation/reduction cycle with some
component of the catalyst being alternately
oxidized and reduced [7-9]. Chemical intuition
would suggest that it is the iron switching between
the Fe+2 and Fe+3 states that provides this
property. Magnesium is not easily reduced. Such
a switch might occur if oxygen were alternately
added to and removed from the surface. In other
words, a reduced Fe+2 might react with gaseous
02 to form an oxide surface species, viz.

Fe2 *2. 1 02 -- Fe.3 O

These 0- ions might then dissociate the C-H bonds
in butene to form an adsorbed C4H, species and an
OH- ion. A second such hydroxyl ion formation
would result in adsorbed C4H6 (perhaps negatively
charged) which can release an electron to reduce
the Fe+3 back to Fe2+ and finally desorb into the
gas phase as butadiene. Two OH groups might
coalesce to split out HO and regenerate the site
on which more 02 can adsorb.
Evidence for this sequence of events comes
from some electrical conductivity measurements
made with a cobalt ferrite catalyst [10]. Since
electrical conductivity is primarily a surface phe-
nomenon, we postulated that there should be
notable changes in this parameter as the catalyst
is transformed from the oxidized to the reduced
state. To test this, a pellet of the catalyst was
prepared by compressing the powder in an infra-
red pellet press. Two electrical leads were at-
tached, and the pellet was placed inside a reactor
connected to a vacuum system through which
The pellet was first exposed to oxygen and
evacuated at about 4000C. Presumably this left
the catalyst surface in a fully oxidized state, Fe*3.
The conductivity was low and remained low during
the evacuation. However, when 2-butene was ad-
mitted at the same temperature (see point B,
Figure 1), the conductivity rapidly increased. At

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

4AI

P0

m -

From this information one can draw a cyclic representation of the chemistry that is occurring.
Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on active centers located near the edge of a crystallite. In the
reduced state a surface oxygen ion is missing anionn vacancy, O). If the lattice were to be continued in the
vertical direction, another iron atom would be located above the oxide layer (cation vacancy 0), ..

the same time, a small amount of butadiene was
observed to form in the reactor. The amount cor-
responded approximately to 1 butadiene mole-
cule/surface O atom (assuming the surface is
covered with O- ions each occupying 10A2 of sur-
face space). This would leave the surface in a "re-
duced" state according to the equation

FeO3 + C4H8 Fe+2 C4H6 + H20 (II)
By moving in the direction of a more "metallic-
like" reduced surface, one might expect the ma-
terial to be a better conductor than in the oxide
state, as was observed. The slow increase in the
conductivity after the initial rapid rise may have
been due to slow removal of bulk O atoms.
Addition of O, (Point D) quickly returned
the catalyst to its oxidized condition, which it re-
tained during brief evacuation.
At Point E a stoichiometric mixture for the
OXD reaction (C4Hs:02 = 2:1) was admitted,
and both reactions (2) and (3) proceeded. Be-
cause the deep oxidation reaction (3) requires a
lot of oxygen, the gaseous 02 is depleted before
the butene is all consumed (Point F). At this
point, reactions (2) and (3) cease, and the
catalyst is reduced by the unreacted butene, as in
reaction (11). Accordingly, the conductivity in-
creases rapidly. Note that so long as there is any
gaseous 0., the catalyst remains in the fully
oxidized state. This is evidence that oxygen is

OXD REACTION CHEMISTRY
From this information one can draw a cyclic
representation of the chemistry that is occurring.
Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on
active centers located near the edge of a crystal-
lite. In the reduced state a surface oxygen ion is
missing anionn vacancy, 0). If the lattice were
to be continued in the vertical direction, another
iron atom would be located above the oxide layer
(cation vacancy, 0), as shown below.

0/
Fe-

C0H8

C0 -H C046 H
0 H H/ '0 0
F0 0 ,, 1

C40H
/ F-3

C060
/ N BF,

1/2 02

2Fe'2 *2 FeH20
FIGURE 2. Proposed cyclic scheme for OXD reaction
occurring on MgFe24O catalyst. Oxidation/
from cation vacancy U and anion vacancy
O active site pairs. The symbol A indicates
rate limiting step.
These two vacancies are assumed to be the inde-
pendent sites suggested by the Langmuir-Hinshel-
wood kinetics. Butene presumably adsorbs re-
versibly on the cation sites, and 02 reacts with
the anion vacancy to oxidize the Fe+2 to Fe+3. As
the reaction progresses in a clockwise direction
(see Figure 2), two H atoms are sequentially re-
moved from the butene and placed on the oxide
ions. Reduction occurs when the butadiene is re-
leased into the gas phase, and condensation of
two hydroxyl groups (along with water removal)
returns the catalyst to the reduced state shown
in (12).
The fact that no radioactivity appears in the
the irreversible clockwise direction within this
scheme. The absence of isomerization and H/D
scrambling among the hydrocarbon molecules
confirms the directional irreversibility.

SOLID STATE EFFECTS
So far I've presented only the good news. Un-
fortunately, the MgFe20, catalyst slowly loses its
activity irreversibly. The deactivation is not
caused by coke build-up, and alternate oxidation/
reduction cycling during pretreatment will not
regenerate the catalyst. This suggests that some
Continued on page 204.

FALL 1982

iReea4ch 0o

NUCLEATE BOILING

RUSSELL MESLER
University of Kansas
Lawrence, KS 66045

RESEARCH TAKES AN especially exciting turn
when it requires us to revise our views of long
held beliefs. Such is the case of recent research
results concerning nucleate boiling. Although the
picture is by no means complete, it appears
possible that we may be changing several of our
views concerning nucleate boiling.
Nucleate boiling is a familiar topic to any
chemical engineer. All heat transfer texts devote
sections to it in which the rudimentary facts are
stated. All such treatments advise that nucleate
boiling is a complicated subject and that it is not
possible to go into a detailed discussion of the
subject.
Nucleate boiling is classified as convective heat
transfer. It is unusual convection on at least three
counts. First, because of the latent heat, great
quantities of heat can be exchanged with only a
little change in temperature as long as liquid re-
mains on the surface. Second, the density changes
resulting from heat transfer are very large com-
pared to usual convection. Third, it is only at a
vapor-liquid interface that heat can be absorbed
and vapor generated.
It is perhaps this third aspect that is most re-
sponsible for making nucleate boiling so in-
scrutable. Most of the vapor-liquid interface in
boiling is provided by bubbles, but where do
bubbles come from? Bubbles have short lives,
escaping once they become large. A large source
of nuclei is required.
It is important to recognize that liquids often
resist the tendency to form bubbles. In the
organic chemistry laboratory it is well known that
liquids in a glass flask will superheat above their
usual boiling point. Suddenly, when ebullition

Suddenly, when ebullition does
start, the boiling is so vigorous that the contents
of the flask are likely to be expelled and
wind up on the lab bench.

Russell Mesler is the Warren S. Bellows Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Kansas. His interest in nucleate boil-
ing began in 1953 when he embarked on his doctoral research at the
University of Michigan. He was a faculty member at the University
of Michigan before coming to the University of Kansas in 1957.

does start, the boiling is so vigorous that the
contents of the flask are likely to be expelled and
wind up on the lab bench. The solution to the
problem is the use of a boiling chip to reduce
The phenomenon of superheating is attributed
to the action of surface tension. The pressure
inside a small static spherical bubble is higher
than outside by twice the surface tension over the
radius, 2o-/r. Such a static bubble would be in
unstable equilibrium. If it were only slightly
smaller, the increased pressure would tend to
collapse it and if it were slightly larger, it would
tend to grow and rise and thus escape.
The action of a solid on the stability of small
bubbles is well exemplified by boiling chips. A
boiling chip is able to retain gas or vapor on its
surfaces and thus provides a vapor-liquid inter-
face deep in the liquid able to generate vapor
when the liquid becomes supersaturated. The
vapor breaks away as bubbles rising to the surface
but leaving behind some vapor from which the
next bubble can grow.
Nucleate boiling is often characterized by the
tendency for bubbles to rise repeatedly from
certain points on the surface when boiling at low
heat flux. These points are described as nucleation
sites. They are thought to act as do boiling chips

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

by stabilizing a vapor-liquid interface on the
surface.
Usually nucleation sites become active only
after the surface temperature rises significantly
above the boiling point. It is possible with very
smooth surfaces to achieve even higher superheats
before ebullition occurs, as in a glass flask. Once
ebullition starts more nucleation sites become
active, often with only a slight increase in surface
temperature. It is only at low heat flux that the
individual bubbles and nucleation sites can be
effectively studied. At just a modest heat flux
bubbles begin to merge and with just a bit more
heat flux the commotion becomes so great that it
is impossible to discern much detail at the center
of activity. Views near the edge of a boiling sur-
face may not be representative of the rest.
Because of the visual difficulty of studying
bubbles at even modest heat fluxes most of the
studies of bubbles have been made at low heat
fluxes. The results of these studies have then
been extrapolated to explain nucleate boiling at
higher heat flux where applications are common.
At high heat fluxes more vapor is generated.
In escaping the surface it pushes back the liquid
and establishes a vapor region just above the
surface. This leaves a film of liquid on the surface
that becomes especially important in the transfer
of heat [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
Nucleate boiling is limited in its ability to
transfer heat. Exceeding what is called the peak
heat flux leads to the drying off of the surface.
Without liquid the surface is unable to lose heat
fast enough and the surface temperature rises
unless the heat supply is reduced.
A surprising fact is that higher heat fluxes
are possible if the depth of liquid on the surface
is a few mm rather than much deeper [6]. Main-
taining a film on the surface with a spray or with
a jet permits even higher peak heat fluxes
[4, 7, 8, 9].
PHASE TRANSITION PROCESSES
Boiling is not the only process involving a
phase transition in which nucleation is important.
Another is crystallization. In crystallization,
crystal nuclei initiate crystal formation.
There are a number of similarities between
crystal nucleation and vapor bubble nucleation.
Both crystals and vapor bubbles will grow on
surface imperfections such as scratches and pits.
Crystallization also exhibits tribonucleation [10].
Crystallization is initiated by rubbing or dragging
a stirring rod along the bottom of a beaker. Vapor

Nucleate boiling is often
characterized by the tendency for bubbles
to rise repeatedly from certain points on the
surface when boiling at low heat flux. These
points are described as nucleation sites.

nuclei can be produced in the same fashion.
There is another source for crystal nuclei for
which no similar source of vapor bubbles has
been reported. It is called secondary nucleation
and is the production of nuclei from the break-up
of larger crystals [11]. This source of nuclei is the
most important one in industrial applications.

SEARCH FOR SECONDARY NUCLEATION
The reason secondary nucleation has never
been seriously considered for nucleate boiling is
probably because it was not easy to see how any
of the abundant vapor could be returned to the
liquid to serve as nuclei. Without a process for the
return of vapor to the liquid it was impossible to
see how secondary nucleation could occur in nucle-
ate boiling.
The first clue to a process for secondary
nucleation came in research on boiling in a thin
liquid film [12, 13]. Nucleate boiling was studied
on the outside of a vertical, steam-heated, copper
tube. High speed motion pictures showed that
when a bubble burst, bubble nuclei appeared
where the bubble had just burst.
The next clue came in an experiment with
superheated water in a glass tube [14]. An air
bubble was formed in the water and was allowed
to rise and burst at the surface. Soon after it
burst, clusters of bubble nuclei appeared beneath
the surface and these nuclei grew and coalesced
to form a vapor bubble. When this bubble burst
it too produced a cluster of nuclei beneath the
surface. Viewing the high speed motion pictures
of the event gave the impression that nuclei came
from the top film of the bubble crashing upon the
surface following the bursting of the bubble.

DROP-FORMED VORTEX RINGS
At this juncture a study of the tendency for
small drops to entrain bubbles seemed appropri-
ate. With just the simplest experiments using
only an eye dropper and a beaker it was obvious
that drops do entrain bubbles. With this en-
couragement high speed motion pictures were
taken of drops falling several feet into water [15].
It was soon learned that entrainment occurred

FALL 1982

not upon initial impact but later when the splash
fell back upon the surface. This led to experiments
with short falls where it was learned, by dying
the drop, that when a dyed water drop strikes a
water surface it usually produces a vortex ring.
Furthermore, with optimized lighting it was seen
that the vortex rings carry tiny bubbles on their
axes as they plunge beneath the surface. See
Figures 1 and 2.
Drop-formed vortex rings were news to us.
Once one knows about them it's not difficult to find
that they've been known a long time. They were
described in an 1858 paper by W. B. Rogers [16]
before he founded MIT. They are not mentioned
in most texts on fluid mechanics, except for
Sommerfield [17] and Batchelor [18]. A recent
book Bubbles, Drops and Particles [19] includes no
mention of them. Apparently few researchers
have had occasion to learn of them.
We found that researchers at Los Alamos were
not familiar with them. They developed a tech-
nique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations
numerically with a computer [20, 21] and applied
their method to the prediction of the behavior of
a drop striking a pool of water. They could only
solve for short falls. They compared their results
to experiments with drops falling from greater
heights. They found agreement and concluded that
their method was sound, unaware that drops fall-
ing from short distances behave differently [22].
Now that drop-formed vortex rings have been
recognized as providing a mechanism for second-
ary nucleation, it is pertinent to consider how im-
portant secondary nucleation might be. Vortex
rings are capable of providing nuclei away from
the interface. The tiny bubbles are carried within
the rings wrapped in layers that come from near

! -r I

FIGURE 1. Examples of a drop-formed vortex ring en-
training air bubbles.

DIRECTION OF TRAVEL
FIGURE 2. Sketch of a drop-formed vortex ring show-
ing entrained and escaped bubbles.
the surface and the impinging drop that likely
have temperatures close to saturation. The tiny
bubbles are shielded from the local environment
through which they are carried. If they escape to
a hotter environment they can begin rapid growth.
The fact that clusters of bubble nuclei are seen
later beneath the surface when a bubble bursts on
a superheated pool fits these circumstances.
When a bubble bursts on the surface, does its
top film form drops that in turn form vortex
rings? A bubble about 2 cm in diameter was
blown from a detergent solution colored with food
dye and placed on the surface of clear water. It
was ruptured soon after placement and a picture
was taken looking down on the surface. The
picture showed tiny rings and bubbles where the
miniscus had been [15]. Apparently the rings were
vortex rings.
Another interesting aspect is the behavior of
a vortex ring as it approaches a wall. It plows
right in and spreads out, giving the impression
that the tiny bubbles it might carry would be de-
livered very close to the wall. If the wall was a
heater surface the tiny bubbles would seem to be
delivered to a region of high temperature.
Although it goes unnoticed by current texts, it
is possible to improve the performance of nucleate
boiling by the simple means of boiling in thin
liquid films. An early indication of this came from
Japanese engineers who studied nucleate boiling
on a horizontal surface with varying depths of
liquid covering the surface [23, 24]. At depths
below 5 mm, surface temperatures were lower and
were lowest just before the surface dried off with
the surface only partially covered with liquid.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Si~i,

They offered no explanation for the observation
but did note that nucleation increased at lower
liquid depths. Others have reported similar re-
sults [25, 26]. Boiling in thin liquid films offers
an ideal opportunity for secondary nucleation to
occur. When boiling thin liquid films, bubbles burst
from the top of the film not far from the heater
surface. Drops formed when a bubble bursts
should be drawn into the film on the surface.
Vortex rings formed by these drops would be well
positioned to carry entrained bubbles to the sur-
face. Near the surface the entrained bubbles
would be exposed to the highest temperatures
around. Whether secondary nucleation is indeed
responsible for the better performance of boiling
in thin liquid films cannot be said at present but
it seems like a good bet. This would seem to be a
a likely candidate for further research.
One advantage of boiling from thin liquid films
is that nucleate boiling can be achieved at lower
surface temperatures and at lower heat fluxes.
This is especially important in low heat flux ap-
plications where, judging only from boiling from
submerged surfaces, nucleate boiling would not
seem possible.
Nucleate boiling from thin films can be im-
proved even more by the addition of traces of sur-
factants to water. This was reported by the Japan-
ese and also more recently in desalination equip-
ment [23, 27, 28]. Preliminary experiments in our
laboratory show that surfactants increase nuclea-
tion, apparently from secondary nucleation.
There have been numerous studies of nucleate
boiling on horizontal or vertical tubes or on verti-
cal flat surfaces [28, 29, 30]. These studies have
generally indicated better performance than
nucleate boiling on submerged surfaces and the
improvement has generally been attributed to the
flow in the film. Not one of these studies has made
any recognition that similar improvements occur
when nucleate boiling occurs in thin liquid films
on horizontal surfaces where there is no imposed
flow.
Most texts on heat transfer describe flow boil-
ing as being different from nucleate boiling on a
submerged surface. In flow boiling, liquid is pro-
gressively converted to vapor so that a number of
flow regimes exist along the flow. The pre-
dominant flow regime is annular flow with a liquid
film on the wall. Early work hypothesized that in
the annular flow region heat transfer was so
good that it must be forced convection and that,
consequently, nucleate boiling was surpressed [31].

The support for this hypothesis has recently been
reanalyzed and found not to support the hypothe-
sis [32]. Annular flow would seem to offer an ideal
situation for secondary nucleation to augment
nucleate boiling heat transfer.
In vigorous boiling on a submerged surface
the view of the bubble activity is obscured. Extra-
polating results on bubble nucleation at lower heat
fluxes suggests that at higher heat fluxes more
surface sites come into play. An alternate hypothe-
sis is that at high heat fluxes secondary nucleation
supplies the additional nuclei. The circumstances
would seem to permit secondary nucleation in
the same way as has been suggested for nucleate
boiling in thin films. At high heat fluxes vapor
does push the liquid away leaving the surface wet
with a film of liquid. It would seem possible for
drops to form from bubbles bursting from this
film or perhaps from all the commotion above the
surface. Drops striking the film would be well
positioned to cause secondary nucleation. Current
literature mentions only the former hypothesis,
so the latter has not been ruled out. Who can say
which hypothesis is more nearly correct? More
research can help decide.
Secondary nucleation can also offer alternate
hypotheses for two other characteristics of nucle-
ate boiling. When heat flux is plotted against
surface temperature excess over saturation, one
obtains what is often called the boiling curve. The
upper portion of the curve often moves in a
parallel fashion to higher or lower temperature
differences because of aging or other obscure
reasons. It is usually said that changes in the
nucleation characteristics of the surface are re-
sponsible for the shift. An alternate hypothesis is
that changes in nucleation on the surface effects
only the lower portion of the curve and that
secondary nucleation ensues to move the rest of
the curve.
The other characteristic is hysteresis in which
surface temperatures are higher as the heat
flux is increased but lower as it is decreased. On
increasing heat flux it sometimes occurs that after
bubbles begin to coalesce the surface temperature
suddenly falls. The usual explanation for this is
that new nucleation sites have acquired vapor and
became active. The alternate hypothesis is that
when bubbles begin to merge a new flow regime is
established which favors secondary nucleation.

CONCLUSIONS
Secondary nucleation definitely occurs in

FALL 1982

155

nucleate boiling. Indications are that drop-formed
vortex rings are responsible for entraining tiny
bubbles to serve as nuclei for secondary nuclea-
tion. How important secondary nucleation is in
submerged boiling remains to be shown, but it
seems likely to be responsible for the improved
performance of nucleate boiling in thin liquid films
with and without surfactants. Research oppor-
tunities abound in evaluating these new develop-
ments. O

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Most of the research on nucleate boiling has
been supported by the National Science Founda-
tion. A sabbatical leave spent at Berkeley Nuclear
Laboratories in England with R. B. Duffey helped
to develop some of the research. Kenneth Carroll,
Tom Yu, Ted Bergman, Gregg Mailen and other
students are in large measure responsible for
our progress.

REFERENCES

1. Kirby, D. B. and Westwater, "Bubble and Vapor Be-
havior on a Heated Horizontal Plate During Pool
Boiling Near Burnout," AIChE Symposium Series,
No. 57, 61, 238 (1965).
2. Katto, Y. S., Yokoya, S, and Yasunaka, M., "Mechan-
ism of Boiling Crisis and Transition Boiling in Pool
Boiling," Heat Transfer 1970, Vol. V., B3.2, Elsevier,
New York (1970).
3. Ida, Yoshihiro and Kobayashi, Kirjosi, "Distribution
of Void Fraction Above a Horizontal Heating Surface
in Pool Boiling" Bulletin JSME, 12, 283 (1969).
4. Mesler, R., "A Mechanism Supported by Extensive
Experimental Evidence to Explain High Heat Fluxes
Observed During Nucleate Boiling," AIChE Journal,
22, 246 (1976).
5. Yu, Chi-Liang, and Mesler, R. B., "A Study of
Nucleate Boiling Near the Peak Heat Flux Through
Measurement of Transient Surface Temperature,"
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20, 827 (1977).
6. Patten, T. D. and Turmeau, W. A., "Some Character-
istics of Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Layers,"
Heat Transfer 1970, Vol. V, B2.10, Elsevier, New
York, 1970.
7. Kopchikov, I. A., Voronin, G. I., Kolcah, T. A.,
Labuntsov, D. A., and Lebedev, P. D., "Liquid Boiling
in a Thin Film," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12, 791
(1969).
8. Copeland, Robert J., "Boiling Heat Transfer to a
Water Jet Impinging a Flat Surface." Ph.D. Thesis,
Southern Methodist University (1971).
9. Toda, Saburo and Uchida, Hideo, "Study of Liquid
Film Cooling with Evaporation and Boiling," Heat
Transfer-Japanese Research, 2, 44 (1973).
10. Hayward, A. T. J., "Tribonucleation of Bubbles,"
British J. Appl. Phys., 18, 641 (1967).
11. Garside, J., Rusli, I. T., and Larson, M. A., "Origin
and Size Distribution of Secondary Nuclei," AIChE

Journal, 25, 57 (1979).
12. Mesler, R. and Mailen, G., "Nucleate Boiling in Thin
Liquid Films," AIChE Journal, 23, 954 (1977).
13. Mesler, R., "Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films,"
Chapter 23, Bubble Phenomena, by Van Stralen and
Cole, McGraw-Hill, New York (1979).
14. Bergman, Theodore and Mesler, Russell, "Bubble
Nucleation Studies Part I: Formation of Bubble
Nuclei in Superheated Water by Bursting Bubbles,"
AIChE Journal, 27, 851 (1981).
15. Carroll, Kenneth and Mesler, Russell, "Bubble Nuclea-
tion Studies Part II: Bubble Entrainment by Drop-
Formed Vortex Rings," AIChE Journal, 27, 853
(1981).
16. Rogers, W. B., "On the Formation of Rotating Rings
by Air and Liquids Under Certain Conditions of Dis-
charge," Amer. J. Sci. and Arts, Second Series, 26,
246 (1858).
17. Sommerfield, A., Mechanics of Deformable Bodies,
18. Batchelor, G. K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics,
Cambridge (1967).
19. Clift, R., Grace, J. R. and Weber, M. E., Bubbles,
Drops and Particles, Academic, New York (1978).
20. Harlow, F. H. and Shannon, J. P., "The Splash of a
Liquid Drop," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3855 (1967).
21. "Distortion of a Splashing Liquid Drop,"
Science, 157, 547 (1967).
22. Carroll, Kenneth and Mesler, Russell, "Splashing
Liquid Drops Form Vortex Rings and Not Jets at
Low Froude Numbers," J. Appl. Phys., 52, 507 (1981).
23. Nishikawa, K., Kusuda, H., Yamasaki, K., and Tanaka,
K., "Nucleate Boiling at Low Liquid Levels," Bulletin
JSME, 10, 328 (1967).
24. Kusuda, H. and Nishikawa, K., "A Study of Nucleate
Boiling in Liquid Films," Mem. Faculty Engineer-
ing, Kyushu University, 27, 155 (1967).
25. Marto, P. J., MacKenzie, D. K., and Rivers, A. D.,
"Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films," AIChE
Symposium Series, 73, No. 164, 228 (1977).
26. Turmeau, W. A., "Studies of Nucleate Boiling in Thin
Liquid Layers," Ph.D. Thesis, Heriot Watt Uni-
versity, Edinburgh (1971).
27. Sephton, Hugo H., "Interface Enhancement for
Vertical Tube Evaporators," ASME Paper 71-HT-38
(1971).
28. Shah, B. H. and Darby, R., "The Effect of Surfactant
on Evaporative Heat Transfer in Vertical Film
Flow," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20, 827 (1977).
29. Fletcher, L. S., Sernas, V. and Galowin, L. S., "Evapo-
ration from Thin Water Films on Horizontal Tubes,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop., 18, 265
(1974).
30. Norman, W. S., and McIntyre, V., "Heat Transfer to
a Liquid Film on a Vertical Surface," Trans. Instn.
Chem. Engrs., 38, 301 (1960).
31. Dengler, C. E. and Addoms, J. N., "Heat Transfer
Mechanism for Vaporization of Water in a Vertical
Tube," Chem. Eng. Progr. Symposium Ser., 52, No. 18,
95 (1965).
32. Mesler, Russell, "An Alternate to the Dengler and
Addoms Convection Concept of Forced Convection
Boiling Heat Transfer," AIChE Journal, 23, 448
(1977).

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

Yin Memnoiawn

WILLIAM H. CORCORAN

William H. Corcoran, 62, Institute Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at the California Institute of Technology, died while vacation-
ing in Hawaii on Saturday, August 21, 1982. Bill is survived by his
wife of nearly 40 years, Martha, son Will Corcoran, Jr. and daughter,
Sally Corcoran Fisher, and six grandchildren. To describe the ac-
complishments and contributions of Bill Corcoran to chemical engi-
neering, engineering education, and to his friends and colleagues
would require many, many pages. During his life, Bill Corcoran at-
tained virtually every honor and recognition available to an engineer-
ing educator, while, at the same time, truly touching the hearts and
minds of all those with whom he came in contact. Ironically, two
weeks before his untimely death, Bill Corcoran prepared a short essay
entitled "My Career as a Chemical Engineer." As a tribute to Bill
Corcoran we now reprint that essay:

My Career as a Chemical Engineer
My professional work began before World War II as
an employee of Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California.
Here my interest in pharmaceuticals and biomedical engi-
neering was sharpened and never left me. In World War
II I was involved with a very excellent group of people at
the California Institute of Technology. We were re-
sponsible for the work on processing of double-base pro-
pellant and interior ballistics of all rocket motors used by
the Navy. One year of that program also concurrently
dealt with ordnance work on the atomic bomb. The rocket
program was very successful, and in my very biased
opinion it contributed in a major way to the quality of our
munitions program in World War II.
Subsequent to World War II I went back to graduate
school, courtesy of the National Research Council. I have
never forgotten the nice fellowships they afforded me,
and today I have an association with the National Re-
search Council by way of its Commission on Engineering
and Technical Systems. That is a pleasure and allows me
to partially pay back the debt I owe them. After receiving
my Ph.D. degree in 1948, I returned to Cutter Laboratories
in Berkeley where for four years I was Director of
Technical Development. The work included process de-
velopment on pharmaceuticals and biologicals, including
fermentation studies on penicillin and deep-culture growth
of useful organisms for manufacture of vaccines. In ad-
dition we did significant work on disposable medical equip-
ment and mass parenteral solutions. My interest in bio-
medical and bioengineering was further intensified by that
experience.
In 1952 I returned to the California Institute of
Technology as an Associate Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering and except for a two-year period from 1957 to
1959 I have been associated with the California Institute
of Technology ever since. In the period of 1957 to 1959 I
was Vice President and Scientific Director for Don Baxter

Incorporated, a subsidiary of the American Hospital Supply
Corporation. Here my biomedical work continued.
My work at Caltech in research has related to studies
of nitric acid-nitrogen dioxide-water systems, pyrolysis of
hydrocarbons, flow systems, including work on artificial
heart valves, and desulfurization and supercritical ex-
traction of coal.
Teaching has been a major interest during my profes-
sional career, and I have especially enjoyed the teaching
of my Senior design course entitled "Optimal Design of
Chemical Systems." I have learned so much in the teach-
ing of the course that I can hardly believe what has
happened, and I do have some hopes that the students
learned at the same time. In terms of breadth of oppor-
tunity for a professor I can't think of a course more de-
signed for a professor's development.
In other professional activities I spent 10 years as Vice
President for Institute Relations at the California Institute
of Technology while still maintaining my programs of
teaching and research. In 1978 I had the privilege of being
President of AIChE. Currently I have the pleasure of
working with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology and will be the President for a two-year term
ending in 1984.
Along the way I have had the great fortune to act
as a consultant for the American Hospital Supply Corpora-
tion and the Bechtel Corporation and as a Director of
Superior Farming, the KTI Corporation, and Phytogen,
Incorporated, a genetic engineering firm. There has not
been one dull second. If I had my life to relive, I would
do exactly what I had done previously and probably would
make the same mistakes. Hopefully not. It has been a great
life, with thanks to all the people with whom I have as-
sociated but with special thanks to my wife Martha who
understood from time zero the nature of the profession
and has been a very interested observer and participant
in my professional activities.

FALL 1982

Reeawch ont

MASS TRANSFER

RALPH H. WEILAND AND
ROSS TAYLOR
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, NY 13676

A number of aspects of effects of diffusive
mass transfer are currently being investigated
at Clarkson College of Technology. The growth
of crystals as it is affected by diffusion is being
studied by Professors William Wilcox and Gordon
Youngquist. A major investigation of the role of
mass transfer in corrosion is being carried out by
Professor Der Tau Chin. Finally, the role of multi-
component diffusion and chemical reaction in
the classical operations of distillation, absorption
and condensation is under investigation by Drs.
Ross Taylor and Ralph Weiland. These latter
It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process
driven by concentration gradients (more precisely,
by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless,
the vast majority of commonly used design
methods are based on equilibrium models that
completely neglect the influence of finite rates of
mass transfer. For example, the equilibrium stage
model of distillation for binary, nonreacting
systems (the McCabe-Thiele method) is well
known to all students of chemical engineering
[1, 2]; however, in practice, binary distillation
takes place almost exclusively in the undergradu-
ate laboratory. Real separations involve multi-
component mixtures (three or more species) and
and this presents a real complication that is the
subject of some of our recent research efforts.
In addition to the problems posed by the
multicomponent nature of most separation pro-
cesses, chemical reaction presents a set of unique
difficulties all of its own. The development of pro-
cedures for the analysis and design of such oper-
ations forms the second thrust of our efforts. De-
spite the fact that a great deal of work has been
published on chemically reactive mass transfer
[3, 4], it is remarkable that so little has been
reported on the application of this extensive

S, ,

Ross Taylor is an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Clarkson College of Technology where he has been since 1980. He
received his BSc, MSc and Ph.D. degrees from the University of
Manchester Institute of Science and Technology in England. (L)
Ralph H. Weiland obtained his B.A. Sc., M.A. Sc., and Ph.D.
degrees in Chem. Eng. at the University of Toronto. Following a two
year postdoctoral appointment in applied mathematics at the Uni-
versity of Western Australia he taught at the Universities of Calgary
and Queensland. He is presently Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at Clarkson College of Technology. (R)

fundamental work to the design and analysis of
separation processes of industrial scale.
Finally, when multicomponent mass transfer
is combined with chemical reaction and heat
transfer some really intriguing problems arise.
An example is the condensation of multicom-
ponent vapors when two or more species can react
together in the condensed phase. Nothing at all
aspect of mass transfer and a study of it forms
the third part of our general efforts.
In what follows it will be most convenient to
discuss these three main threads of our research
somewhat separately.
MULTICOMPONENT DIFFUSIONAL
SEPARATION PROCESSES
Considerable effort has been devoted to the
construction of algorithms for calculating the
equilibrium separation in multicomponent, multi-
stage systems and many ingenious computational
procedures have been devised. The formulation of
the material and energy balance equations in tri-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

diagonal and block tridiagonal matrix form
(thereby permitting efficient methods of solution)
has proved particularly efficacious in this area
[1, 2].
While the principle advantage of equilibrium
models is their (relative) simplicity, the primary
disadvantage is that they are fundamentally un-
sound; distillation, absorption, and so on are
certainly not equilibrium operations. If any
successful non-equilibrium model of multicom-
ponent stagewise processes is to be developed, it
must be based on sound mass transfer principles.
This is where the complications set in because the
calculation of mass transfer rates in multicom-
ponent systems is considerably harder than it is
for binary ones.
Diffusion in multicomponent mixtures is
complicated by the coupling that exists between
the individual concentration gradients. The rate
of diffusion of one species is dependent not only
on its own concentration gradient but on all the
other concentration gradients as well. Now, these
vastly different magnitudes and signs. Thus, a
possible consequence of the coupling between the
gradients is that a particular species may perme-
ate in opposition to its own concentration gradient,
or may not transfer at all even though a gradient
for it exists. A further possibility is that a species
with no concentration gradient in a particular
medium may be transported through that medium
at significant rates. These "interaction" phenome-
na, which cannot take place in binary mixtures, are
called reverse diffusion, a diffusion barrier and
osmotic diffusion, respectively [5-7].
Practical consequences of diffusional inter-
action phenomena include individual point
efficiencies in tray distillation not all being equal
and not being constrained to lie between zero and
one, both of which conditions hold for binary
mixtures. In fact, they may be found anywhere
in the range oo. This surprising result, a conse-
quence of reverse diffusion, has been confirmed by
experiment [8]. For the same reasons the indi-
vidual "Numbers of Transfer Units" in continuous
contact equipment are not all equal. In a different
setting (a condenser), one of the species may be
evaporating when the objective is its condensa-
tion.
Any good model of multicomponent mass
transfer must be able to predict when these phe-
nomena will occur; fortunately, such models are
currently available. Recent years have seen in-

creasing interest in the study of multicomponent
mass transfer and a veritable flood of papers has
appeared. The reader is referred to the major re-
view by Krishna and Standart [6] for develop-
ments to 1979.
Diffusion in multicomponent gas-vapor mix-
tures is accurately described by the Maxwell-
Stefan equations. The complete equations were
James Clerk Maxwell in a general article [9] on
diffusion in an early edition of the Encyclopedia
Britannica. Since that time, a number of solutions
with varying degrees of approximation and
generality have appeared. Most applications are

Practical consequences of
diffusional interaction phenomena include
individual point efficiencies in tray distillation
not all being equal and not being constrained
to lie between zero and one, both of which
conditions hold for binary mixtures.

based on a film model of steady-state one-dimen-
sional mass transfer.
There are, currently, four such methods able
to predict the occurrence of the various inter-
action phenomena and which are applicable to
mixtures with any number of constituents regard-
less of the relationship between the fluxes (for
example, transfer through a stagnant gas or equi-
molar counter transfer).
In chronological order of their development
they are:
1. The linearized theory of multicomponent mass trans-
fer developed by Toor [10] and by Stewart and
Prober [11].
2. The method of Krishna and Standart [12] based on
an exact solution of the Maxwell-Stefan equations.
It is worth noting that all of the eight or so sepa-
rately published exact solutions of these equations
(see [6] for sources) are simply different forms or
special cases of a single fundamental result [13].
3. An "alternative linearized theory" proposed re-
cently by Krishna [14, 15].
4. A simplified method developed by Taylor and Smith
[16].
All of these methods make use of the proper-
ties of matrices. Methods 1 and 2 usually require
iteration on the fluxes, involve matrix computa-
tions and may suffer convergence problems.
Methods 3 and 4 are explicit in the fluxes. Methods
1 and 2 have been used to predict efficiencies and
Numbers of Transfer Units in distillation and
applied to the simulation of condensers [6]. The
rather limited number of experimental results

FALL 1982

that are available confirm that interaction effects
may sometimes be significant indeed [6, 8, 17-21].
Methods 1 and 2 predict, often to a very satis-
factory degree, the experimentally measured rates
of mass transfer whereas models which neglect
interaction effects, based on the concept of an
effective diffusivity, are inadequate. Methods 3
and 4 have not been tested yet and this is some-
thing we are working on.
Engineering design based on the matrix
methods is necessarily computer based because
of the length and complexity of the calculations
involved. Theoretical papers on mass transfer fre-
quently make claims to the effect that the inclusion
of this or that model into existing design pro-
cedures is straightforward (see, for example, ref.
15). In fact, the combination of design equations

Diffusion in multicomponent
mixtures is complicated by the coupling
that exists between the individual

with advanced models of mass transfer is not at
all straightforward because of the nature of the
computations that are required.
Recent research has led to the development of
stable and efficient algorithms for computing intra-
phase mass transfer [20-23]. This, of course, is
only a part of the overall problem because mass
transfer in real systems necessarily involves two
distinct phases. The more practical problem of
computing rates of interphase mass transfer has
been the subject of only very recent investigation
[24, 25]. A number of different computational
algorithms have been developed and these have
proven markedly superior to previously published
procedures. A large part of the problem here is
that the models require extensive physical prop-
erty data that are not always accurately known
and the estimation of which occupies a very major
portion of the total time required. Currently under
way is a computational study to investigate the
sensitivity of the models to uncertainties in basic
data.
It is, of course, possible to compute mass
transfer rates (which are the quantities really
required in design calculations) much more
rapidly from the explicit methods 3 and 4. It is,
therefore, of some interest to know when an ap-
proximate method can be used and what level
of confidence can be ascribed to its predictions.
We have recently compiled statistical informa-

tion on the discrepancies between the fluxes pre-
dicted from the more exact method 2 and those
given by methods 1, 3, 4 and several of the non-
interactive effective diffusivity methods [22]. It
was found that the Toor-Stewart-Prober method
can be expected always to give good estimates of
the fluxes; the explicit method of Krishna [14, 15]
does so if the concentration gradients are low and
the effective diffusivity methods (which just
happen to be those methods used most commonly
in design at present) give good estimates of all
of the fluxes only very rarely. We were pleased
(and not a little surprised) to find that the new
method 4 was in all the many cases examined,
except transfer through a stagnant gas, equivalent
to or superior to all other approximate methods,
although the advantage over the linearized equa-
tions [10, 11] was usually small. (For transfer
through a stagnant gas, method 4 ranks second
best behind method 1). Results to date have been
so promising that applications of the new method
(cf [18-21, 43-45]) are planned and the basic
method is to be extended in the same way that
the assumptions underlying film models 1 and 3
can be extended to other mass transfer situations.
The traditional method of coping with finite
rates of mass transfer in stagewise processes
has been through the concept of a stage efficiency.
Calculation procedures employing the block tri-
diagonal matrix formulation permit the use of a
specified efficiency for each stage [1, 2]. For lack
of other information, this efficiency is always
taken to be the same for all components on any
stage [2], even though, as noted above, modern
theories of mass transfer suggest that this is most
unlikely to be the case. It is our contention that
the concept of stage efficiency is an unnecessary
complication and that multistage units are more
effectively modelled as a sequence of heat and mass
transfer stages.
Along these lines, the material and energy
balance relations for each stage are split into two
parts (one for each phase) and are treated
separately. A term for the constituent mass fluxes
appears in each equation, of different sign for the
different phases. The sum of the two parts gives
the total component material or energy balance
relations that are used in modern block tri-
diagonal algorithms. In fact, the separation of
the balance equations into two parts permits the
retention of the block tridiagonal matrix structure
of the linearized equations and, therefore, of exist-
ing methods for solving such equations. The re-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process driven by concentration gradients (more precisely,
by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless, the vast majority of commonly used design methods are based
on equilibrium models that completely neglect the influence of finite rates of mass transfer.

quired mass transfer rates are estimated from
a model that combines stage hydrodynamics and
multicomponent mass transfer. This model can
be as simple or as complicated as desired [30].

CHEMICALLY REACTIVE SEPARATIONS
Separation operations involving mass transfer
with chemical reaction are typified by a number
of processes for gas purification, particularly those
for the removal of acid gases. Coal gasification
processes produce copious amounts of carbon
dioxide which will have to be removed from the
gas mixture, and in coal liquifacation part of the
product is gas containing much CO2 which lowers
its heating value. Many gas purification processes
employ chemically-reactive solvents which must
be reused; thus, there are two important parts
of such processes, namely gas absorption and
solvent regeneration.
It turns out that the absorption step usually
is of relatively low cost; the solvent regeneration
step, however, is very costly indeed and dominates
the economics, accounting for well over 80% of
the operating costs [31]. With this in mind, the
surprising fact is that it is the gas absorption
step (at least for a single transferring component)
that has been extensively studied [3, 4]. By
contrast, the solvent recovery or stripping oper-
ation has remained virtually unexplored from
either a fundamental or practical viewpoint and
is totally lacking in design methods. If the process
could be understood in a fundamental way to the
extent that the dependence of stripping column
performance on plant operating variables was
predictable, then the real possibility of plant
optimization in terms of reducing energy costs
would exist. Thus, the ultimate objective of this
aspect of our research is to develop design and
analysis procedures founded on a fundamental
understanding of the basic physicochemical pro-
cesses taking place.
Previous literature dealing with gas de-
sorption from chemically-reactive solution is
sparse indeed and most of it addresses the
problem merely as a sideline to a study of the ab-
sorption step of some new process. Notable ex-
ceptions are the experiments of Ellis et al [32]

and McLachlan and Danckwerts [32], although the
former shed little light on the fundamentals. It is
really only in the past year or so that the results
of serious efforts to understand this important
operation have begun to be reported. The stripping
of an already absorbed species from chemically re-
active solvents purely by the action of heating
(and this is the industrially common situation)
has recently been examined from a theoretical
standpoint by Astarita and Savage [34] who in-
corporated the classical two-film theory. The key
result of their analysis was the delineation of the
conditions under which absorption theory (which
is well developed) can be applied to desorption.
In a companion paper, Savage et al. [35] re-
ported absorption and desorption rate data for
the CO,-hot carbonate system and interpreted
the results in terms of their theory. Unlike all
previous studies, one of the more positive aspects
of their work is that it was done in an apparatus
of well-defined geometry and characterizable
hydrodynamics so that, by and large, chemical
kinetics could be nicely separated from mass
covered, however, was insufficient to establish the
influence of this variable. Unfortunately, the data
were interpreted on the basis of negligible gas
phase resistance to mass transfer; whereas, at
least for the CO,-monoethanolamine system,
this resistance is dominant over a certain range of
conditions [36].
Based on the work of Rawal [36] who assumed
that the equilibrium model of Olander [37] applied
to the stripping of carbon dioxide from mono-
ethanolamine solutions (this now seems justified
in the light of ref. 34), we have recently elaborated
on a design procedure for packed stripping
columns using this process [38]. The primary aim
of this work was the prediction of column per-
formance from first principles, based solely on
physicochemical parameters and equilibrium data
specific to the system. For this purpose, the ability
to apply chemical absorption theory, although im-
portant, is only one component of the overall
analysis. The reversibility of the chemical re-
actions is critical in chemical desorption. This
necessarily introduces thermodynamic relations
as an integral part of the theory. Furthermore,

FALL 1982

heat effects cannot be ignored because a sub-
stantial amount of heat must be supplied to effect
the decomposition of the solvent-gas compound
and the liberation of the freed gas from solution.
The implication is that vapor and liquid rates vary
significantly throughout the column, although the
column itself operates substantially isothermally.
We have recently completed an experimental
study of this operation [38] done in a small (6-in.
diameter) reboiled packed column (Fig. 1). While
it must be admitted that the comparison between
model and experiment in this work tended to be
more qualitative than precise, it is useful to note
that many of the trends found were rather
counterintuitive so that the transport process is
by no means a straightforward one. For example,
it was predicted theoretically and confirmed ex-
perimentally in a fairly rough way that at low
actually decrease the overall mass transfer co-
efficient KOLa. Furthermore, when solution load-
ing was low, the gas-side resistance was found
to be of tremendous importance. This was un-
expected in view of the fact that CO2 has a very

H I I

FIGURE 1. Pilot scale packed column (center) used in
solvent regeneration studies. Thermosyphon
reboiler is at left, condenser-reabsorber for
closed cycle operation at right.

low physical solubility and that it is generally
agreed that the mass transfer of sparingly
soluble gases is liquid-phase controlled. Other
operating variables such as operating pressure,
found to have surprising effects as well. Many
of these results stem from the fact that a change
to one operating variable causes changes in a
number of parameters at the same time so that
intuition cannot be relied upon for guidance. A
good model, however, provides unerring advice.
Naturally there are serious problems associ-
ated with trying to test fundamental models on
large scale equipment at such an early stage of
development. One of these is the poor characteriz-
ability of packed columns in terms of hydro-
dynamics, hence, individual film coefficients so
necessary to a proper film model of chemically re-
active mass transfer. As mentioned earlier in the
context of multicomponent mass transfer, errors
in basic data can have a profound consequence on
model prediction; a sensitivity analysis is
presently underway for reactive mass transfer in
continuous contacting equipment.
To provide data of greater reliability for test-
ing against these fundamental mass transfer
models, we are doing experiments in well-defined
flow geometries like single sphere and string-of-
spheres columns. Then all of the necessary funda-
mental data become accurately known, or at least
can be independently measured, and a real test
of models becomes possible. An obvious extension
is to systems in which two or more gases simul-
taneously absorb and then react with a common
nonvolatile solvent. Typical of such systems is
the absorption into, and stripping from, alkanola-
mines of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Of
particular interest is the selective removal of H2S.
Although a moderate amount of equilibium and
physical property data exists for this combination,
little or no mass transfer work has been done on
the absorption side, and nothing has been re-
ported on solvent regeneration. Yet the natural
gas industry in this country is very large indeed
and natural gas often contains a lot of both im-
purities. Experiments and modelling of both
aspects of this rather more complex system are
underway at Clarkson.
Our studies using model mass transfer devices
are aimed at testing theories of the transfer pro-
cesses which will find ultimate use in simulations
of packed columns. Concurrently, we are also
Continued on page 200.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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See our representatives on campus or write to:
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7 Goea"e in

FUNDAMENTALS OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTION

F. A. L. DULLIEN ..-
University of Waterloo

OVER THE PAST DECADE an increasing number of
graduates of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment and also of some other engineering de-
partments of the University of Waterloo have
been hired by various petroleum companies,
operating mostly in Alberta. The Faculty of Engi-
neering at the University of Waterloo operates
one hundred percent on the cooperative scheme.
The students alternate between academic and
work terms. An increasing proportion of our
students have been hired in their work terms by
the oil companies. This situation created a de-
mand for a senior year elective course in the
fundamentals of petroleum production which is
also suited to the needs of first year graduate
students specializing in some branch of flow
through porous media research. There is no
petroleum engineering department at the Uni-
versity of Waterloo, but there has been con-
tinuous basic research on certain aspects of this
discipline for the past sixteen years, under the
author's supervision. It was thus logical for the
author to propose a course on Fundamentals of
Petroleum Production, which was accepted by the
Faculty of Engineering in 1978. Since then the
course has been taught every year in the winter
term.
The purpose of this course is to introduce the
average chemical engineer, who has only a mini-
mum of familiarity with the concepts of capillarity
and flow through porous media, and none at all
with reservoir engineering concepts, to petroleum
production engineering. All this has to be ac-
complished in thirteen weeks (three contact hours

to be accomplished in ... the course
is to give the students a "feel" for the physical
phenomena, "drainage" and imbibitionn."

Francis A. L. Dullien has been a Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at the University of Waterloo since 1966. He received his Dipl.
Eng. from the Budapest Technical University (1950), his M.A.Sc. and
his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia (1958 and 1960). He
has been a Visiting Professor at Purdue University, at Karlsruhe Uni-
versity and at the Ecole National Polytechnique de Toulouse. He has
published over 100 papers in the fields of flow through porous media,
pore structure research, quantitative stereology, liquid and gaseous
diffusion, mixing, air pollution control and spectroscopy, and is author
of the research monograph "Porous Media-Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure" Academic Press (1979). He has developed courses in flow
through porous media, fundamentals of petroleum production, air
pollution control, surface chemistry, statistical thermodynamics, trans-
port phenomena, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and engineering
math.

per week), because with the coop system the
lecture part of a term is only about three months
long. Under these constraints the course on Funda-
mentals of Petroleum Production is limited in
scope and, at the same time, conceptually difficult
for the students.

TECHNICAL CONTENT
The technical content of the course is best ap-
preciated by perusing the course outline shown
in Table 1. The rationale for this approach to the
course is presented in the following paragraph.
The author does not think that a completely
black box-type presentation of the material is in
the best interest of either the student or the in-
dustry where the student may work. The black
box approach pays no attention to the microscopic
mechanisms, the interplay of the various forces

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

on a microscopic scale and the microscopical geo-
metric parameters of the environment in which
the physical phenomena take place. It is true that
a typical reservoir engineer is concerned with
the control and prediction of macroscopic param-
eters but it is equally true that the observed macro-
scopic behavior is, to a large extent, the result
of events that occur in small pores and which are
determined by microscopic parameters. Staying
mum on the microscopic aspects of petroleum
reservoirs (an attitude which is quite common
in some texts on reservoir engineering) is tanta-
mount to pretending to be completely ignorant
of some facts which are very important in de-
termining the outcome of oil recovery operations,
particularly when secondary and tertiary recovery
are considered. Such an attitude is likely to mis-
things that matter a great deal. The purpose of
university education cannot be the maintenance
of ignorance. This is the reason for starting this
course with an introduction to capillary theory.
In the discussion of basic laws of capillarity,
attention is drawn continually to the fact that
petroleum reservoirs consist of a multitude of tiny
interconnected capillaries. A petroleum reservoir
is a permeable porous medium, not at all like the
water reservoirs most people tend to think of im-
mediately when they hear the word "reservoir."
The major portion of this chapter deals with the

capillary pressure curves: primary drainage, im-
bibition and secondary drainage capillary pres-
sure curves, their methods of measurement in the
lab and in the field, capillary hysteresis and the
roles played both by the pore structure and the
contact angle in bringing about the hysteresis.
One of the difficult tasks to be accomplished in

The formation (resistivity) factor is
then introduced and the fundamental difference
between Darcy flow and electrical conduction
in porous media is pointed out.

this portion of the course is to give the students
a "feel" for the physical phenomena, "drainage"
and imbibitionn." It has been found indispensable
to do a classroom demonstration of these phe-
nomena. Transparent capillary micro-models are
very useful for this purpose, as is an experiment
consisting of placing a sandstone core plug, satu-
rated with oil, in a beaker of water. The spon-
taneous imbibition of water into the plug is
demonstrated by the appearance of oil drops on
the plug's surface which have been displaced by
the water.
The second chapter introduces the student to
the fundamentals of flow of a single fluid through
a permeable porous medium. The discussion is
centered on Darcy's law and the various types of
pressure heads and fluid potentials which are

TABLE 1
Course Outline

1. CAPILLARITY
Laplace's equation of capillarity
Young's equation-The contact angle
Capillary pressure-Effects of the pore structure and
the contact angle
Determination of the capillary pressure curve-
Saturation
Capillary rise-Effects of the pore structure and the
contact angle
Kelvin's equation
Capillary hysteresis-Effects of pore structure
2. FLOW OF A SINGLE FLUID THROUGH POROUS
MEDIA
Porosity
Specific surface
Permeability-Darcy's law
Formation factor
Macroscopic heterogeneity of pore structure
Anisotropy
3. SOME APPLICATIONS OF DARCY'S LAW
Fluid potential
Well stimulation

4. BASIC CONCEPTS IN RESERVOIR ENGINEERING
Calculation of hydrocarbon volumes
Fluid pressure regimes
Oil recovery-Recovery factor
Volumetric gas reservoir engineering
Gas material balance-Recovery factor
5. PVT ANALYSIS FOR OIL
Definition of the basic PVT parameters
Use of the PVT parameters
6. GENERAL MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION
FOR A HYDROCARBON RESERVOIR
Derivation of the general equation
Solution gas drive
Gascap drive
Natural water drive
Compaction drive
7. DISPLACEMENT OF OIL BY AN IMMISCIBLE
FLUID
Generalization of Darcy's law for multiphase flow
Effective and relative permeabilities
The Buckley-Leverett theory of oil displacement
Mobility control
Tertiary flooding

FALL 1982

The Kozeny-Carman equation
is "derived," not because it is believed
to be generally valid, but mainly to illustrate
the kind of efforts that have been made to
understand the relationship between
flow and pore structure.

used in conjunction with this basic law of reser-
voir engineering and groundwater hydrology.
Thus, careful distinction is drawn between the
physical meaning of the hydrostatic pressure, P
and the "datum pressure" or "psi-potential" 4 =
P + pgz, where z is distance measured vertically
upward from an arbitrary datum, p is the fluid
density and g is the gravitational acceleration
constant. Generally, it is the gradient of the
datum pressure, Vp, that must be used in Darcy's
law. The heads P/pg and 4/pg = P/pg + z repre-
sent distances in the vertical direction and are
much more readily visualized than the correspond-
ing pressures, P and t. t/pg, the so-called "piezo-
metric head," is then the sum of the pressure
tential 4 is also introduced here.
The permeability, k, the porosity, 4, and the
specific surface, s, are the most commonly used
macroscopic pore structure parameters. By defini-
tion, their value does not depend on the fluids used
in the measurement, but it is completely deter-
mined by the pore structure of the sample. The
important role played by pore structure in de-
termining reservoir behavior is stressed again
when discussing the above mentioned parameters.
The Kozeny-Carman equation is "derived", not
because it is believed to be generally valid, but
mainly to illustrate the kind of efforts that have
been made to understand the relationship between
flow and pore structure.
Simple integrated forms of Darcy's law are
presented, and the special cases of gas flow, slip
flow (Klinkenberg equation) and non-Darcy flow
(Forchheimer equation) are discussed.
There follows a brief outline of some field
applications of Darcy's law.
The formation (resistivity) factor is then
introduced and the fundamental difference be-
tween Darcy flow and electrical conduction in
porous media is pointed out. This is manifested
by the fact that the electrical conductivity of
small pores is the same as that of big pores
whereas the fluid conductivity of a pore in creep-
ing flow varies as A, the normal cross-section of

the pore. Hence a fine-pored medium has a much
lower permeability than a coarse-pored of com-
parable porosity, while the difference between the
formation factors of the two materials may be
relatively little.
It is pointed out that reservoirs are hetero-
geneous, i.e. they are characterized by a distribu-
tion of permeabilities, and anisotropic, i.e. the
permeabilities at a given point are different, de-
pending on the direction of flow.
At this point in the course the students al-
ready have a certain idea of the behavior and
the pore structure of a reservoir. They are un-
likely to confuse it with a water reservoir. Here

TABLE 2
Recommended Reference Books
F. A. L. Dullien, Porous Media-Fluid Transport and Pore
L. P. Dake, Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering,
Elsevier, 1978.
J. W. Amyx, D. M. Bass and R. L. Whiting, Petroleum
Reservoir Engineering-Physical Properties, McGraw-
Hill, 1960.
A. E. Scheidegger, The Physics of Flow Through Porous
Media, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1974.
R. E. Collins, Flow of Fluids Through Porous Materials,
van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1961.

the course switches to the subject which is con-
ventionally at the beginning of reservoir engi-
neering texts; the explanation of the basic con-
cepts of reservoir engineering, such as hydro-
carbon volumes, fluid pressure regimes, gas re-
covery factor, gas expansion factor, solution gas-
oil ratio, oil formation volume factor, gas forma-
tion volume factor, producing gas-oil ratio, etc.
Next, the general macroscopic material balance
for a hydrocarbon reservoir is derived, discussed
and applied to elucidate the various possible
natural modes of petroleum production, the
different so-called "drives."
At the end of the course the fundamentals of
immiscible displacement are outlined. In this
chapter some of the basic concepts, introduced in
the early chapters, play an important role and
are thus vindicated from an applications point of
view which, of course, is the only point conceded
by the average student taking this course.
There are usually four home assignments in
this course, one on each of the following chapters:
1, 2-3, 4-6, and 7, and three tests, one on each of
the following chapters: 1-3, 4-6, and 7. Final
examination has been dispensed with. O

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

00 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

OP DIVISION ACTIVITIES

TWENTIETH ANNUAL LECTURESHIP AWARD TO
LOWELL B. KOPPEL
The 1982 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer was Lowell B. Koppel of Purdue
University. The purpose of this award lecture is
to recognize and encourage outstanding achieve-
ment in an important field of fundamental chemi-
cal engineering theory or practice. The 3M
Company provides the financial support for this
annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate. These were presented to this year's Lecturer at the Annual Chemical Engineering Division banquet, held at the University of California at Santa Barbara. NOMINATIONS FOR 1983 AWARD SOLICITED The award is made on an annual basis with nominations being received through February 1, 1983. The full details for the award preparation are contained in the Awards Brochure published by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1983 lecture- ship are invited. They should be sent to Robert E. Slonaker, Chairman, 3M Award Committee, ChE Department, Bucknell University, Lewis- burg, PA 17837. NEW DIVISION OFFICERS ELECTED The newly elected ChE Division officers are: Angelo Perna, Chairman; W. D. Baasel, Past Chairman; Dee Barker, Chairman Elect; Bill Beckwith, Secretary Treasurer; John Sears and Dale Seborg, Members at Large; Hal Kemp and R. P. Stambaugh, Industrial Representatives. ChE's RECEIVE HONORS ASEE Meeting Texas A & M George Burnet, Iowa State University, was the recipient of ASEE's highest honor, the Lamme Award, in recognition of his excellence in teaching, contributions to research and technical literature, and achievements contributing to the advancement of the profession. William Corcoran, California Institute of Technology, received the Distinguished Service Citation for his long and continuous service in teaching, research and ad- ministration. Summer School U.C.-Santa Barbara Ray W. Fahien, University of Florida, was presented with an Award of Excellence. Paul V. Smith of Exxon and James Townsend of Dow were both recognized for their many contributions to the ChE Division as industrial representatives. T. W. F. Russell, Stanley I. Sandier and Sherri Barwich, all of the University of Delaware, were presented with Certificates of Appreciation for their work in coordinating the 1982 Summer School, and Dale Seborg and John Myers were both recognized for their contributions as hosts at the University of California, Santa Barbara. [ book reviews OPTIMIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL EXPERIMENTATION By W. E. Biles and J. J. Swain John Wiley & Sons, NY Reviewed by R. M. Bethea, H. R. Heichelheim, L. D. Clements Texas Tech University Chapter 1. This section provides a thorough coverage and description of the properties of op- timization problems with an inconsistent mixture of belaboring the mathematically obvious and "name-dropping" of methods to be developed later. Chapter 2. The use of the chi-squared goodness- of-fit test to evaluate the Poisson distribution is unusual in most introductory statistics texts. The explanation is clear to a reader with some background in mathematical statistics but not to the novice as is the authors' stated goal. Note that in the example of the Poisson on p. 47 should be fy(y) = e-2.8y2.8/y! and that the values of f, and ei in Table 2.12 have been multiplied by 100. In the section starting on p. 89, no justification has been given for the F-tests. In this way, the student is not taught the why of analysis of vari- Continued on page 199. FALL 1982 AIR POLLUTION FOR ENGINEERS MAYIS SEAPAN Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK 74078 IN THE PAST TWO DECADES the need for environ- mental awareness has increased the enrollment of chemical engineers in environmental courses, especially in air pollution courses. This is true both for formal university courses and for the continuing education short courses. Traditionally, most of the air pollution courses have been developed in civil and environmental engineering departments. Only a small percentage of chemical engineering departments offer a course related to air pollution. In 1978, there were 581 air pollution courses offered in 130 American and Canadian Universities and Colleges in 189 academic departments [1]. These departments varied from traditional engineering to disciplines like geography and biology, with only 27 chemical engineering departments offering an air pollu- tion course. The diversity of the disciplines in which the air pollution courses have been developed and the variations in the background of students have made the air pollution courses very non-uniform. Departments with multiple air pollution courses cover different aspects of the air pollution under one or more of the following topics: fundamentals of air pollution, atmospheric sampling and analysis, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology, modeling of atmospheric dispersions, aerosol science and technology, industrial pollution pro- cesses, theory and design of air pollution control systems, and air quality management. These courses have varied from very introductory and descriptive to strongly theoretical, with intensive This course is different from other one-semester air pollution courses in several aspects. The order of presentation of the topics is completely new. Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982 use of mathematics, to highly application and design oriented ones. Many engineering students who do not intend to specialize in air pollution cannot afford to take several courses in air pollution. They would usually prefer to take one general course that would give them an overall understanding of the field. Several schools also offer a general air pollution course as an elective to students of different disciplines. Obviously, in this general air pollution course many of the above mentioned topics have to be selectively compressed or eliminated. The air pollution course described in this article is specially designed to be a general course of one semester or two quarters duration, tailored to serve as an elective course for engineering students in their M.S. or senior level. This course is different from other one- semester air pollution courses in several aspects. The order of presentation of the topics is com- pletely new. The new arrangement is based on the principle of cause and effect. The theoretical basics are reviewed at the beginning of the course. Conse- quently, the subsequent topics are not presented as case studies, but as applications of the theo- retical principles. Thus, the student studies and analyzes the applications with a creative approach and often can deduce the resultant phenomena before the empirical observations are presented. It is the main objective of this course to challenge the creative thinking of the students. This is achieved not only during the lectures, but also by the type of problems that are given during the quizzes and examinations. As a result of these efforts, the learning efficiency is improved and more material is covered in the course. COURSE DESCRIPTION The course consists of two major parts: funda- mentals of air pollution, and control technology and equipment design. In the first part, the air pollution system is treated as a huge chemical reactor, where man is a moving boundary exposed to the pollutants. In the second part, the control technology is described and the design methods CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Mayis Seapan received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin (1976) and is presently Assistant Professor of Chemical Engi- neering at Oklahoma State University. His current research interests are the formation of aerosol particles by chemical reactions and up- grading of coal derived liquids with specific interest in the catalyst deactivation and kinetics of hydrotreatment of coal derived liquids. are discussed. Usually equal time is spent in teaching these two parts. However, in this article more space is devoted to the fundamentals of air pollution to show its special merits. The most important reason for our study of air pollution is a concern both for our health and for that of future generations. The threat to our health may come from direct exposure to pol- lutants, or from indirect exposure through water, plants, animals, and generally from the entire environment. The ecological effects of air pollutants depend on (a) the concentration of the pollutant, (b) the temperature, (c) the duration of exposure, and (d) the velocities of the surrounding air. In some cases other factors, such as concentrations of other constituents, may also interfere. Thus, in theory, in order to be able to evaluate the extent of the po- tential damage of air pollutants, one needs to know the concentration of every pollutant at any location and at any time. The air surrounding the earth is considered as a huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform, and non-ideal chemical reactor which has an approxi- mate shape of a spherical shell. In order to under- stand this non-ideal reactor, one needs to consider the following: Chemical and physical constituents of the reactor and their properties Heat transfer and temperature distributions Fluid dynamics and velocity distributions Physical boundaries of the reactor and transport phenomena through these boundaries Interactive and combined phenomena of all these factors Chemical constituents of the atmosphere include not only nitrogen and oxygen but all re- active and non-reactive gases as well as the suspended particles in the atmosphere. Physical constituents are considered as atmospheric electricity, radioactivity and electromagnetic radi- ation; where solar radiation plays the major role. Therefore the course starts with a review of different pollutants of the atmosphere and electro- magnetic radiation. This is followed by a study of the interaction of radiation with gaseous mole- cules, the principles of photochemistry, the forma- tion and dynamics of aerosol particles, and the interaction of particles with electromagnetic radiation, electricity and radioactivity. It is at this stage that the students are introduced to the concept of free molecular and continuum flow be- havior of particles. They learn about Brownian motion and phoretic forces and develop a general understanding of the significance of each phe- nomena under different conditions. The students also learn the role of wavelength in the absorption The air surrounding the earth is considered as a huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform, and non-ideal chemical reactor which has the approximate shape of a spherical shell. of electromagnetic radiation by chemical con- stituents and its significance in the initiation of different types of chemical reactions. Before the discussion of atmospheric fluid dynamics, i.e., meteorology, the atmospheric energy balance is discussed. By introducing at- mospheric layers and their role in filtering different wavelengths from solar radiation, the heat balance around the earth is introduced. The role of different chemical constituents in the at- mospheric heat balance is discussed and the greenhouse effect is explained. The' fluid dynamics of the atmosphere as classified under macro-, meso- and micro-meteor- ology is introduced with emphasis on the concept of cause and effect, indicating the role of solar radiation and the atmospheric heat balance in the development of atmospheric motions. This dis- cussion is further expanded to the vertical temperature distribution, lapse rate, inversion layers, and atmospheric stability. Sources of pollution as inputs through the lower boundary of the reactor, i.e., the surface of FALL 1982 . .. it is also emphasized that "dilution is not a solution to pollution" and whatever is released into the atmosphere will eventually return to the earth in some form. earth, are reviewed and an account is given to emission inventories. At this stage atmospheric chemistry and different types of smogs are pre- sented. A study of air pollution sinks, both through the lower boundary to the earth and through the tropopause to the upper levels of the atmosphere illustrates how pollutants are eliminated from the air. Water bodies, open lands, plants and lungs of living creatures are considered as some of the sinks on the surface of the earth, while strato- spheric ozone layer is a sink at the upper levels of the atmosphere. To account for localized variations of pollu- tion, dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere from point, line, and surface sources are pre- sented and the concept of atmospheric modeling is introduced. Throughout the presentation of this global reactor model, the principles of global material and energy balances are repeatedly emphasized so that the students realize that whatever pollution is emitted to the atmosphere, eventually is going to be removed in the sinks in the boundaries of the reactor. At this stage, the student, in principle, is cap- able of predicting the fate of and concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. The effects of air pollutants on the atmospheric environment are discussed by presenting such topics as ozone layer depletion, acid rain, and visibility reduction. Air pollution damage to vegetation and materials is followed by the effects on human and animal health. The student at this time is quite familiar with the behavior of different gaseous and particulate pollutants and therefore the analysis of their effects is no longer a case study. For example, the dependency of particle capture rate on the particle size in the lungs is not a matter to be accepted and memorized. The student recognizes the relative significance of interception, sedi- mentation and diffusion, so he or she can deduce the concept of lung deposition. Once the effects of air pollutants are studied, the safe limits of pollutants and the existing un- certainties in these limits are discussed. Air pollution regulations are presented under the two classes of receptor and emittor standards. A brief summary of air pollution measuring techniques completes the section on the fundamentals of air pollution. In the second half of the course, control tech- nology is taught. Again the ground is laid by re- viewing the basic chemical engineering principles to show the thermodynamic and rate limitations on the formation of pollutants. Material balances are used to calculate the emission rates. An energy balance is used to calculate the combustion and outlet stream temperature. Chemical equilibria show the thermodynamic limitations on the formation of pollutants. Finally, chemical kinetics explain the rate phenomena and the time factor involved in the formation of pollutants. This re- view is usually repetitious to chemical engineers, but it is required for the understanding of the rest of the discussion. Therefore, it must be taught if non-chemical engineers are present in the class. At this stage, emission inventories and emission factors are briefly reviewed. Incinera- tion is discussed as the first control technology. As another application of the basic principles, auto- mobile emission control is presented. Again the discussion is based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles; therefore the student can deduce the outcome of most of the control techniques. Control of gaseous emissions by absorption and adsorption and the sizing of equipment are discussed. The students are continuously reminded of the economic limitations of gas cleaning pro- cesses so that they realize that, even with the best available control technology, the exhaust stream will contain some low levels of pollutants which need to be properly disposed into the at- mosphere. The stack as a means of this dispersion of pollutants is described and its design methods are exercised. However, it is also emphasized that "dilution is not a solution to pollution" and what- ever is released into the atmosphere will eventual- ly return to the earth in some form. A theoretical discussion of the aerodynamic capture of particles and the forces responsible for the collection and separation of particles precedes the particulate control section. Particulate control equipment is divided into two groups; the equipment in which a specific body force results in the separation of the particles from the carrier gas, and the equipment which operates on the basis of the aerodynamic capture CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION of particles by an object or obstacle. In the first class, settling chambers, centrifugal separators and cyclones, and electrostatic precipitators are discussed. In the second class, filtration and wet scrubbing are described. For every type of equip- ment, the operating principles and the physical construction are presented first, followed by design principles and equations. Emphasis is placed on sizing of equipment, calculation of collection efficiencies, and pressure drops. The final part of the course is based on com- paring particulate control equipment. The criteria for the selection of suitable equipment is pre- sented and the guidelines to achieve an economical design are discussed. At present, there seems to be a need for the coverage of flue gas desulfuriza- tion and other special topics, but due to time limitations these have not been incorporated in the course. Table 1 gives a more detailed course outline. TABLE 1 Course Outline I-Fundamentals of Air Pollution Introduction to air pollution Atmosphere, a huge chemical reactor Chemical Constituents of the Atmosphere Gaseous pollutants Particulates Physical Constituents of the Atmosphere Electromagnetic radiation, solar radiation Radioactivity, ions and atmospheric electricity Interaction of Radiation with Gases Absorption and emission of radiation by gaseous molecules Photoionization and photoexcitation of gases Principles of photochemistry Aerosol Particles Formation of particles by homogeneous and hetero- geneous nucleations Growth'of particles by coagulation Knudsen number and regimes of particle dynamics Brownian motion and phoretic forces Interaction of Radiation with Particles Optical properties of particles: Mie scattering and Rayleigh scattering Atmospheric Heat Balance Radiative heat transfer Atmospheric layers and solar radiation Energy balance of the earth Greenhouse effects Atmospheric Fluid Dynamics Macrometeorology and general circulation Cyclones and anticyclones Planetary boundary layer and wind profiles Temperature profiles and lapse rate Verticle motions in the atmosphere Atmospheric stability and inversions Sources of Air Pollution Natural and anthropogenic sources Emission inventories Atmospheric Chemistry Photochemical smog Sulfurous smog Miscellaneous atmospheric reactions Sinks of Atmospheric Pollution Sinks at the earth's surface: water bodies, earth, vegetation, animals Sinks at the upper layers of the atmosphere Atmospheric Dispersion Gaussian plume and ground concentrations Dispersion of particulates and their deposition from plumes Dispersion from line and area sources Modeling of atmospheric dispersion by unicell and multicell techniques Effects of Air Pollution Global atmospheric effects: ozone depletion Regional atmospheric effects: acid rain Localized atmospheric effects: visibility reduction Effects on vegetation Effects on material Effects on human health Direct and indirect exposure Lung and its defense mechanisms Effects of gaseous and particulate pollutants on the respiratory system Other effects of pollutants on health Air Pollution Regulations Sampling and Analysis of Air Pollutants Management of Air Pollution II-Control Technology and Design Basic Principles Material balance Energy balance Chemical equilibria Reaction rates Emission Inventories and Emission Factors Incineration Automobile Emissions and Control Fuel tank, carburetor and crankcase emissions Exhaust gas emissions and its control Absorption Adsorption Dispersion of Pollutants From Stacks, Stack Height Particle Size Distributions Collection Efficiencies and Penetrations Grade Efficiencies and Overall Efficiencies Aerodynamic Separation and Capture of Particles Gravity, centrifugal and electrostatic forces Calculation of particle trajectories and stop distances Capture of particles by obstacles: impaction, inter- ception, diffusion and seiving Particulate Control Equipment and Their Design Settling chambers Centrifugal separators, cyclones Electrostatic Precipitators Filtration, fabric filters Wet scrubbing Economics and comparative design of particulate control equipment FALL 1982 TEXTBOOK In the past two decades several textbooks have been written for air pollution courses. Un- fortunately, none of them can be used for the entire course. Some of these textbooks cover primarily the fundamentals [2-6], while others cover the control aspects [7-10]. The textbooks that attempt to cover both the fundamentals and control [11, 12] do not place the desired emphasis on different topics. In addition, the sequence of topics in the textbooks is significantly different from the sequence of this course. Therefore no single textbook was found suitable for this course. For every topic, appropriate pages from different sources are recommended for reading. ASSIGNMENTS AND EXAMINATIONS Two types of assignments are normally given. Computational homework problems, through which the students learn to use the basic design equations, are assigned on a regular weekly basis. During the first few weeks, while the funda- mentals are being covered, not many computa- tional problems can be given. Therefore, certain reading materials are assigned which are later tested by short quizzes. In order to minimize the memorization aspect of these assignments and im- prove the creativity and critical thinking of the students, no direct questions are asked on the assigned reading material. The questions are in- direct and require some creative thinking based on the studied material. Three one-hour exams and one final exam are given during the semester. These examinations are composed of questions similar to the ones in the short quizzes and compu- tational problems. Since no direct questions are asked, all the examinations and short quizzes are handled on an open-book open-notes basis. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The described air pollution course which covers both the fundamentals and control of air pollution introduces a new sequential structure for its topic presentation. This new structure is built on the basis of theoretical principles and has minimized the traditional case study approach. The major objective throughout the course is to prepare the students to become creative thinkers capable of analyzing existing and future/new air pollution problems. This course, developed and taught at Okla- homa State University, has attracted many su- perior students from different engineering disci- -- POSITIONS AVAILABLE Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate 'A page$50; each additional column inch $20. UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF CHEMICAL ENGINEER- ING: Must have a Ph.D., excellent academic background, strong interest in teaching and research, and be a U.S. citizen or have permanent resident certification. Re- sponsible for teaching undergraduate and graduate courses, supervising graduate research. Send resume, three references, transcripts, and statement of interest to: Dr. D. R. Paul, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engi- neering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1165. Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Em- ployer. MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Tenure system faculty position. Opening for full-time faculty member, beginning January 1, 1983. Doctorate in Chemical Engineering re- quired. Strong commitment to teaching and the ability to develop an outstanding research program is expected. Teaching and/or industrial experience desirable but not essential. Michigan State University is an affirmative action-equal opportunity and welcomes applications from women and members of minority groups. Send applications and names of references to Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226. plines. It has successfully challenged the students and has maintained their interest and enthusiasm throughout the courses. O REFERENCES 1. Rossano, A. T. and Cota, H. M., J. of Air Poll. Cont. Ass., 28, 1106 (1978). 2. Ledbetter, J. O., "Air Pollution," Part A. Marcel Dekker, 1972. 3. Perkins, H. C., "Air Pollution," McGraw-Hill, 1974. 4. Seinfeld, J. H., "Air Pollution, Physical and Chemical Fundamentals," McGraw-Hill, 1975. 5. Stern, A. C., H. C. Wohlers, R. W. Boubel, and W. P. Lowry, "Fundamentals of Air Pollution," Academic Press, 1973. 6. Williamson, S. "Fundamentals of Air Pollution," Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1973. 7. Crawford, M., "Air Pollution Control Theory," McGraw-Hill, 1976. 8. Hesketh, H. E., "Air Pollution Control," Ann Arbor Science, 1979. 9. Strauss, W., "Industrial Gas Cleaning," Second Edition, Pergamon Press, 1975. 10. Licht, W., "Air Pollution Control Engineering-Basic Calculations for Particulate Control," Marcel Dekker, 1980. 11. Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., "Air Pollution, Its Origin and Control," Second Edition, Harper and Row Publications, 1981. 12. Hesketh, H. E., "Understanding and Controlling Air Pollution," Ann Arbor Science, 1972. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION __ __ _ WORLD WIDE ENGINEERING I CF Braun & Co is a world leader in the engineering and construction industry. For more than 70 years, we have provided a wide range of services to the process and power industries. Our principal fields of activity are chemical and petrochemical plants, oil refineries, ore processing plants, coal gasification facilities, and power gener- processes never before employed on a commercial scale. We also have been involved in the emerging synfuels industry. Our rapid growth has opened up many challenging opportunities and assignments for professional growth. Positions are available at our engineering headquarters in Alhambra, California, and at our eastern engineering center in Murray Hill, New Jersey. ...PROVIDING THE KEY TO CAREER ADVANCEMENT mmU u RAN &C POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH POLYMER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH DONALD G. BAIRD AND GARTH L. WILKES Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VA 24061-6496 POLYMER EDUCATION AND research is gradually becoming a part of every major university in the country. At least some type of survey course in polymers is presented, and occasionally additional specific courses are offered, e.g. polymer processing, polymer synthesis, etc. Where more developed polymer programs are found, they are usually isolated in specific departments; the most common being chemistry, chemical engineering or materials engineering. A few universities have progressed to the point where separate polymer science departments now exist. At VPI & SU a unique interdisciplinary polymer program (referred to as the Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory [PMIL]) has evolved over the last five years and involves 11 faculty from five departments and some 70 gradu- ate students and post-doctoral associates. The uniqueness of the program rests in the fact that it is truly interdisciplinary, with faculty cooperat- ing in research and teaching activities. While other interdiscplinary groups or programs exist in the country, they often do not function smoothly due to interdepartmental or inter-college barriers. At Virginia Tech these barriers do not exist. Furthermore, the operation of this interdisciplin- ary effort has joint Co-Directors, with one in the College of Arts and Sciences and the other housed Polymeric fluids require not only the application of a shear stress to maintain shear flow but additional normal stresses. The normal stress differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids in shear flow are more sensitive to changes in molecular structure than is viscosity. Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982 SChei.cal Engineorint iI Materials Engineering CoDirector College of Engineering Enineerinq Sciece & Mechanics L Mechan ical Engineering coJet i ie & D e ntD Ct-irector of College of Arts & IDep ___________ P IL Sciences Chemistry 1 FIGURE 1. Schematic drawing of the Interdisciplinary Polymer Science Program (The Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory-PMIL) at Virginia Tech. in the College of Engineering (see Fig. 1). This minimizes any political biases and at the same time provides smoother operation in both edu- cation and research. One example of cooperative research is a project entitled "High Performance Elastomers and Other Multiphase Organic Com- posites" where five faculty from the departments of chemical engineering, materials engineering, and chemistry combine their expertise in polymer synthesis, characterization, rheology and process- ing, and structure/property relationships to pro- vide a complete understanding of novel elastomeric polymer systems. A second and similar example of the strong cooperative research is the newly established "Adhesion Center" where the princi- pal aim is an understanding of the fundamentals of polymer adhesion. This center, which has ac- quired major outside funding from the Office of Naval Research, was established through the co- operation of four faculty members of PMIL who are housed in three different departments. From an educational viewpoint, a chemical engineering student who is interested in pursuing polymer research is expected to obtain a basic level of proficiency in polymer synthesis and physical chemistry of high polymers while developing an expertise in either polymer processing or structure/property relationships. The remainder of this article focuses on the educational offerings in polymers within the Chemical Engineering De- partment at Virginia Tech. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Polymer research in the department is carried out under the direction of either Professor Baird or Professor Wilkes. The general theme of Pro- fessor Baird's research is the application of rheology to polymer and biopolymer processing, while that of Professor Wilkes is directed toward the structure/property relationships in these same or related polymer systems. Although each has his own research interests, the cooperative aspects of the polymer group extends strongly into the program. (David Dwight, who is also a part of PMIL, holds a partial appointment in Chemical Engineering but contributes principally to the Donald G. Baird received his B.S. (1969) and M.S. (1971) degrees from Michigan State University in Mechanics of Materials. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1974 under the guidance of A. S. Lodge of the Rheology Research Center. From 1974 to 1978 he was employed as a chemical research engineer at Mon- santo's textiles research laboratory in Pensacola, Florida. His work was primarily concerned with the processing of high modulus/strength fibers. In 1978 he joined the VPI & SU faculty holding a joint appoint- ment in the departments of Engineering Mechanics and Chemical Engineering. In 1981 he was promoted to associate professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering. He has authored over 30 papers in the field of polymer rheology and processing and consults on a frequent basis with the polymer, paper and food industries. (L) Garth Wilkes received his bachelor's and master's degrees from the College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Further graduate study was carried out at the University of Massachusetts where another master's degree (Polymer Science and Engineering) as well as a doctoral degree (Physical Chemistry) were obtained. He joined the chemical engineering faculty at Princeton University in 1969 and was active in the Polymer Materials Program. In 1974 he received the outstanding young engineering faculty award at Princeton. The theme of his research is the structure-property behavior of synthetic and biological polymeric systems. In 1978 he accepted a full pro- fessorship at VPI & SU within the Chemical Engineering Department. In 1981 he was awarded an endowed chair position within the same department. He participates in both teaching and research duties and serves as a frequent consultant to the polymer industry. He is also Co- Director of the Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory. He has published over 100 scientific papers and contributed to numerous books. (R) Department of Materials Engineering; conse- quently, his interests in polymer adhesion and surface analysis will not be highlighted here.) A contrast of Virginia Tech's efforts in polymer rheology with others shows that some groups approach non-Newtonian fluid flow be- havior only from a theoretical viewpoint; they are often principally concerned with developing equa- tions of state to describe the flow behavior of visco- elastic fluids. Our efforts, however, are directed more toward the application of rheology for solv- ing polymer processing problems, employing molecular as well as continuum viewpoints. This approach sometimes involves merely finding em- pirical correlations between certain theological properties and polymer processability. On the other hand, it may also involve using an existing constitutive equation in conjunction with molecu- lar theory to model a polymer process. Since we study many fluids which are even more complex than common polymeric melts and solutions (two examples being liquid crystals and filled polymer systems), we are also concerned with the develop- ment of theological equations of state for these fluids. However, we tend to be motivated by a need for developing models which are useful for process calculations, as opposed to developing a model which is so mathematically complex that it is of little practical value for calculations and process design even though it may accurately de- scribe theological properties of polymeric fluids over a large range of conditions. The following description of several of our ongoing research programs illustrates the type of research which is carried out and emphasizes the cooperative nature of the research. The first examples extend from the work of Professor Baird. Polymeric fluids require not only the ap- plication of a shear stress to maintain shear flow, but additional normal stresses. The normal stress differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids in shear flow are more sensitive to changes in molecu- lar structure than is viscosity. We are presently investigating two methods (hole pressure and exit pressure) for measuring normal stresses which are related to fluid elasticity in a slit-die, using a technique called flow birefringence. These slit-die rheometers have potential for in-line monitoring and quality control of industrial polymer pro- cesses. Because flowing polymer fluids become anisotropic, they can transmit polarized light. The birefringent patterns which arise are directly related to the state of stress or momentum trans- FALL 1982 Our efforts are directed toward the application of rheology for solving polymer processing problems, employing molecular as well as continuum viewpoints. port at every point in the fluid. From the stress field various pressures related to fluid elasticity can be calculated from theory and compared to the directly measured values. Another project involves the rheology and in- jection molding of filled polymers. Our first ob- jective has been to determine what effect filler has on the non-linear theological properties of polymer fluids. The second goal has been to deter- mine whether the theological properties can be described by constitutive models used for homo- geneous polymer fluids. We are presently investi- gating the possibility of using dimensional analysis to draw correlations between theological proper- ties, thermodynamic properties, and the final bulk physical properties which arise as a result of pro- cess conditions. A particular processing problem of interest is weld-line formation. This study re- quires an additional investigation of the structure and related properties at the interface between the two polymer fronts. To illustrate the diversity of our efforts in rheology, we are also involved with the modeling of soy flour dough extrusion cooking processes which lead to meat-like products ( these systems, of course, are polymeric in nature). This project involves an initial understanding of the transport mechanism for soy dough in an extruder, de- termining the properties of the dough under pro- cess conditions and developing a mathematical model for predicting relationships between power, torque, temperature and output for various ex- truder designs. This work will eventually be ex- tended to predicting final extrudate texture and properties which will require an understanding of the structure property behavior of the final solid and how these relationships depend on pro- cessing. These latter points are addressed more by the efforts of Professor Wilkes. This particular project involves all the concepts of momentum, heat and mass transfer plus rheology, thermo- dynamics, kinetics, and structure/property re- lationships. A last example of theological studies is our research on liquid crystalline polymers, which in- volves rheology, processing and bulk structure and properties investigations. Liquid crystals are an intermediate state of matter between the isotropic liquid and crystalline solid state. Polymeric ma- terials in the liquid crystalline state under shear generally have extremely low viscosity and can usually be processed to give bulk specimens with physical properties approaching those of metals. Because liquid crystals are by nature anisotropic they may have unique theological properties. We are presently studying their flow behavior in order to identify any unique flow properties which may require a different theological equation of state than is used for isotropic fluids. Further- more, after processing these polymers behave as if they are self-reinforcing. Our present investiga- tion concerns the effects of injection molding conditions on the development of morphology, structure, and properties. The latter part of the research is carried out under the supervision of Professor Wilkes. Some of the other projects that are focused more on the structure-property behavior of polymeric solids include such phenomena as crystallization of polymers, synthesis and proper- ties of ionic elastomers as well as block and seg- mented copolymers, nonequilibrium behavior of network glasses and rubber modifications thereof and, finally, polymer compatability studies. In general, these studies, directed by Professor Wilkes, utilize a molecular approach with empha- sis on experimental work. Typically, a student's graduate research project often involves at least two, and sometimes three, areas in order to es- tablish a broader educational foundation in polymer science from which to work after leaving the university level. Several of these projects, as indicated earlier, overlap with those of Professor Baird where the input of processing and rheology help to provide insight into the nature of the final bulk properties that are studied. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES Table 1 lists the polymer courses that are taught at Virginia Tech, some of which are given within the Department of Chemical Engineering. We will now address the various polymer science educational opportunities in chemical engineering both at the undergraduate and the graduate level. Undergraduate Courses At the undergraduate level, chemical engineer- ing students may take as many as five courses in the area of polymer science (see Table 1). Two of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION these courses are taught within the Department of Chemical Engineering while three extend from the Department of Chemistry and Materials Engi- neering. The latter three courses (which we will not address in detail) focus on (a) polymer synthesis, (b) polymer surface chemistry, and (c) applications of polymeric materials. In our own department the two principal courses at the under- graduate level are "Introduction to Polymer Pro- cessing" and "Introduction to Polymer Materials." In the case of the processing course, students are introduced to the concepts of non-Newtonian fluid mechanics which serves as a basis for teach- ing extruder design, die design, and a qualitative description of processes such as film blowing and injection molding. The importance of processing on final structure and properties is also empha- sized. However the general theme in the Intro- duction to Polymer Materials course is to focus principally on the bulk properties of polymeric systems as found in the glassy, rubbery and semi- crystalline states. The first part of this course also includes an introduction to polymer synthesis for those students who have not acquired this back- ground through the polymer synthesis course given in chemistry. It also focuses some attention on the area of polymer characterization in order to provide an appreciation of the importance of molecular weight and molecular weight distribu- tion effects. While undergraduate students often TABLE 1 Polymer Science and Engineering Courses at Virginia Tech DEPT. INTRODUCTORY COURSES ChE Introduction to Polymer Materials ChE Introduction to Polymer Processing ChE Organic Chemistry of High Polymers Chem Polymer and Surface Chemistry MatE Applications of Polymeric Materials ADVANCED COURSES ChE Polymer Structure & Morphology ChE Rheo-optics of Polymers ChE Technology of Elastomers ChE Polymer Processing ChE Advanced Applied Rheology Chem Current Topics in Polymer Synthesis Chem Physical Chemistry of High Polymers ChE/ESM Introduction to Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics ESM Viscoelasticity MatE Modern Composite Materials MatE Surface and Microphase Analysis MatE Adhesion and Bonding ME Lubrication ME Friction and Wear do not take all of the polymer courses mentioned above, many often graduate with at least two of them. Graduate Level With respect to courses focusing on rheology, prior to the students taking the advanced rhe- ology course they take non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, which prepares them for advanced polymer processing topics such as the modeling With respect to courses focusing on rheology, prior to the students taking the advanced rhyology course they take non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, which prepares them for advanced polymer processing topics . of film blowing processes, blow molding and injec- tion molding. The latter advanced course is offered for students interested in molecular theories of rheology. Three additional courses emphasizing the structure/property behavior of polymeric solids are taught. The first, called Polymer Struc- ture and Morphology, focuses on the area of rubbery elasticity behavior as well as the crystal- lization of polymers. The second course, Rheo- optics of Polymers, discusses the use of electro- magnetic techniques for the purpose of charac- terizing polymeric materials. Examples of such techniques are light scattering, X-ray diffraction, birefringence and linear dichroism. The third course, Technology of Elastomers, is jointly taught by Professor Wilkes of Chemical Engineering and James McGrath of the Department of Chemistry. This course brings together both the chemistry of elastomers and some of their performance charac- teristics, but carries a stronger industrial flavor than most of the other polymer courses. SOURCES OF RESEARCH SUPPORT Support for our research comes from both in- dustry and governmental agencies. Most support is for specific research projects. However, contri- butions of unrestricted funds are also made through PMIL (The Polymer Materials and Inter- faces Laboratory) and represents many companies. This diversified funding illustrates our ability to carry out research at both the very fundamental level and the applied level in the field of polymer science. This has important ramifica- tions as far as our students are concerned since it demonstrates that both types of research are Continued on page 180. FALL 1982 CATALYSIS J. M. SKAATES Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 A TEN WEEK SURVEY COURSE in catalysis was de- signed to meet the needs of both chemistry and chemical engineering graduate students in Michigan Tech's Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. The aim of the course is to show how modern chemistry and chemical engineering interact in the ongoing development of industrial catalysts. As the course developed, it attracted the attention of graduate students in metallurgy who were grappling with chemical phenomena in their research in physical and extractive metallurgy. The course outline is given in Table 1. The ap- pearance of Gates, Katzer, and Schuit's Chemistry of Catalytic Processes, McGraw-Hill, New York (1979) provided an organizational framework. This text is incisive, mercifully slender, and contains challenging homework problems at the end of each chapter. To maintain the pace shown in Table 1, a series of sixty-five transparencies showing chemical structures and reaction mechan- isms were prepared for use with an overhead pro- jector. At the beginning of the course each student is given photocopies of all sixty-five trans- parencies. Constant reference is made to a wall- hung periodic table, and to a well-known organic chemistry text (Morrison and Boyd) which most students own. At the beginning of the course the students are asked to read two articles [1] which contrast industrial processes with textbook organic chemis- try. Then a quick review of the active site theory and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism is given for the benefit of students who have not taken the undergraduate chemical engineering kinetics course. Modern surface analysis tech- niques are described in a series of notes. The discussion of thermal cracking is extended to cover computer modeling of ethylene manu- Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982 facture [2] and recent research on high-severity pyrolysis [3]. The catalytic effect of the tube wall is demonstrated [4]. A set of notes entitled "Physi- cal properties of coal-derived liquids as affecting their chemical processing" summarizes the work of Ubbelohde on melts of polynuclear aromatics and of Marsh on formation of semi-cokes from aromatic liquids. A seminal paper by Virk [5] provides a framework for understanding chemical processing of aromatic liquids. Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons is covered next, and the textbook treatment is supple- mented by a study of the Socony-Mobil methanol- to-gasoline process over shape-selective zeolites. This provides an opportunity for examination of various processes for obtaining liquid fuels from coal. The advantages of the coal synthesis gas - methanol gasoline route are emphasized. An historical approach is taken to solid- catalyzed reactions, with the search for the "active site" being the main theme. For the benefit of metallurgy students the enhanced reactivity at emergent dislocations is discussed on the basis of an excellent review article [6]. Three lectures are J. M. Skaates received his B.Sc. (1957) at Case Institute of Tech- nology and M.S. (1958) and Ph.D. (1961) at Ohio State University in chemical engineering. He worked at California Research Corporation for three years before joining the faculty of Michigan Tech. His teaching duties have included undergraduate and graduate courses in thermodynamics and kinetics, an undergraduate course in process control, and graduate courses in catalysis and in process optimization. He has been involved in research in catalysis, biomass pyrolysis, and wet oxidation. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of proposed mechanisms for five important industrial reactions. It is emphasized that mechanisms are never finally "proven," but are working hypotheses reflecting present knowledge. devoted to the work of Somorjai on clean metal surfaces, with special attention to his parallel studies on iridium, platinum, and gold [7], and the linking of the unique catalytic activity of platinum to the high density of states at the Fermi level. Surface reconstruction on platinum-rhodium screens during the oxidation of ammonia is used to illustrate that interaction of surface metal atoms with adsorbates profoundly affects the metal-metal bonds. The geometric and electronic theories of catalysis by metals are represented as reflecting primitive ideas of metal surface morph- ology and bonding in metals. The synthesis and catalytic properties of metal cluster compounds is presented as a third approach (after transition metal ions in solution and clean metal surfaces) for studying bonding of metal atoms. Bonding of ligands to the metal clusters is compared with chemisorption of gases on bulk metal surfaces. The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of proposed mechanisms for five important industrial reactions (Table 1). It is emphasized that mechan- isms are never finally "proven," but are working hypotheses reflecting present knowledge. As an illustration, the electronic theory of catalysis, as applied to semiconducting metal oxides, fails to explain the baffling Schwab-Parravano dis- crepancy. Oxidation of hydrocarbons by oxygen supplied from an inorganic oxide lattice illustrates that a novel idea, tested with simple apparatus [8], can have a big economic payoff. On the other hand, millions of dollars of research failed to uncover a TABLE 1 Course Outline WEEK TOPICS COVERED 1. Theory of active sites Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms and rate equations Survey of modern surface analysis techniques. 2. Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons: Free-radical mechanisms Cracking of aromatics Recent trends in thermal cracking 3. Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons: Carbonium ion formation on solid surfaces Carbonium ion mechanisms Silica-alumina catalysts Zeolite catalysts Socony-Mob:l methanol-to-gasoline process 4. Chemistry of transition metal ions Zeiss' salt Wacker Process for acetaldehyde from ethylene Oxo Process Designing liquid-phase homogeneous catalyst reactors. 5. Types of defects on solid surfaces Emergent dislocations as active sites Surface morphology H-H, C-H, and C-C bond breaking on steps and kinks of metal surfaces Surface reconstruction during catalytic reactions 6. Geometric theory of catalysis on metals Electronic theory of catalysis on metals Surface compound theory of catalysis on metals Metal alloy catalysts 7. Supported metal catalysts Experimental techniques for characterizing supported metal catalysts Reforming of hydrocarbons Octane and cetane numbers Modeling catalytic reforming reactors 8. Properties of small metal crystallites Interaction between metal crystallites and the support Metal cluster compounds Metal-metal bonding Bonding of carbonyl groups Bonding of hydrogen 9. Ammonia synthesis mechanism Hydrocarbon synthesis by CO reduction Proposed mechanisms for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Proposed mechanisms for the methanation reaction Design of methanation reactors 10. Mechanisms involving electron transfer between adsorbate and metal oxides Catalysis on semiconductors Electronic Theory of Catalysis as applied to semiconducting metal oxides Oxygen transfer from the solid oxide lattice Synthesis of acrolein and acrylonitrile from propylene Complex oxide catalysts Perovskite structures Scheelite structures Automobile exhaust converter catalysts FALL 1982 TABLE 2 Articles Assigned for Outside Reading and Evaluation 1. Witcoff, H., "How It's Really Done," CHEMTECH, December 1977, p. 753 CHEMTECH, April 1978, p. 229. 2. Riggs, W. M., and Beimer, R. G., "How ESCA Pays Its Way" CHEMTECH, November 1975, p. 652. 3. Kearns, J. D., Milks, D., and Kamm, G. R., "Develop- ment of Scaling Methods for a Crude Oil Cracking Reactor Using Short Duration Test Techniques," paper presented to the Division of Petroleum Chemis- try, 175th National Meeting of the American Chemi- cal Society, Anaheim (1978). 4. Hall, James W., and Rase, Howard F., "Relation Be- tween Dislocation Density and Catalytic Activity and Effects of Physical Treatment" I and EC Funda- mentals, 3, 158 (1964). 5. Johnson, O., "Classification of Metal Catalysts Based on Surface d-Electrons," J. Catal., 28, 503 (1973). 6. Callahan, J. L., Grasselli, Robert K., Milberger, E. C., and Strecker, H. Arthur, "Oxidation and Ammoxidation of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst," I and EC Prod. Res. Rev., 9, 134 (1970). satisfactory metal oxide replacement for platinum in the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons in auto- mobile exhaust. Student evaluation of this course has been favorable, and their comments indicate that the excitement of catalyst research is "catching." The limitations of current chemical theories are evi- dent in trying to understand many catalysts. Playing a "hunch," or serendipity, often lead to valuable catalysts and also to new chemistry for the theorist to interpret. E REFERENCES 1. Witcoff, H., "How It's Really Done," CHEMTECH, December 1977, p. 753, CHEMTECH, April 1978, p. 229. 2. Shah, M. J., "Computer Control of Ethylene Produc- tion," Ind. Eng. Chem., 59, 70 (1967). 3. Ennis, Boyd, and Orris, "Olefin Manufacture by Millisecond Pyrolysis," CHEMTECH, November 1975, p. 693. 4. Dunkleman and Albright, "Pyrolysis of Propane in Tubular Flow Reactors Constructed of Different Materials" ACS Symposium Series, No. 32, p. 261 (1976). 5. Virk, Chambers, and Woebcke, "Thermal Hydrogasifi- cation of Aromatic Compounds," ACS Advances in Chemistry Series, No. 131 (1974). 6. Thomas, J. M., "Enhanced Reactivity at Dislocations in Solids," Advances in Chemistry, 19, 293 (1969). 7. Somorjai, G. A., "Active Sites in Heterogeneous Catalysis," Advances in Catalysis, 26, 2 (1977). 8. Callahan, J. L. et. al., "Oxidation and Ammoxidation of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst" I and EC Prod. Res. Dev., 9, 134 (1970). POLYMER RESEARCH Continued from page 177. compatible. In summary, our objective is to pro- vide the student with an understanding of molecu- lar and continuum approaches and an under- standing of the behavior of polymeric systems. We try to emphasize the need of understanding both the chemistry of these macromolecular systems and their engineering properties. All students receive a similar background in coursework. Along with the courses mentioned above, 11 other polymer courses (including such topics as polymer synthesis, physical chemistry of polymers and surface analysis) are available in the four other departments participating in the interdisciplinary group. Because of the large number of graduate students now in our program, even the advanced courses are offered on a routine basis. As a final note concerning educational aspects extending from chemical engineering in the polymer science area, we might point out that there are several industrially oriented polymer short courses offered at Virginia Tech each year. These courses are taught jointly through the polymer oriented chemical engineering faculty as well as other faculty members of the PMIL group. In short, we now offer the most extensive continuing education program in polymer science through a short course format than any other uni- versity in the nation. SUMMARY In this article we have attempted to outline the new growth in the polymer area at Virginia Tech, with emphasis being placed on the role of the Department of Chemical Engineering. The overall polymer science effort, as indicated, extends beyond a single department, encompassing five departments across two colleges. The growth of this program has been enormous in the last three years as a result of cooperative efforts of a truly interdisciplinary nature. The overall program, part of which is focused in chemical engineering, has become a highlight of the Virginia Tech campus and one which we anticipate will become even stronger in the future. It has achieved con- siderable outside funding and has developed modern research facilities necessary for gradu- ate research. Inquiries concerning information about Chemical Engineering and the Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory can be di- rected to either of the authors of this article. D CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION What to look for in choosing your first job. An intelligent first job assessment is often diffi- cult. There are important questions you should ask because the answers to these questions relate to how fast your career will move ahead. One key question is How much responsibility will I be given at the beginning? At Rohm and Haas, quite a lot. We seek out the highly motivated person who not only wants respon- sibility but aggressively goes after it. We place a lot of importance on helping you in your chosen area of specialization and your desired career direction. We call this "growth through re- sponsibility." We give it to you from the beginning. As a result, you can grow in the direction your expanding talents can take you. Also, top priority is given to individual develop- ment programs to ensure that all employees have the same opportunities for advancement. Our products are used in industry, agriculture and health services; therefore, we need responsible people with solid academic backgrounds who can contribute to our mutual growth. Our open- ings are in Engineering, Manufacturing, Research, Technical Sales, and Finance. If you want to know more about us. see your College Placement Of- fice. or wrie to' Rohm and Haas Company. Recruiting and Place- ment #1882, Independence Mall West. Philadelphia, PA 19105. ROHMfl iHRRSES PHILADELPHIA, PA. 19105 An equal opportunity employer. curriculum 1981 AIChE-EPC SURVEY DEE H. BARKER Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84112 T HE EDUCATION PROJECTS Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers has carried out surveys of the undergraduate curricula in chemical engineering since 1957 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The survey reported in this paper was carried out during 1981. The form, which was similar to that used in the past surveys, was sent out in the middle of June and requested its return by the first of September 1981. The questionnaire was to be based on the curricula as of September 1, 1981. The survey was sent out to all 149 schools listed in the 1980-81 Chemical Engineering Faculties [6]. Useable replies were received from 105 schools; the best response that has been given to the survey. The results of the survey were coded on IBM punch cards and analyzed using standard statistical procedures. The results of this survey are presented in the accompanying tables. For purposes of comparison, the same format has been used as in previous surveys. In this way, a com- parison can be made of the changes taking place in the curriculum since 1957. Table 1 presents the consolidated information under the categories shown in previous reports and is divided into three parts. The first set of columns shows the average number of semester hours, including all 105 schools. The second section shows the percentage of schools offering the par- ticular category and the third section shows the average semester hours considering only those schools offering the particular category. In the area of unit operations theory, transport theory has made an increase as well as transport labs. Unit operation theory has decreased somewhat to accommodate the transport theory increase. Dee Barker is professor and chairman of ChE at Brigham Young University. Dee earned the B.S. and Ph.D. ('51) degrees from the University of Utah. His industrial experience includes several years with du Pont in nuclear engineering and with Hercules, Inc., in atmospheric pollution, heat transfer, and materials development. He has served foreign assignments at Provo Institute of Technology and Science at Pilani, Rajasthan, India and Birla Institute of Technology and Science. Dee's fields of interest include nuclear engineering, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, process control and environmental control. The changes in the curricula, since 1957, in four categories are shown in Figs. 1 through 4. Figure 1 shows the total semester hours offered and indicates a slight increase in the net number of credit hours since 1957. However the change is TOTAL IN SEMESTER HOURS SH 136.9 138.2 134.3 131.7 131.2 1132.7 I I I I I I 100 110 120 130 140 150 Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982 FIGURE 1 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION TABLE 1 B. ChE. Curriculum 1957, 1961, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1981 Avg. Number of SH 1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981 147.0 146.2 136.8 133.1 132.5 133.4 136.9 138.2 134.3 131.7 131.2 132., 9. Written Communication 6.5 5.9 4.9 3.5 10. Oral Communication 1.1 1.0 0.3 0.6 11. Subtotal Items 9-10 7.6 6.9 5.6 4.3 12. Humanities, Required 4n. 5.4 4.9 4.0 13. Social Studies, Required 3.1 2.7 2.- 2.9 14. Other Req. Soc-Hum. 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 15. Non-technical Electives 6.2 7.6 9.8 3. 16. Subtotal, Items 12-15 14.7 17.2 9.1 21.0 17. Physical Education, etc. 1. 1.9 .2 .9 18. Military Studies .1 .9 0.8 0.4 19. Other non-technical 0.; 0.4 0.5 20. Subtotal Items 17-19 5.2 2.0 1.9 21. Total Items 11, 16, 20 27. 25.8 26.0 22. MATHEMATICS. CHEMISTRY. AND PHYSICS 23. Intro. & Review Math. 24. Anal. Geom. and Calc. 25. Diff. Eq. & Other 26. Subtotal Items 23-25 27. General Chemistry 28. Physical Chemistry 29. Organic Chemistry 30. Quantitative Analysis 31. Qualitative Analysis 32. Other Chemistry 33. Subtotal Items 27 32 34. General Physics 35. Modern Physics 4.4 2.6 0.2 0.i 11.b 11.7 11.3 9.9 1.3 3.6 b.3 7. 17.3 7. 17.7 17.9 8.0 7.8 7.A 7.1 8.5 8.1 7.7 7.1 8.5 7.8 7.4 6.6 4.2 .5 1.2 [.8 1. 1.3 0.6 0.4 U. 0.5 0.- 0.7 9.., 28.9 24.1 '22. 10.8 10.2 8.5 7.3 0.2 1.0 1.4 1.3 36. Subtotal Items 34-36 11.1 11.3 10.5 9.0 37. Total Items 26, 33, 36 59.2 57.9 49.7 38. ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 39. Total Graphics 4.7 3.8 2.0 1.6 3.3 4 . 0.7 0.6 4.0 5.1 5.1 5.3 2.3 3.1 .2 1.0 8.9 18.9 18.8 0.9 1.7 1.8 5 7 1,8 25.U 25.1 0.2 -- 9.8 10.7 8.1 7.4 17.9 1,.1 0.7 6.7 6.6 0.2 0.4 1 0.9 23.0 23.1 7.3 7.9 1.1 0.9 9.1 8.9 49.0 50.6 1.3 0.9 Schools Offering, % 1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981 98.8 97.8 92.8 74.0 72.0 89.5 43.2 45.6 28.9 25.0 30.0 24.5 98.8 97.8 92.8 79.0 77.0 88.6 ? .3 72.7 66.3 57.0 62.0 66.7 9. r' 55.4 39.8 44.0 38.0 45.7 . 20.7 22.9 21.0 20.0 14.3 n.4 82.6 79.5 79.0 77.0 73.3 S0.O 100.0 1iiO.0 100.0 O. 100.0 1 1;. 51.6 44.6 36.0 33.0 30.5 4 .1 49.0 18.1 5.0 1.0 3.8 ,.5 14.1 19.3 14.0 28.0 19.0 4.1 77.2 54.2 44.0 43.0 40.0 i*u.0 100.0 96.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 -.0 53.3 6.0 4.0 5.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.4 81.5 98.8 95.0 100.0 100.0 ;'U.' 100. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.6 99.0 97.0 100.0 110.0 98.9 97.6 99.0 96.0 97.1 100.0 98.9 98.8 98.0 99.0 98.1 :8.5 94.6 35.1 31.0 29.0 40.0 44.4 39.2 25.3 15.0 13.0 16.2 9.9 9.8 18.0 20.0 32.0 23.8 100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 95.0 90.0 98.0 8.6 38.0 38.6 34.0 26.0 27.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 98.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 85.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.5 94.6 67.5 59.0 50.0 44.7 40. ECONOMICS, BUSINESS LAW, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ALLIED 41. Economics, Princ. of 42. Economics, Engineering 43. Bus. Law, Admin., etc. 44. Total Items 41-43 45. MECHANICS OF SOLIDS 46. Mechanics 47. Mechanics of Materials 48. Total Items 46-67 2.2 2.1 1.5 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2 3.4 2.7 2.2 1.9. Avg. Number of SH 1957 1961 1978 1972 1976 1981 3.7 3.9 4.1 3.0 1.8 1.9 3.1 2.5 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.0 6.8 6.4 5.1 4.2 4.0 3.9 49. ELEMENTARY ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 50. Elementary El. Eng. 51. Elementary Electronics 52. Total Items 50-51 4.7 4.0 '2.8 2.4 2.2 2.3 0.3 0.9 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.7 5.0 5.0 4.3 3.2 2.9 3.1 53. NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS, CATEGORY A AND CATEGORY 8 54. Physical Metallurgy 1.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 55. Other Category A Courses 0.1 0.3 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.2 56. Metallurgy 0.4 0.6 0. 0. 0.1 0.1 57. Other Category B Courses 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 58. Total Items 54-57 2.3 1.9 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.7 59. SUPPLEMENTARY SCIENCES AND PRACTICES 60. Biology and Geology 61. Heat Power 62. Shop Practice 63. Other 64. Total Items 60-63 65. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.6 1.8 0.8 0.8 1.3 0.9 1.1 66. Material & Energy Bal. 3.8 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.2 67. Thermodynamics 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.5 68. Chemical Kinetics 0.5 1.2 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.1 69. Subtotal Items 66-68 9.1 9.2 5.0 10.1 9.6 10.8 70. Unit Operations Theory 7.6 8.2 4.3 9.7 9.7 10.4 71. Unit Operations Lab. 4.1 3.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 72. Subtotal Items 70-71 11.7 12.1 7.0 12.5 12.6 13.4 73. Ch.E. Design 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.1 4.8 74. Chemical Technology 2.7 1.8 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.1 75. Investigational Skills 2.5 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.6 76. Intro. to Ch.E. 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8 77. Instrumentation 0.7 1.1 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.4 78. Unit Processes 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 79. Trips 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 80. Fuels and Lubricants 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 81. Other 0.6 1.7 4.1 4.5 5.5 5.1 82. Subtotal Items 73-80 12.1 11.5 12.3 8.1 13.5 15.2 83. Total Items 69, 72, 82 32.9 32.9 33.4 35.5 35.7 37.6 84. TECHNICAL ELECTIVES 85. Total Tech. Electives 3.6 5.2 6.2 7.7 7.6 7.0 1.0 1.1 55.6 58.7 39.8 33.0 32.0 34.3 0.8 1.0 23.5 22.8 27.7 29.0 36.0 37.1 0.3 0.3 18.5 8.7 2.4 4.0 10.0 8.0 1.8 2.1 70.4 68.5 55.4 53.0 52.0 55.2 Schools Offering, % 1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981 97.8 97.5 90.4 78.0 72.0 78.0 97.5 80.4 47.0 41.0 40.0 40.0 100.0 97.8 90.4 85.0 84.0 83.8 98.8 93.5 77.1 73.0 66.0 71.4 9.9 38.0 49.4 28.0 26.0 27.6 100.0 95.7 88.0 79.0 74.0 79.0 40.7 20.6 13.3 9.0 7.0 3.8 5.0 11.9 57.8 49.0 38.0 40.0 12.7 21.7 2.4 3.0 2.0 2.9 28.4 11.9 10.8 12.0 11.0 9.5 67.9 55.4 71.1 58.0 49.0 48.6 4.9 4.3 6.0 8.0 7.0 8.6 23.5 8.7 1.2 5.0 1.0 5.7 23.5 8.7 1.2 3.0 1.0 0.0 13.6 15.2 18.1 20.0 12.0 13.3 45.7 29.3 24.1 27.0 23.0 25.7 98.8 9.3 91.6 86.0 90.0 93.3 100.0 100.0 98.8 99.0 97.0 100.0 18.5 53.2 89.2 95.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 75.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.8 73.5 98.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.9 81.9 88.0 89.0 91.4 100.0 98.9 91.6 98.0 100.0 100.0 90.1 86.9 90.4 91.0 100.0 100.0 75.3 53.2 19.3 15.0 11.0 7.6 70.4 50.0 24.1 25.0 26.0 20.0 38.3 39.1 30.1 33.0 34.0 40.0 32.1 41.3 71.1 74.0 80.0 85.0 27.2 23.9 7.2 14.0 5.0 2.9 21.0 17.4 7.2 6.0 5.0 4.8 13.6 4.3 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.8 42.3 61.5 69.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.9 98.8 97.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 65.4 75.0 72.3 83.0 82.0 81.9 6. Gross Credits, 5H 7. Net Credits, SH 8. NON-TECHNICAL STUDIES 3.1 3.1 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.6 2.3 3.4 3.4 4.0 4.4 2.3 4.0 1.3 1.0 2.2 3.0 2.8 3.3 3.3 3.3 5.0 4.6 2.3 3.0 9.2 6.6 8.4 5.9 4.0 3.3 12.2 7.7 4.0 4.0 3.3 3.0 3.1 3.5 2.3 1.8 2.5 3.3 3.0 3.2 1.7 1.2 1.5 1.0 3.9 6.6 11.6 12.5 32.8 33.8 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.9 0.8 2.2 3.2 1.8 1.8 3.0 3.4 3.2 3.6 3.4 3.7 4.1 2.1 1.0 2.6 1.8 1.0 0.0 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.9 3.9 4.1 3.2 3.4 3.4 4.4 4.6 4.5 3.1 3.0 3.1 10.1 11.0 10.8 9.9 9.7 10.4 3.1 3.3 3.2 12.7 13.0 13.6 3.9 4.1 4.8 2.3 1.9 1.6 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.3 1.9 2.0 3.1 2.3 3.1 2.6 3.4 2.2 1.4 0.9 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.5 5.5 5.1 8.4 23.1 35.5 36.9 37.6 5.5 7.0 8.6 9.3 9.4 8.6 FALL 1982 Avg. SH When Offered 1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981 6.6 6.0 5.3 4.8 4.5 5.1 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.5 7.7 7.1 6.0 5.4 5.2 5.8 6.3 7.6 7.5 8.5 8.2 8.0 5.9 4.8 6.2 6.6 7.3 6.7 5.7 7.3 6.7 7.4 6.1 6.9 8.3 9.2 12.3 12.8 11.8 12.1 14.7 17.2 19.1 20.0 18.9 18.8 3.5 3.7 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6 6.5 6.0 4.4 7.7 2.0 3.0 1.3 2.0 2.2 3.4 4.1 4.5 6.2 6.6 3.7 4.5 3.5 4.4 27.5 29.6 26.8 26.0 25.0 25.1 5.6 4.9 2.8 2.3 3.1 1.0 11.6 11.7 11.3 9.9 9.8 10.7 2.8 4.3 6.3 7.6 8.1 7.4 17.3 17.9 17.7 17.9 17.9 18.1 8.0 7.8 7.5 '7.2 7.6 7.7 8.5 8.2 7.9 7.2 6.8 6.7 8.5 7.8 7.5 6.7 6.9 7.0 4.2 3.7 3.3 2.6 2.3 1.9 3.0 3.3 2.3 2.3 1.9 2.2 3.3 5.5 2.8 3.3 4.6 3.8 30.8 28.9 24.4 22.9 23.0 23.1 10.8 10.2 8.6 7.6 8.1 8.0 2.6 2.7 3.7 4.0 4.1 3.2 11.12 11.3 10.5 9.1 8.9 8.9 59.2 57.9 52.2 49.7 49.5 50.6 4.8 4.0 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.1 3.9 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.1 3.3 2.8 2.2 2.0 .2.2 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.0 4.5 4.1 2.7 3.0 4.8 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.8 Avg. SH When Offered 1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981 3.8 4.0 4.5 3.8 2.5 2.6 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.6 6.8 6.6 5.7 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.3 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.3 2.6 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6 *5.0 5.2 4.8 4.1 3.9 3.9 small and probably not significant. Figure 2 represents the changes in Humanities and Social Sciences and shows an increase of 2.6%. Figure 3 indicates that there has been little change in the Chemistry offerings of the various departments since the last survey was undertaken. The figure represents both advanced chemistry HUMANITIES SH (% of Curriculum) S14.7 (11) 1 17.2 (12) 1 18.1 (13) S20 (15) 18.9 (14) | 21.5 (16.1) I 1 I and introduction chemistry. In reference 5 (reporting the survey in 1976), concern was expressed for the decrease in com- munications offered by the various schools. This has improved greatly since 1976; today 89% of the schools present some material. The survey also indicates that communications was being covered in seminars and in lab courses and was not re- corded explicitly with a given number of classes. The earlier surveys (prior to 1976) did not include an analysis of the actual course offerings TABLE 2 B. ChE. Curriculum; Sub-Categories Avg. SCH % Offering when Offered 1976 1981 1976 1981 MATH FIGURE 2 Analytical Geometry Calculus Differential Equation Linear Algebra CHEMISTRY SH Advanced Calculus (% of Curriculum) Complex Variables Partial Differential Equations Numerical Analysis Digital Computing & Programming Ss30.8 (22) Analog Computations 28.9 (21) Applied Engineering Math 3 24.4 (17: MECHANICS S22.9 (17) Statics i 23 (18) I1 j23.3 (17.5) Dynamics KINETICS S I I I I l Chemical Kinetics 0 24 26 28 30 32 Chemical Reactor Design UNIT OPERATIONS THEORY FIGURE 3 Transport Theory Transport Lab Equilibrium Stage COMMUNICATIONS % SCHOOL OFFERING U.. Theory DESIGN ChE Design Process Synthesis INSTRUMENTATION Instrumentation Process Control 7 198.8 Process Dynamics S78 OTHER 1 97.8 S192.8 Mathematical Modeling 2 9 Computer Applications in 2 79 6 177 Chemical Engineering 1 19 Biomedical Engineering 9 Polymer Processing Nuclear Engineering I I I I I Environmental Engineering 60 70 80 90 100 110 Other ChE required Chemical Engineering FIGURE 4 Electives 72 78 2.7 2.6 36 37 2.4 2.5 60 59 2.0 2.1 73 76 2.5 2.6 93 98 3.6 4.1 33 31 2.4 2.4 14 11 2.6 2.1 49 55 7.1 5.3 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION The categories of engineering design and engineering science have been lumped together since there was no way to determine from the survey forms which portion of the material is engineering science and engineering design. One of the problems facing educational accreditation is that of design in chemical engineering education. under math, mechanics, kinetics, etc. This survey (and the 1976 survey) asked for information relative to the different kinds of math, etc. Table 2 presents the results of this section of the questionnaire, both for 1976 and for 1981. Intro- ductory math is not included since none of the schools responding indicated that they were teach- ing introduction or review math. In the area of unit operations theory, transport theory has made an increase as well as transport labs. Unit operation theory has decreased some- what to accommodate the transport theory in- crease. In addition, a larger number of schools are offering courses in instrumentation process control and process dynamics, which previously had been listed only as instrumentation. The distribution of course work as compared with the AIChE minimum was also calculated. This information is presented in Table 3. As can be seen, the basic science and advanced chemistry are somewhat low. Part of this could be due to the way these categories were analyzed from the survey forms since some schools counted chemis- try from the chemical engineering courses. Normally it is expected that all chemistry courses will be taught in the Chemistry Department and will be the same as taught in Chemistry. The dis- tribution of course work was determined by taking selected items from the survey forms and using them to fit into the various categories. Some problem probably arose because of this arbitrary division. For instance, there may be some chemis- try in the thermodynamics courses which is not included in the chemistry shown here. The categories of engineering design and engi- neering science have been lumped together in Table 3 since there was no way to determine from the survey forms which portion of the material is engineering science and engineering design. One of the problems facing educational accreditation is that of design in chemical engineering education. Typically this comes from eight to ten different courses. The problem of defining design and look- ing for it in the curricula is currently being under- taken by the E & A Committee. The form also asked for the number of vacant tenure faculty positions, and 71 schools indicated Curricular Area Mathematics beyond Trigonometry Basic Sciences [Show Advanced Chemistry] Engineering Sciences Engineering Design, Synthesis, and Systems Humanities/Social Sciences Other Required Technical Courses Other Required Courses (Non Technical) Other Free Electives Total of "Other" TOTAL: Percent TOTAL CREDIT HOURS: AIChE Minimum (%) Avg. 12.5 13.6 25.0 24.3 (12.5) (11.7) 25.0 j 25 37.5 37.3 12.5_ " 12.5 16.1 8.7 12.5 100.00 100.0 133.4 that they had vacancies, for a total of 115 vacancies. The results of this part of the survey will be published in Chemical Engineering Pro- gress. In summary it appears that only minor changes have been made in the chemical engineering cur- ricula since the last survey was undertaken. An- other survey is planned in approximately four to five years. Any specific questions concerning books used and other material can be addressed to the author at Brigham Young University. O REFERENCES 1. Thatcher, C. M., The Chemical Engineering Cur- riculum, Chemical Engineering Education, Sept. 1962. 2. Schmidt, A. X., What is the Current ChE Curriculum? Journal of Engineering Education, October 1958. 3. Balch, C. W., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical Engineering 1969-70, Chemical Engineering Edu- cation, Vol. VI, No. 1, Winter 1972. 4. Barker, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical Engineering 1970-71, Chemical Engineering Edu- cation, Winter 1972. 5. Barker, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula 1976, Chemi- cal Engineering Education, Spring 1977. 6. Ekerdt, John, Chemical Engineering Faculties 1980- 81, Vol. 29, A publication of the Chemical Engineer- ing Education Projects Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. FALL 1982 TABLE 3 Distribution of Course Work; 1981 [class and home problems The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems sn Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re- quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub- mit them to Professor H. Scot Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. MINE-MOUTH GEYSER PROBLEM NOEL DE NEVER University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84102 PROBLEM On November 20, 1980, an oil well drilling rig, operating in the shallow waters of Lake Peigneur, Louisiana, accidentally drilled into an under- ground salt mine. The hole increased rapidly in size and drained the lake, flooding the mine. Miraculously, no fatalities or serious injuries oc- curred, although the property damage was very large. The incident is recounted by Michael Gold in, "Who Pulled the Plug on Lake Peigneur?", Science 81 2(9) (November 1981), 56-63. Figure 1 shows a sketch, roughly to scale, of the mine, lake, and drilling rig. From the text of the article, it is clear that there were two vertical shafts from the surface to horizontal galleries: a main shaft, and a smaller ventilation shaft. Which levels of the mine were open to each of the shafts is not clear in the article (or any other published description), so we should probably assume that each shaft was open on all levels. In addition to the two vertical shafts, one or more inclined roadways connected the various underground galleries with each other, but not with the surface. The mine itself did not consist of simple cylindrical tunnels, as the sketch might suggest, but of a series of rooms, up to 100 feet square, with roofs up to 80 feet high, connected by galleries large enough for several trucks to drive through side-by-side. In one part of the article, the flow out of the ventilation shaft is described as follows: For some time, a powerful jet of air had been coming from the mine's ventilation shaft, Forced out by the incoming floodwaters below, the blast had kept the emergency elevator dancing around the top of the shaft like a paper kite in a stiff wind. Suddenly the rushing air halted, and a thick stream of water rocketed out of the shaft. The geyser climbed 400 feet into the sky, surged for 10 minutes, coughed up mud, and died. (Reproduced by permission of Addison Wesley.) The fact that the water flowing from the lake into the mine would expel the air in the mine is perfectly obvious. But, as we all know, "water seeks its own level." This report indicates that water which flowed from the lake eventually came out of the top of the ventilation shaft (a few feet above lake level) and jetted 400 feet in the air. That means that it "sought a level" 400 feet above the level it started at. (The article does not mention any such water flow from the main shaft of the mine.) Can the description of a 400 foot geyser possibly be correct? Were the observers, dazed by the other wild event of the day, mistaken about that? If it is correct, it must be explainable by the laws of fluid mechanics. Present an explana- tion, in terms of those laws, with suitable diagrams and calculations. SCGopyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1982 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION FIGURE 1 Noel de Nevers earned his BSChE at Stanford and his PhD at the University of Michigan, with a year out in between to be a Fulbright exchange student at the Technical Institute in Karlsruhe, Germany. He spent five years with what is now Chevron Research and Chevron Oil- field Research, before joining the faculty of the University of Utah. He spent Academic 1971-72 on leave, working for the Office of Air Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency. He is the author of a textbook on Fluid Mechanics, and editor of a book of readings and discussion on Technology and Society. SOLUTION In principle, the overall flow in the system is like that in a U-tube manometer. Inserting liquid into one leg of the U expels the less-dense air in the other leg. If the system had been a simple U- tube, we would expect the air to be expelled and the flow to stop when the liquid levels in both legs of the tube were the same. One may easily demon- strate that in the laboratory. One may also show that an oscillation can be set up, with the levels in the two tubes moving up and down 180 degrees out of phase with one another. The behavior and mathematical analysis of such an oscillating mano- meter are identical with that of a pendulum; if there were zero friction, they would oscillate for- ever, just as a frictionless pendulum would oscil- late forever. Such an oscillation represents the exchange of potential and kinetic energies between parts of the system, as does a pendulum. But, just as a pendulum can never swing higher than its initial position, so also this type of manometerr oscilla- tion" can never take any of the fluid higher than the original position of the free surface of the fluid poured into the manometer. So, if only an orderly plugflow displacement of the air in the mine by the water from the lake had taken place, we could not have had such a fountain. However, if one of the legs of the U-tube is a mixture of air and water, then its average density is much less than that of the water in the other leg, and it will not come to simple gravitational equi- librium at the same level as the other leg. This is the basis on which coffee percolators and gas-lift pumps work. Fig. 2 is a copy of a problem from de Nevers, Fluid Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1970, which shows an analogous situation. One can easily set this up in the laboratory and show that, if one leg of the "equivalent manometer" is full of liquid while the other leg has a gas-liquid mixture, then the equilibrium level due to fluid statics alone will be higher on the gas-liquid side than the liquid side. This problem has be- devilled everyone who has ever tried to make ac- curate measurements with a small diameter mano- meter in which it is difficult to purge all the air bubbles. Returning to the mine geyser, it seems certain that the geyser must have been caused by some of the in-rushing liquid finding a flow path which led it to the ventilation shaft before all of the air was expelled from the mine. In that case, it would temporarily block that shaft, and the pressure of the trapped air in the mine would rise enough to FIGURE 2. Sketch of a fountain arrangement made of two glass jars with rubber stoppers, several lengths of glass tubing, a funnel, and a piece of rubber tubing. The level of the jet and the level of the water in the funnel are exactly the same. The space above the water in each bottle is full of air, as is the rubber tube connecting the two bottles. An inventor has come to us, telling us that with this arrangement the water will squirt high in the air, much higher than the water level in the funnel. Is he right? Explain your answer. FALL 1982 FIGURE 3 expel it with considerable force. A hypothetical series of events which could have produced the jet is sketched in Fig. 3 (with only one shaft). First Stage: The flow into the 1300-foot level reaches the shaft and begins to flow down it, trapping air in the lower, 1500-foot level. With the water flow down the shaft, the air is unable to escape. Water displaces air from the upper levels, causing air to flow out of the shaft. Second Stage: The continued flow of water down the shaft to the lower level compresses the "bubble" of air remaining trapped in the lower level. Meanwhile, the upper galleries continue to fill, venting air through the shaft. (Fig. 4) Third Stage: Eventually, the air bubble in the lowest level reaches the pressure at which it is at or near hydrostatic equilibrium with the inflow- ing water. Thus the water flow down the shaft slows and stops. This downflowing water was the seal which kept the bubble in place; now the bubble can begin to migrate up the shaft. As it does so, water flows in behind it. Once it begins to fill areas above the 1300 foot inflow level, it can again be driven up by the water. But now, the water above it in the system must be expelled to make room for it to escape. This causes that water to be expelled in the "mine-mouth geyser." (Fig. 5) This simplified picture, with only one shaft, cannot account for the description that the geyser "surged for ten minutes, coughed up mud, and died." If there were only one entrance, the geyser would have had to end with another air jet, as the bubble escaped. But with two shafts, one of which apparently did not show any liquid flow, the air bubble could have used one of the upper galleries to move from ventilation to main shaft, and escape through it, thus ending the geyser without a final air jet. If the actual underground space had been a series of horizontal and vertical cylinders, then the surging might be hard to explain. But the actual space (as reported in the article) was a room-and-pillar mine, consisting of many more-or- less cubical rooms connected by much narrower rectangular vertical, horizontal, and inclined shafts. Thus the surging was most likely to be the result of the irregular flow of the air bubble through these various rooms and passages. If, as reported, the jet exiting from the air shaft went 400 feet in the air, then it exited with a velocity of roughly V = V2gh = V(2) (32 ft/sec2) (400 ft) = 160 ft/sec (1) If, as shown above, the geyser flowed at 160 ft/sec, and the distance from the topmost gallery FIGURE 4 to the surface was 800 feet, then the geyser should only have lasted five seconds. However, because of the irregular rooms to be filled and emptied, the actual volume ejected is not implausible. If we assume that the ventilation shaft was ten feet in diameter, had a velocity of 160 feet a second, and flowed steadily for ten minutes, then the total volume of water ejected would have been 56 x 106 gallons of water. This is a high estimate, because it assumes a 400 foot high geyser for the full ten minutes; a much lower estimate is more plausible because of the reported surging, perhaps a fourth to a tenth of this number. The total flow of water from lake to mine (equal to the excavated volume of the mine) was 3.5 x 109 gallons. Thus this high estimate of the total liquid flow of the geyser is only 1.6% of the estimated total flow CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION of water from the lake to the mine. If a solid column of water had been flowing up such a ten foot diameter shaft at a velocity of 160 ft/sec, the pressure gradient due to friction above the hydrostatic gradient would have been AP 4f V2 P PD (2) Ax D 2 To determine the fraction factor, we must esti- mate the relative roughness of the ventilation shaft. Assuming that the individual surface roughnesses are one inch, we can estimate C 1 inch inch 0.0083 (3) D 120 inches and hence f = 0.009, AP Ax (bm (4) (0.009) (62.4 ft ) (160 ft/sec )2 n2 Ibm ft 144 ii (10 ft) (2) (32.2r-1 ) (--ft lbf -e C2 f2 = 0.62 psi/ft (4) This pressure gradient is 1.4 times that of a hydrostatic column of water; it is clear that a simple filling of the "U-tube" could never produce pressure gradients of this magnitude within the fluid. However, from the sketch in the problem (taken from the Science 81 article), it appears that the shallowest gallery of the mine was 800 feet below the surface, and the deepest was 1500 feet below the surface. Thus, if there were a column of air 700 feet high from this deepest gallery to the shallowest, and if the bottom were in hydro- static equilibrium with the lake while the top were facing an 800 foot long column of liquid open to the surface, a pressure gradient of ap- proximately 0.38 psi/ft (above the hydrostatic gradient) would have been exerted on the liquid in the ventilator shaft. Comparing that to the above estimate, I infer that either I have over- estimated the relative roughness of the ventilator shaft or that the observers overestimated the height to which the geyser went. This proposed solution is basically a hydro- static solution. Before accepting it, we should consider alternative dynamic solutions. There are well-known devices, called hydraulic rams, which allow a liquid falling from level one to level two to pump some liquid to a level higher than level one. An illustrated description is given on page 195 of Brown and Associates' Unit Operations, Wiley, NY, 1950. Their operation requires quick- acting valving, not likely to be approximated in the mine flooding. However, the idea on which it is based deserves examination. If a column of moving fluid is suddenly stopped, it can generate high pressures. This is the subject of water- hammer analysis. It shows, for example, that if a column of a slightly compressible fluid (e.g., water, but not air) is stopped by closing a valve very quickly, the maximum pressure which will be generated in the region of the valve will be P = u[Kp]0.5 (5) where P is the pressure, u is the original velocity before the fluid was stopped, K is the isothermal compressibility, and p is the density of the fluid. Inserting typical values for water, we find that, for an initial velocity of 10 ft/see, the calculated pressure is 650 psi. This is high enough to damage equipment and rupture pipes; large hydraulic structures (e.g., hydro power plants) are designed to avoid the creation of this kind of pressure or to withstand it where it is unavoidable. But this kind of pressure can only be exerted on an unyield- ing structure. It cannot propel a jet of fluid for any significant time or distance. If a mass of liquid is compressed to 650 psi and then allowed to do work by expanding (W = JF dx = JP dV) then the compressed liquid will return to its original volume and pressure if it expands 0.2%. Thus the amount of work of accelerating some of the fluid up the ventilator shaft could not easily have been obtained by allowing some other fastmoving body of liquid to be stopped suddenly and using the high pressure thus generated to drive a fountain. It certainly could not drive one for ten minutes. From the article in Science 81, it is clear that Continued on page 203. FALL 1982 FIGURE 5 i PseI stirred pots RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING JOHN B. FENN Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 What follows is an imaginary dialogue that embodies the elements of many real conversations I have had with students. The two participants are SI SORP (Student In Search Of a Research Project) and PI NORA (Professor In Need Of.a Research Assistant). SI: I hear you might have an opening in your group for a student ready to do thesis research in chemical engineering. PI: Right. Would you be interested? SI: It depends. I've heard that you work with molecular beams but I really don't know what they are or what they're good for. PI: Well, you might say that what we do is like playing billiards. We shoot individual molecules at surfaces or other molecules in a vacuum and see how they bounce. SI: I don't understand. It doesn't sound like chemical engineering to me. PI: Let me explain. Do you know anything about cyclotrons and other kinds of accelerators that physicists use, sometimes called atom smashers in the popular press? SI: I've heard about them and read some articles in magazines and newspapers. PI: Have you ever seen pictures of particle tracks in an emulsion, or a cloud chamber or a bubble chamber? SI: Yes, but I haven't thought that much about what they mean. PI: Look at it this way. Suppose you put a billiard ball on a table and hit it with the cue ball. What would happen? SI: The billiard ball would go in one direction and the cue ball in another. The particular di- rections and speeds would depend upon how hard and how head-on the collision was. PI: Right. Now suppose you replaced the billiard ball with an egg. John Fenn received his B.A. from Berea College (1937) and his Ph.D. from Yale (1940). After a number of years spent in private industry he went to Princeton in 1952 and remained there until joining the chemical engineering department at Yale in 1967. He has been visiting professor at the University of Trento, Italy, Uni- versity of Tokyo and Australian National University. He recently re- ceived a Senior Scientist Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in West Germany. He is the author of "Engines, Energy and Entropy: A Thermodynamics Primer." SI: Well, the same thing would happen, except that the egg's trajectory might be different because it isn't spherically symmetric like a billiard ball. If the cue ball were going fast enough the egg would break and splatter. Also, the cue ball wouldn't change direction quite as much. PI: Suppose the egg were hard boiled. SI: Then about the same thing would happen, except that the cue ball would have to be going faster to break the egg. And the result wouldn't be as messy. PI: In other words, you could tell the difference between a billiard ball, a fresh egg, and a hard boiled egg by observing the trajectories of the cue ball and its target before and after collision. In- deed, you could learn something about their structure and behavior. SI: I see what you mean. PI: Well, that's what so-called scattering or collision experiments are all about. The tracks in photographic emulsions and cloud or bubble chambers that you've seen pictures of are tra- jectory traces, usually of one of the collision partners and the fragments after collision. Es- CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION SCopyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982 sentially, all our knowledge of nuclear structure and reactions has come from the study of such particle tracks. SI: Very interesting but I don't want to be a nuclear physicist. PI: Wait a minute. Nobody said anything about your becoming a nuclear scientist or engineer. Using an egg as an example of a target didn't mean that I thought you might want to raise chickens or make omelets! I was just pointing out that what happens when objects collide can give information on their structure and properties. SI: OK, but I still don't see any connection with chemical engineering. PI: Let's look further. What are chemical engi- neers concerned with? SI: Let me see. Well you know, making plastics, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals, refining petroleum, processing foodstuffs things like that. PI: Quite a variety, right? Now what do most or all of these activities have in common? SI: I guess you could say they all involve some sort of chemical reaction. Then, too, there is usually heating and cooling and mixing and dis- tillation and ... fluid flow .. and ... PI: Good. You've just been reciting what chemi- cal engineers once considered the basic building blocks of their discipline, the so-called unit operations. Actually, that term usually referred to physical phenomena like vaporization, crystal- lization, fluid flow, heat transfer, adsorption and so forth. Chemical reactions were similarly classi- fied in such categories as oxidation, reduction, alkylation, polymerization, hydrolysis, and the like, that were known as unit processes. But we can pursue this reduction to fundamentals even further. If you stop to think, you will realize that all of these unit operations and processes are based on the transport of mass, momentum and energy and the transformation of composition by chemical reaction. SI: I see what you're driving at. The next thing you will tell me is that all of these transport and reaction processes depend upon what happens when molecules encounter each other. PI: Exactly. You can go to the head of the class. When we scatter a beam of molecules by another beam or a static cloud of molecules, and watch how they bounce, that is to say, what happens to their trajectories, we obtain information on their structure and the nature of the forces between them. The difference between what we do and what atom-smashing physicists do is largely a matter of energy. Physicists are concerned with forces that hold the nucleus together and that relate to energies of billions of electron volts. Chemists are concerned with extranuclear phe- nomena involving forces which bind electrons to the nucleus and hold molecules together. Chemical energies are always less than a few tens of electron volts. Incidentally, an electron volt per particle (atom or molecule) is equivalent to about 23 kcal/mol. Thus, we don't need and cannot use the billion volt beam energies that the nuclear physicists require and that make their accelerators so big and expensive. By the same token, we can- not see individual collision events as they can. A particle travelling with energies in the millions or billions of electron volts can go through a photo- graphic emulsion or a bubble chamber as if it weren't there. The energy required to make its track is a negligible fraction of the total. On the other hand, an atom or molecule with only a few electron volts of energy won't even make a dent in an emulsion, let alone a track through it. Conse- quently, molecular beam scattering experiments of the kind we do depend upon bringing about as many collisions as possible that are as nearly identical as possible. Each collision contributes a little bit to the observed signal, usually an electric current obtained by converting the beam molecules into ions. SI: All right. I can see how such experiments might tell us about the structure of atoms and molecules, but we already have that information about practically all species the chemical engineers are concerned with. PI: That's quite true, but there is another difference between atom smashing and molecular beam scattering experiments. Consider reactive scattering events that change the composition or structure of at least one collision partner and are the primary interest of nuclear physicists. The energy which seems to count in bringing about nuclear reactions is translational kinetic energy. At least that is the only kind of energy that physicists have a handle on. Chemists, on the other hand, have long recognized that molecules can have several kinds of energy: translational, vibrational, and rotational energy, as well as electronic excitation energy. Most classical gas phase reactions experiments measure composition change with time in a container of reactants at a uniform temperature that can be varied from ex- periment to experiment. Unfortunately, rotational, FALL 1982 vibrational, and translational energies all change with temperature. Consequently, it is generally impossible to isolate the effects of these different forms of energy on the rate or mechanism of the reaction. Indeed, a molecular beam experiment 20 years ago was one of the first bits of tangible evi- dence that translational energy was not a very im- portant component of activation energy in some reactions. Since then, of course, hindsight and laser experiments have everybody convinced that vibrational energy is much more important in many, if not most, reactions involving reactants with more than one atom. SI: Are you saying that excited state inter- mediates are not important in nuclear reactions? PI: I guess that's what I am implying, but I should retreat a bit because I am not expert in nuclear affairs. It does seem that physicists can't control internal (nuclear) energy states of collid- ing partners as readily as chemists can control vibrational and electronic excitation. Conse- quently, the role of excited internal states in nuclear reactions is not as clear as it is becoming in chemical reactions. But there is still another difference in kind between atom smashing and molecular beam scattering experiments. SI: What is that? PI: We have been talking so far about reactive scattering. There are two other kinds of collisions that are more important to chemists and chemical engineers than to nuclear physicists. Elastic collisions are those in which both momentum and translational kinetic energy are conserved but there is no change in the structure or internal energy state of either collision partner. Then there are inelastic collisions in which there is no change in structure but there is a change in the vibrational, rotational or electronic energy of one or both partners. The trajectories of the partici- pants in these kinds of collisions generally re- spond less to intra- than to inter-molecular forces that are generally repulsive when molecules are close together, attractive when they are further apart. It is convenient to characterize these forces in terms of the work required to pull the molecules apart to an infinite separation, i.e., where the forces are zero. A plot of this work as a function of intermolecular separation is called an inter- molecular potential because the work required for separation is equivalent to a potential energy. SI: Oh, I'm beginning to remember. Didn't we discuss something in our transport course called a Lennard-Jones potential which governs the interaction between two molecules? PI: That's right. The Lennard-Jones or 12-6 po- tential model assumes the actual potential is a simple sum of repulsive and attractive potential energies that are inversely proportional respec- tively to the 12th and 6th powers of the distance between the molecules. The difference between these two powers leads to net repulsion when the molecules are close together and net attraction when they are far apart. Real potentials are more complicated and cannot be accurately described in terms of only two parameters. For many engi- neering approximations, a Lennard-Jones model is sufficiently accurate to be useful. Which leads me to a question. Why did the subject of potentials come up in your transport class? SI: We were learning about the dependence of viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusion in gases upon the forces between molecules! In fact, don't I remember that it is possible to determine the parameters of a potential from measured values of the transport properties and the equation of state? PI: Correct. But there is a problem. These macroscopic properties represent the integrated or average result of collisions taking place over a wide range of energies, orientations and impact parameters (a measure of the head-on-ness of a collision). For any particular property and set of conditions, there are many combinations of po- tential parameters that will match a computation with a given experiment. Consequently, it is hard to choose the best one. Moreover, one cannot be sure that a particular potential which matches computation and experiment over a particular range of conditions will give reliable results out- side of that range. In addition, it frequently turns out that a potential that works for one transport property, e.g., thermal conductivity, gives unreal results when used to calculate another transport property, e.g., diffusion coefficients. SI: So what's different about potentials obtained from scattering experiments? PI: Such experiments probe the intermolecular potential much more directly and with greater sensitivity than macroscopic property measure- ments. The net result is that potentials based on scattering experiments are more accurate, par- ticularly at separation distances where attractive forces are important. Note that if one does the arithmetic correctly a calculation based on a par- ticular potential can lead to only one possible value of a transport property for a particular CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION temperature and pressure. The converse is not true. There are many possible potential parameter combinations which can lead to a given value of transport property. SI: I'll take your word for that but it sounds more like science than engineering. Why should engineers do molecular beam scattering experi- ments ? PI: To answer that question I guess I need to know what you think engineers should do. SI: I believe engineers should be concerned with practical problems. At least they should try to solve problems in a practical and efficient way. More than that, I guess I believe that they should work on problems that have some commercial im- pact or significance. If an engineer needs to know the viscosity and thermal conductivity of a gas to design a heat exchanger he can look them up in a handbook or measure them directly. All this business about molecular beams, scattering ex- periments and intermolecular potentials sounds like pretty esoteric science to me. Maybe it's all right for chemists, but chemical engineers? .... I dunno. PI: I understand your reaction. You say engi- neers should be practical and efficient. If you need the value for a property like viscosity, "you could look it up" as Casey Stengel used to say. If a value isn't available then you could measure just what you need, but you wouldn't bother measur- ing what you don't see an immediate need for. SI: Right on. PI: Let's look at the heat exchanger problem a little further. Suppose an engineer is trying to design one as a preheater for a cracker but that the client isn't exactly sure what feedstock he will be using. Depending on the time of year and the market it may vary from a mixture of ethane and propane to a melange of several alkanes. In fact, suppose the client's specification calls for a design which can accommodate any arbitrary mixture of 30 hydrocarbons from C1 to Cs. To simplify the problem for our purpose let's suppose that the mixtures would be binary. There are 450 possible combinations if we include like pairs, i.e., the case of a single species feedstock. Now let's assume that temperatures range from 300 K to 700 K and that the concentration of one component in the other can be anywhere from 0 to 100 per cent. If we further assume that it would take measure- ments at 10 concentrations to cover any unlike pair and at 10 temperatures to cover the range we're talking about, something like 42,000 data points would be needed to map the entire tempera- ture composition surface for any one property. If it took an average of only one hour for each point, two solid years would be required for the measurements. Of course, by judicious choices and by taking advantage of behavior similarities one could cut down substantially on the actual number of measurements required, but to obtain enough data would still be a formidable undertaking. SI: I agree, but how would scattering measure- ments be any better? PI: As you might guess my choice of problem here was not entirely whimsical. A few years ago a student in my lab determined total cross-sections for the scattering of an argon beam by those 30 hydrocarbons. From these cross-sections she was able to obtain the so-called C6 values, the co- efficients of the r-6 attractive term in the Lennard- Jones potential. She found that the coefficient of the r-12 repulsive term could be estimated from condensed phase densities, values for which are available. Then she made enough scattering cross- section measurements of one hydrocarbon on an- other to satisfy herself (and me) that the so- called geometric mean mixing rule was effective enough to give reliable Ca values for any hydro- carbon pair from the argon-hydrocarbon result. We haven't checked it out yet but we are reason- ably confident that similar estimates can be made for the C12 coefficients of the r-12 term. In sum, from 30 measurements which took about two weeks after the machine was set up, we were able to get 450 C, values. Let's allow another six weeks to get estimates for C1, and to do a little cross- checking. We would then have a Lennard-Jones potential for all possible hydrocarbon pairs. A computer could be programmed to handle this in- formation and presto!-we can in principle get a printout of all transport properties at any temperature for any binary or multicomponent mixture of these hydrocarbons. I submit that this "esoteric science" is engineering at its best- practical and efficient! SI: I'm impressed! But still, somehow that kind of research seems more like science than engi- neering. I'm not quite comfortable with the prospect of a thesis on molecular beams. PI: OK. We'll come back to that problem in a minute. But first let me make another point about molecular beam research. Did you know that there are a number of articles and processes of com- merce based on molecular beam technology? SI: Is that a fact? Tell me more. FALL 1982 PI: To begin with there is the atomic clock. Until 1967 the standard unit of time, the second, was defined as (31,556,925.9747)-1 of the tropical year 1900! Since then it has been officially defined as the "duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of the atom of cesium 133." The device that provides a signal of the corresponding frequency to an accuracy of one part in 1011 or 1012 is a molecular beam apparatus that one can buy off the shelf. Thus any laboratory can have a primary time standard for not a whole lot more than a very fine Swiss watch! Much less than an astronomical telescope and computer. Then there are lasers, the direct descendants of the maser that was first em- bodied in a molecular beam experiment. You may remember reading in the papers a few years ago about the uranium enrichment plant which West Germany had agreed to build for Brazil. Political pressure from the U. S. delayed the project but I understand it is now moving again. That plant was based on the so-called "trennduse" or separat- ing nozzle process that stemmed directly from university research in Germany on the same kinds of molecular beam systems we use in our labora- tory. One of the hottest high technologies in thin film-solid state electronics is called "molecular beam epitaxy" which permits the growth of single- crystal-like films of very precisely controlled semi- conductor compositions on appropriate substrates. The method allows in situ synthesis of complex compounds in layers whose thickness is measured in Angstroms. At last count there were fifty or more companies and institutional laboratories de- veloping this art and five companies engaged in manufacturing the equipment for it. SI: Golly! Molecular beams are getting to be big business, aren't they? PI: Yes, but that is neither the only nor the best reason for chemical engineering students to engage in molecular beam research. Let's go back to what you said a few minutes ago, that molecular beam research was more like science than engineering. You've mentioned some of the things engineers do. Let me hear how you define "engineering." What do you think are its es- sential features? SI: I guess I would say that engineering is the design, construction and operation of structures, plants and processes that produce useful goods or perform useful services. PI: Not bad. But what do you mean by "useful?" SI: Hmm. I guess to be considered useful in the sense I am thinking about something would have to have commercial or market value. Of course, an activity can be useful because it is in- formative or constitutes an exercise for some- body's talents, but I think it would have to result in actual or foreseeable market value to qualify as engineering. If the result were only interesting but non-marketable then I guess I would call the activity science. PI: Well, that is a conventional point of view, and very thoughtfully put, by the way, but it troubles me. Suppose somebody designed and built a microwave antenna dish as part of a relay station in a long distance communication network. That would qualify as engineering by your definition, wouldn't it? SI: Of course. PI: Now suppose that same person designed and built a similar antenna for use in radio astronomy simply to listen in on the stars. Would he be an engineer? Not according to your definition, I think. You would say he was a scientist. SI: That's a tough call. PI: Let me try you again. A former classmate of mine designed and built a reactor which comprises a 100,000 gallon tank. The reaction medium is perchlorethylene, dry cleaning fluid. The product is volatile and at very low concentra- tion in the medium. To recover it, a recycling stream of inert gas is bubbled through the tank and passed through an adsorbent that captures the product selectively. Would the design, con- struction, and operation of this system qualify as chemical engineering? SI: I would certainly say so. PI: OK. Now let me tell you that the product is a radioactive isotope of argon which is formed in extremely low yield when a neutrino flux passes through chlorine-containing material. The rate of formation in the tank is of the order of 5 to 10 atoms of argon per day! The whole purpose of the enterprise is to measure the neutrino flux from the sun. Is it still chemical engineering by your definition? SI: I think I've painted myself into a corner. My instinct tells me that in view of its objective that project should be called science. Logically, I must admit that it sure looks like engineering. PI: Why can't it be both? SI: What do you mean? PI: I think that a lot of semantic confusion arises when we try to classify activities in terms CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION of why people do things rather than in terms of what they do. To me, engineering is the art of applying quantitative knowledge to the solution of various kinds of problems. It is really ir- relevant whether the objective is to make a salable product or to obtain a publishable bit of informa- tion. SI: You mean it's what a person does rather than why he does it that counts? PI: Exactly. Especially from the standpoint of what kind of education and training he gets. Take farming for example. A poor man farms for money. He tries to make a living. A rich man often farms with money. He wants to lose money. That is, at least on paper so that he can claim a tax deduction. They both practice agriculture. My wife loves flower gardening and does it for purely aesthetic and recreational returns. She also is practicing agriculture. Three people with entirely different motivations all practicing the same kind of art. SI: You mean that there is no difference between science and engineering ? PI: What I mean is that they are not mutually exclusive categories. An activity should not be considered as either science or engineering. In fact, engineering is an art that scientists practice. It is an art that people other than scientists also practice. In other words, all scientists are engi- neers but not all engineers are scientists. Such an assertion would offend many scientists and more engineers but I think it is true. SI: I'll have to think about that one. PI: The important point is that engineering is an art; "the systematic application of knowledge and skill to achieve a desired result." In addition, an engineer must make educated guesses or hypotheses about what he doesn't know and put everything together in the design of a gadget, an experiment or a computer program aimed at achieving his objective. He then makes tests, modifies his design in light of test results, makes further tests and continues this iteration until his objective is realized within his limits of tolerance. SI: That sounds reasonable. PI: There's another point to be made. As in the case of any other art, engineering must be learned by practice. Like playing tennis, composing music, or painting pictures, it can't be taught in the class- room or learned from a book. The needed knowledge and the rules can be learned from books or in classrooms, but not the art of using them. That must be practiced, preferably under the guidance and supervision of a master practi- tioner. Medical schools are well aware of this truth and acquaint their students with the "factory", i.e., the hospital and clinic, early in their professional education experience. Later they serve an apprenticeship as interns and resi- dents during which they practice the art of apply- ing what they have learned, in association with and under the guidance of accomplished experts. SI: I'd never thought of physicians and surgeons as engineers, but I see your analogy. PI: In a sense medical schools do a better job of engineering education than most engineering schools. Unfortunately, to provide the same kind of practical experience for its professional students a chemical engineering department would have to operate, or participate in the opera- tion of, a chemical plant or an oil refinery. That just isn't feasible in a university. What a uni- versity can do, is expected to do and be in the forefront of, is research. Research consists in learning all that is already known about some aspect of a subject, making guesses about what isn't known, designing an experiment or program based on this knowledge and the guesses, perform- ing the experiment and then evaluating the result from the perspective of previous knowledge and the judgment of peers and experts. In my view that process of scientific research embodies the very essence of engineering and is the most valu- able part of an engineering graduate educational experience. It doesn't really make much difference what is chosen as the particular topic or objective. The important point is that the student, on his own but with expert guidance, undertakes and completes a project which involves these im- portant components: 1) learning what is already known; 2) making guesses or approximations about what isn't known but is necessary for: 3) the design of an approach or program or experi- ment; 4) execution of the program or experi- ment; 5) exercise of judgment in the evaluation of the result. In sum: Research is Engineering. SI: That's a provocative statement! PI: Yes, I guess it is and I know there are a lot of my industrial brothers who would take issue with it. They say that universities are ivory towers where researchers are out of touch with reality, that they don't have to face up to real world constraints like budgets, materials limita- tions, personnel problems, and competition. I have Continued on page 199. FALL 1982 1M international GRADUATE EDUCATION IN MEXICO ENRICO N. MARTINEZ AND ROMAN GOMEZ Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa Mexico 13 D.F., Mexico EDITOR'S NOTE: A historical view of chemical engineering education in Mexico appeared in the Summer 1982 issue of CEE (Vol. XVI, No. 3). In that paper the authors described the needs, de- ficiencies, and possible solutions for the education of chemical engineers in the undergraduate pro- grams of that country. In this paper the authors extend their comments to the status of graduate education in Mexico. T HE MASTER OF SCIENCE program in chemical engineering was introduced about ten years ago, both at the National University (UNAM) and the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), in an effort to improve the basic education of engi- neers who were not being fully trained in the undergraduate programs. It was also an initial attempt to prepare teachers with a high academic standard to staff Mexican universities. It should be mentioned that this initiative was not casual. We will examine how the proper conditions came about as a natural development of the growth of Mexican universities and techno- logical institutes, and as a result of the need for highly qualified engineers in industry. It was in the late sixties when the first foreign- educated postgraduates joined both UNAM and IPN. It was during that same period of time that industry also realized that the quality of the engi- neers they were recruiting did not meet their re- quirements. Thus, both professors and engineers from industry (who also staffed the chemical engi- neering schools) pressed enthusiastically for the creation of graduate programs. As a result, UNAM introduced its Master in Science program in 1967, and IPN followed suit to establish its own program in 1968. It cannot be overemphasized that the main ob- jective of these early programs was to alleviate the deficiencies of the undergraduate studies. This Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982 can be seen from noting the contents of those early programs. Most of the courses were, to a great extent, a review of undergraduate topics. Funda- mental material such as transport phenomena, numerical methods, etc., which is undergraduate material elsewhere, was introduced in the gradu- ate program. This left no time for an in-depth treatment due to time restrictions. Research ac- tivities were very limited, both in quality and quantity, since there was neither equipment nor enough qualified personnel for instruction. The graduate programs at the mentioned institutions have slowly evolved towards programs where research has become an ever-important ac- tivity. This was a result of hiring a significant number of teachers with higher degrees (mostly obtained abroad) and of the improvement of conditions within the universities themselves. In order to fully understand this development -I 17' Enrico N. Martinez, chemical engineer from Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), received his M.S. and Ph.D. (1972) in Chemical Engineering from University of Notre Dame. He was an Assistant Professor at UNAM, and is currently Associate Professor at Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalpa (UAM-1), where he has just been appointed Head of Engineering. He consults in Process Re- search and Development and his research interests are in Chemical Reaction Engineering, Catalysis and Education. (L) Roman Gomez-Vaillard received his B.Sc. degree in Chemical Engi- neering at UNAM and his Ph.D. at Imperial College, London. He joined UAM-I in 1976. He has recently become the Chairman of the Chemical Engineering Group there. His research interests are Process Design and Development and Computer Applications in Chemical Engineering. (R) CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION it is interesting at this point to briefly examine, in general, the role of research in recent history. Research in Mexican universities and tech- nology institutes had very limited importance until, say, 25 years ago. Prior to that, research as we understand it today was almost nonexistent. Both universities and industry suffered from the lack of this activity and it left the country without any real possibility of participating in the genera- tion of scientific knowledge or technology. To mention only one case, a famous Mexican physicist, Sandoval Vallarta, worked at MIT for over 20 years, only returning to Mexico in the early fifties when conditions seemed adequate. It was, in fact, in that decade that research be- came a desirable activity and the National Uni- versity moved towards institutionalizing it by creating a number of research centers, called "Institutes" (mainly in scientific and social disciplines), devoted to research. Unfortunately, these were separated from the teaching activities which belonged to the "Schools." In the early sixties, research in engineering fields began with the establishment of the Instituto de Ingenieria which initiated studies in soil mechanics. This was important due to the soil characteristics of the capital city which is situated in a highly seismic- prone zone. In the early sixties, the Polytechnic Institute founded its Center for Research and Advanced Studies, which again was totally devoted to re- search activities (although it also offered some graduate programs in pure science and later in engineering). But again, it separated research activities from teaching at the undergraduate level. However, both institutions left out chemical engineering, which was traditionally more related to the chemistry schools than to the engineering ones. Thus, research in chemical engineering did not materialize until the graduate programs matured in the pioneer institutions (UNAM and IPN). The economic reality of the country, and there- fore that of its educational system, should not be forgotten. It was very difficult to divert large amounts of funds to universities for research when other social programs, such as elementary schooling, communications and health centers, were more pressing. It is only fair to mention that, because of the limited resources, research at the universities was not feasible until the country was able to afford it. We have heretofore examined how the proper The masters program should also be a step towards establishing a doctorate program, which is now nonexistent. Hence it should prove itself capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its scope, the requirements of both industry and the educational system. conditions for doing research came about within the university realm. We will now discuss the industrial aspect and its influence and contribu- tions, if any, in this direction. Industry developed in an isolated and protected medium where most of the required technology was acquired abroad and where there was little incentive, economic or political, for innovation or development of local technology. Due credit must be given to the engineers who in the span of a few years developed a well organized, profitable and expanding industry; in particular the petroleum industry, which has reached a prominent position worldwide. It was as a direct result of this expansion, which has recently outgrown the national frontiers, that Mexican industry realized that in order to keep its level of competence both in the local and international markets, it would have to modernize and optimize its resources both eco- nomically and technically. Thus, the necessary gradient towards innova- tion, adaptation and development of technology was established and the need for highly qualified engineers became apparent. The recent practices of hiring specialists who work at universities as consultants and sponsoring research projects carried out at the universities, are indicative of this mood. This analysis serves several purposes: first, it shows that research (or the lack of it) in chemical engineering has been intimately related to the de- velopment of the Mexican chemical industry on one hand, and to the development of the higher education system on the other. Secondly, it pro- vides some guidelines for designing a graduate program which can contribute to alleviate the difficulties previously mentioned, as well as to re- spond actively to the challenges that the country as a whole, and chemical engineering in particular, face. GRADUATE PROGRAM DESIGN It has been established that in order to meet the demand for highly qualified engineers, both FALL 1982 the undergraduate and the graduate programs in Mexico have to be strengthened. It is clear that the strengthening of the undergraduate program depends to a great extent on the availability of qualified personnel to staff the educational institu- tions; also, industry is demanding more engineers with higher degrees. Graduate programs must meet this dual purpose and be designed ac- cordingly It is therefore not fortuitous that the basic philosophy which molded the undergraduate pro- gram at UAM-I (as described in our previous paper) should again be applied to the design of the masters program. A solid formation at the graduate level, in the fundamentals of chemical engineering disciplines, is sought. This would allow the students to perform equally well either in industry or in research and teaching activities. The masters program should also be a step towards establishing a doctorate program, which is now nonexistent. Hence, it should prove itself capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its scope, the requirements of both industry and the educational system. The benefits that the country as a whole should expect from such a program are Formation of human resources with high academic standards to staff the educational system. Development of technology at an intermediate level of sophistication. Improvement of plant operation and productivity. Generation of applied scientific and technical knowledge. Generation of research programs, both in industry and in research institutes, in applied chemical engi- neering science. THE MASTERS PROGRAM AT UAM-I The masters program at UAM-I, took advant- age of the experience gained at UNAM and of the new attitudes with regard to graduate studies. It is therefore not a program intended to alleviate former deficiencies in the education of the engi- neer, but is rather directed toward strengthening the knowledge of the chemical engineering funda- mentals and introducing the student to the re- search field. The objectives of the program are A sound formation in the chemical engineering fundamentals, i.e. applied mathematics, thermo- dynamics, transport phenomena and reactor engi- neering. An adequate capacity and ability to perform research through a basic understanding of the relationship between theory and practice. The skill to exercise creativity in order to implement new technologies and to adapt or optimize the existent ones through the application of the funda- mental knowledge acquired. A working comprehension of the Mexican chemical industry and/or the education system and its re- quirements, in order to fulfill their needs. In order to achieve these objectives, the pro- gram (which is four quarters long) is divided into three levels. The first level corresponds to the five basic courses: Applied mathematics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mass and heat transfer, and re- actor engineering. These courses are given at typical American graduate schools and are intended to provide the student with a solid foundation in engineering. The second level (which is called the specializa- tion area) is devoted to provide the necessary tools for a research program (M.S. thesis). It consists of two 12 credit courses, which could be in the form of a typical course or a "tutorial," where the student follows a program set by the instructor and under his supervision, but without formal lecturing. The third level consists of research work which should culminate in a thesis. The objective here is to work in a project relevant to industry, or to contribute to the generation of applied or funda- mental scientific knowledge. It is important to note that the student is en- couraged to begin his research in the first quarter and to join a research seminar in all quarters. At least twice during the term he is expected to present the state of development of his research work to other students and to the full staff, thus permitting evaluation of the work performed. This also brings about the opportunity for discussions from which new ideas can be generated. Thus it can be seen that this program includes research as a basic component of the Master in Science program-as opposed to other programs currently being offered in Mexico which require the taking of many dissimilar courses. CONCLUSIONS The development of the chemical industry and of the chemical engineering profession in Mexico has been in phase in terms of supplying the quantity of engineers required by industry. How- ever, quality has been a problem (particularly in the last five years because both the number of schools offering the program and the number of students registering for it has exploded tre- mendously. Mexican industry now requires a different CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION type of chemical engineer; one capable of as- similating the imported technologies and of de- veloping new processes more suitable to the efficient utilization of our resources. This require- ment provides one of the fundamentals for cur- riculum development; the other is a sound knowledge of what chemical engineering is. With these two points in mind, we propose the formation of an "Academic Commission" on a national level, composed of highly qualified pro- fessors from all parts of the country who would coordinate the design of a curriculum which could then be implemented at all government sponsored schools. This curriculum should contain a funda- mental core of basic science (chemistry, physics and mathematics), with strong interaction through practice in lab sessions. The second stage of the curriculum should emphasize the funda- mentals of chemical engineering (thermody- namics, transport phenomena and reaction engi- neering). Finally, the third stage should be flexible and concentrate on several aspects, depending on the region of the country or the strength of the faculty at hand. As examples, important areas to cover are process design and development, project engineering, energy resources, and equipment design. It is obvious that the implementation of the proposed curriculum requires highly trained teachers and researchers. These people should be educated through the graduate programs now existing in Mexico; therefore, those programs should be strengthened and strongly supported at the main government sponsored institutions. Furthermore, since all these programs offer only a M.S. degree thus far, emphasis should be placed on the development of one or two doctorate pro- grams at the schools with the capabilities to imple- ment them. Clearly, UNAM is one of them. Strengthening the graduate programs should also develop research in chemical engineering, which so far has been meager and is greatly needed for the development of our industry. The few people that are presently capable of doing this have been schooled abroad. We feel that we have reached the stage where it is possible, and in fact imperative, to do it in Mexico. O BOOK REVIEW: Optimization Continued from page 167. ance, just the how for a few cases. The why is needed so the student can develop, understand and use other designs. It is surprising that the Newton-Bairstow method for curve fitting is not given. Chapter 3. This chapter, though well-written, desperately needs more worked examples. On p. 102, the concepts of consistency and efficiency should be included with unbiasedness as properties of an estimator. Chapter 4. This chapter appears to be a literature search from a thesis. The notation will be con- fusing to older readers whose formal mathemati- cal background predate 1955 but who apply mathematics daily. A glossary of symbols would help. The coverage is excellent in scope. The section on interval reduction is very good. It is unfortunate that the Kuhn-Tucker conditions for constrained optimization are not mentioned. The basis for several algorithms are described but no executable algorithm is actually given. Completed examples are rare; no student exercises are pro- vided. There is no warning against sectioning. Chapter 5. This is an improvement over Chapter 4 in that stepwise algorithms are given but not worked. Chapter 6 contains only four complete examples to illustrate applications to physical processes. Chapter 7 is descriptive in nature. For the two "examples" of simulation models, only the results were given. O RESEARCH IS ENGINEERING Continued from page 195. spent about half as much time in industry as in academic institutions and I can tell you that the neurial, competitive and cost conscious as any- thing in the "real" world. Our budgets are even more inflexible than those of our industrial brothers. We can't pass cost overruns on to our clients, customers, or stockholders, for example. I suggest that when you hear someone say that research in academe is not the real world, you are listening to a person who doesn't know what he's talking about, who is so unaware of the actualities of university research that his own perspective is unreal. SI: Well, you have certainly given me some food for thought. Let me digest it for awhile and come back to see you again. PI: Fine. When you come I'll take you through the lab. It may make you feel better. It has 500- gallon tanks, 32-inch vacuum pumps, 6-inch valves and piping, and 10-horsepower motors. You'll think you're in a factory! O FALL 1982 MASS TRANSFER Continued from page 162. examining chemically reactive mass transfer in trayed equipment. Measurements of film co- efficients and active interfacial areas are being made in the three-tray column shown in Figure 2. Glitsch valve trays with four square feet of active area are being used; the center tray has adjust- able downcomer and weir heights and is the test tray. The column will be used eventually to pro- vide tests of models based on treating the separa- tion as a rate process. Real industrial solvent solutions will be used in an evaluation of the effect of corrosion inhibitors and antifoam agents on mass transfer performance. Again, as for multicomponent mass transfer, these models are necessarily computer based and treat the process on a mechanistic level. Once more the final aim is to develop reliable methods for the design and analysis of industrial equip- ment, an objective that pervades all of our work. FIGURE 2. Three-valve-tray column for mass transfer rate measurements in gas absorption. MULTICOMPONENT SEPARATIONS WITH CHEMICAL REACTION AND OVERALL PHASE CHANGE Condensation is another operation of such broad importance that a wealth of books and papers have been devoted to its analysis. The com- plexity of condensation processes varies from simple systems of pure vapors with no mass transfer resistances to systems involving non- condensibles in the vapor phase and those which condense in the form of two immiscible fluids. The condensation of multicomponent mixtures is diffi- cult to analyze because of diffusional interaction effects, particularly in the vapor phase. Design methods depend on filmwise condensation with either a completely unmixed or completely mixed liquid phase [39]. Vapor condensation to im- miscible liquid mixtures does not fall even between the limits of a mixed or unmixed liquid film, but progress has been made in developing design methods. Another example of condensation that can- not be described by known methods is that of a multicomponent vapor in which two or more species undergo chemical reaction in the liquid phase. This part of our research addresses these types of processes by bringing together work from the areas of condensation and chemically re- active mass transfer. Until now, these have always been considered as quite separate, yet they are intimately linked in a number of systems of com- mercial significance. Design methods are totally lacking for such systems and this forms one of the objectives of the present work. In order to simplify the rate calculations, the mass transfer resistance offered by the liquid phase is traditionally ignored. One of two types of approximation is commonly made: (i) the liquid phase is always in the totally unmixed state (zero liquid-side mass transfer coefficients) and the surface composition of the liquid is decided by the relative rates of condensation, or (ii) the liquid phase is completely mixed as far as compositions are concerned (but normal temperature gradients still operate) and the liquid composition is calcu- lated from a material balance along the flow path. It is clear that the truth lies between these ex- tremes, at least for miscible systems. There is also some evidence that the final results are in- sensitive to whichever extreme is taken [44]. The mixture to be condensed is usually multi- component and the last decade has seen increased interest in the development of advanced models CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION for such systems, along with the necessary experi- mental verification. For example, the classical Ackermann-Colburn-Drew [40, 41] analyses have been extended by Schrodt [42] to multicomponent mixtures; however, his approach is somewhat naive because it neglects the effects of diffusional interaction in the vapor. Recently Webb et al. [43] have examined the significance of coupling effects in ternary condensation and concluded that an effective diffusivity type of model (as used by Schrodt [42]) may safely be employed provided the condensing species are not too dissimilar and condensation rates are modest. The safe use of an effective diffusivity type of model for this process is partly a result of the unidirectional nature of the transfer process. The method of Schrodt [42] and the modifica- tion by Webb et al. [43] are based on a film model of the transport process. More exact multicom- ponent generalizations of the Ackermann-Colburn- Drew analyses have also been developed [44, 45]. There are a number of other methods available; some have been supported experimentally and some have not. The important point in the present context, however, is that all of these methods are strictly limited to vapors that condense filmwise and form a condensate characterizable as being either perfectly mixed or entirely unmixed. There are a number of situations that do not fall into these categories, and one that we are studying is the condensation of a multicomponent vapor in which two or more of the species undergo chemical reaction in the liquid phase. A striking example of such a system is the ternary mixture carbon dioxide-ammonia-water vapor which must be condensed in a number of commercial processes for the manufacture of the fertilizer and monomer, urea. It is well known that CO2 and NH, react in aqueous solution to form ammonium carbamate and it must be expected that this will have a pro- found effect not only on condensation rates, but also on the compositions of both the condensate and the gas mixture being vented from the con- denser. Since the reaction product, ammonium carba- mate, is nonvolatile, a first impression might be that reaction would lower the concentrations of both CO2 and NH, in the liquid film, thereby lower- ing the corresponding concentrations in the gas phase at the interface. Thus, an increase in the driving forces in the vapor phase would favor heat and mass transfer and lead to a condenser of lower area. However, such an argument would be quite specious. It is crucial to recognize that although ammonia is highly soluble in water, carbon dioxide is sparingly soluble and that its physical solubility is of paramount importance in deciding its transfer rate even in the presence of a rapid chemical reaction. Chemical equilibrium, of course, is tied to the reactions involved, where- as, the physical process of dissolving (which must proceed reaction) is relatively unaffected by re- action, except insofar as the concentration of dis- solved gas is kept low and the liquid film thickness is reduced. Our intuitive arguments are of little consequence and it is clear that such systems do not fall between the two extremes regarding condensate mixing described above. Indeed, it must be said that the hydrodynamics of the liquid film are decisive in determining rates of mass transfer, including condensation, because the re- sistance offered by the liquid film is dominant for the transfer of CO2 even though the vapor phase resistance is probably more important for the transfer of ammonia. Thus, arguments about whether the liquid phase is well mixed or not beg the issue and will undoubtedly lead to calculations totally in error. Gas absorption has been the main focus of most previous studies of chemically-reactive mass transfer. However, it is important to recognize a number of essential differences between absorp- tion and condensation. In the former, the absorb- ing medium (water) does not undergo a signifi- cant degree of phase change; whereas, in the CO2 NH, H20 system for example, con- densation results in an extremely large flux of water vapor that exerts a dominant influence on the total transfer rate of all the species. The larger part of the condensate would be expected to be water which could absorb a considerable amount of ammonia, since this gas is highly soluble. Although CO is a very sparingly soluble gas, the presence of dissolved ammonia greatly in- creases the total capacity of the liquid for CO, be- cause it essentially removes it in the form of am- monium carbamate which is nonvolatile. In the present context, CO, does not act as an inert gas since it can be dissolved in large amounts ERRATA The Summer 1982 issue of CEE contained an article written by Leise, Jenkins, and Tarbel, entitled "The Oscillating Sink." The diagrams in Figs. 3 and 6 (pgs. 112, 113) in that article should be interchanged. FALL 1982 governed by the chemical reaction equilibrium and the composition of the condensate. The latter is of course determined by transfer rates of water vapor and ammonia which are themselves in- fluenced by the transport of carbon dioxide, so we have here a process very much complicated by the chemical reaction. In summary, the process being examined here involves a very large flux of water from the vapor towards the condensate film which simultaneously drives the other two species toward the film, greatly increasing their vapor-phase concentra- tions at the interface. Ammonia transfer, being largely gas-phase controlled, will be much affected by the presence of CO,; whereas, CO2 transfer is liquid-phase controlled and will be influenced by dissolved ammonia. In addition, because the diffusion film in the liquid at the interface will be at a relatively high temperature, the reactions will likely have to be considered reversible; how- ever, temperatures may not be so high that a chemical reaction equilibrium assumption will apply. Conditions in the condensate film, par- ticularly near the vapor boundary are crucial to the transport rates so that assumptions about complete mixing or nonmixing would be meaning- less. The work being done here will provide a rather severe test of not only condensation theory but also of absorption with reversible reaction and the ability of the present state-of-the-art to combine these theories in an effective way for such novel but important situations. O ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Some of the studies reported here have been supported in the past by the Research Grants Committee (Australia) and the Science Research Council (United Kingdom) for which the authors are grateful. Present studies are being supported by individual grants to the authors by the National Science Foundation and by substantial funding from Dow Chemical U.S.A. Donations of equip- ment by Goulds Pumps, Inc. and Glitsch, Inc. are gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Henley, E. J. and J. D. Seader, 'Equilibrium-Stage Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering," Wiley, New York, 1981. 2. King, C. J., "Separation Processes," 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980. 3. Astarita, G., "Mass Transfer with Chemical Re- action," Elsevier, Amsterdam (1967). 4. Danckwerts, P. V., "Gas-Liquid Reactions," McGraw- Hill New York (1970). 5. Toor, H. L., "Diffusion in Three Component Gas Mixtures," AIChEJ, 3, 197, 1957. 6. Krishna, R. and G. L. Standart, "Mass and Energy Transfer in Multicomponent Systems," Chem. Eng. Commun., 3, 201, 1979. 7. Reinhardt, D. and K. Dialer, "Geometrical Relation- ships for Ternary Gas Diffusion Balances and Criteria for Multicomponent Phenomena," Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 1557, 1981. 8. Krishna, R., H. F. Martinez, R. Sreedhar and G. L. Standart, "Murphree Point Efficiencies in Multi- component Systems," Trans. I. Chem. E., 55 178, 1977. 9. Maxwell, J. C., "Diffusion," Collected Papers, Vol. 2, Dover, 1952. 10. Toor, H. L., "Solution of the Linearised Equations of Multicomponent Mass Transfer," A.I.ChE.J., 10, 448, 460, 1964. 11. Stewart, W. E. and R. Prober, "Matric Calculation of Multicomponent Mass Transfer in Isothermal Systems," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 3, 224, 1964. 12. Krishna, R. and G. L. Standart, "A Multicomponent Film Model Incorporating a General Matrix Method of Solution of the Maxwell-Stefan Equations," A.I.ChE. J., 22, 383, 1976. 13. Taylor, R., "On Exact Solutions of the Maxwell- Stefan Equations for the Multicomponent Film Model," Chem. Eng. Commun., 10, 61, 1981; 14, 121, 1982. 14. Krishna, R., "A Simplified Mass Transfer Analysis for Multicomponent Condensation," Letts. Heat and Mass Transfer, 6, 439, 1979. 15. Krishna, R., "An Alternative Linearized Theory of Multicomponent Mass Transfer," Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 219, 1981. 16. Taylor, R. and L. W. Smith, "On Some Explicit Ap- proximate Solutions of the Maxwell-Stefan Equations for the Multicomponent Film Model," Chem. Eng. Commun., 14, 361, 1982. 17. Vogelpohl, A., "Murphree Efficiencies in Multicom- ponent System." Paper presented at the Third Inter- national Symposium on Distillation, I. Chem. E., London, April 1979. 18. Dribicka, M. M. and O. C. Sandall, "Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer for Multicomponent Distilla- tion in Continuous Contact Equipment," Chem. Eng. Sci., 34, 733, 1979. 19. Krishna, R., "Ternary Mass Transfer in a Wetted Wall Column. Significance of Diffusional Interactions. Part I. Stefan Diffusion," Trans. I. Chem. E., 59, 35, 1981. 20. Krishna, R., R. M. Salomo and M. A. Rahman, "Ternary Mass Transfer in a Wetted Wall Column. Significance of Diffusional Interactions. Part II. Equimolar Diffusion," Trans. I. Chem. E., 59, 44, 1981. 21. Webb, D. R. and R. G. Sardesai, "Verification of Multicomponent Mass Transfer Models for Condensa- tion Inside a Vertical Tube," Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 7, 507, 1981. 22. Smith, L. W. and R. Taylor, "Film Models for Multi- component Mass Transfer-A Statistical Compari- son," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., in press. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 23. Taylor, R. and D. R. Webb, "Stability of the Film Model for Multicomponent Mass Transfer," Chem. Eng. Commun. 6, 175, 1980. 24. Taylor, R. and D. R. Webb, "Film Models for Multi- component Mass Transfer: Computational Methods; The Exact Solution of the Maxwell-Stefan Equa- tions," Comput. Chem. Eng., 5, 61, 1981. 25. Taylor, R., "Film Models for Multicomponent Mass Transfer: Computational Methods II; The Linearised Theory," Comput. Chem. Eng., 6, 69, 1982. 26. Krishna, R., "Binary and Multicomponent Mass Transfer at High Transfer Rates," Chem. Eng. J., 22, 251, 1981. 27. Krishnamurthy, R. and R. Taylor, "Calculation of Multicomponent Mass Transfer at High Transfer Rates," Chem. Eng. J., In press. 28. Webb, D. R. and R. Taylor, "The Efficient Estimation of Rates of Multicomponent Condensation by a Film Model," Chem. Eng., Sci., 37, 117, 1982. 29. Krishnamurthy, R. and R. Taylor, "Algorithms for the Calculation of Interphase Mass Transfer Rates in Multicomponent Systems," Proc. HTFS Research Symposium, p. 685 Oxford, 1981. 30. Krishnamurthy, R., "A Heat and Mass Transfer Stage Model of Multicomponent, Multistage Separa- tion Process," Ph.D. Research Proposal, CCT, Dec. 1981. 31. Butwell, K. F., D. J. Kubek and P. W. Sigmund, "Amine Guard III," Chem. Eng. Prog., 75 (Feb., 1979). 32. Ellis, G. C., G. S. Leachman, R. E. Formaini, R. F. Hazelton and W. C. Smith, "Rate of Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from Monoethanolamine Solutions," Proc. 13th Ann. Gass Conditioning Conf., University of Oklahoma, B3, 1963. 33. McLachlan, C. N. S. and P. V. Danckwerts, "De- sorption of Carbon Dioxide from Aqueous Potash Solutions with and without the Addition of Arsenite as a Catalyst," Trans. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 50, 300, 1972. 34. Astarita, G. and D. W. Savage, "Theory of Chemical Desorption," Chem. Eng. Sci., 85, 649, 1980. 35. Savage, D. W., G. Astarita and S. Joshi, "Chemical Absorption and Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from Hot Carbonate Solutions," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35, 1513-1522, 1980. 36. Rawal, M. Y., "Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from Carbonated Monoethanolamine Solutions," Ph.D. Thesis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia, 1980. 37. Olander, D. R., "Simultaneous Mass Transfer and Equilibrium Chemical Reaction," A.I.ChE.J., 6, 233, 1960. 38. Weiland, R. H., M. Y. Rawal and R. G. Rice, "Stripping of Carbon Dioxide from Monoethanolamine Solutions in a Packed Column," A.I.ChE. J., in press. 39. Webb, D. R. and J. M. McNaught, "Condensers," Chapter 4 of "Advances in Heat Exchanger Technology" (D. Chisholm, Ed.), Applied Science Publishers, Barking, Essen, England, 1980. 40. Ackermann, G., "Heat Transfer and Molecular Mass Transfer in the Same Field at High Temperatures and Large Partial Pressure Differences," Ver. Deutsch. Ing. Forschungsheft, 8, 1, 1937. 41. Colburn, A. P. and T. B. Drew, "The Condensation of Mixed Vapours," Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 33, 197, 1937. 42. Schrodt, J. T., "Simultaneous Heat and Mass Trans- fer from Multicomponent Condensing Vapor-Gas Systems," A.I.ChE. J., 19, 753, 1973. 43. Webb, D. R., C. B. Panchal and I. Coward, "The Sig- nificance of Multicomponent Diffusional Interactions in the Process of Condensation in the Presence of a Non Condensable Gas," Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 87, 1981. 44. Krishna, R., C. B. Panchal D. R. Webb and I. Coward, "An Ackermann-Colburn-Drew Type Analysis for Condensation of Multicomponent Mixtures," Letts. Heat and Mass Transfer, 3, 163, 1976. 45. Krishna, R. and C. B. Panchal, "Condensation of a Binary Vapour Mixture in the Presence of an Inert Gas," Chem. Engng. Sci., 82, 741, 1977. GEYSER PROBLEM Continued from page 189. this jet of liquid occurred at the very end of the filling process, 9.5 hours after the first penetration of the mine by the drill. At that point, most of the mine must have been full of water, and the only forces likely to generate such a spectacular effect are gravitational ones, of which the bubble mechanism proposed above is the most plausible. An alternative gravitational explanation would be that the first fluid to flow into the mine was relatively clean water, while the later fluid, flowing in after the hole had enlarged, would be quite muddy. In oil well drilling practice it is possible to produce drilling muds (mud-water slurries), with densities up to twice that of water. If the first half of the path from wellbore to venti- lator shaft were filled with ordinary water, and the second half filled with a mud whose density were 1.5 times that of water then the hydrostatic pressure difference from lake level to ventilator shaft would have been P = ghAp = 32 ft/sec2 x 1300 ft x (0.5 x 62.4 lbm/ft3) x lbf sec2/32 Ibm ft x ft2/144 in2 = 281 psi This would likely have been adequate to produce the geyser. I consider this a less-likely explana- tion than the air bubble, because it requires a much more organized process, with strong segre- gation of the earlier clean inflowing fluid from the later mud-ladden fluid. But I cannot rule it out for certain without more data on the accident than has been published. O FALL 1982 OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION Continued from page 151. solid state changes may be occurring deep within the bulk phase that affect the catalytic activity. Several techniques were used to test this possibility. First of all, X-ray diffraction patterns were taken on the fresh catalyst and on samples that were progressively deactivated. The fresh catalyst was about 90% MgFe204, but 5% of the material was iron oxide, a-FeO2. Deactivated catalysts showed only MgFe204. This suggested that the true "catalyst" was not the ferrite but was in fact the Fe2,O which was possibly present as a surface coating on the MgFe204 base. Auger spectroscopic measurements confirmed the ab- sence of Mg in the surface layers of the catalyst. Both magnetic susceptibility and MSssbauer spectroscopy confirmed the conclusions derived from the X-ray data, namely that the iron oxide was present in the fresh active samples but was absent in the used inactive catalysts. Upon inquiring about how the catalyst was synthesized [11], we were informed that it was made by the high temperature fusion reaction MgO Fe203 --- MgFe204 (13) The reaction was carried out to only 90% com- pletion during synthesis and this is one of the secrets of preparing this active catalyst! As heat was released by the exothermic OXD reaction, the iron oxide reacted with the MgO dissolved in solid solution to carry the reaction (13) to completion. TRANSPORT EFFECTS The catalyst has a low surface area (about 7 m2/g) and large pores. Furthermore, the re- action was carried out in an all-Pyrex batch re- circulation reactor at low temperature to keep the rate slow. These factors resulted in a very small Thiele modulus and no mass transport limitations. On the other hand, it was very difficult to keep the reactor isothermal due to the large exo- thermicity of the reaction. Dilution of the catalyst bed with inert particles helped, but still the re- action was difficult to control. Only data obtained under conditions where the temperature remained essentially constant were used in the kinetics analysis. As mentioned in the previous section, it is likely that the slow dissipation of the heat of re- action away from the active sites could have caused localized hot spots in the vicinity of the active site pairs that led to the progression of the solid state reaction (13) [12]. CONCLUSIONS It is rare that one can find a catalytic system of commercial interest that can be studied in detail by such a variety of techniques. The small mole- cules are easily handled in the laboratory and can be labeled with both radioactive and stable iso- topic tracers. Being well crystallized and contain- ing iron, the catalyst itself is amenable to study by a wide range of solid state techniques. The results can be summarized by the follow- ing points. A redox mechanism (Fe+2/Fe+3 interconversion) occurs. C-H cleavage is rate limiting. Two sites are involved anionn and cation vacancies). Non-competitive Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics are obeyed. Surface oxygen is added and removed; the surface is fully covered so long as there is even a small amount of 02 in the gas phase. The catalyst is easily reduced by hydrocarbons in absence of 02. Activity correlates with the presence of a-Fe,O,, which is probably present as a thin coating on the MgFe2O4 spinel support. Deactivation occurs when MgO reacts with Fe20, to form MgFe,20. RELATED WORK AT RICE UNIVERSITY In related work we have studied the oxidative dehydrodimerization (OXDD) of propylene over Bi20s to form 1,5-hexadiene and benzene [13-14]. We have also looked at the OXD of butane to form n-butenes and butadiene over a commercial Ni- Sn-P oxide catalyst [15]. Finally, the ferrite work has been expanded to other catalysts such as CoFe2O, [10] and manganese ferrite [16]. While some of the questions about the nature of catalytic activity of these materials have been answered, many more questions remain in this exciting area of heterogeneous catalysis. O ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Financial support from NASA, Gulf Oil Corporation, Mobile Foundation, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation is gratefully acknowledged. REFERENCES 1. Gibson, M. A., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41, 420 (1976). 2. Gibson, M. A., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41, 431 (1976). 3. Froment, G. F., and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design, John Wiley, p. 297 (1979). CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 204 4. Welch, L. M., L. J. Croce, and H. F. Christmann, Hydrocarbon Processing, p. 131 (November, 1978). 5. Boudart, M., Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice Hall, p. 211 (1968). 6. Melander, L. C., Isotope Effects on Reaction Rates, Ronald Press, New York (1960). 7. Massoth, F. E., and D. A. Scarpiella, J. Catalysis 21, 29 (1971). 8. Keulks, G. W., L. D. Krenzke, and T. N. Nottermann, Advances in Catalysis 27 (1978). 9. Haber, J., Int. Chem. Eng. 15, 21 (1975). 10. Cares, W. R., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 28, 193 (1971). 11. Columbian Carbon Company, 1971. 12. Luss, D., Chem. Eng. Journal 1, 311 (1970). 13. White, M. G., "The Oxidative Dehydrogenation Dimerization of Olefins over Metal Oxides," Ph.D. Thesis, Rice University, 1977. 14. White, M. G., and J. W. Hightower, AIChE Journal 27, 545 (1981). 15. Chickering, D. H., "Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n- Butane over Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts," Ph.D. Thesis, Rice University, 1981. 16. Van Kleeck, D. A., "Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Butenes over Manganese Ferrite," Ph.D. Thesis, Rice University, 1981. book reviews PLANT DESIGN AND ECONOMICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS, 3RD EDITION By Max S. Peters, Klaus D. Timmerhaus McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY Reviewed by Oran L. Culberson University of Tennessee This book in its third edition continues to be among those classics which should be in the personal library of every chemical engineer. It is, however, basically unchanged from the second edition and may not merit acquisition by those who own the second edition. The following chapters in the new edition contain very much the same information that was in second edition chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Process Design Development, (4) Cost and Asset Accounting, (5) Cost Estimation, (6) In- terest and Investment Costs, (7) Taxes and In- surance, (8) Depreciation, (9) Profitability, Alternative Investments and Replacements, (11) Materials and Fabrication Selection, (12) The Design Report, (13) Materials Transfer, Handling and Treating Equipment, (14) Heat Transfer Equipment and (16) Statistical Analysis in De- sign. There is now an appendix dealing with SI units, but SI seldom appears anywhere else in the new edition. (This is not a significant fault in the opinion of this gray-haired reviewer.) Ap- pendices for Auxiliary and Utility Cost Data, for Design Problems and for Tables of Physical Properties and Constants are presented much as in the prior edition. The erstwhile appendices on Linear Pro- gramming and Dynamic Programming have been moved into Chapter 10, Optimum Design and Design Strategy. This was perhaps a mistake. These two optimization algorithms have little ap- plication in design. Geometric programming would have been a more appropriate offering. It is also unfortunate that the material on linear pro- gramming does not note that modern computer programs do not use the Simplex algorithm de- scribed; this omission will be confusing and ag- gravating to the reader who wants to use library programs on computers. A better use of the space would have resulted from exposition on the Critical Path Method and for the Project Evalu- ation and Review Technique which are valuable for the scheduling and control of projects. Chapter 10 has been expanded also to explain the concept of cash flow and to show how the effects of inflation might be covered in economic analysis. Chapter 3 on General Design Considerations has been more than doubled to include information on design requirements to protect against thermal, air, liquid and solid waste pollution. Chapter 15, formerly devoted exclusively to Mass Transfer Equipment, now treats Reactor Equipment also. This material is from an appendix of the second edition, with some augmentation. A great strength of this book has always been the voluminous bibliography at the end of each chapter. These literature references have been updated and are very valuable to anyone wanting to delve into a topic beyond the limited treatment which can be made in the book. The new edition is still replete with equipment costs, now updated to January 1, 1979. A table of the costs of chemicals appears in the new edition which unfortunately contains neither a date nor a warning to the neophyte that these costs can change rapidly. Another quite useful feature of this book is the extensive sets of problems for each chapter, but the problems have not been changed in the two editions. This reviewer overheard a professor bemoaning this fact at the AIChE meeting in Chicago. E FALL 1982 I: I I I * - :-f I , T 1La4 - ttS 4* : I =1 Chemical Engineering at UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA EDMONTON, CANADA Faculty and Research Interests I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota): Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis. D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process Dynamics and Control, Real-Time Computer Applications, Process Design. C. Kiparissides, Ph.D. (McMaster): Polymer Reactor Engineering, Op- timization, Modelling, Stochastic Control. D. Lynch, Ph.D. (Alberta): Kinetic Modelling, Numerical Methods, Computer Aided Design. J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (British Colum- bia): Transport Phenomena, Numerical Analysis, In-Situ Recovery of Oil Sands. A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High Pressures, Thermodynamics. W. Nader, Dr. Phil, (Vienna): Heat Transfer, Air Pollution, Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied Mathematics. F. D. Otto (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michi- gan): Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Re- actions, Separation Processes, En- vironmental Engineering. D. Quon, Sc.D. (MIT), Professor Emeri- tus: Energy Modelling and Economics, Linear Programming, Network Theory. D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan): Thermal and Volumetric Properties of Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermody- namics. J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process Economics, Energy Economics and Supply. S. L. Shah, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear Systems Theory, Adaptive Control, Stability Theory, Stochastic Control. S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis): Catalysis, Kinetics. R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern): Process Dynamics and Identification, Control of Distillation Columns, Modelling of Crushing and Grinding Circuits. FALL 1982 Graduate Study U of A's Chemical Engineering gradu- ate program offers exciting research opportunities to graduate students moti- vated towards advanced training and research. Graduate programs leading to the degrees of Master of Science, Master of Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy are offered. There are currently 13 full- time faculty members, a few visiting faculty, several post-doctoral research associates and 35 graduate students. Financial Aid Financial support is available to full- time graduate students in the form of fellowships, teaching assistantships and research assistantships. The University of Alberta U of A is one of Canada's largest Universities and engineering schools with total enrollment of over 25,000 students. The campus is located in the city of Edmonton and overlooks the scenic North Saskatchewan River Valley. Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern city of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a renowned resident professional theatre, symphony orchestra and professional football, hockey and soccer leagues. The famous Banff and Jasper National Parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains are within easy driving distance. For application forms or more information, write to CHAIRMAN, Department of Chemical Engineering University of Alberta Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6 THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA TUCSON, AZ The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov- ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering. THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH INTERESTS ARE: JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956 Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me- chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation, Biorheology ALAN D. RANDOLPH, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962 Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes, Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo- sives Initiation Mechanisms THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960 Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column Distillation, Applied Design JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968 Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul- fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody- namics, Interfacial Phenomena Tucson has an excellent climate and many recreational opportunities. It is a growing, modern city of 450,000 that retains much of the old Southwestern atmosphere. For further information, write to: Dr. T. W. Peterson Graduate Study Committee Department of Chemical Engineering University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721 The University of Arizona is an equal opportunity educational institution/equal opportunity employer DON H. WHITE, Professor Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949 Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy, Microbial and Enzymatic Processes WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973 Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys- tems, Blood Processing THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977 Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants, Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate Growth Kinetics. FARHANG SHADMAN, Asst. Professor Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972 Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY Graduate Programs for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees in Chemical and Bio Engineering Research Specializations Include: ENERGY CONVERSION ADSORPTIONISEPARATION * BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING e TRANSPORT PHENOMENA * SURFACE PHENOMENA REACTION ENGINEERING * CATALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL * ENGINEERING DESIGN PROCESS CONTROL * Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are complemented by a highly-respected faculty: James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976 Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966 Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962 Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston, 1980 William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct) William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967 Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971 James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970 Kim L. Nelson, University of Delaware, 1981 Castle O. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus) Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963 Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967 Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978 James M. Trebilcock, Michigan State University, 1950 Imre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961 Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are available to qualified applicants. ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study. Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's own cultural and recreational facilities. FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT: Imre Zwiebel, Chairman, Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 RWI j C CHEMICAL ENGINEERING A I kE ++---T--=. E ~iR~f~iAT THE PROGRAM The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is available to qualified students. THE LOCALE Auburn University has 19,000 students and is located midway between Atlanta, GA. and Montgomery, AL. Situated in a beautiful wooded setting, the local population numbers about 75.000 and supports good shopping and entertainment facilities. The University also sponsors many types of artistic, dramatic, cultural and sporting events. The combination of good weather and pleasant surroundings make outdoor activities such as hiking, boating, fishing and camping particularly enjoyable. THE FACULTY Robert P. Chambers (University of California, 1965) Enzymatic and Biomedical Engineering, Biomass Conversion, Adsorption and Ion Exchange. Christine W. Curtis (Florida State University, 1976) Analytical Methods, Coal Chemistry and Liquefaction. Catalysis of Hydrocarbon Residuals. James A. Guin (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Liquefaction, Catalytic Hydrotreating, Reactor Design, Heat and Mass Transfer. Leo J. Hirth (University of Texas, 1958) Process and Plant Design, Economics, Oil Reprocessing. Andrew C. T. Hsu (University of Pennsylvania, 1953) Thermodynamics, Solar Energy, Nucleation and Crystallization Kinetics. Y. Y. Lee (Iowa State University, 1972) Biochemical Engineering, Reaction Engineering of Bio-Systems, Biomass Conversion Timothy D. Placek (University of Kentucky, 1978) Environmental Pollution, Process Simulation, Multi- phase Transport Phenomena. A. R. Tarrer (Purdue University, 1973) Coal Liquefaction, Oil Reprocessing, Solid-Liquid Separations. Bruce J. Tatarchuk (University of Wisconsin, 1981) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, Spec- troscopic Characterization of Catalyst Materials. Donald L. Vives (Columbia University, 1949) Oil Reprocessing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Heat Transfer. Dennis C. Williams (Princeton University, 1980) Process Dynamics and Control, Reactor Engineering. Auburn Engineering RESEARCH AREAS Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering Biomass Conversion Coal Conversion Environmental Pollution Heterogeneous Catalysis Oil Reprocessing Process Design and Control Process Simulation Reaction Engineering Reaction Kinetics Separations Surface Science Transport Phenomena Thermodynamics For financial aid and admission application forms write: Dr. R.P. Chambers, Head Chemical Engineering Auburn University, AL 36849 Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PROVO, UTAH * Ph.D., M.S., & M.E. * ChE. Masters for Chemists Program * Research Biomedical Engineering Catalysis Coal Gasification Combustion Electrochemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics Fossil Fuels Recovery High Pressure Chemistry Thermochemistry & Calorimetry * Faculty D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951) C. H. Bartholomew, (Ph.D., Stanford, 1972) M W. Beckstead, (Ph.D., Utah, 1965) D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D., Berkeley, 1964) B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979) J J. Christensen, (Ph.D., Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958) J. M. Glassett, (M.S., MIT, 1948) R. W. Hanks, (Ph.D., Utah, 1961) W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley, 1982) P O. Hedman, (Ph.D., BYU, 1973) J. L. Oscarson, (Ph.D., Michigan, 1982) P. J. Smith, (Ph.D., BYU, 1979) L. D. Smoot, (Ph.D., Washington, 1960) K. A. Solen, (Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1974) * Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains * Financial aid available Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Richard W. Hanks, Chairman Chemical Engineering Dept. 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602 FALL 1982 UC rTHE UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Program of Study Degrees Offered Master of Science Master of Engineering Doctor of Philosophy Both the M.Sc. and Ph.D. programs are on the full-time basis and have residency requirements. Course work and a research thesis based on an original investigation are required of each student enrolled in either degree program. The M.Eng. involves part-time study. It is designed for those individuals working in the industry who would like to en- hance their technical education. The M.Eng. thesis is usually on a design oriented project related to current or anticipated industrial trends. All the programs are designed to meet the specific interests and individual needs of the student. The research and computing facili- tis within the department and the faculty of engineering are excellent and continuously being upgraded. Generous fellowships and assistantships are available throughout the calendar year to qualified applicants. The four month summer months are usually devoted to active research. Supplementary financial support may also be available from the research grants of the individual faculty members. Research Areas Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer and Cryogenics Kinetics and Combustion Reaction Engineering and Process Control Flow in Porous Media Multi-phase Flows in Pipelines Computer Aided Design of Pipe Networks Fluidization Environmental Engineering In-situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates Biorheology and Biochemical Engineering Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration Faculty R. A. HEIDEMANN, Professor and Head D.Sc. (Wash. U.) A. BADAKHSHAN, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.) L. A. BEHIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (W. Ont.) D. W. BENNION, Professor Ph.D. (Penn. St.) P. R. BISHNOI, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.) M. FOGARASI, Sr. Instructor B.Sc. (Alta.) G. A. GREGORY, Professor Ph.D. (Waterloo) M. A. HASTAOGLU, Asst. Professor Ph.D. (SUNY) J. J. AVLENA, Sr. Instructor D. Sc. (Czech.) A. A. JEJE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (MIT) N. G. MCDUFFIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas) A. K. MEHROTRA Asat. Professor Ph.D. (Calgary) M. F. MOHTADI, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.) R. G. MOORE, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.) P. M. SIGMUND, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas) P. M. STANISLAV, Professor Ph.D. (Prague) W. Y. SVRCEK, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.) E. L. TOLLEFSON, Professor Ph.D. (Tor.) The Community The university is located in Calgary, Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of half a million combines the traditions of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and the ski resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of the most scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in the com- munity at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations of engi- neering activity in the country. Applications For further information and application material write to: The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. T2N 1N4 Canada CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY... RESEARCH INTERESTS ENERGY UTILIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION KINETICS AND CATALYSIS THERMODYNAMICS POLYMER TECHNOLOGY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT SURFACE AND COLLOID SCIENCE BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING SEPARATION PROCESSES FLUID MECHANICS AND RHEOLOGY ELECTRONIC MATERIALS PROCESSING PLEASE WRITE: ... offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro- grams involve joint faculty-student research as well as courses and seminars within and outside the department. Students have the opportunity to take part in the many cultural offerings of the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational activities of California's northern coast and moun- tains. FACULTY Alexis T. Bell (Chairman) Harvey W. Blanch Elton J. Cairns Morton M. Denn Alan S. Foss Simon L. Goren Edward A. Grens Donald N. Hanson Dennis W. Hess C. Judson King Scott Lynn James N. Michaels John S. Newman Eugene E. Petersen John M. Prausnitz Clayton J. Radke Jeffrey A. Reimer David S. Soong Charles W. Tobias Theodore Vermeulen Charles R. Wilke Michael C. Williams Department of Chemical Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Berkeley, California 94720 FALL 1982 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS Course Areas Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design Applied Mathematics Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering Catalysis Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Mass Transfer Process Dynamics Separation Processes Thermodynamics Transport Processes in Porous Media Program UC Davis, with 17,500 students, is one of the major campuses of the University of California system and has developed great strength in many areas of the biological and physical sciences. The Department of Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro- gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition, the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty in other areas in order to design individual programs to meet the specific interests and needs of a student, even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio- chemical engineering and biomedical engineering. Excellent laboratories, computation center and electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available. Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research Assistantships (all providing additional summer support if desired) are available to qualified applicants. Degrees Offered Master of Science Doctor of Philosophy Faculty RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications RUBEN G. CARBONELL, Princeton University Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum Statistical Mechanics, Transport Processes in Porous Media ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota Separation and Transport Processes DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mass Transfer, Colloids STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport Processes in Porous Media Davis and Vicinity The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento and just over an hour away from the San Francisco Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec- reational opportunities combine with the friendly in- formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant place in which to live and study. Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance. For further details on graduate study at Davis, please write to: Graduate Advisor Chemical Engineering Department University of California Davis, California 95616 or call (916) 752-0400 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 214 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING .. UNIVERSITY ALIFORNIA OS NGELES '**=- if PROGRAMS UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart- ment maintains academic excellence in its gacdua~te-programs by offering diversity in both curriculum and research opportunities. The department's continual growth is demon- strated by the newly established Institute for Medical Engineering and the National Center for Intermedia Transport Research; adding to the already wide spectrum of research activities. Fellowships are available for outstand- ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver of tuition and fees plus a stipend. Located five miles from the Pacific Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village. Students have access to the highly-regarded sciences programs and to a variety of expe- riences in theatre, music, art and sports on campus. CONTACT Admissions Officer Chemical Engineering 5405 Boelter Hall UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90024 FACULTY- D. N. Bennion Yoram Cohen S. M. Dinh S. Fathi-Afshar T. H. K. Frederking S. K. Friedlander E. L. Knuth J. W. McCutchan Ken Nobe" 1.. B. Robinson O. I. Smith W. 0. Van Vorst V. L. Vilker F. E. Yates M. M. Baizer AR RESEARCH AREAS' :, SThermodynamics and Crybgenfts Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport Process Design and Systems Analysis Polymer Processing and Rheology .Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis Electrochemistry and Corrosion Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering Aerosol and Environmental Engineering UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA BARBARA FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS PROGRAMS AND FINANCIAL SUPPORT SANJOY BANERJEE Ph.D. (Waterloo) (Vice Chairman, Nuclear Engineering) Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis and Wastes H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D. (Princeton) Chemical Reactor Modeling, Applied Mathematics HENRI FENECH Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Nuclear Systems Design and Safety, Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow, Heat Transfer. OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue) (Chairman) Theoretical Methods, Chemical Reactor Analysis, Transport Phenomena. GLENN E. LUCAS Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Radiation Damage, Mechanics of Materials. DUNCAN A. MELLICHAMP Ph.D. (Purdue) Computer Control, Process Dynamics, Real-Time Computing. JOHN E. MYERS Ph.D. (Michigan) (Dean of Engineering) Boiling Heat Transfer. G. ROBERT ODETTE Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy Related Materials Development. A. EDWARD PROFIO Ph.D. (M.I.T.) Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion Reactors, Radiation Transport Analyses. ROBERT G. RINKER Ph.D. (Caltech) Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis, Energy Conversion, Air Pollution. ORVILLE C. SANDALL Ph.D. (Berkeley) Transport Phenomena, Separation Processes. DALE E. SEBORG Ph.D. (Princeton) Process Control, Computer Control, Process Identification. The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de- gree programs. Financial aid, including fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re- search assistantships, is available. Some awards provide limited moving expenses. THE UNIVERSITY One of the world's few seashore campuses, UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100 miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330 miles south of San Francisco. The student enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli- tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000 residents and is famous for its mild, even climate. For additional information and applications, write to: Professor Owen T. Hanna, Chairman Department of Chemical & Nuclear Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech- nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student can properly prepare for a productive career of research, development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex- panding technological society. A course of study is selected in consultation with one or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com- pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required. A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte- grated design project, is a feature to the overall program of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of thesis research and further advanced study. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup- ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching assistantship appointments during both the academic year and the summer months. A student may carry a full load of graduate study and research in addition to any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives consideration for admission and financial assistance to all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex. APPLICATIONS Further information and an application form may be obtained by writing Professor L. G. Leal Chemical Engineering California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 It is advisable to submit applications before February 15, 1983. FACULTY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor Ph.D. (1969), Rice University Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction engineering. GEORGE R. GAVALAS, Professor Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control and optimization; coal gasification. ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena L. GARY LEAL, Professor Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics; heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology; mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids. C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering; process design .and development. JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor, Executive Officer Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University Air pollution; control and estimation theory. FRED H. SHAIR, Professor Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley Plasma chemistry and physics: tracer studies of various environmental and safety related problems. GREGORY N. STEPHANOPOULOS, Assistant Pro- fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction engineering. NICHOLAS W. TSCHOEGL, Professor Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales Mechanical properties of polymeric materials; theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure- property relations in polymers. W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley Surface chemistry and catalysis. ItIIM II INTL CI J~liiCL11LM IS THERE LIFE AFTER GRADUATE STUDY? Want to find out? Heaven can't wait! Write to: Graduate Coordinator Chemical Engineering Department Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 44106 FALL 1982 219 ~~ The UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI GRADUATE STUDY in Chemical Engineering M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees p FACULTY C Stanley Cosgrove SRobert Delcamp Joel Fried Rakesh Govind David Greenberg Daniel Hershey SSHSun-Tak Hwang Yuen-Koh Kao Soon-Jai Khang Robert Lemlich ~r William Licht Joel Weisman CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING AND HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical equipment. Laser induced effects. PROCESS SYNTHESIS Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit operations. Prediction of reaction by-products. POLYMERS Viscoelastic properties of concen- trated polymer solutions. Thermodynamics, thermal analysis and morphology of polymer blends. AIR POLLUTION Modeling and design of gas clean- - ing devices and systems. TWO-PHASE FLOW Boiling. Stability and transport properties of foam. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FOR ADMISSION INFORMATION LIVING HUMAN AND Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee CORPORATE SYSTEMS Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171 University of Cincinnati Longevity, basal metabolic rate, Cincinnati, OH 45221 and Prigogine's and Shannon's entropy formulae. SClarkson SM.S. and Ph.D. Programs e Friendly Atmosphere SVigorous Research Programs Supported by Government and Industry Faculty with International Reputation Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and Other Recreation in the Adirondacks Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts Colleges Nearby Faculty S. V. Babu D. H. Rasmussen Der-Tau Chin Herman L. Shulman Robert Cole R. Shankar Subramanian Sandra Harris Peter C. Sukanek Angelo Lucia Ross Taylor Richard J. McCluskey Thomas J. Ward John B. McLaughlin Ralph H. Weiland Richard J. Nunge William R. Wilcox Nsima Tom Obot Gordon R. Youngquist Research Projects are available in: Energy Materials Processing in Space Turbulent Flows Heat Transfer ~ Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion Polymer Processing Particle Separations Phase Transformations and Equilibria Reaction Engineering Optimization and Control Crystallization And More ... Financial aid in the form of fellowships, research assistantships and teaching assistantships is --s available. For more details, please write to: Dean of the Graduate School Clarkson College of Technology Potsdam, New York 13676 I qN, man COLORADO OF SCHOOL OF 1874 MINES CLORAoo THE FACULTY AND THEIR RESEARCH P. F. Dickson, Professor and Head; Ph.D., University of Minnesota. Oil-shale, shale oil processing, petro- chemical production from shale oil, heat transfer, heat exchanger design. J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up- grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re- finery processing operations, heavy oil processing. A. J. Kidnay, Professor; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines. Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived liquids, vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems, cryo- Sgenic engineering. R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado School of Mines. Coal liquefaction by direct hydro- genation, mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochemistry to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-derived asphaltenes. M. S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro- cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading. M. C. Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley. Heat transfer and fluid me- chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer in porous media, free convection in porous media. E. D. Sloan, Jr., Associate Professor; Ph.D., Clemson Uni- versity. Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measure- ments of natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates, thermal conductivity measurements for coal derived fluids, adsorption equilibria measurements, stage- wise processes, education methods research. V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Kinetic studies of shale oil, phase behavior and enthalpy of synthetic fuels. A. L. Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley. Enhanced oil recovery. y. M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State University. Flow of concentrated fine particulate suspensions in complex geometries; Sedimenta- tion of multisized, mixed density particle suspensions. For Applications and Further Information On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden, CO 80401 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION Chemical Engineering at CORNELL UNIVERSITY A place to grow... with active research in biochemical engineering applied mathematics/computer simulation energy technology environmental engineering kinetics and catalysis surface science heat and mass transfer polymer science fluid dynamics rheology and biorheology reactor design molecular thermodynamics/statistical mechanics with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange individual programs with a core of chemical engineering courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell departments including chemistry biological sciences physics computer science food science materials science mechanical engineering business administration and others with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one of the most scenic regions of the United States. Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering (the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program). Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available. The faculty members are: Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn, Keith E. Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht, Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler, Julian C. Smith, Paul H. Steen, William B. Street, Raymond G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Write to Professor Keith E. Gubbins Cornell University Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering Ithaca, New York 14853 The University of Ielaware awards three graduate degrees for studies and practice in the artand science of chemical engineering. An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem. An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-blem. An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in- dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the Delaware Valley chemical process industries. A Ph.D. degree for original work presented in a dissertation. THE REGULAR FACULTY ARE: CURRENT AREAS OF RESEARCH INCLUDE: Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) Thermodynamics and Separ- M. A. Barteau ation Process C. E. Birchenall Rheology, Polymer Science K. B. Bischoff and Engineering C. D. Denson Materials Science and P. Dhorjati Metallurgy B. C. Gates Fluid Mechanics, Heat and M. T. Klein Mass Transfer R. L. McCullough Economics and Management A. B. Metzner in the Chemical Process Industries J. H. Olson Chemical Reaction Engi- M. E. Paulaitis neering, Kinetics and R. L. Pigford Simulation T. W. F. Russell Catalytic Science and S. I. Sandier (Chairman) Technology G. C. A. Schuit (1/2 time) Biomedical Engineering- J. M. Schultz Pharmacokinetics and A. B. Stiles (1/2 time) Toxicology M. A. Streicher (1/2 time) Biochemical Engineering- R. S. Weber Fermentation and Computer Control FOR MORE INFORMATION AND ADMISSIONS MATERIALS, WRITE: Graduate Advisor Department of Chemical Engineering University of Delaware Newark, Delaware 19711 ^l3n "gmeer'mg- UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA Gainesville, Florida Graduate study leading to MM mmmimmON ME, MS & PhD F A C U L T Y Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor Design/ Ronald J. Gordon Biomedical Engineering, Rhcology/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface Science Lew Johns Applied MatJhematics/ Dale Kirmse Process Control, Computer Aided Design, Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor Design, Catalysis/ Frank May Separations/ Ranga Narayanan Transport Phenomena/ John O'Connell Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics Dinesh 0. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery, Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros Svoronos Process Control/ Robert I). Walker Surface Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/ Gerald Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Transport Phenomena Graduate Admissions Coordinator Department of Chemical Engineering University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 tit TE~f-T Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ... GEORGIA TECH Atlanta Ballet Center for Disease Control Commercial Center of the South High Museum of Art All Professional Sports Major Rock Concerts and Recording Studios Sailing on Lake Lanier Snow Skiing within two hours Stone Mountain State Park Atlanta Symphony Ten Professional Theaters Rambling Raft Race White Water Canoeing within one hour For more information write: Dr. Gary W Poehlein School of Chemical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332 Chemical Engineering Air Quality Technology Biochemical Engineering Catalysis and Surfaces Electrochemical Engineering Energy Research and Conservation Fine Particle Technology Interfacial Phenomena Kinetics Mining and Mineral Engineering Polymer Science and Engineering Process Synthesis and Optimization Pulp and Paper Engineering Reactor Design Thermodynamics Transport Phenomena Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering University of Houston The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Houston has developed seven areas of special research strength: Chemical Reaction Engineering Catalysis Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation Solid-liquid Separation Air Pollution Modeling Reliability Theory Petroleum Reservoir Engineering The department occupies more than 64,000 square feet and is equipped with more than$2.5 million worth of
experimental apparatus.

Financial support is available to full-time graduate students
with stipends ranging from $8,400 to$13,000 for
twelve months.

The faculty:

N. R. Amundson
O. A. Asbjornsen
V. Balakotaiah
E. L. Claridge
J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
R. W. Flumerfelt
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
A. C. Payatakes
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
J. T. Richardson
F. M. Tiller
F. L. Worley, Jr.

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)

The Deparlmenl of Energy Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT CHICA6O CIRCLE

The Department of Energy Engineering

MASTER OF SCIENCE and

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Faculty and Research Activities in
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor and Head of the Department
Francisco J. Brana-Mulero
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980
Assistant Professor
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering
T. S. Jiang
Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1981
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
Professor
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Professor
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Professor
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed
in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.
Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy
Process synthesis, operations research, optimal
process control, optimization of large systems,
numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations.
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and
statistical mechanics of liquids and
liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion

Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization

Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago
Box 4348,
Chicago, Illinois 60680

I
rU

FACULTY
Richard C. Alkire, Professor
Electrochemical Engineering
Harry G. Drickamer, Professor
High Pressure Studies, Structure
and Properties of Solids
Charles A. Eckert, Professor
Molecular Thermodynamics,
Applied Chemical Kinetics
Thomas J. Hanratty, Professor
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat
and Mass Transfer

Jonathan J. L. Higdon,
Assistant Professor
Fluid Mechanics, Applied
Mathematics
Richard S. Larson,
Assistant Professor
Chemical Kinetics
Richard I. Masel,
Assistant Professor
Catalysis, Surface Science
Anthony J. McHugh,
Associate Professor
Polymer Crystallization, Transport
of Particles

I

For application forms and further
information, write to:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Department of Chemical Engineering
1209 W. California
Urbana, Illinois 61801-3791

Joseph A. Shaeiwitz,
Assistant Professor
Mass Transfer, Interfacial and
Colloidal Phenomena
Associate Professor
Systems Analysis and Process
Design
James W. Westwater, Professor
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase
Changes

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

AT THE

URBANA CHAMPAIGN

II IN1 IS

Institute of Technology

M.S. AND PH.D. PROGRAMS IN 0
Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Polymer Processes
Chemical Plant Operations and Management
Energy Conservation and Resources
Medical Engineering

R. L. BEISSINGER
A. CINAR
D. GIDASPOW
D. T. HATZIAVRAMIDIS
J. R. SELMAN
S. M. SENKAN
B. S. SWANSON
D. T. WASAN
C. V. WITTMANN

Polymer Processing and Biological Systems
Process Control and Reactor Control Design
Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion
Multiphase Flow and Turbulence
Electrochemical Engineering
Combustion Engineering, Kinetics and Environmental
Process Dynamics and Controls
Mass Transfer and Surface and Colloid Phenomena
Chemical Reaction Engineering Analysis

FOR INQUIRIES, WRITE
D. T. Wasan
Chemical Engineering Dept.
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd St.
Chicago, IL 60616

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

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--*".

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Our research activities span the papermaking process.
Current research programs underway include:
J/1 plant tissue culture surface and colloid science fluid mechanics
M ^|environmental engineering polymer engineering heat and mass transfer
process engineering simulation and control separations science and
reaction engineering.

For further information contact: Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912
Telephone...414/734-9251

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S Transport
:,": (Heat, mass

william H. Abriham
Renato G.BaUtistp*
Charles L'Glatiz-
James C. Hill
Richard C. Seagrave

Process Chemistr yt d
F- Fertilizer Technolot ,:,3 -
David-R. Boylan ... .;-_ -
SGeorge Burnet -
Maurice A. Larson

Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Producti
-Atomic Energy)
S Renato G. Bautista ..
Lawrence E. Borkhar t '
S George Burnet
Allen H. Pulsifer
S'DeanL. Ulrichson : -
* -Thomas D. Wheelock

S Biomedical Engineqrng
. (System Modeling,
S.-Transport. process) -
S ;Jichard C. Seagrave
S, Char es E. Glat

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KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
neering.
Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year FOR MORE INFORMATION WRITE TO Professor B. G. Kyle Durland Hall Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66506 AREAS OF STUDY AND RESEARCH TRANSPORT PHENOMENA ENERGY ENGINEERING COAL AND BIOMASS CONVERSION THERMODYNAMICS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIUM BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE SOLIDS MIXING CATALYSIS AND FUEL SYNTHESIS OPTIMIZATION AND PROCESS SYSTEM ENGINEERING FLUIDIZATION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY rSi. -QL'~ I~~ '~~. I.sF.; -* J. Ber flinmprf-. IRA r Q~UP DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING M.S. and Ph.D. Programs The Faculty and Their Research Interests an, Ph.D., Northwestern C. E. Hamrin, Ph.D., Northwestern , inne-,rnne Crdinr rCic,,r Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Nonisothermal Kinetics Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D. Illinois Institute of Technology Novel Separation Processes; Membranes; Water Pollution Control W. L. Conger, Ph.D., Pennsylvania Thermochemical Hydrogen Production; 2nd Law Analysis of Processes G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia Catalytic Hydrocracking of Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction R. B. Grieves, Ph.D., Northwestern Foam Fractionation; Physicochemical Separations R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern Process Control and Economics L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State Electrochemical Processes; Novel Measurement Techniques A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen Regime; Transport Phenomena J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer; Fuel Gas Desulfurization Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants For details write to: J. T. Schrodt Director for Graduate Studies Chemical Engineering Department University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION 234 0 University of Maryland Location: The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles from the heart of the nation. Washington, D.C. Excellent public |B _' transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as -J" A- Arlington Cemetery. and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational l' opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east .: '- brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay with its delicious seafood. ? Degrees Offered: .'I NI" M.S. and Ph.D. programs in % i Chemical Engineering. SFinancial Aid Available: STeaching and Research Assistantships S at$6.800. plus tuition reimbursement
.. ... are available.
Faculty: ..
Robert B. Beckmann ,,.-......... ,:,,>" i,. .
Richard \. (Cal.bre-,e
Lary L. Gasner
James W. Gentry
Albert Gomezplata
Randolph T. Hatch
Juan Hong
Thomas J. McAvoy
Thomas M. Regan i'
Wilburn C. Schroeder
Theodore G. Smith
RoberLt White Research Areas:
Aerosol Mechanics
Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
SBiomedical Engineering
i Fermentation
Laser Anemometry
.. Mass Transfer
Polymer Processing
Risk Assessment
Separation Processes
Simulation

7 l-' For Applications and Further Information, Write:
Professor Thomas J. McAvoy
Depart ment ol Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
SUniversity o l' Manland
College Park, Md. 21742

Department of

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

Areas of Research
Pulp and Paper
* Reaction engineering of pulping
* Pulp bleaching
* Formation of paper web
* Paper coating

Environmental Science
* Waste water treatment
* Air pollution

Polymer Science & Engineering
* Polymer synthesis and properties
* Polymer processing

Fluids and Particle Systems
* Rheology
* Solid-fluid separation
* Porous media modeling
* Colloidal stability

Process Dynamics and Control
* Process control & instrumentation
* Real-time computing

Facilities
Pulp and Paper Research and Testing
Laboratory
* Pilot scale batch digesters, pulp re-
finers, a fourdrinier paper machine,
paper coaters and complete testing
equipment.

Instrumental Analysis Laboratory
* Scanning electron microscope with X-
ray microanalyzer, gas and liquid
chromatographs, atomic absorption unit,
infrared, UV and visible spectro-
photometers.

Polymer Laboratory
* Injection and compression molding,
spinning, membrane and vapor pres-
sure, osmometers, light scattering,
GPC, transport property measurement,
synthesis, torsion pendulum.

Fluid Dynamics & Rheology
* Mechanical spectrometer, Instron
capillary rheometer, Haake RV-12 visco-
meter, Sedigraph 5000D Particle size
analyzer, Zeta meter and others.

Real Computing Laboratory
* PDP 11/60 with a data link with the
University IBM 370 system, three PDP
11/03 systems, 8 CRT's, plotters.

M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering.
M.S. in Pulp and Paper Technology
Master in Chemical Engineering
MChE (no thesis required)
In addition to the students with B.S. in
ChE, students who have a B.S. in the
related fields such as chemistry, bio-
chemistry, and wood science are en-
couraged to do graduate work in ChE.
Most prerequisite courses are offered every
year during the summer.
Financial Assistance
Research Assistantships
Teaching Assistantships
Stipends range from $4,500 for nine months up to$8,000 for 12 months.

For application and a copy of the
write to:

Chairman, Chemical
Engineering Dept.
115 Jenness Hall
University of Maine
Orono, ME 04469

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT MIT

FACULTY RESEARCH AREAS

M. Alger
R. C. Armstrong
J. M. Be6r
H. Brenner
R. A. Brown
R. E. Cohen
C. K. Colton
C. Cooney
W. M. Deen
L. B. Evans
C. Georgakis
T. A. Hatton
H. C. Hottel
J. B. Howard

G. A. Huff, Jr.
J. P. Longwell
M. P. Manning
H. P. Meissner
E. W. Merrill
C. M. Mohr
R. C. Reid
A. F. Sarofim
C. N. Satterfield
H. H. Sawin
K. A. Smith
U. W. Suter
J. W. Tester
C. G. Vayenas
P. S. Virk
J. E. Vivian
D. I. C. Wang
G. C. Williams

Biochemical and Biomedical
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Waste Management
Combustion
Computer-Aided Design
Electrochemistry
Energy Conversion
Environmental
Kinetics and Fluid Mechanics
Polymers
Process Dynamics and Control
Surfaces and Colloids
Transport Phenomena

II
II

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Photo by James Wei

MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in
Albany, New York, and the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

For Information
Room 66-350
MIT
Cambridge, MA 02139

FALL 1982

UNIVERSITY of MASSACHUSETTS

Amherst
The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer
engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research
in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or our prestigious
Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid in the form of research assistantships and
teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation
with one or more of the faculty listed below.
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING *

W. C. CONNER
Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion
M. F. DOHERTY
Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design
J. M. DOUGLAS
Process design and control, Reactor engineering
J. W. ELDRIDGE
Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria
V. HANSEL
Catalysis, Kinetics
R. S. KIRK
Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors
Kinetics and catalysis, Catalyst deactivation
R. L. LAURENCE*
Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics

R. W. LENZ*
Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization
M. F. MALONE
Rheology, Polymer processing, Design
K. M. NG
Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows
J. M. OTTINO*
Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering
Process Control
M. VANPEE
Combustion, Spectroscopy
H. H. WINTER*
Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer
B. E. YDSTIE
Process Control

* POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING *

J. C. W. CHIEN
Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers,
R. FARRIS
Polymer composites, Mechanical
properties, Elastomers
A. S. HAY
Polymer synthesis, catalysis, polymer modification
S. L. HSU
Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis
F. E. KARASZ
Polymer transitions, Polymer blends,
Conducting polymers
W. J. MacKNIGHT
Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers
T. J. McCARTHY
Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces

E. P. OTOCKA
Polymer stabilization, processing and fabrication, high
performance composites
R. S. PORTER
Polymer rheology, Polymer processing
I. C. SANCHEZ
Statistical thermodynamics of solutions, transport
properties, phase transition phenomena
R. STEIN
Polymer crystallinity and morphology,
Characterization
E. L. THOMAS*
Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology,
Polyurethanes
0. VOGL
of polymers

*Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering
For further details, please write to:

Prof. J. W. Eldridge
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0470

Prof. R. Farris
Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003
413-545-0433
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

SMcMASTER UNIVERSITY

I M.ENG.
AND
PH.D.
PROGRAMS
PROCESS AND ENERGY
ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL REACTION
ENGINEERING AND CATALYSIS
COMPUTER CONTROL,
SIMULATION AND
OPTIMIZATION
POLYMER ENGINEERING
,* BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
WATER AND WASTEWATER
TREATMENT
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION,
CHAIRMAN
DEPT. OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
McMASTER UNIVERSITY

FALL 1982

Chemical

Engineering

At The

University

Of Michigan

THE FACULTY
Dale Briggs
Louisville, Michigan
Brice Carnahan
Case-Western, Michigan
Rane Curl
MIT
Francis Donahue
LaSalle, UCLA
H. Scott Fogler
Erdogan Gulari
Roberts, Cal Tech
James Hand
NJIT, Berkeley
Wisconsin, Michigan
Donald Katz
Michigan
Lloyd Kempe
Minnesota
Joseph Martin
Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie
John Powers
Michigan, Berkeley
Jerome Schultz, Chairman
Columbia, Wisconsin
Johannes Schwank
Innsbruck
Maurice Sinnott
Michigan
Rasin Tek
Michigan
Henry Wang
Iowa State, MIT
James Wilkes
Cambridge, Michigan
Brymer Williams
Michigan
Gregory Yeh
Holy Cross, Cornell, Case
Edwin Young
Detroit, Michigan

THE RESEARCH PROGRAM
Laser Light Scattering
Reservoir Engineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Thrombogenesis
Microemulsions
Applied Numerical Methods
Dynamic Process Simulation
Ecological Simulation
Electroless Plating
Electrochemical Reactors
Polymer Physics
Polymer Processing
Composite Materials
Coal Liquefaction
Coal Gasification
Acidization
Biochemical Engineering
Periodic Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Transport In Membranes
Flow Calorimetry
Ultrasonic Emulsification
Heat Exchangers
Renewable Resources

THE PLACE

Department Of Chemical Engineering
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 48109

For Information Call 313/763-1148 Collect

For

Tomorrows

Engineers

Today.

I

GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT

MICHIGAN STATE

UNIVERSITY M
0 1FOUNDED
The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State
University has assistantships and fellowships available for
students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these
appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain
the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two to three

ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $798.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S. degree and approximately$867.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject
covered by the research assistantship. Non-resident tuition is waived.

FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to \$14,500 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year.

CURRENT FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS 0

D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman
Ph.D., University of Washington
Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio-
vascular Physiology, Diffusion in Polymers
D. BRIEDIS
Ph.D., Iowa State University
Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living
Systems, Biorheology, Mass Transfer in Biological
Mineralization
R. E. BUXBAUM
Ph.D., Princeton University
Chemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion, Dif-
fusivities and Separation Rates from Theory and Ex-
periment.
C. M. COOPER
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of
Transport Processes
A .L. DeVERA
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame
Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Trans-
port Properties of Random Heterogeneous Media,
Applied Mathematics, Catalytic Gasification of Carbon,
Shape Selectivity Reactions on Zeolites

E. A. GRULKE
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Food Engineering, Membranes Separations, and
Polymer Engineering
M. C. HAWLEY
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas,
and Reaction Engineering
K. JAYARAMAN
Ph.D., Princeton University
Simplification of Process Models, Parameter
Estimation, Rheology of Suspensions and Polymers
D. J. MILLER
Ph.D., University of Florida
Catalytic Reaction Kinetics and Catalyst
Characterization, Gas-Solid Reactions, and
Modeling of Stochastic Processes
C. A. PETTY
Ph.D., University of Florida
Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena,
Solid-Fluid Separations
B. W. WILKINSON
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear

Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
173 Engineering Building, Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824

MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution

FALL 1982

Department of Chemical Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

ROLLA, MISSOURI 65401

Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman

Day Programs

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

FACULTY AND RESEARCH INTERESTS

D. AZBEL (D.Sc., Mendeleev ICT-Moscow)-Dis-
persed Two-Phase Flow, Coal Gasification and
Liquefaction.

N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado)-Computer Aided
Process Design, Bioconversion.
O. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice)-Transport Properties,
Kinetics, Catalysis.

M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida)-Biochemical
Studies, Biomass Utilization

J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. Illinois-Chicago)-Chemical
kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo-
dynamics.

J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode Re-
actions, Corrosion.

Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor
Design.

P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-Interfacial
Phenomena

G. K. PATTERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Turbu-
lence, Mixing, Mixed Reactors, Polymer Rheology.
B. E. POLING (Ph.D., Illinois)-Kinetcis, Energy
Storage, Catalysis.

X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota)-Fluid Me-
chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena,
Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure.

O. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Bioengineer-
ing
R. C. Waggoner (Ph.D., Texas A&M)-Multistage
Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Extraction,
Process Control.

H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse)-
Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech-
nology, Plasma Polymerization. Biomedical Ma-
terials.

D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics,
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium.

Ijp Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

- ROLLA

Full Text