Chemical engineering education

Material Information

Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Publication Date:
Annual[ FORMER 1960-1961]
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
periodical ( marcgt )
serial ( sobekcm )


Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01151209 ( OCLC )
70013732 ( LCCN )
0009-2479 ( ISSN )
TP165 .C18 ( lcc )
660/.2/071 ( ddc )

UFDC Membership

Chemical Engineering Documents


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chemical engineering education



FALL 1982


Reg ctch Oa@..


Goa44e in ...



* Maoer
. Welland, Taylor

. Dullien
. Seapan
. Skates

SPOLYRnm A ...


. Baird, Wilkes

1981 AIChE-EPC SURVEY a Barker

ac4uwdleSes and tanhS....




mait a doA-sa oj wu'A.

Cddaiz tat

A Letter to Chemical Engineering Seniors
This is the 14th Graduate Issue to be published by CEE
and distributed to chemical engineering seniors interested
in and qualified for graduate school. As in our previous
issues, we include articles on graduate courses and re-
search at various universities and announcements of de-
partments on their graduate programs. In order for you to
obtain a broad idea of the nature of graduate work, we
encourage you to read not only the articles in this issue,
but also those in previous issues. A list of the papers from
recent years follows. If you would like a copy of a pre-
vious Fall issue, please write CEE.
Ray Fahien, Editor, CEE
University of Florida


Butt, Kung

Chen, et al
Gubbins, Street

Guin, et al

Edgar, Schecter
Perkins, Pyle
Senkan, Vivian

Morari, Ray

Russel, Saville,



Butt & Peterson




Carbonell &


Fall 1981
"Classical Thermodynamics"
"Catalysis & Catalytic Reaction
"Parametric Pumping"
"Molecular Thermodynamics and
Computer Simulation"
"Coal Liquefaction & Desulfurization"
"Oil Shale Char Reactions"
"Kinetics and Catalysis"
"ChE Analysis"
"Underground Processing"
"Separation Processes"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
Fall 1980
"Polymer Fluid Dynamics"
"In Situ Processing"
"Wall Turbulence"
"Chemical Reactors"
"Systems Modelling & Control"

"Process Synthesis"
"Polymerization Reaction Engineering"
"Combustion Science & Technology"
"Plant Engineering at Loughborough"
"MIT School of ChE Practice"
Fall 1979
"Doctoral Level ChE Economics"
"Molecular Theory of Thermodynamics"
"Courses in Polymer Science"
"Integration of Real-Time Computing
Into Process Control Teaching"
"Functional Analysis for ChE's"

"Colloidal Phenomena"
"Structure of the Chemical Processing
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Mathematical Methods in ChE"
"Coal Liquefaction Processes"



Blanch, Russell

Bailey & Ollis


Gates, et al.
Melnyk & Prober
Hamrin, et. al.

Fall 1978
"Horses of Other Colors-Some Notes
on Seminars in a ChE Department'
"Chemical Reactor Engineering"
"Influential Papers in Chemical Re-
action Engineering"
"A Graduate Course in Polymer Pro-
"Reactor Design From a Stability
"The Dynamics of Hydrocolloidal
"Coal Science and Technology"
"Transport Phenomena in Multicom-
ponent, Multiphase, Reacting

Fall 1977
"Fundamental Concepts in Surface In-
"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Chemical Reaction Engineering Sci-
"Biochemical Engineering"
"Polymer Science and Engineering"

Fall 1976

"Electrochemical Engineering"
"Biochemical Engr. Fundamentals"
"Food Engineering"
"Distillation Dynamics & Control"
"Fusion Reactor Technology"
"Environmental Courses"
"Ad Bubble Separation Methods"
"Intro. Polymer Science & Tech."
"The Engineer as Entrepeneur"
"Energy, Mass and Momentum Trans-

Fall 1975
"Modern Thermodynamics"
"Heterogeneous Catalysis"
"Dynamical Syst. & Multivar. Control"
"Digital Computations for ChE's"
"Industrial Pollution Control"
"Separation Process"
"Enzyme Catalysis"

Fall 1974
"Digital Computer Control of Process"
"Solid-State Materials and Devices"
"Multivariable Control and Est."
"Chemistry of Catalytic Process"
"Advanced Thermodynamics"
"Wastewater Engineering for ChE's"
"Enzyme and Biochemical Engr."
"Synthetic & Biological Polymers"
"Energy Engineering"

FALL 1982

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Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Editor: Ray Fahien (904) 392-0857
Associate Editor: Mack Tyner
Editorial & Business Assistant:
Carole C. Yocum (904) 392-0861
Publications Board and Regional
Advertising Representatives:

Lee C. Eagleton
Pennsylvania State University

Past Chairman:
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Chemical Engineering Education



FALL 1982


148 Oxidative Dehydrogenation Over Ferrite Catalysts,
Joe W. Hightower

152 Nucleate Boiling, Russell Mesler
158 Mass Transfer, Ralph H. Weiland and Ross Taylor

164 Fundamentals of Petroleum Production,
F. A. L. Dullien

168 Air Pollution for Engineers, Mayis Seapan

178 Catalysis, J. M. Skaates


174 Polymer Education and Research
Donald G. Baird and Garth L. Wilkes


182 Curriculum
1981 AIChE-EPC Survey, Dee H. Barker

186 Class and Home Problems
Mine Mouth Geyser Problem, Noel De Nevers

190 Stirred Pots
Research is Engineering, John B. Fenn

196 International
Graduate Education in Mexico,
Enrico N. Martinez and Roman Gomez

157 In Memoriam William H. Corcoran

167 Division Activities

167-205 Book Reviews

172 Positions Available

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1982 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.

FALL 1982

Rieeaacw on



Rice University
Houston, TX 77001

A COMPLETE STUDY OF heterogeneous catalytic
reactions should include the reaction path-
ways, kinetics, mechanisms, rate limiting steps,
nature of the active sites, solid state effects, de-
activation, and transport properties. It is
normally very difficult to obtain reliable informa-
tion about all these factors for a single system.
However, in the case of butadiene production
from n-butenes via catalytic oxidative dehydro-
genation, we have been able to approach this ob-
jective. The purpose of this paper is to summarize
results obtained during the last several years with
ferrite catalysts [1, 2].

Two major catalytic approaches have been
used commercially to prepare butadiene. The first

Joe W. Hightower received his B.S. in Chemistry and Math at
Harding College and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry at The
Johns Hopkins University. He has been a Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Rice University since 1970. He has served on numerous
committees, is Chairman of the ACS Petroleum Research Fund Ad-
visory Board for 1982-1984, and received the 1982 Jefferson Award
for Public Service in Houston. His research interests include hetero-
geneous catalysis, mechanisms of catalytic reactions, kinetics and ad-
sorption in heterogeneous systems, and isotopic tracer techniques. He
was the recipient of the 1973 Award in Petroleum Chemistry.

is direct dehydrogenation over a chromia/alumina
or promoted iron oxide catalyst [3, 4], viz.

C4H8 C4H6 + H2

K371C_ 04

Although the reaction is relatively selective, it
suffers from being thermodynamically limited
(requires high temperature and low partial pres-
sures), endothermic (requires addition of costly
heat), and coke-forming (loss of hydrocarbons).
A second approach involves addition of oxygen
to the feed hydrocarbon stream to remove the
hydrogen as water, viz.

C4H8 + 1/2 02-C4H6 H20

*CO2 + H20

Kvic- +13

In contrast to straight dehydrogenation, this re-
action (2) is essentially irreversible and auto-
thermal. Unfortunately, the addition of gaseous
oxygen can lead to deep oxidation (total com-
bustion to CO2 and H20, as illustrated in reaction
(3). This reaction of course decreases the yield
of butadiene. In fact, from the equilibrium
constants given in Eqs. (2) and (3), it is obvious
that only CO, and HO2 would be the products if
thermodynamics alone were controlling the
product selectivity. Of the several catalysts that
give good selectivities (>90% butadiene at low
conversion), ferrites are among the most notable.
Ferrites are well-crystallized spinel oxides (or
partially inverted spinels) that have the general

M Fe2 04

where M can be any of a number of alkaline earth
or transition metal ions, e.g. Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, etc.
The work described herein will be limited to mag-
nesium ferrite.

( Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


K37IC-1*21 (3)


When oxygen and butenes are passed over
MgFe204, both the desired butadiene and some
by-product CO2 are formed. The CO2 may come
directly from burning butene (reaction II) or
from burning the product butadiene (reaction
III), as illustrated by the scheme

C4H8 -- (C4H6)

co 2

By adding a small amount of very highly radio-
active butadiene to the reactant butene/02 mix-
ture and examining the radioactivity in the CO2
as a function of time, one can quantitatively deter-
mine the relative reaction rates [5]. If none of the
radioactivity appears in the CO2, the rate ratio rm/
rn- = 0. For maximum production of butadiene
in this case, one would want to carry out the re-
action at the highest possible conversion. On the
other hand, if all the CO2 were formed by burning
butadiene, the initial specific activity of the CO,
(after correction for the different number of
C atoms in the two molecules) would be exactly
the same as that of the butadiene from which
it was exclusively formed. The rate ratio rIm/
rn in this case would be infinity.
In our case with magnesium ferrite [1] the
rate ratio rm1/rI is about 1.5 at approximately
50% conversion of the butene. This implies the
existence of an optimal degree of conversion in
order to maximize butadiene yield. Too high a
conversion will raise the product butadiene con-
centration to the point where it will be rapidly
combusted to CO2. Moreover, a plug flow reactor
will give a much higher selectivity to butadiene
than will a CSTR. It is also advantageous to add
the reactive oxygen a little at a time at various
points along the reactor bed instead of carrying
the entire lot of 02 all the way through the reactor
where it can cause combustion. Steam also helps
to moderate the exothermic reaction and minimize
hot spot formation.

Over MgFeO4 the major OXD reaction (2)
is zero order in oxygen and near first order in
the partial pressure of n-butene. Neither CO, nor
butadiene affects the rate significantly in the pres-

Since electrical conductivity
is primarily a surface phenomenon,
we postulated that there should be notable
changes in this parameter as the catalyst is
transformed from the oxidized to
the reduced state.

sure range studied. The reaction orders were de-
termined by varying the partial pressures one
at a time (making sure not to get into the ex-
plosion regime!) and noting the effect on the
initial reaction rate. These results suggest a Lang-
muir-Hinshelwood model with the 02 and C4H.
being adsorbed noncompetitively on neighboring
sites. If the 02 were adsorbed dissociatively, the
rate equation can be written as

rBD= B Bp OB (6)

where K02 and KB are the adsorption equilibrium
constants for 02 and butene, respectively, and k
is the zero order Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate
constant. The O's are fraction coverage of the re-
spective surface sites by oxygen and butene. When
02 is strongly adsorbed (i.e. VKo,02> >1) and
butene is weakly adsorbed (i.e. KBPB<<1), the
rate of butadiene formation rB, reduces to

rBD 2 k KB PB

which fits the observed kinetic data.
At higher partial pressures, terms must be
added in the denominator to account for inhibi-
tion by steam and butadiene.

During the OXD reaction at temperatures as
high as 4000C, there is very little isomerization
of the n-butenes. For example, if the starting
hydrocarbon is 1-butene, it remains 1-butene
until it either is partially oxidized to butadiene
or burned to CO2. Very few 2-butenes are ob-
served. This implies that the reaction may be
relatively simple with two H atoms being removed
as shown below.

It #

FALL 1982

A mixture of 1:1 = CIHs:C4Ds (in presence of a
stoichiometric amount of 02) was used to test this
reaction scheme. Indeed there was essentially no
scrambling of H and D atoms among the mole-
cules, as the only OXD products formed were
C4H6 and CDe. Furthermore, the lightweight
C4H8 molecules reacted about 2.5 times more
rapidly than did the heavier C4D, molecules, which
indicates a large primary kinetic isotope effect
and pinpoints the rate limiting step in the reaction.

C4H )H (2.) (9)
C4D8 I C4D6 I

Since the C-D bond has a lower zero point energy
than does the C-H bond [6], such an isotope effect
would be expected if cleavage of a carbon-hydro-
gen bond were involved in the rate limiting step.
In other words, C-D bonds are more difficult to
break than are C-H bonds.
This kind of information is useful in develop-
ment of more active catalysts. If one could in-

o a
m .... 2- BUTENE



i ;



pi I '

- rO oi -I
0 0 0 0


FIGURE 1. Electrical conductivity measurements on
pellet of CoFe204 at 4000 C; effect of change in
gaseous environment. (Note: This figure should be
rotated 900 and read with "Time, Mins" at the bottom.)

clude in the catalyst recipe a pinch of C-H bond
breaking ability and still keep all other parameters
the same, a more active catalyst should result.
Such information is critical in establishing the
point where additional research may be pro-

Much previous research has clearly es-
tablished that this type of general reaction in-
volves an oxidation/reduction cycle with some
component of the catalyst being alternately
oxidized and reduced [7-9]. Chemical intuition
would suggest that it is the iron switching between
the Fe+2 and Fe+3 states that provides this
property. Magnesium is not easily reduced. Such
a switch might occur if oxygen were alternately
added to and removed from the surface. In other
words, a reduced Fe+2 might react with gaseous
02 to form an oxide surface species, viz.

Fe2 *2. 1 02 -- Fe.3 O

These 0- ions might then dissociate the C-H bonds
in butene to form an adsorbed C4H, species and an
OH- ion. A second such hydroxyl ion formation
would result in adsorbed C4H6 (perhaps negatively
charged) which can release an electron to reduce
the Fe+3 back to Fe2+ and finally desorb into the
gas phase as butadiene. Two OH groups might
coalesce to split out HO and regenerate the site
on which more 02 can adsorb.
Evidence for this sequence of events comes
from some electrical conductivity measurements
made with a cobalt ferrite catalyst [10]. Since
electrical conductivity is primarily a surface phe-
nomenon, we postulated that there should be
notable changes in this parameter as the catalyst
is transformed from the oxidized to the reduced
state. To test this, a pellet of the catalyst was
prepared by compressing the powder in an infra-
red pellet press. Two electrical leads were at-
tached, and the pellet was placed inside a reactor
connected to a vacuum system through which
different gases could be admitted.
The pellet was first exposed to oxygen and
evacuated at about 4000C. Presumably this left
the catalyst surface in a fully oxidized state, Fe*3.
The conductivity was low and remained low during
the evacuation. However, when 2-butene was ad-
mitted at the same temperature (see point B,
Figure 1), the conductivity rapidly increased. At




m -

From this information one can draw a cyclic representation of the chemistry that is occurring.
Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on active centers located near the edge of a crystallite. In the
reduced state a surface oxygen ion is missing anionn vacancy, O). If the lattice were to be continued in the
vertical direction, another iron atom would be located above the oxide layer (cation vacancy 0), ..

the same time, a small amount of butadiene was
observed to form in the reactor. The amount cor-
responded approximately to 1 butadiene mole-
cule/surface O atom (assuming the surface is
covered with O- ions each occupying 10A2 of sur-
face space). This would leave the surface in a "re-
duced" state according to the equation

FeO3 + C4H8 Fe+2 C4H6 + H20 (II)
By moving in the direction of a more "metallic-
like" reduced surface, one might expect the ma-
terial to be a better conductor than in the oxide
state, as was observed. The slow increase in the
conductivity after the initial rapid rise may have
been due to slow removal of bulk O atoms.
Addition of O, (Point D) quickly returned
the catalyst to its oxidized condition, which it re-
tained during brief evacuation.
At Point E a stoichiometric mixture for the
OXD reaction (C4Hs:02 = 2:1) was admitted,
and both reactions (2) and (3) proceeded. Be-
cause the deep oxidation reaction (3) requires a
lot of oxygen, the gaseous 02 is depleted before
the butene is all consumed (Point F). At this
point, reactions (2) and (3) cease, and the
catalyst is reduced by the unreacted butene, as in
reaction (11). Accordingly, the conductivity in-
creases rapidly. Note that so long as there is any
gaseous 0., the catalyst remains in the fully
oxidized state. This is evidence that oxygen is
very strongly adsorbed.

From this information one can draw a cyclic
representation of the chemistry that is occurring.
Let us imagine that the reaction takes place on
active centers located near the edge of a crystal-
lite. In the reduced state a surface oxygen ion is
missing anionn vacancy, 0). If the lattice were
to be continued in the vertical direction, another
iron atom would be located above the oxide layer
(cation vacancy, 0), as shown below.



C0 -H C046 H
0 H H/ '0 0
F0 0 ,, 1

/ F-3

/ N BF,

1/2 02

2Fe'2 *2 FeH20
FIGURE 2. Proposed cyclic scheme for OXD reaction
occurring on MgFe24O catalyst. Oxidation/
reduction of Fe, adsorption/desorption
from cation vacancy U and anion vacancy
O active site pairs. The symbol A indicates
rate limiting step.
These two vacancies are assumed to be the inde-
pendent sites suggested by the Langmuir-Hinshel-
wood kinetics. Butene presumably adsorbs re-
versibly on the cation sites, and 02 reacts with
the anion vacancy to oxidize the Fe+2 to Fe+3. As
the reaction progresses in a clockwise direction
(see Figure 2), two H atoms are sequentially re-
moved from the butene and placed on the oxide
ions. Reduction occurs when the butadiene is re-
leased into the gas phase, and condensation of
two hydroxyl groups (along with water removal)
returns the catalyst to the reduced state shown
in (12).
The fact that no radioactivity appears in the
butenes when butadiene-14C is admitted supports
the irreversible clockwise direction within this
scheme. The absence of isomerization and H/D
scrambling among the hydrocarbon molecules
confirms the directional irreversibility.

So far I've presented only the good news. Un-
fortunately, the MgFe20, catalyst slowly loses its
activity irreversibly. The deactivation is not
caused by coke build-up, and alternate oxidation/
reduction cycling during pretreatment will not
regenerate the catalyst. This suggests that some
Continued on page 204.

FALL 1982

iReea4ch 0o


University of Kansas
Lawrence, KS 66045

RESEARCH TAKES AN especially exciting turn
when it requires us to revise our views of long
held beliefs. Such is the case of recent research
results concerning nucleate boiling. Although the
picture is by no means complete, it appears
possible that we may be changing several of our
views concerning nucleate boiling.
Nucleate boiling is a familiar topic to any
chemical engineer. All heat transfer texts devote
sections to it in which the rudimentary facts are
stated. All such treatments advise that nucleate
boiling is a complicated subject and that it is not
possible to go into a detailed discussion of the
Nucleate boiling is classified as convective heat
transfer. It is unusual convection on at least three
counts. First, because of the latent heat, great
quantities of heat can be exchanged with only a
little change in temperature as long as liquid re-
mains on the surface. Second, the density changes
resulting from heat transfer are very large com-
pared to usual convection. Third, it is only at a
vapor-liquid interface that heat can be absorbed
and vapor generated.
It is perhaps this third aspect that is most re-
sponsible for making nucleate boiling so in-
scrutable. Most of the vapor-liquid interface in
boiling is provided by bubbles, but where do
bubbles come from? Bubbles have short lives,
escaping once they become large. A large source
of nuclei is required.
It is important to recognize that liquids often
resist the tendency to form bubbles. In the
organic chemistry laboratory it is well known that
liquids in a glass flask will superheat above their
usual boiling point. Suddenly, when ebullition

Suddenly, when ebullition does
start, the boiling is so vigorous that the contents
of the flask are likely to be expelled and
wind up on the lab bench.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

Russell Mesler is the Warren S. Bellows Professor of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Kansas. His interest in nucleate boil-
ing began in 1953 when he embarked on his doctoral research at the
University of Michigan. He was a faculty member at the University
of Michigan before coming to the University of Kansas in 1957.

does start, the boiling is so vigorous that the
contents of the flask are likely to be expelled and
wind up on the lab bench. The solution to the
problem is the use of a boiling chip to reduce
superheating and maintain steady ebullition.
The phenomenon of superheating is attributed
to the action of surface tension. The pressure
inside a small static spherical bubble is higher
than outside by twice the surface tension over the
radius, 2o-/r. Such a static bubble would be in
unstable equilibrium. If it were only slightly
smaller, the increased pressure would tend to
collapse it and if it were slightly larger, it would
tend to grow and rise and thus escape.
The action of a solid on the stability of small
bubbles is well exemplified by boiling chips. A
boiling chip is able to retain gas or vapor on its
surfaces and thus provides a vapor-liquid inter-
face deep in the liquid able to generate vapor
when the liquid becomes supersaturated. The
vapor breaks away as bubbles rising to the surface
but leaving behind some vapor from which the
next bubble can grow.
Nucleate boiling is often characterized by the
tendency for bubbles to rise repeatedly from
certain points on the surface when boiling at low
heat flux. These points are described as nucleation
sites. They are thought to act as do boiling chips


by stabilizing a vapor-liquid interface on the
Usually nucleation sites become active only
after the surface temperature rises significantly
above the boiling point. It is possible with very
smooth surfaces to achieve even higher superheats
before ebullition occurs, as in a glass flask. Once
ebullition starts more nucleation sites become
active, often with only a slight increase in surface
temperature. It is only at low heat flux that the
individual bubbles and nucleation sites can be
effectively studied. At just a modest heat flux
bubbles begin to merge and with just a bit more
heat flux the commotion becomes so great that it
is impossible to discern much detail at the center
of activity. Views near the edge of a boiling sur-
face may not be representative of the rest.
Because of the visual difficulty of studying
bubbles at even modest heat fluxes most of the
studies of bubbles have been made at low heat
fluxes. The results of these studies have then
been extrapolated to explain nucleate boiling at
higher heat flux where applications are common.
At high heat fluxes more vapor is generated.
In escaping the surface it pushes back the liquid
and establishes a vapor region just above the
surface. This leaves a film of liquid on the surface
that becomes especially important in the transfer
of heat [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
Nucleate boiling is limited in its ability to
transfer heat. Exceeding what is called the peak
heat flux leads to the drying off of the surface.
Without liquid the surface is unable to lose heat
fast enough and the surface temperature rises
unless the heat supply is reduced.
A surprising fact is that higher heat fluxes
are possible if the depth of liquid on the surface
is a few mm rather than much deeper [6]. Main-
taining a film on the surface with a spray or with
a jet permits even higher peak heat fluxes
[4, 7, 8, 9].
Boiling is not the only process involving a
phase transition in which nucleation is important.
Another is crystallization. In crystallization,
crystal nuclei initiate crystal formation.
There are a number of similarities between
crystal nucleation and vapor bubble nucleation.
Both crystals and vapor bubbles will grow on
surface imperfections such as scratches and pits.
Crystallization also exhibits tribonucleation [10].
Crystallization is initiated by rubbing or dragging
a stirring rod along the bottom of a beaker. Vapor

Nucleate boiling is often
characterized by the tendency for bubbles
to rise repeatedly from certain points on the
surface when boiling at low heat flux. These
points are described as nucleation sites.

nuclei can be produced in the same fashion.
There is another source for crystal nuclei for
which no similar source of vapor bubbles has
been reported. It is called secondary nucleation
and is the production of nuclei from the break-up
of larger crystals [11]. This source of nuclei is the
most important one in industrial applications.

The reason secondary nucleation has never
been seriously considered for nucleate boiling is
probably because it was not easy to see how any
of the abundant vapor could be returned to the
liquid to serve as nuclei. Without a process for the
return of vapor to the liquid it was impossible to
see how secondary nucleation could occur in nucle-
ate boiling.
The first clue to a process for secondary
nucleation came in research on boiling in a thin
liquid film [12, 13]. Nucleate boiling was studied
on the outside of a vertical, steam-heated, copper
tube. High speed motion pictures showed that
when a bubble burst, bubble nuclei appeared
where the bubble had just burst.
The next clue came in an experiment with
superheated water in a glass tube [14]. An air
bubble was formed in the water and was allowed
to rise and burst at the surface. Soon after it
burst, clusters of bubble nuclei appeared beneath
the surface and these nuclei grew and coalesced
to form a vapor bubble. When this bubble burst
it too produced a cluster of nuclei beneath the
surface. Viewing the high speed motion pictures
of the event gave the impression that nuclei came
from the top film of the bubble crashing upon the
surface following the bursting of the bubble.

At this juncture a study of the tendency for
small drops to entrain bubbles seemed appropri-
ate. With just the simplest experiments using
only an eye dropper and a beaker it was obvious
that drops do entrain bubbles. With this en-
couragement high speed motion pictures were
taken of drops falling several feet into water [15].
It was soon learned that entrainment occurred

FALL 1982

not upon initial impact but later when the splash
fell back upon the surface. This led to experiments
with short falls where it was learned, by dying
the drop, that when a dyed water drop strikes a
water surface it usually produces a vortex ring.
Furthermore, with optimized lighting it was seen
that the vortex rings carry tiny bubbles on their
axes as they plunge beneath the surface. See
Figures 1 and 2.
Drop-formed vortex rings were news to us.
Once one knows about them it's not difficult to find
that they've been known a long time. They were
described in an 1858 paper by W. B. Rogers [16]
before he founded MIT. They are not mentioned
in most texts on fluid mechanics, except for
Sommerfield [17] and Batchelor [18]. A recent
book Bubbles, Drops and Particles [19] includes no
mention of them. Apparently few researchers
have had occasion to learn of them.
We found that researchers at Los Alamos were
not familiar with them. They developed a tech-
nique to solve the Navier-Stokes equations
numerically with a computer [20, 21] and applied
their method to the prediction of the behavior of
a drop striking a pool of water. They could only
solve for short falls. They compared their results
to experiments with drops falling from greater
heights. They found agreement and concluded that
their method was sound, unaware that drops fall-
ing from short distances behave differently [22].
Now that drop-formed vortex rings have been
recognized as providing a mechanism for second-
ary nucleation, it is pertinent to consider how im-
portant secondary nucleation might be. Vortex
rings are capable of providing nuclei away from
the interface. The tiny bubbles are carried within
the rings wrapped in layers that come from near

! -r I

FIGURE 1. Examples of a drop-formed vortex ring en-
training air bubbles.

FIGURE 2. Sketch of a drop-formed vortex ring show-
ing entrained and escaped bubbles.
the surface and the impinging drop that likely
have temperatures close to saturation. The tiny
bubbles are shielded from the local environment
through which they are carried. If they escape to
a hotter environment they can begin rapid growth.
The fact that clusters of bubble nuclei are seen
later beneath the surface when a bubble bursts on
a superheated pool fits these circumstances.
When a bubble bursts on the surface, does its
top film form drops that in turn form vortex
rings? A bubble about 2 cm in diameter was
blown from a detergent solution colored with food
dye and placed on the surface of clear water. It
was ruptured soon after placement and a picture
was taken looking down on the surface. The
picture showed tiny rings and bubbles where the
miniscus had been [15]. Apparently the rings were
vortex rings.
Another interesting aspect is the behavior of
a vortex ring as it approaches a wall. It plows
right in and spreads out, giving the impression
that the tiny bubbles it might carry would be de-
livered very close to the wall. If the wall was a
heater surface the tiny bubbles would seem to be
delivered to a region of high temperature.
Although it goes unnoticed by current texts, it
is possible to improve the performance of nucleate
boiling by the simple means of boiling in thin
liquid films. An early indication of this came from
Japanese engineers who studied nucleate boiling
on a horizontal surface with varying depths of
liquid covering the surface [23, 24]. At depths
below 5 mm, surface temperatures were lower and
were lowest just before the surface dried off with
the surface only partially covered with liquid.



They offered no explanation for the observation
but did note that nucleation increased at lower
liquid depths. Others have reported similar re-
sults [25, 26]. Boiling in thin liquid films offers
an ideal opportunity for secondary nucleation to
occur. When boiling thin liquid films, bubbles burst
from the top of the film not far from the heater
surface. Drops formed when a bubble bursts
should be drawn into the film on the surface.
Vortex rings formed by these drops would be well
positioned to carry entrained bubbles to the sur-
face. Near the surface the entrained bubbles
would be exposed to the highest temperatures
around. Whether secondary nucleation is indeed
responsible for the better performance of boiling
in thin liquid films cannot be said at present but
it seems like a good bet. This would seem to be a
a likely candidate for further research.
One advantage of boiling from thin liquid films
is that nucleate boiling can be achieved at lower
surface temperatures and at lower heat fluxes.
This is especially important in low heat flux ap-
plications where, judging only from boiling from
submerged surfaces, nucleate boiling would not
seem possible.
Nucleate boiling from thin films can be im-
proved even more by the addition of traces of sur-
factants to water. This was reported by the Japan-
ese and also more recently in desalination equip-
ment [23, 27, 28]. Preliminary experiments in our
laboratory show that surfactants increase nuclea-
tion, apparently from secondary nucleation.
There have been numerous studies of nucleate
boiling on horizontal or vertical tubes or on verti-
cal flat surfaces [28, 29, 30]. These studies have
generally indicated better performance than
nucleate boiling on submerged surfaces and the
improvement has generally been attributed to the
flow in the film. Not one of these studies has made
any recognition that similar improvements occur
when nucleate boiling occurs in thin liquid films
on horizontal surfaces where there is no imposed
Most texts on heat transfer describe flow boil-
ing as being different from nucleate boiling on a
submerged surface. In flow boiling, liquid is pro-
gressively converted to vapor so that a number of
flow regimes exist along the flow. The pre-
dominant flow regime is annular flow with a liquid
film on the wall. Early work hypothesized that in
the annular flow region heat transfer was so
good that it must be forced convection and that,
consequently, nucleate boiling was surpressed [31].

The support for this hypothesis has recently been
reanalyzed and found not to support the hypothe-
sis [32]. Annular flow would seem to offer an ideal
situation for secondary nucleation to augment
nucleate boiling heat transfer.
In vigorous boiling on a submerged surface
the view of the bubble activity is obscured. Extra-
polating results on bubble nucleation at lower heat
fluxes suggests that at higher heat fluxes more
surface sites come into play. An alternate hypothe-
sis is that at high heat fluxes secondary nucleation
supplies the additional nuclei. The circumstances
would seem to permit secondary nucleation in
the same way as has been suggested for nucleate
boiling in thin films. At high heat fluxes vapor
does push the liquid away leaving the surface wet
with a film of liquid. It would seem possible for
drops to form from bubbles bursting from this
film or perhaps from all the commotion above the
surface. Drops striking the film would be well
positioned to cause secondary nucleation. Current
literature mentions only the former hypothesis,
so the latter has not been ruled out. Who can say
which hypothesis is more nearly correct? More
research can help decide.
Secondary nucleation can also offer alternate
hypotheses for two other characteristics of nucle-
ate boiling. When heat flux is plotted against
surface temperature excess over saturation, one
obtains what is often called the boiling curve. The
upper portion of the curve often moves in a
parallel fashion to higher or lower temperature
differences because of aging or other obscure
reasons. It is usually said that changes in the
nucleation characteristics of the surface are re-
sponsible for the shift. An alternate hypothesis is
that changes in nucleation on the surface effects
only the lower portion of the curve and that
secondary nucleation ensues to move the rest of
the curve.
The other characteristic is hysteresis in which
surface temperatures are higher as the heat
flux is increased but lower as it is decreased. On
increasing heat flux it sometimes occurs that after
bubbles begin to coalesce the surface temperature
suddenly falls. The usual explanation for this is
that new nucleation sites have acquired vapor and
became active. The alternate hypothesis is that
when bubbles begin to merge a new flow regime is
established which favors secondary nucleation.

Secondary nucleation definitely occurs in

FALL 1982


nucleate boiling. Indications are that drop-formed
vortex rings are responsible for entraining tiny
bubbles to serve as nuclei for secondary nuclea-
tion. How important secondary nucleation is in
submerged boiling remains to be shown, but it
seems likely to be responsible for the improved
performance of nucleate boiling in thin liquid films
with and without surfactants. Research oppor-
tunities abound in evaluating these new develop-
ments. O


Most of the research on nucleate boiling has
been supported by the National Science Founda-
tion. A sabbatical leave spent at Berkeley Nuclear
Laboratories in England with R. B. Duffey helped
to develop some of the research. Kenneth Carroll,
Tom Yu, Ted Bergman, Gregg Mailen and other
students are in large measure responsible for
our progress.


1. Kirby, D. B. and Westwater, "Bubble and Vapor Be-
havior on a Heated Horizontal Plate During Pool
Boiling Near Burnout," AIChE Symposium Series,
No. 57, 61, 238 (1965).
2. Katto, Y. S., Yokoya, S, and Yasunaka, M., "Mechan-
ism of Boiling Crisis and Transition Boiling in Pool
Boiling," Heat Transfer 1970, Vol. V., B3.2, Elsevier,
New York (1970).
3. Ida, Yoshihiro and Kobayashi, Kirjosi, "Distribution
of Void Fraction Above a Horizontal Heating Surface
in Pool Boiling" Bulletin JSME, 12, 283 (1969).
4. Mesler, R., "A Mechanism Supported by Extensive
Experimental Evidence to Explain High Heat Fluxes
Observed During Nucleate Boiling," AIChE Journal,
22, 246 (1976).
5. Yu, Chi-Liang, and Mesler, R. B., "A Study of
Nucleate Boiling Near the Peak Heat Flux Through
Measurement of Transient Surface Temperature,"
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20, 827 (1977).
6. Patten, T. D. and Turmeau, W. A., "Some Character-
istics of Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Layers,"
Heat Transfer 1970, Vol. V, B2.10, Elsevier, New
York, 1970.
7. Kopchikov, I. A., Voronin, G. I., Kolcah, T. A.,
Labuntsov, D. A., and Lebedev, P. D., "Liquid Boiling
in a Thin Film," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12, 791
8. Copeland, Robert J., "Boiling Heat Transfer to a
Water Jet Impinging a Flat Surface." Ph.D. Thesis,
Southern Methodist University (1971).
9. Toda, Saburo and Uchida, Hideo, "Study of Liquid
Film Cooling with Evaporation and Boiling," Heat
Transfer-Japanese Research, 2, 44 (1973).
10. Hayward, A. T. J., "Tribonucleation of Bubbles,"
British J. Appl. Phys., 18, 641 (1967).
11. Garside, J., Rusli, I. T., and Larson, M. A., "Origin
and Size Distribution of Secondary Nuclei," AIChE

Journal, 25, 57 (1979).
12. Mesler, R. and Mailen, G., "Nucleate Boiling in Thin
Liquid Films," AIChE Journal, 23, 954 (1977).
13. Mesler, R., "Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films,"
Chapter 23, Bubble Phenomena, by Van Stralen and
Cole, McGraw-Hill, New York (1979).
14. Bergman, Theodore and Mesler, Russell, "Bubble
Nucleation Studies Part I: Formation of Bubble
Nuclei in Superheated Water by Bursting Bubbles,"
AIChE Journal, 27, 851 (1981).
15. Carroll, Kenneth and Mesler, Russell, "Bubble Nuclea-
tion Studies Part II: Bubble Entrainment by Drop-
Formed Vortex Rings," AIChE Journal, 27, 853
16. Rogers, W. B., "On the Formation of Rotating Rings
by Air and Liquids Under Certain Conditions of Dis-
charge," Amer. J. Sci. and Arts, Second Series, 26,
246 (1858).
17. Sommerfield, A., Mechanics of Deformable Bodies,
Academic, New York (1950).
18. Batchelor, G. K., An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics,
Cambridge (1967).
19. Clift, R., Grace, J. R. and Weber, M. E., Bubbles,
Drops and Particles, Academic, New York (1978).
20. Harlow, F. H. and Shannon, J. P., "The Splash of a
Liquid Drop," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3855 (1967).
21. "Distortion of a Splashing Liquid Drop,"
Science, 157, 547 (1967).
22. Carroll, Kenneth and Mesler, Russell, "Splashing
Liquid Drops Form Vortex Rings and Not Jets at
Low Froude Numbers," J. Appl. Phys., 52, 507 (1981).
23. Nishikawa, K., Kusuda, H., Yamasaki, K., and Tanaka,
K., "Nucleate Boiling at Low Liquid Levels," Bulletin
JSME, 10, 328 (1967).
24. Kusuda, H. and Nishikawa, K., "A Study of Nucleate
Boiling in Liquid Films," Mem. Faculty Engineer-
ing, Kyushu University, 27, 155 (1967).
25. Marto, P. J., MacKenzie, D. K., and Rivers, A. D.,
"Nucleate Boiling in Thin Liquid Films," AIChE
Symposium Series, 73, No. 164, 228 (1977).
26. Turmeau, W. A., "Studies of Nucleate Boiling in Thin
Liquid Layers," Ph.D. Thesis, Heriot Watt Uni-
versity, Edinburgh (1971).
27. Sephton, Hugo H., "Interface Enhancement for
Vertical Tube Evaporators," ASME Paper 71-HT-38
28. Shah, B. H. and Darby, R., "The Effect of Surfactant
on Evaporative Heat Transfer in Vertical Film
Flow," Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 20, 827 (1977).
29. Fletcher, L. S., Sernas, V. and Galowin, L. S., "Evapo-
ration from Thin Water Films on Horizontal Tubes,"
Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop., 18, 265
30. Norman, W. S., and McIntyre, V., "Heat Transfer to
a Liquid Film on a Vertical Surface," Trans. Instn.
Chem. Engrs., 38, 301 (1960).
31. Dengler, C. E. and Addoms, J. N., "Heat Transfer
Mechanism for Vaporization of Water in a Vertical
Tube," Chem. Eng. Progr. Symposium Ser., 52, No. 18,
95 (1965).
32. Mesler, Russell, "An Alternate to the Dengler and
Addoms Convection Concept of Forced Convection
Boiling Heat Transfer," AIChE Journal, 23, 448


Yin Memnoiawn


William H. Corcoran, 62, Institute Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at the California Institute of Technology, died while vacation-
ing in Hawaii on Saturday, August 21, 1982. Bill is survived by his
wife of nearly 40 years, Martha, son Will Corcoran, Jr. and daughter,
Sally Corcoran Fisher, and six grandchildren. To describe the ac-
complishments and contributions of Bill Corcoran to chemical engi-
neering, engineering education, and to his friends and colleagues
would require many, many pages. During his life, Bill Corcoran at-
tained virtually every honor and recognition available to an engineer-
ing educator, while, at the same time, truly touching the hearts and
minds of all those with whom he came in contact. Ironically, two
weeks before his untimely death, Bill Corcoran prepared a short essay
entitled "My Career as a Chemical Engineer." As a tribute to Bill
Corcoran we now reprint that essay:

My Career as a Chemical Engineer
My professional work began before World War II as
an employee of Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California.
Here my interest in pharmaceuticals and biomedical engi-
neering was sharpened and never left me. In World War
II I was involved with a very excellent group of people at
the California Institute of Technology. We were re-
sponsible for the work on processing of double-base pro-
pellant and interior ballistics of all rocket motors used by
the Navy. One year of that program also concurrently
dealt with ordnance work on the atomic bomb. The rocket
program was very successful, and in my very biased
opinion it contributed in a major way to the quality of our
munitions program in World War II.
Subsequent to World War II I went back to graduate
school, courtesy of the National Research Council. I have
never forgotten the nice fellowships they afforded me,
and today I have an association with the National Re-
search Council by way of its Commission on Engineering
and Technical Systems. That is a pleasure and allows me
to partially pay back the debt I owe them. After receiving
my Ph.D. degree in 1948, I returned to Cutter Laboratories
in Berkeley where for four years I was Director of
Technical Development. The work included process de-
velopment on pharmaceuticals and biologicals, including
fermentation studies on penicillin and deep-culture growth
of useful organisms for manufacture of vaccines. In ad-
dition we did significant work on disposable medical equip-
ment and mass parenteral solutions. My interest in bio-
medical and bioengineering was further intensified by that
In 1952 I returned to the California Institute of
Technology as an Associate Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering and except for a two-year period from 1957 to
1959 I have been associated with the California Institute
of Technology ever since. In the period of 1957 to 1959 I
was Vice President and Scientific Director for Don Baxter

Incorporated, a subsidiary of the American Hospital Supply
Corporation. Here my biomedical work continued.
My work at Caltech in research has related to studies
of nitric acid-nitrogen dioxide-water systems, pyrolysis of
hydrocarbons, flow systems, including work on artificial
heart valves, and desulfurization and supercritical ex-
traction of coal.
Teaching has been a major interest during my profes-
sional career, and I have especially enjoyed the teaching
of my Senior design course entitled "Optimal Design of
Chemical Systems." I have learned so much in the teach-
ing of the course that I can hardly believe what has
happened, and I do have some hopes that the students
learned at the same time. In terms of breadth of oppor-
tunity for a professor I can't think of a course more de-
signed for a professor's development.
In other professional activities I spent 10 years as Vice
President for Institute Relations at the California Institute
of Technology while still maintaining my programs of
teaching and research. In 1978 I had the privilege of being
President of AIChE. Currently I have the pleasure of
working with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology and will be the President for a two-year term
ending in 1984.
Along the way I have had the great fortune to act
as a consultant for the American Hospital Supply Corpora-
tion and the Bechtel Corporation and as a Director of
Superior Farming, the KTI Corporation, and Phytogen,
Incorporated, a genetic engineering firm. There has not
been one dull second. If I had my life to relive, I would
do exactly what I had done previously and probably would
make the same mistakes. Hopefully not. It has been a great
life, with thanks to all the people with whom I have as-
sociated but with special thanks to my wife Martha who
understood from time zero the nature of the profession
and has been a very interested observer and participant
in my professional activities.

FALL 1982

Reeawch ont


Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, NY 13676

A number of aspects of effects of diffusive
mass transfer are currently being investigated
at Clarkson College of Technology. The growth
of crystals as it is affected by diffusion is being
studied by Professors William Wilcox and Gordon
Youngquist. A major investigation of the role of
mass transfer in corrosion is being carried out by
Professor Der Tau Chin. Finally, the role of multi-
component diffusion and chemical reaction in
the classical operations of distillation, absorption
and condensation is under investigation by Drs.
Ross Taylor and Ralph Weiland. These latter
studies form the subject of this article.
It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process
driven by concentration gradients (more precisely,
by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless,
the vast majority of commonly used design
methods are based on equilibrium models that
completely neglect the influence of finite rates of
mass transfer. For example, the equilibrium stage
model of distillation for binary, nonreacting
systems (the McCabe-Thiele method) is well
known to all students of chemical engineering
[1, 2]; however, in practice, binary distillation
takes place almost exclusively in the undergradu-
ate laboratory. Real separations involve multi-
component mixtures (three or more species) and
and this presents a real complication that is the
subject of some of our recent research efforts.
In addition to the problems posed by the
multicomponent nature of most separation pro-
cesses, chemical reaction presents a set of unique
difficulties all of its own. The development of pro-
cedures for the analysis and design of such oper-
ations forms the second thrust of our efforts. De-
spite the fact that a great deal of work has been
published on chemically reactive mass transfer
[3, 4], it is remarkable that so little has been
reported on the application of this extensive
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

S, ,

Ross Taylor is an Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering at
Clarkson College of Technology where he has been since 1980. He
received his BSc, MSc and Ph.D. degrees from the University of
Manchester Institute of Science and Technology in England. (L)
Ralph H. Weiland obtained his B.A. Sc., M.A. Sc., and Ph.D.
degrees in Chem. Eng. at the University of Toronto. Following a two
year postdoctoral appointment in applied mathematics at the Uni-
versity of Western Australia he taught at the Universities of Calgary
and Queensland. He is presently Associate Professor of Chemical
Engineering at Clarkson College of Technology. (R)

fundamental work to the design and analysis of
separation processes of industrial scale.
Finally, when multicomponent mass transfer
is combined with chemical reaction and heat
transfer some really intriguing problems arise.
An example is the condensation of multicom-
ponent vapors when two or more species can react
together in the condensed phase. Nothing at all
appears ever to have been written about this
aspect of mass transfer and a study of it forms
the third part of our general efforts.
In what follows it will be most convenient to
discuss these three main threads of our research
somewhat separately.
Considerable effort has been devoted to the
construction of algorithms for calculating the
equilibrium separation in multicomponent, multi-
stage systems and many ingenious computational
procedures have been devised. The formulation of
the material and energy balance equations in tri-


diagonal and block tridiagonal matrix form
(thereby permitting efficient methods of solution)
has proved particularly efficacious in this area
[1, 2].
While the principle advantage of equilibrium
models is their (relative) simplicity, the primary
disadvantage is that they are fundamentally un-
sound; distillation, absorption, and so on are
certainly not equilibrium operations. If any
successful non-equilibrium model of multicom-
ponent stagewise processes is to be developed, it
must be based on sound mass transfer principles.
This is where the complications set in because the
calculation of mass transfer rates in multicom-
ponent systems is considerably harder than it is
for binary ones.
Diffusion in multicomponent mixtures is
complicated by the coupling that exists between
the individual concentration gradients. The rate
of diffusion of one species is dependent not only
on its own concentration gradient but on all the
other concentration gradients as well. Now, these
individual concentration gradients may have
vastly different magnitudes and signs. Thus, a
possible consequence of the coupling between the
gradients is that a particular species may perme-
ate in opposition to its own concentration gradient,
or may not transfer at all even though a gradient
for it exists. A further possibility is that a species
with no concentration gradient in a particular
medium may be transported through that medium
at significant rates. These "interaction" phenome-
na, which cannot take place in binary mixtures, are
called reverse diffusion, a diffusion barrier and
osmotic diffusion, respectively [5-7].
Practical consequences of diffusional inter-
action phenomena include individual point
efficiencies in tray distillation not all being equal
and not being constrained to lie between zero and
one, both of which conditions hold for binary
mixtures. In fact, they may be found anywhere
in the range oo. This surprising result, a conse-
quence of reverse diffusion, has been confirmed by
experiment [8]. For the same reasons the indi-
vidual "Numbers of Transfer Units" in continuous
contact equipment are not all equal. In a different
setting (a condenser), one of the species may be
evaporating when the objective is its condensa-
Any good model of multicomponent mass
transfer must be able to predict when these phe-
nomena will occur; fortunately, such models are
currently available. Recent years have seen in-

creasing interest in the study of multicomponent
mass transfer and a veritable flood of papers has
appeared. The reader is referred to the major re-
view by Krishna and Standart [6] for develop-
ments to 1979.
Diffusion in multicomponent gas-vapor mix-
tures is accurately described by the Maxwell-
Stefan equations. The complete equations were
first published by the famous Scottish physicist
James Clerk Maxwell in a general article [9] on
diffusion in an early edition of the Encyclopedia
Britannica. Since that time, a number of solutions
with varying degrees of approximation and
generality have appeared. Most applications are

Practical consequences of
diffusional interaction phenomena include
individual point efficiencies in tray distillation
not all being equal and not being constrained
to lie between zero and one, both of which
conditions hold for binary mixtures.

based on a film model of steady-state one-dimen-
sional mass transfer.
There are, currently, four such methods able
to predict the occurrence of the various inter-
action phenomena and which are applicable to
mixtures with any number of constituents regard-
less of the relationship between the fluxes (for
example, transfer through a stagnant gas or equi-
molar counter transfer).
In chronological order of their development
they are:
1. The linearized theory of multicomponent mass trans-
fer developed by Toor [10] and by Stewart and
Prober [11].
2. The method of Krishna and Standart [12] based on
an exact solution of the Maxwell-Stefan equations.
It is worth noting that all of the eight or so sepa-
rately published exact solutions of these equations
(see [6] for sources) are simply different forms or
special cases of a single fundamental result [13].
3. An "alternative linearized theory" proposed re-
cently by Krishna [14, 15].
4. A simplified method developed by Taylor and Smith
All of these methods make use of the proper-
ties of matrices. Methods 1 and 2 usually require
iteration on the fluxes, involve matrix computa-
tions and may suffer convergence problems.
Methods 3 and 4 are explicit in the fluxes. Methods
1 and 2 have been used to predict efficiencies and
Numbers of Transfer Units in distillation and
applied to the simulation of condensers [6]. The
rather limited number of experimental results

FALL 1982

that are available confirm that interaction effects
may sometimes be significant indeed [6, 8, 17-21].
Methods 1 and 2 predict, often to a very satis-
factory degree, the experimentally measured rates
of mass transfer whereas models which neglect
interaction effects, based on the concept of an
effective diffusivity, are inadequate. Methods 3
and 4 have not been tested yet and this is some-
thing we are working on.
Engineering design based on the matrix
methods is necessarily computer based because
of the length and complexity of the calculations
involved. Theoretical papers on mass transfer fre-
quently make claims to the effect that the inclusion
of this or that model into existing design pro-
cedures is straightforward (see, for example, ref.
15). In fact, the combination of design equations

Diffusion in multicomponent
mixtures is complicated by the coupling
that exists between the individual
concentration gradients.

with advanced models of mass transfer is not at
all straightforward because of the nature of the
computations that are required.
Recent research has led to the development of
stable and efficient algorithms for computing intra-
phase mass transfer [20-23]. This, of course, is
only a part of the overall problem because mass
transfer in real systems necessarily involves two
distinct phases. The more practical problem of
computing rates of interphase mass transfer has
been the subject of only very recent investigation
[24, 25]. A number of different computational
algorithms have been developed and these have
proven markedly superior to previously published
procedures. A large part of the problem here is
that the models require extensive physical prop-
erty data that are not always accurately known
and the estimation of which occupies a very major
portion of the total time required. Currently under
way is a computational study to investigate the
sensitivity of the models to uncertainties in basic
It is, of course, possible to compute mass
transfer rates (which are the quantities really
required in design calculations) much more
rapidly from the explicit methods 3 and 4. It is,
therefore, of some interest to know when an ap-
proximate method can be used and what level
of confidence can be ascribed to its predictions.
We have recently compiled statistical informa-

tion on the discrepancies between the fluxes pre-
dicted from the more exact method 2 and those
given by methods 1, 3, 4 and several of the non-
interactive effective diffusivity methods [22]. It
was found that the Toor-Stewart-Prober method
can be expected always to give good estimates of
the fluxes; the explicit method of Krishna [14, 15]
does so if the concentration gradients are low and
the effective diffusivity methods (which just
happen to be those methods used most commonly
in design at present) give good estimates of all
of the fluxes only very rarely. We were pleased
(and not a little surprised) to find that the new
method 4 was in all the many cases examined,
except transfer through a stagnant gas, equivalent
to or superior to all other approximate methods,
although the advantage over the linearized equa-
tions [10, 11] was usually small. (For transfer
through a stagnant gas, method 4 ranks second
best behind method 1). Results to date have been
so promising that applications of the new method
(cf [18-21, 43-45]) are planned and the basic
method is to be extended in the same way that
the assumptions underlying film models 1 and 3
can be extended to other mass transfer situations.
The traditional method of coping with finite
rates of mass transfer in stagewise processes
has been through the concept of a stage efficiency.
Calculation procedures employing the block tri-
diagonal matrix formulation permit the use of a
specified efficiency for each stage [1, 2]. For lack
of other information, this efficiency is always
taken to be the same for all components on any
stage [2], even though, as noted above, modern
theories of mass transfer suggest that this is most
unlikely to be the case. It is our contention that
the concept of stage efficiency is an unnecessary
complication and that multistage units are more
effectively modelled as a sequence of heat and mass
transfer stages.
Along these lines, the material and energy
balance relations for each stage are split into two
parts (one for each phase) and are treated
separately. A term for the constituent mass fluxes
appears in each equation, of different sign for the
different phases. The sum of the two parts gives
the total component material or energy balance
relations that are used in modern block tri-
diagonal algorithms. In fact, the separation of
the balance equations into two parts permits the
retention of the block tridiagonal matrix structure
of the linearized equations and, therefore, of exist-
ing methods for solving such equations. The re-


It is a fact that mass transfer is a rate process driven by concentration gradients (more precisely,
by gradients of chemical potential). Nevertheless, the vast majority of commonly used design methods are based
on equilibrium models that completely neglect the influence of finite rates of mass transfer.

quired mass transfer rates are estimated from
a model that combines stage hydrodynamics and
multicomponent mass transfer. This model can
be as simple or as complicated as desired [30].

Separation operations involving mass transfer
with chemical reaction are typified by a number
of processes for gas purification, particularly those
for the removal of acid gases. Coal gasification
processes produce copious amounts of carbon
dioxide which will have to be removed from the
gas mixture, and in coal liquifacation part of the
product is gas containing much CO2 which lowers
its heating value. Many gas purification processes
employ chemically-reactive solvents which must
be reused; thus, there are two important parts
of such processes, namely gas absorption and
solvent regeneration.
It turns out that the absorption step usually
is of relatively low cost; the solvent regeneration
step, however, is very costly indeed and dominates
the economics, accounting for well over 80% of
the operating costs [31]. With this in mind, the
surprising fact is that it is the gas absorption
step (at least for a single transferring component)
that has been extensively studied [3, 4]. By
contrast, the solvent recovery or stripping oper-
ation has remained virtually unexplored from
either a fundamental or practical viewpoint and
is totally lacking in design methods. If the process
could be understood in a fundamental way to the
extent that the dependence of stripping column
performance on plant operating variables was
predictable, then the real possibility of plant
optimization in terms of reducing energy costs
would exist. Thus, the ultimate objective of this
aspect of our research is to develop design and
analysis procedures founded on a fundamental
understanding of the basic physicochemical pro-
cesses taking place.
Previous literature dealing with gas de-
sorption from chemically-reactive solution is
sparse indeed and most of it addresses the
problem merely as a sideline to a study of the ab-
sorption step of some new process. Notable ex-
ceptions are the experiments of Ellis et al [32]

and McLachlan and Danckwerts [32], although the
former shed little light on the fundamentals. It is
really only in the past year or so that the results
of serious efforts to understand this important
operation have begun to be reported. The stripping
of an already absorbed species from chemically re-
active solvents purely by the action of heating
(and this is the industrially common situation)
has recently been examined from a theoretical
standpoint by Astarita and Savage [34] who in-
corporated the classical two-film theory. The key
result of their analysis was the delineation of the
conditions under which absorption theory (which
is well developed) can be applied to desorption.
In a companion paper, Savage et al. [35] re-
ported absorption and desorption rate data for
the CO,-hot carbonate system and interpreted
the results in terms of their theory. Unlike all
previous studies, one of the more positive aspects
of their work is that it was done in an apparatus
of well-defined geometry and characterizable
hydrodynamics so that, by and large, chemical
kinetics could be nicely separated from mass
transfer effects. The range of solution loadings
covered, however, was insufficient to establish the
influence of this variable. Unfortunately, the data
were interpreted on the basis of negligible gas
phase resistance to mass transfer; whereas, at
least for the CO,-monoethanolamine system,
this resistance is dominant over a certain range of
conditions [36].
Based on the work of Rawal [36] who assumed
that the equilibrium model of Olander [37] applied
to the stripping of carbon dioxide from mono-
ethanolamine solutions (this now seems justified
in the light of ref. 34), we have recently elaborated
on a design procedure for packed stripping
columns using this process [38]. The primary aim
of this work was the prediction of column per-
formance from first principles, based solely on
physicochemical parameters and equilibrium data
specific to the system. For this purpose, the ability
to apply chemical absorption theory, although im-
portant, is only one component of the overall
analysis. The reversibility of the chemical re-
actions is critical in chemical desorption. This
necessarily introduces thermodynamic relations
as an integral part of the theory. Furthermore,

FALL 1982

heat effects cannot be ignored because a sub-
stantial amount of heat must be supplied to effect
the decomposition of the solvent-gas compound
and the liberation of the freed gas from solution.
The implication is that vapor and liquid rates vary
significantly throughout the column, although the
column itself operates substantially isothermally.
We have recently completed an experimental
study of this operation [38] done in a small (6-in.
diameter) reboiled packed column (Fig. 1). While
it must be admitted that the comparison between
model and experiment in this work tended to be
more qualitative than precise, it is useful to note
that many of the trends found were rather
counterintuitive so that the transport process is
by no means a straightforward one. For example,
it was predicted theoretically and confirmed ex-
perimentally in a fairly rough way that at low
solution loadings, increasing liquid rate could
actually decrease the overall mass transfer co-
efficient KOLa. Furthermore, when solution load-
ing was low, the gas-side resistance was found
to be of tremendous importance. This was un-
expected in view of the fact that CO2 has a very


FIGURE 1. Pilot scale packed column (center) used in
solvent regeneration studies. Thermosyphon
reboiler is at left, condenser-reabsorber for
closed cycle operation at right.

low physical solubility and that it is generally
agreed that the mass transfer of sparingly
soluble gases is liquid-phase controlled. Other
operating variables such as operating pressure,
solution loading and amine concentration were
found to have surprising effects as well. Many
of these results stem from the fact that a change
to one operating variable causes changes in a
number of parameters at the same time so that
intuition cannot be relied upon for guidance. A
good model, however, provides unerring advice.
Naturally there are serious problems associ-
ated with trying to test fundamental models on
large scale equipment at such an early stage of
development. One of these is the poor characteriz-
ability of packed columns in terms of hydro-
dynamics, hence, individual film coefficients so
necessary to a proper film model of chemically re-
active mass transfer. As mentioned earlier in the
context of multicomponent mass transfer, errors
in basic data can have a profound consequence on
model prediction; a sensitivity analysis is
presently underway for reactive mass transfer in
continuous contacting equipment.
To provide data of greater reliability for test-
ing against these fundamental mass transfer
models, we are doing experiments in well-defined
flow geometries like single sphere and string-of-
spheres columns. Then all of the necessary funda-
mental data become accurately known, or at least
can be independently measured, and a real test
of models becomes possible. An obvious extension
is to systems in which two or more gases simul-
taneously absorb and then react with a common
nonvolatile solvent. Typical of such systems is
the absorption into, and stripping from, alkanola-
mines of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. Of
particular interest is the selective removal of H2S.
Although a moderate amount of equilibium and
physical property data exists for this combination,
little or no mass transfer work has been done on
the absorption side, and nothing has been re-
ported on solvent regeneration. Yet the natural
gas industry in this country is very large indeed
and natural gas often contains a lot of both im-
purities. Experiments and modelling of both
aspects of this rather more complex system are
underway at Clarkson.
Our studies using model mass transfer devices
are aimed at testing theories of the transfer pro-
cesses which will find ultimate use in simulations
of packed columns. Concurrently, we are also
Continued on page 200.





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7 Goea"e in


F. A. L. DULLIEN ..-
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

OVER THE PAST DECADE an increasing number of
graduates of the Chemical Engineering De-
partment and also of some other engineering de-
partments of the University of Waterloo have
been hired by various petroleum companies,
operating mostly in Alberta. The Faculty of Engi-
neering at the University of Waterloo operates
one hundred percent on the cooperative scheme.
The students alternate between academic and
work terms. An increasing proportion of our
students have been hired in their work terms by
the oil companies. This situation created a de-
mand for a senior year elective course in the
fundamentals of petroleum production which is
also suited to the needs of first year graduate
students specializing in some branch of flow
through porous media research. There is no
petroleum engineering department at the Uni-
versity of Waterloo, but there has been con-
tinuous basic research on certain aspects of this
discipline for the past sixteen years, under the
author's supervision. It was thus logical for the
author to propose a course on Fundamentals of
Petroleum Production, which was accepted by the
Faculty of Engineering in 1978. Since then the
course has been taught every year in the winter
The purpose of this course is to introduce the
average chemical engineer, who has only a mini-
mum of familiarity with the concepts of capillarity
and flow through porous media, and none at all
with reservoir engineering concepts, to petroleum
production engineering. All this has to be ac-
complished in thirteen weeks (three contact hours

One of the difficult tasks
to be accomplished in ... the course
is to give the students a "feel" for the physical
phenomena, "drainage" and imbibitionn."

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

Francis A. L. Dullien has been a Professor of Chemical Engineer-
ing at the University of Waterloo since 1966. He received his Dipl.
Eng. from the Budapest Technical University (1950), his M.A.Sc. and
his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia (1958 and 1960). He
has been a Visiting Professor at Purdue University, at Karlsruhe Uni-
versity and at the Ecole National Polytechnique de Toulouse. He has
published over 100 papers in the fields of flow through porous media,
pore structure research, quantitative stereology, liquid and gaseous
diffusion, mixing, air pollution control and spectroscopy, and is author
of the research monograph "Porous Media-Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure" Academic Press (1979). He has developed courses in flow
through porous media, fundamentals of petroleum production, air
pollution control, surface chemistry, statistical thermodynamics, trans-
port phenomena, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and engineering

per week), because with the coop system the
lecture part of a term is only about three months
long. Under these constraints the course on Funda-
mentals of Petroleum Production is limited in
scope and, at the same time, conceptually difficult
for the students.

The technical content of the course is best ap-
preciated by perusing the course outline shown
in Table 1. The rationale for this approach to the
course is presented in the following paragraph.
The author does not think that a completely
black box-type presentation of the material is in
the best interest of either the student or the in-
dustry where the student may work. The black
box approach pays no attention to the microscopic
mechanisms, the interplay of the various forces


on a microscopic scale and the microscopical geo-
metric parameters of the environment in which
the physical phenomena take place. It is true that
a typical reservoir engineer is concerned with
the control and prediction of macroscopic param-
eters but it is equally true that the observed macro-
scopic behavior is, to a large extent, the result
of events that occur in small pores and which are
determined by microscopic parameters. Staying
mum on the microscopic aspects of petroleum
reservoirs (an attitude which is quite common
in some texts on reservoir engineering) is tanta-
mount to pretending to be completely ignorant
of some facts which are very important in de-
termining the outcome of oil recovery operations,
particularly when secondary and tertiary recovery
are considered. Such an attitude is likely to mis-
lead the student by keeping him ignorant about
things that matter a great deal. The purpose of
university education cannot be the maintenance
of ignorance. This is the reason for starting this
course with an introduction to capillary theory.
In the discussion of basic laws of capillarity,
attention is drawn continually to the fact that
petroleum reservoirs consist of a multitude of tiny
interconnected capillaries. A petroleum reservoir
is a permeable porous medium, not at all like the
water reservoirs most people tend to think of im-
mediately when they hear the word "reservoir."
The major portion of this chapter deals with the

capillary pressure curves: primary drainage, im-
bibition and secondary drainage capillary pres-
sure curves, their methods of measurement in the
lab and in the field, capillary hysteresis and the
roles played both by the pore structure and the
contact angle in bringing about the hysteresis.
One of the difficult tasks to be accomplished in

The formation (resistivity) factor is
then introduced and the fundamental difference
between Darcy flow and electrical conduction
in porous media is pointed out.

this portion of the course is to give the students
a "feel" for the physical phenomena, "drainage"
and imbibitionn." It has been found indispensable
to do a classroom demonstration of these phe-
nomena. Transparent capillary micro-models are
very useful for this purpose, as is an experiment
consisting of placing a sandstone core plug, satu-
rated with oil, in a beaker of water. The spon-
taneous imbibition of water into the plug is
demonstrated by the appearance of oil drops on
the plug's surface which have been displaced by
the water.
The second chapter introduces the student to
the fundamentals of flow of a single fluid through
a permeable porous medium. The discussion is
centered on Darcy's law and the various types of
pressure heads and fluid potentials which are

Course Outline

Laplace's equation of capillarity
Young's equation-The contact angle
Capillary pressure-Effects of the pore structure and
the contact angle
Determination of the capillary pressure curve-
Capillary rise-Effects of the pore structure and the
contact angle
Kelvin's equation
Capillary hysteresis-Effects of pore structure
Specific surface
Permeability-Darcy's law
Formation factor
Macroscopic heterogeneity of pore structure
Fluid potential
Linear flow vs. radial flow
Well stimulation

Calculation of hydrocarbon volumes
Fluid pressure regimes
Oil recovery-Recovery factor
Volumetric gas reservoir engineering
Gas material balance-Recovery factor
Definition of the basic PVT parameters
Use of the PVT parameters
Derivation of the general equation
Solution gas drive
Gascap drive
Natural water drive
Compaction drive
Generalization of Darcy's law for multiphase flow
Effective and relative permeabilities
The Buckley-Leverett theory of oil displacement
Mobility control
Tertiary flooding

FALL 1982

The Kozeny-Carman equation
is "derived," not because it is believed
to be generally valid, but mainly to illustrate
the kind of efforts that have been made to
understand the relationship between
flow and pore structure.

used in conjunction with this basic law of reser-
voir engineering and groundwater hydrology.
Thus, careful distinction is drawn between the
physical meaning of the hydrostatic pressure, P
and the "datum pressure" or "psi-potential" 4 =
P + pgz, where z is distance measured vertically
upward from an arbitrary datum, p is the fluid
density and g is the gravitational acceleration
constant. Generally, it is the gradient of the
datum pressure, Vp, that must be used in Darcy's
law. The heads P/pg and 4/pg = P/pg + z repre-
sent distances in the vertical direction and are
much more readily visualized than the correspond-
ing pressures, P and t. t/pg, the so-called "piezo-
metric head," is then the sum of the pressure
head, P/pg and the elevation head z. The fluid po-
tential 4 is also introduced here.
The permeability, k, the porosity, 4, and the
specific surface, s, are the most commonly used
macroscopic pore structure parameters. By defini-
tion, their value does not depend on the fluids used
in the measurement, but it is completely deter-
mined by the pore structure of the sample. The
important role played by pore structure in de-
termining reservoir behavior is stressed again
when discussing the above mentioned parameters.
The Kozeny-Carman equation is "derived", not
because it is believed to be generally valid, but
mainly to illustrate the kind of efforts that have
been made to understand the relationship between
flow and pore structure.
Simple integrated forms of Darcy's law are
presented, and the special cases of gas flow, slip
flow (Klinkenberg equation) and non-Darcy flow
(Forchheimer equation) are discussed.
There follows a brief outline of some field
applications of Darcy's law.
The formation (resistivity) factor is then
introduced and the fundamental difference be-
tween Darcy flow and electrical conduction in
porous media is pointed out. This is manifested
by the fact that the electrical conductivity of
small pores is the same as that of big pores
whereas the fluid conductivity of a pore in creep-
ing flow varies as A, the normal cross-section of

the pore. Hence a fine-pored medium has a much
lower permeability than a coarse-pored of com-
parable porosity, while the difference between the
formation factors of the two materials may be
relatively little.
It is pointed out that reservoirs are hetero-
geneous, i.e. they are characterized by a distribu-
tion of permeabilities, and anisotropic, i.e. the
permeabilities at a given point are different, de-
pending on the direction of flow.
At this point in the course the students al-
ready have a certain idea of the behavior and
the pore structure of a reservoir. They are un-
likely to confuse it with a water reservoir. Here

Recommended Reference Books
F. A. L. Dullien, Porous Media-Fluid Transport and Pore
Structure, Academic Press, 1979.
L. P. Dake, Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering,
Elsevier, 1978.
J. W. Amyx, D. M. Bass and R. L. Whiting, Petroleum
Reservoir Engineering-Physical Properties, McGraw-
Hill, 1960.
A. E. Scheidegger, The Physics of Flow Through Porous
Media, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1974.
R. E. Collins, Flow of Fluids Through Porous Materials,
van Nostrand-Reinhold, 1961.

the course switches to the subject which is con-
ventionally at the beginning of reservoir engi-
neering texts; the explanation of the basic con-
cepts of reservoir engineering, such as hydro-
carbon volumes, fluid pressure regimes, gas re-
covery factor, gas expansion factor, solution gas-
oil ratio, oil formation volume factor, gas forma-
tion volume factor, producing gas-oil ratio, etc.
Next, the general macroscopic material balance
for a hydrocarbon reservoir is derived, discussed
and applied to elucidate the various possible
natural modes of petroleum production, the
different so-called "drives."
At the end of the course the fundamentals of
immiscible displacement are outlined. In this
chapter some of the basic concepts, introduced in
the early chapters, play an important role and
are thus vindicated from an applications point of
view which, of course, is the only point conceded
by the average student taking this course.
There are usually four home assignments in
this course, one on each of the following chapters:
1, 2-3, 4-6, and 7, and three tests, one on each of
the following chapters: 1-3, 4-6, and 7. Final
examination has been dispensed with. O




The 1982 ASEE Chemical Engineering Divi-
sion Lecturer was Lowell B. Koppel of Purdue
University. The purpose of this award lecture is
to recognize and encourage outstanding achieve-
ment in an important field of fundamental chemi-
cal engineering theory or practice. The 3M
Company provides the financial support for this
annual lecture award.
Bestowed annually upon a distinguished engi-
neering educator who delivers the Annual Lecture
of the Chemical Engineering Division, the award
consists of $1,000 and an engraved certificate.
These were presented to this year's Lecturer at
the Annual Chemical Engineering Division
banquet, held at the University of California at
Santa Barbara.

The award is made on an annual basis with
nominations being received through February 1,
1983. The full details for the award preparation
are contained in the Awards Brochure published
by ASEE. Your nominations for the 1983 lecture-
ship are invited. They should be sent to Robert
E. Slonaker, Chairman, 3M Award Committee,
ChE Department, Bucknell University, Lewis-
burg, PA 17837.

The newly elected ChE Division officers are:
Angelo Perna, Chairman; W. D. Baasel, Past
Chairman; Dee Barker, Chairman Elect; Bill
Beckwith, Secretary Treasurer; John Sears and
Dale Seborg, Members at Large; Hal Kemp and
R. P. Stambaugh, Industrial Representatives.

ASEE Meeting Texas A & M
George Burnet, Iowa State University, was
the recipient of ASEE's highest honor, the
Lamme Award, in recognition of his excellence in

teaching, contributions to research and technical
literature, and achievements contributing to the
advancement of the profession. William Corcoran,
California Institute of Technology, received the
Distinguished Service Citation for his long and
continuous service in teaching, research and ad-

Summer School U.C.-Santa Barbara
Ray W. Fahien, University of Florida, was
presented with an Award of Excellence. Paul V.
Smith of Exxon and James Townsend of Dow were
both recognized for their many contributions to
the ChE Division as industrial representatives.
T. W. F. Russell, Stanley I. Sandier and Sherri
Barwich, all of the University of Delaware, were
presented with Certificates of Appreciation for
their work in coordinating the 1982 Summer
School, and Dale Seborg and John Myers were
both recognized for their contributions as hosts
at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

[ book reviews

By W. E. Biles and J. J. Swain
John Wiley & Sons, NY
Reviewed by R. M. Bethea, H. R. Heichelheim,
L. D. Clements Texas Tech University

Chapter 1. This section provides a thorough
coverage and description of the properties of op-
timization problems with an inconsistent mixture
of belaboring the mathematically obvious and
"name-dropping" of methods to be developed later.
Chapter 2. The use of the chi-squared goodness-
of-fit test to evaluate the Poisson distribution is
unusual in most introductory statistics texts.
The explanation is clear to a reader with some
background in mathematical statistics but not to
the novice as is the authors' stated goal. Note that
in the example of the Poisson on p. 47 should be
fy(y) = e-2.8y2.8/y! and that the values of f, and ei
in Table 2.12 have been multiplied by 100.
In the section starting on p. 89, no justification
has been given for the F-tests. In this way, the
student is not taught the why of analysis of vari-
Continued on page 199.

FALL 1982


Oklahoma State University
Stillwater, OK 74078

IN THE PAST TWO DECADES the need for environ-
mental awareness has increased the enrollment
of chemical engineers in environmental courses,
especially in air pollution courses. This is true
both for formal university courses and for the
continuing education short courses.
Traditionally, most of the air pollution courses
have been developed in civil and environmental
engineering departments. Only a small percentage
of chemical engineering departments offer a course
related to air pollution. In 1978, there were 581
air pollution courses offered in 130 American
and Canadian Universities and Colleges in 189
academic departments [1]. These departments
varied from traditional engineering to disciplines
like geography and biology, with only 27 chemical
engineering departments offering an air pollu-
tion course.
The diversity of the disciplines in which the
air pollution courses have been developed and the
variations in the background of students have
made the air pollution courses very non-uniform.
Departments with multiple air pollution courses
cover different aspects of the air pollution under
one or more of the following topics: fundamentals
of air pollution, atmospheric sampling and
analysis, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology,
modeling of atmospheric dispersions, aerosol
science and technology, industrial pollution pro-
cesses, theory and design of air pollution control
systems, and air quality management. These
courses have varied from very introductory and
descriptive to strongly theoretical, with intensive

This course is different
from other one-semester air pollution
courses in several aspects. The
order of presentation of the
topics is completely new.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

use of mathematics, to highly application and
design oriented ones.
Many engineering students who do not intend
to specialize in air pollution cannot afford to take
several courses in air pollution. They would usually
prefer to take one general course that would give
them an overall understanding of the field. Several
schools also offer a general air pollution course
as an elective to students of different disciplines.
Obviously, in this general air pollution course
many of the above mentioned topics have to be
selectively compressed or eliminated.
The air pollution course described in this
article is specially designed to be a general course
of one semester or two quarters duration, tailored
to serve as an elective course for engineering
students in their M.S. or senior level.
This course is different from other one-
semester air pollution courses in several aspects.
The order of presentation of the topics is com-
pletely new. The new arrangement is based on the
principle of cause and effect. The theoretical basics
are reviewed at the beginning of the course. Conse-
quently, the subsequent topics are not presented
as case studies, but as applications of the theo-
retical principles. Thus, the student studies and
analyzes the applications with a creative approach
and often can deduce the resultant phenomena
before the empirical observations are presented.
It is the main objective of this course to challenge
the creative thinking of the students. This is
achieved not only during the lectures, but also by
the type of problems that are given during the
quizzes and examinations. As a result of these
efforts, the learning efficiency is improved and
more material is covered in the course.

The course consists of two major parts: funda-
mentals of air pollution, and control technology
and equipment design. In the first part, the air
pollution system is treated as a huge chemical
reactor, where man is a moving boundary exposed
to the pollutants. In the second part, the control
technology is described and the design methods


Mayis Seapan received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at
Austin (1976) and is presently Assistant Professor of Chemical Engi-
neering at Oklahoma State University. His current research interests
are the formation of aerosol particles by chemical reactions and up-
grading of coal derived liquids with specific interest in the catalyst
deactivation and kinetics of hydrotreatment of coal derived liquids.

are discussed. Usually equal time is spent in
teaching these two parts. However, in this article
more space is devoted to the fundamentals of air
pollution to show its special merits.
The most important reason for our study of air
pollution is a concern both for our health and for
that of future generations. The threat to our
health may come from direct exposure to pol-
lutants, or from indirect exposure through water,
plants, animals, and generally from the entire
The ecological effects of air pollutants depend
on (a) the concentration of the pollutant, (b) the
temperature, (c) the duration of exposure, and
(d) the velocities of the surrounding air. In some
cases other factors, such as concentrations of other
constituents, may also interfere. Thus, in theory, in
order to be able to evaluate the extent of the po-
tential damage of air pollutants, one needs to
know the concentration of every pollutant at any
location and at any time.
The air surrounding the earth is considered
as a huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform, and
non-ideal chemical reactor which has an approxi-
mate shape of a spherical shell. In order to under-
stand this non-ideal reactor, one needs to consider
the following:
Chemical and physical constituents of the reactor
and their properties
Heat transfer and temperature distributions
Fluid dynamics and velocity distributions
Physical boundaries of the reactor and transport
phenomena through these boundaries
Interactive and combined phenomena of all these

Chemical constituents of the atmosphere
include not only nitrogen and oxygen but all re-
active and non-reactive gases as well as the
suspended particles in the atmosphere. Physical
constituents are considered as atmospheric
electricity, radioactivity and electromagnetic radi-
ation; where solar radiation plays the major role.
Therefore the course starts with a review of
different pollutants of the atmosphere and electro-
magnetic radiation. This is followed by a study
of the interaction of radiation with gaseous mole-
cules, the principles of photochemistry, the forma-
tion and dynamics of aerosol particles, and the
interaction of particles with electromagnetic
radiation, electricity and radioactivity. It is at
this stage that the students are introduced to the
concept of free molecular and continuum flow be-
havior of particles. They learn about Brownian
motion and phoretic forces and develop a general
understanding of the significance of each phe-
nomena under different conditions. The students
also learn the role of wavelength in the absorption

The air surrounding
the earth is considered as a
huge non-homogeneous, non-uniform,
and non-ideal chemical reactor which has the
approximate shape of a spherical shell.

of electromagnetic radiation by chemical con-
stituents and its significance in the initiation of
different types of chemical reactions.
Before the discussion of atmospheric fluid
dynamics, i.e., meteorology, the atmospheric
energy balance is discussed. By introducing at-
mospheric layers and their role in filtering
different wavelengths from solar radiation, the
heat balance around the earth is introduced. The
role of different chemical constituents in the at-
mospheric heat balance is discussed and the
greenhouse effect is explained.
The' fluid dynamics of the atmosphere as
classified under macro-, meso- and micro-meteor-
ology is introduced with emphasis on the concept
of cause and effect, indicating the role of solar
radiation and the atmospheric heat balance in the
development of atmospheric motions. This dis-
cussion is further expanded to the vertical
temperature distribution, lapse rate, inversion
layers, and atmospheric stability.
Sources of pollution as inputs through the
lower boundary of the reactor, i.e., the surface of

FALL 1982

. .. it is also emphasized that
"dilution is not a solution to pollution" and
whatever is released into the atmosphere
will eventually return to the
earth in some form.

earth, are reviewed and an account is given to
emission inventories. At this stage atmospheric
chemistry and different types of smogs are pre-
sented. A study of air pollution sinks, both through
the lower boundary to the earth and through the
tropopause to the upper levels of the atmosphere
illustrates how pollutants are eliminated from
the air. Water bodies, open lands, plants and lungs
of living creatures are considered as some of the
sinks on the surface of the earth, while strato-
spheric ozone layer is a sink at the upper levels
of the atmosphere.
To account for localized variations of pollu-
tion, dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere
from point, line, and surface sources are pre-
sented and the concept of atmospheric modeling
is introduced.
Throughout the presentation of this global
reactor model, the principles of global material
and energy balances are repeatedly emphasized so
that the students realize that whatever pollution
is emitted to the atmosphere, eventually is going
to be removed in the sinks in the boundaries of
the reactor.
At this stage, the student, in principle, is cap-
able of predicting the fate of and concentrations
of atmospheric pollutants. The effects of air
pollutants on the atmospheric environment are
discussed by presenting such topics as ozone layer
depletion, acid rain, and visibility reduction. Air
pollution damage to vegetation and materials is
followed by the effects on human and animal
The student at this time is quite familiar with
the behavior of different gaseous and particulate
pollutants and therefore the analysis of their
effects is no longer a case study. For example,
the dependency of particle capture rate on the
particle size in the lungs is not a matter to be
accepted and memorized. The student recognizes
the relative significance of interception, sedi-
mentation and diffusion, so he or she can deduce
the concept of lung deposition.
Once the effects of air pollutants are studied,
the safe limits of pollutants and the existing un-
certainties in these limits are discussed. Air

pollution regulations are presented under the two
classes of receptor and emittor standards. A brief
summary of air pollution measuring techniques
completes the section on the fundamentals of air
In the second half of the course, control tech-
nology is taught. Again the ground is laid by re-
viewing the basic chemical engineering principles
to show the thermodynamic and rate limitations
on the formation of pollutants. Material balances
are used to calculate the emission rates. An energy
balance is used to calculate the combustion and
outlet stream temperature. Chemical equilibria
show the thermodynamic limitations on the
formation of pollutants. Finally, chemical kinetics
explain the rate phenomena and the time factor
involved in the formation of pollutants. This re-
view is usually repetitious to chemical engineers,
but it is required for the understanding of
the rest of the discussion. Therefore, it must be
taught if non-chemical engineers are present in
the class.
At this stage, emission inventories and
emission factors are briefly reviewed. Incinera-
tion is discussed as the first control technology. As
another application of the basic principles, auto-
mobile emission control is presented. Again the
discussion is based on thermodynamic and kinetic
principles; therefore the student can deduce the
outcome of most of the control techniques.
Control of gaseous emissions by absorption
and adsorption and the sizing of equipment are
discussed. The students are continuously reminded
of the economic limitations of gas cleaning pro-
cesses so that they realize that, even with the
best available control technology, the exhaust
stream will contain some low levels of pollutants
which need to be properly disposed into the at-
mosphere. The stack as a means of this dispersion
of pollutants is described and its design methods
are exercised. However, it is also emphasized that
"dilution is not a solution to pollution" and what-
ever is released into the atmosphere will eventual-
ly return to the earth in some form.
A theoretical discussion of the aerodynamic
capture of particles and the forces responsible for
the collection and separation of particles precedes
the particulate control section.
Particulate control equipment is divided into
two groups; the equipment in which a specific
body force results in the separation of the particles
from the carrier gas, and the equipment which
operates on the basis of the aerodynamic capture


of particles by an object or obstacle. In the first
class, settling chambers, centrifugal separators
and cyclones, and electrostatic precipitators are
discussed. In the second class, filtration and wet
scrubbing are described. For every type of equip-
ment, the operating principles and the physical
construction are presented first, followed by
design principles and equations. Emphasis is
placed on sizing of equipment, calculation of
collection efficiencies, and pressure drops.

The final part of the course is based on com-
paring particulate control equipment. The criteria
for the selection of suitable equipment is pre-
sented and the guidelines to achieve an economical
design are discussed. At present, there seems to
be a need for the coverage of flue gas desulfuriza-
tion and other special topics, but due to time
limitations these have not been incorporated in
the course. Table 1 gives a more detailed course

TABLE 1 Course Outline

I-Fundamentals of Air Pollution
Introduction to air pollution
Atmosphere, a huge chemical reactor
Chemical Constituents of the Atmosphere
Gaseous pollutants
Physical Constituents of the Atmosphere
Electromagnetic radiation, solar radiation
Radioactivity, ions and atmospheric electricity
Interaction of Radiation with Gases
Absorption and emission of radiation by gaseous
Photoionization and photoexcitation of gases
Principles of photochemistry
Aerosol Particles
Formation of particles by homogeneous and hetero-
geneous nucleations
Growth'of particles by coagulation
Knudsen number and regimes of particle dynamics
Brownian motion and phoretic forces
Interaction of Radiation with Particles
Optical properties of particles: Mie scattering and
Rayleigh scattering
Atmospheric Heat Balance
Radiative heat transfer
Atmospheric layers and solar radiation
Energy balance of the earth
Greenhouse effects
Atmospheric Fluid Dynamics
Macrometeorology and general circulation
Cyclones and anticyclones
Planetary boundary layer and wind profiles
Temperature profiles and lapse rate
Verticle motions in the atmosphere
Atmospheric stability and inversions
Sources of Air Pollution
Natural and anthropogenic sources
Emission inventories
Atmospheric Chemistry
Photochemical smog
Sulfurous smog
Miscellaneous atmospheric reactions
Sinks of Atmospheric Pollution
Sinks at the earth's surface: water bodies, earth,
vegetation, animals
Sinks at the upper layers of the atmosphere
Atmospheric Dispersion
Gaussian plume and ground concentrations
Dispersion of particulates and their deposition from

Dispersion from line and area sources
Modeling of atmospheric dispersion by unicell and
multicell techniques
Effects of Air Pollution
Global atmospheric effects: ozone depletion
Regional atmospheric effects: acid rain
Localized atmospheric effects: visibility reduction
Effects on vegetation
Effects on material
Effects on human health
Direct and indirect exposure
Lung and its defense mechanisms
Effects of gaseous and particulate pollutants on the
respiratory system
Other effects of pollutants on health
Air Pollution Regulations
Sampling and Analysis of Air Pollutants
Management of Air Pollution
II-Control Technology and Design
Basic Principles
Material balance
Energy balance
Chemical equilibria
Reaction rates
Emission Inventories and Emission Factors
Automobile Emissions and Control
Fuel tank, carburetor and crankcase emissions
Exhaust gas emissions and its control
Dispersion of Pollutants From Stacks, Stack Height
Particle Size Distributions
Collection Efficiencies and Penetrations
Grade Efficiencies and Overall Efficiencies
Aerodynamic Separation and Capture of Particles
Gravity, centrifugal and electrostatic forces
Calculation of particle trajectories and stop distances
Capture of particles by obstacles: impaction, inter-
ception, diffusion and seiving
Particulate Control Equipment and Their Design
Settling chambers
Centrifugal separators, cyclones
Electrostatic Precipitators
Filtration, fabric filters
Wet scrubbing
Economics and comparative design of particulate
control equipment

FALL 1982


In the past two decades several textbooks
have been written for air pollution courses. Un-
fortunately, none of them can be used for the
entire course. Some of these textbooks cover
primarily the fundamentals [2-6], while others
cover the control aspects [7-10]. The textbooks
that attempt to cover both the fundamentals and
control [11, 12] do not place the desired emphasis
on different topics. In addition, the sequence of
topics in the textbooks is significantly different
from the sequence of this course. Therefore no
single textbook was found suitable for this course.
For every topic, appropriate pages from different
sources are recommended for reading.

Two types of assignments are normally given.
Computational homework problems, through
which the students learn to use the basic design
equations, are assigned on a regular weekly basis.
During the first few weeks, while the funda-
mentals are being covered, not many computa-
tional problems can be given. Therefore, certain
reading materials are assigned which are later
tested by short quizzes. In order to minimize the
memorization aspect of these assignments and im-
prove the creativity and critical thinking of the
students, no direct questions are asked on the
assigned reading material. The questions are in-
direct and require some creative thinking based
on the studied material. Three one-hour exams
and one final exam are given during the semester.
These examinations are composed of questions
similar to the ones in the short quizzes and compu-
tational problems. Since no direct questions are
asked, all the examinations and short quizzes are
handled on an open-book open-notes basis.

The described air pollution course which
covers both the fundamentals and control of air
pollution introduces a new sequential structure for
its topic presentation. This new structure is built
on the basis of theoretical principles and has
minimized the traditional case study approach.
The major objective throughout the course is to
prepare the students to become creative thinkers
capable of analyzing existing and future/new air
pollution problems.
This course, developed and taught at Okla-
homa State University, has attracted many su-
perior students from different engineering disci-

Use CEE's reasonable rates to advertise. Minimum rate
'A page $50; each additional column inch $20.
ING: Must have a Ph.D., excellent academic background,
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citizen or have permanent resident certification. Re-
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courses, supervising graduate research. Send resume, three
references, transcripts, and statement of interest to: Dr.
D. R. Paul, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engi-
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78712-1165. Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Em-
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Tenure system faculty
position. Opening for full-time faculty member, beginning
January 1, 1983. Doctorate in Chemical Engineering re-
quired. Strong commitment to teaching and the ability to
develop an outstanding research program is expected.
Teaching and/or industrial experience desirable but not
essential. Michigan State University is an affirmative
action-equal opportunity and welcomes applications from
women and members of minority groups. Send applications
and names of references to Chairman, Department of
Chemical Engineering, Michigan State University, East
Lansing, MI 48824-1226.

plines. It has successfully challenged the students
and has maintained their interest and enthusiasm
throughout the courses. O

1. Rossano, A. T. and Cota, H. M., J. of Air Poll. Cont.
Ass., 28, 1106 (1978).
2. Ledbetter, J. O., "Air Pollution," Part A. Marcel
Dekker, 1972.
3. Perkins, H. C., "Air Pollution," McGraw-Hill, 1974.
4. Seinfeld, J. H., "Air Pollution, Physical and Chemical
Fundamentals," McGraw-Hill, 1975.
5. Stern, A. C., H. C. Wohlers, R. W. Boubel, and W. P.
Lowry, "Fundamentals of Air Pollution," Academic
Press, 1973.
6. Williamson, S. "Fundamentals of Air Pollution,"
Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1973.
7. Crawford, M., "Air Pollution Control Theory,"
McGraw-Hill, 1976.
8. Hesketh, H. E., "Air Pollution Control," Ann Arbor
Science, 1979.
9. Strauss, W., "Industrial Gas Cleaning," Second
Edition, Pergamon Press, 1975.
10. Licht, W., "Air Pollution Control Engineering-Basic
Calculations for Particulate Control," Marcel Dekker,
11. Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., "Air Pollution, Its
Origin and Control," Second Edition, Harper and
Row Publications, 1981.
12. Hesketh, H. E., "Understanding and Controlling Air
Pollution," Ann Arbor Science, 1972.


__ __ _





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is a world leader
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provided a wide range of services to the
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Our principal fields of activity are
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gasification facilities, and power


processes never before employed
on a commercial scale. We also have been
involved in the emerging synfuels
Our rapid growth has opened up many
challenging opportunities and
assignments for professional growth.
Positions are available at our engineering
headquarters in Alhambra, California, and
at our eastern engineering center in
Murray Hill, New Jersey.


u RAN &C



Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University
Blacksburg, VA 24061-6496

POLYMER EDUCATION AND research is gradually
becoming a part of every major university in
the country. At least some type of survey course
in polymers is presented, and occasionally
additional specific courses are offered, e.g. polymer
processing, polymer synthesis, etc. Where more
developed polymer programs are found, they are
usually isolated in specific departments; the most
common being chemistry, chemical engineering
or materials engineering. A few universities have
progressed to the point where separate polymer
science departments now exist.
At VPI & SU a unique interdisciplinary
polymer program (referred to as the Polymer
Materials and Interfaces Laboratory [PMIL]) has
evolved over the last five years and involves 11
faculty from five departments and some 70 gradu-
ate students and post-doctoral associates. The
uniqueness of the program rests in the fact that
it is truly interdisciplinary, with faculty cooperat-
ing in research and teaching activities. While
other interdiscplinary groups or programs exist
in the country, they often do not function smoothly
due to interdepartmental or inter-college barriers.
At Virginia Tech these barriers do not exist.
Furthermore, the operation of this interdisciplin-
ary effort has joint Co-Directors, with one in the
College of Arts and Sciences and the other housed

Polymeric fluids require not only the
application of a shear stress to maintain shear flow
but additional normal stresses. The normal stress
differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids
in shear flow are more sensitive to changes
in molecular structure than is viscosity.

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982 Engineorint iI
Materials Engineering CoDirector
College of Engineering Enineerinq Sciece & Mechanics L
Mechan ical Engineering

coJet i ie & D e ntD Ct-irector of
College of Arts & IDep ___________ P IL
Sciences Chemistry 1

FIGURE 1. Schematic drawing of the Interdisciplinary
Polymer Science Program (The Polymer
Materials and Interfaces Laboratory-PMIL)
at Virginia Tech.

in the College of Engineering (see Fig. 1). This
minimizes any political biases and at the same
time provides smoother operation in both edu-
cation and research. One example of cooperative
research is a project entitled "High Performance
Elastomers and Other Multiphase Organic Com-
posites" where five faculty from the departments
of chemical engineering, materials engineering,
and chemistry combine their expertise in polymer
synthesis, characterization, rheology and process-
ing, and structure/property relationships to pro-
vide a complete understanding of novel elastomeric
polymer systems. A second and similar example
of the strong cooperative research is the newly
established "Adhesion Center" where the princi-
pal aim is an understanding of the fundamentals
of polymer adhesion. This center, which has ac-
quired major outside funding from the Office of
Naval Research, was established through the co-
operation of four faculty members of PMIL who
are housed in three different departments.
From an educational viewpoint, a chemical
engineering student who is interested in pursuing
polymer research is expected to obtain a basic level
of proficiency in polymer synthesis and physical
chemistry of high polymers while developing an
expertise in either polymer processing or
structure/property relationships. The remainder
of this article focuses on the educational offerings
in polymers within the Chemical Engineering De-
partment at Virginia Tech.


Polymer research in the department is carried
out under the direction of either Professor Baird
or Professor Wilkes. The general theme of Pro-
fessor Baird's research is the application of
rheology to polymer and biopolymer processing,
while that of Professor Wilkes is directed toward
the structure/property relationships in these same
or related polymer systems. Although each has his
own research interests, the cooperative aspects
of the polymer group extends strongly into the
program. (David Dwight, who is also a part of
PMIL, holds a partial appointment in Chemical
Engineering but contributes principally to the

Donald G. Baird received his B.S. (1969) and M.S. (1971) degrees
from Michigan State University in Mechanics of Materials. He obtained
his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1974 under the
guidance of A. S. Lodge of the Rheology Research Center. From 1974
to 1978 he was employed as a chemical research engineer at Mon-
santo's textiles research laboratory in Pensacola, Florida. His work
was primarily concerned with the processing of high modulus/strength
fibers. In 1978 he joined the VPI & SU faculty holding a joint appoint-
ment in the departments of Engineering Mechanics and Chemical
Engineering. In 1981 he was promoted to associate professor in the
Department of Chemical Engineering. He has authored over 30 papers
in the field of polymer rheology and processing and consults on a
frequent basis with the polymer, paper and food industries. (L)
Garth Wilkes received his bachelor's and master's degrees from
the College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Further graduate study
was carried out at the University of Massachusetts where another
master's degree (Polymer Science and Engineering) as well as a
doctoral degree (Physical Chemistry) were obtained. He joined the
chemical engineering faculty at Princeton University in 1969 and was
active in the Polymer Materials Program. In 1974 he received the
outstanding young engineering faculty award at Princeton. The
theme of his research is the structure-property behavior of synthetic
and biological polymeric systems. In 1978 he accepted a full pro-
fessorship at VPI & SU within the Chemical Engineering Department.
In 1981 he was awarded an endowed chair position within the same
department. He participates in both teaching and research duties and
serves as a frequent consultant to the polymer industry. He is also Co-
Director of the Polymer Materials and Interfaces Laboratory. He has
published over 100 scientific papers and contributed to numerous
books. (R)

Department of Materials Engineering; conse-
quently, his interests in polymer adhesion and
surface analysis will not be highlighted here.)
A contrast of Virginia Tech's efforts in
polymer rheology with others shows that some
groups approach non-Newtonian fluid flow be-
havior only from a theoretical viewpoint; they are
often principally concerned with developing equa-
tions of state to describe the flow behavior of visco-
elastic fluids. Our efforts, however, are directed
more toward the application of rheology for solv-
ing polymer processing problems, employing
molecular as well as continuum viewpoints. This
approach sometimes involves merely finding em-
pirical correlations between certain theological
properties and polymer processability. On the
other hand, it may also involve using an existing
constitutive equation in conjunction with molecu-
lar theory to model a polymer process. Since we
study many fluids which are even more complex
than common polymeric melts and solutions (two
examples being liquid crystals and filled polymer
systems), we are also concerned with the develop-
ment of theological equations of state for these
fluids. However, we tend to be motivated by a
need for developing models which are useful for
process calculations, as opposed to developing a
model which is so mathematically complex that
it is of little practical value for calculations and
process design even though it may accurately de-
scribe theological properties of polymeric fluids
over a large range of conditions.
The following description of several of our
ongoing research programs illustrates the type of
research which is carried out and emphasizes the
cooperative nature of the research. The first
examples extend from the work of Professor
Baird. Polymeric fluids require not only the ap-
plication of a shear stress to maintain shear flow,
but additional normal stresses. The normal stress
differences exhibited by macromolecular fluids in
shear flow are more sensitive to changes in molecu-
lar structure than is viscosity. We are presently
investigating two methods (hole pressure and exit
pressure) for measuring normal stresses which
are related to fluid elasticity in a slit-die, using a
technique called flow birefringence. These slit-die
rheometers have potential for in-line monitoring
and quality control of industrial polymer pro-
cesses. Because flowing polymer fluids become
anisotropic, they can transmit polarized light.
The birefringent patterns which arise are directly
related to the state of stress or momentum trans-

FALL 1982

Our efforts are directed toward
the application of rheology for solving polymer
processing problems, employing molecular
as well as continuum viewpoints.

port at every point in the fluid. From the stress
field various pressures related to fluid elasticity
can be calculated from theory and compared to
the directly measured values.
Another project involves the rheology and in-
jection molding of filled polymers. Our first ob-
jective has been to determine what effect filler
has on the non-linear theological properties of
polymer fluids. The second goal has been to deter-
mine whether the theological properties can be
described by constitutive models used for homo-
geneous polymer fluids. We are presently investi-
gating the possibility of using dimensional analysis
to draw correlations between theological proper-
ties, thermodynamic properties, and the final bulk
physical properties which arise as a result of pro-
cess conditions. A particular processing problem
of interest is weld-line formation. This study re-
quires an additional investigation of the structure
and related properties at the interface between the
two polymer fronts.
To illustrate the diversity of our efforts in
rheology, we are also involved with the modeling
of soy flour dough extrusion cooking processes
which lead to meat-like products ( these systems,
of course, are polymeric in nature). This project
involves an initial understanding of the transport
mechanism for soy dough in an extruder, de-
termining the properties of the dough under pro-
cess conditions and developing a mathematical
model for predicting relationships between power,
torque, temperature and output for various ex-
truder designs. This work will eventually be ex-
tended to predicting final extrudate texture and
properties which will require an understanding
of the structure property behavior of the final
solid and how these relationships depend on pro-
cessing. These latter points are addressed more
by the efforts of Professor Wilkes. This particular
project involves all the concepts of momentum,
heat and mass transfer plus rheology, thermo-
dynamics, kinetics, and structure/property re-
A last example of theological studies is our
research on liquid crystalline polymers, which in-
volves rheology, processing and bulk structure and
properties investigations. Liquid crystals are an

intermediate state of matter between the isotropic
liquid and crystalline solid state. Polymeric ma-
terials in the liquid crystalline state under shear
generally have extremely low viscosity and can
usually be processed to give bulk specimens with
physical properties approaching those of metals.
Because liquid crystals are by nature anisotropic
they may have unique theological properties. We
are presently studying their flow behavior in
order to identify any unique flow properties which
may require a different theological equation of
state than is used for isotropic fluids. Further-
more, after processing these polymers behave as if
they are self-reinforcing. Our present investiga-
tion concerns the effects of injection molding
conditions on the development of morphology,
structure, and properties. The latter part of the
research is carried out under the supervision of
Professor Wilkes.
Some of the other projects that are focused
more on the structure-property behavior of
polymeric solids include such phenomena as
crystallization of polymers, synthesis and proper-
ties of ionic elastomers as well as block and seg-
mented copolymers, nonequilibrium behavior of
network glasses and rubber modifications thereof
and, finally, polymer compatability studies. In
general, these studies, directed by Professor
Wilkes, utilize a molecular approach with empha-
sis on experimental work. Typically, a student's
graduate research project often involves at least
two, and sometimes three, areas in order to es-
tablish a broader educational foundation in
polymer science from which to work after leaving
the university level. Several of these projects, as
indicated earlier, overlap with those of Professor
Baird where the input of processing and rheology
help to provide insight into the nature of the final
bulk properties that are studied.

Table 1 lists the polymer courses that are
taught at Virginia Tech, some of which are given
within the Department of Chemical Engineering.
We will now address the various polymer science
educational opportunities in chemical engineering
both at the undergraduate and the graduate level.

Undergraduate Courses
At the undergraduate level, chemical engineer-
ing students may take as many as five courses in
the area of polymer science (see Table 1). Two of


these courses are taught within the Department
of Chemical Engineering while three extend from
the Department of Chemistry and Materials Engi-
neering. The latter three courses (which we will
not address in detail) focus on (a) polymer
synthesis, (b) polymer surface chemistry, and (c)
applications of polymeric materials. In our own
department the two principal courses at the under-
graduate level are "Introduction to Polymer Pro-
cessing" and "Introduction to Polymer Materials."
In the case of the processing course, students are
introduced to the concepts of non-Newtonian
fluid mechanics which serves as a basis for teach-
ing extruder design, die design, and a qualitative
description of processes such as film blowing and
injection molding. The importance of processing
on final structure and properties is also empha-
sized. However the general theme in the Intro-
duction to Polymer Materials course is to focus
principally on the bulk properties of polymeric
systems as found in the glassy, rubbery and semi-
crystalline states. The first part of this course also
includes an introduction to polymer synthesis for
those students who have not acquired this back-
ground through the polymer synthesis course
given in chemistry. It also focuses some attention
on the area of polymer characterization in order to
provide an appreciation of the importance of
molecular weight and molecular weight distribu-
tion effects. While undergraduate students often

Polymer Science and Engineering Courses at
Virginia Tech
ChE Introduction to Polymer Materials
ChE Introduction to Polymer Processing
ChE Organic Chemistry of High Polymers
Chem Polymer and Surface Chemistry
MatE Applications of Polymeric Materials
ChE Polymer Structure & Morphology
ChE Rheo-optics of Polymers
ChE Technology of Elastomers
ChE Polymer Processing
ChE Advanced Applied Rheology
Chem Current Topics in Polymer Synthesis
Chem Physical Chemistry of High Polymers
ChE/ESM Introduction to Non-Newtonian Fluid
ESM Viscoelasticity
MatE Modern Composite Materials
MatE Surface and Microphase Analysis
MatE Adhesion and Bonding
ME Lubrication
ME Friction and Wear

do not take all of the polymer courses mentioned
above, many often graduate with at least two of
Graduate Level
With respect to courses focusing on rheology,
prior to the students taking the advanced rhe-
ology course they take non-Newtonian fluid
mechanics, which prepares them for advanced
polymer processing topics such as the modeling

With respect to courses focusing
on rheology, prior to the students taking the
advanced rhyology course they take non-Newtonian
fluid mechanics, which prepares them for
advanced polymer processing topics .

of film blowing processes, blow molding and injec-
tion molding. The latter advanced course is offered
for students interested in molecular theories
of rheology. Three additional courses emphasizing
the structure/property behavior of polymeric
solids are taught. The first, called Polymer Struc-
ture and Morphology, focuses on the area of
rubbery elasticity behavior as well as the crystal-
lization of polymers. The second course, Rheo-
optics of Polymers, discusses the use of electro-
magnetic techniques for the purpose of charac-
terizing polymeric materials. Examples of such
techniques are light scattering, X-ray diffraction,
birefringence and linear dichroism. The third
course, Technology of Elastomers, is jointly taught
by Professor Wilkes of Chemical Engineering and
James McGrath of the Department of Chemistry.
This course brings together both the chemistry of
elastomers and some of their performance charac-
teristics, but carries a stronger industrial flavor
than most of the other polymer courses.
Support for our research comes from both in-
dustry and governmental agencies. Most support
is for specific research projects. However, contri-
butions of unrestricted funds are also made
through PMIL (The Polymer Materials and Inter-
faces Laboratory) and represents many
companies. This diversified funding illustrates
our ability to carry out research at both the very
fundamental level and the applied level in the field
of polymer science. This has important ramifica-
tions as far as our students are concerned since
it demonstrates that both types of research are
Continued on page 180.

FALL 1982


Michigan Technological University
Houghton, MI 49931

A TEN WEEK SURVEY COURSE in catalysis was de-
signed to meet the needs of both chemistry
and chemical engineering graduate students in
Michigan Tech's Department of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering. The aim of the course is
to show how modern chemistry and chemical
engineering interact in the ongoing development
of industrial catalysts. As the course developed,
it attracted the attention of graduate students in
metallurgy who were grappling with chemical
phenomena in their research in physical and
extractive metallurgy.
The course outline is given in Table 1. The ap-
pearance of Gates, Katzer, and Schuit's Chemistry
of Catalytic Processes, McGraw-Hill, New York
(1979) provided an organizational framework.
This text is incisive, mercifully slender, and
contains challenging homework problems at the
end of each chapter. To maintain the pace shown
in Table 1, a series of sixty-five transparencies
showing chemical structures and reaction mechan-
isms were prepared for use with an overhead pro-
jector. At the beginning of the course each student
is given photocopies of all sixty-five trans-
parencies. Constant reference is made to a wall-
hung periodic table, and to a well-known organic
chemistry text (Morrison and Boyd) which most
students own.
At the beginning of the course the students
are asked to read two articles [1] which contrast
industrial processes with textbook organic chemis-
try. Then a quick review of the active site theory
and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism is
given for the benefit of students who have not
taken the undergraduate chemical engineering
kinetics course. Modern surface analysis tech-
niques are described in a series of notes.
The discussion of thermal cracking is extended
to cover computer modeling of ethylene manu-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

facture [2] and recent research on high-severity
pyrolysis [3]. The catalytic effect of the tube wall
is demonstrated [4]. A set of notes entitled "Physi-
cal properties of coal-derived liquids as affecting
their chemical processing" summarizes the work
of Ubbelohde on melts of polynuclear aromatics
and of Marsh on formation of semi-cokes from
aromatic liquids. A seminal paper by Virk [5]
provides a framework for understanding chemical
processing of aromatic liquids.
Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons is
covered next, and the textbook treatment is supple-
mented by a study of the Socony-Mobil methanol-
to-gasoline process over shape-selective zeolites.
This provides an opportunity for examination of
various processes for obtaining liquid fuels from
coal. The advantages of the coal synthesis gas -
methanol gasoline route are emphasized.
An historical approach is taken to solid-
catalyzed reactions, with the search for the "active
site" being the main theme. For the benefit of
metallurgy students the enhanced reactivity at
emergent dislocations is discussed on the basis of
an excellent review article [6]. Three lectures are

J. M. Skaates received his B.Sc. (1957) at Case Institute of Tech-
nology and M.S. (1958) and Ph.D. (1961) at Ohio State University in
chemical engineering. He worked at California Research Corporation
for three years before joining the faculty of Michigan Tech. His
teaching duties have included undergraduate and graduate courses
in thermodynamics and kinetics, an undergraduate course in process
control, and graduate courses in catalysis and in process optimization.
He has been involved in research in catalysis, biomass pyrolysis, and
wet oxidation.


The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of proposed mechanisms for five important
industrial reactions. It is emphasized that mechanisms are never finally
"proven," but are working hypotheses reflecting present knowledge.

devoted to the work of Somorjai on clean metal
surfaces, with special attention to his parallel
studies on iridium, platinum, and gold [7], and the
linking of the unique catalytic activity of platinum
to the high density of states at the Fermi level.
Surface reconstruction on platinum-rhodium
screens during the oxidation of ammonia is used
to illustrate that interaction of surface metal
atoms with adsorbates profoundly affects the
metal-metal bonds. The geometric and electronic
theories of catalysis by metals are represented as
reflecting primitive ideas of metal surface morph-
ology and bonding in metals.
The synthesis and catalytic properties of metal
cluster compounds is presented as a third approach
(after transition metal ions in solution and clean
metal surfaces) for studying bonding of metal

atoms. Bonding of ligands to the metal clusters is
compared with chemisorption of gases on bulk
metal surfaces.
The ninth week is devoted to a discussion of
proposed mechanisms for five important industrial
reactions (Table 1). It is emphasized that mechan-
isms are never finally "proven," but are working
hypotheses reflecting present knowledge. As an
illustration, the electronic theory of catalysis, as
applied to semiconducting metal oxides, fails to
explain the baffling Schwab-Parravano dis-
Oxidation of hydrocarbons by oxygen supplied
from an inorganic oxide lattice illustrates that a
novel idea, tested with simple apparatus [8], can
have a big economic payoff. On the other hand,
millions of dollars of research failed to uncover a


Course Outline

1. Theory of active sites
Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms and rate
Survey of modern surface analysis techniques.
2. Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons:
Free-radical mechanisms
Cracking of aromatics
Recent trends in thermal cracking
3. Acid-catalyzed cracking of hydrocarbons:
Carbonium ion formation on solid surfaces
Carbonium ion mechanisms
Silica-alumina catalysts
Zeolite catalysts
Socony-Mob:l methanol-to-gasoline process
4. Chemistry of transition metal ions
Zeiss' salt
Wacker Process for acetaldehyde from ethylene
Oxo Process
Designing liquid-phase homogeneous catalyst
5. Types of defects on solid surfaces
Emergent dislocations as active sites
Surface morphology
H-H, C-H, and C-C bond breaking on steps and
kinks of metal surfaces
Surface reconstruction during catalytic reactions
6. Geometric theory of catalysis on metals
Electronic theory of catalysis on metals
Surface compound theory of catalysis on metals
Metal alloy catalysts

7. Supported metal catalysts
Experimental techniques for characterizing
supported metal catalysts
Reforming of hydrocarbons
Octane and cetane numbers
Modeling catalytic reforming reactors
8. Properties of small metal crystallites
Interaction between metal crystallites and the
Metal cluster compounds
Metal-metal bonding
Bonding of carbonyl groups
Bonding of hydrogen
9. Ammonia synthesis mechanism
Hydrocarbon synthesis by CO reduction
Proposed mechanisms for Fischer-Tropsch
Proposed mechanisms for the methanation
Design of methanation reactors
10. Mechanisms involving electron transfer between
adsorbate and metal oxides
Catalysis on semiconductors
Electronic Theory of Catalysis as applied to
semiconducting metal oxides
Oxygen transfer from the solid oxide lattice
Synthesis of acrolein and acrylonitrile from
Complex oxide catalysts
Perovskite structures
Scheelite structures
Automobile exhaust converter catalysts

FALL 1982


Articles Assigned for Outside Reading and Evaluation
1. Witcoff, H., "How It's Really Done," CHEMTECH,
December 1977, p. 753 CHEMTECH, April 1978, p. 229.
2. Riggs, W. M., and Beimer, R. G., "How ESCA Pays Its
Way" CHEMTECH, November 1975, p. 652.
3. Kearns, J. D., Milks, D., and Kamm, G. R., "Develop-
ment of Scaling Methods for a Crude Oil Cracking
Reactor Using Short Duration Test Techniques,"
paper presented to the Division of Petroleum Chemis-
try, 175th National Meeting of the American Chemi-
cal Society, Anaheim (1978).
4. Hall, James W., and Rase, Howard F., "Relation Be-
tween Dislocation Density and Catalytic Activity and
Effects of Physical Treatment" I and EC Funda-
mentals, 3, 158 (1964).
5. Johnson, O., "Classification of Metal Catalysts Based
on Surface d-Electrons," J. Catal., 28, 503 (1973).
6. Callahan, J. L., Grasselli, Robert K., Milberger, E. C.,
and Strecker, H. Arthur, "Oxidation and Ammoxidation
of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst," I and
EC Prod. Res. Rev., 9, 134 (1970).

satisfactory metal oxide replacement for platinum
in the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons in auto-
mobile exhaust.
Student evaluation of this course has been
favorable, and their comments indicate that the
excitement of catalyst research is "catching." The
limitations of current chemical theories are evi-
dent in trying to understand many catalysts.
Playing a "hunch," or serendipity, often lead to
valuable catalysts and also to new chemistry for
the theorist to interpret. E

1. Witcoff, H., "How It's Really Done," CHEMTECH,
December 1977, p. 753, CHEMTECH, April 1978, p.
2. Shah, M. J., "Computer Control of Ethylene Produc-
tion," Ind. Eng. Chem., 59, 70 (1967).
3. Ennis, Boyd, and Orris, "Olefin Manufacture by
Millisecond Pyrolysis," CHEMTECH, November 1975,
p. 693.
4. Dunkleman and Albright, "Pyrolysis of Propane in
Tubular Flow Reactors Constructed of Different
Materials" ACS Symposium Series, No. 32, p. 261
5. Virk, Chambers, and Woebcke, "Thermal Hydrogasifi-
cation of Aromatic Compounds," ACS Advances in
Chemistry Series, No. 131 (1974).
6. Thomas, J. M., "Enhanced Reactivity at Dislocations
in Solids," Advances in Chemistry, 19, 293 (1969).
7. Somorjai, G. A., "Active Sites in Heterogeneous
Catalysis," Advances in Catalysis, 26, 2 (1977).
8. Callahan, J. L. et. al., "Oxidation and Ammoxidation
of Propylene Over Bismuth Molybdate Catalyst" I
and EC Prod. Res. Dev., 9, 134 (1970).

Continued from page 177.
compatible. In summary, our objective is to pro-
vide the student with an understanding of molecu-
lar and continuum approaches and an under-
standing of the behavior of polymeric systems. We
try to emphasize the need of understanding both
the chemistry of these macromolecular systems
and their engineering properties.
All students receive a similar background in
coursework. Along with the courses mentioned
above, 11 other polymer courses (including such
topics as polymer synthesis, physical chemistry of
polymers and surface analysis) are available in
the four other departments participating in the
interdisciplinary group. Because of the large
number of graduate students now in our program,
even the advanced courses are offered on a routine
As a final note concerning educational aspects
extending from chemical engineering in the
polymer science area, we might point out that
there are several industrially oriented polymer
short courses offered at Virginia Tech each year.
These courses are taught jointly through the
polymer oriented chemical engineering faculty as
well as other faculty members of the PMIL group.
In short, we now offer the most extensive
continuing education program in polymer science
through a short course format than any other uni-
versity in the nation.
In this article we have attempted to outline
the new growth in the polymer area at Virginia
Tech, with emphasis being placed on the role of
the Department of Chemical Engineering. The
overall polymer science effort, as indicated, extends
beyond a single department, encompassing five
departments across two colleges. The growth of
this program has been enormous in the last three
years as a result of cooperative efforts of a truly
interdisciplinary nature. The overall program,
part of which is focused in chemical engineering,
has become a highlight of the Virginia Tech
campus and one which we anticipate will become
even stronger in the future. It has achieved con-
siderable outside funding and has developed
modern research facilities necessary for gradu-
ate research. Inquiries concerning information
about Chemical Engineering and the Polymer
Materials and Interfaces Laboratory can be di-
rected to either of the authors of this article. D


What to look for

in choosing your first job.

An intelligent first job assessment is often diffi-
cult. There are important questions you should ask
because the answers to these questions relate to how
fast your career will move ahead. One key question
is How much responsibility will I be given at the
At Rohm and Haas, quite a lot. We seek out the
highly motivated person who not only wants respon-
sibility but aggressively goes after it.

We place a lot of importance on helping you in
your chosen area of specialization and your desired
career direction. We call this "growth through re-
sponsibility." We give it to you from the beginning. As
a result, you can grow in the direction your expanding
talents can take you.
Also, top priority is given to individual develop-
ment programs to ensure that all employees have the
same opportunities for advancement.
Our products are used in industry, agriculture
and health services; therefore, we need responsible
people with solid academic backgrounds who
can contribute to our mutual growth. Our open-
ings are in Engineering, Manufacturing,
Research, Technical Sales, and Finance.
If you want to know more about
us. see your College Placement Of-
fice. or wrie to' Rohm and Haas
Company. Recruiting and Place-
ment #1882, Independence Mall
West. Philadelphia, PA 19105.


An equal opportunity employer.



Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84112

American Institute of Chemical Engineers has
carried out surveys of the undergraduate curricula
in chemical engineering since 1957 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
The survey reported in this paper was carried out
during 1981. The form, which was similar to that
used in the past surveys, was sent out in the middle
of June and requested its return by the first of
September 1981. The questionnaire was to be based
on the curricula as of September 1, 1981. The
survey was sent out to all 149 schools listed in the
1980-81 Chemical Engineering Faculties [6].
Useable replies were received from 105 schools;
the best response that has been given to the
survey. The results of the survey were coded on
IBM punch cards and analyzed using standard
statistical procedures. The results of this survey
are presented in the accompanying tables. For
purposes of comparison, the same format has been
used as in previous surveys. In this way, a com-
parison can be made of the changes taking place
in the curriculum since 1957.
Table 1 presents the consolidated information
under the categories shown in previous reports
and is divided into three parts. The first set of
columns shows the average number of semester
hours, including all 105 schools. The second section
shows the percentage of schools offering the par-
ticular category and the third section shows the
average semester hours considering only those
schools offering the particular category.

In the area of unit
operations theory, transport theory has
made an increase as well as transport labs.
Unit operation theory has decreased somewhat to
accommodate the transport theory increase.

Dee Barker is professor and chairman of ChE at Brigham Young
University. Dee earned the B.S. and Ph.D. ('51) degrees from the
University of Utah. His industrial experience includes several years
with du Pont in nuclear engineering and with Hercules, Inc., in
atmospheric pollution, heat transfer, and materials development. He
has served foreign assignments at Provo Institute of Technology and
Science at Pilani, Rajasthan, India and Birla Institute of Technology
and Science. Dee's fields of interest include nuclear engineering,
fluid dynamics, heat transfer, process control and environmental

The changes in the curricula, since 1957, in
four categories are shown in Figs. 1 through 4.
Figure 1 shows the total semester hours offered
and indicates a slight increase in the net number
of credit hours since 1957. However the change is



100 110 120 130 140 150

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982




B. ChE. Curriculum 1957, 1961, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1981

Avg. Number of SH

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981

147.0 146.2 136.8 133.1 132.5 133.4
136.9 138.2 134.3 131.7 131.2 132.,

9. Written Communication 6.5 5.9 4.9 3.5
10. Oral Communication 1.1 1.0 0.3 0.6
11. Subtotal Items 9-10 7.6 6.9 5.6 4.3
12. Humanities, Required 4n. 5.4 4.9 4.0
13. Social Studies, Required 3.1 2.7 2.- 2.9
14. Other Req. Soc-Hum. 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5
15. Non-technical Electives 6.2 7.6 9.8 3.
16. Subtotal, Items 12-15 14.7 17.2 9.1 21.0
17. Physical Education, etc. 1. 1.9 .2 .9
18. Military Studies .1 .9 0.8 0.4
19. Other non-technical 0.; 0.4 0.5
20. Subtotal Items 17-19 5.2 2.0 1.9
21. Total Items 11, 16, 20 27. 25.8 26.0


23. Intro. & Review Math.
24. Anal. Geom. and Calc.
25. Diff. Eq. & Other
26. Subtotal Items 23-25
27. General Chemistry
28. Physical Chemistry
29. Organic Chemistry
30. Quantitative Analysis
31. Qualitative Analysis
32. Other Chemistry
33. Subtotal Items 27 32
34. General Physics
35. Modern Physics

4.4 2.6 0.2 0.i
11.b 11.7 11.3 9.9
1.3 3.6 b.3 7.
17.3 7. 17.7 17.9
8.0 7.8 7.A 7.1
8.5 8.1 7.7 7.1
8.5 7.8 7.4 6.6
4.2 .5 1.2 [.8
1. 1.3 0.6 0.4
U. 0.5 0.- 0.7
9.., 28.9 24.1 '22.
10.8 10.2 8.5 7.3
0.2 1.0 1.4 1.3

36. Subtotal Items 34-36 11.1 11.3 10.5 9.0
37. Total Items 26, 33, 36 59.2 57.9 49.7


39. Total Graphics

4.7 3.8 2.0 1.6

3.3 4 .
0.7 0.6
4.0 5.1
5.1 5.3
2.3 3.1
.2 1.0
18.9 18.8

1.7 1.8
5 7 1,8
25.U 25.1

0.2 --
9.8 10.7
8.1 7.4
17.9 1,.1

6.7 6.6

0.2 0.4
1 0.9
23.0 23.1
7.3 7.9
1.1 0.9

9.1 8.9
49.0 50.6

1.3 0.9

Schools Offering, %

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981

98.8 97.8 92.8 74.0 72.0 89.5
43.2 45.6 28.9 25.0 30.0 24.5
98.8 97.8 92.8 79.0 77.0 88.6
? .3 72.7 66.3 57.0 62.0 66.7
9. r' 55.4 39.8 44.0 38.0 45.7
. 20.7 22.9 21.0 20.0 14.3
n.4 82.6 79.5 79.0 77.0 73.3
S0.O 100.0 1iiO.0 100.0 O. 100.0 1
1;. 51.6 44.6 36.0 33.0 30.5
4 .1 49.0 18.1 5.0 1.0 3.8
,.5 14.1 19.3 14.0 28.0 19.0
4.1 77.2 54.2 44.0 43.0 40.0
i*u.0 100.0 96.4 100.0 100.0 100.0

-.0 53.3 6.0 4.0 5.0 1.0
0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
4.4 81.5 98.8 95.0 100.0 100.0
;'U.' 100. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 97.6 99.0 97.0 100.0
110.0 98.9 97.6 99.0 96.0 97.1
100.0 98.9 98.8 98.0 99.0 98.1
:8.5 94.6 35.1 31.0 29.0 40.0
44.4 39.2 25.3 15.0 13.0 16.2
9.9 9.8 18.0 20.0 32.0 23.8
100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 98.8 95.0 90.0 98.0
8.6 38.0 38.6 34.0 26.0 27.6

100.0 100.0 100.0 99.0 98.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 85.5 100.0 100.0 100.0

97.5 94.6 67.5 59.0 50.0 44.7


41. Economics, Princ. of
42. Economics, Engineering
43. Bus. Law, Admin., etc.
44. Total Items 41-43


46. Mechanics
47. Mechanics of Materials
48. Total Items 46-67

2.2 2.1 1.5 1.1
0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7
0.5 0.3 0.1 0.2
3.4 2.7 2.2 1.9.

Avg. Number of SH

1957 1961 1978 1972 1976 1981

3.7 3.9 4.1 3.0 1.8 1.9
3.1 2.5 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.0
6.8 6.4 5.1 4.2 4.0 3.9


50. Elementary El. Eng.
51. Elementary Electronics
52. Total Items 50-51

4.7 4.0 '2.8 2.4 2.2 2.3
0.3 0.9 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.7
5.0 5.0 4.3 3.2 2.9 3.1


54. Physical Metallurgy 1.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1
55. Other Category A Courses 0.1 0.3 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.2
56. Metallurgy 0.4 0.6 0. 0. 0.1 0.1
57. Other Category B Courses 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
58. Total Items 54-57 2.3 1.9 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.7


60. Biology and Geology
61. Heat Power
62. Shop Practice
63. Other
64. Total Items 60-63


0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.8 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.6
1.8 0.8 0.8 1.3 0.9 1.1

66. Material & Energy Bal. 3.8 3.1 3.1 2.8 3.1 3.2
67. Thermodynamics 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.5
68. Chemical Kinetics 0.5 1.2 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.1
69. Subtotal Items 66-68 9.1 9.2 5.0 10.1 9.6 10.8
70. Unit Operations Theory 7.6 8.2 4.3 9.7 9.7 10.4
71. Unit Operations Lab. 4.1 3.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0
72. Subtotal Items 70-71 11.7 12.1 7.0 12.5 12.6 13.4
73. Ch.E. Design 3.7 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.1 4.8
74. Chemical Technology 2.7 1.8 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.1
75. Investigational Skills 2.5 1.5 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.6
76. Intro. to Ch.E. 0.8 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.8
77. Instrumentation 0.7 1.1 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.4
78. Unit Processes 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1
79. Trips 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
80. Fuels and Lubricants 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
81. Other 0.6 1.7 4.1 4.5 5.5 5.1
82. Subtotal Items 73-80 12.1 11.5 12.3 8.1 13.5 15.2
83. Total Items 69, 72, 82 32.9 32.9 33.4 35.5 35.7 37.6

85. Total Tech. Electives

3.6 5.2 6.2 7.7 7.6 7.0

1.0 1.1 55.6 58.7 39.8 33.0 32.0 34.3
0.8 1.0 23.5 22.8 27.7 29.0 36.0 37.1
0.3 0.3 18.5 8.7 2.4 4.0 10.0 8.0
1.8 2.1 70.4 68.5 55.4 53.0 52.0 55.2

Schools Offering, %

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981

97.8 97.5 90.4 78.0 72.0 78.0
97.5 80.4 47.0 41.0 40.0 40.0
100.0 97.8 90.4 85.0 84.0 83.8

98.8 93.5 77.1 73.0 66.0 71.4
9.9 38.0 49.4 28.0 26.0 27.6
100.0 95.7 88.0 79.0 74.0 79.0

40.7 20.6 13.3 9.0 7.0 3.8
5.0 11.9 57.8 49.0 38.0 40.0
12.7 21.7 2.4 3.0 2.0 2.9
28.4 11.9 10.8 12.0 11.0 9.5
67.9 55.4 71.1 58.0 49.0 48.6

4.9 4.3 6.0 8.0 7.0 8.6
23.5 8.7 1.2 5.0 1.0 5.7
23.5 8.7 1.2 3.0 1.0 0.0
13.6 15.2 18.1 20.0 12.0 13.3
45.7 29.3 24.1 27.0 23.0 25.7

98.8 9.3 91.6 86.0 90.0 93.3
100.0 100.0 98.8 99.0 97.0 100.0
18.5 53.2 89.2 95.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 75.9 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 97.8 73.5 98.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 98.9 81.9 88.0 89.0 91.4
100.0 98.9 91.6 98.0 100.0 100.0
90.1 86.9 90.4 91.0 100.0 100.0
75.3 53.2 19.3 15.0 11.0 7.6
70.4 50.0 24.1 25.0 26.0 20.0
38.3 39.1 30.1 33.0 34.0 40.0
32.1 41.3 71.1 74.0 80.0 85.0
27.2 23.9 7.2 14.0 5.0 2.9
21.0 17.4 7.2 6.0 5.0 4.8
13.6 4.3 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0
19.8 42.3 61.5 69.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 98.9 98.8 97.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 98.8 100.0 100.0 100.0

65.4 75.0 72.3 83.0 82.0 81.9

6. Gross Credits, 5H
7. Net Credits, SH


3.1 3.1
2.6 3.0
3.0 3.0
2.6 2.3
3.4 3.4

4.0 4.4
2.3 4.0
1.3 1.0
2.2 3.0
2.8 3.3

3.3 3.3
5.0 4.6
2.3 3.0
9.2 6.6
8.4 5.9
4.0 3.3
12.2 7.7
4.0 4.0
3.3 3.0
3.1 3.5
2.3 1.8
2.5 3.3
3.0 3.2
1.7 1.2
1.5 1.0
3.9 6.6
11.6 12.5
32.8 33.8

2.6 2.5 2.5
2.8 3.0 3.9
0.8 2.2 3.2
1.8 1.8 3.0
3.4 3.2 3.6

3.4 3.7 4.1
2.1 1.0 2.6
1.8 1.0 0.0
4.5 4.2 4.2
4.9 3.9 4.1

3.2 3.4 3.4
4.4 4.6 4.5
3.1 3.0 3.1
10.1 11.0 10.8
9.9 9.7 10.4
3.1 3.3 3.2
12.7 13.0 13.6
3.9 4.1 4.8
2.3 1.9 1.6
3.0 3.1 2.8
2.3 1.9 2.0
3.1 2.3 3.1
2.6 3.4 2.2
1.4 0.9 0.8
0.0 0.0 0.0
6.5 5.5 5.1
8.4 23.1
35.5 36.9 37.6

5.5 7.0 8.6 9.3 9.4 8.6

FALL 1982

Avg. SH When Offered

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981

6.6 6.0 5.3 4.8 4.5 5.1
2.4 2.3 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.5
7.7 7.1 6.0 5.4 5.2 5.8
6.3 7.6 7.5 8.5 8.2 8.0
5.9 4.8 6.2 6.6 7.3 6.7
5.7 7.3 6.7 7.4 6.1 6.9
8.3 9.2 12.3 12.8 11.8 12.1
14.7 17.2 19.1 20.0 18.9 18.8
3.5 3.7 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.6
6.5 6.0 4.4 7.7 2.0 3.0
1.3 2.0 2.2 3.4 4.1 4.5
6.2 6.6 3.7 4.5 3.5 4.4
27.5 29.6 26.8 26.0 25.0 25.1

5.6 4.9 2.8 2.3 3.1 1.0
11.6 11.7 11.3 9.9 9.8 10.7
2.8 4.3 6.3 7.6 8.1 7.4
17.3 17.9 17.7 17.9 17.9 18.1
8.0 7.8 7.5 '7.2 7.6 7.7
8.5 8.2 7.9 7.2 6.8 6.7
8.5 7.8 7.5 6.7 6.9 7.0
4.2 3.7 3.3 2.6 2.3 1.9
3.0 3.3 2.3 2.3 1.9 2.2
3.3 5.5 2.8 3.3 4.6 3.8
30.8 28.9 24.4 22.9 23.0 23.1
10.8 10.2 8.6 7.6 8.1 8.0
2.6 2.7 3.7 4.0 4.1 3.2

11.12 11.3 10.5 9.1 8.9 8.9
59.2 57.9 52.2 49.7 49.5 50.6

4.8 4.0 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.1

3.9 3.5 3.9 3.2 3.1 3.3
2.8 2.2 2.0 .2.2 2.2 2.6
2.9 3.0 4.5 4.1 2.7 3.0
4.8 4.1 3.9 3.5 3.4 3.8

Avg. SH When Offered

1957 1961 1968 1972 1976 1981

3.8 4.0 4.5 3.8 2.5 2.6
3.2 3.1 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.6
6.8 6.6 5.7 4.9 4.8 4.7

4.8 4.3 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.3
2.6 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6
*5.0 5.2 4.8 4.1 3.9 3.9

small and probably not significant.
Figure 2 represents the changes in Humanities
and Social Sciences and shows an increase of 2.6%.
Figure 3 indicates that there has been little
change in the Chemistry offerings of the various
departments since the last survey was undertaken.
The figure represents both advanced chemistry

(% of Curriculum)

S14.7 (11)

17.2 (12)
1 18.1 (13)

S20 (15)
18.9 (14)
| 21.5 (16.1)

I 1 I

and introduction chemistry.
In reference 5 (reporting the survey in 1976),
concern was expressed for the decrease in com-
munications offered by the various schools. This
has improved greatly since 1976; today 89% of
the schools present some material. The survey also
indicates that communications was being covered
in seminars and in lab courses and was not re-
corded explicitly with a given number of classes.
The earlier surveys (prior to 1976) did not
include an analysis of the actual course offerings

B. ChE. Curriculum; Sub-Categories
Avg. SCH
% Offering when Offered

1976 1981 1976 1981

FIGURE 2 Analytical Geometry
Differential Equation
Linear Algebra
CHEMISTRY SH Advanced Calculus
(% of Curriculum) Complex Variables
Partial Differential Equations
Numerical Analysis
Digital Computing
& Programming
Ss30.8 (22) Analog Computations
28.9 (21) Applied Engineering Math
3 24.4 (17: MECHANICS
S22.9 (17) Statics
i 23 (18)
I1 j23.3 (17.5) Dynamics
S I I I I l Chemical Kinetics
0 24 26 28 30 32 Chemical Reactor Design
FIGURE 3 Transport Theory
Transport Lab
Equilibrium Stage
ChE Design
Process Synthesis
Process Control
7 198.8 Process Dynamics
1 97.8
S192.8 Mathematical Modeling
2 9 Computer Applications in
2 79
6 177 Chemical Engineering
1 19 Biomedical Engineering
9 Polymer Processing
Nuclear Engineering
I I I I I Environmental Engineering
60 70 80 90 100 110 Other ChE required
Chemical Engineering
FIGURE 4 Electives

72 78 2.7 2.6
36 37 2.4 2.5

60 59 2.0 2.1
73 76 2.5 2.6

93 98 3.6 4.1
33 31 2.4 2.4

14 11 2.6 2.1

49 55 7.1 5.3


The categories of engineering design and engineering science have been
lumped together since there was no way to determine from the survey forms which
portion of the material is engineering science and engineering design. One of the problems facing
educational accreditation is that of design in chemical engineering education.

under math, mechanics, kinetics, etc. This survey
(and the 1976 survey) asked for information
relative to the different kinds of math, etc. Table
2 presents the results of this section of the
questionnaire, both for 1976 and for 1981. Intro-
ductory math is not included since none of the
schools responding indicated that they were teach-
ing introduction or review math.
In the area of unit operations theory, transport
theory has made an increase as well as transport
labs. Unit operation theory has decreased some-
what to accommodate the transport theory in-
crease. In addition, a larger number of schools
are offering courses in instrumentation process
control and process dynamics, which previously
had been listed only as instrumentation.
The distribution of course work as compared
with the AIChE minimum was also calculated.
This information is presented in Table 3. As can
be seen, the basic science and advanced chemistry
are somewhat low. Part of this could be due to
the way these categories were analyzed from the
survey forms since some schools counted chemis-
try from the chemical engineering courses.
Normally it is expected that all chemistry courses
will be taught in the Chemistry Department and
will be the same as taught in Chemistry. The dis-
tribution of course work was determined by taking
selected items from the survey forms and using
them to fit into the various categories. Some
problem probably arose because of this arbitrary
division. For instance, there may be some chemis-
try in the thermodynamics courses which is not
included in the chemistry shown here.
The categories of engineering design and engi-
neering science have been lumped together in
Table 3 since there was no way to determine from
the survey forms which portion of the material is
engineering science and engineering design. One
of the problems facing educational accreditation is
that of design in chemical engineering education.
Typically this comes from eight to ten different
courses. The problem of defining design and look-
ing for it in the curricula is currently being under-
taken by the E & A Committee.
The form also asked for the number of vacant
tenure faculty positions, and 71 schools indicated

Curricular Area
Mathematics beyond Trigonometry
Basic Sciences [Show Advanced
Engineering Sciences
Engineering Design, Synthesis,
and Systems
Humanities/Social Sciences
Other Required Technical
Other Required Courses
(Non Technical)
Other Free Electives
Total of "Other"
TOTAL: Percent

(%) Avg.
12.5 13.6
25.0 24.3
(12.5) (11.7)
25.0 j
25 37.5 37.3
12.5_ "
12.5 16.1




that they had vacancies, for a total of 115
vacancies. The results of this part of the survey
will be published in Chemical Engineering Pro-
In summary it appears that only minor changes
have been made in the chemical engineering cur-
ricula since the last survey was undertaken. An-
other survey is planned in approximately four to
five years. Any specific questions concerning books
used and other material can be addressed to the
author at Brigham Young University. O

1. Thatcher, C. M., The Chemical Engineering Cur-
riculum, Chemical Engineering Education, Sept. 1962.
2. Schmidt, A. X., What is the Current ChE Curriculum?
Journal of Engineering Education, October 1958.
3. Balch, C. W., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Engineering 1969-70, Chemical Engineering Edu-
cation, Vol. VI, No. 1, Winter 1972.
4. Barker, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula in Chemical
Engineering 1970-71, Chemical Engineering Edu-
cation, Winter 1972.
5. Barker, D. H., Undergraduate Curricula 1976, Chemi-
cal Engineering Education, Spring 1977.
6. Ekerdt, John, Chemical Engineering Faculties 1980-
81, Vol. 29, A publication of the Chemical Engineer-
ing Education Projects Committee of the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers.

FALL 1982

Distribution of Course Work; 1981

[class and home problems

The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems sn
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scot Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.


University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT 84102

On November 20, 1980, an oil well drilling rig,
operating in the shallow waters of Lake Peigneur,
Louisiana, accidentally drilled into an under-
ground salt mine. The hole increased rapidly in
size and drained the lake, flooding the mine.
Miraculously, no fatalities or serious injuries oc-
curred, although the property damage was very
large. The incident is recounted by Michael Gold
in, "Who Pulled the Plug on Lake Peigneur?",
Science 81 2(9) (November 1981), 56-63. Figure
1 shows a sketch, roughly to scale, of the mine,
lake, and drilling rig.
From the text of the article, it is clear that
there were two vertical shafts from the surface
to horizontal galleries: a main shaft, and a smaller
ventilation shaft. Which levels of the mine were
open to each of the shafts is not clear in the
article (or any other published description), so
we should probably assume that each shaft was

open on all levels. In addition to the two vertical
shafts, one or more inclined roadways connected
the various underground galleries with each other,
but not with the surface. The mine itself did not
consist of simple cylindrical tunnels, as the sketch
might suggest, but of a series of rooms, up to 100
feet square, with roofs up to 80 feet high,
connected by galleries large enough for several
trucks to drive through side-by-side.
In one part of the article, the flow out of the
ventilation shaft is described as follows:

For some time, a powerful jet of air had been
coming from the mine's ventilation shaft, Forced
out by the incoming floodwaters below, the blast had
kept the emergency elevator dancing around the top
of the shaft like a paper kite in a stiff wind. Suddenly
the rushing air halted, and a thick stream of water
rocketed out of the shaft. The geyser climbed 400 feet
into the sky, surged for 10 minutes, coughed up mud,
and died. (Reproduced by permission of Addison

The fact that the water flowing from the lake
into the mine would expel the air in the mine is
perfectly obvious. But, as we all know, "water
seeks its own level." This report indicates that
water which flowed from the lake eventually came
out of the top of the ventilation shaft (a few feet
above lake level) and jetted 400 feet in the air.
That means that it "sought a level" 400 feet above
the level it started at. (The article does not
mention any such water flow from the main shaft
of the mine.)
Can the description of a 400 foot geyser
possibly be correct? Were the observers, dazed by
the other wild event of the day, mistaken about
that? If it is correct, it must be explainable by
the laws of fluid mechanics. Present an explana-
tion, in terms of those laws, with suitable diagrams
and calculations.

SCGopyright ChE Division, ASEE. 1982



Noel de Nevers earned his BSChE at Stanford and his PhD at the
University of Michigan, with a year out in between to be a Fulbright
exchange student at the Technical Institute in Karlsruhe, Germany. He
spent five years with what is now Chevron Research and Chevron Oil-
field Research, before joining the faculty of the University of Utah.
He spent Academic 1971-72 on leave, working for the Office of Air
Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency. He is the author of
a textbook on Fluid Mechanics, and editor of a book of readings and
discussion on Technology and Society.

In principle, the overall flow in the system is
like that in a U-tube manometer. Inserting liquid
into one leg of the U expels the less-dense air in
the other leg. If the system had been a simple U-
tube, we would expect the air to be expelled and
the flow to stop when the liquid levels in both legs
of the tube were the same. One may easily demon-
strate that in the laboratory. One may also show
that an oscillation can be set up, with the levels
in the two tubes moving up and down 180 degrees
out of phase with one another. The behavior and
mathematical analysis of such an oscillating mano-
meter are identical with that of a pendulum; if
there were zero friction, they would oscillate for-
ever, just as a frictionless pendulum would oscil-
late forever.
Such an oscillation represents the exchange of
potential and kinetic energies between parts of
the system, as does a pendulum. But, just as a
pendulum can never swing higher than its initial
position, so also this type of manometerr oscilla-
tion" can never take any of the fluid higher than
the original position of the free surface of the
fluid poured into the manometer. So, if only an
orderly plugflow displacement of the air in the
mine by the water from the lake had taken place,
we could not have had such a fountain.
However, if one of the legs of the U-tube is a
mixture of air and water, then its average density
is much less than that of the water in the other leg,

and it will not come to simple gravitational equi-
librium at the same level as the other leg. This is
the basis on which coffee percolators and gas-lift
pumps work. Fig. 2 is a copy of a problem from
de Nevers, Fluid Mechanics, Addison Wesley,
1970, which shows an analogous situation. One
can easily set this up in the laboratory and show
that, if one leg of the "equivalent manometer" is
full of liquid while the other leg has a gas-liquid
mixture, then the equilibrium level due to fluid
statics alone will be higher on the gas-liquid
side than the liquid side. This problem has be-
devilled everyone who has ever tried to make ac-
curate measurements with a small diameter mano-
meter in which it is difficult to purge all the air
Returning to the mine geyser, it seems certain
that the geyser must have been caused by some
of the in-rushing liquid finding a flow path which
led it to the ventilation shaft before all of the air
was expelled from the mine. In that case, it would
temporarily block that shaft, and the pressure of
the trapped air in the mine would rise enough to

FIGURE 2. Sketch of a fountain arrangement made of
two glass jars with rubber stoppers,
several lengths of glass tubing, a funnel,
and a piece of rubber tubing. The level of
the jet and the level of the water in the
funnel are exactly the same. The space
above the water in each bottle is full of
air, as is the rubber tube connecting the
two bottles. An inventor has come to us,
telling us that with this arrangement the
water will squirt high in the air, much
higher than the water level in the funnel.
Is he right? Explain your answer.

FALL 1982

expel it with considerable force.
A hypothetical series of events which could
have produced the jet is sketched in Fig. 3 (with
only one shaft).
First Stage: The flow into the 1300-foot level
reaches the shaft and begins to flow down it,
trapping air in the lower, 1500-foot level. With
the water flow down the shaft, the air is unable
to escape. Water displaces air from the upper
levels, causing air to flow out of the shaft.
Second Stage: The continued flow of water
down the shaft to the lower level compresses the
"bubble" of air remaining trapped in the lower
level. Meanwhile, the upper galleries continue to
fill, venting air through the shaft. (Fig. 4)
Third Stage: Eventually, the air bubble in the
lowest level reaches the pressure at which it is at
or near hydrostatic equilibrium with the inflow-
ing water. Thus the water flow down the shaft
slows and stops. This downflowing water was the
seal which kept the bubble in place; now the
bubble can begin to migrate up the shaft. As it
does so, water flows in behind it. Once it begins
to fill areas above the 1300 foot inflow level, it
can again be driven up by the water. But now, the
water above it in the system must be expelled to
make room for it to escape. This causes that water
to be expelled in the "mine-mouth geyser." (Fig. 5)
This simplified picture, with only one shaft,
cannot account for the description that the geyser
"surged for ten minutes, coughed up mud, and
died." If there were only one entrance, the geyser
would have had to end with another air jet, as the
bubble escaped. But with two shafts, one of which
apparently did not show any liquid flow, the air
bubble could have used one of the upper galleries
to move from ventilation to main shaft, and escape

through it, thus ending the geyser without a final
air jet. If the actual underground space had been
a series of horizontal and vertical cylinders, then
the surging might be hard to explain. But the
actual space (as reported in the article) was a
room-and-pillar mine, consisting of many more-or-
less cubical rooms connected by much narrower
rectangular vertical, horizontal, and inclined
shafts. Thus the surging was most likely to be
the result of the irregular flow of the air bubble
through these various rooms and passages.
If, as reported, the jet exiting from the air
shaft went 400 feet in the air, then it exited with
a velocity of roughly

V = V2gh = V(2) (32 ft/sec2) (400 ft)
= 160 ft/sec (1)
If, as shown above, the geyser flowed at 160
ft/sec, and the distance from the topmost gallery

to the surface was 800 feet, then the geyser should
only have lasted five seconds. However, because
of the irregular rooms to be filled and emptied,
the actual volume ejected is not implausible. If
we assume that the ventilation shaft was ten feet
in diameter, had a velocity of 160 feet a second,
and flowed steadily for ten minutes, then the
total volume of water ejected would have been
56 x 106 gallons of water. This is a high estimate,
because it assumes a 400 foot high geyser for the
full ten minutes; a much lower estimate is more
plausible because of the reported surging, perhaps
a fourth to a tenth of this number. The total flow
of water from lake to mine (equal to the excavated
volume of the mine) was 3.5 x 109 gallons. Thus
this high estimate of the total liquid flow of the
geyser is only 1.6% of the estimated total flow


of water from the lake to the mine.
If a solid column of water had been flowing
up such a ten foot diameter shaft at a velocity
of 160 ft/sec, the pressure gradient due to friction
above the hydrostatic gradient would have been
AP 4f V2
P PD (2)
Ax D 2
To determine the fraction factor, we must esti-
mate the relative roughness of the ventilation
shaft. Assuming that the individual surface
roughnesses are one inch, we can estimate
C 1 inch
inch 0.0083 (3)
D 120 inches
and hence f = 0.009,


(4) (0.009) (62.4 ft ) (160 ft/sec


Ibm ft 144 ii
(10 ft) (2) (32.2r-1 ) (--ft
lbf -e C2 f2

= 0.62 psi/ft (4)

This pressure gradient is 1.4 times that of a
hydrostatic column of water; it is clear that a
simple filling of the "U-tube" could never produce
pressure gradients of this magnitude within the
fluid. However, from the sketch in the problem
(taken from the Science 81 article), it appears that
the shallowest gallery of the mine was 800 feet
below the surface, and the deepest was 1500 feet
below the surface. Thus, if there were a column
of air 700 feet high from this deepest gallery to
the shallowest, and if the bottom were in hydro-
static equilibrium with the lake while the top
were facing an 800 foot long column of liquid
open to the surface, a pressure gradient of ap-
proximately 0.38 psi/ft (above the hydrostatic
gradient) would have been exerted on the liquid
in the ventilator shaft. Comparing that to the
above estimate, I infer that either I have over-
estimated the relative roughness of the ventilator
shaft or that the observers overestimated the
height to which the geyser went.
This proposed solution is basically a hydro-
static solution. Before accepting it, we should
consider alternative dynamic solutions. There are
well-known devices, called hydraulic rams, which
allow a liquid falling from level one to level two
to pump some liquid to a level higher than level
one. An illustrated description is given on page
195 of Brown and Associates' Unit Operations,
Wiley, NY, 1950. Their operation requires quick-
acting valving, not likely to be approximated in

the mine flooding. However, the idea on which it
is based deserves examination. If a column of
moving fluid is suddenly stopped, it can generate
high pressures. This is the subject of water-
hammer analysis. It shows, for example, that if
a column of a slightly compressible fluid (e.g.,
water, but not air) is stopped by closing a valve
very quickly, the maximum pressure which will
be generated in the region of the valve will be

P = u[Kp]0.5 (5)
where P is the pressure, u is the original velocity
before the fluid was stopped, K is the isothermal
compressibility, and p is the density of the fluid.
Inserting typical values for water, we find that,
for an initial velocity of 10 ft/see, the calculated
pressure is 650 psi. This is high enough to damage
equipment and rupture pipes; large hydraulic
structures (e.g., hydro power plants) are designed
to avoid the creation of this kind of pressure or
to withstand it where it is unavoidable. But this
kind of pressure can only be exerted on an unyield-
ing structure. It cannot propel a jet of fluid for
any significant time or distance. If a mass of liquid
is compressed to 650 psi and then allowed to do
work by expanding (W = JF dx = JP dV) then
the compressed liquid will return to its original
volume and pressure if it expands 0.2%. Thus the
amount of work of accelerating some of the fluid
up the ventilator shaft could not easily have been
obtained by allowing some other fastmoving body
of liquid to be stopped suddenly and using the
high pressure thus generated to drive a fountain.
It certainly could not drive one for ten minutes.
From the article in Science 81, it is clear that
Continued on page 203.

FALL 1982


i PseI stirred pots


Yale University
New Haven, CT 06520

What follows is an imaginary dialogue that
embodies the elements of many real conversations
I have had with students. The two participants
are SI SORP (Student In Search Of a Research
Project) and PI NORA (Professor In Need Of.a
Research Assistant).

SI: I hear you might have an opening in your
group for a student ready to do thesis research in
chemical engineering.
PI: Right. Would you be interested?
SI: It depends. I've heard that you work with
molecular beams but I really don't know what
they are or what they're good for.
PI: Well, you might say that what we do is like
playing billiards. We shoot individual molecules
at surfaces or other molecules in a vacuum and see
how they bounce.
SI: I don't understand. It doesn't sound like
chemical engineering to me.
PI: Let me explain. Do you know anything about
cyclotrons and other kinds of accelerators that
physicists use, sometimes called atom smashers in
the popular press?
SI: I've heard about them and read some articles
in magazines and newspapers.
PI: Have you ever seen pictures of particle
tracks in an emulsion, or a cloud chamber or a
bubble chamber?
SI: Yes, but I haven't thought that much about
what they mean.
PI: Look at it this way. Suppose you put a
billiard ball on a table and hit it with the cue ball.
What would happen?
SI: The billiard ball would go in one direction
and the cue ball in another. The particular di-
rections and speeds would depend upon how hard
and how head-on the collision was.
PI: Right. Now suppose you replaced the billiard
ball with an egg.

John Fenn received his B.A. from Berea College (1937) and his
Ph.D. from Yale (1940). After a number of years spent in private
industry he went to Princeton in 1952 and remained there until
joining the chemical engineering department at Yale in 1967.
He has been visiting professor at the University of Trento, Italy, Uni-
versity of Tokyo and Australian National University. He recently re-
ceived a Senior Scientist Award from the Alexander von Humboldt
Foundation in West Germany. He is the author of "Engines, Energy
and Entropy: A Thermodynamics Primer."

SI: Well, the same thing would happen, except
that the egg's trajectory might be different because
it isn't spherically symmetric like a billiard ball.
If the cue ball were going fast enough the egg
would break and splatter. Also, the cue ball
wouldn't change direction quite as much.
PI: Suppose the egg were hard boiled.
SI: Then about the same thing would happen,
except that the cue ball would have to be going
faster to break the egg. And the result wouldn't
be as messy.
PI: In other words, you could tell the difference
between a billiard ball, a fresh egg, and a hard
boiled egg by observing the trajectories of the cue
ball and its target before and after collision. In-
deed, you could learn something about their
structure and behavior.
SI: I see what you mean.
PI: Well, that's what so-called scattering or
collision experiments are all about. The tracks in
photographic emulsions and cloud or bubble
chambers that you've seen pictures of are tra-
jectory traces, usually of one of the collision
partners and the fragments after collision. Es-


SCopyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

sentially, all our knowledge of nuclear structure
and reactions has come from the study of such
particle tracks.
SI: Very interesting but I don't want to be
a nuclear physicist.
PI: Wait a minute. Nobody said anything about
your becoming a nuclear scientist or engineer.
Using an egg as an example of a target didn't
mean that I thought you might want to raise
chickens or make omelets! I was just pointing out
that what happens when objects collide can give
information on their structure and properties.
SI: OK, but I still don't see any connection with
chemical engineering.
PI: Let's look further. What are chemical engi-
neers concerned with?
SI: Let me see. Well you know, making
plastics, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals, refining
petroleum, processing foodstuffs things like
PI: Quite a variety, right? Now what do most
or all of these activities have in common?
SI: I guess you could say they all involve some
sort of chemical reaction. Then, too, there is
usually heating and cooling and mixing and dis-
tillation and ... fluid flow .. and ...
PI: Good. You've just been reciting what chemi-
cal engineers once considered the basic building
blocks of their discipline, the so-called unit
operations. Actually, that term usually referred
to physical phenomena like vaporization, crystal-
lization, fluid flow, heat transfer, adsorption and
so forth. Chemical reactions were similarly classi-
fied in such categories as oxidation, reduction,
alkylation, polymerization, hydrolysis, and the
like, that were known as unit processes. But we
can pursue this reduction to fundamentals even
further. If you stop to think, you will realize that
all of these unit operations and processes are
based on the transport of mass, momentum and
energy and the transformation of composition by
chemical reaction.
SI: I see what you're driving at. The next thing
you will tell me is that all of these transport and
reaction processes depend upon what happens
when molecules encounter each other.
PI: Exactly. You can go to the head of the class.
When we scatter a beam of molecules by another
beam or a static cloud of molecules, and watch
how they bounce, that is to say, what happens to
their trajectories, we obtain information on their
structure and the nature of the forces between
them. The difference between what we do and

what atom-smashing physicists do is largely a
matter of energy. Physicists are concerned with
forces that hold the nucleus together and that
relate to energies of billions of electron volts.
Chemists are concerned with extranuclear phe-
nomena involving forces which bind electrons to
the nucleus and hold molecules together. Chemical
energies are always less than a few tens of electron
volts. Incidentally, an electron volt per particle
(atom or molecule) is equivalent to about 23
kcal/mol. Thus, we don't need and cannot use
the billion volt beam energies that the nuclear
physicists require and that make their accelerators
so big and expensive. By the same token, we can-
not see individual collision events as they can. A
particle travelling with energies in the millions
or billions of electron volts can go through a photo-
graphic emulsion or a bubble chamber as if it
weren't there. The energy required to make its
track is a negligible fraction of the total. On the
other hand, an atom or molecule with only a few
electron volts of energy won't even make a dent
in an emulsion, let alone a track through it. Conse-
quently, molecular beam scattering experiments
of the kind we do depend upon bringing about as
many collisions as possible that are as nearly
identical as possible. Each collision contributes a
little bit to the observed signal, usually an electric
current obtained by converting the beam molecules
into ions.
SI: All right. I can see how such experiments
might tell us about the structure of atoms and
molecules, but we already have that information
about practically all species the chemical engineers
are concerned with.
PI: That's quite true, but there is another
difference between atom smashing and molecular
beam scattering experiments. Consider reactive
scattering events that change the composition or
structure of at least one collision partner and are
the primary interest of nuclear physicists. The
energy which seems to count in bringing about
nuclear reactions is translational kinetic energy.
At least that is the only kind of energy that
physicists have a handle on. Chemists, on the
other hand, have long recognized that molecules
can have several kinds of energy: translational,
vibrational, and rotational energy, as well as
electronic excitation energy. Most classical gas
phase reactions experiments measure composition
change with time in a container of reactants at a
uniform temperature that can be varied from ex-
periment to experiment. Unfortunately, rotational,

FALL 1982

vibrational, and translational energies all change
with temperature. Consequently, it is generally
impossible to isolate the effects of these different
forms of energy on the rate or mechanism of the
reaction. Indeed, a molecular beam experiment 20
years ago was one of the first bits of tangible evi-
dence that translational energy was not a very im-
portant component of activation energy in some
reactions. Since then, of course, hindsight and
laser experiments have everybody convinced that
vibrational energy is much more important in
many, if not most, reactions involving reactants
with more than one atom.
SI: Are you saying that excited state inter-
mediates are not important in nuclear reactions?
PI: I guess that's what I am implying, but I
should retreat a bit because I am not expert in
nuclear affairs. It does seem that physicists can't
control internal (nuclear) energy states of collid-
ing partners as readily as chemists can control
vibrational and electronic excitation. Conse-
quently, the role of excited internal states in
nuclear reactions is not as clear as it is becoming
in chemical reactions. But there is still another
difference in kind between atom smashing and
molecular beam scattering experiments.
SI: What is that?
PI: We have been talking so far about reactive
scattering. There are two other kinds of collisions
that are more important to chemists and chemical
engineers than to nuclear physicists. Elastic
collisions are those in which both momentum and
translational kinetic energy are conserved but
there is no change in the structure or internal
energy state of either collision partner. Then
there are inelastic collisions in which there is no
change in structure but there is a change in the
vibrational, rotational or electronic energy of one
or both partners. The trajectories of the partici-
pants in these kinds of collisions generally re-
spond less to intra- than to inter-molecular forces
that are generally repulsive when molecules are
close together, attractive when they are further
apart. It is convenient to characterize these forces
in terms of the work required to pull the molecules
apart to an infinite separation, i.e., where the
forces are zero. A plot of this work as a function
of intermolecular separation is called an inter-
molecular potential because the work required for
separation is equivalent to a potential energy.
SI: Oh, I'm beginning to remember. Didn't we
discuss something in our transport course called
a Lennard-Jones potential which governs the

interaction between two molecules?
PI: That's right. The Lennard-Jones or 12-6 po-
tential model assumes the actual potential is a
simple sum of repulsive and attractive potential
energies that are inversely proportional respec-
tively to the 12th and 6th powers of the distance
between the molecules. The difference between
these two powers leads to net repulsion when the
molecules are close together and net attraction
when they are far apart. Real potentials are more
complicated and cannot be accurately described
in terms of only two parameters. For many engi-
neering approximations, a Lennard-Jones model
is sufficiently accurate to be useful. Which leads
me to a question. Why did the subject of potentials
come up in your transport class?
SI: We were learning about the dependence of
viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusion in
gases upon the forces between molecules! In fact,
don't I remember that it is possible to determine
the parameters of a potential from measured
values of the transport properties and the equation
of state?
PI: Correct. But there is a problem. These
macroscopic properties represent the integrated
or average result of collisions taking place over a
wide range of energies, orientations and impact
parameters (a measure of the head-on-ness of a
collision). For any particular property and set of
conditions, there are many combinations of po-
tential parameters that will match a computation
with a given experiment. Consequently, it is hard
to choose the best one. Moreover, one cannot be
sure that a particular potential which matches
computation and experiment over a particular
range of conditions will give reliable results out-
side of that range. In addition, it frequently turns
out that a potential that works for one transport
property, e.g., thermal conductivity, gives unreal
results when used to calculate another transport
property, e.g., diffusion coefficients.
SI: So what's different about potentials obtained
from scattering experiments?
PI: Such experiments probe the intermolecular
potential much more directly and with greater
sensitivity than macroscopic property measure-
ments. The net result is that potentials based on
scattering experiments are more accurate, par-
ticularly at separation distances where attractive
forces are important. Note that if one does the
arithmetic correctly a calculation based on a par-
ticular potential can lead to only one possible
value of a transport property for a particular


temperature and pressure. The converse is not
true. There are many possible potential parameter
combinations which can lead to a given value of
transport property.
SI: I'll take your word for that but it sounds
more like science than engineering. Why should
engineers do molecular beam scattering experi-
ments ?
PI: To answer that question I guess I need to
know what you think engineers should do.
SI: I believe engineers should be concerned with
practical problems. At least they should try to
solve problems in a practical and efficient way.
More than that, I guess I believe that they should
work on problems that have some commercial im-
pact or significance. If an engineer needs to know
the viscosity and thermal conductivity of a gas to
design a heat exchanger he can look them up in a
handbook or measure them directly. All this
business about molecular beams, scattering ex-
periments and intermolecular potentials sounds
like pretty esoteric science to me. Maybe it's all
right for chemists, but chemical engineers? ....
I dunno.
PI: I understand your reaction. You say engi-
neers should be practical and efficient. If you need
the value for a property like viscosity, "you could
look it up" as Casey Stengel used to say. If a
value isn't available then you could measure just
what you need, but you wouldn't bother measur-
ing what you don't see an immediate need for.
SI: Right on.
PI: Let's look at the heat exchanger problem a
little further. Suppose an engineer is trying to
design one as a preheater for a cracker but that
the client isn't exactly sure what feedstock he will
be using. Depending on the time of year and the
market it may vary from a mixture of ethane and
propane to a melange of several alkanes. In fact,
suppose the client's specification calls for a design
which can accommodate any arbitrary mixture of
30 hydrocarbons from C1 to Cs. To simplify the
problem for our purpose let's suppose that the
mixtures would be binary. There are 450 possible
combinations if we include like pairs, i.e., the case
of a single species feedstock. Now let's assume
that temperatures range from 300 K to 700 K
and that the concentration of one component in
the other can be anywhere from 0 to 100 per cent.
If we further assume that it would take measure-
ments at 10 concentrations to cover any unlike
pair and at 10 temperatures to cover the range
we're talking about, something like 42,000 data

points would be needed to map the entire tempera-
ture composition surface for any one property.
If it took an average of only one hour for each
point, two solid years would be required for the
measurements. Of course, by judicious choices and
by taking advantage of behavior similarities one
could cut down substantially on the actual number
of measurements required, but to obtain enough
data would still be a formidable undertaking.
SI: I agree, but how would scattering measure-
ments be any better?
PI: As you might guess my choice of problem
here was not entirely whimsical. A few years ago
a student in my lab determined total cross-sections
for the scattering of an argon beam by those 30
hydrocarbons. From these cross-sections she was
able to obtain the so-called C6 values, the co-
efficients of the r-6 attractive term in the Lennard-
Jones potential. She found that the coefficient of
the r-12 repulsive term could be estimated from
condensed phase densities, values for which are
available. Then she made enough scattering cross-
section measurements of one hydrocarbon on an-
other to satisfy herself (and me) that the so-
called geometric mean mixing rule was effective
enough to give reliable Ca values for any hydro-
carbon pair from the argon-hydrocarbon result.
We haven't checked it out yet but we are reason-
ably confident that similar estimates can be made
for the C12 coefficients of the r-12 term. In sum,
from 30 measurements which took about two
weeks after the machine was set up, we were able
to get 450 C, values. Let's allow another six weeks
to get estimates for C1, and to do a little cross-
checking. We would then have a Lennard-Jones
potential for all possible hydrocarbon pairs. A
computer could be programmed to handle this in-
formation and presto!-we can in principle get
a printout of all transport properties at any
temperature for any binary or multicomponent
mixture of these hydrocarbons. I submit that this
"esoteric science" is engineering at its best-
practical and efficient!
SI: I'm impressed! But still, somehow that kind
of research seems more like science than engi-
neering. I'm not quite comfortable with the
prospect of a thesis on molecular beams.
PI: OK. We'll come back to that problem in a
minute. But first let me make another point about
molecular beam research. Did you know that there
are a number of articles and processes of com-
merce based on molecular beam technology?
SI: Is that a fact? Tell me more.

FALL 1982

PI: To begin with there is the atomic clock.
Until 1967 the standard unit of time, the second,
was defined as (31,556,925.9747)-1 of the tropical
year 1900! Since then it has been officially defined
as the "duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the
radiation corresponding to the transition between
two hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of
the atom of cesium 133." The device that provides
a signal of the corresponding frequency to an
accuracy of one part in 1011 or 1012 is a molecular
beam apparatus that one can buy off the shelf.
Thus any laboratory can have a primary time
standard for not a whole lot more than a very
fine Swiss watch! Much less than an astronomical
telescope and computer. Then there are lasers, the
direct descendants of the maser that was first em-
bodied in a molecular beam experiment. You may
remember reading in the papers a few years ago
about the uranium enrichment plant which West
Germany had agreed to build for Brazil. Political
pressure from the U. S. delayed the project but I
understand it is now moving again. That plant
was based on the so-called "trennduse" or separat-
ing nozzle process that stemmed directly from
university research in Germany on the same kinds
of molecular beam systems we use in our labora-
tory. One of the hottest high technologies in thin
film-solid state electronics is called "molecular
beam epitaxy" which permits the growth of single-
crystal-like films of very precisely controlled semi-
conductor compositions on appropriate substrates.
The method allows in situ synthesis of complex
compounds in layers whose thickness is measured
in Angstroms. At last count there were fifty or
more companies and institutional laboratories de-
veloping this art and five companies engaged in
manufacturing the equipment for it.
SI: Golly! Molecular beams are getting to be
big business, aren't they?
PI: Yes, but that is neither the only nor the
best reason for chemical engineering students
to engage in molecular beam research. Let's go
back to what you said a few minutes ago, that
molecular beam research was more like science
than engineering. You've mentioned some of the
things engineers do. Let me hear how you define
"engineering." What do you think are its es-
sential features?
SI: I guess I would say that engineering is the
design, construction and operation of structures,
plants and processes that produce useful goods or
perform useful services.
PI: Not bad. But what do you mean by "useful?"

SI: Hmm. I guess to be considered useful in the
sense I am thinking about something would have
to have commercial or market value. Of course,
an activity can be useful because it is in-
formative or constitutes an exercise for some-
body's talents, but I think it would have to result
in actual or foreseeable market value to qualify as
engineering. If the result were only interesting
but non-marketable then I guess I would call the
activity science.
PI: Well, that is a conventional point of view,
and very thoughtfully put, by the way, but it
troubles me. Suppose somebody designed and
built a microwave antenna dish as part of a relay
station in a long distance communication network.
That would qualify as engineering by your
definition, wouldn't it?
SI: Of course.
PI: Now suppose that same person designed and
built a similar antenna for use in radio astronomy
simply to listen in on the stars. Would he be an
engineer? Not according to your definition, I
think. You would say he was a scientist.
SI: That's a tough call.
PI: Let me try you again. A former classmate
of mine designed and built a reactor which
comprises a 100,000 gallon tank. The reaction
medium is perchlorethylene, dry cleaning fluid.
The product is volatile and at very low concentra-
tion in the medium. To recover it, a recycling
stream of inert gas is bubbled through the tank
and passed through an adsorbent that captures
the product selectively. Would the design, con-
struction, and operation of this system qualify as
chemical engineering?
SI: I would certainly say so.
PI: OK. Now let me tell you that the product is
a radioactive isotope of argon which is formed in
extremely low yield when a neutrino flux passes
through chlorine-containing material. The rate
of formation in the tank is of the order of 5 to 10
atoms of argon per day! The whole purpose of the
enterprise is to measure the neutrino flux from
the sun. Is it still chemical engineering by your
SI: I think I've painted myself into a corner.
My instinct tells me that in view of its objective
that project should be called science. Logically, I
must admit that it sure looks like engineering.
PI: Why can't it be both?
SI: What do you mean?
PI: I think that a lot of semantic confusion
arises when we try to classify activities in terms


of why people do things rather than in terms of
what they do. To me, engineering is the art of
applying quantitative knowledge to the solution
of various kinds of problems. It is really ir-
relevant whether the objective is to make a salable
product or to obtain a publishable bit of informa-
SI: You mean it's what a person does rather than
why he does it that counts?
PI: Exactly. Especially from the standpoint of
what kind of education and training he gets. Take
farming for example. A poor man farms for
money. He tries to make a living. A rich man often
farms with money. He wants to lose money. That
is, at least on paper so that he can claim a tax
deduction. They both practice agriculture. My wife
loves flower gardening and does it for purely
aesthetic and recreational returns. She also is
practicing agriculture. Three people with entirely
different motivations all practicing the same kind
of art.
SI: You mean that there is no difference between
science and engineering ?
PI: What I mean is that they are not mutually
exclusive categories. An activity should not be
considered as either science or engineering. In
fact, engineering is an art that scientists practice.
It is an art that people other than scientists also
practice. In other words, all scientists are engi-
neers but not all engineers are scientists. Such an
assertion would offend many scientists and more
engineers but I think it is true.
SI: I'll have to think about that one.
PI: The important point is that engineering is
an art; "the systematic application of knowledge
and skill to achieve a desired result." In addition,
an engineer must make educated guesses or
hypotheses about what he doesn't know and put
everything together in the design of a gadget, an
experiment or a computer program aimed at
achieving his objective. He then makes tests,
modifies his design in light of test results, makes
further tests and continues this iteration until
his objective is realized within his limits of
SI: That sounds reasonable.
PI: There's another point to be made. As in the
case of any other art, engineering must be learned
by practice. Like playing tennis, composing music,
or painting pictures, it can't be taught in the class-
room or learned from a book. The needed
knowledge and the rules can be learned from
books or in classrooms, but not the art of using

them. That must be practiced, preferably under
the guidance and supervision of a master practi-
tioner. Medical schools are well aware of this
truth and acquaint their students with the
"factory", i.e., the hospital and clinic, early in
their professional education experience. Later
they serve an apprenticeship as interns and resi-
dents during which they practice the art of apply-
ing what they have learned, in association with
and under the guidance of accomplished experts.
SI: I'd never thought of physicians and surgeons
as engineers, but I see your analogy.
PI: In a sense medical schools do a better job
of engineering education than most engineering
schools. Unfortunately, to provide the same kind
of practical experience for its professional
students a chemical engineering department
would have to operate, or participate in the opera-
tion of, a chemical plant or an oil refinery. That
just isn't feasible in a university. What a uni-
versity can do, is expected to do and be in the
forefront of, is research. Research consists in
learning all that is already known about some
aspect of a subject, making guesses about what
isn't known, designing an experiment or program
based on this knowledge and the guesses, perform-
ing the experiment and then evaluating the result
from the perspective of previous knowledge and
the judgment of peers and experts. In my view
that process of scientific research embodies the
very essence of engineering and is the most valu-
able part of an engineering graduate educational
experience. It doesn't really make much difference
what is chosen as the particular topic or objective.
The important point is that the student, on his
own but with expert guidance, undertakes and
completes a project which involves these im-
portant components: 1) learning what is already
known; 2) making guesses or approximations
about what isn't known but is necessary for: 3)
the design of an approach or program or experi-
ment; 4) execution of the program or experi-
ment; 5) exercise of judgment in the evaluation
of the result. In sum: Research is Engineering.
SI: That's a provocative statement!
PI: Yes, I guess it is and I know there are a lot
of my industrial brothers who would take issue
with it. They say that universities are ivory
towers where researchers are out of touch with
reality, that they don't have to face up to real
world constraints like budgets, materials limita-
tions, personnel problems, and competition. I have
Continued on page 199.

FALL 1982

1M international


Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa
Mexico 13 D.F., Mexico

EDITOR'S NOTE: A historical view of chemical
engineering education in Mexico appeared in the
Summer 1982 issue of CEE (Vol. XVI, No. 3). In
that paper the authors described the needs, de-
ficiencies, and possible solutions for the education
of chemical engineers in the undergraduate pro-
grams of that country. In this paper the authors
extend their comments to the status of graduate
education in Mexico.

T HE MASTER OF SCIENCE program in chemical
engineering was introduced about ten years
ago, both at the National University (UNAM)
and the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), in
an effort to improve the basic education of engi-
neers who were not being fully trained in the
undergraduate programs. It was also an initial
attempt to prepare teachers with a high academic
standard to staff Mexican universities.
It should be mentioned that this initiative was
not casual. We will examine how the proper
conditions came about as a natural development
of the growth of Mexican universities and techno-
logical institutes, and as a result of the need for
highly qualified engineers in industry.
It was in the late sixties when the first foreign-
educated postgraduates joined both UNAM and
IPN. It was during that same period of time that
industry also realized that the quality of the engi-
neers they were recruiting did not meet their re-
quirements. Thus, both professors and engineers
from industry (who also staffed the chemical engi-
neering schools) pressed enthusiastically for the
creation of graduate programs. As a result,
UNAM introduced its Master in Science program
in 1967, and IPN followed suit to establish its own
program in 1968.
It cannot be overemphasized that the main ob-
jective of these early programs was to alleviate
the deficiencies of the undergraduate studies. This

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982

can be seen from noting the contents of those early
programs. Most of the courses were, to a great
extent, a review of undergraduate topics. Funda-
mental material such as transport phenomena,
numerical methods, etc., which is undergraduate
material elsewhere, was introduced in the gradu-
ate program. This left no time for an in-depth
treatment due to time restrictions. Research ac-
tivities were very limited, both in quality and
quantity, since there was neither equipment nor
enough qualified personnel for instruction.
The graduate programs at the mentioned
institutions have slowly evolved towards programs
where research has become an ever-important ac-
tivity. This was a result of hiring a significant
number of teachers with higher degrees (mostly
obtained abroad) and of the improvement of
conditions within the universities themselves.
In order to fully understand this development



Enrico N. Martinez, chemical engineer from Universidad Nacional
Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), received his M.S. and Ph.D. (1972) in
Chemical Engineering from University of Notre Dame. He was an
Assistant Professor at UNAM, and is currently Associate Professor at
Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalpa (UAM-1), where he has
just been appointed Head of Engineering. He consults in Process Re-
search and Development and his research interests are in Chemical
Reaction Engineering, Catalysis and Education. (L)
Roman Gomez-Vaillard received his B.Sc. degree in Chemical Engi-
neering at UNAM and his Ph.D. at Imperial College, London. He
joined UAM-I in 1976. He has recently become the Chairman of the
Chemical Engineering Group there. His research interests are Process
Design and Development and Computer Applications in Chemical
Engineering. (R)


it is interesting at this point to briefly examine, in
general, the role of research in recent history.
Research in Mexican universities and tech-
nology institutes had very limited importance
until, say, 25 years ago. Prior to that, research
as we understand it today was almost nonexistent.
Both universities and industry suffered from the
lack of this activity and it left the country without
any real possibility of participating in the genera-
tion of scientific knowledge or technology. To
mention only one case, a famous Mexican
physicist, Sandoval Vallarta, worked at MIT for
over 20 years, only returning to Mexico in the
early fifties when conditions seemed adequate.
It was, in fact, in that decade that research be-
came a desirable activity and the National Uni-
versity moved towards institutionalizing it by
creating a number of research centers, called
"Institutes" (mainly in scientific and social
disciplines), devoted to research. Unfortunately,
these were separated from the teaching activities
which belonged to the "Schools." In the early
sixties, research in engineering fields began with
the establishment of the Instituto de Ingenieria
which initiated studies in soil mechanics. This was
important due to the soil characteristics of the
capital city which is situated in a highly seismic-
prone zone.
In the early sixties, the Polytechnic Institute
founded its Center for Research and Advanced
Studies, which again was totally devoted to re-
search activities (although it also offered some
graduate programs in pure science and later in
engineering). But again, it separated research
activities from teaching at the undergraduate
level. However, both institutions left out chemical
engineering, which was traditionally more related
to the chemistry schools than to the engineering
ones. Thus, research in chemical engineering did
not materialize until the graduate programs
matured in the pioneer institutions (UNAM and
The economic reality of the country, and there-
fore that of its educational system, should not be
forgotten. It was very difficult to divert large
amounts of funds to universities for research
when other social programs, such as elementary
schooling, communications and health centers,
were more pressing. It is only fair to mention
that, because of the limited resources, research at
the universities was not feasible until the country
was able to afford it.
We have heretofore examined how the proper

The masters program should also be a step
towards establishing a doctorate program, which is
now nonexistent. Hence it should prove itself
capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its
scope, the requirements of both industry
and the educational system.

conditions for doing research came about within
the university realm. We will now discuss the
industrial aspect and its influence and contribu-
tions, if any, in this direction.
Industry developed in an isolated and protected
medium where most of the required technology
was acquired abroad and where there was little
incentive, economic or political, for innovation or
development of local technology. Due credit must
be given to the engineers who in the span of a few
years developed a well organized, profitable and
expanding industry; in particular the petroleum
industry, which has reached a prominent position
It was as a direct result of this expansion,
which has recently outgrown the national
frontiers, that Mexican industry realized that in
order to keep its level of competence both in the
local and international markets, it would have to
modernize and optimize its resources both eco-
nomically and technically.
Thus, the necessary gradient towards innova-
tion, adaptation and development of technology
was established and the need for highly qualified
engineers became apparent. The recent practices
of hiring specialists who work at universities as
consultants and sponsoring research projects
carried out at the universities, are indicative of
this mood.
This analysis serves several purposes: first, it
shows that research (or the lack of it) in chemical
engineering has been intimately related to the de-
velopment of the Mexican chemical industry on
one hand, and to the development of the higher
education system on the other. Secondly, it pro-
vides some guidelines for designing a graduate
program which can contribute to alleviate the
difficulties previously mentioned, as well as to re-
spond actively to the challenges that the country
as a whole, and chemical engineering in particular,

It has been established that in order to meet
the demand for highly qualified engineers, both

FALL 1982

the undergraduate and the graduate programs in
Mexico have to be strengthened. It is clear that
the strengthening of the undergraduate program
depends to a great extent on the availability of
qualified personnel to staff the educational institu-
tions; also, industry is demanding more engineers
with higher degrees. Graduate programs must
meet this dual purpose and be designed ac-
It is therefore not fortuitous that the basic
philosophy which molded the undergraduate pro-
gram at UAM-I (as described in our previous
paper) should again be applied to the design of
the masters program. A solid formation at the
graduate level, in the fundamentals of chemical
engineering disciplines, is sought. This would
allow the students to perform equally well either
in industry or in research and teaching activities.
The masters program should also be a step
towards establishing a doctorate program, which
is now nonexistent. Hence, it should prove itself
capable of fulfilling, in accordance to its scope, the
requirements of both industry and the educational
The benefits that the country as a whole should
expect from such a program are
Formation of human resources with high academic
standards to staff the educational system.
Development of technology at an intermediate level
of sophistication.
Improvement of plant operation and productivity.
Generation of applied scientific and technical
Generation of research programs, both in industry
and in research institutes, in applied chemical engi-
neering science.
The masters program at UAM-I, took advant-
age of the experience gained at UNAM and of the
new attitudes with regard to graduate studies. It
is therefore not a program intended to alleviate
former deficiencies in the education of the engi-
neer, but is rather directed toward strengthening
the knowledge of the chemical engineering funda-
mentals and introducing the student to the re-
search field. The objectives of the program are
A sound formation in the chemical engineering
fundamentals, i.e. applied mathematics, thermo-
dynamics, transport phenomena and reactor engi-
An adequate capacity and ability to perform research
through a basic understanding of the relationship
between theory and practice.
The skill to exercise creativity in order to implement
new technologies and to adapt or optimize the

existent ones through the application of the funda-
mental knowledge acquired.
A working comprehension of the Mexican chemical
industry and/or the education system and its re-
quirements, in order to fulfill their needs.
In order to achieve these objectives, the pro-
gram (which is four quarters long) is divided into
three levels.
The first level corresponds to the five basic
courses: Applied mathematics, thermodynamics,
fluid mechanics, mass and heat transfer, and re-
actor engineering. These courses are given at
typical American graduate schools and are
intended to provide the student with a solid
foundation in engineering.
The second level (which is called the specializa-
tion area) is devoted to provide the necessary
tools for a research program (M.S. thesis). It
consists of two 12 credit courses, which could be
in the form of a typical course or a "tutorial,"
where the student follows a program set by the
instructor and under his supervision, but without
formal lecturing.
The third level consists of research work which
should culminate in a thesis. The objective here
is to work in a project relevant to industry, or to
contribute to the generation of applied or funda-
mental scientific knowledge.
It is important to note that the student is en-
couraged to begin his research in the first quarter
and to join a research seminar in all quarters. At
least twice during the term he is expected to
present the state of development of his research
work to other students and to the full staff, thus
permitting evaluation of the work performed. This
also brings about the opportunity for discussions
from which new ideas can be generated.
Thus it can be seen that this program includes
research as a basic component of the Master in
Science program-as opposed to other programs
currently being offered in Mexico which require
the taking of many dissimilar courses.
The development of the chemical industry and
of the chemical engineering profession in Mexico
has been in phase in terms of supplying the
quantity of engineers required by industry. How-
ever, quality has been a problem (particularly in
the last five years because both the number of
schools offering the program and the number of
students registering for it has exploded tre-
Mexican industry now requires a different


type of chemical engineer; one capable of as-
similating the imported technologies and of de-
veloping new processes more suitable to the
efficient utilization of our resources. This require-
ment provides one of the fundamentals for cur-
riculum development; the other is a sound
knowledge of what chemical engineering is.
With these two points in mind, we propose the
formation of an "Academic Commission" on a
national level, composed of highly qualified pro-
fessors from all parts of the country who would
coordinate the design of a curriculum which could
then be implemented at all government sponsored
schools. This curriculum should contain a funda-
mental core of basic science (chemistry, physics
and mathematics), with strong interaction
through practice in lab sessions. The second stage
of the curriculum should emphasize the funda-
mentals of chemical engineering (thermody-
namics, transport phenomena and reaction engi-
neering). Finally, the third stage should be flexible
and concentrate on several aspects, depending on
the region of the country or the strength of the
faculty at hand. As examples, important areas to
cover are process design and development, project
engineering, energy resources, and equipment
It is obvious that the implementation of the
proposed curriculum requires highly trained
teachers and researchers. These people should be
educated through the graduate programs now
existing in Mexico; therefore, those programs
should be strengthened and strongly supported at
the main government sponsored institutions.
Furthermore, since all these programs offer only
a M.S. degree thus far, emphasis should be placed
on the development of one or two doctorate pro-
grams at the schools with the capabilities to imple-
ment them. Clearly, UNAM is one of them.
Strengthening the graduate programs should
also develop research in chemical engineering,
which so far has been meager and is greatly
needed for the development of our industry. The
few people that are presently capable of doing this
have been schooled abroad. We feel that we have
reached the stage where it is possible, and in fact
imperative, to do it in Mexico. O

BOOK REVIEW: Optimization
Continued from page 167.
ance, just the how for a few cases. The why is
needed so the student can develop, understand
and use other designs. It is surprising that the

Newton-Bairstow method for curve fitting is not
Chapter 3. This chapter, though well-written,
desperately needs more worked examples. On p.
102, the concepts of consistency and efficiency
should be included with unbiasedness as properties
of an estimator.
Chapter 4. This chapter appears to be a literature
search from a thesis. The notation will be con-
fusing to older readers whose formal mathemati-
cal background predate 1955 but who apply
mathematics daily. A glossary of symbols would
help. The coverage is excellent in scope. The
section on interval reduction is very good. It is
unfortunate that the Kuhn-Tucker conditions for
constrained optimization are not mentioned. The
basis for several algorithms are described but no
executable algorithm is actually given. Completed
examples are rare; no student exercises are pro-
vided. There is no warning against sectioning.
Chapter 5. This is an improvement over Chapter
4 in that stepwise algorithms are given but not
Chapter 6 contains only four complete examples
to illustrate applications to physical processes.
Chapter 7 is descriptive in nature. For the two
"examples" of simulation models, only the results
were given. O

Continued from page 195.
spent about half as much time in industry as in
academic institutions and I can tell you that the
neurial, competitive and cost conscious as any-
thing in the "real" world. Our budgets are even
more inflexible than those of our industrial
brothers. We can't pass cost overruns on to our
clients, customers, or stockholders, for example.
I suggest that when you hear someone say that
research in academe is not the real world, you are
listening to a person who doesn't know what he's
talking about, who is so unaware of the actualities
of university research that his own perspective is
SI: Well, you have certainly given me some food
for thought. Let me digest it for awhile and come
back to see you again.
PI: Fine. When you come I'll take you through
the lab. It may make you feel better. It has 500-
gallon tanks, 32-inch vacuum pumps, 6-inch valves
and piping, and 10-horsepower motors. You'll
think you're in a factory! O

FALL 1982

Continued from page 162.
examining chemically reactive mass transfer in
trayed equipment. Measurements of film co-
efficients and active interfacial areas are being
made in the three-tray column shown in Figure 2.
Glitsch valve trays with four square feet of active
area are being used; the center tray has adjust-
able downcomer and weir heights and is the test
tray. The column will be used eventually to pro-
vide tests of models based on treating the separa-
tion as a rate process. Real industrial solvent
solutions will be used in an evaluation of the effect
of corrosion inhibitors and antifoam agents on
mass transfer performance.
Again, as for multicomponent mass transfer,
these models are necessarily computer based and
treat the process on a mechanistic level. Once
more the final aim is to develop reliable methods
for the design and analysis of industrial equip-
ment, an objective that pervades all of our work.

FIGURE 2. Three-valve-tray column for mass transfer
rate measurements in gas absorption.


Condensation is another operation of such
broad importance that a wealth of books and
papers have been devoted to its analysis. The com-
plexity of condensation processes varies from
simple systems of pure vapors with no mass
transfer resistances to systems involving non-
condensibles in the vapor phase and those which
condense in the form of two immiscible fluids. The
condensation of multicomponent mixtures is diffi-
cult to analyze because of diffusional interaction
effects, particularly in the vapor phase. Design
methods depend on filmwise condensation with
either a completely unmixed or completely mixed
liquid phase [39]. Vapor condensation to im-
miscible liquid mixtures does not fall even between
the limits of a mixed or unmixed liquid film, but
progress has been made in developing design
Another example of condensation that can-
not be described by known methods is that of a
multicomponent vapor in which two or more
species undergo chemical reaction in the liquid
phase. This part of our research addresses these
types of processes by bringing together work
from the areas of condensation and chemically re-
active mass transfer. Until now, these have always
been considered as quite separate, yet they are
intimately linked in a number of systems of com-
mercial significance. Design methods are totally
lacking for such systems and this forms one of
the objectives of the present work.
In order to simplify the rate calculations, the
mass transfer resistance offered by the liquid
phase is traditionally ignored. One of two types of
approximation is commonly made: (i) the liquid
phase is always in the totally unmixed state (zero
liquid-side mass transfer coefficients) and the
surface composition of the liquid is decided by the
relative rates of condensation, or (ii) the liquid
phase is completely mixed as far as compositions
are concerned (but normal temperature gradients
still operate) and the liquid composition is calcu-
lated from a material balance along the flow path.
It is clear that the truth lies between these ex-
tremes, at least for miscible systems. There is
also some evidence that the final results are in-
sensitive to whichever extreme is taken [44].
The mixture to be condensed is usually multi-
component and the last decade has seen increased
interest in the development of advanced models


for such systems, along with the necessary experi-
mental verification. For example, the classical
Ackermann-Colburn-Drew [40, 41] analyses have
been extended by Schrodt [42] to multicomponent
mixtures; however, his approach is somewhat
naive because it neglects the effects of diffusional
interaction in the vapor. Recently Webb et al. [43]
have examined the significance of coupling effects
in ternary condensation and concluded that an
effective diffusivity type of model (as used by
Schrodt [42]) may safely be employed provided
the condensing species are not too dissimilar and
condensation rates are modest. The safe use of an
effective diffusivity type of model for this process
is partly a result of the unidirectional nature of
the transfer process.
The method of Schrodt [42] and the modifica-
tion by Webb et al. [43] are based on a film model
of the transport process. More exact multicom-
ponent generalizations of the Ackermann-Colburn-
Drew analyses have also been developed [44, 45].
There are a number of other methods available;
some have been supported experimentally and
some have not. The important point in the present
context, however, is that all of these methods are
strictly limited to vapors that condense filmwise
and form a condensate characterizable as being
either perfectly mixed or entirely unmixed.
There are a number of situations that do not
fall into these categories, and one that we are
studying is the condensation of a multicomponent
vapor in which two or more of the species undergo
chemical reaction in the liquid phase. A striking
example of such a system is the ternary mixture
carbon dioxide-ammonia-water vapor which must
be condensed in a number of commercial processes
for the manufacture of the fertilizer and monomer,
urea. It is well known that CO2 and NH, react
in aqueous solution to form ammonium carbamate
and it must be expected that this will have a pro-
found effect not only on condensation rates, but
also on the compositions of both the condensate
and the gas mixture being vented from the con-
Since the reaction product, ammonium carba-
mate, is nonvolatile, a first impression might be
that reaction would lower the concentrations of
both CO2 and NH, in the liquid film, thereby lower-
ing the corresponding concentrations in the gas
phase at the interface. Thus, an increase in the
driving forces in the vapor phase would favor
heat and mass transfer and lead to a condenser
of lower area. However, such an argument would

be quite specious. It is crucial to recognize that
although ammonia is highly soluble in water,
carbon dioxide is sparingly soluble and that its
physical solubility is of paramount importance
in deciding its transfer rate even in the presence
of a rapid chemical reaction. Chemical equilibrium,
of course, is tied to the reactions involved, where-
as, the physical process of dissolving (which must
proceed reaction) is relatively unaffected by re-
action, except insofar as the concentration of dis-
solved gas is kept low and the liquid film thickness
is reduced. Our intuitive arguments are of little
consequence and it is clear that such systems
do not fall between the two extremes regarding
condensate mixing described above. Indeed, it
must be said that the hydrodynamics of the liquid
film are decisive in determining rates of mass
transfer, including condensation, because the re-
sistance offered by the liquid film is dominant for
the transfer of CO2 even though the vapor phase
resistance is probably more important for the
transfer of ammonia. Thus, arguments about
whether the liquid phase is well mixed or not beg
the issue and will undoubtedly lead to calculations
totally in error.
Gas absorption has been the main focus of
most previous studies of chemically-reactive mass
transfer. However, it is important to recognize a
number of essential differences between absorp-
tion and condensation. In the former, the absorb-
ing medium (water) does not undergo a signifi-
cant degree of phase change; whereas, in the
CO2 NH, H20 system for example, con-
densation results in an extremely large flux of
water vapor that exerts a dominant influence on
the total transfer rate of all the species. The
larger part of the condensate would be expected
to be water which could absorb a considerable
amount of ammonia, since this gas is highly
soluble. Although CO is a very sparingly soluble
gas, the presence of dissolved ammonia greatly in-
creases the total capacity of the liquid for CO, be-
cause it essentially removes it in the form of am-
monium carbamate which is nonvolatile. In the
present context, CO, does not act as an inert gas
since it can be dissolved in large amounts

The Summer 1982 issue of CEE contained an article
written by Leise, Jenkins, and Tarbel, entitled "The
Oscillating Sink." The diagrams in Figs. 3 and 6
(pgs. 112, 113) in that article should be interchanged.

FALL 1982

governed by the chemical reaction equilibrium
and the composition of the condensate. The latter
is of course determined by transfer rates of water
vapor and ammonia which are themselves in-
fluenced by the transport of carbon dioxide, so we
have here a process very much complicated by the
chemical reaction.
In summary, the process being examined here
involves a very large flux of water from the vapor
towards the condensate film which simultaneously
drives the other two species toward the film,
greatly increasing their vapor-phase concentra-
tions at the interface. Ammonia transfer, being
largely gas-phase controlled, will be much affected
by the presence of CO,; whereas, CO2 transfer is
liquid-phase controlled and will be influenced by
dissolved ammonia. In addition, because the
diffusion film in the liquid at the interface will
be at a relatively high temperature, the reactions
will likely have to be considered reversible; how-
ever, temperatures may not be so high that a
chemical reaction equilibrium assumption will
apply. Conditions in the condensate film, par-
ticularly near the vapor boundary are crucial to
the transport rates so that assumptions about
complete mixing or nonmixing would be meaning-
less. The work being done here will provide a
rather severe test of not only condensation theory
but also of absorption with reversible reaction
and the ability of the present state-of-the-art to
combine these theories in an effective way for such
novel but important situations. O


Some of the studies reported here have been
supported in the past by the Research Grants
Committee (Australia) and the Science Research
Council (United Kingdom) for which the authors
are grateful. Present studies are being supported
by individual grants to the authors by the National
Science Foundation and by substantial funding
from Dow Chemical U.S.A. Donations of equip-
ment by Goulds Pumps, Inc. and Glitsch, Inc. are
gratefully acknowledged.


1. Henley, E. J. and J. D. Seader, 'Equilibrium-Stage
Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering,"
Wiley, New York, 1981.
2. King, C. J., "Separation Processes," 2nd Edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980.
3. Astarita, G., "Mass Transfer with Chemical Re-
action," Elsevier, Amsterdam (1967).

4. Danckwerts, P. V., "Gas-Liquid Reactions," McGraw-
Hill New York (1970).
5. Toor, H. L., "Diffusion in Three Component Gas
Mixtures," AIChEJ, 3, 197, 1957.
6. Krishna, R. and G. L. Standart, "Mass and Energy
Transfer in Multicomponent Systems," Chem. Eng.
Commun., 3, 201, 1979.
7. Reinhardt, D. and K. Dialer, "Geometrical Relation-
ships for Ternary Gas Diffusion Balances and
Criteria for Multicomponent Phenomena," Chem.
Eng. Sci., 36, 1557, 1981.
8. Krishna, R., H. F. Martinez, R. Sreedhar and G. L.
Standart, "Murphree Point Efficiencies in Multi-
component Systems," Trans. I. Chem. E., 55 178, 1977.
9. Maxwell, J. C., "Diffusion," Collected Papers, Vol. 2,
Dover, 1952.
10. Toor, H. L., "Solution of the Linearised Equations of
Multicomponent Mass Transfer," A.I.ChE.J., 10,
448, 460, 1964.
11. Stewart, W. E. and R. Prober, "Matric Calculation
of Multicomponent Mass Transfer in Isothermal
Systems," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 3, 224, 1964.
12. Krishna, R. and G. L. Standart, "A Multicomponent
Film Model Incorporating a General Matrix Method
of Solution of the Maxwell-Stefan Equations,"
A.I.ChE. J., 22, 383, 1976.
13. Taylor, R., "On Exact Solutions of the Maxwell-
Stefan Equations for the Multicomponent Film
Model," Chem. Eng. Commun., 10, 61, 1981; 14, 121,
14. Krishna, R., "A Simplified Mass Transfer Analysis for
Multicomponent Condensation," Letts. Heat and Mass
Transfer, 6, 439, 1979.
15. Krishna, R., "An Alternative Linearized Theory of
Multicomponent Mass Transfer," Chem. Eng. Sci.,
36, 219, 1981.
16. Taylor, R. and L. W. Smith, "On Some Explicit Ap-
proximate Solutions of the Maxwell-Stefan Equations
for the Multicomponent Film Model," Chem. Eng.
Commun., 14, 361, 1982.
17. Vogelpohl, A., "Murphree Efficiencies in Multicom-
ponent System." Paper presented at the Third Inter-
national Symposium on Distillation, I. Chem. E.,
London, April 1979.
18. Dribicka, M. M. and O. C. Sandall, "Simultaneous
Heat and Mass Transfer for Multicomponent Distilla-
tion in Continuous Contact Equipment," Chem. Eng.
Sci., 34, 733, 1979.
19. Krishna, R., "Ternary Mass Transfer in a Wetted
Wall Column. Significance of Diffusional Interactions.
Part I. Stefan Diffusion," Trans. I. Chem. E., 59,
35, 1981.
20. Krishna, R., R. M. Salomo and M. A. Rahman,
"Ternary Mass Transfer in a Wetted Wall Column.
Significance of Diffusional Interactions. Part II.
Equimolar Diffusion," Trans. I. Chem. E., 59, 44,
21. Webb, D. R. and R. G. Sardesai, "Verification of
Multicomponent Mass Transfer Models for Condensa-
tion Inside a Vertical Tube," Int. J. Multiphase Flow,
7, 507, 1981.
22. Smith, L. W. and R. Taylor, "Film Models for Multi-
component Mass Transfer-A Statistical Compari-
son," Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., in press.


23. Taylor, R. and D. R. Webb, "Stability of the Film
Model for Multicomponent Mass Transfer," Chem.
Eng. Commun. 6, 175, 1980.
24. Taylor, R. and D. R. Webb, "Film Models for Multi-
component Mass Transfer: Computational Methods;
The Exact Solution of the Maxwell-Stefan Equa-
tions," Comput. Chem. Eng., 5, 61, 1981.
25. Taylor, R., "Film Models for Multicomponent Mass
Transfer: Computational Methods II; The Linearised
Theory," Comput. Chem. Eng., 6, 69, 1982.
26. Krishna, R., "Binary and Multicomponent Mass
Transfer at High Transfer Rates," Chem. Eng. J.,
22, 251, 1981.
27. Krishnamurthy, R. and R. Taylor, "Calculation of
Multicomponent Mass Transfer at High Transfer
Rates," Chem. Eng. J., In press.
28. Webb, D. R. and R. Taylor, "The Efficient Estimation
of Rates of Multicomponent Condensation by a Film
Model," Chem. Eng., Sci., 37, 117, 1982.
29. Krishnamurthy, R. and R. Taylor, "Algorithms for
the Calculation of Interphase Mass Transfer Rates in
Multicomponent Systems," Proc. HTFS Research
Symposium, p. 685 Oxford, 1981.
30. Krishnamurthy, R., "A Heat and Mass Transfer
Stage Model of Multicomponent, Multistage Separa-
tion Process," Ph.D. Research Proposal, CCT, Dec.
31. Butwell, K. F., D. J. Kubek and P. W. Sigmund,
"Amine Guard III," Chem. Eng. Prog., 75 (Feb.,
32. Ellis, G. C., G. S. Leachman, R. E. Formaini, R. F.
Hazelton and W. C. Smith, "Rate of Desorption of
Carbon Dioxide from Monoethanolamine Solutions,"
Proc. 13th Ann. Gass Conditioning Conf., University
of Oklahoma, B3, 1963.
33. McLachlan, C. N. S. and P. V. Danckwerts, "De-
sorption of Carbon Dioxide from Aqueous Potash
Solutions with and without the Addition of Arsenite
as a Catalyst," Trans. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 50, 300,
34. Astarita, G. and D. W. Savage, "Theory of Chemical
Desorption," Chem. Eng. Sci., 85, 649, 1980.
35. Savage, D. W., G. Astarita and S. Joshi, "Chemical
Absorption and Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from
Hot Carbonate Solutions," Chem. Eng. Sci., 35,
1513-1522, 1980.
36. Rawal, M. Y., "Desorption of Carbon Dioxide from
Carbonated Monoethanolamine Solutions," Ph.D.
Thesis, University of Queensland, St. Lucia,
Australia, 1980.
37. Olander, D. R., "Simultaneous Mass Transfer and
Equilibrium Chemical Reaction," A.I.ChE.J., 6, 233,
38. Weiland, R. H., M. Y. Rawal and R. G. Rice,
"Stripping of Carbon Dioxide from Monoethanolamine
Solutions in a Packed Column," A.I.ChE. J., in press.
39. Webb, D. R. and J. M. McNaught, "Condensers,"
Chapter 4 of "Advances in Heat Exchanger
Technology" (D. Chisholm, Ed.), Applied Science
Publishers, Barking, Essen, England, 1980.
40. Ackermann, G., "Heat Transfer and Molecular Mass
Transfer in the Same Field at High Temperatures
and Large Partial Pressure Differences," Ver.
Deutsch. Ing. Forschungsheft, 8, 1, 1937.

41. Colburn, A. P. and T. B. Drew, "The Condensation of
Mixed Vapours," Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs.,
33, 197, 1937.
42. Schrodt, J. T., "Simultaneous Heat and Mass Trans-
fer from Multicomponent Condensing Vapor-Gas
Systems," A.I.ChE. J., 19, 753, 1973.
43. Webb, D. R., C. B. Panchal and I. Coward, "The Sig-
nificance of Multicomponent Diffusional Interactions
in the Process of Condensation in the Presence of a
Non Condensable Gas," Chem. Eng. Sci., 36, 87, 1981.
44. Krishna, R., C. B. Panchal D. R. Webb and I. Coward,
"An Ackermann-Colburn-Drew Type Analysis for
Condensation of Multicomponent Mixtures," Letts.
Heat and Mass Transfer, 3, 163, 1976.
45. Krishna, R. and C. B. Panchal, "Condensation of a
Binary Vapour Mixture in the Presence of an Inert
Gas," Chem. Engng. Sci., 82, 741, 1977.

Continued from page 189.

this jet of liquid occurred at the very end of the
filling process, 9.5 hours after the first penetration
of the mine by the drill. At that point, most of
the mine must have been full of water, and the
only forces likely to generate such a spectacular
effect are gravitational ones, of which the bubble
mechanism proposed above is the most plausible.
An alternative gravitational explanation
would be that the first fluid to flow into the mine
was relatively clean water, while the later fluid,
flowing in after the hole had enlarged, would be
quite muddy. In oil well drilling practice it is
possible to produce drilling muds (mud-water
slurries), with densities up to twice that of water.
If the first half of the path from wellbore to venti-
lator shaft were filled with ordinary water, and
the second half filled with a mud whose density
were 1.5 times that of water then the hydrostatic
pressure difference from lake level to ventilator
shaft would have been

P = ghAp = 32 ft/sec2 x 1300 ft
x (0.5 x 62.4 lbm/ft3)
x lbf sec2/32 Ibm ft
x ft2/144 in2 = 281 psi

This would likely have been adequate to produce
the geyser. I consider this a less-likely explana-
tion than the air bubble, because it requires a
much more organized process, with strong segre-
gation of the earlier clean inflowing fluid from
the later mud-ladden fluid. But I cannot rule it out
for certain without more data on the accident than
has been published. O

FALL 1982

Continued from page 151.
solid state changes may be occurring deep within
the bulk phase that affect the catalytic activity.
Several techniques were used to test this
possibility. First of all, X-ray diffraction patterns
were taken on the fresh catalyst and on samples
that were progressively deactivated. The fresh
catalyst was about 90% MgFe204, but 5% of the
material was iron oxide, a-FeO2. Deactivated
catalysts showed only MgFe204. This suggested
that the true "catalyst" was not the ferrite but
was in fact the Fe2,O which was possibly present
as a surface coating on the MgFe204 base. Auger
spectroscopic measurements confirmed the ab-
sence of Mg in the surface layers of the catalyst.
Both magnetic susceptibility and MSssbauer
spectroscopy confirmed the conclusions derived
from the X-ray data, namely that the iron oxide
was present in the fresh active samples but was
absent in the used inactive catalysts.
Upon inquiring about how the catalyst was
synthesized [11], we were informed that it was
made by the high temperature fusion reaction

MgO Fe203 --- MgFe204 (13)

The reaction was carried out to only 90% com-
pletion during synthesis and this is one of the
secrets of preparing this active catalyst! As heat
was released by the exothermic OXD reaction, the
iron oxide reacted with the MgO dissolved in solid
solution to carry the reaction (13) to completion.

The catalyst has a low surface area (about
7 m2/g) and large pores. Furthermore, the re-
action was carried out in an all-Pyrex batch re-
circulation reactor at low temperature to keep the
rate slow. These factors resulted in a very small
Thiele modulus and no mass transport limitations.
On the other hand, it was very difficult to keep
the reactor isothermal due to the large exo-
thermicity of the reaction. Dilution of the catalyst
bed with inert particles helped, but still the re-
action was difficult to control. Only data obtained
under conditions where the temperature remained
essentially constant were used in the kinetics
As mentioned in the previous section, it is
likely that the slow dissipation of the heat of re-
action away from the active sites could have
caused localized hot spots in the vicinity of the

active site pairs that led to the progression of the
solid state reaction (13) [12].

It is rare that one can find a catalytic system of
commercial interest that can be studied in detail
by such a variety of techniques. The small mole-
cules are easily handled in the laboratory and can
be labeled with both radioactive and stable iso-
topic tracers. Being well crystallized and contain-
ing iron, the catalyst itself is amenable to study
by a wide range of solid state techniques.
The results can be summarized by the follow-
ing points.
A redox mechanism (Fe+2/Fe+3 interconversion)
C-H cleavage is rate limiting.
Two sites are involved anionn and cation vacancies).
Non-competitive Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics are
Surface oxygen is added and removed; the surface is
fully covered so long as there is even a small amount
of 02 in the gas phase.
The catalyst is easily reduced by hydrocarbons in
absence of 02.
Activity correlates with the presence of a-Fe,O,,
which is probably present as a thin coating on the
MgFe2O4 spinel support.
Deactivation occurs when MgO reacts with Fe20,
to form MgFe,20.
In related work we have studied the oxidative
dehydrodimerization (OXDD) of propylene over
Bi20s to form 1,5-hexadiene and benzene [13-14].
We have also looked at the OXD of butane to form
n-butenes and butadiene over a commercial Ni-
Sn-P oxide catalyst [15]. Finally, the ferrite work
has been expanded to other catalysts such as
CoFe2O, [10] and manganese ferrite [16]. While
some of the questions about the nature of catalytic
activity of these materials have been answered,
many more questions remain in this exciting area
of heterogeneous catalysis. O
Financial support from NASA, Gulf Oil
Corporation, Mobile Foundation, and the Robert
A. Welch Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

1. Gibson, M. A., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41,
420 (1976).
2. Gibson, M. A., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 41,
431 (1976).
3. Froment, G. F., and K. B. Bischoff, Chemical Reactor
Analysis and Design, John Wiley, p. 297 (1979).



4. Welch, L. M., L. J. Croce, and H. F. Christmann,
Hydrocarbon Processing, p. 131 (November, 1978).
5. Boudart, M., Kinetics of Chemical Processes, Prentice
Hall, p. 211 (1968).
6. Melander, L. C., Isotope Effects on Reaction Rates,
Ronald Press, New York (1960).
7. Massoth, F. E., and D. A. Scarpiella, J. Catalysis 21,
29 (1971).
8. Keulks, G. W., L. D. Krenzke, and T. N. Nottermann,
Advances in Catalysis 27 (1978).
9. Haber, J., Int. Chem. Eng. 15, 21 (1975).
10. Cares, W. R., and J. W. Hightower, J. Catalysis 28,
193 (1971).
11. Columbian Carbon Company, 1971.
12. Luss, D., Chem. Eng. Journal 1, 311 (1970).
13. White, M. G., "The Oxidative Dehydrogenation
Dimerization of Olefins over Metal Oxides," Ph.D.
Thesis, Rice University, 1977.
14. White, M. G., and J. W. Hightower, AIChE Journal
27, 545 (1981).
15. Chickering, D. H., "Oxidative Dehydrogenation of n-
Butane over Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts," Ph.D.
Thesis, Rice University, 1981.
16. Van Kleeck, D. A., "Oxidative Dehydrogenation of
Butenes over Manganese Ferrite," Ph.D. Thesis, Rice
University, 1981.

book reviews

By Max S. Peters, Klaus D. Timmerhaus
McGraw-Hill Book Company, NY

Reviewed by Oran L. Culberson
University of Tennessee

This book in its third edition continues to be
among those classics which should be in the
personal library of every chemical engineer. It
is, however, basically unchanged from the second
edition and may not merit acquisition by those
who own the second edition.
The following chapters in the new edition
contain very much the same information that
was in second edition chapters: (1) Introduction,
(2) Process Design Development, (4) Cost and
Asset Accounting, (5) Cost Estimation, (6) In-
terest and Investment Costs, (7) Taxes and In-
surance, (8) Depreciation, (9) Profitability,
Alternative Investments and Replacements, (11)
Materials and Fabrication Selection, (12) The
Design Report, (13) Materials Transfer, Handling
and Treating Equipment, (14) Heat Transfer
Equipment and (16) Statistical Analysis in De-
sign. There is now an appendix dealing with SI

units, but SI seldom appears anywhere else in
the new edition. (This is not a significant fault in
the opinion of this gray-haired reviewer.) Ap-
pendices for Auxiliary and Utility Cost Data, for
Design Problems and for Tables of Physical
Properties and Constants are presented much as
in the prior edition.
The erstwhile appendices on Linear Pro-
gramming and Dynamic Programming have been
moved into Chapter 10, Optimum Design and
Design Strategy. This was perhaps a mistake.
These two optimization algorithms have little ap-
plication in design. Geometric programming
would have been a more appropriate offering. It is
also unfortunate that the material on linear pro-
gramming does not note that modern computer
programs do not use the Simplex algorithm de-
scribed; this omission will be confusing and ag-
gravating to the reader who wants to use library
programs on computers. A better use of the space
would have resulted from exposition on the
Critical Path Method and for the Project Evalu-
ation and Review Technique which are valuable
for the scheduling and control of projects.
Chapter 10 has been expanded also to explain the
concept of cash flow and to show how the effects
of inflation might be covered in economic analysis.
Chapter 3 on General Design Considerations
has been more than doubled to include information
on design requirements to protect against thermal,
air, liquid and solid waste pollution. Chapter 15,
formerly devoted exclusively to Mass Transfer
Equipment, now treats Reactor Equipment also.
This material is from an appendix of the second
edition, with some augmentation.
A great strength of this book has always
been the voluminous bibliography at the end of
each chapter. These literature references have
been updated and are very valuable to anyone
wanting to delve into a topic beyond the limited
treatment which can be made in the book. The
new edition is still replete with equipment costs,
now updated to January 1, 1979. A table of the
costs of chemicals appears in the new edition
which unfortunately contains neither a date nor
a warning to the neophyte that these costs can
change rapidly.
Another quite useful feature of this book is
the extensive sets of problems for each chapter,
but the problems have not been changed in the
two editions. This reviewer overheard a professor
bemoaning this fact at the AIChE meeting in
Chicago. E

FALL 1982



* -

:-f I ,

T 1La4 -


4* : I =1

Chemical Engineering at



Faculty and Research Interests
I. G. Dalla Lana, Ph.D. (Minnesota):
Kinetics, Heterogeneous Catalysis.
D. G. Fisher, Ph.D. (Michigan): Process
Dynamics and Control, Real-Time
Computer Applications, Process
C. Kiparissides, Ph.D. (McMaster):
Polymer Reactor Engineering, Op-
timization, Modelling, Stochastic
D. Lynch, Ph.D. (Alberta): Kinetic
Modelling, Numerical Methods,
Computer Aided Design.
J. H. Masliyah, Ph.D. (British Colum-
bia): Transport Phenomena,
Numerical Analysis, In-Situ Recovery
of Oil Sands.
A. E. Mather, Ph.D. (Michigan): Phase
Equilibria, Fluid Properties at High
Pressures, Thermodynamics.
W. Nader, Dr. Phil, (Vienna): Heat
Transfer, Air Pollution, Transport
Phenomena in Porous Media, Applied
F. D. Otto (Chairman), Ph.D. (Michi-
gan): Mass Transfer, Gas-Liquid Re-
actions, Separation Processes, En-
vironmental Engineering.
D. Quon, Sc.D. (MIT), Professor Emeri-
tus: Energy Modelling and Economics,
Linear Programming, Network
D. B. Robinson, Ph.D. (Michigan):
Thermal and Volumetric Properties of
Fluids, Phase Equilibria, Thermody-
J. T. Ryan, Ph.D. (Missouri): Process
Economics, Energy Economics and
S. L. Shah, Ph.D. (Alberta): Linear
Systems Theory, Adaptive Control,
Stability Theory, Stochastic Control.
S. E. Wanke, Ph.D. (California-Davis):
Catalysis, Kinetics.
R. K. Wood, Ph.D. (Northwestern):
Process Dynamics and Identification,
Control of Distillation Columns,
Modelling of Crushing and Grinding

FALL 1982

Graduate Study
U of A's Chemical Engineering gradu-
ate program offers exciting research
opportunities to graduate students moti-
vated towards advanced training and
research. Graduate programs leading to
the degrees of Master of Science, Master
of Engineering and Doctor of Philosophy
are offered. There are currently 13 full-
time faculty members, a few visiting
faculty, several post-doctoral research
associates and 35 graduate students.

Financial Aid
Financial support is available to full-
time graduate students in the form of
fellowships, teaching assistantships and
research assistantships.

The University of Alberta
U of A is one of Canada's largest
Universities and engineering schools
with total enrollment of over 25,000
students. The campus is located in the
city of Edmonton and overlooks the
scenic North Saskatchewan River Valley.
Edmonton is a cosmopolitan modern
city of over 600,000 people. It enjoys a
renowned resident professional theatre,
symphony orchestra and professional
football, hockey and soccer leagues.
The famous Banff and Jasper National
Parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains
are within easy driving distance.

For application forms or
more information, write to

Department of Chemical
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G6



The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona is young and dynamic with a fully accredited
undergraduate degree program and M.S. and Ph.D. graduate programs. Financial support is available through gov-
ernment grants and contracts, teaching, and research assistantships, traineeships and industrial grants. The faculty
assures full opportunity to study in all major areas of chemical engineering.


JOSEPH F. GROSS, Professor
Ph.D., Purdue University, 1956
Boundary Layer Theory, Pharmacokinetics, Fluid Me-
chanics and Mass Transfer in The Microcirculation,

Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1962
Simulation and Design of Crystallization Processes,
Nucleation Phenomena, Particulate Processes, Explo-
sives Initiation Mechanisms

THOMAS R. REHM, Professor and Acting Head
Ph.D., University of Washington, 1960
Mass Transfer, Process Instrumentation, Packed Column
Distillation, Applied Design

JOST O.L. WENDT, Professor
Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1968
Combustion Generated Air Pollution, Nitrogen and Sul-
fur Oxide Abatement, Chemical Kinetics, Thermody-
namics, Interfacial Phenomena

Tucson has an excellent climate and
many recreational opportunities. It
is a growing, modern city of
450,000 that retains much of the
old Southwestern atmosphere.

For further information,
write to:
Dr. T. W. Peterson
Graduate Study Committee
Department of
Chemical Engineering
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85721

The University of Arizona is an
equal opportunity educational
institution/equal opportunity employer

DON H. WHITE, Professor
Ph.D., Iowa State University, 1949
Polymers Fundamentals and Processes, Solar Energy,
Microbial and Enzymatic Processes

WILLIAM P. COSART, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D. Oregon State University, 1973
Transpiration Cooling, Heat Transfer in Biological Sys-
tems, Blood Processing

THOMAS W. PETERSON, Assoc. Professor
Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1977
Atmospheric Modeling of Aerosol Pollutants,
Long-Range Pollutant Transport, Particulate
Growth Kinetics.

FARHANG SHADMAN, Asst. Professor
Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley, 1972
Reaction Engineering, Kinetics, Catalysis



Graduate Programs
for M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees
in Chemical and Bio Engineering

Research Specializations Include:
Our excellent facilities for research and teaching are
complemented by a highly-respected faculty:
James R. Beckman, University of Arizona, 1976
Lynn Bellamy, Tulane University, 1966
Neil S. Berman, University of Texas, 1962
Timothy S. Cale, University of Houston, 1980
William J. Crowe, University of Florida, 1969 (Adjunct)
William J. Dorson, Jr., University of Cincinnati, 1967
Eric J. Guilbeau, Louisiana Tech University, 1971
James T. Kuester, Texas A&M University, 1970
Kim L. Nelson, University of Delaware, 1981
Castle O. Reiser, University of Wisconsin, 1945 (Emeritus)
Vernon E. Sater, Illinois Institute of Technology, 1963
Robert S. Torrest, University of Minnesota, 1967
Bruce C. Towe, Pennsylvania State University, 1978
James M. Trebilcock, Michigan State University, 1950
Imre Zwiebel, Yale University, 1961
Fellowships and teaching and research assistantships are
available to qualified applicants.
ASU is in Tempe, a city of 120,000, part of the greater Phoenix
metropolitan area. More than 38,000 students are enrolled in
ASU's ten colleges; 10,000 of whom are in graduate study.
Arizona's year-round climate and scenic attractions add to ASU's
own cultural and recreational facilities.
Imre Zwiebel, Chairman,
Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287


j C



++---T--=. E

The Department is one of the fastest growing in the Southeast and offers degrees at the M.S. and Ph.D.
levels. Research emphasizes both experimental and theoretical work in areas of national interest, with
modern research equipment available for most all types of studies. Generous financial assistance is
available to qualified students.

Auburn University has 19,000 students and is located midway between Atlanta, GA. and Montgomery, AL.
Situated in a beautiful wooded setting, the local population numbers about 75.000 and supports good
shopping and entertainment facilities. The University also sponsors many types of artistic, dramatic,
cultural and sporting events. The combination of good weather and pleasant surroundings make outdoor
activities such as hiking, boating, fishing and camping particularly enjoyable.

Robert P. Chambers (University of California, 1965) Enzymatic and Biomedical Engineering, Biomass
Conversion, Adsorption and Ion Exchange.
Christine W. Curtis (Florida State University, 1976) Analytical Methods, Coal Chemistry and Liquefaction.
Catalysis of Hydrocarbon Residuals.
James A. Guin (University of Texas, 1970) Coal Liquefaction, Catalytic Hydrotreating, Reactor Design,
Heat and Mass Transfer.
Leo J. Hirth (University of Texas, 1958) Process and Plant Design, Economics, Oil Reprocessing.
Andrew C. T. Hsu (University of Pennsylvania, 1953) Thermodynamics, Solar Energy, Nucleation and
Crystallization Kinetics.
Y. Y. Lee (Iowa State University, 1972) Biochemical Engineering, Reaction Engineering of Bio-Systems,
Biomass Conversion
Timothy D. Placek (University of Kentucky, 1978) Environmental Pollution, Process Simulation, Multi-
phase Transport Phenomena.
A. R. Tarrer (Purdue University, 1973) Coal Liquefaction, Oil Reprocessing, Solid-Liquid Separations.
Bruce J. Tatarchuk (University of Wisconsin, 1981) Heterogeneous Catalysis, Reaction Kinetics, Spec-
troscopic Characterization of Catalyst Materials.
Donald L. Vives (Columbia University, 1949) Oil Reprocessing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Heat Transfer.
Dennis C. Williams (Princeton University, 1980) Process Dynamics and Control, Reactor Engineering.


Biomedical/Biochemical Engineering
Biomass Conversion
Coal Conversion
Environmental Pollution
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Oil Reprocessing
Process Design and Control
Process Simulation
Reaction Engineering
Reaction Kinetics
Surface Science
Transport Phenomena

For financial aid and admission
application forms write:
Dr. R.P. Chambers, Head
Chemical Engineering
Auburn University, AL 36849

Auburn University is an Equal Opportunity Educational Institution



* Ph.D., M.S., & M.E.
* ChE. Masters for Chemists Program
* Research

Biomedical Engineering
Coal Gasification

Electrochemical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics

Fossil Fuels Recovery
High Pressure Chemistry
Thermochemistry &

* Faculty
D. H. Barker, (Ph.D., Utah, 1951)
C. H. Bartholomew, (Ph.D., Stanford, 1972)
M W. Beckstead, (Ph.D., Utah, 1965)
D. N. Bennion, (Ph.D., Berkeley, 1964)
B. S. Brewster, (Ph.D., Utah, 1979)
J J. Christensen, (Ph.D., Carnegie Inst. Tech, 1958)
J. M. Glassett, (M.S., MIT, 1948)

R. W. Hanks, (Ph.D., Utah, 1961)
W. C. Hecker, (Ph.D., U.C. Berkeley,
P O. Hedman, (Ph.D., BYU, 1973)
J. L. Oscarson, (Ph.D., Michigan, 1982)
P. J. Smith, (Ph.D., BYU, 1979)
L. D. Smoot, (Ph.D., Washington, 1960)
K. A. Solen, (Ph.D., Wisconsin, 1974)

* Beautiful campus located in the rugged Rocky Mountains
* Financial aid available
Address Inquiries to: Brigham Young University, Dr. Richard W. Hanks, Chairman
Chemical Engineering Dept. 350 CB Provo, Utah 84602

FALL 1982



Program of Study
Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Master of Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Both the M.Sc. and Ph.D. programs are on the full-time basis and have
residency requirements. Course work and a research thesis based on an
original investigation are required of each student enrolled in either
degree program. The M.Eng. involves part-time study. It is designed
for those individuals working in the industry who would like to en-
hance their technical education. The M.Eng. thesis is usually on a
design oriented project related to current or anticipated industrial
trends. All the programs are designed to meet the specific interests
and individual needs of the student. The research and computing facili-
tis within the department and the faculty of engineering are excellent
and continuously being upgraded.
Generous fellowships and assistantships are available throughout the
calendar year to qualified applicants. The four month summer months
are usually devoted to active research. Supplementary financial support
may also be available from the research grants of the individual
faculty members.

Research Areas
Thermodynamics-Phase Equilibria
Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer and Cryogenics
Kinetics and Combustion
Reaction Engineering and Process Control
Flow in Porous Media
Multi-phase Flows in Pipelines
Computer Aided Design of Pipe Networks
Environmental Engineering
In-situ Recovery of Bitumen and Heavy Oils
Natural Gas Processing and Gas Hydrates
Biorheology and Biochemical Engineering
Reverse Osmosis and Ultra Filtration

R. A. HEIDEMANN, Professor and Head D.Sc. (Wash. U.)
A. BADAKHSHAN, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.)
L. A. BEHIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (W. Ont.)
D. W. BENNION, Professor Ph.D. (Penn. St.)
P. R. BISHNOI, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
M. FOGARASI, Sr. Instructor B.Sc. (Alta.)
G. A. GREGORY, Professor Ph.D. (Waterloo)
M. A. HASTAOGLU, Asst. Professor Ph.D. (SUNY)
J. J. AVLENA, Sr. Instructor D. Sc. (Czech.)
A. A. JEJE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (MIT)
N. G. MCDUFFIE, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas)
A. K. MEHROTRA Asat. Professor Ph.D. (Calgary)
M. F. MOHTADI, Professor Ph.D. (Birm.)
R. G. MOORE, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
P. M. SIGMUND, Assoc. Professor Ph.D. (Texas)
P. M. STANISLAV, Professor Ph.D. (Prague)
W. Y. SVRCEK, Professor Ph.D. (Alta.)
E. L. TOLLEFSON, Professor Ph.D. (Tor.)

The Community
The university is located in Calgary, Alberta, home of the world famous Calgary Stampede. This city of half a million combines the traditions
of the Old West with the sophistication of a modern, dynamic urban centre. Beautiful Banff National Park is 60 miles from the city and the ski
resorts of the Banff and Lake Louise areas are readily accessible. Jasper National Park is only five hours away by car via one of the most
scenic highways in the Canadian Rockies. A wide variety of cultural and recreational facilities are available both on campus and in the com-
munity at large. Calgary is the business centre of the petroleum industry in Canada and as such has one of the highest concentrations of engi-
neering activity in the country.

For further information and application material write to:

The Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
The University of Calgary,
Calgary, Alberta. T2N 1N4 Canada







... offers graduate programs leading to the Master
of Science and Doctor of Philosophy. Both pro-
grams involve joint faculty-student research as
well as courses and seminars within and outside
the department. Students have the opportunity
to take part in the many cultural offerings of
the San Francisco Bay Area, and the recreational
activities of California's northern coast and moun-


Alexis T. Bell (Chairman)
Harvey W. Blanch
Elton J. Cairns
Morton M. Denn
Alan S. Foss
Simon L. Goren
Edward A. Grens
Donald N. Hanson
Dennis W. Hess
C. Judson King
Scott Lynn
James N. Michaels
John S. Newman
Eugene E. Petersen
John M. Prausnitz
Clayton J. Radke
Jeffrey A. Reimer
David S. Soong
Charles W. Tobias
Theodore Vermeulen
Charles R. Wilke
Michael C. Williams

Department of Chemical Engineering
Berkeley, California 94720

FALL 1982



Course Areas
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
Applied Mathematics
Biomedical, Biochemical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics
Heat Transfer
Mass Transfer
Process Dynamics
Separation Processes
Transport Processes in Porous Media

UC Davis, with 17,500 students, is one of the major
campuses of the University of California system and
has developed great strength in many areas of the
biological and physical sciences. The Department of
Chemical Engineering emphasizes research and a pro-
gram of fundamental graduate courses in a wide variety
of fields of interest to chemical engineers. In addition,
the department can draw upon the expertise of faculty
in other areas in order to design individual programs
to meet the specific interests and needs of a student,
even at the M.S. level. This is done routinely in the areas
of environmental engineering, food engineering, bio-
chemical engineering and biomedical engineering.
Excellent laboratories, computation center and
electronic and mechanical shop facilities are available.
Fellowships, Teaching Assistantships and Research
Assistantships (all providing additional summer support
if desired) are available to qualified applicants.

Degrees Offered
Master of Science
Doctor of Philosophy

RICHARD L. BELL, University of Washington
Mass Transfer, Biomedical Applications
RUBEN G. CARBONELL, Princeton University
Enzyme Kinetics, Applied Kinetics, Quantum
Statistical Mechanics, Transport Processes in
Porous Media
ALAN P. JACKMAN, University of Minnesota
Environmental Engineering, Transport Phenomena
BEN J. McCOY, University of Minnesota
Separation and Transport Processes
DAVID F. OLLIS, Stanford University
Catalysis, Biochemical Engineering
DEWEY D. Y. RYU, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology
Biochemical Engineering, Fermentation
JOE M. SMITH, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Applied Kinetics and Reactor Design
PIETER STROEVE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Mass Transfer, Colloids
STEPHEN WHITAKER, University of Delaware
Fluid Mechanics, Interfacial Phenomena, Transport
Processes in Porous Media

Davis and Vicinity
The campus is a 20-minute drive from Sacramento
and just over an hour away from the San Francisco
Bay area. Outdoor sports enthusiasts can enjoy water
sports at nearby Lake Berryessa, skiing and other alpine
activities in the Sierra (2 hours from Davis). These rec-
reational opportunities combine with the friendly in-
formal spirit of the Davis campus to make it a pleasant
place in which to live and study.
Married student housing, at reasonable cost, is
located on campus. Both furnished and unfurnished
one- and two-bedroom apartments are available. The
town of Davis (population 36,000) is adjacent to the
campus, and within easy walking or cycling distance.

For further details on graduate study at Davis, please
write to:
Graduate Advisor
Chemical Engineering Department
University of California
Davis, California 95616
or call (916) 752-0400









'**=- if

UCLA's Chemical Engineering Depart-
ment maintains academic excellence in its
gacdua~te-programs by offering diversity in
both curriculum and research opportunities.
The department's continual growth is demon-
strated by the newly established Institute for
Medical Engineering and the National Center
for Intermedia Transport Research; adding to
the already wide spectrum of research

Fellowships are available for outstand-
ing applicants. A fellowship includes a waiver
of tuition and fees plus a stipend.

Located five miles from the Pacific
Coast, UCLA's expansive 417 acre campus
extends from Bel Air to Westwood Village.
Students have access to the highly-regarded
sciences programs and to a variety of expe-
riences in theatre, music, art and sports on

Admissions Officer
Chemical Engineering
5405 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles, CA 90024

D. N. Bennion
Yoram Cohen
S. M. Dinh
S. Fathi-Afshar
T. H. K. Frederking
S. K. Friedlander
E. L. Knuth
J. W. McCutchan

Ken Nobe"
1.. B. Robinson
O. I. Smith
W. 0. Van Vorst
V. L. Vilker
F. E. Yates
M. M. Baizer


SThermodynamics and Crybgenfts
Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Transport
Process Design and Systems Analysis
Polymer Processing and Rheology
.Mass Transfer and Fluid Mechanics
Kinetics, Combustion and Catalysis
Electrochemistry and Corrosion
Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering
Aerosol and Environmental Engineering




Ph.D. (Waterloo)
(Vice Chairman, Nuclear Engineering)
Two Phase Flow, Reactor Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis
and Wastes
H. CHIA CHANG Ph.D. (Princeton)
Chemical Reactor Modeling,
Applied Mathematics
Nuclear Systems Design and Safety,
Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Two-Phase Flow,
Heat Transfer.
OWEN T. HANNA Ph.D. (Purdue)
Theoretical Methods, Chemical
Reactor Analysis, Transport
Radiation Damage, Mechanics of
Ph.D. (Purdue)
Computer Control, Process
Dynamics, Real-Time Computing.

Ph.D. (Michigan)
(Dean of Engineering)
Boiling Heat Transfer.

Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Radiation Effects in Solids, Energy
Related Materials Development.

Ph.D. (M.I.T.)
Bionuclear Engineering, Fusion
Reactors, Radiation Transport

Ph.D. (Caltech)
Chemical Reactor Design, Catalysis,
Energy Conversion, Air Pollution.

Ph.D. (Berkeley)
Transport Phenomena, Separation

Ph.D. (Princeton)
Process Control, Computer Control,
Process Identification.

The Department offers M.S. and Ph.D. de-
gree programs. Financial aid, including
fellowships, teaching assistantships, and re-
search assistantships, is available. Some
awards provide limited moving expenses.

One of the world's few seashore campuses,
UCSB is located on the Pacific Coast 100
miles northwest of Los Angeles and 330
miles south of San Francisco. The student
enrollment is over 14,000. The metropoli-
tan Santa Barbara area has over 150,000
residents and is famous for its mild, even

For additional information and applications,
write to:

Professor Owen T. Hanna, Chairman
Department of Chemical & Nuclear
University of California,
Santa Barbara, CA 93106


PROGRAM OF STUDY Distinctive features of study in
chemical engineering at the California Institute of Tech-
nology are the creative research atmosphere and the strong
emphasis on basic chemical, physical, and mathematical
disciplines in the program of study. In this way a student
can properly prepare for a productive career of research,
development, or teaching in a rapidly changing and ex-
panding technological society.
A course of study is selected in consultation with one
or more of the faculty listed below. Required courses are
minimal. The Master of Science degree is normally com-
pleted in one academic year and a thesis is not required.
A special M.S. option, involving either research or an inte-
grated design project, is a feature to the overall program
of graduate study. The Ph.D. degree requires a minimum
of three years subsequent to the B.S. degree, consisting of
thesis research and further advanced study.

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Graduate students are sup-
ported by fellowship, research assistantship, or teaching
assistantship appointments during both the academic
year and the summer months. A student may carry a
full load of graduate study and research in addition to
any assigned assistantship duties. The Institute gives
consideration for admission and financial assistance to
all qualified applicants regardless of race, religion, or sex.
APPLICATIONS Further information and an application
form may be obtained by writing
Professor L. G. Leal
Chemical Engineering
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California 91125
It is advisable to submit applications before February
15, 1983.


JAMES E. BAILEY, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Rice University
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
Ph.D. (1964), University of Minnesota
Applied kinetics and catalysis; process control
and optimization; coal gasification.
ERIC HERBOLZHEIMER, Assistant Professor
Ph.D. (1979), Stanford University
Fluid mechanics and transport phenomena
L. GARY LEAL, Professor
Ph.D. (1969), Stanford University
Theoretical and experimental fluid mechanics;
heat and mass transfer; suspension rheology;
mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids.

C. DWIGHT PRATER, Visiting Associate
Ph.D. (1951), University of Pennsylvania
Catalysis; chemical reaction engineering;
process design .and development.

JOHN H. SEINFELD, Louis E. Nohl Professor,
Executive Officer
Ph.D. (1967), Princeton University
Air pollution; control and estimation theory.
FRED H. SHAIR, Professor
Ph.D. (1963), University of California, Berkeley
Plasma chemistry and physics: tracer studies
of various environmental and safety related
fessor Ph.D. (1978), University of Minnesota
Biochemical engineering; chemical reaction
Ph.D. (1958), University of New South Wales
Mechanical properties of polymeric materials;
theory of viscoelastic behavior; structure-
property relations in polymers.
W. HENRY WEINBERG, Chevron Professor
Ph.D. (1970), University of California, Berkeley
Surface chemistry and catalysis.



Want to find out? Heaven can't wait!
Write to:
Graduate Coordinator
Chemical Engineering Department
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio 44106
FALL 1982 219





Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees

C Stanley Cosgrove
SRobert Delcamp
Joel Fried
Rakesh Govind
David Greenberg
Daniel Hershey
SSHSun-Tak Hwang
Yuen-Koh Kao
Soon-Jai Khang
Robert Lemlich
~r William Licht
Joel Weisman

Modeling and design of chemical reactors. Deactivating catalysts. Flow pattern and mixing in chemical
equipment. Laser induced effects.
Computer-aided design. Modeling and simulation of coal gasifiers, activated carbon columns, process unit
operations. Prediction of reaction by-products.
Viscoelastic properties of concen-
trated polymer solutions.
Thermodynamics, thermal analysis
and morphology of polymer blends.
Modeling and design of gas clean- -
ing devices and systems.
Boiling. Stability and transport
properties of foam.
LIVING HUMAN AND Chairman, Graduate Studies Committee
CORPORATE SYSTEMS Chemical & Nuclear Engineering, #171
University of Cincinnati
Longevity, basal metabolic rate, Cincinnati, OH 45221
and Prigogine's and Shannon's
entropy formulae.


SM.S. and Ph.D. Programs
e Friendly Atmosphere
SVigorous Research Programs Supported by Government
and Industry
Faculty with International Reputation
Skiing, Canoeing, Mountain Climbing and Other
Recreation in the Adirondacks
Variety of Cultural Activities with Two Liberal Arts
Colleges Nearby
S. V. Babu D. H. Rasmussen
Der-Tau Chin Herman L. Shulman
Robert Cole R. Shankar Subramanian
Sandra Harris Peter C. Sukanek
Angelo Lucia Ross Taylor
Richard J. McCluskey Thomas J. Ward
John B. McLaughlin Ralph H. Weiland
Richard J. Nunge William R. Wilcox
Nsima Tom Obot Gordon R. Youngquist
Research Projects are available in:
Materials Processing in Space
Turbulent Flows
Heat Transfer
~ Electrochemical Engineering and Corrosion
Polymer Processing
Particle Separations
Phase Transformations and Equilibria
Reaction Engineering
Optimization and Control
And More ...
Financial aid in the form of fellowships, research
assistantships and teaching assistantships is
--s available. For more details, please write to:
Dean of the Graduate School
Clarkson College of Technology
Potsdam, New York 13676

I qN,




P. F. Dickson, Professor and Head; Ph.D., University of
Minnesota. Oil-shale, shale oil processing, petro-
chemical production from shale oil, heat transfer,
heat exchanger design.

J. H. Gary, Professor; Ph.D., University of Florida. Up-
grading of shale oil and coal liquids, petroleum re-
finery processing operations, heavy oil processing.

A. J. Kidnay, Professor; D.Sc., Colorado School of Mines.
Thermodynamic properties of coal-derived liquids,
vapor-liquid equilibria in natural gas systems, cryo-
Sgenic engineering.

R. M. Baldwin, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Colorado
School of Mines. Coal liquefaction by direct hydro-
genation, mechanisms of coal liquefaction, kinetics
of coal hydrogenation, relation of coal geochemistry
to liquefaction kinetics, upgrading of coal-derived

M. S. Graboski, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Pennsylvania
State University. Coal and biomass gasification pro-
cesses, gasification kinetics, thermal conductivity of
coal liquids, kinetics of SNG upgrading.

M. C. Jones, Associate Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Heat transfer and fluid me-
chanics in oil shale retorting, radiative heat transfer
in porous media, free convection in porous media.

E. D. Sloan, Jr., Associate Professor; Ph.D., Clemson Uni-
versity. Phase equilibrium thermodynamics measure-
ments of natural gas fluids and natural gas hydrates,
thermal conductivity measurements for coal derived
fluids, adsorption equilibria measurements, stage-
wise processes, education methods research.

V. F. Yesavage, Professor; Ph.D., University of Michigan.
Kinetic studies of shale oil, phase behavior and
enthalpy of synthetic fuels.

A. L. Bunge, Assistant Professor; Ph.D., University of
California at Berkeley. Enhanced oil recovery.
y. M. S. Selim, Associate Professor; Ph.D., Iowa State
University. Flow of concentrated fine particulate
suspensions in complex geometries; Sedimenta-
tion of multisized, mixed density particle suspensions.
For Applications and Further Information
On M.S., and Ph.D. Programs, Write
Chemical and Petroleum Refining Engineering
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, CO 80401

Chemical Engineering at



A place to grow...

with active research in

biochemical engineering
applied mathematics/computer simulation
energy technology
environmental engineering
kinetics and catalysis
surface science
heat and mass transfer
polymer science
fluid dynamics
rheology and biorheology
reactor design
molecular thermodynamics/statistical mechanics

with a diverse intellectual climate-graduate students arrange
individual programs with a core of chemical engineering
courses supplemented by work in other outstanding Cornell
departments including

biological sciences
computer science
food science
materials science
mechanical engineering
business administration
and others

with excellent recreational and cultural opportunities in one
of the most scenic regions of the United States.

Graduate programs lead to the degrees of Doctor of
Philosophy, Master of Science, and Master of Engineering
(the M.Eng. is a professional, design-oriented program).
Financial aid, including attractive fellowships, is available.

The faculty members are:
Joseph F. Cocchetto, Claude Cohen, Robert K. Finn, Keith E.
Gubbins, Peter Harriott, Robert P. Merrill, William L. Olbricht,
Ferdinand Rodriguez, George F. Scheele, Michael L. Shuler,
Julian C. Smith, Paul H. Steen, William B. Street, Raymond
G. Thorpe, Robert L. Von Berg, Herbert F. Wiegandt.

Professor Keith E. Gubbins
Cornell University
Olin Hall of Chemical Engineering
Ithaca, New York 14853



of Ielaware

awards three


degrees for

studies and

practice in

the artand

science of



An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a thesis problem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-blem.
An M.Ch.E. degree based upon course work and a period of in-
dustrial internship with an experienced senior engineer in the
Delaware Valley chemical process industries.
A Ph.D. degree for original work presented in a dissertation.
Gianni Astarita (1/2 time) Thermodynamics and Separ-
M. A. Barteau ation Process
C. E. Birchenall Rheology, Polymer Science
K. B. Bischoff and Engineering
C. D. Denson Materials Science and
P. Dhorjati Metallurgy
B. C. Gates Fluid Mechanics, Heat and
M. T. Klein Mass Transfer
R. L. McCullough Economics and Management
A. B. Metzner in the Chemical Process Industries
J. H. Olson Chemical Reaction Engi-
M. E. Paulaitis neering, Kinetics and
R. L. Pigford Simulation
T. W. F. Russell Catalytic Science and
S. I. Sandier (Chairman) Technology
G. C. A. Schuit (1/2 time) Biomedical Engineering-
J. M. Schultz Pharmacokinetics and
A. B. Stiles (1/2 time) Toxicology
M. A. Streicher (1/2 time) Biochemical Engineering-
R. S. Weber Fermentation and Computer Control

Graduate Advisor
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Delaware
Newark, Delaware 19711

^l3n "gmeer'mg-


Gainesville, Florida
Graduate study leading to MM mmmimmON
ME, MS & PhD

Tim Anderson Thermodynamics, Semiconductor
Processing/ Seymour S. Block Biotechnology
Ray W. Fahien Transport Phenomena, Reactor
Design/ Ronald J. Gordon Biomedical Engineering,
Rhcology/ Gar Hoflund Catalysis, Surface Science
Lew Johns Applied MatJhematics/ Dale Kirmse
Process Control, Computer Aided Design,
Biotechnology/ Hong H. Lee Reactor Design,
Catalysis/ Frank May Separations/ Ranga
Narayanan Transport Phenomena/ John
O'Connell Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics
Dinesh 0. Shah Enhanced Oil Recovery,
Biomedical Engineering/ Spyros Svoronos
Process Control/ Robert I). Walker Surface
Chemistry, Enhanced Oil Recovery/ Gerald
Westermann-Clark Electrochemistry, Transport

Graduate Admissions Coordinator
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611



Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering ...


Center for Disease Control
Commercial Center of the South
High Museum of Art
All Professional Sports
Major Rock Concerts and
Recording Studios
Sailing on Lake Lanier
Snow Skiing within two hours
Stone Mountain State Park
Atlanta Symphony
Ten Professional Theaters
Rambling Raft Race
White Water Canoeing within
one hour

For more information write:
Dr. Gary W Poehlein
School of Chemical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia 30332

Chemical Engineering
Air Quality Technology
Biochemical Engineering
Catalysis and Surfaces
Electrochemical Engineering
Energy Research and Conservation
Fine Particle Technology
Interfacial Phenomena
Mining and Mineral Engineering
Polymer Science and Engineering
Process Synthesis and
Pulp and Paper Engineering
Reactor Design
Transport Phenomena

Graduate Programs in Chemical Engineering

University of Houston

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University
of Houston has developed seven areas of special research
Chemical Reaction Engineering Catalysis
Interfacial Phenomena, Rheology
Two-phase Flow, Sedimentation
Solid-liquid Separation
Air Pollution Modeling
Reliability Theory
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering

The department occupies more than 64,000 square feet
and is equipped with more than $2.5 million worth of
experimental apparatus.

Financial support is available to full-time graduate students
with stipends ranging from $8,400 to $13,000 for
twelve months.

The faculty:

N. R. Amundson
O. A. Asbjornsen
V. Balakotaiah
E. L. Claridge
J. R. Crump
H. A. Deans
A. E. Dukler
R. W. Flumerfelt
E. J. Henley
D. Luss
A. C. Payatakes
R. Pollard
H. W. Prengle, Jr.
J. T. Richardson
F. M. Tiller
J. Villadsen
F. L. Worley, Jr.

For more information or application forms write:
Director, Graduate Admissions
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Houston
Houston, Texas 77004
(Phone 713/749-4407)


The Deparlmenl of Energy Engineering


Graduate Programs in

The Department of Energy Engineering

leading to the degrees of



Faculty and Research Activities in
Raffi M. Turian
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1964
Professor and Head of the Department
Francisco J. Brana-Mulero
Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, 1980
Assistant Professor
Paul M. Chung
Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1957
Professor and Dean of the College of Engineering
T. S. Jiang
Ph.D. Northwestern University, 1981
Assistant Professor
John H. Kiefer
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1961
G. Ali Mansoori
Ph.D., University of Oklahoma, 1969
Sohail Murad
Ph.D., Cornell University, 1979
Assistant Professor

Satish C. Saxena
Ph.D., Calcutta University, 1956
Stephen Szepe
Ph.D., Illinois Institute of Technology, 1966
Associate Professor
The MS program, with its optional
thesis, can be completed in one year.
Evening M.S. can be completed
in three years.
The department invites applications for
admission and support from all qualified
candidates. Special fellowships are
available for minority students. To obtain
application forms or to request further
information write:

Slurry transport, suspension and complex fluid flow
and heat transfer, porous media processes,
mathematical analysis and approximation.
Fluid mechanics, combustion, turbulence,
chemically reacting flows

Interfacial Phenomena, multiphase flows, flow through
porous media, suspension rheology

Kinetics of gas reactions, energy transfer processes,
molecular lasers

Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of fluids,
solids, and solutions, kinetics of liquid reactions,
solar energy
Process synthesis, operations research, optimal
process control, optimization of large systems,
numerical analysis, theory of nonlinear equations.
Thermodynamics and transport properties of
fluids, computer simulation and
statistical mechanics of liquids and
liquid mixtures
Transport properties of fluids and solids, heat and
mass transfer, isotope separation, fixed and fluidized
bed combustion

Catalysis, chemical reaction engineering, energy
transmission, modeling and optimization

Professor S. Murad, Chairman
The Graduate Committee
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago
Box 4348,
Chicago, Illinois 60680


Richard C. Alkire, Professor
Electrochemical Engineering
Harry G. Drickamer, Professor
High Pressure Studies, Structure
and Properties of Solids
Charles A. Eckert, Professor
and Head
Molecular Thermodynamics,
Applied Chemical Kinetics
Thomas J. Hanratty, Professor
Fluid Dynamics, Convective Heat
and Mass Transfer

Jonathan J. L. Higdon,
Assistant Professor
Fluid Mechanics, Applied
Richard S. Larson,
Assistant Professor
Chemical Kinetics
Richard I. Masel,
Assistant Professor
Catalysis, Surface Science
Anthony J. McHugh,
Associate Professor
Polymer Crystallization, Transport
of Particles


For application forms and further
information, write to:
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Department of Chemical Engineering
113 Roger Adams Laboratory
1209 W. California
Urbana, Illinois 61801-3791

Joseph A. Shaeiwitz,
Assistant Professor
Mass Transfer, Interfacial and
Colloidal Phenomena
Mark A. Stadtherr,
Associate Professor
Systems Analysis and Process
James W. Westwater, Professor
Boiling Heat Transfer, Phase





Institute of Technology

Chemical Engineering and Interdisciplinary Areas of Polymer Processes
Chemical Plant Operations and Management
Energy Conservation and Resources
Medical Engineering


Polymer Processing and Biological Systems
Process Control and Reactor Control Design
Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion
Multiphase Flow and Turbulence
Electrochemical Engineering
Combustion Engineering, Kinetics and Environmental
Process Dynamics and Controls
Mass Transfer and Surface and Colloid Phenomena
Chemical Reaction Engineering Analysis

D. T. Wasan
Chemical Engineering Dept.
Illinois Institute of Technology
10 West 33rd St.
Chicago, IL 60616


1.-0 *," "9-- r s- -o ii a... -


6 S S-"-i

'2..' ___ A.

Our research activities span the papermaking process.
Current research programs underway include:
J/1 plant tissue culture surface and colloid science fluid mechanics
M ^|environmental engineering polymer engineering heat and mass transfer
process engineering simulation and control separations science and
reaction engineering.

For further information contact: Director of Admissions
The Institute of Paper Chemistry
P.O. Box 1039
Appleton, WI 54912

-r +'il

. -

-, he

S Transport
:,": (Heat, mass

william H. Abriham
Renato G.BaUtistp*
Charles L'Glatiz-
James C. Hill
Richard C. Seagrave

Process Chemistr yt d
F- Fertilizer Technolot ,:,3 -
David-R. Boylan ... .;-_ -
SGeorge Burnet -
Maurice A. Larson

Energy Conversion
(Coal Tech, Hydrogen Producti
-Atomic Energy)
S Renato G. Bautista ..
Lawrence E. Borkhar t '
S George Burnet
Allen H. Pulsifer
S'DeanL. Ulrichson : -
* -Thomas D. Wheelock

S Biomedical Engineqrng
. (System Modeling,
S.-Transport. process) -
S ;Jichard C. Seagrave
S, Char es E. Glat

-_'-:- ->,
-,. : --: :/_!..-- '...




Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering


DURLAND HALL-New Home of Chemical Engineering

M.S. and Ph.D. programs in Chemical
Engineering and Interdisciplinary
Areas of Systems Engineering, Food
Science, and Environmental Engi-
Financial Aid Available
Up to $12,000 Per Year
Professor B. G. Kyle
Durland Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, Kansas 66506




-QL'~ I~~ '~~.
I.sF.; -*

J. Ber

r Q~UP


M.S. and Ph.D. Programs

The Faculty and Their Research Interests
an, Ph.D., Northwestern C. E. Hamrin, Ph.D., Northwestern
, inne-,rnne Crdinr rCic,,r Coal Liquefaction; Catalysis; Nonisothermal Kinetics

Transport Phenomena; Blood Oxygenation
D. Bhattacharyya, Ph.D.
Illinois Institute of Technology
Novel Separation Processes; Membranes;
Water Pollution Control
W. L. Conger, Ph.D., Pennsylvania
Thermochemical Hydrogen Production;
2nd Law Analysis of Processes
G. F. Crewe, Ph.D., West Virginia
Catalytic Hydrocracking of
Polyaromatics; Coal Liquefaction
R. B. Grieves, Ph.D., Northwestern
Foam Fractionation; Physicochemical Separations

R. I. Kermode, Ph.D., Northwestern
Process Control and Economics
L. K. Peters, Ph.D., Pittsburgh
Atmospheric Transport; Aerosol Phenomena
E. D. Moorhead, Ph.D., Ohio State
Electrochemical Processes; Novel
Measurement Techniques
A. K. Ray, Ph.D., Clarkson
Heat and Mass Transfer in Knudsen
Regime; Transport Phenomena
J. T. Schrodt, Ph.D., Louisville
Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer;
Fuel Gas Desulfurization

Fellowships and Research Assistantships are Available to Qualified Applicants

For details write to:
J. T. Schrodt
Director for Graduate Studies
Chemical Engineering Department
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046



University of Maryland

The University of Maryland is located approximately 10 miles
from the heart of the nation. Washington, D.C. Excellent public
|B _' transportation permits easy access to points of interest such as
-J" A- Arlington Cemetery. and the Kennedy Center. A short drive west
produces some of the finest mountain scenery and recreational
l' opportunities on the east coast. An even shorter drive east
.: '- brings one to the historic Chesapeake Bay with its delicious
? Degrees Offered:
.'I NI" M.S. and Ph.D. programs in
% i Chemical Engineering.
SFinancial Aid Available:
STeaching and Research Assistantships
S at $6.800. plus tuition reimbursement
.. ... are available.
Faculty: ..
Robert B. Beckmann ,,.-......... ,:,,>" i,. .
Theodore \. ('adiman
Richard \. (Cal.bre-,e
Lary L. Gasner
James W. Gentry
Albert Gomezplata
Randolph T. Hatch
Juan Hong
Thomas J. McAvoy
Thomas M. Regan i'
Wilburn C. Schroeder
Theodore G. Smith
RoberLt White Research Areas:
Aerosol Mechanics
Air Pollution Control
Biochemical Engineering
SBiomedical Engineering
i Fermentation
Laser Anemometry
.. Mass Transfer
Polymer Processing
Risk Assessment
Separation Processes

7 l-' For Applications and Further Information, Write:
Professor Thomas J. McAvoy
Depart ment ol Chemical and Nuclear Engineering
SUniversity o l' Manland
College Park, Md. 21742

Department of


Areas of Research
Pulp and Paper
* Reaction engineering of pulping
* Pulp bleaching
* Formation of paper web
* Paper coating

Environmental Science
* Waste water treatment
* Air pollution

Polymer Science & Engineering
* Polymer synthesis and properties
* Polymer processing

Fluids and Particle Systems
* Rheology
* Solid-fluid separation
* Porous media modeling
* Colloidal stability

Process Dynamics and Control
* Process control & instrumentation
* Real-time computing

Pulp and Paper Research and Testing
* Pilot scale batch digesters, pulp re-
finers, a fourdrinier paper machine,
paper coaters and complete testing

Instrumental Analysis Laboratory
* Scanning electron microscope with X-
ray microanalyzer, gas and liquid
chromatographs, atomic absorption unit,
infrared, UV and visible spectro-

Polymer Laboratory
* Injection and compression molding,
spinning, membrane and vapor pres-
sure, osmometers, light scattering,
GPC, transport property measurement,
synthesis, torsion pendulum.

Fluid Dynamics & Rheology
* Mechanical spectrometer, Instron
capillary rheometer, Haake RV-12 visco-
meter, Sedigraph 5000D Particle size
analyzer, Zeta meter and others.

Real Computing Laboratory
* PDP 11/60 with a data link with the
University IBM 370 system, three PDP
11/03 systems, 8 CRT's, plotters.

Academic Programs
M.S. and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering.
M.S. in Pulp and Paper Technology
Master in Chemical Engineering
MChE (no thesis required)
In addition to the students with B.S. in
ChE, students who have a B.S. in the
related fields such as chemistry, bio-
chemistry, and wood science are en-
couraged to do graduate work in ChE.
Most prerequisite courses are offered every
year during the summer.
Financial Assistance
Research Assistantships
Teaching Assistantships
Stipends range from $4,500 for nine
months up to $8,000 for 12 months.

For application and a copy of the
Graduate School catalog,
write to:

Chairman, Chemical
Engineering Dept.
115 Jenness Hall
University of Maine
Orono, ME 04469




J. Wei, Department Head
M. Alger
R. C. Armstrong
R. F. Baddour
J. M. Be6r
J. F. Brady
H. Brenner
R. A. Brown
R. E. Cohen
C. K. Colton
C. Cooney
W. M. Deen
L. B. Evans
C. Georgakis
T. A. Hatton
H. C. Hottel
J. B. Howard

G. A. Huff, Jr.
J. P. Longwell
M. P. Manning
H. P. Meissner
E. W. Merrill
C. M. Mohr
R. C. Reid
A. F. Sarofim
C. N. Satterfield
H. H. Sawin
K. A. Smith
U. W. Suter
J. W. Tester
C. G. Vayenas
P. S. Virk
J. E. Vivian
D. I. C. Wang
G. C. Williams

Biochemical and Biomedical
Catalysis and Reaction Engineering
Chemical Waste Management
Computer-Aided Design
Energy Conversion
Kinetics and Fluid Mechanics
Process Dynamics and Control
Surfaces and Colloids
Transport Phenomena


r~rrcu II

Photo by James Wei

MIT also operates the School of Chemical Engineering Practice, with field stations at the General Electric Company in
Albany, New York, and the Bethlehem Steel Company at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

For Information
Chemical Engineering Headquarters
Room 66-350
Cambridge, MA 02139

FALL 1982


The Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts offers graduate programs
leading to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Chemical Engineering. Active research areas include polymer
engineering, catalysis, design, and basic engineering sciences. Close coordination characterizes research
in polymers which can be conducted in either the Chemical Engineering Department or our prestigious
Polymer Science and Engineering Department. Financial aid in the form of research assistantships and
teaching assistantships is available. Course of study and area of research are selected in consultation
with one or more of the faculty listed below.

Catalysis, Kinetics, Surface diffusion
Distillation, Thermodynamics, Design
Process design and control, Reactor engineering
Kinetics, Catalysis, Phase equilibria
Catalysis, Kinetics
Kinetics, Ebullient bed reactors
J. R. KITTRELL (Adjunct Professor)
Kinetics and catalysis, Catalyst deactivation
Polymerization reactors, Fluid mechanics

Polymer synthesis, Kinetics of polymerization
Rheology, Polymer processing, Design
K. M. NG
Enhanced oil recovery, Two-phase flows
Mixing, Fluid mechanics, Polymer engineering
F. I. SHINSKEY (Adjunct Professor)
Process Control
Combustion, Spectroscopy
Polymer rheology and processing, Heat transfer
Process Control


Polymerization catalysts, Biopolymers,
Polymer degradation
Polymer composites, Mechanical
properties, Elastomers
Polymer synthesis, catalysis, polymer modification
Polymer spectroscopy, Polymer structure analysis
Polymer transitions, Polymer blends,
Conducting polymers
Viscoelastic and mechanical properties of polymers
Polymer synthesis, Polymer surfaces

Polymer stabilization, processing and fabrication, high
performance composites
Polymer rheology, Polymer processing
Statistical thermodynamics of solutions, transport
properties, phase transition phenomena
Polymer crystallinity and morphology,
Electron microscopy, Polymer morphology,
Polymer synthesis, degradation and stabilization
of polymers

*Joint appointments in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering
For further details, please write to:

Prof. J. W. Eldridge
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003

Prof. R. Farris
Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Mass. 01003



FALL 1982



At The


Of Michigan

Dale Briggs
Louisville, Michigan
Brice Carnahan
Case-Western, Michigan
Rane Curl
Francis Donahue
LaSalle, UCLA
H. Scott Fogler
Illinois, Colorado
Erdogan Gulari
Roberts, Cal Tech
James Hand
NJIT, Berkeley
Robert Kadlec
Wisconsin, Michigan
Donald Katz
Lloyd Kempe
Joseph Martin
Iowa, Rochester, Carnegie
John Powers
Michigan, Berkeley
Jerome Schultz, Chairman
Columbia, Wisconsin
Johannes Schwank
Maurice Sinnott
Rasin Tek
Henry Wang
Iowa State, MIT
James Wilkes
Cambridge, Michigan
Brymer Williams
Gregory Yeh
Holy Cross, Cornell, Case
Edwin Young
Detroit, Michigan

Laser Light Scattering
Reservoir Engineering
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Applied Numerical Methods
Dynamic Process Simulation
Ecological Simulation
Electroless Plating
Electrochemical Reactors
Polymer Physics
Polymer Processing
Composite Materials
Coal Liquefaction
Coal Gasification
Biochemical Engineering
Periodic Processes
Tertiary Oil Recovery
Transport In Membranes
Flow Calorimetry
Ultrasonic Emulsification
Heat Exchangers
Renewable Resources


Department Of Chemical Engineering

For Information Call 313/763-1148 Collect








The Department of Chemical Engineering of Michigan State
University has assistantships and fellowships available for
students wishing to pursue advanced study. With one of these
appointments it is possible for a graduate student to obtain
the M.S. degree in one year and the Ph.D. in two to three
additional years.

ASSISTANTSHIPS: Teaching and research assistantships pay $798.00 per month to a student studying for the M.S.
degree and approximately $867.00 per month for a Ph.D. candidate. A thesis may be written on the subject
covered by the research assistantship. Non-resident tuition is waived.

FELLOWSHIPS: Available appointments pay up to $14,500 plus out-of-state tuition for calendar year.


D. K. ANDERSON, Chairman
Ph.D., University of Washington
Transport Phenomena, Biomedical Engineering, Cardio-
vascular Physiology, Diffusion in Polymers
Ph.D., Iowa State University
Biomedical Engineering, Thermodynamics of Living
Systems, Biorheology, Mass Transfer in Biological
Ph.D., Princeton University
Chemical Engineering Aspects of Nuclear Fusion, Dif-
fusivities and Separation Rates from Theory and Ex-
Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Thermodynamics and Phase Equilibria, Modeling of
Transport Processes
Ph.D., University of Notre Dame
Chemical and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Trans-
port Properties of Random Heterogeneous Media,
Applied Mathematics, Catalytic Gasification of Carbon,
Shape Selectivity Reactions on Zeolites

Ph.D., Ohio State University
Food Engineering, Membranes Separations, and
Polymer Engineering
Ph.D., Michigan State University
Kinetics, Catalysis, Reactions in Plasmas,
and Reaction Engineering
Ph.D., Princeton University
Simplification of Process Models, Parameter
Estimation, Rheology of Suspensions and Polymers
Ph.D., University of Florida
Catalytic Reaction Kinetics and Catalyst
Characterization, Gas-Solid Reactions, and
Modeling of Stochastic Processes
Ph.D., University of Florida
Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Transport Phenomena,
Solid-Fluid Separations
Ph.D., Ohio State University
Energy Systems and Environmental Control, Nuclear
Reactor, and Radioisotope Applications

Dr. Donald K. Anderson, Chairman, Department of Chemical Engineering
173 Engineering Building, Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824

MSU is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Institution

FALL 1982

Department of Chemical Engineering



Contact Dr. J. W. Johnson, Chairman

Day Programs

M.S. and Ph.D. Degrees


D. AZBEL (D.Sc., Mendeleev ICT-Moscow)-Dis-
persed Two-Phase Flow, Coal Gasification and

N. L. BOOK (Ph.D., Colorado)-Computer Aided
Process Design, Bioconversion.
O. K. CROSSER (Ph.D., Rice)-Transport Properties,
Kinetics, Catalysis.

M. E. FINDLEY (Ph.D., Florida)-Biochemical
Studies, Biomass Utilization

J.-C. HAJDUK (Ph.D. Illinois-Chicago)-Chemical
kinetics, Statistical and Non-equilibrium Thermo-

J. W. JOHNSON (Ph.D., Missouri)-Electrode Re-
actions, Corrosion.

A. I. LIAPIS (Ph.D., ETH-Zurich)-Adsorption,
Freeze Drying, Modeling, Optimization, Reactor

P. NEOGI (Ph.D., Carnegie-Mellon)-Interfacial

G. K. PATTERSON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Turbu-
lence, Mixing, Mixed Reactors, Polymer Rheology.
B. E. POLING (Ph.D., Illinois)-Kinetcis, Energy
Storage, Catalysis.

X. B. REED, JR. (Ph.D., Minnesota)-Fluid Me-
chanics, Drop Mechanics, Coalescence Phenomena,
Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Turbulence Structure.

O. C. SITTON (Ph.D., Missouri-Rolla)-Bioengineer-
R. C. Waggoner (Ph.D., Texas A&M)-Multistage
Mass Transfer Operations, Distillation, Extraction,
Process Control.

H. K. YASUDA (Ph.D., New York-Syracuse)-
Polymer Membrane Technology, Thin-Film Tech-
nology, Plasma Polymerization. Biomedical Ma-

D. B. MANLEY (Ph.D., Kansas)-Thermodynamics,
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium.

Ijp Financial aid is obtainable in the form of Graduate and
Research Assistantships, and Industrial Fellowships. Aid
is also obtainable through the Materials Research Center.



Full Text


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,qp~.,. POLYM E R EDUCATION AND R E S E ARCH DONAi.i) G. IIAIIID ASD GART H I Wll.KES ::..."'::U"t-.:r.::'i, "'i;i .. 11.,.....,, VA -l-4,0H l ) OLYIIU_,.,.ne,. _.. -loJ>odpo1..,.., ,..,.. ,,.,,,.,,.f..,nd IM1,. ., .. l lyloolatll o ])(!emk.ll..,rl.-rl .,.,.....,..1o..,r1...-rior. Af nl.....i1i.i.a .. ::...-~.:..-=.. .,.....,_ AtVPI.ISUa..,, .,..lolttoeounlr,,lhoyoflOtf--ht, d .. tol te,11.l).Tbl a minim ;.. &o.y poHtkol bland a \ th< u ... p....i 011m,r ,ys1ffl11./,.-.l&odtimil&re><&m,,.. :!~~-:~,.:'!I. :.~ ;..~::::~::. p,oi&l m loanoclo,..1&"'thef-l&II otooiJ',nffod-.T1iio-1+r.--t:::..:'.'::!::':!!i:.:;..~:. =::!-'S-EC -c1.. -1-111 ... .......i1 .... ...i .. ooirmff,_,,,hlanpodtryolhlst,pol,_,. . hiio

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CA T A L YS I S .11;,u.-.r,.-~u,.;,.,..;,, 11--,~,.,._/,IIOUI A :;.....":::""'""'::,i':t !::r~ --...-..-.... JliD,tportmNtolo.olol.., .... a.-lool.lql-..,..n..o1aott1,o--1o ,...._ _,_..,_..,.., .... -.... 1-tl the...; .. ..._,,, o(l ... uotn&lutal,-,t,.Aothe""",...dofflopod. ll Unct..i tllo tt..,._olr,AL\htbosinninrofthett11o..U .. o1toi--.. uc1 ,.. i.a..-1 .. m ............ ___ ;. ,r1....,tortho-tof-lowhoha .. ... Lal-. tho -'7.-..:1 .. la ,_.,..I ....... rtnr ~.::".:"...:rt.!."'::':."":i'!":" r ~ lftololnrliquiooil,ru, ----i.o..... plluit,od_ ~~=~~.:-= all<"''-or..,...,..-Fortho-or =~~':.=:..-.~i.::: .. --,11,nt .....iar'liclo [t~ nr. kl

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What to look for in choosing your first job ..,,.......,._jOI> ___ cull.Tl------_.,.._..IO ____ IO,_ ---w11--.()fto ... ... ___ ....a,__,_,.,...., ..... ,,, _______ ..,,. __ .,.. :=.:;:=..7-W.OIOOlok>lal--on..-,g)'OU., ___ .,._..,. __ --Wocwll--g,o,,,nlllfOUgh.. __, .. _HIOj'OU.._ ... __ .... =-=== ..... __ .._.. ......_tOPP'loritrill_lO __ :::::.:."':"'".=.:-.-...


till]II curriculum 1981 AIChE EPC SURVEY Bri,,l -11,.;- ,._,I/ TM112 __ _,,,._.....,. ... ........ ....._ .. .... _,_ ___ .....,. ... --.. .. .. __ .. _.....,._ __ ____ ,. ___ _ __ ...__..._,.,, __ _ ,._ ... ____ _ .,_., _______ .. ------.. ... ______ .. ,_ ... ________ ,, ____ ,_,. ____ ---------.,~-----~ ., ,,., . :::: ... :~ ,... ,., . .. ... .......


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lilUil cJ n ss u nd hom e pro bl e m s TUobjulofW."""'""'il\o..........,.,,..,...-,...,,11;,rob1-o"' C ..... iool E,oouri,og. l'roblnN of .... 1 ,,,_ ''"" "'"" I>< W ,..i;....,. !11 o l>r, ,,,...,..;,,g ==~i:1~=.. ... .:~.:~~=:,:::~ :-,;7,:i:=~~ .. r: ,.;, ,u.o ,. ,,,..,,_ H. soo11..-1tr. cu; o .,,..,...,., L";.,,.;1 of Nic-i"" ,h .trhor, .111 ;110, MINE-MOUTH GEYSER PROBLEM N oi:r..oi:NE VERS u.;.-, .,u..,. s.1,1..i,,c;, ur&1 1 02 openoo al l levwl f,o,ntho lako.,..,toa llyC~ ii mo,t be oxpl a inoblo by thelaw1

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lht'Ollrit, it, t ,odin 1 "'" .. ,,..,, .,;'"""' a ... 1 a i,Jet.Irth l a nd..,rtkal thffl \ 0, u..,.;nr "'irit,t bo hard lo e,~ain. Ru\ th ktu a l i .. ,. .. rttd ;n tto. a rt!< lo j ~.. a ~~E:E 1 ~~:E:%~~~f:7?~ : :::~.~th::!;=:~:,:: :-;,.:1:~ :.,:;: ;;IGi~~~'E0~r+.T~t,.,.,:: v : ~n i~ o) lf .. _... ,,..., ,, ll

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[g]l s tirr ed pot s RESEARCH I S ENGINEERING SO II N B .YE NN yo1,u,.;,.,..;,. i, .,. Ho,,. CT066ZO S /.1 .,_,,-,.;g 11 1u., .,...;"17;- g ... ,,,...m.1 .. ,,~ .. do,lffi-,,< / "'""r

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Pl, Toboainwiththe ,.i,thea tomie<"'k Untill9&7the ,IO ndont.nitofllmt,tl>e ..... d, ..... oo n<>fllc; a ll1doftnod u the"du,atiottof9,19Z63l,170poriootollhe ....iiatioo,e<>,,...pondin1tothet,an1itioo,botw-, ,.....,hype.-tlneleveloofth efu ndamen lOlot.a,.o f lhe &IMlof..,.;u mlall."Thtdovloothalp,.,.; do, aoirnal ofthee,,, ,..pondi nrlN>'.luencyloan """"'""'"f"""l>OrtinlO"o,10";,,moJocu l a, '-"'P1>0,.tuatlla\ .... eonbu,-o/fthooholf Thu, any labo,ato,y <>n ll>se a p!iman ti""' -nlfo,not holelotmo,.thana,,:,y ft,..g,1-~ 1 a f .. ,y,,a,...., al)outU1o u ,oni umen!ieh men tp isntwhijoetbutl undor-otondit io now n,ovin101>in.Th&tplont a,i...,do,,the....,. 1 1 ~m,nduM"o,_,.,_ ifi~lli compoondo in lay,rs whoN thiUl""'""'n

(jfiI international GRADUATE EDUCATION IN M E X I CO ..... __ ___ .__.,.. ..,_.....,....,..,.,u,,.,.,. ___ .. __ .,_M --... --------..-~..... .,._.... ____ ... ___ ... ____ --"""""' ....... _., ... -..... -.... .............. .._~--.,..,..... ... ... .._ ...... ____ ., .. ,_..__,.. ___ .._ -------


ltlain,.....tlnstlhi,poin\lobri,fty ... min<,ln ~ral. t Mr<>ltof,-an,hin......,thiolol')' a-rktrnuniv,,.it ;.., ,ootlt. n<>locJln> titut .. ho,J,,.ttt.r,:e ,.....,n,.olfond,to uni ,..,.itiafo, ,-.. .,,h w h notho,-,1,lp'""'-.>ummuoi&Odhea l th=ten. ::~.::.;:::l,~,,~ ~:., ,_~4_. W,h,_,h,retofo,., .. nti...tho.,tMvrooor ........... ,_ ............ ,. .. .... .. ............... .,.,.,..., .... ., hkhio .. .. _,. , ___ + ..... .......... .... .............. _, ,., __ ...... .4_,, .. .... ...,,. ....... -..._ ,,,..,_ >ndltionofordoinr,-rche,..., hoot,.ithin the univ,r,.ity -. Im W "111 """di><.,. Ult lndu,tri a l .. _, nd it, in~uen,,o and <00tribu tlona. if any. in thio di"""ion lndu>\ry...... i noniool>-te,;l o ndpr<>ttctod m,,Jiurn w h<,.mootofU.."""ull'MIO"Won. whkhi-....,,,,tly oot,rron the n a\ion,I fr<>ntiltht.tlo oroPhodlhtln<>nlort<>tM.nd for hi~hly Qu o lill

.. .... ....... . .. ,_,_ ............. .. ........................... ,., __ .... ..... .._ .. .. --""'" .. ......... ., ..... ................. .., G_,o< .,_ .. ~U k ... '''"" "' Go_,,.,.,_.,_.,.. ,_ ,._ ._.. ,., .... ,_,. .... ... ......... .......... Them ao t .,."""'""MatUAll .tookatr t,e;nRolle .-.d in ltloxlh .. hoon a problem(p&rt!

t,oeololdbeftoxlble & nd""""'tatoo-,..1 .. Poootdbe t~h..,edondatroo f lYOUPponedat ~: .. i:-.!:':',::-:.:'~h==~.,.;~~ti= :.~! :::;:i~ =::-:~:~:::1:: ~n~~:,:,~c:~tNl:-~=~~':i:!"i"'plo. l.6'=~~!:h ~r~=-;~n;-:;..::::~ : ~/~i: i;:.:::..~:.-~d:.t:..'."'~ ;.:.v::::=:=.:\::":!:tt:h~,~ :;.1:1ti:~ :': i~-~':i!~blo, a nd In fOWmothodfor.

MASS TRANSFER c........ __ nf<"-m"eo l iJ'....ct"',,,...'"'"''""" : .. "'..::; ;;.. ~.-:::::t~ ....: -~ bnb-.thotPf"" r .l "'-"'.,._"..,..,,r.,,...,n,-,r., ___ .... .. ..._,.., MUll.COW'O NlNll ........ oN,wlTHCHb-oi,_ Tl, e<0m. ploxltyofron......,.tioop....,_, ariMrrom :::~ '?1;f .;i~4:i:.:.:Z;~ l iouidol, ... (39) Vopor-ti<>nt,:,im miOU..t of o mu lliem't--nt oporln.-h ie ht.-oormo,. = tr.2~~;1-:.:.i,;'; :: ::,.;r..:~:~:::~.'!~!:: ~~1fl;i:g:;~.,~ I norderto ,i m pl if yth,-ate

:n:h ,:~~~i.:"'~;~~1=:!i AOd i ftModona~Jmn>Od.te, !, nonvolatll<, a ~,.., imp-1on m irht be th a t ,tion ~ould low tr the _,,.tion, of bothCO ,and Nll inU..liquidfi l m,\hernconlrotionoinlh<.lM ph.,.atth<~Of mootpl'ifn it,. ~~,'_:es~ .:_~ .:i:::~.;i:r:::-.~. ,:,i:, deno,.tioo""':,i;:,inonu!::ru""'l'~~ftu,of t hetotalt,.nof,..,teofollthoo

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1he Universily ofl:elaware ___ awardsthree ttS graduale t ~ degrees for :,::::. studies a_nd [( :: __ practice in ,ts,:,,_ thearland science of :.::..,--::-e::.::. = .. chemical ::'.::t'o::.~ ; ; ,, engineering.


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    UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI ROLLA Con!bCT Or. J. W. Johnson, Chl, i, mon O.,yProg ra ms M .S.1ndPn.o,o.g,_ FACULTY AND RESEARCH INT ERESTS D A111t10 k -.w;rO. =ac!...--""'-ond N. L (1'1, 0., IJdo,I -~0 ll.CIIOSSR----~.... _........., --J W,IOMNJON(Ph,0 .,_ E j .. ...... ,.eo._ I U-Ull t,l,,o. n,._--~ =o.,,.,g-"'""'"""""""0 I. to&HUl l'lo.O "-,..-, v-.....,..~ 0 1.,AMlGot<(l'l,.O -..T """' -.Mi ..,_Ml_. __ ,_....ioo,. a.1.-c,,,.0 --.... c...,.,,.. X.l, IIID 11.,U,.. _ -.o...,-~ ~----O C.lfflQfhhip<,..,d lnckn1, io l hllow.hip&.Aid i11looobt1N b, hRnaarchc.ntw

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    The Ohio State University Chemical Engineering r :~:~o:,:~~ :::-:.~;;:,:i ~:.,inolC~,.7~~~= lnmd..,a,dem ic po,jt k mo n.....,. ... .,.,.,., ... ll ..r,;,; ,.,.-:,r ....,_ .. _,_ .... ,..,_ ,.,.,_ .. ,...,.. .... ,. u,-- .... ...... .... 1 ............. ............... ..,-.,..... ........ ........... ., ... .... n.. n.,..._,,, -r ... ___ .,. .,.,._ ......... ,..,,_. .,,,_,..""..,."'",_... -.. 1 ,..,_.,.,.._ .,1 '""'',; ..,,,, -n-_,.._, TheO..m~alEngl"""""',Bu;i.;Ji"\lh;,Omo,e1h.>otlO OOOSGua,fe1ot>dinthln,ilobo.otori<>o<>dpr,,,;"""""ol-Mot.1hanf;hnin '"''"" grphk:,1ormlnol,oreovallobl.!for,ow""hat>d1eoc"9Manv ld,ol,pedoli,ed ,o>ea,ch,:qu;pm,010,eavai\objeak>ngwtthollnlv....itvromw,.,t>dn"""veibmy widd,M'lao,.alsowid .1h,,Unt,,,,...,.olf.,.o,)l>otluo-for W1uolf\rowty'!)Orlfromo"he,ytowa,.., ... 11ng Fo,lurth a tnform o tlon. wrlt43210

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    OKLAHOITTA STATE UNIVERSITY ... School of Chemical Eng ineering we lco mes !:JOU l ll.EII .; The Ok l ohomo. Sto.te Uni ve r s i ty Chem ic a l Eng i neer i ng focvfty : .. 0 6 .L. C ,y n l's o,. ~ e-M e !hl Se ll D1 R Robiflson,k O,. ITloyils Seo.po n o, .C.0 "11l.foutch O,. R obe n ffi oddo Or. Jo hn H Erbor o,.JonWog~, D, RtchG Hi ll Dr.ROO
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    uni vers jfyof pennsylvania chemical engineering

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    1 ,00 KJ NG t"O K A G K All U A TE ED UCA TIO N I NC H E \t lCAL ~:N GI N EEKI NG! CONS IU E K PENN STATE A "HDC A IISON (W;,con,ioJ IDH Al D P. D A IIII II OAN9hl TIIO#J.51 D A U I U T (P.,S,o'-) AII IED J !NO I L (w.,_,,,;") I U.llD IA II .... INorthw., 1o) fl llD II CH G .IIEllf lllCll (Gottingeo) I O I UTl .lAH l (Woffl"'O""" r ,(IWIH Lfl U S (...,"S,olo) l ,H AOAIAJA H ISUNYe,,~ ,lo) CH Al llSC P Elff ll (J>.MS,_,.) I ON A TN A N Hlo<";,,,, HU II OOIHEOU S C A T A l fSII -~ "' "'"'""'' ,.....,,..,,.,,,,000. ... ,,..,..,,_ C.1,ly'1Ci,,,-oc1o,"'1'" Sulf"'""'"""""~;;:.,=:~.,.,,......,, Al'Pl llD CH!MISTIY A ND ., .. n ,cs '"""'"' """ Compl,, hKT""'S,.P,_rt;e,.ofl)quidl,b,> -.,i..,.,_,.,.,,-.. ,HU l fACI AI. PffENOMEH A Ad'""'"T~ond r i, Monol,,..,-ond ___ ....., l
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    HOW WOULD YOU LIKE TO DO YOUR GRADUATE WORK IN THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE WORLD? CHEMICAi. ENGlNEUING l'OI.YMER SCIENCE & ENGINURJNG ~ecmc @! ~ ~ _.,.., ____ =-=-.:..-.. D-fln,elllof Cl>tmlctll:"lfl nN rlng ___ ,. ___ ------

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    University of Queensland C H EMICAL ElI< L _____ -..._,. THE DEPARTMENT ThoDepa.....,,tOC
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    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute M.S. and Ph.D Programs in Chemical Engin eering and Environmental Engineering Department Faculty and Areas of Re search ........... ... o. ____ --, -----"' ---R... o .ic,,,os..i ..... -~ -~----,....,, ..... .., ... 0 .~ ---a:ro-<11:>"ll'""*_ ... ~--""""""'-- ...... 0 .--~--------~;-<11 Goo.9M-,.., o. ~----_____ ; ____ -------~ R Pl.. rh .O. ,S,,.,_1---<><>'-._, ____ .,_ --""-0 -----------------.. .... ... D. -----"'-"'"""'""'"'--"""'"'-----_,, .__ .. t). ......,_...., ____ """'""""""""'"_ .... _ ,,._ _o. ___ "' ___ ,_ .. ..__,,,_., _ ., __ .... ..,.........,, ... 0 -.----, _"'_ ... _,, ____ ,~ ... ...,,,. ___ ,, ____ _ ,.. ,..., o.p,o---__ ,,. ___ .... .._ .. _o. c,,, ______ ______ .. W PL.O Ch.. ___ _"'..,.. __ __ "'"""'-..----~;!~:;~Applications and Information : ll
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    MAJOR RESEARCH AREAS ==~~ BIOMEDICAL E NGlNEUING 5~.. Graduate Study in Chemical Engineering at Rice University 0..-.(),t>opo,-o/~~ ""'-""-'" --' .. "'""

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    \X"'5/-IINGTON UN I VE l ~TY I N ST L OUIS CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Master's and Docto r al Programs ;< -::;;;;;r. A-

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    U NIVER S ITY OF N EBR AS K A C HE M I CA L E N GIN E E R IN G a OFFERING G RAD UATE S T UOY AND RESEA RCH IN: For Applic a t ion i n d l nfo r mllion: Dr.LuhC.T&0,ChairmanofChemica l Engi ,,.,.,,ing 22 6 Av ery H all Un;veroityof Neb raska Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO M.S. 1 ndPh.D G,1du 1 t e Studi &S inCh e miu lEngin ee ring ch ,,,., .,G,odu,1,c-,,._ Dopl afChomK,l,ndNud .. ... ; ... ,;._ n..u no , .,...,af N ow-> A lbuq _q .. ,N,w""i>l1 131

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    UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH : -~ --:: ~-- :. .. ~-~ ~R l ::I c,,..... .. ..................... __ ,_,_ ... ___ Princeton University M.U AND Ph.D. PROGRAMS IN CHEMICAi. ENGJNEEIING

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    C2!!eell's Umvers1ty Kmgston,Ontano,Canada Graduate Studies in Chemical Engineering M Scondil't,D~!'rop...,. I H Clo, PhOl"'-l I C0Uo90J 1.Lc..lo l1,DIC.,noll) J D,_l ~l'h(l~"o) ~ l."""" """fW-lool -... l'Ml/1, W O,-l'h.0.0.-'ol Wr i t e, c,.,_-,A._ --~ ci.-,-.... --~U NIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND GRADUATE STUDY IN CHEMI C AL EN G INEERING M .S.a ndPh D .D.g -CI.IRREliTAKEA S Ol' l /(TEHv.sTBio<--;:: ~ = =-J/.urial.E ~ ........... .-... P .... C ...... KH-,T,_f., IJ'PlYT0,-...0,-~ 0.--of-~ -...,o1-...w-i ..._,llotUl

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    Chemical Engineering at Stanford e CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT State University of New York at Buffalo ... ... -.,.,_ [~ ::".:....-:s=:it~ ""'=::. i:E':--E ---------=--=.. ="'=" ====~i:~E::~~ c_a._c_ .. __ .,c_.,_ .... _...,., _, _ _

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    UNWE RSITY OF VIRGINIA -~--------~----~-, ,__ ... ____ _ __ ____ ... ---... ~........... ______ ....... __ --~------~---WASHINGTON S T ATE UN IVER S ITY

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    WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC I NST I TUTE CHEMICAL ENGINEER I NG DEPARTME NT C.,~ua l eitudy...>d ~Kh ~..ting to lheM .S.~nd Ph.D.drg,_ UNIVERSI T Y OF WYOMING ---~--,o.1o.otS ----

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    DEl' A fl T i\lE i\1/ 1' OF CMEi\ ll CA L E N GI N EERI NG Josiah Willard Gibb@ P h[).~;ngin....,.ring 1 863 You? PhD-Engin....,.ring 1 98? YA L E UN I VERS I TY THI UNOVUSITY Of lllTl5H COIUM .. ~~;;;z= lilim--~-, ... ,,w, '"""'"""""'---; --s.,,., ....... .. ... ,, .,.,1.,_, .,_ o,.,..,,...;,.,.,...of ..,,~ ...... .. ,,,.,...;.,,,,.._.,. "''"""""" S"';:;:'~

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