Chemical engineering education

http://cee.che.ufl.edu/ ( Journal Site )
MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
Chemical engineering education
Alternate Title:
CEE
Abbreviated Title:
Chem. eng. educ.
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 22-28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
American Society for Engineering Education -- Chemical Engineering Division
Publisher:
Chemical Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education
Place of Publication:
Storrs, Conn
Publication Date:
Frequency:
quarterly[1962-]
annual[ former 1960-1961]
quarterly
regular

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Chemical engineering -- Study and teaching -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
periodical   ( marcgt )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
Chemical abstracts
Additional Physical Form:
Also issued online.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
1960-June 1964 ; v. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1965)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Publication suspended briefly: issue designated v. 1, no. 4 (June 1966) published Nov. 1967.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
Place of publication varies: Rochester, N.Y., 1965-1967; Gainesville, Fla., 1968-

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 01151209
lccn - 70013732
issn - 0009-2479
Classification:
lcc - TP165 .C18
ddc - 660/.2/071
System ID:
AA00000383:00073

Full Text















chemial enginern e







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PROCTER & GAMBLE
AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY EMPLOYER











EDITORIAL AND BUSINESS ADDRESS
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Florida
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Chemical Engineering Education


VOLUME XVI


NUMBER 1


WINTER 1982


2 The Educator
Joe Martin of Michigan, Jerome S. Schultz

6 Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Cincinnati, Stanley Cosgrove,
David Greenberg, Robert Delcamp,
Robert Lemlich, William Licht

Design
12 ,awaid J.ectwae: Design Research-
Both Theory and Strategy,
Arthur W. Westerberg

26 Goals of an Undergraduate Plant Design
Course, William D. Baasel
30 Development and Critique of the
Contemporary Senior Design Course,
Vincent W. Uhl

34 The Chemical Engineering Process Design
Sequence of Virginia Tech . and a
New Perspective, J. Peter Clark

38 An Experiential Design Course in Groups,
E. Dendy Sloan

Classroom
IS Thermodynamics of Running,
Alan L. Myers

Feature
44 Career Planning and Motivation Through
an Imaginary Company Format,
Donald R. Woods, David W. Lawson,
Carol Goodrow, Ronald A. Romeo

Class and Home Problems
24 The Dolphin Problem, Octave Levenspiel

29, 43 Book Reviews

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION is published quarterly by Chemical
Engineering Division, American Society for Engineering Education. The publication
is edited at the Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida. Second-class
postage is paid at Gainesville, Florida, and at DeLeon Springs, Florida. Correspondence
regarding editorial matter, circulation and changes of address should be addressed
to the Editor at Gainesville, Florida 32611. Advertising rates and information are
available from the advertising representatives. Plates and other advertising material
may be sent directly to the printer: E. O. Painter Printing Co., P. O. Box 877,
DeLeon Springs, Florida 32028. Subscription rate U.S., Canada, and Mexico is $15 per
year, $10 per year mailed to members of AIChE and of the ChE Division of ASEE.
Bulk subscription rates to ChE faculty on request. Write for prices on individual
back copies. Copyright 1982 Chemical Engineering Division of American Society
for Engineering Education. The statements and opinions expressed in this periodical.
are those of the writers and not necessarily those of the ChE Division of the ASEE
which body assumes no responsibility for them. Defective copies replaced if notified
within 120 days.
The International Organization for Standardization has assigned the code US ISSN
0009-2479 for the identification of this periodical.


WINTER 1982










educator


ae Maitot


j Mhichifaa

... Puooesd o and PAoJedotonal...

JEROME S. SCHULTZ
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, MI 48109

JOSEPH J. MARTIN has established himself as
one of the best known and universally admired
faculty members in chemical engineering. He re-
ceived his B.S. from Iowa State University in
1939, and worked with the Eastman Kodak
Company for the next two years. Subsequently,
he was awarded an M.S. from the University of
Rochester in 1944, and obtained his D.Sc. from
Carnegie Mellon University in 1948; he was an
instructor in chemical engineering at both of these
institutions. Coming to the Department of Chemi-
cal Engineering at the University of Michigan in
1947 as an Assistant Professor, he was promoted
to Professor in 1956, and has also held a joint ap-
pointment as Associate Director of the Institute
of Science and Technology since 1965.
Joe Martin's contributions to chemical engi-
neering have been so pervasive and extensive over
the last 40 years that few, except for the new
generation of chemical engineers, could not be fully
aware of their impact. Yet, it has been for the
current and future generations of engineers that
his efforts have been targeted. Joe has taken on
the mission of developing the framework for the
maturation of engineering in general, and chemi-
cal engineering in particular, into a profession


He has developed a unique
pedagogical approach for teaching
thermodynamics in which he prepared a
notebook and slide presentation with each of its
200 panels presenting the essentials of
one aspect of thermodynamics.
This methodology has gained
wide acceptance...


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


that takes a responsible leadership in the applica-
tion of technology to societal needs.
His has been a multifaceted approach,
spanning the dimensions of teaching, research, and
professional organizations.
For many of the 3000 + students who have
graduated from the Department of Chemical
Engineering at the University of Michigan during
his tenure on the faculty, his direct influence has
been in the classroom and particularly in that
abstract and somewhat esoteric field of human
invention known as thermodynamics. Joe sees
thermodynamics as one of the major intellectual
achievements of mankind, in that for all its highly
mathematical conceptual basis it concisely sum-
marizes much of the characteristics of the real
world. Joe is a master at bringing this realization
to undergraduates and graduates alike, along with
an ability to apply these principles effectively. He
has developed a unique pedagogical approach for
teaching thermodynamics in which he prepared
a notebook and slide presentation with each of
its 200 panels presenting the essentials of one
aspect of thermodynamics. This methodology has
gained wide acceptance in the chemical engineer-
ing community and has been made available by
AIChE to large numbers of faculty and students
throughout the country. Here, he has combined
his insight into the logic of thermodynamics and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


~L3~X










his extraordinary ability as a teacher to set forth
the various equations and principles of thermo-
dynamics in a clear, concise, and readily assimi-
lated fashion.
Students recognized Professor Martin's gift
of teaching effectiveness nearly thirty years ago
by giving him the Phi Lambda Upsilon Teaching
Award, and this ability has even been enhanced
by time. For example, one student recently said,
"He is eloquent, not dry and technical. Philo-
sophical interjections provided day-to-day ap-
plications and considerations," and another re-
ported "Professor Martin is a very, very excellent
teacher in a most difficult course. He explained
the tough course matter in a manner which was
easy for the student to grasp and like. He made
it interesting."
Joe's love and appreciation for thermo-
dynamics has been constant and unwavering over
four decades even though the fashionability of
the discipline has gone through cycles. Recent
world-wide political developments and the realiza-
tion of the very high economic value of energy has
catapulted thermodynamics (or as Joe puts it, the
"science of energy") back into the center stage of
relevant technology.
Joe and his students have devoted many
arduous years obtaining precise thermodynamic
data of substances so as to provide the testing
ground for the "Holy Grail" of thermodynamics
-a General Equation of State. Of his more than
100 publications, nearly a third have been related
to this effort. Not one to be distracted when he
has decided on a goal or a challenge, Joe has
tenaciously battered, chipped, and molded, as a
sculptor converts a marble stone into a work of
art, to express the refinements and essence of
thermodynamics in an aesthetically pleasing equa-
tion of state. Much of this effort has been capped
in a recent paper with the disarmingly simple title
"Cubic Equations of State-Which?" (IEC Fund.
18, 81, 1979).
Joe has always coined charming and interest-
ing titles such as his famous "Antidisestablish-
mentarianism" (CEP 68, 19, 1972) and "When
Is a Man Half a Horse?" (CEE 13, No. 2, 73,
1979).
Always prolific in technical writing, October,
1981, marked his latest publication; a small
book sporting a 'maize & blue' cover entitled,
"Unified Approach to Series and Integrals of
Orthogonal Functions." This is directed in par-


ticular toward an advanced study in mathe-
matics.
We would not want to leave the impression
that Joe has been single-minded in his pursuit of
science. That would omit the other two-thirds
of his contributions, which may be overshadowed
by his achievement in thermodynamics but in
their own right were significant landmarks in
other disciplines. For example, recognition of
Joe's pioneering work in radiation chemistry led
to his election as Chairman of the Division of
Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of the
American Chemical Society (1962) and also to
the Chairmanship of the Nuclear Engineering


.W
Joe Martin with students A
Farran and Diane Delonnay.


Division of the AIChE (1962).
This high level of achievement in teaching,
writing, and research, has provided the base of
Joe's other long time commitment-the improve-
ment of the professional status of engineering.
Simultaneously with his technical activities, Joe
has dedicated himself to service to his profession.
He has volunteered his services and energies to
professional societies, which when taken together,
compromise a "Who's Who" of Engineering. He
has been president of AIChE (1971), president
of Engineer's Joint Council (1973-75), president
of ASEE (1978), and was founder and first
chairman of the Association for Cooperation in
Engineering (1975-78). It is through the ACE
that his goal of a unified voice for engineering is
finally coming to fruition. A very visible result
of Joe's efforts is this journal, CEE, which came
into being during Joe's tenure in ASEE. He has


WINTER 1982










... a profession does not exist in a vacuum-but derives its meaning, value, and goals
through both its responsiveness to needs of society and its influence on the direction of society.
Being an engineer carries with it a serious responsibility which must be met in a considered,
thoughtful manner by the engineers who are developing the new technologies...


also served on the Engineers Council for Profes-
sional Development (1973-80), and is currently
chairman of the Education and Accreditation
Committee of the AIChE.
He was given an Honorary D.Sc. degree from
the University of Nebraska in 1971 and received
the Founders Award of the AIChE in 1973.
Why this selfless dedication to his profession?
Well, perhaps it is best to quote Joe himself on
this-"We have an unusual collection of talent in
our memberships, drawn from industry, govern-
ment, and education, and are capable of directing
it in a relevant manner for the best interests of
the individual, the specific group, and the nation
as a whole. Thus, a profession does not exist in a
vacuum-but derives its meaning, value, and goals
Ell-.
"-Ai~4


". .obtaining precise thermodynamic data of sub-
stances .."


through both its responsiveness to needs of society
and its influence on the direction of society. Being
an engineer carries with it a serious responsibility
which must be met in a considered, thoughtful
manner by the engineers who are developing the
new technologies if these advances are to play a
positive role in our society." Quoting from his
Phillips Lecture entitled, "No Engineer Can Serve
Two Masters-or Can He?" "My contention is
that more is generally accomplished by bringing
people together than by pulling them apart. The
intervenors who seek to attain their goals, no
matter how worthy, through divisive techniques
are far less likely of eventual overall success.
Their efforts to pit engineers against their em-
ployers are based on an asserted advantage to the
public, but this is dubious."
In these times when there has been an awaken-
ing of the need for better university/industry co-
operation, it is remarkable that Joe has been a
catalyst in this area for the last fifteen years.
About half of Joe's University appointment during
this period has been in the Institute of Science
and Technology of the University of Michigan.
As Associate Director of IST, (and Acting Di-
rector from '78 to '81), he has led an effort to
bring industry and university leaders together in
conferences, workshops, and study groups. More
than twenty-five "state of the art" monographs
have resulted, ranging in topics from the highly
technical "Data Processing Fundamentals" to the
more prosaic "Vacation Housing." Through Pro-
fessor Martin's work in IST, he has been an
integral part of research at the U of M and
serves on special committees in the Office of the
Vice-President for Research and is a member of
the Executive Committee of Macromolecular Re-
search Center.
Those who know Professor Martin well are
aware that just as he is synonymous to thermo-
dynamics, so too is he to tennis; he approaches
this recreational game with the diligence and
aggressiveness mostly accredited to professional
tennis players.
Born in Iowa and raised in Omaha, Nebraska,
at the young age of 12, Joe acquired his affinity
for the sport from his father, Joseph Wesley


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Martin, a school teacher and an avid tennis player.
Joe took the game seriously and was on the
Varsity Tennis Team at the University of
Rochester, followed by competitive playing for
over 35 years in the Ann Arbor City and Uni-
versity Faculty Tournaments. Having been in
the finals many times, as recently as August,
1978, he won the "Ann Arbor Men's Singles-Over
40" title against contenders 22 years his junior.
The newspapers aptly dubbed him "King of the
Court!"
Although Professor Martin belongs to three
tennis clubs, he says he enjoys playing at the Uni-
versity of Michigan Track and Tennis Building
"best" because of the "fast-action" of the wood
boards.
Arriving at the office in East Engineering
Building at 7:30 a.m. every morning and always
being punctual for classes and meetings, he begins
his busy schedule, deftly arranging (sometimes
almost surreptitiously) sufficient time in the day
-for tennis. Playing with colleagues and students
during noon hours, or just practicing on the back-
boards for an hour or two is an essential part of
his day.
An inveterate traveler, logging some 30,000
miles/year during the height of his involvement
in society work, he never leaves home without a
tennis racquet in hand-nearly always having pre-
planned a game or two over the phone or by letter
before the trip. But if not, he quickly negotiates


Joe Martin's contributions to
cher.ical engineering have been so pervasive over
the past 40 years that few, except for the
new generation ... could not be fully
aware of their impact.


one when he arrives, since he has "tennis
friends" everywhere in the country.
Last fall, Joe required surgery to replace his
right hip joint. One of his concerns was, "Was
this going to bring his playing of the game he
loved so much-to an end?" Fortunately that is
not the case; now, even though he plays "just
doubles," he is back on the courts. A 6' 4" charis-
ma-endowed player, agile at 64, and using his
great power of concentration, he is still competi-
tive; but most of all "happy" to be playing tennis
again, one of his first loves!
Together with the weight and extent of Joe
Martin's professional responsibilities, he has in-


volved himself in community service and has
been a dedicated family man. Mrs. Martin (Terry)
has traveled far and wide with Professor Martin
and has always been his strong supporter. The


".. he never leaves home without a tennis racquet
in hand . ."

Martins' children are all out of the "nest." The
youngest, Jon, just graduated from Wisconsin at
Madison and is now living and working in Texas.
Joe Jr. and Judy both live and work in the San
Francisco area while Jacque lives near Ann Arbor
with her husband, Ed, and two children,
Stephanie and Teddy.
Diplomatic, astute, skilled lecturer, inter-
national authority, Joe gives the impression that
all these remarkable traits and accomplishments
have "just happened" as a matter of course, for
his is an unhurried manner, an almost unbe-
lievable controlled "ease," and a sincere concern
for his fellow man. It is clear that this outstand-
ing educator and this grand gentleman lives his
life by the Golden Rule.
Indeed, the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering at the University of Michigan is ex-
tremely proud and deeply honored to count Joseph
J. Martin as one of its members. 1]


WINTER 1982
































m department


UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI


STANLEY COSGROVE (Editor),
DAVID GREENBERG, ROBERT' DELCAMP,
ROBERT LEMLICH, WILLIAM LIGHT
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, OH 45221

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING IS one of ten engineer-
ing programs administered by six departments
within UC's College of Engineering. We share a
proud history as a municipal university dating
back to 1819. By tradition and location it was, and
still is an urban university, situated about four
miles from the city center on a compact hilly
campus adjoining Burnet Woods. Located in the
southwest corner of Ohio, UC has strong ties with
contiguous areas of both Indiana and Kentucky.
During the post World War II expansion era, it
grew in size and diversity, and as a State affiliated
university derived a progressively increasing
amount of its revenues from state funds. In 1977
this transition to a State University was completed
and UC, along with Ohio State University is now


one of Ohio's two "Comprehensive Universities."
Total student enrollments (including about 16,000
part-time students) are close to 40,000, of which
about 3000 are in engineering. Undergraduate
students in chemical engineering number about
400; graduate students about 60.
While the first instruction in engineering
(civil) was offered as early as 1875, 1906 is the
date of major historical significance. In September
of that year, young Dean Herman Schneider
initiated the first co-op engineering program with
12 ME, 12 EE and 3 ChE students. This co-op
work experience soon became mandatory-it still
is 75 years later.
In its formative years, and until the 1960's,
the College of Engineering functioned as a self-
sufficient unit of the University. Its instructional
periods (terms) were much shorter than the tra-
ditional semesters of the College of Arts and
Sciences, and engineering students had no instruc-
tional contact with fellow students in other
Colleges. This period of relative isolation ended in
1963 when most units of the University changed
to a common quarter system.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982









DEPARTMENT HISTORY
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AT Cincinnati has a
long and notable history. The department is
an outgrowth of courses given in the Chemistry
Department prior to 1921. In that year Dean
Schneider appointed Reuben S. Tour as the first
Head of a Department of Chemical Engineering.
Tour, who had extensive experience in process
development during and after World War I, had
been a student of A. H. White at Michigan. He
may therefore be regarded as belonging to the
second generation of "fathers" of Chemical Engi-
neering Education in the U.S.
The five-year co-op program which he started
led to the baccalaureate degree of Chemical Engi-
neer in recognition of the industrial experience
involved. The curriculum was on the first list of
those accredited by the AIChE in 1925, and this
accreditation has been maintained since that date.
Graduate study for the PhD was offered as early
as 1933.
In order for all of the co-op programs to pro-
vide for the required periods of industrial employ-
ment alternating with those of academic study, it
was necessary to operate the college on a different
calendar than the rest of the university. Tour thus
had to provide not only a faculty of chemical engi-
neering, but also a faculty in the department to
teach all chemistry courses for all engineering
students. In the late twenties two metallurgy pro-
fessors were added. The college also had its own
Department of Mathematics and Mechanics.
From the beginning, therefore, the program was
a well-integrated blend of basic science and engi-
neering with a strong mathematical background.
Thus conceived on what proved to be sound
and enduring principles, the department
flourished. It survived the Great Depression and
World War II intact, although both student body
and faculty were reduced during those periods.
After the war, Metallurgical Engineering began
to grow independently, first as an option and
later as a degree program of its own. In 1947
the name of the department was changed to Chemi-
cal and Metallurgical Engineering.
Tour died rather suddenly in 1952 and was
succeeded as Head by William Licht, a Cincinnati
graduate. He served until 1967, during which
period important evolutionary changes occurred.
The co-op calendar was gradually modified until
finally the entire university adopted a uniform
quarter calendar. This opened up greater oppor-


tunities for engineering students through course
work in other colleges, in particular chemistry and
humanistic social courses. Graduate programs in
Materials Science and in Nuclear Engineering
developed and grew until in the mid-60's the de-
partment was administering degrees in four fields.
In 1967 a separate Department of Metallurgical
Engineering and Materials Science was created
and the original department was renamed Chemi-
cal and Nuclear Engineering. Thus another era
came to an end.
James H. Leonard, a chemical engineering
alumnus with a doctorate in nuclear engineering,
succeeded William Licht as Head of the depart-
ment. He served until 1973, during which time


Engineering (Rhodes Hall)


two significant events occurred. In 1970, the de-
partment moved from the facilities it had oc-
cupied in the Chemistry Building for nearly 50
years to a consolidated engineering complex in
new Rhodes Hall-a building designated as "The
Industrial Research Laboratory of the Year" by
Industrial Research magazine. These well-
designed and equipped quarters provided needed
physical facilities to support the academic and
research activities of the department. In 1971, a
baccalaureate degree program in nuclear engineer-
ing was established to complement the ongoing
graduate level program.
David B. Greenberg, most recently a faculty
member at LSU, became the fourth Head of the
department at the inception of the nationwide en-
rollment explosion in engineering colleges. During
his headship term, the undergraduate enroll-


WINTER 1982



































High Bay; Distillation Column


ment nearly doubled to more than 400, and the
graduate population increased by fifty percent
to over 60 students.* The annual award of 75-80
ChE and 15-20 BS NE degrees during the past
several years represents a high water mark in the
history of the department.

DEPARTMENTAL FACILITIES
THE DEPARTMENT, HOUSED primarily in an
award winning facility, is unusually well en-
dowed with a broad spectrum of laboratories,
equipment, and instruments for both teaching and
research.
Among these special academic facilities are a
high bay area lab which houses a 14-plate com-
puter-controlled glass distillation column, and a
variety of other experimental apparatus for unit
operations and transport studies. Significant
among these are unique two-phase flow and
mercury-loop heat transfer systems; both are
under the research direction of Dr. Weisman. In
addition to this large facility there are over 20

*Dave Greenberg has relinquished the headship position
as of October 1981, in order to devote his full efforts to
teaching and research. The department is currently search-
ing for a new Head.


other smaller graduate research and teaching
laboratories. Included in this group are labora-
tories for the study of high-temperature, high-
pressure kinetics and catalysis, foam and bubble
fractionation (Dr. Lemlich), biomedical, bio-
engineering, polymer chemistry and physics (Dr.
Fried), and an unusual laser irradiation facility
for chemical, biochemical, biological, and bio-
medical research under the direction of Dr.
Greenberg. The department also has an analytical
services laboratory, as well as electronics and ma-
chine shop support.
Various other industrial and government
laboratories in the community are available, such
as those at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineer-
ing Center, the National Environmental Research
Center of the Environmental Protection Agency,
the Ohio River Division of the Corps of Engi-
neers, and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation
Commission.
Finally, in connection with the department's
unique graduate co-op program, tailored to the
particular needs of individual projects, participat-
ing companies often provide key educational and
research facilities for joint industry, student, and
faculty use.


THE UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM

N THE TRADITION OF all engineering programs
at the University of Cincinnati, chemical engi-
neering has been a five-year cooperative edu-
cational program since its inception. Co-op ex-
perience is considered a vital educational com-
ponent of the program and is required of all
students. Under the current quarter system, there
are 12 quarters of on-campus study and up to
seven quarters of related co-op experience (i.e.,
Professional Practice). Following the three study
quarters of the freshman year, a student may elect
to commence professional practice and acquire a
maximum of seven quarters of co-op experience,
or delay entrance until midway of the sophomore
year and participate in the standard six quarters.
Professional Practice is completed by the end of
the fourth year, and all students are in school for
the three quarters of the senior year.
During the latter half of the 1970's, under-
graduate enrollment doubled to about 400, result-
ing in excessively large classes in the upper years.
Current freshman admission has been deliberately
reduced, resulting in the present class of 85 of
the best qualified applicants. Nearly 40% come


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








from the greater Cincinnati area and 60% of
the rest from other sections of Ohio, with ap-
proximately one-third being women and/or
minorities. UC's widely known co-op program
attracts students from the majority of midwestern
and eastern states, and from beyond.
The curriculum is continually reviewed and
undergoes periodic revision. The most recent re-
vision was put into effect in the fall of 1979 and
stipulates a minimum of 201 quarter credit hours.
The Cincinnati curriculum has traditionally placed
emphasis on a strong background in mathematics,
basic sciences and engineering sciences, followed
by rigorous chemical engineering theory and
practice. The faculty relies heavily on the co-op
experience that each student receives to supple-
ment courses in engineering practice. The fresh-
men year consists of calculus, chemistry, physics
and English. Additional chemistry and the engi-
neering sciences, humanities and social sciences
are scheduled throughout the remaining nine
quarters. The student takes the first chemical


Departmental Laboratory


engineering course (material and energy
balances) in the second half of the sophomore
year. The remaining chemical engineering course
work in thermodynamics, transport phenomena,
equilibrium processes, reaction engineering, pro-
cess dynamics and ChE systems follows in a
logical sequence, integrated with meaningful
laboratory work. The curriculum culminates with
the design project in the senior year. Technical
options account for 40% of the senior year cur-


riculum and allow the student the opportunity to
pursue course work related to career interests,
including preparation for graduate study, which is
strongly endorsed and encouraged by the faculty.
The co-op assignments provide immeasurable
assistance in helping students develop a mature

In 1970, the department moved ... to
a consolidated engineering complex in new Rhodes
Hall-a building designated as "The Industrial
Research Laboratory of the Year" ...

attitude and meaningful career objectives. In
addition, an insight into the profession of chemi-
cal engineering is gained through an active student
chapter of AIChE with strong support from the
local (Ohio Valley) section of AIChE. Women
students also participate in a student chapter of
SWE. The total five-year program at Cincinnati
provides a unique opportunity for a student to
acquire not only a sound education but also
knowledge of the career path that will best suit
his or her interests. This knowledge has led ap-
proximately 30% of recent graduates to accept
employment with their last co-op employer. It is
gratifying that many have risen rapidly to re-
sponsible technical or management positions. A
program of Distinguished Alumni Awards, initi-
ated in 1969, recognizes annually those graduated
who have had outstanding professional careers.

THE GRADUATE PROGRAM
THE GRADUATE STUDENT body in chemical engi-
neering currently numbers about 45 full-time
MS/PhD candidates and 20 or 30 part-time even-
ing students taking individual courses. An MS
degree may also be obtained through evening work
only, with a non-thesis option available only to
students who are employed professionals.
Approximately half of the current full-time
students are foreign nationals from India, Taiwan,
Pakistan, Viet Nam, Iran, Indonesia and Latin
America-truly a cosmopolitan group. Among
the U.S. students, four are classed as being in
minority groups. There are six full-time and
several part-time women students.
There is also a selected group of non-
traditional students who do not have BS degrees
in ChE. Most of them are chemists; a few are
from other fields of science or mathematics. Each
of them completes an individually tailored pro-
gram of undergraduate engineering courses for


WINTER 1982









In the tradition of all engineering programs at the University of Cincinnati, chemical
engineering has been a five-year cooperative educational program since its inception. Co-op experience
is considered a vital educational component of the program . required of all students.


about one full year (including a recently insti-
tuted "Elements of Chemical Engineering for non
ChE majors" course), before being granted full
acceptance into the graduate degree program. Ex-
perience indicates that most of those will make
a satisfactory transition into engineering.
In recent years 3-4 PhD's and 15-20 MS de-
gree have been awarded each year. The current
trends seem to be upward, especially because of
success with the non-traditional students
mentioned above.
Financial support to students is available
in the form of University scholarships and as-
sistantships, industrial grants, and endowed
funds. Several very attractive Fellowships are
available because of generous unrestricted support
from Procter & Gamble, Exxon, DuPont, Mon-
santo and other companies. In addition there is a
type of graduate co-op program involving in-
dustrially sponsored specific research projects.
These have included arrangements with
Richardson-Merrell, Atlas, PPI, and Procter &
Gamble among others.

FACULTY AND RESEARCH
Stanley Cosgrove (D. Phil. Oxford University);
research interests in the area of engineering ap-
plications of polymers: stabilization and de-
stabilization, radiation effects and hazardous
waste stabilization.
Robert Delcamp (M.A., Ph.D., University of
Cincinnati); administrative posts have included
Assistant, Associate and Acting Dean of the
College; research interests in industrial organic
chemistry with special emphasis on microbiologi-
cal processes.
Joel R. Fried (B.S., M.E., RPI; M.S., Ph.D.,
University of Massachusetts); research interests
in the study of polymer blends.
Rakesh Govind (B.Tech., Indian Institute of
Technology (Kanpur) ; M.S. (ChE), Ph.D.,
Carnegie Mellon University); research interests
in the area of process synthesis and control.
David Greenberg (Carnegie Tech, The Johns
Hopkins University, and Louisiana State Uni-
versity) ; current research interests include laser
chemical, biochemical, biological and biomedical


studies; active research in the conservation and
environmental fields with interests in solar
energy, storage projects and membrane transfer
studies.
Daniel Hershey (B.S., Cooper Union; Ph.D.,
University of Tennessee) ; current interests are
in gerontology, concentrating on research in basal
metabolism, entropy, and life expectancy as re-
lated to dieters, smokers and joggers, and to aging
systems such as corporations and civilizations.
Yuen-Koh Kao (BSChE, National Taiwan Uni-
versity; M.S., Ph.D., Northwestern University);
research interests are in the general area of
mathematical analysis of chemical engineering
problems and current research areas are digital
process control, transition boiling heat transfer,
transport phenomena of electrochemical systems,
and heat transfer problems of catalytic reactors.
Soon-Jai Khang (B.E., Yon Sei University in
Korea; M.S., Ph.D., Oregon State University);
research interests are primarily in the area of
chemical reaction engineering, including hetero-
geneous catalysis and mixing and flow patterns.
Robert Lemlich (BChE, New York University;
MChE, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn; Ph.D.,
University of Cincinnati) ; research interests are
primarily in the area of foam separation and
properties.
William Licht (Ch.E., M.S., Ph.D., University
of Cincinnati); Department Head; 1952-1967.
Since 1967 he has devoted efforts to the field of
air pollution control, which culminated in 1980
with the publication of a book "Air Pollution
Control Engineering-Basic Calculations in Par-
ticular Collections."
Joel Weisman (BChE, City College of New
York; MS, Columbia University; PhD, University
of Pittsburgh); research has been in the areas
of nuclear reactor thermal design and safety,
boiling heat transfer, and two-phase flow.
Despite some pessimistic predictions for engi-
neering education in the '80's, we enter this
decade with strong feelings of optimism. We look
back with pride, and to the future with the con-
viction that chemical engineering at Cincinnati
will prosper in a University and industrial com-
munity which are both highly supportive of our
efforts. 0


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION






"Can a new plastic

be produced efficiently? It's

up tome to decide."
Mark Carlson BS, Chemical Engineering

"This kind of decision-
making is a great responsibility.
At Du Pont I have the freedom to
do whatever testing is necessary
to make accurate judgements.
"Working with plastics was
my chief interest at the South
Dakota School of Mines and
Technology. I interviewed with
Du Pont because its strength in
the field matched my interests.
"I started work at the
Parkersburg, West Virginia, site
on process development for
DELRIN. Then I worked on the
engineering of a color develop-
ment facility. My present assign-
ment is compounding glass,
mineral and rubber reinforced
plastics.
"All this calls for initiative
and gets me into design activities
with the marketing people.That's
the great thing about Du Pont.
You use a lot more than just your
engineering."
If you want to develop all
your talents-whether you're a
ChE, ME or EE-see the Du Pont
Representative when he's on cam-
pus. Or write Du Pont Company,
Room 37798, Wilmington,
DE 19898.
At DuPont...there's a
world of things you can
do something about.





An Equal Opportunity Employer, M/F.










4wa4d .2lec&.e


DESIGN RESEARCH

Both Theory and Strategy


The 1981 ASEE Chemical Engineering Di-
vision Lecturer is Arthur W. Westerberg of
Carnegie-Mellon University. The 3M Company
provides the financial support for this annual
lecture award.
A native of Minnesota, Art received his B.Sc.
from the University of Minnesota in 1960, his
M.Sc. from Princeton in 1961 (both in chemical
engineering), and his Ph.D. in 1964 from Im-
perial College, London.
Returning to Minnesota, he was president of
a consulting company for nine months before
joining Control Data Corporation as a senior
analyst in their process control division. In 1967
an interest in teaching and research drew him to
academia and he joined the chemical engineering
department at the University of Florida.
In 1974-75, he spent a sabbatical at the Com-
puter Aided Design Centre in Cambridge,
England, at which time he coauthored Process
Flowsheeting, a unique book devoted to elucidat-
ing the underlying structures and their advant-
ages for available and proposed flowsheeting pro-
grams.
In 1976 Art joined Carnegie-Mellon Uni-
versity where he served as director of the Design
Research Center until becoming head of the
chemical engineering department in 1980.
In research, his publications emphasize optimi-
zation and synthesis in computer-aided design.
Recent work includes developing a multileveled
decomposition strategy to permit an optimization
algorithm to be useful for engineering design
calculations, the development of a new flowsheet-
ing system, and a new approach for estimating
minimum utility requirements.
He was on the CACHE Committee from its in-
ception in 1970 until last year, and was program
chairman for the ChE Division of ASEE Annual
Conference in 1979. He gave the first invited
"Tutorial Lecture" in 1978 at the Vancouver
ASEE meeting and has authored several articles
for CEE.


ARTHUR W. WESTERBERG
Carnegie-Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

T HIS PRESENTATION is an opportunity to be
philosophical about design, an opportunity not
to be missed. The ideas to be given here are my
version of ideas generated both in my own work
and during several lively discussions with James
Douglas (University of Massachusetts) and Bodo
Linnhoff (Imperial Chemical Industries).
Design research is often narrowly viewed to
be research to develop theory supporting compu-
tational methods useful for performing design
calculations. The methods might be new con-
vergence techniques, better stiff ODE integration
methods, new optimization algorithms particu-
larly well suited for systems of interconnected
units, and so forth. Even the relatively new area
of process synthesis is frequently viewed as
solvable by using similar ideas, but perhaps using
techniques which allow for a number of the vari-
ables to take on only discrete values.
The significant questions relating to synthesis
were aptly stated by Simon (1969) and are further
amplified in Motard and Westerberg (1978).
They are 1) how does one represent the alterna-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









tive configurations permitted when developing a
design, 2) how does one establish a value for each
alternative so as to identify which are the better
ones, and 3) how does one search among the
enormous number of alternatives one is certain
to create.
The guidelines we wish to state here speak
principally to the third issue and partly to the
second. We hope to show that powerful guidelines
do exist which can be used to solve most open
ended design problems directly or which can be
used to design and evaluate aids and strategies
which will be useful for solving such problems.
We conjecture that these guidelines can be
taught; we (I. Grossmann and the author) at-
tempt to do just that in our undergraduate and
graduate design classes. We hope also to con-
vince the reader that this aspect of design re-
search is a valid contribution but one frequently
avoided or understated when presenting new
results.

THE GUIDELINES
W E OFFER THE FOLLOWING five guidelines to use
when solving design problems.
1) Evolve from simple to complex
2) Use a depth-first approach
3) Develop approximate criteria either as targets or
heuristics for screening among alternatives
4) Use "top down" design techniques alternatively with
"bottom up" ones.
5) All things being equal, make optimistic assumptions.
We shall now explain each of these ideas in
more detail and then, for the rest of the paper,
examine their application to several examples. If
the guidelines are true, then one should be able to
use them to design a means to demonstrate their
own validity; i.e., the ideas should be recursive.

Evolve from Simple to Complex
All earlier calculations for a design should be
done using simple calculations even if one knows
them to be quantitatively incorrect. The earlier
calculations are for learning about the design
qualitatively. Many of the major decisions can be
made obvious by use of approximate calculations
only. Hardly anyone experienced in design violates
this guideline for long in practice, but when they
do, failure to complete the needed calculations fre-
quently results.
An obvious example is to prepare an outline
to a research paper before writing it.


Douglas ... conjectures that 99% of
all initial design concepts will prove to be
technologically or economically unsatisfactory ...
The correct mindset... is to try to prove
concepts will not work.


Use a Depth-First Approach
This guideline suggests one should go directly
for a first feasible solution to the problem at hand,
based on a sequence of best local decisions. One
should avoid the tendency to backtrack at any
point prior to finding an initial complete solution
to the problem. (Outline the whole report.)
The reasoning is as follows. The initial design
is an enormously effective learning device; it gives
the designer his first glimpse as to the steps which
are easy and to those which are the important
difficulties to be encountered in the problem, with
perhaps some difficulties being insurmountable. In
this latter case, the design can be abandoned
with minimal work expended.
"Depth first" is a term used to search a tree
of decisions. It is a search strategy in opposition
to "breadth first" searching. Breadth first allows
backtracking prior to completing the first design
if earlier decisions no longer appear to be likely
winners.
To repeat this guideline-generally avoid back-
tracking. Go as quickly as possible to the first
potential solution.
These first two guidelines permeate the recent
publications by Douglas as well as the lecture notes
for our own undergraduate design course.

Develop Approximate Criteria
One reason the design question is difficult to
deal with is that design is caught in a dilemma.
The final criteria used to assess the value of a
design (if the criteria can be stated) cannot be
evaluated without having in hand a completed
design. Thus one must make initial decisions
which one can only hope will result in solutions
that are a good compromise with respect to the
final criteria. To carry out the initial design,
alternative approximate criteria must of necessity
be used. Often these are in the form of heuristics.
At other times they can be locally realizable
targets.
A significant research contribution can be the
discovery of effective approximate criteria, as we
shall see has occurred in the synthesis of heat ex-


WINTER 1982









changer networks. The targets themselves may be
considered the initial simple calculations needed
for the earlier design stages. Linnhoff, in his re-
search publications, is a vociferous advocate of
target setting.

Use Top Down/Bottom Up Design Alternatively
Top down and bottom up design are forms
used to describe how to design computer pro-
grams. The former, top down, refers to starting
at the highest level with the overall goal of the
design. This goal is then partitioned into subgoals,
which, if solved, will accomplish the higher goal.
These subgoals are then each treated as the top
level goals to be further partitioned, etc., until
lowest level subgoals are discovered which can be
implemented without further partitioning.
Bottom up design is to design first the lowest
level building blocks which one assumes will be

Design research is often narrowly
viewed to be research to develop theory
supporting computational methods useful for
performing design calculations.

necessary to accomplish the design. In computer
programming, writing a linear equation solving
subroutine first would be part of a bottom up
strategy for designing a nonlinear equation solv-
ing package, where one assumes such a subroutine
will be needed.
What is being advocated here is to use the two
strategies alternatively. The top down strategy
should be used to scope out the alternatives in
terms of high level tasks needed to solve the de-
sign. Once set, then bottom up design should be
used to locate bottom level subtasks which will pre-
clude a solution. Thus they will, for minimal effort,
rule out an alternative suggested by top down
design. To solve a bottom level subtask requires
guessing the environment for the bottom level
subtask.

Be Optimistic
Douglas (1979) conjectures that 99%o of all
initial design concepts will prove to be techno-
logically or economically unsatisfactory-i.e.,
they will fail as concepts. The correct mindset, and
one a designer usually fails to have, is to try to
prove concepts will not work.
When attempting to use bottom up design to
rule out design concepts, one should use optimistic

14


guesses as to the environment for the bottom
level task. If the task cannot succeed when being
optimistic, then the failure to do the task can be
used to rule out the top down concept requiring
it. If one uses conservative guesses, and the bottom
level task proves difficult, it may be because of the
use of an overly conservative set of guesses as to
the task environment, and thus one would be un-
able to use its behavior to rule out the concept.

A corollary to the above guidelines is that one
should use the information learned from the
original solution to move to subsequent improved
solutions, using in one form or another a learning
or evolutionary approach.
A second corollary to the above guidelines is
that computer aided process design programs
which do not cater to them will be significantly
less useful than those which do.
The design problem is one of searching an
enormous space of alternatives to select the correct
building blocks and their interconnection, as well
as also searching the space of continuous variables
to establish the levels at which to operate any
given structure. The guidelines are consistent
with the following specific search strategy.
1) Select a limited technology within which to solve
the problem.
2) Using heuristics sketch a good initial solution from
within the allowed technology.
3) Examine this solution and develop alternative solu-
tions by revising within the allowed technology or
within a modified allowed set of technology, where
the initial solution suggests the allowed set modifica-
tions. Iterate from Step 2 until a "best" solution is
found.
4) Repeat Steps 2 and 3 using more complete models.
The guidelines also support the following specific
strategy.
1) Select a limited technology within which to solve
the problem.
2) Within this technology set up a superstructure within
which is embedded all the alternatives of interest.
Use heuristics to eliminate obviously useless portions
of the superstructure as it is being developed.
3) Use algorithmic methods to discover the best sub-
structure from among the alternatives embedded
in the superstructure.
4) Examine the solution and develop modifications to
the allowed technology within which to search.
5) Return to Step 3 until no improvements are possible.
6) Iterate Steps 2 to 5 with more complete models.
(Steps 3 and 4 can be very mathematical, giving
rise to the development and use of sophisticated
theorems, and thus perhaps satisfying many


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









persons that quality abounds in the results.)
The advantage to this last approach is that
parallel decisions are made in Step 3 so in a sense
an optimal solution is found, but it is found by
looking among a rather small set of alternatives.
Fallible heuristics are used only to make the more
riskfree problem reductions.
The sequential aspects to the approach are to
learn which technological alternatives ought to
be in the superstructure and to solve initially
using simple models to get closer to the final solu-
tion before starting to do complex calculations.

EXAMPLES
WE SHALL NOW DESCRIBE four example "design"
problems to illustrate the effectiveness of the
guidelines.

An Entire Chemical Process
The first example is to scope out a process to
hydrolyze ethylene (EL) to ethyl alcohol (EA)
via the reaction at 560 k and 70 atm
CH2 = CH2 + HO -> CHsCHOH
or
EL + W -> EA
The available ethylene feed contains one mole
percent methane (M) and three mole percent
propylene (PL). Propylene also hydrolyzes to iso-
propyl alcohol (IPA) but to a lesser extent at the
given reactor conditions. Croton aldehyde (CA),
a C, aldehyde, forms as a trace byproduct. Diethyl
ether (DEE) forms in equilibrium with water
and ethyl alcohol:
2CH3CHiOH-CH3CH,0CHCH3 + H20
or
EA DEE + W
Conversion of the ethylene is from 5 to 7%, with
water in significant excess in the reactor feed.
Skipping lightly over many details, we start
our design by scoping out the process using a top
down view, getting at least the three structures
illustrated in Fig. 1.
Remembering that the strategy being advo-
cated suggests striking out for a completed design
without backtracking, we must select one of these
sketches (or a variant) ; we use a bottom up de-
sign technique to rule out alternatives. We look for
reasons a concept will likely fail and do a quick
bottom level calculation to validate our con-
jecture, guessing the most optimistic environment


SEtOH(190 PROOF)
W






* EtOH(190 PROOF)
W







.EtOH(190 PROOF)
WATER


FIGURE 1. Top Down Sketches for
Alcohol Process.


Ethylene to Ethyl


we can for that calculation.
The first two variants in Fig. 1 look as if they
might fail because of the extremely low tempera-
tures which may be required if we were to use
distillation to effect the initial separation step. We
need only a Mollier diagram for ethylene to see
that at P < Pc = 50.7 atm, the highest tempera-
ture possible at the top of an ethylene/propylene
column is OoC. Refrigeration would be required,
and, as an approximate criterion, we rule out
using refrigeration if possible. The third option,
if volatilities are examined, could be implemented
to remove the methane and propylene by recycl-
ing them back with the ethylene to the reactor.
Since methane is an inert here, it would build up
and could be removed by bleeding it. The propy-
lene will both convert to iso-propyl alcohol and
be lost in part in the bleed. Finally comparing
boiling points for water, iso-propyl alcohol, and
the azeotope of water and ethyl alcohol suggests
this separation is possible. All other separations
look rather straightforward. We adopt option 3.
An automatic synthesis program for develop-
ing total flowsheets should be able to come quickly
to this same result. If not, it must be working too
hard. Remember this flowsheet is not purported
to be the best one, only a good first one from


WINTER 1982









which we intend to learn about the process so
our second guess as to the solution is done with
much improved insight.

Separation System Synthesis

The second process example we shall look at is
separation system synthesis. We have an obvious
candidate in our previous example, the separation
of methane, propylene, ethylene, diethyl ether,
ethyl alcohol, water, iso-propyl alcohol and croton
aldehyde into the product ethyl alcohol, a recycle of
ethylene, diethyl ether and water, and the by-
products of methane, propylene, iso-propyl alcohol
and croton aldehyde. The separation step of the
third option in Figure 1 illustrates the problem.
Note the feed to that step is vapor at high pres-
sure and the recycle is also a vapor which needs
to be returned at high pressure.
The strategy we now look at will be the first
one stated earlier, one we claim is consistent
with the guidelines given:

1) Select a technology within which to solve the problem.
2) Using heuristics, sketch a good candidate solution.
Evaluate it.
3) Examine the solution and develop alternate solutions
by revising within the allowed technology or by
adding new technology.

If we were trying to develop our earlier flowsheet
fully, we would likely skip Step 3 above because it
represents backtracking. If, on the other hand,
the separation problem is our entire design
problem, Step 3 is a refinement step, one that
follows our having a first complete solution.
Fig. 2 sketches a possible solution to the above
separation problem using distillation technology.


RECYCLE AND BLEED
M
EL
PL
DEE DEE
ER DEE -- ---
ItpRl EA ER ----
IPR --
CA W


RECYCLE


-. R


ECYCLE


IPA W--
IPR
CR A


FIGURE 2. First Sketch for Separation System.

The heuristics used are ranked in order of im-
,portance and are a paraphrase and subset of those
in Seader and Westerberg (1977). For the next
separation


1) do the easy split or
2) remove the most bountiful component or
3) remove the most volatile component.

The split between diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol
can be done easily; do it first. The recycle can
tolerate methane and propylene so let them re-
cycle, but then remove methane using a bleed
stream. Go after the water which is plentiful






C









1HI CI

FIGURE 3. Highly Heat Integrated Distillation Scheme




Using Multiple Effect Columns.


next but, using heuristic 3 also, split above it to
remove the ethyl alcohol. Finally split off the
water from IPA and CA.
At this point let us consider the separation
problem as the whole problem we are solving. For
this problem Mark Andrecovich, a Ph.D. student
of mine, is discovering that the second strategy
stated earlier, where one creates a sequence of
superstructures to be optimized, seems to be very
effective. Figure 3 illustrates the solution found
to a 3 component separation using this approach.
It is 11o less expensive than all obvious com-
petitors on an annualized cost basis which con-
siders both investment and operating costs. Note
the complexity of this structure. The research
question is to establish a means to locate it
quickly. 0


EDITOR'S NOTE: The final two examples in this Award
Lecture, and Professor Westerberg's concluding remarks
will appear in the Spring '82 issue of Chemical Engineer-
ing Education.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Why Engineers

who start with General Foods

stay with General Foods

Chemical, Mechanical, Agricultural, Electrical,
Industrial Engineers: Opportunity knocks.


America's leading proces-
sor of packaged grocery
products knows: people are
what make a company
great. And make it grow!
Right now, we're look-
ing for good people.
Who is
General Foods?
You've known us all
your life.
We're MAXWELL HOUSE,
SANKA, POST' Cereals,
JELL-O! BIRDS EYE,
TANG; SHAKE 'N BAKE,
GAINES" household
words you grew up with.
We're 70,000 employees
strong. In more than
100 locations around the
.world.
What our
Engineers do.
They are the "leading
edge'of our continuing
growth and profitability.
Some go into research
finding new sources of
nutrition. And new forms
for familiar foods that


people can afford. Others
develop new food
processes, or improve exist-
ing ones.
We need plant engineers.
Production engineers.
Engineers for facilities plan-
ning. For energy conser-
vation and environmental
control.
Then, many of our
engineers go into corpo-
rate management.


Loyalty works
two ways.
Engineers who start with
us stay with us because
our range of career paths
gives you a choice! There's
movement between our
various groups according to
your interests and abilities.
Plus we have a highly-
competitive compensation
and benefits plans
programs.
But most important,
General Foods rewards
good people with chal-
lenge, experience and
growth because that's what
makes us grow.
Contact your Placement
office or write to: Technical
Careers Dept. CE-81
General Foods Corporation
250 North Street
White Plains, New York
10650


GENERALFOOB
General Foods Corporation
An Equal Opportunity Employer. M/F/Hc


WINTER 1982


rlP~-











ll classroom


THERMODYNAMICS OF RUNNING


ALAN L. MYERS
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

T TEXTBOOKS ON THERMODYNAMICS for chemical
engineers contain numerous examples of the
application of the first and second laws. These in-
clude chemical reaction, refrigeration, lique-
faction, compression of gases, various power
cycles (Brayton, Otto, Rankine), pipe flow and
throttling. Recently chemical engineers have be-
come interested in bioengineering. Therefore it
is useful to add to this list an application to a
biological system. Several problems suitable for
classroom discussion are provided.

DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF RUNNING

P HYSIOLOGICAL WORK PERFORMED during aerobic
running is an excellent example of a biological
process which can be analyzed thermodynamically
in the same manner as other power cycles. In
running, each step or stride constitutes a cycle.


Alan L. Myers did his under-
graduate work at the University
of Cincinnati after three years
in the U.S. Navy during the
Korean War. He obtained his
Ph.D. at the University of Cali-
'X32 fornia at Berkeley in 1964 and
then joined the faculty at the
University of Pennsylvania. His
research specialties lie in
thermodynamics and statistical
mechanics, particularly ad-
sorption and electrolyte solu-
tions. Other interests include
Russian language and litera-
ture, and also long-distance
running. Alan runs several
miles each day and has com-
peted in many races, including
the 1981 New York City Mara-
thon.


The average velocity v of running, which is as-
sumed to continue for several minutes or more
until a steady state is achieved, is given by:
v = Lv (1)
where L is the length of a single stride and v is
the frequency with which the feet strike the
ground. This frequency is analogous to the rpm
of the drive shaft of a mechanical engine. The
mechanical power of running is:

Pmech WintV (2)
Wint is the internal work done by the muscles of
the body during a single stride or cycle.
Both L and v are functions of the velocity
and other variables such as the mass (M) and
height (H) of the runner. A biomechanical
model of running sufficiently realistic for the
numerical calculation of work would be very
complicated, but some of the important dimension-
less groups are identified as:

L length of stride
H height
= dimensionless stride
v inertial force
VgH gravitational force
= dimensionless velocity
W* = Wint
MgL
work/(unit distance)(unit mass)
acceleration of gravity
dimensionlesss work
The relation between stride (L*) and
velocity (v*) was established by experiments on
a track. Most of the subjects were sophomore
students in chemical engineering at the University
of Pennsylvania, but the points plotted on Fig. 1
include measurements for children and middle-
aged adults, males and females, champion athletes
and non-athletes with builds ranging from slim to
overweight. For each point, subjects ran one lap
(400 m) at a steady pace measured by a stop-
watch and L was determined by counting steps.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982











1.0 -


H
0.6 -

0. -
WALKING RUNNING
0.2 -

0 02 0.4 0.6 0B 10 12 14 1.6 1.8

FIGURE 1. Length of stride dimensionlesss) as a
function of velocity dimensionlesss).

The solid line drawn on Fig. 1 is the function
L* (v*). The average deviation between the points
and the curve is 2 %. This scatter is due to a com-
bination of experimental error and the neglect
of other variables which might affect the stride
such as body proportion, obesity and training.
Fig. 1 indicates that the length of the stride
L increases with velocity until it is equal to the
height H of the runner. After that, it is necessary
to increase the frequency v to run faster as shown
by Eqn. (1). More experimental points are needed
to establish this apparent leveling-off in the
length of the stride. However, the portion of the
curve above v* = 1.4 corresponds to sprint races
less than one mile in distance and does not apply
to the aerobic running under discussion. Fig. 1
also shows that the functions L* (v*) for walking
and running form a single, continuous curve, al-
though this was not expected because the me-
chanics of walking and running are different.
For v* < 1.4, the solid line of Fig. 1 is nearly
linear:
L* = (0.238) + (0.594)v*


Example 1. Calculate the stride length and fre-
quency for a person running at a speed of 15
km/hr. The mass of the person is 75 kg and the
height is 1.8 m.
Using MKS units, the velocity is 4.17 m/s.

v* = v/VgH = (4.17) /(9.8) (1.8) = 0.99
L* 0.83 (from Fig. 1)
L = (L*)H = (0.83) (1.8) = 1.49m
v = v/L = (4.17) / (1.49) = 2.80 s-1


... the internal work done by the
muscles is identified as the sum of three terms:
work of overcoming gravity... work against
inertial forces while accelerating, and
work to overcome wind resistance ...


WORK DONE BY MUSCLES DURING RUNNING
W ORK PERFORMED BY THE muscles cannot be
measured directly because it is done in-
ternally. An analogy with an automobile operated
on level terrain is useful. For a car the mechanical
work supplied by the engine is equal to the product
of the torque transmitted to the drive shaft and
its angular displacement. If the entire automobile
is taken as the thermodynamic system, the work
performed by the engine and transmitted to the
wheels through the drive shaft is performed in-
ternally. This work is the sum of three terms:
work against the drag force exerted by the wind,
work to accelerate the car, and work performed
to overcome rolling friction of the tires. The sum
of these three terms is equal to the work done
internally by the engine. Returning to the human
body, work is performed internally by the
muscles. Since the body is the thermodynamic
system, the internal work done by the muscles
(Wint) is identified as the sum of three terms:
work of overcoming gravity (the body bobs up
and down while running on level terrain), work
against inertial forces while accelerating, and
work to overcome wind resistance:

Wint = AEk + AEp + Wwind (3)
Increases in kinetic (AEk) and potential
(AE,) energy are periodic, occurring once each
stride, whereas work against wind resistance
(Wwind) is steady. For running on level terrain
at steady state, the time-averaged change in
kinetic and potential energy is zero. The periodic
increases in kinetic and potential energy are
supplied by muscle work. Each time the foot
strikes the running surface, there is a force
against the ground but no displacement if the
surface is firm. However, the body decelerates
while the foot is touching the ground, and muscle
work must be performed to restore the lost kinetic
energy. Also, the center of gravity of the body
falls a few centimeters with each stride, and again
muscle work is required to regain the lost po-
tential energy.
The kinetic and potential energy terms in


WINTER 1982









Eqn. (3) are the periodic increases which occur
with each stride. What happens to the correspond-
ing decreases in kinetic and potential energy?
Once more an analogy with a car is helpful. If
the car accelerates from 50 to 55 mph, the ad-
ditional work required by the engine is equal to
the increase in kinetic energy of the car. If the
car then brakes from 55 to 50 mph, the kinetic
energy decrease is dissipated as heat by the brakes
and there is no work done by the engine against
inertial forces until the next acceleration. The
human body maintains a constant average velocity
but there are periodic accelerations and decelera-
tions at the frequency with which the feet strike
the ground. The center of gravity rises and falls
at the same frequency. The periodic decreases in
kinetic and potential energy are dissipated as heat
to the surroundings.

Physiological work performed during
aerobic running is an excellent example of
a biological process which can be analyzed
thermodynamically in the same manner
as other power cycles.


FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

T HE FIRST LAW OF thermodynamics for aerobic
running at steady state on level ground is:
AH = Q Wwind (4)
The control volume for the first law is the body
as a whole and the only work term is against wind
resistance. Wwind is the work done by the body
against the constant drag force imposed by the
wind, which is self-generated by the motion of
the body even in still air. It is assumed that the
true wind velocity is zero, so that the wind
velocity relative to the runner is equal to his aver-
age velocity v (see Appendix). The muscle work
is performed internally and therefore does not
appear in Eqn. (4). The periodic changes in
kinetic and potential energy vanish for running
on level terrain at steady state.
AH is the exothermic heat of reaction for the
combustion of foodstuffs stored in the body. For
example, for glucose:
C6H120 + 60, = 6CO, + 6HO0 (5)
the heat of combustion is:
AH- = -AH = 670 kcal/mole = 3.7 kcal/g
For running on a treadmill there is no wind re-
sistance and the work term in Eqn. (4) is zero.


In this case, the value of AH is equal to the heat
transferred from the body to the surroundings
(Q is negative). Thus all of the energy derived
from food is eventually dissipated as heat to the
surroundings.
The heat of combustion is calculated indirectly
from the measured oxygen consumption. A
respiration calorimeter is used to measure the rate
of oxygen uptake by the lungs. According to the
stoichiometry of Eqn. (5), the heat of combustion
of glucose is 5 calories per milliliter of oxygen
(STP). The heat of combustion of fatty acids is
4.5 calories per milliliter of oxygen. An inter-
mediate value of 4.8 calories per milliliter is used
by physiologists [10] to relate oxygen consumption
to the heat of combustion of foodstuffs.
The energy generated by the combustion of
carbohydrates and fats is dissipated as heat from
the body to the surroundings by several mechan-
isms: conduction and convection, radiation,
evaporation of water from the skin, and respira-
tion. The relative importance of these different
modes of heat transfer depends upon a number of
factors such as amount of clothing, the tempera-
ture difference between the body and the surround-
ings, the humidity, etc. Nevertheless the total
heat loss is given by the first law, Eqn. (4).

Example 2. In a five-minute treadmill test, a
person with a mass of 65 kg consumes 14.5 liters
of oxygen (STP) while running at maximum
speed. Estimate the heat loss assuming steady
state.
From Eqn. (4):

=-AH =4.8 cal )(14,500 ml) kcal
ml k 103 cal
= 69.6 kcal
The specific maximum rate of oxygen consumption
is a measure of running ability because it is pro-
portional to the power-to-mass ratio of the person.
Values range from 30 ml/kg-min for below-aver-
age capability, to 60 for athletes and as high as
70 ml/kg-min for marathon runners [4]. For this
example,

Max. oxygen capacity = (14,500 ml)
(65 kg) (5 min)
= 44.6 ml/kg-min
This is a typical value for an average person of
age 25.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

T HE PROCESS OF RUNNING is essentially iso-
thermal. The muscle cells are the engines that
transform chemical energy into mechanical
energy. The second law of thermodynamics states
that the maximum work which can be derived
from the oxidative reaction by the muscles is given
by the decrease in Gibbs free energy:

Wint = -AG = -(AH TAS)
The maximum work is for a reversible process,
so the actual irreversible work Wint performed
by the muscles must be less than (-AG). The
thermodynamic efficiency of running is:
Wint
(-AG)

and the second law requires that E<1. Although AS
is large for Eqn. (5), the product TAS is much
smaller than AH and in practice the efficiency is
defined by:

Wint
e = An (6)
AHc
This efficiency can be determined by independent
measurements of mechanical work and heat of
combustion. The overall efficiency defined this
way is 29% [10]. It is the product of two values
of efficiency, one for the synthesis of ATP (60%)
[8] and another for the performance of positive
muscle work by contraction associated with
hydrolysis of ATP (49%) [10]. This overall
efficiency of 29% for converting chemical energy
into mechanical work is comparable to the
efficiency for producing electricity in commercial
power plants by combustion of fossil fuels (30
to 40%).

DIMENSIONLESS WORK OF RUNNING

S INCE THE DIMENSIONLESS stride L* is a function
of dimensionless velocity v*, there should be a
relation between the dimensionless work and v*.
The positive internal work per stride is given by
Eqn. (3). The instantaneous kinetic energy of
the body is:
M
Ek = V2
2
The differential of Ek is:


The process of running is essentially isothermal.
The muscle cells are the engines that transform
chemical energy into mechanical energy.

The increase in kinetic energy for each stride can
be estimated from the increase in velocity:
AEk = MvAv (7)
This can be measured with an accelerometer,
which is used to find the impulse imparted to it
by the foot and thus the increase in momentum
MAv. The increase in potential energy with each
stride is:
AE, = MgAz (8)
where Az is the increase in elevation of the body's
center of gravity above the running surface,
which can be measured using high-speed
photography. For the special case of running
on a treadmill, the wind resistance is zero and
substitution of Eqns. (7) and (8) into (3) yields
the muscle work performed by the body per stride:

Wint = MvAv + MgAz (9)
In non-dimensional form, Eqn. (9) becomes:


W* Wint VAV + LA
MgL g L


(10)


Example 3. The person described in Example 1
ran on a treadmill at a steady speed of 15 km/hr.
The stride length was 1.49 meters and the fre-
quency was 2.80 strides per second. Measure-
ments with an accelerometer and high-speed
photography indicated that the increase in eleva-
tion of the center of gravity of the body was Az =
6.6 cm, and the increase in velocity with each
stride was Av = 0.79 km/hr. What is the me-
chanical power expended and what is the dimen-
sionless work of running at this velocity?
Using MKS units, the velocity is 4.17 m/s and
Av = 0.219 m/s.
Wint = MvAv + MgAz
= (75) (4.17) (0.219) + (75) (9.8) (0.066)
= 117 J/stride
P = Wintv = (117) (2.80) =328watts
= mechanical power

S Av + Az (2.80) (0.219) +(0.066)
g L (9.8) (1.49)


dE = Mvdv = 0.107
dEt = Mvdv


WINTER 1982









MECHANICAL POWER AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE

THE DIMENSIONLESS WORK OF running (W* =
0.107) calculated in Example 3 is for a par-
ticular velocity. Since L* is a function of v*, it
was anticipated that W* would also be a function
of v*. Surprisingly, experiments have shown
[2, 5] that the kinetic energy term in Eqn. (10)
increases with velocity and the potential energy
term decreases with velocity such that the sum of
both terms is nearly constant. Thus it is a good
approximation to assume that the dimensionless
mechanical work of running is a constant, inde-
pendent of velocity:


W* = 0.107 = constant


Substituting Eqn. (11) into (2) :
Pmech = Wint v = W*MgV


(11)


(12)


According to Eqn. (6), the rate of energy con-
sumption derived from oxidation of carbohydrates
and fats is:
dE W*Mgv
dt (13)
where W* = 0.107 and e = 0.29. Eqns. (9) (13)
apply to running on a treadmill for which there
is no work against wind resistance. As shown in
the Appendix, the mechanical power necessary to
overcome self-generated wind resistance is:

Pmeeh = Cdp3MH (14)

where Cd = drag coefficient of the body = 0.50,
pa = density of surrounding air, and pb = density
of body 1000 kg/m3. Therefore the total me-
chanical power required for running in still air
is given by the sum of Eqns. (12) and (14) :

Pmech = W*MgV + 2 CdaV M (15)
Vr r Pb
The total energy expenditure of running is ob-
tained by dividing the mechanical work by the
efficiency (29%).
Another interesting variable is the total
energy expenditure per unit distance:

E Wnt W*Mg + 2 CdpaV2 MH
L Le E V e 16 Pb
(16)
Eqn. (16) shows that the energy expenditure of
running (per unit distance) versus velocity is the
equation of a parabola with its vertex at v = 0,


I00

80-


.90 VA
80
70
60


20-


5 10 15 20
Velocity km/hr


25 30


FIGURE 2. Net energy cost for running (less resting
metabolism) for adult human.

as shown on Fig. 2. Eqn. (16) is in good agree-
ment with data reported in the literature [6].

Example 4. For the person described in Example
1, calculate the mechanical power and the total
energy expenditure for running at a velocity of
15 km/hr.
The mechanical power is given by Eqn. (15). For
MKS units:

Pmech = (0.107) (75) (9.8) (4.17)

+ (0.5) (1.184) (4.17) (75) (1.8)
Vir 1000
= 346 w.
The energy expenditure per unit distance is given
by Eqn. (16) or by:
E Wint Pmech (346)
L Le ve (4.17) (0.29)
= 286 J/m
or in more familiar units:

E 6 J I kcal I 103m
L= 286m 4184 J \ kmI
= 68.4 kcal/km = 110 kcal/mile

In summary, it has been shown how con-
ventional methods of thermodynamic analysis
may be applied to a living system. The example
has been simplified and it is worthwhile to point
out some of the refinements which might be intro-
duced. Other variables such as body proportion
and training affect the mechanical motion and
the thermodynamic efficiency. Other modes of
internal work could be considered, such as basal


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


, I I I










metabolism and the work performed by the lungs
(according to Comroe [3] the power expenditure
of the lungs is about 20 watts during running).
Fig. 1 and Eqn. (16) are for the case of running
at steady state on a hard, flat surface with no
wind except that generated by the motion of the
runner. Running on hills requires more work be-
cause the energy expended climbing a hill is only
partially recovered while running downhill.
Running against a headwind or running on a
spongy surface like wet sand would increase the
work of running and alter the stride as well.

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS

In addition to Examples 1-4, there are several
interesting thermodynamic problems which can
be assigned to enable students to evaluate their
own performance during aerobic running:

PROBLEM 1. Plot the energy expenditure of running per
unit distance for yourself in units of kcal/
mile versus velocity.
Ans. Eqn. (16) applies. Fig. 2 is a plot of this equa-
tion for several values of mass.

PROBLEM 2. It is sometimes said that it is cheaper to
go by foot than by car. Examine this as-
sumption by comparing the fuel cost (food)
for running with the fuel cost for traveling
by car (one passenger), for equal distances.
Ans. The cost of food prepared at home is about ten
times the cost of gasoline on the basis of equal
mass. Assuming reasonable mileages of 5 miles
per pound of gasoline (car) and 20 miles per
pound of food (person), the cost of running a
given distance is more than twice the cost of
traveling by car. Of course this calculation
ignores capital investment.

PROBLEM 3. Determine the length of your stride and its
frequency as a function of velocity for
running.
Ans. The result can be estimated using Fig. 1 (see
Example 1) and checked by timing the velocity
and counting the steps on a measured distance.

PROBLEM 4. What is your mechanical power require-
ment for running, in units of watts as a
function of speed?
Ans. Eqn. (15) applies.

PROBLEM 5. How far must you run at the reasonable
jogging speed of one mile in eight minutes
to trim off one pound of fat? The heat of
combustion of fat is 9 kcal/g.


... it has been shown how conventional
methods of thermodynamic analysis may be
applied to a living system. The example has
been simplified and it is worthwhile to
point out some of the refinements
which might be introduced.


Ans. The energy cost per unit distance is given by
Eqn. (16). The required distance is about 40
miles for a person of 70 kg mass.

PROBLEM 6. Calculate your power-to-mass ratio for
running in units of ml of oxygen (STP) per
kilogram per minute. First find your maxi-
mum velocity for aerobic running by find-
ing how far you can run in 12 minutes.
This is the Cooper fitness test. Find the
mechanical power for running at this
velocity using Eqn. (15) and divide this
power by the efficiency (0.29) to obtain the
rate of combustion. Divide again by your
body mass and then calculate your maxi-
mum oxygen capacity using the equivalency
of 4.8 calories per ml of oxygen.
Ans. See Example 2 for a brief discussion of oxygen
capacity.

PROBLEM 7. The dimensionless energy expenditure for
aerobic running is
W*/e= (0.107)/(0.29)= 0.37
Compare this figure to that for a compact
car.
Ans. For a 1000 kg compact car which uses 6 liters of
gasoline per 100 km, the dimensionless energy
expenditure is 0.2 (heat of combustion of gaso-
line=11 kcal/g) or about half the value for
running. For a larger car the dimensionless
energy expenditure (0.3 to 0.4) is about the same
as for running.

REFERENCES
1. Abbott, B. C., B. Bigland and J. M. Ritchie, "The
Physiological Cost of Negative Work," J. Physiol. 117,
380 (1952).
2. Cavagna, G. A., F. P. Saibene and R. Margaria, "Me-
chanical Work in Running," J. Appl. Physiol. 19, 249
(1964).
3. Comroe, J. H., Jr., Physiology of Respiration, Year
Book Medical Publications, Inc., 35 E. Wacker Drive,
Chicago, Illinois (1965).
4. Costill, D. L., "Physiology of Marathon Running,"
JAMA 221, 1024 (1972).
5. Fenn, W. O., "Work Against Gravity and Work due
to Velocity Changes in Running," Am. J. Physiol.
93, 433 (1930).
Continued on page 48.


WINTER 1982










LII class and home problems


The object of this column is to enhance our readers' collection of interesting and novel problems in
Chemical Engineering. Problems of the type that can be used to motivate the student by presenting a
particular principle in class or in a new light or that can be assigned as a novel home problem are re-
quested as well as those that are more traditional in nature that elucidate difficult concepts. Please sub-
mit them to Professor H. Scot Fogler, ChE Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.



THE DOLPHIN PROBLEM


OCTAVE LEVENSPIEL
Oregon State University
Corvallis, OR 97331

W HALES, DOLPHINS AND PORPOISES are able to
maintain surprisingly high body tempera-
tures even though they are immersed continuously
in cold, cold water. As can be seen from Figure 1,
the extremities of these animals (tails, fins,
flukes) have a large surface to volume ratio, and
a large portion of the heat loss occurs there. Now
an ordinary engineering junior designing a
dolphin from first principles would probably view
the heat loss from a flipper somewhat as shown
in Figure 2.
Let us suppose that blood at 40C enters the
flipper at 0.3 kg/s, feeds the flipper, is cooled
somewhat, and then returns to the main part of
the body. The dolphin swims in 4C water, the
overall heat transfer coefficient is 100 cal/s-m2.K
and the area of the flipper is 3 m2.

a) At what temperature does the blood reenter the
main part of the body of the dolphin?
Frankly, an ordinary engineer (which you
obviously are not) would design a lousy dolphin.
Let's try to do better; in fact, let us try to learn
from nature. Let us see if we can reduce some of
the undesirable heat loss by transferring heat


FIGURE 1


Tw 4C


FIGURE 2


from the outgoing warm arterial blood to the
cooled venous blood. Such a scheme is idealized as
shown in Figure 3. Assume for this internal ex-
changer B that
AB = 2 m2


UB = 150 cal/s*m'*K


b) With this extra exchanger find T3, the tempera-
ture of blood returning to the main part of the body;
and, in addition, the fraction of original heat loss which
is saved. Approximate the properties of blood by
water.
NOTE: Heat conservation of this sort, by having
arteries and veins closely paralleling each other,
in counterflow, is one of nature's clever tricks.

SOLUTION
a) Flipper alone
First, a plot of temperature of blood and
water on a q vs T diagram (see Figure 4) gives
straight lines meaning that the log mean AT is
the proper driving force for this process. A heat
balance then gives
(heat lost by blood) = (heat transfer rate)
In symbols


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION





















FIGURE 4


Octave Levenspiel, professor at OSU, is primarily interested in
problems of chemical reactors. He has written a text on this subject,
and has won the ASEE Lectureship Award for his early visions in
this field. His weakness for scientific curiosities has led to flirtations
with 4-colorologers, 2nd law repealers, Fibonacciics, boomerologists,
topolographers, and other such. He is also 1975 president of the
Northwest Neothermo Society.




mC, (T.-T,) = UA (T- T) (T T) (i)
STo T

Rearranging gives
/UA \
Tf = T, + (To- T,) exp- --
\ mCp/
and on replacing values

Tf = 4 + 36e-1 = 170C (a)

b) Flipper Plus Exchanger

Here we must make heat balances about both
units to solve for the unknown temperatures
T1, T2 and T,. So for the internal exchanger B
we have


heat lost h
by hot =
blood
In symbols


( heat
gained by =
cold blood


heat
transfer
rate


T,= 4-C


)=40C arterial T,
warm
venous cool
T3 T2 )


internal countercurrent
heat exchanger, 8

FIGURE 3


7T -- ----
idealized
flipper,A


mCp (To-Ti) = mCp (Ta -T2)
I II


+ flipper





-I-----,






= [UAATZm]B
I11


For the flipper alone, i.e. exchanger A, we obtain,
as with Eq. (i)


mCp (T, T5) = UA (T1-Tw)-(T2-Tw)
n T T
T2 T.


(iii)


Solving (ii) and (iii) simultaneously gives the
unknown temperatures T1, T. and Ts. All else is
known. The first step in this solution is to com-
bine I and II to give
40-Ts= T1-T2 =AT

This expression shows that the driving force is
the same at both ends of the internal exchanger
B. Consequently we should use the arithmetic AT,
not the log mean AT in Eq. (ii). This fact is
shown in the q vs T diagram of Fig. 4. The rest is
straightforward, giving
For Eq. (i): 40 T1 = T T2 = T1 T

For Eq. (ii) : In T- 1
T2-4
From which


Ti = 260C,


T2 = 120C,


Ta = 26C


This modification represents a heat savings of
26 17
40-17 39% (b)
40 17


EDITOR'S NOTE: Professor Levenspiel's problem state-
ment was published in the 1981 fall issue of CEE. At that
time we issued an invitation to our student readers to sub-
mit solutions. We congratulate Mike Glass, Washington
Univ. (St. Louis) who has submitted the first correct
solution and in so doing has won a subscription to CEE.


WINTER 1982


TC


I i


)I









n


GOALS OF AN

UNDERGRADUATE PLANT DESIGN COURSE*


WILLIAM D. BAASEL
Ohio University
Athens, OH 45701

PLANT DESIGN IS A PROCESS involving many
different aspects, all of which are critical if
a profitable product is to be produced. The purpose
of an undergraduate chemical engineering plant
design course is to acquaint the student with all
the myriad aspects of the design process and to
give them a feel for process design and its evalu-
ation. It is important in this course to illustrate
the difference between the scientific approach and
engineering approach to a problem. The scientist
will tell you what additional studies must be done
or information obtained before an answer can
be obtained. The engineer will, from a paucity of
data, give an approximate answer and then tell
you what must be done to improve upon it or
verify it. It is also important to show that there
are many adequate designs for any given product.
Usually it will never be known which design is
best since only one plant will be built and the engi-
neers will do whatever is necessary to make it
work. This is the place to wean the student from
the concept that every problem has one and only
one right answer. In fact some accreditors have
insinuated that the essential difference between
analysis and design is the difference between
single answer and multiple answer problems.
The design course at Ohio lasts two quarters
(20 weeks) and is a four hour credit course (each
quarter). Most of that time is spent on the pre-


The purpose of an undergraduate
chemical engineering plant design course
is to acquaint the student with all the myriad
aspects of the design process and to give them a
feel for process design ... it is important in this
course to illustrate the difference between
the scientific approach and engineering
approach to a problem.


*Paper presented at the 1979 Annual Conference of ASEE.


liminary chemical engineering plant design of a
specific process. The remainder is spent on short
design problems and economics.
Each year a different process is selected. I
always choose a process which the class will be
permitted to visit and have an opportunity to
discuss with practicing engineers. It is at this
meeting with those intimately familiar with the
process that the student can have answered all
the questions I could not answer in class. (I do
not pose as an expert on the plant being designed.
However, because I know the process of design
and it is that process that I want them to learn, I
am qualified to teach the course.) Here they can
ask whether some design variation they have pro-
posed is likely to work. Often, whether it will
work or not depends on trace quantities of ma-
terial which may precipitate at those conditions,
or on whether an acid may be formed. These are
things which a designer may fail to consider and
which require process modification after startup.
They are the things the university instructor
cannot be expected to be familiar with and which
often do not appear in the literature. This is
what makes design an art.
The capacity I choose for the students' design
is usually the same as the nominal capacity of the
plant we will visit. This allows them to visually
compare their calculated results with actual ones
when the plant trip occurs. The benefits of this
type of feedback are great. A person must be
present during the plant tour to appreciate it.
Since the students will design only one type of
plant, the plant trip is expanded into a three day
event and we visit an average of six facilities. To
prepare the students for this trip each of these
plants is discussed from a process design stand-
point prior to the visit. The trip, besides being
educational, is also fun, promotes class cohesion
and provides a needed break in a very rough
quarter. The plant trip is a required portion of
the course and one hour of credit is given for it.
The only information given to the class about


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION


designg
























William D. Baasel is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at Ohio
University. His Bachelor's and Master's degrees were obtained from
Northwestern University and his Doctorate from Cornell University.
He is the author of "Preliminary Chemical Engineering Plant Design,"
Elsevier, 1976. He is currently Chairman of the Chemical Engineering
Division of ASEE. He had a Ford Foundation Residency at the Dow
Chemical Company and spent 1978-80 with the United States En-
vironmental Protection Agency.

the plant they will design is the product, the type
of process to be used, and the nominal capacity
of the plant. Everything else must be obtained
from a search of the literature by the students.
(Prior to the first class period I place on reserve
all books related to the process which are available
in the library. This gives all groups equal access
to the volumes.) This brings the student into
direct contact with the literature they will need
in the future and it points out that finding in-
formation is often more difficult than performing
calculations. As a result they learn that they can
obtain estimates even when critical data are
missing; very valuable experience because they
will need to do this in the real world. My ex-
perience at both Dow and EPA is that many times
the engineer will be called upon to obtain answers
with no more information than the average
student group obtains from the literature.
The students work in groups of three. Nearly
every week they complete a written group report
on a portion of the design. The sequence repeated
below follows the chapters of my text [1] and
their reports are similar to those presented there
in the case study:
Background Report on the Process (2 weeks allowed)
Site Selection
Scope
Unit Ratio Material Balance and Flow Diagram
Major Equipment Specifications
Plant Layout
Instrumentation
Energy Balance and Pumping Sizing


Energy Equipment Sizing and Manpower
Requirements
Pollution Abatement Equipment Sizing
Cost Estimation
Economic Evaluation
The plant trip usually takes place around the
time of the instrumentation report. Ideally it
would be a week or two later but a plant trip
in mid or late November may encounter bad
weather and safety considerations rule against it
taking place then.
Working together in groups is a valuable
experience for the students. This is one of the
few times where their grade is very dependent
upon how well the group cooperates. Plant design
is usually too time consuming for one person to
do it all. Even when this is possible and actually
done, it is very annoying for the student doing the
work to realize that two other individuals re-
ceived a high grade solely because of his or her
efforts. Still more annoying to other groups can
be the feeling that their group received a low
grade because one member of the group shirked
his duty.


These group experiences are simulations of
the types the student will encounter in industry and
government ... working in groups also promotes
learning. In this situation the student is in an
active rather than passive mode.


I encourage the students to see me if they are
having personal problems within their groups. A
number of times students have taken me up on
this offer. It usually occurs because a student is
not pulling his own weight. In this case I meet
with the whole group and we decide what should
be done. The usual result is that the student not
working receives a lower grade on the group work
than the others.
These group experiences are simulations of the
types the student will encounter in industry and
government and this introduction to group
dynamics is very important. Much of their pro-
fessional life will be spent working with others
and getting others to work with them.
Working in groups also promotes learning. In
this situation the student is in an active rather
than a passive mode. He is taking part in the
direction of the project. Others will criticize his
ideas and he will have to defend them. It permits
him to see how the others approach problems.
Pedagogically, being in an active mode with ones


WINTER 1982










Each week two hours of class time are
devoted to oral reports... At this time two groups
give a report on their progress for the week.


peers is an excellent way of learning.
At times I have let the students choose their
groups. However this often has an adverse effect
on minorities, like women and foreign students.
The best overall result seems to occur when the
faculty member selects the members of the group.
Each week two hours of class time are devoted
to oral reports by the students. At this time two
groups give a report on their progress for that
week. There are a number of reasons for requiring
oral reports. One is, of course, to give them ex-
perience giving reports. A second is to illustrate
that there are design possibilities which most
groups didn't consider. A third is to point out
problems that might arise if certain approaches
are used. Last, it is an excellent place to point
out erroneous assumptions and incorrect calcu-
lation procedures and to correct mistaken impres-
sions. It is an excellent time to reinforce the
concepts presented in unit operations, kinetics,
automatic control, thermodynamics and other
courses. Forcing the student to express these is
an excellent reinforcement of basic principles and
can firmly place them in a student's mind. It
should be a major secondary goal of all plant
design courses.
To aid the students in improving their
presentations, one of their oral presentations is
videotaped. Immediately after the class this tape
is played back for them and they can then note
any mannerisms which are distracting or annoy-
ing. Generally, no comments from me are required.
Their strengths and weaknesses are obvious.
Because all the students are involved in the
design of the same process, their oral reports to
the class are potentially more interesting to other
class members than the usual student reports. To
encourage active discussion rather than passive
listening I give the students two bonus grade
points for each oral presentation session in which
they enter into the discussion. (The written
reports are graded on a twelve point scale.) I en-
courage those students who are shy or have
difficulty speaking to prepare statements in ad-
vance so they get accustomed to speaking.
As another experience in group dynamics,
instead of giving oral reports for the site selection
topic, the students spend the class time selecting


the best site. Each group is charged with coming
up with a specific site in advance of the meeting
and the class is then charged with picking a site
before they leave the classroom. No directions are
given as to how this should be done. They are told,
however, that the site they select will be their
plant location henceforth. After this meeting I
discuss group dynamics and how it can affect
decisions. I also discuss sensitivity training and
how it was once used as a management training
tool.
In addition to the time for oral presentations
by groups, the class meets two or three times a
week. During this time I answer questions, discuss
problems that arise, give encouragement, lecture
on topics not covered by the text, and expand
on topics presented. Some of the topics presented
are:

a) Design of Plants to be Visited during Plant Trip
b) Future Energy Availability
c) Siting Plants in Foreign Countries
d) Steady State Economics
e) The World Scene and the Chemical Engineer
f) Predicting the Future
g) Pollution Abatement
h) Environmental Assessments (to be added in the
future)
i) Safety
j) CPM and PERT
k) Specification Sheets and General Specifications
1) OSHA and EPA Rules
m) International Economics
n) Instrumentation
o) Startup
p) Piping and Instrument Diagrams
q) Things That can go Wrong
r) Risk Analysis
s) Socioeconomics

Since no engineering economics is required
as a prerequisite for this course, about three weeks
is devoted to this topic. During these periods
most of the class time is spent discussing the
problems assigned. A test is given at the end of
this portion of the course. It counts the equivalent
of three reports. Grades are based on the weekly
written group reports, the economics examination
and the student's individual oral participation. No
examinations are given other than the one in
economics.
One of the major problems with this course
is that it is very time consuming, both for the
student and the faculty member. The student
learns that he must plan his time or he will never
finish. He is expected to do something which would
take a professional engineer more time than he


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









has available. I have tried to consider options as
to how to reduce the time that they, and I, spend
on the course. However, everything I have con-
sidered would significantly reduce the learning
experiences of the students.
Short problems certainly could reduce grading
time since graduate students could do the grading.
However, they do not show how every decision
made in the scope affects the result. They don't
illustrate the interrelation of all parts of the
design. By failing here they don't succeed in il-
lustrating the total process of design. They are
often single answer problems. They usually tend
to be nothing but extensions of the types of
problems given in other courses. There is also a
tendency of short problems to provide the students
with all the required information rather than
forcing them to find most of it. This will not pre-
pare the student for the vaguely defined problem
with little or no data which he will confront in
industry or government.
Some instructors feel time may be saved by
using a computer program to do routine calcu-
lations. This certainly is true in industry where
numerous calculations of the same kind are fre-
quently repeated. However, before any computer
program is used, all the assumptions must be
understood so the program is not misused, and
the format for entering data into the computer
must be learned. Each of these takes time. The
former takes the most time. Since most calcu-
lations are not repeated very often and various
good sources of quick estimates are available
[1, 2, 3] it does not appear that any time is saved.
The potential loss is that the student doesn't have
to review previous course material. Students will
very happily plug into programs without trying
to understand them. This prevents them from
achieving one of my secondary goals, reviewing
previous course material. They will also happily
spend hours manipulating the programs. This
time could be more profitably spent elsewhere.
With computers a more accurate, consistent
design will result. It will be much easier to make
changes, to perform numerous sensitivity analy-
ses, and to optimize the design. None of these,
however, are goals for my course. It is important
for students to understand that these tasks can be
done; however it is not necessary this be done in
the context of the total plant design. These goals
can be achieved just as well with simpler examples
where the concepts do not appear as mysterious.
In summary, the major goal of the course is


to give the student an understanding of the pro-
cess called plant design. This is done by having
the student perform a plant design and by com-
pleting the design the student shows he has ob-
tained this understanding.
In addition to the major goal there are also
many important secondary goals. These are:
Learning to work with others.
Improving report writing.
Improving oral presentations.
Learning to find what is available in the chemical
engineering literature.
Learning to obtain answers when little data are
available.
Correcting mistaken concepts.
Reinforcing course material to which they have been
previously exposed.
Learning there is more than one way to approach
a problem and there usually is more than
one solution. E

REFERENCES
1. Baasel, W. D. "Preliminary Chemical Engineering
Plant Design." American Elsevier Publishing
Company, New York, 1976.
2. Aerstin, F, Street, G. "Applied Chemical Process De-
sign." Plenum Press, New York, 1978.
3. Clark, J. P. "How To Design a Chemical Plant on the
Back of an Envelope."
(a) Ground Rules. Chem. Tech. November 1975, p.
664-667.
(b) Facts and Their Interrelation, Chem. Tech.,
January 1976, p. 23-26.
(c) An Example. Chem. Tech., April 1976, p. 235-9.


5 book reviews

LABORATORY ENGINEERING
AND MANIPULATIONS

By E. S. Perry and A. Weissberger
John Wiley, 1979

Reviewed by John R. Hallman
Nashville State Technical Institute
For the individual who has acquired a chemi-
cal (2-year associate) degree (engineering
oriented), the chemical engineering technician or
the graduate chemist with mechanical ability, this
book would serve well in the intended use. How-
ever, for the chemist who is not mechanically
oriented, usage would be limited; but with careful
study the latter person could use the material in
Continued on page 41.


WINTER 1982











Iidesig'


nI


DEVELOPMENT AND CRITIQUE

OF THE


CONTEMPORARY SENIOR DESIGN COURSE*

VINCENT W. UHL
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, Virginia 22901

S ENIOR DESIGN COURSES VARY far more from
school to school than any others in the chemi-
cal engineering curriculum. The particular form
of a given course seems to depend mainly on


the tradition in a department
the goals of the instructor or staff
the degree of faculty participation
the availability of resources
the instructor's experience or background
In view of the spectrum represented by the design
course as offered across the U.S., a careful and
orderly consideration of its many aspects has been
made as a way to clarify its goals and to point
out ways to improve this course.


RATIONALE FOR THE DESIGN COURSE
T HERE HAS BEEN A STRONG consensus, almost
unanimous, among chemical engineering edu-
cators, that a major design exercise represents
an essential element of the curriculum. Common
justifications for this position are:

an integrating experience-a course in which the
students draw on and use their wide and varied re-
sources
an opportunity for the creative application of theo-
retical fundamentals to practical problems
an exposure to the real world of engineering; in par-
ticular the handling of open-ended problems
an exercise in organizing and completing a complex
project
the introduction and/or use of economics in the
decision-making process as a vital and central factor
in design.

*Based on a paper presented at the 72nd Annual Meeting
of AIChE, San Francisco, November 1979.


Vincent W. Uhl received his degrees in chemical engineering at
Drexel and Lehigh. He has worked for Sun Oil, Downingtown Iron
Works, and the Bethlehem Corporation where he was manager of
the Process Equipment Division, 1951-57. He has taught at Lehigh,
Villanova, Drexel, and Virginia, where he arrived as Chairman in
1963. He is co-editor of MIXING: THEORY AND PRACTICE (2 Vol.).
In 1977 he was elected a FELLOW of AIChE. He has served the
Chemical Engineering Division of ASEE as both a member of the
executive committee and as chairman (1977-78).

DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENIOR DESIGN PROJECT
T HE EVOLUTION OF THIS course can well be
traced in terms of the content and emphasis
of the design texts used by U.S. schools over the
past forty years. It can be considered to have taken
place in five stages which overlap to some extent.
1. Preliminary engineering along with process calcula-
tions was emphasized; this preliminary engineering
was concerned with items such as simple foundations,
and service facilities. See three editions of Vil-
brandt [1].
2. The engineering calculations become concerned al-
most exclusively with the process design. And at the
same time projects of some complexity were regularly
undertaken. Both these trends are demonstrated in
Vilbrandt and Dryden [2], and Baasel [3].
3. Engineering cost analysis, and sometimes optimiza-
tion, were formally made a regular part of the pro-
ject; this is especially emphasized by Peters and
Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









Timmerhaus [4, 5]; it is also demonstrated by Baasel
[3], Sherwood [6], and Bodman [7].
4. Rules of process synthesis as elucidated by Rudd
et al. [8], and Motard and Westerberg [9] are used.
They serve to codify good engineering practice, and
both facilitate and optimize the selection of necessary
process steps.
5. The use of computer programs was introduced for
process design and also, in some cases, for engineer-
ing cost analysis. Examples of such program are:
FLOWTRAN, CHESS, CHEMOS [10].
For this development the rationale declared
above was fully realized by the third stage, i.e.,
the economic evaluation of preliminary process
designs for complex projects (this corresponds
to systems engineering), and the ability to solve
open-ended problems (this is considered to be the
application of the practice of engineering.) The
fourth and fifth stages are concerned with
sophisticated techniques which, in recent years,
have often become the raison de etre, and thereby
have often served to obscure the basic goals of
the design course. The primary goal of the senior
design project should not be the teaching of special
techniques or even process design per se. Rather
it is a means to an end: an experience in the
practice of engineering. Fortunately the field of
chemical engineering provides excellent tasks for
realizing the stated general purposes of the design
course. In contrast, other engineering disciplines
appear to lack manageable vehicles that are as
complex; projects are generally restricted to only
elements of a system: structures, machines, and
devices.
The purposes of a curriculum are best served
by recognizing the stated basic goal of a senior
design course, and then providing opportunities
for students to organize and complete complex,
open-ended problems. Sophisticated techniques
should be explained to demonstrate helpful, avail-
able tools, but facility in their use should not be
the primary end.

NATURE OF THE ASSIGNMENTS

CHARACTERISTICS COMMON TO THE preponderance
of senior design courses are commented on
below:
Subject Matter: Processes amenable to chemi-
cal engineering type analysis are usually selected;
for example, they include wastewater treatment,
flue gas desulfurization, food processing, artificial
kidney system, and the processing of nuclear
waste. The range of possible problem topics is
demonstrated by the AIChE Student Contest


... the rationale... was fully realized
by the third stage, i.e., the economic evaluation of
preliminary process designs for complex projects
(this corresponds to systems engineering) and
the ability to solve open-ended problems.


Problems, and the Washington University Case
Study Series in Design [11], Sherwood [6] and
Bodman [7].
Number of Exercises: These vary from compre-
hensive projects such as the examples cited above,
to two or more graded exercises. Statements of
suitable short problems can be found in Peters
and Timmerhaus [4, 5].
Level of project execution: The conception
and level of most projects corresponds to what is
termed a preliminary process design. This requires
A definition of the process as expressed by a process
flow diagram, e.g., Baasel [3, p. 262], Vilbrandt and
Dryden [2, p. 65], Sherwood [6, p. 9]
Mass and energy balances. The results can be effec-
tively presented on flow diagrams, e.g., Vilbrandt and
Dryden [2, pp. 65, 67]
Sizing of major pieces of equipment for the battery-
limits process
An engineering cost analysis
Sometimes, a process control scheme
The sizing of lines (piping) is not usually in-
cluded, also, ancillary facilities are specified for
the scope, but not designed or sized. The capital
cost for the battery-limits plant is usually
estimated by a factor times the sum of the de-
livered cost of the major equipment items.
Format of Completed Report: The design is
presented in a report that includes appropriate
background, a description of the process, the
completed preliminary process design, an engi-
neering cost analysis, comments, conclusions, and
in an appendix examples of the calculations. A
form is outlined in Peters and Timmerhaus [4, 5],
and specified in the instructions for many of the
current AIChE Student Contest Problems.
From school to school reports are fairly con-
sistent with respect to format, the range of
subject matter, and emphasis on project innova-
tion. The variation occurs in the number and kinds
of assigned exercises. Some departments work
only one major problem, others consider several
shorter exercises, but graded in difficulty; most
schools assign at least two projects-often the
last is the AIChE Student Contest Problem, to be
solved either by a group or by individual students.


WINTER 1982









EXECUTION OF DESIGN COURSE

E ESSENTIAL REQUISITES ARE AN awareness of the
goal, appropriate projects, and students who
are both adequately prepared and genuinely inter-
ested; but the quality of the course depends on
its execution. This calls for a sound plan, effective
management, and sufficient resources-mainly
faculty. Successful execution is assured by follow-
ing these three basic ground rules:
The students should work in groups, at least for the
more complex problems. A three-person group is
widely held as ideal and two persons are considered
satisfactory; with four or five person groups it is
commonly observed that one or two persons tend to
participate less, if at all.
The progress of the design effort, particularly in the
more advanced or final problem, needs to be moni-
tored, reviewed, and discussed in scheduled sessions
with the instructor. However, it is. desirable that the
instructor also be available for a few posted hours
each week for impromptu queries. If the counsel is


If assignments are made, designs undertaken,
and reported without the benefit of these three
practices, the exercise ... most often degenerates to
a fantasy of "busy work."


always available, the groups may tend to "lay back"
and lose initiative. Because of this kind of inter-
action, this course is unique-it assumes the
character of an internship.
The projects, particularly the major one, should
compel the student to "stretch"; that is, to require
knowledge and information beyond that drawn from
past resources. It should demand that the student
learn and gain facility in subject matter on his own,
with guidance or tutorials from the instructor only
as a last resort.
The orchestration of this conventional wisdom
requires a considerable investment of faculty time.
If assignments are made, designs undertaken, and
reported without the benefit of these three
practices, the exercise (although impressive in
terms of the bulk of paper generated) most often
degenerates to a fantasy of "busy work." Students
can be misled regarding the efficacy of such un-
guided or undemanding efforts.
Effort of the Teaching Staff: The intelligent
use of adequate and competent staff is essential.
Assistance from capable persons in industry can
be valuable. However, their efforts should be well
coordinated. Industry persons are of use as
lecturers, but they are of greater value for the
combination of advising and grading reports of a


few groups. For this they must be on hand at
scheduled times (preferably once a week). Ex-
perienced teachers agree that graduate students
serving as course assistants can contribute little
guidance to students, in particular because they
lack the background of practice and because of
limited experience in their field. By far the most
important factor is the effort and competence of
the faculty.
Obviously, course instructors should have some
process experience-in design, operation, or de-
velopment. This requirement can be obviated by
faculty with an interest in design, and by the use
of solved exercises such as the Washington Uni-
versity Case Series in Design [11]. Sufficient staff
time and energy is more essential; the intensity
of effort is higher than that ordinarily demanded
by lecture courses. Also, because fresh problems
are assigned each year, the demands correspond
to that for a new course preparation. In addition,
the conferences with student groups (both
scheduled and impromptu) add up to one to two
hours per group each week. Because of these con-
siderations, and to retain freshness in the face
of tedium generated by too much exertion in this
one course, it is fairly well held that one faculty
member cannot effectively handle more than about
twenty students, or five or six groups. Fair and
Smith [11] state: "The manpower commitment...
to support a really effective, professional process-
design course, . requires at least twice as much
time to teach as an ordinary lecture course." Ac-
cordingly, chairmen often have a problem ade-
quately staffing this course. Some faculty avoid
making their contribution because the exhausting
labor is offset with correspondingly little credit,
and it bears no connection to their scholarly
activities.
The staffing problem for the design course
has become acute with the upsurge in enrollments.
Departments are faced with fifty or more seniors
instead of the twenty which could be handled by a
single faculty member. This has generally meant
fewer and larger groups, less advising, and less
demanding projects; each of these factors re-
duces the benefits to students.
Help from Industry: There are two kinds of
significant assistance from industry. One is by
individuals to a particular school. As mentioned
above, this takes the form of lecturing, advising,
and grading. If well coordinated with the overall
schedule, it can prove significant. Students re-
spond well to lectures and pointers from practi-


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










The fourth and fifth stages are concerned with sophisticated techniques which,
in recent years, have often become the raison de etre, and thereby have often served to obscure
the basic goals of the design course. The primary goal of the senior design project should
not be the teaching of special techniques or even process design per se. Rather it is
a means to an end: an experience in the practice of engineering.


tioners, who are working "on the line." And their
help in advising and grading can be invaluable.
The other form of assistance comes from in-
dustrial support of several, well-established, regu-
lar programs. Examples are:
The preparation and then the evaluation of the AIChE
Student Contest Problem.
The preparation and publication of the Washington
University Case Series in Design (11)
The preparation of material for the FLOWTRAN pro-
gram (10).
These provide a treasury of teaching materials.
Competent assistance from industry should
be used whenever it is available, provided that it
can be well coordinated with the scheduled pro-
gram. Such help is much more valuable when it is
offered periodically, e.g., once a week, and where
the service includes advising several groups of
students, and grading design reports.
It must be recognized that the manpower re-
quirement from the regular staff is considerable,
and that it varies somewhat with the number of
students taking the design course. For a "meaty"
course with a reasonable size class (say twenty
students), it is considered to take about twice as
much effort as teaching a regular lecture course.
THE STUDENTS: PRIOR TRAINING AND ATTITUDE
T IS COMMONLY ASSUMED that students entering
their fourth year in chemical engineering in
accredited programs possess the requisite back-
ground and motivation to undertake a sub-
stantial design project. This implies some pro-
ficiency with process calculations. Unfortunately,
this appears to be less true today than it was a
decade or two ago. The two main reasons seem
to be:
1. Courses intended to develop ability in essential
process calculation, e.g., mass and energy balances,
often lack the required intensity of effort. The result
is that on the average students have less grasp of the
fundamentals, and are not sufficiently facile with the
elementary computations.
2. Currently, many curricula emphasize analysis, so-
phisticated techniques, and also more credit hours for
electives at the expense of a sound understanding of,
and facility with, fundamental engineering subject
areas.


Then there is the matter of the attitude of
the students. Although the engineering schools
are again enjoying large enrollments, with the
current "career oriented" attitude there seems
to be less will on the part of students (in fact
around the world) to expend the intense effort
demanded to experience a professional-level edu-
cation. And in engineering, a design course
appears to be critical in this regard. Further, in
today's educational milieu, students seem (to some
extent) to determine the pace of their education.
The trend in curricula toward too much
specialization by courses (too many electives) can
be held in check by accreditation standards and
visits. However, the vitiation of fundamental
courses by inordinate detraction to subsidiary
topics and special techniques can proceed un-
detected.
There seems to be little that the teaching pro-
fession can do to obviate the deleterious effects
on declining student commitment and interest
where it occurs.

THE FUTURE

T HIS REVIEW RAISES SEVERAL questions. Is the
design course as taught along these established
lines in a malaise? Note that it now attempts to
include the features most recently published by
ECPD [12], namely:
a. "development of student creativity,
b. use of open-ended problems,
c. formation of design problem statements and
specifications,
d. consideration of alternative solutions,
e. feasibility considerations, and
f. detailed system descriptions."
However, some change may elicit favorable re-
sponse and fuller commitment of students. The
ECPD document [12], which expresses the desire
for design contributions in the curriculum "to
include a variety of realistic constraints such as
economic factors, safety, reliability, aesthetics,
ethics, and social impact" may provide some
stimuli. Instructors at some schools have already
been taking such suggestions to heart.
Continued on page 48.


WINTER 1982










design


THE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

PROCESS DESIGN SEQUENCE AT VIRGINIA TECH.....

AND A NEW PERSPECTIVE*


J. PETER CLARK
Epstein Process Engineering
Chicago, IL 60609

W HEN I LEFT Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University (Virginia Tech or
VPI&SU) in 1978 to take a position in industry,
I wrote the following description of the Process
Design Sequence at VPI&SU to record what had
been done and to provide some assistance to my
successors. To that description, I have added a
postscript that reflects my new perspective.

INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

T HE PLANT DESIGN AND economics sequence of
courses has been, with the unit operations
laboratory, an important and distinctive part of
the curriculum at VPI&SU. The nine hours offered
are somewhat more than are offered in most de-
partments. The style of the sequence has evolved
over the years and has reflected both the in-
structor and the educational conditions prevailing
at the time.
The founder of the department, Dr. Vilbrandt,
wrote several editions of an important early text
on process design [1]. In a paper he wrote de-
scribing the course as he taught it, he emphasized
the laboratory orientation of the design experience.
Students began in the Fall with one or more
major projects and worked as teams for the rest
of the year. Some examples, found in depart-
mental files, are recovery of zein from corn and


In addition to being one of the
few professional activities that is explicitly
taught in school, design is the one course in which
students learn to think in a new way, and
to synthesize what they have learned ...


*Paper presented at ASEE Annual Conference 1979, in
Baton Rouge, LA.


production of penicillin. The course met for one
hour of lecture and six hours of lab each week all
year. The student teams gathered critical data
needed for a design by performing experiments
in the laboratory. At the same time, the students
were each completing a senior thesis.
At some point, a course on industrial economics
offered by the industrial engineering and opera-
tions research (IEOR) department was included
in the curriculum and so, presumably, the
lectures on design emphasized such matters as
equipment sizing and layout. One component of
the final reports was a scale model of the pro-
posed plant.
By 1972, the course had evolved into a less inte-
grated sequence but with the same sort of
schedule. The Fall quarter had some economics,
but the students still took Industrial Engineering
Economics. The senior thesis had disappeared,
but some students did undergraduate research. It
was common to introduce a major design case
study late in the Fall and then have groups work
most of the Winter on the same case. Several of
the cases published by Washington University
were used this way, especially one (on cellulose
triacetate) that had been developed at VPI&SU
in cooperation with Du Pont. Spring quarter was
a kind of wrap-up course that was intended to
help prepare the seniors for their careers and was
not designed to be very demanding, in recognition
of Spring fever and senioritis.
When I assumed responsibility for the se-
quence in 1972, I followed much the same pattern:
Fall was a sort of pre-design experience, empha-
sizing process synthesis; Winter relied on a major
case, usually some portion of the cellulose acetate
study; and Spring was more specialized, empha-
sizing simulation, optimization and computers.
About 1975, the curriculum was revised to
drop the IEOR economics course on the grounds
that chemical engineers needed a different empha-

Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION























J. PETER CLARK received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from
Notre Dame and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley.
He was Assistant and Associate Professor at Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University from 1972 to 1978. Before that, he
spent four years with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service. He is a
registered professional engineer in Virginia and a member of AIChE,
ACS, ASEE and IFT. He was Director of Research at ITT Continental
Baking before becoming President of Epstein Process Engineering.


sis. At the same time, credit for senior seminar
was removed and the Monday lecture hour was
dedicated to visiting seminar speakers. Don
Michelsen, who had a special interest in economics,
took over the Fall course and experimented with
personalized system of instruction (PSI) using
several economics texts. He also tried the idea of
using teams of students as consultants to industry.
PSI was a mixed success; the team studies were
better received. As part of the reorganization, the
Winter and Spring courses were combined for six
hours in the Winter. This meant that there were
no required courses in the Spring, and so the
number of early graduations increased.
I divided the new Winter combination into a
"group" course and an individual course and
treated the six available credits as one course with
+ or grades possible. For half the grade, each
student did a major project of his choosing; for
the other half, he worked on several smaller
studies which were assigned by me and often
done in groups. In 1978, due to the larger number
of students, all students did the AIChE Student
Contest Problem as the individual project. Also,
in 1977, I inherited the Fall course on economics
because Don left the teaching faculty temporarily.
The hours were changed to three hours of meeting
plus the seminar, and the course became a more
conventional lecture course.
Thus, the history of the sequence has been
evolutionary. It has yet to be nominated as any-


one's favorite, but the complaints about overwork
seem to have been satisfied by the combination of
the Winter and Spring courses. In 1978, there
were at least nine outstanding (in my opinion)
entries for the student contest problem; it was
hard to select the two that could be submitted.
Student teaching evaluations have consistently im-
proved over the years, which may be a reflection
of experience, but are yet to reach the highest
level. That may reflect the fact that it is a re-
quired and difficult course. In general, I feel the
course sequence is good for its purpose, but I do
not mean to suggest that another way might not
be better.
PROCESS ECONOMICS
S FAR, three texts have been used: Jelen [2],
Woods [3], and Peters and Timmerhaus [4]. I
planned to use a fourth, Happel and Jordan [5].
In 1977, I chose to lecture to one large section for
one hour on Monday and two on Wednesday,
rather than repeat the lectures to two smaller
groups which would have then met every day.
There were two major objectives: 1) convey
the essentials of process economics, especially the

It has been suggested to me, by a
professor elsewhere, that doing the contest
problem be seen as a privilege urged only on the
best prospects while the others do something
else, perhaps in groups of two or three.

measures of worth such as discount cash flow
and present worth, along with some information
on taxes, depreciation and accounting; and 2)
discuss the nature of the chemical industry and
chemical engineering careers.
For the second part, I drew upon ideas from
the recent book by Wei and Russell [6]. The
students each prepared term papers on one chemi-
cal company of their choosing and on one chemi-
cal of their choosing. They also did homework
problems from Peters and Timmerhaus, but I took
the chapters out of order, which, in retrospect, did
not work well. I recommend using any text in the
order written, as a general rule. I gave one in-class
exam and a final. We spent a fair amount of time
discussing career opportunities, including gradu-
ate school, interview techniques and so forth. The
Fall is the time to do this, as recruiting is heaviest
then. I demonstrated, using present worth, that
the discounted value of cumulative before-tax
earnings for a chemical engineer with a Ph.D.
was greater (in less than ten years) than that of


WINTER 1982








one with an M.S. and that his was greater than
that of one with a B.S. This elegant proof did not
seem to affect any decisions, sad to say.

PROCESS DESIGN

M Y PATTERN in the six hour Winter quarter pair
of courses became fairly stable. About half
of the credit was earned by an individual project
and the other half was earned from a collection
of assigned group and individual projects. There
were no exams or final. I used both individually
selected projects and the AIChE student contest
problem. My practice was, since 1974, to solve the
student contest problem myself over Christmas
vacation. For three years, this was merely an
enjoyable exercise of my skills; in 1977, it was
valuable preparation for the course. Only about
the top quarter of the class is really capable of
doing a good job on the problem, in the sense of
preparing a competitive solution. It has been
suggested to me, by a professor elsewhere, that
doing the contest problem be seen as a privilege
urged only on the best prospects while the others
do something else, perhaps in groups of two or
three.
Part of me accepts this, while another part is
concerned that we might miss some good work
from latent stars or that, given the choice, no one
will really exert themselves. I have not resolved
this problem. I feel that our students have a decent
chance in any year at any one of the cash prizes
and so would like to have as many as possible
make the effort.
The contest problem is always a challenge and
I believe few students will attempt it voluntarily
or for no credit. Thus, I favor some compulsion to
get entries. I also feel that at least once before
they graduate, they must stand on their own and
do one comprehensive design exercise. The diffi-
culty is that counseling and then grading over
fifty such exercises is rather time consuming for
one person.
By comparison with other engineering depart-
ments, chemical engineering at VPI&SU de-
manded more of the students, but we also gave
more credit. In addition to the individual project,
I have had good success with exercises involving
outside help. There have been two categories: 1)
a novel compound described by a chemist [7],
and 2) a project involving someone from industry.
Hamp Smith, from Chemistry, worked with
me for three years (more or less in exchange for
a lecture by me to his class). He and/or another


professor (Jim Wolfe in 1978) came to the class
and described some compound they had synthe-
sized. They alone had all the information avail-
able on this compound. We created some reason
for being interested in the substance, (Wolfe
had a potential anti-epileptic drug). Groups of
students were assigned the problem of designing
and estimating the cost of a plant to make some
large quantity of the compound, say several
million pounds. The chemists were very coopera-
tive and the students seem to like the exercise.
Ideally, it should come late in the course, after
some other practice, but not so late that it con-
flicts with the individual project, which they in-
evitably put off until late.
The other class of project was mainly an
excuse to get an industrialist into the class. In
past years I had help from Lannie Robbins of Dow
(recovery of acetic acid), Al Conner of UOP
(catalytic cracking), Keith Baugher of Exxon
(cat cracking), and Bob Bickling of Du Pont
(cellulose acetate). I usually presented an agreed-
upon case to the class and let them struggle for a
while. Then the visitor came to serve as a con-
sultant and critic. I graded the reports. The
students liked these exercises. The key here is
planning for the best use of such help. Un-
fortunately, it does not relieve the grading load,
which is the major time demand.
Another class of exercise which has been
successful, usually at the first of the quarter,
involves the past student contest, whose solution
is published in the Fall Student Members Bulletin
from AIChE. I usually ordered about 70-100 of
these as student chapter counselor. In my ex-
perience, there is always something that can be
improved upon in the winning solution. I assigned
the problem of finding an alternative solution,
correcting (or at least checking) the solution or
some other excuse for reading the winning report
very carefully. This, I hoped, would create some
sympathy for my difficulties in reading their own
reports and it may have convinced them that it
was not that hard to excel in the contest.
Whatever the first assignment may have been,
I announced after it was turned in that it would
not affect their grade, but I criticized it as if it
would. This gave them a feel for my standards
and it gave me a measure for whatever improve-
ment may result from the course. In past years, I
felt that the improvement was significant, which
was gratifying.
Other exercises I have used over the years have


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION








come from various sources, such as the cases
published by AIChE under Jud King, Sherwood's
book [8], my own experiences, and articles in CEP.
I tried to have about five or six graded exercises.
For a text, I have used both Peters and Tim-
merhaus and Baasel [9]. Jim Douglas has a new
book in manuscript which I reviewed in part for
a publisher. It looks promising, but has not yet
appeared. Peters and Timmerhaus is being re-
vised but will not be out in a new edition until
1980; right now, I feel it is out of date and that
the combination of Happel and Jordan with Baasel
is better.
I found an entertaining way of forming
groups. I selected the appropriate number of
people, say 15 if I wanted 4 person groups in a
class of 60. The first time I selected people whose
combination I felt would provide an unfair ad-
vantage, i.e. some of the better students; but I
usually included some "sleepers"-people I felt
needed some leadership experience. We retired
to another room and held a draft, using the roll
sheet. The last to pick on the first round got the
first pick on the second round to make things
more equitable. I determined the order of picks
more or less arbitrarily. It was most informative
to learn who in the class got picked in what
order. On the next group project, I either kept
the same leaders but allowed them to "protect"
only one of their group, the rest becoming avail-
able to the draft, or I chose new leaders. There is
usually a chance to do both during the year. The
student evaluations of their peers were most useful
to me and usually conformed with my own assess-
ment once the grades were computed. Sometimes
the students learned some valuable lessons also;
one year, the last man picked on the first round
was protected on the second round.
The substantive material of the Winter course
is well described in my little series of articles in
Chemtech [10]. Most of class time was spent dis-
cussing the current case, but somewhere during
the course, I tried to cover the essentials of
design as I saw them. There was a very heavy
emphasis upon good writing, neat flow sheets,
accurate material balances, clear and correct
economic estimates, and good judgment. I found
that estimation of physical properties was always
a need, as was proper citation of references in
reports.
As the title of my article suggests, I empha-
sized preliminary design, as do Baasel and
Douglas, which is why I like their books. This


means teaching a kind of creative sloppiness,
which is foreign to the student after the relative
rigor of his junior year courses. There is a proper
place for rigor, of course, as there is for computer-
aided design, which is also an interest of mine but
which I did not emphasize in the course. I tried to
have the students do at least a few tedious calcu-
lations of non-linear material balances or
adiabatic flashes so they would appreciate what
the computer could do for them. However, it
wasn't convenient or practical to have the class
use FLOWTRAN or CHESS in the past. Another
instructor might find a way; certainly, many in
other schools do [11].
I did have a good experience with a small
business game taken from Chemical Engineering
Education [12]. One student developed the code
for the Department's PDP-11/40 and the other
students competed in groups.
The resources available to assist an instructor
of process design are limited only by his imagina-
tion [13]. There are over 20 cases from Washing-
ton University, 14 from the King project with
AIChE, and about 46 past student contest
problems from AIChE. Only a handful of these
resources are needed to get through the year. I
have developed some others of my own, but so can
anyone who wishes to do so.
POSTSCRIPT
A S AN EMPLOYER of chemical engineers in in-
dustrial research and development, I now see
the process design sequence differently than when
I taught it.
We do very little process design in the sense
that most courses discuss the topic or in the sense
that design firms or groups actually practice the
trade. Probably, that is true for many chemical
engineers employed in operations, research or
technical service. Is design then irrelevant to us?
Far from it!
In addition to being one of the few profes-
sional activities that is explicitly taught in school,
design is the one course in which students learn
to think in a new way, and to synthesize what they
have learned elsewhere. These are critical skills
in any career, as many people agree. I also feel
that a good design experience helps convert
students into engineers by convincing them that
they actually can perform competently and
relatively independently in the face of pressures
and the challenge of more ill-defined problems
Continued on page 42.


WINTER 1982










m design


n


AN EXPERIENTIAL DESIGN COURSE IN GROUPS*


E. DENDY SLOAN
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, Colorado 80401

TN LOOKING TO THE FUTURE of engineering edu-
cation, Dr. Lee Harrisberger [1], past president
of the American Society for Engineering Edu-
cation, predicts that one characteristic of the
1990 university will be a dual curriculum. The first
segment of the curriculum is predicted to be
based on skills, which includes knowledge, compre-
hension, and application to closed ended problems,
while the second segment is predicted to be
competency based, including problem analysis,
synthesis of skills previously learned, and evalua-
tion as applied to real-world problems. The
Accreditation Board for Engineering and Tech-
nology currently recognizes the need for compe-
tency courses by requiring one-half year of engi-
neering design in the undergraduate curriculum
for accreditation. The experiential, or "learning
by doing" courses are most often found in chemi-
cal engineering curricula in the unit operations
laboratory and in a capstone senior design
course.
If an objective of a senior design course is to
simulate industrial experience by teaching open
ended problem solving, the professor may be re-
quired to teach differently than in the normal
undergraduate class. While the professor may
normally build on his past teaching and problem
solving experience in a course like kinetics, each
design class requires that a new problem be
addressed. Further, if an available case study is
used in design, the assumption is made that the
students will not obtain a different or better solu-
tion than that available. Case studies are very


If an objective of a senior design
course is to simulate industrial experience by
teaching open ended problem solving, the
professor may be required to teach
differently than in the normal
undergraduate class.

*Paper presented at ASEE Annual Conference 1979.


useful teaching tools, but they remove some of the
open ended flavor in design.
Students also must behave differently in such
a design course. In addition to the creative, open
ended aspects of the course, the students must
communicate well and work in groups. In most
cases, the groups are self selected and tend to
be composed of friends with harmonious person-
alities. Such a group composition is considered
neither ideal for problem solving nor indicative
of real-world problem solving groups. Students
should learn to work with different personalities
in a constructive manner.

COURSE STRUCTURE

T HE PRIMARY GOALS OF the course are to pro-
vide an authentic design experience, to in-
crease interpersonal awareness, and to increase
communication skills for students. The course is
divided into three segments as follows:
1. an introduction to the design, decision-making pro-
cess (two weeks),
2. an introduction to group dynamics and personality
typing (two weeks), and

TABLE I
Steps in the Design Decision-Making Process


GUIDED DESIGN
1. Identify the Problem
2. State the Basic
Problem
3. State the Constraints
and Assumptions
4. Generate Possible
Solutions
5. Evaluate and Choose
Likely Solution
6. Analysis of Solution
Components
7. Synthesis to Create
Detailed Solution
8. Evaluate the Solution
9. Report and Recommend
10. Implement the Decision
11. Check the Results


THE UNIVERSAL
TRAVELER
1. Accept the Problem
2. Analyze the Facts
3. Define the Problem
4. Ideate for Solutions
5. Select Solution
6. Implement Solution
7. Evaluate Solution


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION

























E. Dandy Sloan is Associate Professor of Chemical and Petroleum
Refining Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines. He has three
degrees from Clemson University and five years experience with
DuPont. He did post doctoral work in thermodynamics at Rice Uni-
versity before beginning teaching in 1976. He was named an Amoco
Outstanding Undergraduate Teacher at CSM in 1978 and Dow Out-
standing Young Faculty in 1979. He is currently Vice Chairman for
Programs of the Educational Research and Methods Division, and
1983 Program Chairman for the Chemical Engineering Division of
ASEE.


3. the design of industrial projects provided by com-
panies in the Golden-Denver area (eleven weeks).

Each of the portions of the course are described
below.
Initially, the students are introduced to three
types of design, i.e., preliminary designs, detailed
estimate designs, and firm process design, through
a standard text by Peters and Timmerhaus [2].
Two supplemental texts, Guided Design [3] and
the Universal Traveler [4] are used to study the
individual components of the design decision-
making process, as shown in Table I. Each of
four years of the Wright brothers' design process
[5] is studied to evaluate how these classical engi-
neers resolved their design problems using the
above procedure.
The group dynamics portion of the course is
done with the help of a consulting psychologist.
Each student voluntarily takes the Myers-Briggs
Type Indicator (MBTI) [6], a written, multiple
choice personality indicator based on Jungian
principles. The thirty-five year data history of
the test provides a basis for personality typing
into the following four categories:
the method of gathering information (by senses or
intuition)
the method of making decisions (by thinking or
feeling)
the preference for gathering information or making
decisions (perceptive or judgemental)


the preference for dealing with the outer world
(introversion or extraversion)
The implication of using the MBTI in normal
engineering teaching situations have been
addressed elsewhere [7]. Here, the results of the
MBTI allow the students to be divided into small
groups which are not only equivalent on
the bases of past grades, but also contain as many
diverse personality types as possible. The students
voluntarily share their personality types with the
others of their group, and each group discusses
how the individual types might interact in the
forthcoming design project. Group effectiveness
exercises are done using materials provided by
Dr. Lee Harrisberger [8].
During the final eleven weeks of the course,
each group performs an industrial design, chosen
jointly by second level company supervision and
the professor. Each project deals with a real in-
dustrial problem which has not been solved by
the company. Typical projects during the last two
years are listed in Table II. Every week during the


From the professor's standpoint, this type of
course has several [additional] ... benefits... The
students view the professor as a resource, not an
adversary, to accomplishing the design project.


TABLE II
Chemical Engineering Design Projects


COMPANY
1. Union Carbide


2. Union Carbide


3. CSM Research
Institute (CSMRI)
4. CSMRI

5. Earth Sciences

6. Hazen Research

7. Hazen Research
8. Solar Energy Research
Institute
9. Adolph Coors


PROJECT
Removal of Isopropanol and
Isopropyl Ether from a Brine
Liquid Stream
Recovery of Isopropanol and
Isopropyl Ether from a
Vapor
Modeling Methods of Ethanol
Production
Pilot Plant Design for Coal
Gasification Process
Production of Fluoride Salts
from Fluosilicic Acid
Hydrogen Reduction of Lead
Concentrates
Flue Gas Desulfurization
Olefins from Solid Waste

Use for Waste Steam


WINTER 1982









project phase of the course, each group is allowed
an interaction (conference call or site visit) with
an engineer of the company involved. The groups
interact with their company in the same way any
process/project group would interface with the
user of a design effort. The needs for additional
information for integration of solutions into
existing processes, intelligible historical informa-
tion, the continuing development of new operating
data, etc., make each problem more difficult, but
very realistic.
At the conclusion of the project each group
provides the company engineer with an engineer-
ing log book as a record of all calculations,
problem solving sessions, company interactions,
and vendor quotes. The second level management
of the company is also provided a formal written
report, mid-term oral report and a final oral
presentation.

CASE STUDY OF A DESIGN PROJECT
DURING THE FALL SEMESTER of 1980 the Adolph
Coors Company requested that the design class
assess how best to use the wasted energy from
the brewery's electrical power generation tur-
bines. After all of Coor's internal energy needs
were met, the company was exhausting 175,000
lb/hr of steam to the environment, with a future
exhaust of 550,000 Ib/hr as the plant reaches
maturity. In return for the study, Coors gave a
$5,000.00 grant to the Chemical Engineering De-
partment, which was used as student financial aid.
After several weeks of considering alternatives
in a typical problem solving mode, the students
determined that the object of the design should
be to complete a feasibility study of using the
waste heat for district heating in Golden,
Colorado. Preliminary investigation indicated that
virtually all of the houses within a one mile
radius of the Coor's brewery could be heated with
the waste energy.
The study included four major items as
follows: 1) a market analysis, 2) the design of a
cogeneration heating and distribution system, 3)
a capital cost estimate, and 4) a financial sensi-
tivity analysis.
Similar studies by the Electric Power Research
Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and
Swedish and Danish companies were evaluated.
The students also obtained the help of profes-
sionals at the Public Service Company of Colo-
rado, the nearby Solar Energy Research Institute,
and the Golden City Engineer's Office. The


students were fortunate to have a fine, young
Coors engineer, Mr. Sam Baxter, to assist them
in their application of principles. Among the
engineering principles used in the study were
heat transfer, power cycle thermodynamics, fluid
flow and piping layout, and economic analysis.
The students concluded that such a district
heating system was technically feasible, and de-
signed a heating distribution system. They also
concluded that such a distribution system and user
conversion was very costly (ca. $45,500,000) and
that outside funds were needed to finance the
project. Two future design projects concerning
financing and funding were spawned as a result
of this original project.
Coors' upper management requested a final oral
report in a company Technical Operations meet-
ing. When the city fathers learned of the project,
Golden's mayor requested that the students pre-
sent a project report at a meeting of the City
Council. The students, Coors, and the city man-
agement indicated that the project outcome was
worthwhile.

STUDENT INTERACTION WITH DESIGN PROJECTS
T HE DESIGN PROJECTS ARE paced by the groups.
Aside from a few lectures on topics such as
critical path diagrams, no formal lectures are
given. Instead the professor acts as a resource
person for informal interaction with the students.
Each student is required to make a classroom
oral presentation every second week on the pro-
gress to date. The engineering notebook, which
includes all group work on the project and
performance of tasks by each group member, is
evaluated weekly by the professor.
During the second year of design in this
mode, some of the positive reactions due to the
innovative course nature were removed and the
students were more objective. While some
students complained about the inequality of the
work load in each project, frequently students
would suggest helpful ideas during other groups'
oral presentations. The oral presentations not
only allowed students to practice communication
skills, but also gave the class exposure to the
approach to each open ended problem.
Also, the students are able to use the person-
ality typing skills in group solutions to the in-
dustrial problems. For example, a group with a
majority of perceptive types was able to per-
suade the judgmental type to defer judgment and


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION









obtain more data, while recognizing that they
tended to defer decisions, sometimes longer than
necessary.
EVALUATION
IN GENERAL, THE STUDENTS react very favorably
to the course. They indicate that they are moti-
vated because the problems are real and because
the approach to the design process is applicable
to the projects the students would encounter after
graduation. The optimum attitude is typified by
one student's comment; "I don't consider this
work as course work anymore; it's something
that I want to do." While some students feel that
the time spent on group dynamics should have
occurred after the design projects were assigned,
all students felt that they had increased their
self knowledge and their interpersonal relations
during the personality typing portion of the
course.
The industrial users all indicate a willingness
to participate in the next iteration of the design
course. They perceive the advantages of the
course as 1) inexpensive engineering effort, 2)
good corporate publicity and 3) an opportunity
to evaluate potential employees. Within the limita-
tions imposed by the effort, each company con-
siders the group work comparable to that by
new engineers working for them.
From the professor's standpoint, this type of
design course has several benefits in addition to
those previously mentioned. The students view the
professor as a resource, not an adversary, to ac-
complishing the design project. The professor does
not need to be the final expert on each design
project, as he has the operating company as help
with evaluation, guidance, and grading. The
student's grades were based upon each company's
judgments of the written and oral reports, peer
evaluation by members of each student group,
and evaluation based upon weekly oral reports
and project notebooks.
The initial success of this course has aided in
carrying out other iterations. The work done
with the former companies was the basis for
approaching other nearby companies for other
real-world design projects. It is hoped that the
benefits to the students as well as the benefits to
industry will encourage wider interaction between
academia and industry in the future.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author gratefully acknowledges support
for the development of this course by a George R.


Brown Innovative Teaching Grant. 0

REFERENCES
1. Harrisberger, L., Heydinger, R., Seeley, J., Talburtt,
M., Experiential Learning in Engineering Edu-
cation, ASEE monograph (1976).
2. Peters, M. S., Timmerhaus, K. D., Plant Design and
Economics for Chemical Engineers, 3rd Ed., McGraw-
Hill, New York (1980).
3. Wales, C. E., Stager, R. A., Guided Design, The
Exxon Education Foundation, New York (1977).
4. Koberg, D., Bagnall, J., The Universal Traveler,
William Kaufman, Inc., Los Altos, California (1976).
5. Culick, F. E. C., "The Origins of the First Powered,
Man-Carrying Airplane," in Scientific American, July
1979, pp. 88-100.
6. Myers, I. B., The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Con-
sulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California
(1962).
7. McCaulley, M. H., "Psychological Types in Engineer-
ing:Implications for Teaching," Engineering Edu-
cation 66, 729 (1976).
8. Harrisberger, L., Personal Communication, De-
cember 2, 1977.


REVIEW: LAB ENGINEERING
Continued from page 29.
laboratory problems. I found the book to be well
written, topical and of practical use for the engi-
neering type laboratory systems. The typical
chemical research laboratory would greatly benefit
if the ideas contained in the book were used in
systems design.
Specific comments on each chapter are:
Chapter I: Well written, good illustrations,
good descriptions, good compilation of usable data.
Chapter II: Easy to understand if one is
mechanically oriented; could use a few more il-
lustrations rather than only written descriptions.
I believe there is almost too broad a subject matter
covered in so few pages. Basic calculus used.
Chapter III: Good description of topic, good
illustrations and practical. Would be useful to lab
person with a grinding problem, etc. Some calculus
used.
Chapter IV: One of the best written chapters
in the book. Excellent descriptions and diagrams
for the pumping of fluids. Very practical with good
ideas for help in the laboratory.
Chapter V: The only thing this chapter needs
to be 100% are a few more diagrams of the
techniques. Excellent.
Chapter VI: An excellent summary of a very
difficult theoretical subject, but written for the lay
person. Very useful in any engineering laboratory


WINTER 1982









experiment or process system. Good illustrations.
Chapter VII: For the mechanical type labora-
tory oriented research person, this is a most practi-
cal chapter. Excellent descriptions and illustra-
tions; most useful to anyone engaged in vacuum
processing and systems design.
Chapter VIII: Good treatment of very complex
subject matter. Simultaneous mass and heat
transfer is not the easiest subject to learn or to
adapt the theory to practical usage. This is the
most difficult material for the non-engineer to
understand unless the user has an excellent back-
ground in mathematics and good mechanical apti-
tude. Would suggest that whenever possible, more
diagrams and sketches be added to simplify the
material. Extensive calculus used.
Since all chapters are written by different
authors, it is suggested that in the next edition a
section be added that lists all of the nomenclature
for all chapters.
In comparing the stated role of the book
against the included techniques in the included
chapters, it is found that in some instances there
is little laboratory technique discussed. Also, the
level of mathematical derivations is not consistent
in the several chapters. O


PROCESS DESIGN SEQUENCE
Continued from page 37.
than they have seen before.
It is almost commonplace now to emphasize
the importance of communications in professional
advancement, and, at the risk of being trite, I must
add my endorsement. Design courses usually re-
quire good report writing which students usually
detest as an apparent over-emphasis on what they
see as style as compared with substance. If any-
thing is true, there must be more emphasis put
on good writing and speaking. Facility in these
areas is far more useful in practice than glibness
with the computer.
Finally, one of the first skills a chemical engi-
neer learns is how to do material and energy
balances. These are also among the first steps in
most design exercises. I feel strongly that these
steps should be among the first in nearly any
engineering assignment associated with processes.
It may sound obvious, but it is too often forgotten
how useful a simple balance can be in operations
and research. Many of the steps taught in design
sequences really do have other applications, and
students should learn that fact.


In general, the chemical engineering taught in
universities is more sophisticated than that
practiced in many industries. Certainly, this is
true for the food industry! Are students over-
educated, as one might be tempted to say? I do
not believe so.
Chemical engineering, culminating in the
design sequence, is a grand education in analytical
skills, modern science and technology. It is inter-
esting enough to attract intelligent students and
challenging enough to stimulate even the best.
Furthermore, the influx of new concepts brought
by products of this fine education will gradually
change the industries they join. Far better that
education continue to stress the new and sophisti-
cated than the old and familiar-how else will
we ever grow?
Having now been on both sides of the process
design course "debate" (if there is such a thing!),
I feel strongly that a varied, challenging and
comprehensive course is essential to a complete
chemical engineering education. I tried to provide
such an experience when I taught and I look for
the results in those I hire today. [

REFERENCES
1. Vilbrandt, F. C., Dryden, C. E., Chemical Engineering
Plant Design, McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 1959.
2. Jelen, F. C., Cost and Optimization Engineering,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970.
3. Woods, Donald, Financial Decision Making in the
Process Industry, Prentice-Hall, 1975.
4. Peters, M. S., Timmerhaus, K. D., Plant Design and
Economics for Chemical Engineers, 2nd ed., McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1968.
5. Happel, J., Jordan, D. G., Chemical Process Economics,
2nd ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1975.
6. Wei, J., Russell, T. W. F., Swartzlander, M. W., The
Structure of the Chemical Processing Industries,
McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 1979.
7. Clark, J. P., Chemistry as a Foreign Language,
Chem Tech 7 (12), 747, (1977).
8. Sherwood, T. K. A Course in Process Design, M.I.T.
Press, Cambridge, Mass. 1963.
9. Baasel, W. D., Preliminary Chemical Engineering
Plant Design, Elsevier, New York, 1976.
10. Clark, J. P., How to design Chemical Plants on the
Back of an Envelope, Parts, I, II and III, Chemical
Technology, 664 (1975), 23 (1976) and 235 (1976).
11. Clark, J. P., Sommerfeld, J. T., FLOWTRAN Usage
Education, Chemical Engineering Education X, (2)
90 (1976).
12. Russell, T. W. F., Frankel, D. S., Teaching the Basic
Elements of Process Design with a Business Game,
Chemical Engineering Education, XII (1), 18 (1978).
13. Clark, J. P., Letter to editor (re case studies), Chem-
Tech 6 (3), 146 (1976).


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










I book reviews

SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
MODELS BY POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION

By John Villadsen and Michael L. Michelsen
Prentice-Hall International Series, 1978,
446 pages

Reviewed by D. Ramkrishna
Purdue University
This book is a welcome addition to the engi-
neering literature. It introduces polynomial ap-
proximation for the solutions of differential equa-
tions with a demonstration of its performance in
various problems leaning mostly on reaction engi-
neering.
Chapter 1 lays down the scope of applications
through a coverage of mathematical models
commonly encountered in chemical engineering;
more specifically, reaction engineering, separation
processes, and polymer processing are some of the
examples cited.
Chapter 2 contains an exposition of the modus
operandi of polynomial approximation. The accent
is on the approximation of the expansion co-
efficients while the choice of polynomials is es-
sentially confined to those of the Jacobi class. Some
useful computational schemes are introduced in
Chapter 3 for efficient calculation of the poly-
nomials.
Linear problems are the subject of Chapter 4 in
which boundary and initial value problems have
been treated. Nonlinear problems are dealt with in
Chapter 5. The emphasis is on the nonisothermal
catalyst problem (understandably so, since it has
been actively investigated).
Chapter 6 is devoted entirely to a treatment of
the one-point collocation method and its ac-
complishments (generally in reaction engineering)
in spite of its startling simplicity.
In Chapter 7 demonstrations are made of the
usefulness of the "global spline collocation" method
in solving a variety of boundary value problems,
especially entry length problems.
The discussion of coupled ordinary differential
equations occupies Chapter 8. The treatment of
stiff equations and parametric sensitivity of solu-
tions deserves special mention.
The final chapter is concerned with the role
of collocation (and spline collocation) methods in


selected research problems. The low Peclet number
Graetz problem, the asymptotic stability problem
of a catalyst particle and fixed bed reactor
dynamics are featured in this chapter. The Graetz
problem at low Peclet numbers appears to have
been treated well for the first time. In regard to
this problem the criticism of Fourier series solu-
tion is somewhat inappropriate but excusable since
it is based on past work, much of which has been
plagued with errors. One also gets a good account
of the catalyst stability problem for Lewis numbers
different from unity.
The book makes comfortable reading for those
with mathematical background normally available
to graduate students in their first year of graduate
school and qualifies for a supplementary text in a
follow-up course on approximate methods; supple-
mentary because of the constraint on polynomial
approximations.
A feature that perhaps deserved some further
attention in this book is the convergence of ap-
proximation methods. There are proofs available
from functional analysis of the convergence of
such methods to certain classes of operator equa-
tions. (The authors are not unaware of the role
of functional analysis since they briefly allude to
it in Chapter 5). While it would be a heavy under-
taking to use the language of functional analysis
in this book, it might have been possible to classify
those equations for which convergence proofs are
available along with rates of convergence). The
restriction to differential equations becomes some-
what unnecessary especially because the use of ap-
proximate methods in other equations does not
involve any special change of technique. Further-
more, while differential equations are indeed
natural to chemical engineering models, integral
equations of the Fredholm and Volterra types, and
integro-differential equations (such as in popula-
tion balances) occur with sufficient frequency to
merit consideration. The omission of integral
equations is not a special feature of this book but
an unfortunate fact of the chemical engineering
literature. Many realistic and important boundary
value problems are best approached via integral
equations.
Notwithstanding the foregoing criticism, this
book is an important contribution to the chemical
engineering profession because it brings together
a class of approximation techniques that have been
immensely valuable in the solution of a wide
variety of engineering problems. 0


WINTER 1982











[ a feature



CAREER PLANNING AND MOTIVATION


THROUGH AN IMAGINARY COMPANY FORMAT*


DONALD R. WOODS
DAVID W. LAWSON
CAROL A. GOODROW
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario LSS 4L7 Canada

RONALD A. ROMEO
Canada Manpower Centre
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

C AREER PLANNING HAS recently become a very
popular topic for technical sessions at con-
ferences [1], for workshops [2] and for books
[3] [4] [5]. At the same time, we continue to have
graduating students who are unaware of career
opportunities and who do not appreciate how they
can apply the fundamental knowledge to real
problems. To provide some career planning and
to motivate seniors by showing them how they will
be using their knowledge to solve problems, we
introduced the imaginary company format in a
senior required course on process engineering.
The objectives of the process engineering course
have been described elsewhere [6]. In this paper
we focus on the imaginary companies, the career
planning components, the types of problems we
use, and an evaluation.
Many have used an imaginary company ap-
proach for laboratories [7] [8] [9] and for design
projects [9] [10].
What is unique about our effort is the use of
career planning as a method for distributing the
students among the companies and the extent and
methods used by which we try to add realism to
the company problems.

THE COMPANIES

W E HAVE ARBITRARILY selected the ten theme
companies listed in Table 1. For each there is
a job advertisement, an annual report, and a slide-

*Paper presented at the AIChE Free Forum on Under-
graduate Education San Francisco, November 1979.


tape show that provides an imaginary plant tour.
At any one time only five companies are run
simultaneously. Sufficient details are provided in
each of these so that students see typical, real job
advertisements for each industry, an annual re-
port typical for the industry which describes the
company produce line and, through the slide-tape
show, photographs of typical processing equip-

TABLE 1
The Companies
IMAGINARY


THEME
Petro-
chemicals

Refinery
Products
Polymers,
Synthetic
Fibers


NAME


PRODUCTS


Petrostar ethanol feedstock with acetalde-
hyde, acetic acid, acetic an-
hydride, acetone, vinyl acetates


Big R

Petropoly


Foods Fine and
Fancy Foods


typical refinery

PVC via suspension and emulsion
polymerization, polystyrene,
styrene, EDC
edible vegetable oils, lecithin,
margarine, soy and peanut
products


Inorganics Inorganics chlorine, caustic soda, soda ash,
Unlimited cement, sulfuric acid, Claus
sulfur plant


Pharmaceu- Canadian
ticals Drug

Pulp and Spruce
Paper Mills
Ceramic Big C
Mineral Big Rock
Processing Mineral


Environ-
mental


Aspirins, mycin, enzymes,
baker's yeast, streptomyin,
penicillin and bacitracin
Kraft sulfite pulping, paper
products and vanillin
Brick and tiles
Copper beneficiation, phosphate
fertilizer, SO2 abatement


Enviroserv Stretford process, impact of a
sintering plant, flue gas de-
sulfurization, amine scrubbing


Consulting Technical
Service
Consultants


sulfuric acid production, tar
processing . any current
problem of interest


Copyright ChE Division, ASEE, 1982


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










ment used by that industry.
Special letterhead paper has been prepared for
each company; this must be used by the students
for the covering letter that accompanies each
assignment they hand in. Figure 1 shows a typical
set of company information. Each company hires
the course instructor to be its training officer.
Thus, all correspondence and discussion with the
students is between the instructor and them, with
the imaginary third party (the company with its
unique problems) providing realism for the
problems. We elected to use the training-officer
route because this is the day-to-day real life re-
lationship between the instructor and the students.

THE CAREER PLANNING COMPONENTS

T HE FIRST ELEMENT IN the career planning ac-
tivities is self assessment [11]. We developed
a 14-page self assessment instrument centered
around Gaymer's book [5] and including ideas from
Bolles [3] [4]. This instrument is sent to the
students to be completed prior to entering the
first term of their senior year. The assessment is
personal; it is not shown to the instructor nor is
it handed in to be marked. During the first week
of term, the students spend about three hours in
















D. R. Woods is a graduate of Queen's University and the Uni-
versity of Wisconsin (Ph.D.). His teaching and research interests are
in process analysis, and synthesis communication skills, cost estima-
tion, separations, surface phenomena and developing problem solving
skills. He is the author of "Financial Decision-Making in the Process
Industry." He received the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty
Association award for Outstanding Contribution to University Teaching.
Carol Goodrow's previous experience in library science and uni-
versity liaison is useful in her work as Career Counsellor with McMaster
University students. She contributes to the development of career and
job search programs and makes presentations to academic classes and
professional associations. As Chairperson of the Career Information
Resource Advisory Group, she is involved in evaluating and develop-
ing Canadian career publications. Ms. Goodrow received her Bachelor
of Arts degree from Acadia University in 1967.


a tutorial run by the career counsellors during
which time their answers to the self assessment
are discussed and the implications described.
Specially prepared materials are available [12] [13].
Topics discussed include how to extract from an
experience the skills you developed, how to check
for consistency in self assessment, what the unique
skills imply as far as career development and
plans are concerned, and how to integrate a set of
separate skills into a career preference, plan and
path. These counsellors are also available in the
following weeks for private counselling. Our ex-
perience has been that more than two thirds of
the students spend an additional hour in private
guidance.
Once the unique skills and a career path have
been identified, the students must be able to project
their assessment through the "job" application
(and eventually through the interview). Hints on
how to apply and how to complete an application
are given by all of us, although this is done pri-
marily in a one-hour discussion led by Ron Romeo
[14] [15].
The students are then given all the information
about the ten companies: the advertisements, the
annual reports, the slide-tape show and a "job"
















Ron Romeo has a bachelor's degree in Economics and Philosophy
from the University of Western Ontario (1967) in London, Ontario.
For the past twelve years, he has been an employee of the federal
government's Canada Manpower Centre in Hamilton, Ontario, and for
the last eight years, he has been a placement officer at the McMaster
University Student Placement Office, which is staffed by the Federal
government. In his position at McMaster, Ron has concentrated on
preparing Engineering and Science students in job search strategies
directed towards full-time employment.
David Lawson is a counsellor in the Student Counselling Service
at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. His particular area of
interest is career planning and development. Prior to joining the
counselling service in 1976, Mr. Lawson received a B.A. and Master's
degree in Sociology from McMaster University.


WINTER 1982









Students are unanimous in their praise...
and encourage us to introduce this earlier in the
curriculum ... The feedback from interviewers has been
complimentary about the student's self awareness,
ability to communicate skills, and mutual
understanding of potential opportunities.

application form. They apply for one of the posi-
tions; their applications are evaluated and they are
sent an appropriate letter of acceptance or rejec-
tion. Those rated "A" receive a bonus salary and
those "B" or "C", a standard salary determined
from a telephone poll of local industries. Those
with late but acceptable applications are offered
positions in isolated communities with no salary
increase as compensation. Those with less than
"C" are given rejection letters by their first choice
company and must choose from among the other
companies. To keep the work for the instructor
reasonable, only five companies are run at a time.
This is handled by running five each of two suc-
cessive terms, with five companies accepting the
applicant but delaying the appointment for one
term. In the meantime, they choose one of those
companies that is being run during the first term.
The mechanics may sound complicated but it is
actually simple to run. Standard letters have been
prepared for each company so that annually we
just fill in the student's name and salary.
In this way, students receive immediate feed-
back on both their self assessment and their ability
to present themselves. As the term progresses, we
hope that the students can assess, to some extent,
their career choice through the types of problems
they are asked to solve in that career path.
TYPES OF PROBLEMS
The problems are chosen from the context of
the course on process engineering which considers
the analysis of the structure of chemical processes,
an analysis of the function of process equipment in
different processing contexts, equipment design
and selection, safety, time and project manage-
ment, ethical and legal considerations, financial
aspects of a corporation, engineering economics,
financial attractiveness criteria, capital and
operating cost estimation, economic balances, op-
timization, developing rules of thumb, and case
studies to illustrate the application of these ideas
in process operation, improvement, design and
research and development. These include the use
of trouble shooting problems and the development


of problem solving and decision making skills [6]
[16] [17] [18]. This context provides a rich environ-
ment in which to cast the imaginary company
problems. The problems can be created or used
directly from a text but cast into the context of
the company. Small problems from local industry
or from consulting are used for some of the
problems. Some illustrative example problems are
given in Table 2 (Details are available from
Donald R. Woods).

EVALUATION

S STUDENTS ARE UNANIMOUS in their praise of the
career planning components. Indeed, they en-
courage us to introduce this earlier in the curricu-
lum instead of in its present location as the first
semester of the senior year. The feedback from
company interviewers has been extremely compli-
mentary about the student's self awareness, the
ability to communicate their skills, and the mutual
understanding of each other's potential opportuni-
ties.
The actual week-by-week operation of the
companies presents an initial faculty load in pre-
paration of the context. It also provides further
incentive to bring new practical problems into the
course; problems from a variety of industries that
one normally does not follow up. For example, we
are currently trying to improve the problems
which illustrate applications in the ceramics and
mineral processing industry. Most companies are
very helpful.
The student's response to the problems has
been mixed, partly because we are still developing


FIGURE 1. Information pertinent to the imaginary
company.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION










TABLE 2
Typical correspondence-assignments
1. Letter of Offer
2. Analysis of Financial Related to Ch. 3 of Text
Report (participation in
stock option)


3. Flowsheet development
for the products
4. Analysis of Structure
of a Section of
the Process
5. Financial Attractive-
ness Criteria
6. Capital Cost
Correlations
7. Plant Capital Cost


From the literature

Application of ideas
from class

Problems from Text
in company context
How to use different
correlations
Integrating the data
into complete plant costs


8. Production Cost
Estimation
9. Safety analysis
10. Trouble Shooting
Problems

the problems and smoothing out the mechanical
details. Nevertheless, the students enjoy seeing
what types of problems characterize different
career opportunities and how the same funda-
mental ideas can be applied in a wide variety of
contexts.

SUMMARY

T O HELP STUDENTS DEVELOP career plans and
to motivate senior students, we provide oppor-
tunities for self assessment into an application
for one of ten imaginary companies. Basic in-
formation is given for each company. During the
term the students solve problems written in the
context of the company for which they are work-
ing.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We are pleased to acknowledge the assistance
of those who have helped us develop these prob-
lems by collecting the photographs and details of
the different processes and supplying short prob-
lems we could use in class: L. W. Shemilt,
McMaster University, F. H. Gallinger, McMaster
University, Fred Bishop, Natco Brick Co. Ltd.,
Peter Barnes, W. R. Barnes and Co. Ltd. and John
Currie of Currie Products Ltd.


CALL FOR PAPERS
ChE Division ASEE
Annual Meeting June 1983 Rochester NY
Papers are invited on any aspect of ChE educational innova-
tion but particularly relating to mass transfer
Abstract deadline Aug. 1, 1982
Send to: E. Dendy Sloan, Chem & Pet. Ref. Engg. Dept.,
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401

REFERENCES
1. Matley, J. and Livingood, M.D. "Personal Career
Planning and the Dual Ladder System," Symposium
at the AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco, Nov.
(1979).
2. Career Path Development, Continuing Education
Course at the AIChE Annual Meeting, San Francisco,
Nov. (1979).
3. Bolles, R. N., What Color is your Parachute, The 10
Speed Press, Berkeley (1975).
4. Bolles, R. N. "The Three Boxes of Life and How to
Get Out of Them," The 10 Speed Press, Berkeley
(1977).
5. Gaymer, R. "Career Planning and Job Hunting,"
McLean-Hunter, Toronto (1970).
6. Woods, D. R. "Innovations in a Process Design and
Development Course," Chem. Eng. Ed., 2, No. 4, p.
162 to 170.
7. Heideger, W. J., University of Washington, Personal
Communication (1978).
8. Christensen, J. J., Brigham Young University, Per-
sonal Communication (1978).
9. Johnson, A. I., McMaster University, Personal Com-
munication (1968).
10. Design Case Studies, B. D. Smith, Department of
Chemical Engineering, Washington University, 1966
ff.
11. Woods, D. R. "The Unique You," Department of
Chemical Engineering, McMaster University (1976).
12. Student Counselling Service "Is There Life After
Graduation? Planning Your Future through Per-
sonal and Career Exploration." McMaster University
(1978) revised (1979).
13. Lawson, D. and Jefferson, C. "Will the Real You
Please Step Forward" Student Counselling Service,
McMaster University, Hamilton (1977).
14. Romeo, R. and Woods, D. R. "Putting Yourself For-
Ward through Your Job Application Form," De-
partment of Chemical Engineering, McMaster Uni-
versity, Hamilton (1977).
15. Woods, D. R. "Technical Communication," McMaster
University, Hamilton, 300 p. (1979).
16. Woods, D. R. "Financial Decision Making in the
Process Industry," Prentice Hall (1975).
17. Woods, D. R. "A Chemical Engineer in Plant Opera-
tions, Plant Design and R and D," McMaster Uni-
versity, Hamilton, (1979).
18. Woods, D. R. "A Teacher's Guide to the Use of
Trouble-Shooting Problems," McMaster University,
Hamilton, (1973).


WINTER 1982









CRITIQUE OF DESIGN COURSE
Continued from page 33.


On the other hand, should chemical engineers
boldly strike out and endeavor to develop new
forms for "the creative application of funda-
mentals to practical problems?" Or would an-
other kind of course provide a better synthesis
experience for our times? Do we see a candidate
in a course based on the text "The Structure of
the Chemical Process Industries," by Wei, et al.
[13]? As stated in its preface, this book has the
worthy purpose of making one understand "how
chemical technology is mobilized to benefit society,
and how chemical engineers can contribute
effectively to it."
The design course may be in a rut. If so,
changes for just the sake of change (a common
motivation for curriculum redesign) should be
avoided unless the contending schemes are su-
perior to traditional programs. New directions
are encouraged by the 1979 definition of the design
experience in education [12] The book by Wei,
Russell, and Swartzlander suggests a new kind of
capstone experience. O

LITERATURE CITED
1. Vilbrandt, F. C., "Chemical Engineering Plant De-
sign," le., 2e., and 3e., McGraw-Hill Book Company,
New York (1934, 1942, 1949).
2. Vilbrandt, F. C. and C. E. Dryden, "Chemical Engi-
neering Plant Design," 4e., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., New York (1959).
3. Baasel, W. D., "Preliminary Chemical Engineering
Plant Design," Elsevier, New York (1976).
4. Peters, M. S., "Plant Design and Economics for
Chemical Engineers," le., McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York (1958).
5. Peters, M. S. and K. D. Timmerhaus, "Plant Design
and Economics for Chemical Engineers," 2e. and 3e.,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York (1968, 1979).
6. Sherwood, T. K., "A Course in Process Design," The
MIT Press, Cambridge (1963).
7. Bodman, S. W., "The Industrial Practice of Chemical
Process Engineering," The MIT Press, Cambridge
(1968).
8. Rudd, D. F., G. F. Powers and J. J. Siirola, "Process
Synthesis," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ
(1973).
9. Motard, R. L. and A. W. Westerberg, "Process
Synthesis," Notes from AIChE Advanced Seminar,
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York
(1978).
10. Peterson, J. N., C. C. Chen, and L. B. Evans, "Com-
puter Programs for Chemical Engineers: 1978-Part
1" Chem. Eng., 85 (13), 145 (1978).
11. Fair, J. R., and B. D. Smith, "Educating Tomorrow's


Process Designers-realistically," Chemical Engi-
neering, p. 177, May 6, 1968.
12. Engineers' Council for Professional Development,
"47th Annual Report-year ending Sept. 30, 1979,"
ECPD, New York, 1979.
13. Wei, J., T. W. F. Russell, and M. W. Swartzlander,
"The Structure of the Chemical Processing In-
dustries," McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1979).



THERMODYNAMICS OF RUNNING
Continued from page 23.
6. Harger, B. S., J. B. Miller and J. C. Thomas, "The
Caloric Cost of Running," JAMA 228, 482 (1974).
7. Hill, A. V., "Production and Absorption of Work by
Muscle," Science 181, 897 (1960).
8. Krebs, H. A. and H. L. Kornberg, Energy Trans-
formations in Living Matter, Springer, Berlin (1957).
9. Lehninger, A. L., Bioenergetics, Benjamin, N.Y.
(1965).
10. Whipp, B. J. and K. Wasserman, "Efficiency of
Muscular Work, J. Appl. Physiol. 26, 644 (1969).

APPENDIX
For running in still air at velocity v, the drag
force of the wind is:

Find = CdpV2A (1)
Assuming a cylindrical form of radius r and
height H for the body, the projected area is:
A = 2rH (2)
and the volume is:
M
V = Tr2H =-- (3)
pb
Elimination of r in Eqn. (2) using Eqn. (3) gives:

2 /MH
A (4)
V1r Pb
The mechanical power for overcoming wind re-
sistance is:
Pwnd = Fwind'v (5)
Substituting Eqns. (1) and (4) in (5):

Pmech CpaV (6)

The error resulting from the incorrect assumption
of cylindrical form is cancelled by calculating Cd
from experimental data [5] for the drag force on
the body during running. Defining pb = 1000 kg/m3,
the drag coefficient Cd is found to be 0.50.


CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Departmental Sponsors: The following 145 departments contributed
to the support of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION in 1982 with bulk subscriptions.


University of Akron
University of Alabama
University of Alberta
Arizona State University
University of Arizona
University of Arkansas
Auburn University
Brigham Young University
University of British Columbia
Bucknell University
University of Calgary
California State Polytechnic
California Institute of Technology
University of California (Berkeley)
University of California (Davis)
University of California (Santa Barbara)
Carnegie-Mellon University
Case-Western Reserve University
University of Cincinnati
Clarkson College of Technology
Clemson University
Cleveland State University
University of Colorado
Colorado School of Mines
Columbia University
University of Connecticut
Cooper Union
Cornell University
University of Dayton
University of Delaware
U. of Detroit
Drexel University
Ecole Polytechnique (Canada)
University of Florida
Georgia Technical Institute
University of Houston
Howard University
University of Idaho
University of Illinois (Urbana)
Illinois Institute of Technology
Institute of Gas Technology
Institute of Paper Chemistry
University of Iowa
John Hopkins University
Iowa State University
Kansas State University
University of Kentucky
Lafayette College


Lamar University
Lehigh University
Loughborough University
Louisiana State University
Louisiana Tech. University
University of Louisville
University of Maine
University of Maryland
University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
McMaster University
McNeese State University
University of Michigan
Michigan State University
Michigan Tech. University
University of Minnesota
University of Missouri (Columbia)
University of Missouri (Rolla)
Monash University
Montana State University
University of Nebraska
University of New Brunswick
New Jersey Inst. of Tech.
University of New Hampshire
New Mexico State University
University of New Mexico
City University of New York
Polytechnic Institute of New York
State University of N.Y. at Buffalo
North Carolina State University
University of North Dakota
Northeastern University
Northwestern University
University of Notre Dame
Nova Scotia Tech. College
Ohio State University
Ohio University
University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma State University
Oregon State University
University of Ottawa
University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania State University
University of Pittsburgh
Princeton University
University of Puerto Rico
Purdue University
University of Queensland


Queen's University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
University of Rhode Island
Rice University
University of Rochester
Rose-Hulman Institute
Rutgers U.
University of South Carolina
University of Saskatchewan
South Dakota School of Mines
University of South Alabama
University of South Florida
University of Southern California
Stanford University
Stevens Institute of Technology
Syracuse University
Teeside Polytechnic Institute
Tennessee Technological University
University of Tennessee
Texas A&M University
Texas A&I University
University of Texas at Austin
Texas Technological University
University of Toledo
University of Toronto
Tri-State University
Tufts University
Tulane University
University of Tulsa
University of Utah
Vanderbilt University
Villanova University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute
University of Virginia
Washington State University
University of Washington
Washigton University
University of Waterloo
Wayne State University
West Virginia Inst. Technology
West Virginia University
University of Western Ontario
Widener College
University of Windsor
University of Wisconsin (Madison)
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
University of Wyoming
Yale University
Youngstown State University


TO OUR READERS: If your department is not a contributor, please ask your department chairman to write CHEMI.
CAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION, c/o Chemical Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida
32611.








INNOVATION...


Sometimes it's not all it's

cracked upto be.

However, at Union Carbide innovation continues to improve peoples' lives.
Union Carbide pioneered the petrochemicals industry. Today the Corporation's many hun-
dreds of chemicals are used in everything from automobile bumpers to shampoos. A leader in
the field of industrial gases, our cryogenic technology led to the development of the Oxygen
Walker System, which allows mobility for patients with respiratory diseases. Union Carbiders
are working on the frontiers of energy research-from fission to geothermal-at the world
renowned Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. Our revolutionary Unipol process
produces polyethylene, the world's most widely used plastic, at one half the cost and one
quarter the energy of standard converting processes.
From sausage casings to miniature power cells, the Union Carbide tradition of innovation
extends beyond research and development activities to our engineering groups, manufactur-
ing operations, and sales forces.
Continued innovation will largely spring from the talents of the engineers and scientists who
join us in the 1980's.

We invite you to encourage qualified students
to see our representatives on campus-
or write to:


an equal opportunity employer


Manager, Professional Placement
Union Carbide Corporation
Old Ridgebury Road
Danbury, Conn. 06817


MION
UM BID
CA =RB 10 E




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